Keysight FieldFox Analyzers

Keysight FieldFox Analyzers
User’s Guide
Keysight
FieldFox Analyzers
N9913A, N9914A
N9915A, N9916A, N9917A, N9918A
N9925A, N9926A, N9927A, N9928A
N9935A, N9936A, N9937A, N9938A
Warranty Statement
The material contained in this document is provided "as is," and is subject to being changed, without notice, in future
editions. Further, to the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, Keysight disclaims all warranties, either express or
implied with regard to this manual and any information contained herein, including but not limited to the implied warranties
of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Keysight shall not be liable for errors or for incidental or
consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, use, or performance of this document or any information
contained herein. Should Keysight and the user have a separate written agreement with warranty terms covering the
material in this document that conflict with these terms, the warranty terms in the separate agreement will control.
DFARS/Restricted Rights Notice
If software is for use in the performance of a U.S. Government prime contract or subcontract, Software is delivered and
licensed as “Commercial computer software” as defined in DFAR 252.227–7014 (June 1995), or as a “commercial item” as
defined in FAR 2.101(a) or as “Restricted computer software” as defined in FAR 52.227–19 (June 1987) or any equivalent
agency regulation or contract clause. Use, duplication or disclosure of Software is subject to Keysight Technologies’
standard commercial license terms, and non-DOD Departments and Agencies of the U.S. Government will receive no
greater than Restricted Rights as defined in FAR 52.227–19(c)(1–2) (June 1987). U.S. Government users will receive no
greater than Limited Rights as defined in FAR 52.227–14 (June 1987) or DFAR 252.227–7015 (b) (2) (November 1995), as
applicable in any technical data.
Technology Licenses
The hardware and/or software described in this document are furnished under a license and may be used or copied only in
accordance with the terms of such license.
Contacting Keysight
Assistance with test and measurements needs and information on finding a local Keysight office are available on the Web
at: http://www.keysight.com/find/assist
If you do not have access to the Internet, please contact your Keysight field engineer.
In any correspondence or telephone conversation, refer to the Keysight product by its model number and full serial number.
With this information, the Keysight representative can determine whether your product is still within its warranty period.
Safety and Regulatory Information
The safety and regulatory information pertaining to this product is located on page 206.
Where to Find the Latest Information
Documentation is updated periodically. For the latest information, please visit: http://www.keysight.com/find/fieldfox
Software Updates
Is your product software up-to-date? Periodically, Keysight releases software updates to fix known defects and incorporate
product enhancements. To search for software updates for your product, go to www.keysight.com/find/fieldfoxsupport
2
FieldFox User’s Guide
Elements of this product's Software use SharpZipLib as an "as provided" stand alone capability.
Copyright 2004 John Reilly
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more
details.
To receive a copy of the GNU General Public License, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite
330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
Linking this library statically or dynamically with other modules is making a combined work based on this library. Thus, the
terms and conditions of the GNU General Public License cover the whole combination.
As a special exception, the copyright holders of this library give you permission to link this library with independent modules
to produce an executable, regardless of the license terms of these independent modules, and to copy and distribute the
resulting executable under terms of your choice, provided that you also meet, for each linked independent module, the
terms and conditions of the license of that module. An independent module is a module which is not derived from or based
on this library. If you modify this library, you may extend this exception to your version of the library, but you are not
obligated to do so. If you do not wish to do so, delete this exception statement from your version.
____________________________________________________________________________
Elements of this product's software use ANTLR.
Copyright (c) 2005-2008 Terence Parr
All rights reserved.
Conversion to C#: Copyright (c) 2008-2009 Sam Harwell, Pixel Mine, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following
conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
3. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior
written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT
NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
DISCLAIMED.
IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES;
LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY,
WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
FieldFox User’s Guide
3
A.07.75 Firmware Release Updates ............................................... 7
Overview .....................................................................................8
Models and Options ......................................................................... 8
Accessories ....................................................................................... 8
FieldFox Manuals, Software, and Supplemental Help ............... 8
Preparing for Initial Use of Your New FieldFox .........................10
Check the Shipment ....................................................................... 10
Meeting Power Requirements for the AC/DC Adapter ........... 10
Install the Lithium-Ion Battery ..................................................... 11
FieldFox ON/OFF Settings ............................................................ 12
FieldFox High-Temperature Protection ....................................... 12
Avoid Overpowering the FieldFox ................................................ 13
Take the FieldFox Tour .................................................................. 14
How to Enter Numeric Values ...................................................... 19
CAT (Cable and Antenna Test) Mode .......................................20
CAT Mode Settings ........................................................................ 21
Return Loss Measurements ......................................................... 27
1-Port Cable Loss Measurements ............................................... 27
2-Port Insertion Loss Measurements ......................................... 28
DTF (Distance to Fault) Measurements ....................................30
DTF Measurement Settings .......................................................... 31
NA (Network Analyzer) Mode ...................................................38
NA Mode Settings .......................................................................... 38
Time Domain - Option 010 .......................................................55
Time Domain (Transform) Settings ............................................. 56
Trace Settings ................................................................................. 59
Gating ............................................................................................... 60
Calibration for NA, CAT, and VVM Modes ................................63
Verifying Calibration and Jumper Cable Integrity ..................... 77
Calibration Method Summary ....................................................... 78
4
FieldFox User’s Guide
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode .................................................79
SA Mode Settings .......................................................................... 80
Channel Measurements .............................................................. 110
Interference Analyzer (SA Mode) - Option 236 ..................... 119
Spectrogram and Waterfall Displays......................................... 119
Record Playback ........................................................................... 123
Reflection Mode (SA Models) ................................................ 131
Reflection Mode Settings............................................................ 132
Built-in Power Meter Mode - Option 310 .............................. 133
Built-in Power Meter Settings ................................................... 133
Power Meter (USB) Mode ...................................................... 136
USB Power Meter Settings......................................................... 137
Frequency Offset using Power Sensor (FOPS) – Option 208. 142
FOPS Settings ............................................................................... 143
Pulse Measurements Mode - Option 330 .............................. 148
Pulse Measurement Settings ..................................................... 149
VVM (Vector Voltmeter) Mode - Option 308 ......................... 159
Overview ........................................................................................ 160
VVM Mode Settings ..................................................................... 160
1-Port Cable Trimming Measurements ..................................... 164
2-Port Transmission Measurements ......................................... 165
A/B and B/A Measurements .................................................... 165
Data Analysis Features .......................................................... 167
All about Markers ......................................................................... 167
All about Limit Lines .................................................................... 176
All about Trace Math ................................................................... 179
File Management ................................................................... 181
Saving and Recalling Files .......................................................... 181
Printing ........................................................................................... 187
FieldFox User’s Guide
5
System Settings .................................................................... 189
Run/Hold ....................................................................................... 189
Preset ............................................................................................. 190
User Preset .................................................................................... 190
Audio (Volume) Control ............................................................... 191
Display Settings ............................................................................ 191
Preferences.................................................................................... 193
System Configuration .................................................................. 196
Service Diagnostics ...................................................................... 204
Working with the Lithium-Ion Battery................................... 206
Viewing Battery Charge Status .................................................. 206
Charging the Battery .................................................................... 207
Reconditioning the Battery ......................................................... 209
Battery Care................................................................................... 210
Maximizing Battery Life............................................................... 210
Lithium Ion Battery Disposal ...................................................... 211
Safety Considerations ........................................................... 212
Certification and Compliance Statements ................................ 219
Appendix A: Connector Care Review ..................................... 221
Appendix B: Specifications/Data Sheet ................................ 222
Appendix C: Instrument Calibration ...................................... 223
Index ...................................................................................... 224
6
FieldFox User’s Guide
A.07.75 Firmware Release Updates
For customers upgrading FieldFox firmware, the following is a list of changes from
the previous release:
NA Mode
Big Marker Display States .................................... 52
VVM Mode
VVM 180° Short Phase Offset ............................. 163
All Modes (System)
Update/Set Time using Internet ......................... 202
Overview
7
Overview
Models and Options
Models
Model
Max Freq (GHz)
Description
N9913A
4
Vector Network Analyzer AND Spectrum Analyzer
N9914A
6.5
Vector Network Analyzer AND Spectrum Analyzer
N9915A
9
Vector Network Analyzer AND Spectrum Analyzer
N9916A
14
Vector Network Analyzer AND Spectrum Analyzer
N9917A
18
Vector Network Analyzer AND Spectrum Analyzer
N9918A
26.5
Vector Network Analyzer AND Spectrum Analyzer
N9925A
9
Vector Network Analyzer
N9926A
14
Vector Network Analyzer
N9927A
18
Vector Network Analyzer
N9928A
26.5
Vector Network Analyzer
N9935A
9
Spectrum Analyzer
N9936A
14
Spectrum Analyzer
N9937A
18
Spectrum Analyzer
N9938A
26.5
Spectrum Analyzer
Minimum Frequency: 30 kHz for all models
FieldFox Options: For a comprehensive list, view the FieldFox Configuration Guide at:
http://literature.cdn.keysight.com/litweb/pdf/5990-9836EN.pdf
Accessories
The following accessories are included with every FieldFox. Spare accessories can
be ordered at any time.
Accessory Part Number
NOTE
Description
N9910X–873
AC/DC Adapter
N9910X–870
Lithium-Ion Battery
N9910X–880
Softcase w/ Backpack & Shoulder Strap
N9910X–890
User’s Guide (printed copy)
N9910X–891
Quick Reference Guide (printed copy)
Although not supplied, a USB keyboard CAN be used with the FieldFox.
To see a complete list of accessories that are available for the FieldFox, please visit:
http://www.keysight.com/find/fieldfox.
FieldFox Manuals, Software, and Supplemental Help
The following manuals and software are available for the FieldFox.
To access all of these, visit: www.keysight.com/find/fieldfoxsupport.
8
FieldFox User’s Guide
 User’s Guide –This manual, included with shipment.
 Quick Reference Guide – Printed copy with laminated pages for outdoor use
included with shipment.
 Supplemental Online Help - Concepts and Reference information.
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
 Programming Guide – Online, offline and pdf versions.
 FieldFox Data Link Software and Help – Free download.
 Service Guide – Free download.
 Firmware Updates – Check to see if you have the latest FieldFox firmware.
Conventions that are used in the Manual
 Hardkey indicates a front panel button. The functionality of these buttons does
not change.
The six Softkey menus change dynamically and follow these color conventions:
 Softkey Blue indicates an available setting.
 Softkey Green indicates a change in menu level when selected.
 Softkey Black indicates the default or selected setting.
 Softkey Yellow indicates an active entry in process.
 Softkey Grey indicates a key that is NOT available.
Safety Notes
The following safety notes are used throughout this manual. Familiarize yourself with
each of the notes and its meaning before operating this instrument. More pertinent
safety notes for using this product are located in “Safety Considerations” on page
212.
CAUTION
WARNING
Overview
Caution denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure that, if not correctly
performed or adhered to, could result in damage to or destruction of the product.
Do not proceed beyond a caution notice until the indicated conditions are fully
understood and met.
Warning denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure which, if not correctly
performed or adhered to, could result in injury or loss of life. Do not proceed
beyond a warning note until the indicated conditions are fully understood and
met.
9
Preparing for Initial Use of Your New FieldFox
Check the Shipment
When you receive your FieldFox, check the shipment according to the following
procedure:
1.
Inspect the shipping container for damage. Signs of damage may include a
dented or torn shipping container or cushioning material that indicates signs of
unusual stress or compacting. If not damaged, save the packaging material in
case the FieldFox needs to be returned.
2.
Carefully remove the contents from the shipping container, and verify that the
standard accessories and your ordered options are included in the shipment
according to the Box Contents List.
3.
For any question or problems, refer to Contacting Keysight on page 2.
Meeting Power Requirements for the AC/DC Adapter
Voltage:
100 VAC to 250 VAC
Frequency: 50 Hz to 60 Hz
Current:
1.25 – 0.56 A
The AC/DC adapter supplied with the analyzer is equipped with a three-wire power
cord, in accordance with international safety standards. The power cable appropriate
to the original product shipping location is included with the FieldFox.
Various AC power cables are available from Keysight that are unique to specific
geographic areas. You can order additional AC power cables that are correct for use
in different areas. For the power cord part number information please visit:
http://www.keysight.com/find/fieldfox
10
FieldFox User’s Guide
Install the Lithium-Ion Battery
Step
Notes
1. Open the battery door.
Push the button on the battery compartment door while sliding the door
outward.
2. Insert the battery.
The terminals end of the battery is inserted into the compartment.
3. Close the battery door.
Slide the battery compartment door upwards until it latches.
Battery Usage
When you receive your FieldFox, the lithium-ion battery is not installed, and it is
partially charged to approximately 40% to preserve battery life. A lithium-ion battery
has no memory effect, so it can be used partially charged, as shipped.
A fully charged battery will power your FieldFox for about four hours, so if you plan to
use it for this long, you should fully charge the battery.
NOTE
The FieldFox will shut down to prevent the battery from discharging to a level that is
damaging. If this occurs, charge the battery either internally or externally.
Learn more about the lithium-ion battery on page 206.
Battery charge status is viewable:

In the upper-right corner of the screen.
 On the Battery screen. To access the screen, select System, Service
Diagnostics, and Battery.
 On the battery. Open the FieldFox battery compartment door to view the battery
LCD.
To conserve battery power:
 Use Run/Hold to single-trigger a measurement when needed. Hold is shown on
the display.
 Press System then Display then Brightness. Use the ▲|▼ arrows, the rotary
knob, or numeric keypad to adjust the brightness to dim the FieldFox display as
much as possible.
 Briefly press the power button to switch to Stand By mode when the FieldFox is
not being used. Press again to restore power. All current settings are preserved.
Preparing for Initial Use of Your New FieldFox
11
NOTE
When powered by the battery only, the FieldFox can stay in Stand By mode for a
maximum of four hours and then it powers off automatically. When the relative
battery charge drops about 20%, the FieldFox will power off to preserve the
remaining charge.
To recharge a battery:
Use ONLY a FieldFox charger to recharge a battery.
 The battery can be fully charged while in the FieldFox in about 4 hours with the
FieldFox either ON or OFF.
 The battery can be fully charged externally using the external battery charger in
about 4 hours.
 When the battery is removed, the FieldFox can still be powered by the AC/DC
adapter.
FieldFox ON/OFF Settings
 To turn power ON, briefly press the power button. Boot-up takes about 1 minute.
 To switch to Stand By mode (low battery drain), briefly press the power button. To
turn power ON, briefly press the power button. Power and settings are restored
instantly. See the Note above concerning Stand By mode.
 To turn Power OFF (very low battery drain), press and hold the power button until
power is OFF - about 4 seconds. Data and instrument state are NOT automatically
saved when the FieldFox is powered OFF. Learn how to save data and instrument
state on page 181.
 You can make a setting to automatically Power ON the FieldFox when a power
source is connected. Learn how on page 204.
Power button LED status
 Solid green – Power is ON
 Blinking green – FieldFox in Stand By mode
 Blinking amber – Battery charging.
 Blinking amber and green – Stand By mode and battery charging.
 Not lit – Power is Off and battery is not charging.
FieldFox High-Temperature Protection
The following features prevent degradation or damage in the event of high internal
temperatures in the FieldFox.
NOTE
Do NOT store the FieldFox in the softcase while powered ON or in Stand By mode.
How to monitor the internal FieldFox temperature:
 Press System, then Service Diagnostics.
 Then Internal Temperatures.
 The temperature at which the following events occur is the average of the RF1,
RF2, SB1, SB2 temperatures. These temperatures come from internal sensors
embedded within FieldFox.
12
FieldFox User’s Guide
Temperature Control Mode
At approximately 75°C, the FieldFox enters Temperature Control mode by reducing
display intensity, switching to Outdoor Sun display colors, and reducing
measurement speed. This should decrease the internal temperature which preserves
measurement accuracy and maintains the long-term reliability of the FieldFox. When
this occurs, the following message is displayed on the FieldFox screen:
The system is entering Temperature Control Mode due to high internal temperature.
When entering Temperature Control mode, save your instrument state and data that
you want to keep.
When the temperature drops to approximately 73°C, a message is displayed
indicating that the FieldFox is leaving Temperature Control Mode and normal
operating settings are restored.
NOTE
Measurement speed specifications do NOT apply in Temperature Control Mode.
High-Temp Shutdown
In extreme situations, Temperature Control mode may not stop an increase in the
FieldFox internal temperature. At approximately 78°C, High-Temperature Shutdown
will engage and turn OFF the FieldFox.
Just prior to shutdown, the FieldFox will display a warning of imminent shut down.
Avoid Overpowering the FieldFox
The FieldFox can be damaged with too much power or voltage applied. Exceeding
the maximum RF power levels shown below will cause an ADC Over Range
message to appear on the screen.
WARNING
Maximum Input Voltages and Power:

RF IN/OUT Connectors: ±50 VDC, +27 dBm RF

DC Input: 19 to 19 VDC, 40 Watts maximum when charging battery
Learn more about Maximum power and voltages in the FieldFox Data Sheet.
NOTE
Very often, coaxial cables and antennas build up a static charge, which, if allowed to
discharge by connecting to the FieldFox, may damage the instrument input circuitry.
To avoid such damage, it is recommended to dissipate any static charges by
temporarily attaching a short to the cable or antenna prior to attaching to the
FieldFox.
Preparing for Initial Use of Your New FieldFox
13
Take the FieldFox Tour
Front Panel
14
FieldFox User’s Guide
Front Panel
No.
Caption
Description
Learn More on Page:
1
Power
ON: press momentarily.
STAND BY: with FieldFox power ON, press briefly.
OFF: press and hold until the FieldFox shuts off (about 4 seconds).
12
2
LED
Not lit: FieldFox OFF, not charging
Green: FieldFox ON. Charging status indicated by battery icon on
screen
Orange, flashing: FieldFox STAND BY
Orange, intensity increasing, flashing slowly: FieldFox OFF, charging
12
3
System
Displays a submenu for system setup
189
4
Function keys
Includes: Freq/Dist , Scale/Amptd , BW , Sweep , Trace,
Meas Setup , Measure, and Mode
Refer to specific Mode.
5
Preset
Returns the analyzer to a known state
190
6
Enter
Confirms a parameter selection or configuration
--
7
Marker
Activates marker function
167
8
Mkr→/Tools
Displays a submenu for marker functions
171
9
Esc
Exits and closes the dialog box or clears the character input
--
10
Save/Recall
Saves the current trace or recalls saved data from memory
181
11
Limit
Sets limit lines for quick Pass/Fail judgment
176
12
Run/Hold
Toggles between free Run and Hold/Single operation.
189
13
Cal
Displays a submenu for calibration functions
55
14
Arrow keys
Increases or decreases a value or setting.
--
15
◄Back
Returns to the previous menu selection.
--
16
Rotary knob
Highlights an item for selection, or enables incremental changes to
values.
--
17
Softkeys
Allows selection of settings for configuring and performing
measurements, and for other FieldFox functions.
--
18
Screen
Transflective screen, viewable under all lighting conditions. If you
are using your FieldFox in direct sunlight, you do not need to shield
the display from the sunlight. In bright lighting conditions, the
display is brighter and easier to read when you allow light to fall
directly on the screen. Alternative color modes exist that maximize
viewing in direct sunlight conditions, as well as other conditions
such as nighttime work.
191 - Display settings
18 - Screen Tour
Note: Clean the Transflective screen with gentle and
minimal wiping using Isopropyl alcohol applied to a lintfree cloth.
Preparing for Initial Use of Your New FieldFox
15
Top Panel
16
Caption
Description
Learn More
Port 1
RF Output
For CAT and NA measurements, use to make reflection
measurements. Maximum: ±50 VDC, +27 dBm RF
CAT Mode on page 20
NA Mode on page 38
Port 2
SA RF Input
For SA, use to make all measurements.
For CAT, NA, and VVM mode, use to make Port 2 transmission
measurements.
Maximum: ±50 VDC, +27 dBm RF.
SA Mode on page 79
GPS Ant
For use with built-in GPS. Produces a 3.3 VDC bias voltage for the
antenna pre-amplifier. Use with a GPS antenna such as N9910X-825.
Other GPS antennas can also be used.
GPS on page 197.
Ref In
Trig In
Frequency Reference Source and External Trigger Input signal.
Maximum: 5.5 VDC.
Freq. Ref on page 199.
Ext Trig (SA Mode) on
page 98
FieldFox User’s Guide
Right Side Panel
Connector
Description
Learn More
Ethernet cable connector to read trace data using the FieldFox Data Link
Software and connect to the FieldFox remotely.
Download the latest version of the software at:
www.keysight.com/find/fieldfoxsupport
On page 203.
IF Out used in SA mode for external signal processing.
On page 95.
Frequency Reference Source Output
Trigger Output – reserved for future development.
On page 199.
Secure Digital slot. Use to extend the memory of the FieldFox.
File locations on page
181
Reserved for future use.
Two standard USB connectors used to connect a power sensor for Power
Meter Mode. Also used to save files to a USB flash drive.
Use of Keyboard and Mouse is NOT supported.
File locations on page
181
Left Side Panel
Caption
Description
Learn More
Audio output jack for use with SA Mode Tune and Listen.
On page 90
DC Voltage Source for use with external DC Bias.
On page 201
DC power connector used to connect to the AC/DC adapter. Maximum: 19
VDC, 4 ADC.
On page 11
Preparing for Initial Use of Your New FieldFox
17
Screen Tour
Caption
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
18
Description
Learn More on Page:
Title – write your own text here
Current Mode
Run / Hold
Display Format
Scale/division
Calibration Status (CAT and NA)
192
Detection Method (SA)
Velocity Factor (Fault Meas)
Averaging Status and Count
Data / Mem Display (CAT and NA)
Step / FFT (SA)
Resolution Setting
Measurement Start Freq or Distance
Bandpass / Lowpass setting (Fault Meas)
IF BW in NA Mode
Output Power Level (CAT and NA)
Measurement Stop Freq or Distance
Actual Sweep Time
Limit Line Status
Time and Date
Marker Readout
Battery Status
Measurement Type (CAT and NA)
Reference Level
Reference Position
189
Mode dependent
Mode dependent
63
33
Mode dependent
179- Trace Math
90 - Res BW
Mode dependent
Mode dependent
33
25
Mode dependent
Mode dependent
176
202
167
206
Mode dependent
Mode dependent
FieldFox User’s Guide
How to Enter Numeric Values
Many settings on the FieldFox require the entry of numeric values.
How to enter numeric values
Use any combination of the following keys:
 Numeric 0–9 keys, along with the polarity ( +/- ) key.
 Up/Down arrow keys to increment or decrement values.
 Rotary knob to scroll through a set of values.
 Back erases previously entered values.
 Esc exits data entry without accepting the new value.
To complete the setting:
 Press Enter or a different softkey or hardkey.
Multiplier Abbreviations
Many times after entering numeric values, a set of multiplier or suffix softkeys are
presented. The following explains the meaning of these abbreviations.
Select Frequency multipliers as follows:
 GHz Gigahertz (1e9 Hertz)
 MHz Megahertz (1e6 Hertz)
 kHz Kilohertz (1e3 Hertz)
 Hz Hertz
Select Time multipliers as follows:
 s Seconds
 ms milliseconds (1e–3)
 us microseconds (1e–6)
 ns nanoseconds (1e–9)
 ps picoseconds (1e-12)
Preparing for Initial Use of Your New FieldFox
19
CAT (Cable and Antenna Test) Mode
CAT Mode is typically used to test an entire transmission system, from the
transmitter to the antenna. This process is sometimes referred to as Line Sweeping.
CAT Mode is similar to NA (Network Analyzer) Mode. Learn more in the
Supplemental Online Help:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
CAT Mode Distance to Fault measurements are discussed on page 30.
In this Chapter
Measurement Selection ........................................ 21
Quick Settings ....................................................... 22
Frequency Range .................................................. 22
Scale Settings ....................................................... 23
Averaging ............................................................. 23
Single/Continuous ................................................ 24
Resolution ............................................................. 24
Sweep Time........................................................... 25
Output Power ........................................................ 25
Interference Rejection .......................................... 26
Coupled Frequency ............................................... 26
Procedures
Return Loss Measurement.................................... 27
1-Port Cable Loss Measurement .......................... 27
2-Port Insertion Loss Measurement ..................... 28
Distance to Fault Measurements ......................... 30
See Also
All about Calibration ............................................. 55
Set Markers ......................................................... 167
Use Limit Lines .................................................... 176
Use Trace Math ................................................... 179
Making 75Ω (ohm) Measurements at the FieldFox Supplemental Online Help:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
20
FieldFox User’s Guide
CAT Mode Settings
Select CAT Mode before making any setting in this chapter.
How to select CAT Mode
 Press Mode.
 Then CAT.
Measurement Selection
How to select a CAT Mode Measurement
Learn more about the following measurements in the Supplemental Online Help:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
 Press Measure 1.
 Then choose one of the following: These softkeys also appear after CAT Mode is
selected.
o
o
Distance to Fault 1-port reflection measurement that uses Inverse Fourier
Transform (IFT) calculations to determine and display the distance to, and
relative size of, a fault or disruption in the transmission line. Units are in return
loss format, expressed as a positive number in dB, unless the measurement
selected is DTF (VSWR). Learn more about DTF Measurements on page 30.
Return Loss & DTF Displays both a Return Loss measurement and a DTF
measurement. Use this format to display the frequency settings that are used to
make the DTF measurement. The frequency range settings for these two
measurements can be coupled or uncoupled. Learn more on page 26.
o Calibrations are applied to both traces.
o When in Hold mode and Single sweep is performed, only the active trace is
triggered. Use the ▲|▼ arrows to activate a trace.
o
o
o
o
o
o
Return Loss 1-port reflection measurement that displays the amount of
incident signal energy MINUS the amount of energy that is reflected. The higher
the trace is on the screen, the more energy being reflected back to the FieldFox.
Learn how to measure Return Loss on page 25.
VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio – also known as SWR) 1-port reflection
measurement that displays the ratio of the maximum reflected voltage over the
minimum reflected voltage. The higher the trace is on the screen, the more
energy being reflected back to the FieldFox.
DTF (VSWR) Distance to Fault in VSWR format.
Cable Loss (1-Port) 1-port reflection measurement that displays the loss of a
transmission line. Learn more on page 25.
Insertion Loss (2-Port) 2-port transmission measurement that accurately
displays the loss through a cable or other device in dB. Both ends of the cable
must be connected to the FieldFox. NO phase information is included in this
measurement. Learn more on page 28. This feature is available only with an
option on some FieldFox models. For detailed information, please view the
FieldFox Configuration Guide at:
http://literature.cdn.keysight.com/litweb/pdf/5990-9836EN.pdf
DTF (Lin) Distance to Fault in Linear format.
CAT (Cable and Antenna Test) Mode
21
Quick Settings Table
Both CAT and NA Modes allow you to view and change most relevant settings from a
single location. All of these settings are discussed in this chapter and, unless
otherwise noted, ALL of these settings can also be made using the standard softkey
menus.
How to view and change Quick Settings
 Press Meas Setup 4.
 Then Settings.
 Press Next Page and Previous Page to view all settings. If these softkeys are
NOT available, then all available settings fit on one page.
 To change a setting:
o
Use the ▲|▼ arrows to highlight a setting.
o
Then press Edit. The current setting changes to yellow.
o
o
Some settings require you to press a softkey to change the value. Otherwise, use
the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or rotary knob to change the value.
When finished changing a value, press Done Edit.
 Press Dock Window to relocate the Settings table to a position relative to the
trace window. The Dock Window setting persists through a Preset. Choose from
the following:
o
Full (Default setting) Only the Settings table is shown on the screen. The trace
window is temporarily not shown.
o
Left The Settings table is shown to the left of the trace window.
o
Bottom The Settings table is shown below the trace window.
 When finished changing ALL settings, press Done to save your settings.
Frequency Range
Set the range of frequencies over which you would like to make CAT Mode
measurements.
When the frequency range is changed after a calibration is performed, the cal
becomes interpolated. Learn more on page 75.
How to set Frequency Range
 Press Freq/Dist .
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
Start and Stop frequencies - beginning and end of the sweep.
Center and Span frequencies – the center frequency and span of frequencies
(half on either side of center).
 Follow each setting by entering a value using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows,
or the rotary knob.
o
22
After using the keypad, select a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier
abbreviations on page 19.
FieldFox User’s Guide
o
After using the ▲|▼ arrows or the rotary knob, press Enter. The amount of
frequency increment is based on the current span and can NOT be changed in
CAT Mode.
Scale Settings
Adjust the Y-axis scale to see the relevant portions of the data trace. The Y-axis is
divided into 10 graticules.
This setting can be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
How to set Scale
 Press Scale / Amptd .
 Then choose from the following three methods:
1.
Autoscale Automatically adjusts the Y-axis to comfortably fit the Min and Max
amplitude of the trace on the screen.
2.
Set Scale, Reference Level, and Reference Position:
o
o
o
3.
Scale Manually enter a scale per division to view specific areas of the trace.
Ref Level Manually set the value of the reference line. Enter a negative value by
pressing Run/Hold (+/-) either before or after typing a value.
Ref Position Manually set the position of the reference line. Values must be
between 0 (TOP line) and 10 (BOTTOM line)
Set Top and Bottom graticule values. The scale per division is calculated.
o
Top to set the value of the Top graticule.
o
Bottom to set the value of the Bottom graticule.
o
Enter a negative value by pressing Run/Hold (+/-) either before or after typing a
value.
Scale annotation on the FieldFox
screen
Reference Line = red arrow
Ref Level = -40 dB
Ref Position = 1
Scale = 2 dB per division
Averaging
Trace Averaging helps to smooth a trace to reduce the effects of random noise on a
measurement. The FieldFox computes each data point based on the average of the
same data point over several consecutive sweeps.
Average Count determines the number of sweeps to average; the higher the average
count, the greater the amount of noise reduction.
An average counter is shown in the left edge of the screen as Avg N. This shows the
number of previous sweeps that have been averaged together to form the current
trace. When the counter reaches the specified count, then a ‘running average’ of the
last N sweeps is displayed. Average Count = 1 means there is NO averaging.
This setting can be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
CAT (Cable and Antenna Test) Mode
23
NOTE
Averaging is often used to increase the dynamic range of a measurement. To achieve
the highest dynamic range, select NA mode and reduce the IF Bandwidth setting.
Learn more about dynamic range on page 52.
How to set Trace Averaging
 Press BW 2 .
 Then Average N where N is the current count setting.
 Enter a value using the numeric keypad. Enter 1 for NO averaging.
 Press Enter.
 While Trace Averaging is in process, press Sweep 3 then Restart to restart the
averaging at 1.
Single or Continuous Measure
This setting determines whether the FieldFox sweeps continuously or only once each
time the Single button is pressed. Use Single to conserve battery power or to allow
you to save or analyze a specific measurement trace.
This setting can be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
How to set Single or Continuous
 Press Sweep 3.
 Then choose one of the following:
o
o
Single Automatically sets Continuous OFF and causes FieldFox to make ONE
sweep, then hold for the next Single key press. Hold is annotated in the upper
left corner of the display when NOT sweeping, and changes to an arrow -->
while the sweep occurs.
Continuous Makes continuous sweeps. This is the typical setting when
battery power is not critical.
You can also use Run / Hold +/- to toggle between Single and Continuous.
Resolution (Number of Data Points)
Data points are individual measurements that are made and plotted across the Xaxis to form a trace. Select more data points to increase measurement resolution.
However, more data points require more time to complete an entire measurement
sweep.
When the Resolution is changed after a calibration is performed, the cal becomes
interpolated. Learn more on page 75.
How to set Resolution
 Press Sweep 3.
 Then Resolution.
 Then choose one of the following:
101 | 201 | 401 | 601 | 801 | 1001 |1601 | 4001 | 10001.
 Using SCPI, Resolution can be set to any number of points between 3 and 10001.
See the Programming Guide at http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/
24
FieldFox User’s Guide
Sweep Time
The fastest possible sweep time is always used as the default setting. Use the Min
Swp Time setting to slow the sweep time when measuring long lengths of cable.
Learn more in the Supplemental Online Help:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
The actual sweep time is shown on the FieldFox screen. See the Screen Tour on page
18. To increase the sweep time, enter a value that is higher than the actual sweep
time. The increase will not be exactly the amount that you enter, as the actual sweep
time is the composite of many factors.
NOTE
Measurement speed specifications do NOT apply in Temperature Control Mode.
Learn more on page 13.
How to set Sweep Time
 Press Sweep 3.
 Then Min Swp Time.
 Enter a value using the numeric keypad.
 Press a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier abbreviations on page 19.
Output Power
Set the power level out of the FieldFox to High, Low, or manually set power level to a
value between High and Low.
Generally, the high power setting is used when measuring passive, high-loss devices
to place the signal farther from the noise floor. However, for devices that are
sensitive to high power levels such as amplifiers, use the Low power setting.
For best measurement accuracy, use the Manual power setting at -15 dBm. After
calibration, the power level can be decreased for amplifiers, or increased for higher
dynamic range.
Caution
Power Level settings in this mode will NOT change Power Level settings in other
modes. To help prevent damage to your DUT, use caution when changing modes
with your DUT connected to the FieldFox test ports.
How to set Output Power
 Press Meas Setup 4.
 Then Power
 Then Output Power
o
o
o
o
High (Default setting) Sets output power to the maximum achievable power at
all displayed frequencies. Output power is NOT FLAT across the displayed
FieldFox frequency span. Please see the FieldFox Specifications (page 222) for
expected power levels.
Low Sets output power to approximately –45 dBm, FLAT across the displayed
FieldFox frequency span.
Man Set output power to an arbitrary value, FLAT across the displayed FieldFox
frequency span. If flattened power can NOT be achieved, a warning message
and beep occurs. To achieve a flattened output power, reduce the power level or
stop frequency.
Then press Power Level
CAT (Cable and Antenna Test) Mode
25
o
o
Then enter a value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary
knob.
Press Enter.
Interference Rejection
Use this setting when you suspect that other signals in the area are interfering with a
measurement. Interference may look like a spike or lack of stability in the
measurement trace. While monitoring a measurement at a specific frequency, toggle
this setting between ON and OFF. If the measurement result decreases while ON,
then there is an interfering signal in the area. Continue to make measurements with
Interference Rejection ON. However, this will slow the measurement speed.
Once enabled, up to SIX sweeps may be required before the interfering signal is
neutralized.
This setting can be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
How to set Interference Rejection
 Press Meas Setup 4.
 Then Interference Rejection [current setting].
 Then choose from the following:
o
Off No interference rejection and fastest possible sweep speed.
o
Minimum The lowest level of Interference rejection.
o
Medium The medium level of Interference rejection.
o
Maximum The highest level of Interference rejection.
Coupled Frequency
This setting, especially useful for a Return Loss & DTF measurement, allows both
measurements to have different frequency ranges.
How to set Coupled Frequency
With a Return Loss & DTF measurement present:
 Press Meas Setup 4
 Select the DTF measurement (Tr2) using the ▲|▼ arrows.
 Then choose from the following:
 Coupled Freq ON - Both the Return Loss and DTF traces have the same
frequency range settings.
 Coupled Freq OFF (default setting) - Both traces are allowed to have individual
frequency range settings. When set to OFF:
o
o
26
The Return Loss measurement frequency settings are made in the usual manner.
Learn how on page 22. When a new Start or Stop frequency is selected,
Coupled Frequency is automatically set to OFF.
The DTF measurement is made using the frequencies as determined by the DTF
Frequency Mode setting. Learn more on page 32.
FieldFox User’s Guide
Return Loss Measurements
Return loss can be thought of as the absolute value of the reflected power as
compared to the incident power.
When measuring an OPEN or SHORT, all incident power is reflected and
approximately 0 dB return loss is displayed.
When measuring a LOAD, very little power is reflected and values of 40 dB to 60 dB
are displayed.
The minus sign is usually ignored when conveying return loss. For example, a
component is said to have 18 dB return loss, rather than –18 dB.
How to measure Return Loss
 Connect the cable or any adapter used to connect the device under test (DUT).
 Select Preset then Preset Returns the FieldFox to known settings.
 Select Mode then CAT (Cable and Antenna Test)
 Then Return Loss (Default measurement).
 Press Freq/Dist and enter Start and Stop frequency values of the measurement.
 Press Meas Setup 4 then Settings to make appropriate settings before
calibrating.
 Disconnect the cable or DUT and press Cal 5 then follow the calibration
prompts.
 Reconnect the cable or DUT.
 The return loss trace is displayed on the FieldFox screen.
1-Port Cable Loss Measurements
While all cables have inherent loss, weather and time will deteriorate cables and
cause even more energy to be absorbed by the cable. This makes less power
available to be transmitted.
A deteriorated cable is not usually apparent in a Distance to Fault measurement,
where more obvious and dramatic problems are identified. A Cable Loss
measurement is necessary to measure the accumulated losses throughout the length
of the cable.
A 2-port Insertion Loss measurement is usually more accurate than a 1-port Cable
Loss measurement. However, to perform a 2-port Insertion Loss measurement, both
ends of the cable must be connected to the FieldFox.
NOTE
In high-loss conditions, a Cable Loss measurement becomes ‘noisy’ as the test signal
becomes indistinguishable in the FieldFox noise floor. This can occur when
measuring a very long cable and using relatively high measurement frequencies. To
help with this condition, use High Power (page 25) and Averaging. (page 23).
How to make a 1-port Cable Loss Measurement
1.
Press Preset then Preset.
2.
Then More then Cable Loss (1-Port) .
3.
Connect the cable to be tested.
4.
Press Freq/Dist and enter Start and Stop frequency values of the
measurement.
CAT (Cable and Antenna Test) Mode
27
5.
Press Sweep 3 then Min Swp Time. Increase the Sweep Time until a stable
trace is visible on the screen. The amount of time that is required increases with
longer cable lengths. Learn more in the Supplemental Online Help:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
6.
Remove the cable to be tested.
7. Press Cal 5, then QuickCal or Mechanical Cal.
NOTE
8.
Follow the prompts to perform calibration at the end of the jumper cable or
adapter. Learn more about Calibration on page 65.
9.
Connect the cable to be tested.
Low-level standing waves (also known as ‘ripple’) which may be visible in reflection
measurements, can hide the actual loss of the cable. Steps 10 through 13 can
minimize the ripple. Perform the measurement with and without steps 10 through 13
and choose the method with the least amount of ripple.
10. Connect a LOAD at the end of the cable to be tested. This limits the reflections
to faults that are located in the cable under test.
11. Press Trace 6 then Data->Mem to store the trace into Memory.
12. Remove the LOAD and leave the end of the cable to be tested open.
13. Press Data Math then Data – Mem. The ripple in the measurement is removed.
These minor imperfections in the cable should not be considered in the Cable
Loss measurement.
14. Use Averaging to remove random noise from high-loss measurements. Press
BW 2 then Average.
The displayed trace shows the Cable Loss values in one direction through the cable.
A Return Loss measurement would show the loss for both down the cable and back.
Therefore, a Cable Loss measurement is the same as a Return Loss measurement
divided by 2.
The average Cable Loss across the specified frequency range is shown on the screen
below the graticules.
2-Port Insertion Loss Measurements
A 2-port Insertion Loss measurement is used to measure the loss through a DUT
(device under test) – or cable – over a specified frequency range. The FieldFox signal
source is transmitted out the RF OUT connector, through the DUT, and into the RF IN
connector. Both ends of the DUT must be connected to the FieldFox, either directly
or indirectly using the cable used in the normalization cal.
‘Insertion’ loss simply means loss through a device, usually expressed in dB. It is
exactly the same measurement as “S21 Transmission” in NA Mode.
2-port Insertion Loss measurements are generally more accurate than 1-port Cable
Loss measurements.
How to make a 2-port Insertion Loss Measurement
1.
Press Mode then CAT.
2.
Then More then Insertion Loss (2-Port) .
3.
Press Freq/Dist and enter Start and Stop frequency values of the
measurement.
4.
Press Sweep 3, then select a Resolution setting.
5.
Press Cal 5, then perform a calibration. Learn more on page 69.
6. Connect the DUT and view the insertion loss measurement results.
28
FieldFox User’s Guide
When measuring very long lengths of cable, it may be necessary to increase the
sweep time. Learn how on page 25. Learn why in the Supplemental Online Help:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
CAT (Cable and Antenna Test) Mode
29
DTF (Distance to Fault) Measurements
CAT Mode Distance to Fault (DTF) measurements are generally used to locate
problems, or faults, in a length of cable or transmission line. In this chapter, the cable
to be tested is referred to as the DUT (Device Under Test).
Settings that are NOT unique to DTF measurements are documented in the CAT
Mode chapter on page 20.
In this Chapter
How to make DTF Measurements ........................ 30
DTF Settings Table ............................................... 31
DTF Measurement (Format) ................................. 31
DTF Start and Stop Distance ................................ 31
Frequency Mode ................................................... 32
Coupled Frequency ............................................... 33
Cable (Correction) Specifications ......................... 33
Window Settings ................................................... 36
DTF Units .............................................................. 36
Calculated DTF Values ......................................... 37
About Alias Faults ................................................. 37
Optional settings
Markers ............................................................... 167
Limit Lines ........................................................... 176
Save Measurement Settings and Results .......... 181
Trace Math is NOT available in DTF Measurements.
How to make DTF Measurements
Before starting, you may need the following:
 Jumper cable or adapter to connect the beginning of the DUT to the FieldFox.
30
FieldFox User’s Guide
 LOAD with correct connector type and gender to terminate the end of the DUT (if
possible).
 The known length and cable type of the DUT. If the cable type is not known, then
the Cable Loss (dB/Meter) and Velocity Factor of the DUT are required.
1.
Connect any necessary jumper cable or adapter to the FieldFox RF OUT port. Do
NOT connect the DUT.
2.
Press Preset then Preset to return the FieldFox to the default settings.
3.
Then Mode then CAT.
4.
Then DTF.
5.
Press Freq/Dist , then Stop Distance and enter the length of the DUT. You can
optionally set the Start Distance.
6.
Press Cal 5 and follow the Cal prompts. Learn all about Calibration on page
55.
7.
Disconnect any components or antenna that should NOT be measured and
connect a LOAD at the end of the DUT.
8.
Press Meas Setup 4 then DTF Cable Specifications.
9.
Either press Recall Coax Cable, or enter the Velocity Factor and Cable Loss
of the DUT.
10. Connect the start end of the DUT to the FieldFox.
11. Press Meas Setup 4 then Settings then Next Page. If the Alias-free Range
setting is False, then you may see Alias faults on the screen. Learn more on page
37.
DTF Measurement Settings
DTF Settings Table
You can set and view all of the DTF settings, including some calculated values, on
the DTF Settings table. Learn about the calculated values on page 37.
How to make settings on the DTF settings table
 Press Meas Setup 4.
 Then Settings.
 Press Next Page and Previous Page to view all settings.
 To change a setting:
o
o
o
o
Use the ▲|▼ arrows or rotary knob to highlight a setting.
Numeric settings can be changed by pressing numbers using the numeric
keypad. Then press Enter or select a suffix if available.
Other settings require you to press Edit, then press a softkey to change the
value.
When finished changing a value, press Done Edit.
 Press Dock Window to relocate the Settings table to a position relative to the
trace window. The Dock Window setting persists through a Preset. Choose from
the following:
DTF (Distance to Fault) Measurements
31
o
Full (Default setting) Only the Settings table is shown on the screen. The trace
window is temporarily not shown.
o
Left The Settings table is shown to the left of the trace window.
o
Bottom The Settings table is shown below the trace window.
 When finished changing ALL settings, press Done to save your settings.
DTF Measurement (Format)
You can select from 3 different DTF Formats.
 Press Measure 1
 Then choose from:
o
o
o
Distance to Fault (dB) Faults are displayed on the Y-axis in return loss format,
expressed as a positive number in dB.
DTF (VSWR) Faults are displayed on the Y-axis in SWR. Learn more about
SWR at the FieldFox Supplemental Online Help:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
More then DTF Lin Faults are displayed on the Y-axis in linear (unitless)
format.
DTF Start and Stop Distance
In DTF measurements, you set the physical length of cable or other device to be
tested. The FieldFox calculates the frequency range of the measurement from this
distance. The longer the cable to be tested, the lower the frequencies that are used.
You can also set the frequencies manually using the Frequency Mode [Bandpass]
setting.
How to set Start and Stop Distance
 With a DTF measurement present, press Freq/Dist.
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
Start Distance Enter a value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or
the rotary knob, then Enter. By default, the Start Distance is set to 0 Meters.
This means that the measurement will display faults starting at the point at
which calibration standards are connected.
Stop Distance Enter a value between the start distance and 5 km (or 16,404
ft.) using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob, then Enter.
Frequency Mode
All DTF measurements are made with frequency settings and, using Inverse Fourier
Transform (IFT), the time and distance to faults are calculated.
NOTE
The start and stop frequencies for the measurement are always annotated on the
screen below the start and stop distances.
How to set Frequency Mode
With a DTF measurement present,
 Press Meas Setup 4
 Then Frequency Mode
32
FieldFox User’s Guide
 Choose one of the following:
o
o
Lowpass Mode The frequency range of a DTF measurement is set
automatically based on the Start and Stop Distances. Use Lowpass mode when
the DUT is a cable ONLY.
Bandpass Mode (Default setting) The frequency range of a DTF measurement
is set manually. Use Bandpass mode when the DUT contains a diplexer or other
filtering device which does not pass some frequencies.
Typically, you will set the frequency range of the measurement to the passband of
the filter. However, you may also want to test the ability of the filter to reject
unwanted frequencies. In this case, set the frequency range to include those
frequencies which the filter may not be adequately rejecting.
When the DTF frequencies are set manually, they may not be the optimum
frequencies for measuring the distance to fault. The distance may no longer be
alias-free. Learn more about alias-free range on page 37.
How to manually set Frequencies in Bandpass Mode
 Press Freq/Dist
 Then Min Start Freq and type the start frequency to use for the DTF
measurement.
 Then Max Stop Freq and type the stop frequency to use for the DTF
measurement.
 OR
 Press More
 Then Max Freq Span and type the frequency range to use for the DTF
measurement.
 Then Center Frequency and type the center frequency of the range to use for the
DTF measurement.
These settings specify the minimum and maximum frequencies to be used for the
DTF measurement. These exact frequencies may not be used, but a narrower
frequency range may be used that will still pass through the bandpass filter.
Coupled Frequency
When a Return Loss & DTF measurement is present, this setting allows you to have
different frequency ranges for each measurement. Learn more on page 26.
Cable (Correction) Specifications
By default, the FieldFox does NOT correct DTF measurements to account for the
inherent loss of a cable. However, to make more accurate DTF measurements, the
Cable Loss and Velocity Factor values should be considered.
NOTE
The following describes Coax Media type. However, you can create or edit
Waveguide Media Standards. Learn how on page 74.
About Velocity Factor and Cable Loss
o
Velocity Factor is a property of the physical material of a cable. A VF of 1.0
corresponds to the speed of light in a vacuum, or the fastest VF possible. A
polyethylene dielectric cable has VF = 0.66 and a cable with PTFE dielectric has
VF = 0.7.
DTF (Distance to Fault) Measurements
33
o
Cable Loss is specified in dB/meter. In addition to the length of the cable, loss is
also directly proportional to the frequency of the signal that passes through the
cable.
The following is an example showing how DTF cable correction works:
The DUT is a 100 meter transmission cable. The Cable Loss value is .1
dB/meter. This means that a signal traveling ONE WAY through the cable will lose
10 dB of power (100 m * .1dB/m). Because the FieldFox performs this measurement
with 1 port, the test signal travels down the cable and then back, for a total loss of
20 dB.
After a calibration has been performed, for the purpose of illustrating this point,
connect an OPEN to the end of the cable – a maximum-sized fault - for 100%
reflection of the 300 MHz test signal.
Without compensation for the loss of the cable, a –20 dB response would be visible
at 100 meters, which is the OPEN at the end of the DUT. This is from 10 dB of loss
through the cable in each direction.
With compensation for the loss using the manufacturer’s specification, the FieldFox
compensates the trace as though the signal traveling through 100 meters was
increased by +20 dB. Therefore the response will show 0 dB for 100% reflection.
How to enter Cable Loss and Velocity Factor
Cable Loss and Velocity factor can be entered using one of the following methods:
 Manually enter cable loss and velocity factor for the measurement.
 Select or create a cable file which contains the cable loss and velocity factor.
With a DTF measurement present:
 Press Meas Setup 4.
 Then DTF Cable Specifications
 Select Cable Corr
o
o
Auto Use Cable Loss and Velocity Factor values from a Cable file. See “How to
Edit, Save, and Recall a Cable File” below. This will overwrite a manuallyentered value.
Man (Default setting) Manually enter a value for Cable Loss and Velocity
Factor.
 Then:
o
o
Velocity Factor Using the numeric keypad, enter a value between 0.01 and 1.
Then press Enter.
Cable Loss Using the numeric keypad, enter a positive Cable Loss value in
dB/m, then press Enter.
How to Edit a Cable File
The FieldFox includes many predefined cable files with the manufacturer’s
specifications. You can edit these files or create new cable files using the following
procedure or using the FieldFox Data Link Software.
The Cable correction data survives a Mode Preset and Preset.
With a DTF measurement present:
 Press Meas Setup 4
34
FieldFox User’s Guide
 Then DTF Cable Specifications
 Then Edit/Save/Recall Cables
 Press New then Yes to clear all data from the existing DTF Cable table and reset
header information to default settings.
 Then Edit Cable to open the Cable Editor.
 Then use the ▲|▼ arrows to select a field,
o
o
When editing Cable Description information, press Edit then modify the
selected field using the FieldFox labeler.
When editing Frequency/Loss pairs, enter numbers using the numeric keypad,
then select a frequency suffix. Then Enter. Learn more about “How the
Freq/Loss pairs are applied” below.
 Optionally choose from the following:
o
Previous / Next Page Quickly scrolls through pages of Freq/Loss data.
o
Add Data Add a blank Freq/Loss pair to the table,
o
Delete/Clear then:
o
Delete Line Remove the selected Freq/Loss pair from the table.
o
Clear All then Yes Remove all Freq/Loss pairs from the table and resets
header information to default settings.
 Press Done to close the Cable Editor.
How to Save or Recall a Cable
 Press Save Cable to saves your changes to the specified Storage Device. Enter a
filename using the FieldFox labeler (learn more on page 181). Learn more about
Cable files below.
 Press Recall Cable to load a Cable file from the specified Storage Device.
 Storage Device Changes the device used to save or recall Cable files. This is a
different setting from the Save/Recall Storage Device setting. Choose from
Internal (default setting), USB (must be connected) or SD card.
About Cable files
 Cable files are saved to, and recalled from, the Cables folder. If the folder does not
already exist on a USB or SD card, it is created automatically before storing the
file.
 Cable files are stored as *.xml files. Existing cable files that are preloaded into the
FieldFox firmware can be overwritten. Your edited file will NOT be overwritten
when firmware is updated.
How the Freq/Loss pairs are applied
When the cable file contains one Freq/Loss pair, that correction value is applied to
the entire displayed frequency span.
When the cable file contains two or more Freq/Loss pairs, the Loss value that is used
is interpolated from the Freq/Loss pairs and the DTF center frequency. For example,
using a cable file with the following Freq/Loss pairs:
1 GHz: 0.1 dB/m
DTF (Distance to Fault) Measurements
35
2 GHz: 0.2 dB/m
The center frequency for the measurement is determined from the calculated (Stop –
Start) frequency values (seen on the second page of DTF Settings):
Calculated Start = 2.0 MHz
Calculated Stop = 3.598 GHz
Center Freq = 1.80 GHz
The Loss value for the measurement is interpolated from the Freq/Loss pairs at the
Center Freq:
1 GHz = 0.1 dB/m
1.8 GHz = 0.18 dB/m
2 GHz = 0.2 dB/m
The correction for loss at 5 meters in one direction: 0.18 dB/m * 5m = 0.9 dB.
All DTF measurements correct for loss for travel down the DUT and back, so double
the correction: 0.9 dB * 2 = 1.8 dB.
Window Settings
Window settings provide the ability to choose between optimizing DTF
measurements for resolving closely-spaced faults or for the ability to measure lowlevel faults.
How to select Window settings
 Press Meas Setup 4.
 Then Settings.
 Then press ▲|▼ arrows to move to the Window row.
 Then press Edit.
 Then press Window repeatedly and choose from the following:
o
o
o
Maximum – Optimized for dynamic range, the noise floor is lowered to provide
the ability to measure low-level responses. (Default setting)
Medium – Compromise between Min and Max window settings.
Minimum – Best Response Resolution, providing the ability to resolve between
two closely-spaced responses.
 Then press Done Edit.
 Again press Done.
DTF Units
The DTF Units setting is available ONLY on the DTF Settings table.
By default, X-axis units for DTF measurement settings are displayed in Meters.
How to change DTF units
 With a DTF measurement present, press Freq/Dist.
 Then DTF Units.
 The current selection is underlined m (meters) Feet.
36
FieldFox User’s Guide
Calculated DTF values
Press Next Page on the DTF Settings Table to view the following calculated Values
noted on the FieldFox screen with c - <setting>
Start Frequency – Start frequency that is used to calculate DTF.
Stop Frequency – Stop frequency that is used to calculate DTF.
Range Resolution. Indicates the accuracy of the distance to fault measurement. For
example, with range resolution of 500 mm, if the distance to fault is 10 meters, this
value could be inaccurate by +/- 500 mm or between 9.5 to 10.5 meters. This value
is calculated from frequency span / resolution (points).
Response Resolution, not displayed, indicates the distance that could be between
two faults and still show as separate faults. Learn more in Window Settings on page
36.
Maximum Distance. The distance that could be viewed with the current settings.
Defined by: Vf*c*Points/(2*Bandwidth) where:
o
Vf = velocity factor
o
c = speed of light
o
Points = resolution
o
Bandwidth = frequency range
Alias-free Range (On/Off)
o
On = No Alias images
o
Off = Alias images may appear in the response.
About Alias Faults
An alias fault is not a true device response. An alias fault appears because of the
method used to convert frequency to time.
On the DTF Settings page (above) the c - Alias-free Range = Off setting indicates
alias images MAY appear on the screen.
Shorter stop distances (less than 10 meters) and a higher resolution (1001 points)
will be more likely to result in Alias-free Range = Off.
When the Alias-free Range = Off, the following procedure will help to determine if a
response is true or an alias response:
1. Put a marker on the response in question and note the distance to the fault.
2. Change the start or stop distance.
A true fault response will not move in distance. That is, if a true fault is present at
10.3 meters, changing the stop distance from 15 m to 20 m will not move the fault;
the fault will remain at 10.3 meters. However, an alias response will appear to move.
An un-terminated cable (with NO perfect load at the end) will show faults that
appear to be beyond the end of the cable. These are NOT alias faults. These faults
appear as the signal reflects off the open at the end of the cable and travels back
down the cable toward the connection at the FieldFox. Re-reflections are measured
at the FieldFox as mirror images of the original faults. The largest fault is the open
end of the cable. To avoid confusion, set the Stop distance shortly after that fault.
DTF (Distance to Fault) Measurements
37
NA (Network Analyzer) Mode
Learn more about NA Mode measurements in the FieldFox Supplemental Online
Help: http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm.
In this Chapter
How to Measure S-parameters ............................ 39
Mixed-mode measurements ................................. 40
Parameter Conversion .......................................... 40
Receiver Measurements ....................................... 40
Multi-Trace Configurations .................................. 41
Quick Settings ....................................................... 43
Calibration Settings .............................................. 43
Format ................................................................... 43
Frequency Range .................................................. 44
Scale Settings ....................................................... 45
Electrical Delay ..................................................... 45
Phase Offset .......................................................... 46
Averaging .............................................................. 46
IF Bandwidth ......................................................... 47
Smoothing............................................................. 47
Single/Continuous ................................................ 47
Resolution (number of points) .............................. 48
Sweep Time........................................................... 48
Output Power ........................................................ 49
System Impedance ............................................... 50
Port Extensions ..................................................... 50
Velocity Factor ...................................................... 51
Increase Dynamic Range ...................................... 52
See Also
All about Calibration ............................................. 63
Set Markers ......................................................... 167
Use Limit Lines .................................................... 176
Use Trace Math ................................................... 179
Learn how to make 75Ω (ohm) Measurements in the Supplemental Online Help:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
NA Mode Settings
Select NA Mode before making any setting in this section.
How to select NA Mode
 Press Mode_.
 Then NA.
38
FieldFox User’s Guide
About S-parameters
S-parameters (scattering parameters) are used to describe the way a device modifies
a signal. The FieldFox can measure four S-parameters. The syntax for each
parameter is described by the following:
S (out | in)
out = FieldFox receiver port
in = FieldFox source port
The FieldFox automatically switches the internal source and receivers to make both
forward and reverse measurements. Therefore, the FieldFox can measure all four Sparameters with a single connection.
When the source comes from port 1, the measurement is said to be in the forward
direction.
When the source comes from port 2, the measurement is said to be in the reverse
direction.
S11 and S22 reflection measurements are used to measure the amount of reflections
off the corresponding DUT port. Low reflections means there is a good impedance
match between the source and DUT.
S21 and S12 transmission measurements are used to measure the loss or gain
through a DUT over a specified frequency range. Both ends of the DUT must be
connected to the FieldFox. The FieldFox signal source is transmitted out one of the
test port connectors, through the DUT, and into the other test port connector.
How to measure S-parameters
1.
Press Preset then Preset
2.
Press Measure 1 then choose from the following:
o
S11 Reflection measurement at port 1.
o
S21 Forward 2-port transmission measurement.
o
S12 Reverse 2-port transmission measurement. May require an option.
o
S22 Reflection measurement at port 2. May require an option.
OR select a multi-trace configuration. Learn more on page 41.
3.
Press Freq/Dist then either Start and Stop or Center and Span to enter a
Frequency Range for the measurement.
4.
Press BW 2 then IFBW to select the IF Bandwidth for the measurement.
Narrower bandwidths require more time to sweep, but lowers trace noise.
NA (Network Analyzer) Mode
39
5.
Press Sweep 3 then Resolution to select the number of data points for the
measurement. More data points require more time to sweep.
6.
Press Cal 5 to calibrate the measurement. Learn more on page 63.
7.
All other settings can be made AFTER calibration without compromising
measurement accuracy.
Mixed-Mode S-Parameters
In NA Mode ONLY, mixed-mode S-parameters (also known as Balanced
measurements) are available with Option 212.
Because the FieldFox has only two test ports, only reflection measurements are
available. Connect the balanced input or output of your DUT to the FieldFox ports 1
and 2.
For highest accuracy, a Full 2-port calibration is required.
All FieldFox settings and features are supported (except Parameter Conversion) with
mixed-mode S-parameters.
NOTE
Learn more about Balanced Measurements with the FieldFox in the FieldFox
Supplemental Online Help:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
How to make mixed-mode S-parameter measurements
 Press Measure 1
 Then More
 Then choose from the following:
o
Scc11 Common reflect/common incident for logical port 1
o
Sdd11 Differential reflect/differential incident for logical port 1
o
Sdc11 Differential reflect/common incident for logical port 1.
o
Scd11 Common reflect/differential incident for logical port 1.
To make balanced reflection measurements at the DUT output, connect the DUT
output to the FieldFox ports.
Parameter Conversion
In NA Mode ONLY, converts the active S-parameter trace to an equivalent
impedance (Z), admittance (Y), or reciprocal 1/S-parameter.
How to select parameter conversions
 Press Measure 1
 Then select an S-parameter
 Then More
 Then Conversion
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
40
Off (default) No conversion is performed.
Z Conv ( -- ) or Y Conv ( -- ) Perform conversion for impedance (Z) or
admittance (Y). Then choose from the following for either:
FieldFox User’s Guide
o Auto The displayed S-parameter is converted to the appropriate Z or Y
parameter: Refl for S11 and S22; Trans for S21 and S12. When the Sparameter is changed, the appropriate conversion changes automatically.
o Refl The displayed S-parameter is converted to Z or Y reflection, regardless
of whether the S-parameter is reflection (S11 or S22) or transmission (S21 or
S12).
o Trans The displayed S-parameter is converted to Z or Y transmission,
regardless of whether the S-parameter is reflection (S11 or S22) or
transmission (S21 or S12).
o
1/S The displayed S-parameter is converted to 1/S-parameter.
Receiver Measurements
In NA Mode ONLY, you can make unratioed, uncorrected receiver measurements.
These measurements are typically used as diagnostic tools for service personnel.
NOTE
Receiver measurements are NOT corrected for absolute power. They are only useful
for making relative measurements. The Y-Axis and markers are labeled in dB - NOT
dBm. Specifically, R1 and R2, do NOT indicate the actual power levels out of the
source ports.
How to make receiver measurements
 Press Measure 1
 Then Advanced
 Then choose from the following:
A Port-1 test port (*1)
B Port-2 test port (*2)
R1 Port-1 reference receiver (*1)
R2 Port-2 reference receiver (*2)
(* ) indicates the Auto-selected source port for the measurement
 Source Port The FieldFox port to provide the source signal. Choose from the
following:
o
Auto The FieldFox sets the source port based on the selected receiver.
o
Port 1 Select when measuring transmission at B receiver.
o
Port 2 Select when measuring reverse transmission at A receiver.
Learn more about Raw Receiver Measurements at the FieldFox Supplemental Online
Help: http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
Multi-Trace Configurations
In NA Mode you can display multiple traces on the FieldFox screen.
NA (Network Analyzer) Mode
41
An x3H configuration. Tr2 is the ACTIVE trace as indicated by the highlighted Tr 2
Trace Setting Notes
 The Frequency Range, IF BW, Resolution, Average, and Output Power settings are
common for all displayed traces.
 All other trace settings, such as measurement, format, and limit lines, are applied
individually to the ACTIVE trace in the same manner as when a single trace is
present.
 By default, a marker is created on ALL traces as shown in the above image.
However, they can be created individually by disabling Coupled Markers. Learn
more on page 169.
How to select a multi-trace configuration
 Press Trace 6
 Then Num Traces
 Then choose from the following:
The default measurements depend on the options that are installed.
x1
1 trace standard configuration
x2
2 traces overlayed on a single graticule
x2H 2 traces on separate horizontal graticules
x3H 3 traces on separate horizontal graticules
X3
3 traces overlayed on a single graticule
x4
4 traces on separate graticules
How to activate a trace in order to change a setting
 Use the ▲|▼ arrows OR
42
FieldFox User’s Guide
 Press Trace 6 then select Trace 1, Trace 2, Trace 3, or Trace 4, Only traces
that are shown can be activated.
How to maximize the viewing of the active trace
 Press System 7
 Then Full Screen.
 Press any key to return to the standard display.
Quick Settings
Both CAT and NA Modes allow you to view and change most relevant settings from a
single location. All of these settings are discussed in this chapter and, unless
otherwise noted, ALL of these settings can also be made using the standard softkey
menus.
How to view and change Quick Settings
 Press Meas Setup 4.
 Then Settings.
 Press Next Page and Previous Page to view all settings. If these softkeys are
NOT available, then all available settings fit on one page.
 To change a setting:
o
Use the ▲|▼ arrows to highlight a setting.
o
Then press Edit. The current setting changes to yellow.
o
o
Some settings require you to press a softkey to change the value. Otherwise, use
the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or rotary knob to change the value.
When finished changing a value, press Done Edit.
 Press Dock Window to relocate the Settings table to a position relative to the
trace window. The Dock Window setting persists through a Preset. Choose from
the following:
o
Full (Default setting) Only the Settings table is shown on the screen. The trace
window is temporarily not shown.
o
Left The Settings table is shown to the left of the trace window.
o
Bottom The Settings table is shown below the trace window.
When finished changing ALL settings, press Done to save your settings.
Calibration Settings
NA Mode has a page specifically for making settings that pertain to Port Extensions,
including Velocity Factor and Media Type.
Learn more about Port Extensions on page 50.
Learn more about Media Type in Waveguide Calibrations on page 74.
How to view and change Calibration Settings
 Press Meas Setup 4.
 Then Calibration Settings
 Make these settings in the same manner as Quick Settings in the previous section.
NA (Network Analyzer) Mode
43
Format
Select the display format in which to present measurement results. This setting can
be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
NOTE
Learn more about Display Formats in the FieldFox Supplemental Online Help:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
The marker onscreen readout can be changed to formats other than the display
format. Learn how to set marker format on page 171.
How to select a NA Format
 Press Measure 1.
 Then Format [current setting].
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
o
Log Magnitude Displays magnitude in dB
Linear Displays positive values only. Y-axis: Unitless (U) for ratioed
measurements; Watts (W) for unratioed measurements.
VSWR Used mainly for S11 and S22. Displays unitless reflection data.
Phase Displays phase in degrees. The trace ‘wraps’ every 360 degrees, from
+180 to –180, for easy scaling.
o
Smith Used mainly for S11 and S22. Displays series resistance and reactance.
o
More then…
o
o
Polar Used mainly for S11 and S22. Displays magnitude and phase of the
reflection coefficient.
Group Delay Used mainly for S21 and S12. Displays signal transmission
(propagation) time through a device in seconds. The Group Delay aperture is the
current Smoothing aperture. Default is 1.5 % of the X-axis.
o Learn how to set Smoothing aperture on page 47.
o Learn more about Group Delay measurements at the FieldFox Supplemental
Online Help: http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
o
NOTE
Unwrap Phase Same as Phase, but without 180 degree wrapping.
Phase is unwrapped by comparing the phase from one data point to the next. If the
phase difference between two data points is greater than 180 degrees, or if the
phase of the first data point is greater than 180 degrees from DC, than the phase
measurement is probably NOT accurate. To ensure that the phase measurement is
accurate, increase the resolution setting. When making a narrowband measurement,
reduce the start frequency for the unwrapped phase measurement to ensure the first
data point is less than 180 degrees from DC.
Frequency Range
Set the range of frequencies over which you would like to make measurements.
When the frequency range is changed after a calibration is performed, the cal
becomes interpolated. Learn more on page75.
How to set Frequency Range
This can be done in two ways:
44
FieldFox User’s Guide
 Press Freq/Dist
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
Start and Stop frequencies – Specify the beginning and end of the sweep.
Center and Span frequencies - Specify the center frequency and span of
frequencies (half on either side of center).
 Follow each by entering a value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or
the rotary knob.
 After using the ▲|▼ arrows or the rotary knob, press Enter. The increment
setting of the arrows is based on the current span and can NOT be changed in NA
Mode.
 After using the keypad, select a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier abbreviations
on page 19.
Scale Settings
Adjust the Y-axis scale to see the relevant portions of the data trace. The Y-axis is
divided into 10 graticules.
This setting can be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
How to set Scale
 Press Scale / Amptd .
 Then choose from the following methods:
1.
Autoscale Automatically adjusts the Y-axis to comfortably fit the Min and Max
amplitude of the trace on the screen.
2.
Autoscale All Autoscales all of the traces on the screen, useful only for multitrace configurations.
3.
Set Scale, Reference Level, and Reference Position
o
o
o
Scale Manually enter a scale per division to view specific areas of the trace.
Ref Level Manually set the value of the reference line. Enter a negative value by
pressing Run/Hold (+/-) either before or after typing a value.
Ref Position Manually set the position of the reference line. Values must be
between 0 (TOP line) and 10 (BOTTOM line)
Scale annotation on the
FieldFox screen
· Reference Line = red arrow
· Ref Level = –40 dB
· Ref Position = 1
· Scale = 2 dB per division
Electrical Delay
Electrical delay is a mathematical function that simulates a variable length of lossless
transmission line. Use the electrical delay feature to compensate for the linear phase
shift through a device and view only the deviation from linear phase of the device.
NA (Network Analyzer) Mode
45
You can set the electrical delay independently for each measurement trace. To apply
an electrical delay to all measurement traces, use Port Extensions. Learn how on
page 50.
Learn how to set Phase formats on page 43.
How to set Electrical Delay
 Press Scale / Amptd
 Then More
 Then Electrical Delay
 Enter a time value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
 Press a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier abbreviations on page 19.
Electrical Delay can also be set using the Mkr->Delay feature. Learn how on page
175.
Phase Offset
Phase offset mathematically adjusts the phase measurement by a specified amount,
up to 360°. Use this feature in the following ways:
Improve the display of a phase measurement. This is similar to the way you would
change the reference level in an amplitude measurement. Change the phase
response to center or align the response on the screen.
Emulate a projected phase shift in your measurement. For example, if you know that
you need to add a cable and that the length of that cable will add a certain phase
shift to your measurement, you can use phase offset to add that amount and
simulate the complete device measurement.
You can set the phase offset independently for each measurement trace.
How to set Phase Offset
 Press Scale / Amptd
 Then More
 Then Phase Offset
 Enter a value in degrees using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary
knob. Press Enter
Averaging
Averaging helps to reduce the effects of random noise on a measurement. You
specify the number of measurements to be averaged. The more measurements
averaged, the greater the amount of noise reduction. An average counter is shown in
the left edge of the screen as Avg <n> where <n> is the number of measurements
that are averaged.
Averaging can be set before or after calibration. When set before calibration, each
calibration standard is measured <n> times and averaged. More time is needed to
perform the calibration, but there will be less noise in the resulting error terms which
means that subsequent measurements will also have less noise. In addition, noise is
further reduced by continuing to average after calibration.
How to set Averaging
 Press BW 2.
46
FieldFox User’s Guide
 Then Average <n> where <n> is the number of measurements to average.
 Enter a value using the numeric keypad. Enter 1 for NO averaging.
 Press Enter.
 Then Average Mode Choose from the following:
o
o
o
Sweep - Each data point is based on the average of the same data point being
measured over <n> consecutive sweeps. The average counter shows the number
of previous sweeps that have been averaged together to form the current trace.
When the counter reaches the specified count, then a ‘running average’ of the
last <n> sweeps is displayed.
Point - Each data point is measured <n> times and averaged before going to the
next data point. On subsequent sweeps, averaging restarts by measuring each
data point again <n> times. The average counter is not updated because data is
not displayed until all the averages have been applied.
Point averaging is usually faster than sweep averaging. However, you may need
to increase the Point Average count to obtain the same level of noise reduction
as with sweep averaging.
 While averaging is in process, press Sweep 3 then Restart to restart the
averaging at 1.
IF Bandwidth
The FieldFox converts the received signal from its source to a lower intermediate
frequency (IF). The bandwidth of the IF bandpass filter is adjustable. Reducing the IF
receiver bandwidth reduces the effect of random noise on a measurement. However,
narrower IF bandwidths cause longer sweep times.
How to set IF BW
 Press BW 2.
 Then IF BW
 Then choose from the following:
 10 Hz | 100 Hz | 1 kHz | 10 kHz | 100 kHz
More 30 Hz | 300 Hz | 3 kHz | 30 kHz
Smoothing
Trace smoothing averages a number of adjacent data points to smooth the peak-topeak noise values on a displayed trace. The number of adjacent data points that are
averaged is known as the smoothing aperture. Aperture is set by specifying a
percentage of the X-axis span.
Trace smoothing does NOT significantly increase measurement time.
Smoothing is used in Group Delay measurements, although it can be used with any
NA format EXCEPT Polar or Smith Chart. Learn more about NA Mode formats,
including Group Delay, on page 43.
When enabled, Smo appears on the FieldFox screen.
How to set Smoothing
 Press BW 2.
 Then Smoothing ON OFF
NA (Network Analyzer) Mode
47
 Then Sm. Aperture and enter a value between 0 and 25 (percent) using the
numeric keypad.
 Press Enter
Single or Continuous Measure
This setting determines whether the FieldFox sweeps continuously or only once each
time the Single button is pressed. Use Single to conserve battery power or to allow
you to save or analyze a specific measurement trace.
This setting can be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
How to set Single or Continuous
 Press Sweep 3.
 Then choose one of the following:
o
o
Single Automatically sets Continuous OFF and causes FieldFox to make ONE
sweep, then hold for the next Single key press. Hold is annotated in the upper
left corner of the display when NOT sweeping, and changes to an arrow -->
while the sweep occurs.
Continuous Makes continuous sweeps. This is the typical setting when
battery power is not critical.
You can also use Run / Hold +/- to toggle between Single and Continuous.
Resolution (Number of Data Points)
Data points are individual measurements that are made and plotted across the Xaxis to form a trace. Select more data points to increase measurement resolution.
However, more data points also takes more time to complete an entire measurement
sweep.
When the Resolution is changed after a calibration is performed, the cal becomes
interpolated. Learn more on page 75.
How to set Resolution
 Press Sweep 3.
 Then Resolution.
 Then choose from the following:
101 |201 | 401 | 601 | 801 | 1001 | 1601 | 4001 | 10001.
 Using SCPI, Resolution can be set to ANY number of points between 3 and 10001.
See the Programming Guide at http://na.support.keysight.com/help/
Sweep Time
The fastest possible sweep time is always used as the default setting. Use the Min
Swp Time setting to slow the sweep time when measuring long lengths of cable.
Learn more at the FieldFox Supplemental Online Help:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
The actual sweep time is shown on the FieldFox screen. See the Screen Tour on page
18. To increase the sweep time, enter a value that is higher than the actual sweep
time. The increase will not be exactly the amount that you enter, as the actual sweep
time is the composite of many factors.
48
FieldFox User’s Guide
NOTE
Measurement speed specifications do NOT apply in Temperature Control Mode.
Learn more on page 13.
How to set Sweep Time
 Press Sweep 3.
 Then Min Swp Time.
 Enter a value using the numeric keypad.
 Press a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier abbreviations on page 19.
Triggering
External triggering (NA and SA modes ONLY) allows you to initiate a sweep when an
external DC voltage is sensed at the Ref In/Trig In connector on the FieldFox top
panel. See External Triggering for SA Mode on page 98.
Trigger Source
 Press Sweep 3
 Then Trigger
 Then Trig Source
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
Internal Sweeps are initiated by the FieldFox internal circuitry. When Sweep is
set to Continuous, a new sweep begins automatically when the previous sweep
ends.
External A sweep is initiated on the rising or falling edge of an external TTL
signal at the Ref In/Trig In connector on the FieldFox top panel.
o When the FieldFox is armed for an external trigger signal, Wait is annotated
on the display.
o A sweep can NOT be initiated by an external signal while a sweep is in
progress.
o A sweep can NOT be initiated by an external signal when in HOLD mode.
Learn more about HOLD mode on page 48.
Trigger Slope
Determines which edge of an External trigger signal initiates a sweep.
 Press Sweep 3
 Then Trigger
 Then Trig Slope
 Then choose from the following:
o
Positive Sweep is initiated by the rising edge of signal at about 1.7 V.
o
Negative Sweep is initiated by the falling edge of signal at about 1.0 V.
Output Power
Set the power level out of the FieldFox to High, Low, or manually set power level to a
value between High and Low.
NA (Network Analyzer) Mode
49
Generally, the high power setting is used when measuring passive, high-loss devices
to place the signal farther from the noise floor. However, for devices that are
sensitive to high power levels such as amplifiers, use the Low power setting.
For best measurement accuracy, use the Manual power setting at -15 dBm. After
calibration, the power level can be decreased for amplifiers, or increased for higher
dynamic range.
Caution
Power Level settings in this mode will NOT change Power Level settings in other
modes. To help prevent damage to your DUT, use caution when changing modes
with your DUT connected to the FieldFox test ports.
How to set Output Power
 Press Meas Setup 4.
 Then Output Power
o
o
o
o
o
o
High Sets output power to the maximum achievable power at all displayed
frequencies. Output power is NOT FLAT across the displayed FieldFox frequency
span. Please see the FieldFox Specifications (see page 222) for expected power
levels.
Low Sets output power to approximately –45 dBm, FLAT across the displayed
FieldFox frequency span.
Man (default setting at -15 dBm) Set output power to an arbitrary value, FLAT
across the displayed FieldFox frequency span. If flattened power can NOT be
achieved, a warning message and beep occurs. To achieve a flattened output
power, reduce the power level or stop frequency.
Then press Power Level
Then enter a value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary
knob.
Press Enter.
System Impedance (Z0)
To accurately view data presented in Smith Chart format, first set the System
Impedance.
Learn how to select Smith Chart format on page 43.
Learn how to make 75Ω measurements at the FieldFox Supplemental Online Help:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
How to set System Impedance
 Press Meas Setup 4.
 Then Settings.
 Then scroll to System Z0 and press Edit
 Then type either 50 or 75 and press Enter
Port Extensions
Port extensions allow you to electrically move the calibration reference plane on
either port 1 or port 2 after you have performed a calibration.
NOTE
50
FieldFox analyzers do NOT support port extensions for waveguide component
measurements.
FieldFox User’s Guide
Why use Port Extensions
Use port extensions if you are unable to perform a calibration directly at your device
because the location is not accessible. Perform a calibration at a convenient place,
then use port extensions to compensate for the time delay (phase shift) to the
desired reference plane. On the FieldFox, port extensions does not compensate for
the loss of the additional electrical length, nor any mismatch errors beyond the
calibration reference plane.
Also use port extensions if you have already performed a calibration, and then decide
that you need to add a length of transmission line in the measurement configuration.
Use port extensions to "tell" the FieldFox that you have added the length to a specific
port..
 With S11 and S22 reflection measurements, the FieldFox doubles the port
extension valued that you enter to account for the additional delay in the forward
and reverse directions.
 With S21 and S12 transmission measurements, the port 1 and port 2 extensions
are added together. This accounts for the total transmission delay going through
ports 1 and 2.
Port extensions and Electrical Delay differ in the following ways:
 Electrical delay applies to a specific trace
 Port extensions apply to specific hardware ports
Port Extensions and Electrical Delay can be set independently. When both are set,
the delay adds together. Learn more about Electrical Delay on page 45.
How to apply Port Extensions
 Press Meas Setup 4.
 Then Port Extensions
 Then Port Extensions ON
 Then Port1 Extension
 Then enter time value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary
knob. Press Enter or select a seconds (time) multiplier.
You can also set Port Extensions by pressing Meas Setup 4 then Calibration
(settings).
While setting Port Extension, the physical length of the extension, at the current
Velocity Factor setting, is visible to the right (red box in above image).
Velocity Factor
The electrical delay or port extension value is entered as delay, or electrical length, in
units of time.
Entering the velocity factor causes the FieldFox to accurately display the equivalent
physical length in meters (NOT available in feet) that corresponds to the entered
electrical delay.
NA (Network Analyzer) Mode
51
Velocity factor is the ratio of the velocity of wave propagation in a coaxial cable to
the velocity of wave propagation in free space. This velocity depends on the relative
permittivity of the cable dielectric (r).
Velocity factor = 1/sqrt(εr)
VF = 0.66 corresponds to wave propagation through a polyethylene dielectric.
VF = 1.0 (default setting) corresponds to wave propagation through free space (a
vacuum).
How to set Velocity Factor
 Press Meas Setup 4.
 Then Port Extensions
 Then Velocity Factor
 Then enter a value between 0.1 and 1 using the numeric keypad, then press
Enter.
You can also set Velocity Factor by pressing Meas Setup 4 then Calibration
(settings).
Big Marker Display States (A and B)
This feature, available ONLY in NA Mode, allows you to view up to three Big or Super
Big marker readouts. This is done by using up to two different display states called A
and B. Each display state is comprised of the settings listed below. When the Big
Readout setting is toggled through A and B, these display states are recalled.
How to create Big Marker Display States
To have big readouts, markers MUST be created using the following procedure.
If you have already set up your display and do not want to lose it, then save the
current state to a state file. Learn how on page 181. The following procedure will
overwrite your display state.
 Press Mkr ->/ Tools
 Then Big Readout
o
o
A or B - The A or B display state is recalled. If none have been defined, then the
default display state is recalled.
OFF - The B display state is visible but without the Big Marker Readout.
 With A or B selected, then press Edit Big Marker (A or B)
 Then edit the following display state settings:
 Num Traces – Choose the Multi-Trace configuration x1, x2, or x3. Only Overlayed
configurations are allowed. Learn more on page 41.
 Font Size – Choose either Big or Super Big. Super Big marker readout #3 will cover
some of the measurement grid.
 Trace Settings - For each possible trace (1, 2, and 3) select from the following:
o
o
52
Measurement – S-Parameter or Receiver measurement to display. S11 is
default. Learn more on page 39.
Meas Format – Log is default. Learn more on page 44
FieldFox User’s Guide
o
Bandwidth (ON) – Marker readout for marker bandwidth search. OFF is default.
Learn how to set BW parameters on page 172.
 Big Readout - For each marker readout (1, 2, and 3), select from the following:
o
o
o
o
o
o
Marker # - Enter a number from 1 to 6 to create the marker. 1 is created by
default.
Trace # - The marker# is created on this trace. Tr1 is selected by default. The
corresponding Num Traces must first be selected. For example, to create a
marker on Trace 3, first select Num Traces = x3.
Format – Format for the marker readout. Select Default to make the marker
readout format the same as the display format. Default is selected by default.
Mkr Tracking – ON: Select the parameter to track on the standard Marker
Search menu. OFF is selected by default. When set to ON, Peak tracking is set
by default. Learn about Marker Tracking on page 171.
State – Choose from Normal, Delta, or OFF. The default marker (1) is created in
Normal. Learn more on page 168.
Enabled – Turns the Big Readout of the corresponding marker ON and OFF. The
default marker (1) is set ON by default.
Notes:
 To move a marker, press Marker, then Marker, then scroll to the marker number to
be moved. The new marker position can NOT be saved with the A or B display
state.
 Settings that are NOT listed above are NOT affected by the recalled display states.
 Changes to the above settings outside the Big Readout menu will be overwritten
when Big Readout (A or B) is selected. For example, suppose the display format for
the B state is Log. If you change the display format to Lin using the standard menu
(Meas 1, Format), the setting will show on the display. But if you then use the Big
Readout (A | B | OFF) setting, when B is recalled, the Lin setting will be overwritten
with the original Log setting.
Increase Dynamic Range
Dynamic range is the difference between maximum input power to the FieldFox
receiver (without compressing the receiver), and the minimum measurable power
(noise floor). Measurement accuracy is increased when the DUT response is at least
10 dB above the noise floor. For a measurement to be valid, input signals must be
within these boundaries.
The following settings will increase the dynamic range of your NA mode
measurement.
NA (Network Analyzer) Mode
53
 Increase Power Level: Press Meas 4 then Output Power High
 Lower the IFBW: Press BW 2 then IF BW
 Increase Averaging: Press BW 2 then Average
The following procedure MAY increase the dynamic range of your NA mode
measurement. The results you see will depend on the performance of your DUT.
With an S21 trace active:
54
1.
With RF OUT (port-2) open, press Trace 6 then Math and Memory then
Data->Mem
2.
Re-connect the DUT.
3.
Press Data Math then Data-Mem
FieldFox User’s Guide
Time Domain - Option 010
With NA Mode, Time Domain (Opt 010), frequency information is used to calculate
and display measurements with time as the horizontal display axis. The response
values appear separated in time allowing a different perspective of the test device's
performance and limitations.
NA Mode settings that are NOT unique to Time Domain are documented in the NA
Mode chapter on page 38.
In this Chapter
Overview................................................................ 55
Time Domain (Transform) Settings
Transform Settings Table ..................................... 56
Frequency Range and Points ............................... 57
Stimulus (Mode) .................................................... 57
Set Frequency Lowpass ....................................... 57
Start/Stop Time .................................................... 57
Distance Units ....................................................... 58
Window Layout ..................................................... 58
Transform Window ............................................... 58
Line Loss and Velocity Factor ............................... 59
Data Chain ............................................................ 59
Trace Settings
Transform Enable .................................................. 60
Gating Enable ....................................................... 60
Gating Settings
Start, Stop, Center, and Span Gate Times ........... 61
Gating Type ........................................................... 61
Overview
In normal NA Mode operation, the FieldFox measures the characteristics of a test
device as a function of frequency. With Time Domain (opt 010), frequency
information is used to calculate the inverse Fourier transform and display
measurements with time on the horizontal display axis. The response values appear
separated in time, allowing a different perspective of the test device's performance
and limitations.
The graphic below compares the same cable reflection measurement data in both
the frequency and time domain. The cable has two bends. Each bend creates a
mismatch or change in the line impedance.
Time Domain - Option 010
55
The frequency domain of an S11 measurement shows reflections caused by
mismatches in the cable. It is impossible to determine where the mismatches
physically occur in the cable.
The Time Domain response shows both the location and the magnitude of each
mismatch. The responses indicate that the second cable bend is the location of a
significant mismatch. This mismatch can be gated out, allowing you to view the
frequency domain response as if the mismatch were not present. Learn more about
gating on page 60.
Markers that are created on a Time Domain trace can be used to pinpoint the
distance of the mismatch from the reference plane.
For more information on Time Domain theory, see
http://literature.cdn.keysight.com/litweb/pdf/5989-5723EN.pdf
Time Domain (Transform) Settings
You can set and view most of the Time Domain settings on the Transform Settings
table.
Transform Settings Table
The following settings are listed in the order they appear on the Transform Settings
menu selection.
How to make settings on the Transform settings table
 Press Meas Setup 4.
 Then Transform
 Then Transform Settings.
 Press Next Page and Previous Page to view all settings.
 To change a setting:
o
o
o
o
Use the ▲|▼ arrows or rotary knob to highlight a setting.
Numeric settings can be changed by pressing numbers using the numeric
keypad. Then press Enter or select a suffix if available.
Some settings allow you to press Edit to toggle the value. Other settings require
that you then press a softkey to change the value.
When finished changing a value, press Done Edit.
 Press Dock Window to relocate the Settings table to a position relative to the
trace window. The Dock Window setting persists through a Preset. Choose from
the following:
o
Full (Default setting) Only the Settings table is shown on the screen. The trace
window is temporarily not shown.
o
Left The Settings table is shown to the left of the trace window.
o
Bottom The Settings table is shown below the trace window.
 When finished changing ALL settings, press Done to save your settings.
56
FieldFox User’s Guide
Frequency Range and Points
Like CAT mode, all Time Domain measurements are made in the frequency domain
and, using Inverse Fourier Transform (IFT), time is calculated. Select the frequency
range from which Time Domain measurements are calculated. Increasing the data
points will improve measurement resolution. However, more data points will usually
result in slower sweep updates.
Set frequency range and points before selecting Stimulus Mode.
Stimulus (Mode)
There are three variations on how the Time Domain transform algorithm is applied to
the frequency domain measurement. Each method has a unique application.
 Lowpass Impulse - Highest resolution. Most useful for seeing small responses in
devices that pass low frequencies, such as cables.
 Lowpass Step - Easiest to identify inductive and capacitive discontinuities in
devices that pass low frequencies such as cables.
In both Lowpass modes, frequencies down to DC and negative frequencies are
extrapolated. Therefore, when either Lowpass mode is selected, Set Freq.Low Pass is
automatically applied to adjust the start frequency. Learn more about Set Frequency
Lowpass below.
When the Start Frequency or resolution is changed AFTER selecting a Lowpass
mode, then Stimulus mode is set to Band Pass and Transform is disabled.
 Band pass- Easiest method - can be used with any frequency sweep. Most useful
for measuring band limited devices such as filters and DC blocked cables. This
mode does NOT show capacitive and inductive reactance. For the same frequency
span and number of points, band pass mode has twice the impulse width, which
hides closely spaced responses degrading the response resolution.
Set Frequency Lowpass
NOTE
This setting is made automatically when either Lowpass mode is selected.
USE ONLY IN LOW PASS MODES. When this setting is made, the start frequency is
adjusted to be harmonics of the start frequency. Start frequency is computed by the
following formula:
Low Pass Start Frequency = Stop Frequency / Number of points.
Start/Stop Time
The following settings adjust the display resolution, allowing you to zoom IN or OUT
on a response. When the start or stop time is updated, they may be automatically
adjusted to limit the display to one alias-free response on either side of zero time.
How to set Start and Stop time
 Press Measure 4
 Then Transform
 Then Transform Start Stop
 Then choose from:
o
Start Sets the transform start time.
o
Stop Sets the transform stop time.
Time Domain - Option 010
57
NOTE
Zero (0) seconds is always the calibration reference plane. Negative values are useful
if moving the reference plane.
Distance Units
When markers are present on a Time Domain trace, marker X-axis values are shown
both in units of time (seconds) and distance. Select the units in which the marker
distance data is presented.
Distance Units are also used when setting Time Domain Line Loss. Learn more on
page 59.
Choose from: m (meters), or Feet.
Window Layout
This setting is used to create additional traces, or select a new layout for traces that
are already created,
Choose from: x1, x2, x2H, x3H, x4.
Learn more about multi-trace configurations on page 41.
Transform Window
There are abrupt transitions in a frequency domain measurement at the start and
stop frequencies, causing overshoot and ringing in a Time Domain response. The
Window setting reduces the abruptness of the frequency domain transitions. This
causes you to make a tradeoff in the Time Domain response.
The Window setting applies to ALL traces.
How to make Window setting
 Press Measure 4
 Then Transform
 Then More
 Then Transform Window
 A settings table appears that allows you to navigate and select the following
settings. These settings are made exactly like those made on the Transform
Settings table. Learn how on page 56.
NOTE
58
Any of the following four methods can be used to make this same Window setting.
Impulse Width values are calculated from the frequency span and Kaiser Beta value.
FieldFox User’s Guide
1.
Window
Min
Medium
Max
2.
Percent
0
50
100
3.
Kaiser Beta
0
6.50
13.00
4.
Impulse
Width
100.455 ps
168.501 ps
231.284 ps
Line Loss and Velocity Factor
By default, the FieldFox does NOT correct Time Domain measurements to account
for the inherent loss of a cable. However, to make more accurate measurements,
Line Loss and Velocity Factor should be considered.
About Velocity Factor and Line Loss
o
o
Velocity Factor is a property of the physical material of a cable. A VF of 1.0
corresponds to the speed of light in a vacuum, or the fastest VF possible. A
polyethylene dielectric cable has VF = 0.66 and a cable with PTFE dielectric has
VF = 0.7.
Line Loss is specified in dB/m (or ft). In addition to the length of the cable, loss
is also directly proportional to the frequency of the signal that passes through
the cable.
The following is an example showing how Line Loss works:
The DUT is a 100 meter transmission cable. The Line Loss value is .1 dB/meter. This
means that a signal traveling ONE WAY through the cable will lose 10 dB of power
(100 m * .1dB/m). Because the FieldFox performs this measurement with 1 port, the
test signal travels down the cable and then back, for a total loss of 20 dB.
For the purpose of illustrating this point, connect an OPEN to the end of the cable –
a maximum-sized fault - for 100% reflection of the 300 MHz test signal.
Without compensation for the loss of the cable, a –20 dB response would be visible
at 100 meters, which is the OPEN at the end of the DUT. This is from 10 dB of loss
through the cable in each direction.
With compensation for the loss using the manufacturer’s specification, the FieldFox
compensates the trace as though the signal traveling through 100 meters was
increased by +20 dB. Therefore the response will show 0 dB for 100% reflection.
Data Chain
This setting, available only on the Transform Settings Table, reverts to Standard
when the FieldFox is Preset. Choose from the following:
 Standard – The normal FieldFox data processing chain. Transform calculations are
performed AFTER error correction and trace math.
 8510 – The data processing chain used by the Keysight 8510 network analyzer.
Transform calculations are performed BEFORE error correction and trace math.
Learn more at the FieldFox Supplemental Online Help website:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
Trace Settings
The following two settings apply to specific traces.
Time Domain - Option 010
59
Transform Enable
Enable Time Domain transform for the specific trace.
 Select the trace.
 Press Measure 4
 Then Transform
 Then choose from:
o
On Trace displays Time Domain data.
o
Off Trace displays frequency domain data.
Gate Enable
Enable Gating for the specific trace.
 Select the trace.
 Press Measure 4
 Then Transform
 Then choose from:
o
On Trace displays Time Domain data.
o
Off Trace displays frequency domain data.
Gating
Perhaps the most beneficial feature of Time Domain transform is the Gating function.
When viewing the Time Domain response of a device, the gating function can be
used to "virtually" remove undesired responses. You can then simultaneously view a
frequency domain trace as if the undesired response did not exist. This allows you to
characterize devices without the effects of external devices such as connectors or
adapters.
Gating is best performed while viewing a Time Domain trace. Then, either disable
Transform, or separately view a frequency domain trace to see the trace with the
gated effects removed.
NOTE
When a discontinuity in a test device reflects energy, that energy will not reach
subsequent discontinuities. This can "MASK", or hide, the true response which would
have occurred if the previous discontinuity were not present. The Gating feature does
NOT compensate for this.
The following image shows how gating can affect measurement results.
60
FieldFox User’s Guide
All 4 traces show the same S11 measurement.
Trace 1 shows the frequency response without gating enabled.
Trace 2 shows the transform response without gating enabled.
Trace 3 shows the transform response with gating enabled.
Trace 4 shows the frequency response with gating enabled.
How to make Time Domain Gating settings
 Press Measure 4
 Then Transform
 Then Gating
 Then choose from:
o
On Gating is being performed.
o
Off Gating is NOT being performed.
Start, Stop, Center, and Span Gate Times
These settings specify the time in the trace to be gated (in or out). The gate times
can be specified using either Start and Stop or Center and Span.
 Press Gating Start/Stop
 A settings table appears that allows you to navigate and select the following
settings. These settings are made exactly like those made on the Transform
Settings table. Learn how on page 56.
Gating Type
This setting defines the type of filtering that will be performed for the gating function.
The gate start and stop flags on the display point toward the part of the trace you
want to keep.
 Choose from the following:
o
Time Domain - Option 010
Bandpass KEEPS the responses within the Gating Start and Stop times.
61
o
Notch REMOVES the responses within the Gating Start and Stop times.
Gating Shape
This setting defines the filter characteristics of the gate function. Choose from
Minimum, Normal, Wide, Maximum.
Time domain Gate Shape setting
Gate Shape
Passband
Ripple
Minimum
0.1 dB
Normal
Sidelobe
Levels
Cutoff Time
Minimum Gate
Span
-48 dB
1.4/Freq Span
2.8/Freq Span
0.1 dB
-68 dB
2.8/Freq Span
5.6/Freq Span
Wide
0.1 dB
-57 dB
4.4/Freq Span
8.8/Freq Span
Maximum
0.01 dB
-70 dB
12.7/Freq Span
25.4/Freq Span
Cutoff time is the time between the stop time (-6 dB on the filter skirt) and the peak
of the first sidelobe.
 T1 is the gate span, which is equal to the stop time minus the start time.
 T2 is the time between the edge of the passband and the 6 dB point, representing
the cutoff rate of the filter.
 T3 is the time between the 6 dB point and the edge of the gate stopband.
For all filter shapes T2 is equal to T3, and the filter is the same on both sides of the
center time.
Minimum gate span is twice the cutoff time. Each gate shape has a minimum
recommended gate span for proper operation. This is a consequence of the finite
cutoff rate of the gate. If you specify a gate span that is smaller than the minimum
span, the response will show the following effects:
 distorted gate shape that has no passband
 distorted shape
 incorrect indications of start and stop times
 may have increased sidelobe levels.
62
FieldFox User’s Guide
Calibration for NA, CAT, and VVM Modes
Calibration removes the systematic errors that are associated with measurements in
NA, CAT, and VVM Modes. Key presses are identical in all of these Modes.
In this Chapter
Why and When to Calibrate ................................. 63
Definitions ............................................................. 63
CalReady ............................................................... 64
How to Perform a Calibration ............................... 64
QuickCal ................................................................ 65
Mechanical Cal ..................................................... 67
ECal ....................................................................... 69
Simple Response Cal ............................................ 69
View Cal ................................................................ 71
Calibration Type .................................................... 71
Enhanced Response Optimization........................ 73
Interpolation.......................................................... 75
Questionable Accuracy ......................................... 76
Compatible Mode Calibrations ............................. 76
Save a Calibration ................................................. 76
CalReady Properties ............................................. 76
Verify Calibration .................................................. 77
Calibration Method Summary .............................. 78
See Also
Learn How to Make 75 ohm Measurements at the FieldFox Supplemental Online
Help: http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
Why and When to Calibrate
There are well-defined and understood systematic errors that are measured and
calculated during the calibration process. These errors are caused by leakage signals
inside the FieldFox, by the frequency response of the FieldFox receivers, and by
reflections inside the FieldFox that interact with the DUT. After calibration, these
errors are removed from subsequent measurements.
To maintain highest measurement accuracy, perform a new calibration when any of
the following changes occur:
 When any of the following measurement settings change: Frequency Range,
Power Level, IF BW, and Resolution. Therefore, make these measurement settings
before calibrating. Increased Averaging, lower IF BW, and higher Resolution all
cause slower sweeps and slower calibration times. Learn about Interpolation and
Questionable Accuracy on page 75.
 When the FieldFox temperature changes more than about 10°F (5°C). Learn how
to monitor the internal temperature on page 12.
 When the connection to the DUT changes, requiring a different jumper cable or
adapter.
Calibration for NA, CAT, and VVM Modes
63
Definitions
DUT (Device Under Test) The cable, antenna, transmission line, amplifier, or
anything else that is connected to the FieldFox that is to be measured.
Calibration Standards - OPEN, SHORT, LOAD, and THRU
 OPEN, SHORT, and LOAD are ‘reflection’ standards that are used during
calibration. When an RF signal ‘hits’ these components, the signals are reflected
in a predictable manner. These components can also be used to terminate a DUT
port during some measurements.
o
o
SHORT and OPEN standards both cause 100% of an RF signal to be reflected.
The difference between these two standards is what happens to the phase of the
reflected signal, which is beyond the scope of this discussion. Although an OPEN
standard is a precision component, simply leaving nothing connected at the end
of a cable can be a reasonable substitute for an OPEN.
A LOAD standard absorbs almost ALL of the incident signal and very little signal
is reflected back to the source.
 A THRU standard is used during some calibration steps to connect PORT 1 to
PORT 2 in place of the DUT. A Flush THRU connection can be made when cables
that connect with the DUT can mate with each other. Learn more on page 71.
Otherwise, any reasonably short cable can be used as a THRU standard.
Calibration Reference Plane is the point (or points) at which the DUT and cal
standards are connected during a calibration. This can be at the FieldFox test port
connectors, or at the end of jumper cables or adapters.
CalReady
Every FieldFox contains a factory calibration that was performed at the port 1 and
port 2 connectors, with -15 dBm input power, over the entire frequency range of the
FieldFox using a number of data points that allows reasonable interpolation over the
FieldFox frequency range.
This calibration, known as CalReady, allows you to immediately make measurements
of a DUT that is connected directly at the test ports (PORT 1 and/or PORT 2).
CalReady corrects measurements when the FieldFox is turned ON and when a
measurement is created with no other correction in place.
When measuring a DUT using a jumper cable or adapter - NOT a direct connection
to a test port connector – then a QuickCal or Mechanical Cal is recommended.
CalReady can also be used to check the integrity of the jumper cable that is attached
to the test ports.
CalRdy is shown when a measurement is corrected using CalReady.
You can change the properties of the CalReady calibration. Learn more on page 76.
Learn how to see when your factory CalReady calibration was performed on page
204.
How to Perform a Calibration
NOTE
Press Esc at any time to end the calibration process.
 In CAT, NA, or VVM Mode, press Cal 5.
The following appears:
64
FieldFox User’s Guide
Choose Calibration Method screen
Response Cal – Used to quickly calibrate ONE measurement using mechanical
standards. Measurement accuracy is generally low. Learn more on page 69.
Quick Cal – Using built-in cal standards and CalReady, quickly and accurately
calibrate measurements when using a jumper cable or adapter to connect the DUT
to the FieldFox test ports. Learn more on page 65.
Mechanical Cal – Using mechanical cal standards from a cal kit, perform an accurate
calibration at one or both test ports, adapters, or jumper cables. Full 2-port
mechanical calibration is the most accurate calibration available with FieldFox. Learn
more on page 67.
User Cal OFF ON – Turns ON and OFF the effects of the user calibration that you
performed. The OFF state reverts to CalReady which can never be turned OFF.
View Cal – Shows the properties of the current calibration. Learn more on page 71.
More – Learn about Cal Ready Properties on page 76.
NOTE
Source Unleveled errors - During calibration, the frequency range of the
measurement MAY be extended to provide maximum flexibility. During the
calibration, the output power may become unleveled at the added high frequencies.
You can ignore the “Source Unleveled” error, or to avoid the error, select either High
power or -15 dBm before calibrating. Learn more about setting Output Power on
page 25.
QuickCal
QuickCal is ideal for a quick and simple calibration of the measurement when using a
jumper cable or adapter to connect the DUT to the FieldFox test ports. QuickCal
corrects for phase shift, time delay, and loss of adapters or jumper cables.
QuickCal does not require a specific Cal Kit and is a very simple calibration. If the
highest accuracy is required, a mechanical calibration with a high quality calibration
kit is recommended.
QuickCal is designed and most accurate when calibrating for DUTs fitted with TypeN and 7/16 connectors.
If the DUT has different connectors, such as 3.5 mm (male) or SMA male connectors,
QuickCal can still be used by selecting 'Other' connector. However, the accuracy of
QuickCal with ‘Other’ connectors is not specified.
Calibration for NA, CAT, and VVM Modes
65
If the DUT has 3.5 mm-female or SMA-female connectors, QuickCal is NOT
recommended. For accurate and repeatable measurements of devices with female
3.5 mm or SMA connectors, use mechanical calibration.
Important QuickCal Notes
 7/16 connectors can be used with QuickCal ONLY up to 6 GHz.
 Type-N 75 Ohm can be used with QuickCal ONLY up to 3 GHz.
 QuickCal cannot be used with waveguides, or if the test fixture or test setup
(before DUT) includes an attenuator.
How to perform a QuickCal
 In CAT, NA, or VVM Mode, press Cal 5
 Then QuickCal
o
o
Press Change DUT Connectors to select the correct connector types that are
on your DUT. Although there is no Cal Kit required, selecting the connector type
(limited to Type-N and 7/16) and gender from the list provides an accurate
OPEN model which means a more accurate calibration. If the DUT connector
type is not listed, select Unknown/Other.
The connector choices that are offered depend on the frequency range. For
example, if you have selected a frequency range that exceeds 18 GHz, the only
connector options you will be presented with in QuickCal are 'other 50 ohm' or
'other 75 ohm'. This is because 3.5 mm connectors, which go beyond 18 GHz,
are not supported with QuickCal.
 For each DUT port:
o
Select the connector type of the DUT using the ▲|▼ arrows or rotary knob.
o
Press Change Gender to change the gender of the DUT connector.
o
Then press Next… to make the selection.
 Select/Change Cal Type. The FieldFox always RECOMMENDS a Cal Type that will
quickly and accurately calibrate all of the displayed S-parameters. The other Cal
Types that are listed will NOT necessarily calibrate all of the displayed Sparameters. Learn more about Cal Types on page 71.
o
Using the ▲|▼ arrows or rotary knob, select a Cal Type, then press Select and
Finish.
 Press Start Calibration
No Connection
 Disconnect the DUT from the FieldFox.
 If a jumper cable or adapter is required to connect the DUT to the FieldFox,
connect those components to the FieldFox test ports connectors. The effects of
those components will be measured and removed during the calibration, and only
the effects of the DUT will be displayed in the measurement results. These should
be high-quality components!
 Do NOT connect anything at the cal reference plane where the DUT connects.
 Press Measure
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FieldFox User’s Guide
Optionally Connect Load(s)
 Connect a Load standard at the point where the DUT will be connected and press
Measure under the following conditions:
o
o
When a jumper cable has too much loss. If a ‘Cal Failed’ error appears and you
skipped the Load measurement, then perform the Cal again but measuring the
Load.
When your DUT has high return loss such as the reject band of a filter. Then
measuring the load improves accuracy. Even with the optional Load, phase
accuracy begins to degrade when the return loss is greater than about 20dB.
 Press Skip Step in all other cases and when making DTF measurements.
Measuring a load would do little to improve accuracy.
Connect THRU (Not used for 1-port cals)
 Connect port 1 to port 2, either by mating the connectors that attach to the DUT
(Flush THRU), or by using a short jumper cable. Learn more about Flush THRU on
page 71. Then press Measure.
 Press Finish.
CAL ON Q is shown on the screen for all displayed measurements that are
corrected with QuickCal.
Using QuickCal with a Long Jumper Cable
QuickCal requires a sufficient frequency span to adequately characterize the jumper
cable (the cable between the instrument port and the DUT). If a ‘Cal Failed’ error
appears and you connected the optional Load standard, then increase the frequency
span of the measurement until the error no longer appears. After the calibration, you
can then decrease the frequency span as needed and rely on interpolation. Learn
more about Interpolation on page 76.
QuickCal is also limited in how much jumper cable loss it can tolerate. If QuickCal
without the load is failing, then measure the load during the QuickCal to see if that
resolves the issue.
Mechanical Cal
Mechanical Calibration is performed using discrete standards from a Cal Kit. Several
Cal Kit definitions are built into the FieldFox.
NOTE
Visit www.keysight.com/find/fieldfoxsupport to see a complete list of supported Cal
Kits. Also at this website, download DataLink software that allows you to edit Cal Kit
definitions or add a new Cal Kit.
Mechanical Cals are extremely accurate when performed using the correct Cal Kits
with standards that are clean and in good repair, and when using correct connection
procedures.
How to perform a Mechanical Cal
 Disconnect the DUT from the FieldFox.
 If a jumper cable or adapter is required to connect the DUT to the FieldFox, then
connect those components to the FieldFox connectors. The effects of those
components will be measured and removed during the calibration, and only the
effects of the DUT will be displayed in the measurement results. These should be
high-quality components!
Calibration for NA, CAT, and VVM Modes
67
 In NA, CAT, or VVM Mode, press Cal 5.
 Then Mechanical Cal
This page summarizes the Mechanical Cal to be performed and allows you to make
changes. For best results, review the screen and make changes in the following
order:
1.
S-parameters – Verify that these are all of the S-parameters that you want
calibrated. If not, press Esc to terminate the calibration process, then return to
the Trace menu to display all of the traces to be calibrated. Learn how on page
41.
2.
DUT Connectors – For each DUT port that is shown, verify the correct type and
gender of the DUT connector. If a DUT port is not shown, then that port is not
included in the list of S-parameters to be calibrated.
3.
Cal Kit - Verify the correct Cal Kit for each DUT port to be calibrated. See a list of
supported Cal Kits in the FieldFox Data Sheet. Learn more on page 222.
If the DUT connector type, gender, or Cal Kit is NOT correct for the DUT ports to be
calibrated, then:
o
o
Press Change DUT Connectors to select the correct connector types that are
on your DUT.
For each port:
o Use the ▲|▼ arrows or rotary knob to change the DUT connector type.
o Press Change Gender to change the gender of the DUT connector.
o Then press Next… to make the selections.
o
For each port:
o Use the ▲|▼ arrows or rotary knob to select the Cal Kit that you have, and
are going to use, for the specified ports.
o Then press Next… to make the selection.
4.
Calibration Type - The FieldFox always RECOMMENDS a Cal Type that will
quickly and accurately calibrate all of the displayed S-parameters. Change from
the RECOMMENDED Cal Type ONLY if you understand the implications. Learn
more about Cal Types on page 71.
To select a different Cal Type:
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FieldFox User’s Guide
o
Press Change Cal Type.
o
Then using the ▲|▼ arrows or rotary knob, select a Cal Type,
o
Then press Select and Finish.
Begin Calibration
 Press Start Calibration.
NOTE
If an error appears (“Failure to compute calibration steps…”), check to ensure that
the frequency range of the Cal Kit covers the frequency range of the measurement.
You can verify the frequency range of your Cal Kit at:
www.keysight.com/find/fieldfoxsupport. Click Cal Kits.
 Follow the Cal Wizard prompts. Connect the specified standard at the point where
the DUT will be connected, then press Measure.
 At any time, press Back to re-measure a standard if you feel it was not properly
connected.
 Press Finish to complete the calibration.
CAL ON U is shown on the screen for all displayed measurements that are
corrected with the Mechanical Cal.
ECal
ECal is a complete solid-state calibration solution. Every ECal module contains
electronic standards that are automatically switched into position during a
calibration. These electronic standards have been measured at the factory and the
data stored within the memory of the ECal module. The FieldFox uses this stored
data, along with the measured data, to calculate the error terms for a measurement
calibration.
You can perform the following calibrations with ECal:
 1-Port Reflection calibration
 Full 2-Port calibration
All Keysight USB ECal modules are supported. ECal modules are available in a
variety of connector types, covering many frequency ranges. For information about
available ECal modules, see http://www.keysight.com/find/ecal
Select an ECal module that has connectors of the same type and gender as the DUT.
If such an ECal module is not available, a module with connectors different from the
DUT can be used by selecting a User Characterization. However, a User
Characterization can NOT be PERFORMED using the FieldFox. It must be performed
using a bench top Keysight VNA, such as the PNA or ENA. Learn more about User
Characterization at the PNA Help website:
http://na.tm.keysight.com/pna/help/latest/S3_Cals/ECal_User_Characterization.htm
.
How to Perform a Calibration Using ECal
 Make measurement settings on the FieldFox (frequency range, number of points,
etc.)
NOTE
The frequency range of the measurement MUST be within the frequency range of the
ECal module or an error will appear when “Calculating Steps” during the calibration.
 Connect the ECal module USB cable to the FieldFox USB.
Calibration for NA, CAT, and VVM Modes
69
 Allow the module to warm up until it indicates READY.
 Connect the ECal module ports to the FieldFox at the calibration reference plane
(where the DUT will be connected).
 Press Cal 5 to start the Calibration.
 Press Mechanical Cal / ECal
 Press Change DUT Connectors. For each test port to be calibrated, select the
Connector Type and Gender of the DUT / ECal module. The connected ECal
module and relevant User Characterizations will appear as the default Cal Kit.
 Optionally press Advanced then ECal Auto Orient.
o
o
ON (default) The FieldFox automatically senses the direction in which the ECal
module ports are connected to the FieldFox ports.
OFF If power to the ECal module is too low, it cannot detect which FieldFox
ports it is connected to. If you are having this problem, select OFF. Then during
the calibration, the FieldFox will prompt you to connect the ECal module ports
to specific FieldFox ports.
 Optionally press Advanced then Simple ECal.
o
o
ON (default) The FieldFox assumes that both ports of the ECal module can be
connected at both calibration reference planes. You therefore receive a single
prompt to connect the ECal module to both ports.
OFF Select when physical restrictions prohibit the ECal module from being
connected to both calibration reference planes simultaneously. You will receive
separate prompts to connect the ECal module to Port 1, then to connect the
ECal to Port 2.
 Press Start Calibration. When prompted, connect the ECal module, then press
Measure. The standards within the ECal module are automatically connected and
measured.
NOTE
When prompted: "Connect port 1 to port 2", then you can connect them however you choose,
including using the internal ECal THRU. This is an ‘Unknown THRU’.
When prompted: "Connect port 1 directly to port 2", then you must connect the ports directly
together at the calibration reference plane with no adapter or other cabling. This is a ‘Flush
THRU’.
Learn more on page 72.
Simple Response Cals
Simple Response Cals are used to quickly calibrate the magnitude and phase of a
measurement using any Open, Short, or Thru component. These may be calibration
standards, but because a Cal Kit is not selected, they are not modeled. Measurement
accuracy is generally low. Use a Simple Response Cal to make quick measurements
when using a jumper cable to connect the DUT to the FieldFox. Otherwise, CalReady
is usually more accurate.
NOTE
You can perform a Simple Response Cal for either: S11, S22, or S21 AND S12.
When prompted, choose a standard based on the displayed measurements to be
calibrated. For example, to calibrate S11, connect either an OPEN or SHORT to the
port 1 reference plane.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
1-port response cals are also available from the Mechanical Cal menu. Learn more
on page 73.
Normalize uses a THRU standard or cable between port 1 and port 2 to cal an S21
and S12 Transmission measurement (NA Mode) and a 2-port Insertion Loss
measurement (CAT Mode). In VVM Mode, this is performed using Zero.
How to perform a Simple Response Cal
 Select the measurements to be calibrated. See the relevant Mode (NA, CAT, or
VVM) for measurement selections.
 Press Cal 5 then Response Cal
 For 1-port measurements:
o
o
Select either Open Response or Short Response for the port to be
calibrated. Port 2 may require an option.
Connect an OPEN or SHORT standard to the specified port and press Measure
 For 2-port measurements:
o
o
NOTE
Select Normalization
Connect a short, high-quality, phase stable cable between the FieldFox port 1
and port 2 connectors, then press Measure
With a Normalization Cal, all subsequent insertion loss measurements are made
relative to the insertion loss of the THRU cable. For example, if you use a cable with 1
dB of loss, then after Normalization, the display will show 0 dB of loss with this cable
in place. Therefore, for highest accuracy, when measuring the DUT also attach the
cable that was used in the normalization cal.
 Press Finish.
 Connect the DUT.
CAL ON U is shown on the screen when a Response Cal is correcting ONLY the
appropriate measurement.
View Cal
From the Choose Calibration screen (page 64), press View Cal to see the following
screen:
The top box shows the properties of the current calibration that you performed and
the displayed S-parameters that it is correcting.
Calibration for NA, CAT, and VVM Modes
71
The bottom box shows the S-parameters that are displayed but NOT corrected by
the current performed calibration, but rather the CalReady calibration. Learn more
about CalReady on page 64.
Calibration Type
The FieldFox simplifies the calibration process by recommending the most accurate
and efficient calibration type based on the displayed S-parameters.
However, there may be times when you may want a little more accuracy or a little
faster sweep time. The following information can help you learn about the various
calibration choices.
Definitions:
Non-insertable DUT – A device whose
connectors could NOT mate together. They
either do not have the same type of connector or
they have the same gender. This also means that
the test port cables could NOT mate together as
in the above diagram.
Insertable DUT – A device whose connectors
could mate together. They have the same type
of connector and opposite or no gender. This
also means that the test port cables could
mate together, as in the above diagram.
Defined THRU – A THRU standard for which there is a Cal Kit definition such as in
the 8551xA Cal Kits.
Flush THRU (also known as Zero length THRU) – When the test port cables mate
together when measuring an Insertable DUT. Flush THRU is also a Defined THRU
with a definition of zero loss and zero length.
Unknown THRU - Any THRU connection between the test ports. For more
information see the FieldFox Supplemental Online Help:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
Sweep Directions – Both FULL 2-Port Cals listed below result in correction that
requires background measurements sweeps in both directions, regardless of the
displayed measurements. The displayed traces are updated at a slower rate than
Enhanced Response and 1-port calibrations, which require sweeps in one direction
only.
1-Port (OSL)
DUT: Not Applicable
S-parameters Corrected: S11 or S22
Standards: OPEN, SHORT, LOAD
Sweeps in ONE direction.
FULL 2-Port (May require an option).
Most comprehensive calibration. Corrects all S-parameters.
DUT: Non-Insertable or Insertable
Standards: OPEN, SHORT, LOAD on BOTH ports. Any THRU between ports.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
Based on the SOLR/Unknown THRU calibration. For more information on the
Unknown THRU process, see the FieldFox Supplemental Online Help:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
Sweeps in BOTH directions.
FULL 2-Port (QSOLT) – Mechanical Cal ONLY (May require an option).
Quicker to perform than Full 2-port. Corrects all S-parameters.
DUT: Insertable only
Standards: OPEN, SHORT, LOAD on port 1. Flush THRU between ports.
Recommended cal type for Insertable DUTs. A Cal Kit is NOT required for port 2.
Sweeps in BOTH directions.
Enhanced Response Cal - Forward OR Reverse (May require an option)
Faster measurements than Full 2-Port.
DUT: Non-Insertable or Insertable. S-parameters PARTIALLY Corrected: S21 and
S11 (Forward) OR S12 and S22 (Reverse)
Standards: OPEN, SHORT, LOAD on ONE port. Defined or Flush THRU between
ports.
Sweeps in ONE direction.
NOTE
Also select an Enhanced Response Optimization. Learn more on page 73.
TRL – Mechanical Cal ONLY.
A complete 2-Port calibration with potentially better accuracy than Full 2-port.
Corrects all S-parameters.
DUT: Non-Insertable or Insertable
Standards: Thru, Reflect, Line or variations of these. A TRL Cal Kit MUST be selected
to see this Cal Type.
Sweeps in BOTH directions.
Learn more about TRL Calibration in the Supplemental Online Help:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
1-port Response Cals (Open or Short)
Calibrate the magnitude and phase of a measurement using ‘modeled’ mechanical
standards. Measurement accuracy is better than Simple Response Cals (available on
the main Cal page) but NOT as good as full 1-port cal. Corrects either S11 or S22.
Can be used with Isolation (see following section). Learn more about Simple
Response Cals on page 70.
DUT: Non-Insertable or Insertable
Standards: OPEN or SHORT on ONE port.
Sweeps in BOTH directions.
Isolation Step
The optional isolation step of a calibration corrects for crosstalk which is the internal
signal leakage between the test ports. The additional Isolation step measures Load
standards that are connected to one or both FieldFox test ports.
Perform an isolation calibration when you are testing a device with high insertion
loss, such as the stop band of a filter or a switch in the open position.
Calibration for NA, CAT, and VVM Modes
73
The isolation step can add noise to the error model when the measurement is very
close to the noise floor of the analyzer. To improve measurement accuracy, set a
narrow IF Bandwidth during the calibration.
The Isolation step is NOT allowed with ECal or QuickCal.
How to perform the additional Isolation step
 Press Cal 5 then Mechanical Cal / ECal
 Then Advanced
 Then Omit Isolation
o
OFF Perform the Isolation step.
o
ON (default) Omits the Isolation step.
 Then <Back
 Configure and perform the calibration as usual. At the first step of the Cal you will
be prompted to connect a Load standard to one or both test ports.
NOTE
If the first calibration step does NOT prompt you to connect Load standards, then the
Cal Kit probably does not contain an Isolation standard. You can use DataLink
software to edit the Cal Kit and add an isolation standard using a Load standard. See
Data Link Help for more information:
http://na.support.keysight.com/help/DataLinkHelp/DataLink.htm
 This setting survives an Instrument Preset.
Waveguide Calibrations
In general, calibrating with Waveguide is very similar to calibrating with coax.
However, most coax mechanical Cal Kits have standards that can be used over a very
wide frequency range. Waveguide Cal Kits are used over a narrow frequency range.
Therefore, it is VERY IMPORTANT to set the frequency range of the measurement
WITHIN the frequency range of the waveguide Cal Kit. Otherwise, an error message
will appear during the ‘Calculating Steps’ portion of the calibration.
Waveguide Cal Kits
Keysight sells two waveguide Cal Kit series: the premium 11644A series and the
economy N9911X series. Both are available online at www.Keysight.com
Effective Velocity Factor
Velocity factor is the speed at which an electromagnetic signal passes through the
transmission medium relative to the speed of light. This value is important when
distance is being calculated in DTF measurements (CAT mode) and Time Domain (NA
mode).
When the media is waveguide, the velocity factor changes with frequency. FieldFox
calculates this ‘effective’ velocity factor automatically. However, the settings are
different for CAT mode and NA mode.
CAT Mode - How to make Waveguide settings
These settings are necessary ONLY when making DTF measurements.
 Press Measure 1 then select a DTF measurement.
 Press Meas Setup 4
 Then Settings (Learn how to use the Quick Settings table on page 22.)
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FieldFox User’s Guide
 Set Media = Waveguide. Frequency Mode = BandPass is automatically selected for
you.
 Scroll down to Waveguide Definitions. Select the Waveguide Standard being
used. If your waveguide standard is NOT listed:
o
o
Select User Waveguide. Then press Done.
Then DTF Cable Specifications, then Edit/Save/Recall Cables, then Edit
Cable.
o
Scroll to set Waveguide Definition and set VF Corr = Auto.
o
Then set the Min, Max, and Cutoff Frequencies.
 Set Cable Correction = Auto. The Effective Velocity Factor is calculated
automatically based on the frequencies of the waveguide standard. To override
this setting, set Cable Correction = Man.
NA Mode - How to make Waveguide settings
These settings are necessary ONLY when your measurement requires electrical delay
or port extensions, or if using Time Domain Transform.
 Press Meas Setup 4
 Then Transform
 Then Transform Settings
 Under Transform Stimulus Settings, set the Start and Stop frequencies to those of
the Waveguide.
 Set Stimulus = Bandpass Impulse
 Press Meas Setup 4
 Then Calibration Settings
 Set Media = Waveguide
 Set Cutoff Frequency. This is the absolute minimum frequency of the waveguide.
This value must be less than the Start Frequency of the Waveguide.
 Enter the calculated Effective VF value into the Velocity Factor setting.
Enhanced Response Optimization
When Enhanced Response Cal Type is selected, either for one calibration or for
CalReady, this setting optimizes the calibration based on the type of DUT being
measured. See also: CalReady Properties on page 76.
This setting does NOT survive Preset.
 Press Cal 5 then More
 Then Enh.Response
 Then choose from:
o
Non-Reciprocal (default) An amplifier is a Non-Reciprocal device because it
has gain in the forward direction, and very high loss (isolation) in the reverse
direction. This choice provides the best correction for non-reciprocal devices,
and reasonable correction for reciprocal devices.
Calibration for NA, CAT, and VVM Modes
75
o
Reciprocal A reciprocal DUT is a device in which the insertion loss through the
device is similar in both the forward (S21) and reverse (S12) directions. A cable
is a reciprocal device. This choice provides the best correction for reciprocal
devices. However, S11 measurements on non-reciprocal devices will appear to
have more return loss than the non-reciprocal choice.
Interpolation *
Highest measurement accuracy is achieved when the frequency range or resolution
settings remain the same during the measurement as when the FieldFox was
calibrated. If these settings change after performing a calibration, the FieldFox will
interpolate the calibration so that VERY accurate measurements continue to be
made.
Interpolated Calibrations are only slightly less accurate than a calibration performed
at the measurement settings. Learn more about the relative accuracy of FieldFox
calibrations on page 78.
When a calibration that you performed is being interpolated, an asterisk is added to
the Cal annotation. For example: Cal ON U* is shown on the screen when the
current Response or Mechanical cal is being interpolated. An * is never added to a
CalRdy.
Cal ON ? – Questionable Accuracy
When the Output Power, Interference Rejection, or IF BW (NA Mode ONLY) setting is
changed AFTER performing a calibration, a question mark is added to the Cal
annotation. For example: Cal ON Q?. is shown on the screen when the current
QuickCal is being interpolated. An ? is never added to CalRdy.
The resulting measurement accuracy depends on how much the setting has
changed. For highest accuracy, recalibrate using the new settings.
Compatible Mode Calibrations
The FieldFox can have only ONE calibration present for all modes. Calibrating in one
mode will overwrite calibrations for other modes.
Because NA, CAT, and VVM modes are very similar, a calibration that is performed in
one mode can also be applied in the other modes with the same type of
measurements (1-port or 2-port).
To apply a Cal that was performed in a different mode, press Cal 5 then select Cal
ON.
Save the Calibration
After performing any type of calibration, you can save the FieldFox settings along
with the calibration into a STATE (*.sta) file. These settings and calibration can then
be recalled as necessary. To learn how, see Saving and Recalling Files on page 181.
CalReady Properties
There are several factory CalReady calibrations on every FieldFox. These can be
selected based on the type of DUT that you measure most often, and the
compromise that you prefer to make between measurement speed versus
measurement accuracy. Remember, CalReady was performed at the test ports.
Therefore, a CalReady calibration is most accurate when the DUT is connected to the
test ports. Learn more about CalReady on page 64.
This setting does NOT survive Preset or Power ON/OFF.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
 Press Cal 5 then More
 Then CalRdy
 Then choose from:
o
o
2-Port Cal (default) Corrects all four S-parameters. Requires a forward and
reverse sweep, which causes slower trace measurements. Learn why on page
71.
Enh Response Corrects forward (S21 and S11) and reverse (S12 and S22)
measurements separately. Therefore, when measurements in only one direction
are required, this choice provides faster trace measurements than a full 2-port
cal. Also choose an Enhanced Response Optimization. Learn more on page 73.
To find the best choice for your DUT:
 Press Preset then Preset.
 Select the appropriate S-Parameter and other settings (frequency range,
resolution, and so forth).
 Press Trace 6 then Math and Memory then Data->Mem.
 Press Data & Memory.
 Press Cal 5 then More
 Select a CalReady Cal to compare with the current setting.
 Press Esc to exit the cal menu.
 View the differences in the two traces.
Verifying Calibration and Jumper Cable Integrity
After calibrating, it is important to verify that the calibration is good. When using a
jumper cable, also verify that the cable is of high quality.
Verify a Calibration
 Connect a LOAD standard at the calibration reference plane (where calibration
standards were connected). This may be at the end of the jumper cable or at
FieldFox PORT 1 connector.
 In CAT Mode, select Return Loss.
 In NA Mode, select S11 with Log Mag format.
 For frequencies lower than 9 GHz, observe the trace on the FieldFox screen:
o
Lower than 35 dB indicates a GOOD calibration.
o
Higher than 0 dB indicates that you should recalibrate.
Verifying Phase Accuracy
 Connect a LOAD standard at the calibration reference plane (where calibration
standards were connected).
 In NA Mode, select a S11 Reflection with Polar or Smith Chart format.
 Because all LOAD standards have delay, you should see a small amount of phase
rotation as a function of frequency. In general, the measurement result should
agree with the characteristics of the calibration standard.
Calibration for NA, CAT, and VVM Modes
77
Test the Jumper Cable
With the LOAD standard still connected, move the jumper cable while observing the
trace.
 If the measurement trace is relatively stable, the jumper cable is of good quality.
 If you observe significant movement in the peaks of the measurement trace when
moving the cable (>5 dB), the jumper cable may need to be replaced.
Calibration Method Summary
 Mechanical Full 2-port Cal is ALWAYS the most accurate Cal method. The quality
of a Mechanical Cal is completely dependent on the quality of the OPEN, SHORT,
LOAD standards and the quality of the standard connections. Use the correct high
quality standards to ensure the most accurate calibration.
 QuickCal is ideal for DTF measurements. QuickCal should be performed when
good accuracy is required and when using a jumper cable or adapter.
o
o
QuickCal is NOT recommended when the DUT has 3.5 mm-female or SMAfemale connectors.
Even with the optional Load, phase accuracy begins to degrade when the return
loss is greater than about 20dB.
 CalReady is accurate ONLY when the DUT is connected at the test ports and most
accurate at room temperature.
 For highest accuracy, a new QuickCal or Mechanical Cal should be performed:
o
When the temperature changes more than about 10°F (5°C)
o
When the connection to the DUT requires a different jumper cable or adapters.
o
78
When any of the following measurement settings change: Frequency Range,
Power Level, IF BW, and Resolution.
FieldFox User’s Guide
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
SA Mode measures signals at the SA RF IN connector.
SA Mode measurements require NO calibration.
For a comprehensive SA mode tutorial, see Spectrum Analysis Basics (App Note 150)
at http://literature.cdn.keysight.com/litweb/pdf/5952-0292.pdf
SA display with markers
Carrier with 5 kHz frequency modulation and deviation of 1 kHz
In this Chapter
Frequency Range .................................................. 80
Radio Standard ..................................................... 82
Channel Selection ................................................. 83
Scale and Units ..................................................... 84
External Gain ......................................................... 85
Attenuation and Preamp Control ......................... 85
Check for Compressed Measurements ................ 86
Field Strength Measurements .............................. 87
Tune and Listen .................................................... 90
Independent Source ............................................. 90
Resolution Bandwidth........................................... 90
Video Bandwidth ................................................... 94
Sweep Type ........................................................... 94
IF Output ............................................................... 95
Sweep Acquisition ................................................ 95
Very Long Sweep Times ....................................... 96
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
79
Zero Span Measurements .................................... 97
Triggering .............................................................. 98
FFT Gating (Option 238) ..................................... 101
Single/Continuous/Restart ................................. 102
Points .................................................................. 102
Trace Display States ........................................... 102
Average Type ...................................................... 103
Average Count .................................................... 104
InstAlign Amplitude Alignment ........................... 104
RF Burst Alignment ............................................. 105
Detection Method ............................................... 105
Display Line ......................................................... 107
Noise Marker ....................................................... 107
Band/Interval Power Marker .............................. 108
Frequency Counter at Marker ............................ 109
Audio Beep at Marker Power .............................. 109
Channel Measurements ...................................... 110
o
Channel Power
o
Occupied Bandwidth
o
Adjacent Channel Power Ratio
See Also
Interference Analyzer
Spectrogram Display .......................................... 119
Waterfall Display................................................. 122
Record / Playback .............................................. 123
Optional settings
Markers ............................................................... 167
Limit Lines ........................................................... 176
Save Measurement Settings and Results .......... 181
SA Mode Settings
Select SA Mode before making any setting in this chapter.
Because there is no calibration, these settings can be made in any order.
How to select SA Mode
 Press Mode_.
 Then SA.
Frequency Range
The X-axis frequency range determines the frequencies that are measured for each
sweep. The default Start frequency is 0 Hz. However, the Start frequency can be set
as low as –100 MHz. The internal LO of the FieldFox can be seen at 0 Hz, which will
mask signals that may be present.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
NOTE
Although the start frequency can be set as low as -100 MHz, amplitude accuracy is
specified above 100 kHz. Below 100 kHz, frequency accuracy is maintained, but
amplitude accuracy is degraded.
The frequency range of the measurement can be changed using the following
methods:
 Set Center and Span frequencies
 Set Start and Stop frequencies
 Toggle between Zero and Last selected span
 Set Full Span of the FieldFox
 Using Channel selection. Learn how on page 83.
 Using Marker -> Center (frequency). Learn how on page 171.
How to set Frequency Range
 Press Freq/Dist .
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
Center and Freq Span frequencies. This is the most common method of
entering frequency range. Enter the frequency of interest. The Center frequency
is at the exact center of the X-axis. The Frequency Span places half of the
frequency range on either side of center. When the Center and Frequency Span
values are entered, then the X-axis annotation on the screen shows the Center
and Span frequencies.
Start and Stop frequencies. Start is the beginning of the X-axis and Stop is the
end of the X-axis. When the Start and Stop frequencies are entered, then the Xaxis annotation on the screen shows the Start and Stop frequencies.
 Follow each of these by entering a value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼
arrows, or the rotary knob.
 When using the ▲|▼ arrows, press Enter. The increment setting of the arrows is
based on the current span. This can be changed in SA Mode. See How to change
frequency step size below.
 After using the keypad, select a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier abbreviations
on page 19.
Two more ways to change the frequency range
 Press Freq/Dist .
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
Zero/Last Span Each key press toggles the frequency span between 0 Hz and
the last specified frequency span. Learn more about Zero Span on page 97.
More
Then Full Span Selects the entire frequency span of the FieldFox. The Center
frequency is set automatically.
How to change frequency step size
When using the ▲|▼ arrows to change any of the frequency settings, the size of the
frequency step can be changed.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
81
 Press Freq/Dist
 Then More
 Then CF Step Auto Man
o
o
Auto Each press of the ▲|▼ arrows increments or decrements the value by
1/10th (one division) of the current frequency span. Note: To change this setting
from Man to Auto, press CF Step twice.
Man Type a step size value using the numeric keypad, then select a multiplier
key. Learn about multiplier abbreviations on page 19.
Radio Standard
A Radio Standard is a collection of settings that are applied to the FieldFox for
specific RF protocols. When a Radio Standard is applied, the FieldFox frequency and
channel settings change to that of the standard.
By default, the FieldFox locates the center frequency of the standard in the middle of
the screen and sets the frequency span to cover all of the Uplink and Downlink
frequencies. The selected Radio Standard name appears in the center of the screen
below the X-axis.
After a Radio Standard has been selected, the frequency range can be changed by
selecting channel numbers rather than frequency. Learn how on page 83.
When a Channel Measurement is selected such as ACPR, other relevant settings will
be changed such as Integration BW. Learn more about Radio Standards and Channel
Measurements on page 111.
How to select a Radio Standard
 Press Measure 1 OR Freq/Dist then More
 Then Radio Standard
 Then select a standard using the ▲|▼ arrows or rotary knob and press Enter.
Custom Radio Standards
Your own custom Radio Standards can be imported into the FieldFox. Custom
standards are created in *.csv (spreadsheet) format.
A template and instructions for creating your custom Radio Standard is at:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/SupHelp/Reference/CustomRadioStan
dard.htm
Once imported, the *.csv file is stored in the FieldFox \User Data\ folder. The custom
Radio Standards are read and presented at the top of the list of internal Radio
Standards.
How to Import and Delete a Custom Radio Standard
First, press Save/Recall and select the Device from which the Radio Standard will
be read. Most likely this will be USB or SD Card.
 Press Measure 1 OR Freq/Dist then More
 Then Radio Standard
 Then Import Radio Standards
 Then select the *.csv file using the ▲|▼ arrows or rotary knob and press Enter.
82
FieldFox User’s Guide
 Custom Radio Standards can be removed from the FieldFox by selecting Measure
1 then Radio Standard then Delete Radio Standard.
 Then select the *.csv file to delete using the ▲|▼ arrows or rotary knob and press
Enter.
NOTE
To overwrite a custom standard that is already uploaded to the FieldFox, you must
first delete the *.csv file from the FieldFox, then re-upload the file that contains the
standard. A predefined internal standard (such as GSM 450) can NOT be deleted
from the FieldFox.
Channel Selection
After a Radio Standard has been selected, the frequency range can be changed by
selecting channel numbers rather than frequency. Once enabled, the channel
number is appended to the X-axis frequency range.
How to enable Channel selection
 Press Freq/Dist
 Then More
 Then Unit Freq Chan
How to change the Channel Number of the measurement
With Unit = Chan the FieldFox will NOT allow you to specify channels outside of the
selected Radio Standard.
 Press Freq/Dist
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
Center Channel Places the center frequency of the specified channel in the
middle of the X-axis.
Start Channel Places the lowest frequency of the specified channel at the
beginning of the X-axis.
Stop Channel Places the highest frequency of the specified channel at the end
of the X-axis.
Freq Span Changes the span of frequencies while the center frequency
remains unchanged.
Follow each of the above settings by entering a value using the numeric keypad
or the rotary knob.
Use the ▲|▼ arrows to increment the channel number by an amount specified
by the Channel Step value (see below).
Then press Enter.
Select either Uplink or Downlink Frequencies
Press Chan Direction to toggle between Uplink and Downlink. If either of these
selections is not available, then the selected Radio Standard does not contain those
frequencies.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
83
Channel number X-axis annotation
 Dn indicates Downlink frequencies.
 Up (not shown) indicates Uplink frequencies
 (−) indicates that the lowest frequency in the channel (128) is at the left edge of
the screen.
 (+) indicates that the highest frequency in the channel (130) is at the right edge of
the screen.
 When Center Channel or Freq Span is specified, the X-axis shows the Center Freq
(Channel) and Frequency Span.
 When Start or Stop Channel is specified, the X-axis shows the Start Freq (Channel)
and Stop Freq (Channel).
Change Channel Step Size (Optional)
This setting allows you to use the ▲|▼ arrows to increment the channel number by
the specified value.
 Press Channel Step
 Enter a step value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
Then press Enter.
Scale and Units
Adjust the Y-axis scale to see the relevant portions of the data trace.
The Y-axis is divided into 10 graticules. A Reference Level is shown on the screen as
a solid horizontal bar that can be placed at any graticule.
When RF Attenuation set to Auto, the RF Attenuation is coupled to Reference Level.
How to set Scale
Press Scale / Amptd . Then choose from the following:
 Scale Type [current setting]
o
o
Log Logarithmic scale (default setting). The Y-axis reference line represents the
specified absolute Reference Level in the current Unit selection. Y-axis
graticules show dB below or above the reference line.
Lin Linear scale. The Y-axis reference line represents the specified absolute
Reference Level in the current Unit selection. Y-axis graticules show percent of
Reference Level (%) below or above the reference line.
 Manually set Scale, Reference Level, and Reference Position.
84
FieldFox User’s Guide
o
o
o
o
Scale Manually adjust the scale per division to view specific areas of the current
trace. Enter a value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary
knob. Then press Enter.
Ref Level Manually set the value of the reference line. Enter a negative value by
pressing Run/Hold (+/-) either before or after typing a value. This can also
change the RF Attenuation setting. See Attenuation Control – Auto.
Ref Position Manually set the position of the reference line. Values must be
between 0 (TOP line) and 10 (BOTTOM line). Default position is zero (top).
Press More, then Autoscale Automatically adjusts the Y-axis to comfortably fit
the Min and Max amplitude of the trace on the screen.
How to set Y-axis Units
The Unit setting appears for the reference line, marker readouts, and trigger level. All
Unit choices are available in both Log and Linear Scale Types.
The UNIT setting survives Mode Preset, but NOT Preset.
 Press Scale / Amptd , then More, then Unit
 Then choose from the following:
o
dBm (default setting), dBmV (dB milli Volts), dBuV (dB microVolts), W (watts), V
(volts), A (amps), dBmA (dB milliAmps), dBuA (dB microAmps).
Antenna correction units are available ONLY by loading or editing an Antenna file
that contains the desired units setting. Learn more on page 88.
External Gain
When using an external amplifier or attenuator, the SA mode trace amplitude values
can be offset to compensate for the effect of the external device. This effectively
moves the reference plane of the SA measurement port out to just beyond the
external device. For example, when using an external preamp with gain of +10 dB,
enter this value for External Gain, and the data trace across the displayed frequency
span will be adjusted down by 10 dB.
When RF Atten is set to Auto, you may see a change in the RF Attenuation value.
This is an attempt to measure the signal at top of screen (the Reference Level)
without overloading the SA first mixer.
How to set External Gain
 Press Scale/Amptd .
 Then More
 Then External Gain
 Enter a value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob
(positive for gain; negative for loss). Values less than 5 dB must be typed using the
numeric keypad. Then press Enter
ExtGain xx dB is shown at the top of the screen.
Attenuation Control
Both the RF Attenuation and Pre Amp functions control the power level into the SA.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
85
When too much power is present at the RF Input port, ADC Over Range appears on
the FieldFox screen. This does not necessarily mean that damage has occurred, but
that the measurement is probably compressed.
When high power levels are present at the RF Input connector, internal attenuation
can be switched in to keep the FieldFox receiver from compressing. At extremely
high power levels, use external attenuation to protect the internal circuitry from
being damaged.
WARNING
The FieldFox can be damaged with too much power.
RF Damage Level: +27 dBm
DC Damage Level: ±50 VDC
The displayed power level is automatically adjusted for RF Attenuation. As the
attenuation value changes, the displayed power level should NOT change.
How to set Attenuation
 Press Scale/Amptd .
 Then RF Atten Auto Man.
 Auto RF Attenuation is set by adjusting the Reference Level. As the Reference
Level is lowered, for example from –10 dBm to –30 dBm, the FieldFox assumes
that you are looking at low-level signals. The RF Attenuation value is automatically
lowered in 5 dB steps to allow low-level signals to be viewed. The RF Attenuation
value is never automatically lowered below 5 dB.
 Man RF Attenuation is set manually. The default Attenuation setting is 10 dB.
Enter a value between 0 to 30 dB in 5 dB steps using the numeric keypad, the
▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob. Then press Enter
#Atten xx dB is shown at the top of the screen. (#) means manual setting.
Preamplifier Control (Opt 235)
When very low-level signals are analyzed, an internal preamplifier can be used to
boost the signal level by approximately 22 dB. The gain of the preamp is NOT
adjustable. The displayed signal level is automatically adjusted for the increase in
system gain.
How to control the Preamp
By default, the preamp is OFF.
 Press Scale/Amptd .
 Then Preamp ON OFF The underlined setting is the current setting. When ON,
PA is shown to the left of the graticules on the display.
Check for Compressed Measurements
Compression occurs when too much power into an amplifier causes it to no longer
amplify in a linear manner. When too much power goes into the FieldFox RF Input
connector, the amplifiers in the SA receiver compress and signal power will not be
displayed accurately. This can occur even if ADC Over Range is not displayed.
Increase the RF Attenuation value to prevent the SA receiver from being compressed.
86
FieldFox User’s Guide
How to Check for a Compressed Measurement
 Using a marker at the signal peak, make note of the signal power level.
 Increase the RF Attenuation level by 5 dB.
o
o
If the signal level does NOT change, then NO compression exists. This indicates
that the signal is in the linear region of the FieldFox receiver.
If the signal level DOES increase, then the receiver was compressed. Set the RF
Attenuation value at the setting when further increases no longer result in an
increase in the displayed power level.
Field Strength Measurements
To measure the strength of any signal transmitted through the air, an antenna must
be connected to the FieldFox. The Field Strength feature allows you to enter the
frequency response of the receiving antenna (the Antenna Factor) and associated
cabling, and then have amplitude corrections automatically compensate the
displayed trace for that response.
Field Strength Measurements
Trace 1 - Corrected trace with antenna factor. (Antenna = ON, Apply Corr = ON)
Trace 2 - (View) Uncorrected trace (Apply Corr = OFF)
Red Trace - Current correction factor. See below.
 Learn how to set Y-Axis Units on page 84.
 Use a Band Power marker to measure total power over a range of frequencies.
Learn how on page 176.
How to select correction for Field Strength measurements
The Antenna and Cable correction data survives a Mode Preset and Preset.
All Correction ON/OFF states survive a Mode Preset, but NOT a Preset.
 Press Scale/Amptd .
 Then More
 Then Corrections
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
87
 Then choose from the following:
o
Apply Corrections ON OFF Turn ON and OFF correction for all settings
o
Antenna ON OFF Turn ON and OFF Antenna correction.
o
Edit/Save/Recall Antennas Recall or edit an Antenna Correction table. See
below.
o
Cable ON OFF Turn ON and OFF Cable correction.
o
Edit/Save/Recall Cables Recall or edit a Cable Correction table. See below.
o
View Corrections ON OFF Turn ON and OFF Red Trace - Antenna/Cable
corrections.
Using the Antenna/Cable Editor
The Antenna Editor and the Cable Editor menus are very similar. Both tables include
header information, and a Frequency/Value table.
NOTE
The FieldFox limits Antenna and Cable correction to a maximum of 90 values.
FieldFox Antenna Editor
How to use the Antenna/Cable Editor
 Press New then Yes to clear all data from the existing Antenna or Cable table and
reset header information to default settings.
 Then Edit Antenna or Edit Cable to open the Antenna / Cable Editor.
 Then use the ▲|▼ arrows to select a field,
o
To edit header information, press Edit then modify the selected field using the
FieldFox labeler.
o Description: Enter a description for the antenna or cable correction table. This
is NOT the filename used to save the file.
o Antenna Unit: Units in which the measurement will be displayed. Select NONE
(default setting) to select from standard SA Units on the Scale menu. Learn
how on page 84.
o Choose from: dB μV/m - (dB micro Volts per meter), dB μA/m - (dB micro
Amps per meter), dBG (gauss), dBpT (tesla).
o Freq Interpolation: Set to LINear and can NOT be edited.
88
FieldFox User’s Guide
o
To edit Frequency/Value pairs, enter numbers using the numeric keypad, and a
frequency suffix when necessary.
o For Cable Loss, positive values are interpreted as LOSS; negative values are
interpreted as GAIN which is used to describe an amplifier.
o For Antenna Factor, only positive values are valid. Antenna factor describes
the dB value needed to accurately display a far-field signal in terms that are
in the units listed below. When the antenna has low gain, or low efficiency,
the dB value to be added is larger. Learn more about Antenna Factor at:
http://tdkrfsolutions.com/DataPDFs/antenna_paper_part3.pdf
o
o
When one Freq/Value pair is entered, that correction value is applied to the
entire displayed frequency span.
When two or more Freq/Value pairs are entered, the data points between the
lowest and highest frequencies are corrected. Linear interpolation is applied
between frequencies when necessary.
 Optionally choose from the following:
o
Previous / Next Page Quickly scrolls through pages of Freq/Value data.
o
Add Data Add a blank Freq/Value pair to the table,
o
Delete/Clear then:
o
Delete Line Remove the selected Freq/Value pair from the table.
o
Clear All then Yes Remove all Freq/Value pairs from the table and resets
header information to default settings.
When the table edits are complete
 Press Done to close the Antenna/Cable Editor.
 Press Save Antenna or Save Cable to saves your changes to the specified
Storage Device. Enter a filename using the FieldFox labeler (learn more on page
181). Learn more about Antenna and Cable files below.
 Press Recall Antenna or Recall Cable to load an Antenna or Cable file from
the specified Storage Device.
 Storage Device Changes the device used to save or recall files. Choose from
Internal (default setting), USB (must be connected) or SD card. This is a different
setting from the Save/Recall Storage Device setting.
About Antenna and Cable files
 Cable files are saved and recalled from the Cables folder.
 Antenna files are saved and recalled from the Antenna folder.
 If the folder does not already exist on a USB or SD card, it is created automatically
before storing the file.
 All SA mode Antenna and Cable files are saved and recalled as *.csv files, which
allows them to also be read by spreadsheet programs.
 The FieldFox can also read *.ANT (Antenna) files that were created from older
Keysight Spectrum Analyzers.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
89
 SA Mode cable or antenna (*.csv or *.ANT) files can NOT be edited in Data Link
software. Learn more about Data Link software at:
http://na.support.keysight.com/datalink_info.html
How to create a Cable file from an S21 (NA mode) or an Insertion Loss (CAT mode)
measurement
1.
Measure the S21 or Insertion Loss of a cable. In NA mode, select either LogMag,
Linear, or VSWR formats.
2.
Use Manage Folders to change the active folder to CABLES. Learn how to
manage folders on page 185.
3.
Save the measurement as a *.csv file. Learn how on page 183.
4.
Select SA mode Corrections, then recall the *.csv file for correction.
Tune & Listen (AM/FM)
The Tune & Listen feature can be used to identify an interfering AM or FM signal.
The demodulated AM or FM signal can be heard through the internal speaker or
through headphones using the 3.5 mm jack located on the FieldFox side panel.
The Tune & Listen tuner is separate from the SA display. This allows you to listen to
one frequency while displaying a different range of frequencies. The Tune & Listen
measurement alternates between normal SA sweeps for the display and performing
audio demodulation at the Tune Frequency. See the Listen Time setting for more
information.
Tune & Listen ON with Tune Frequency indicated by a vertical bar (highlighted).
How to select Tune & Listen
 Press Measure 1
 Then Tune & Listen
 Then choose a demodulation type. Select a setting based on the type of interfering
signal you suspect is being broadcast.
90
o
None Turns Tune & Listen OFF
o
AM Amplitude Modulation
FieldFox User’s Guide
o
o
FM Narrow Frequency Modulation; Narrow bandwidth. Choose when
interfering transmission consist of voice or data.
FM Wide Frequency Modulation; Wide bandwidth. Choose for high quality
music transmissions of FM broadcast radio.
Tune Frequency
The Tune & Listen tuner is separate from the SA display. This allows you to listen to
one frequency while displaying a different range of frequencies.
Set the Tune Frequency using one of three methods:
1. Selecting Preset, Mode Preset, or Meas Preset sets Tune Frequency to 3.0 GHz.
2. Specify Tune Frequency:
 Press Meas Setup 4
 Then Tune Freq
 Enter a value using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob. Then
select a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier abbreviations on page 19.
 3. Using Mkr->Tune Freq
 Create a normal marker at the frequency of interest. Learn how on page 167.
 Press Mkr->/Tools
 Then Mkr->Tune Freq to change the Tune Frequency to that of the marker.
Tip
To improve sound quality, try increasing power by reducing the Attenuation setting
and, if available, turn ON the Preamplifier. Learn how on page 85.
Listen Time
While Tune & Listen is actively demodulating a signal, the SA does not sweep and
update the display. Listen Time sets the amount of time that the FieldFox
demodulates, then stops to perform a single sweep and update the display, then
again demodulates.
To select Listen Time:
 Press Meas Setup 4
 Then Listen Time
 Enter a value using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob. Then
select a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier abbreviations on page 19.
Volume Control
 To increase or decrease the Volume of the demodulated signal:
 Press Meas Setup 4
 Then Volume
 Enter a value in percent between 0 and 100 (loudest) using the numeric keypad,
▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
 Volume can also be changed and easily muted from the System menu. Learn
more on page 191.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
91
Demod ON and OFF
To quickly stop the audio demodulation and perform only the normal SA sweeps,
select the following:
 Press Meas Setup 4
 Then Demod ON OFF
Independent Source/Tracking Generator
This feature may require an option. For a comprehensive list, view the FieldFox
Configuration Guide at: http://literature.cdn.keysight.com/litweb/pdf/59909836EN.pdf
A tracking generator, a popular option with Spectrum Analyzers, is a source which
always tracks the SA receiver.
Like a traditional tracking generator, the Independent Source feature can set the
internal FieldFox source to track the SA receiver frequency range. It can also set the
internal source to a CW frequency that is independent of the SA frequency.
Independent Source can be enabled ONLY when the FieldFox is in SA mode.
To view the internal source, you must connect a cable or device between the RF
Output connector and the RF Input connector.
How to make Independent Source Settings
 Press Measure 1
 Then Source
 Source Enable ON OFF
o
ON Turns ON the internal source.
o
OFF Turns OFF the internal source.
 Source Mode Choose from the following:
o
o
o
Tracking The internal source sweeps simultaneously (tracks) with the SA
receiver over the displayed frequency range, emulating NA mode
measurements. Src is annotated on the screen.
CW The source is set to a CW frequency independent from the SA setting.
Srcw is annotated on the screen.
Coupled CW The source is set to a CW frequency, but that frequency “tracks”
the SA receiver Center Frequency setting. Therefore, the signal always appears
at center of the display. Srcp is annotated on the screen.
 Normalize ON OFF With Source Enable ON and Source Mode = Tracking,
Normalize ON stores the current measurement trace into Trace 4 in View state as a
reference trace. All subsequent trace measurements subtract this Trace 4
reference trace, and therefore become relative to it. SrcN is annotated on the
screen. Normalize is automatically turned OFF when the frequency range or
Resolution is changed. Learn more about Trace Display States on page 102.
 Source Power Sets the source power level. Choose from:
o
92
Leveled Enter a value from -45 dBm to 0 dBm using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼
arrows, or the rotary knob. The source power is reasonably flat across the
frequency span.
FieldFox User’s Guide
o
MAX The power level is set to the maximum achievable power level at each
frequency. This results in the power level NOT being flat across the frequency
span.
 Source CW Freq Sets the CW frequency that is used when Source Mode is set
to CW.
NOTE
By default, the source output will turn off momentarily at the end of each SA sweep
and every thirty seconds for InstAlign.
To cause the source to stay ON at the end of each sweep, turn battery saver OFF.
(Learn about Battery Saver on page 195.)
 Press System 7
 Then Preferences
 Then Battery Saver OFF
To suspend InstAlign: (Learn about InstAlign on page 104.)
 Press Cal 5
 Then Amptd Alignment OFF
Resolution Bandwidth (Res BW)
In SA Mode, the Res BW provides the ability to resolve, or see closely spaced signals.
The narrower (lower) the Res BW, the better the spectrum analyzer can resolve
signals. In addition, as the Res BW is narrowed, less noise is measured by the
spectrum analyzer ADC and the noise floor on the display lowers as a result. This
allows low level signals to be seen and measured. However, as the Res BW is
narrowed, the sweep speed becomes slower. See Very Long Sweep Times on page
How to set Res BW
 Press BW 2.
 Then Res BW
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
Auto Res BW is coupled to the frequency span. As the frequency span is
narrowed, the Res BW is also narrowed providing increased ability to resolve
signals.
To change this setting from Man to Auto, press Res BW twice.
Man Enter a Res BW value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the
rotary knob. Then press a multiplier if necessary or press Enter.
The current Res BW setting is shown at the bottom of the screen.
#Res BW x.xx XHz ( # ) means manual setting.
This setting could impact the accuracy of the measurement. See Specifications on
page 222.
NOTE
The Res BW setting also affects the Sweep Type setting. Learn how on page 94
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
93
Video Bandwidth (Video BW)
Video BW is a smoothing operation that is performed after measurement data is
acquired. The trace data is effectively smoothed so that the average power level of
the displayed noise is the same, but the peaks and valleys of adjacent data points are
smoothed together. More smoothing occurs as the Video BW is set lower. However,
as the Video BW is narrowed, the sweep speed becomes slower.
How to set VBW
 Press BW 2.
 Then Video BW
 Then choose from the following:.
o
o
NOTE
Auto Couples Video BW to the ResBW in a 1-to-1 ratio.
Man Enter a Video BW value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or
the rotary knob. Then press a multiplier if necessary or press Enter.
To change this setting from Man to Auto, press Video BW twice.
The current Video BW setting is shown at the bottom of the screen.
# VBW x.xx XHz ( # ) means manual setting.
When the Res BW/Video BW ratio exceeds 10,000, a Meas UNCAL warning may
appear to indicate that the Video BW filter has reached the maximum capacity for
averaging.
In Zero Span, the maximum Res BW/ Video BW ratio is 100.
Sweep Type
In SA mode, the FieldFox uses two sweep types to process inputs signals. The sweep
type that is currently being used (FFT or Step) is displayed in the lower-left corner of
the FieldFox screen.
For a more comprehensive tutorial, see Spectrum Analysis Basics (App Note 150) at
http://literature.cdn.keysight.com/litweb/pdf/5952-0292.pdf
How to set Sweep Type
 Press BW 2.
 Then Advanced
 Then Sweep Type
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
94
Auto The FieldFox selects the most efficient sweep type based on the Res BW.
When Res BW is set to 200 kHz and below, FFT sweep type is selected. Above
200 kHz, Step sweep type is being performed.
FFT The FieldFox uses FFT sweep type regardless of the Res BW.
Step The FieldFox uses Step sweep type regardless of the Res BW. This is
useful for capturing impulsive noise that may be generated from nearby
electrical equipment.
FieldFox User’s Guide
IF Output
The FieldFox IF (intermediate frequency) can be output for external signal processing.
The signal is available from the IF Out connector on the FieldFox right-side panel.
See the connector on page 17.
The IF Out signal, centered at approximately 33.75 MHz, is simply a down-converted
version of the RF Input signal that is present at the tuned frequency.
While outputting an IF signal, the FieldFox stops performing the InstAlign process.
Therefore, the amplitude of traces on the FieldFox screen is NOT accurate and Meas
UNCAL appears on the screen to indicate this. Learn more about InstAlign on page
104.
Learn more about the IF Output frequencies and bandwidths in the Supplemental
Online Help: http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
How to select IF Output
The IF Output signal is useful only in Zero Span. Learn more about Zero Span on
page 97.
At least one sweep must be made in order to tune the FieldFox.
 Press BW 2.
 Then Advanced
 Then IF Output Use
 Then choose from the following:
o
OFF No output from the IF Out connector.
o
Narrow The IF output signal has approximately 5 MHz bandwidth.
o
Wide The IF output signal has approximately 25 MHz bandwidth.
Sweep Acquisition
Available only in non-zero span measurements, when Sweep Acquisition is set to
Auto, the fastest sweep rate is achieved while maintaining full amplitude accuracy.
However, you can adjust this setting in order to increase the probability of
intercepting and viewing pulsed RF signals.
For example, with SwpAcquisition set to Auto a pulsed GSM signal is NOT visible on
the FieldFox screen, as shown in a blue trace in the following image.
While watching the trace, increase the SwpAcquisition value until the pulse spectrum
rises out of the noise and reaches its maximum level. Increasing the SwpAcquisition
value beyond this point only slows the update rate (increases the actual Sweep time
readout) but does not improve measurement quality.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
95
A GSM signal in a framed data format; timeslot zero ON; all others OFF;
PRF = 218Hz, Duty Cycle = 12.5%. The pulsed signal becomes visible on every sweep
update with SwpAcquisition = 50.
How to set Sweep Acquisition
SwpAcquisition is NOT an absolute measure of time, but a relative number between
1 (fastest) and 5000 (slowest) sweep time. The actual time that was required to
complete a sweep is annotated on the screen.
 Press Sweep 3.
 Then SwpAcquisition Auto Man.
 Then choose from the following:
o
Auto Sweep is set to the fastest sweep possible with the current settings.
o
Man Enter a relative acquisition value between 1 and 5000, where:
o 1 = Fastest sweep possible
o 5,000 = Slowest sweep possible
o # is shown in front of the actual sweep time to indicate a manual setting.
Some Detector and Video Bandwidth settings will raise the Auto Sweep Acquisition
value greater than 1. In these cases, manually setting Sweep Acquisition lower than
the Auto value may have NO effect.
NOTE
Measurement speed specifications do NOT apply in Temperature Control Mode.
Learn more on page 13.
Learn more about SA mode SwpAcquisition time in the Supplemental Online Help:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
Very Long Sweep Times
Two primary settings are responsible for the sweep time: Res BW and SwAcquisition.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
 When the sweep time exceeds 1200 seconds (20 minutes), an informational
message: Alert: Very long sweep in progress… is annotated on the screen for
the duration of the sweep.
 When the sweep time exceeds 4000 seconds (about 1 hour), Meas UNCAL is
annotated on the screen. Accuracy cannot be guaranteed.
 InstAlign is always performed only at the beginning of the sweep regardless of the
sweep time. Learn more about InstAlign on page 104.
Zero Span Measurements
When setting the frequency span to Zero, there is NO spectrum of frequencies to
display, so the X-axis units becomes Time. The SA becomes like a tunable
oscilloscope, with the center frequency being the frequency of interest. This
capability is useful for analyzing modulation characteristics, such as pulsed
measurements.
GSM signal, framed data format, timeslot 0 and 3 on. Sweep Time is set to
approximately the frame interval. Press Single several times until the
waveform section of interest is viewable and stable. Then markers can be
used to measure the timeslot width and interval as shown.
How to set Zero Span
 Set Center to the frequency of interest
o
o
then set Span to 0 Hz
or select Zero/Last Span. Each key press toggles the frequency span between
0 Hz and the last specified frequency span.
How to change Sweep Time in Zero Span.
 Press Sweep 3
 Then SweepTime
 Enter a value using the numeric keypad. Sweep time is limited to 1000 seconds.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
97
 Then select a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier abbreviations on page 19.
Previous FieldFox versions limited the sweep time / ResBW settings. This restriction
is no longer necessary with release A.06.25.
Learn more about SA mode Sweep Time in the Supplemental Online Help:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
Triggering
External, Video, and RF Burst triggering allows you to initiate an SA mode sweep
using an external event such as a signal burst.
All three trigger types can be used in either Zero Span (time domain) or FFT
frequency sweeps. Learn more about Zero Span on page 97. Learn more about FFT
on page 94 .
FFT Gating is available for non-zero span measurements. Learn more about FFT
Gating on page 101.
Trigger Type
 Press Sweep 3
 Then Trigger Settings
 Then Trig Type
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
Free Run Triggering is provided by the FieldFox internal circuitry. A new sweep
begins when the previous sweep ends.
External A sweep is triggered on an external TTL signal at the Ref In/Trig In
connector on the FieldFox top panel. Choose to trigger on the rising slope at
about 1.7 V or on the falling slope at about 1.0 V using the Trigger Slope setting
(below).
The following two selections are similar in that they both a trigger a sweep from a
signal at the SA RF Input connector. Experiment with both selections to find the best
trigger type for your application.
o
o
Video A sweep is initiated when the displayed amplitude of an incoming signal
crosses the settable Trigger Level. This selection can detect low-amplitude
signals, but also has been filtered considerably and may not be a true
representation of the incoming signal.
RF Burst A sweep is initiated when the signal at the third IF (analog) stage
crosses the settable Trigger Level. This selection offers a wider bandwidth and
may be a better representation of the incoming signal than Video trigger.
However, RF Burst is not as sensitive to triggering on low-level signals.
Trigger Slope
Trigger Slope determines which edge of an External, Video, or RF Burst trigger signal
initiates a sweep.
 Press Sweep 3
 Then Trigger Settings
 Then Trig Slope
 Then choose from the following:
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FieldFox User’s Guide
o
Pos Sweep is triggered by the rising (positive) edge of signal.
o
Neg Sweep is triggered by the falling (negative) edge of signal.
Trigger Delay
After a valid trigger signal is received, the sweep begins after the specified Trigger
Delay time.
To see the rising edge of a repetitive signal which is triggered on that edge, enter a
negative trigger delay value (also known as pre-trigger). Adjust the sweep time to
include the pre-trigger time.
 In Zero span, you can use Trigger Position as an easy way to set Trigger Delay by
positioning the trigger event on the FieldFox screen.
 Press Sweep 3
 Then Trigger Settings
 Then Trig Delay
 Enter a value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
 Then select a multiplier key or press Enter. Learn about multiplier abbreviations
on page 19.
Trigger Level
Used with Video and RF Burst triggering, a sweep is initiated when an incoming
signal crosses this level. The units depend on the Units setting. Learn more on page
84.
Video Trigger Level is a zero span signal level comparison. Therefore, the sweep will
trigger close to the displayed level in zero span measurements. In non-zero span
measurements, processing can cause broadband signal energy to display at lower
power levels than the originating time domain signal. Therefore, you may need to set
the trigger level higher than the displayed level.
RF Burst Trigger Level uses an alignment process which is performed in the
background to set the detected signal level accuracy. Learn more about the
alignment on page 105.
 Press Sweep 3
 Then Trigger Settings
 Then Trig Level
 Enter a value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
 Then select a multiplier key or press Enter. Learn about multiplier abbreviations
on page 19.
Auto Trigger Time
While waiting for a valid trigger signal, Wait is annotated in the top left corner of the
FieldFox screen.
If a valid trigger signal is not received before the specified Auto Trig Time, a sweep
will occur automatically.
Enter 0 to set Auto Trigger OFF. When Auto Trigger is OFF, the FieldFox does NOT
sweep unless a valid trigger signal is received.
 Press Sweep 3
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
99
 Then Trigger Settings
 Then AutoTrig Time [current setting]
 Enter an Auto Trig Time using the numeric keypad.
 Then select a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier abbreviations on page 19.
Trigger Position
Available ONLY in zero span measurements, this setting is an easy way to
automatically set the Trigger Delay by positioning the trigger event (also known as Tzero) at any graticule along the X-axis. With T-zero in the center of the screen, you
can zoom in and out by increasing or decreasing the sweep time. Using the Trigger
Position and Sweep Time settings is a quick and efficient way to examine artifacts of
a pulse, much easier than trying to set the Trigger Delay manually.
When Trigger Position is set to Manual, the Trigger Delay softkey is not available. The
amount of Trigger Delay that is being used is displayed on the softkey. The Trigger
Position is annotated on the screen. Learn how in the following section.
 Press Sweep 3
 Then Trigger Settings
 Then Trig Position
o
o
Auto: The position of T-zero is set by the trigger delay.
Manual: Select, then enter a position value from 0 to 10 using the numeric
keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
o 0: T-zero occurs at the left graticule.
o 5: T-zero occurs at the center of the screen.
o 10: T-zero occurs at the far right graticule.
o
Then press Enter.
Trigger Settings Annotation
Trigger settings are annotated on the FieldFox screen as highlighted in red in the
following image:
 Square: Trig Type (VidT), AutoTrigger (a), Pos Slope (/), Neg Delay (delay-)
100
FieldFox User’s Guide
 Horizontal arrow: Trig Level (green horizontal graticule at -20 dBm)
 Vertical arrow: Trig Position T-zero indicators (green arrows at 2nd vertical
graticule)
FFT Gating (Opt 238)
Time-gated spectrum analysis allows you to obtain spectral information about
signals occupying the same part of the frequency spectrum that are separated in the
time domain. Using an external trigger signal to coordinate the separation of these
signals, you can perform the following operations:
 Measure any one of several signals separated in time; for example, you can
separate the spectra of two radios time-sharing a single frequency.
 Measure the spectrum of a signal in one time slot of a TDMA system.
 Exclude the spectrum of interfering signals, such as periodic pulse edge transients
that exist for only a limited time.
FFT Gating is a simple, efficient way to set the proper amount of trigger delay and
capture time so that signal artifacts of a repeating waveform or pulse can be
examined in the frequency domain. Learn more about trigger settings on page 98.
For best results, Auto Trigger should be used with this feature to ensure that the
sweep does not wait indefinitely for a trigger. Set Auto Trigger to a time that is
longer than the expected periodic rate of the signal. This is especially important
when using RF Burst or Video triggering in wider spans, because the signal providing
those triggers has limited bandwidth. Learn more about Auto trigger on page 99.
For more conceptual information on this topic, please refer to Spectrum Analysis
Basics (App Note 150) at http://literature.cdn.keysight.com/litweb/pdf/59520292.pdf pages 38-42.
How to set FFT Gating
 Create a non-zero span measurement. Wider frequency spans take more time to
acquire.
 Press Sweep 3
 Then Trigger Settings
 Then FFT Gating Setup
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
Gate View OFF ON When ON, a separate zero span measurement is displayed
below the non-zero span window. The gate view measurement helps to
configure the gate width and delay by revealing (with green markers) the
location of the gate relative to the trigger event. The zero span measurement is
tuned to the center frequency of the non-zero span measurement with about 5
MHz of bandwidth. The Y-axis scale is the same for both windows.
Gate View Time Set the X-axis span for the non-zero span window. Enter a
value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob. This value
is annotated as Swp (nn) below the window.
FFT Gating OFF ON When ON, the trigger type, gate width, and delay are
applied to the non-zero span measurement. The Res BW is set to a value that is
inversely proportional to the gate width.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
101
o
o
Gate Width Set the width of the gating area within the non-zero span window.
The gating area is indicated by two vertical green lines. Enter a value using the
numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
Gate Delay Effectively moves the gating area left (negative delay) or right
(positive delay) relative to the trigger event. Enter a value using the numeric
keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
When you have properly setup the Gate Trigger, Width, and Delay using the Gate
View measurement, you can turn Gate View OFF to return to the full screen non-zero
span measurement with FFT Gating ON, the RBW set, and the Trigger settings
active.
Single / Continuous / Restart
NOTE
The following behavior is unique to SA Mode.
This setting determines whether the FieldFox measures continuously or only once
each time the Single or Run / Hold +/- button is pressed. Use Hold / Single or to
conserve battery power or to allow you to save or analyze a specific trace.
How to set Single or Continuous
 Press Sweep 3.
 Then choose one of the following:
o
Continuous
o ON Causes the SA to make continuous sweeps. This is the typical setting for
making measurements. Each Run / Hold +/- press causes the SA to toggle
between continuous sweep and Hold.
o OFF Causes the SA to Hold. Each Run / Hold +/- or Single press causes
the SA to make ONE sweep, then Hold. The Hold annotation changes to an
arrow --> while the sweep occurs.
o
o
Single Automatically sets Continuous OFF and causes the SA to make ONE
sweep, then Hold.
Restart Resets the Average counter to 1. When in Hold, causes the SA to make
ONE sweep, then Hold. The Average counter has is used with MaxHold and
MinHold Trace States. Learn more on page 104.
Points
Points is the number of measurements that are displayed along the X-axis. The
higher number of data points, the better the ability to resolve closely spaced signals
and the slower the sweep speed.
How to set number of points
 Press Sweep 3
 Then Points [current setting]
 Then choose from: 101 | 201 | 401 | 601 | 801 | 1001
Trace Display States
In SA Mode you can display up to four of the following types of trace states. All SA
settings are applied to all displayed traces.
102
FieldFox User’s Guide
A color-coded legend for displayed traces is visible in the left pane of the SA mode
screen:
W = Clear/Write; M = MaxHold; m = MinHold; A = Average; V = View
How to display Trace States
 Press Trace 6.
 Then Trace 1,2,3,4 repeatedly to select a trace number to display. Traces are
displayed in the following colors:
o
Trace 1 – Yellow
Trace 2 – Blue
o
Trace 3 – Orange
Trace 4 – Red
 Then State [current setting] .
 Then choose from the following Trace States:
o
o
o
o
o
o
Clr /Wr (Clear/Write) Displays the actual measured data for each sweep.
MaxHold Displays the maximum response of the input signal at each data
point over multiple sweeps. See also Average Count on page 104.
MinHold Displays the minimum response of the input signal at each data point
over multiple sweeps. See also Average Count on page 104.
Average Each data point is averaged over multiple sweeps as set by the
Average Count setting. Learn more in following Average Type section.
View Displays and then holds the last complete measurement trace on the
screen. This is similar to storing a trace in memory.
Blank Displays no trace.
 Press Default All to return all traces to their default settings: Trace 1
(Clear/Write); all other traces (Blank).
NOTE
Trace 4 data WILL be overwritten by the FieldFox when using the Independent
Source Normalize feature (page 90) or using Field Strength antenna or cable
corrections (page 87).
Average Type
In SA Mode, there are four different processes in which Averaging is performed:
 Average Traces – Learn more on page 102.
 Detection Method Averaging – Learn more on page 105.
 Noise Marker Averaging - Learn more on page 107.
 Video BW filtering (for non-Zero Span measurements) - Learn more on page 94.
There are two types of mathematical averaging that can be performed. Select ONE of
these types and it is used for all of the above averaging processes.
How to set Average Type
 Press Meas Setup 4
 Then choose from the following:
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
103
o
o
o
Auto - The FieldFox chooses the most appropriate type of averaging for the
current settings. When Detection Method is set to Average, a Noise Marker is
present, or a Channel measurement is active, then Power Average is ALWAYS
selected. Otherwise, Log Average is selected.
Log Averaging – Best for displaying Trace Averaging. LgAv is shown on the left
side of the FieldFox screen when selected.
Power (Linear) Averaging – Best for measuring true power levels. Used in
Detection Average and Noise Marker Average. Mathematically, trace noise is
2.5 dB higher than when using Log Average. PAvg is shown on the left side of
the FieldFox screen when selected.
Average Count
The Average Count setting is used mainly with the Average Trace State described
above. In this Trace State, the Average Count setting determines the number of
sweeps to average. The higher the average count, the greater the amount of noise
reduction.
When Trace (display) State is set to Average, MaxHold, or MinHold, the average
counter is shown in the left edge of the screen below the Average Type.
For all three of these Trace States, when Sweep 3 Continuous is set to OFF,
press Restart to reset the sweep count to 1, perform <n> sweeps, then return to
Hold.
How to set Average Count
 Press Meas Setup 4
 Then Average Count
 Enter a value from 1 to 10,000 using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the
rotary knob.
 Press Enter
InstAlign Amplitude Alignment
SA mode uses a proprietary amplitude alignment algorithm to make extremely
accurate amplitude measurements over the full frequency range of the FieldFox.
When enabled (by default) the FieldFox performs an alignment process using the
internal RF source. Although some sweeps are delayed, measurement results are
never disturbed.
If the Independent Source is enabled for your measurement, it will be borrowed to
perform the alignment. Again, the measurement results are not disturbed. Learn
about the Independent Source on page 92.
The alignment process can be disabled. You may want to do this, for example, if you
are analyzing the amplitude stability of a signal.
How to make Amplitude Alignment settings
These settings do NOT survive a Preset or Mode Preset.
 Press Cal 5
 Then Amptd Alignment
 Then choose from the following:
104
FieldFox User’s Guide
o
o
o
Auto (Default setting) The alignment process is performed every 300 seconds or
when the temperature has changed about 1 degree. It occurs only at the
beginning of a sweep and takes about 0.5 seconds to complete.
OFF The alignment process is NOT performed. Only factory correction values
are used.
Hold The alignment process is stopped, but the last alignment values are
applied to subsequent sweeps.
 Amptd Align Now An alignment is performed once and applied to subsequent
sweeps. If the FieldFox is not sweeping, a single sweep is triggered and alignment
is performed.
Amptd? is annotated in the lower left corner of the FieldFox screen when amplitude
alignment is questionable because this setting is in Hold or OFF.
RF Burst Amplitude Alignment
RF Burst alignment calibrates the circuitry to provide accurate external RF Burst
triggering. Learn more about RF Burst triggering on page 98.
When enabled (by default) the FieldFox performs an alignment process using the
internal RF source. Although some sweeps are delayed, measurement results are
never disturbed.
If the Independent Source is enabled for your measurement, it will be borrowed to
perform the alignment. Again, the measurement results are not disturbed. Learn
about the Independent Source on page 92.
The alignment process can be disabled. You may want to do this, for example, if you
are analyzing the amplitude stability of a signal.
How to make Burst Alignment settings
These settings do NOT survive a Preset or Mode Preset.
 Press Cal 5
 Then Burst Alignment
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
Auto (Default setting) The alignment process is performed every 45 minutes or
when the temperature has changed about 3 degrees. It occurs only at the
beginning of a sweep and takes about 0.5 seconds to complete.
OFF The alignment process is NOT performed. Only factory correction values
are used.
Hold The alignment process is stopped, but the last alignment values are
applied to subsequent sweeps.
Burst Align Now An alignment is performed once and applied to subsequent
sweeps. If the FieldFox is not sweeping, a single sweep is triggered and alignment is
performed.
Detection Method
In SA Mode, the X-axis is comprised of data points, also known as “buckets”. The
number of data points is specified using the Resolution setting. Learn how on page
102.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
105
Regardless of how many data points are across the X-axis, each data point must
represent what has occurred over some frequency range and time interval.
From the frequency span of the measurement, the span of each data point is
calculated as (frequency span / (data points-1)). The detection method allows you to
choose how the measurements in each bucket are displayed.
One bucket showing Positive peak, Sample, and Negative peak Detection methods.
How to set Detection Method
The current Detection method is labeled on the left edge of the screen. When a
method is selected manually, a # precedes the label. For example: # Nrm means that
Normal was selected from the softkeys.
 Press Trace__6
 Then Detector
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
o
o
o
106
Auto Displays the most appropriate Detection method based on other
settings. [ # is NOT shown]
Normal [Nrm] Provides a better visual display of random noise than Positive
peak and avoids the missed-signal problem of the Sample Mode. Should the
signal both rise and fall within the bucket interval, then the algorithm classifies
the signal as noise. An odd-numbered data point displays the maximum value
encountered during its bucket. An even-numbered data point displays the
minimum value encountered during its bucket. If the signal is NOT classified as
noise (does NOT rise and fall) then Normal is equivalent to Positive Peak.
Positive Peak [Pk] Displays the maximum value of all the measurements in
each bucket. This setting ensures that no signal is missed. However, it is not a
good representation of the random noise in each bucket.
Negative Peak [NPk] Displays the minimum value of all the measurements in
each bucket.
Sample [Smp] Displays the center measurement of all the measurements in
each bucket. This setting gives a good representation of the random noise in
each bucket. However, it does not ensure that all signals are represented.
Average [#RMS] Displays the Root Mean Squared (RMS) average power of all
the measurements in each bucket. This is the preferred method when making
power measurements. Learn more on page 175.
FieldFox User’s Guide
Display Line
A display line is a simple, horizontal line that can be placed at any amplitude level on
the SA screen. Use a display line as mental guide for visual feedback. A display line is
similar to a Limit Line, except that no PASS/FAIL testing occurs. A display line is
easier to create than a Limit Line. Learn about Limit Lines on page 176.
Display line with annotation
How to create and move a Display Line
 Press Limit __8
 Then Display Line OFF ON
 Then enter a Y-axis value using the ▲|▼ arrows or the rotary knob, then press
Enter. Or enter a value using the numeric keypad and press a suffix key or press
Enter.
Noise Marker
For comparison purposes, electronic noise measurements are often displayed as
though the measurement was made in a 1 Hz Res BW. However, making an actual
measurement at a 1 Hz Res BW is impossible, and at 10 Hz, extremely slow.
A Noise Marker, unique to SA Mode, mathematically calculates the noise
measurement as though it were made using a 1 Hz bandwidth.
Several data points (or ‘buckets’) are averaged together to calculate the Noise
Marker readout. To accurately measure noise, the Noise Marker should NOT be
placed on, or too close to, a signal. The distance from a signal depends on several
factors. To know if an accurate reading is being made, move the Noise Marker until
consistent measurements are displayed in adjacent data points.
In addition, when a Noise Marker is displayed, the Detection method is automatically
switched to Average and PAvg is shown on the FieldFox screen. This occurs only
when Detection is set to Auto. Learn more on page 104.
With a Noise Marker present, the Res BW can be changed and the displayed noise
floor will also change, but the Noise Marker readout will remain about the same.
Noise Markers can be used like regular markers. A Noise Marker is distinguished
from a regular marker by (1Hz) after the marker readout value. Learn more about
regular markers on page 167.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
107
How to measure Noise with a marker
 Press Marker to create or select a Normal or Delta marker to use to measure
Noise.
 Then More.
 Then Marker Function
 Then Noise ON OFF.
Band/Interval Power Marker
A Band/Interval Power marker, unique to SA Mode, accumulates the power that is
measured over several adjacent data points (or ‘buckets’). The range of buckets
being measured is displayed with vertical posts around the marker. This Band Span
value is selectable.
This feature is very similar to a channel power measurement (page 112).
When the frequency span is set to Zero span, the marker is referred to as an Interval
marker because it averages power over a specific time interval. In this case the range
is specified as the Interval Span. Learn more about Zero span measurements on page
97.
If the Detection method and Averaging type are set to Auto when you enable a
Band/Interval Power marker, the Detection method will change to Average (RMS)
and Averaging type will change to Power average. Other Detection methods or
Averaging type settings will usually cause measurement inaccuracy. Learn more
about Detection method on page 104, and Averaging Type on page 103.
Summary:
 In Zero span, an Interval Power Marker yields the average power over the specified
time interval.
 In non-Zero span, a Band Power Marker yields the total power over the specified
frequency range.
How to measure Band/Interval Power with a marker
 Press Marker to create or select a Normal or Delta marker to use to measure
Band/Interval Power.
 Then press More
 Then Marker Function
 Then Band/Int Power
 Then Band (or Interval) Span
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
108
Auto Measures power over 5% of the displayed span, or ½ graticules. The Band
Span is automatically updated to remain at 5% when you change the frequency
span.
Man Enter a frequency or time value using the ▲|▼ arrows or the rotary knob,
then press Enter. Or enter a value using the numeric keypad and select a
frequency or time suffix. The Band Span remains at the frequency or time value
that you set as the span changes.
FieldFox User’s Guide
Frequency Counter at Marker
Available in SA Mode ONLY. Use any existing marker to make highly-accurate
frequency counter readings. For highest accuracy, lock the FieldFox to a stable
external frequency reference. Learn how on page 199.
When Frequency Counter is ON, the FieldFox uses background sweeps to zoom on
the signal, measure the signal peak with 1 Hz resolution, and display the frequency
of the signal peak in the marker annotation area. The marker does not move to the
signal peak.
When Freq Counter is ON, measurement sweeps are considerably slower.
How to use Frequency Counter
 Press Marker.
 Press Normal, Delta, or Peak, or select an existing marker to use as a frequency
counter.
 Locate the marker somewhere on a CW signal. It does NOT have to be on the
peak.
 Then More
 Then Freq Count ON
 With Freq Count ON, you can scroll through the existing markers that are located
on a discrete CW signal, and read the frequency of the signal peak. However, each
frequency count update requires another sweep. If the FieldFox is in HOLD, press
Single to update the frequency count results.
Time Zero Fixed Marker
This feature was created to allow recall of vintage instrument states (older than Rev.
7.0) that included Zero span sweep with a trigger delay and at least one marker.
Before Rev. 7.0, these instrument states were saved and recalled with the equivalent
of the ON state of this setting. The default setting is OFF. Learn more about
Triggering with negative delay on page 98.
How to set Time Zero Fixed
 Press Mkr->/Tools
 Then More
 Then Mkr Properties
 Then Time Zero Fixed
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
ON Time Zero is fixed at the left-edge of the screen. A marker in negative delay
resides at this point. This is the vintage behavior.
OFF (default) Time Zero is located at the T-zero indicators. A marker in negative
delay appears to the left of T-zero.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
109
Audio Beep at Marker Power
When enabled, the Audio Beep feature emits a repetitive beep sound which varies in
tone pitch and repetition rate to indicate the relative power level of the active
marker. The highest tone pitch and fastest beep rate occurs when the marker Y-axis
position is at the top of the display. Conversely, the lowest pitch and repetition rate
occurs at the bottom of the display. Therefore, it is important to scale the signals that
you intend to measure between the top and bottom of the screen. Learn more about
Scale on page 84.
Audio Beep can be used with any marker type or function, including Band/Interval
Power. Learn more on page 108.
How to use Audio Beep
 Press Marker
 Optionally, press Marker 1 2 3 4 5 6 to select an existing marker to use with Audio
Beep. A marker will be created if one does not already exist.
 Then More
 Then Marker Function
 Then Audio Beep ON OFF
Audio Beep does NOT beep when the FieldFox is in Hold mode.
While Audio Beep is ON, press Marker 1 2 3 4 5 6 to toggle Audio Beep through the
existing markers.
To set FieldFox speaker volume control, press System, then Volume. Learn more
on page 191.
Meas UNCAL Error
Meas UNCAL appears in the lower-left corner of the screen when the FieldFox can
NOT display accurate measurement results with the current settings. Usually, the
part of the trace that is inaccurate is shown at –200 dB.
The following situation can produce Meas UNCAL:
 When the ResBW/VBW ratio exceeds 10,000, causing the VBW filter to reach the
maximum capacity for averaging.
Old Data Indicator (*)
In SA mode, when the current trace does not exactly match the annotation that is on
the screen, an asterisk is displayed in the upper-right corner of the screen graticule
area. This would occur, for example, when the Res BW setting is changed while in
sweep Hold mode. The annotation is changed immediately, but the trace is not
updated until the next sweep occurs. Therefore, the current data trace does not
match the screen annotation. See the asterisk on page 79.
Channel Measurements
The following Channel Measurements are offered in SA Mode:
Channel Power .................................................... 112
Occupied Bandwidth .......................................... 113
Adjacent Channel Power Ratio ........................... 114
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FieldFox User’s Guide
The following four sections (Radio Standards and Channel Measurements,
Measurement Preset, Averaging, and Traces) are relevant for ALL Channel
Measurements.
Radio Standards and Channel Measurements
To tune the frequency range of any of the Channel Measurements using channels
instead of frequency, first select a Radio Standard, then select Units = CHAN. Learn
how to select a Radio Standard and channels on page 82.
When you first select a Radio Standard, then select a Channel Measurement:
 With Units = FREQ selected, the center frequency and span will ALWAYS change
to the full frequency range of that standard (Uplink and Downlink) to allow for a
quick scan of energy. The X-axis annotation indicates the frequency range.
 With Units = CHAN selected, the FieldFox chooses either the uplink or downlink
band, and displays that range of frequencies. You can then tune within that
Standard using Start CHAN, Stop CHAN, or Center CHAN. The X-axis annotation
indicates the frequency range.
When you first select a Channel Measurement, then select a Radio Standard, the
BW, Offset, RRC, Integration BW, and Span settings are changed to those of the
standard. In addition, Res BW can also change when set to ‘Auto(couple)’. However,
center frequency is NOT changed unless you first select Units = CHAN.
Measurement Preset
Measurement Preset allows you to easily reset any of the channel measurements to
its default settings. The Center Frequency, Preamp ON|OFF, RF Attenuation, Markers,
Limits, and Radio Standard settings are NOT reset.
How to select Measurement Preset:
 Press Preset then Measurement Preset
Averaging
By default in ALL Channel measurements, averaging is enabled and set to display the
average of the last 15 measurements. When enabled, this average setting is
automatically making the following ‘averaging’ settings in order to provide the most
accurate power measurements:
 Averaging Type is set to Power.
 Trace State is set to Average.
 Detector is set to Average.
 Count is set to 15.
Any of these settings can be changed manually during a Channel measurement.
Learn more about these settings starting at page 103.
To change Averaging:
 Press Meas Setup 4.
 Then Average Enable ON OFF OFF effectively sets the Average Count to 1.
 Then Average Count
 Enter a value between 1 and 10,000 using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or
the rotary knob.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
111
 Press Enter.
Traces
Only one measurement trace can be displayed in Channel Measurements.
Channel Power (CHP)
Channel Power measures total power over the specified Integrated BW. The
Integration Bandwidth (IBW) can be adjusted to measure the power over multiple
channels.
Channel Power measurement; Chan 190 Downlink; GSM850 Radio Standard
The following two Channel Power levels are displayed:
 Channel Power - measures total power over the specified Integrated BW.
 Power Spectral Density – same measured power, but mathematically normalized
to a 1 Hz bandwidth using the same algorithm as Noise Marker. Learn more about
the Noise Marker on page 107.
How to select Channel Power
 Press Measure 1
 Then Channel Measurements
 Then Channel Power
When Channel Power is selected, the following settings are maintained from a
previous measurement: Center Frequency, Preamp ON|OFF, and RF Attenuation.
Integration Bandwidth
When Channel Power is selected, vertical posts appear on the display to mark the
current Integration Bandwidth setting. The displayed Channel Power and Power
Spectral Density values are measured and calculated over the specified Integration
Bandwidth.
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By default, the displayed frequency span is automatically coupled to the Integration
Bandwidth. As you change the Integration Bandwidth, the frequency span is
adjusted so that the vertical posts appear to NOT move. However, when you
manually change the frequency span, the Integration Bandwidth is no longer coupled
to the frequency span.
When a Radio Standard is selected, the appropriate Integration Bandwidth is set
automatically. Learn more about Radio Standards on page 82.
To change Integration Bandwidth:
 Press Meas Setup 4
 Then Integrating BW
 Enter a value between 100 Hz and 3 GHz using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows,
or the rotary knob.
 Press Enter
Other Channel Power Settings
All relevant FieldFox settings are made automatically to ensure the highest accuracy,
such as ResBW, VideoBW, and sweep (SwpAcquisition) speed. These, and all other
SA Mode settings, can be changed manually in a Channel Power measurement.
 Learn about Measurement Preset on page 111.
 Learn about Averaging on page 111.
 Learn about RRC Weighting on page 117.
Occupied Bandwidth
Occupied Bandwidth measures the power of the displayed frequency span and
displays vertical posts at the frequencies between which the specified percentage of
the power is contained. The frequency span between the two vertical posts is the
Occupied Bandwidth. The Occupied Power, the power that is contained between the
two posts, is also displayed in dBm.
OBW measurement; Chan 190 Downlink; GSM850 Radio Standard
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
113
How to select Occupied Bandwidth
 Press Measure__1
 Then Channel Measurements
 Then Occupied BW
When Occupied Bandwidth is selected, the following settings are maintained from a
previous measurement: Center Frequency, Preamp ON|OFF, and RF Attenuation.
Frequency Span
Occupied BW is calculated from power that is measured over the entire displayed
Frequency Span. The frequency span can be entered using arbitrary frequencies or
by using a Radio Standard in conjunction with channel numbers. Learn how to select
a Radio Standard and channels on page 82.
To change Frequency Span:
 Press Freq/Dist
 Then Freq Span
 Enter a value using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
 Press Enter
Power Percent
This setting specifies the percentage of total measured power to display between the
vertical posts. The measurement defaults to 99% of the occupied bandwidth power.
The remaining power (1% of default setting) is evenly distributed; .5% of the power
on the outside of each side of the vertical posts.
To change Power Percent:
 Press Meas Setup 4
 Then Power Percent
 Enter a value between 10 and 99.99 using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or
the rotary knob.
 Press Enter.
Other Occupied Bandwidth Settings
All relevant FieldFox settings are made automatically to ensure the highest accuracy,
such as ResBW, VideoBW, and sweep (SwpAcquisition) speed. These, and all other
SA Mode settings, can be changed manually in a Occupied Bandwidth measurement.
 Learn about Measurement Preset on page 111.
 Learn about Averaging on page 111.
Adjacent Channel Power Ratio(ACPR)
ACPR measures the power of a carrier channel and the power in its adjacent (offset)
channels. The measurement results can help you determine whether the carrier
power is set correctly and whether the transmitter filter is working properly.
You can measure the channel power in one, two, or three adjacent (offset) channels
on the low frequency and high frequency side of the center channel.
Limits can be used to quickly see if too much power is measured in the adjacent
channels.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
GSM 850-Ch 251-Up with one Offset.
Red Freqs (Mhz) added to illustrate Offset and Integ BW.
Data in the ACPR graphical chart is always presented in dBm for the carrier, and dBc
(dB below the carrier) for the offsets. This can NOT be changed. Use the Meas Type
setting (next page) to change how the data is presented in the table below the
graph.
How to select ACPR
 Press Measure__1
 Then Channel Measurements
 Then Adjacent Channel Power
When ACPR is selected, the following settings are maintained from a previous
measurement: Center Frequency, Preamp ON|OFF, and RF Attenuation.
Frequency Range/Channel
When a Radio Standard is selected, the appropriate center frequency or channel and
span is set automatically. The frequency or channel number can then be changed
from the Freq/Dist menu. Learn how to select a Radio Standard and channels on
page 82.
The frequency range of an ACPR measurement can also be entered using arbitrary
frequencies.
When a Radio Std is NOT selected, the center frequency of a previous measurement
is maintained when ACPR is selected.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
115
Integration Bandwidth
The Integration Bandwidth of the carrier and offsets is the frequency span over which
power is measured.
To change Integration Bandwidth:
 Press Meas Setup 4
 Then Integrating BW
 Enter a value between 100 Hz and 100 MHz using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼
arrows, or the rotary knob.
 Press Enter
How to define adjacent (Offset) channels
An offset represents a range of frequencies over which power is measured. You can
specify up to three offsets. The frequency range for each offset is specified with an
Offset Freq and Integ BW. Each offset that is created has a Lower (carrier MINUS
Offset Freq) and Upper (carrier PLUS Offset Freq) set of frequencies.
 Press Meas Setup 4
 Then Offsets
 Press Offset 1 2 3 to select an offset.
 Then Offset State to set that offset ON or OFF.
 Select Offset Freq This is the difference between the carrier center frequency and
the center frequency of the offset channel. Then enter a value using the numeric
keypad.
 Select Offset Integ BW This is the frequency range over which power is measured
in that offset; half of the range below and half above the Offset Freq.
How to set limits for adjacent channels
You can set a unique threshold power for each of the offsets that will cause a FAIL
indication (RED bar). This occurs when the calculated dBc power (on top of the
offset bar) is ABOVE the specified level.
To set limits, with an ACPR measurement on the screen:
 Press Limit 8
 Then Offset (1,2,3)
 Then choose from the following:
 Lower Offset Sets a limit for the lower-frequency offset.
 Upper Offset Sets a limit for the higher-frequency offset.
 Then enter a value using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
 Then Limit Test ON OFF
Measurement Type
This setting determines how the measured carrier and offset power levels in the table
are presented. (Data in the graphical chart is always presented in dBm for the carrier
and dBc for the offsets.)
To select Meas Type:
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 Press Meas Setup 4.
 Then More
 Then Meas Type
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
Total Pwr Ref – Integrated carrier power is represented in dBm, and relative
powers between offsets and carrier are represented as dBc (dB below the
carrier).
PSD Ref (Power Spectral Density) – Integrated carrier power is normalized to a
1 Hz density as dBm/Hz using a similar algorithm as Noise Marker. Learn more
about the Noise Marker on page 107.
For both Meas Types, choose the reference for the offset data.
 Auto – dB or dBc value is computed by subtracting the measured carrier power
from the measured offset power.
 Man – dB or dBc value is computed by subtracting the entered RefValue from the
measured offset power.
o
o
Press Ref Value
Then enter a value to be used to reference the data using the numeric keypad,
▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
Other ACPR Settings
All relevant FieldFox settings are made automatically to ensure the highest accuracy,
such as ResBW, VideoBW, and sweep (SwpAcquisition) speed. These, and all other
SA Mode settings, can be changed manually in a ACPR measurement.
 Learn about Measurement Preset on page 111.
 Learn about Averaging on page 111.
RRC Weighting
RRC, or Root-Raised-Cosign weighting, is offered with Channel Power and ACPR
measurements.
When RRC Weighting is applied to transmitted and received power, the edges of the
channel are ‘smoothed’ to help prevent interference. To accurately measure a
channel that has RRC weighting, set the same value of RRC weighting as that used
in the transmitter and receiver.
Channel power measurement with .22 RRC applied
RRC Weighting is set and enabled automatically when included in a selected radio
standard.
To set and enable RRC Weighting:
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
117
 Press Meas Setup 4
 Then RRC Weighting ON OFF
 Then More
 Then RRC Alpha [current setting]
 Enter a value between 0 (no smoothing) and 1 (most smoothing) using the numeric
keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob. A standard level of filtering is .22.
 Press Enter
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FieldFox User’s Guide
Interference Analyzer (SA Mode) - Option 236
Option 236 provides Spectrogram display, Waterfall display, and Record/Playback. .
In this Chapter
Spectrogram and Waterfall Displays ................. 119
Spectrogram Display .......................................... 119
Common Waterfall and Spectrogram Settings .. 121
Waterfall Display................................................. 122
Record Playback ................................................. 123
About Sessions ................................................... 123
About State and User Tags ................................ 124
How to Record a Session ................................... 125
How to Playback a Session ................................ 126
Recording Configuration .................................... 126
Playback Configuration....................................... 129
Manage Sessions ................................................ 129
Record Playback Example .................................. 130
Spectrogram and Waterfall Displays
Spectrogram and Waterfall displays provide a visual history of the measured
spectrum. Each display type can be used to locate intermittent signals or to view
signal levels over time.
Spectrogram is a single horizontal line of color-coded power while Waterfall uses a
3-D color-coded display. The functional difference between these two displays is that
Spectrogram provides less trace detail than Waterfall display. However, it also allows
more traces to be viewed.
These two displays can NOT be used with Channel Measurements.
NOTE
Although this document refers to past traces as ‘records’ these traces are not saved
in Spectrogram and Waterfall displays. They are only drawn on the FieldFox screen.
Spectrogram Display
Spectrogram draws the most recent trace record at the bottom of the stack of
previously-drawn trace records. Drawing the live trace on the display is optional.
Interference Analyzer (SA Mode) - Option 236
119
Spectrogram display- Overlay view- with time markers 23 seconds apart.
The following settings all contribute to the sweep time of an individual trace, and
therefore, the total elapsed time that can appear on the screen in Spectrogram
display:
 Frequency Range. Learn more on page 80.
 Resolution BW and Video BW. Learn more on page 90
 Sweep Time (Acquisition). Learn more on page 94.
 Resolution (Number of Points). Learn more on page 102.
How to select Spectrogram
 Press Meas 1
 Then Interference Analysis
 Then Spectrogram
How to modify the Spectrogram
You can change how the spectrogram is displayed relative to the data trace. This
setting affects the total number of trace records that can be displayed.
 Press Meas Setup 4.
 Then Spectrogram Settings
 Then Spectrogram View
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
o
120
Overlay Displays the data trace over the spectrogram with NO graticules. Total
trace records: 340.
Full Screen Displays the spectrogram with NO data trace. Total trace records:
340.
Top Displays the data trace above the spectrogram. Total trace records: 130.
Bottom Displays the data trace below the spectrogram. Total trace records:
130.
FieldFox User’s Guide
How to Restart the Spectrogram
Press Sweep 3 then Restart
How to create Time Markers
Use Time Markers to determine the elapsed time between any two displayed records.
The most recent record appears at the top of the screen.
 Press Meas Setup 4
 Then Time Markers
 Then Time
 Then enter a value from 0 (the most recent sweep record) to the maximum value,
using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob. A  indicates the
Time Marker.
 Then Delta
 Then enter a value from 0 (the most recent sweep record) to the maximum value,
using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob. A  indicates the
Delta Marker.
 At the current sweep speed, the difference in time between these two markers
appears at the upper-right corner of the view as Delta Time: hh:mm:ss Sec.
 An invalid (very large number) appears when a trace record is not available at one
or both of these markers.
Averaging
Averaging can be enabled on the underlying measurement. Press Trace
State [Average]. Learn more on page 102.
6 then
Common Settings for Waterfall and Spectrogram
Set Red and Blue Limits
The colors displayed on the Waterfall and Spectrogram represent the various
measured power levels:
 Red = Highest power levels
 Blue = Lowest power levels
NOTE
The full Red-to-Blue color spectrum is visible only with Indoor display colors. Learn
more on page 192.
Adjust the Red and Blue limits to the power levels that you expect to measure.
The Blue limit must always be less than the Red limit.
 Press Meas Setup 4.
 Then Spectrogram / Waterfall Settings
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
Red Limit Using the ▲|▼ arrows , rotary knob, or keypad, select the HIGHEST
power level that you expect to measure. This power level, and those measured
higher than this level, appear Red.
Blue Limit Using the ▲|▼ arrows , rotary knob, or keypad, select the
LOWEST power levels that you expect to measure. This power level, and those
measured lower than this level, appear Blue.
Interference Analyzer (SA Mode) - Option 236
121
How to Restart the Spectrogram
Press Sweep 3 then Restart
Averaging
Averaging can be enabled on the underlying measurement. Press Meas 4 then
Average Type. Learn more on page 102.
Measurement Preset
Measurement Preset resets ONLY the Spectrogram and Waterfall display settings. It
does not reset the measurement settings.
 Press Preset
 Then Meas Preset
Waterfall Display
The live trace is always drawn on a Waterfall display. Older trace records scroll up
from the displayed trace and eventually off the screen. Because of this, locate the
live trace on the bottom of the screen using the scale and reference settings. Learn
how on page 84.
NOTE
Although this document refers to past traces as ‘records’ these traces are not saved.
They are only drawn on the FieldFox screen.
Waterfall display- moderate angle- with time markers 1 minute apart.
The following settings all contribute to the sweep time of an individual trace, and
therefore, the total elapsed time that can appear on the screen in Waterfall display:
 Frequency Range. Learn more on page 80.
 Resolution BW and Video BW. Learn more on page 90
 Sweep Time (Acquisition). Learn more on page 94.
 Resolution (Number of Points). Learn more on page 102.
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Waterfall Angle
This setting allows you to show more or less detail. More detail provides fewer (time)
records.
 Press Meas Setup 4
 Then Spectrogram Settings
 Then Waterfall Angle
 Then choose from the following:
o
Moderate Compromise between detail and number of records.
o
Steep Least detail with highest number of records.
o
Gradual Most detail with lowest number of records.
o
Wide Angle Moderate angle with increased space between records.
Learn how to set Red and Blue Limits on page 121.
Record Playback
Record Playback allows you to record SA trace sweeps and play them back at a later
time. Use this feature to monitor spectrum activity over a period of time.
You can record traces continuously, record a specified number of traces (segments),
or record when triggered by a specified power level.
Traces can be recorded from, or played back into, any measurement type (such as
Channel Power or Occupied BW) or any display type (such as Spectrogram and
Waterfall).
When GPS is enabled and displayed, the current location and elevation are saved
and played back with traces.
Recordings can be saved to the FieldFox Internal memory, an SD Card, or a USB
flash drive.
About Sessions
A Recording Session is a collection of recorded traces and the instrument states that
generated them.
Before recording can occur, a new session must be initiated or an existing session
must be opened. Sessions can later be opened for playing or continued recording.
Only one session can be open at a time.
You close the session when finished recording or playing. A session is also closed
when the FieldFox is Preset (or Mode Preset), an Instrument State is recalled, or
when Mode is changed from SA.
Each session is saved as a folder containing a set of files on the specified storage
device.
How long can a recording session last?
There are many variables that determine the possible length of a recording session.
But one key variable is the amount of available memory.
Interference Analyzer (SA Mode) - Option 236
123
When a session is opened or a new session is initiated, an estimate is made of the
maximum number of traces that can be saved based on the available disk space and
the current number of data points (resolution). Recording will stop when that number
is reached. This estimate always maintains 4 MB of available disk space on the
specified storage device. You can decrease the number of traces to further limit
recording. The resolution setting can NOT be changed after a session is opened.
To maximize the amount of space that is available, save recorded traces to a USB
Flash drive or SD card. Learn how in Manage Sessions on page 129.
You can determine the length of time over which recording can occur by setting the
Record Interval (the time between recorded traces) and other settings. Learn more in
Recording Configuration on page 126.
To view and edit the maximum number of records
Just after opening or initiating a session...
 Press Session Data
 Then Trace Record Limit <n> (n = Max number of traces that can be recorded).
 Clear All Records Empties that session of recorded traces. Learn more in
Manage Sessions on page 129.
FieldFox Setting Changes during Record and Playback
During Recording
When any of the following State settings are changed during recording, the State
counter is incremented (see About State and User Tags on page 125) and the
settings are saved to the Session file along with the first trace to be recorded with
the new setting. During playback, the trace and display annotation will reflect the
change on the screen.
State settings: Frequency Range, Resolution BW, Video BW, Zero Span Sweep Time,
Sweep Acquisition, Preamp On/Off, Attenuation, Detector, Average Type, Trigger
Settings, Independent Source.
Other display settings, such as Scale and Reference Level, can also be changed
during recording but are not saved with the session file. Think of these as settings
that help YOU see the recording and playback activity. They do NOT change the data
that is recorded.
During Playback
The State setting changes listed above are NOT allowed during playback.
However, all other display settings can be changed during playback to help you
analyze the recorded data.
The recordings can be played into different measurements such as Channel Power or
Occupied BW. When the recorded data is not compatible with the measurement
type, a MEAS UNCAL message will appear on the screen.
The data can also be played back in Spectrogram and Waterfall displays.
Record/Playback Exceptions
 Markers can be activated and moved to help analyze recorded data. However,
marker position control is only available when playback is Paused.
 Field Strength Corrections is saved with the session file and it is also allowed
during playback. Learn about this Field Strength Corrections on page 87.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
 Frequency Counter at Marker is NOT allowed during Recording or Playback. Learn
about this feature on page 109.
About State and User Tags
When any of the State settings (listed above) are changed during a recording, a
‘state tag’ is inserted at the first trace number to be recorded with the new setting.
In addition, you can insert a ‘User Tag’ at any time during a recording session to
indicate an external event, such as when an antenna is moved. During playback, you
can move quickly to any of these tags, or scroll through these tags.
A symbol is used on the screen annotation to distinguish a User Tag from a State Tag
when scrolling through tags during playback.
Screen Annotation
During a record or playback session, the following is displayed in the top-left area of
the screen:
 AutoSession02: 92/95 (state 4/5)_*_
Sep.22.2009 09:15:15 AM
where:
 AutoSession is an auto-generated name for sessions. 02 is the auto-generated
number, incremented with each new session. The name can be changed using
Manage Sessions. Learn more on page 129.
 92/95 is the current and total trace number: currently trace is 92 of 95 total traces.
 state 4/5 is the current and total state tag or user tag number: 4 of 5 total tags.

* (Asterisk) indicates that a state has changed. # (Pound) indicates that a User Tag
has been inserted.
 Sep.22... is the date and time of recording.
When GPS is enabled and displayed, the current location and elevation are
annotated at the bottom of the playback display. Learn more about GPS on page
197.
NOTE
If Recording or Playback is not occurring when you think it should, check the
following:
 Is the sweep in HOLD ? (upper-left annotation)
 Is Recording or Playback Paused ? (mid-left annotation)
 Is the Record or Playback Interval set to a long delay? (Configuration settings.)
How to Record a Session
 Press Trace 6
 Then Record Playback Setup
 Optionally set resolution (points). Learn how on page 102. This can NOT be
changed after a session is opened.
 Then either:
o
New Session OR
o
Recall Session then Open and select a session.
Interference Analyzer (SA Mode) - Option 236
125
 Then Recorder Player
 Then Record
REC is displayed in the left of screen graticules.
During recording, choose from the following:
 Pause Resume Temporarily halts recording until pressed again. The
incoming trace continues to sweep. Press again to continue recording.
 Stop Immediately stops recording. Then choose from the following:
o
Press Play to start replaying the recording from the beginning.
o
Press Record to continue recording.
 User Tag Press to insert a User Tag at the current recorded trace. This allows you
to quickly move to this location during playback. Learn more in About State and
User Tags on page 125.
How to Playback a Session
 Press Trace 6
 If the session is already open, skip the following step. Otherwise:
 Then Record Playback Setup
o
Press Recall Session Then select a session to playback and press Open.
 Then Recorder Player
 Then Play
PLAY is displayed in the left of screen graticules during playback. When the end of
the recording is reached, playback begins again at trace 1 and continues to loop
indefinitely.
During playback, choose from the following:
 Pause Resume Temporarily halts playback. Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
Pause Resume Press to continue playing.
Playback State/Tag Allows you to continue playback from a state tag, or
scroll through the state tags. Enter a value between 1 and the total number of
state tags using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob. Learn
more in About State and User Tags on page 125.
Playback Trace Activated automatically when Paused. Allows you to
continue playback from a specific trace, or scroll through traces manually.
Enter a value between 1 and the total number of traces using the numeric
keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
 Stop Immediately stops playback. Then choose from the following:
o
Play Start playback from trace 1.
o
Record Resume recording from the last recorded trace.
o
Record Playback Setup Return to the setup menu to change Configuration
settings or Close the session.
Recording Configuration
To change Recording Configuration settings:
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FieldFox User’s Guide
 Press Trace 6
 Then Record Playback Setup
 Then New Session or Recall an existing session.
 Then Recording Configuration
Then choose from the following:
o
o
Record Time Sets the amount of time to record traces. Default is MAX, which
is to record indefinitely. Enter a value between 1s and 1 Ms (million) seconds
using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob. When set, a timer
appears during recording in the lower-left corner which counts DOWN from the
specified time.
Record Source Sets where, in the FieldFox data flow, data is recorded. Learn
more on page 128.
Choose from the following:
o
RawMeas Records raw measurement data.
o
Trace 1,2,3,4 Records data from the corresponding trace in its current state.
o
o
o
Record Interval Sets the amount of time to wait between individual trace
recordings. Default is MIN, which is to wait 0 seconds (record traces as fast as
possible). Enter a value in seconds between 0 (no delay) and 10,000 seconds about 3 hrs) using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
Segment Count Sets the number of traces to record, after which the recording
will automatically pause. Press Pause/Resume or Record to capture another N
traces, or Stop to end recording. Default is OFF, which is NO limit to the number
of traces to be recorded. When set, a counter appears in the lower-left corner
which counts UP to the specified number of recordings.
FreqMaskTrigger OFF ON Sets the power level which will trigger a recording.
Set these power levels (mask) exactly as you would set Limit Lines. (Learn how
on page 176.) With Record ON, when any data point measurement is higher
than an upper limit, or lower than a lower limit, recording begins. See Frequency
Mask Trigger Configuration in the following section to learn how to configure the
mask.
Typically you would use FreqMaskTrigger with Segment Count, but it can also be
used with Record Time and Record Interval.
When used with Segment Count:
o
When a mask limit is exceeded, subsequent traces are recorded until the
specified segment count is reached. Once segment count is reached, exceeding
another mask limit will again cause traces to be recorded until the segment
count is reached, and so forth.
o
To record only those traces that exceed the limit, set Segment Count to 1
o
To record ALL traces after a limit is exceeded, set Segment Count OFF.
When used with Record Time, the timer counts down even when traces are not being
recorded (limits are not being exceeded). Recording starts when a limit is exceeded
and stops when the timer reaches 0.
Interference Analyzer (SA Mode) - Option 236
127
When used with Record Interval, a trace is recorded when a limit is exceeded, then
no recordings during the specified ‘wait’ interval, then the next trace is recorded,
followed by another time delay, and so forth. This pattern repeats indefinitely if
Segment Count is OFF, or (if ON) until Segment Count is reached.
Frequency Mask Trigger Configuration
Create or recall a Frequency Mask to be used with the FreqMaskTrigger feature.
NOTE
The Mask file is saved to, and recalled from, the Save /Recall Storage Device location
– NOT from the Record Playback Storage Device location. These are two different
settings. Learn how to set the Save /Recall Storage Device on page 183.
A mask that is in use during a recording is NOT saved with the recording and does
NOT automatically appear during playback. Like Limits Lines, it is saved and recalled
with a state file.
Although they are created in the same manner, Limit Line files and FreqMask files
can NOT be used interchangeably.
 Press Trace 6
 Then Record Playback Setup
 Then New Session or Recall an existing session. The current mask appears as
soon as a session is opened.
 Then FreqMaskTrigger Configuration
 Then choose from the following
o
Edit Mask Create or modify the current mask. Learn how to edit the Mask /
Limit Line table on page 176.
o
Save Mask Saves the current mask to a file.
o
Recall Mask Loads a mask file.
Record Source
The simplest way to use Record Playback is to record RawMeas data, which is can
then be played back into all of the current Trace States.
However, for more complicated processing, refer to the following diagram. This
illustrates where in the FieldFox data flow data is recorded and played back.
NOTE
For this discussion, it is important to understand Trace States. Learn more on page
102.
FieldFox Data Flow and Record Playback data points
 Data can be recorded at the Raw Meas block where data is acquired after ResBW,
VideoBW, and Detector processing, but before any trace state processing.
128
FieldFox User’s Guide
 Data can be recorded from Traces 1,2,3, or 4 which includes the trace state (Max
Hold, Min Hold, and so forth.
 Recording from a Clear/Write trace yields exactly the same data as recording from
the Raw Meas block.
 Data is ALWAYS played back at the same location in the data flow: just after the
Raw Meas block, through all currently active Traces, and onto the display.
 See an example using Record Playback with Max Hold traces on page 130.
Playback Configuration
By default, trace sweeps are played back as fast as the trace can be drawn on the
screen. The following setting allows you to slow playback. In addition, you can
manually scroll through individual traces using Playback Trace, or scroll through
State and User Tags using Playback State/Tag. Learn more in How to Playback a
Session on page 126.
To slow playback of a session
 Record a new session or Open an existing session.
 Press Playback Configuration
 Then Playback Interval
 Enter a value in seconds between 0 (no delay) and 100 using the numeric keypad,
▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob. After using the keypad, select a multiplier key.
Learn about multiplier abbreviations on page 19.
 Press Enter
Manage Sessions
 Press Trace 6
 Then Record Playback Setup
The following selections are available ONLY when a session is NOT open.
 Then Storage Device to select the media which stores the sessions to be
managed. This is a different setting from the Save/Recall Storage Device setting.
 Then choose from the following:
o
Internal FieldFox memory (default)
o
SD Card An external SD Card (must be inserted)
o
USB An external USB flash drive (must be inserted)
 Then Manage Sessions
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
Name Using the FieldFox labeler, change the name of the session. AutoSession
(n) is the default name where (n) is the next-available number. Learn how to use
the labeler on page 181.
Sort Arrange the listing of sessions by Name, by Date, or by (file) Size.
Delete After a confirmation prompt, removes the contents of the selected
session from the list.
Interference Analyzer (SA Mode) - Option 236
129
o
o
Copy Copies the selected session to a different storage device, or the same
storage device with ‘Copy_’ appended to the beginning of the name.
Copy All Copies ALL of the listed sessions to a different storage device, or the
same storage device with ‘Copy_’ appended to the beginning of the names.
Record Playback Example
The following “Interval Recording” example shows how you can record spectral
activity over a longer period of time with less trace storage.
 Press Trace 6 then, with Trace = 1, press State then Max Hold
 Then Record Playback Setup
 Then New Session
 Then Recording Configuration
 Then Record Source to Trace1
 Then Record Interval to 10 s(seconds).
 Then Back
 Then Recorder Player
 Then Record At the end of each 10 second record interval, the Max Hold trace is
recorded and the Max Hold processing is reset for the next 10 second record
interval.
 Then Stop to end the recording.
This session can be played back into any Trace State. For example:
Play the Max Hold recording into a Clear/Write trace to see the data exactly as it was
recorded.
 Press Trace 6 then with Trace = 1 and press State then Clr/Wr
 Then Record Player
 Then Play
Play the Max Hold recording into a Max Hold trace to show the accumulation of “Max
Hold” activity over the entire recording.
 Press Trace 6 then with Trace = 1 and press State then Max Hold
 Then Record Player
 Then Play
130
FieldFox User’s Guide
Reflection Mode (SA Models)
This feature may require an option. Please view the FieldFox Configuration Guide at:
http://literature.cdn.keysight.com/litweb/pdf/5990-9836EN.pdf
Reflection Mode provides 1-port scalar reflection measurements in selected FieldFox
SA-Only models. The FieldFox source is routed internally to Port 1 and used to
stimulate a Device Under Test (DUT). The energy that is reflected off the DUT is
measured and displayed on the screen.
SA mode reflection measurements are very similar to CAT mode reflection
measurements. Although SA mode reflection measurements are CalReady, other
CAT mode calibration types are NOT offered. Learn more about CalReady on page
64.
In this Chapter
Measurement Selection ...................................... 132
Normalize ............................................................ 132
The following settings are available exactly as they function in CAT mode:
Frequency Range .................................................. 22
Scale Settings ....................................................... 23
Averaging ............................................................. 23
Single/Continuous ................................................ 24
Resolution ............................................................. 24
Sweep Time........................................................... 25
Output Power ........................................................ 25
Interference Rejection .......................................... 25
Markers ............................................................... 167
Limit Lines ........................................................... 176
Reflection Mode (SA Models)
131
Reflection Mode Settings
Select Reflection Mode before making any setting in this chapter.
How to select Reflection Mode
 Press Mode
 Then Reflection
Measurement Selection
How to select a Reflection Mode Measurement
Learn more about these two measurements in the Supplemental Online Help:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/FieldFox.htm
 Press Measure 1
 Then choose one of the following: These softkeys also appear after Reflection
Mode is selected.
o
o
Return Loss 1-port scalar reflection measurement that displays the amount of
incident signal energy MINUS the amount of energy that is reflected. The higher
the trace is on the screen, the more energy being reflected back to the FieldFox.
VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio – also known as SWR) 1-port reflection
measurement that displays the ratio of the maximum reflected voltage over the
minimum reflected voltage. The higher the trace is on the screen, the more
energy being reflected back to the FieldFox.
Normalize
Normalization can be used to effectively ‘Zero’ a trace which removes frequency
response errors introduced by the components of the test setup before making the
measurement. To normalize a reflection measurement, the DUT is removed and a
known device is connected to Port 1. When you choose Normalize, the displayed
trace is stored into memory and then the displayed data is divided by the memory
trace. The displayed data trace now shows the difference between the stored
memory response and the measured response.
You could normalize while measuring the reflection response of any type of device.
For example, the device could be:
 A Load (showing minimum reflection)
 An Open or Short (with maximum reflection)
 A ‘golden’ DUT.
How to perform Normalization
To Port 1, connect a known device (usually an Open or Short) to which reflection
measurements are to be normalized.
 Press Trace
6
 Then Normalize
The yellow data trace displays the current measurement with trace math applied.
The math operation symbol [D/M] is displayed on the lower left corner of the screen.
Learn more about Trace Math on page 179.
NOTE
132
Data interpolation is NOT supported. If the Resolution setting is changed with Trace
Math enabled, the FieldFox will disable the math operation.
FieldFox User’s Guide
Built-in Power Meter Mode - Option 310
Built-in Power Meter (also known as Channel Power Meter) uses the SA input
connector to make quick and simple power measurements over a selectable
frequency band. A power sensor is NOT required.
In this Chapter
Set Frequency ..................................................... 134
Radio Standard ................................................... 134
Attenuation ......................................................... 135
See Also
The following Built-in Power Meter settings are identical to the standard Power
Meter settings:
Set Scale ............................................................. 138
Set Relative and Offset Power ............................ 139
Set Display Units ................................................ 140
Set Averaging ..................................................... 140
Single/Continuous .............................................. 141
Set Limits ............................................................ 141
The following Built-in Power Meter settings are identical to SA Mode settings:
Radio Standard ..................................................... 82
InstAlign Amplitude Alignment ........................... 104
Built-in Power Meter Settings
Select Built-in Power Meter Mode before making any setting in this section.
Built-in Power Meter Mode - Option 310
133
How to select Built-in Power Meter Mode
 Press Mode
 Then Power Meter (Built-in)
CAUTION
Please observe the RF IN port damage level.
+27 dBm (320 mW) average
+33 dBm peak (2 W) <10μs
+50 VDC
Frequency/ Span / Step
Valid Built-in Power Meter measurements can be made over the entire frequency
range of the FieldFox. Although it is possible to enter a center frequency below the
FieldFox minimum frequency, the LO feed-thru of the internal SA hardware will
invalidate these Built-in Power Meter measurements.
The measurement span (also known as Channel Width and Integration BW) is the
frequency range, half above and half below the center frequency, over which power
is detected and displayed. The maximum measurement span is 100 MHz.
How to enter center frequency, step size, and span
The default frequency is 50 MHz.
 Press Freq/Dist .
 Then Frequency.
 Then Center
 Then type a value using the numeric keypad. Then press a multiplier key. Learn
about multiplier abbreviations on page 19. The current frequency (f) is shown on
the FieldFox screen.
 Optionally, use the ▲|▼ arrows to quickly change Center frequency. The size of
the frequency step can also be changed. Press CF Step then type a step size
value using the numeric keypad, then select a multiplier key.
 Optionally press Span (Ch Wid) Type a value using the numeric keypad. Then
press a multiplier key. The default span is 2 MHz. The maximum span is 100 MHz.
The current span setting is shown as the dividend in the digital display. For
example: -10 dBm / 1.00 MHz
Radio Standard
A Radio Standard can used to integrate power within specific radio channels. When a
Radio Standard is selected, the Span setting is automatically coupled to the defined
Channel Width for that standard. (Width is the same for all channels within a
standard.) Also, Unit is set to Chan and CF is set to the nearest specific Channel
defined in the standard.
Learn more about Radio Standards, including Importing and Deleting Custom Radio
Standards, beginning on page 82.
How to select a Radio Standard
 Press Measure 1 OR Freq/Dist
 Then Radio Standard
134
FieldFox User’s Guide
 Then select a standard using the ▲|▼ arrows or rotary knob and press Enter.
Attenuation
The Attenuation setting controls the power level into the FieldFox.
To compare Built-in Power Meter Mode measurements to SA Channel Power
measurements, use the same attenuation settings. Built-in Power Meter Mode
defaults to 30 dB attenuation, while SA mode defaults to 10 dB attention. In Built-in
Power Meter, the attenuation setting is NOT annotated on the screen.
How to set Attenuation
 Press Scale/Amptd
 Then More
 Then Internal Atten
 Then choose from either 30 dB or 10 dB
NOTE
The following Built-in Power Meter settings are identical to the standard Power
Meter settings. To learn about these settings, please refer to the following pages:
Set Scale ............................................................. 138
Set Relative and Offset Power ............................ 139
Set Display Units ................................................ 140
Set Averaging ..................................................... 140
Single/Continuous .............................................. 141
Set Limits ............................................................ 141
Built-in Power Meter Mode - Option 310
135
Power Meter (USB) Mode
Power Meter measurements, available with Option 302, are made with Keysight USB
power sensors. Power readings are displayed on the FieldFox screen.
In this Chapter
Supported Power Sensors .................................. 136
How to Connect the Power Sensor .................... 137
Average/Peak ...................................................... 137
Zeroing ................................................................ 137
Set Frequency ..................................................... 138
Source Control .................................................... 138
Set Scale ............................................................. 138
Set Relative and Offset Power ............................ 139
Set Display Units ................................................ 140
Set Averaging ..................................................... 140
Single/Continuous .............................................. 141
Step Detection Mode .......................................... 141
Set Limits ............................................................ 141
See Also
Frequency Offset using Power Sensor ............... 142
Supported Power Sensors
For a complete list of supported Keysight USB Power Sensors, please visit:
www.keysight.com/find/usbsensorsforfieldfox
NOTE
136
The FieldFox does NOT support the following Keysight USB Power Sensor features:
External Triggering (Time Gated Burst Power Measurement), Power Sweep
Operation, and Frequency Sweep Operation. External Zeroing is NOT allowed on the
U2020 X-series Power Sensors.
FieldFox User’s Guide
CAUTION
Please refer to your USB Power Sensor User’s Guide and observe the damage levels of your
device.
How to Connect the Power Sensor
Connect your Power Sensor to one of the FieldFox USB ports.
NOTE
Use an attenuator between the DUT and the power sensor when measuring power
levels that are higher than +20 dBm. The attenuator value can be subtracted from
the measurement using the Offset feature, discussed on page 139.
A sequence of status lights are displayed on the base of the power sensor.
 Green blinking light indicates the power sensor is communicating or self-tests are
being performed. Because the FieldFox is usually communicating with the power
sensor when it is connected, this is the normal mode of operation.
 Amber light indicates Zeroing is being performed.
 Red light indicates an error has occurred with the power sensor. Refer to power
sensor documentation.
 No light indicates the FieldFox is not communicating with the power sensor. This is
the case when in Hold mode or when NOT in Power Meter Mode.
USB Power Meter Settings
Select Power Meter Mode before making any setting in this section.
How to select Power Meter Mode
 Press Mode_.
 Then Power Meter (USB Sensor).
Average / Peak
 Press Measure 1
 Then Meter Display
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
Average Measures and reports the average of the power measurements.
Peak Available ONLY on the U202x power sensors. Measures and reports peak
power detected at sensor input.
Zeroing
The Keysight USB Power Sensors perform Internal Zeroing automatically. Because
Keysight USB Power Sensors have an internal switch, Internal Zeroing does NOT
require that the power source be turned OFF.
For highest measurement accuracy, when measuring power levels below –30 dBm,
External Zeroing should be performed.
During External Zeroing, the power source MUST be turned OFF or the power sensor
disconnected from the power source (device under test). Power is OFF when power
sensor measurements are below –60 dBm. When power higher than this is detected
at the sensor, a warning message is shown on the FieldFox and External Zeroing will
not proceed.
NOTE
External Zeroing is NOT allowed on the U2020 X-series Power Sensors.
Power Meter (USB) Mode
137
How to perform External Zeroing
 Press Cal 5 .
 Then External Zero.
While either Internal or External Zeroing is being performed, “Zeroing...” is shown on
the FieldFox screen. While this message is present, do NOT make any changes to the
FieldFox.
In addition, once External Zeroing has started, the power source must be OFF for the
entire time that the Zeroing message is present. Otherwise, the calibration will be
compromised but NO warning is shown.
Frequency
A table of correction factors versus frequency is stored within Keysight Power
Sensors. The frequency of the power to be measured is entered in the FieldFox so
that the appropriate correction factor can be used.
The Source Control feature (see following section) will determine the frequency
range of the power measurement.
How to enter Frequency of the Power Measurement
 Press Freq/Dist or Meas Setup 4 .
 Then Frequency.
 Then type a value using the numeric keypad. The default frequency is 50 MHz.
 Then press a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier abbreviations on page 19.
The current frequency is shown on the FieldFox screen.
Source Control
This feature may require an option on some FieldFox models.
With the FieldFox internal source enabled, these settings allow you to make simple,
absolute power measurements. The source and the power sensor can be physically
separated by a long distance when using a long USB cable.
Set the internal source frequency by setting the frequency of the power
measurement. Learn how in the previous section.
Power Meter measurements are limited by the combined frequency ranges of the
internal source when enabled and the frequency range of the power sensor. For
example, assume the frequency range of your sensor is 9 kHz to 18 GHz and the
frequency range of the FieldFox is 2 MHz to 6 GHz.
 With the Source ON, measurements are limited to 2 MHz to 6 GHz.
 With the Source OFF, measurements are allowed from 9 kHz to 18 GHz.
How to set Source Control and Power Level
 Press Freq/Dist
 Then Advanced
NOTE
138
When Option 208 (FOPS) is enabled, to access Source Control, press Sweep 3
Then Power Setup Learn more about FOPS beginning on page 142.
FieldFox User’s Guide
 Then Source Enable
o
ON Turn ON the internal source
o
OFF Turn OFF the internal source
Optionally set the power level.
 Press Src Nom Power (-15 dBm default setting) Set output power to an arbitrary
value at the displayed CW frequency.
 Then enter a value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
 Press Enter
Scale
The scale of the Power Meter display can be set manually or automatically. The
major and minor ticks are set automatically and can NOT be changed. Although the
scale settings are limited, you can view measurements beyond these settings by
performing Autoscale.
How to Scale the Power Meter display
Manually:
 Press Scale / Amptd .
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
Scale Min Sets the low power level of the power meter display. Type a number
and select the units or press Enter. This value is limited to –100 dBm.
Scale Max Sets the high power level of the power meter display. Type a
number and select the units or press Enter. This value is limited to 100 dBm.
Autoscale:
Using Autoscale, the current reading is used for the center of the scale, and Min and
Max values are set accordingly.
 Press Scale / Amptd .
 Then More .
 Then Autoscale.
Relative and Offset Power Measurements
Power measurements can be made that are relative to another reading or that are
offset by a fixed value.
 Use Relative to measure the difference between power levels.
 Use Offset to account for components or a long length of cable that is used before
the power sensor. For example, if using a 10 dB attenuator to protect the FieldFox,
enter an Offset Value of 10 to read the power as it would appear without
attenuation. If using a 10 dB amplifier, enter an Offset Value of –10 to read the
power as it would appear without amplification.
How to set Relative and Offset Power Measurements
 Press Scale / Amptd .
 Then choose from the following:
Power Meter (USB) Mode
139
o
o
o
Relative On Off When switched to ON, the FieldFox measures and stores the
current power level. Subsequent power measurements display a power level
which is relative to the stored value. When relative is ON, the units change from
dBm to dB or from Watts to %.
Offset On Off Toggles ON and OFF the displayed power level using the Offset
value.
Offset Val Value by which the power meter display is offset. A positive value
compensates for a component with loss. A negative value compensates for a
component with gain. Offset values are limited to +/- 100 dB.
Display Units
Select whether to display power in dBm or Watts. When making relative power
measurements, these change to dB and %.
How to set Power Meter display units
 Press Meas Setup 4 or Scale / Amptd .
 Then Unit .
 Then choose from the following:
o
dBm (dB) Sets Power Meter display to dBm or dB.
o
Watt (%) Sets Power Meter display to Watts or %.
Resolution
Resolution sets the number of digits to display after the decimal point on the digital
power meter display.
How to set Resolution
 Press Scale / Amptd .
 Then More.
 Then choose from 0, 1, 2, or 3.
Averaging
Averaging is used to improve measurement accuracy in low power or noisy power
situations. Increased averaging improves measurement accuracy, but also reduces
measurement speed.
How to set Power Meter Averaging
 Press BW 2 or Meas Setup 4.
 Then choose from the following:
o
Averaging Auto Man Off
o
140
Auto Allows the USB Power Sensor to use its Auto Averaging settings. See
the USB Power Sensor documentation for details.
o
Man Manually enter an averaging count by setting Num Averages.
o
OFF Performs NO averaging.
FieldFox User’s Guide
o
Num Averages Sets the number of Power Meter readings to be averaged
before a valid reading is displayed. When a number is entered, Averaging is
automatically set to Man.
Single or Continuous Measure
This setting determines whether the FieldFox measures continuously or only once
each time the Single button is pressed. Use Single to conserve battery power or to
allow you to save or analyze a specific measurement.
This setting can be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
How to set Single or Continuous
 Press Sweep 3.
 Then choose one of the following:
o
o
Single Automatically sets Continuous OFF and causes FieldFox to make ONE
measurement, then hold for the next Single key press. When a data trace is
displayed, the entire trace is measured, then holds. The Hold annotation
changes to an arrow --> while the measurement occurs.
Continuous Makes continuous measurements. This is the typical setting when
battery power is not critical.
You can also use Run / Hold +/- to toggle between Single and Continuous.
Step Detection Mode
The FieldFox supports the Step Detection feature that is present in Keysight USB
power sensors. When enabled, this feature reduces settling time after a significant
step in the measured power. For more information, please refer to the USB Power
Meter documentation.
How to set Step Detection mode
 Press Meas Setup 4.
 Then Step Detection ON Off
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
ON Enables step detection (default setting)
OFF Disables step detection
Limits
In Power Meter Mode, Minimum and Maximum limits set a visible range of
acceptable readings between these two values. Readings that are below the
minimum or above the maximum are clearly visible on the power meter display.
How to set Limits
 Press Limit 8.
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
o
Power Meter (USB) Mode
Min Limit On Off Toggles the display of the Minimum limit ON and OFF.
Min Limit Value Sets the Minimum limit power value. Power reading lower than
this will exceed the limit.
Max Limit On Off Toggles the display of the Maximum limit ON and OFF.
Max Limit Value Sets the Maximum limit power value. Power reading higher
than this will exceed the limit.
141
Frequency Offset using Power Sensor (FOPS) – Option 208
FOPS is accessed through (and requires) Option 302 USB Power Meter Mode. With
both options installed, you can send a signal with the FieldFox internal source at one
frequency, and measure this signal with an Keysight U-Series USB Power Sensor at
another frequency.
Display for FOPS
In this Chapter
Overview.............................................................. 143
Measurement Selection ...................................... 144
Sweep Type and Frequency ............................... 144
Power Sensor Settling ........................................ 146
Sweep Settings ................................................... 146
Amplitude Markers ............................................. 147
See Also
Trace Math .......................................................... 179
142
FieldFox User’s Guide
Overview
The following shows a typical use case for FOPS:
 The DUT is a long section of cable with a mixer and bandpass filter on the IF
Output.
 The FieldFox source is tuned to f1.
 The USB power sensor, with an equally long USB/LAN cable, is connected to the
IF Output. USB/LAN extenders are NOT provided with the FieldFox or Keysight
USB power sensors.
 Conversion gain/loss is measured at f2, which is (f1 +/- f Offset).
NOTE
The dynamic range with FOPS may be significantly different when using various
power sensors. In general, the lower frequency range sensors have better dynamic
range.
FOPS Settings
The following settings are unique to FOPS. Standard USB Power Meter mode
settings, which may be useful with FOPS, are documented in that chapter starting on
page 136.
Select Power Meter (USB Sensor) before making any setting in this section.
How to select Power Meter (USB Sensor)
 Press Mode
 Then Power Meter (USB Sensor)
 Then connect a USB Power Sensor to either FieldFox USB port.
 For a complete list of supported Keysight USB Power Sensors, please visit:
www.keysight.com/find/usbsensorsforfieldfox
Frequency Offset using Power Sensor (FOPS) – Option 208
143
Measurement Selection
 Press Measure 1
 Then choose from the following:
 Src Power Measure Similar to a ‘normalization’ cal, this selection guides you
through the following steps to make a measurement at the reference plane and
then store the data trace into memory.
1. Connect the power sensor to the measurement reference plane. This is the
location to where power measurements are to be referenced. For example, to
measure only the conversion loss through a converter, attach the power
sensor to the cable that connects to the converter input.
2. Press Measure . When finished, press Src Data -> Mem to store the
measured data into FieldFox memory. Preset or Mode Preset will clear the
stored memory.
3. Optionally choose from the following:
o
Re-Measure Make another measurement
o
Src Data View only the re-measured data.
o
Src Memory View only the stored memory data.
o
Src Data & Memory View both the re-measured data and the stored
memory data.
4. Press Done
 Src Pwr Memory Not available until source data is stored into memory. Displays
only the source power memory trace.
 Gain Not available until source data is stored into memory. Displays the Output
power / Source power (memory trace).
 Rx Power Displays the raw output power at the USB power sensor.
Sweep Type and Frequency
Set the source and receiver frequencies for the FOPS measurements. The receiver is
a Keysight U-Series Power Sensor. These are broadband measurement devices,
which means that they measure power over a very wide frequency range. Tables of
frequency and power correction factors are stored within the power sensors. The
receiver (Rx) frequencies are used ONLY to apply the appropriate correction factors
to the power levels measured with the power sensor.
NOTE
It is YOUR responsibility to ensure that ONLY the signal of interest is present at the
power sensor. All other signals MUST be filtered appropriately.
How to set Sweep Type and Frequency
 Press Freq/Dist
 Then Frequency
 Then Sweep Type
 Then choose from the following:
 CW Used to make standard (non-offset) power meter measurements at a single
frequency. Learn more beginning on page 136.
144
FieldFox User’s Guide
NOTE
To make swept FOPS measurements at a single frequency, choose Swept, then enter
a Src Center frequency, then Span = 0 Hz.
 Swept Used to make swept FOPS measurements.
o
Then enter source (Src) frequencies as either Center and Span or Start and
Stop. Both methods set the FieldFox internal source sweep range out the Port 1
RF Output connector.
The frequency limits are determined by the limits of both the FieldFox and the
power sensor.
o The LOW frequency is limited by the higher of either the FieldFox or the power
sensor minimum frequencies.
o The HIGH frequency is limited by the lower of either the FieldFox or the power
sensor maximum frequencies.
o
o
Then More.
Then Freq Display. This determines how the receiver frequencies below the
graticules are displayed. Choose from the following:
o Start Annotated as Start and Stop frequencies.
o Center Annotated as Center and Span frequencies.
o
Then choose from the following two methods to determine the offset frequency
(the frequency that the receiver is offset from the source). This is typically the
frequency of the LO that is used with the frequency converter. The frequency
offset may be positive, negative, or zero.
o
o
o
Freq Offset Enter an Offset frequency. The receiver frequencies are
calculated.
Offset Calculator Enter the Receiver Start and Stop frequencies. Then press
Calculate Offset.
Press Rx Swp to select the receiver sweep direction.
o Fwd Used for systems for which the output frequency is Offs + Src. The
output frequency of the DUT and the receiver sweeps in the same direction as
the source.
o Rev Used for systems for which the output frequency is Offs - Src. The
output frequency of the DUT and the receiver sweeps in reverse direction as
compared to the source.
Invalid Settings
Violations of the following conditions will return an error message:
 The frequency span for the source and receiver must be the same.
 Both the source and receiver frequencies must be positive.
FOPS Configuration Examples
Negative Offset, RxSwp = Fwd (Offs + Src)
Src = 2 GHz to 3 GHz
Offset = -1 GHz
Rx = 1 GHz to 2 GHz
Frequency Offset using Power Sensor (FOPS) – Option 208
145
Positive Offset, RxSwp = Rev (Offs - Src)
Src = 2 GHz to 3 GHz
Offset = 3.8 GHz
Rx = 1.800 GHz to 800 MHz
Positive Offset, RxSwp = Fwd (Offs + Src)
Src = 2 GHz to 3 GHz
Offset = 3.8 GHz
Rx = 5.8 GHz to 6.8 GHz
Power Sensor Settling
The following two settings work together to allow you to choose the right
compromise between measurement speed and accuracy.
Each power sensor reading is considered "settled" when either:
 The difference between two consecutive readings are within the Tolerance value –
or when:
 The Max (number of) Readings has been made.
The readings that were taken are averaged together to become the displayed
reading.
How to choose Power Sensor settling
 Press BW 2
 Then Tolerance. Enter a value in dB between 0 and 10 using the numeric keypad,
the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob. Tolerance of 0 will never be achieve, so the
Max Readings will always be made. Press Enter
 Then Max Readings. Enter a value between 1 and 20 using the numeric keypad,
the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob. Press Enter
Sweep Settings
These settings provide added control of the FOPS measurement.
How to make additional sweep settings
 Press Sweep 3
 Then choose from the following:
 Power Setup
o
Source Enable
o ON Turn ON the internal source (required for FOPS).
o OFF Turn OFF the internal source
o
146
Src Nom Power (-15 dBm default setting) Set output power to an arbitrary
value at the source CW frequency. Then enter a value using the numeric
keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob. Press Enter
FieldFox User’s Guide
 Num Points or Freq Step Size Both settings control the number of power
sensor measurements between the Start and Stop frequencies. Enter one setting
and the other will be changed automatically. There must be at least two data
points.
 Dwell /Point Specifies a settling time (in seconds) after the internal source steps
to the next frequency and before the power sensor makes a measurement.
Amplitude Markers
Amplitude markers are horizontal dotted lines that you can move to any amplitude
level on the screen. The two amplitude markers can be set independently or used as
a pair of delta markers.
Amplitude markers can be used as a visual comparison aid with the data trace.
How to make Amplitude Marker settings
 Press Marker
 Then More
 Then Ampl Markers
 Then choose from the following:
o
OFF Amplitude markers are NOT displayed.
o
ON Amplitude markers ARE displayed at their previous positions.
 Then Ampl Mkr 1 or 2
 Enter a value in dBm for the marker using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows,
or the rotary knob.
 Press Delta AmplMkr
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
ON AmplMkr 2 value is relative to AmplMkr 1. When AmplMkr 1 is moved,
AmplMkr 2 also moves to maintain the AmplMkr 2 value between them.
OFF The two amplitude markers move independent of one another.
Trace Math
Trace Math allows you to compare data traces and perform simple math. Learn how
to use Trace Math beginning on page 179. All Data and Memory features work as
documented EXCEPT for the following:
NOTE
When Trace, then Data -> Mem is pressed, if a Src Power trace is active, then
RxPower is actually stored into memory.
To Compare Src Power (Input) and Rx Power (Output):
1.
Meas Rx Power
2.
Store to memory
3.
View Data & Memory
4.
Meas Src Power.
Frequency Offset using Power Sensor (FOPS) – Option 208
147
Pulse Measurements Mode - Option 330
Pulsed power meter measurements, available with Option 330, are made with
Keysight U2020 X-Series USB Peak Power Sensors. These sensors are capable of
detecting, measuring, and storing data from a train of pulses at the RF input. This
data is queried from the USB Power Sensor and displayed on the FieldFox screen.
You can then analyze the data using several selectable settings.
In this Chapter
Supported Power Sensors .................................. 149
Measurement Selection ...................................... 149
Frequency / Time ................................................ 150
Zoom Window ..................................................... 150
Scale ................................................................... 151
Averaging ............................................................ 151
Video Bandwidth ................................................. 152
Single or Continuous Measure ........................... 152
Resolution ........................................................... 153
Triggering ............................................................ 153
Pulse Timing Diagram......................................... 155
Marker Settings .................................................. 155
Amplitude Markers ............................................. 155
Marker Search .................................................... 156
Auto Analysis ...................................................... 156
Pulse Top ............................................................ 157
Grid ..................................................................... 157
Trace Memory ..................................................... 158
NOTE
Many of the features included with the FieldFox Pulse Measurements Mode are
discussed in detail in these two documents:
 Keysight U2020 X-Series USB Peak Power Sensors Programmer’s Guide.
http://literature.cdn.keysight.com/litweb/pdf/U2021-90003.pdf
148
FieldFox User’s Guide
 “Best Practices For Making The Most Accurate Radar Pulse Measurements”
http://literature.cdn.keysight.com/litweb/pdf/5991-0434EN.pdf
Supported Power Sensors
Pulse measurements are made using any of the Keysight U2020 X-Series USB Peak
Power Sensors.
Zeroing of the U2020 X-Series USB Peak Power Sensors is performed automatically
at power up, every 5 seconds, and prior to measuring low level signals.
Switching between Pulse Measurement Mode and Power Meter Mode
NOT Supported - Using a single USB Peak Power Sensor and switching between
Power Meter Mode and Pulse Measurement Mode. Both modes will attempt to
program the sensor, which could cause one or both modes to hang, or at least
report inaccurate data.
Supported - Using one U2000A Average Power Sensor connected to the top USB
port for Power Meter Mode, and one Peak Power Sensor connected to the bottom
USB port for Pulse Measurement Mode.
How to Connect the Power Sensor
Connect your Power Sensor to one of the FieldFox USB ports.
NOTE
Use an attenuator between the DUT and the power sensor when measuring power
levels that are higher than +20 dBm. The attenuator value can be subtracted from
the measurement using the Offset feature, discussed on page 139.
A sequence of status lights are displayed on the base of the power sensor.
 Green blinking light indicates the power sensor is communicating or self-tests are
being performed. Because the FieldFox is usually communicating with the power
sensor when it is connected, this is the normal mode of operation.
 Amber light indicates Zeroing is being performed.
 Red light indicates an error has occurred with the power sensor. Refer to power
sensor documentation.
 No light indicates the FieldFox is not communicating with the power sensor. This is
the case when in Hold mode or when NOT in Pulsed Measurement Mode.
Pulse Measurement Settings
Select Pulse Measurement Mode before making any setting in this section.
How to select Pulse Measurement Mode
 Press Mode_
 Then More if your FieldFox contains more than five measurement modes.
 Then Pulse Measurement
Measurement Selection
The pulse measurement results are presented as either a traditional power meter
display or as a trace graph.
How to select the Measurement
 Press Measure 1
Pulse Measurements Mode - Option 330
149
 Then choose from the following:
o
Average Average power (Meter display)
o
Peak Peak power (Meter display)
o
o
Pk to Avg Displays the difference between the above two measurements
(Meter display)
Trace Graph (default) The primary trace (Tr 1) plots pulse data in amplitude
versus time. Optionally, you can enable a secondary ‘zoom’ trace. Learn how on
page 150.
When a ‘Meter display’ measurement is selected, the following Pulse Measurement
Mode settings are identical to the standard USB Power Meter Mode settings.
o
Learn how to set Scale on page 138.
o
Learn how to set Relative and Offset Power on page 139.
o
Learn how to set Display Units on page
o
Learn how to set Limits on page 141.
140.
Frequency / Time
How to set Frequency
 Press Freq/Dist
 Then choose from the following:
o
Frequency Sets the center frequency of the carrier on which pulse modulation
resides. This is used to set amplitude correction of the USB Power Sensor.
How to set Time
Specify the time over which data will be acquired by the USB Power Sensor. When
Trace Graph is selected, Tr 1 is annotated with these values. Time can be specified
using either of the following pairs of values:
o
Center 1 and Time/div 1 Specify the center time and time per division.
o
Start Time and Time Length Specify the start time and length of acquisition.
o
A positive start time indicates a delay after the sensor detects a pulse signal.
o
A negative start time displays data that is acquired BEFORE the sensor detects a
pulse signal (or T-zero).
 Follow each by entering a value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or
the rotary knob.
 After using the keypad, select a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier abbreviations
on page 19.
Zoom Window
When Trace Graph is selected as the measurement, a secondary Zoom Trace can be
used to view a zoomed portion of Tr 1. When Zoom Window is ON, blue vertical
posts appear on Tr 1 to indicate the current start, center, and stop times of the zoom
window. The zoom window can be scaled using the standard Scale settings.
150
FieldFox User’s Guide
How to make Zoom Window settings
 Press Trace 6
 Then Zoom Window
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
ON Opens the zoom window on the bottom half of the FieldFox screen. The
window includes the zoomed trace.
OFF Closes the zoom window.
 Zoom Center While monitoring the T within the blue vertical posts on Tr 1, enter
a value for the center time using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the
rotary knob.
 Zoom Time/div While monitoring the blue vertical posts on the primary trace,
enter a value for the zoom window span using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼
arrows, or the rotary knob.
 Trace 1 Press to select Tr 1. This can also be done by using the ▲|▼ arrows.
Select a trace before making trace settings, such as Scale.
 Zoom Trace Press to select the zoom trace.
Scale
For Meter-style measurements, learn how to set Scale, Relative and Offset Power,
display Units, and Resolution beginning on page 138.
How to set Scale for Trace Graph measurements
 Select a trace to scale using the ▲|▼ arrows.
 Press Scale / Amptd
 Then choose from the following methods:
 Autoscale Automatically adjusts the Y-axis to comfortably fit the Min and Max
amplitude of the trace on the screen.
 Set Scale, Reference Level, and Reference Position:
o
o
o
o
o
Scale Manually enter a scale per division to view specific areas of the trace.
Ref Level Manually set the value of the reference line. Enter a negative value by
pressing Run/Hold (+/-) either before or after typing a value.
Ref Position Manually set the position of the reference line. Values must be
between 0 (TOP line) and 10 (BOTTOM line).
Offset ON Enable Offset. When only trace 1 is visible, Offset ON appears to the
left of the trace.
Offset Val Enter a value by which all amplitude values will be offset. This can
have the effect of virtually removing a component from the measurement path.
A positive value compensates for a component with loss. A negative value
compensates for a component with gain. Offset values are limited to +/- 100
dB.
Pulse Measurements Mode - Option 330
151
Averaging
Averaging helps to reduce the effects of random noise on a measurement. The more
measurements that are averaged, the greater the amount of noise reduction.
Averaging is allowed for all pulse measurements.
Averaging is performed in the USB Power Sensor before the data is sent to the
FieldFox.
Annotation in the left pane shows the state of the Average setting. When Manual is
selected, the ‘Num of Averages’ is setting is also shown.
How to set Averaging
 Press BW 2.
 Then Averaging
 Then choose from the following:
o
Auto Averaging is set to a reasonable value by the USB Power Sensor.
o
Man Averaging is set to the value specified in the ‘Num Averages’ setting.
o
Off
Averaging is OFF
 Num Averages Select a value using the numeric keypad, then press Enter.
Video Bandwidth
The Video Bandwidth setting enables an FIR (finite impulse response) filter within the
USB Power Sensor. The filter setting affects the appearance of the trace results.
Video Bandwidth is allowed for all pulse measurements
How to set Video Bandwidth
 Press BW 2.
 Then Video Bandwidth
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
o
Off Video Bandwidth is disabled.
Low Similar to a low pass filter, ripple in the pass band is minimized but allows
higher side-lobes on the filter skirt.
Medium Smooth pass band with reasonable transition ripple.
High The pass band ripple is similar to the OFF setting, but the transition skirts
are smoother.
Single or Continuous Measure
This setting determines whether the FieldFox continuously queries the USB Power
Sensor for data, or only once each time the Single button is pressed. Use Single to
conserve battery power or to allow you to save or analyze specific data.
How to set Single or Continuous
 Press Sweep 3
 Then choose one of the following:
152
FieldFox User’s Guide
o
o
Single Automatically sets Continuous OFF and causes the FieldFox to query
the USB Power Sensor ONCE, then hold for the next Single key press. Hold is
annotated in the upper left corner of the display.
Continuous Queries the USB Power Sensor whenever a valid trigger signal is
present. This is the typical setting when battery power is not critical.
You can also use Run / Hold +/- to toggle between Single and Continuous.
Resolution
Resolution is the number of individual acquisitions that occur in the USB Power
Sensor. This data is read by the FieldFox and plotted across the X-axis to form a
trace. More data points increases measurement resolution. However, more data
points requires more time to acquire, query, and plot.
How to set Resolution
 Press Sweep 3
 Then Resolution
 Then choose from the following:
o
Low 240 data points.
o
Medium 1000 data points.
o
High Calculated value - approximately 8000 data points.
Triggering
For pulse measurements, a trigger signal refers to the event that causes the USB
Peak Power Sensor to initiate measurement acquisition. It does NOT refer to
triggering the FieldFox.
Trigger settings can be used with ALL pulse measurements unless stated otherwise.
A Waiting for Trigger message on the FieldFox screen is posted on behalf of the
USB Power Sensor when it is waiting for a pulse signal at the RF Input (Internal) or a
TTL signal at the USB Sensor External Trigger input.
How to make Trigger settings
 Press Sweep 3
 Then Trigger
 Then Trig Type
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
Freerun The USB Power Sensor acquires data without waiting for a trigger.
This mode is NOT supported for Trace Graph measurements.
Internal The USB Power Sensor acquires data when a valid pulse signal is
detected at the RF input. The following Trigger settings determine the validity of
the trigger signal.
External The USB Power Sensor acquires data when a valid TTL signal is
detected at the USB Power Sensor external trigger input.
Trigger Edge
This setting determines which edge of a trigger signal initiates data acquisition.
Pulse Measurements Mode - Option 330
153
 Press Sweep 3
 Then Trigger
 Then Trig Edge
 Then choose from the following:
o
Pos Acquisition is triggered by the rising (positive) edge of a valid signal.
o
Neg Acquisition is triggered by the falling (negative) edge of a valid signal.
Trigger Delay
After a valid trigger signal is received at the USB Power Sensor, data acquisition
begins after the specified Trigger Delay time PLUS the specified Start time. See the
Pulse Timing diagram on page 155 for more information.
 Press Sweep 3
 Then Trigger
 Then Trig Delay
 Then enter a value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
Auto Trigger
Used ONLY when Trigger Type = Internal, this setting determines whether the trigger
level is set manually or is set to the default level in the USB Power Sensor firmware.
 Press Sweep 3
 Then Trigger
 Then AutoTrig
 Then choose from the following:
o
ON Trigger level is determined by the USB Power Sensor firmware.
o
OFF The trigger level is set manually using the Trigger Level setting.
Trigger Level
Used when Trigger Type = Internal AND Auto Trigger = OFF (Manual).
 Press Sweep 3
 Then Trigger
 Then Trig Level
 Then set the trigger level using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the
rotary knob. A line appears on Tr 1 at the current trigger level setting. Data
acquisition occurs when the RF input signal crosses the line. This setting can be
used with either Positive or Negative edge triggering.
Trigger Settings Annotation
Trigger settings are annotated on the FieldFox screen as highlighted in red in the
following image:
154
FieldFox User’s Guide
Trig Level = -10 dBm, Trig Type (Int), Pos Slope (/), Delay
Pulse Timing Diagram
Marker Settings
Markers are not allowed with Meter-style measurements.
Markers are displayed on Tr 1 and also on the zoom trace if the marker is within the
zoom window time span.
Up to six standard markers can be used to provide readouts of the Y-axis amplitude
at the current X-axis location.
The six standard markers can also be used as Delta Markers.
Learn more about standard markers on page 167.
Amplitude Markers
Amplitude markers are horizontal dotted lines that you can move to any amplitude
level on the screen. The two amplitude markers can be set independently or used as
a pair of delta markers.
Amplitude markers can be used as a visual comparison aid with the pulse
measurement traces.
How to make Amplitude Marker settings
 Press Marker
 Then More
 Then Ampl Markers
Pulse Measurements Mode - Option 330
155
 Then choose from the following:
o
OFF Amplitude markers are NOT displayed.
o
ON Amplitude markers ARE displayed at their previous positions.
 Then Ampl Mkr 1 or 2
 Enter a value in dBm for the marker using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows,
or the rotary knob.
 Press Delta AmplMkr
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
ON AmplMkr 2 value is relative to AmplMkr 1. When AmplMkr 1 is moved,
AmplMkr 2 also moves to maintain the AmplMkr 2 value between them.
OFF The two amplitude markers move independent of one another.
Marker Search
Use Marker Search to find and move markers to locations on the Tr 1 trace.
How to Search with Markers
 Activate the marker to be used for the search
 Then press Mrk ->/Tools.
 Then Marker Search
 Then Zone Search
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
ON Available ONLY when the zoom window is enabled, the search is limited to
the zone defined by the zoom window.
OFF The search is performed over the entire Tr 1 trace.
Then choose from the following:
 Target, Peak, and Minimum. Learn more about these standard features
beginning on page 171.
 Rise Time Select, then set a value in dB. Delta markers are created and placed
at the Peak and at the specified value BEFORE the Peak.
 Fall Time Select, then set a value in dB. Delta markers are created and placed at
the Peak and at the specified value AFTER the Peak.
NOTE
Rise and Fall time in Marker Search uses different criteria than in Auto Analysis and
will therefore result in different reported values.
Auto Analysis
Auto Analysis reports the following TEN pulse measurements:
156
1 - Average Power
Average power level of all measured data points
2 - Peak Power
Highest reading of all measured data points
FieldFox User’s Guide
3 - Peak minus
Average
Difference between the above two results
4 - Pulse Top
Power value based on the specified Pulse Top setting.
5 - Rise Time
The time it takes for a pulse to rise from 10% to 90% of its peak value.
6 - Fall Time
The time it takes for a pulse to fall from 90% to 10% of its peak value.
7 - Pulse Width
The time between the rising edge and falling edge of a pulse.
8 - Pulse Period
The time of one complete pulse cycle
9 - Duty Cycle
The ratio of the pulse width / pulse period.
10 - Pulse Rep Freq
The rate, in pulses / sec, at which pulses recur.
How to enable Auto Analysis
 Press Mrk ->/Tools.
 Then Auto Analysis
 Then choose from the following:
o
OFF Analysis OFF
o
ON The Analysis values appear below trace 1.
Pulse Top
Pulse Top is NOT the same as the pulse Peak. Pulse Top is used to set and report the
reference power level. You enter a value in percent, and the Pulse Top value is
reported in the Auto Analysis table in dB down from 100% of the reference power
level.
How to set Pulse Top
 Press Mrk ->/Tools
 Then Pulse Top
 Then enter a percent value between 0 and 100 using the numeric keypad, the
▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
o
When set to 10%, 10 dB down from the 100% reference level is reported.
o
When set to 50%, 3 dB down from the 100% reference level is reported.
o
When set to 90%, 0.5 dB down from the 100% reference level is reported.
Grid
Enables and disables the display of a 10 x 10 grid on the FieldFox screen.
How to enable Grid display
 Press Mrk ->/Tools
 Then Grid
OFF Grid OFF
ON A grid of X/Y lines appears on the screen.
Pulse Measurements Mode - Option 330
157
Trace Memory
A memory trace is a pulse measurement Tr 1 data trace (NOT the trace in the Zoom
window) that has been stored in the FieldFox volatile memory. It then becomes
static, meaning it is not updated with normal pulse measurements. It can be
displayed on the screen by itself, or with a pulse trace for comparison purposes.
The Tr 1 data trace is displayed in yellow.
The memory trace is displayed in blue.
How to display data and memory traces
 Press Trace
6.
 Then Trace Memory
 Then Data->Mem to store the current live trace into memory. A ‘beep’ sounds to
confirm the data trace has been saved to memory. There is no display annotation
that indicates that the memory trace has been stored.
158
o
Press Data to view only the data trace.
o
Press Memory to view only the memory trace.
o
Press Data & Memory to view both the live trace and the stored memory trace.
FieldFox User’s Guide
VVM (Vector Voltmeter) Mode - Option 308
VVM Mode (Option 308) measures the electrical length of cables and other devices.
The 1-Port Cable Trimming and 2-Port Transmission measurement displays the
electrical length in both Magnitude and Phase.
Display for the 1-Port Cable Trimming measurement
In this Chapter
Overview.............................................................. 160
Measurement Selection ...................................... 160
Frequency Selection ........................................... 161
Display Resolution .............................................. 161
IF Bandwidth ....................................................... 161
Output Power ...................................................... 161
Averaging ............................................................ 162
Single/Continuous .............................................. 163
VVM Calibration .................................................. 163
Zeroing ................................................................ 163
Procedures
1-Port Cable Trimming Measurement................ 163
2-Port Transmission Measurement .................... 165
A/B and B/A Measurements ............................... 165
VVM (Vector Voltmeter) Mode - Option 308
159
Overview
In the FieldFox, both 1-port and 2-port measurement types use a different
configuration setup from the HP/Keysight 8508A Vector Voltmeter.
Typical 8508A measurement configuration –as shown in the 8508A manual.
The above block diagram requires an external source and directional coupler to
measure the electrical length of a DUT or cable to be trimmed. Separate paths are
used to measure the Incident signal (A) and Reflected signal (B). To measure the
ratio of the Reflected/Incident signals, you were required to select B/A for both the
Magnitude and Phase display.
In the FieldFox, the source and directional coupler are inside the instrument. This
allows you to connect the DUT to ONLY the FieldFox PORT 1, with NO external
instruments, in order to make Cable Trimming measurements.
See the FieldFox block diagram and Cable Trimming procedures beginning on page
164.
VVM Mode Settings
Select VVM Mode before making any setting in this section.
How to select VVM Mode
 Press Mode
 Then VVM
Measurement Selection
How to select a VVM Measurement
 Press Measure 1
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
160
1-Port Cable Trimming 1-port reflection measurement. Learn how to make
this measurement on page 163.
2-Port Transmission 2-port transmission measurement. Learn how to make
this measurement on page 165.
FieldFox User’s Guide
o
B/A and A/B 2-port ratioed receiver measurements using external sources.
Learn more on page 165.
Frequency Selection
VVM measurements are made at a single CW frequency.
How to set Frequency
NOTE
Frequency can be set to 1 Hz resolution.
 Press Freq/Dist
 Then Frequency
 Enter a value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
 After using the ▲|▼ arrows or the rotary knob, press Enter. The increment
setting of the arrows is based on the current span and can NOT be changed in
VVM Mode.
 After using the keypad, select a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier abbreviations
on page 19.
Display Resolution
You can display either one digit or two digits after the decimal point for both
magnitude and phase readings.
This setting survives a Preset and Mode Preset.
How to set Resolution
 Press Scale/Amptd
 Then Resolution
 Then choose:
o
1 0.0 (default)
o
2 0.00
IF Bandwidth
Reducing the IF receiver bandwidth reduces the effect of random noise on a
measurement. However, narrower IF bandwidths cause longer measurement times.
For highest accuracy, Zero AFTER changing the IF Bandwidth. Learn about Zeroing
on page 163.
How to set IF BW
 Press BW 2
 Then IF BW
 Then choose from the following:
 10 Hz | 100 Hz | 1 kHz | 10 kHz | 100 kHz
More 30 Hz | 300 Hz | 3 kHz | 30 kHz
Output Power
Set the power level out of the FieldFox to High, Low, or manually set power level to a
value between High and Low.
VVM (Vector Voltmeter) Mode - Option 308
161
Generally, the high power setting is used when measuring passive, high-loss devices
to place the signal farther from the noise floor. However, for devices that are
sensitive to high power levels such as amplifiers, use the Low power setting.
For best measurement accuracy, use the Manual power setting at -15 dBm. After
calibration, the power level can be decreased for amplifiers, or increased for higher
dynamic range.
Caution
Power Level settings in this mode will NOT change Power Level settings in other
modes. To help prevent damage to your DUT, use caution when changing modes
with your DUT connected to the FieldFox test ports.
How to set Output Power
 Press Meas Setup 4.
 Then More
 Then Output Power
o
High (Default setting) Sets output power to the maximum achievable power at
all displayed frequency.
o
Low Sets output power to approximately –45 dBm.
o
Man Set output power to an arbitrary value.
o
Then press Power Level
o
o
Then enter a value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary
knob.
Press Enter.
Averaging
Averaging helps to reduce the effects of random noise on a measurement. The
FieldFox computes the displayed value over several consecutive readings. Average
count determines the number of readings to average. The higher the average count,
the greater the amount of noise reduction.
An average counter is shown in the left edge of the screen as Avg N. This shows the
number of previous readings that have been averaged together. When the counter
reaches the specified count, then a ‘running average’ of the last N readings is
displayed.
Average count = 1 means there is NO averaging.
This setting can be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
How to set Averaging
 Press Meas Setup 4
 Then More
 Then Avg N where N is the current count setting.
 Enter a value using the numeric keypad. Enter 1 for NO averaging.
 Press Enter.
To restart the averaging process, press Meas Setup 4, then More, then Restart
162
FieldFox User’s Guide
Single or Continuous Measure
This setting determines whether the FieldFox measures continuously or only once
each time the Single button is pressed. Use Single to conserve battery power or to
allow you to save or analyze a specific measurement.
This setting can be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
How to set Single or Continuous
 Press Meas Setup
4
 Then choose one of the following:
o
o
o
Single Automatically sets Continuous OFF and causes the FieldFox to make
ONE measurement, then hold for the next Single key press. When a data trace
is displayed, the entire trace is measured, then holds. The Hold annotation
changes to an arrow --> while the measurement occurs.
Continuous OFF and Hold both put the FieldFox in Hold mode.
Continuous ON Makes continuous measurements. This is the typical setting
when battery power is not critical.
 You can also use Run / Hold +/- to toggle between Single and Continuous.
VVM Calibration
CalReady is accurate for most zeroed VVM measurements at frequencies below
about 6 GHz. For the very highest accuracy, especially above 6 GHz, then perform a
QuickCal or Mechanical Cal. Learn more on page 63.
Press Zero OFF before calibrating.
Zeroing
Zeroing, also known as Normalization, or Data/Memory, simply “Zeroes” the
Magnitude and Phase display when Zero ON is pressed. All subsequent
measurements are relative to the measurement that was made when Zero was
pressed.
When an instrument state is saved with Zero ON, the zeroing data is saved with the
state file, similar to how a calibration is saved with a state file.
 When performing a 1-Port Cable Trimming operation, a reference cable is
connected and measured. Then Zero is pressed, and subsequent cables are
measured and trimmed to match electrical length of the reference cable.
 For 2-port measurements, Zero is typically pressed when a THRU connection is
made in place of a DUT. Learn more on page 165.
Press Zero OFF before performing a QuickCal or Mechanical Cal.
How to select Zeroing
 Press Meas Setup 4
 Then Zero Ref
o
Open – select to display Phase = 0.0 Deg when zeroed.
o
Short - select to display Phase = 180.0 Deg when zeroed.
 Then Zero ON
 Select Zero OFF to turn zeroing off.
VVM (Vector Voltmeter) Mode - Option 308
163
1-Port Cable Trimming Measurements
A 1-Port Cable Trimming measurement is used in a cable fabrication procedure to
validate proper electrical length.
 The R receiver measures incident signal (green line)
out of the source.
 The A receiver measures reflected signal (red line)
from the end of the DUT (black line).
 In VVM mode, the display ALWAYS shows ratioed
(A/R) measurements which is the electrical length of
the DUT.
FieldFox Block Diagram
How to make a 1-Port Cable Trimming Measurement
NOTE
1.
Press Mode then VVM then 1-Port Cable Trimming.
2.
Press Freq/Dist then enter the frequency for the measurement.
3.
To improve measurement stability, change the IF Bandwidth, Output Power, and
Averaging settings as needed.
4.
Press Meas Setup 4 then Zero OFF.
5.
Optionally calibrate the FieldFox. Learn more about VVM calibration on page
163.
6.
To ensure that the calibration is adequate, perform the following optional
Measurement Verification procedure.
This measurement verification procedure is suitable for low frequency
measurements. However, for high frequency measurements, a more sophisticated
procedure is required.
a.
Connect a short standard to PORT 1 where cables to be trimmed will
be connected.
b. Press Meas Setup 4 and press Zero.
c.
Remove the short standard and connect the open standard.
d. Confirm that magnitude measurement is less than –0.1 dB and that
the phase value reads 180° degrees.
7.
Attach the shortest cable to the FieldFox PORT 1 connector. This cable is the
reference cable. Leave the end of the reference cable open (unterminated).
8.
Press Meas Setup 4 then press Zero.
9.
Remove the reference cable from the FieldFox PORT 1 connector.
10. Connect an unterminated, longer cable to the FieldFox PORT 1 connector.
11. Observe the displayed phase difference between the reference cable and the
untrimmed cable.
NOTE
164
The VVM phase reading shows a maximum of ±180°. Therefore, the electrical length
of the untrimmed cable MUST be within 180° of the reference cable.
FieldFox User’s Guide
12. Carefully trim the cable until the phase shift reads zero. The attached cable’s
electrical length is now matched to the reference cable.
13. Repeat steps 10 through 12 for the remaining cables to be trimmed.
2-Port Transmission Measurements
A 2-Port Transmission measurement is used for measuring electrical length, insertion
loss, gain, or isolation of a DUT at a single CW frequency. The FieldFox signal source
is transmitted out the port 1 connector, through the DUT, and into the port 2
connector. In the following image, the gain of an amplifier is being measured.
2-Port Transmission measurement of an amplifier
How to make a 2-Port Transmission Measurement
1.
Press Mode then VVM then 2-Port Transmission.
2.
Press Freq/Dist and enter the measurement frequency.
3.
Press Meas Setup 4 then More then Output Power. Select High for passive
devices. Select Low for amplifiers.
4.
Calibrate the FieldFox using one of the methods described on page 163. Before
performing a QuickCal or Mechanical Cal, press Meas Setup 4 then Zero
OFF.
5.
Connect the DUT.
Notes:
 The magnitude value is the gain (positive value) or the loss (negative value) of the
DUT.
 The phase value is the difference in phase (in degrees) between the DUT input and
output.
 To measure isolation of the amplifier, reverse the connection to the amplifier
(PORT 1 to the amplifier output).
A/B and B/A Measurements
These measurements allow you to use the FieldFox A and B receivers, along with an
external source, to make ratioed measurements.
NOTE
These measurements require the “Full 2-port S-parameters” option.
The image below shows a typical configuration for a B/A magnitude and phase
measurement of a 2-port DUT. This DUT can be an antenna / probe setup. Using
network analyzer terms, the image shows the A receiver as the reference receiver
which measures the signal that is applied to the DUT. The B receiver is the test port
receiver which measures the DUT response.
VVM (Vector Voltmeter) Mode - Option 308
165
B/A Transmission measurement with external source
Procedure
166
1.
Connect the external source’s frequency reference output to the FieldFox Freq
Ref IN on the top panel. If you are unable to use a common frequency
reference, then increase the IFBW to ensure you are measuring the peak of the
correct signal. After locating and tuning to the signal, you may be able to lower
the IFBW to reduce noise.
2.
On the FieldFox, select System , then System Configuration, then Frequency
Ref, then Ext.
3.
Press Mode, then VVM , then B/A or A/B
4.
The FieldFox internal source is NOT used, so the output power setting is not
relevant.
5.
To calibrate, replace the DUT with a THRU connection, preferably by connecting
together the two Power Splitters (shown in green). For low frequency
measurements, TEEs can be used.
6.
Press Meas Setup 4, then Zero.
7.
Connect the DUT and measure.
FieldFox User’s Guide
Data Analysis Features
The following features can be used after a measurement to analyze the results.
In this Chapter
All about Markers ................................................ 167
About Delta Markers ........................................... 168
Marker Table ....................................................... 169
Coupled Markers................................................. 169
Marker Colors ..................................................... 170
Marker Trace (CAT and NA Mode) ..................... 170
Marker Trace (SA Mode) ..................................... 171
Marker Format .................................................... 171
Searching with Markers ...................................... 171
What Is a ‘Peak’ .................................................. 174
Marker Functions ................................................ 175
SA Noise Marker ................................................. 175
SA Band Power Marker ....................................... 176
SA Frequency Counter at Marker ....................... 176
All about Limit Lines ........................................... 176
Relative Limit Lines ............................................. 177
Build From Trace ................................................ 178
Limit Options ....................................................... 178
How to Save and Recall Limits ........................... 179
All about Trace Math .......................................... 179
About Math Operations ...................................... 180
All about Markers
Markers move along the X-axis range of the measurement trace to provide a
numerical readout of each measured data point. Markers also allow you to search for
specific Y-axis values.
A trace can contain up to six markers.
The marker readout on the FieldFox screen displays X and Y-axis information for the
current active marker ONLY.
A Marker Table can be displayed that allows you to simultaneously view X and Y-axis
information for all markers.
Markers can be used in CAT, NA, SA, and Pulse Measurements Modes.
How to create Markers
 Press Marker.
 Then Markers 1...6 to select a marker to activate.
 Then Normal to activate that marker. A marker is created on the trace in the
middle of the X-axis. That marker is now active.
Data Analysis Features
167
 Then move the marker using the rotary knob, the ▲|▼ arrows, or by entering an
X-axis position with the number keys.
 Then press Enter.
How to move a Marker after it is created
 Press Marker.
 Then Markers 1...6 repeatedly until the marker of interest is selected. The OFF,
Normal, or Delta softkey is black to indicate the current setting of each marker.
 Then move the marker as when it was first created.
 Markers can also be moved using one of the marker search functions. Learn more
on page 171.
Marker 2 is Active, marker 1 is NOT active.
About Delta Markers
A Delta marker provides X-and Y-axis readout information that is relative to a
‘reference’ marker.
A Delta marker is created with a ▲ (delta symbol) to distinguish it from the reference
marker.
All six markers can be a Delta marker pair.
Peak search functions can be performed using delta markers.
168
FieldFox User’s Guide
A Delta marker and its associated reference marker. The marker readout shows the
difference between the two markers in frequency and amplitude.
How to Create a Delta Marker
 Create a Normal marker and move it to the reference position.
 Press Delta. The marker becomes the reference marker and fixed in its X-Axis
position.
 Move the Delta marker using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary
knob.
 Press Enter when finished.
How to move the Reference marker
 Press Delta to turn the Delta marker OFF.
 Move the marker to the new position.
 Then press Delta again, to turn the Delta marker back ON.
Fix the position of the Reference marker (SA Mode ONLY)
In SA mode, the reference marker can be fixed at the Y-axis position of the data trace
when the marker was created, or it can ‘float’ with each sweep at the Y-axis position
of the data trace. In CAT and NA mode, the reference marker always floats with the
data trace. This setting applies to all SA markers.
 Create a Delta marker.
 From the Mrk ->/Tools menu, press More, then Marker Properties, then Delta
Ref Fixed
o
o
OFF – The reference marker floats at the data trace Y-axis position.
ON – The reference marker is fixed at the Y-axis position of the data trace when
the marker was created (default SA mode).
Marker Table
The Marker Table can be displayed at the bottom of the FieldFox screen. It can
display information for up to 6 markers in a full-width window, and up to 3 markers
for a half-width window (NA mode). The marker table “squeezes” the graticule area
when activated.
How to display the Marker table
 Press Marker.
 Then Marker Table On Off.
Coupled Markers
Coupled Markers, available in NA mode only, allows you to simultaneously create
and move markers that have the same number for all traces. For example, when
marker 2 is created on a trace, a marker 2 is created for ALL traces. When any
marker 2 is moved, they all move together to the same X-axis position.
 Coupled markers are allowed only in NA mode and are relevant only in multi-trace
configurations.
 You can have markers that are coupled and others that are uncoupled.
Data Analysis Features
169
 Peak functions move the marker to the peak on the active trace, while all other
markers move to the same X-axis position.
Coupled Markers move on ALL traces at the same time.
How to create Uncoupled Markers
NOTE
Markers are coupled by default.
To create markers that are NOT coupled (move independently on each trace):
 Press Marker
 Then More
 Then Coupled Markers OFF
Marker Colors
As shown in the above image, in NA and CAT Modes, markers are the same color as
the trace to which they are assigned. In SA Mode, the marker color is NOT the same
as the trace.
Marker colors can NOT be changed.
Marker Trace (CAT and NA Modes)
The Marker Trace setting is used to move markers between the data trace and
memory trace.
When Coupled Markers is ON, this setting applies to the active marker for ALL traces
that are coupled. Otherwise, this setting applies to the active marker on only the
active trace.
How to move a marker between traces
 With at least one marker present, press Marker then More.
 Then select the marker to move using Marker 1,2,3,4,5,6.
 Then toggle Marker Trace Auto Data Mem.
o
o
170
Auto - Marker resides on data trace when it is visible. Marker resides on memory
trace when only IT is visible (Default setting).
Data - Marker resides on data trace, even when not visible.
FieldFox User’s Guide
o
Mem - Marker resides on memory trace, even when not visible.
Marker Trace (SA Mode)
Marker Trace determines the trace number on which a marker resides. A marker is
created on, or can later be changed to, the trace number specified by the Marker
Trace selection. When changed, a marker moves to the same X-axis location on the
specified trace. Learn more about SA Traces on page 102.
How to move a marker between traces
 With two or more traces present, press Marker and Enter to create a marker. The
marker is created on the current Marker Trace selection (default setting is 1).
 Then More
 Then select the marker to move using Marker 1,2,3,4,5,6.
 Then toggle Marker Trace 1,2,3,4
o
o
The selected marker is moved to the specified trace.
When a marker is moved to a ‘blank’ trace (not visible) the marker moves to the
same X-axis position at either the Y-axis position of the last data, or to the ZERO
position.
Marker Format
The Marker Format setting, available ONLY in NA Mode, allows you to choose the
format of the marker readout that appears in the upper-right corner of the screen
and in the marker table. The marker format can be independent of the trace format,
and can be set independently for each trace. All markers on a trace have the same
marker format.
How to choose marker format
 Press Marker
 Then More
 Then Marker Format
 Then choose from the following:
Selection
Default Same as displayed format
R + jX Complex impedance format
(3rd number is distance for Time Domain)
Z Magnitude Impedance Mag.
Phase
Real
More
Imaginary
Mag & Phase
Example Y-axis value
22.8Ω -j61.4Ω
287.9fF
66.08Ω
73.8°
0.2003
-0.6727
0.705, -73.7°
To view other formats, change the trace format, then select Default. Learn how to
change format on page 43.
Searching with Markers
Marker Searches are used to move markers to locations on the trace which exhibits
the characteristics of the search criteria. Learn ‘What is a Peak’’ on page 174.
Data Analysis Features
171
How to Search with Markers
The following menu structure applies to NA Mode. Keystrokes will be slightly
different for CAT, Pulse Measurements, and SA Modes.
 Activate the marker to be used for the search (NOT necessary with Bandwidth
search.)
 Then press Mrk ->/Tools.
 Then Marker Search
 Then choose one of the following:
o
Tracking ON OFF (NA Mode ONLY)
o ON causes the active marker to search for the specified criteria with each new
sweep. Search criteria can include: Target, Bandwidth, Peak, Min. The
searches begin with the first sweep after Tracking is turned ON, based on the
current search type. The stimulus setting for a marker can NOT be changed
manually. Trk appears next to the marker number.
o OFF causes a new marker search only when the search feature is re-executed.
o
o
o
o
o
Peak Moves the active marker to the HIGHEST amplitude data point of the
trace. Peak Excursion value is ignored. In SA Mode, the LO feed-through signal
(0 Hz) is also ignored.
Min (Not available in DTF) Moves the active marker to the LOWEST amplitude
data point of the trace.
Target (NA Mode and Pulse Measurements ONLY) Enter the Target value. The
marker moves to the first occurrence of the Target value to the right of its
current position. The FieldFox interpolates between measured data points to
find the exact Target value to two decimal points. The interpolated X-axis value
is displayed in the marker readout or marker table. Subsequent presses of the
Target softkey cause the marker to move to the right to find the next occurrence
of the Target value. When the marker reaches the end of the stimulus range, it
"wraps around" and continues the search from the beginning of the stimulus
range.
Bandwidth ON OFF (NA Mode ONLY) Use to quickly toggle BW Markers ON
and OFF. When OFF, the marker table appears showing the X and Y-axis
positions of all enabled markers.
Bandwidth (NA Mode ONLY) Specify the level in dB from the peak or valley
where bandwidth is measured.
o Negative numbers search for a Peak bandpass, such as a filter S21 response.
o Either of the following TWO methods can be used to search for a Valley or
Notch filter, such as the S11 response of a bandpass filter.
172
o
Negative values search down from the TOP (MAX) of the response.
o
Positive values search up from the BOTTOM (MIN) of the notch.
o
If you first enter Negative, then Positive values, it may be necessary to
press Marker, then More, then Markers All Off.
FieldFox User’s Guide
S21 of a filter with BW Markers and associated readout values.
The search criteria is -3 dB.
S11 of the same filter with same search criteria: -3 dB.
The same values would result from a search criteria of approximately +30.4 dB.
Press Enter and four markers are automatically created to find the first negative or
positive bandpass over the displayed frequency range.
Bandwidth Search can be used ONLY with Log Mag display format.
The following six values are displayed for Bandwidth Search:
 BW: Width of the filter. (marker 2 freq) minus (marker 3 freq).
 Center: Marker 4 frequency. Mathematical midpoint between marker 2 and
marker 3.
 Q: Center Frequency / Bandwidth.
 Loss: Marker 1 amplitude.
 Left: Frequency of marker 2 or 3 (to left of marker 1).
 Right: Frequency of marker 2 or 3 (to right of marker 1).
 Press Back to return to the previous menu.
Press Peak Search then choose from the following:
Data Analysis Features
173
 Peak Moves the active marker to the HIGHEST amplitude data point of the trace.
Peak Excursion value is ignored. In SA Mode, the LO feed-through signal (0 Hz) is
also ignored.
 Next Peak Moves the active marker to the next highest amplitude peak from
where it currently resides.
 Peak Left Moves the active marker to the next data point to the left that meets
the ‘Peak’ criteria. When no data points to the left meet the ‘Peak’ criteria, the
marker does not move.
 Peak Right Moves the active marker to the next data point to the right that
meets the ‘Peak’ criteria. When no data points to the right meet the ‘Peak’ criteria,
the marker does not move.
The following applies to DTF Measurements ONLY:
 More then:
 Track Peaks ON OFF When Track Peaks is ON, markers will find the new peak
with every sweep. While in this Mode, the markers can NOT be turned OFF or
moved.
 Find 3 Peaks Three markers are created and find the highest peaks (faults) on
the trace.
What Is a ‘Peak’
You define what the FieldFox considers a "peak" by setting the Peak Threshold and
Peak Excursion.
These two peak criteria settings are set individually for each trace and for each mode
(CAT, SA, or NA).
These settings do NOT survive a FieldFox or Mode Preset.
NOTE
The Peak Threshold and Excursion settings are NOT available in DTF measurements.
To make these settings, create a non-DTF CAT mode measurement, then change the
measurement back to DTF.
How to set Peak Criteria
 Press Mrk ->/Tools.
 In CAT and NA modes:
o
Then Peak Search.
 In SA mode:
o
Then More
o
Then Mkr Properties
 Then Peak Criteria
 Then select the following:
o
NOTE
174
Peak Threshold Minimum amplitude (dB). To be considered valid, the peak
must be above the threshold level. The valley on either side can be below the
threshold level. Default = –190 for CAT and NA Modes; –90 for SA Mode.
CAT mode Loss measurements are displayed in positive values. In these cases, the
Peak Threshold setting is inverted. For example, Peak Threshold = -20 will consider
any peak that has less Loss than 20 dB to be valid.
FieldFox User’s Guide
o
Peak Excursion The vertical distance (dB) between the peak and the valleys
on both sides. To be considered a peak, data values must "fall off" from the peak
on both sides by the excursion value. Default = 0.5 dB for CAT and NA Modes; 6
dB for SA Mode.
For example, the settings for the trace in the following image are:
o
Threshold: –10 dB
o
Excursion: 1 dB
o
Scale = 1 dB / Division.
Peak A = Valid Peak (Above Threshold and Excursion Settings)
Peak B = Invalid Peak (Below 1 dB Excursion Setting)
Peak C = Invalid Peak (Below –10 dB Threshold Setting)
Marker Functions
Marker functions are used to change FieldFox frequency or distance settings to those
of the active marker.
How to use Marker Functions
 Activate the marker to move.
 Then press Mrk ->/Tools
 Then Mkr ->
Then choose one of the following:
o
o
o
o
Mrk -> Center (Not available in DTF or SA mode with zero span) The center
frequency of the measurement becomes the value of the active marker. The
frequency span is adjusted accordingly.
Mkr -> Delay (NA mode ONLY.) The group delay value of the active marker
becomes the electrical delay setting of the trace. Learn how to set group delay
format on page 43. Learn more about electrical delay on page 45.
Mkr->RefLev (SA mode ONLY) The reference level becomes the magnitude of
the active marker.
Mkr->Tune Freq (SA mode with Tune & Listen ONLY) The Tune & Listen
Frequency becomes the frequency of the active marker.
The following applies to DTF Measurements ONLY:
o
Data Analysis Features
More then:
175
o
o
Marker=>Start Distance The Start Distance of the measurement becomes the
value of the active marker. Markers that would no longer appear on the screen
are moved to the new Start Distance.
Marker=>Stop Distance The Stop Distance of the measurement becomes the
value of the active marker. Markers that would no longer appear on the screen
are moved to the new Stop Distance.
SA Marker Functions
The following Marker Functions are available in SA Mode ONLY:
 Noise Marker
 Band/Interval Power Marker
 Frequency Counter at Marker
 Audio Beep with Marker
 Time Zero Fixed Marker
Learn more about these marker functions starting on page 107.
All about Limit Lines
Limit lines are visual representations, drawn on the FieldFox screen, of the specified
limits for a measurement. With this capability, you can easily compare measured
data versus specifications. Optionally, you can enable an audible beep and display
Pass or Fail information for each measurement.
 You can have up to as many limit line segments as there are data points for each
measurement trace allowing you to test all aspects of your measurements.
 Limit lines are available in CAT Mode, NA Mode, and SA Mode. Power Meter Mode
uses different limit settings. Learn more on page 141.
 Limit lines and limit testing are NOT allowed in NA Mode with Smith Chart or Polar
display formats.
 A simple Display Line is also available in SA Mode ONLY. Learn more on page 107.
 Limit lines can be saved and recalled with an *.sta file. Learn more on page 181.
They can also be saved and recalled independently from the Limit softkeys. Learn
more on page 179.
How to Create Fixed Limit Lines
There are two ways to build a Fixed limit line:
1.
Build (limits) From a Trace. Learn how on page 178
2.
Enter X/Y data points into the on-screen editor. The limit line is formed as the
FieldFox ‘connects the dots’ on the screen. To create frequency gaps that are
NOT tested, use separate limit lines. The X-axis values for two lines can overlap.
 Press Limit 8.
 Then Edit Limits. A limit line table appears.
 Use the Up / Down arrows and rotary knob to navigate the cursor to the following
editable cells.
o
176
Description - Press Edit, then enter a description for the limit line using the
FieldFox labeler. Learn how on page 181.
FieldFox User’s Guide
o
Fixed/Relative – Press Edit to toggle between the following:
o Fixed - the limit line does not move. The X/Y coordinates are absolute
locations on the screen.
o Relative - the limit line moves relative to the center frequency and reference
level. Note: It is easiest to first create Fixed Limits, then change this setting to
Relative. Learn more on page 177.
o
Upper/Lower – Press Edit to toggle between the following:
o Upper - FAILS any measured data point ABOVE the line.
o Lower - FAILS any measured data point BELOW the line.
o
Off/On – Press Edit to toggle between the following:
o On - Limit line is drawn on the screen and PASS/FAIL testing occurs.
o Off - Limit line is NOT drawn on the screen and testing does NOT occur.
o
Frequency – Enter a numeric X-axis value of the data point.
o
Amplitude – Enter a numeric Y-axis value of the data point.
 Press Add then choose from the following:
o
Add Point - Adds a blank X/Y data point below the cursor.
o
Add Limit - Adds a default limit line below the current limit.
 Press Clear then choose from the following:
o
Clear Point - Removes the X/Y data point on which the cursor resides.
o
Clear Limit - Removes the limit Line on which the cursor resides.
o
Clear All - Removes ALL limit lines.
 Press <Back to return to the Limit menu.
Relative Limit Lines
Relative limit lines are X/Y coordinates that are referenced to the center frequency
(X-axis) and Reference level (Y-axis).
Use relative limits to test devices or signals that are identical except for the center
frequency or amplitude. With relative limit lines in place, you change the center
frequency of the measurement and the limits look as though they are in the same
location.
The same is true for Reference Level. When you expect to measure a different power
level, instead of changing the Y-axis value of all of the fixed limits, simply change to
relative limits. The limits will then remain a constant Y-axis distance from the
Reference Level.
Each limit line can be changed at any time from Fixed to Relative, and Relative to
Fixed.
How to Create a Relative Limit Line
The easiest way to create a Relative limit line is to create a Fixed Limit at a specific
center frequency and reference level. Learn how on page 176. Then change the limit
line to Relative. The X/Y data points will be re-calculated relative to the center
frequency and reference level.
Data Analysis Features
177
Build From Trace
A limit line can be built from an existing trace. One X/Y point is made from each
measured data point. Then, using an offset value, you can shift the limit line UP for
upper limits or DOWN for lower limits.
Once limit lines have been built from the trace, changes that you make to the trace,
such as frequency range, do NOT change the limits. However, the limit line
properties can be edited just like standard limit lines.
A lower limit line (red) built from the trace (yellow) shifted down 5 dB.
How to Build Limit Lines from a Trace
NOTE
Build from Trace is NOT allowed for traces with more than 1001 data points.
 Select the trace from which limits will be built.
 Press Limit 8.
 Then Edit Limits.
 Then Build From Trace. A limit line table appears.
 Use the ▲|▼ arrows to select ON.
 Use Offset to shift the limit line UP or DOWN. Learn how below.
Limit Options
How to set Limit Options
 Press Exit if the limit table is visible.
 Then Options.
 Then choose from the following:
o
Beep
o On Pass Audible beep sounds when a sweep passes.
o On Fail Audible beep sounds when a sweep fails.
o Off No audible beep sounds.
o
178
Warning On Off Shows Pass or Fail indication on the display with each sweep.
Data points that fail are highlighted.
FieldFox User’s Guide
o
o
Limit Type
Offset Shifts the limit line up or down. Enter an offset value using the rotary
knob, the ▲|▼ arrows, or by entering a value with the number keys.
o Enter a positive offset to shift the limit line UP, usually used with UPPER
limits.
o Enter a negative offset to shift the limit line DOWN, usually used with LOWER
limits.
o
Margin Shifts the limit line up or down like an offset, but only virtually. The limit
line does NOT appear to move. Enter a Margin value using the rotary knob, the
▲|▼ arrows, or by entering a value with the number keys.
o Enter a positive margin to virtually shift the limit line UP.
o Enter a negative margin to virtually shift the limit line DOWN.
How to Save and Recall Limits
In addition to saving and recalling limits with an *.sta file, limit lines can also be
saved and then recalled independent of the current mode or measurement. Use this
feature to recall and apply existing limit lines to measurements with different settings
or even a different frequency range.
Limit line files can be loaded into the FieldFox Data Link Software. Learn how in the
help file that is included in the Data Link software.
How to Save and Recall Limits
 Press Save/Recall then Select Device to set the Device (Internal, SD card, or
USB flash drive) to be used for the Save or Recall. Learn more on page 183.
 Then press Limit .
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
Save Limits After limit lines have been defined, this saves the line definition to
a file on the specified device.
Recall Limits Recalls a limit Line definition from the specified device.
All about Trace Math
Trace Math is available in CAT (excluding DTF measurements), NA Mode, and FOPS
(under USB Power Meter mode).
A trace is a series of measurement data points that are connected to form a line. This
‘live’ data trace is updated as data points are measured.
A memory trace is a live trace that has been stored in the FieldFox volatile memory. It
then becomes static, meaning it is not updated with measurements. It can be
displayed on the screen by itself, or with a data trace for comparison purposes.
 In NA mode, memory traces are the same color as data traces, but muted (duller).
 In CAT mode and FOPS, the data trace is displayed in yellow and the memory
trace is displayed in blue.
How to display data and memory traces
 Press Trace
Data Analysis Features
6.
179
 Then Data->Mem to store the current live trace into memory. A ‘beep’ sounds to
confirm the data trace has been saved to memory. There is no display annotation
that indicates that the memory trace has been stored.
o
Press Data to view only the data trace.
o
Press Memory to view only the memory trace.
o
Press Data & Memory to view both the live trace and the stored memory trace.
How to perform Trace Math
Trace math is performed between a live trace and a memory trace. When one of the
following math operations are selected, the yellow data trace displays the current
measurement with the selected trace math applied. The math operation symbol
indicated below in [brackets] is displayed on the lower left corner of the screen.
 Press Trace 6.
 If not already stored, press Data->Mem to store the current live trace into
memory.
 Then Data Math.
 Then choose one of the following:
o
o
o
o
Data + Memory [D+M] Current measurement data is added to the data in
memory.
Data – Memory [D-M] Current measurement data is subtracted from the data
in memory.
Data / Memory [D/M] Current measurement data is divided by the data in
memory.
Math Off [Data] Displays trace data with NO math applied.
About Math Operations
Data / Memory and Data - Memory math operations are performed on complex
linear data before it is formatted. Because data is often viewed in log format, it is not
always clear which of the two math operations should be used. Remember: dividing
linear data is the same as subtracting logarithmic data. The following illustrates, in
general, when to use each operation.
Use Data / Memory for normalization purposes, such as when comparing traces
"before" and "after" a change is made or when measuring trace noise. In the
following table, the Data/Mem values intuitively show the differences between
traces. It is not obvious what Data-Mem is displaying.
Values to compare
Data/Mem
Data-Mem
0.5 dB and 0.6 dB
0.1 dB
–39 dB
0.5 dB and 0.7 dB
0.2 dB
–33 dB
Use Data - Memory to show the relative differences between two signals. Use for
comparison of very small signals, such as the S11 match of two connectors.
In the following table, Data/Mem shows both pairs of connectors to have the same 2
dB difference. However, the second pair of connectors have much better S11
performance (–50 and –52). The relative significance is shown in Data-Mem.
180
Values to compare
Data/Mem
Data-Mem
–10 dB and –12 dB
2 dB
–24 dB
–50 dB and –52 dB
2 dB
–64 dB
FieldFox User’s Guide
File Management
The FieldFox can save any of the following types of files:
 Current settings and calibration
 Trace data (*csv and *.S1P)
 Picture of the FieldFox screen
In addition, files can be saved to the internal memory, a USB Flash drive, or a
microSD card.
In this Chapter
Save Files ............................................................ 181
Recall Files .......................................................... 183
Set File Type and Device ................................... 183
Manage Files ...................................................... 185
Manage Folders ................................................. 185
Edit Keywords ..................................................... 186
Prefixes for Filenames ........................................ 187
See Also
Erase User Data .................................................. 204
Saving and Recalling Files
NOTE
FieldFox State files are intended to be recalled on the same instrument model on
which they were saved. Sometimes you may able to recall them within model
families. An error will result when trying to recall a state file that was saved on a
different model family.
The FieldFox model families are:
 N991x (VNA/SA) model family
 N992x (VNA) model family
 N993x (SA) model family
Save Files
How to Save a File
 Press Save/Recall 9
 Then Save
 At the top of the current ‘labeler’ screen (see following image) check the File Type
to save and Device (Internal, USB, Storage Card) to which the file is saved. Learn
how to change these settings on page 183.
 Then use the labeler to specify a filename.
NOTE
File Management
Insert only ONE USB Flash Drive in the FieldFox when saving or copying files.
181
How to use the FieldFox labeler
The FieldFox labeler is used to edit or change the current filename. It is also used for
many other labeling functions, such as creating a title, prefix, and keyword to display
on the FieldFox screen.
 Press Select to add the cursor character to the end of the existing filename.
 Press Backspace to erase the last character from the current filename.
 Press Clear to erase the current filename.
 The preselected keywords (File, Site, and so forth) can be selected just like a single
character. These keywords can also be edited. Learn more on page 186.
The FieldFox labeler. The current filename is GF2.. The cursor is on the custom GF
keyword. The file will be saved to USB (flash drive). File Type is “Picture”.
How to move the cursor
 Use the rotary knob to move cursor on the same row. The cursor will change rows
when it comes to a row end.
 Use the ▲|▼ arrows to move the cursor up and down the rows.
When the current filename is complete
 Press Done to save the file to the specified filename. If the filename already
exists, a warning is displayed.
 Press Cancel to close the labeler without saving a file.
 If the filename already exists, you are prompted to choose from the following:
182
o
Press Yes to overwrite the existing file.
o
Press Cancel to edit the filename.
FieldFox User’s Guide
Recall Files
The FieldFox can recall State files, Trace + State files, and image files.
State Files
ALL FieldFox instrument settings for ALL Modes are saved and recalled in a *.sta file.
If error correction is ON in CAT or NA Mode, then calibration data is also saved and
recalled.
If error correction is OFF (CalRdy is active), calibration data is NOT saved in the *.sta
file. When a Trace + State file is recalled on a FieldFox other than the one it was
saved on, differences in the CalRdy calibration data may result in differences
between the displayed traces.
Image Files
The FieldFox can open and display *.png, *.jpg, and *.jpeg files.
How to Recall a File
NOTE
Before recalling a file, first Select the Device and Location from which the file will be
recalled. See the following section for more information.
 Press Save/Recall 9
 Then Recall
 Navigate to the file to be recalled using the Up/Down arrow keys.
 Then Recall File or Enter
Set File Type and Select Device
The following File TYPE and DEVICE settings are used to determine the type of file to
save, and the location to be used for all file operations.
These two settings remain through an instrument preset, but are reset to the default
values when the FieldFox power is shutdown.
Select Device (location of File Save/Recall)
 Press Save/Recall 9
 Then Select Device to set the LOCATION where the file is to be saved or recalled.
Choose from the following:
o
o
o
NOTE
Internal Saves/Recalls files to/from the FieldFox internal memory. To specify a
folder, first select Manage Folders (learn how on page 185). The Data Link
software will read data ONLY from the \UserData folder.
SD Card Saves/Recalls files to/from the SD card (not included), inserted in the
card slot. See FieldFox Tour on page 14. Only the root folder is available.
USB Saves/Recalls files to or from a USB Flash drive (not included) that is
inserted in one of the USB connectors. Only the root folder is available.
Insert only ONE USB Flash Drive in the FieldFox when saving or copying files.
How to set File Type
State files are the only file type that can be recalled by the FieldFox.
 Press Save/Recall 9
 Then File Type. Choose one of the following:
File Management
183
o
o
o
o
State Saves ALL FieldFox instrument settings for ALL Modes to a *.sta file. If a
calibration is ON in CAT or NA Mode, calibration data is also saved. This file can
be opened ONLY by a FieldFox. State files can be saved between compatible
FieldFox models. See note on page 181.
Trace + State Saves the current trace and instrument settings to a *.sta file. In
SA Mode, all traces are saved. This file can be opened ONLY by a FieldFox.
When recalled, the FieldFox sweep is set to Hold.
Picture Saves a 640 x 453 pixel image of the FieldFox screen to a *.png file.
The picture does NOT include the softkeys.
Data (S1P) / (2P) Saves CAT and NA Mode trace data to an *.S1P or *.S2P file,
depending on the active measurement. This file format is used by CAE programs
such as Keysight's Microwave Design System (MDS) and Advanced Design
System (ADS). It can also be imported into spreadsheet software such as
Microsoft Excel.
About SNP Files
 The SNP file includes header information, and the following data:
o
o
o
S1P - saves 1-port (receiver) data for the active data trace. *.s1p Files contain 1
stimulus value and 1 S-parameter (total of 3 scalar values) Stim Real(Sxx) Imag(Sxx)
S2P (NA Mode ONLY) - saves data for two S-parameters (S11, S21) if they are
both displayed. *.s2p Files contain 1 stimulus value and 4 S-parameters (total of
9 scalar values) Stim Real(S11) Imag(S11) Real(S21) Imag(S21) Real(S12) Imag(S12) Real(S22) Imag(S22)
When parameters are corrected, data is returned even when not displayed.
When parameters are NOT corrected or displayed, and the format is Mag/Phase,
zero-filled data appears as 0 dB and 0 degrees. When the format is
Real/Imaginary, zero-filled data appears as (1,0).
 Data is returned with the correction type that is applied for each S-parameter. The
correction type for each S-parameter is annotated in the header.
 Only the data trace is saved – not the memory trace.
 In CAT Mode, S1P files are always Magnitude(dB) / Phase (angle) format.
 In NA Mode, SNP files for traces in Smith Chart or Polar format saves
Real/Imaginary format. All other trace formats are saved in Mag/Phase format.
 Trace Math is ignored when saving data to an SNP file.
o
Data (csv) Saves trace data from the current Mode to a *.csv file. This format
can be imported into spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel.
o In SA Mode, all visible data traces are saved. Each trace is saved to a separate
column that is labeled with the Trace State.
o In CAT and NA Modes, only the data trace is saved – not the memory trace.
o In Power Meter and VVM Mode, NO data is saved.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
Image of header information and three rows of data from a *.csv file saved in SA
mode with 4 traces visible. Column A is always the frequency at which the data is
measured.
Manage Files
Files that are stored in the FieldFox internal memory, microSD card, and USB Flash
drive, can be copied to another device or deleted.
How to Manage files
 Press Save/Recall 9
 Then Select Device to select the location (Internal, USB, or microSD Card) of the
file to copy or delete.
NOTE
When selecting Internal, it may also be necessary to first select Manage Folders to
specify an active folder which contains the files to copy or delete.
 Then More
 Then Manage Files
 Then choose from the following:
NOTE
For Copy File and Copy All Files, files are always copied to a subdirectory titled
Copy_<date.time stamp> of when the file was copied. For example,
“Copy_June.27.2013-00.40.47”. A new subdirectory is created every time a file is
copied. Files can NOT be copied to other folders. To get a file to a different folder, it
must be saved to the specified folder.
o
o
o
NOTE
Copy File Select a file to copy. Then select a device to copy the file to. Choose
from Internal, USB (must be inserted), or SD Card (must be inserted).
Copy All Files All files that appear will be copied. Then select a device to copy
the file to. Choose from Internal, USB (must be inserted), or SD Card (must be
inserted).
Delete File The selected file is deleted after a warning prompt is displayed.
Insert only ONE USB Flash Drive in the FieldFox when saving or copying files.
Manage Folders
You can create new folders, delete old folders, and select the active folder to which
files can be saved. The Parent folder [..] is listed when not in the root directory.
File Management
185
How to Manage Folders
 Press Save/Recall 9
 Then More
 Then Manage Folders
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
Change Folder Changes the active folder to which files can be saved. The
active device and current folder is displayed at the top of the screen, and below,
a list of files in that folder. Use the ▲|▼ arrows to highlight a folder within the
current folder. Each time the Change Folder softkey is pressed, the highlighted
folder becomes the active folder.
Create Folder A new folder is created in the current folder. Select a name for
the new folder from one of the displayed keywords: You can change these
keywords using the following Edit Keywords function.
Delete Folder The selected folder and its contents are deleted after a warning
prompt is displayed. A “Parent” folder or system folder can NOT be deleted.
 Press Exit when finished.
Edit Keywords
The preselected keywords (FILE, SITE, and so forth) can be edited to meet your
specific needs. Your keywords will remain in the FieldFox until you change them.
Keywords are limited to 30 characters.
How to edit keywords
 Press Save/Recall 9
 Then More
 Then Edit Keywords
 Then Next Page and Previous Page to view all keywords.
 Use the ▲|▼ arrows to select a keyword to edit.
 When a keyword is selected, then press Edit.
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
Press Select to add the cursor character to the end of the selected keyword.
Press Backspace to erase the last character from the end of the selected
keyword.
Press Clear to erase the selected keyword.
How to move the cursor:
 Use the rotary knob to move the cursor along the same row. The cursor will
change rows when it comes to a row end.
 Use the ▲|▼ arrows to move the cursor up and down between rows.
When the selected keyword is complete:
 Press Done to save all keywords and close the Edit Keywords labeler. These
keywords will exist on the FieldFox until changed.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
 Press Cancel to close the labeler without saving changes.
Prefixes for Filenames
A prefix is used as a default filename to which characters can be added. The prefix
can be customized, and quickly enabled or disabled. When enabled, the current
prefix is automatically entered as the start of a filename when performing a Save
operation.
How to enable and disable the current Prefix
 Press Save/Recall 9
 Then More
 Then Prefix ON OFF The current selection is underlined.
How to edit the current Prefix
 Press Save/Recall 9
 Then More
 Then Prefix
 Then choose from the following:
o
Press Select to add the cursor character to the end of the Prefix.
o
Press Backspace to erase the last character from the end of the Prefix.
o
Press Clear to erase the Prefix.
o
The preselected keywords (File, Site, and so forth) can be selected just like a
single character. These keywords can also be edited. See Edit Keywords.
How to move the cursor
 Use the rotary knob to move cursor on the same row.
 Use the ▲|▼ arrows to move the cursor up and down the rows.
When the Prefix is complete
 Press Done to save the Prefix and close the labeler. This Prefix will exist on the
FieldFox until it is changed.
 Press Cancel to close the labeler without saving changes.
Printing
The current screen or selected files can be printed using a PCL-compatible printer
(like older HP Deskjet printer) connected to one of the FieldFox USB ports. Newer
PCL3GUI photo and all-in-one printers are NOT supported.
Measurements can also be printed using the FieldFox Data Link software.
How to print the current screen or a saved file.
To save ink, first select an outdoor (white background) display color. Learn how on
page 192.
 Connect the printer to a FieldFox USB port. The print softkey will appear ONLY
when a compatible printer is connected.
File Management
187
 Then press Save/Recall 9
 Then Print and choose from the following:
 Printer and Page Setup - Confirm that that printer is connected and configured
properly. The Status line should read “Ready’.
o
Make other print settings as desired.
 Select Files for Printing - Print up to 16 *.PNG images on one page that are
stored on the Internal drive. Images can NOT be printed from the USB and SD
card.
o
Edit the Quick Settings table to select up to FOUR Rows and FOUR Columns for
up to 16 total images to be printed on a single page.
o
If necessary, edit the filenames to be printed.
o
Select Done. Then Print Selected Files to begin printing.
 Print Current Screen – Immediately prints the FieldFox screen using the selected
Printer and Page Setup settings.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
System Settings
In this Chapter
Run/Hold ............................................................ 189
Preset .................................................................. 190
User Preset ......................................................... 190
Volume Control ................................................... 191
Display Settings .................................................. 191
Brightness ..................................................... 192
Colors ........................................................... 192
Trace Width .................................................. 192
Title ............................................................... 192
Edit Keywords ............................................... 193
Full Screen Mode ......................................... 193
Preferences
Quick Settings Table .................................... 194
Save and Reset Preferences ........................ 194
Language ...................................................... 195
Startup Mode ............................................... 195
Battery Saver ................................................ 196
System Configuration
Options (Licensing) ....................................... 196
GPS ............................................................... 197
Frequency Reference Source ....................... 199
Voltage Source (Opt 309) ............................ 201
Security Level ............................................... 201
Date and Time Settings ................................ 202
LAN Settings................................................. 203
Power ON ..................................................... 204
Service Diagnostics ............................................ 204
System Information ...................................... 204
Erase User Data ............................................ 205
See Also
Battery Usage ....................................................... 11
FieldFox Internal Temperatures ............................ 12
Run/Hold
The Run/Hold key determines whether the FieldFox sweeps continuously or does
NOT sweep, but holds the display results of the last sweep that was performed.
Use Hold to conserve battery power or to allow you to save or analyze the results of
a specific measurement sweep.
The current sweep mode is shown on the screen as:
System Settings
189

Continuous
 Hold
Hold
 -->
is displayed while a single sweep occurs.
How to perform a single sweep while in Hold
 Press Sweep 3.
 Then choose one of the following:
o
o
o
Single Automatically sets Continuous OFF (Hold) and causes FieldFox to make
ONE measurement sweep, then hold for the next Single key press.
SA Mode ONLY – With Continuous OFF each successive Run/Hold press also
causes a single sweep.
Continuous ON OFF Makes continuous sweeps. This is the typical setting
when battery power is not critical.
Preset
The Preset key restores the FieldFox measurement settings to a known condition.
You can preset the entire instrument, or just the current Mode (CAT, SA, and so
forth).
When Preset, the FieldFox CalReady calibration is recalled for use in CAT and NA
Modes. Learn more on page 64.
In addition to all Preference settings, the following settings always survive Preset and
Mode Preset:
 External Reference state (page 199)
 SA Units (page 84)
 SA Correction states (page 87)
 VVM Display Resolution (page 161)
 Marker Peak Excursion and Threshold (page 174)
How to Preset the FieldFox
 Press Preset .
 Then choose one of the following:
o
o
Preset Returns ALL Modes to the factory default settings.
Mode Preset Returns only the current Mode to the factory default settings.
The current settings for all other Modes remain.
User Preset
User Preset allows you to store custom settings for each mode, then recall the
settings when the Preset key is pressed. Your custom settings are saved to a
standard State file (UserPreset.sta). However, unlike State files, calibration data is
NOT saved. Learn more about State files on page 183.
How to set User Preset
 Make your custom settings for all modes.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
 When finished, press Preset .
 Then Save User Preset, then select Yes to confirm.
 Then User Preset ON
How to recall User Preset
 Press Preset .
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
Preset (User) The entire UserPreset.sta file is recalled. ALL modes assume the
settings that were in place when the User Preset was saved. The active mode is
the mode that was visible when the file was saved.
Mode Preset (User) The settings for only the current mode are recalled from
UserPreset.sta.
NOTES
 Only the instrument settings are saved to UserPreset.sta. No trace data or
calibration data is saved.
 User Preset ON / OFF is saved as a Preference setting. Like all preferences, this
setting survives a FieldFox shutdown and power ON. Therefore, when User Preset
is ON during shutdown, the FieldFox will load UserPreset.sta when it is powered
ON.
 To return to Factory Preset, select User Preset OFF. The contents of
UserPreset.sta remain stored on the FieldFox. When User Preset is OFF, you can
also set the Startup Mode preference that determines which mode will be visible
after powering ON. Learn more on page 195.
Audio (Volume) Control
System volume control is a FieldFox global setting which sets speaker volume for ALL
success beeps, key press clicks, and individual features that use the FieldFox
speaker, such as SA Mode Tune and Listen.
The volume control setting remains through a FieldFox Preset. To cause your volume
control setting to remain through a FieldFox shutdown, save the setting as a
Preference. Learn how on page 194.
How to set FieldFox Volume Control
 Press System 7
 Then Volume
 Then use the ▲|▼ arrows, the rotary knob, or numeric keypad to enter a value
between 0 (lowest volume) and 100 (highest volume).
 Press Volume again and select Mute to quickly turn OFF the speaker volume.
Press Volume again to set volume ON to the previous volume control.
Display Settings
You can adjust the FieldFox for optimum viewing in a wide range of lighting
conditions.
System Settings
191
Display settings remain through a FieldFox Preset. To cause the display brightness,
color settings, and trace width to remain through a FieldFox shutdown, save the
display settings as Preferences. Learn how on page 194.
NOTE
Clean the transflective screen with gentle and minimal wiping using Isopropyl alcohol
applied to a lint-free cloth.
Display Brightness
Change the brightness of the background.
How to set Display Colors
 Press System 7
 Then Display
 Then Brightness
 Use the ▲|▼ arrows, the rotary knob, or numeric keypad to enter a value
between 0 and 100%.
Display Colors
Change Display Colors to alter the viewing scheme.
How to set Display Colors
 Press System 7
 Then Display
 Then Display Colors
 Then choose one of the following:
Indoor
Outdoor Dusk
Outdoor Clouds
Outdoor Sun
Night Vision
Trace Width
You can set width of all displayed traces on the FieldFox. This may allow better
viewing or enhance the look of screen images. This setting can be saved with
Preferences.
How to set Trace Width
 Press System 7
 Then Display
 Then Display Colors
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FieldFox User’s Guide
 Then More
 Then Trace Width
 Then choose one of the following:
o
Normal - Standard width.
o
Wide - Enhanced width.
Title
A custom title can be made to appear in the upper-left corner of the FieldFox screen.
The title can contain up to approximately 65 alpha-numeric characters. To view the
Title area, see the Screen Tour on page 18.
How to add or edit a Title
 Press System 7
 Then Display
 Then Title
 Then enter or edit a title using the FieldFox labeler. This is the same labeler
function that is used to name files. Learn how to use the labeler on page 181.
 Then Title ON OFF to make the title appear and disappear from the screen.
Edit Keywords
During a file save operation, keywords can be quickly appended to other text to
create unique filenames. The Edit Keywords feature allows you to create custom
keywords. Learn all about Edit Keywords on page 186.
Full Screen Mode
Full Screen Mode maximizes the display of trace. The screen annotations and the
soft keys are removed.
How to set Full Screen Mode
 Press System 7
 Then Full Screen
To Exit full screen Mode, press any key.
Preferences
FieldFox preferences are settings that survive a shutdown. When your FieldFox is
turned OFF, then back ON, these settings remain. All preference settings can be
restored to their factory defaults. Learn how on page 194
There are two ways to make FieldFox preference settings:
 From softkey selections throughout the FieldFox menu structure. Do this to
temporarily try a setting, then press Save Current Settings (as preferences). Learn
how in the next section.
 From the Quick Settings table.
System Settings
193
Quick Settings Table
All preferences can be set from the Quick Settings table. They are immediately saved
as Preferences when Done is pressed.
How to view and change Preference Quick Settings
 Press System 7
 Then Preferences
 Then Preferences
 Press Next Page and Previous Page to view all settings.
 To change a setting:
o
Use the ▲|▼ arrows to highlight a setting.
o
Then press Edit. The current setting changes to yellow.
o
o
Some settings require you to press a softkey to change the value. Otherwise, use
the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or rotary knob to change the value.
When finished changing a value, press Done Edit
 When finished changing ALL preferences, press Done. All changes are
immediately saved as Preferences.
 To exit the editing session without saving changes, press Esc at any time.
Learn more about these preference settings:
Setting
Learn more…
Language
on page 195
Battery Saver
on page 195
Startup Mode
on page 195
Display Settings
on page 191
Audio
on page 191
Date and Time
on page 202
GPS
on page 197
CAT Distance Units
on page 36
Save and Reset Preferences
All preference settings can be made at one time from the Quick Settings table.
All settings that can be saved as preferences (except Battery Saver and Startup
Mode) can also be made from individual softkey selections throughout the FieldFox
menu structure. However, they ONLY remain set through a FieldFox shutdown when
the current settings are saved as preferences.
The table above shows a list of all of these settings and where they are discussed in
this User’s Guide.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
How to save current settings as Preferences
 Using softkeys, configure the settings as you would like them to remain.
 Press System 7
 Then Preferences
 Then Save Current Settings There is a beep when your settings have been
saved.
 Press Reset Preferences to restore the factory default settings.
Language
Choose the language in which to display FieldFox softkeys and other messages.
Select Save Current Settings to set this language as a preference.
How to select a Language
 Press System 7
 Then Preferences
 Then Language
 Then choose from the following:
o
English
o
Espanol – Spanish
o
Deutsch – German
o
Italiano – Italian
o
Francais – French
o
Russian
o
Japanese
o
Chinese
o
Turkish
Startup Mode
The Startup Mode setting determines the mode that becomes active (visible) when
User Preset is set to OFF (Factory Preset) and the FieldFox is powered ON. Learn
more about User Preset on page 190.
How to set Startup Mode
 Press System 7
 Then Preferences
 Then Preferences
 Then scroll to Startup Mode and press Edit.
 Then repeatedly press the Startup Mode to scroll through the available choices.
System Settings
o
<Default> is the factory default mode for your FieldFox model.
o
Built-in Power Meter Mode is NOT allowed as a Startup Mode.
195
Battery Saver
When the battery saver is OFF, the RF source power is left ON at the end of the
sweep which consumes more battery power. This feature is used in CAT, NA, VVM
modes, and SA mode when the internal source is turned ON.
Battery Saver is the ONLY FieldFox setting that must be made as a Preference from
the Quick Settings table. This setting remains until you change it again.
How to set Battery Saver
 Press System 7
 Then Preferences
 Then Preferences
 Then scroll to Battery Saver
o
o
ON – Default setting. To conserve battery power, the RF source power is turned
OFF at the end of each CAT, NA, and VVM mode sweep. This behavior does not
impact FieldFox measurements.
OFF – Source power is kept ON at all times, including during trigger Hold mode
and between single sweep acquisitions. The RF source stays at the stop
frequency until another sweep begins. This provides a constant, uninterrupted
RF output from the RF OUT port. This behavior also provides the highest trace
stability sweep-to-sweep which may only be evident while using either single
sweep or Run/Hold. With Battery Saver OFF, the use of a full battery charge is
reduced by approximately 45 minutes.
System Configuration
Options (Licensing)
You can view and install options on your FieldFox. To see a comprehensive list of the
options that are available, view the FieldFox Configuration Guide at:
http://literature.cdn.keysight.com/litweb/pdf/5990-9836EN.pdf
How to view the Installed Options
 Press System 7
 Then System Configuration
 Then Options(Licensing)
 Then Show Options
The currently installed options are listed.
How to Install Options
A .lic file must already be on a USB Flash Drive. To learn how to obtain a .lic file,
visit: http://www.keysight.com/find/softwarelicense
Insert the USB Flash Drive in the FieldFox.
 Press System 7
 Then System Configuration
 Then Options
 Then Install Options The FieldFox reads, validates, then installs the options.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
 Press and hold the power button to shutdown, then restart the FieldFox.
How to Delete ALL Options
Deleting individual options is NOT supported.
 Press System 7
 Then System Configuration
 Then Options
 Then Advanced
 Then Delete All Options
After a warning message, all options on the FieldFox are deleted.
NOTE
Delete All CFG Options is to be used by Service Personnel ONLY.
For more information about Licensing, see the FieldFox Service Manual at:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox.
GPS
GPS (Global Positioning System) allows you to ‘stamp’ each data trace with your
physical position in latitude/longitude/elevation format. This can be useful when
making measurements on cell towers or other antennas at remote locations.
 With Option 307, GPS is available with the built-in receiver accessed through the
top-panel SMA (f) connector. This connector has a 3.3 VDC bias voltage which is
switched ON when GPS is set to Internal. This system is designed for use with an
active antenna such as the Keysight N9910X-825.
 Without Option 307, GPS is usable ONLY with an external GPS receiver that is
shipped with Microsoft “Streets and Trips” and “AutoRoute”. The GPS receiver is
NOT available from Keysight. Only the GPS USB receiver is used with the FieldFox.
Therefore, it is NOT necessary to purchase the very latest version of the map
software.
How to make GPS settings
GPS settings are the same with, or without, Option 307.
 Your GPS settings can be saved with Preferences. Learn more on page 194.
 Press System 7
 Then System Configuration
 Then GPS
 Then choose from the following:
 Display ON OFF Enable and disable the GPS display on the FieldFox main
window.
 GPS
o
o
System Settings
OFF - Disable GPS (default setting).
External - Enable GPS using an external, customer-supplied, USB dongle
device. A check is made to detect a USB GPS device at the USB connectors.
197
o
Internal - Enable GPS using Option 307 – Built-in GPS. Connect a GPS antenna
to the top-panel GPS connector. Learn more about additional GPS antenna
accessories at http://www.keysight.com/find/fieldfox. Internal is set
automatically when Frequency Reference Source is set to GPS. Learn more on
page 199.
 When Internal or External is selected, a search is made for satellites overhead.
GPS works best when outdoors and in full view of the open sky. When several
satellites are found, the following screen appears (when Display is set to ON) and
is updated frequently:
 The left portion of the screen shows satellites and the corresponding number on
the adjacent Satellite Power chart.
GPS Status
With GPS enabled the following is displayed at the top of the FieldFox screen:
The following icons (located in RED circle above) indicate the GPS lock status:
- GPS ON and locked on satellites.
- GPS ON, but NOT locked on satellites.
- GPS ON, but no GPS receiver is present or detected.
The following annotation (BLUE circle in above image) indicates the INTERNAL, toppanel antenna status:
 Ant: INIT – antenna status initializing.
 Ant: OK – antenna present and working.
 Ant: OPEN – antenna is not drawing DC bias current. This could occur when an
active antenna is not connected properly or the antenna does not require DC bias
current. Antennas that do not require bias current can still provide an accurate
GPS reading.
 Ant: SHORT – antenna center pin has been shorted to ground. The internal bias
circuitry is disabled for about one minute, then re-enabled. You can also press
GPS OFF, then GPS Internal to quickly re-enable the antenna bias.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
More GPS settings
 Press System 7
 Then System Configuration
 Then GPS
 Then choose from the following:
 Sync Clock ON OFF Enable and disable the synchronization of the FieldFox
internal clock to the GPS UTC time standard.
NOTE
The GPS Sync setting has the same restrictions as the Date and Time setting. Learn
more on page 202.
o
o
ON The FieldFox clock is synchronized and updated approximately every
second to the time of the GPS clock.
OFF The FieldFox clock is NOT synched with GPS. When set to OFF after Sync
was ON, the date and time does NOT revert back to the settings before the clock
was synchronized.
 Lat/Lon Format Change the format of the GPS display on the FieldFox screen.
Choose from:
o
ddd°mm’ ss.sss” degrees, minutes, seconds (default setting)
o
ddd°mm.mmmmm’ degrees, minutes, fractional minutes
o
ddd.ddddddd° decimal degrees
 Elevation Unit Choose from:
o
m (Meters)
o
Feet
Saving Data with GPS Enabled
GPS position and clock data are included when data is saved with the following files
types: *.csv, *.SnP, State, State+Trace data save.
A warning is shown if the GPS is ON but unlocked at time of save, or if the GPS
feature is ON but no GPS is physically present at time of save.
The following is a sample S1P file with GPS information:
!GPS Latitude: 38 28.87717 N
!GPS Longitude: 122 42.66625 W
!GPS TimeStamp: 06/25/2010 16:24:48
!GPS Seconds Since Last Read: 2
Frequency Reference Source
The FieldFox internal frequency reference source is used to make accurate and stable
measurements. To improve measurement accuracy and stability, you can use a
highly-stable external 10 MHz reference source or a precision timing signal provided
with Built-in GPS (Opt. 307).
The Frequency Reference setting will survive a FieldFox or Mode Preset and is saved
as part of the Instrument State. When resuming after Stand By, the FieldFox will
display an Unlock message while it acquires a lock to an external or GPS source.
System Settings
199
How to select Frequency Reference Source
 Press System 7
 Then System Configuration
 Then Frequency Ref
 Then Freq Ref Source
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
Int Internal frequency reference
Ext External frequency reference. Connect the 10 MHz External Reference to
the Ref In/Trig In SMA (f) connector on the FieldFox top panel. The FieldFox
may take up to 10 seconds to lock to a valid External Reference source.
GPS Available ONLY with Built-in GPS (Opt. 307). When selected, the internal
GPS is immediately enabled and a search for satellites begins. When satellites
are found, the precision timing signal is NOT used directly, but is used to correct
the absolute frequency of the internal reference many times per second.
Hold-over mode
When the GPS signal is lost, the last GPS reading is used as a hold-over correction
value for the internal reference. The hold-over correction value is no longer used, but
instead the factory-set correction value is used, when any of the following occur:
o
when GPS is disabled.
o
when Reference Source is set to Internal.
o
when the FieldFox resumes from Stand By mode or shut down.
Frequency Reference Status
When switched to Ext or GPS, one of the following annotations appears in the lowerleft corner of the screen:
 EXT R – External reference is selected.
 GPS R – GPS reference is selected.
 GPS H – Internal Reference is used with last ‘hold-over’ correction reading.
If the FieldFox does NOT find an appropriate Ext or GPS reference signal, then Ext
Ref UNLOCKED is displayed in the lower-left corner of the graticule area. This can
occur when any of the following conditions exist:
 NO reference signal is present.
 A low or very high-level external reference signal is present. For best results, the
signal should be between –5 dBm and +5 dBm.
 The external reference is off-frequency.
To learn the expected measurement accuracy when connected to a frequency
reference source, see the FieldFox specifications on page 222.
Reference OUT
The internal 10 MHz frequency reference is available from the Ref/Trig output
connector on the right-side panel. Use this signal as a common frequency reference
when making measurements using external equipment. See this connector on page
17.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
Voltage Source (Opt. 309)
An internal DC source, available with Opt. 309, may be used to provide power for
external devices. The maximum power available is 8 watts.
The voltage is output through an SMB(m) output connector located on the left-side
panel. See the connector on page 17.
An optional SMB (f) to BNC (m) bias-tee power cable is available with Keysight part
number: N9910X-713.
 The following status line is provided near the top of the FieldFox screen.
Voltage Source Status Line
1.
Voltage source state: ON, OFF, TRIPPED.
2.
Voltage setting from 1.00 V to 32.00 V with .01 V resolution.
3.
Current: The amount of current (in Amperes) being drawn from the source.
4.
Max Current: A conservative estimate of maximum current possible given the
present voltage setting. The actual ‘trip’ level may be slightly different.
How to make Voltage Source settings
 Press System 7
 Then System Configuration.
 Then Voltage Source.
 Then Source ON OFF to enable and disable the voltage source output.
 Then Voltage x.xx V Using ▲|▼ arrows, the rotary knob, or numeric keypad,
enter a value between .001 and 32 volts.
 Clear Overload If the voltage source becomes ‘TRIPPED’ press to re-enable the
voltage source output. Then reset Source ON.
 Status Line ON OFF Turn ON and OFF the voltage source status line that
appears near the top of the screen. The status line is always ON while making
Voltage Source settings.
Security Level
For security reasons, you can prevent frequency information from appearing on the
FieldFox while in SA, NA, or CAT modes.
How to set Security Level
 Press System 7
 Then System Configuration
 Then Security Level
 Then choose from the following:
o
None All frequency settings are visible.
o
High Frequency information is blanked from the following:
o Display annotation
o Softkeys
System Settings
201
o Marker display and marker table
o Calibration properties
o All settings tables
o Limit line tables
o All saved .png files
o
Any of the following will re-display frequency information:
o Set to None, Preset, Mode Preset, or FieldFox restart.
Date and Time, Format, and Time Zone Settings
Set the local date and time, Date and Time format, and Time Zone that is shown on
the FieldFox screen. The Date and Time is also used to identify files that are saved.
The Date and Time can also be set by synchronizing with GPS satellites. Learn more
on page 197.
How to Update Date and Time using Internet
This method of setting the Date and Time does NOT have the security restrictions of
the other methods (listed below).
This method will NOT set the correct Time Zone. You must do that using the manual
method. See below.
 Press System 7
 Then System Configuration.
 Then More
 Then Update Time using Internet
 Connect a LAN cable that is also connected to the internet.
 Then press Update Time using Internet. When successful, a message is
displayed indicating the amount of time correction that occurred.
 Optional: Set the following when a Proxy server is used to connect to the internet:
o
Proxy Host – Enter the name of the proxy host.
o
Proxy Port – Enter the port number of the proxy host.
How to MANUALLY set Date and Time, Format, and Time Zone
NOTE
Because of licensing security, the manual and GPS Sync methods to set Date and
Time are restricted as follows:
 Can be set backward no more than 5 hours at a time.
 Can be set forward any amount of time.
 Can be set backward or forward no more than once in a day. A new day begins
at midnight.
There is no restriction for setting the Time Zone.
To change the Date and Time backward a significant amount, send an email to
[email protected]
TIPS
202
BEFORE manually setting the Date and Time, be absolutely certain that the Time
Zone setting is correct.
FieldFox User’s Guide
 Press System 7
 Then System Configuration.
 Then More
 Then Date and Time.
 Press the ▲|▼ arrows to highlight the row to be edited.
 Then press Edit.
 Use the ▲|▼ arrows or rotary knob to select the field to be edited.
 Use the ▲|▼ arrows or numeric keypad to edit that field.
 Press Cancel or Done when the edits are complete.
 Press Done to exit the Date and Time settings. The readout in the upper-right
corner of the FieldFox screen will update accordingly.
LAN Settings
Configure the LAN settings to be used to communicate with the Data Link Software
and connect to the FieldFox for remote SCPI operation. Learn more about Data Link
at: www.keysight.com/find/fieldfoxsupport.
LAN Settings
How to configure the LAN settings
The first three ‘Current...’ settings can NOT be edited.
 Press System 7.
 Then System Configuration.
 Then LAN.
 Use the ▲|▼ arrows to select one of the following, then press Edit.
o
o
Hostname Change the name that can be used to address the FieldFox if your
server supports this feature. The default hostname is generated automatically.
Obtain IP Choose from:
o DHCP - IP Address is assigned dynamically. If your server supports this
feature, the IP Address for the FieldFox is assigned each time it is started.
o Static - Set the IP Address manually. The Address remains until you change it.
o
System Settings
Static IP Address - Enter the IP Address – including periods - in the format
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
203
o
o
o
Static Subnet Mask - Enter the Subnet Mask – including periods - in the format
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
Static Gateway - Enter the Static Gateway – including periods - in the format
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
Apply Settings Choose from:
o Power Up The above settings take effect when the FieldFox is started.
o Now The above settings take effect immediately.
NOTE
To make the LAN settings persist after power up, toggle Apply Settings to Now then
back to Power Up. You should see a message indicating that the LANconfig file was
saved.
 Press Done Edit when finished.
Power ON
When the FieldFox is without a power source, this setting allows the FieldFox to
power ON as soon as a charged battery or the DC Adapter is inserted without
pressing the power button.
How to set Power ON
 Press System 7
 Then System Configuration
 Then Power ON
 Then choose from the following:
o
o
Auto The FieldFox will power ON when a charged battery or the DC Adapter is
inserted.
Manual The FieldFox will power ON only when the power button is pressed.
Service Diagnostics
 The Service diagnostics menu is generally used to display service-related
information. To access these menu items, press System 7 then Service
Diagnostics.
System Information
The System information table shows important information about your FieldFox. The
following is the most useful information:
 Model Number – FieldFox model
 Serial Number – Identification number of your FieldFox
 Firmware Release – The currently installed version of software. Check to see if you
have the latest firmware at: www.keysight.com/find/fieldfoxsupport
 Network Identity – The network name and current IP address of your FieldFox.
 Reflectometer Factory Cal - The Factory (CalReady) Calibration shows the date
and time that the factory cal was performed for each test port and the Thru
connection. The format is P1 <date time>, P2 <date time>, P1-P2 <date time>.
The factory calibration is updated when you send your FieldFox to Keysight for
Instrument Calibration. Learn more on page 223.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
Error Log
The Error Log shows the information that has appeared on the FieldFox screen. The
most recent information is at the top of the table.
Press Clear Errors to erase this information.
Battery
Learn about this table on page 206.
Internal Temperatures
Learn all about this table and the importance of the internal FieldFox temperatures
on page 12.
Erase User Data
All data that you have written to the FieldFox can be erased with the press of a
button. You would do this if your FieldFox is located in a secure environment and
must be routinely erased of sensitive data.
All data is deleted from the FieldFox internal “UserData” partition. This includes all
State files and Trace + State files (*.sta), all Data files (*.csv, *.snp), all Picture files
(*.png), all Cal Kit files, and all Cable files.
External media that is inserted (mini-SD card or USB flash drive) is NOT erased.
The "Lost Clusters" folder and files is NOT erased because it is part of the file system
housekeeping.
How to Erase User Data
 Press System 7.
 Then Service Diagnostics.
 Then Advanced
 Then Erase User Data
 Then Confirm Erase
 Then the following occurs:
o
All data files and folders are deleted from the “UserData” partition.
o
A large file of 0s is written to all of the free blocks on the partition.
o
o
System Settings
The large file is deleted. All blocks released by deleting this file are now available
for use.
The FieldFox is rebooted, which manages the newly-freed data and re-writes the
factory cal kits and cable files.
205
Working with the Lithium-Ion Battery
In this Chapter
Viewing Battery Charge Status .......................... 206
Charging the Battery .......................................... 207
Reconditioning the Battery ................................. 209
Battery Care ........................................................ 210
Maximizing Battery Life ...................................... 210
Battery Disposal .................................................. 211
See Also
Installing the Battery ............................................ 11
Conserving Battery Power .................................... 11
Battery Safety Considerations ............................ 214
Viewing Battery Charge Status
You can view the battery charge status in the following ways:
 Icons in the upper right of the front panel screen.
 Battery screen - select System then Service Diagnostics then Battery.
 Built-in battery gauge. Learn more in the following section.
Front Panel Icons
Icon
Status
Connected to external power through the AC/DC adapter. Battery
installed and charging. The amount of charge is indicated by the
number of bars shown.
Battery not charging with 84% battery life remaining.
Battery fully charged. A fully charged battery MAY NOT read 100%.
Learn more on page 209, Reconditioning the Battery.
Service Diagnostics – Battery Screen
The Battery screen displays the following information. To access the screen, select
System then Service Diagnostics then Battery.
Additional battery information is available using SCPI commands.
NOTE
206
1.
Status – Fully charged, No battery, Charging, Empty, or Discharging.
2.
External DC Supply – True or False indicates if an external DC supply is
connected.
3.
Battery Present – True or False indicates if a battery is installed.
Items 4 through 8 are read directly from the battery. The information is based on the
battery’s internal sensors and memory.
4.
Voltage – measured by the battery’s sensor.
5.
Current – amount of current being consumed when operating from internal
battery. If battery is charging, indicates amount of charging current.
FieldFox User’s Guide
6.
Battery Temperature – internal temperature of the battery as measured by a
sensor embedded in the battery.
7.
Present Run Time to Empty – minutes of power remaining based on amount of
current being used now.
8.
Charge Cycles – number of charge cycles the battery has experienced. Charge
cycle defined as ≥80% change in relative state of charge.
Built-In Battery Gauge
Each lithium ion battery has an LED gauge that displays its charge status. The gauge
is active unless the battery is in shutdown mode.
To view the LED gauge, open the FieldFox battery compartment door, remove the
battery, then press the button on the battery.
The battery in your FieldFox will have either 4 or 5 LED segments.
5-segment
Gauge
Charge
Remaining
4-segment
Gauge
Charge
Remaining
5 segments
≥80%
4 segments
≥75%
4 segments
60% to 79%
3 segments
50%,to 74%
3 segments
40% to 59%
2 segments
25% to 49%
2 segments
20% to 39%
1 segment
< 25%
1 segment
< 20%
Charging the Battery
When you receive your FieldFox, the lithium-ion battery is partially charged to
approximately 30% to 40% to preserve battery life. Allow four hours to fully charge
the battery internally, or three hours by using the external battery charger (N9910X–
872). A fully charged battery will power your FieldFox for about four hours. It is NOT
necessary for you to do any type of battery preconditioning before use.
The FieldFox circuitry ALWAYS prevents the battery from discharging to a level that
is damaging. However, if the battery is completely discharged, the FieldFox may not
turn ON. If this occurs, the battery can still be charged either internally or externally.
Because a lithium-ion battery has no memory effect, you can charge a battery at any
time regardless of the current charge status. However, this could impair the accuracy
of its internal charge-remaining indicator. When the Max Error is 10% or greater, the
battery should be reconditioned. Learn more on page 209.
Internal Charging with the AC/DC Adapter
Important: Read the safety information for the AC/DC adapter on page 213.
Internal charging time for a fully depleted battery is approximately 4 hours with the
FieldFox either ON or OFF.
Working with the Lithium-Ion Battery
207
AC/DC adapter
To charge a battery inside the FieldFox, insert the AC/DC adapter plug into the
Power connector on the FieldFox side panel, then plug the adapter into an AC outlet.
 FieldFox ON: Charging is indicated by a battery icon in the upper right of the front
panel screen.
 FieldFox OFF: Charging is indicated by the FieldFox power LED glowing amber,
with its intensity increasing from dim to bright every few seconds. This pattern
repeats until the LED turns off when charging is done. Learn more on page 15.
Using the External Battery Charger (N9910X–872)
Important: Read the safety information for the External Charger on page 214.
External Battery Charger (N9910X–872)
208
FieldFox User’s Guide
The external battery charger (N9910X–872), lets you charge a fully depleted battery
in approximately three hours. It is a two bay, level–3 stand-alone battery charger
that is compliant with the standard Smart Battery System. The two bays are charged
sequentially on a first-come, first-served basis, though a discharge can be performed
in the left bay while the right bay is charging. It uses an external universal switching
power supply
External Battery Charger LED
Charging Status
Green
Fully charged
Green flashing
Fast charging
Yellow flashing
Reconditioning – the accuracy of the
battery’s internal LED charge gauge is
being renewed. See “Reconditioning
Batteries.”
Yellow/green
Battery is reconditioned
Red flashing
Error
Yellow
Standby
For more information, refer to the Instruction Manual included with the external
battery charger.
Reconditioning the Battery
The battery contains electronics that monitors battery usage and tracks how much
capacity is available. This function can become less accurate because of temperature
fluctuations, aging, self-discharge, repeated partial charging, and other factors.
Reconditioning - also known as recalibrating - restores the accuracy of the battery
capacity tracking system.
Reconditioning does NOT affect actual battery performance. It only recalibrates the
charge level indicator.
Reconditioning is done by fully charging the battery, fully discharging it, recharging it
again, and then verifying that the error has been corrected.
How to determine if a battery needs reconditioning
1.
Press System then Service Diagnostics then Battery.
2.
On the Battery screen, if the Max Error is 10% or greater, the battery needs to be
reconditioned.
 This error will affect many of the displayed battery charge indicators.
After reconditioning, if the battery is not fully charged or continues to show more
than a 9% Max Error reading, repeat the reconditioning procedure.
If the third reconditioning does not restore a full charge and give an error reading of
9% or less, the battery may need replacement.
You can recondition a battery internally, or with the External Charger (N9910X–872).
The external charger process is faster and simpler.
How to perform Internal Reconditioning
1.
Fully charge the battery inside the FieldFox (either ON or OFF) using the AC/DC
adapter.
2.
Confirm that the battery is fully charged. When fully charged, the following icon
appears on the FieldFox:
Working with the Lithium-Ion Battery
209
3.
Fully discharge the battery by disconnecting the AC/DC adapter, then leave the
FieldFox ON until it shuts down (about four to five hours).
4.
Remove the battery from the FieldFox, wait one minute, then re-install the
battery.
5.
Reconnect the AC/DC adapter.
6.
Charge the battery and verify a full charge.
7.
Check the System then Service Diagnostics then Battery screen to verify
that the Max Error is less than 10%.
How to Recondition with the External Battery Charger (N9910X–872)
1.
Insert a battery into the left bay of the external charger.
2.
Press the button labeled Push to Recalibrate Left Battery Bay
3.
The charger will charge the battery fully, discharge it completely, then recharge
it fully again. The entire process can take up to 12 hours.
4.
Install the battery into the FieldFox.
5.
On the System, Battery screen, verify that the battery is fully charged and
reconditioned.
Battery Care
Visually inspect the battery periodically for signs of degradation, such as swelling,
cracking of the battery shell, or leakage of fluid. If degradation occurs, replace the
battery and dispose of it properly. Learn how on page 211. Operation with a
degraded battery could result in damage to the FieldFox. Learn more on page 214.
Maximizing Battery Life
 If AC power is not continuously available (Ex: in a field environment), use the
battery and recharge it when it holds a 20% to 50% charge, as shown on the
screen’s battery charge icon. At this charge level, 2 or 3 segments show on the
battery gauge.
 If the FieldFox is not going to be used for more than a week, remove the battery.
Best practice is to store the battery with a charge of about 50%. At this charge
level, 3 segments show on the battery gauge. Batteries that remain idle eventually
lose their ability to hold a charge.
 Allow a battery to warm to room temperature before charging it. Temperature
shock can damage the battery chemistry and in some cases cause a short circuit.
 Store batteries in a cool, dry location, away from metal objects and corrosive
gases.
Storage temperature limits (20% to 50% relative charge is recommended):
Transportation: –20°C to 50°C
Within 1 month:
–20°C to 45°C
Within 6 months:
–20°C to 40°C
Within 1 year:
–20°C to 35°C
 Battery charging limits:
Charge temperature:
Discharge temperature:
210
0°C to 45°C (<10°C slows charge on some batteries)
–10°C to 60°C
FieldFox User’s Guide
 Operate the FieldFox on battery power between the ambient temperatures of –10
and +50°C (–14 to +122°F). Using the battery at lower or higher temperatures can
damage it and reduce operating life. Cold temperatures affect battery chemistry,
reducing charge capacity, especially below 0°C (32°F).
Lithium Ion Battery Disposal
When you notice a large decrease in charge capacity after proper recharging, it’s
probably time to replace the battery.
Lithium-Ion batteries need to be disposed of properly. Contact your local waste
management facility for information regarding environmentally sound collection,
recycling, and disposal of the batteries. Regulations vary for different countries.
Dispose of the battery in accordance with local regulations.
Keysight Technologies, through Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC),
offers free and convenient battery recycling options in the U.S. and Canada. Contact
RBRC at 877-2-RECYCLE (877.273.2925) or online at: http://www.call2recycle.org/
for the nearest recycling location
Working with the Lithium-Ion Battery
211
Safety Considerations
Keysight has designed and tested the FieldFox in accordance with IEC Publication
61010–1:2001 Safety Requirements for Electrical Equipment for Measurement,
Control and Laboratory Use, and the FieldFox is supplied in a safe condition. The
FieldFox is also designed for use in Installation Category II and pollution Degree 2 per
IEC 61010 and IEC 60664 respectively. Read the following safety notices carefully
before you start to use this FieldFox to ensure safe operation and to maintain the
product in a safe condition.
For the FieldFox
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
No operator serviceable parts inside except for the lithium–ion battery. Refer servicing to
qualified personnel. To prevent electrical shock do not remove covers.
If this product is not used as specified, the protection provided by the equipment could be
impaired. This product must be used in a normal condition (in which all means for protection
are intact) when attached to the AC–DC adapter.
The unit may be used only in the operating conditions and positions specified by the
manufacturer. The Keysight N9912 Handheld Cable and Antenna Tester complies with the
following standards
IEC 61010 2nd Edition/EN 61010 2nd Edition
Canada: CSA C22.2 No. 61010–1–04
USA: UL 61010–1 2nd Edition
WARNING
Do not install substitute parts or perform any unauthorized modification to the product.
Return the product to Keysight Technologies or a designated repair center for service to
ensure that safety features are maintained.
WARNING
Applicable local or national safety regulations and rules for the prevention of accidents must
be observed in all work performed.
WARNING
Ensure that the connections with information technology equipment comply with IEC950 I
EN60950.
WARNING
Observe all ratings and markings of the instrument before connecting the instrument.
Maximum Input Voltages and Power:
RF Output Connector: 50V DC, +23 dBm RF
Ext Trig/Ref Connector: 5.5 V DC
RF Input: ±50 VDC, +27 dBm RF
DC Input: 19VDC, 4ADC
212
FieldFox User’s Guide
WARNING
When performing a measurement, ensure that the right safety and performance ratings of the
instrument and accessories are used.
Do not expose the circuit or operate the instrument without its cover or while power is being
supplied.
Do not operate the instrument in any environment at risk of explosion.
CAUTION
The power cord and connectors shall be compatible with the connector used in the premise
electrical system. Failure to ensure adequate earth grounding by not using the correct
components may cause product damage and serious injury.
CAUTION
The measuring terminals on this instrument are designed to be used with external signals
described in Measurement Category I, but NOT with external signals described in Categories.
For the AC/DC Adapter
FOR THE
AC/DC
ADAPTER
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
The AC/DC adapter is a Safety Class 1 Product (provided with a protective earthing ground
incorporated in the power cord). The mains plug shall only be inserted in a socket outlet
provided with a protective earth contact. Any interruption of the protective conductor inside
or outside of the product is likely to make the product dangerous. Intentional interruption is
prohibited.
Use only the designated AC/DC adapter supplied with the instrument.
Use only the designated power cord supplied with the AC/DC adapter.
No operator serviceable parts inside this product. Do not perform any unauthorized
modification to the product. Return the product to Keysight Technologies or a designated
repair center for service to ensure that safety features are maintained.
Operated at an ambient temperature: 0 to 40°C; full power rating; derate linearly to 50 W at
50°C.
Maximum output rating: +15V/4.0 A.
Input rating: AC 100–250 V, 50/60Hz
WARNING
WARNING
Safety Considerations
Main Plug : Use a 3–pin main plug that complies with IEC 60884–1, Plugs and Socket–
Outlets for Household and Similar Purposes – Parts1: General Requirements and country
specific safety authority requirements, such as UL, SA, BSI, VDE, CCC, SA, NZ, and PSE.
Appliance Connector: Use an appliance connector certified to IEC 60320–1/EN 60320–1
requirements
213
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
To prevent electrical shock, disconnect the AC to DC adapter from the mains before
cleaning. Use a dry cloth or one slightly dampened with water to clean the external case
parts. Do not attempt to clean internally.
When the FieldFox is connected to the AC/DC adapter, position the adapter so the power
cord is readily accessible. The power cord is the disconnecting device. It removes main
power to the AC/DC adapter. The FieldFox front panel switch is only for the DC power within
the instrument, and not for the AC/DC adapter. Alternately, an AC switch or circuit breaker
(which is readily identifiable and is easily reached by the operator) may be installed and
used as a disconnecting device to remove mains power from the AC/DC adapter.
To avoid overheating, always disconnect the FieldFox from the AC/DC adapter before
storing the FieldFox in the backpack.
If you prefer to leave the FieldFox connected to the AC/DC adapter while inside the
backpack, you can disconnect the AC/DC adapter from its AC power source to prevent
overheating.
CAUTION
CAUTION
CAUTION
CAUTION
The AC/DC adapter has an auto–ranging line voltage input – be sure the supply voltage is
within the specified range.
The AC/DC adapter is for indoor use only.
Never use a modified or damaged charger. Use the original AC–DC adapter ONLY.
The AC/DC adapter is designed for use in Installation Category II and Pollution Degree 2 per
IEC 61010 Second Edition and 664.
For the External Battery Charger (N9910X–872)
CAUTION
If charging batteries externally, use the optional external charger available from
Keysight, or another SMBus charger of level II or higher.
Never use a non–SMBus charger because the battery issues commands over the
SMBus to the charger to control the charge rate and voltage.
Never use a modified or damaged charger.
For the Battery
Lithium battery packs may get hot, explode, or ignite and cause serious injury if
exposed to abuse conditions. Be sure to follow these safety warnings:
214
FieldFox User’s Guide
WARNING
Lithium–ion batteries:
Must not be exposed to high temperatures (>70°C) or fire.
Must be kept away from children.
Must not be short circuited.
Must be replaced only with Keysight qualified Li–ion batteries.
If replaced or charged improperly, there is a danger of explosion.
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
Do not connect the positive terminal and negative terminal of the battery to each other with
any metal object (such as wire).
Do not carry or store the battery with necklaces, hairpins, or other metal objects.
Do not pierce the battery with nails, strike the battery with a hammer, step on the battery, or
otherwise subject it to strong impacts or shocks.
Do not solder directly onto the battery.
Do not expose the battery to water or salt water, or allow the battery to get wet.
Do not disassemble or modify the battery. The battery contains safety and protection devices,
which if damaged, may cause the battery to generate heat, explode, or ignite.
Do not place the battery in direct sunlight, or use or store the battery inside cars in hot
weather. Doing so may cause the battery to generate heat, explode, or ignite. Using the
battery in this manner may also result in a loss of performance and a shortened life
expectancy.
There is a danger of explosion if the battery is incorrectly replaced. Replace only with the
same or equivalent type of battery recommended. Discard used batteries according to
manufacturer’s instructions.
If you are charging the batteries internally, even while the FieldFox is powered off, the
FieldFox may become warm. Allow for proper ventilation.
Do not discharge the battery using any device except the FieldFox or the external battery
charger (N9910X–872). When the battery is used in a device other than those specified, it
may damage the battery or reduce its life expectancy. If the device causes an abnormal
current to flow, it may cause the battery to become hot, explode, or ignite and cause serious
injury
Battery Protective Functions
The following protective functions are designed into the lithium-ion rechargeable
battery system used in FieldFox.
Safety Considerations
215
The protective functions can be divided between two categories: active and passive.
Active protection refers to the type of protection that depends on at least two or
more protection devices working together to enable the protection Passive
protection refers to the type of protection that is always enabled independent of any
other protection device.
Active Protection
Primary Overcharge Voltage: This prevents the battery from being charged if the
voltage across any cell exceeds approximately 4.35 V per cell. Once the overcharge
protection is tripped, the voltage across each cell must drop below approximately
4.15 V to reset the protection and permit charging.
Secondary Overcharge Voltage: This is a one-time, permanent protection that is
triggered when the voltage across any cell exceeds approximately 4.45 V. Once this
protection is tripped, the battery can no longer be used and must be replaced.
Overdischarge Voltage: This prevents the battery from discharging if the voltage
across any cell drops below approximately 2.6 V. Once the overdischarge voltage
protection is tripped, the voltage across each cell must be charged to approximately
3 V to reset the protection and permit discharging.
Primary Overcharge Current: This prevents the battery from being charged if the
average charging current reaches or exceeds 3.5A for a time period of 120 seconds
or more.
Secondary Overcharge Current: This prevents the battery from being charged if the
charging current reaches or exceeds 4A+/–20% for a time period of 20 milliseconds
or more.
Primary Overdischarge Current: This prevents the battery from being discharged if
the average current out of the battery reaches or exceeds 5A for a time period of 120
seconds or more. This protection can be reset by removing the load.
Secondary Overdischarge Current: This prevents the battery from being discharged if
the current out of the battery reaches or exceeds 6A for a time period of 20
milliseconds or more. This protection can be reset by removing the load.
Short Circuit Protection: This prevents the battery from being charged or discharged
and protects against damage or lost data if the current in or out of the battery
reaches or exceeds 12.5A for a time period of 183 microseconds or more. This
protection can be reset by removing the load.
Overtemperature Charging: The system microcontroller prevents the battery from
being charged if the cell temperature exceeds 46C. Once the overtemperature
charging protection is tripped, the cell temperature has to drop to or below 45C to
reset the protection and permit charging.
Overtemperature Discharging: The system microcontroller prevents the battery from
being discharged if the cell temperature exceeds 65C. Once the overtemperature
discharging protection is tripped, the battery is automatically shut off which results
in turning off the instrument as well.
Passive Protection
Reverse Charging: A reverse protection diode prevents against damage or lost data
due to a reverse charge polarity applied to the battery terminals.
Primary Overtemperature: A PTC(positive temperature coefficient) polyfuse in series
between the Li-ion cells and the charging and discharging transistors will open up
and limit current flow to the battery terminals as a function of very high
temperatures. This protection is resettable once the overstress condition is removed.
The maximum operating temperature of this fuse is 85C.
216
FieldFox User’s Guide
Secondary Overtemperature: A second PTC polyfuse built into each Li-ion cell will
open up and limit current flow as a function of very high temperatures.
Tertiary Overtemperature: A current interrupt device (CID) within each Li-ion cell will
permanently open up when the temperature reaches 95C. As each cell fuse is
permanently interrupted, overall battery performance will become severely
degraded, up to and including disabling the battery.
Overcurrent Fuse: This is a one-time blow fuse with a rated current of 12A.
Batteries: Safe Handling and Disposal
To learn how to safely handle and dispose of the FieldFox battery, refer to the
Material Safety Data Sheet for the manufacturer of the battery at:
http://na.support.keysight.com/fieldfox/help/Reference/MSDS.htm
Environmental Requirements
Refer to the FieldFox Specifications on page 222.
Electrical Requirements
The FieldFox allows you to use either the lithium-ion battery or the AC/DC adapter both are included.
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Precautions
The FieldFox was constructed in an ESD protected environment. This is because
most of the semiconductor devices used in this instrument are susceptible to
damage by static discharge.
Static charges are generated in numerous ways, such as simple contact, separation
of materials, and normal motions of persons working with the FieldFox. To prevent
instrument damage, practice industry accepted techniques for handling static
sensitive devices when using the FieldFox.
Very often, coaxial cables and antennas also build up a static charge, which, if
allowed to discharge by connecting to the FieldFox, may damage the instrument
input circuitry. To avoid such damage, it is recommended to dissipate any static
charges by temporarily attaching a short to the cable or antenna prior to attaching to
the instrument.
FieldFox Markings
The CSA mark is a registered trademark of CSA International.
The RCM Mark is a registered trademark of the Australian
Communications and Media Authority.
This symbol combines the following three markings:
CE indicates product compliance with all relevant European legal
Directives (if accompanied by a year, it signifies when the design was
proven).
ICES indicates product compliance with the Canadian InterferenceCausing Equipment Standard (ICES–001).
ISM indicates this is an Industrial Scientific and Medical Group 1 Class
B product (CISPR 11, Clause 4)
Safety Considerations
217
The Korean Certification (KC) mark is required for products that are
subject to legally compulsory certification. The KC mark includes the
marking's identifier code that has up to 26 digits and follows this format:
KCC-VWX-YYY-ZZZZZZZZZZZZZ.
The Stand By symbol is used to mark a position of the instrument
power line switch.
This symbol indicates separate collection for electrical and electronic
equipment, mandated under EU law as of August 13, 2005. All electric
and electronic equipment are required to be separated from normal
waste for disposal (Reference WEEE Directive, 2002/96/EC).
Indicates the time period which no hazardous or toxic substance
elements are expected to leak or deteriorate during normal use. Forty
years is the expected useful life of the product.
CAUTION, risk of danger, refer to safety information in manual.
Dispose of properly
Hot surface - connectors get hot during extended operation, so care
must be taken when making connections and disconnections.
Battery Markings
The CE mark shows that the product complies with all relevant
European legal Directives (if accompanied by a year, it signifies when
the design was proven).
The battery parts can be recycled. Consult local or country regulations.
Dispose of properly. Do not throw batteries away – collect as small
chemical waste.
Recycle the old battery properly. Consult local or country regulations
related to disposal.
Keep battery away from excessive heat. Do not dispose of by burning.
UL recognized in Canada and the United States.
Packaging Markings
This symbol on all primary and secondary packaging indicates
compliance to China standard GB 18455–2001.
218
FieldFox User’s Guide
AC/DC Adapter Markings
The UL Marks are registered certification marks of Underwriters
Laboratories Inc. (UL). It means that UL has tested and evaluated
representative samples of that product and determined that it meets
UL's safety requirements. When accompanied by a 'C' and 'US', it
indicates compliance to both Canadian and US requirements.
NOM Mark (Normality of Mexico) indicates that the product was
tested by an accredited laboratory in Mexicao and meets Mexico’s
safety requirements.
Japan’s safety and EMC compliance mark.
China’s safety and EMC compliance mark.
Taiwan’s safety and EMC compliance mark.
Singapore’s safety mark.
Korea’s safety and EMC mark.
GOST, Russia’s safety and EMC mark.
AC (Alternating Current).
Direct current (DC) equipment
CAUTION, risk of danger, refer to safety information in manual.
DC connector polarity
Dispose of properly
Certification and Compliance Statements
Certification
Keysight Technologies, Inc. certifies that this product met its published specifications
at the time of shipment from the factory. Keysight Technologies, Inc. further certifies
that its calibration measurements are traceable to the United States National
Institute of Standards and Technology, to the extent allowed by the Institute's
calibration facility, and to the calibration facilities of other International Standards
Organization members.
Manufacturer’s Declaration
This product has been designed and tested in accordance with accepted industry
standards, and has been supplied in a safe condition. The documentation contains
information and warnings that must be followed by the user to ensure safe operation
and to maintain the product in a safe condition.
Safety Considerations
219
Declaration of Conformity
Should the Declaration of Conformity be required, visit:
http://www.keysight.com/go/conformity.
For more information, see Contacting Keysight on page 2.
Compliance with German Noise Requirements
This is to declare that this instrument is in conformance with the German Regulation
on Noise Declaration for Machines (Laermangabe nach der
Maschinenlaermrerordnung –3. GSGV Deutschland).
Acoustic Noise Emission
Geraeuschemission
LpA <70 dB
LpA <70 dB
Operator position
am Arbeitsplatz
Normal position
normaler Betrieb
per ISO 7779
nach DIN 45635 t.19
Compliance with Canadian EMC Requirements
This ISM device complies with Canadian ICES–001.
Cet appareil ISM est conforme a la norme NMB du Canada.
South Korean Class B EMC declaration
This equipment is Class B suitable for home electromagnetic environment and is suitable
for use in all areas.
220
FieldFox User’s Guide
Appendix A: Connector Care Review
Proper connector care and connection techniques are critical for accurate and
repeatable measurements. The following table contains for tips on connector care.
Prior to making connections to your analyzer, carefully review the information about
inspecting, cleaning, and gauging connectors. For course numbers about additional
connector care instruction, contact Keysight Technologies.
Handling and Storage
Do
 Keep connectors clean
 Extend sleeve or connector nut
 Use plastic end-caps during storage



Do Not
Touch mating-plane surfaces
Set connectors contact-end down
Store connectors or adapters loose

Do Not
Use a damaged connector - ever


Do Not
Use any abrasives
Get liquid into plastic support beads

Do Not
Use an out-of-specification connector




Do Not
Apply bending force to connection
Over tighten preliminary connection
Twist or screw any connection
Tighten past torque wrench “break” point
Visual Inspection



Do
Inspect all connectors carefully
Look for metal particles, scratches,
and dents
Connector Cleaning
Do
 Try compressed air first
 Use isopropyl alcohol a
 Clean connector threads
Gaging Connectors
Do
 Clean and zero the gage before use
 Use the correct gage type
 Use correct end of calibration block
 Gage all connectors before first use
Making Connections
Do
 Align connectors carefully
 Make preliminary connection contact lightly
 Turn only the connector nut
 Use a torque wrench for final connection
Cleaning connectors with alcohol shall only be done with the DC power cord removed, in a well-ventilated area, and with
the power to the FieldFox turned OFF. Allow all residual alcohol moisture to evaporate, and the fumes to dissipate prior to
energizing the instrument.
a
Appendix A: Connector Care Review
221
Appendix B: Specifications/Data Sheet
To ensure the highest accuracy and consistency, the FieldFox Specifications are now
stored ONLY at: http://literature.cdn.keysight.com/litweb/pdf/5990-9783EN.pdf
222
FieldFox User’s Guide
Appendix C: Instrument Calibration
Over time, the active components in the FieldFox age and the performance may
degrade or drift. To ensure that the FieldFox is performing to the published
specifications, you should have an instrument calibration performed periodically.
How Often Should I Get an Instrument Calibrated?
You determine the calibration period which best meets your requirements. However,
a 12 month calibration cycle is appropriate for most users.
There are two things to consider: performance drift and connector wear.
The instrument specifications are set to consider the performance drift that may
occur over a 12 month period. Therefore, getting the instrument calibrated at 12
month intervals ensures that the analyzer maintains performance within the
operating specifications. If you need the analyzer to maintain more consistent
operation, you may want to have the instrument calibrated more often.
Connector wear is a bigger factor and depends on the number of connections that
are made. The test ports become noticeably worn after 500 to 700 connections. This
could represent about 12 months with average use. With more frequent connections,
the calibration cycle should be sooner. You can extend the time between calibrations
and thereby save money by using connector savers and by performing proper
Connector Care. Learn more on page 219.
How Do I Get an Instrument Calibrated?
To get your Keysight instrument calibrated, send it to one of the Keysight
Technologies service centers. Please visit this website to learn how:
www.keysight.com/find/calibration.
What Are My Choices of Instrument Calibration?
The following types of instrument calibration are available from Keysight
Technologies service center:
Keysight
Calibration
Includes the test data from the calibration and the certificate of calibration,
stating the instrument has been calibrated and is operating within the published
specifications.
ANSI Z540
Calibration
Includes the test data from the calibration and the certificate of calibration,
stating the instrument has been calibrated using a process in compliance with
ANSI Z540.1 and is operating within the published specifications.
ISO 17025
Calibration
Includes the test data from the calibration and the certificate of calibration,
stating the instrument has been calibrated using a process in compliance with
ISO 17025 and is operating within the published specifications.
Appendix C: Instrument Calibration
223
Index
1
1-port cable loss measurements
CAT mode, 27
1-Port Cable Trimming VVM
Measurements, 165
2
2-port insertion loss measurements
CAT mode, 28
2-port transmission measurements,
VVM mode, 166
A
AC/DC adapter
markings, 221
power requirements, 10
using, 209
accessories, 8
Adjacent Channel Power (ACPR), 114
Alias Faults, 37
all about markers, 168
AM FM Tune & Listen, 90
Amplitude Alignment, 104, 105
Antenna Corrections, 87
appendix B, 223
attenuation, 86
Audio Beep, 110
Average Type, 103
averaging, 23
Averaging, 46
VVM, 163
avoid overpowering, 13
B
Band Power Marker SA mode, 108,
177
bandpass mode, 32, 33
battery
care, 212
charge status,viewing, 208
charging, 12
external, 210
internal, 209
disposal, 213
gauge, 209
icons, display, 208
installing, 11
LED, 211
markings, 220
224
maximizing life, 11, 212
protective functions, 217
reconditioning
external, 212
internal, 211
safe handling, 219
service diagnostics, 208
viewing charge status, 11
Battery Saver, 198
Big Marker IStates, 52
bridge cancellation measurements,
VVM mode, 166
brightness, display, 194
Built-in Power Meter, 134
C
Cable (Correction) Specifications
DTF, 33
cable and antenna test. See CAT
cable loss measurements, 27
Cal On ?, 76
Calculated DTF values, 37
calibration
Cal On ?, 76
CAT and NA modes, 63
verifying integrity, 77
Calibration Type, 72
CalReady, 64
CalReady Properties, 76
care of the battery, 212
CAT mode
1-port cable loss measurements, 27
2-port insertion loss measurements,
28
calibration, 63
DTF measurements, 30
DTF settings, 31
return loss measurements, 27
settings, 21, 132
certification statements, 221
Channel Power (CHP), 112
Channel Selection, 83
charge status, viewing, 208
charging the battery
externally, 210
internally, 209
Clean Screen, 15
colors, display, 194
compliance statements, 221
compressed measurement, 87
Compressed SA Measurements, 86
connector care review, 223
considerations, safety, 214
Contacting Keysight, 2
control, temperature, 12
Coupled Frequency, 26, 33
Coupled Markers, 170
cursor, moving, 189
D
data analysis features, 168
data indicator (*), old, 110
Date and Time Setting, 204
date/time setting, 203
declaration of conformity, 222
delta marker, 170
Detection Method, 105
display
brightness, 194
colors, 194
front panel, 18
preferences, 197
settings, 193
Display Resolution
VVM, 162
disposal of battery, 213
dissipate static charge, 13
distance to fault. See DTF
DTF
measurements, 30
settings, 31
DTF Measurement, 32
DTF Start and Stop Distance, 32
Dynamic Range, 53
E
ECal, 69
Edit a Cable File
DTF, 34
Electrical Delay, 46
Enhanced Response Optimization, 75
Erase User Data, 207
error
max, 209, 211
meas UNCAL, 110
red flashing LED, external battery
charger, 211
systematic, 63
ESD, 219
external frequency reference, 201
External Gain, 85
External triggering, 49, 98
external zeroing, 139
FieldFox User’s Guide
F
features
overview, 8
features, data analysis, 168
FFT Gating, 101
Field Strength Measurements, 87
file management, 183
files
managing, 187
prefixes, 189
FM Tune & Listen, 90
folders, 188
Format
NA Mode, 44
FreqMaskTrigger, 127
frequency
external reference, 201
range, setting, 22
step size, 81
Frequency Counter at SA Marker, 109,
177
Frequency Mode
DTF, 32
Frequency Offset using Power Sensor,
143
Frequency Range
NA Mode, 44
front panel, 15
Full Screen Mode, 195
G
Gating, 60
gauge, battery, 209
getting started information, 10
GPS, 199
group delay, 44
H
high-temperature protection, 12
hold, 191
how to
change
frequency step size, 81
units to feet, 36
check for a compressed
measurement, 87
control the preamp, 86
create
delta marker, 170
markers, 168
determine if a battery needs
reconditioning, 211
display "live" and memory traces,
132
edit keywords, 188
Index
edit, enable and disable the current
prefix, 189
enter
numeric values, 19
make
1-port cable loss measurement,
27
2-port insertion loss
measurement, 28
DTF measurements, 30
manage files, 187
manage folders, 188
measure return loss, 27
monitor the internal FieldFox
temperature, 12
move
cursor, 184, 189
marker, 169
reference marker, 170
name files, 184
perform
external battery reconditoning,
212
internal reconditoning, 211
O,S, L cal, 67
single sweep while in Hold, 192
preset, 192
recall an *.sta file, 185
recondition battery with external
battery charger, 212
save
display settings as preferences,
197
file, 183
save and recall limits, 180
select
CAT mode, 21, 132
CAT mode measurements, 21,
132
language, 197
NA formats, 44
NA mode, 39
SA mode, 80
set
attenuation, 86
bandpass mode ON, 32, 33
date and time, 203
display colors, 194
frequency range, 22, 81
output power, 25, 50, 163
power meter display units, 141
res BW, 93
resolution, 24, 48
scale, 23
sweep time, 25
sweep type, 24, 48
trace averaging, 24
video BW, 94
use
external reference, 202
view and change Quick Settings, 43
I
icons, battery, 208
IF Bandwidth
NA Mode, 47
VVM, 162
IF Output, 95
indicator (*), old data, 110
initial use, preparing for, 10
input voltages and power, maximum,
13
insertion loss measurements, 28
InstAlign, 104, 105
installing
battery, 11
Interference Analyzer, 119
interference rejection, 26
Interpolation, 76
Interval Power Marker, 108
Isolation, 73
K
keywords, 188
Keywords, 195
L
LAN Settings, 205
language, settings, 197
latest information, where to find, 2
LED
battery, 211
on/off settings, 12, 15
Licensing, 198
limit lines
saving and recalling, 180
Limit Lines, 177
lithium-ion battery
installing, 11
M
managing
files, 187
folders, 188
manuals, 8
marker
table, 170
markers
creating, 168
delta, 169
moving, 169
search function, 171
225
trace, 171
Markers
Coupled, 170
markings
AC/DC adapter, 221
battery, 220
FieldFox, 219
packaging, 220
math
operations, 181
maximizing battery life, 212
maximum input voltages and power, 13
Meas UNCAL error, 110
Measurement Selection
NA Mode, 39
measurements
1-port cable loss, CAT mode, 27
2-port insertion loss, CAT mode, 28
bridge cancellation, VVM mode, 166
compressed, 87
distance to fault (DTF)
CAT mode, 30
return loss, CAT mode, 27
selection, 21, 132
Mixed-Mode S-Parameters, 40
mode
NA, 38
power meter, 137
SA, 79
temperature control, 12
VVM, 160
moving the cursor, 189
multipliers, 19
Multi-Trace Configurations, 41
N
NA Factory Cal, 206
NA mode
calibration, 63
settings, 38, 41
network analyzer, 38
normalization, 71
numeric values, 19
O
O, S, L cal, 67
Occupied Bandwidth, 113
old data indicator (*), 110
on/off settings, 12
Opt 010, 55
options
installing, 198
output power, 25, 50, 163
Output Power
NA Mode, 25, 50, 162
overpowering, avoid, 13
226
overview, 8
P
packaging markings, 220
panel
front, 15
top, 16
Parameter Conversion, 40
peak
criteria, 175
excursion, 176
threshold, 175
Phase Offset, 46
Playback Configuration, 129
Points SA mode, 102
Port Extensions, 51
power meter mode, 137
power requirements for the AC/DC
adapter, 10
power sensor input, 13
Power Spectral Density, 112
power, maximum, 13
Preferences, 195
prefixes for file names, 189
preparing for initial use, 10
preset settings, 192
Printing, 189
protection, high temperature, 12
protective functions of the battery, 217
Pulse Measurements, 149
Q
Quick Settings, 43
QuickCal, 65
R
Radio Standard, 82
recalling files, 185
Receiver Measurements, 41
reconditioning the battery
externally, 212
internally, 211
Record Source, 128
Record/Playback, 123
Recording Configuration, 126
reference marker, 170
reference, external frequency, 201
Reflection Mode, 131
resolution, 24
Resolution
NA Mode, 48
Resolution Bandwidth SA mode, 93
Response Cals, 70
Restart, 102
return loss
measurements, CAT mode, 27
reviewconnector care, 223
RRC Weighting, 117
run/hold, 191
S
S11 measurements, NA mode, 38, 41
SA mode
settings, 80
SA Mode Units, 84
SA Units, 85
safety considerations, 214
Save Preferences, 196
Scale Settings
NA Mode, 45
scale, setting, 23
Screen cleaning, 15
screen, front panel, 18
Security Level, 203
service
diagnostics, 208
Sessions, 123
settings
CAT mode, 21, 132
DTF, 31
language, 197
NA mode, 38
preset, 192
run/hold, 191
SA mode, 80
VVM mode, 161
Smoothing, 47
Source Control with USB Power Meter,
139
S-parameters, 39
Specifications/Data Sheet, 224
Spectrogram Display, 119
spectrum analyzer mode, 79
stand-by mode, 12
Startup Mode, 197
static charge, dissipate, 13
Step Detection Mode, 142
sweep
acquisition parameter, 96
time, 25
type, 24, 48
Sweep Acquisition, 95
Sweep Time
NA Mode, 49
Sweep Type
SA Mode, 94
system configuration settings, 198
System Impedance (Z0), 50
system settings, 191
FieldFox User’s Guide
T
temperature control mode, 12
Time Domain, 55
Time Zone, 204
time/date setting, 203
title, editing, 195
top panel, 16
trace averaging, setting, 24
Trace Display States, 102
Trace Math, 180
Trace Width, 194
Tracking Generator, 92
Transform, 55
Transform Window, 58
Triggering - SA Mode, 49, 98
TRL, 73
Tune & Listen (AM/FM), 90
U
units, changing, 36
Index
USB keyboard, 8
User Preset, 192
User Tags, 125
VVM mode
bridge cancellation measurements,
166
settings, 161
V
values
multipliers, 19
numeric, 19
VBW, 94
vector voltmeter, 160
Velocity Factor, 52
verifying integrity of
calibration, 77
jumper cables, 77
Video Bandwidth SA mode, 94
Video triggering, 49, 98
viewing
charge status, battery, 208
installed options, 197
Volume Control, 193
VVM Calibration, 164
W
Waterfall Display, 122
Waveguide Calibrations, 74
where to find the latest information, 2
Window Settings
DTF, 36
Z
zero span, 97
Zeroing VVM mode, 164
zeroing, external, 139
227
This information is subject to change without notice.
© Keysight Technologies 2014
Print Date: October 1, 2014
Supersedes: May 23, 2014
N9927–90001
www.keysight.com
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