Astronomy - EngageNY

Astronomy - EngageNY
grade 1
Core Knowledge Language Arts® • New York Edition • Listening & Learning™ Strand
Tell It Again!™ Read-Aloud Supplemental Guide
Astronomy
Astronomy
Transition Supplemental Guide to the
Tell It Again!™ Read-Aloud Anthology
Listening & Learning™ Strand
GRADE 1
Core Knowledge Language Arts®
New York Edition
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Table of Contents
Astronomy
Transition Supplemental Guide to the
Tell It Again!™ Read-Aloud Anthology
Preface to the Transition Supplemental Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
Alignment Chart for Astronomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vxii
Introduction to Astronomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Lesson 1: Introduction to the Sun and Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Lesson 2: The Earth and the Sun. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Lesson 3: Stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Lesson 4: Stargazing and Constellations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Lesson 5: The Moon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Pausing Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Lesson 6: History of Space Exploration and Astronauts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Lesson 7: Exploration of the Moon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Lesson 8: The Solar System, Part I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Lesson 9: The Solar System, Part II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Domain Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Domain Assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Culminating Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Preface to the
Transition Supplemental Guide
This preface to the Transition Supplemental Guide provides information
about the guide’s purpose and target audience, and describes how it can
be used flexibly in various classroom settings.
Please note: The Supplemental Guides for the first three domains in
Grade 1 contain modified read-alouds and significantly restructured
lessons with regard to pacing and activities. These early Supplemental
Guides provided step-by-step, scaffolded instruction with the intention
that students receiving instruction from teachers using the Supplemental
Guide for the first part of the year would be ready to participate in regular
Listening & Learning lessons, and that teachers who have used the
Supplemental Guide for the first part of the year would be equipped with
the instructional strategies to scaffold the lessons when necessary. This
shift from the full Supplemental Guide to the Transition Supplemental
Guide affords teachers more autonomy and greater responsibility to
adjust their execution of the lessons according to the needs of their
classes and individual students.
Transition Supplemental Guides for the remaining domains will still contain
Vocabulary Charts and Supplemental Guide activities such as Multiple
Meaning Word Activities, Syntactic Awareness Activities, and Vocabulary
Instructional Activities. However, the Transition Supplemental Guides do
not have rewritten read-alouds and do not adjust the pacing of instruction;
the pacing and read-aloud text included in each Transition Supplemental
Guide is identical to the pacing and read-aloud text in the corresponding
Tell It Again! Read-Aloud Anthology. We have, however, augmented the
introductions and extensions of each lesson in the Transition Supplemental
Guides so teachers have additional resources for students who need
greater English language support. As a result, there are often more activities
suggested than can be completed in the allotted time for the introduction
or extension activities. Teachers will need to make informed and conscious
decisions in light of their particular students’ needs when choosing which
activities to complete and which to omit. We strongly recommend that
teachers preview the Domain Assessment prior to teaching this domain;
this will provide an additional way to inform their activity choices.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Preface
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
v
Intended Users and Uses
This guide is intended to be used by general education teachers, reading
specialists, English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers, special
education teachers, and teachers seeking an additional resource for
classroom activities. This guide is intended to be both flexible and
versatile. Its use is to be determined by teachers in order to fit the unique
circumstances and specific needs of their classrooms and individual
students. Teachers whose students would benefit from enhanced oral
language practice may opt to use the Transition Supplemental Guide as
their primary guide for Listening & Learning. Teachers may also choose
individual activities from the Transition Supplemental Guide to augment
the content covered in the Tell It Again! Read-Aloud Anthology. For
example, teachers might use the Vocabulary Instructional Activities,
Syntactic Awareness Activities, and modified Extensions during smallgroup instruction time. Reading specialists and ESL teachers may find
that the tiered Vocabulary Charts are a useful starting point in addressing
their students’ vocabulary learning needs.
The Transition Supplemental Guide is designed to allow flexibility with
regard to lesson pacing and encourages education professionals to
pause and review when necessary. A number of hands-on activities and
graphic organizers are included in the lessons to assist students with
learning the content.
Transition Supplemental Guide Contents
The Transition Supplemental Guide contains tiered Vocabulary Charts,
Multiple Meaning Word Activities, Syntactic Awareness Activities, and
Vocabulary Instructional Activities. The Domain Assessments and Family
Letters have been modified. In some instances, the activities in the
Extensions as well as the activities in the Pausing Point, Domain Review,
and Culminating Activities have been modified or rewritten. Please refer to
the following sample At a Glance Chart to see how additional support is
communicated to the teacher.
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Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Preface
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Exercise
Materials
Details
Introducing the Read-Aloud (10 minutes)
Introductory Content
[Additional materials to help
support this part of the lesson will
be listed here.]
Vocabulary Preview
[There will be one or two
vocabulary preview words per
lesson.]
[A brief explanation about how the
material can be used.]
Purpose for Listening
Presenting the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)
Note: It is highly recommended that teachers preview the read-aloud, Flip Book images, and comprehension
questions to determine when to pause during the read-aloud and ask guiding questions, especially before a
central or difficult point is going to be presented (e.g., While we are reading this part of the read-aloud, I want to
you think about . . .) and supplementary questions (e.g., Who/What/Where/When/Why literal questions) to check
for understanding.
[Materials that may help scaffold
the read-aloud will be listed here.]
Title of Read-Aloud
Discussing the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)
Comprehension Questions
Word Work
 Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the Day
Extensions (20 minutes)
Extension Activities
[Additional Extension activities
may include a Multiple Meaning
Word Activity, a Syntactic
Awareness Activity, a Vocabulary
Instructional Activity, and modified
existing activities or new activities.]
The additional materials found in the Transition Supplemental Guide
afford students further opportunities to use domain vocabulary and
demonstrate knowledge of content. The lessons of this guide contain
activities that create a purposeful and systematic setting for English
language learning. The read-aloud for each story or nonfiction text builds
upon previously taught vocabulary and ideas and introduces language
and knowledge needed for the next more complex text. The Transition
Supplemental Guide’s focus on oral language in the earlier grades
addresses the language learning needs of students with limited English
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Preface
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
vii
language skills. These students—outside of a school setting—may not be
exposed to the kind of academic language found in many written texts.
Vocabulary Charts
Vocabulary Chart for [Title of Lesson]
Core Vocabulary words are in bold.
Multiple Meaning Word Activity word is underlined.
Vocabulary Instructional Activity words have an asterisk (*).
Suggested words to pre-teach are in italics.
Type of Words
Tier 3
Tier 2
Tier 1
Domain-Specific Words
General Academic Words
Everyday-Speech Words
Understanding
Multiple Meaning
Phrases
Cognates
Vocabulary Charts at the beginning of each lesson categorize words into
three tiers which are generally categorized as follows:
• Tier 1 words are words that are likely to appear in the basic repertoire
of native English-speaking students—words such as planet, sun, and
moon.
• Tier 2 words are highly functional and frequently used general
academic words that appear across various texts and content areas—
words such as technology, unique, and categorize.
• Tier 3 words are content-specific and difficult words that are crucial
for comprehending the facts and ideas related to a particular
subject—words such as Jupiter, meteor, and astronomer.
English Language Learners and students with limited oral language skills
may not necessarily know the meanings of all Tier 1 words, and may
find Tier 2 and Tier 3 words confusing and difficult to learn. Thus, explicit
explanation of, exposure to, and practice using Tier 1, 2, and 3 words are
essential to successful mastery of content for these students (National
Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of Chief State
School Officers 2010 32–35).
In addition, the Vocabulary Chart indicates whether the chosen words are
vital to understanding the lesson (labeled Understanding); have multiple
meanings or senses (labeled Multiple Meaning); are clusters of words
that often appear together (labeled Phrases); or have a Spanish word that
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Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Preface
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
sounds similar and has a similar meaning (labeled Cognates). Words in the
Vocabulary Chart were selected because they appear frequently in the text
of the read-aloud or because they are words and phrases that span multiple
grade levels and content areas. Teachers should be aware of and model
the use of these words as much as possible before, during, and after each
individual lesson. The Vocabulary Chart could also be a good starting point
and reference for keeping track of students’ oral language development
and their retention of domain-related and academic vocabulary. These lists
are not meant to be exhaustive, and teachers are encouraged to include
additional words they feel would best serve their students.
Multiple Meaning Word Activities
Multiple Meaning Word Activities help students determine and clarify the
different meanings of individual words. This type of activity supports a
deeper knowledge of content-related words and a realization that many
content words have multiple meanings associated with them. Students
with strong oral language skills may be able to navigate through different
meanings of some words without much effort. However, students with
limited English language proficiency and minimal vocabulary knowledge
may be less likely to disambiguate the meanings of words. This is why it
is important that teachers have a way to call students’ attention to words
in the lesson that have ambiguous meanings, and that students have a
chance to explore the nuances of words in contexts within and outside of
the lessons.
Syntactic Awareness Activities
Syntactic Awareness Activities focus on sentence structure. During
the early elementary grades, students are not expected to read or
write lengthy sentences, but they might be able to produce complex
sentences in spoken language when given adequate prompting and
support. Syntactic Awareness Activities support students’ awareness
of the structure of written language, interrelations between words,
and grammar. Developing students’ oral language through syntactic
awareness provides a solid foundation for written language development
in the later elementary grades and beyond.
Vocabulary Instructional Activities
Vocabulary Instructional Activities are included to build students’ general
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Preface
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
ix
academic, or Tier 2, vocabulary. These words are salient because
they appear across content areas and in complex written texts. These
activities support students’ learning of Tier 2 words and deepen their
knowledge of academic words and the connections of these words to
other words and concepts. The vocabulary knowledge students possess
is intricately connected to reading comprehension, the ability to access
background knowledge, express ideas, communicate effectively, and
learn about new concepts.
English Language Learners and Students with Disabilities
The Transition Supplemental Guide assists education professionals
who serve students with limited English language skills or students with
limited home literacy experience, which may include English Language
Learners (ELLs) and students with special needs. Although the use of
this guide is not limited to teachers of ELLs and/or students with special
needs, the following provides a brief explanation of these learners and
the challenges they may face in the classroom, as well as teaching
strategies that address those challenges.
English Language Learners
The Transition Supplemental Guide is designed to facilitate the academic
oral language development necessary for English Language Learners
(ELLs) and to strengthen ELLs’ understanding of the core content
presented in the domains.
When teaching ELLs, it is important to keep in mind that they are a
heterogeneous group from a variety of social backgrounds and at
different stages in their language development. There may be some
ELLs who do not speak any English and have little experience in a
formal education setting. There may be some ELLs who seem fluent
in conversational English, but do not have the academic language
proficiency to participate in classroom discussions about academic
content. The following is a chart showing the basic stages of second
language acquisition; proper expectations for student behavior and
performance; and accommodations and support strategies for each
stage. Please note that ELLs may have extensive language skills in their
first language and that they advance to the next stage at various rates
depending on their acculturation, motivation, and prior experiences in an
education setting.
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Language
Development Stage
Comprehension
and Production
Accommodations and
Support Strategies
Entering
• Produces little or no English
• Responds in nonverbal ways
• Has a minimal receptive
vocabulary in English
• Use predictable phrases for set routines
• Use manipulatives, visuals, realia, props
• Use gestures (e.g., point, nod) to indicate
comprehension
• Use lessons that build receptive and productive
vocabulary, using illustrated pre-taught words
• Use pre-taught words to complete sentence
starters
• Use simply stated questions that require simple
nonverbal responses (e.g., “Show me . . . ,” “Circle
the . . . ”)
• Use normal intonation, emphasize key words, and
frequent checks for understanding
• Model oral language and practice formulaic
expressions
• Pair with another ELL who is more advanced in
oral language skills for activities and discussions
focused on the English language
• Pair with same-language peers for activities and
discussions focused on content
Emerging
(Beginner)
• Responds with basic phrases
• Includes frequent, long
pauses when speaking
• Has basic level of English
vocabulary (common words
and phrases)
• Use repetition, gestures, and visual aids to facilitate
comprehension and students’ responses
• Use manipulatives, visuals, realia, props
• Use small-group activities
• Use lessons that expand receptive and expressive
vocabulary, especially Tier 2 vocabulary
• Use illustrated core vocabulary words
• Use pre-identified words to complete cloze
sentences
• Use increasingly more difficult question types as
students’ receptive and expressive language skills
improve:
• Yes/no questions
• Either/or questions
• Questions that require short answers
• Open-ended questions to encourage expressive
responses
• Allow for longer processing time and for
participation to be voluntary
• Pair with another ELL who is more advanced in
oral language skills for activities and discussions
focused on the English language
• Pair with same-language peers for activities and
discussions focused on content
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Preface
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
xi
Transitioning
(Intermediate)
• Speaks in simple sentences
• Uses newly learned words
appropriately
• With appropriate scaffolding,
able to understand and
produce narratives
• Has a much larger receptive
than expressive vocabulary in
English
• Use more complex stories and books
• Continue to focus on Tier 2 vocabulary
• Introduce academic terms (e.g., making
predictions and inferences, figurative language)
• Use graphic organizers
• Use increasingly difficult question types as
students’ receptive and expressive language skills
improve:
• Questions that require short sentence answers
• Why and how questions
• Questions that check for literal and abstract
comprehension
• Provide some extra time to respond
• Pair with high-level English speakers for activities
and discussions focused on the English language
Expanding
(Advanced)
•
•
•
•
Engages in conversations
Produces connected narrative
Shows good comprehension
Has and uses expanded
vocabulary in English
• Continue work with academic terms (e.g., making
predictions and inferences, figurative language)
• Use graphic organizers
• Use questions that require opinion, judgment, and
explanation
• Pair with native English speakers
Commanding
(Proficient)
• Uses English that nearly
approximates the language of
native speakers
• Can maintain a two-way
conversation
• Uses more complex
grammatical structures, such
as conditionals and complex
sentences.
• Has and uses an enriched
vocabulary in English
• Build high-level/academic language
• Expand figurative language (e.g., by using
metaphors and idioms)
• Use questions that require inference and
evaluation
• Pair with students who have a variety of skills and
language proficiencies
(Adapted from Hirsch and Wiggins 2009, 362–364; New York Department of Education 2013; Smyk et al. 2013)
xii
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Students with Disabilities and Students with Special Needs
Students with disabilities (SWDs) have unique learning needs that
require accommodations and modifications to the general education
curriculum. When using the Transition Supplemental Guide with SWDs
and students with special needs, it is important to consider instructional
accommodations, tools, strategies, and Universal Design for Learning
(UDL) Principles, which promote learning for all students through the use
of multiple forms of representation, expression, and engagement (Hall,
Strangman, and Meyer 2003).
Pacing
Pacing is the purposeful increase or decrease in the speed of instruction.
Educators can break lessons into manageable chunks depending
on needs of the class and follow the section with a brief review or
discussion. This format of instruction ensures that students are not
inundated with information. Additionally, you may want to allow students
to move around the room for brief periods during natural transition points.
When waiting for students to respond, allow at least three seconds of
uninterrupted wait time to increase correctness of responses, response
rates, and level of thinking (Stahl 1990).
Goals and Expectations
Make sure students know the purpose and the desired outcome of each
activity. Have students articulate their own learning goals for the lesson.
Provide model examples of desired end-products. Use positive verbal
praise, self-regulation charts, and redirection to reinforce appropriate
ways for students to participate and behave.
Directions
Provide reminders about classroom rules and routines whenever
appropriate. You may assign a partner to help clarify directions. When
necessary, model each step of an activity’s instructions. Offering explicit
directions, procedures, and guidelines for completing tasks can enhance
student understanding. For example, large assignments can be delivered
in smaller segments to increase comprehension and completion
(Franzone 2009).
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Preface
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
xiii
Instruction Format and Grouping
Use multiple instruction formats (e.g., small-group instruction, individual
work, collaborative learning, and hands-on instruction). Be sure to group
students in logical and flexible ways that support learning.
Instructional Strategies
The following evidence-based strategies can assist students with
disabilities in learning content (Scruggs et al. 2010):
•
Mnemonic strategies are patterns of letters and sounds related to
ideas that enhance retention and recall of information. They can be
used as a tool to encode information.
• Spatial organizers assist student understanding and recall of
information using charts, diagrams, graphs, and/or other graphic
organizers.
•
Peer mediation, such as peer tutoring and cooperative learning
groups, can assist in assignment completion and enhance
collaboration within the classroom.
• Hands-on learning offers students opportunities to gain
understanding of material by completing experiments and activities
that reinforce content.
xiv
•
Explicit instruction utilizes clear and direct teaching using small
steps, guided and independent practice, and explicit feedback.
•
Visual strategies (e.g., picture/written schedules, storymaps, task
analyses, etc.) represent content in a concrete manner to increase
focus, communication, and expression (Rao and Gagie 2006).
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Preface
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
References
1.
Biemiller, Andrew. 2010. Words Worth Teaching. Columbus: SRA/
McGrawHill.
2.
Franzone, Ellen L. 2009. “Overview of Task Analysis.” Madison, WI:
National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum
Disorders, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin.
3.
Hall, Tracey, Anne Meyer and Nicole Strangman. 2003.
“Differentiated Instruction and Implications for UDL Implementation.”
National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum.
4.
Hirsch, Jr., E. D. and Alice K. Wiggins. 2009. Core Knowledge
Preschool Sequence and Teacher Handbook. Charlottesville, VA:
Core Knowledge Foundation.
5.
National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of
Chief State School Officers. 2010. “Appendix A,” in Common Core
State Standards: English Language Arts Standards. Washington DC:
National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of
Chief State School Officers.
6.
New York Department of Education. 2013. New York State Bilingual
Common Core Initiative. Accessed October 8. http://www.
engageny.org/resource/new-york-state-bilingual-common-coreinitiative#progressions.
7.
Rao, Shaila M. and Brenda Gagie. 2006. “Learning Through Seeing
and Doing: Visual Supports for Children with Autism.” Teaching
Exceptional Children 38 (6): 26–33.
8.
Scruggs, Thomas E., Margo A. Mastropieri, Sheri Berkeley, and
Janet E. Graetz. 2010. “Do Special Education Interventions Improve
Learning of Secondary Content? A Meta-Analysis.” Remedial and
Special Education 31: 437–449.
9.
Smyk, Ekaterina, M. Adelaida Restrepo, Joanna S. Gorin, and
Shelley Gray. 2013. “Development and Validation of the SpanishEnglish Language Proficiency Scale (SELPS).” Language, Speech,
and Hearing Services in Schools 44: 252–65.
10. Stahl, Robert J. 1990. “Using ‘Think-Time’ Behaviors to Promote
Students’ Information Processing, Learning, and On-Task
Participation: An Instructional Module.” Tempe, AZ: Arizona State
University.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Preface
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xv
Alignment Chart for Astronomy
The following chart contains core content objectives addressed in this
domain. It also demonstrates alignment between the Common Core
State Standards and corresponding Core Knowledge Language Arts
(CKLA) goals.
Lesson
Alignment Chart for Astronomy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Core Content Objectives
Recognize the sun in the sky

Explain that the sun, moon, and stars are located in outer
space

Explain that the sun is a source of energy, light, and heat

Classify the sun as a star




Identify Earth as a planet and our home


Identify the earth’s rotation, or spin, as the cause of day
and night



Explain that other parts of the world experience nighttime
while we have daytime

Explain sunrise and sunset

Explain that Earth orbits the sun




Describe stars as large, although they appear small in the
night sky

Describe stars as hot, distant, and made of gas

Explain that astronomers study the moon and stars using
telescopes




Describe how people sometimes tell stories about the
moon and stars




Explain what a constellation is

Identify the Big Dipper and the North Star

Identify the four phases of the moon—new, crescent, half,
full

Explain that the moon orbits the earth



Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Alignment Chart xvii
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Lesson
Alignment Chart for Astronomy
1
2
3
4
5
8
9
Explain that our solar system includes the sun and the
planets that orbit around it


Indicate that there are eight planets in our solar system
(Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and
Neptune)


Explain that astronauts travel to outer space
6
7


Describe the landing on the moon by American astronauts

Explain the importance of the first trip to the moon


Classify Pluto as a dwarf planet
Note: The Language Arts Objectives in the Lessons may change depending on teacher’s choice of activities.
Reading Standards for Literature: Grade 1
Craft and Structure
STD RL.1.5
Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide
reading of a range of text types.
CKLA
Goal(s)
Listen to, understand, and recognize a
variety of texts, including fictional stories,
fairy tales, fables, historical narratives,
informational text, nursery rhymes,
and poems, describing the differences
between books that tell stories and books
that give information

Reading Standards for Informational Text: Grade 1
Key Ideas and Details
STD RI.1.1
CKLA
Goal(s)
Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
Ask and answer questions (e.g., who, what,
where, when), orally or in writing, requiring
literal recall and understanding of the details
and/or facts of a nonfiction/informational
read-aloud

Answer questions that require making
interpretations, judgments, or giving
opinions about what is heard in a
nonfiction/informational read-aloud,
including answering why questions
that require recognizing cause/effect
relationships

xviii Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Alignment Chart
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Lesson
Alignment Chart for Astronomy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
STD RI.1.3
Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.
CKLA
Goal(s)
Describe the connection between two
individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of
information in a nonfiction/informational
read-aloud




8
9


Craft and Structure
STD RI.1.4
Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text.
CKLA
Goal(s)
Ask and answer questions about
unknown words and phrases in nonfiction/
informational read-alouds and discussions

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
STD RI.1.7
Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas.
CKLA
Goal(s)
Use illustrations and details in a
nonfiction/informational read-aloud to
describe its key ideas
STD RI.1.9
Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations,
descriptions, or procedures).
CKLA
Goal(s)
Compare and contrast (orally or in
writing) similarities and differences within
a single nonfiction/informational readaloud or between two or more nonfiction/
informational read-alouds



Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
STD RI.1.10
With prompting and support, read informational texts appropriately complex for Grade 1.
CKLA
Listen to and demonstrate understanding
of nonfiction/informational read-alouds of
appropriate complexity for Grades 1–3
Goal(s)

Writing Standards: Grade 1
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
STD W.1.8
CKLA
Goal(s)
With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from
provided sources to answer a question.
Make personal connections (orally or
in writing) to events or experiences in a
fiction or nonfiction/informational readaloud, and/or make connections among
several read-alouds
With assistance, categorize and organize
facts and information within a given
domain to answer questions





Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Alignment Chart
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation

xix
Lesson
Alignment Chart for Astronomy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Speaking and Listening Standards: Grade 1
Comprehension and Collaboration
STD SL.1.1
Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about Grade 1 topics and texts with peers and
adults in small and large groups.
STD SL.1.1a
Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the
topics and texts under discussion).
CKLA
Goal(s)
Use agreed-upon rules for group
discussion, e.g., look at and listen to the
speaker, raise hand to speak, take turns,
say “excuse me” or “please,” etc.
STD SL.1.1b
Build on others’ talk in conversations by responding to the comments of others through multiple exchanges.
CKLA
Goal(s)
Carry on and participate in a conversation
over at least six turns, staying on topic,
initiating comments or responding to a
partner’s comments, with either an adult
or another child of the same age
STD SL.1.1c
Ask questions to clear up any confusion about the topics and texts under discussion.
CKLA
Goal(s)
Ask questions to clarify information
about the topic in a fiction or nonfiction/
informational read-aloud
STD SL.1.2
Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through
other media.
CKLA
Goal(s)
Ask and answer questions (e.g., who,
what, where, when), orally or in writing,
requiring literal recall and understanding
of the details, and/or facts of a fiction or
nonfiction/informational read-aloud
STD SL.1.3
Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to gather additional information or clarify
something that is not understood.
CKLA
Goal(s)
Ask questions to clarify directions,
exercises, classroom routines, and/or
what a speaker says about a topic










Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
STD SL.1.4
Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly.
CKLA
Goal(s)
Describe people, places, things, and
events with relevant details, expressing
ideas and feelings clearly
xx
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Alignment Chart
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
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
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


Lesson
Alignment Chart for Astronomy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
STD SL.1.5
Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
CKLA
Goal(s)
Add drawings or other visual displays
to oral or written descriptions when
appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and
feelings
STD SL.1.6
Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation.
CKLA
Goal(s)
Produce complete sentences when
appropriate to task and situation






Language Standards: Grade 1
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
STD L.1.5
With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word
meanings.
STD L.1.5a
Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
CKLA
Goal(s)
Sort words into categories (e.g., colors,
clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts
the categories represent

Provide examples of common synonyms
and antonyms



STD L.1.5c
Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at home that are cozy).
CKLA
Goal(s)
Identify real-life connections between
words and their use (e.g., note places at
home that are cozy)
STD L.1.5d
Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl)
and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out the
meanings.
CKLA
Goal(s)
Distinguish shades of meaning among
verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek,
glance, stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives
differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic)
by defining or choosing them or by acting
out the meanings
STD L.1.6
Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts,
including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because).
CKLA
Goal(s)
Learn the meaning of common sayings
and phrases



Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Alignment Chart xxi
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Lesson
Alignment Chart for Astronomy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Additional CKLA Goals

Listen to a variety of texts, including informational text
Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them
accurately
Prior to listening to an informational read-aloud, identify
what they know about a given topic
While listening to an informational read-aloud, orally predict
what will happen next in the read-aloud based on the text
heard thus far, and then compare the actual outcome to the
prediction
Use possessive pronouns orally










These goals are addressed in all lessons in this domain. Rather than repeat these goals as lesson
objectives throughout the domain, they are designated here as frequently occurring goals.
xxii Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Alignment Chart
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
Astronomy
Transition Supplemental Guide Introduction
This introduction includes the necessary background information
to be used in teaching the Astronomy domain. The Transition
Supplemental Guide for Astronomy contains nine daily lessons,
each of which is composed of two distinct parts, so that the
lesson may be divided into smaller chunks of time and presented
at different intervals during the day. Each entire lesson will require
a total of sixty minutes.
This domain includes a Pausing Point following Lesson 5. At the
end of the domain, a Domain Review, a Domain Assessment, and
Culminating Activities are included to allow time to review, reinforce,
assess, and remediate content knowledge. You should spend no
more than thirteen days total on this domain.
Week One
Day 1
#
Day 2
#
Day 3
#
Day 4
#
Day 5
#
Lesson 1A: “Introduction
to the Sun and Space”
(40 min.)
Lesson 2A: “The Earth
and the Sun” (40 min.)
Lesson 3A: “Stars”
(40 min.)
Lesson 4A: “Stargazing
and Constellations”
(40 min.)
Lesson 5A: “The Moon”
(40 min.)
Lesson 1B: Extensions
(20 min.)
Lesson 2B: Extensions
(20 min.)
Lesson 3B: Extensions
(20 min.)
Lesson 4B: Extensions
(20 min.)
Lesson 5B: Extensions
(20 min.)
60 min.
60 min.
60 min.
60 min.
60 min.
Week Two
Day 6

Pausing Point (60 min.)
60 min.
Day 7
Day 8
Day 9
Lesson 6A: “History of
Space Exploration and
Astronauts” (40 min.)
#
Lesson 7A: “Exploration
of the Moon” (40 min.)
Lesson 8A: “The Solar
System, Part I” (40 min.)
#
Day 10
Lesson 9A: “The Solar
System, Part II” (40 min.)
#
Lesson 6B: Extensions
(20 min.)
Lesson 7B: Extensions
(20 min.)
Lesson 8B: Extensions
(20 min.)
Lesson 9B: Extensions
(20 min.)
60 min.
60 min.
60 min.
60 min.
Week Three

Day 11
Day 12
Domain Review (60 min.)
Domain Assessment
(60 min.)
Culminating Activities
(60 min.)
60 min.
60 min.
60 min.
Day 13

Lessons include Student Performance Task Assessments
# Lessons require advance preparation and/or additional materials; please plan ahead
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Introduction
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
1
Lesson Implementation
It is important to note that the interactive activities in the Transition
Supplemental Guide count on the teacher as the “ideal reader” to lead
discussions, model proper language use, and facilitate interactions
among student partners.
It is highly recommended that teachers preview the read-aloud, Flip
Book images, and comprehension questions to determine when to pause
during the read-aloud and ask guiding questions, especially before a
central or difficult point is going to be presented (e.g., While we are
reading this part of the read-aloud, I want to you think about . . .) and
supplementary questions (e.g., Who/What/Where/When/Why literal
questions) to check for understanding.
Student Grouping
Teachers are encouraged to assign partner pairs prior to beginning
a domain, and partners should remain together for the duration of
the domain. If possible, English Language Learners should be paired
with native English speakers, and students who have limited English
oral language skills should be paired with students who have strong
English language skills. Keep in mind that in some instances, a group
of three would benefit beginning/entering ELLs, and an older student
or adult volunteer may be a better arrangement for some students with
disabilities. Partnering in this way promotes a social environment where
all students engage in collaborative talk and learn from one another.
In addition, there are various opportunities where students of the same
home-language work together, fostering their first-language use and
existing knowledge to construct deeper meanings about new information.
Graphic Organizers and Domain-Wide Activities
Several different organizers and domain-wide activities are included to
aid students in their learning of the content in the Astronomy domain.
• Idea Webs for outer space (Instructional Master 1A-1) and the sun
(Instructional Master 1A-2)—Fill out these Idea Webs with the class to
record what they know and learn about outer space and the sun.
• Planets Song—Used in Lessons 8 and 9, reviews the names and
characteristics of the eight planets with a song. The song is sung to
the tune of “Oh My Darling, Clementine.”
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Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Introduction
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
• Planets Chart or Wall—For Lessons 8 and 9, you will create a
Planets Chart, where students will list two facts about each planet.
Alternatively, you may wish to designate part of a classroom wall to
make a Planets Wall. Use Image 8A-2 as a guide. You may wish to
use color yarn, metal wire, or ribbon to make the orbits. Attach the
Image Card for each planet as they are mentioned in the read-aloud.
After the read-aloud, write two facts about each planet onto index
cards, and attach the index cards under the Image Card of the planet.
• Astronomy Journal—The writing project for this domain is a journal.
Students will pretend that they are astronomers or astronauts as they
sketch and write about what they have learned in the read-alouds.
Individual journal pages are provided as Instructional Masters in the
Appendix. Domain Assessment #3 is the cover page for their Astronomy
Journal.
Anchor Focus in Astronomy
This chart highlights several Common Core State Standards as well as
relevant academic language associated with the activities in this domain.
Anchor Focus
CCSS
Description of Focus and Relevant Academic Language
Writing
W.1.2
Astronomy Journal: Students will create journal pages related to
read-aloud content.
Relevant academic language:
journal, sketch, label, sentence, share, compare
Language
L.1.1d
Use possessive pronouns
L.1.1i
Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., over, above, in, across,
into, through, and beyond)
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Introduction
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
3
Domain Components
Along with this Transition Supplemental Guide, you will need:
• Tell It Again! Media Disk or the Tell It Again! Flip Book for
Astronomy
• Tell It Again! Image Cards for Astronomy
• Tell It Again! Multiple Meaning Word Posters for Astronomy
Recommended Resource:
• Core Knowledge Teacher Handbook (Grade 1), edited by
E.D. Hirsch, Jr. and Souzanne A. Wright (Core Knowledge
Foundation, 2004) ISBN: 978-1890517700
Why Astronomy Is Important
In this domain, students will be introduced to the solar system—our
home in space. They will learn that Earth, the planet on which we
live, is just one of many different celestial bodies within the solar
system. They will learn how the sun, the stars, the moon, and the
other planets relate to the earth (given its position in space). In the
early read-alouds, students will learn that the sun is a giant star as
well as a source of light, heat, and energy for the earth. They will also
learn about the earth’s orbit around the sun, and how the earth’s own
rotation on its axis leads to the phenomenon of day and night.
Part of this domain is focused on the history of space exploration
and the missions to the moon. Students will learn about NASA,
the Space Race, the Apollo missions, and what it takes to be an
astronaut. Students will get a good introduction to the basics of
astronomy in this domain, and this foundation will be built upon
when students study the solar system in much greater depth in the
third grade.
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Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Introduction
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
What Students Have Already Learned in Core Knowledge
Language Arts During Kindergarten
The following Kindergarten domains, and the specific core content
that was targeted in those domains, are particularly relevant to
the read-alouds students will hear in Astronomy. This background
knowledge will greatly enhance your students’ understanding of
the read-alouds they are about to enjoy:
Seasons and Weather
• Identify the following units of time and their relationship to one
another: day, week, month, year
• Characterize the North and South Poles as always cold in
temperature, the middle section of the earth as usually warm,
and the United States as having four seasons
• Describe any unique seasonal differences that are characteristic
of their own locality (change of color and dropping of leaves in
autumn; snow or ice in winter; increased rain and/or flooding in
spring; etc.)
• Identify a thermometer as an instrument used to measure
temperature, and describe how it works: i.e., as the temperature
becomes warmer, the liquid in the thermometer rises; as the
temperature becomes cooler, the liquid in the thermometer
descends
Taking Care of the Earth
• Explain that Earth is composed of land, water, and air
• Explain that humans, plants, and animals depend on Earth’s
land, water, and air to live
• Explain that natural resources are things found in nature that are
valuable and of great importance to people
• Explain that land, air, and water all suffer from different types
of pollution, and most types of pollution are caused by human
activities
• Compare and contrast freshwater, salt water, and wastewater
• Explain that many living things, including humans, need fresh water
to survive, and that there is a limited supply of freshwater on Earth
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Introduction
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
5
Core Vocabulary for Astronomy
The following list contains all of the core vocabulary words in
Astronomy in the forms in which they appear in the read-alouds or,
in some instances, in the “Introducing the Read-Aloud” section at
the beginning of the lesson. The inclusion of the words on this list
does not mean that students are immediately expected to be able
to use all of these words on their own. However, through repeated
exposure throughout the lessons, they should acquire a good
understanding of most of these words and begin to use some of
them in conversation.
6
Lesson 1
Lesson 4
Lesson 7
atmosphere
advances
determined
gas
ancient
disaster
rays
celestial bodies
historic
shadow
constellations
missions
surface
myths
nervously
Lesson 2
Lesson 5
Lesson 8
gravity
appearance
abundant
horizon
counterclockwise
accomplish
orbit
craters
inner
planet
crescent
solar
rotates
reflecting
unique
Lesson 3
Lesson 6
Lesson 9
dusk
astronaut
categorize
meteor
launch
debris
stars
rockets
outer
telescopes
spacecraft
probes
universe
technology
violent
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Introduction
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
In addition to this core vocabulary list, every lesson includes its own
Vocabulary Chart. Words in this chart either appear several times in the
Read-Aloud or are words and phrases that support broader language
growth, which is crucial to the English language development of young
students. Most words on the chart are part of the General Service list
of the 2000 most common English words or part of the Dale-Chall list
of 3000 words commonly known by Grade 4. Moreover, a conscious
effort has been made to include words from the Primary Priority Words
according to Biemiller’s (2010) Words Worth Teaching. The words on
the Vocabulary Chart are not meant to be exhaustive, and teachers are
encouraged to add additional words they feel would best serve their
group of students.
Vocabulary Chart for Stars
Core Vocabulary words are in bold.
Multiple Meaning Word Activity word is underlined.
Vocabulary Instructional Activity words have an asterisk (*).
Suggested words to pre-teach are in italics.
Type of Words
Tier 3
Tier 2
Tier 1
Domain-Specific Words
General Academic Words
Everyday-Speech Words
astronomer
dawn/dusk*
meteor
meteorite
observatory
stargazing
telescopes
universe*
beyond
incredible
massive
occasionally
rare
twinkling/glittering
big/large/small/tiny
hot
into
nighttime/daytime
sky
sun
through
atmosphere
country
space
appear
blinking
wonders
building
light
rock
ship
stars
has faded
feast your eyes on
Phrases
in the blink of an
eye
outer space
shooting star
streak of light
always there
from time to time
larger than
pretty far away
Cognates
astrónomo(a)
meteoro
meteorito
observatorio
telescopio
universo*
atmósfera
espacio
increíble
massivo(a)
ocasionalmente
raro(a)
Understanding
Multiple Meaning
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Introduction
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
7
References
1.
Beck, Isabel L., Margaret G. McKeown, and Linda Kucan. 2008.
Creating Robust Vocabulary: Frequently Asked Questions and
Extended Examples. New York: Guilford.
2.
Biemiller, Andrew. 2010. Words Worth Teaching. Columbus, OH:
SRA/McGrawHill.
3.
Dale, Edgar, and Jeanne Chall. 1995. Readability Revisited: The New
Dale-Chall Readability Formula.
4.
West, Michael. 1953. A General Service List of English Words.
London: Longman, Green and Co.
Comprehension Questions
In the Astronomy domain, there are three types of comprehension
questions.
Literal questions assess students’ recall of key details from the readaloud; these questions are text dependent, requiring students to
paraphrase and/or refer back to the portion of the read-aloud in which
the specific answer to the question is provided. These questions
generally address Reading Standards for Literature 1 (RL.1.1) and
Reading Standards for Informational Text 1 (RI.1.1).
Inferential questions ask students to infer information from the text and
think critically; these questions are also text dependent, but require
students to paraphrase and/or refer back to the different portions of
the read-aloud that provide information leading to and supporting the
inference they are making. These questions generally address Reading
Standards for Literature 2–4 (RL.1.2–RL.1.4) and Reading Standards for
Informational Text 2–4 (RI.1.2–RI.1.4).
Evaluative questions ask students to build upon what they have learned
from the text using analytical and application skills; these questions
are also text dependent, but require students to paraphrase and/
or refer back to the portion(s) of the read-aloud that substantiate the
argument they are making or the opinion they are offering. Evaluative
questions might ask students to describe how reasons or facts support
specific points in a read-aloud, which addresses Reading Standards for
Informational Text 8 (RI.1.8). Evaluative questions might also ask students
8
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Introduction
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
to compare and contrast information presented within a read-aloud or
between two or more read-alouds, addressing Reading Standards for
Literature 9 (RL.1.9) and Reading Standards for Informational Text 9
(RI.1.9).
The Supplemental Guides include complex texts, thus preparing
students in these early years for the increased vocabulary and syntax
demands aligned texts will present in later grades. As all of the readings
incorporate a variety of illustrations, Reading Standards for Literature 7
(RL.1.7) and Reading Standards for Informational Text 7 (RI.1.7) are
addressed as well.
Student Performance Task Assessments
In the Transition Supplemental Guide for Astronomy, there are numerous
opportunities to assess students’ learning. These assessment
opportunities range from informal observations, such as Think Pair Share
and some Extension activities, to more formal written assessments.
These Student Performance Task Assessments (SPTAs) are identified
with this icon: . There is also an end-of-domain summative
assessment. Use the Tens Conversion Chart located in the Appendix to
convert a raw score on each SPTA into a Tens score. On the same page,
you will also find the rubric for recording observational Tens scores.
Above and Beyond
In the Transition Supplemental Guide for Astronomy, there are numerous
opportunities in the lessons and Pausing Points to challenge students
who are ready to attempt activities that are above grade level. These
activities are labeled “Above and Beyond” and are identified with this
icon: ➶.
Supplemental Guide Activities
The Supplemental Guide activities that may be particularly relevant to any
classroom are the Multiple Meaning Word Activities and accompanying
Multiple Meaning Word Posters; Syntactic Awareness Activities; and
Vocabulary Instructional Activities. Several multiple meaning words in the
read-alouds are underlined to indicate that there is a Multiple Meaning
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Introduction
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
9
Word Activity associated with them. These activities afford all students
additional opportunities to acquire a richer understanding of the English
language. Supplemental Guide activities are identified with this icon: 
Recommended Resources for Astronomy
The Transition Supplemental Guide includes a number of opportunities
in Extensions, the Pausing Point, and the Culminating Activities for
teachers to select trade books from the list below to reinforce domain
concepts through the use of authentic literature. In addition, teachers
should consider other times throughout the day when they might infuse
authentic domain-related literature.
If you recommend that families read aloud with their child each night,
you may wish to suggest that they choose titles from this trade book list
to reinforce the domain concepts. You might also consider creating a
classroom lending library, allowing students to borrow domain-related
books to read at home with their families.
10
1.
Astronomy (DK Eyewitness Books), by Kristin Lippincott (DK
Children, 2008) ISBN 978-0756637675
2.
Exploring the Solar System, by Mary Kay Carson (Chicago
Review Press, 2008) ISBN 978-1556527159
3.
Find the Constellations, by H. A. Rey (Houghton Mifflin Books
for Children, 2008) ISBN 978-0547131788
4.
Find Out About Astronomy, by Robin Kerrod (Armadillo, 2012)
ISBN 978-1843228684
5.
The Magic School Bus: Lost in the Solar System, by Joanna
Cole and illustrated by Bruce Degen (Scholastic Inc., 1992)
ISBN 978-0590414296
6.
Midnight on the Moon (Magic Tree House, No. 8), by Mary
Pope Osborne and Sal Murdocca (Random House Books for
Young Readers, 1996) ISBN 978-0679863748
7.
The Moon Seems to Change, by Franklyn M. Branley and
illustrated by Barbara and Ed Emberley (HarperCollins, 1987)
ISBN 978-0064450652
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Introduction
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
8.
National Geographic Readers: Planets, by Elizabeth
Carney (National Geographic Children’s Books, 2012) ISBN
978-1426310362
9.
National Geographic Little Kids First Big Book of Space,
by Catherine D. Hughes and illustrated by David A. Aguilar
(National Geographic Children’s Books, 2012) ISBN
978-1426310140
10. Once Upon a Starry Night: A Book of Constellations, by
Jacqueline Mitton and illustrated by Christina Balit (National
Geographic Children’s Books, 2009) ISBN 978-1426303913
(Note: This book’s beautiful illustrations can help students
imagine what the constellations look like when they look up at
the stars. The myths/text, however, are not recommended for
first grade.)
11. Our Solar System, by Seymour Simon (Collins, 2007) ISBN
978-0061140082
12. Planets: A Solar System Stickerbook, by Ellen Hasbrouck
and illustrated by Scott McDougall (Little Simon, 2001) ISBN
978-0689844140
13. Stargazers, by Gail Gibbons (Holiday House, 1999) ISBN
978-0823415076
14. Starry Sky, by Kate Hayden (DK Children, 2006) ISBN
978-0756619596
15. Sun Up, Sun Down, by Gail Gibbons (Voyager Books, 1987)
ISBN 978-0152827823
16. What Makes Day and Night, by Franklyn M. Branley and
illustrated by Arthur Dorros (HarperCollins, 1986) ISBN
978-0064450508
17. Wynken, Blynken, and Nod, by Eugene W. Field and
illustrated by Giselle Potter (Schwartz & Wade, 2008) ISBN
978-0375841965
Note: Please remember to tell students that not very long ago,
students in school were taught that there were nine planets in
the solar system, including Pluto. However, in 2006, astronomers
decided to categorize Pluto as a dwarf planet, so there are now
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Introduction
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
11
eight major planets. If you choose additional books to read aloud,
be sure to include the phrase dwarf planet when referring to Pluto.
Remember also that there are still many otherwise excellent older
astronomy books in print that erroneously classify Pluto as a
planet, but are otherwise informative trade books.
Websites and Other Resources
Student Resources
1.
Interactive Earth Rotation
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips/ages/9_10/earth_sun_moon.
shtml
2.
NASA Kids’ Club
http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forkids/kidsclub/flash/index.html
3.
National Geographic Space Activities and Photos
http://kids.nationalgeographic.com/kids/photos/space-shuttles/#/columbialaunch-gpn-2000-000756_14481_600x450.jpg
4.
PBS Game on Outer Space
http://pbskids.org/martha/games/socksinspace/index.html
Teacher Resources
5.
American Museum of Natural History Resources on Space
http://www.amnh.org/content/search?SearchText=space&x=0&y=0
6.
Photographs from the Hubble Space Telescope
http://hubblesite.org/gallery/album/entire/npp/all/
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Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Introduction
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Introduction to
the Sun and Space
1
 Lesson Objectives
Core Content Objectives
Students will:
 Recognize the sun in the sky
 Explain that the sun, moon, and stars are located in outer space
 Explain that the sun is a source of energy, light, and heat
 Classify the sun as a star
Language Arts Objectives
The following language arts objectives are addressed in this
lesson. Objectives aligning with the Common Core State
Standards are noted with the corresponding standard in
parentheses. Refer to the Alignment Chart for additional standards
addressed in all lessons in this domain.
Students will:
 With assistance, categorize and organize information about what
things are located in Earth’s atmosphere and what things are
located in outer space (W.1.8)
 Ask and answer what questions orally, requiring literal recall and
understanding of the details or facts from “Introduction to the
Sun and Space” (SL.1.2)
 Describe the sun with relevant details, expressing ideas and
feelings clearly (SL.1.4)
 Add drawings to descriptions of Earth’s atmosphere and outer
space to clarify the concepts (SL.1.5)
 Sort words into categories to gain of sense of the concepts of
atmosphere and outer space (SL.1.6)
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 1 | Introduction to the Sun and Space
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
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Core Vocabulary
atmosphere, n. All the air that surrounds Earth
Example: The earth’s atmosphere contains air for us to breathe.
Variation(s): atmospheres
gas, n. Not a liquid or a solid; air or steam
Example: One cold day when I saw my breath, I realized that my breath
was a gas: water vaper.
Variation(s): gases
rays, n. Beams of light or energy
Example: On sunny afternoons, I can see the sun’s rays shining through
the window.
Variation(s): ray
shadow, n. A shady or dark spot that is made when something blocks the
light
Example: I like trying to step on my shadow when I am walking down
the sidewalk.
Variation(s): shadows
surface, n. The outside or top layer
Example: The surface of the moon is very bumpy.
Variation(s): surfaces
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Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 1 | Introduction to the Sun and Space
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Vocabulary Chart for Introduction to the Sun and Space
Core Vocabulary words are in bold.
Multiple Meaning Word Activity word is underlined.
Vocabulary Instructional Activity words have an asterisk (*).
Suggested words to pre-teach are in italics.
Type of Words
Tier 3
Tier 2
Tier 1
Domain-Specific Words
General Academic Words
Everyday-Speech Words
astronomy
rays
sunburns
beyond
enormous
flourish
instantly
object
perhaps
surrounds
across
air
airplane
cloud
Earth
east/west
hot
marble
million/billion
moon
morning
ocean
over
sky
sun
atmosphere
gas*
appear
layer
shadow*
surface
blue
bubble
burn
light
skin
star
outer space
an array of
cause serious
damage
shedding light on
high above
burns up
astronomía
rayo
atmósfera
gas*
espacio
enorme
florecer
instantáneamente
objeto
aire
aeroplano
este/oeste
mármol
millón/billon
océano
Understanding
Multiple Meaning
Phrases
Cognates
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 1 | Introduction to the Sun and Space
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
15
Note: Introducing the Read-Aloud and Extensions may have activity
options that exceed the time allocated for that part of the lesson.
To remain within the time periods allocated for each portion of
the lesson, you will need to make conscious choices about which
activities to include based on the needs of your students.
Exercise
Materials
Details
Introducing the Read-Aloud (10 minutes)
T-Chart for “In Outer Space/Not in
Outer Space”
Create a T-Chart to record accurate
student responses of things that are
found in outer space and things that are
not part of outer space.
Instructional Master 1A-1 (Idea
Web for Outer Space)
You may wish to begin an Idea Web
about outer space with students. Keep
this Idea Web on the wall, and add to it
throughout this domain.
Where Are We?
stacking cups or blocks, labels;
world map and globe
Place the following labels onto the
stacking cups or blocks: you, city, state,
United States (country), North America
(continent).
Essential Background
Information or Terms
picutre of a telescope; a pair of
binoculars
Domain Introduction
Image 1A-3
Vocabulary Preview:
Astronomy, Atmosphere/Outer
Space
Purpose for Listening
Presenting the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)
Introduction to the Sun and
Space
16
Instructional Master 1A-2 (Idea
Web for the sun)
You may wish to begin an Idea Web
for the sun with students. [In lieu of the
hexagon shape, you can draw the shape
of a sun.] Keep this Idea Web on the wall,
and add to it throughout this domain.
Idea Web for Outer Space
Continue filling in the Idea Web for Outer
Space.
large, clear bowl; little marble (or
one little marble per student)
Use the large bowl and marble to show
students how large the sun is compared
to Earth. Tell students that the bowl
represents the enormous sun and the
marble represents Earth. You may wish to
have each student put an “Earth marble”
into the bowl. Be sure that students
understand that it actually takes a much,
much larger bowl to fit one million marbles!
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 1 | Introduction to the Sun and Space
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Exercise
Materials
Details
Discussing the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)
Comprehension Questions
inflated balloons
Word Work: Gas
 Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the Day
Extensions (20 minutes)
Multiple Meaning Word
Activity: Space
Poster 1M (Space)
Syntactic Awareness Activity:
Prepositions—in, above, over,
across
Images 1A-2, 1A-6, and 1A-9;
large box or container; index cards
with large words—in, above, over,
across
Vocabulary Instructional
Activity: Shadow
Image 1A-7; flashlight
Astronomy Journal: Daytime
Instructional Master 1B-1, drawing
tools;
an example of a complete
Astronomy Journal
You may wish to label parts of the
classroom with these prepositions
and have students identify them. Use
arrows along with the labels whenever
applicable.
Take-Home Material
Family Letter
Instructional Masters 1B-2–4
Advance Preparation
Find an image of a telescope (e.g., Images 3A-4 and 3A-5) to show
students.
Bring in stacking cups or blocks, a pair of binoculars, a large, clear
bowl, a little marble, inflated balloons, and a flashlight.
Create an Idea Web for Outer Space, using Instructional Master
1A-1 as a guide. Suggested information from today’s lesson for
this Idea Web includes the following:
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 1 | Introduction to the Sun and Space
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
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far, far away
Outer Space
moon
sun
stars
➶ Above and Beyond: Prepare a copy of Instructional Master 1A-1
for students who are able to fill in their own web.
Create an Idea Web for the sun, using Instructional Master 1A-2 as
a guide. Suggested information from today’s lesson for this Idea
Web includes the following:
far, far away
very, very
big
Sun
made of gas
star
source of heat
and light
➶ Above and Beyond: Prepare a copy of Instructional Master 1A-2
for students who are able to fill in their own web.
Make a copy of Instructional Master 1B-1 for each student.
Students will create the first page of their Astronomy Journal.
Have a completed Astronomy Journal for students to look at and
refer to as they create their own journal.
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Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 1 | Introduction to the Sun and Space
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Introduction to
the Sun and Space
1A
Note: Introducing the Read-Aloud may have activity options that
exceed the time allocated for this part of the lesson. To remain
within the time periods allocated for this portion of the lesson,
you will need to make conscious choices about which activities to
include based on the needs of your students.
Introducing the Read-Aloud
Domain Introduction
In outer
space
Not in outer
space
sun
moon
stars
airplane
birds
clouds
10 minutes
10 minutes
Tell students that over the next few weeks they will be learning
about astronomy, the study of outer space. Ask them if they have
ever heard of outer space. If so, ask them what can be found in
outer space beyond the earth.
Note: The earth is located in space. When we use the term “outer”
space, we are referring to areas beyond the earth’s immediate
atmosphere. If students name objects that they can see in the
sky, such as airplanes, birds, or clouds, keep in mind that these
objects are in the first level of sky called the atmosphere, so they
are not considered to be in outer space.
State that they might be surprised to know that they see objects
from outer space in the sky every day. Ask the following questions:
• What is the big, hot, bright object we can see in the sky during
the day? (the sun)
• What is the big object that we can see in the sky at night and
that appears to be glowing? (the moon)
• What are the small, twinkling lights we can see in the sky at
night? (the stars)
Point out that all of these objects—the sun, moon, and stars—are
actually in outer space. Tell students that over the next few weeks,
they will learn more about the sun, the moon, the stars, and other
objects in outer space.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 1A | Introduction to the Sun and Space
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
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Where Are We?
You
City
State
United States
North America
Earth
10 minutes
Show students a globe, and tell them that the globe is a model of
the earth, where we live. Point to the appropriate location on the
globe as you say the following:
• You live in (your city).
• (Your city) is in the state of (your state).
• (Your state) is in the country of the United States of America.
• The United States of America is on the continent of North
America.
• North America is on Earth.
Explain that even though it seems that the ground we stand on
is flat and still, we actually live on a tiny part of a huge sphere, or
ball, just like this globe. This huge sphere is called Earth, and it is
always moving in space. If you traveled in a rocket far, far up in the
sky and then looked back down, you would see something that
looked like this globe moving in a huge, black, seemingly endless
space. Emphasize the following points:
• The earth, sun, moon, and stars are all in space.
• The sun, moon, and stars are beyond the earth, where we live.
To us on Earth, the sun, moon, and stars are in outer space.
Essential Background Information or Terms
5 minutes
Tell students that the name for the study of objects in outer space,
the area beyond the earth, is astronomy. Ask students to repeat
the word astronomy. Explain that astro– actually means stars,
and that astronomy is a science that includes the study of the
stars. Direct students to say the word astronomer. Explain that
astronomers are scientists who study outer space. Tell students
that astronomers look at the stars through telescopes and try to
learn about our universe. A person must study for many years
before becoming an astronomer. Emphasize that over the next
few weeks, students will pretend to be astronomers as they learn
about outer space.
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Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 1A | Introduction to the Sun and Space
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Vocabulary Preview
5 minutes
Astronomy
1.
The read-alouds in this domain are about astronomy.
2.
Say astronomy with me three times.
3.
Astronomy is the study of stars and other things in outer
space.
4.
[Show the cover of the Flip Book.] How do you think the
drawing on the cover is related to the topic of this domain—
astronomy? (shows stars, planets, spaceship, etc.)
5.
I will name several things. If what I say is related to astronomy,
raise your hand/stand up. If what I say is unrelated to
astronomy, keep your hands on your lap/stay seated.
• sun
• automobiles
• birds
• moon
•
stars
• airplanes
Atmosphere/Outer Space
 Show image 1A-3: Earth’s atmosphere
1.
In today’s read-aloud you will hear that all of the air that
surrounds the Earth is called the atmosphere. Beyond the
atmosphere is something called outer space.
2.
[Point to the layer of air surrounding Earth.] Say the word
atmosphere with me three times.
[Point to beyond the layer of air.] Say the phrase outer space
with me three times.
3.
The air that surrounds the earth is the atmosphere. Part of the
atmosphere is made up of oxygen for us to breathe.
Outside of Earth’s atmosphere is outer space. Outer space
includes many, many stars, moons, and planets.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 1A | Introduction to the Sun and Space
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
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4.
Earth’s atmosphere contains air for us to breathe.
Outer space is outside of Earth’s atmosphere.
5.
I will name several things. Tell me whether they are part of
Earth’s atmosphere or part of outer space. [Invite students to
come up to the image and point to either Earth’s atomosphere
or outer space.]
•
oxygen
•
stars
• sun
• moon
Purpose for Listening
Explain to students that the sky they see during the day or night
actually has two parts: the part with air and clouds that looks
blue during the day and is close to Earth, called the atmosphere;
and a huge, black part even farther away called outer space. Tell
students to listen carefully to hear about some objects they can
see in the sky, and to hear which of these objects are actually
located in outer space.
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Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 1A | Introduction to the Sun and Space
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Presenting the Read-Aloud
15 minutes
Introduction to the Sun and Space
 Show image 1A-1: Sky
1 [Pause for responses. If there is a
window in your classroom, ask one
student to look out and describe
the clouds.]
Have you looked up at the sky lately? What did you see? 1
Perhaps you saw a clear, blue sky, or maybe there were a few
puffy, white clouds floating around. Or maybe the sky was
streaked with gray clouds.
 Show image 1A-2: Plane, bird, red balloon, clouds
2 [Point to these objects in the
image.]
3 The ground that we walk on is the
top layer of the earth called the
earth’s surface.
Occasionally when you look up in the sky you can see an airplane
or a bird flying by, or even a red balloon someone accidentally
let loose. 2 Some days, it is fun to lie on your back in the grass
and stare up at the interesting shapes of the puffy, white clouds
overhead. Perhaps you or someone you know has even flown in an
airplane, up among the clouds high above the earth’s surface. 3
 Show image 1A-3: Earth’s atmosphere
4 Here the word space means the
region beyond Earth’s atmosphere
in which there are stars and
planets. The word space can also
mean a blank area separating
written or printed words.
5 The earth is described as a speck of
sand. Does this mean the earth is
small or large?
You can think of the sky as being in two parts or two layers.
The part closest to the earth is a layer of air that covers the
whole earth—all the ground and oceans and everything else on
the earth’s surface, including you! This layer of air is called the
atmosphere. But there is more than just the blue atmosphere. The
second layer of the sky is all of outer space, which lies beyond the
atmosphere, an endless expanse of stars and moons and other
objects. 4
Of course, during the day here on Earth, it is easy to forget that
outer space is there, but it always is. The earth—your home—is
just one little object moving around in the middle of it all, like a
speck of sand amidst all the sands in the ocean. 5
 Show image 1A-4: Sun over a field
6 or beams of light
During the day, the sun shines over the earth, shedding light on
all the animals and plants that live on the earth’s surface. The sun’s
rays 6 spread across the skies, which appear blue to your eyes.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 1A | Introduction to the Sun and Space
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
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7 That means that the sun is not a
solid object or a liquid. It is made of
gas, a thin substance that objects
could pass right through—if they
didn’t burn up first!
8 [Show the globe.] The real Earth is
much, much bigger than this. The
sun is gigantic if it’s the same size
as a million Earths!
The sun itself is a star. It is not part of Earth or Earth’s sky. In
fact, the sun is far, far away from Earth—so far away that it would
take more than three months to reach it in the fastest rocket ship.
But even if you could reach the sun in a rocket ship, you would
never be able to get close to it. That is because the sun, like other
stars, is an enormous ball of very hot gas. 7 Everything that gets
too close to it burns up instantly.
Just how enormous is the sun? Think about this: if the sun
was a huge bowl and the earth was a little marble, you could stuff
about one million marbles into that bowl. In other words, it would
take a million Earths to fill the sun! 8
 Show image 1A-5: The sun
9 Living things wouldn’t be able to
live without the heat, light, and
energy of the sun.
The sun is just one out of billions of stars in space. However,
the sun is our star; it is the earth’s star. The sun is the closest star
to the earth. Without the sun, Earth would be a cold, lifeless hunk
of rock. All living things on Earth—from the trees to the bees to the
flowers and the fleas—rely on the sun in one way or another. The
heat, light, and energy of the sun allow life to flourish—and grow—
here on Earth. 9
 Show image 1A-6: Sunrise
10 The sun warms up the land, too. It’s
usually colder at night than during
the day.
The rising sun signals the start of a new day. In the morning,
the sun rises in the east, and its rays shed light across the land. 10
People wake up and get ready for a new day, getting dressed and
eating breakfast, and then traveling outside to wherever it is they
go—to school, to the office, to a store, or simply out for a walk.
 Show image 1A-7: Shadows
11 or shaded spot
12 [Point to the shadows in the
image.]
24
Have you ever noticed your shadow on the ground? If the sun
is behind you while you are walking down the sidewalk, then your
body blocks the sun’s rays and creates a shadow 11 on the ground.
Your shadow is not the only shadow in the world. 12 Clouds cast
shadows as well. So do buildings and trees. Have you ever rested
under the shade of a tree on a hot summer day? If so, you were
resting in the shadow cast by the tree’s leaves and branches.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 1A | Introduction to the Sun and Space
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
 Show image 1A-8: Applying sunscreen
On a hot summer day you can feel the warmth of the sun on
your skin, and if you do not use sunscreen 13 then you may get a
sunburn. Ouch! The sun’s energy can burn your skin, and that’s
bad. Sunburns hurt, and if you get sunburned too often, it can
cause serious damage to your skin.
13 [Point to the sunscreen.]
On the other hand, the sun’s light is also good for you. When
your bare skin is exposed to sunlight, your body creates Vitamin
D, which is one of the many vitamins your body needs in order to
stay healthy and strong. So playing outside in the sunshine isn’t
just fun; it’s good for you, too!
 Show image 1A-9: Moon
14 [Point to the moon in the image.]
Sometimes you can also see the
moon during the day.
At the end of each day, when the sun goes down in the west,
the sky changes. It isn’t blue anymore. The sky becomes black,
and new sights appear. Instead of clouds and birds and blue sky,
you may see an array of shining stars. You may see something
else, as well—not the sun, but another object hovering in the skies
above: the moon. 14
 Show image 1A-10: Outer space
15 Do you remember what astro–
means?
16 Do you remember what an
astronomer is?
Over the next several days you will learn about the sun,
the moon, the stars, and all sorts of amazing and interesting
facts about outer space—the place beyond the earth’s sky or
atmosphere. This study of the stars and other things in outer
space is called astronomy. 15 The read-alouds you will hear in the
coming days will provide a basic introduction to astronomy, but
it’s only a beginning. There is so much to learn about the stars
and other objects in space, that you can spend the rest of your life
studying it and never run out of new things to learn and discover.
That is because astronomy is the study of everything beyond our
little home that we call Earth. 16 And if astronomers have learned
anything through the years, they know that there is no end to the
amount of new knowledge and surprises to be discovered in the
study of the stars and outer space.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 1A | Introduction to the Sun and Space
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
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Discussing the Read-Aloud
Comprehension Questions
15 minutes
10 minutes
If students have difficulty responding to questions, reread pertinent
passages of the read-aloud and/or refer to specific images. If
students give one-word answers and/or fail to use read-aloud
or domain vocabulary in their responses, acknowledge correct
responses by expanding the students’ responses using richer
and more complex language. Ask students to answer in complete
sentences by having them restate the question in their responses.
1.
Literal Name some objects you can see in the sky. (Answers
may vary, but may include things such as airplanes, clouds,
and birds.)
2.
Literal You just heard that the sky has two parts or layers. The
first layer is made up of air that surrounds the earth. What do
we call this layer of air? (the atmosphere)
3.
Literal You also heard that beyond or above the atmosphere
is the part of the sky we call outer space. Name some objects
that can be found in outer space. (stars, sun, moon)
 Show image 1A-5: The sun
4.
5.
26
Inferential What is this a picture of? (the sun) What did you
learn about the sun? [Ask any of the following questions to
cover information missing from students’ descriptions of the
sun.]
•
Is the sun a rock or a star? (star)
•
Is the sun hot or cold? (hot)
•
What is the sun made of? (gas)
•
Is the sun near Earth or far away? (far away)
•
Is the sun bigger or smaller than the earth? (bigger) How
much bigger? (a million times)
Inferential What is a shadow? (a shady spot) How are shadows
created? (When light shines on an object, the object blocks
the light that hits it from shining behind that object, causing a
shaded area.)
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 1A | Introduction to the Sun and Space
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
6.
Literal After the sun sets, what other objects from outer space
are visible in the night sky? (stars, moon)
7.
Literal What do we call the scientific study of stars and outer
space? (astronomy) What do we call a scientist who studies
astronomy? (an astronomer)
[Please continue to model the Question? Pair Share process for
students, as necessary, and scaffold students in their use of the
process.]
8.
What? Pair Share: Asking questions after a read-aloud is
one way to see how much everyone has learned. Think of a
question you can ask your neighbor about the read-aloud that
starts with the word what. For example, you could ask, “What
does the sun do in the morning?” Turn to your neighbor and
ask your what question. Listen to your neighbor’s response.
Then your neighbor will ask a new what question, and you will
get a chance to respond. I will call on several of you to share
your questions with the class.
9.
After hearing today’s read-aloud and questions and answers,
do you have any remaining questions? [If time permits, you
may wish to allow for individual, group, or class research of
the text and/or other resources to answer these questions.]
Word Work: Gas
5 minutes
Note: You may wish to show students an inflated balloon and
demonstrate deflating it to help them see that there is a gas
(oxygen) inside.
1.
In the read-aloud you heard, “[T]he sun, like other stars, is an
enormous ball of very hot gas.”
2.
Say the word gas with me.
3.
A gas, unlike a solid or a liquid, is a thin, sometimes invisible,
substance through which objects can pass.
4.
An example of a gas you might know is steam, the cloud that
rises above hot water.
5.
Where do you think there is a gas in the classroom? Outside?
[Ask two or three students. If necessary, guide and/or
rephrase the students’ responses, “
is a gas.”]
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 1A | Introduction to the Sun and Space
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
27
6.
What’s the word we’ve been talking about?
Use a Making Choices activity for follow-up. Directions: I am going
to name some substances. If the substance I name is a gas, say,
“That is a gas.” If not, say, “That is not a gas.”

28
1.
orange juice (That is not a gas.)
2.
wood (That is not a gas.)
3.
steam (That is a gas.)
4.
air (That is a gas.)
5.
brick (That is not a gas.)
6.
your breath that you can see on a cold day (That is a gas.)
Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the Day
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 1A | Introduction to the Sun and Space
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Introduction to
the Sun and Space
1B
Note: Extensions may have activity options that exceed the time
allocated for this part of the lesson. To remain within the time
periods allocated for this portion of the lesson, you will need to
make conscious choices about which activities to include based
on the needs of your students.
Extensions
20 minutes
 Multiple Meaning Word Activity
5 minutes
Associated Phrase: Space
Note: You may choose to have students hold up one or two
fingers to indicate which image shows the meaning being
described, or have a student walk up to the poster and point to
the image being described.
1.
[Show Poster 1M (Space).] In the read-aloud you heard, “The
second layer of the sky is all of outer space, which lies beyond
the atmosphere, an endless expanse of stars and moons and
other objects.” Which image shows this kind of space?
2.
Space also means something else. Space also means a blank
between things or words. Which picture shows this kind of
space?
3.
[Point to the image of outer space.] With your partner, talk
about what you think of when you see this kind of space. I will
call on a few partners to share what they come up with. Try to
answer in complete sentences. (When I see this type of space,
I think of the sun, the moon, planets, etc.)
4.
[Point to the image of the blank area between words.] With
your partner, talk about what you think of when you see this
kind of space. I will call on a few partners to share what they
come up with. Try to answer in complete sentences. (When I
see this type of space, I think of empty lines, no letters, lining
up, moving over, etc.)
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 1B | Introduction to the Sun and Space
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
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 Syntactic Awareness Activity
5 minutes
Prepositions: in, above, over, across
Note: The purpose of these syntactic activities is to help students
understand the direct connection between grammatical structures
and the meaning of text. These syntactic activities should be used
in conjunction with the complex text presented in the read-alouds.
There may be variations in the sentences created by your class.
Allow for these variations, and restate students’ sentences so
that they are grammatical. If necessary, have students repeat the
sentence after you.
Directions: Today we are going to practice using words that show
location (or where something is) and direction (or where something
is going).
 Show image 1A-2: Plane, bird, red balloon, clouds
30
1.
What do you see in this picture? (an airplane, a bird, a balloon,
clouds)
Where are they? (They are in the sky.)
We use the little word in to show where something can be
found. For example, the airplane can be found in the sky.
Many times we use in to show that something is inside
something else.
Make up a sentence with the word in in it using this picture
or objects in the classroom. As you say your sentence, show
your partner what in looks like.
2.
Which one of the four is the highest in the sky: the balloon, the
airplane, the bird, or the clouds? (airplane)
We can say, “The airplane is above the bird.”
We use the word above to show that something is higher than,
or on top of, something else.
What is above the balloon? (The bird is above the balloon.)
Make up a sentence with the word above in it using this
picture or objects in the classroom. As you say your sentence,
show your partner what above looks like.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 1B | Introduction to the Sun and Space
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
 Show image 1A-6: Sunrise
3.
What do you see in this picture? (sun, ocean, mountains,
clouds)
Where is the sun? (Answers may vary: the sun is behind the
clouds; the sun is in the sky; the sun is over the ocean; the
sun is over the mountains; etc.)
We can say, “The sun is over the ocean.”
We use the word over to show that something is on top of
something else.
Make up a sentence with the word over in it using this picture
or objects in the classroom. As you say your sentence, show
your partner what over looks like.
4.
In the read-aloud you heard, “In the morning, the sun . . .
shed[s] light across the land.” In this image, what is the sun
shedding its light across? (the ocean)
We can say, “The sun is shedding its light across the ocean.”
We use the word across to show that something goes from
one side to the other side. [Point to the sun’s rays shining
across the ocean.]
Make up a sentence with the word across in it using this
picture or objects in the classroom. As you say your sentence,
show your partner what across looks like. [Suggestions: waves
moving across the ocean; clouds changing shape across the
sky; swimming across the ocean; flying across the sky]
5.
[Use various classroom labels and objects. Review and
reinforce the concept of these prepositions: in, above, over,
across.]
 Vocabulary Instructional Activity
10 minutes
Word Work: Shadow
 Show image 1A-7: Shadows
1.
In the read-aloud you heard the question, “Have you ever
noticed your shadow on the ground?”
2.
Say the word shadow with me three times.
3.
A shadow is a shady or dark spot that is made when
something blocks the light.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 1B | Introduction to the Sun and Space
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
31
4.
If the sun is behind you, your body blocks the sun’s rays and
creates a shadow.
5.
Have you ever noticed your shadow on the ground? What
color was it?
What other things make shadows?
[Ask two or three students. If necessary, guide and/or rephrase the
students’ responses: “
makes shadows.”]
6.
What’s the word we’ve been talking about?
Use a Demonstration activity for follow-up. Directions: Let’s create
some different shadows! [Dim the classroom lights. If available,
give each partner pair or small group a flashlight.]
1. Remember, a shadow is created when something blocks the
light.
2. With your partner (or in small groups), find a few classroom
objects you will make a shadow with.
3. One student will hold up the object in front of a wall. Another
student will shine the light on the object. Watch its shadow
on the wall.
4. How are shadows created?
Extending the Activity
Have students sit facing a wall. Stand behind the students. Hold
up an object and shine a light behind it so that the object casts a
shadow on the wall. Have students guess what the object is by
looking at its shadow.
Astronomy Journal: Daytime (Instructional Master 1B-1) 15 minutes
Tell students that over the next few weeks they are going to
pretend to be astronomers as they learn about outer space.
Tell them they will use their astronomy journal to record both
observations (what they see) and facts (what they learn) about
outer space.
• First, give each student a copy of Instructional Master 1B1. Tell them that this is the first page of their Astronomy
Journal. It will be about the sky and the things they see
around them during the daytime.
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Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 1B | Introduction to the Sun and Space
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
• Next take students outside, or if that is not possible, take
them to a large window where they can see the sky. Direct
students to spend at least five minutes sketching the objects
they see in the sky and some things that are outside during
the daytime. Tell students that a sketch is a simple drawing
with few details or colors.
• Then go back to the classroom and have students spend
up to five minutes finishing up their sketch, coloring in their
drawing, and labeling their picture using the letter-sound
correspondences learned thus far.
• Finally, have students write a sentence about the daytime on
the lines below.
Remind students about the two layers of the sky: the atmosphere
and outer space. Discuss students’ sketches, helping them
recognize which objects in their drawings are located inside
Earth’s atmosphere. (birds, airplanes, clouds, etc.) Then direct
students to circle any object that is found in outer space, outside
or beyond the bubble of air we call the atmosphere. (the sun, or
possibly the moon if it is visible)
If time allows, have students share their journal page with their
partner or with home-language peers. Have them point out how
their pictures are the same and different.
Take-Home Resources
Family Letter
Send home Instructional Masters 1B-2–4.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 1B | Introduction to the Sun and Space
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
33
The Earth and the Sun
2
 Lesson Objectives
Core Content Objectives
Students will:
 Identify Earth as a planet and our home
 Identify the earth’s rotation, or spin, as the cause of day and
night
 Explain that other parts of the world experience nighttime while
we have daytime
 Explain sunrise and sunset
 Explain that Earth orbits the sun
Language Arts Objectives
The following language arts objectives are addressed in this
lesson. Objectives aligning with the Common Core State
Standards are noted with the corresponding standard in
parentheses. Refer to the Alignment Chart for additional standards
addressed in all lessons in this domain.
Students will:
 Ask and answer where questions orally, requiring literal recall
and understanding of the details or facts from “The Earth and
the Sun” (SL.1.2)
 Describe the causes for night and day on Earth with relevant
details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly (SL.1.4)
 Explain the meaning of “AM” and “PM” and use in appropriate
contexts (L.1.6)
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Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 2 | The Earth and the Sun
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Core Vocabulary
gravity, n. The force which causes things to drop to the ground on Earth
and keeps things from floating away into outer space
Example: Every time I throw a ball up in the air, gravity pulls it down
again.
Variation(s): none
horizon, n. A place or line in the distance where it looks like the land or
ocean meets the sky
Example: While I was standing on the beach, I saw a large ship on the
horizon, far off in the distance.
Variation(s): horizons
orbit, n. The path around an object in space
Example: The earth travels in an orbit around the sun.
Variation(s): orbits
planet, n. A large object in space that circles around the sun
Example: The earth is a planet that circles around the sun.
Variation(s): planets
rotates, v. Spins around in a circle
Example: Janet rotates round and round as she pretends to be a
ballerina.
Variation(s): rotate, rotated, rotating
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 2 | The Earth and the Sun
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
35
Vocabulary Chart for The Earth and the Sun
Core Vocabulary words are in bold.
Multiple Meaning Word Activity word is underlined.
Vocabulary Instructional Activity words have an asterisk (*).
Suggested words to pre-teach are in italics.
Type of Words
Tier 3
Tier 2
Tier 1
Domain-Specific Words
General Academic Words
Everyday-Speech Words
axis
horizon*
object
day/night
Earth
east/west
large/smaller
morning
path
planet
sky
sunrise/sunset
Multiple Meaning
dawn
gravity
orbit
revolution
rotation
space
appear
energy
force
revolves
rotates
surface
face
ground
light/dark
moving
spin
Phrases
365 days/one year
orbit around the
sun
based on
rely on
cannot tell
moves across
objeto
energía
fuerza
este/oeste
planeta
Cognates
horizonte*
gravedad
órbita
rotación
espacio
Understanding
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Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 2 | The Earth and the Sun
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Note: Introducing the Read-Aloud and Extensions may have
activity options that exceed the time allocated for that part of
the lesson. To remain within the time periods allocated for each
portion of the lesson, you will need to make conscious choices
about which activities to include based on the needs of your
students.
Exercise
Materials
Details
Introducing the Read-Aloud (10 minutes)
What Have We Already
Learned?
Idea Web for Outer Space
You may wish to refer to the Idea Web
for Outer Space to answer the review
questions.
Essential Background
Information or Terms
globe; plastic hoop; pin
You may wish to have a few students
take turns demonstrating Earth’s rotation
and Earth’s orbit.
Vocabulary Preview: Rotates,
Orbit
Images 2A-3 and 2A-4; plastic
hoop
Purpose for Listening
Presenting the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)
Idea Web for the sun
The Earth and the Sun
You may wish to continue filling in the
Idea Web for the sun with information
from the read-aloud.
globe
video clips of Earth’s rotation to
explain day and night
You may wish conclude the read-aloud
with a short video clip about how the
Earth’s rotation causes day and night.
Discussing the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)
Comprehension Questions
images of various things on the
horizon
drawing paper, drawing tools
Word Work: Horizon
Seeing different images of the horizon
will help students draw their sketch of a
horizon.
 Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the Day
Extensions (20 minutes)
Sayings and Phrases: AM and
PM
analog or digital clock; learning
clocks
Demonstration of Earth’s
Rotation: Day and Night
flashlight, globe with pin on it
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 2 | The Earth and the Sun
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
37
Exercise
Materials
Details
Drawing the Read-Aloud
drawing paper, drawing tools
Domain-Related Trade Book
trade book about day/night or
sunrise/sunset
Advance Preparation
Bring in images with various things on the horizon (e.g., boat on the
ocean; city in the background; mountains at a distance), a flashlight,
an analog or digital clock, and if possible, several learning clocks.
Find age-appropriate video clips showing how Earth’s rotation
causes day and night.
Find a trade book about day and night or the sunrise and sunset to
read aloud to the class.
Continue filling in the Idea Web for the sun. Suggested information
from today’s lesson for this Idea Web include the following:
rises in the east/
sets in the west
very, very
big
far, far away
Sun
made of gas
star
source of heat
and light
Notes to Teacher
Be sure that students are clear that the terms rotate and orbit are
not the same. The Earth rotates around its axis to create daytime
and nighttime. (You may wish to have students stand in place and
spin around.) An orbit is the path Earth takes around the sun and
is the reason Earth has seasons. (You may wish to have students
walk around the plastic hoop “sun.”)
Students will complete page two of their Astronomy Journal in
Lesson 3 (Instructional Master 3B-1). It will be a picture of the sky
at night. You may wish to have students observe the night sky for
homework tonight.
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Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 2 | The Earth and the Sun
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
The Earth and the Sun
2A
Note: Introducing the Read-Aloud may have activity options that
exceed the time allocated for this part of the lesson. To remain
within the time periods allocated for this portion of the lesson,
you will need to make conscious choices about which activities to
include based on the needs of your students.
Introducing the Read-Aloud
10 minutes
What Have We Already Learned?
5 minutes
Begin with a review of the previous lesson by asking students the
following questions:
• What do we call a scientist who studies astronomy or outer
space? (an astronomer)
• Name some objects that are in space. (the earth, sun, moon,
and stars)
• What do we call the first layer of the sky, the air that surrounds
the earth? (the atmosphere)
• Which of the objects in space—sun, moon, or stars—can be
seen during the day? (the sun and sometimes the moon) Which
can be seen at night? (the moon and the stars)
Remind students even though it is far away from the earth and
looks smaller, the sun is actually much larger than the earth and
provides the earth with light, heat, and energy.
Essential Background Information or Terms
10 minutes
Tell students that the earth moves in two different ways and that
you are going to demonstrate different ways the Earth moves.
Using a flag or pin, mark the approximate location of your town
on a globe. Tell students that this is where you live and emphasize
that you live on the planet Earth, which is represented by the
globe.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 2A | The Earth and the Sun
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
39
Tell students that even though they can’t feel it, the earth is
spinning. Explain that astronomers use the word rotation to
describe the earth’s spin around its axis. [Point out the stick
representing the axis on the globe.] When the earth spins around
its axis, we say it rotates. Spin the globe to demonstrate this
rotation. Then ask students to rotate or spin in place. Tell students
that this is one of the two ways the earth moves in space.
Explain that the earth doesn’t only rotate or spin in place; it also
travels around, or revolves around, the sun. Place a plastic hoop
on the floor and tell students that you will now pretend that the
plastic hoop is the sun. Explain that the real sun is much bigger
than the earth, just like the plastic hoop is much bigger than the
globe. Begin walking around the plastic hoop while holding and
continuing to spin the globe. Tell students that astronomers call
the path the earth follows as it revolves or travels around the
sun its orbit. Ask one or two students to walk around or orbit the
plastic hoop sun. Tell students that it takes the earth one year to
travel all the way around the sun.
Tell students that the earth is always orbiting, or revolving around,
the sun. Share with students that the earth is also always rotating,
which is why we always have day and night.
Vocabulary Preview
5 minutes
Rotates
 Show image 2A-3: Earth rotation
40
1.
In today’s read-aloud you will hear that Earth rotates round
and round.
2.
Say rotates with me three times.
3.
Rotates means spins around in a circle.
4.
[Point to the arrow showing the direction Earth rotates.] This
image shows the direction the Earth rotates.
[Make a circular, counterclockwise motion with your finger.
Invite students to do the same as they say rotates.]
Janet likes to rotate round and round as she pretends she is a
ballet dancer.
[Invite volunteers to demonstrate rotating round and round
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 2A | The Earth and the Sun
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
like a ballet dancer. Have the rest of the class say, “[Name of
student] rotates round and round.”]
5. What is another word that is similar to rotate? (spin)
Have you ever experienced rotating, or spinning, round and round
so much that you got dizzy? [Call on a few students to share.]
Orbit
 Show image 2A-4: Orbit diagram
1.
In today’s read-aloud you will hear that the path that Earth
follows around the sun is called the earth’s orbit.
2.
Say the word orbit with me three times.
3.
An orbit is a path around an object in space.
4.
[Point to the arrow showing Earth’s orbit around the sun.]
Earth travels in an orbit around the sun.
[Raise one finger and, with the finger of your other hand, make
a large circular, counterclockwise movement around that
finger. Invite students to do the same as they say orbit.]
5.
I will put the plastic hoop “sun” in front of some of you and
have you make an orbit around the “sun.” [Some students
may enjoy rotating as they make an orbit around the “sun.”]
Purpose for Listening
Tell students to listen carefully to find out how the earth’s rotation
on its axis causes day and night.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 2A | The Earth and the Sun
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
41
Presenting the Read-Aloud
15 minutes
The Earth and the Sun
 Show image 2A-1: Sunrise
All plants, animals, and people rely on the sun for life. The sun’s
energy gives life to plants, which in turn provides food for animals
and people. The sun’s heat keeps the surface of the earth warm
enough for plants and animals to survive.
1 The horizon is the line in the
distance where it appears that the
land meets the sky.
For people on Earth, it makes sense to say that the sun rises
in the morning. Each morning at dawn, the sun appears on the
horizon in the eastern sky. 1 At dawn, some people say, “Look!
The sun is coming up!” This first appearance of the sun above the
eastern horizon is called sunrise.
 Show image 2A-2: Sunset
Over the course of the day, the sun appears to move across the
sky, gradually following its path from east to west. In the evening,
the sun sets in the west. Ever so slowly, it gets lower in the sky
and disappears below the horizon. That’s when people say, “The
sun is going down.” This disappearance of the sun below the
western horizon is called sunset.
2 In fact, that’s exactly what people
thousands of years ago thought
was happening.
So, based on what we can see from where we live on Earth,
it seems sensible to say that the sun moves across the sky each
day—rising, or moving up, in the east; and setting, or sinking
down, in the west. 2 But that’s not actually true. The earth, not the
sun, moves! It is the daily rotation, or spin, of the earth that makes
the sun appear to rise and set each day.
 Show image 2A-3: Earth rotation
3 [Show the globe.] Remember how
we made the globe rotate earlier?
Earth spins, or rotates, on its axis. 3 Imagine the earth’s axis
as an imaginary line sticking through the center of the planet from
north to south. It takes twenty-four hours, or one day, for the earth
to spin, or rotate, all the way around one time.
This daily rotation explains why there is always night and day
on Earth. As it spins, certain parts of Earth’s surface face the sun,
receiving its heat and light. When it is light on one side of the
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Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 2A | The Earth and the Sun
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
4 [Using the globe from earlier in the
lesson, point out to students the
country that is on the opposite side
of the world from them.]
earth, it is dark on the other side. So, if it is daytime where you are
right now, then on the other side of the earth it is nighttime, and
the children there are sound asleep. 4 And, when you are nestled
in your bed tonight, children on the other side of the planet will be
waking up to a bright new day.
 Show image 2A-4: Orbit diagram
This spinning or rotation of the earth, however, is not the only
way Earth moves in space.
5 Remember that the sun is a star
and provides the earth with light.
6 Remember when I carried the
globe around the hula hoop sun? I
was imitating the earth’s orbit.
Because Earth is a planet, it also moves, or revolves, around
the sun. The word planet means a large object in space that
revolves around a star for light. 5 Earth moves, or revolves, around
the sun, following a constant path. The path that Earth follows
around the sun is called the earth’s orbit. 6
Earth follows the same path as it revolves around, or orbits, the
sun. It takes about 365 days, or one year, for Earth to make one
complete orbit, or revolution, around the sun. But how and why does
Earth orbit the sun? The answer to this question involves one of the
most important lessons you can learn in the study of astronomy.
 Show image 2A-5: Person jumping 7
7 What is this person doing?
(jumping) What is going to happen
to this person after he jumps?
(He is going to land back to the
ground.)
8 So the sun’s gravity holds the earth
in place. [Demonstrate the sun’s
gravitational pull with a hula hoop
(sun) and the globe (Earth). Show
how the earth orbits the sun and
does not wander off into space.]
In space there are large objects, like the sun, and there are smaller
objects, like the earth and moon. All objects in space actually pull on
all other objects, but larger objects pull harder than smaller objects.
The force that causes objects to pull on each other is called gravity.
So just as Earth’s gravity causes the boy to land back to the ground
instead of floating into the air, the sun’s gravity holds Earth in its
place. Earth orbits around the sun but does not wander off into
space. 8
Just as the sun pulls on the earth and other objects out in
space, the earth pulls on objects on or near its surface. Because
of this, your feet stay firmly on the ground. And if you jump up,
you come straight back down. If you throw a ball in the air, it falls
straight back down, too. This force of gravity holds things on the
ground and holds the planet Earth in orbit around the sun.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 2A | The Earth and the Sun
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
43
 Show image 2A-6: Student at desk
You cannot tell that the earth is always moving as you sit in
your classroom or wherever you happen to be. It rotates, or spins,
all day and every day as it travels in its year-long course around
the sun. These two types of movement—the rotation and the
revolution of the earth—create the days and years that we keep
track of on the calendar.
Discussing the Read-Aloud
Comprehension Questions
15 minutes
10 minutes
If students have difficulty responding to questions, reread pertinent
passages of the read-aloud and/or refer to specific images. If
students give one-word answers and/or fail to use read-aloud
or domain vocabulary in their responses, acknowledge correct
responses by expanding the students’ responses using richer
and more complex language. Ask students to answer in complete
sentences by having them restate the question in their responses.
44
1.
Literal Describe what we see at sunrise each day. (sun coming
up over the horizon in the east) Describe what we see at
sunset each day. (sun going down below the horizon in the
west)
2.
Inferential If we look up in the sky at different times of the
day, the sun is in many different places and looks like it has
moved. Does the sun move around the earth? (no) What
moves? (the earth)
3.
Literal When we are on the side of the earth facing away from
the sun, is it day or night? (night) Is it day or night on the
opposite side of the earth? (day)
4.
Inferential When we are on the side of the earth facing the sun,
is it day or night? (day) Is it day or night on the opposite side
of the earth? (night)
5.
Literal What causes night and day? (the earth’s rotation)
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 2A | The Earth and the Sun
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
6.
Literal You also heard that the earth travels in a path around
the sun, and that it takes one year to go all the way around the
sun. What is this path called? (an orbit or revolution)
7.
Literal What do we call a large object in space that revolves
around a star for light? (a planet) On what planet do we live?
(Earth)
8.
Inferential The earth moves in two different ways. One way
the earth moves is rotating on its axis. Show me what Earth’s
rotation looks like.
Another way Earth moves is orbiting around the sun. Show me
what Earth’s orbit around the sun looks like.
Which movement causes day and night? (Earth’s rotation)
[Please continue to model the Question? Pair Share process for
students, as necessary, and scaffold students in their use of the
process.]
9.
Where? Pair Share: Asking questions after a read-aloud
is one way to see how much everyone has learned. We
learned about where the sun rises and sets, as well as
where the earth orbits and spins. Think of a question you
can ask your neighbor about the read-aloud that starts with
the word where. For example, you could ask, “Where is the
atmosphere?” Turn to your neighbor and ask your where
question. Listen to your neighbor’s response. Then your
neighbor will ask a new where question, and you will get a
chance to respond. I will call on several of you to share your
questions with the class.
10. After hearing today’s read-aloud and questions and answers,
do you have any remaining questions? [If time permits, you
may wish to allow for individual, group, or class research of
the text and/or other resources to answer these questions.]
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 2A | The Earth and the Sun
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
45
Word Work: Horizon
5 minutes
1.
In the read-aloud you heard, “Each morning at dawn, the sun
appears on the horizon in the eastern sky.”
2.
Say the word horizon with me.
3.
The horizon is the place or line in the distance where it
appears that the land or a body of water meets the sky.
4.
When we look at the horizon in the morning, it looks like the
sun is rising, and when we look at the horizon in the evening,
it looks like the sun is setting.
5.
[Show various images with different things on the horizon.]
Can you see the line of the horizon? What do you see on the
horizon? [Ask two or three students. If necessary, guide and/
or rephrase the students’ responses: “I can see
on the
horizon.”]
6.
What’s the word we’ve been talking about?
Use a Drawing activity for follow-up. Directions: When you look at
the horizon, you can see a long line where the land or a body of
water meets the sky. Draw a quick sketch of the horizon at sunrise
or sunset, showing the top half of the sun and a line where the
land would hide the rest of the sun, meeting the sky. Remember
that a sketch is quickly drawn and does not include many details
or colors.

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Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the Day
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 2A | The Earth and the Sun
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
The Earth and the Sun
2B
Note: Extensions may have activity options that exceed the time
allocated for this part of the lesson. To remain within the time
periods allocated for this portion of the lesson, you will need to
make conscious choices about which activities to include based
on the needs of your students.
Extensions
20 minutes
Sayings and Phrases: AM and PM
5 minutes
Remind students that each time the earth makes one complete
rotation, one full day passes. There are twenty-four hours in one
full day. Tell students that half of twenty-four hours is twelve
hours, so there are approximately twelve hours in the day and
twelve hours in the night. Point to the numbers on a clock dial
as you count one o’clock through twelve o’clock. Explain to
students that, in the United States, we don’t say thirteen o’clock
through twenty-four o’clock for the last twelve hours of the day.
Instead, after we count to twelve o’clock for the morning hours,
we start at one o’clock and begin counting to twelve all over
again for the afternoon and evening hours. Tell students that
there are two twelve o’clocks: one at noon and one at midnight;
two one o’clocks, one in the afternoon and one at night; two two
o’clocks, and so on. Explain to students that there are two twelve
o’clocks, etc., so people need to know what time of day (morning,
afternoon, or evening) we are referring to.
Tell students that this is the reason why, if we are talking about
the hours between midnight and one minute before twelve o’clock
noon, we say “AM.” Have students repeat “AM.” Tell students that
AM stands for two Latin words (ante meridian) that mean “before
noon.” Note that if we are talking about noon or the hours between
twelve o’clock noon and one minute to midnight, we say “PM.”
Have students repeat “PM.” Tell students that PM stands for two
other Latin words (post meridian) that mean “after noon.”
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 2B | The Earth and the Sun
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
47
As you read the following example, point to the corresponding
numbers on a clock dial: “If the time is one hour before twelve
noon, we say that it is eleven o’clock AM. If the time is one hour
after twelve noon, we say that it is one o’clock PM.” Tell students
what activity you are usually engaged in at noon so that they can
judge if they have reached noon yet today. Then point to the clock,
and tell students what time it is. Ask students to judge whether
you should add AM or PM to the time.
Find opportunities each day to talk about AM and PM.
Demonstration of Earth’s Rotation: Day and Night
10 minutes
Note: You may wish to have students come up with motions and/
or sounds to represent daytime and nighttime, sunrise and sunset.
Remind students that earlier in the day they saw a demonstration
of how the earth rotates on its axis and revolves around the sun.
Explain that now you will repeat that demonstration, but that this
time you will use a flashlight to demonstrate day and night. This
demonstration will help students understand what’s happening in
the sky at sunrise and sunset.
Show students the globe on which their town has been marked
by a flag or pin. Darken the room. Ask a volunteer to point the
flashlight at the globe while you hold it steady. Tell students that
the flashlight represents the sun. Tell students that when the
marked area is directly in the path of the sun, it is day in your
town. Explain that when it is day in your town, it is night on the
opposite side of the globe. Identify the country directly opposite
your town, i.e., on the other side of the globe. Have students
observe that when it is day in your town, the country on the
opposite side of the globe is not illuminated and is in shadow.
Then slowly spin the globe counterclockwise until that country is
hit directly by the flashlight’s beam. Ask a volunteer to point to the
flag or pin for your town without spinning the globe. Ask students
if they can guess whether it is day or night in your town when the
sun is hitting the opposite side of the globe. (night)
Now continue slowly spinning the globe counterclockwise, until
the flag or pin representing your town is once again directly in the
beam of light. Explain that when the globe makes a full rotation,
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Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 2B | The Earth and the Sun
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one whole day, or twenty-four hours, has passed on the earth.
Remind students, however, that when it is day in one place on the
globe, it is night on the opposite side. The side of the globe not
facing the sun is in shadow, which makes the sky dark.
Now, tell students that by using the globe, you are going to show
them how sunrise and sunset happens. Ask another volunteer
to point the flashlight at the globe and hold it steady, reminding
students that the flashlight represents the sun. Remind them that
the globe is the earth and the flag or marked area on the globe is
the town in which they live. Start with the marked side of the globe
turned away from the flashlight. Say, “It’s night in our town now.”
Then spin the globe very slowly counterclockwise (or to the left).
Stop spinning the globe as soon as the light of the flashlight is
near the mark that represents your town. Compare this to sunrise,
when you just begin to see light in the sky in your town. Rotate
the globe so the pin/flag representing your town is directly facing
the flashlight. Compare this to twelve o’clock noon, when the sun
shines directly on your town, and is directly overhead in the sky.
Then rotate the globe counterclockwise again, until the light from
the flashlight is just past the mark of your town. Compare this to
sunset in your town, when there is only a little sun left in your view.
Explain that at sunrise, you were turning the pin/flag representing
your town toward the sun so the sun started to come into the view
of your town. Explain that at sunset you were turning the pin/flag
representing your town away from the sun, so the sun was starting
to leave the view of your town.
Then ask students to turn to a neighbor and discuss the following
question: why does the sun look like it’s moving across the sky
from sunrise to sunset? (because the earth is moving) Encourage
students to share, and elaborate upon their responses with
domain-related vocabulary.
Extending the Activity
• You may wish to extend the activity by inviting two students to
represent Earth and one student to hold the flashlight. Have the
two students stand back-to-back and form a circle by linking
hands. Then help them to rotate counterclockwise.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 2B | The Earth and the Sun
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49
• Have the student holding the flashlight shine the light at chestlevel as the other two students rotate. Have the two students
say whether they are in daytime or nighttime.
• In addition, as one student approaches the light, have him or
her say “sunrise,” and as the other student goes away from the
light, have him or her say, “sunset.”
Drawing the Read-Aloud
15 minutes
• Ask students to think back to the Read-Aloud that they listened
to earlier in the day: “The Earth and the Sun.” You may wish to
review a few Flip Book images and read-aloud concepts, (e.g.,
Earth rotates; from Earth it looks like the sun moves because it
rises and sets but actually the sun does not move.)
• Give the following directions:
• First, fold your paper in half.
• Next, think about two things you learned from today’s readaloud.
• Then, draw these two things. Your drawings should be
sketches. [Allow five minutes for each sketch.]
• Finally, label parts of your drawing using the letter-sound
correspondences you have learned thus far.
• Remind students that asking questions is one way to make sure
everyone knows what to do. Tell students the following, “Think
of a question about the directions I just gave you. For example,
you could ask, ‘How many things do we draw?’ Now, turn to
your neighbor and ask your own question.”
• Circulate around the room, asking students to identify what they
have drawn. Encourage students to use read-aloud vocabulary
as they describe their drawings.
• Have students share their drawings with their partner or with
home-language peers. Have students compare their drawings to
see if they drew the same things or different things.
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Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 2B | The Earth and the Sun
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Domain-Related Trade Book
20 minutes
• Refer to the list of recommended trade books in the Introduction
at the front of this Supplemental Guide, and choose one trade
book about day and night or sunrise and sunset to read aloud to
the class.
• Explain to students that the person who wrote the book is called
the author. Tell students the name of the author. Explain to
students that the person who makes the pictures for the book
is called an illustrator. Tell students the name of the illustrator.
Show students where they can find this information on the cover
of the book or on the title page.
• As you read, use the same strategies that you have been
using when reading the read-aloud selections—pause and ask
occasional questions; rapidly clarify critical vocabulary within
the context of the read-aloud; etc.
• After you finish reading the trade book aloud, lead students in a
discussion as to how the story or information in this book relates
to the read-alouds in this domain.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 2B | The Earth and the Sun
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51
Stars
3
 Lesson Objectives
Core Content Objectives
Students will:
 Classify the sun as a star
 Describe stars as large, although they appear small in the night sky
 Describe stars as hot, distant, and made of gas
 Explain that astronomers study the moon and stars using
telescopes
 Describe how people sometimes tell stories about the moon and
stars
Language Arts Objectives
The following language arts objectives are addressed in this
lesson. Objectives aligning with the Common Core State
Standards are noted with the corresponding standard in
parentheses. Refer to the Alignment Chart for additional standards
addressed in all lessons in this domain.
Students will:
 Listen to and understand poetry about stars, such as “Star
Light, Star Bright” and “The Star” (RL.1.5)
 Describe the connection between meteors and Earth’s
atmosphere (RI.1.3)
 With assistance, categorize and organize information about what
things can be seen at dusk (W.1.8)
 Describe what is seen in the sky at dusk (SL.1.4)
 Add drawings to descriptions of what can be seen in the sky at
dusk to clarify the concepts (SL.1.5)
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 Accurately apply the meanings of the antonyms dusk and dawn
(L.1.5)
 Prior to listening to “Stars,” identify orally what they know and
have learned about Earth, planets, and stars
Core Vocabulary
dusk, n. The time of day just after sunset when the sky is not yet dark
Example: In the summertime, my mom lets me play outside until dusk.
Variation(s): none
meteor, n. A piece of rock or metal that is in outer space. If a meteor goes
into Earth’s atmosphere, it makes a streak of bright light. It is sometimes
mistakenly called a “shooting star.”
Example: A meteor looks like a streak of light in the night sky. Some
people think it is a “shooting star,” but it is a rock, not a star.
Variation(s): meteors
stars, n. Hot balls of gas in outer space that look like bright points of light
in the sky
Example: Many stars are visible from Earth in the night sky.
Variation(s): star
telescopes, n. Tools that make objects that are far away seem larger and
closer; used for looking at stars and planets in outer space
Example: Astronomers use telescopes to study the stars and planets.
Variation(s): telescope
universe, n. Everything that is on Earth and in outer space, including all
the stars and planets
Example: The universe is so big that I can’t even imagine it.
Variation(s): universes
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 3 | Stars
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
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Vocabulary Chart for Stars
Core Vocabulary words are in bold.
Multiple Meaning Word Activity word is underlined.
Vocabulary Instructional Activity words have an asterisk (*).
Suggested words to pre-teach are in italics.
Type of Words
Tier 1
General Academic Words
Everyday-Speech Words
beyond
incredible
massive
occasionally
rare
twinkling/glittering
big/large/small/
tiny
hot
into
nighttime/daytime
sky
sun
through
atmosphere
country
space
appear
blinking
wonders
building
light
rock
ship
stars
has faded
feast your eyes on
Phrases
in the blink of an
eye
outer space
shooting star
streak of light
always there
from time to time
larger than
pretty far away
Cognates
astrónomo(a)
meteoro
meteorito
observatorio
telescopio
universo*
atmósfera
espacio
increíble
massivo(a)
ocasionalmente
raro(a)
Multiple Meaning
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 3 | Stars
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Tier 2
astronomer
dawn/dusk*
meteor
meteorite
observatory
stargazing
telescopes
universe*
Understanding
54
Tier 3
Domain-Specific Words
Note: Introducing the Read-Aloud and Extensions may have
activity options that exceed the time allocated for that part of
the lesson. To remain within the time periods allocated for each
portion of the lesson, you will need to make conscious choices
about which activities to include based on the needs of your
students.
Exercise
Materials
Details
Introducing the Read-Aloud (10 minutes)
What Have We Already
Learned?
plastic hoop “sun”
Invite a few students to demonstrate the
rotating and orbiting of Earth. Have the
rest of the class say whether the student
is rotating or orbiting.
Essential Background
Information or Terms
Idea Web for the sun
You may wish to refer to the Idea Web to
review parts of the sun.
examples of solids and liquids
Be sure that students understand the
basic differences between solid, liquid,
and gas; i.e., gas is neither a liquid or a
solid.
Images 3A-4 and 3A-5; binoculars
Vocabulary Preview:
Telescopes, Meteor
Images 3A-7 and 3A-8; short video
clips of a meteor shower
Purpose for Listening
Presenting the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)
Stars
Discussing the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)
Comprehension Questions
images of sunrise and sunset
Word Work: Dawn/Dusk
 Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the Day
Extensions (20 minutes)
Multiple Meaning Word
Activity: Ship
Poster 2M (Ship)
Syntactic Awareness Activity:
Prepositions— beyond, into,
through
Images 3A-2 and 3A-8; large
You may wish to label parts of the
cylindrical tube; index cards with
classroom with these prepositions and
large words—beyond, into, through have students identify them. Use arrows
with along with the labels whenever
applicable.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 3 | Stars
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Exercise
Materials
Vocabulary Instructional
Activity: Universe
Image 3A-10; drawing paper,
drawing tools
Astronomy Journal: Nighttime
Instructional Master 3B-1, drawing
tools
Poetry Read-Aloud
chart paper with “Star Light, Star
Bright” written on it;
instrumental music for “Twinkle,
Twinkle, Little Star”
Details
Advance Preparation
Bring in plastic hoop “sun,” images of sunrise and sunset,
binoculars, and instrumental music for “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little
Star.”
Find age-appropriate video clips showing a meteor shower.
Make a copy of Instructional Master 3B-1 for each student.
Students will create the second page of their Astronomy Journal.
Write the nursery rhyme “Star Light, Star Bright” on a large piece
of chart paper.
Notes to Teacher
If you did not have students observe the night sky for homework
yet, you may wish to assign the Astronomy Journal (Instructional
Master 3B-1) for homework tonight.
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Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 3 | Stars
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
3A
Stars
Note: Introducing the Read-Aloud may have activity options that
exceed the time allocated for this part of the lesson. To remain
within the time periods allocated for this portion of the lesson,
you will need to make conscious choices about which activities to
include based on the needs of your students.
Introducing the Read-Aloud
10 minutes
What Have We Already Learned?
5 minutes
Review the previous read-aloud, highlighting two ways the earth
moves: rotating and orbiting, or revolving, around the sun. Remind
students that the earth rotates when it spins on its own axis, and
that this spin creates day and night. Remind students that the
earth is a planet because it orbits the sun for light and heat. Ask
students if the sun is a planet or a star. (a star)
Essential Background Information or Terms
10 minutes
Tell students that today’s read-aloud is about stars. Remind
students that they already learned about Earth’s most important
star, and ask them to identify it. (the sun) Show image 1A-5, and
ask students what they remember learning about the sun. (very
hot, made of gases, huge and far from Earth, appears to rise and
set, etc.)
Explain the three states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. Things
that are solid have a shape that remains the same, such as a book
or a pencil. Things that are liquid can be poured, such as water
or juice. Things that are gas are often hard to see; an example of
a gas is the air around us. We know the air is not solid because
it does not have or hold a shape, and it is not liquid because it
cannot be poured. Air is a gas that cannot be seen.
Stars are made up of gases even though they appear to be in
shapes as we view them from so far away. Point out that the sun
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 3A | Stars
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
57
is one of billions of stars in space. It looks bigger than the stars we
see in the night sky because it is much closer to Earth than the rest
of the stars, even though it is still very far away. Ask students to give
other examples of how things that are far away look smaller than
they actually are. (houses when you are in an airplane; the village
below when you are hiking up a mountain; etc.) Tell students that
today’s read-aloud will teach them more about the faraway stars,
which actually look smaller to us than they really are.
Vocabulary Preview
5 minutes
Telescopes
 Show image 3A-5: Conventional telescope
1.
In today’s read-aloud you will hear that we can use telescopes
to get a better look at the stars in the sky.
2.
Say telescopes with me three times.
3.
Telescopes are tools that make objects that are far away seem
larger and closer.
 Show image 3A-4: Inside observatory
4.
Telescopes, like the one in this picture, are important tools to
astronomers.
5.
Why do you think telescopes are important tools to
astronomers? What do telescopes do? (make objects that are
far away seem larger and closer)
[If available, have students look through binoculars at people
or objects that are far away. Explain that telescopes do the
same thing but are much more powerful and can see things
that are very, very far away.]
Meteor
 Show image 3A-7: Meteor
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1.
In today’s read-aloud you will hear that if you look at the night
sky long enough, you may see a meteor.
2.
[Point to the streak of light.] Say the word meteor with me
three times.
3.
A meteor is a rock or piece of metal that floats around in outer
space.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 3A | Stars
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
 Show image 3A-8: Close-up of meteor hitting earth’s atmosphere
4.
When a meteor flies from outer space into Earth’s atmosphere,
it looks like a streak of light in the night sky.
5.
Have you seen a meteor before? What did it look like? [Call on
a few volunteers to share.]
Are a meteor and a star the same thing? (no)
How are a meteor and a star different? (meteor is a solid rock,
not gas; a meteor moves around in space; it does not have an
orbit or stay still.)
Purpose for Listening
Explain to students that they will now learn more about stars. They
will even learn about something called a “shooting star,” which
isn’t really a star at all! Tell students to listen carefully to find out
what “shooting stars” really are.
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Note: Extensions may have activity options which exceed the
time allocated for this part of the lesson. To remain within the time
periods allocated for this portion of the lesson, you will need to
make conscious choices about which activities to include based
on the needs of your students.
Presenting the Read-Aloud
15 minutes
Stars
 Show image 3A-1: Dusk
1 Stars are hot balls of gas that give
off light and heat.
When nighttime comes, you can say good night to the sun—our
daytime star—and you can say hello to all the millions of other
stars that shine in outer space. 1 Remember, the stars are always
out there. Outer space does not disappear during the day and then
reappear at night. You can see those stars at night because the
sun’s light is no longer shining on your part of the earth, but the
stars are always there.
At dusk, just after the sun has set in the west but before all
of its light has faded, the first stars of night appear. 2 One, two,
three, and then more and more. The darker it is, the more stars
you can see. If you live in the city, then you can’t see as many
stars as people who live in the country can see. Lights in the cities
brighten the night sky and make it difficult to see the stars. Out in
the country—and especially out in the wilderness far away from
buildings, street lights, and cars—the night sky seems to explode
with glittery, twinkling stars.
2 It is dusk in this image.
 Show image 3A-2: Starry night
3 [Point to a few stars.]
4 Everything looks smaller when it
is far away. Think of how small an
airplane looks when it is high up
in the sky.
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They may look small, but many of those stars that you see 3 are
actually incredibly large. Many stars are larger than our own sun,
which, as you may remember, is big enough to fit a million Earths
inside. The stars look small because they are so far away. 4 And
the stars look like they’re blinking, but they’re actually shining
steadily. The gases in our atmosphere cause their light to look like
it is twinkling.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 3A | Stars
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
5 Here the word ship means a large
spacecraft. The word ship can also
mean to send a package through
the mail.
Just how far away are the stars? Here’s one way to think
about it: if someone put you on the fastest rocket ship today and
launched you into space, it would take you thousands of years—
about seventy-three thousand to be exact—to reach the nearest
star beyond our sun! 5 That’s very far away. However, you can still
see the light from that massive, hot star, even though it looks more
like a tiny, twinkling diamond from here on the earth.
 Show image 3A-3: Observatory
6 Telescopes are tube-like tools
with lenses and mirrors used for
magnifying objects in space in
order to observe them.
7 What smaller word do you hear in
the word observatories? Observe
means to look.
At night, astronomers study the stars. Astronomers work in
observatories, which are buildings where large telescopes are
housed. 6 Observatories are built high up on hills or mountaintops,
where there are no buildings or trees blocking the telescope. 7 The
roof of the observatory is designed so that it can open and allow
the giant telescope inside to move up and down and all around
without bumping into anything.
 Show image 3A-4: Inside observatory
8 [Point to the large telescope.]
Astronomers need really big, powerful telescopes to do their
work. This is the kind of telescope you find inside an observatory. 8
That’s a big telescope!
 Show image 3A-5: Conventional telescope
9 [Hold your hands to your eyes like
you are holding binoculars.]
10 [Point to the telescope in the
image.]
But you don’t need a massive telescope and a fancy
mountaintop observatory to enjoy the wonders of stargazing, or
looking at the stars. If you want to get a better look at the stars or
a closer look at the moon, a pair of binoculars will do the trick. 9 Or
you can use a telescope like this one. 10 You’d be surprised by all
the different things you can see through a telescope!
 Show image 3A-6: Magnified stars 11
11 These are pictures of stars that have
been made larger, or magnified.
12 Remember, it would take
thousands of years to get close to
one.
Through careful study, astronomers have figured out many
interesting facts about stars, even though no one is able to travel
and study a star up close. 12 Astronomers have learned that some
stars are older than other stars. Some stars are hotter than others.
Some appear red through the telescope 13 and others appear
13 [Point to the red star on the left.]
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© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
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14 [Point to the blue star on the right.]
blue. 14 Stars change color depending on how hot they are, and
how hot a star is depends on its age, size, and other factors.
 Show image 3A-7: Meteor
But you do not need a telescope in order to appreciate the
wonders of outer space. If you look at the sky long enough on any
given night, you may see a meteor.
15 So if you see a shooting star, what
are you really seeing?
A meteor is simply a rock or piece of metal that flies through
space. It appears as a streak of light in the sky before it disappears
in the blink of an eye. At first glance, a meteor may look like a star
that is literally falling through the sky. However, stars do not move
like that. Meteors—although they are sometimes called “shooting
stars”—are not stars at all. 15
 Show image 3A-8: Close-up of meteor hitting earth’s atmosphere
16 When rocks break in space, all the
broken pieces just move around
together because there isn’t
enough gravity for them to fall
anywhere.
17 If meteors hit Earth’s atmosphere
and burn up all the time, why do
we only see them at night?
There are billions of meteors out there. Some meteors are quite
large, but most are tiny, between the size of a grain of sand and a
baseball. 16
Meteors are whizzing around all over the place in outer
space. Occasionally, a meteor travels toward Earth. Before it
can hit Earth’s surface, however, the meteor crashes into Earth’s
atmosphere. For a space rock, hitting the earth’s atmosphere is
like a person running into a brick wall, except the atmosphere
doesn’t stop the meteor. The meteor hits the atmosphere at an
incredible speed and keeps moving through the atmosphere. As
it does so, it generates intense heat. The meteor burns up as
it enters the uppermost parts of earth’s atmosphere, creating a
streak of light, or a “shooting star” as some people call it. 17
 Show image 3A-9: Recovered meteorite
18 [Point to the meteorite in the
image.]
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Occasionally, bits and pieces of meteors survive their trip
through the atmosphere and fall to Earth. This is rare, but it does
happen from time to time, and it is possible to find pieces of them
on the ground. When part of a meteor survives the trip through the
atmosphere and lands on Earth, we call the meteor a meteorite, or
space rock. 18
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 3A | Stars
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
The meteorite in this picture is probably not the most exciting
rock you have ever seen, but it is pretty amazing to think that
it came from outer space. Sometimes, by studying meteorites,
scientists discover new types of rock that do not exist on Earth!
 Show image 3A-10: Star cluster
19 The universe is everything in space
taken together, including planets,
stars, and space itself.
20 or group
21 And remember, our sun is a million
times bigger than the whole planet
Earth.
Outer space is a strange and wonderful place. By studying
the stars, planets, and other objects in space, astronomers
have learned many things about this incredible place called the
universe, of which we and our planet Earth are but a teeny,
tiny part. 19 Feast your eyes on this massive star cluster 20 for a
moment and imagine, if you can, the incredible number of stars
and the incredible distances between us and them, and how much
there is for us to learn about our universe. For instance, look at the
very center of this photo. There in the middle is a little cluster of
fourteen bluish stars. Added together, astronomers estimate that
these fourteen stars combined are over 20,000 times larger than
our sun! 21 That’s so huge, it’s hard to think about, and that’s just
fourteen stars out of all the stars in this photo!
Discussing the Read-Aloud
Comprehension Questions
15 minutes
10 minutes
If students have difficulty responding to questions, reread pertinent
passages of the read-aloud and/or refer to specific images. If
students give one-word answers and/or fail to use read-aloud
or domain vocabulary in their responses, acknowledge correct
responses by expanding the students’ responses using richer
and more complex language. Ask students to answer in complete
sentences by having them restate the question in their responses.
1.
Literal Describe what you might see in the sky at dusk. (sun
setting, colors of sunset, stars coming out, darkening sky,
moon coming up)
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2.
Inferential When we look up at the stars at night, they look like
they are blinking and they look tiny. Are stars actually tiny and
blinking? (no) Why do they look like they’re blinking? (Gases
in our atmosphere cause stars to look like they are twinkling.)
Why do they look tiny? (They are really far away.)
3.
Literal Stargazers stand outside and look up at the stars,
sometimes using binoculars. Astronomers have special
buildings they go to in order to study the stars. What are these
buildings called? (observatories) What tools do astronomers
use to see the stars more clearly? (telescopes)
 Show image 3A-6: Magnified stars
4.
Inferential We learned that not all stars are the same. Why are some
stars blue and some stars red? (Some are hotter than others.)
[Note: Blue stars are much hotter than red stars.]
5.
Literal If you look up in the sky at night, you might see a streak
of light, sometimes called a “shooting star.” Is it actually a
star? (no) Do any stars fall through the sky? (no) What are you
probably really seeing? (a meteor)
6.
Inferential What is a meteor? (a rock or piece of metal that flies
through space) What happens to meteors when they enter the
earth’s atmosphere? (They usually burn up completely.)
[Please continue to model the Think Pair Share process for
students, as necessary, and scaffold students in their use of the
process.]
I am going to ask a question. I will give you a minute to think about
the question, and then I will ask you to turn to your neighbor and
discuss the question. Finally, I will call on several of you to share
what you discussed with your partner.
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7.
Evaluative Think Pair Share: After listening to today’s readaloud, do you think stars are small or large? How could you
explain to a friend that stars may appear to look small in the
night sky, but they are actually very big? (Answers may vary.)
8.
After hearing today’s read-aloud and questions and answers,
do you have any remaining questions? [If time permits, you
may wish to allow for individual, group, or class research of
the text and/or other resources to answer these questions.]
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 3A | Stars
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Word Work: Dawn/Dusk
5 minutes
1.
In yesterday’s lesson you learned that at dawn, the sun rises
in the east.
In today’s read-aloud you heard, “At dusk, just after the sun
has set in the west but before all of its light has faded, the first
stars of night appear.”
2.
Say the word dawn with me.
Say the word dusk with me.
3.
Dawn and dusk are opposites.
Dawn is the time of day when the sun begins to rise, when the
sky is not fully light yet.
Dusk is the time of day just after sunset, when the sky is not
fully dark yet.
4.
[Show an image of sunrise.] The sky brightens with the colors
of sunrise at dawn, when night ends and day begins.
[Show an image of sunset.] The sky glows with the colors of
sunset at dusk, when the day ends and the night begins.
5.
What do you do at dawn? What do you do at dusk? Try to use
the words dawn and dusk when you tell about it.
[Ask two or three students. If necessary, guide and/or rephrase
the students’ responses: “At dawn I . . . At dusk I . . . ”]
6.
What are the words we’ve been talking about?
Use an Making Choices activity for follow-up. Directions: We know that
dawn is when the sun is coming up and night turns into day. We also
know that dusk is the time when the sun is going down and day turns
into night. Listen to the following examples. If I describe something
that happens at dusk, say, “That happens at dusk.” If I am describe
something that happens at dawn, say, “That happens at dawn.”

1.
The sun sets. (That happens at dusk.)
2.
The sun rises. (That happens at dawn.)
3.
The stars fade. (That happens at dawn.)
4.
The stars get brighter. (That happens at dusk.)
5.
The moon shines. (That happens at dusk.)
Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the Day
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Stars
3B
Note: Extensions may have activity options that exceed the time
allocated for this part of the lesson. To remain within the time
periods allocated for this portion of the lesson, you will need to
make conscious choices about which activities to include based
on the needs of your students.
Extensions
20 minutes
 Multiple Meaning Word Activity
5 minutes
Definition Detective: Ship
Note: You may choose to have students hold up one, two, or
three fingers to indicate which image shows the meaning being
described, or have a student walk up to the poster and point to
the image being described.
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1.
In the read-aloud you heard the word ship in this sentence: “If
someone put you on the fastest rocket ship it would take you
thousands of years . . . to reach the nearest star beyond our sun!”
2.
With your partner, think of as many meanings for ship as you
can, or discuss ways you can use the word ship.
3.
[Show Poster 2M (Ship).] Point to the picture on the poster
that shows how the word ship is used in the read-aloud.
4.
Ship can also mean other things. Ship can mean to send a
package or box through the mail. Which picture shows this?
5.
A ship is also a large boat used for traveling on the sea. Which
picture shows this?
6.
Did you or your partner think of any of these definitions or
uses of ship?
7.
Now with your partner, make a sentence for each meaning of
ship. [Call a few partner pairs to share their sentences. Have
them point to the images of ship used in their sentences.]
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 3B | Stars
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
 Syntactic Awareness Activity
5 minutes
Prepositions: beyond, into, through
Note: The purpose of these syntactic activities is to help students
understand the direct connection between grammatical structures
and the meaning of text. These syntactic activities should be used
in conjunction with the complex text presented in the read-alouds.
There may be variations in the sentences created by your class.
Allow for these variations, and restate students’ sentences so
that they are grammatical. If necessary, have students repeat the
sentence after you.
Directions: Today we are going to practice using words that show
location (or where something is) and direction (or where something
is going).
 Show image 3A-2: Starry night
1.
What do you see in this picture? (many, many stars)
These stars are beyond the sun.
We use the word beyond to show that something is on the
other side of and past something else, just like all of these
stars that are beyond the sun. Many times we use beyond to
show that something is farther away.
Make up a sentence with the word beyond in it using this
picture or objects in the classroom. As you say your sentence,
show your partner what beyond looks like.
 Show image 3A-8: Close-up of meteor hitting earth’s atmosphere
2.
What do you see in this picture? (a meteor)
In today’s read-aloud we heard that meteors can crash into
Earth’s atmosphere. We use the word into to show that
something moved from the outside to the inside of something
else, just like this meteor crashed into Earth’s atmosphere.
Make up a sentence with the word into in it. As you say your
sentence, show your partner what into looks like.
3.
In the read-aloud we also heard that as the meteor keeps
moving through the atmosphere, it gets really, really hot and
burns up. This is what makes a streak of light or “shooting star.”
[Remind students that a meteor is not a star but a space rock.]
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We use the word through to show that something moves
from one side straight to the other side. [Demonstrate this by
moving a small object through a large tube.]
Make up a sentence with the word through in it using this
picture or objects in the classroom. As you say your sentence,
show your partner what through looks like. (e.g., meteor going
through the atmosphere; meteor flying through the sky.)
4.
[Use various classroom labels and objects. Review and
reinforce the concept of these prepositions: beyond, into,
through.]
 Vocabulary Instructional Activity
5 minutes
Word Work: Universe
 Show image 3A-10: Star cluster
1.
In the read-aloud you heard, “By studying the stars, planets,
and other objects in space, astronomers have learned many
things about this incredible place called the universe.”
2.
Say the word universe with me three times.
3.
The universe is everything that is on Earth and in space,
including all the stars and planets.
4.
A long, long time ago, people thought that Earth was in the
middle of the universe; now we know that is not true.
The universe is so great, it is hard for anybody to know how
big it is.
5.
After listening to the last two read-alouds, do you feel the
universe is big or small? When you hear the word universe,
what comes to mind?
[Ask two or three students. If necessary, guide and/or rephrase the
students’ responses: “When I hear the word universe, I think of . . .”]
6.
What’s the word we’ve been talking about?
Use a Sharing and Drawing activity for follow-up. Directions:
Remember, universe means everything that is on Earth and in
space. We also use the word universe to show that something is
important and meaningful to a person. For example, to someone
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who really loves cars, cars could be that person’s universe; and to
someone who is really interested in math, numbers could be that
person’s universe. Tell your partner about something important in
your universe.
[If time permits have students draw a picture of their universe and
label or write a sentence about their picture.]
Astronomy Journal: Nighttime (Instructional Master 3B-1) 15 minutes
Note: If you have not yet asked students to observe the night sky
for homework, you may wish to assign the Astronomy Journal
(Instructional Master 3B-1) for homework tonight.
Tell students that they will continue to write in their Astronomy
Journal. Tell them they will use their Astronomy Journal to record
both observations (what they see) and facts (what they learn)
about outer space.
• First, give each student a copy of Instructional Master 3B1. Tell them that this is the second page of their Astronomy
Journal. It will be about the sky and the things they see
around them during the nighttime.
• Next, ask students to think about what they see in the night
sky.
• Then, have students spend at least five minutes sketching
the objects they see in the night sky and some things that
are outside at night. Tell students that a sketch is a simple
drawing with few details or colors.
• Finally, have students label and/or write a sentence about
their sketches.
Remind students about the two layers of the sky: the atmosphere
and outer space. Look at students’ sketches, helping them
recognize which objects in their drawings are located inside Earth’s
atmosphere. (birds, airplanes, clouds, etc.) Then direct students to
circle any object that is found in outer space, outside or beyond the
layer of air we call the atmosphere. (stars, moon, meteors)
If time allows, have students share their journal page with their
partner or with home-language peers. Have them point out how
their pictures are the same and different.
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Poetry Read-Aloud
15 minutes
Tell students that for thousands of years, people have been
stargazing, looking up and wondering about the same stars that
you can also see every night. Explain that perhaps because the
stars are so far away and there are so many of them, or perhaps
because they make the night so beautiful, the stars have inspired
people to imagine and dream as they gaze at the night sky. Explain
that students have listened to a nonfiction, or true, read-aloud
to learn facts about stars. Tell them that now they will listen to
imaginative poems about stars. Discuss how a poem is different
from a story. (fewer words, not in full sentences, sometimes
rhymes, has descriptive language, etc.)
Point out that according to one nursery rhyme, people can make
a wish on a star and it will come true, especially if it’s the first
star they see in the evening. Show students the chart paper with
the “Star Light, Star Bright” nursery rhyme. Explain that they will
learn a nursery rhyme about wishing on a star, using the echo
technique.
Directions: First I will read the whole nursery rhyme while you
listen. Watch as I point to each word. Then I am going to repeat
the first line and point to each word as I read it. Then I will stop
and give you a chance to echo the words while I point to the
words again. When you echo the words, it means you will say the
exact words that I said. We will continue doing this for each line of
the rhyme.
Star light, star bright
First star I see tonight
I wish I may, I wish I might
Have the wish I wish tonight.
Then ask students if they know any songs about stars. Take a
few responses, and if “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star” does not get
mentioned, bring it up at this point. Explain that the words from
“Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star” actually come from a poem written over
two hundred years ago (in 1806) by a woman who liked to gaze at
the stars. The name of the poem was “The Star,” and the woman’s
name was Jane Taylor. Explain that the poem is a lot longer than the
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song they know. Read the poem aloud, encouraging students to
listen carefully for the verses that follow the famous first verse.
The Star
by Jane Taylor
Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are!
Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky.
When the blazing sun is gone,
When he nothing shines upon,
Then you show your little light,
Twinkle, twinkle, all the night.
Then the traveler in the dark,
Thanks you for your tiny spark,
He could not see which way to go,
If you did not twinkle so.
In the dark blue sky you keep,
And often through my curtains peep,
For you never shut your eye,
Till the sun is in the sky.
’Tis your bright and tiny spark,
Lights the traveler in the dark:
Though I know not what you are,
Twinkle, twinkle, little star.
Discuss the poem, highlighting the line “how I wonder what you
are.” Explain that over two hundred years ago, most people, with
the exception of astronomers, really didn’t know much about what
stars were. Stargazers from long ago only knew what they could
see with their own eyes: that stars were tiny, that they covered
the night sky, and that they twinkled. Everything else they had to
imagine. Encourage students to look out their windows at night, or
if their parents allow them, to go outside and look at the stars and
let the view of outer space inspire their imaginations.
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Stargazing and
Constellations
4
 Lesson Objectives
Core Content Objectives
Students will:
 Explain that Earth orbits the sun
 Explain that astronomers study the moon and stars using telescopes
 Describe how people sometimes tell stories about the moon and
stars
 Explain what a constellation is
 Identify the Big Dipper and the North Star
Language Arts Objectives
The following language arts objectives are addressed in this
lesson. Objectives aligning with the Common Core State
Standards are noted with the corresponding standard in
parentheses. Refer to the Alignment Chart for additional standards
addressed in all lessons in this domain.
Students will:
 Ask and answer who questions orally, requiring literal recall
and understanding of the details or facts from “Stargazing and
Constellations” (SL.1.2)
 Ask questions to clarify directions for an activity in which
students are creating a model of the Big Dipper (SL.1.3)
 Add drawings to descriptions the Big Dipper to clarify the
concept (SL.1.5)
 Accurately apply the meanings of the antonyms ancient and
modern, and the antonyms major and minor (L.1.5a)
 Explain the meaning of “hit the nail on the head” and use in
appropriate contexts (L.1.6)
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 Prior to listening to “Stargazing and Constellations,” identify
orally what they know and have learned about stars
Core Vocabulary
advances, n. Improvements and progress
Example: With advances in astronomy, people know more and more
about the universe.
Variation(s): advance
ancient, adj. Very, very old or long, long ago
Example: In ancient times, Egyptians built the pyramids.
Variation(s): none
celestial bodies, n. Any objects, including planets, stars, comets, moons,
or meteors, that can be found in space
Example: The earth, moon, sun, and other stars are examples of
celestial bodies.
Variation(s): celestial body
constellations, n. Groups of stars in the night sky that seem to form
shapes or outlines of “pictures”
Example: I was so excited when I found different constellations in the
night sky.
Variation(s): constellation
myths, n. Stories that people tell to explain things in nature, or to teach a
lesson
Example: In ancient times, some people believed in myths about a sun
god who ruled over the world.
Variation(s): myth
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Vocabulary Chart for Stargazing and Constellations
Core Vocabulary words are in bold.
Multiple Meaning Word Activity word is underlined.
Vocabulary Instructional Activity words have an asterisk (*).
Suggested words to pre-teach are in italics.
Type of Words
Understanding
Tier 3
Tier 2
Tier 1
Domain-Specific Words
General Academic Words
Everyday-Speech Words
astronomer
constellations
Copernicus
Galileo
hypotheses
myths
Orion
Scorpio/scorpion
stargazers
Taurus/bull
telescope
ancient*
believed
bragged
curious
explanation
imagined
knowledge
look
named
sky
sun
space
advances
handle
major/minor*
shapes
list
star
stories
Big/Little Dipper
Canis Major/Minor
celestial bodies
Polaris/North Star
figured out
has a tough time
as if by magic
Multiple Meaning
Phrases
much more than meets
the eye
thousands of years
ago
relied on
remained the same
Cognates
74
astrónomo(a)
constelaciones
hipótesis
mito
telescopio
espacio
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 4 | Stargazing and Constellations
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
anciano*
avances
curioso(a)
explicación
imaginarse
mayor/menor*
lista
Note: Introducing the Read-Aloud and Extensions may have
activity options that exceed the time allocated for that part of
the lesson. To remain within the time periods allocated for each
portion of the lesson, you will need to make conscious choices
about which activities to include based on the needs of your
students.
Exercise
Materials
Details
Introducing the Read-Aloud (10 minutes)
chart paper, writing tools
What Have We Already
Learned?
Consider creating an Idea Web for stars
to list surprising facts about stars that
students have learned. Discuss why they
are surprising.
Essential Background
Information or Terms
Vocabulary Preview:
Constellations
Image 4A-10; additional images of
constellations
Purpose for Listening
Instructional Masters 4A-1 (Big
Dipper) and 4A-2 (Orion); star
stickers or drawing tools
You may wish to introduce the group
of stars known as the Big Dipper and
the constellation Orion before the readaloud. At a later time, students may be
interested in adding stickers or color dots
to the Big Dipper and Orion.
Images 4A-11 and 4A-12
You may wish to show students
images of Copernicus and Galileo and
introduce students to these two famous
astronomers. Ask students to listen
carefully to find out how they helped us
to know more about our universe.
Presenting the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)
Stargazing and Constellations
Discussing the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)
Comprehension Questions
Word Work: Ancient
 Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the Day
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Exercise
Materials
Details
Extensions (20 minutes)
Sayings and Phrases: Hit the
Nail on the Head
chart paper, chalkboard, or
whiteboard; drawing tools
Vocabulary Instructional
Activity: Major/Minor
chart paper; index cards
Astronomy Journal:
Constellations
Instructional Master 4B-1, images
of constellations; star stickers,
drawing tools
The Really Big Dipper
chart paper; drawing tools
Domain-Related Trade Book
trade book about stars or
constellations
Advance Preparation
Bring in images of constellations, and star stickers.
Make copies of Instructional Master 4A-1 and 4A-2 for each
student. These are worksheets with the outline of the Big Dipper
and Orion on them.
Make a copy of Instructional Master 4B-1 for each student.
Students will create the third page of their Astronomy Journal.
For Vocabulary Instructional Activity, create a Horizontal Word Wall
and write the following words on index cards: major, minor, big,
important, giant, small, unimportant, tiny.
Find a trade book about stars or constellations to read aloud to
your class.
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Stargazing and
Constellations
Introducing the Read-Aloud
What Have We Already Learned?
4A
10 minutes
5 minutes
Review the previous read-aloud during which students heard a
variety of facts about stars. Ask students to describe surprising
facts they learned about stars. (stars are really far away, really big,
really hot, and don’t twinkle or fall through the sky) Explain that all
of these facts are known only because of the work of astronomers.
Remind students that if you believe what you see in the night
sky, you might think that stars are tiny and that they twinkle. You
also might believe that they only come out at night. Explain that
the scientists who study the stars (astronomers), with the help of
observatories and telescopes, have learned that many of the things
we might believe when we look at the stars are not actually true.
Essential Background Information or Terms
Reference Note:
In the Early World Civilizations domain,
students learned that the ancient
Egyptians believed that the sun god,
Amon-Ra moved the sun across the
sky.
In the Early American Civilizations
domain, students learned that the
Maya believed the stars and planets
were gods. The Inca believed that the
world was created by Viracocha.
5 minutes
Explain that in today’s read-aloud, students will take a step back
in time thousands of years to ancient times, before astronomy
had begun. Remind students that they have already learned
about some people in ancient times, such as the Mesopotamians,
ancient Egyptians, and the Maya, Aztec, and Inca people. Remind
students that many ancient people often told stories, or myths,
to explain how events in nature occurred. Emphasize that several
ancient cultures believed in many gods and goddesses who were
responsible for controlling the events in nature.
Ask students, “Were there telescopes in ancient times?” Explain
that in ancient times, the people’s knowledge of outer space was
based solely on what they could see with their own eyes when
they looked up at the sky. Point out that since ancient times, tools
have been invented to study space in a scientific way. Remind
students that the scientific study of outer space is called astronomy.
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Vocabulary Preview
5 minutes
Constellations
 Show image 4A-10: Constellation chart
1.
In today’s read-aloud you will hear about many different
groups of stars in the sky that are called constellations.
2.
Say constellations with me three times.
3.
Constellations are groups of stars in the night sky that seem
to form shapes or pictures.
4.
The constellations that ancient people saw in the night sky
thousands of years ago are the same constellations we see in
the night sky today.
5.
Do you see any constellations in this image? [Call on a
few volunteers to come up to the image and point to the
constellations they think they see.]
Purpose for Listening
Tell students that they will now learn about what ancient people
saw when they looked at the stars. Explain to students that
ancient people saw outlines of pictures in the way stars appeared
in the night sky, and that people still look for these pictures today.
Ask students to listen carefully for the name of these pictures
made with stars.
Then emphasize that the first astronomers used science to study
the stars and learned many things that ancient peoples may never
have known. Ask students to also listen for the names of two early
astronomers who helped people understand the nature of the
universe, developing new tools for studying the stars.
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Presenting the Read-Aloud
15 minutes
Stargazing and Constellations
 Show image 4A-1: Ancient Greeks under starry sky
Thousands of years ago, people had no telescopes or rocket
ships. Although people back then did not have the tools and
knowledge that we have today, they were just as curious about
the stars and other celestial bodies. 1 The ancient Greeks, Arabs,
Romans, Chinese, Egyptians, Turks, Mayans, Babylonians, and
countless others 2 all studied the stars and tried to figure out what
they were and why they were there.
1 or objects found in space
2 who lived long, long ago
 Show image 4A-2: Group of ancient Arabs charting constellations
3 We still use these names today.
4 It’s hard to believe outer space has
changed so little in all those years!
Although they did not know what the stars were made of or
how far away they really were, the ancient people named the stars
and mapped them out. 3 They figured out which stars appeared in
the sky during certain times of year. And even though thousands
of years have passed on Earth, the stars have basically remained
the same. In other words, when you look up at the stars at night,
you are seeing the very same stars the ancient Greeks, Arabs, and
countless others saw, as well! 4
 Show image 4A-3: Constellation in the night sky
5 These stories are called myths.
6 That’s the name for the pictures
they saw in the stars.
The ancient Greeks believed that the stars had been placed in
the sky by gods—as if by magic—in order to tell stories and teach
lessons. 5 The Greeks identified certain groups of stars in the night
sky that seem to form specific shapes. These shapes are called
constellations. 6 In the United States, Europe, and many other
parts of the world, we still call the stars by the names that the
ancient Greeks or Arabs used so long ago.
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 Show image 4A-4: Big Dipper 7
7 [The Big Dipper is not actually a
constellation in itself, but part of a
larger constellation called Big Bear.
That is why it is referred to as a
“group of stars” below.]
8 You might also think it looks like a
pot with a handle.
9 [Rotate the Flip Book as you read
the following sentence.]
One of the first groups of stars that young stargazers in the
United States learn about is also the easiest one to spot. The Big
Dipper looks like a giant soup ladle up in the sky. 8 The Big Dipper
is made up of seven stars. The Big Dipper looks different in the sky
depending on the time of year. 9 Sometimes the Big Dipper looks
right side up, sometimes it looks upside down, and sometimes it
appears to be standing on its handle! That is not because the Big
Dipper moves, but because the earth is rotating on its axis and
revolving around the sun.
 Show image 4A-5: Little Dipper
Next to the Big Dipper is another group of stars called the Little
Dipper. The Little Dipper also contains seven stars. The bright star at
the end of the handle is special. It is called Polaris, or the North Star.
Unlike other celestial bodies, the North Star basically stays in the same
place in the sky as we observe it from Earth—always in the north.
 Show image 4A-6: Columbus navigating sailing ship
10 Because Polaris is always in the
north sky, Columbus could use it
like a compass to navigate his ships
north, south, east, or west.
Since ancient times, people have relied on the North Star to
find their way in the world. Knowing which way is north is the first
step to figuring out in which direction you are heading. Christopher
Columbus and other sailors used to look for the North Star on
starry nights out on the wide ocean. 10
 Show image 4A-7: Orion
11 Myths are stories that people tell to
explain things in nature, or to teach
others how to behave.
12 [Point to the three stars on the
right side of the image.]
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This picture shows one of the most famous constellations of
all: Orion. Ancient Greeks told stories, or myths, about Orion, a
famous hunter. 11 The constellation Orion is known all over the
world. The constellation itself contains eight main stars. Orion’s
Belt, made up of the three stars in a row across his body, is the
easiest to spot. As you can see, it takes a little imagination to look
at these stars and see a hunter. The single star in the upper left
is imagined to be the beginning of a raised arm, which is holding
a club or a sword. With his other arm, imagined to extend from
another single star, he holds a shield. 12
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 4A | Stargazing and Constellations
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 Show image 4A-8: Scorpio constellation
13 [Point to the tail.] A scorpion is a
poisonous, spider-like insect with a
curved tail.
According to one myth, Orion bragged he was such a good
hunter that he could kill all the animals on Earth. The gods decided
to punish him by creating Scorpio, a giant scorpion that Orion
could not defeat. 13
 Show image 4A-9: Orion, Taurus, Canis Major, and Canis Minor
Not far from the Orion constellation is Taurus, which shows the
head and horns of a mighty bull. It is often said that the hunter
Orion is fighting the bull Taurus. So, according to the myths, Orion
has a tough time up in outer space: he is being chased by a giant
scorpion at the same time he is fighting a giant bull!
14 These are Latin words. Canis means
dog, major means big, and minor
means small.
Fortunately, Orion has a couple of friends: his two loyal hunting
dogs, Canis Major and Canis Minor. 14 These dogs follow Orion
through the sky, helping him fight Taurus the Bull.
 Show image 4A-10: Constellation chart
15 This means there is more to know
about space than what we can see
with our eyes.
There are eighty-eight major constellations, and most
people around the world use the same basic list. When these
constellations were first named, most ancient people could only
guess what stars actually were. Ancient people told stories and
myths based on what they could see with their own eyes when
they looked up at the sky. But we have learned that there is much
more to space than meets the eye.15 In fact, sometimes when we
look into outer space, our eyes can play tricks on us.
The first astronomers began using math and science to learn
about the universe. Rather than make up myths and stories,
astronomers made scientific guesses about space.
 Show image 4A-11: Copernicus with model of earth, showing it revolving
around sun
For example, ancient people saw that the sun rose on one side
of the sky in the morning and set on the other side of the sky in
the evening. Seeing the sun’s “movement” across the sky caused
ancient people to believe that the sun moved while the earth stood
still. Ancient Greeks and Arabs and, in fact, most people in the
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16 Do you remember how we orbited
the hula hoop sun?
world, believed that everything in the universe—including the sun
and all the stars—revolved around the earth. It took thousands of
years before anyone believed that the opposite was actually true,
that the earth in fact revolved around the sun. 16 This discovery
was made by an early astronomer named Nicolaus Copernicus.
Copernicus was the first to use science to explain that Earth
actually revolves around the sun. Unfortunately, hardly anyone
believed him at the time. That was about 500 years ago.
 Show image 4A-12: Galileo with telescope
Another astronomer named Galileo came after Copernicus, and
he believed what Copernicus said about the earth revolving around
the sun. Galileo invented telescopes that helped astronomers
prove that Copernicus’s theory was true. 17 Although Galileo
did not invent the first telescope, he did invent very powerful
telescopes that helped him and other astronomers make many
important discoveries about space.
17 What is a telescope?
 Show image 4A-13: Modern telescope
18 or progress
19 [Point to the telescope, and flip
back to the previous page to point
to Galileo’s telescope.]
Since the time of these early astronomers, people have
gained an incredible amount of knowledge about the stars and
the universe and now use tools like telescopes to expand that
knowledge each day. Copernicus and Galileo would be amazed
by the advances 18 people have made in astronomy over the past
century. Compare this incredibly large modern telescope to the
one Galileo was holding in the last picture. 19 Astronomers today
use telescopes like this one to study the stars and other distant
parts of outer space that Galileo may have never imagined.
 Show image 4A-14: Constellation chart
Yet even as we have gained new knowledge about outer space,
our understanding of the stars is still built upon the stories and
knowledge passed on by people for thousands of years. Next
time you find a constellation in the sky, you will know that other
stargazers have been studying and telling stories about that same
group of stars for thousands and thousands of years.
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Discussing the Read-Aloud
Comprehension Questions
15 minutes
10 minutes
If students have difficulty responding to questions, reread pertinent
passages of the read-aloud and/or refer to specific images. If
students give one-word answers and/or fail to use read-aloud
or domain vocabulary in their responses, acknowledge correct
responses by expanding the students’ responses using richer
and more complex language. Ask students to answer in complete
sentences by having them restate the question in their responses.
1.
Literal Were the stars that ancient civilizations observed at
night different or the same as the ones we see? (same)
2.
Literal The ancient Greeks believed that gods put certain
groups of stars together in the sky in order to make pictures
that would tell stories and teach lessons. What are these
pictures called? (constellations)
 Show image 4A-4: Big Dipper
3.
Inferential Why is this group of stars called the Big Dipper?
(group of stars that looks like a ladle or pot)
 Show image 4A-7: Orion
4.
Literal This constellation is called Orion. [Trace a line with your
finger connecting the three stars in his belt as you ask the
following question.] These three stars form a famous piece of
Orion’s clothing. What do they form? (his belt)
5.
Literal Remember that when you look at the sky during
the day, the sun looks like it is moving. The ancient people
believed that the sun revolved around the earth. An
astronomer named Copernicus believed something different.
What did Copernicus believe? (Copernicus believed that the
earth revolved around the sun.)
6.
Literal We also learned about another important astronomer,
Galileo. What invention did he improve upon that helped
astronomers make new discoveries? (telescopes)
[Please continue to model the Question? Pair Share process for
students, as necessary, and scaffold students in their use of the
process.]
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7.
Who? Pair Share: Asking questions after a read-aloud is one
way to see how much everyone has learned. A lot of people
and animals were mentioned in today’s read-aloud, from
the ancient stargazers and Orion, Scorpio, and Taurus, to
Copernicus and Galileo. Think of a question you can ask your
neighbor about someone in the read-aloud that starts with
the word who. For example, you could ask, “Who was found
out that the earth revolves around the sun?” Turn to your
neighbor and ask your who question. Listen to your neighbor’s
response. Then your neighbor will ask a new who question,
and you will get a chance to respond. I will call on several of
you to share your questions with the class.
8.
After hearing today’s read-aloud and questions and answers,
do you have any remaining questions? [If time permits, you
may wish to allow for individual, group, or class research of
the text and/or other resources to answer these questions.]
Word Work: Ancient
84
1.
In the read-aloud you heard, “The ancient Greeks, Arabs,
Romans, Chinese, Egyptians, Turks, Mayans, Babylonians,
and countless others all studied the stars.”
2.
Say the word ancient with me.
3.
If something is ancient, it is very, very old or from a very, very
long time ago.
4.
You may remember we studied ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia,
two ancient civilizations from thousands of years ago.
5.
Think of one thing in your life that was not around in ancient times.
For example, you could say, “There were no televisions in ancient
times.” Try to use the word ancient when you tell about it. [Ask
two or three students. If necessary, guide and/or rephrase the
students’ responses: “There were no
in ancient times.”]
6.
What’s the word we’ve been talking about?
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 4A | Stargazing and Constellations
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
5 minutes
Use an Antonyms activity for follow-up. Directions: We know
that ancient means a long, long time ago, or very, very old. The
opposite of ancient, or its antonym, is modern, which means what
is happening right now, or is very new. Listen to the following
examples. If I describe something about ancient times, say, “That
is ancient.” If I describe something about modern times, say, “That
is modern.”

1.
When people want to talk to someone who lives far away, they
call them on the phone or write an e-mail. (That is modern.)
2.
Barley was used for trade in Mesopotamia. (That is ancient.)
3.
People built pyramids in which to bury their kings. (That is
ancient.)
4.
People wrote hieroglyphics on clay tablets. (That is ancient.)
5.
People bring jars and cans to a recycling bin. (That is modern.)
6.
People believed that the sun orbits around the Earth. (That is
ancient.)
Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the Day
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Stargazing and
Constellations
4B
Note: Extensions may have activity options that exceed the time
allocated for this part of the lesson. To remain within the time
periods allocated for this portion of the lesson, you will need to
make conscious choices about which activities to include based
on the needs of your students.
Extensions
20 minutes
Sayings and Phrases: Hit the Nail on the Head
5 minutes
Proverbs are short, traditional sayings that have been passed
along orally from generation to generation. These sayings usually
express general truths based on experiences and observations of
everyday life. Although some proverbs do have literal meanings—
that is, they mean exactly what they say—many proverbs have
a richer meaning beyond the literal level. It is important to help
students understand the difference between the literal meanings of
the words and their implied or figurative meanings.
Ask students if they have ever heard the saying “hit the nail on
the head.” Have students repeat the saying. Write the saying on a
chalkboard, a piece of chart paper, or a whiteboard. Explain that
you are writing down the saying, but that they are not expected to
be able to read what you write because they are still learning all
the rules for decoding. Emphasize that you are writing the saying
so that you don’t forget, and tell them that you will read the words
to them.
Repeat the saying, and ask students what tool you usually use
to hit a nail. (hammer) Then explain that the flat top of the nail
is called the head. Draw a quick sketch of a nail on chart paper,
a chalkboard, or a whiteboard, and point to the head. Explain
that the words of the saying mean, literally, that when you are
hammering, you’re supposed to hit the nail on the head. Hitting
the nail in another spot won’t work; the only way to get it right and
drive the nail into a piece of wood is to hit the nail on the head.
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Explain to students that people have used this saying for years,
not just to describe hammering, but to describe people who have
said something that is exactly right, or who have made exactly the
right conclusion and didn’t miss the point. Remind students that
Copernicus was the first astronomer to prove that the sun does
not revolve around the earth; rather, the earth revolves around
the sun. Explain that he got it exactly right, even though no one
believed him at the time, and even though it would be years before
other astronomers would agree with him. Then tell the students
that instead of saying that Copernicus got it exactly right, we can
say that Copernicus “hit the nail on the head.”
Copernicus hit the nail on the head when he said that the earth
orbits the sun, because he got it exactly right. Tell students that
you want to see if they can apply this saying correctly to the
following situation. Directions: Listen as I tell you a short story
about two people. When I am done, tell me which person gets it
exactly right when he or she talks, hitting the nail on the head.
Joe and Mary stand in their backyard one night and both look up
at the stars. Joe says, “The stars are so tiny!” Mary says, “Actually,
the stars are huge; they’re just really far away.”
One of these children got it exactly right when describing the
stars. Who hit the nail on the head: Joe or Mary?
Explain that a teacher might “hit the nail on the head” when she
explains something in just the right way so you can understand it.
Your dad might “hit the nail on the head” when he guesses exactly
why you’re sad or upset. Remind students that the next time a
friend, a parent, or a teacher gets something exactly right, instead
of saying “exactly,” “that’s it,” or “you got it,” you can say, “you hit
the nail on the head!”
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 Vocabulary Instructional Activity
5 minutes
Horizontal Word Wall: Major/Minor
Materials: long, horizontal chart paper; words written on index
cards: major, minor, big, important, giant, small,
unimportant, tiny
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1.
In the read-aloud you heard, “Fortunately, Orion has a couple of
friends: his two loyal hunting dogs, Canis Major and Canis Minor.”
2.
Say the word major with me. Say the word minor with me.
3.
Major refers to something that is large or that is important.
Minor refers to something that is little or something people
don’t really care about as much.
4.
We will make a Horizontal Word Wall for the words major and
minor. [Emphasize to students that you will be placing words
on the Horizontal Word Wall, but they are not expected to be
able to read the words because they are still learning all the
rules for decoding. Emphasize that you are writing the words
so that you don’t forget them and that you will read the words
to students.]
5.
[Place minor on the far left side of the chart and major on the
far right of the chart. Now hold up, individually, each of the
other word cards (big, important, giant, small, unimportant,
tiny) in random order. Read each word to students, and then
have student volunteers place each of the cards on the line
near major or minor, depending on which word has a more
similar meaning to the new word. Provide real-world examples
of the words, such as “I have a major pain in my leg.” “I have
a minor pain in my leg.” OR “Students spend a major part of
their day in a classroom.” “Students spend a minor part of
their day in the cafeteria.”]
6.
Talk with your partner using the different words on the
Horizontal Word Wall. Remember to use complete sentences.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 4B | Stargazing and Constellations
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Astronomy Journal: Constellations
(Instructional Master 4B-1)
15 minutes
Tell students that they will continue to write in their Astronomy
Journal. Today they will draw their own real constellation or
made-up constellation. [You may wish to have images of real
constellations available for students to reference.]
• First, give each student a copy of Instructional Master 4B1. Tell them that this is the third page of their Astronomy
Journal. It will be about constellations.
• Next, ask students to think about what kind of constellation
they would like to draw. [Note: If they want to draw the
Big or Little Dipper, mention that it is part of a larger
constellation, so it is called a group of stars.]
• Then, have students shade in the background black for the
night sky and spend at least five minutes making the shape
or outline of a picture for their constellation.
• Finally have students label and/or write a sentence about
their constellation.
Remind students that long ago there were no telescopes or rocket
ships to explore space. Ask students: “How did people from
ancient times explain what they saw in the night sky?” (They told
stories and myths about the constellations they saw in the night
sky.)
If time allows, have students share their journal page in small
groups or with home-language peers, having others guess what
“picture” their constellation is supposed to make.
The Really Big Dipper
15 minutes
Show Flip Book images 4A-3 through 4A-9 to review the constellations
and groups of stars that students learned about in today’s read-aloud.
(Big Dipper, Little Dipper, Orion, Scorpio, Taurus, Canis Major and
Canis Minor) Remind students that these constellations were identified
by ancient people who could only look at the stars with the “naked
eye,” that is, without anything else to help them see the stars more
clearly. Then ask them the name of the tool astronomers look through
to magnify stars, or make them appear larger. (telescope)
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 Show Flip Book image 3A-6 of magnified stars.
Explain that sometimes it is hard to believe that the tiny, twinkling
stars we see at night are actually huge balls of gas, like our sun.
Tell students that today they will work as a class to draw a model
of the Big Dipper, a famous group of stars. However, instead of
drawing little dots for the stars, they will draw each of the seven
stars in the Big Dipper as if they saw it through a telescope, like a
real astronomer might see it. Make seven groups of students, and
give each group a large piece of chart paper. (If you have enough
students to create fourteen groups of at least two children each,
consider having students make enough stars to make models of
both the Big Dipper and the Little Dipper.) Encouraging the use of
image 3A-6 as a model, have each group work together to draw
and cut out one large star from their piece of chart paper. Remind
students that stars can be red or blue and are not solid, but
gaseous. Before they begin, check their understanding of the task
to be done.
Say, “Asking questions is one way to make sure that everyone
knows what to do. Think of a question you can ask your neighbor
about the directions I have just given you. For example, you could
ask, ‘What should we do first?’ Turn to your neighbor, and ask
your own question now. I will call on several of you to share your
questions with the class.”
As students work, circulate around the room. Ask groups to
describe their stars and encourage the use of domain-related
vocabulary. When all seven (or fourteen) stars have been cut out,
tell students that you will use the image of the Big Dipper (and
possibly the Little Dipper) from the Flip Book to create a huge
model of the Big Dipper, using the magnified stars they drew
and cut out. Use as large a floor space as you have available to
replicate the shape of the Big Dipper as shown in image 4A-4.
To conclude this activity, encourage students to look for the Big
Dipper in the night sky the next time they are able to stargaze.
Remind students to think about just how large those stars are the
next time they see tiny little lights in the night sky.
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Domain-Related Trade Book
20 minutes
• Refer to the list of recommended trade books in the Introduction
at the front of this Supplemental Guide, and choose one trade
book about stars or constellations to read aloud to the class.
• Explain to students that the person who wrote the book is called
the author. Tell students the name of the author. Explain to
students that the person who makes the pictures for the book
is called an illustrator. Tell students the name of the illustrator.
Show students where they can find this information on the cover
of the book or on the title page.
• As you read, use the same strategies that you have been
using when reading the read-aloud selections—pause and ask
occasional questions; rapidly clarify critical vocabulary within
the context of the read-aloud; etc.
• After you finish reading the trade book aloud, lead students in a
discussion as to how the story or information in this book relates
to the read-alouds in this domain.
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The Moon
5
 Lesson Objectives
Core Content Objectives
Students will:
 Explain that astronomers study the moon and stars using
telescopes
 Describe how people sometimes tell stories about the moon and
stars
 Identify the four phases of the moon—new, crescent, half, full
 Explain that the moon orbits the earth
Language Arts Objectives
The following language arts objectives are addressed in this
lesson. Objectives aligning with the Common Core State
Standards are noted with the corresponding standard in
parentheses. Refer to the Alignment Chart for additional standards
addressed in all lessons in this domain.
Students will:
 Describe the connection between the orbit of the moon around
the earth and its appearance at various phases of the orbit
(RI.1.3)
 Describe an illustration of the moon and the source of its
illumination and use pictures and detail in “The Moon” to
describe the read-aloud’s key ideas (RI.1.7)
 Ask and answer when questions orally, requiring literal recall and
understanding of the details or facts from “Introduction to the
Sun and Space” (SL.1.2)
 Prior to listening to “The Moon,” identify orally what they know
and have learned about the earth, sun, and moon
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Core Vocabulary
appearance, n. The way something or someone looks
Example: The appearance of the moon looks like it changes.
Variation(s): appearances
counterclockwise, adv. Moving in a circle toward the left, which is the
opposite direction in which the hands on a clock move
Example: Earth rotates counterclockwise on its axis.
Variation(s): none
craters, n. Large holes in the ground
Example: There were large craters in the middle of the road, so drivers
had to drive carefully around them.
Variation(s): crater
crescent, n. Thin, curved shape
Example: My banana was shaped like a crescent.
Variation(s): crescents
reflecting, v. Bouncing light off one surface onto another
Example: I can see the light from the night-light reflecting off the walls
when the room is dark.
Variation(s): reflect, reflects, reflected
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Vocabulary Chart for The Moon
Core Vocabulary words are in bold.
Multiple Meaning Word Activity word is underlined.
Vocabulary Instructional Activity words have an asterisk (*).
Suggested words to pre-teach are in italics.
Type of Words
Tier 3
Tier 2
Tier 1
Domain-Specific Words
General Academic Words
Everyday-Speech
Words
Understanding
celestial
counterclockwise*
craters
lava
meteoroids
exactly
feature
phases
sliver
visible
days/month/
year
look
moon
night
sky
sun
atmosphere
orbit
waxing/waning
appearance
change
course
cycle
reflecting
shape
surface
dark
hit
light
rock
crescent moon
new/waxing/full/
waning moon
“once in a blue
moon”
a better idea of . . .
depending on
same side
facing the
celeste
cráter
lava
meteoroid
atmósfera
órbita
exactamente
fases
visible
apariencia
curso
ciclo
reflejando
noche
Multiple Meaning
Phrases
Cognates
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Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 5 | The Moon
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Note: Introducing the Read-Aloud and Extensions may have activity
options that exceed the time allocated for that part of the lesson.
To remain within the time periods allocated for each portion of
the lesson, you will need to make conscious choices about which
activities to include based on the needs of your students.
Exercise
Materials
Details
Introducing the Read-Aloud (10 minutes)
What Have We Already
Learned?
Images 3A-5: Conventional
telescope; 3A-6: Magnified stars;
and 3A-7: Meteor
Vocabulary Preview: Phases,
Reflecting
Image 5A-3
items that reflect light: mirrors,
plastic wrap, sequins, glitter, metal
spoons, CDs, water, clothing with
reflective strips
items that absorb light: unpolished
wood, black cloth, opaque
materials
You may wish to show these images from
Lesson 3 as you review content.
You may wish to do a quick
demonstration showing how different
items reflect and absorb light.
Purpose for Listening
Presenting the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)
The Moon
draw diagram of new moon and
full moon showing the positions of
the sun, Earth, and moon
(See sidebar in the read-aloud.)
video clips of the phases of the
moon
You may wish to conclude the read-aloud
with a short video clip about the phases
of the moon. Focus on naming new
moon, crescent moon, half-moon, and
full moon.
Discussing the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)
Comprehension Questions
Word Work: Counterclockwise
Image 5A-3; learning clocks
 Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the Day
Extensions (20 minutes)
Four Phases of the Moon
Image Cards 3–6; Instructional
Master 5B-1
Moon Dial
Instructional Master 5B-2; drawing
tools; card stock or construction
paper; brads (one per student)
Note: This can also be a Pausing Point
activity.
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Exercise
Materials
Details
On Stage: Earth-Moon Relay
globe, plastic hoop; five 8 ½ x 11”
signs, one with the word sun, and
four blank ones
Domain-Related Trade Book
trade book about the moon or the
phases of the moon
Advance Preparation
Bring in items that reflect light (e.g., mirrors, shiny metal, water, paper
with sequins and glitter glued on, clothing with reflective strips, etc.),
items that absorb light (e.g., dark clothing, unfinished wood, opaque
things, etc.), several learning clocks, and a plastic hoop.
Find age-appropriate video clips showing the phases of the moon.
Make a copy of Instructional Master 5B-1 for each student.
Students will order the four phases of the moon.
Prepare the materials to make a moon dial. Copy both pages of
Instructional Master 5B-2 on card stock or construction paper.
Alternatively, you can copy them onto regular paper and help
students cut and paste them on card stock. Help students make a
hole for the brad to go through.
Set up for the Earth-Moon Relay. Note: This activity is best
completed outdoors or in a large indoor space. Make five signs
that will be taped to the floor; one sign should say sun, and the
other four should blank. Put the sign for sun in the center, and put
the four blank cards around the sun card in a circle, or ellipse. The
floor should look like this:
sun
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Find a trade book about the moon or the phases of the moon to
read aloud to the class.
Notes to Teacher
While demonstrating which items reflect or absorb light, be sure
that students are clear that reflection is when light bounces off
something (The opposite of reflection is absorption, when light is
“soaked up” and does not go through or bounce off something).
Relate this to how the moon reflects light from the sun.
You may need to read through the On Stage: Earth-Moon Relay a
few times to become familiar with the directions for this activity.
You may wish to practice this activity with six volunteers before
presenting it to the rest of the class.
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The Moon
Introducing the Read-Aloud
What Have We Already Learned?
5A
10 minutes
5 minutes
Tell students that today they will listen to a nonfiction, or true,
read-aloud about the moon and will learn many interesting facts.
Ask students what tool astronomers use to study objects in outer
space. (telescopes) Remind students that they already learned that
long ago, before astronomers had powerful telescopes, ancient
people often believed many things about the earth, the sun, and
the stars that were not true. Explain to students that the ancient
people also believed many things about the moon that were also
not accurate.
Remind students that sometimes the way objects in outer space
look or appear to us on Earth may lead us to draw conclusions
that are not correct. Ask students what ancient people believed
about the movement of the earth and sun. (They believed the sun
revolved around the earth.) Ask students if the ancient people
were correct about this. (No, we now know that it is the earth
that revolves around the sun, and it is the earth’s movement that
makes it seem like the sun is moving across the sky.)
When people observe the stars from Earth, they may think that
stars are small and twinkle, but thanks to powerful telescopes that
now allow us to see the stars in outer space more clearly, we now
know that the stars are really enormous, shine steadily, and do
not twinkle or blink. Also, remind students that sometimes people
see a streak of light in the night sky and think it is a “shooting
star” moving across the sky. Ask students what these objects are
called. (meteors) Point out that people don’t always come to the
right conclusions or answers when they look at celestial bodies in
the sky with the naked eye.
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Vocabulary Preview
5 minutes
Phases
SUNLIGHT
 Show image 5A-3: Lunar phases
Earth
1.
In today’s read-aloud you will learn about the phases of the
moon.
2.
Say phases with me three times.
3.
Phases are stages or steps in a process.
4.
[Point to the phases of the moon.] This image shows the
phases of the moon.
[Point to each phase of the moon as you name it.] You will
hear about the new moon, crescent moon, half-moon, and full
moon.
The moon goes through the same phases over and over
again.
5. How many phases does this image show? (eight)
[Note: The focus of the read-aloud is on these four phases of the
moon: the new moon, crescent moon, half-moon, and full moon.
Point to these phases and repeat these four phases again.]
Reflecting
1.
In today’s read-aloud you will hear that the moon does not
have its own light; the light you see when you look at the
moon is actually light from the sun reflecting off the moon.
2.
Say the word reflecting with me three times.
3.
Reflecting means bouncing off something. Light is reflecting
off [point to an item in the room that reflects light].
4.
At night we can see the light of the sun reflecting off the
moon.
5.
[Dim the lights in the room, and shine a flashlight on the
different materials.] Light reflects off something when it
bounces off that thing. I will show you several things. Tell me
whether light is reflecting off it or not reflecting off it.
[If appropriate, you may wish to mention the antonym
absorbing.]
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Purpose for Listening
Tell students that in today’s read-aloud, they will hear about what
people believed in the past about the moon because of the way it
appeared when they looked at it from Earth. Ask students to listen
carefully to find out what is true, or correct, about the moon and
what were misunderstandings or old stories that people made up
about the moon.
100 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 5A | The Moon
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Presenting the Read-Aloud
15 minutes
The Moon
 Show image 5A-1: View of Earth and moon
1 [Pause for responses.] Describe
what you see in the picture. How
does the moon look?
2 Why do you think people had these
ideas about the moon?
3 So even though it looks like light
is shining brightly from the moon,
it is not; our eyes are playing tricks
on us!
4 or bouncing
5 [Point to the moon in the
illustration.] So where is this light
coming from?
Earth’s closest celestial neighbor is featured in this photograph.
What is this famous celestial body called? 1 It’s the moon.
People have been looking at the moon and wondering about
it for thousands and thousands of years, and they have invented
all kinds of stories about it. Some ancient myths claimed that the
moon was the sun’s sister. Others said the moon was a giant face
looking down on Earth. Some children’s stories even said that the
moon was made of cheese! 2
In fact, the moon is basically just a big, cold, dark rock. You
heard it right: although the moon sometimes appears to be shiny
and bright in the night sky, the moon does not produce any light
of its own. It is not a star, like the sun, but just a rock. 3 The light
you see when you look at the moon is actually light from the sun
reflecting 4 off the moon. 5
 Show image 5A-2: Diagram of moon orbiting Earth
6 [Pause for responses.]
7 [Pause for responses.]
8 So the moon rotates on its axis
and orbits the earth just like the
earth rotates on its axis and orbits
the sun.
9 or the way it looks
While Earth orbits, or revolves around, the sun, the moon orbits,
or revolves around, Earth. Do you remember how long it takes for
Earth to orbit, or go all the way around, the sun? 6 It takes about
365 days, or one year. Can you guess how long it takes for the
moon to orbit Earth? 7
It takes a little more than twenty-seven days, or about a month,
for the moon to make a complete trip around the earth. But
the moon also rotates on its axis as it orbits Earth. 8 In fact, the
moon rotates exactly once as it orbits Earth exactly once. This
remarkable feature keeps the same side of the moon always facing
Earth. That means we never see the back of the moon when we
look up in the sky.
The appearance of the moon 9 changes depending on where
it is in its orbit. Follow the arrows in this diagram and you can see
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10 Counterclockwise is this direction.
[Trace your finger along the orbit.]
SUNLIGHT
that the moon orbits Earth in a counterclockwise motion. 10 The
sun is over on the right-hand side of this diagram.
 Show image 5A-3: Lunar phases
Earth
This image gives you a better idea of what the moon really
looks like during each of its phases.
During the first half of its orbit, the moon is said to be waxing,
meaning that, over the course of several nights, more and more of
it becomes visible from Earth. Then, halfway through its cycle, the
full moon appears, meaning that the side facing the earth is also
facing the light of the sun.
As the moon completes the last half of its monthly orbit, less
and less of it is visible each night. During this time we say that the
moon is waning; less of the moon is seen. By the time it completes
its cycle, it appears as little more than a shiny sliver of light in the
sky.
On other nights, it looks like there is no moon at all! Remember
how the moon does not make any light of its own? Well,
sometimes the moon is between the sun and the earth, and the
side of the moon facing the earth does not reflect any sunlight.
When this happens, the side of the moon facing the earth is dark,
and it looks like there is no moon in the sky.
 Show image 5A-4: New moon
11 So when there’s a new moon, we
can’t actually see it, because no
light is reflecting off the moon
toward us.
This is called a new moon. 11 The moon never looks exactly the
same from one night to the next. The moon does not change its
shape. It is always a big, round rock. Instead, it only appears to
change shape depending on how sunlight hits the moon during its
orbit.
 Show image 5A-5: Crescent moon
12 [Trace your finger down the curve.]
See how the crescent shape is
curved like a banana and comes to
a point at the ends? What do we
call the moon when it looks like a
thin, curved sliver?
On certain nights, you can only see a sliver or small piece of the
moon. This is called a crescent moon. 12
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 Show image 5A-6: Half moon
13 [Drag your finger down the center
line.]
14 Does the moon really change shape
in the night sky or does it just look
like it changes shape?
On other nights, it looks like someone sliced the moon in half. 13
This is called a half moon. 14 Remember, the moon only looks like
it is changing shape. The moon is always a big, round rock, but
it can look different during its orbit depending on how the light
reflects off it.
 Show image 5A-7: Full moon
15 The few extra days each month add
up over time.
16 What do we call the moon when it
looks like a big circle?
Halfway through its cycle, the moon looks like this. This is
called a full moon because the full, round moon seems to be
shining brightly in the night sky. Because it takes only twentyseven days for the moon to complete its orbit around Earth, and
most months in the calendar have about thirty days, it is possible
for a full moon to appear twice in the course of one calendar
month every once in a while. 15 When this happens, it is called a
“blue moon.” But this is rare, meaning it only happens every few
years. So, if you hear someone say that something only happens
“once in a blue moon,” they simply mean that it does not happen
very often.
Some people say they see what looks like a man’s face when
they look at the full moon. That is why people sometimes talk
about the “man in the moon” as though there really were a face on
the moon. Can you see what appears to be two eyes, a nose, and
a mouth on this moon? Of course, in reality, there is no face on the
moon; it’s just a big, round rock. 16
 Show image 5A-8: Moon close-up 17
17 Let’s take a closer look at the moon.
18 [Point to the dark areas of the
moon.]
People sometimes see what looks like a man’s face in the moon
because of dark areas on the moon’s surface. 18 These dark areas
are places where, a long time ago, lava from inside of the moon
poured out onto the moon’s surface creating lava lakes. These
areas no longer have lava in them, but the holes left behind reflect
sunlight differently than the rest of the moon’s surface. So when
you look up at a full moon, you are actually seeing deep and dark
holes—or lava lakes—across the moon’s surface.
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When you take a close-up look, you can see that the moon’s
surface is also covered with hundreds and thousands of
craters. 19 To understand why these craters are there, you need
19 or big, dipped holes
to know a few more facts about the moon. Unlike Earth, the moon
has no atmosphere. There is no layer of air around the moon, nor
does the moon have any water, soil, plants, or any other signs of
life whatsoever.
 Show image 5A-9: Close-up of large craters
20 What do some people call a
meteor? (a shooting star)
21 An impact is a crash.
22 Do you know what we call these
people who travel in space?
23 [Pause for responses.]
Without an atmosphere, the moon has nothing to protect it
from all the meteoroids that zoom through outer space. As you
learned, meteoroids strike Earth all the time, but when they hit the
atmosphere, most of them burn up in a streak of light known as
a meteor. 20 Meteoroids, however, do not burn up when they hit
the moon. They just crash right into the moon’s surface and leave
what are known as impact craters. 21
In a later read-aloud, you will learn the amazing, true story
about real men on the moon—not just lava lakes that look like a
man’s face, but actual men who traveled to the moon and walked
around on it. 22 How do you think they got there? 23 Keep listening
over the next couple of days, and you will learn the answers.
Discussing the Read-Aloud
Comprehension Questions
15 minutes
10 minutes
If students have difficulty responding to questions, reread pertinent
passages of the read-aloud and/or refer to specific images. If
students give one-word answers and/or fail to use read-aloud
or domain vocabulary in their responses, acknowledge correct
responses by expanding the students’ responses using richer
and more complex language. Ask students to answer in complete
sentences by having them restate the question in their responses.
1.
Inferential When we look at the moon at night, it looks like it
is shining or glowing. Is it really glowing? (no) Why does the
moon look lit up? (It reflects the light from the sun.)
2.
Literal The earth orbits the sun. What does the moon orbit?
(the earth)
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3.
Literal The earth takes a year to complete its orbit around the
sun. About how long does the moon take to orbit around the
earth? (a month)
4.
You heard that the appearance of the moon changes throughout
its orbit because more or less of the sun’s light reflects off it.
These changes in the moon’s appearance are called phases.
• Literal Which phase is the moon in when it looks like a big
circle? (full moon)
• Literal Which phase is it in when it looks as if it has been cut
right down the middle? (half moon)
• Literal Which phase is it in when it is a thin, curved sliver?
(crescent moon)
• Literal Which phase is it in when we can’t see it at all? (new
moon)
5.
Literal Many people have said that the moon looks like it has a
face, and there are many stories about the “man in the moon.”
What are those dark spots? (lava lakes)
6.
Inferential You heard about some ways that the moon is not like
the earth. The air in the earth’s atmosphere makes it possible for
the plants and animals to live on Earth. Do you think that there is
life (any plants or animals) on the moon? (no) Why not? (The moon
doesn’t have an atmosphere.)
7.
Inferential What happens when meteors hit the moon? (They
make big holes.) What are these holes called? (craters) Why
isn’t the earth covered with craters? (The earth’s atmosphere
burns up most meteors before they hit land.)
[Please continue to model the Question? Pair Share process for
students, as necessary, and scaffold students in their use of the
process.]
8.
When? Pair Share: Asking questions after a read-aloud is
one way to see how much everyone has learned. We learned
a lot in today’s read-aloud about how the moon changes:
reflecting the sunlight, going through an orbit, and going
through different phases. Think of a question you can ask
your neighbor about something that happens to the moon that
starts with the word when. For example, you could ask, “When
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does the moon look like a circle?” Turn to your neighbor and
ask your when question. Listen to your neighbor’s response.
Then your neighbor will ask a new when question, and you will
get a chance to respond. I will call on several of you to share
your questions with the class.
9.
After hearing today’s read-aloud and questions and answers,
do you have any remaining questions? [If time permits, you
may wish to allow for individual, group, or class research of
the text and/or other resources to answer these questions.]
Word Work: Counterclockwise
SUNLIGHT
 Show image 5A-3: Lunar phases
Earth
1.
In today’s read-aloud you heard, “Follow the arrows in this
diagram and you can see that the moon orbits Earth in a
counterclockwise motion.”
2.
[Motion with your finger in a counterclockwise direction.] Say
the word counterclockwise with me.
3.
Counterclockwise is moving in a circle to the left, which is the
opposite direction in which the hands of a clock move.
4.
The moon orbits the earth in a counterclockwise direction.
Earth orbits the sun in a counterclockwise direction.
5.
[Show students a learning clock.] Using this clock, who can
make the minute hand of this clock move counterclockwise?
What are the two things we learned about that have a
counterclockwise orbit? (the moon, Earth)
6.
What’s the word we have been talking about?
Use a Movement activity for follow-up. Directions: I will place you
in small groups. With backs facing each other, link hands with your
group members to make a circle. When I say “clockwise,” move
in a circle to your right. Remember, clockwise is the direction the
hands on a clock move. When I say “counterclockwise,” move in
a circle to your left. Remember, counterclockwise is the opposite
direction the hands on a clock move.

Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the Day
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5B
The Moon
Note: Extensions may have activity options that exceed the time
allocated for this part of the lesson. To remain within the time
periods allocated for this portion of the lesson, you will need to
make conscious choices about which activities to include based
on the needs of your students.
Extensions
20 minutes
 Four Phases of the Moon (Instructional Master 5B-1)
10 minutes
Note: You may wish to first review the four phases of the moon
using Image Cards 3–6 before giving students Instructional Master
5B-1.
Give each student a copy of Instructional Master 5B-1. Explain that
this sheet addresses the phases of the moon. Ask students to listen
to the directions and write the appropriate number in the blank.
Directions: The pictures show four different phases of the moon.
Write the number “1” on the line below the new moon. Write the
number “2” below the crescent moon. Write the number “3” below
the half moon. Write the number “4” below the full moon.
Moon Dial (Instructional Master 5B-2)
15 minutes
• Discuss what students know about the shapes of the moon
during its phases. (sliver/crescent moon, half circle/half moon,
circle/full moon)
• Review the following phases of the moon with students: new
moon (no moon showing), crescent moon (on the right), half moon
(on the right), full moon (whole moon showing), half moon (on the
left), crescent moon (on the left), new moon (no moon showing).
• Tell students that they will create their own moon dial. Explain
that a dial is something that is moveable and shows information
on its front side. Their moon dial will show the different phases
of the moon.
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• First, have students cut out the two circles for their dial. If
necessary, help them paste the circles on card stock. [Be
sure that a triangular shape is cut out from the top circle.]
Students should write their name on the dial and may wish
to decorate the top circle.
• Next, have students cut out the six images showing the
phases of the moon and place them in order. [Be sure that
the first half has the right side of the moon showing and the
second half has the left side of the moon showing.]
• Then, once students have the images in the correct order,
have them paste the images onto the bottom circle of the
dial.
• Finally, help students poke a hole through the circles and
insert the brad.
• Have students use their moon dial by moving their dial in a
counterclockwise direction to walk through the phases of the
moon with their partner.
On Stage: Earth-Moon Relay
15 minutes
sun
Tell students that they have learned a lot about how the earth and
the moon move in space. Announce that they will get to act out
these movements, playing the roles of the sun, Earth, or moon.
First, ask for two volunteers to stand back to back in the center of
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the circle, holding a plastic hoop over both of them to act as the
sun. Remind students that the sun is huge, which is why you want
to use a plastic hoop and more than one student. Also remind
students that the sun doesn’t orbit and that they need to stand
stationary on the sign.
Step 1: Earth orbits sun
Remind students that the earth orbits, or revolves, around the sun.
Hold up the globe and tell students that it represents the earth. Ask
for four volunteers to carry the globe around the sun. Explain that,
because you want to give everyone a turn, you will do this activity
as a relay. Define relay for them by saying, “In a relay, one person
goes part of the distance and tags or passes something to the next
person to continue for them. In this relay, we will pass the earth.”
Have each volunteer stand on one of the blank cards. Give the
globe to the student standing on the card nearest you, and have
him or her slowly walk counterclockwise, handing the globe over to
the person standing on the next blank sign before stepping out of
the circle. Have them continue until the globe makes one full orbit.
Ask students: “How long does it take for Earth to orbit the sun one
time?” (about one year, 365 days)
Step 2: Earth spins and orbits sun
Then remind students that the earth moves in two ways: it orbits,
but it also rotates or spins on its axis. Tell all students to slowly
spin around in place once.
[Monitor students to make sure that they spin only once and
slowly to avoid dizziness.]
Ask students: “How much time has passed when the earth spins
around one time?” (one day, 24 hours)
Then say, “Does anyone want to try orbiting the sun again,
spinning the globe at the same time?” Take four new volunteers.
Have each volunteer stand on one of the blank cards. [You may
also want to choose new volunteers for the sun.] Give the globe
to the student standing on the nearest blank card and have him or
her slowly walk counterclockwise, spinning the globe at the same
time. When s/he reaches the person standing on the next blank
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card, s/he should carefully hand the globe over and step out of the
circle. Have students continue until the globe makes one full orbit.
Ask: “Does anyone know how many times the earth spins as it
goes around the sun once? Remember, each spin is a day, and
the whole orbit takes a year. [Hint: How many days are in a year?]”
(The earth spins 365 times.)
Step 3: Moon orbits Earth
Remind students that, in today’s read-aloud, they heard that the
moon orbits the earth. Remind students that the same side of the
moon always faces the earth. Demonstrate this motion by walking
around one student, side-stepping so that your body remains
facing them in the center.
Then direct students to find a partner to practice the moon’s orbit.
Allow students playing the “sun” to participate in this activity as well.
One partner will play the earth, standing still while the moon walks
around the earth. Remind students that the “moon” will have to step
sideways in its orbit so it can remain facing the earth the whole time.
Ask: “How long does it take the moon to orbit the earth one time?”
(about one month)
Step 4: Moon orbits the earth while the earth orbits the sun
Now remind students that they just practiced the moon’s orbit
while the earth was standing still. However, the earth never stands
still. Tell them that they will now put all of the movements they’ve
practiced together. Have some new volunteers stand in the center
to play the role of the sun. Ask four new volunteers to play the role
of the earth again as you did in Step 2, walking in an orbit while
spinning the globe in relay style. Tell students that you will play
the part of the moon, orbiting the earth while the earth is orbiting
the sun. Making a wide berth around the student holding the
globe, continue orbiting the “earth” as the globe changes hands.
Remember to face the globe at all times.
If time permits and students want to try it, you can have four
student volunteers play the role of the moon, orbiting the person
who is holding the globe in relay style as well, from one blank card
to the next.
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Domain-Related Trade Book
20 minutes
• Refer to the list of recommended trade books in the Introduction
at the front of this Supplemental Guide, and choose one trade
book about the moon or the phases of the moon to read aloud
to the class.
• Explain to students that the person who wrote the book is called
the author. Tell students the name of the author. Explain to
students that the person who makes the pictures for the book
is called an illustrator. Tell students the name of the illustrator.
Show students where they can find this information on the cover
of the book or on the title page.
• As you read, use the same strategies that you have been
using when reading the read-aloud selections—pause and ask
occasional questions; rapidly clarify critical vocabulary within
the context of the read-aloud; etc.
• After you finish reading the trade book aloud, lead students in a
discussion as to how the story or information in this book relates
to the read-alouds in this domain.
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Pausing Point
PP
Note to Teacher
You should pause here and spend one day reviewing, reinforcing,
or extending the material taught thus far.
You may have students do any combination of the activities listed
below, but it is highly recommended you use the Mid-Domain
Student Performance Task Assessment to assess students’
knowledge of astronomy. The other activities may be done in any
order. You may also choose to do an activity with the whole class
or with a small group of students who would benefit from the
particular activity.
Core Content Objectives Up to This Pausing Point
Students will:
 Recognize the sun in the sky
 Explain that the sun, moon, and stars are located in outer space
 Explain that the sun is a source of energy, light, and heat
 Classify the sun as a star
 Identify Earth as a planet and our home
 Identify the earth’s rotation, or spin, as the cause of day and
night
 Explain that other parts of the world experience nighttime while
we have daytime
 Explain sunrise and sunset
 Explain that Earth orbits the sun
 Describe stars as large, although they appear small in the night
sky
 Describe stars as hot, distant, and made of gas
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 Explain that astronomers study the moon and stars using telescopes
 Describe how people sometimes tell stories about the moon and
stars
 Explain what a constellation is
 Identify the Big Dipper and the North Star
 Identify the four phases of the moon—new, crescent, half, full
 Explain that the moon orbits the earth
Student Performance Task Assessment
 The Earth, Sun, Moon, and Meteor (Instructional Master PP-1)
Directions: [Name each image at the top: Earth, the sun, the moon,
and a meteor. Be sure students are able to identify each image.]
I am going to read sentences that refer to one of these celestial
bodies. Remember, celestial bodies are any objects found in
space, such as Earth, the sun, the moon, and a meteor. Circle the
picture of the celestial body my sentence is about.
1.
This celestial body is your home—the planet on which you
live. (Earth)
2.
This celestial body is actually a star. (sun)
3.
This celestial body might look like a shooting star in the sky,
but it is a rock, not a star. (meteor)
4.
This celestial body orbits the sun. (Earth)
5.
This celestial body orbits the earth. (moon)
6.
This celestial body of rock or metal flies or floats around outer
space. (meteor)
7.
This celestial body is made of gas. (sun)
8.
This celestial body does not have its own light but reflects the
light from the sun. (moon)
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Activities
Image Review
Show the Flip Book images from any read-aloud again, and have
students retell the read-aloud using the images.
Class Book: The Sun
Materials: Drawing paper; drawing tools
Tell the class or a group of students that they are going to make a
class book to help them remember what they have learned about
the sun. Have students brainstorm important facts about the sun.
Have each student choose one idea to draw, and then have them
write a caption for the picture. Bind the pages to make a book to
put in the class library for students to read again and again.
Other possible topics you may wish to suggest for students to
draw and write about include the following:
• objects found in outer space compared to those within the
earth’s atmosphere;
• a comparison of the size of the earth to that of the sun;
• a constellation or constellations presented in the read-aloud;
• the four phases of the moon.
Domain-Related Trade Book or Student Choice
Materials: Trade book
Read a trade book to review a particular person, event, or
concept; refer to the books listed in the Introduction. You may also
choose to have students select a read-aloud to be heard again.
Exploring Student Resources
Materials: Domain-related student websites
Pick appropriate websites from the Internet for further exploration
of the sun, moon, meteors, and constellations. See suggested
resources listed in the Introduction.
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Videos related to Astronomy
Materials: Videos related to the sun, moon, meteors, and
constellations
Carefully peruse the Internet for short (5-minute), age-appropriate
videos related to the sun, moon, meteors, and constellations.
Prepare some questions related to the content presented in the
videos.
Discuss how watching a video is the same as and different from
listening to a storybook or read-aloud.
Have students ask and answer questions using question words
who, what, when, where, and why regarding what they see in the
videos.
Riddles for Core Content
Materials: Image Cards 1, 2, and 6
Ask the students riddles such as the following to review core
content.
Note: Use Image Cards 1 (Earth), 2 (Sun), and 6 (Full Moon) to
reiterate the images after they answer the riddle.
• I am your home. (Earth) That’s right, the earth is our home.
• I am the closest star to the earth. (sun) That’s right, the sun is
the nearest star to the earth.
• I orbit, or revolve around, the sun. (Earth) That’s right, the earth
orbits the sun.
• I orbit, or revolve around, the earth. (moon) That’s right, the
moon orbits the earth.
• It looks like I rise every morning and set every night. (sun) That’s
right, the sun looks like it rises and sets each day because the
earth is rotating.
• Sometimes I look like a complete circle, and other times I look
like half a circle or even just a sliver in the sky. (moon) That’s
right, the moon appears to have different shapes during different
parts of its orbit.
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Day and Year Game
On the playground or in a large indoor space, tell students you will
play a game to practice the two ways Earth moves relative to the
sun: rotating and orbiting. Remind students that Earth’s rotation
on its axis creates day and night, and Earth’s orbit around the sun
creates our year. Stand in the center of the space. Tell students
that you are pretending to be the sun and they are each going to
pretend to be Earth. When you shout the word “day,” they are to
slowly spin around in place, counterclockwise, pretending to rotate
like Earth does every twenty-four hours. When you shout out
“year,” they are to walk around you, the sun, counterclockwise, in
an orbit.
Relative Sizes of Sun and Earth
Materials: Large sheet of yellow paper (bulletin board or butcher
paper); chart paper, chalkboard, or whiteboard
Remind students that the sun is much, much bigger than Earth.
Draw a circle on chart paper, a chalkboard, or a whiteboard, and
draw a diameter across its center. Explain that this line is called
a diameter. Tell students that a diameter is the width of a circle
measured by a straight line. Explain that the diameter of the sun,
or the width of the sun, is 110 times bigger than the diameter of
the Earth. Tell students that you will make a picture of the Earth
and of the sun in order to appreciate how much larger the sun is
compared to Earth. Make a circle one half inch in diameter. Tell
students that this represents Earth. Then using a large sheet of
yellow paper, make a circle that is four and a half feet in diameter.
Tell students that this represents the sun.
More Constellations
Materials: Star stickers
Using a constellation chart as a guide, affix star stickers in the
shapes of various constellations on the ceiling or on the underside
of a large table in your classroom. Go “stargazing” with students,
and see how many constellations they can recognize.
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On Stage: Stargazers and Astronomers
Divide students into two groups: a group of astronomers, and a
group of stargazers. Tell each group that you will give them a time
of day. First, the stargazers will pretend to look up in the sky and
describe exactly what they would see at that time of day. Then the
astronomers will look through their pretend telescopes and explain
to the stargazers what is really happening in space.
1.
noon
Stargazers: The sun is right over our heads.
Astronomers: Our side of Earth is facing the sun.
2.
night
Stargazers: The sun is gone and the moon is out.
Astronomers: Our side of Earth is facing away from the sun.
3.
sunrise
Stargazers: The sun is coming up; there are colors in the sky.
Astronomers: We are rotating toward the sun.
4.
sunset
Stargazers: The sun is setting; there are colors in the sky.
Astronomers: We are rotating away from the sun.
Sequencing the Moon’s Phases
Remind students that they learned that we can see different
amounts of the moon depending on where it is in orbit and how
much sunlight is reflecting off it. Remind students that the moon
has four phases: new, crescent, half, and full. Then have four
volunteers act out the phases of the moon. For a new moon,
have a student hold his or her arms close to his or her body. For
a crescent moon, have a second student put his or her arms
overhead with elbows close together. For a half moon, have
another student put one arm straight up and meet it with the other
curved arm, reducing the space between the two arms to half. For
a full moon, have a fourth student make a large circle with his or
her arms overhead. See if students can order themselves from left
to right as follows: new, crescent, half, and full.
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Note: This activity can also be done using chocolate cookies
with white cream filling. Carve out the phases of the moon with
popsicle sticks. Each student should have six cookies; each
cookie will represent one phase of the moon (new, crescent, half,
full, half, crescent). Be sure to check with your school’s policy
regarding food distribution and allergies.
118 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide | Pausing Point
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History of Space
Exploration and Astronauts
6
 Lesson Objectives
Core Content Objectives
Students will:
 Explain that astronomers study the moon and stars using
telescopes
 Describe how people sometimes tell stories about the moon and
stars
 Explain that astronauts travel to outer space
Language Arts Objectives
The following language arts objectives are addressed in this
lesson. Objectives aligning with the Common Core State
Standards are noted with the corresponding standard in
parentheses. Refer to the Alignment Chart for additional standards
addressed in all lessons in this domain.
Students will:
 Describe the connection between the United States and the
Soviet Union with respect to the Space Race (RI.1.3)
 Describe the way in which the Chinese launched early rockets
(SL.1.4)
 Add drawings to descriptions of various types of rockets (SL.1.5)
 Prior to listening to “History of Space Exploration and
Astronauts,” orally predict what the read-aloud is about, and
then compare the actual outcomes to predictions
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Core Vocabulary
astronaut, n. A person who travels into outer space
Example: An astronaut has to train for many years before he or she
travels in space.
Variation(s): astronauts
launch, v. To lift or push an object with force
Example: The seventh-grade class planned to launch their homemade
rocket into the air.
Variation(s): launches, launched, launching
rockets, n. Engines that help the spacecraft go up into space
Example: The rockets shot the spacecraft straight up into the air and
through Earth’s atmosphere into outer space.
Variation(s): rocket
spacecraft, n. A vehicle for traveling beyond Earth’s atmosphere
Example: It took many years for engineers to design a spacecraft that
could travel safely in outer space.
Variation(s): none [Note: Spacecraft is a non-count noun. It has no plural
form.]
technology, n. The use of science to invent useful things or to help solve
problems
Example: Computers are an important kind of technology.
Variation(s): technologies
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Vocabulary Chart for History of Space Exploration and Astronauts
Core Vocabulary words are in bold.
Multiple Meaning Word Activity word is underlined.
Vocabulary Instructional Activity words have an asterisk (*).
Suggested words to pre-teach are in italics.
Type of Words
Understanding
Multiple Meaning
Tier 3
Tier 2
Tier 1
Domain-Specific Words
General Academic Words
Everyday-Speech Words
astronaut
exploration
satellite
spacecraft
equipment
impossible
incredibly
journey
powerful
technology*
training
wondered
flight
capsule
mission
orbit
rockets
space
launch*
pride
program
tough
race
stars
Cape Canaveral
NASA (National
by no means
creative ideas
out of reach
wanted to prove
gazed up at
using their
imaginations
Aeronautics and
Space Administration)
Phrases
Cognates
Soviet Union/
Russia
Space Race
Sputnik 1
Yuri Gagarin
astronauta
exploración
satélite
cápsula
misión
órbita
espacio
equipo
imposible
increíblemente
tecnología*
programa
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Note: Introducing the Read-Aloud and Extensions may have
activity options that exceed the time allocated for that part of
the lesson. To remain within the time periods allocated for each
portion of the lesson, you will need to make conscious choices
about which activities to include based on the needs of your
students.
Exercise
Materials
Details
Introducing the Read-Aloud (10 minutes)
What Have We Already
Learned?
Image Cards 3–6; Four Phases of
the Moon worksheet or Moon Dial
You may wish to have partner pairs
review the phases of the moon using their
worksheet or moon dial.
Making Predictions About the
Read-Aloud
chart paper, writing tools
After telling students the title, ask
students what they think they will hear
about in today’s read-aloud. Record
student responses. Check off topics that
are covered in the read-aloud.
Vocabulary Preview:
Exploration, Astronauts
Images 6A-7 and 6A-8
Purpose for Listening
Presenting the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)
You may wish to show a short video clip
of a rocket launch at the end of the readaloud.
History of Space Exploration
and Astronauts
Discussing the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)
Comprehension Questions
Image 6A-6
Word Work: Launch
 Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the Day
Extensions (20 minutes)
Multiple Meaning Word
Activity: Pride
Poster 3M (Pride)
Syntactic Awareness Activity:
Possessive Pronouns—my,
your, his, her
image of astronaut Sally Ride
Vocabulary Instructional
Activity: Technology
drawing paper, drawing tools
Astronomy Journal: Spacecraft
Instructional Master 6B-1, drawing
tools
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Exercise
Materials
Details
Take-Home Material
Family Letter
Instructional Masters 6B-2 and
6B-3
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History of Space
Exploration and Astronauts
6A
Note: Introducing the Read-Aloud may have activity options that
exceed the time allocated for this part of the lesson. To remain
within the time periods allocated for this portion of the lesson,
you will need to make conscious choices about which activities to
include based on the needs of your students.
Introducing the Read-Aloud
What Have We Already Learned?
10 minutes
5 minutes
Review the previous read-aloud about the moon by asking
students to tell you the facts they learned about the moon.
Highlight the moon’s rotation and its orbit around the earth.
Remind students that the moon rotates and orbits the earth just as
the earth rotates and orbits the sun. Then tell students that you will
review the phases of the moon by showing them Image Cards and
asking them to identify which phase of the moon is represented
on each card. Show Image Card 3 (New Moon), Image Card 4
(Crescent Moon), Image Card 5 (Half Moon), and Image Card 6
(Full Moon), pausing after each to allow students to identify the
phase.
Making Predictions About the Read-Aloud
5 minutes
Then read the title of today’s read-aloud to students: “History of
Space Exploration and Astronauts.” Ask students to predict what
the read-aloud will be about. Have them describe what space
exploration might mean. How might people explore space? Then
ask students if they know what an astronaut is. Define astronaut
as someone who is trained to travel into outer space. Then ask
students to predict how and when space travel might have begun,
and what it was like for the first astronauts.
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Vocabulary Preview
5 minutes
Exploration
1.
The title of today’s read-aloud is “History of Space Exploration
and Astronauts.” [You may wish to check that students
know the meaning of history (the past) and space (the place
beyond Earth, where the stars and planets are) before defining
exploration.]
2.
Say exploration with me three times.
3.
An exploration is a deep and serious study of something that
is not very well known.
4.
The United States began its space exploration over fifty years
ago.
The doctor needed to do further exploration to find out the
cause of his sickness.
5.
Would you rather go on an exploration into space or go on an
exploration into the deepest parts of the ocean? Where else
would you like to have an exploration?
Astronauts
 Show image 6A-7: Yuri Gagarin
1.
Today’s read-aloud is also about astronauts.
2.
Say the word astronauts with me three times.
3.
Astronauts are people whose job is to travel into space. In the
Greek language, astro means “star” and naut means “sail” or
to travel on a boat in the sea. Astronauts are “star sailors”!
4.
This is Yuri Gagarin from Russia (former Soviet Union); he is
the first person and astronaut to travel into space.
 Show image 6A-8: Alan Shepard
This is Alan Shepherd; he is the first American astronaut to
travel into space.
5.
Why do you think astronauts are called “star sailors”? Do you
think being an astronaut is hard work, fun work, or both? [Tell
students to listen carefully to the end of today’s read-aloud to
find out.]
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Purpose for Listening
Tell students to listen carefully to find out whether or not their
predictions about space exploration are correct.
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Presenting the Read-Aloud
15 minutes
History of Space Exploration and Astronauts
 Show image 6A-1: Ladder to the moon
Ever since they first gazed up at the stars, people have always
wondered if it was possible—and what it would be like—to travel
into outer space. For most of human history, the idea of traveling
into space was considered to be impossible. Space, most people
thought, was out of reach, and there was no way humans would
ever be able to go there. Still, this did not keep people from using
their imaginations and coming up with creative ideas for space
travel.
 Show image 6A-2: Rockets
1 engines that power spacecraft,
driving them through the air
2 lifting or pushing it forcefully
3 or started to apply the discoveries
they made in rocket science.
The Chinese invented the first rockets 1 hundreds of years
ago using gunpowder—the same type of explosive used to fire
guns and cannons. Lighting the gunpowder would launch the
rocket 2 into the air. It was not until about one hundred years
ago that scientists started to make serious advances in rocket
technology. 3
 Show image 6A-3: Newspaper about early space travel
4 probably around the time your
grandparents were born or just a
little bit before then
5 [Point to Russia on a world map or
globe.]
6 [Point to the United States on the
world map or globe.]
By the 1950s, 4 rocket technology had improved to the point
that people began to think seriously about space travel and
exploration. Back then, there was a nation called the Soviet Union,
which no longer exists today, but which consisted of Russia and
other countries near Russia. 5 At the time, the United States was
the only other nation in the world as large or as strong as the
Soviet Union. 6 The leaders of the Soviet Union and the United
States each wanted to show the world that their country was the
more powerful country by being the first to launch a rocket into
outer space.
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 Show image 6A-4: Rocket launch
This photo shows scientists in the United States launching
the first rocket from Cape Canaveral, Florida, in 1950. This was
just a test to see whether this type of rocket engine worked. This
was the first of hundreds of rockets to be launched from Cape
Canaveral.
 Show image 6A-5: Sputnik 1
7 Some satellites teach us about
space by taking photographs.
8 It didn’t have an engine like a
rocket, so it couldn’t get into space
by itself.
9 That’s what happens to meteors
that hit the earth’s atmosphere,
too.
10 It wasn’t a real race with a start
and finish line, but both countries
wanted to be the first to go to
space.
11 National pride means good feelings
about your country, or patriotism.
The word pride here means the
feeling of happiness you get when
you do something good. The word
pride can also refer to a group of
lions.
The Soviet Union succeeded in putting the first man-made
object in orbit on October 4, 1957, by launching a satellite called
Sputnik 1. A satellite is any object that moves in a constant orbit
around another object in space. 7
Sputnik 1 was carried into space aboard a rocket and then
released. 8 It orbited Earth for several months before reentering the
atmosphere and burning up. 9
After the success of Sputnik 1, the “Space Race” between the
United States and the Soviet Union had begun. 10 Each country
wanted to prove that it had a better space program than the other
country. For several years, the Soviet Union continued to lead in
the Space Race. The leaders and people of each country took the
Space Race very seriously; it was not a game, but a true matter of
national pride. 11
 Show image 6A-6: Explorer launch
12 [Point to satellite in image.]
The United States developed a space program called the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, or NASA for short.
The scientists at NASA hurried to try to catch up to the progress
the Soviets had made. A few months after the Soviet Union
launched Sputnik 1, NASA scientists in the United States launched
a satellite of their own, Explorer 1, pictured here. 12
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 Show image 6A-7: Yuri Gagarin
13 So both countries were trying hard
to win for eleven years.
14 Why might he be nervous?
The Space Race continued at a heated pace into 1961, 13 when
Soviet Yuri Gagarin became the first person to go into space and
return safely. This picture of Gagarin was taken on the way to the
launch pad for his historic journey. You can bet that he was feeling
very nervous at that point. 14
 Show image 6A-8: Alan Shepard
15 A spacecraft is a vehicle used
for traveling beyond Earth’s
atmosphere.
16 There’s air inside the suit so
astronauts can breathe.
The Americans were close behind. A couple of months after
Gagarin made his famous flight, a man named Alan Shepard
became the first American to travel into space. This picture
was taken shortly before Shepard boarded the Freedom 7
spacecraft. 15 Notice that, like Gagarin, Shepard was wearing a
helmet and a special suit. Space travelers need special gear like
this in order to survive the extreme conditions of outer space,
where there is no air, and where the temperatures can be both
incredibly hot and incredibly cold. 16
 Show image 6A-9: Rescuing Shepard
17 because you crash into the
atmosphere on the way back, like
meteors do
18 a small, closed space that keeps
a pilot or astronaut safe when
traveling or landing
Returning from outer space is just as dangerous as launching
into outer space. 17 This photo shows the Freedom 7, Alan
Shepard’s ship, after his flight. Shepard is inside that little
capsule! 18 When his flight was finished, the capsule reentered the
atmosphere and a parachute opened to lower it gently to Earth.
Shepard landed in the ocean, as planned, and the capsule floated
there until a helicopter came to pick him up.
 Show image 6A-10: Astronauts training
19 or a person who is trained to travel
into space
Space travelers like Alan Shepard are called astronauts. The
word astronaut comes from two Greek words: astro, meaning
“star”; and naut, meaning “sail.” So, an astronaut is a “star
sailor.” 19 Although being an astronaut can certainly be one of the
most interesting jobs in the world, it is by no means an easy job.
Astronauts spend years in training to prepare for journeys into
outer space. Astronauts must be healthy and strong because space
travel can be very difficult. Astronauts are stuffed into tiny spaces
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 6A | History of Space Exploration and Astronauts 129
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and launched into space in a rocket powered by thousands of
gallons of powerful fuel. It can be scary and it is uncomfortable.
This picture shows astronauts undergoing training. These Apollo
17 astronauts are learning to use equipment for their mission.
Early NASA astronauts also spent hours and hours running in
place on treadmills, soaking their feet in ice water, and undergoing
a number of other difficult, painful tests intended to make them
tough. They had to be tough to be astronauts.
Discussing the Read-Aloud
Comprehension Questions
15 minutes
10 minutes
1.
Literal When rockets launch, we usually say, “Blast off!” In
the read-aloud today, you heard that the Chinese invented
rockets. How did the Chinese launch these first rockets? (by
lighting gunpowder; by making an explosion) Why does saying
“blast off” make sense? (blast means explode)
2.
Inferential In the 1950s, the Soviet Union and the United
States competed to see who could go to space first. What did
we call this contest or competition? (The Space Race)
3.
Inferential The Soviet Union was the first country to send an
object into space: the satellite, Sputnik 1. How did they get it
into space? (They launched a rocket carrying it.)
4.
Inferential The United States wanted to catch up to the Soviet
Union, so they started the NASA program and launched
a satellite into space, too. Then both countries launched
something else, even more important, into space. What did
they send next? (people; astronauts)
5.
Literal What is an astronaut? (a person who travels in space)
6.
Inferential You heard that being one of the first astronauts was
not an easy job. What were some of the challenges astronauts
faced? (Training was difficult, such as treadmill and ice water
tests. Space travel was unknown and risky.)
[Please continue to model the Think Pair Share process for students,
as necessary, and scaffold students in their use of the process.]
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I am going to ask a question. I will give you a minute to think about
the question, and then I will ask you to turn to your neighbor and
discuss the question. Finally, I will call on several of you to share
what you discussed with your partner.
7.
Think Pair Share: Would you have wanted to be one of the first
astronauts to go up in space? Why or why not? (Answers may
vary.)
8.
After hearing today’s read-aloud and questions and answers,
do you have any remaining questions? [If time permits, you may
wish to allow for individual, group, or class research of the text
and/or other resources to answer these remaining questions.]
Word Work: Launch
5 minutes
 Show image 6A-6: Explorer launch
1.
In the read-aloud you heard, “[The United States and the
Soviet Union] wanted to [be] the first to launch a rocket into
outer space.”
2.
Say the word launch with me.
3.
Launch means to lift or push an object with force.
4.
I will pretend my table is a runway when I launch my paper
airplane into the air.
5.
Tell me what you think of when you hear the word launch.
[Ask two or three students. If necessary, guide and/or
rephrase the students’ responses: “When I hear the word
launch, I think of . . .”]
6.
What’s the word we’ve been talking about?
Use a Dramatization activity for follow-up. Directions: Let’s pretend
that our bodies are real rockets. First, make sure that there is room
around you. Then crouch down on the ground. I will count down
from ten and when I say, “Blast off,” launch your rocket into the air
without hitting any other rockets. Ready? Ok, here we go! 10, 9, 8,
7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, Blast off!

Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the Day
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History of Space
Exploration and Astronauts
6B
Note: Extensions may have activity options that exceed the time
allocated for this part of the lesson. To remain within the time
periods allocated for this portion of the lesson, you will need to
make conscious choices about which activities to include based
on the needs of your students.
Extensions
20 minutes
 Multiple Meaning Word Activity
5 minutes
Sentence in Context: Pride
Note: You may choose to have students hold up one or two
fingers to indicate which image shows the meaning being
described, or have a student walk up to the poster and point to
the image being described.
1.
[Show Poster 3M (Pride).] In today’s read-aloud you heard,
“[The U.S. and the Soviet Union] took the Space Race very
seriously; it was . . . a true matter of national pride.” Here
pride means good feelings about yourself or others when you
or they do something good. Which picture shows this?
2.
A pride is also a group of lions. Which picture shows this?
3.
Now with your partner, make a sentence for each meaning of
pride. [Call on a few partner pairs to share their sentences.
Have them point to the images of pride used in their
sentences.]
 Syntactic Awareness Activity
5 minutes
Possessive Pronouns: my, your, his, her
Note: The purpose of these syntactic activities is to help students
understand the direct connection between grammatical structures
and the meaning of text. These syntactic activities should be used
in conjunction with the complex text presented in the read-alouds.
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There may be variations in the sentences created by your class.
Allow for these variations, and restate students’ sentences so
that they are grammatical. If necessary, have students repeat the
sentence after you.
Directions: Today we are going to learn about possessive
pronouns. We use possessive pronouns to replace words that
identify to whom things belong.
1.
Possessive
Pronoun
Sentence 1
I will read a pair—or two—sentences to you. Listen carefully
as I replace the name of somebody with a possessive
pronoun. Tell me which words have changed. I will say each
pair of sentences twice. [Whenever you see a person’s name
in brackets, please replace that name with the name of a
student or co-teacher in your class. You may wish to place
stress on the words that are being replaced.]
Sentence 2
Replacement
My
[Point to yourself, and use My shirt is
.
The pronoun my replaces
your name as you say the
[Ms. Gilbert’s].
sentence.]
[Ms. Gilbert’s] shirt
is
.
Now, you try: Work with your partner to create a sentence to describe something that belongs to you,
using the pronoun my. Use this sentence starter to help you begin: “My
is
.”
[Address a nearby student.] Your shirt is
.
The pronoun your replaces
Your
[Aida’s].
[Aida’s] shirt is
.
Now, you try: Work with your partner to create a sentence to describe something that belongs to your
partner, using the pronoun your. Use this sentence starter to help you begin: “Your
is
.”
[Talk about a male student.] His shirt is
.
The pronoun his replaces
His
[Ryan’s].
[Ryan’s] shirt is
.
Now, you try: Work with your partner to create a sentence to describe something that belongs to a boy
student, using the pronoun his. Use this sentence starter to help you begin: “His
is
.”
[Talk about a female
Her shirt is
.
The pronoun her replaces
Her
student.]
[Ginny’s].
[Ginny’s] shirt is
.
Now, you try: Work with your partner to create a sentence to describe something that belongs to a girl
student, using the pronoun her. Use this sentence starter to help you begin: “Her
is
.”
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2.
I am going to read a letter from an imaginary fifth-grader
who is also learning about Astronomy. This letter contains
many of the possessive pronouns we just practiced. Please
stand up or raise your hand when you hear me say one of
those pronouns. Remember, the possessive pronouns we just
practiced are my, your, his, and her. [Acknowledge students
for correctly identifying the possessive pronouns in the
read-aloud.]
Dear First Graders,
Hello, my name is Josefa, and I am in fifth grade. My fifth-grade
class is studying astronomy, too, just like your first-grade class. My
favorite part of learning about astronomy has been learning about
astronauts. Did you know that astronaut means “star sailor”?
[If available, show an image of Sally Ride.]
My favorite astronaut is Sally Ride; she was the first woman to
travel in space. Thanks to her hard work, she fixed a satellite while
in space. Later, Sally wrote children’s books to encourage girls and
boys to study science and space travel. Thanks to her books about
space, kids all over America want to be astronauts one day, too!
What’s your favorite part of learning about astronomy?
Happy learning,
Josefa
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 Vocabulary Instructional Activity
5 minutes
Word Work: Technology
1.
In the read-aloud you heard that about one hundred years
ago, scientists started to make progress in rocket technology.
2.
Say the word technology with me three times.
3.
Technology is the use of science to invent useful things or to
help solve problems.
4.
Computers are an important kind of technology.
Astronauts need to learn to use all the technology inside of
the spacecraft.
5.
How are computers an important kind of technology? What
can we do with computers?
[Ask two or three students. If necessary, guide and/or rephrase
the students’ responses: “Computers are an important technology
because I can
using a computer.”]
6. What’s the word we’ve been talking about?
Use a Word to World activity for follow-up. Directions: Technology
is all around us. We have already talked about the computer as
an important kind of technology. What are some other kinds of
technology? [cell phones, airplanes, batteries, cars, DVD players,
MP3 players, vacuum cleaners, etc. If time allows, have students
draw a picture of a useful technology and write a sentence about it.]
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Astronomy Journal: Spacecraft (Instructional Master 6B-1) 15 minutes
• Tell students that they will continue to write in their Astronomy
Journal. Today they will design a spacecraft for astronauts to
explore space. Explain that there are many different kinds of
scientists involved in learning about space. Astronauts—one
kind of scientist—are trained to travel in outer space. Engineers
are scientists who design and build spacecraft.
 Show image 6A-6: Explorer launch
• First, give each student a copy of Instructional Master 6B1. Tell them that this is the fourth page of their Astronomy
Journal. They will draw their design of a spacecraft on it.
• Next, ask students to think about what kind of features or
things their spacecraft should have. Remind students that a
spacecraft needs rockets to launch it into space and that it
needs to be strong to endure incredible cold and heat.
• Then, have students draw their spacecraft for at least five
minutes.
• Finally, have students label and/or write a sentence about
their spacecraft.
• Ask students: “Which type of scientist designs spacecraft—an
astronaut or an engineer?”
• If time allows, have students share their journal page in small
groups or with home-language peers, sharing about the features
of their spacecraft.
Take-Home Material
Family Letter
Send home Instructional Masters 6B-2 and 6B-3.
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Exploration of the Moon
7
 Lesson Objectives
Core Content Objectives
Students will:
 Explain that astronomers study the moon and stars using
telescopes
 Explain that the moon orbits the earth
 Explain that astronauts travel to outer space
 Describe the landing on the moon by American astronauts
 Explain the importance of the first trip to the moon
Language Arts Objectives
The following language arts objectives are addressed in this
lesson. Objectives aligning with the Common Core State
Standards are noted with the corresponding standard in
parentheses. Refer to the Alignment Chart for additional standards
addressed in all lessons in this domain.
Students will:
 Describe the connection between unmanned and manned
missions to the moon (RI.1.3)
 Make personal connections to the concerns the first astronauts may
have felt before heading in to space, and about what they would see,
do, or feel if they went to the moon as an astronaut (W.1.8)
 With assistance, categorize and organize information about what
would be seen and experienced on the surface of the moon (W.1.8)
 Ask questions to clarify directions for an activity in which
students are creating a sketch and written statement about what
they might do, see, or feel if they went to the moon (SL.1.3)
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 Describe the moon with relevant details, expressing ideas and
feelings clearly (SL.1.4)
 Add drawings to descriptions of the moon to clarify the
concepts (SL.1.5)
 Use possessive pronouns orally
Core Vocabulary
determined, adj. Having a strong feeling that you need to do something
and that no one can stop you
Example: I walked fast because I was determined to get to school on
time.
Variation(s): none
disaster, n. An accident or something that has a bad result and can cause
a lot of damage
Example: The strong storm winds that blew down trees and damaged
buildings was a disaster.
Variation(s): disasters
historic, adj. Famous or important in history
Example: The day the first man walked on the moon was a historic day.
Variation(s): none
missions, n. Important jobs
Example: My dad gave us all a job to do to clean up the house and said
we needed to complete our missions before we could play; my mission
was to collect the dirty laundry.
Variation(s): mission
nervously, adv. Showing feelings of being worried or afraid
Example: Marta nervously walked to the front of the classroom to give
her speech.
Variation(s): none
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Vocabulary Chart for Exploration of the Moon
Core Vocabulary words are in bold.
Multiple Meaning Word Activity word is underlined.
Vocabulary Instructional Activity words have an asterisk (*).
Suggested words to pre-teach are in italics.
Type of Words
Understanding
Multiple Meaning
Tier 3
Tier 2
Tier 1
Domain-Specific Words
General Academic Words
Everyday-Speech Words
astronaut
scientist
spacecraft
spacesuit
disaster
equipment
historic
monitored
nervously
ladder
moon
television
engine
gravity
missions
module
rocket
space
survey
determined*
launched
prepared
surface
flag
land
rock
step
Apollo Program
Apollo 1/4/7/11
Buzz Aldrin
John F. Kennedy
determined to succeed
little room for error
were glued to their
manned/unmanned
Phrases
missions
Michael Collins
mission control
NASA
Neil Armstrong
rocket/command
module/lunar module
“That’s one small
step for man,
one giant leap for
mankind.”
“The Eagle has
landed.”
Cognates
astronauta
científico(a)
gravedad
misión
módulo
espacio
desastre
equipo
histórico(a)
nerviosamente
determinado(a)*
preparado(a)
televisión
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Note: Introducing the Read-Aloud and Extensions may have
activity options that exceed the time allocated for that part of
the lesson. To remain within the time periods allocated for each
portion of the lesson, you will need to make conscious choices
about which activities to include based on the needs of your
students.
Exercise
Materials
Details
Introducing the Read-Aloud (10 minutes)
Essential Background
Information or Terms
chart paper, writing tools
Vocabulary Preview: Historic,
Missions
Image 7A-12; images of King
Tut’s tomb, Machu Picchu, early
automobile (Ford Model T), early
airplane (Wright flyer), early
telephone (Bell’s telephone and
rotary phones)
You may wish to use these images to
show students historic creations and
findings.
Images 7A-2, 7A-3, 7A-5
You may wish to preview the different
missions with students.
Purpose for Listening
Presenting the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)
You may wish to show students
additional images and videos related to
Apollo 11. (See Notes to Teacher for a link
to NASA’s Apollo 11 page.)
Exploration of the Moon
Discussing the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)
Comprehension Questions
Word Work: Determined
 Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the Day
Extensions (20 minutes)
Astronomy Journal: On the
Moon
Image 7A-12; Instructional Master
7B-1; drawing tools
Domain-Related Trade Book
trade book about astronauts and
space exploration
140 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 7 | Exploration of the Moon
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Advance Preparation
Bring in images of historic events, creations, and findings (e.g.,
King Tut’s tomb, Machu Picchu, Ford Model T, Wright flyer, Bell’s
telephone, etc.).
Make a copy of Instructional Master 7B-1 for each student.
Students will create the fifth page of their Astronomy Journal.
Find a trade book about astronauts and space exploration to read
aloud to the class.
Notes to Teacher
For additional information, images, and video related to the Apollo
11 mission, you may wish to refer to the following website:
http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/history/apollo/apollo11/index.html
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Exploration of the Moon
Introducing the Read-Aloud
7A
10 minutes
Essential Background Information or Terms
5 minutes
Review the previous read-aloud about space exploration and the
first astronauts. Emphasize that the first astronauts didn’t land
anywhere in space. They were launched into space, orbited the
earth, and landed back on Earth. Remind students that in other
read-alouds, they learned that the sun and other stars are too far
away and too hot to visit. Ask, “What is the one celestial body
that is close enough to Earth to visit, and made of rock instead of
gas?” (the moon) Tell students that today’s read-aloud will teach
them about the first astronauts ever to visit the moon.
Emphasize that traveling to the moon for the first time required
astronauts to be brave. No one had ever traveled to the moon
before, so nobody knew how long it would take, what the
conditions would be like, or what might happen on the way.
The first people to go to the moon didn’t have anyone to ask what
it would be like. Ask students to imagine what concerns or fears
the first astronauts may have felt before going into space. Record
student concerns. Some concerns may have been:
• Would their spacecraft be able to handle the trip?
• What dangers would they face on their trip through space?
• Would they actually get to the moon?
• What would they discover if they did land on the moon?
Ask students to think about whether or not they would have
decided to travel to the moon, knowing some of these unanswered
questions.
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Vocabulary Preview
5 minutes
Historic
 Show image 7A-12: The flag
1.
In today’s read-aloud we will hear about a historic moment in
world history.
2.
Say historic with me three times.
3.
Historic means famous or important in history.
4.
Launching the first rocket into space was a historic event in
space exploration.
What historic event do you see in this picture? (man on the
moon)
5.
[Show various images of historic events, findings, or creations.
Ask why they are considered historic.]
Missions
1.
In today’s read-aloud we will hear about several space
missions.
2.
Say the word missions with me three times.
3.
Missions are important jobs.
 Show image 7A-2: Surveyor 1
4.
NASA had several missions to the moon. NASA sent
Surveyor 1 to the moon to find out more about the moon. No
astronauts were on this spacecraft, so it was an unmanned
mission. [Unmanned means that no man or person was on it.]
 Show image 7A-3: Apollo 4 launch
Then NASA sent Apollo 4, another unmanned spacecraft, to
make sure that the rockets were powerful enough to launch
the spacecraft into space.
 Show image 7A-5: Apollo 11 crew
Finally, NASA launched Apollo 11; three astronauts were on
board, so it was a manned mission.
5.
If you could be sent on any space mission, where would you
like to go? What would you like to discover on your mission?
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Purpose for Listening
Tell students to listen carefully to identify steps scientists took to
find out what the trip would be like before sending the astronauts
to the moon. Additionally, tell students to listen and find out who
won the Space Race to the moon.
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Presenting the Read-Aloud
15 minutes
Exploration of the Moon
 Show image 7A-1: JFK 1
1 This was the president of the
United States many years ago. His
name is John F. Kennedy. Who is
the current president of the United
States?
2 They were committed to making it
happen.
3 They didn’t have much information
about what it would be like to visit.
In 1961, the president of the United States, John F. Kennedy,
announced that the United States would send astronauts to the
moon within ten years. This seemed impossible to many people,
but President Kennedy and the NASA scientists were determined
to succeed. 2 So, they started the Apollo Program in order to send
people to the moon. But there was a lot of work to be done before
anyone could get anywhere near the moon. 3
 Show image 7A-2: Surveyor 1
4 or study
5 This would help them answer
questions about what they would
discover when they landed.
Surveyor 1 was the first spacecraft Americans sent to the
moon, but it was an unmanned spacecraft, that is, a spacecraft
without any people aboard. The purpose of Surveyor 1 was to
survey 4 the moon’s surface. It carried equipment to study the
land, temperature, and other things NASA scientists needed to
know before sending people to the moon. 5
 Show image 7A-3: Apollo 4 launch
6 or jobs that needed to be done
to accomplish what they wanted
to do
7 A disaster is a sudden event that is
unpleasant.
8 These missions would help answer
questions about whether their
spacecraft could handle the trip.
The Apollo Program involved many missions. 6 The first
mission, Apollo 1, was a disaster. 7 The spacecraft caught on fire
before they had a chance to launch it. After that, however, the
Apollo scientists had better success. First, there were unmanned
missions to test various rockets and systems. 8 This beautiful
picture shows Apollo 4, an unmanned mission to test a rocket
engine. This is the type of engine that would eventually carry men
to the moon.
 Show image 7A-4: Apollo 7 crew
9 or missions with people
Next came manned missions, 9 but these astronauts did not
get to go to the moon. Instead, they were practicing and testing
equipment to make sure everything would work properly in outer
space. This photo shows the crew of the Apollo 7 mission.
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 Show image 7A-5: Apollo 11 crew
10 [Point to the three astronauts in
the center of this image.]
11 It was historic because it was
important and many people would
remember it for many years.
12 Does that sound like a long time?
You heard in an earlier read-aloud
that it would take thousands of
years to travel to some stars.
13 The rocket’s job was done after it
launched the spacecraft beyond
the earth’s atmosphere.
Finally, on July 16, 1969, Apollo 11 was launched from the
Kennedy Space Center in Florida. There were three astronauts
aboard: 10 Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Buzz Aldrin.
This picture was taken shortly before they went on their historic
mission. 11
It took four days for Apollo 11 to travel the 239,000 miles from
Earth to the moon. 12 During the launch, the astronauts were sitting
in the very top of the rocket. Once it reached outer space, the part
they were in—called the command module—broke off from the
rocket and continued on toward the moon. The rocket was not
needed once the ship reached outer space. 13
 Show image 7A-6: Eagle in orbit
14 In fact, the word lunar is used to
describe anything that is related to
the moon.
15 So the spacecraft had three parts:
there was the rocket, the command
module, and the lunar module.
But only the lunar module [point
to the picture] actually landed on
the moon.
Michael Collins was the pilot for the command module, which
drove the lunar module close to the moon but did not actually land
on the moon. The lunar module, called the Eagle, was attached
to the command module during the journey from Earth to the
moon.14
Once they got close enough to the moon, the Eagle—the
lunar module—broke off from the command module and began
to descend, or go down, to the surface of the moon. 15 Two
astronauts were inside the Eagle: Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong.
 Show image 7A-7: Mission control 16
16 This is mission control, where NASA
scientists on the ground talk to and
help astronauts in space.
17 or worried about what might
happen
18 or mistakes
Meanwhile, as the Eagle approached the surface of the moon,
hundreds of scientists back at mission control were watching their
computers nervously 17 to make sure everything went as planned.
There is little room for error 18 in space travel. The NASA scientists
monitored every single part of the ship, making sure every fuse
and wire were working properly.
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 Show image 7A-8: TV news broadcast
19 watching the news
20 Remember the “Space Race” with
the Soviet Union? The United States
was the first country in the world
to send people to the moon.
At the same time, people all over America were glued to their
television sets, 19 also nervously waiting to see what would
happen. The Eagle was equipped with television cameras, so
everyone back home could see and hear everything that was
happening 239,000 miles away on the moon! The moon landing
excited people all over the world. 20
 Show image 7A-9: The Eagle has landed
It took longer than expected, but finally Neil Armstrong
announced the famous words, “The Eagle has landed.” Great
sighs of relief and cheers went up from mission control and in
living rooms across America.
 Show image 7A-10: Armstrong stepping onto the moon
21 [Pause for responses.]
Next, Neil Armstrong prepared to leave the Eagle and step out
onto the moon. This picture shows what Americans back home
saw on their television sets. As you can see, the picture was not
very clear, but if you look closely you can see Armstrong about to
set foot on the moon’s surface.
Armstrong stepped down and landed on the fine, soft dust
of the moon’s surface. With his first step he said, “That’s one
small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.” What did Neil
Armstrong mean? 21 He meant that he himself had taken a small
step—from the Eagle’s ladder onto the moon—but that step
represented a huge leap in terms of the advances humans had
made by landing on the moon.
 Show image 7A-11: Buzz Aldrin
Buzz Aldrin followed Armstrong down the ladder. Both
astronauts wore special spacesuits designed to endure the harsh
temperatures on the moon’s surface.
The astronauts conducted experiments to help future
astronauts and scientists. The first thing they noticed was their
mobility, or how easy it was to walk and move around. The moon
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22 Can you imagine hopping up in the
air and staying up there for a bit?
Imagine how far you could jump!
has very little gravity compared to Earth. Here on Earth, when
you jump up you come straight back down—not so on the moon.
When you hop on the moon, you stay up for a few seconds and
come down rather slowly. 22
 Show image 7A-12: The flag
23 Explorers often planted flags to
claim the new land for their home
countries.
The astronauts collected samples of the moon’s dust and rocks.
Then they planted an American flag in the moon’s soil. 23 They
had prepared the flag beforehand by inserting wires in it so that it
would be firm and appear to be waving, even though there is no
wind on the moon.
Five more Apollo missions landed successfully on the moon
after that first mission. In the end, the Apollo astronauts brought
back a total of 842 pounds of moon rocks. Many of these rocks
are on display in museums around the world.
Discussing the Read-Aloud
Comprehension Questions
10 minutes
1.
Literal You heard in today’s read-aloud that President
Kennedy, the president of the United States, was determined
to do something within just ten years. What was he
determined to do? (to send people to the moon)
2.
Inferential An unmanned mission is a task to be completed
on a spacecraft with no people on it. Why did NASA send
unmanned missions to the moon before manned ones?
(to first make sure that it was safe for people) What were
the purposes of these unmanned missions? (to study the
temperature and surface of the moon; test the rockets
and equipment) Before the unmanned missions, how did
astronomers get most of their information about the moon?
(telescopes)
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15 minutes
3.
You learned that the Apollo 11 spacecraft had three parts: the
rocket, the command module, and the lunar module (or Eagle).
a.
Literal Which part launched it into space? (rocket)
b.
Literal Which part held the pilot who orbited the moon
without landing? (command module)
c.
Literal Which part landed on the moon? (the lunar
module, also called the Eagle)
4.
Evaluative You learned that scientists at mission control and
people at home were nervous and excited as they watched
the spacecraft approach the moon. Why do you think they
were nervous? (worried something would go wrong) Why do
you think they were excited? (The first person on the moon
was big news.)
5.
Inferential In another read-aloud, you learned that gravity is a
force that pulls one object to another. The moon has very little
gravity. What did the low gravity mean for the astronauts when
they walked on the moon? (They hopped and stayed up in the
air for a few seconds.)
6.
Evaluative You learned that astronauts brought back over 842
pounds of moon rocks. Why do you think they brought back
so many rocks from the moon? (to study them, and to find out
what they’re made of)
[Please continue to model the Think Pair Share process for
students, as necessary, and scaffold students in their use of the
process.]
I am going to ask a question. I will give you a minute to think about
the question, and then I will ask you to turn to your neighbor and
discuss the question. Finally, I will call on several of you to share
what you discussed with your partner.
7.
Evaluative Think Pair Share: Neil Armstrong stepped off the
ladder and said, “That’s one small step for man, one giant
leap for mankind.” In the read-aloud, we heard that humans
made a giant leap by sending people to the moon. Why do
you think this was a big accomplishment? (Answers may vary.)
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Word Work: Determined
5 minutes
1.
In the read-aloud you heard, “President Kennedy and the
NASA scientists were determined to succeed [in sending
astronauts to the moon].”
2.
Say the word determined with me.
3.
Determined means have a strong feeling that you need to do
something and that no one can stop you.
4.
I am determined to do well in school.
5.
Tell about something you are determined to do before you
finish first grade. Try to use the word determined when you tell
about it. [Ask two or three students. If necessary, guide and/or
rephrase the students’ responses: “Before I finish first grade, I
am determined to . . . ”]
6.
What’s the word we’ve been talking about?
Use a Making Choices activity for follow-up. Directions: Listen
to the following sentences that Jason says. If you think he is
determined to succeed, say, “He is determined.” If you think he is
not determined, say, “He is not determined.”

1.
Jason says, “I will keep on trying until I get it.” (He is
determined.)
2.
Jason says, “It’s too hard; forget it.” (He is not determined.)
3.
Jason says, “I will never give up.” (He is determined.)
4.
Jason says, “It doesn’t matter that much to me.” (He is not
determined.)
5.
Jason says, “I will achieve my goal.” (He is determined.)
Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the Day
150 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 7A | Exploration of the Moon
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Exploration of the Moon
7B
Note: Extensions may have activity options that exceed the time
allocated for this part of the lesson. To remain within the time
periods allocated for this portion of the lesson, you will need to
make conscious choices about which activities to include based
on the needs of your students.
Extensions
20 minutes
Astronomy Journal: On the Moon
(Instructional Master 7B-1)
15 minutes
 Show image 7A-12: The flag
• Tell students that they will continue to write in their Astronomy
Journal. Today they will draw themselves pretending to be
astronauts on the moon.
• First, give each student a copy of Instructional Master 7B1. Tell them that this is the fifth page of their Astronomy
Journal. They will pretend to be astronauts on the moon.
• Next, ask students to think about what it might be like on
the moon and what kind of gear or clothing they would
wear. Remind students that astronauts wear spacesuits
designed to endure harsh hot and cold temperatures. Also
remind students that there is very little gravity on the moon
compared to Earth, so if they jump up they will not come
straight down, but stay up longer and come down more
slowly!
• Then, have students draw a sketch of themselves on the
moon for at least five minutes. [Remind students that a
sketch is quickly drawn and does not include many colors or
details.]
• Finally, have students label and/or write a sentence about
what it is like on the moon.
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• Ask students: “What would happen if you jumped on the
moon?”
• If time allows, have students share their journal page in small
groups or with home-language peers, sharing about the sketch
of themselves on the moon and comparing their drawings to see
how they are the same and different.
Domain-Related Trade Book
20 minutes
• Refer to the list of recommended trade books in the Introduction
at the front of this Supplemental Guide, and choose one trade
book about astronauts and space exploration to read aloud to
the class.
• Explain to students that the person who wrote the book is called
the author. Tell students the name of the author. Explain to
students that the person who makes the pictures for the book
is called an illustrator. Tell students the name of the illustrator.
Show students where they can find this information on the cover
of the book or on the title page.
• As you read, use the same strategies that you have been
using when reading the read-aloud selections—pause and ask
occasional questions; rapidly clarify critical vocabulary within
the context of the read-aloud; etc.
• After you finish reading the trade book aloud, lead students in a
discussion as to how the story or information in this book relates
to the read-alouds in this domain.
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The Solar System, Part I
8
 Lesson Objectives
Core Content Objectives
Students will:
 Explain that the sun is a source of energy, light, and heat
 Classify the sun as a star
 Identify Earth as a planet and our home
 Identify the earth’s rotation or spin as the cause of day and night
 Explain that Earth orbits the sun
 Explain that our solar system includes the sun and the planets
that orbit around it
 Indicate that there are eight planets in our solar system (Mercury,
Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune)
Language Arts Objectives
The following language arts objectives are addressed in this
lesson. Objectives aligning with the Common Core State
Standards are noted with the corresponding standard in
parentheses. Refer to the Alignment Chart for additional standards
addressed in all lessons in this domain.
Students will:
 Describe the connection between the sun and the first inner
planets (RI.1.3)
 Describe an illustration of the moon and use pictures and detail
in “The Solar System, Part I” to describe the read-aloud’s key
ideas (RI.1.7)
 Compare and contrast Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (RI.1.9)
 With assistance, categorize and organize information about
Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (W.1.8)
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 Ask and answer what questions orally, requiring literal recall and
understanding of the details or facts from “The Solar System,
Part I” (SL.1.2)
 Accurately apply the meanings of the antonyms abundant and
scarce (L.1.5a)
 Prior to listening to “The Solar System, Part I,” identify orally
what they know and have learned about the difference between
planets and stars
Core Vocabulary
abundant, adj. Great in number; more than enough
Example: The farmers celebrated their abundant harvest with a town
fair.
Variation(s): none
accomplish, v. To get something done successfully
Example: We can accomplish our goal of winning the game if we work
together.
Variation(s): accomplishes, accomplished, accomplishing
inner, adj. Close to the center; the inside of something
Example: The inner circles of the spider’s web were smaller than the
outer circles.
Variation(s): none
solar, adj. Related to the sun
Example: My mom has a solar-powered calculator that works by
soaking up the rays of the sun.
Variation(s): none
unique, adj. One of a kind
Example: Each planet is unique.
Variation(s): none
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Vocabulary Chart for The Solar System, Part I
Core Vocabulary words are in bold.
Multiple Meaning Word Activity word is underlined.
Vocabulary Instructional Activity words have an asterisk (*).
Suggested words to pre-teach are in italics.
Type of Words
Tier 3
Tier 2
Tier 1
Domain-Specific Words
General Academic Words
Everyday-Speech Words
astronomer
axis
crater
Mars
Mercury
rovers
telescope
Venus
abundant*
accomplish
essential
inner
unique*
closest
Earth
eight
first/second/third/
fourth
moon
mostly
planet
sky
smallest
atmosphere
orbit
revolution
tint
brightest
major
revolve
rotate
surface
color
water
hard to spot
have in common
Phrases
celestial body
dwarf planets
NASA
Roman god/
goddess
solar system
Cognates
astrónomo(a)
cráter
Marte
Mercurio
Telescopio
Venus
sistema solar
abundante*
esencial
único(a)*
mayor
Understanding
Multiple Meaning
planeta
color
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Note: Introducing the Read-Aloud and Extensions may have
activity options that exceed the time allocated for that part of
the lesson. To remain within the time periods allocated for each
portion of the lesson, you will need to make conscious choices
about which activities to include based on the needs of your
students.
Exercise
Materials
Details
Introducing the Read-Aloud (10 minutes)
What Have We Already
Learned?
Image 2A-4
Refer to Lesson 2 image and content
during the review.
Vocabulary Preview: Solar
System
Image 8A-2
You may wish to begin the Planets Chart
or Wall. (Refer to the Extensions activity.)
Purpose for Listening
Presenting the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)
Before introducing a planet, show its Flip
Book image and pause to let students
describe the planet first.
The Solar System, Part I
Discussing the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)
Comprehension Questions
Image 8A-8
Word Work: Abundant
 Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the Day
Extensions (20 minutes)
Multiple Meaning Word
Activity: Color
Poster 4M (Color)
Syntactic Awareness Activity:
Possessive Pronouns—our,
their
Vocabulary Instructional
Activity: Unique
Planets Song
instrumental music for the song,
“Oh My Darling, Clementine”
Planets Chart
Image Cards 1 (Earth), 7 (Mercury), Alternatively, you may wish to create a
8 (Venus), and 9 (Mars); chart
Planets Wall.
paper, chalkboard, or whiteboard
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Advance Preparation
Bring in instrumental music for the song, “Oh My Darling,
Clementine,” with which students can sing the Planets Song.
Create a Planets Chart. Draw the following chart, completing the
first column and adding Image Cards to the second column. After
the read-aloud, you will elicit two facts from students about each
planet mentioned in today’s read-aloud. The chart should look like
the one below.
Position and Name
Image Card Number
1) Mercury
7
2) Venus
8
3) Earth
1
4) Mars
9
5) Jupiter
10
6) Saturn
11
7) Uranus
12
8) Neptune
13
Fact 1
Fact 2
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Alternatively, you may wish to designate part of a classroom wall
to make a Planets Wall. Use Image 8A-2 as a guide. You may wish
to use color yarn, metal wire, or ribbon to make the orbits. Attach
the Image Card for each planet as they are mentioned in the readaloud. After the read-aloud, write two facts about each planet onto
index cards and attach the index cards under the Image Card of
the planet.
Notes to Teacher
For additional information, images, and video related to the solar
system, you may wish to refer to the following website:
http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/kids/# (click on K–4 at the top)
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The Solar System, Part I
Introducing the Read-Aloud
8A
10 minutes
What Have We Already Learned?
5 minutes
Tell students that for the next two days they will learn about
several planets. Remind students that they learned that a planet is
different from a star. Ask students if they remember how a planet
differs from a star. (Unlike a star, a planet does not provide its own
light, but revolves around a star which generates light and heat.)
Tell students that they have already learned about one planet and
the star it revolves around. Ask, “Which planet and star have we
already learned about?” (the earth and the sun) Then ask students
if they have ever heard the names of any other planets. Tell
students to turn to a neighbor and talk for thirty seconds, telling
everything he or she knows about planets. Then have the partner
talk for half a minute as well. Encourage pairs to share some of the
ideas they discussed about planets.
Vocabulary Preview
5 minutes
Solar System
 Show image 8A-2: Diagram of the solar system
1.
The next two read-alouds will be about the solar system.
2.
Say the phrase solar system with me three times.
3.
Solar means related to the sun. System means parts that work
together to do something. The solar system is the sun and all
the planets that revolve around it.
[Note: In The Human Body, students learned about several
body systems like their skeletal, muscular, and digestive
systems.]
4.
The sun is at the center of the solar system.
Which planets do you know are part of the solar system?
[Point out the planets on the image.]
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5.
Why do you think it is important that the sun is at the center
of the solar system? [Suggestions: it gives off heat and light; it
pulls other planets towards it so they do not drift away]
Purpose for Listening
Tell students that after the read-aloud, you will be completing
a chart with information about all the planets they learn about
today. Tell students to listen carefully for facts about each planet,
especially facts about how each planet is unique or different from
the others. In this read-aloud students will hear about the inner
planets closest to the sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
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Presenting the Read-Aloud
15 minutes
The Solar System, Part I
 Show image 8A-1: People stargazing
1 Remember that a planet is a large
celestial body that revolves around
a star for light and heat.
2 The other day, you heard the word
major and its antonym, or opposite,
minor. What does the word major
mean? (big or important)
For thousands of years, stargazers have known that the sun,
moon, and stars are not the only celestial bodies in the night skies
above Earth. Ancient stargazers recognized that there are other
planets up there, as well. 1 What they did not know is that these
planets, like Earth, revolve around the sun. Astronomers now know
of eight major planets, including Earth, that revolve around the
sun. 2 In addition, there are a number of dwarf planets—or little
planets.
 Show image 8A-2: Diagram of the solar system
3 So what do we call the sun and the
planets that orbit it? What does the
word lunar refer to? (the moon)
4 one of a kind and different from
any other
5 or the ones near the center of the
solar system
The word solar is used to describe something that is related to
the sun. For example, solar energy refers to the heat and light that
come from the sun. Planets and other celestial bodies that orbit
the sun make up what is known as the solar system. 3
This diagram shows the eight major planets in our solar system.
About the only thing these eight planets have in common is the
fact that they all orbit the same sun on their own special path.
Beyond that, each planet is unique. 4 The first four planets you will
learn about are called the inner planets: 5 Mercury, Venus, Earth,
and Mars. These planets are called the inner planets because they
are closest to the sun.
 Show image 8A-3: Mercury
6 Being the smallest and closest to
the sun makes Mercury unique.
7 Remember when you learned
about constellations? Their names
also came from Greek and Roman
myths.
Mercury is the closest planet to the sun and the smallest of the
eight major planets in the solar system. 6 Mercury can be seen
from Earth, but it is hard to spot. You can only see it in the early
morning or early evening.
Most of the planets in the solar system are named after Roman
gods and goddesses. 7 The planet Mercury is named after the
Roman god Mercury. In mythology, the god Mercury was very
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8 Remember that Earth takes 365
days to orbit the sun. So if Mercury
only takes eighty-eight days, which
planet is faster?
fast, so it makes sense that this planet is named after him. It takes
just eighty-eight Earth days for Mercury to complete a revolution
around the sun, so it is a quick little planet. 8 Unlike Earth, Mercury
does not rotate much. It spins on its axis just one and a half times
during its revolution around the sun.
 Show image 8A-4: Close-up of Mercury 9
9 Describe what you see in this closeup picture of Mercury.
10 Like they do to our moon, meteors
just crash right into Mercury’s
surface, making the craters.
11 On Earth, we consider ninety
degrees Fahrenheit to be hot.
12 Thirty-two degrees Fahrenheit is
the temperature at which water
freezes on Earth.
At first glance, you might notice that Mercury looks a lot like our
moon with its rocky, heavily cratered surface. Mercury has some of
the largest known crater impacts in the solar system, meaning that
it has gotten hit by some very large meteors. In fact, some craters
are about fifty miles wide.
Mercury has no atmosphere to protect it like Earth does. 10 And
because it is so close to the sun, the surface of Mercury is very,
very hot or very, very cold. Temperatures on the surface facing the
sun can range anywhere from 300 degrees to nearly 1400 degrees
Fahrenheit 11 while the surface facing away from the sun can be as
low as 350 degrees below zero. 12
 Show image 8A-5: Venus
13 Being the brightest object in our
night sky makes Venus unique.
14 Remember, Earth rotates
counterclockwise. [Circle your
finger in a counterclockwise
direction.] So Venus
rotates
. [Circle your
finger in a clockwise direction.]
Venus is the second planet from the sun. It is named after the
Roman goddess of love. Aside from the sun and the moon, Venus
is the brightest celestial object that you can see from Earth. 13
It takes Venus roughly 225 Earth days to revolve around the
sun. However, like Mercury, Venus does not rotate on its axis very
fast. In fact, Venus actually rotates in the opposite direction that
Earth does. 14
 Show image 8A-6: Venus viewed from Earth 15
15 [Point to Venus in the image.] What
else do you see in this image? (the
moon)
16 Being a sister planet to Earth is
another fact unique to Venus.
Venus is sometimes referred to as the “morning star” or the
“evening star” because it often appears as a bright object in the
evening sky or as a bright object in the morning sky. Venus is also
known as Earth’s sister planet because it is the closest planet to
Earth, and the two planets are roughly the same size. 16
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17 That’s really hot! You also learned
the word atmosphere when we
first started studying astronomy.
What does atmosphere mean?
(the bubble of gas that surrounds
a planet)
Beyond that, however, Earth and Venus have very little in common.
Venus’s atmosphere consists of a very thick layer of clouds, so it is
difficult for astronomers to study its surface. We do know, however,
that the surface is very hot and dry. Venus’s thick, cloudy atmosphere
traps much of the sun’s energy, meaning temperatures on the planet
can soar to above 800 degrees Fahrenheit! 17
 Show image 8A-7: Earth from moon 18
18 What are the first two planets
we’ve learned about so far? Hint:
the smallest and first planet closest
to the sun (Mercury); the brightest
and second-closest planet to the
sun (Venus).
You should recognize the planet in this photo. It’s your home
planet, Earth, the third planet from the sun. Earth is the only planet
that does not take its name from a Roman or Greek god. The word
earth is an ancient word that originally meant “ground.” When the
word earth was invented, the people living here did not even know
that it was a planet. This photo was taken by the astronauts of the
Apollo 8 mission. They did not get to land on the moon, but they
flew around it.
 Show image 8A-8: Earth’s surface
19 That means there is more than
enough or plenty of water.
20 Its supply of water and oxygen
makes Earth unique. So after
Mercury and Venus comes planet
Earth, where we live.
One of the most important factors that sets Earth apart from other
planets is the abundant supply of water. 19 Water is essential for
life; without water, there could not be any living things like people,
plants, or animals. Although some other celestial bodies in our solar
system have some water, Earth is the only planet whose surface is
mostly liquid water. Earth is also the only planet with an abundance of
oxygen in the air, and oxygen is also essential for life. 20
 Show image 8A-9: Mars
21 Its red color makes Mars unique.
Here the word color means the
tone you see when you look at
something, such as red, blue, or
green. The word color can also
mean to draw or fill in a picture
with crayons, markers, or pencils.
Mars is the fourth planet from the sun. Mars is named after the
Roman god of war. Mars is often referred to as the Red Planet
because of its color. 21 You can see Mars from Earth, and even
without a telescope you can identify it by its reddish tint.
The farther you get from the sun, the colder it is and the longer
it takes to complete a revolution, or make one trip around the
sun. It takes Mars 687 Earth days to revolve around the sun. It is
interesting, though, that Mars rotates on its axis at about the same
speed as Earth.
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 Show image 8A-10: Phobos
Mars has two moons, but they are small and oddly shaped. One
of them is pictured here. Astronomers believe that these moons
are actually large asteroids, or space rocks, that became trapped
in orbit as they passed by Mars billions of years ago.
 Show image 8A-11: Mars surface
Because Mars is relatively close to Earth, astronomers from
NASA have been able to send several spacecraft to explore that
planet. NASA has sent several unmanned spacecraft to orbit Mars.
NASA has also managed to send several small robotic vehicles,
called rovers, to explore Mars’s surface. The photo you see here is
the first color photo ever taken on another planet! It was snapped
by the Spirit Exploration Rover. Most of the rocky surface of Mars
is covered in a layer of rust, which is a reddish-brown color. The
rust explains why Mars appears to be red.
22 or achieve this goal
23 Mars is also unique because it is a
celestial body we might be able to
visit one day.
NASA scientists hope to be able to send astronauts to Mars,
but it may be many, many years before technology exists that
might allow them to accomplish this. 22 Perhaps, if you decide to
be an astronaut when you grow up, you will be the first person to
set foot on Mars. It will not be easy to put a person on Mars, but
people used to think it was impossible to go to the moon, too. 23
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Discussing the Read-Aloud
15 minutes
Comprehension Questions
10 minutes
1.
Literal You heard that the word solar means something related
to the sun. What is the solar system? (group of planets and
other celestial bodies that orbit the sun)
2.
Inferential How many planets are in our solar system? (eight)
What do all the planets have in common? What do all the
planets do that is the same? (They orbit the sun.)
 Show image 8A-3: Mercury
3.
Literal This is the first planet in the solar system, known for
being the smallest and the closest to the sun. What is the
name of this planet? (Mercury)
 Show image 8A-5: Venus
5.
Literal This is the second planet in the solar system, known
for being the brightest planet as seen from Earth. What is the
name of this planet? (Venus)
 Show image 8A-7: Earth from moon
6.
Inferential This is the third planet in the solar system, known
for having lots of water, oxygen, and life. The third planet is
the most important one to us. What is the name of this planet?
(Earth) Why is it most important to us? (We live on it.)
 Show image 8A-9: Mars
7.
Literal This is the fourth planet in the solar system, known as
the Red Planet. What is the name of this planet? (Mars)
 Show image 8A-2: Diagram of the solar system
8.
Ask the following questions:
•
Inferential You learned that all eight planets orbit the sun.
Why don’t they bump into each other? (They all have their
own path, or orbit.)
•
Inferential You learned that the first four planets are
Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. Why are they called the
inner planets? (They are closest to the sun.)
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•
Inferential Which planet takes the shortest time to go
around the sun? (Mercury)
•
Inferential Which planet do you think takes the longest
time to go around the sun? [Point to the outer planets in
succession until students identify the outermost one.]
[Please continue to model the Question? Pair Share process for
students, as necessary, and scaffold students in their use of the
process.]
9.
What? Pair Share: Asking questions after a read-aloud is
one way to see how much everyone has learned. We learned
about four planets today: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
Think of a question you can ask your neighbor about the readaloud that starts with the word what. For example, you could
ask, “What is the name of the planet with a lot of water?” Turn
to your neighbor and ask your what question. Listen to your
neighbor’s response. Then your neighbor will ask a new what
question, and you will get a chance to respond. I will call on
several of you to share your questions with the class.
Word Work: Abundant
1.
In today’s read-aloud you heard, “One of the most important
factors that sets Earth apart from other planets is the
abundant supply of water.”
2.
Say the word abundant with me.
3.
When you say something is abundant, you mean you have a
lot of it; more than enough.
4.
When there is a lot of rain and good soil, farmers expect an
abundant crop.
5.
Do you have an abundant supply of anything? Try to use
the word abundant when you tell about it. [Ask two or three
students. If necessary, guide and/or rephrase the students’
responses: “I have an abundant supply of
.”]
6.
What’s the word we’ve been talking about?
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5 minutes
Use an Antonyms activity for follow-up. Directions: You know
that abundant means having more than enough of something, or
having a lot of it. The opposite of abundant is scarce, which means
not having enough of something, or having very little. Listen to the
following examples. If I describe an amount that is a lot, say, “That
is abundant.” If I describe an amount that is very little, say, “That is
scarce.”

1.
the amount of stars in the sky (That is abundant.)
2.
the amount of rain in the desert (That is scarce.)
3.
the amount of light from the sun (That is abundant.)
4.
the amount of grains of sand on the beach (That is abundant.)
5.
the amount of the moon you can see when it is a crescent
moon (That is scarce.)
Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the Day
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The Solar System, Part I
8B
Note: Extensions may have activity options that exceed the time
allocated for this part of the lesson. To remain within the time
periods allocated for this portion of the lesson, you will need to
make conscious choices about which activities to include based
on the needs of your students.
Extensions
20 minutes
 Multiple Meaning Word Activity
5 minutes
Definition Detective: Color
Note: You may choose to have students hold up one or two
fingers to indicate which image shows the meaning being
described, or have a student walk up to the poster and point to
the image being described.
1.
In the read-aloud you heard the word color in this sentence:
“Mars is often [called] the Red Planet because of its color.”
2.
With your partner, think of as many meanings for color as you
can, or discuss ways you can use the word color.
3.
[Show Poster 4M (Color).] Point to the picture on the poster
that shows how the word color is used to mean separate
colors like red, orange, yellow and blue.
4.
Color can also mean to draw or fill in a picture using crayons,
markers, or color pencils. Which picture shows this?
5.
Did you or your partner think of either of these definitions or
uses of color?
6.
Now with your partner, make a sentence for each meaning of
color. [Call on a few partner pairs to share their sentences.
Have them point to the images of color used in their
sentences.]
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 Syntactic Awareness Activity
5 minutes
Possessive Pronouns: our, their
Note: The purpose of these syntactic activities is to help students
understand the direct connection between grammatical structures
and the meaning of text. These syntactic activities should be used
in conjunction with the complex text presented in the read-alouds.
There may be variations in the sentences created by your class.
Allow for these variations, and restate students’ sentences so
that they are grammatical. If necessary, have students repeat the
sentence after you.
Directions: Today we are going to learn about more possessive
pronouns. We use possessive pronouns to replace words that
identify to whom things belong.
1.
Possessive
Pronoun
Sentence 1
I will read a pair—or two—sentences to you. Listen carefully
as I replace the name of a person with a possessive pronoun.
Tell me which words have changed. I will say each pair of
sentences twice. [Whenever you see a person’s name in
brackets, please replace that name with the name of a student
or co-teacher in your class. You may wish to place stress on
the words that are being replaced.]
Sentence 2
Replacement
Our
[Gesture to yourself and to Our class is learning
The pronoun our replaces
the rest of the class.]
about
.
[Ms. Gilbert’s, Aida’s, and
Ryan’s].
[Ms. Gilbert’s, Aida’s, and
Ryan’s] class is learning
about
.
Now, you try: Work with your partner to create a sentence to describe something that belongs to
both you and your partner, using the pronoun our. Use this sentence starter to help you begin:
“Our
is/are
.”
[Talk about a partner pair in Their books are
.
The pronoun their replaces
Their
the classroom.]
[Aida’s and Ryan’s].
[Aida’s and Ryan’s] books
are
.
Now, you try: Work with your partner to create a sentence to describe something that belongs to
another partner pair, using the pronoun their. Use this sentence starter to help you begin: “Their
are
.”
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2.
I am going to read a letter that I have written back to the
imaginary fifth grader, Josefa. Do you remember what her
class is also learning about? Her class is also learning about
astronomy. Our letter will have many of the possessive
pronouns we just practiced. Please stand up or raise
your hand when you hear me say one of those pronouns.
Remember, we have learned my, your, his, her, our, and their.
[Acknowledge students for correctly identifying the possessive
pronouns in the read-aloud. To make this activity more
challenging, you may wish to pause and have students supply
the correct pronoun.]
Dear Josefa,
Our class is learning about astronomy, too, just like your class!
Thank you for sharing about your favorite astronaut, Sally Ride. We
hope that our teacher will read one of her books to us.
We also learned about astronauts like Neil Armstrong, Michael
Collins, and Buzz Aldrin. Their spacecraft was called Apollo 11.
Their mission was to go to the moon. Did you know that Neil
Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon? His famous
quote is, “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for
mankind.”
Now our class is learning about the solar system. What is your
class learning about?
Happy learning,
[Ms. Gilbert’s] class
 Vocabulary Instructional Activity
5 minutes
Word Work: Unique
1.
In the read-aloud you heard that each planet is unique.
2.
Say the word unique with me three times.
3.
Unique means one of a kind. Something that is unique is
unusual and special; there is nothing else like it.
4.
Earth is unique because it is mostly covered with water.
5.
How else do you think our Earth is unique?
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[Ask two or three students. If necessary, guide and/or
rephrase the students’ responses: “Our Earth is unique
because . . .”]
6.
What’s the word we’ve been talking about?
Use a Synonyms and Antonyms activity for follow-up. Directions:
What are other words that have a similar meaning to unique?
(special, rare, uncommon, extraordinary, weird, strange)
What words have an opposite meaning of unique? (common,
normal, ordinary, usual, regular)
Planets Song
10 minutes
Teach students the following solar system song to help them
remember the planets learned thus far, sung to the tune of “Oh My
Darling, Clementine”:
Do you know the solar system?
It’s our home in outer space.
Planets orbit round the sun, while
It shines brightly in one place.
First is Mercury, small and speedy,
Second, Venus, shining bright.
Third is Earth, a home for people.
Fourth is Mars, a rusty sight.
Planets Chart
10 minutes
Tell students that together you will be making a chart of all the
planets in our solar system. Explain that you will write down two
facts they learned today about each of the first four planets:
Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. Then you will complete the chart
with the rest of the planets during the next lesson.
On chart paper, a chalkboard, or a whiteboard, draw the following
chart, completing the first column and adding Image Cards to
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the second column. Elicit two facts from students about each
planet, and add them to the chart. You may want to turn back to
the images in the read-aloud to help students recall facts for each
planet. Sample responses are included below.
Position and Name
Image Card Number
Fact 1
Fact 2
1) Mercury
7
craters
smallest planet
2) Venus
8
sister to Earth
brightest planet in the sky
3) Earth
1
covered in water
oxygen supports life
4) Mars
9
red
we may visit one day
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The Solar System, Part II
9
 Lesson Objectives
Core Content Objectives
Students will:
 Identify the earth’s rotation or spin as the cause of day and night
 Explain that Earth orbits the sun
 Explain that our solar system includes the sun and the planets
that orbit around it
 Indicate that there are eight planets in our solar system
(Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and
Neptune)
 Classify Pluto as a dwarf planet
Language Arts Objectives
The following language arts objectives are addressed in this
lesson. Objectives aligning with the Common Core State
Standards are noted with the corresponding standard in
parentheses. Refer to the Alignment Chart for additional standards
addressed in all lessons in this domain.
Students will:
 Describe the connection between the sun and the reason the
last four planets are referred to as the outer planets (RI.1.3)
 With assistance, categorize and organize information about the
eight planets (W.1.8)
 Describe what is unique about each of the eight planets with
relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly (SL.1.4)
 Prior to listening to “The Solar System, Part II,” identify orally
what they know about the four inner planets
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Core Vocabulary
categorize, v. Sort or put into a group with other similar objects
Example: My teacher asked me to categorize this stack of books as
fiction or nonfiction for our classroom library.
Variation(s): categorizes, categorized, categorizing
debris, n. The pieces left over when something is destroyed or broken;
trash
Example: When I dropped my plate of food, I had to clean up the mess
while my dad swept up the debris from the broken plate.
Variation(s): none
outer, adj. Far from the center; the outside of something
Example: The outer part of the earth’s surface is the part we live on.
Variation(s): none
probes, n. Tools designed to collect information in outer space and send
it back to Earth
Example: Probes have collected a lot of information about the surface
of Mars.
Variation(s): probe
violent, adj. Dangerously rough
Example: When I was wrestling with my brother and he got hurt, my
mom said we were being too violent.
Variation(s): none
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Vocabulary Chart for The Solar System, Part II
Core Vocabulary words are in bold.
Multiple Meaning Word Activity word is underlined.
Vocabulary Instructional Activity words have an asterisk (*).
Suggested words to pre-teach are in italics.
Type of Words
Tier 3
Tier 2
Tier 1
Domain-Specific Words
General Academic Words
Everyday-Speech Words
Understanding
astronomer
axis
debris
Europa
Jupiter
mythology
Neptune
Pluto
Saturn
telescope
Uranus
categorize*
explore
inner/outer
substances
violent
visible
billion
coldest
fifth/sixth/seventh/
eighth
ice
mile
moon
planet
complete
major
rings
spot
Multiple Meaning
atmosphere
gas
orbit
probes
storm
Phrases
dwarf planet
solar system
the naked eye
outer reaches
Cognates
astrónomo(a)
Júpiter
Mitología
Neptuno
Saturno
telescopio
Urano
atmósfera
órbita
categorizer*
explorar
sustancia
violento(a)
visible
completer
mayor
billón
milla
planeta
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Note: Introducing the Read-Aloud and Extensions may have activity
options that exceed the time allocated for that part of the lesson.
To remain within the time periods allocated for each portion of
the lesson, you will need to make conscious choices about which
activities to include based on the needs of your students.
Exercise
Materials
Details
Introducing the Read-Aloud (10 minutes)
What Have We Already
Learned?
Image 9A-1; Planets Chart
Use image 9A-1 to review inner planets.
Purpose for Listening
Image 9A-1
Use image 9A-1 to preview outer planets.
Presenting the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)
Before introducing a planet, show its Flip
Book image and pause to let students
describe the planet first.
The Solar System, Part II
Discussing the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)
Comprehension Questions
Word Work: Categorize
buttons, marbles, or counters that
are different sizes and colors
Have students put items into categories.
 Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the Day
Extensions (20 minutes)
Planets Song
instrumental music for the song,
“Oh My Darling, Clementine”
Planets Chart
Image Cards 10 (Jupiter), 11
(Saturn), 12 (Uranus), and 13
(Neptune)
The Solar System
Instructional Master 9B-1
Domain-Related Trade Book
trade book about the solar system
and planets
Alternatively, you may wish to add these
Image Cards onto the Planets Wall.
Advance Preparation
Make a copy of Instructional Master 9B-1 for each student.
Students will answer a few questions about the solar system.
Bring in instrumental music for the song, “Oh My Darling,
Clementine,” with which students can sing the Planets Song.
Bring in a trade book about the solar system and planets to read
aloud to the class.
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The Solar System, Part II
Introducing the Read-Aloud
9A
10 minutes
What Have We Already Learned?
10 minutes
Ask students, “What are the names of the four planets you learned
about in the last read-aloud?” (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars)
Sing with students the following solar system song to help them
review the first four major planets discussed in yesterday’s readaloud, and one fact about each planet. The song is sung to the
tune of “Oh My Darling, Clementine”:
Do you know the solar system?
It’s our home in outer space.
Planets orbit round the sun, while
It shines brightly in one place.
First is Mercury, small and speedy,
Second, Venus, shining bright.
Third is Earth, a home for people.
Fourth is Mars, a rusty sight.
Continue the review by rereading the Planets Chart that was
developed in the previous lesson. Ask, “Why are these planets
called the inner planets?” (they are closest to the sun) Remind
students that there are eight planets in the solar system, meaning
that there are four planets left to learn about today. Explain that
the planets they will learn about today are called the outer planets.
Ask students if they have heard of any additional planets besides
the ones they learned about in the previous read-aloud. Then
ask students to predict where the outer planets might be located
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and what they might be like. Ask students how they might be
different from the inner planets they learned about in the previous
read-aloud.
Purpose for Listening
Tell students to listen carefully to learn the name of each planet
and what makes it unique, so they can add these facts to the
Planets Chart. In this read-aloud, students will hear about the
outer planets that are farthest away from the sun: Jupiter, Saturn,
Uranus, and Neptune.
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Presenting the Read-Aloud
15 minutes
The Solar System, Part II
 Show image 9A-1: Solar system diagram
1 These planets are farthest from
the sun, on the outside part of the
solar system.
2 You learned about gases when
we began our study of astronomy.
What are gases?
In the last read-aloud you learned about the four inner planets
of our solar system: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. Now you
will learn about the outer planets—Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and
Neptune, as well as the famous dwarf planet, Pluto. 1
The first important difference between the inner planets and the
outer planets is that the inner planets are all made up of rocks and
metals, whereas the outer planets are made of different types of
gases. 2
 Show image 9A-2: Jupiter
3 Being the largest planet makes
Jupiter unique.
The planet Jupiter is the fifth planet from the sun. In Roman
mythology, Jupiter was the king of the gods—the strongest and
most powerful of all. The largest planet in our solar system is
named after him. 3 Jupiter is so big that you could stuff about 1300
planet Earths inside of it.
It takes Jupiter nearly twelve Earth years to make one revolution
around the sun. However, Jupiter rotates on its axis faster than any
other planet in the solar system. This massive planet rotates all
the way around on its axis in less than ten hours. Jupiter is made
mostly of hydrogen and other gases. Because of its fast rotation
and the mixing of its gases, Jupiter is an extremely violent, 4
stormy place.
4 a dangerously rough
 Show image 9A-3: Red spot
5 This stormy, red spot makes Jupiter
unique, and it helps us remember
what the planet looks like.
The best-known feature on Jupiter is its large, red spot. This
spot is actually a massive storm. 5 The storm is so big that you
could fit three planet Earths inside of it! Jupiter can be seen with
the naked eye from Earth, and sometimes you can see its red spot
with an ordinary telescope.
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 Show image 9A-4: Jupiter’s moons
6 How many moons do you see from
Earth? Jupiter has sixty-three
moons going around it!
7 [Point to Europa.]
8 So far, the only place in the solar
system that we know has life is our
own planet Earth.
There are at least sixty-three moons in orbit around Jupiter. 6
Most of them are very small. However, four of these moons
are well-known. They were all discovered first by the famous
astronomer Galileo. These are easily visible with a pair of
binoculars. Each is interesting in its own way, particularly Europa,
the small one in the upper right. 7
Europa is slightly smaller than our own moon, and yet—for
many astronomers—it is one of the most fascinating celestial
bodies in the solar system. Europa’s surface is covered in ice,
and its atmosphere contains a lot of oxygen. Many astronomers
believe that beneath Europa’s ice there is an ocean of liquid water.
This means that maybe—just maybe—there is some form of life on
this distant little moon. 8
 Show image 9A-5: Saturn
9 Its rings make Saturn unique and
easy to recognize.
10 These layers and clouds are part
of the planet. Remember, outer
planets are made of gases. What
are inner planets made of?
The next planet in the solar system is Saturn, the sixth planet
from the sun. It is the second-largest planet in the solar system,
although it is much smaller than Jupiter. Saturn is famous for
its rings. It is not the only planet with rings, but no other planet
has rings like Saturn’s. 9 This incredible photo was taken by an
unmanned orbiter in 2004.
Saturn has several layers with different types of clouds, and it
is quite stormy, though not as stormy as its neighbor Jupiter. 10
Because it is so far from the sun, it takes Saturn nearly thirty Earth
years to make one complete orbit. Different parts of Saturn rotate
at different speeds, but for the most part Saturn rotates on its axis
very quickly, taking a little over ten hours to complete one rotation.
 Show image 9A-6: The rings, close-up
The rings of Saturn are always moving around the planet. They
are made up mainly of ice and a few other types of materials.
The rings are basically huge collections of dust with some larger
chunks here and there. Nobody is sure how the rings got there.
Some astronomers believe the rings formed when one of Saturn’s
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moons exploded and the debris 11 became trapped in orbit.
Others say the material in the rings is left over from the time when
Saturn was formed billions of years ago. You can see Saturn
from Earth during certain times of the year, and with an ordinary
telescope you can see the rings.
11 or broken pieces
 Show image 9A-7: Uranus
12 Its cold atmosphere makes Uranus
unique.
13 Lying on its side makes Uranus
unique.
The seventh planet, Uranus, has the coldest atmosphere of any
planet in the solar system. 12 Because it is so far from the sun, it
takes Uranus eighty-four Earth years to make one complete orbit.
Uranus is made of hydrogen, but its atmosphere also contains a
lot of ice and other substances not found on Jupiter or Saturn.
Uranus is named after a Greek god of the sky, making it the
only planet other than Earth that is not named after a Roman
god. Although it is possible to see Uranus from Earth with the
naked eye, you really have to know where and when to look for
it because it appears very dim, or not very bright, from here on
Earth.
Uranus has one very special characteristic: it rotates on its
side! You can’t see it in this image, but in comparison to Earth and
the other planets, Uranus’s axis is sideways, as though someone
turned the planet on its side. 13
 Show image 9A-8: Neptune
14 Its blue color and its distance from
the sun make Neptune unique.
What was the red planet you heard
about yesterday? (Mars)
15 Probes are tools designed to collect
information in outer space and
send it back to Earth.
The planet Neptune is the eighth and final major planet in the
solar system. In Roman mythology, Neptune was the god of the sea,
so this is a fitting name, given the planet’s beautiful, blue color. 14
Astronomers still do not know exactly why Neptune is blue, and it
will probably be a while before they figure it out. That is because
Neptune is nearly three billion miles from the sun, making it very
difficult and expensive to send unmanned probes to explore it. 15
It takes Neptune nearly 165 Earth years to orbit the sun. The planet
is never visible to the naked eye from Earth, and you will need a fairly
powerful telescope to get a good view of its beautiful color.
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 Show image 9A-9: Pluto
16 They decided to sort planets into
two groups: dwarf, meaning
“little”; and regular. Categorizing
Pluto as a dwarf planet means
they put Pluto in the dwarf
planet group.
17 What do probes do?
Not so very long ago, students in school were taught that there
were nine planets in the solar system, including Pluto. In fact,
ever since Pluto was discovered in 1930, it has been considered a
planet. However, in 2006, astronomers decided to categorize Pluto
as a dwarf planet, one of several such bodies in our solar system. 16
In Roman mythology, Pluto was the god of the underworld, a
dark and dreary place. This is a good name for such a cold and
distant dwarf planet. Pluto is about four billion miles from the sun,
so it is extremely cold and dark out there. The planet is made
almost entirely of frozen nitrogen. Nitrogen is a type of gas. It
takes Pluto about 243 Earth years to orbit the sun.
We have a lot to learn about Pluto and other celestial bodies
in the outer reaches of the solar system, but it is not easy to
explore this area. For now, this is about the best photo we have of
Pluto, and it was taken from three billion miles away by a special
spacecraft called the Hubble Space Telescope. So far, Pluto
remains unexplored. A special probe was launched toward Pluto in
the year 2003, but it will not reach the planet until 2015. 17
Discussing the Read-Aloud
Comprehension Questions
10 minutes
1.
Inferential In the previous read-aloud, you learned that there
are four inner planets, closest to the sun: Mercury, Venus,
Earth, and Mars. In this read-aloud, we learned that Jupiter,
Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are outer planets. What makes
them outer planets? (They are farthest away from the sun, on
the outside borders of the solar system.)
2.
Literal You learned that the inner planets are all made of metal
and rock. What are all the outer planets made of? (gases)
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15 minutes
 Show image 9A-2: Jupiter
3.
Literal This is the fifth planet in the solar system, known for
being the largest planet, and having a red spot and sixty-three
moons. What is the name of this planet? (Jupiter)
 Show image 9A-5: Saturn
4.
Literal This is the sixth planet in the solar system, known for
the rings around it. What is the name of this planet? (Saturn)
 Show image 9A-7: Uranus
5.
Literal This is the seventh planet in the solar system, known
for being the coldest planet and for rotating on its side. What
is the name of this planet? (Uranus)
 Show image 9A-8: Neptune
6.
Literal This is the eighth or last planet in the solar system,
known as the blue planet. What is the name of this planet?
(Neptune)
[Please continue to model the Think Pair Share process for
students, as necessary, and scaffold students in their use of the
process.]
I am going to ask a question. I will give you a minute to think about
the question, and then I will ask you to turn to your neighbor and
discuss the question. Finally, I will call on several of you to share
what you discussed with your partner.
7.
Evaluative Think Pair Share: Astronomers believed for seventysix years that Pluto was the ninth planet in our solar system.
Astronomers found other celestial bodies in deep space that
were like Pluto, and they came up with a new category that
they called dwarf, or small, planet. Why do you think they took
so long to make this change? (Pluto is so far away; we haven’t
learned much about deep space.)
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Word Work: Categorize
5 minutes
1.
In the read-aloud we heard, “[A]stronomers decided to
categorize Pluto as a dwarf planet.”
2.
Say the word categorize with me.
3.
When you categorize something, you sort it or put it in a group
with other things like it.
4.
You might categorize your clothes by putting shirts in one
drawer of your dresser and pants in another.
5.
Pretend you had a collection of colorful buttons in different
shapes and sizes. What is one way you could categorize
them? Try to use the word categorize when you tell about
it. [Ask two or three students. If necessary, guide and/or
rephrase the students’ responses: “I could categorize the
buttons by . . . ”])
6.
What’s the word we’ve been talking about?
Use an Image Card activity for follow-up. Take Image Cards 1 and
7–13 and show them to students. Then show Flip Book image
8A-2, the diagram of the solar system, and show students that the
images on the Image Cards are of the same planets that are on the
diagram. Write two category names on chart paper, a chalkboard,
or a whiteboard: “Inner” and “Outer.” Directions: We know that to
categorize means to sort or put objects in groups based on what
they have in common. Let’s take these eight planet Image Cards
and categorize them by inner planets (the ones you learned about
yesterday that are closer to the sun) and outer planets (the ones
you learned about today that are farther from the sun). We can use
this diagram of the solar system if you forget where each planet
goes. The groups we make will be called categories. Who would
like to come up and categorize one of these planets, putting it in
the right category? [Call on volunteers to sort the planets. During
the activity, use the word categorize frequently and encourage
each volunteer to use it in a sentence, such as “I categorized
Mercury as an inner planet.”]

Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the Day
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The Solar System, Part II
9B
Note: Extensions may have activity options that exceed the time
allocated for this part of the lesson. To remain within the time
periods allocated for this portion of the lesson, you will need to
make conscious choices about which activities to include based
on the needs of your students.
Extensions
20 minutes
Planets Song
10 minutes
Sing with students the first two verses, and teach them the last
two verses of the solar system song about all the planets, sung to
the tune of “Oh My Darling, Clementine”:
Do you know the solar system?
It’s our home in outer space.
Planets orbit round the sun, while
It shines brightly in one place.
First is Mercury, small and speedy,
Second, Venus, shining bright.
Third is Earth, a home for people.
Fourth is Mars, a rusty sight.
Fifth is Jupiter, big and stormy.
Sixth is Saturn, with its rings.
Seventh, Uranus, is tilted.
Eighth is Neptune, ocean king.
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Every planet is unique but
They all orbit ’round the sun.
I know all about the planets
But the
’s my favorite one.
Planets Chart
10 minutes
Tell students that today you will be completing the chart of the
planets in our solar system. Remind students that you have
already written down facts for the first four planets: Mercury,
Venus, Earth, and Mars. Today you will write facts for the rest of
the planets in the solar system.
On the chart from yesterday, add rows for the final four planets
in the solar system. Point out that these four are known as the
outer planets. Complete the first column, and add Image Cards
to the second column. Elicit two facts from students about each
planet, and add them to the chart. You may want to turn back to
the images in the read-aloud to help students recall facts for each
planet. Sample responses are included as follows:
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Position and Name
Image Card Number
Fact 1
Fact 2
1) Mercury
7
craters
smallest planet
2) Venus
8
sister to Earth
brightest planet in the sky
3) Earth
1
covered in water
oxygen supports life
4) Mars
9
red
we may visit one day
5) Jupiter
10
stormy, has red spot
largest (with 63 moons)
6) Saturn
11
rings
has lots of layers of
clouds
7) Uranus
12
coldest atmosphere
lies on its side
8) Neptune
13
blue
farthest from sun
The Solar System (Instructional Master 9B-1)
10 minutes
Give each student a copy of Instructional Master 9B-1. Explain
that this is a worksheet about the solar system. Read the labels
with students and discuss what the diagram shows. Guide
students as needed to read and answer the questions. Invite
students to color the diagram, reminding them that scientists often
refer to Mars as “the red planet,” Neptune as “the blue planet,”
and that Jupiter has a red spot on it.
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Domain-Related Trade Book
20 minutes
• Refer to the list of recommended trade books in the Introduction
at the front of this Supplemental Guide, and choose one trade
book about the solar system and planets to read aloud to the
class.
• Explain to students that the person who wrote the book is called
the author. Tell students the name of the author. Explain to
students that the person who makes the pictures for the book
is called an illustrator. Tell students the name of the illustrator.
Show students where they can find this information on the cover
of the book or on the title page.
• As you read, use the same strategies that you have been
using when reading the read-aloud selections—pause and ask
occasional questions; rapidly clarify critical vocabulary within
the context of the read-aloud; etc.
• After you finish reading the trade book aloud, lead students in a
discussion as to how the story or information in this book relates
to the read-alouds in this domain.
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DR
Domain Review
Note to Teacher
You should spend one day reviewing and reinforcing the material
in this domain. You may have students do any combination of the
activities provided, in either whole group or small group settings.
Core Content Objectives Addressed in This Domain
Students will:
 Recognize the sun in the sky
 Explain that the sun, moon, and stars are located in outer space
 Explain that the sun is a source of energy, light, and heat
 Classify the sun as a star
 Identify Earth as a planet and our home
 Identify the earth’s rotation, or spin, as the cause of day and night
 Explain that other parts of the world experience nighttime while
we have daytime
 Explain sunrise and sunset
 Describe stars as large, although they appear small in the night sky
 Describe stars as hot, distant, and made of gas
 Explain that astronomers study the moon and stars using
telescopes
 Describe how people sometimes tell stories about the moon and
stars
 Explain what a constellation is
 Identify the Big Dipper and the North Star
 Identify the four phases of the moon—new, crescent, half, full
 Explain that the moon orbits the earth
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 Explain that astronauts travel to outer space
 Describe the landing on the moon by American astronauts
 Explain the importance of the first trip to the moon
 Explain that our solar system includes the sun and the planets
that orbit around it
 Indicate that there are eight planets in our solar system
(Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and
Neptune)
 Classify Pluto as a dwarf planet
Review Activities
Image Review
Show the Flip Book images from any read-aloud again, and have
students retell the read-aloud using the images.
Image Card Review
Materials: Planet Image Cards (1, 7–13)
Hold the planet Image Cards in your hand, fanned out like a deck
of cards. Ask a student to choose a card but not show it to anyone
else in the class. The student must then give a clue about the
picture s/he is holding. For example, for Saturn, a student may
say, “This planet has rings.” The rest of the class will guess what
planet is being described. Proceed to another card when the
correct answer has been given.
Class Book
Materials: Drawing paper; drawing tools
Tell the class or a group of students that they are going to make
a class book to review what they have learned about space
exploration or about the planets. Have students brainstorm
important facts about one of these two topics. Have each student
choose one idea to draw a picture of and then write a caption for
the picture. Bind the pages to make a book to put in the class
library for students to read again and again.
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Riddles for Core Content
Ask students riddles such as the following to review core content:
[Create more of your own riddles. Use Image Cards whenever
applicable.]
• I am the planet closest to the sun. Which planet am I? (Mercury)
• I used to be the ninth planet, but now I am categorized as a
dwarf planet. Which celestial body am I? (Pluto)
• We are the outer planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
What are we made up of? (gas)
• I orbit around the earth. What am I? (the moon)
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Domain Assessment
DA
This domain assessment evaluates each student’s retention of
domain and academic vocabulary words and the core content
targeted in Astronomy. The results should guide review and
remediation the following day.
There are three parts to this assessment. You may choose to
do the parts in more than one sitting if you feel this is more
appropriate for your students. Part I (vocabulary assessment)
is divided into two sections: the first assesses domain-related
vocabulary, and the second assesses academic vocabulary. Parts
II and III of the assessment address the core content targeted in
Astronomy.
Part I (Instructional Master DA-1)
Directions: I am going to say a sentence using a word you have
heard in the read-alouds. First I will say the word, and then I will
use it in a sentence. If I use the word correctly in my sentence,
circle the smiling face. If I do not use the word correctly in my
sentence, circle the frowning face. I will say each sentence two
times. Let’s do number one together.
1.
Atmosphere: The earth’s atmosphere is where the moon and
stars are located. (frowning face)
2.
Gravity: When you throw a ball into the air, the earth’s gravity
brings it back to the ground. (smiling face)
3.
Orbit: The earth travels in an orbit around the sun. (smiling
face)
4.
Planet: A planet is a large object that makes its own light and
heat. (frowning face)
5.
Telescopes: Scientists use telescopes to look at stars and
planets in outer space. (smiling face)
6.
Meteor: A meteor is a star in outer space. (frowning face)
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7.
Constellations: If you look up in the night sky, you might
see constellations, or groups of stars, that look like pictures.
(smiling face)
8.
Astronaut: An astronaut is someone who travels in outer
space. (smiling face)
9.
Astronomer: An astronomer is a scientist who studies stars
and other things in outer space. (smiling face)
10. Solar: Things associated with the moon are called solar.
(frowning face)
Directions: I am going to read more sentences using other words
you have heard in the read-alouds. If I use the word correctly in my
sentence, circle the smiling face. If I do not use the word correctly
in my sentence, circle the frowning face. I will say each sentence
two times.
11. Ancient: Ancient means new. (frowning face)
12. Technology: Computers, robots, and rocketship are examples
of technology. (smiling face)
13. Determined: Someone who is determined will try very hard to
reach his or her goal. (smiling face)
14. Categorize: To categorize things means to put them into
groups according to their size, shape, or color. (smiling face)
15. Major: Major means small or unimportant. (frowning face)
Part II (Instructional Master DA-2)
Directions: Listen to the following sentences about celestial bodies.
Next to the number of the sentence I read, you will notice four
names. You will notice that the first three names are always the
same. Let’s read them together: “sun, moon, Earth.” You will also
notice that the last name is usually different. I will read the four
choices to you after I read each sentence. Circle the name of the
appropriate object my sentence is about:
1.
I am the source of light and heat for the whole solar system.
(sun)
2.
I am the planet on which you live. (Earth)
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3.
I revolve around the earth. (moon)
4.
I am known as the “Red Planet,” and am the fourth planet
from the sun. (Mars)
5.
I am the largest planet and have a big red spot, which is
actually a storm. (Jupiter)
6.
I am a star. (sun)
7.
I was visited by astronauts from Earth. (moon)
8.
I am the smallest planet and closest to the sun. (Mercury)
9.
I am the planet with big, beautiful rings. (Saturn)
10. I am a planet with enough water and oxygen to support life.
(Earth)
11. I am the star that allows life to survive on Earth. (sun)
12. People call me Earth’s sister planet and the brightest planet;
people call me the “morning” or “evening star.” (Venus)
13. My axis is sideways, and I rotate on my side. (Uranus)
14. I am a blue planet and the farthest from the sun. (Neptune)
15. I have phases: new, crescent, half, and full. (moon)
Part III (Instructional Master DA-3)
Directions: Make the cover page for your Astronomy Journal. Draw
a picture of your favorite topic from the Astronomy domain. Write
one sentence about your favorite topic.
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CA
Culminating Activities
Please use this final day to address class results of the Domain
Assessment. Based on the results of the Domain Assessment
and students’ Tens scores, you may wish to use this class time
to provide remediation opportunities that target specific areas of
weakness for individual students, small groups, or the whole class.
Alternatively, you may also choose to use this class time to extend
or enrich students’ experience with domain knowledge. A number
of enrichment activities are provided below in order to provide
students with opportunities to enliven their experiences with
domain concepts.
Remediation
You may choose to regroup students according to particular areas
of weakness, as indicated from Domain Assessment results and
students’ Tens scores.
Remediation opportunities include the following:
• targeting Review Activities
• revisiting lesson Extensions
• rereading and discussing select read-alouds
Enrichment
Domain-Related Trade Book or Student Choice
Materials: Trade book
Read an additional trade book to review a particular event or
concept; refer to the books listed in the Introduction. You may also
choose to have students select a read-aloud to be heard again.
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Exploring Student Resources
Materials: Domain-related student websites
Pick appropriate websites from the Internet for further exploration
of the solar system.
Videos related to Astronomy
Materials: Videos related to space exploration and the solar
system
Carefully peruse the Internet for short (5-minute), age-appropriate
videos related to space exploration and the solar system.
Prepare some questions related to the content presented in the
videos.
Discuss how watching a video is the same as and different from
listening to a storybook or read-aloud.
Have students ask and answer questions using question words
who, what, when, where, and why regarding what they see in the
videos.
Relative Distances in the Solar System
Materials: Masking tape; measuring tape
Take the students outside or to a large indoor space, such as a
hallway. Write the word “sun” on a piece of masking tape or paper,
and place it on the floor. Using the information in the chart below,
mark out to scale the distances the eight planets are from the sun.
This activity will reinforce the vast distances in space and will help
students see why the inner and outer planets are broken into two
groups. Depending upon how much space you have, you may
want your unit of measure to be feet, so that Mercury is five inches
from the sun, Venus is eight inches from the sun, Earth is one
foot from the sun, etc. If your students are familiar with the metric
system, a simpler unit of measure would be one meter.
196 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide CA | Culminating Activities
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Distance from the Sun,
Using Bode’s Law
Planet
Mercury
0.4
Venus
0.7
Earth
1.0
Mars
1.6
asteroid belt
2.8
Jupiter
5.2
Saturn
10.0
Uranus
19.6
Neptune
38.8
New Mnemonic for Planets
Materials: Writing paper, writing tools
Explain that one way people remember the names of the planets
in order is to memorize a sentence with words that start with
the same letters as the planets do. Explain, however, that many
popular mnemonics were written when Pluto was still considered
a planet. One example is, “My Very Educated Mother Just Served
Us Nine Pizzas.” As a group or individually, have students develop
a new sentence for remembering the sequence of the eight
planets. You may want to provide students with the first initials in
sequence: M, V, E, M, J, S, U, and N.
You Were There: In Outer Space
Have students pretend that they were one of the first astronauts
who traveled to space or to the moon, or that they were one of the
hundreds of scientists at mission control. Ask students to describe
what they saw and heard. For example, for the first walk on the
moon, students may talk about the four days it took to travel there;
landing on the fine, soft dust of the moon’s surface; what they
might say once there; etc. Consider also extending this activity
by adding group or independent writing opportunities associated
with the “You Were There” concept. For example, ask students to
pretend they are newspaper reporters describing the moon landing
and write a group news article describing the event.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide CA | Culminating Activities 197
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
For Teacher Reference Only:
Instructional Masters for
Astronomy
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 199
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200 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
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Name
Outer Space
1A-1
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 201
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202 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
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Name
Sun
1A-2
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 203
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1B-1
Name
1
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 205
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12B-15
1B-2
Dear Family Member,
Over the next few weeks, your child will be learning about astronomy. Your child will
learn about the sun, the moon, the stars, and the eight planets in our solar system. The
most powerful way you can help support your child’s learning about astronomy is to take
him or her outside to observe the sky. Below are some suggestions for ways you can
make his/her study of astronomy even more meaningful and fun.
1. Earth’s Star: The Sun
Your child will learn that the sun is actually a star in outer space that supports life on
Earth. S/he will learn that even though it looks like the sun moves across the sky each
day, it is actually the earth spinning on its axis that causes day and night. Invite your child
to write a short rhyming poem about the sun. Encourage the use of words that rhyme
with sun, hot, star, bright.
2. Stargazing
In a few days your child will learn about the
stars and the constellations. Constellations
are groups of stars that look like they form a
picture. If possible, take your child out in the
evening to observe the stars. The Big and Little
Dipper are part of the Big Bear constellation.
S/he will learn to recognize the dippers and
Polaris (the North Star).
North Star
3. Phases of the Moon
Your child will learn about the moon and
how it orbits the earth, reflecting the sun’s
light. S/he will also learn to recognize its
four phases: the new moon, the crescent
moon, the half moon, and the full moon.
Look for the moon every few days, and
talk with your child about how much of it is
visible in the sky.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 207
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
4. Read Aloud Each Day
It is very important that you read to your child each day. I have attached a list of books
relevant to astronomy to this letter.
Be sure to let your child know how much you enjoy hearing about what s/he has been
learning at school.
Recommended Trade Books for Astronomy
1.
Astronomy (DK Eyewitness Books), by Kristin Lippincott (DK
Children, 2008) ISBN 978-0756637675
2.
Exploring the Solar System, by Mary Kay Carson (Chicago
Review Press, 2008) ISBN 978-1556527159
3.
Find the Constellations, by H. A. Rey (Houghton Mifflin Books
for Children, 2008) ISBN 978-0547131788
4.
Find Out About Astronomy, by Robin Kerrod (Armadillo, 2012)
ISBN 978-1843228684
5.
The Magic School Bus: Lost in the Solar System, by Joanna
Cole and illustrated by Bruce Degen (Scholastic Inc., 1992)
ISBN 978-0590414296
6.
Midnight on the Moon (Magic Tree House, No. 8), by Mary
Pope Osborne and Sal Murdocca (Random House Books for
Young Readers, 1996) ISBN 978-0679863748
7.
The Moon Seems to Change, by Franklyn M. Branley and
illustrated by Barbara and Ed Emberley (HarperCollins, 1987)
ISBN 978-0064450652
8.
National Geographic Readers: Planets, by Elizabeth
Carney (National Geographic Children’s Books, 2012) ISBN
978-1426310362
9.
National Geographic Little Kids First Big Book of Space,
by Catherine D. Hughes and illustrated by David A. Aguilar
(National Geographic Children’s Books, 2012) ISBN
978-1426310140
10. Once Upon a Starry Night: A Book of Constellations, by
Jacqueline Mitton and illustrated by Christina Balit (National
208 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
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1B-2
cont.
Name
Geographic Children’s Books, 2009) ISBN 978-1426303913
(Note: This book’s beautiful illustrations can help students
imagine what the constellations look like when they look up at
the stars. The myths/text, however, is not recommended for
first grade.)
11. Our Solar System, by Seymour Simon (Collins, 2007) ISBN
978-0061140082
12. Planets: A Solar System Stickerbook, by Ellen Hasbrouck
and illustrated by Scott McDougall (Little Simon, 2001) ISBN
978-0689844140
13. Stargazers, by Gail Gibbons (Holiday House, 1999) ISBN
978-0823415076
14. Starry Sky, by Kate Hayden (DK Children, 2006) ISBN
978-0756619596
15. Sun Up, Sun Down, by Gail Gibbons (Voyager Books, 1987)
ISBN 978-0152827823
16. What Makes Day and Night, by Franklyn M. Branley and
illustrated by Arthur Dorros (HarperCollins, 1986) ISBN
978-0064450508
17. Wynken, Blynken, and Nod, by Eugene W. Field and
illustrated by Giselle Potter (Schwartz & Wade, 2008) ISBN
978-0375841965
Note: Please remember to tell your child that not very long ago,
students in school were taught that there were nine planets in
the solar system, including Pluto. However, in 2006, astronomers
decided to categorize Pluto as a dwarf planet, so there are now
eight major planets. If you choose additional books to read aloud,
be sure to include the phrase dwarf planet when referring to Pluto.
Remember also that there are still many excellent astronomy
books in print that erroneously classify Pluto as a planet, but are
otherwise informative trade books.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 209
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1B-3
Name
Vocabulary List for Astronomy (Part 1)
This list includes many important words your child will learn about in Astronomy. Try to
use these words with your child in English and in your native language. Next to this list are
suggestions of fun ways your child can practice and use these words at home.

atmosphere

gas

shadow

gravity

horizon

orbit

rotates

dusk

meteor

telescope

universe

celestial bodies

constellations

counterclockwise

craters
Directions: Help your child pick a word from the vocabulary list.
Then help your child choose an activity and do the activity with
the word. Check off the box for the word. Try to practice a word a
day in English and in your native language.

Draw it

Use it in a sentence

Find one or two examples

Tell a friend about it

Act it out

Make up a song using it
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 211
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212 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
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1B-4
Name
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 213
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214 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
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3B-1
Name
2
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 215
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216 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
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4A-1
Name
Big Dipper
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 217
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218 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
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4A-2
Name
Orion
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 219
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220 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
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4B-1
Name
3
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 221
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222 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
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Directions: The pictures show four different phases of the moon. Write the number “1” on the line below the new
moon. Write the number “2” below the crescent moon. Write the number “3” below the half moon. Write the number
“4” below the full moon.
5B-1
Name
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 223
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
224 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Directions: The pictures show four different phases of the moon. Write the number “1” on the line below the new
moon. Write the number “2” below the crescent moon. Write the number “3” below the half moon. Write the number
“4” below the full moon.
5B-1
Name
Answer Key
2
3
1
4
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 225
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226 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
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Name
Moon Dial

5B-2
Name _________________________
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 227
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cont.
Name

5B-2
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 229
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230 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
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5B-2
cont.
Name
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 231
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
232 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
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Name
4.
3.
2.
1.
Earth
Sun
Moon
Meteor
PP-1
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 233
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Meteor
Moon
Sun
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
8.
7.
6.
5.
Earth
234 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
Name
Answer Key
4.
3.
2.
1.
Earth
Sun
Moon
Meteor
PP-1
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 235
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Meteor
Moon
Sun
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
8.
7.
6.
5.
Earth
236 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
6B-1
Name
4
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 237
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238 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
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6B-2
Dear Family Member,
In the next few days, our class will focus our study on space exploration and the
planets in the solar system. The most powerful way you can help support your child’s
learning about astronomy is to continue taking him/her outside to observe the sky and
to talk about the planets in our solar system. Below are some additional suggestions for
activities, and some words s/he is or will be learning that relate to each activity.
1. Name the Planets
Your child will be learning about the eight planets in our solar system: Mercury, Venus,
Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. [Note: Pluto was once considered a
planet, but in 2006 was categorized as a dwarf planet.] Help your child name and color in
the planets on the activity sheet. Ask your child what s/he knows about each planet.
2. Astronauts for a Day
Your child will learn about spacecraft and astronauts in the coming days. If the
thought of space travel captures your child’s imagination, pretend to be astronauts
together. Pretend to dress up in spacesuits and helmets. Using furniture or boxes,
assemble a spacecraft. Countdown to launch and pretend to land on the moon or
another planet.
3. “That’s one small step for man, one giant
leap for mankind.”
This is what Neil Armstrong, the first man
on the moon said when he took his first step
on the moon. Talk to your child about what Neil
Armstrong meant. Ask your child what s/he
has learned about space exploration.
4. Read Aloud Each Day
Continue to read to your child each
day. Please refer to the list of books about
astronomy sent home with the previous family
letter.
Be sure to let your child know how much you enjoy hearing about what s/he has been
learning about astronomy at school.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 239
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Uranus
Neptune
Jupiter
Saturn
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Venus
Mars
Earth
Mercury
Sun
240 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
6B-3
Name
Vocabulary List for Astronomy (Part 2)
This list includes many important words your child will learn about in Astronomy. Try to
use these words with your child in English and in your native language. Next to this list are
suggestions of fun ways your child can practice and use these words at home.

astronant

launch

spacecraft

technology

determined

historic

missions

abundant

inner/outer

solar

unique

categorize

planets
Directions: Help your child pick a word from the vocabulary list.
Then help your child choose an activity and do the activity with
the word. Check off the box for the word. Try to practice a word a
day in English and in your native language.

Draw it

Use it in a sentence

Find one or two examples

Tell a friend about it

Act it out

Make up a song using it
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 241
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
242 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
7B-1
Name
5
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 243
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
244 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
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Name
9B-1
Directions: Read and answer each question appropriately using the diagram. You may wish to color the diagram to
reflect what you know about the colors of certain planets in the solar system.
Sun
Mercury
Earth
Venus
Saturn
Mars
Neptune
Jupiter
1.
Uranus
How many planets orbit the sun?
2. Which planet is closest to the sun?
3. Is Mars larger or smaller than Earth?
4. Which planet has a few rings around it?
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 245
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
246 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Name
9B-1
Answer Key
Directions: Read and answer each question appropriately using the diagram. You may wish to color the diagram to
reflect what you know about the colors of certain planets in the solar system.
Sun
Mercury
Earth
Venus
Saturn
Mars
Neptune
Jupiter
1.
Uranus
How many planets orbit the sun?
eight
2. Which planet is closest to the sun?
Mercury
3. Is Mars larger or smaller than Earth?
smaller
4. Which planet has a few rings around it?
Saturn
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 247
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
248 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
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Name
DA-1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Directions: Listen to your teacher’s instructions.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.




















Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 249
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.





250 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation





Name
DA-1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Directions: Listen to your teacher’s instructions.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.










Answer Key










Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 251
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.





252 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation





DA-2
Name
1.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Neptune
2.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Saturn
3.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Mercury
4.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Mars
5.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Jupiter
6.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Uranus
7.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Venus
8.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Mercury
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 253
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
9.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Saturn
10.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Jupiter
11.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Mars
12.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Venus
13.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Uranus
14.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Neptune
15.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Mercury
254 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
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DA-2
Name
Answer Key
1.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Neptune
2.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Saturn
3.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Mercury
4.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Mars
5.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Jupiter
6.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Uranus
7.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Venus
8.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Mercury
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 255
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
9.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Saturn
10.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Jupiter
11.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Mars
12.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Venus
13.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Uranus
14.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Neptune
15.
Sun
Moon
Earth
Mercury
256 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
DA-3
My Astronomy Journal
By ___________
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 257
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
258 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
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Tens Recording Chart
Use this grid to record Tens scores. Refer to the Tens Conversion Chart that follows.
Name
Tens Conversion Chart
Number of Questions
Number Correct
0
1
1
0
10
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
2
0
5
10
3
0
3
7
10
4
0
3
5
8
10
5
0
2
4
6
8
10
6
0
2
3
5
7
8
10
7
0
1
3
4
6
7
9
10
8
0
1
3
4
5
6
8
9
10
9
0
1
2
3
4
6
7
8
9
10
10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
0
1
2
3
4
5
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
0
1
2
3
3
4
5
6
7
8
8
9
10
13
0
1
2
2
3
4
5
5
6
7
8
8
9
10
14
0
1
1
2
3
4
4
5
6
6
7
8
9
9
10
15
0
1
1
2
3
3
4
5
5
6
7
7
8
9
9
10
16
0
1
1
2
3
3
4
4
5
6
6
7
8
8
9
9
10
17
0
1
1
2
2
3
4
4
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
18
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
19
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
20
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
20
10
Simply find the number of correct answers the student produced along
the top of the chart and the number of total questions on the worksheet
or activity along the left side. Then find the cell where the column and
the row converge. This indicates the Tens score. By using the Tens
Conversion Chart, you can easily convert any raw score, from 0 to 20,
into a Tens score.
Please note that the Tens Conversion Chart was created to be used
with assessments that have a defined number of items (such as written
assessments). However, teachers are encouraged to use the Tens system
to record informal observations as well. Observational Tens scores are
based on your observations during class. It is suggested that you use the
following basic rubric for recording observational Tens scores.
9–10
Student appears to have excellent understanding
7–8
Student appears to have good understanding
5–6
Student appears to have basic understanding
3–4
Student appears to be having difficulty understanding
1–2
Student appears to be having great difficulty understanding
0
Student appears to have no understanding/does not participate
CORE KNOWLEDGE LANGUAGE ARTS
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E. D. Hirsch, Jr.
PRESIDENT
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
These materials are the result of the work, advice, and encouragement of numerous individuals over many years. Some of those singled out here already
know the depth of our gratitude; others may be surprised to find themselves thanked publicly for help they gave quietly and generously for the sake of
the enterprise alone. To helpers named and unnamed we are deeply grateful.
CONTRIBUTORS TO EARLIER VERSIONS OF THESE MATERIALS
Susan B. Albaugh, Kazuko Ashizawa, Nancy Braier, Kathryn M. Cummings, Michelle De Groot, Diana Espinal, Mary E. Forbes, Michael L. Ford,
Ted Hirsch, Danielle Knecht, James K. Lee, Diane Henry Leipzig, Martha G. Mack, Liana Mahoney, Isabel McLean, Steve Morrison, Juliane K. Munson,
Elizabeth B. Rasmussen, Laura Tortorelli, Rachael L. Shaw, Sivan B. Sherman, Miriam E. Vidaver, Catherine S. Whittington, Jeannette A. Williams
We would like to extend special recognition to Program Directors Matthew Davis and Souzanne Wright who were instrumental to the early
development of this program.
SCHOOLS
We are truly grateful to the teachers, students, and administrators of the following schools for their willingness to field test these materials and for
their invaluable advice: Capitol View Elementary, Challenge Foundation Academy (IN), Community Academy Public Charter School, Lake Lure Classical
Academy, Lepanto Elementary School, New Holland Core Knowledge Academy, Paramount School of Excellence, Pioneer Challenge Foundation
Academy, New York City PS 26R (The Carteret School), PS 30X (Wilton School), PS 50X (Clara Barton School), PS 96Q, PS 102X (Joseph O. Loretan),
PS 104Q (The Bays Water), PS 214K (Michael Friedsam), PS 223Q (Lyndon B. Johnson School), PS 308K (Clara Cardwell), PS 333Q (Goldie Maple Academy),
Sequoyah Elementary School, South Shore Charter Public School, Spartanburg Charter School, Steed Elementary School, Thomas Jefferson Classical
Academy, Three Oaks Elementary, West Manor Elementary.
And a special thanks to the CKLA Pilot Coordinators Anita Henderson, Yasmin Lugo-Hernandez, and Susan Smith, whose suggestions and day-to-day
support to teachers using these materials in their classrooms was critical.
Astronomy: Supplemental Guide 261
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
CREDITS
Every effort has been taken to trace and acknowledge copyrights. The editors tender their apologies for any accidental infringement where
copyright has proved untraceable. They would be pleased to insert the appropriate acknowledgment in any subsequent edition of this
publication. Trademarks and trade names are shown in this publication for illustrative purposes only and are the property of their respective
owners. The references to trademarks and trade names given herein do not affect their validity.
The Word Work exercises are based on the work of Beck, McKeown, and Kucan in Bringing Words to Life (The Guilford Press, 2002).
All photographs are used under license from Shutterstock, Inc. unless otherwise noted.
EXPERT REVIEWER
ILLUSTRATORS AND IMAGE SOURCES
Charles R. Tolbert
Cover: Steve Morrison; Title Page: Steve Morrison; Domain Icon: Shutterstock; Take Home
Icon: Core Knowledge Staff; 1A-1: Shutterstock; 1A-2: Shutterstock; 1A-3: Shutterstock; 1A-4:
Shutterstock; 1A-5: Shutterstock; 1A-6: Shutterstock; 1A-7: Shutterstock; 1A-8: Shutterstock;
1A-9: Shutterstock; 1A-10: Shutterstock; 2A-1: Shutterstock; 2A-2: Shutterstock; 2A-3:
Shutterstock; 2A-4: Shutterstock; 2A-5: Shutterstock; 2A-6: Shutterstock; 3A-1: Shutterstock;
3A-2: Shutterstock; 3A-3: Shutterstock; 3A-4: Shutterstock; 3A-5: Shutterstock; 3A-6:
Shutterstock; 3A-7: Shutterstock; 3A-8: Shutterstock; 3A-9: Shutterstock; 3A-10: NASA/
JPL-Caltech/D. Figer (STScI); 3A-10 (inset): NASA/NSF/2MASS/UMass/IPAC-Caltech/D. Figer
(Space Telescope Science Institute/Rochester Institute of Technology); 4A-1: Michael
Parker; 4A-2: Michael Parker; 4A-3: Michael Parker; 4A-4: Shutterstock; 4A-5: Shutterstock;
4A-6: Michael Parker; 4A-7: Shutterstock; 4A-8: Shutterstock; 4A-9: Shutterstock; 4A-10:
Shutterstock; 4A-11: Michael Parker; 4A-12: Shutterstock; 4A-13: Shutterstock; 4A-14:
Shutterstock; 5A-1: Shutterstock; 5A-2: Shutterstock; 5A-3: Shutterstock; 5A-4: Core
Knowledge Staff; 5A-5: Shutterstock; 5A-6: Shutterstock; 5A-7: Shutterstock; 5A-8: NASA;
5A-9: Shutterstock; 6A-1: Shutterstock; 6A-2: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center; 6A-3:
NASA; 6A-4: NASA/U.S. Army; 6A-5: Courtesy NSSDC, NASA; 6A-6: NASA/Marshall Space
Flight Center; 6A-7: NASA; 6A-8: NASA; 6A-9: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center; 6A-10:
NASA; 7A-1: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, NYWT&S Collection, LCUSZ62-111225; 7A-2: NASA; 7A-3: NASA; 7A-4: NASA; 7A-5: NASA; 7A-6: NASA; 7A-7: NASA;
7A-8: Shutterstock; 7A-9: NASA; 7A-10: NASA; 7A-11: NASA; 7A-12: NASA; 8A-1: Michael
Parker; 8A-2: Shutterstock; 8A-3: Shutterstock; 8A-4: NASA/JPL/USGS ; 8A-5: NASA, Galileo,
Copyright Calvin J. Hamilton; 8A-6: Shutterstock; 8A-7: Shutterstock; 8A-8: Shutterstock;
8A-9: NASA, ESA, the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), J. Bell (Cornell University), and M.
Wolff (Space Science Institute, Boulder); 8A-10: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona; 8A11: NASA/JPL; 9A-1: Shutterstock; 9A-2: Shutterstock; 9A-3: NASA/JPL; 9A-4: K. Noll (STScI), J.
Spencer (Lowell Observatory), and NASA; 9A-5: Shutterstock; 9A-6: NASA/JPL/University of
Colorado ; 9A-7: Shutterstock; 9A-8: NASA; 9A-9: Shutterstock; 172 (mercury): Shutterstock;
172 (venus): NASA, Galileo, Copyright Calvin J. Hamilton; 172 (earth): Shutterstock; 172
(mars): NASA, ESA, the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), J. Bell (Cornell University), and
M. Wolff (Space Science Institute, Boulder); 187 (mercury): Shutterstock; 187 (venus): NASA,
Galileo, Copyright Calvin J. Hamilton; 187 (earth): Shutterstock; 187 (mars): NASA, ESA, the
Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), J. Bell (Cornell University), and M. Wolff (Space Science
Institute, Boulder); 187 (jupiter): Shutterstock; 187 (saturn): Shutterstock; 187 (uranus):
Shutterstock; 187 (neptune): NASA; 1B-1: Core Knowledge Staff; 1B-2 (top): Shutterstock;
1B-2 (bottom): Shutterstock; 1B-4 : Core Knowledge Staff; 3B-1: Core Knowledge Staff;
5B-1: Shutterstock; 5B-1: Shutterstock; 5B-1: Shutterstock; 5B-1 (answer key): Shutterstock;
5B-1 (answer key): Shutterstock; 5B-1 (answer key): Shutterstock; 5B-2 (cont): Shutterstock;
PP-1 (meteor): Shutterstock; PP-1 (moon): Shutterstock; PP-1 (sun): Shutterstock; PP-1
(earth): Shutterstock; PP-1 (meteor) Answer Key: Shutterstock; PP-1 (moon) Answer Key:
Shutterstock; PP-1 (sun) Answer Key: Shutterstock; PP-1 (earth) Answer Key: Shutterstock;
6B-2: NASA
WRITERS
Michael L. Ford
Regarding the Shutterstock items listed above, please note: “No person or entity shall
falsely represent, expressly or by way of reasonable implication, that the content herein
was created by that person or entity, or any person other than the copyright holder(s) of
that content.”
262 Astronomy: Supplemental Guide
© 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation
Astronomy
Tell It Again!™ Read-Aloud Supplemental Guide
Listening & Learning™ Strand
Grade 1
The Core Knowledge Foundation
www.coreknowledge.org
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