COMMUNICATIONS ELECTRONICS by Frenzel CHAPTER 1

COMMUNICATIONS ELECTRONICS by Frenzel CHAPTER 1
COMMUNICATIONS ELECTRONICS
by Frenzel
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
1: Introduction to Electronic Communications
2: Amplitude Modulation and Single-Sideband Modulation
3: Amplitude Modulation Circuits
4: Frequency Modulation
5: Frequency Modulation Circuits
6: Radio Transmitters
7: Communications Receivers
8: Multiplexing
9: Antennas and Transmission Lines
10: Microwave Techniques
11: Introduction to Satellite Communications
12: Data Communications
13: Fiber-Optics Communications
14: Modern Communications Applications
CHAPTER 1
Introduction to Electronic Communications
1. The three major fields of electronics are computers, communications, and control. The computer
segment is the largest; communications is the second largest.
2. Communication is the process of exchanging information.
3. Most human communication is oral, but a great deal of it is also in written or printed form.
4. The two main barriers to communication are language and distance.
5. Major electrical discoveries in the mid- and late nineteenth century made possible the development of
electronic communications over long distances.
6. The telegraph (1844) and telephone (1876) were the first two long-distance communications systems.
7. Radio was discovered in 1887, and wireless telegraphy was demonstrated in 1895.
8. Electronic communications plays a vital role in all our lives and is essential to the success of our
information society.
9. The major elements of a communications system are a transmitter to send a message, a
communications medium, a receiver to pick up the message, and noise.
10. The three primary communications media are wires, free space, and fiber-optic cable.
11. Radio waves are signals made up of electric and magnetic fields that propagate over long distances.
12. Noise is any interference that disturbs the legible transmission of a signal. Noise is produced by the
atmosphere, heavenly bodies, manufactured electrical equipment, and thermal agitation in electronic
components.
13. The transmission medium greatly attenuates and degrades the transmitted signal.
14. Electronic communications may be either one-way or two-way. One-way transmission is called simplex
or broadcasting.
15. Two-way communication is called duplex. In half-duplex communications, only one of the two parties
can transmit at a time. In full duplex, both parties may transmit and receive simultaneously.
16. Information signals may be either analog or digital. Analog signals are smooth, continuous voltage
variations such as voice or video. Digital signals are binary pulses or codes.
17. The information signal, called the base band signal, is often transmitted directly over the
communications medium.
18. In most communications systems, the base band signal is used to modulate a higher-frequency carrier
signal than is transmitted by radio.
19. Modulation is the process of having an information signal modifies a carrier signal in someway.
Common examples are AM and FM.
20. The base band signal cannot usually be transmitted through space by radio because the antennas
required are too long and because multiple base band signals transmitting simultaneously would
interfere with one another.
21. Multiplexing is the process of transmitting two or more signals simultaneously over the same channel
or medium.
22. Besides TV, there are several other methods of transmitting visual or graphical information; they are
facsimile, videotex, teletext.
23. Simplex transmission of special signals from land-based or satellite stations is used by ship and
airplanes for navigation.
24. Telemetry is measurement at a distance. Sensors convert physical characteristics to electric signals
which modulate a carrier transmitted to a remote location.
25. Radio astronomy supplements optical astronomy by permitting the location and mapping of stars by
the radio waves they emit.
26. Radar uses the 'reflection of radio waves from remote objects for the detection of their presence,
direction, and speed,
27. Underwater radar is called active sonar. Passive sonar is simply listening underwater for the detection
of objects of interest.
28. Two forms of personal communications services are CB radio and Amateur "ham" radio, which are a
technical hobby as well as a communications service.
29. Data communications is the transmission of computer and other digital data via the telephone system,
microwave links or satellite.
30. Devices called modems permit digital data to be transmitted over the analog telephone networks.
31. Interconnections of PCs for the exchange of information are called local area networks.
32. The electromagnetic spectrum is that range of frequencies from approximately 30 Hz to visible light
over which electronic communications takes place.
33. The greatest portion of the spectrum covers radio waves, which are oscillating electric and magnetic
fields that radiate for long distances.
34.Wavelength ( ) is the distance (in meters) between corresponding points on successive cycles of a
periodic wave: A= 3OO/f (f is in megahertz). It is also the distance that an electromagnetic wave
travels in the time it takes for one cycle of oscillation.
35. The range of human hearing is approximately 20 to 20,000 Hz. The voice frequency range is 300 to
3000 Hz.
36. Amplitude-modulated broadcasting occurs in the MF range from 300 kHz to 3 MHz.
37. The high-frequency range (3 to 30 MHz), or shortwave, is used for world Wide two way communications
and broadcasting.
38. Television broadcasting occurs in the VHF and UHF ranges.
39. Frequencies above 1 GHz are called microwaves.
40. The SHF and EHF bands are used primarily for satellite communications and radar.
41. Those frequencies directly above 300 GHz are called millimeter waves.
42.Electromagnetic signals produced primarily by heat sources are called infrared. They cover the 0.7- to
100 m range.
43. A micron is one millionth of a meter.
44.Visible light occupies the region above infrared. Its wavelength is 4000 to 8000 Ǻ.
45. An angstrom is one ten-thousandth of a micron.
46.Bandwidth is the spectrum space occupied by a signal, the frequency range of a transmitted signal, or
the range of frequencies accepted by a receiver. It is the difference between the upper and lower
frequencies of the range in question.
47. There is more spectrum space available at the higher frequencies. For a given bandwidth signal, more
channels can be accommodated at the higher frequencies.
48. Spectrum space is a precious natural resource.
49. In the United States, the FCC regulates the use of the spectrum and most forms of electronic
communications according to the Communications Act of 1934.
50. Most countries belong to the ITU, an organization devoted to worldwide cooperation and negotiation on
spectrum usage.
51. The NTIA coordinates government and military communications in the United States.
SELF-TEST
Supply the missing word(s) in each statement.
Choose the letter that best answers each question.
1. The three major fields of electronics are _____. The largest is the _____field.
2. Communication is defined as the process of _____.
3. Most human communication is _____ even though there is a glut of _____ communication.
4. Two major barriers to human communication are _____.
5. Electronic communications came into being in the _____.
6. The three main elements of any communications system are _____.
7. The three major types of communications paths are_____.
8. The _____ converts the message into a form compatible with the selected medium.
9. The _____ converts the message from the medium into a form understandable by a human.
10. Undesirable interference in communications _____ is which is added to the signal in the _____.
11. The communications media greatly _____ and the information _____ signal.
12. Three common sources of interference are _____.
13. One-way communications is called_____. An example is _____.
14. Simultaneous two-way communications is called _____. An example is _____.
15. Two-way communications where each parry takes turns transmitting is referred to as_____.
16. Voice and video signals are continuous _____ voltages.
17. On/off or coded signals are referred to _____ as signals.
18. Voice and video signals may be transmitted digitally if they are first passed through a(n) _____.
19. An original voice, video, or data voltage is called the _____ signal.
20. To make the transmitted signal compatible with the medium, the process of _____ must be used where
the _____ signal is impressed upon a higher-frequency signal called the_____.
21. Recovering the originally transmitted signal is called_____.
22. The process of transmitting two or more baseband signals simultaneously over a common medium is
called _____.
23. Two methods of transmitting visual data over the telephone network are_____.
24. A common household remote-control unit is the_____.
25. The signaling of individuals at remote locations is called _____.
26. Performing, recording, and analyzing measurements at a distance is done with _____ equipment.
27. Radio astronomy is based on the fact that stars and other heavenly bodies emit_____.
28. List four ways radio is used in the telephone system _____.
29. Radar is based on the use of _____ radio signals.
30. Underwater radar is called _____.
31. The two types of sonar are _____.
32. The radio communications hobby is called _____.
33. Computers exchange digital data over the telephone network by using devices called _____.
34. Limited interconnections of PCs and other computers in offices or buildings are called _____.
35. Signals that travel through free space for long distances are called _____.
36. Radio waves are made up of _____ fields.
37. A signal with a frequency of 18 MHz has a wavelength of _____ m.
38. Common power line frequencies of _____ and _____ Hz are in the _____ range.
39. Audio signals are not transmitted by electromagnetic waves because
a. Antennas would be too long.
b. Audio signals do not radiate.
c. Simultaneous transmissions would interfere.
d. The frequency is too low.
(Choose all that apply.)
40. The human hearing range is approximately _____ to _____ Hz.
41. The frequency range of the human voice is _____ to _____ Hz.
42. True or false. Radio transmissions do not occur in the VLF and LF ranges.
43. AM broadcast stations are in the _____ range.
44. HF signals are also called _____.
45. TV (channels 2 to 13) and FM broadcasting is in the _____ part of the spectrum.
46. List five major uses of the UHF band.
47. A frequency of 1 GHz is the same as _____ MHz.
48. Frequencies above 1 GHz are called _____.
49. The SHF and EHF ranges are primarily used by _____ communications.
50. The frequencies just beyond the EHF range are called _____ waves.
51. One micron is the same as _____ m.
52. Infrared signals are usually derived from _____ sources.
53.The spectrum range of infrared signals is _____ to _____ m.
54.One angstrom is equal to _____ m.
55.The visible light range is from _____ to _____Ǻ.
56. Light signals use two mediums in electronic communications _____.
57. The spectrum space occupied by a signal is called the _____.
58. The new signals above and below the carrier frequency produced by the modulation process are called
_____.
59.A signal occupies the frequency range from 1.050 to 1.175 MHz. Its bandwidth is _____ kHz.
60. Wide-bandwidth signals must be transmitted at _____ frequencies.
61. Percentage wise, there is less spectrum space at the _____ frequencies.
62. Many communications electronics techniques are designed in order to conserve _____.
63. Electronic communications in the United States is regulated by a set of laws called the _____.
64. The regulatory body for electronic communications in the United States is the _____.
65. Government and military communications are coordinated by the _____.
66. The electromagnetic spectrum is managed worldwide by the_____ organization.
ANSWERS
1. computers, communications, control, computers
2. exchanging information
3. oral, written
4. distance, language
5. late nineteenth century
6. transmitter, receiver, channel or medium
7. wire, radio, fiber-optic cable
8. transmitter
9. receiver
10. noise, communications channel
11. degrades, attenuates
12. the atmosphere, manufactured equipment, thermal agitation in components
13. simplex, radio and TV broadcasting
14. full duplex, telephone communications
15. half duplex
16. analog
17. digital
18. analog-to-digital converter
19. base band
20. Modulation. base band, carrier
21. demodulation or detection
22. multiplexing
23. facsimile, teletext
24. garage door opener
25. paging
26. telemetry
27. radio waves
28. microwave relay, satellites, cordless phones, cellular phones
29. reflected
30. sonar (active)
31. active, passive
32. amateur or "ham" radio
33. modems
34. local area networks
35. electromagnetic waves or radio-frequency (RF) waves
36. electric, magnetic
37. 16.67 (300/18= 16.67)
38. 50, 60, ELF
39. a. c
40. 20, 20,000
41. 300, 3000
42. false
43. MF
44. short waves
45. VHF
46. land mobile, cellular telephones, military, radar and navigation, amateur radio
47. 1000
48. microwaves
49. radar, satellite
50. millimeter
51. 1 / 1,000,000
52. heat
53. 0.7, 10
54. 1 / 10.000
55. 4000,8000
56. fiber-optic cables, free space
57. bandwidth
58. sidebands
59. 125 (1.175 - 1.050 = 0.125 MHz = 125 kHz)
60. higher
61. lower
62. spectrum space
63. Communications Act of 1934
64. Federal Communications Commission
65. National Telecommunications and Information Administration
66. International Telecommunications Union
CHAPTER 2
Amplitude Modulation and Single-Sideband Modulation
1. Modulation is the process of having the information to be communicated modifies a higher frequency
signal called a carrier.
2. Amplitude modulation (AM) is the oldest and simplest form of modulation.
3. In AM, the amplitude of the carrier is changed in accordance with the amplitude and frequency or the
characteristics of the modulating signal. The carrier frequency remains constant.
4. The amplitude variation of the carrier peaks has the shape of the modulating signal and is referred to
as the envelope.
5. A time-domain display shows amplitude versus time variation of AM and other signals.
6. Amplitude modulation is produced by a circuit called a modulator which has two in puts and an output.
7. The modulator performs a mathematical multiplication of the carrier and information signals. The
output is their analog product.
8. The ratio of the peak voltage value of the modulating signal Vm to the peak value of the carrier Vc is
called the modulation index m (m = Vm l Vc). It is also referred to as the modulation coefficient or
factor and the degree of modulation.
9. The ideal value for m is 1, Typically m is less than 1. The condition where m is greater than 1 should be
avoided as it introduces serious distortion of the modulating signal. This is called overmodulation.
10. When the modulation index is multiplied by 100, it is called the percentage of modulation.
11. The percentage of modulation can be computed from AM waveforms displayed on an oscilloscope by
using the expression
% mod . =
(
100 Vmax − Vmin
Vmax + Vmin
)
where Vmax is the maximum peak carrier amplitude and
Vmin is the minimum peak carrier amplitude.
12. The new signals generated by the modulation process are called sidebands and occur at frequencies
above and below the carrier frequency.
13.The upper fUSB and lower fLSB sideband frequencies are the sum and difference of the carrier frequency fC
and the modulating frequency fM and are computed with the expressions
fUSB = fc + fm
fLSB = fc – fm
14. A display of signal amplitudes with respect to frequency is called a frequency-domain display.
15. An AM signal can be viewed as the carrier signal added to the sideband signals produced by AM.
16.The total transmitted power in an AM signal is the sum of the carrier and sideband powers PT =( PC +
PUSB + PLSB) and is distributed among the carrier and sidebands. This power distribution varies with the
percentage of modulation. The total power is
PT =Pe(1 + m2/2)
The power in each sideband is
Ps = Pc(m2)/4
17. The higher the percentage of modulation, the greater the sideband power and the stronger and more
intelligible the transmitted and received signal.
18. Despite its simplicity and effectiveness, AM is a highly inefficient method of modulation.
19. In an AM signal, the carrier contains no information. Any transmitted information lies solely in the
sideband. For that reason, the carrier may be suppressed and not transmitted.
20. An AM signal with suppressed carrier is called a double-sideband (DSB) signal.
21. Since the same transmitted information is contained in both upper and lower sidebands, one is
redundant. Full information can be transmitted using only one sideband.
22. An AM signal with no carrier and one sideband is called a single-sideband (SSB) signal. The upper and
lower sidebands contain the same information, and one is not preferred over the other.
23. The main advantage of an SSB AM signal over an AM or DSB signal is that it occupies one-half the
spectrum space.
24.Both DSB and SSB signals are more efficient in terms of power usage. The power wasted in the useless
carrier is saved thereby allowing more power to be put into the sidebands.
25. Power in an SSB transmitter is rated in terms of peak envelope power (PEP), the power that is produced
on voice peaks. PEP output is computed using the expression
PEP = V2/R
where PEP is in watts and V is the rms voltage across the antenna load impedance R. The PEP input
is computed using the expression
PEP = Vs x Imax
where Vs is the de supply voltage of the final amplifier stage and Imax is the amplifier
current on voice peaks.
26. The average output of an SSB transmitter is one-fourth to one-third of the PEP value.
27. Frequency conversion is a form of AM used to translate signals to higher or lower frequencies for
improved processing.
28. Frequency conversion is carried out by a circuit called a mixer or converter.
29. The mixer performs analog multiplication of the input signal and a local oscillator signal.
30. The frequency conversion process faithfully retains any modulation (AM, PM, etc.) on the input. The
translated signal contains the same modulation.
31.The output of a mixer consists of the local oscillator signal fo and the sum and difference frequencies of
the local oscillator and input frequencies:
fS
fo
fO + fS
fO - fS or
fS - f O
32. Either the sum or the difference frequency is selected with a filter, while the others are rejected.
33. The process of mixing is also known as heterodyning.
SELF-TEST
Supply the missing word(s) in each statement.
Choose the letter that best answers each question.
1. Modulation causes the information signal to be _____ to a higher frequency for more efficient
transmission.
2. During modulation, the information signal _____ the amplitude of a high frequency signal called the
_____.
3. The circuit used to produce modulation is called a _____. Its two inputs are _____.
4. In AM, the instantaneous _____ of the carrier varies in accordance with the information signal.
5. True or false. The carrier frequency is usually lower than the modulating frequency.
6. The outline of the peaks of the carrier signal is called the _____, and it has the same shape as the _____.
7. Voltages varying over time are said to be _____ signals.
8. The trigonometric expression for the carrier is Vc = _____.
9. True or false. The carrier frequency remains constant during AM.
10. An amplitude modulator performs the mathematical operation of
a. Addition
b. Subtraction
c. Multiplication
d. Division
11. Which of the following is the most correct?
a. Vm should be greater than Vc.
b. Vc should be greater than Vm
c. Vm should be equal to or less than Vc.
d. Vc must always equal Vm
12.Which of the following is not another name for modulation index?
a. Modulation reciprocal
b. Modulation factor
c. Degree of modulation
d. Modulation coefficient
13. The degree or depth of modulation occurring expressed as a percentage, is computed using the
expression
a. 2 Vm
b. 100 / m
c. m / 100
d. 100% x m
14. The modulation index is the ratio of the _____ peak voltage of the to the _____.
15.An AM wave displayed on an oscilloscope has values of Vmax= 3.8 and Vmin= 1.5 as read from the
graticule. The percentage of modulation is _____ percent.
16. The ideal percentage of modulation for maximum amplitude of Information transmission is _____
percent.
17.To achieve 85 percent modulation of a carrier of Ve = 40 volts (V), a modulating signal of Vm = _____ is
needed.
18. The peak-to-peak value of an AM signal is 30 V. The peak-to-peak value of the modulating signal is 12
V. The percentage of modulation is _____ percent.
19. New signals generated by the modulation process that appear directly above and below the carrier
frequency are called _____.
20. An AM radio station operating at 630 kHz is permitted to broadcast audio frequencies up to 5 kHz. The
upper and lower side frequencies are
fUSB = _____ kHz
fLSB = _____ kHz
21. The total bandwidth of the signal in the above example is _____ kHz.
22. A signal whose amplitude is displayed with respect to time is called a _____ domain display. The test
instrument used to present such a display is the _____.
23. A signal whose amplitude is displayed with respect to frequency is called a _____ domain display. The
test instrument used to present such a display is the _____.
24. Complex modulating signals containing many frequencies produce multiple_____ thus occupying more
spectrum space.
25. The AM signal that occupies the greatest bandwidth is the one modulated by a
a. 1-kHz sine wave
b. 5-kHz sine wave
c. 1-kHz square wave
d. 5-kHz square wave
26. The composite AM signal can be recreated by algebraically adding which three signals?
27. The total sideband power is what percentage of the carrier power for 100 percent modulation?
a. 25 percent
b. 50 percent
c. 100 percent
d. 150 percent
28. Information in an AM signal is conveyed in the
a. Carrier.
b. Sidebands.
c. Both together.
29. The load into which the AM signal Power is dissipated is a(n) _____.
30. The total transmitted power is the sum of the _____ and _____ powers.
31. A 5-kW carrier with 60 percent modulation produces _____ kW in each sideband.
32. In an AM signal with a carrier of 18W and a modulation percentage of 75 percent, the total power in the
sidebands is _____ W.
33. An AM signal with a carrier of 1 kW has 100W in each sideband. The percentage of modulation is _____
percent.
34. An AM transmitter has a carrier power of 200 W. The percentage of modulation is 60 percent. The total
signal power is _____ W.
35. The total AM signal power is 2800W. The carrier power is 2000 W. The power in one sideband is _____ W.
The percentage of modulation is_____.
36. The unmodulated carrier current in an antenna is 1.5A. When the carrier is modulated by 95 percent,
the total antenna current is _____ A.
37. An AM signal without a carrier is called a(n) _____ signal.
38. True or false. Two sidebands must be transmitted to retain all the information.
39. The acronym SSB means
a. Single sideband with carrier
b. Single sideband with suppressed carrier
c. Double sideband with no carrier
d. Double sideband with carrier
40. A major benefit of DSB and SSB is
a. Higher power can be put into the sideband(s).
b. Greater power consumption.
c. More carrier power.
d. Double the sideband power.
41. List four benefits of SSB over AM and DSB.
42. List two common uses of SSB.
43. A common use of DSB is
a. Two-way communication.
b. Telephone systems.
c. FM/TV stereo.
d. Satellite communications.
44. True or false. In SSB, no signal is transmitted unless the information signal is present.
45. The type of AM signal that is used in TV broadcasting is called _____ transmission.
46.An SSB signal produces a peak-to-peak voltage of 720V on voice peaks across a 75- antenna. The PEP
output is _____ W.
47. An SSB transmitter has a 15O-V supply. Voice peaks produce a current of 2.3 A. The PEP input is _____
W.
48. The average output power of an SSB transmitter rated at 12W PEP is in the _____ to _____ range.
49. The process of translating a signal to a higher or lower frequency for more convenient processing is
called _____.
50. The circuit used for translating the frequency of a signal is referred to as a(n) _____ or _____.
51.The input signals to a frequency translation circuit are fs = 3.7 MHz and fo = 4.155 MHz. The output
signals are _____.
52. In the example given in the text, what other local oscillator frequency could be used to produce the
10.7-MHz output with a 107.1 = MHz input?
53. Unwanted mixer output signals are eliminated by a _____.
54. True or false. The local oscillator is modulated.
55. True or false. Any modulation on the input signal to be translated is retained.
56. The operation carried out by a mixer is known as _____.
ANSWERS
1.
2.
3.
4.
translated
varies, carrier
modulator, carrier, modulating signal
amplitude
5. false
6. envelope, modulating signal
7. time-domain
8. Vc = sin 2 fct
9. true
10. c
11. c
12. a
13. d
14. modulating signal, carrier
15. 43.4
16. 100
17. 17.34 V
18. 66.67
19. sidebands
20. 635, 625
21. 10
22. time, oscilloscope
23. frequency, spectrum analyzer
24. sidebands
25. d
26. Carrier, upper sideband, lower sideband
27. b
28. b
29. antenna
30. carrier, sideband
31. 0.45
32. 5.06
33. 63.25
34. 236 W
35. 400 W, 89.44 percent
36. 1.8 amperes
37. DSB
38. false
39. b
40. a
41. less spectrum space, more power in the sidebands with greater efficiency, less noise, little or no fading
42. telephone systems, two-way radio
43. c
44. true
45. vestigial sideband
46. 863.7
47. 345
48. 3-, 4-W
49. frequency conversion
50. mixer, converter
51. 4.155 MHz, 7.855 MHz, 455 kHz, 3.7 MHz
52. 117.8 MHz
53. filter or tuned circuit
54. false
55. true
56. heterodyning
CHAPTER 3
Amplitude Modulation Circuits
1. Amplitude modulation can be accomplished by multiplying the carrier sine wave by a gain or
attenuation factor that varies in accordance with the intelligence signal.
2. Amplitude modulation can be carried out by linearly combining the carrier and intelligence signals then
applying the result to a nonlinear component or circuit. A diode is an example.
3. The simplest AM circuit uses resistors to linearly mix the carrier and information signal, a diode to
rectify the result, and a tuned circuit to complete the waveform.
4. Amplitude modulation can be produced by feeding the carrier to a voltage divider or other network and
then varying one of the resistive elements in accordance with the modulating signal. Common variable
resistive components are diodes and FETs. PIN diodes are used at UHF and microwave frequencies.
5. Low-level modulation is the process of generating 'the AM signal at low voltage and/or power levels and
then using linear amplifiers to increase the power level.
6. High-level modulation is the processes of amplitude modulating the final power amplifier of a
transmitter.
7. High-level modulation is accomplished with a collector (plate in vacuum tubes) modulator that varies
the collector supply voltage in accordance with the modulating signal.
8. For 100 percent high-level modulation, the modulation amplifier must produce an out put wave whose
peak-to-peak is 2 times the collector supply voltage.
9. For 100 percent high-level modulation, the modulation amplifier must generate an output power that is
one-half of the final RF power amplifier input power (Pi =Vcc x Ic).
10. The simplest and best amplitude demodulator is the diode detector. The AM signal is rectified by a
diode and then filtered by a capacitor to recover the envelope which is the original modulating
information.
11. Balanced modulators are AM circuits that cancel or suppress the carrier but generate a DSB output
signal that contains the upper (sum) and lower (difference) sideband frequencies.
12. A popular balanced modulator is the lattice modulator that uses a diode bridge circuit as a switch. The
carrier turns the diodes off and on letting segments of the modulating signal through to produce a DSB
output signal. A carrier suppression of 40 dB is possible.
13. Another widely used balanced, modulator is an integrated circuit (IC) using differential amplifiers as
switches to switch the modulating signal at the carrier frequency. A popular device is the 1496 or 1596.
Carrier suppression can be as high as 50 to 65 dB.
14. The most common way of generating an SSE signal is to use the filter method which incorporates a
balanced modulator followed by a highly selective filter that passes either the upper or lower sideband.
15. To make both sidebands available, SSB generators use two filters, one for each sideband, or switch the
carrier frequency to put the desired sideband into the fixed filter, bandpass.
16.Most SSB, filters are made with quartz crystals.
17.A quartz crystal is a frequency-determining component that acts like an LC circuit with a very high Q.
18. Crystals have series and parallel resonant modes. These can be combined into a lattice (bridge) circuit
that provides extremely sharp selectivity over a desired bandwidth.
19. Ceramic filters use ceramic resonators that act like crystals but are smaller and lower in cost.
20. Mechanical bandpass filters are also used in SSE generators. These devices use multiple resonant disks
that vibrate at some frequency in the 200- to 500-kHz range.
21. The phasing method of SSE generation uses two balanced modulators and 90° phase shifters for the
carrier and modulating signal to produce two DSB signals that when added cause one sideband to be
canceled out.
22. In phasing-type SSE generators, the accuracy of the phase shifters determines the degrees of
unwanted sideband suppression.
23.Precision RC networks are normally used to produce the desired 90° phase shifts.
24. A demodulator for SSE is a mixer such as a balanced modulator that, is called a product detector. The
carrier is reinserted in the receiver with a local oscillator.
25. Frequency translation or conversion is an AM process that converts a signal with any modulation to a
higher (up conversion) or lower (down conversion) frequency.
26. Frequency conversion is produced by a circuit called a mixer.
27. Another name for frequency conversion is heterodyning.
28. Almost any low-level AM circuit can be used for mixing.
29. One of the most commonly used mixers is a single diode. Germanium or hot-carrier diodes are used for
mixing at very high radio frequencies.
30.The inputs to a mixer are the signal to be translated fs and a sine "wave fo from a local oscillator (LO).
The outputs are fo, fs, fo + fs, and fo - fs. A tuned circuit at the output selects either the slim or
difference frequency while suppressing the others. Any modulation on the input appears on the output
signal.
31. Bipolar and field-effect transistors can be used as mixers by operating them in the nonlinear region of
their characteristics.
32. Transistor mixers offer the benefit of gain over diode mixers.
33. Balanced modulators are widely used as mixers.
34. Doubly balanced modulators and GaAs FETs are the best mixers at VHF, UHF, and microwave
frequencies.
35. A single transistor can be connected to perform both the mixer and LO functions. Such a mixer is called
a converter and is used primarily in AM receivers at frequencies below 30 MHz.
36. A popular IC mixer is the NE602, which contains a cross-connected differential amplifier mixer circuit
and an on-chip local oscillator.
SELF-TEST
Supply the missing word(s) in each statement.
Choose the letter that best answers each question.
1. In the modulator, circuit of Fig. 3-2, the carrier and modulating signals are (page 39-Frenzel)
a. Added
b. Subtracted
c. Multiplied
d. Divided
2. In Fig. 3-2,D1 acts as a(n) (page 39-Frenzel)
a. Capacitor
b. Rectifier
c. Variable resistor
d. Adder
3. In Fig. 3-4, D1 acts as a(n) (page 41-Frenzel)
a. Capacitor
b. Rectifier
c. Variable resistor
d. Adder
4. AM can be produced by passing the carrier through a circuit whose _____ or _____ can be varied in
accordance with the modulating signal.
5. The name of the nonlinear response of a device that produces AM with only second-order products is
_____.
6. A component that has an exponential response ideal for producing AM is the _____.
7. In Fig. 3-2, the negative peaks of the AM signal are supplied by the _____. (page 39-Frenzel)
8. In Fig. 3-5, the FET acts like a(n) _____. (page 41-Frenzel)
9. In Fig. 3-5, AM is produced by varying the _____of the op-amp circuit. (page 41-Frenzel)
10. In Fig. 3-5, a positive-going modulating signal causes the current in the FET to _____, its resistance to
_____, and the gain of the circuit to _____.(page 41-Frenzel)
11. When forward-biased, a PIN diode acts like a(n) _____.
12. PIN diode modulators are used only at frequencies above about _____.
13. A PIN diode modulator is a variable
14. High current in a PIN diode means that its resistance is_____.
15. The AM signals generated by low-level modulating circuits must have their power level increased by
a(n) _____ before being transmitted.
16. In a high-level AM transmitter, the output stage is usually a class _____ amplifier. .
17. A high-level modulator like that in Fig. 3-8 is referred to as a _____ modulator. (page 43-Frenzel)
18. The output of a high-level modulator causes the _____ applied to the final RF amplifier to vary with the
amplitude of the modulating signal.
19. The final amplifier of a high-level modulation CB transmitter has an input power of 5 W. The modulator
must be able to supply a power of _____ W for 100 percent modulation.
20. The final RF power amplifier has a supply voltage of 12V. For 100 percent AM using a high-level
modulator, the peak ac output of the modulation transformer must be _____ V.
21. To achieve 100 percent high-level modulation of an RF power amplifier, its _____ must also be
modulated.
22. The purpose of a _____ is to recover the original modulating signal from an AM wave.
23. The most widely used amplitude demodulator is called a _____.
24. The most critical component in the circuit of Fig. 3-11 is _____.(page 46-Frenzel)
25. The charging and discharging of C1 in Fig. 3-11 produces _____ which causes _____ of the modulating
signal. (page 46-Frenzel)
26. Another name for the demodulator in Fig. 3-11 is _____ detector.
27. List the two main benefits of the full-wave amplitude demodulator over the half wave circuit.
28. True or false. An amplitude demodulator is a complete radio receiver.
29. A balanced modulator eliminates which of the following from its output?
a. Upper sideband
b. Lower sideband
c. Carrier
d. Both sidebands
30. The output signal of a balanced modulator is.
a. AM
b. SSB
c. FM
d. DSB
31. Which has better carrier suppression?
a. Lattice modulator
b. IC balanced modulator
32. A balanced modulator using a diode bridge is called a(n) _____. (page 48-Frenzel)
33. In the balanced modulator of Fig. 3-14, the diodes are used as _____.
34. A balanced modulator has a carrier frequency of 1.9 MHz and a modulating sine wave of 2.6 kHz. The
output signals are _____ and _____kHz.
35. In Fig. 3-18, transistors _____ supply a constant current. (page 51-Frenzel)
36.In Fig. 3-18, transistors Q1 to Q4 operate as_____. (page 51-Frenzel)
37. True or false. An IC analog multiplier may be used for DSB signal generation.
38. The most common way of generating an SSB signal is the _____ method.
39. A filter capable of passing the desired sideband while rejecting the other sideband must have
good_____.
40. A balanced modulator has a 3-MHz carrier input and a modulating signal input of 1.5 kHz to pass the
lower sideband, a filter must have a center frequency of _____ MHz.
41. The most popular filter used to select the desired sideband in an SSB generator uses _____ for
selectivity.
42. Name the two ways of generating either the upper or lower sideband in a filter type SSB generator.
43. A quartz crystal acts like a highly selective _____ circuit.
44. In a filter-type SSB generator, a crystal lattice filter is used. The two crystal frequencies are 3.0 and
3.0012 MHz. The filter bandwidth is approximately _____ kHz.
45. Mechanical filters provide selectivity because they _____ at a specific frequency.
46. A ceramic filter is similar in operation to a(n) _____ filter.
47. The operating frequency range of a mechanical filter is _____ to _____ kHz.
48. In the phasing method of SSB generation, _____ is used to cancel the undesired sideband.
49. A _____ circuit is commonly used to demodulate or recover an SSB signal.
50. The circuit used to demodulate an SSB signal is typically called a(n) _____.
51. The mixing process is
a. Linear.
b. Nonlinear.
52. In up conversion, which signal is selected?
a. f1 - f2
b. f1 + f2
53. Which transistor mixer is preferred?
a. Bipolar
b. FET
54. Another name for the mixing process is _____.
55. The purpose of a mixer is to perform _____.
56.The output signals produced by a mixer with inputs f1 and f2 are _____, _____, _____, and _____.
57. The type of mixer most used at microwave frequencies is a(n) _____.
58. The two mixers preferred at VHF and UHF are _____.
59. Transistor mixers provide _____, while diode mixers do not.
60. A mixer producing down conversion has an input of 1390 kHz and an LO frequency of 1845 kHz. The
output is _____ kHz.
61. A single-transistor circuit that combines the mixer and LO functions is known as a(n) _____.
62. The mixer circuit in the popular NE602 IC is _____.
63. In addition to a mixer and a voltage regulator, the NE602 mixer IC contains a(n) _____.
64. The output of a NE602 mixer IC is 5.5 MHz. The local oscillator is set to 26.8 MHz. The input frequency
is _____.
65. True or false. Mixing is the same as AM.
66. True or false. Any balanced modulator may be used as a mixer.
ANSWERS
1. a
2. b
3. c
4. gain, attenuation
5. square law
6. diode
7. tuned circuit
8. variable resistor
9. gain
10. increase, decrease, increase
11. resistor
12. 100 MHz
13. attenuator
14. low
15. linear amplifier
16. C
17. collector
18. supply voltage
19. 2.5
20. 12
21. driver
22. demodulator
23. diode detector
24.C1
25. ripple, distortion
26. envelope
27. smaller filter capacitor, less ripple and distortion
28. true
29. c
30. d
31. b
32. lattice modulator or diode ring
33. switches
34. 1897.4, 1902.6
35.Q7, Q8
36. switches
37. true
38. filter
39. selectivity
40. 2.9985
41. crystals
42. Use one filter for each sideband; select the carrier frequency so that the desired sideband is in the filter
passband.
43.tune, resonant, or LC
44. 1.8 (3.0012- 3.0 = 0.0012 MHz = 1.2 kHz; 1.2 x 1.5 = 1.8 kHz)
45. vibrate or resonate
46. crystal
47. 200 to 500
48. phase shift
49. mixer or balanced modulator
50. product detector
51. b
52. b
53. b
54. heterodyning
55. frequency conversion or translation
56.f1 ,f2, f1 + f2, f1 - f2
57. diode
58. doubly balanced mixer, GaAsFET
59. gain
60. 455 (1845 – 1390 = 455)
61. converter
62. cross-connected differential amplifier
63. local oscillator
64. 21.3 or 32.3 MHz
65. true
66. true
CHAPTER 4
Frequency Modulation
1. In FM, the information signal varies the frequency of the carrier.
2. The amount of frequency change from the carrier center frequency is called the frequency deviation.
3. In PM, the deviation is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal.
4. During FM, the carrier amplitude remains constant.
5. Both FM and PM are types of angle modulations.
6. In PM, the phase shift of the carrier is varied by the amplitude of the modulating signal.
7. Phase modulation produces frequency modulation.
8. The FM produced by PM is called indirect FM.
9. Maximum frequency deviation in a PM signal occurs where the rate of change of the modulating signal
amplitude is greatest, which is at its zero-crossing points.
10. Frequency deviation does not occur at the output of a phase modulator unless the modulating signal
amplitude varies.
11. The amount of frequency deviation produced by a phase modulator increases with the modulating
frequency.
12. To produce true FM from a PM signal, the amplitude of the modulating signal must be decreased with
frequency so that frequency deviation does not change with modulating frequency.
13. In PM, a low-pass filter on the modulating signal compensates for increased frequency deviation at the
higher modulating frequencies.
14. Frequency modulation produces pairs of sidebands spaced from the carrier in multiples of the
modulating frequency.
15.The modulation index m of an FM signal is the ratio of the frequency deviation fd to the modulating
frequency fm (m = fd / fm).
16. The deviation ratio is the maximum frequency deviation divided by the maximum modulating
frequency.
17. The modulation index determines the number of significant pairs of sidebands in an FM signal.
18. The amplitudes of the carrier and sidebands vary with the modulation index and can be calculated with
a mathematical procedure known as the Bessel functions.
19. The carrier or sideband amplitudes are zero at some modulation indexes.
20. The bandwidth of an FM signal is proportional to the modulation index.
21. There are two ways to calculate the bandwidth of an FM signal.
a. BW = 2Nfm max
b. BW = 2(fd max + fm max)
22. For FM, the percentage of modulation is the ratio of the actual frequency deviation and the maximum
allowed frequency deviation multiplied by 100.
23. The primary advantage of FM over AM is its immunity to noise.
24. Noise is short-duration amplitude variations caused by lightning, motors, auto ignitions, power
transients, and other sources.
25. Limiter circuits in FM receivers clip off noise signals.
26. Another benefit of FM over AM is the capture effect that allows the strongest signal on a frequency to
dominate without interference from the other signal.
27. A third benefit of FM over AM is greater transmitter efficiency since class C amplifiers may be used.
28. A major disadvantage of FM is that its bandwidth is wider than the bandwidth of AM.
29. The spectrum space taken up by an FM signal may be limited by carefully controlling the deviation
ratio.
30. Another disadvantage of FM is that the circuits to produce and demodulate it are usually more complex
and expensive than AM circuits.
31. Noise occurs primarily at high frequencies; therefore, noise interferes more with high modulating
frequencies.
32. Interference from high-frequency noise can be minimized by boosting the amplitude of high-frequency
modulating signals prior to modulation. This is called pre-emphasis.
33.Pre-emphasis is accomplished by passing the modulating signal through an RC network that linearly
boosts the amplitude of frequencies above 2122 Hz in proportion to frequency. This increases the
signal-to-noise ratio at the higher frequencies.
34.The effect of pre-emphasis is corrected for, in an FM receiver by de-emphasizing the higher frequencies
by passing them through an RC low-pass filter.
35.The pre-emphasis and de-emphasis networks have a time constant of 75 s and a cutoff frequency of
2122 Hz.
SELF-TEST
Supply the missing word(s) in each statement.
Choose the letter that best answers each question.
The general name given to both PM and PM is _____ modulation.
True or false. In FM, the carrier amplitude remains constant with modulation.
The amount of frequency shift during modulation is called the _____.
The amount of frequency shift in PM is directly proportional to the _____ of the modulating signal.
As the modulating signal amplitude goes positive, the carrier frequency _____. As the modulating signal
amplitude goes negative, the carrier frequency
6. In PM, the carrier _____ is varied in proportion to the amplitude of the modulating signal.
7. A varying phase shift produces a(n) _____.
8. A phase modulator produces a frequency deviation only when the modulating signal is _____.
9. In PM, the frequency deviation is proportional to both the modulating signal _____ and _____.
10. When the modulating signal amplitude crosses zero, the phase shift and frequency deviation in a phase
modulator are
a. At a maximum
b. At a minimum
c. Zero
11. A phase modulator may use a low-pass filter to offset the effect of increasing carrier frequency
deviation for increasing modulating
a. Amplitude
b. Frequency
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
c. Phase shift
12. The FM produced by a phase modulator is known as _____.
13. True or false. An FM signal produces more sidebands than an AM signal.
14. The bandwidth of an FM signal is proportional to the _____.
15. The maximum frequency deviation of an FM signal is 10 kHz. The maximum modulating frequency is
3.33 kHz. The deviation ratio is_____.
16. An FM signal has a modulation index of 2.5. How many significant pairs of sidebands are produced?
(See Fig. 4-6.) (page 75-Frenzel)
17. In an FM signal that modulating frequency is a 1.5-kHz sine wave. The carrier frequency is 1000 kHz.
The frequencies of the third significant sidebands are _____ and _____ kHz.
18. Refer to Fig. 4-6. What is the relative amplitude of the fourth significant pair of sidebands in an FM
signal with a deviation ratio of 4? (page 75-Frenzel)
19. The amplitudes of the sidebands in an FM signal are dependent upon a mathematical process known as
_____.
20. A PM signal has a deviation ratio of 3. The maximum modulating signal is 5 kHz. The bandwidth of the
signal is _____kHz.
21. If the maximum allowed deviation is 5 kHz but the actual deviation is 3.75 kHz, the percentage of
modulation is _____ percent.
22. A negative sign on the carrier and sideband amplitudes in Fig. 4-6 means a(n) _____.
23. True or false. The carrier in an FM signal can never drop to zero amplitude.
24. Calculate the bandwidth of an PM signal with a maximum deviation of 10 kHz and a maximum
modulating signal frequency of 4 kHz. Use the two methods given in the text, significant sidebands,
and Carson's role, and compare your answers. Explain the difference.
25. The main advantage of FM over AM is its immunity from _____.
26. Noise is primarily a variation in
a. Amplitude.
b. Frequency.
c. Phase.
27. FM receivers reject noise because of built-in circuits.
28. The in an FM receiver causes a stronger signal to dominate a weaker signal on the same frequency.
29. Typically FM transmitters are more efficient than AM transmitters because they use class _____
amplifiers.
30. The biggest disadvantage of FM is its excessive use of _____.
31. True or false. An AM circuit is usually more complex and expensive than an FM circuit.
32. Noise interferes primarily with _____ modulating frequencies.
33. The method used to offset the effect of noise in FM transmissions by boosting high frequencies is
known as _____.
34. To boost high frequencies a(n) _____ circuit is used.
35. To correct for the high-frequency boost, a(n) _____ circuit is used at the receiver.
36.The time constant of a pre-emphasis circuit is _____ s.
37. In an FM receiver, frequencies above _____ Hz are attenuated 6 dB per octave.
ANSWERS
1. angle
2. true
3. deviation
4. amplitude
5. increases, decreases (the reverse could also be true)
6. phase shift
7. frequency shift or deviation
8. changing or varying
9. amplitude, frequency
10. a
11. b
12. indirect FM
13. true
14. modulation index
15.3 (m = 10/33 = 3)
16. 5
17.995.5, 1004.5 [3(1.5) = 4.5 KHz; 1000 4.5 = 995.5 and 1004.5 kHz]
18. 0.28
19. Bessel functions
20. 60 [2(5)(6)= 60 kHz]
21. 75 [(3.75/5)100 = 75%]
22.phase inversion or 180 shift
23. false
24. BW = 40 kHz; BW = 28 kHz using Carson's rule; Carson's rule gives narrower bandwidths because
sidebands of less than 2 percent amplitude are not considered
25. noise
26. a
27. limiter (or clipper)
28. capture effect
29. C
30. spectrum space
31. false
32. high
33. pre-emphasis
34. high-pass filter
35. de-emphasis
36. 75
37. 2122
CHAPTER 5
Frequency Modulation Circuits
1. The component most widely used for FM or PM is the varactor diode or voltage variable capacitor
(VVC).
2. A VVC is a specially designed silicon junction diode optimized for large capacitive variations.
3. A reverse-biased junction diode will act as a small capacitor where the depletion region is the dielectric.
4. The capacitance of a varactor is inversely proportional to the reverse-biased voltage amplitude.
5. The most common frequency modulators use a varactor to vary the frequency of an LC circuit or crystal
in accordance with the modulating signal.
6. A reactance modulator is an amplifier that is made to appear inductive or capacitive by phase shift. It is
used to produce wide deviation direct FM.
7. Crystal oscillators are preferred for their frequency stability over LC oscillators, but only very small
frequency deviation is possible with crystal oscillators.
8. An IC VCO produces excellent deviation FM at frequencies below 1 MHz.
9. In a phase modulator, the carrier is shifted in phase in accordance with the modulating signal. This
produces indirect FM.
10. One of the best phase modulators is a parallel tuned circuit controlled by a varactor.
11. Most phase modulators produce very small amounts of frequency deviation.
12. Frequency deviation and carrier frequency can be increased by passing them through a frequency
multiplier.
13. One of the oldest and best frequency demodulators is the Foster-Seeley discriminator that is a phase
detector whose output voltage increases or decreases with phase changes produced by input
frequency deviation.
14. A Foster-Seeley discriminator is sensitive to input amplitude variations and, therefore, must be
preceded by a limiter.
15. A variation of the Foster-Seeley discriminator is the ratio detector widely used in older TV receiver
designs. A primary advantage of the ratio detector is that no limiter is needed.
16. A pulse-averaging discriminator converts an FM signal into a square wave of identical frequency
variation using a zero crossing detector, comparator, or limiter circuit. This circuit triggers a one shot
that produces pulses that are averaged in a lowpass filter to reproduce the original modulating signal.
17. A quadrature detector uses a unique phase shift circuit to provide quadrature (90°) FM input signals to
a phase detector. The phase detector produces a different pulse width for different phase shifts. These
pulse width variations are averaged in a low-pass filter to recover the modulating signal.
18. Quadrature detectors are available in IC form and are one of the most widely used TV audio
demodulators.
19. A differential peak detector is an IC FM demodulator that uses a differential amplifier and capacitive
storage peak detectors plus tuned circuits to translate frequency variations into voltage variations.
20. A phase-locked loop (PLL) is a feedback control circuit made up of a phase detector, voltage controlled
oscillator (VCO), and low-pass filter. The phase detector compares an input signal to the VCO signal and
produces an output that is filtered by a low-pass filter into an error signal that controls the VCO
frequency.
21. The PLL is synchronized or locked when the input and VCO frequencies are equal. Input frequency
changes cause a phase or frequency shift which, in turn, produces an error signal that forces the VCO
to track the input and reduce their difference to zero.
22. The range of frequencies over which a PLL will track an input is called the lock range. If the input strays
outside, the lock range, the PLL will go out of lock and the VCO will operate at its free-running
frequency.
23. The capture range of a PLL is that narrow band of frequencies over which a PLL will recognize and lock
onto an input signal. The capture range is narrower than the lock range and it makes the PLL look like a
bandpass filter.
24. The PLL is the best frequency demodulator because its filtering action removes noise and interference
and its highly linear output faithfully reproduces the original modulating signal.
SELF-TEST
Supply the missing word(s) in each statement.
Choose the letter that best answers each question.
1. Increasing the reverse bias on a voltage variable capacitor causes its capacitance to
a. Increase
b. Decrease
2. Connecting a V VC across a parallel LC circuit causes the resonant frequency to
a. Increase
b. Decrease
3. In the circuit of Fig. 5-3, a negative-going modulating signal causes the carrier frequency to
a. Increase
b. Decrease
(page 87-Frenzel)
4. A crystal is operating in its series resonant mode. A VVC is connected in series with it. The crystal
frequency
a. Increases
b. Decreases
5. Which is capable of greater frequency deviation?
a. LC oscillator
b. Crystal oscillator
6. Another name for voltage-variable capacitor is _____.
7. Most VVC s have a nominal capacitance in the _____ to _____ pF range.
8. A crystal oscillator has superior _____ over an LC oscillator.
9. The acronym VCO means _____.
10. A voltage-variable crystal oscillator is referred to as a(n) _____.
11. Carrier frequency and frequency deviation may be increased by using a(n) _____ after the carrier
oscillator.
12. A reactance modulator is set up to act like an inductive reactance. If the modulating signal increases in
amplitude, the effective inductance decreases. This causes. The oscillator frequency to _____.
13. An IC VCO normally uses a combination of _____ and _____ to set the center operating frequency.
14. True or false. Voltage-variable capacitors should not be forward-biased.
15.True or false. For highly stable carrier generators, LC oscillators are preferred over crystal oscillators.
16. True or false. A reactance modulator is used with crystal oscillators.
17. True or false. IC VCO operates primarily at frequencies below 1 MHz.
18. Phase modulation is called _____ FM.
19. True or false. Phase modulation produces frequency variation as well as amplitude variation of the
carrier.
20.In a simple RC network, the phase shift is between _____ and _____ degrees.
21. In the circuits of Fig. 5-7, phase is varied by changing the _____ or _____. (page 91-Frenzel)
22. Larger linear phase shifts are obtained with a(n) _____ circuit.
23. The control element in a phase modulator is usually a(n) _____.
24. In Fig. 5-10, the component which adjusts the deviation is _____. (page 93-Frenzel)
25.If a parallel LC circuit is at resonance, increasing C will cause the current to _____ (lead, lag) the applied
voltage.
26.In Fig. 5-7(b), if C is decreased, will the phase shift increase or decrease? (page 91-Frenzel)
27. In the phase modulator of Fig. 5-8, the FET current is the phasor sum of the currents produced by _____
and _____.
28. The small phase shifts produced by indirect PM are increased by sending the PM signal to a(n) _____
circuit.
29. In the Foster-Seeley discriminator and ratio detector circuits, an input frequency variation produces
a(n) _____ that causes an output voltage variation.
30. In the pulse-averaging discriminator, a low pass filter averages the fixed-width, fixed amplitude pulses
from a(n) _____.
31. Should the input frequency increase or decrease for the average voltage output of the low-pass filter in
a pulse-averaging discriminator to increase?
32. Quadrature refers to a _____° phase difference.
33. In Fig. 5-13, does input B lag or lead input A? (page 96-Frenzel)
34. The phase detector in a quadrature detector is usually a(n) _____.
35. The quadrature detector input circuit produces a varying _____ as the input frequency changes.
36. The varying-width pulses produced by the quadrature detector are converted into the original
modulating signal by a(n) _____.
37. The circuit in a differential peak detector IC that temporarily stores the peak value of an input sine
wave is called a(n) _____.
38. In the differential peak detector, the components _____ convert frequency variations into the amplitude
variations that ultimately become the output.
39. The three main elements of a PLL are _____.
40. The _____ circuit In a PLL recognizes _____ or _____ changes between the input and VCO signals.
41. The part _____ of a PLL is a simple frequency modulator.
42. It is the _____ signal in the PLL that varies the VCO frequency.
43. The range of frequencies over whicha PLL will cause the input and VCO signals to remain synchronized
is known as the _____ range.
44. If the PLL input is zero, the VCO will operate at its _____ frequency.
45. The range of frequencies over which a PLL will latch onto or recognize an input signal is called the _____
range.
46. Since a PLL will only respond to signals over a narrow frequency range, it acts like a(n) _____.
47. In a PLL frequency demodulator, the error signal is the _____.
48. In a PLL demodulating an FM signal, the VCO output is an exact reproduction of the _____.
49. True or false. The Foster-Seeley discriminator is sensitive to input amplitude as well as frequency
variations.
50. True or false. The ratio detector requires a limiter.
51. True or false. The lock range of a PLL is narrower than the capture range.
ANSWERS
1. b
2. b
3. b
4. a
5. a
6. varactor diode (or varicap)
7. 1,200
8. frequency stability
9. voltage-controlled oscillator
10. VXO
11. frequency multiplier
12. increase
13. resistance, capacitance
14. true
15. false
16. false
17. true
18. indirect
19. true
20. 0, 90
21. resistance, capacitance
22. parallel resonant (or tuned)
23. varactor
24.R04
25. lead
26. decrease
27.C1, C2, Q1 and C1, R1, Q1
28. frequency multiplier
29. phase shift
30. one-shot or monostable multivibrator
31. increase
32. 90
33. lead
34. differential amplifier
35. phase shift
36. low-pass filter
37. peak detector
38.C1, C2, L1
39. phase detector, VCO, low-pass filter
40. phase detector, frequency, phase
41. VCO
42. error
43. lock
44. free-running
45. capture
46. band pass filter
47. modulating signal or information signal
48. FM input
49. true
50. false
51. false
CHAPTER 6
Radio Transmitters
1. A radio transmitter generates the carrier signal, provides power amplification, and applies modulation.
2. The simplest transmitter is an oscillator that is keyed off and on to produce cw Morse code.
3. Most transmitters consist of a crystal oscillator used to generate an accurate and stable carrier
frequency, a buffer amplifier that isolates the carrier oscillator from its load, one or more driver
amplifiers to increase the RF power level. and a final power amplifier that applies the signal to the
antenna.
4. In AM transmitters, class C amplifiers are used to increase the RF power level. The final stage is
modulated.
5. Frequency modulation transmitters use class C amplifiers to increase the RF power level.
6. Single-sideband transmitters generate the carrier and modulation at a low frequency and then
translate it up with a mixer, Linear amplifiers are used to increase the power level.
7. In a class A amplifier, collector current flows continuously, The output is directly proportional to the
input; therefore, it is a linear amplifier.
8. Class B amplifiers are biased at cutoff so that collector current flows for 180 of the input cycle.
9. Class B amplifiers are usually connected in a push-pull circuit where one transistor amplifies each half
of the input signal
10. Class C amplifiers are biased beyond cutoff. Current flows for 90 to 180 of the input cycle.
11. Collector current pulses in a class C amplifier are converted into a continuous sine wave by a resonant
circuit.
12. The collector current pulses in a class C amplifier contain many harmonics which are filtered out by the
tuned output circuit.
13. A class C amplifier can be used as a frequency multiplier by connecting a resonant circuit tuned to
some integer multiple of the input frequency in the output.
14. RF amplifiers may oscillate because of feedback from internal transistor capacitance. This can be
eliminated, or prevented, by neutralization, a process that cancels the feedback with out-of-phase
feedback.
15. Frequency multipliers can be cascaded to produce higher output frequencies.
16. In an FM transmitter, the frequency multipliers increase the deviation as well as the carrier frequency.
17. Linear amplifiers operating class A or B are used to increase the power level of Iow level AM and SSB
signals.
18. Impedance-matching networks are used to interconnect RF amplifiers and to couple power to the
antenna to ensure the optimum transfer of power.
19. Common impedance-matching circuits and components include LC L networks, LC pi networks, LC T
networks, transformers, and baluns. The pi and T networks are preferred since Q can be controlled.
20. Maximum power transfer occurs when the load impedance equals the generator source impedance.
21. Radio-frequency transformers are typically constructed with doughnut-shaped powdered-iron cores
called toroids.
22. The impedance-matching ability of a transformer is determined by its turns ratio: (Np/Ns)2= Zp/Zs.
23. Inductors made with toroids for a given inductance are smaller, use fewer turns of wire, have a higher
Q, and do not require shielding.
24. A balun is a transformer connected in a special way to transform circuits from balanced to unbalanced
or vice versa and to provide impedance matching.
25. Toroid transformers and baluns are broadband devices that operate over a wide bandwidth.
26. Broadband, linear, untuned RF power amplifiers provide amplification over a broad frequency range.
27. Speech-processing circuits in a transmitter prevent overmodulation, prevent excessive signal
bandwidth, and increase the average transmitted power in AM and SSB systems.
28. A voice clipper uses diodes to limit the amplitude of the audio modulating signal. A low-pass filter
smoothes out any clipping distortion and prevents excessive sidebands.
29. Voice compressors use automatic-gain control (AGC) circuits to limit the audio amplitude. The gain of
the circuit is inversely proportional to the audio signal amplitude.
30. In AGC circuits, a rectifier and filter convert the audio or RF into a dc voltage that controls the gain of
an audio or RF amplifier to prevent overmodulation.
31. The gain of a transistor amplifier can be varied by changing the collector current.
SELF-TEST
Supply the missing word(s) in each statement.
Choose the letter that best answers each question.
1. The simplest transmitter is a(n) _____ circuit.
2. Information sent in the form of coded dots and dashes is called _____ transmission and is abbreviated
_____.
3. Fixed-frequency or channel operation of a transmitter is obtained by using a(n) _____.
4. An amplifier that isolates the carrier oscillator from other transmitter amplifiers is known as a _____
amplifier.
5. Intermediate power amplifier stages in a transmitter are commonly referred to as _____.
6. The output RF power amplifier in a transmitter is sometimes called the _____.
7. Audio circuits that prevent excessive signal bandwidth and over modulation are called _____. circuits.
8. In an PM transmitter, special amplifiers called _____ are used to increase the carrier frequency and
deviation to the desired output values.
9. In an SSB transmitter, the final output frequency is usually produced by a(n) _____ circuit before being
amplified.
10. The power level of SSB signals must be increased by _____ amplifiers to prevent distortion.
11. Frequency-modulated signals use _____ amplifiers for power amplification.
12. Linear power amplifiers are used to raise the power level of _____ and _____ signals.
13. A _____ power amplifier is used to increase the power level of an FM signal.
14. Linear power amplifiers operate class _____ and _____.
15. A Class A Transistor amplifier has an efficiency of 50 percent. The output power is 27W. The power
dissipated in the transistor is _____ W.
16. Class A amplifiers conduct for _____ degrees of a sine wave input.
17. The cause of self-oscillation in a transistor RF amplifiers is _____.
18. Self-oscillation in an RF amplifier that does not occur at the tuned frequency of the amplifier is called
_____.
19. Self-oscillation of an RF amplifier can be eliminated by the process of _____.
20. True or false. Elimination of self-oscillation can be accomplished with either a feedback inductor or a
capacitor.
21. Combining a feedback capacitor with the internal capacitance of the transistor forms a(n) _____ circuit
which is used to cancel the self-oscillation.
22. True or false. With no input, a class B amplifier does not conduct.
23. Class B RF power amplifiers normally used a(n) _____ configuration.
24. A class C amplifier conducts for approximately _____ degrees to _____ degrees of the input signal.
25. In a class C amplifier collector current flows in the form of _____.
26. In a class C amplifier, a complete sinusoidal output signal is produced by a(n) _____.
27. The efficiency of a class C amplifier is in the range of _____ to _____ percent.
28. The tuned circuit in the collector of a class C amplifier acts as a filter to eliminate _____.
29. A class C amplifier whose output tuned circuit resonates at some integer multiple of the input
frequency is called a(n) _____.
30. Frequency multipliers with factors of 2, 3, 4, and 5 are cascaded. The input is 1.5 MHz. The output is
_____ MHz.
31. A class C amplifier has a de supply voltage of 28 V and an average collector current of 1.8 A. The power
input is _____ W.
32. Maximum power transfer occurs when the generator impedance _____ the load impedance.
33. A commonly used two-element (LC) circuit called a(n) _____ is widely used for impedance matching.
34. List the two popular types of three element (LC) matching networks.
35. Most impedance-matching networks are _____ filters, so they eliminate harmonies.
36. The main advantage of pi and T networks over the L network is that the circuit _____ can be chosen.
37. 37 True or false. Most impedance-matching networks are made adjustable (tunable).
38. Calculate the L network components to match a 3-Ω internal resistance in series with an internal
inductance of 19 nH to a 72-Ω load impedance in parallel with a stray capacitance of 32 pF at a
frequency of 18 MHz.
39. Calculate the components of an LCC T network to match a 4-Ω internal resistance to a 52-Ω load at 72
MHz. Assume a Q of 12.
40. A transformer has 6 turns on the primary and 18 turns on the secondary. If the generator (source)
impedance is 50Ω, the load impedance should be _____ Ω.
41. A transformer must match a 200 generator a 50-Ω load. The turns ratio must be _____.
42. A single-winding transformer is known as a(n) _____.
43. A doughnut-shaped powdered-iron core widely used to make RF transformers and inductors is called
a(n) _____.
44. An RF transformer with a 1:1 turns ratio called a(n) _____ is connected in Ii special way to provide 1:4 or
4:1 impedance matching.
45. Untuned RF transformers permit _____ operation over a wide frequency range.
46. The two techniques used in speech processing are _____ and _____.
47. Name the two primary purposes of speech processing.
48. A diode _____ circuit is frequently used to restrict voice signal amplitude.
49. Name the two main purposes of a low-pass filter in a speech-processing circuit.
50. Over modulation in an AM transmitter causes distortion and out-of-band operation which is referred to
as _____.
51. Audio compression is achieved by controlling the _____ of an audio amplifier.
52. Audio compression is used to increase the average _____ in an AM or SSB signal.
53. _____ and _____ circuits are used in a speech compressor to create a dc feedback control signal.
54. The gain of a transistor can be controlled by varying the _____.
55. The process of adjusting the amplification of a signal based on its amplitude is known as _____.
56. In an audio compressor, do low-level signals receive more or less amplification?
57. True or false. Speech processing may be done on the RF signal or the audio signal.
ANSWERS
1. oscillator
2. continuous-wave, CW
3. crystal oscillator
4. buffer
5. drivers
6. final
7. speech-processing
8. frequency multipliers
9. mixer
10. linear
11. class C
12. AM, SSB
13. class C
14. A, B, AB
15. 27
16. 360
17. base-collector capacitance
18. parasitic oscillation
19. neutralization
20. true
21. bridge
22. true
23. push-pull
24. 90, 150
25. pulses
26. tuned or resonant circuit
27. 60, 85
28. harmonics
29. frequency multipliers
30. 180 [2(3)(4)(5) = 120; 120(1.5)=180 MHz]
31. 50.4 [28(1.8) = 50.4 W]
32. equals
33. L network
34.pi ( ), T
35. low-pass
36. Q
37. true
38. L = 108 nH, C = 558 pF
39. L = 106 nH, C1 = 13.5 pF, C2= 34 pF
40. 450
41. 2:1
42. autotransformer
43. toroid
44. balun
45. broadband
46. clipping, compression
47. prevent over modulation and distortion, eliminate out-of-band operation
48. clipper
49. smooth out distortion caused by clipping, restrict signal bandwidth
50. splatter
51. gain
52. power
53. rectifying, filtering
54. collector current
55. automatic gain control
56. more
57. true
CHAPTER 7
Communications Receivers
1. The simplest form of communications receiver is the tuned radio-frequency (TRF) receiver which
provides RF and AF gain, selectivity, and a demodulator.
2. The two primary characteristics of a receiver are selectivity and sensitivity.
3. Selectivity is the ability to separate signals on different frequencies.
4. The bandwidth (BW) of a tuned circuit is the difference between the upper f2 and lower f1 3-dB-down
frequencies (BW =f2 – f1).
5. The bandwidth of a tuned circuit is determined by the ratio of the resonant frequency to the Q where Q
is XL/R of the inductor (BW =fr/Q). The Q can be computed from the bandwidth Q =fr/BW = fr / (f2-f1).
6. Sharper selectivity with steeper response curve skirts can be obtained by cascading tuned circuits.
7. The shape factor of a response curve is the ratio of the 6O-dB-down bandwidth to the 6-dB-down
bandwidth. The lower the shape factor, the better the selectivity.
8. Sensitivity is the ability of the receiver to pick up weak signals and is a function of gain.
9. The disadvantages of a TRF receiver are tuning difficulties and selectivity varying with frequency.
10. These problems of a TRF receiver are eliminated by using a superheterodyne (superhet) receiver.
11. A superhet uses a mixer to translate the incoming signal to a lower frequency, known as the
intermediate frequency (IF), where fixed gain and selectivity .can be obtained.
12. Most of the gain and selectivity in a superhet is obtained in the IF amplifier.
13. Low IFs are preferred because higher selectivity and better stability can be obtained with simple
circuits.
14. Low IFs usually cause image interference problems.
15. An image is a signal on a frequency separated from the desired signal frequency by 2 times the IF
value that interferes with reception.
16. The mixer will convert both the desired signal and the image to the IF.
17. Image interference is caused by poor receiver input selectivity that does not adequately reject the
image.
18. Image interference can be reduced by using a double-conversion superhet that uses two mixers and
IFs. The first IF is high to eliminate images, and the second is low to ensure good selectivity.
19. The most critical part of any receiver is the front end which consists of the RF amplifier and mixer as
these circuits add the most noise to a weak signal.
20. Noise is any random interference to a weak signal.
21. A measure of a receiver's noise performance is its signal-to-noise (SIN) ratio.
22. External noise comes from industrial, atmospheric', and space sources.
23. Industrial noise sources are ignitions, motors and generators, switching devices, and fluorescent lights.
24. Atmospheric noise comes from lightning and other sources.
25. Space noise comes from the sun as well as other stars and extraterrestrial sources.
26. Internal noise from electronic components also interferes with reception and can totally mask weak
signals.
27. Most internal noise comes from thermal agitation-the random movement of electrons and atoms in a
material due to heat.
28. The thermal noise voltage across a resistor is proportional to the temperature, the bandwidth, and the
resistance value and can be computed with the expression Vn = square root of 4kTBR where k is
Boltzmann's constant 1.38 x 10-23,T is the temperature in degrees kelvin, B is the bandwidth in hertz,
and R is the resistance in ohms.
29. Other types of internal noise are shot and transit-time noise in semiconductors.
30. Noise cannot be eliminated, but its effect can be minimized.
31. Noise performance of a receiver or circuit is expressed in terms of the noise figure F, also called the
noise factor, which is the ratio of the SIN input to the SIN output. It is usually given in decibels.
32. Noise performance of microwave components is usually expressed in terms of noise Temperature in
degrees Kelvin K = 290(F - 1).
33. Thermal noise is random and is often referred to as white noise or Johnson noise.
34. Since noise is a mixture of all random frequencies, its level can be reduced by narrowing the
bandwidth.
35. Most receivers get their selectivity from double-tuned LC circuits.
36. Most receivers have AGC circuits so that a wide dynamic range of input signal amplitude scan be
accommodated without distortion.
37. An AGC circuit rectifies the IF or demodulator output into dc to control the IF amplifier gain.
38. The gain of a bipolar transistor can be varied by changing its collector current.
39. In reverse AGC an increase in the AGC voltage decreases the collector current.
40. In forward AGC, an increase in AGC voltage increases collector current.
41. The gain of a dual-gate MOSFET in an IF amplifier is controlled by varying the dc voltage on the second
gate.
42. Automatic frequency control (AFC) is a feedback system similar to AGC that is used to correct for
frequency drift and instability in the LO of VHF, UHF, and microwave frequency receivers.
43. A squelch circuit is used to cut off the audio output to prevent annoying noise until a signal is received.
Either the audio signal or background noise can be used to operate the squelch circuit.
44. Continuous tone control squelch (CTCS) circuits permit selective signaling by allowing only lowfrequency tones to trigger the squelch.
45. A beat frequency oscillator (BFO) is used in SSB and CW receivers to provide a carrier that will mix with
the input signal in the demodulator to generate the audio output.
46. A transceiver is a piece of communications equipment that combines a receiver and a transmitter in a
common package where they share a common housing and power supply. Single-sideband transceivers
allow sharing of the filter, LO stages, and other circuits.
47. Many new transceivers contain a frequency synthesizer that eliminates multiple crystal oscillators and
LC tuned oscillators in the transmitter and receiver.
48. A frequency synthesizer is a signal generator usually implemented with a PLL that produces LO and
transmitter carrier signals in a transceiver.
49. A frequency synthesizer has the stability of a crystal oscillator, but the frequency can be varied in
small, equal increments over a wide range.
50. The frequency increments in a synthesizer are set by the frequency of the reference input to the phase
detector.
51. The frequency of a synthesizer is changed by varying the divide ratio of the frequency divider between
the VCO output and phase detector input.
52. Phase-locked loop synthesizers often incorporate mixers and multipliers to permit more than one
frequency to be generated.
SELF-TEST
Supply the missing word(s) in each statement.
Choose the letter that best answers each question.
1. The ability of a receiver to choose a desired signal frequency while rejecting closely adjacent signal
frequencies is known as _____.
2. Decreasing the Q of a resonant circuit causes its bandwidth to _____.
3. Good selectivity usually means _____ (wide, narrow) bandwidth.
4. True or false. A tuned circuit can provide voltage gain.
5. S. Cascading tuned circuits cause the selectivity to _____ (increase, decrease).
6. If the selectivity of a tuned circuit is too sharp, the _____ of the received signal may be attenuated.
7. A tuned circuit has a Q of 100 at its resonant frequency of 500 kHz. Its bandwidth is _____ kHz.
8. A parallel LC tuned circuit has a coil of 3 H and a capacitance of 75 pF. The coil resistance is 10Ω. The
circuit bandwidth is _____ MHz.
9. A tuned circuit has a resonant frequency of 10 MHz and a bandwidth of 100 kHz. The upper and lower
cutoff frequencies are f1 (upper) = _____ MHz, f2 (lower) = _____ MHz.
10. To achieve a bandwidth of 3 kHz at 4 MHz, a Q of_____ is required.
11. To narrow the bandwidth of a tuned circuit, the coil resistance must be _____ (increased, decreased).
12. A filter has a 6-dB bandwidth of 500 Hz and a 60-dB bandwidth of 1200 Hz. The shape factor is _____.
13. The greater the gain of the receiver, the better its _____.
14. A receiver that uses only amplifiers and a detector is known as a(n) _____ receiver.
15. A receiver that uses a mixer to convert the received signal to a lower frequency is called a(n) _____.
16. The acronym IF means _____.
17. Tuning a super heterodyne is done by varying the frequency of its _____.
18. Most of the gain and selectivity in a superhet is obtained in the _____.
19. The _____ circuit in a receiver com compensates for a wide range of input signal levels.
20. The mixer output is usually the difference between the _____ frequency and the _____ frequency.
21. The AGC voltage controls the gain of the _____.
22. For best selectivity and stability, the IF should be
a. High
b. Medium
c. Low
23. An interfering signal that is spaced from the desired signal by twice the IF is called a(n) _____.
24. A superhet has an input signal of 15 MHz. The LO is tuned to 18.5 MHz. The IF is _____ MHz.
25. Images are caused by the lack of _____ at the mixer input.
26. A desired signal at 27 MHz is mixed with an LO frequency of 27.5 MHz. The image frequency is _____
MHz.
27. True or false. The LO may be above or below the signal frequency.
28. The main feature of a dual-conversion superhet is that it has two _____ circuits.
29. The image problem can be solved by proper choice of the _____.
30. A dual-conversion superhet has an input frequency of 50 MHz and LO frequencies of 59 MHz and 9.6
MHz. The two IFs are _____ MHz and _____ kHz.
31. List three sources of external noise.
32. List three main types of internal noise.
33. Noise from the sun and stars is called _____ noise.
34. Atmospheric noise comes primarily from _____.
35. List four sources of industrial noise.
36. The main source of internal noise is _____.
37. The SIN ratio is usually expressed in _____.
38. For best reception, the SIN ratio should be _____ (low, high).
39. Increasing the temperature of a component causes its noise power to _____.
40. Thermal noise is sometimes called _____ or _____ noise,
41. Narrowing the bandwidth of a circuit causes the noise level to _____.
42. The noise voltage produced across a 75- input resistance at a temperature of 25°C with a bandwidth
of 15 MHz is _____ V.
43. Two types of. noise caused by tubes or transistors are _____ noise and _____ noise.
44. True or false. The noise at the output of a receiver will be less than the noise at the input.
45. True or false. The receiver amplifies noise as well as the signal.
46. The ratio of the SIN power at the input to the SIN power at the output is called the _____.
47. Noise temperature in degrees Kelvin is used to express the noise in a system at _____ (low, microwave)
frequencies.
48. The noise figure of an amplifier is 2.6. The noise' temperature is _____ K.
49. The SINAD method considers the signal, noise, and _____ levels in a receiver.
50. Noise is more or a problem at _____ frequencies.
51. The stages of a receiver that contribute the most noise are the _____ and the _____.
52. True or false. An amplifier with a noise temperature of 170K is better than one with a rating of 235 K.
53. RF amplifiers provide initial _____ and _____ in a receiver but also add _____.
54. A low-noise transistor preferred at microwave frequencies is the _____ made of _____.
55. Most of the gain and selectivity in a superhet is obtained in the _____ amplifier.
56. The selectivity in an IF amplifier is usually produced by using _____ between stages.
57. The bandwidth of a double-tuned transformer depends upon the degree of _____ between primary and
secondary windings.
58. In a double-tuned circuit, minimum band width is obtained with _____ coupling, maximum bandwidth
with _____ coupling, and peak output with _____ or _____ coupling.
59. An IF amplifier that clips the positive and negative peaks .of a signal is called a(n) _____.
60. Clipping occurs in an amplifier because the transistor is driven by a high-level signal into _____.
61. The gain of a bipolar class A amplifier can be varied by changing the _____.
62. The overall RF-IF gain of a receiver is approximately _____ dB.
63. Using the amplitude of the incoming signal to control the gain of the receiver is known as _____.
64. AGC circuits vary the gain of the_____ amplifier.
65. The dc AGC control voltage is derived from a(n) _____ circuit connected to the _____ or _____ output.
66. Reverse AGC is where a signal amplitude increase causes a(n) _____ in the IF amplifier collector current.
67. Forward AGC uses a signal amplitude increase to _____ the collector current, which decreases the IF
amplifier gain.
68. The AGC of a differential amplifier is produced by controlling the current produced by the _____
transistor.
69. In a dual-gate MOSFET IF amplifier, the dc AGC voltage is applied to the _____.
70. Another name for AGC in an AM receiver is _____.
71. In an AM receiver, the AGC voltage is derived from the _____.
72. Large input signals cause the gain of a receiver to be _____ by the AGC.
73. An AFC circuit corrects for frequency drift in the _____ circuit.
74. The AFC de control voltage is derived from the _____ circuit in a receiver.
75. A(n) _____ is used in an AFC circuit to vary the LO frequency.
76. A circuit that blocks the audio until a signal is received is called a(n) circuit.
77. Two types of signals used to operate the squelch circuit are _____.
78. In a CTCS system, a low-frequency _____ is used to trigger the _____ circuit.
79. A BFO is required to receive _____ and _____ signals.
80. What components or circuits in Fig. 7-27 determine the bandwidth of the receiver? (page 166-Frenzel)
81. As R1 is varied so that the voltage on the arm of the pot increases toward +9 V, how does the
frequency of the local oscillator vary?
82. If there was no audio output from the speaker but you knew that a signal was present, what two
controls would you check first?
83. What component provides most of the gain in this receiver?
84. Is the squelch signal or noise derived?
85. Does this receiver contain a BFO? Could it receive CW or SSB signals?
86. If the dc AGC voltage on pin 5 of U2 was decreased, what would happen to the gain of U2?
87. Where would you inject an audio signal to test the complete audio section of this receiver?
88. What frequency signal would you use to test the IF section of this receiver, and where would you
connect it?
89. What component would be inoperable if C31 became shorted?
90. Explain how you would connect a digital counter to this receiver so that it would read the frequency of
the signal to which it was tuned.
91. In an FM transceiver, the only shared circuitry is usually the _____.
92. In an SSB transceiver, the shared circuits are the _____ and the _____.
93. The circuit used to generate one or more stable frequencies for the transmitter and receiver is known
as a(n) _____.
94. A basic circuit of a frequency synthesizer is a(n) _____.
95. The output frequency of a synthesizer is changed by varying the _____ of the divider between the VCO
and phase detector.
96. A frequency synthesizer has a phase detector input reference of 10 kHz. The divide ratio is 286. The
output frequency is _____ MHz. The frequency change increment is _____ kHz.
97. The PLL is often combined with _____ circuits to produce multiple frequencies.
98. What three frequencies does the synthesizer in a transceiver usually generate?
ANSWERS
selectivity
increase
narrow
true (resonant step-up)
increase(narrower bandwidth)
sidebands
5
8. 0.53 MHz or 530 kHz (fr = 10.6 MHz, XL = 200 , Q = 20)
9. 9.95, 10.05
10. 1333.3
11. decreased
12. 2.4
13. sensitivity
14. tuned radio frequency
15. superheterodyne
16. intermediate frequency
17. local oscillator
18. IF amplifier
19. automatic gain control
20. signal or input, local oscillator
21. IF amplifier
22. c
23. Image
24. 3.5
25. selectivity
26. 28
27. true
28. mixer
29. Intermediate frequency
30. 9,600
31. industrial, atmospheric, and space
32. thermal agitation, shot noise, transit-time noise
33. extraterrestrial or space
34. lightning
35. automobiles, motors, generators, fluorescent lights
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
36. thermal agitation
37. decibels
38. high
39. increase
40. white, Johnson
41. decrease
42. 1.36
43. shot, transit-time
44. false
45. true
46. noise figure
47. microwave
48. 48.464
49. 49. distortion
50. 50. high
51. RF amplifier, mixer
52. true
53. gain, selectivity, noise
54. MESFET or GASFET, gallium arsenide
55. IF
56. tuned circuits
57. mutual inductance
58. under, over, optimum, critical
59. limiter
60. cutoff, saturation
61. collector current
62. 100
63. automatic gain control
64. IF
65. rectifier, IF amplifier or detector
66. decrease
67. increase
68. constant-current source
69. control gate
70. automatic volume control
71. diode detector
72. reduced
73. local oscillator
74. demodulator
75. voltage-variable capacitor
76. squelch
77. audio, noise
78. tone, squelch
79. SSB, CW
80.the ceramic filter FIL1
81.As the pot arm voltage goes more positive, the reverse bias across D1 increases, thus decreasing its
capacitance and the overall capacitance of D1 in series with C14; this in turn increases the local
oscillator frequency.
82.volume R2 and squelch R3
83.U2, the MC1350 IF amplifier IC
84. The squelch is signal derived
85. With no BFO, the receiver cannot receive CW or SSB.
86. The gain increases.
87.pin 5 of the U3-b op amp
88.10.7 MHz injected to the ceramic filter FIL1
89.U2, the MC1350 IC, would lose supply voltage at pin 2.
90. A digital counter could be connected to monitor the local oscillator output signal at pin 6 or 7 of the
NE602 mixer IC. This would read the local oscillator frequency, which is 10.7 MHz higher than the
actual input signal frequency. Therefore, the counter would have to be preset to a value that is 10.7
MHz less than zero count. In this way, the IF value would effectively be subtracted from the input count
to read the correct frequency. Assume that the counter is set up to count four digits, 000.0. The counter
is preset to 100.0 - 10.7= 89.3, and the input signal frequency is 118 MHz. The local oscillator is tuned
to 118 + 10.7 = 128.7 MHz. The counter counts 10.7 to reach 000.0 and then counts 118 more to
display a final value of 118.0.
91. power supply
92. crystal filter, local oscillators
93. frequency synthesizer
94. phase-locked loop
95. frequency division ratio
96. 2.86, 10
97. mixer
98. LO for first mixer, LO for second mixer, transmitter
CHAPTER 8
Multiplexing
1. Multiplexing is the process of transmitting multiple signals over a single communications channel.
2. The primary benefit of multiplexing is economic since multiple communications can take place for the
cost of a single link plus the multiplexing equipment.
3. The two major types of multiplexing are frequency division and time division multiplexing.
4. Some, examples of multiplexing include telemetry, telephone systems, satellite communications, and
radio/TV stereo broadcasting.
5. In frequency division multiplexing (FDM), multiple signals share the common bandwidth of a single
communications channel, each occupying a separate portion of the bandwidth.
6. In FDM, each signal modulates a subcarrier on a different frequency. The subcarriers are then linearly
mixed to form a composite signal that is usually used to modulate a final carrier for transmission.
7. In FDM telemetry systems, transducers frequency modulate subcarrier oscillators whose outputs are
combined and used to frequency modulate a final carrier (FM/FM).
8. A subcarrier oscillator is a VCO whose frequency varies linearly in proportion to the amplitude of a
modulating dc or ac signal.
9. Recovering the individual signals at the receiver is done with a demultiplexer whose main components
are bandpass filters tuned to the individual subcarrier frequencies.
10. In FM/FM telemetry systems, PLL and pulse-averaging discriminators are used to demodulate the
subcarriers; PLL discriminators are preferred because of their superior noise performance.
11. The telephone system routinely uses FDM systems to allow many conversations to be carried on a
single cable.
12. Single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation is used in telephone FDM systems to minimize
bandwidth requirements.
13. Stereo broadcasts from FM stations use FDM techniques. Two channels of audio L and R are combined
to form L + R and L - R signals. The L - R signal modulates a 38-kHz subcarrier by DSB. The L + R
signal, DSB signal, and a 19-kHz pilot carrier are combined and used to frequency modulate the final
transmitter carrier.
14. In some FM broadcast systems, music is broadcast on a separate 67-kHz subcarrier which is frequency
modulated. This is referred to as Subsidiary Communication Authorization (SCA) signal or channel.
15. In time division multiplexing (TDM), each channel is assigned a time slot and may transmit for a brief
period using the entire bandwidth of the medium. Signal sources take turns transmitting.
16. Both digital and analog signals may be transmitted by TDM.
17. Analog signals are transmitted by converting them into a series of pulses whose amplitudes
approximate the shape of the analog signal. This process is called pulse amplitude modulation (PAM).
18. Pulse-amplitude modulation is produced by sampling the analog signal. This is done by periodically
opening a gate for a brief period, allowing a narrow portion of the analog signal to pass through.
19. Samples must be taken fast enough in order for high-frequency components to be recognized and
adequately represented.
20. A minimum sampling rate is 2 times the highest frequency component or upper bandwidth limit of the
analog signal. This is called the sampling theorem.
21. Pulse-amplitude modulation signals may be multiplexed by allowing samples of several signals to be
interleaved into adjacent time slots.
22. Field-Effect transistor switches are commonly used in sampling gates and PAM multiplexers. They are
controlled by digital circuits that set the sampling intervals and pulse rates.
23. The period of time during which each channel in a PAM system is sampled once is called a frame.
24. Pulse-amplitude modulation signals are normally used to frequency modulate another carrier creating
PAM/FM.
25. Demultiplexing PAM signals requires some means of synchronization to ensure matching clock
frequencies and channel timing at the receiver.
26. Special clock recovery circuits use the PAM signal itself to derive the clock signal at the receiver rather
than generating it independently. This ensures perfect frequency and phase relationships.
27. A special sync pulse with a unique shape to distinguish it from the PAM pulses is used to keep the
demultiplexer in synchronization with the multiplexer. The sync pulse usually occurs as the last pulse in
a frame.
28. Most TDM systems in use today use pulse code modulation (PCM) to transmit analog signals.
29. Pulse-code modulation uses A/D conversion techniques to translate analog signal into binary form for
serial transmission.
30. In a multichannel PCM system, each signal is furnished with an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and
parallel-to-serial converter. The resulting binary outputs are digitally multiplexed using TOM
techniques.
31. Voice, telemetry data, video, and other analog signals may be transmitted via PCM.
32. Pulse-code modulation signals are recovered at the receiver by demultiplexing and D/A conversion plus
appropriate filtering.
33. Pulse-code modulation is generated by periodically sampling the analog signal as in PAM systems. Then
the varying amplitude pulses are converted into proportional binary words by an ADC. This process is
called quantizing.
34. Quantizing means dividing a given signal voltage range into a number of discrete increments each
represented by a binary code. Each analog sample is matched to the nearest binary level.
35. Sampling in a PCM system is done by a sample/hold (S/H) amplifier that stores the analog value on a
capacitor at the instant of measurement.
36. Most ADCs have an 8-bit word providing a quantizing resolution of 1 in 256.
37. Most PCM systems, especially for voice transmission, use companding to compress the voice signal
dynamic range by emphasizing lower-level signals and de-emphasizing higher-level signals.
Companding minimizes quantization error and improves noise immunity.
38. Companding may be done by analog or digital techniques. Analog companders use diode circuits in
amplifiers for compression and expansion. Digital companders use special nonlinear ADCs and DACs.
39. A common PCM system using TDM techniques is the Bell T-1 used in telephone work.
40. A T-1 system multiplexes 24 voice channels, each represented by an 8-bit word. The sampling interval
is 125 s. A frame consists of twenty-four 8-bit words and a single sync pulse. The frame data rate is
1.544 MHz.
41. Most PCM systems like T-l use a special LSI IC called a codec to handle conversion and companding. A
codec contains the ADC, DAC, serial-to-paraIIel conversion circuits, companders, and related timing
circuits.
42. The sampling rate of a codec is usually 8 kHz.
43. Pulse-width moduldtion (PWM) and pulse position modulation (PPM) systems are no longer used.
44. Most TDM systems use PCM though some use PAM.
45. Pulse-code modulation is preferred over PAM because of its superior noise immunity.
SELF-TEST
Supply the missing word(s) in each statement.
Choose the letter that best answers each question.
1. Which statement is most correct?
a. Multiplexing uses multiple channels to transmit multiple signals.
b. Multiplexing uses multiple channels to transmit individual signals.
c. Multiplexing uses a single channel to transmit multiple signals.
d. Multiplexing uses a single channel to transmit a single signal.
2. Two common applications of multiplexing are _____.
3. The primary benefit of multiplexing is _____.
4. When multiplexing is used to transmit information, then a _____ must be used at the receiving end of
the communications link.
5. The two types of multiplexing are _____.
6. In FDM, multiple signals share a common channel _____.
7. The multiple signals in an FDM system are used to modulate separate _____.
8. To combine the, multiple signals in FDM, a _____ is used.
9. The composite multiplex signal is normally used to _____ an RF carrier before being transmitted.
10. Most telemetry multiplex systems used_____ modulation.
11. Telemetry signals are first conditioned by _____ and/or _____ before modulating a sub carrier.
12. Telemetry signals typically frequency modulate a _____.
13. The key circuit in a demultiplexer is a(n) _____.
14. The best demodulator for telemetry work is the _____ discriminator.
15. In FDM telephone systems, _____ modulation is used.
16. The monaural signal in FM stereo multiplex is designated _____.
17. The four signals transmitted in FM stereo multiplex are _____.
18. The type of modulation used on the L – R channel is _____.
19. The SCA signals use _____ modulation.
20. In TDM, multiple signals share a channel by transmitting in different _____.
21. The process of sampling an analog signal at a high rate of speed is called _____.
22. The minimum sampling rate for a signal with a 7-kHz bandwidth this _____ kHz.
23. The basic switching element in a PAM multiplexer is a _____.
24. The name of the circuit used to recreate the clock pulses at the receiver in a PAM system is called a
_____.
25. The multiplexer and demultiplexer are kept in step with one another by a(n) _____.
26. The time period during which all channels are sampled once is called a(n) _____.
27. A PAM signal is demodulated with a(n) _____.
28. A multiplexer is an electronic multi position _____.
29. The circuit that samples an analog signal in a PAM system is called a(n) _____.
30. In a PAM/FM system, the RF carrier modulation is _____.
31. A clock recovery circuit that tracks PAM frequency variations uses a(n) _____.
32. In PCM systems, analog signals are transmitted as _____.
33. Quantizer is another name for a(n) _____.
34. The standard audio sampling rate in a PCM telephone system is _____ kHz.
35. The standard word size in a PCM audio system is _____ bits.
36. The name of a widely used PCM telephone system is _____.
37. The process of emphasizing lower-level signals and de-emphasizing, higher-level signals is called _____.
38. An LSI circuit containing an ADC, DAC, compander, expander, and serial/parallel converters is called
a(n) _____.
39. The main benefit of PCM over PAM, FM, and other modulation techniques is its immunity to _____.
40. A T-1 multiplexer has _____ and a total bit rate of _____ channels MHz.
ANSWERS
1. c
2. telephone, telemetry
3. economy
4. demultiplexer
5. time division, frequency division
6. bandwidth
7. subcarriers
8. linear mixer
9. modulate
10. frequency
11. amplifying, filtering
12. subcarrier oscillator or VCO
13. bandpass filter
14. PLL
15. SSB
16.L + R
17.L + R. L - R. 19-kHz pilot, SCA
18. DSB
19. frequency
20. time slots or intervals.
21. pulse-amplitude modulation
22. 14
23. FET or MOSFET
24. clock recovery circuit
25. sync pulse
26. frame
27. low-pass filter
28. switch
29. gate
30. FM
31. phase-locked loop
32. binary codes
33. AID converter
34. 8
35. 8
36. T-1
37. companding
38. codec
39. noise
40. 24, 1.544
CHAPTER 9
Antennas and Transmission Lines
1. A transmission line is a two-wire cable used to carry RF energy between two different pieces of
communications equipment or between an antenna and a receiver or transmitter.
2. The two most common types of transmission lines are balanced and coaxial.
3. The primary feature of a transmission line is its characteristic or surge impedance Zo which is a
function of the distributed inductance L and the capacitance C per unit length (Zo = L / C).
4. The characteristic impedance of a balanced line is determined by its physical dimensions.
[ Zo =
276 log (2 S I D) where S is the center-to-center spacing of the conductors and D is the diameter of the
conductors.]
5. The characteristic impedance of coax also depends on its physical dimensions. [ Zo = 138 log (D I d)
where D is the inside diameter of the shield and d is the diameter of the inner conductor.]
6. The proper use of a transmission line is to terminate it in a load impedance equal to its surge
impedance. All the power applied to the line will be absorbed by the load.
7. Wavelength is the distance between adjacent peaks of a RF wave. It is also the distance traveled by a
signal in one cycle. Wavelength ( ) is computed with the expression
= 300 / f where f is the
frequency in megahertz and is in meters, Or = 984 / f where A is in feet.
8. If a transmission line is not terminated in its characteristic impedance, the load will not absorb all the
power. Some of it will be reflected back toward the generator.
9. If the load on a transmission line is an open or short, all the power applied to the line will be reflected
back to the generator.
10. The forward or incident power applied to the line combines with the reflected power to produce a
pattern of voltage and current variations along the line known as standing waves.
11. If the load impedance matches the line impedance, there are no standing waves.
12. A measure of the mismatch between line and load impedances or the maximum and minimum voltage
and current variations along, the line is the standing-wave, ratio (SWR) which is a number always
greater than 1.
13. The SWR indicates how much power is delivered to the load and lost in the line. With SWR = 1, all
power is delivered to the load.
14. The ratio of the reflected voltage V, to the incident voltage V, on a transmission line is caIled the
reflection coefficient R (R = Vr I Vi).A properly terminated line will have R = O. A shorted or open line
will have R =1.
=
15. The SWR in terms of the reflection coefficient SWR
is
1+ R
1− R
16. The SWR = ZO I ZL, or ZL l Zo where ZO is the characteristic impedance and ZLis the load impedance.
17. Every effort is made to reduce the SWR by using impedance-matching circuits to ensure that maximum
power is delivered to the load.
18. Transmission lines, one-quarter or one-half wavelength long and either shorted or open, act like
resonant or reactive circuits.
19. At UHF and microwave frequencies where one-half wavelength this less than 1 ft, transmission lines are
commonly used to replace conventional LC tuned circuits.
20. A shorted quarter wave and an open half wave act like a parallel resonant circuit.
21. Both an open quarter-wave circuit and a shorted half-wave circuit act like a series resonant circuit.
22. The velocity of propagation of a radio signal is slower in a transmission line than in free space. This
difference is expressed as the velocity factor F for different types of lines. Coax has a velocity factor of
0.6 to 0.7. The velocity factor of open wire line or twin lead is in the 0.7 to 0.8 range. In computing the
length of a transmission line at a specific frequency, the velocity factor must be considered ( = 984
F/f).
23. An antenna or aerial is one or more conductors used to transmit or receive radio signals.
24. A radio signal is electromagnetic energy made up of electric and magnetic fields at right angles to one
another and to the direction of signal propagation.
25. The polarization of a radio signal is defined as the orientation of the electric field with respect to the
earth and is either vertical or horizontal.
26. The most common antenna is the half wave dipole or doublet that has a characteristic impedance of
approximately 73 flat the center. Its length in feet is 468/f where f is the frequency in megahertz.
27. The dipole has a bidirectional figure-eight radiation pattern and is usually mounted horizontally but
may also be used vertically.
28. A popular variation of the dipole is the folded dipole which is one-half wavelength long and has an
impedance of 300 .
29. Another popular antenna is the quarter-wave vertical. The earth acts as the other quarter wave to
simulate a half-wave vertical dipole.
30. The quarter-wave vertical is referred to as a ground plane antenna. It is fed with coax with the center
conductor connected to the antenna and the shield connected to earth ground, to an array of quarterwave, wires m called radials, or to a large, flat, metal surface. Its length in feet is 234/f where f is in
megahertz.
31. The characteristic impedance of a ground plane is about 36.5
pattern that sends or receives equally well in all directions.
. It has an omni directional radiation
32. A directional antenna is one that transmits or receives over a narrow range in only one direction.
33. Directional antennas made up of two or more elements focus the radiation into a narrow beam, thus
giving the antenna gain.
34. The gain of the, antenna is the power amplification resulting from the concentration of power in one
direction. The gain may be expressed as a power ratio or in decibels.
35. The effective radiated power (ERP) of an antenna is the power input multiplied by the antenna power
gain.
36. Directional antennas with two or more elements are caIled arrays. There are two types of arrays:
parasitic and driven.
37. Parasitic elements called reflectors and directors when spaced parallel to a half wave dipole driven
element help focus the signal into a narrow beam.
38. The measure of the directivity of an antenna is the beam width or beam angle measured in degrees.
39. A parasitic array made up of a driven element, reflector, and one or more directors is known as a Yagi
or beam antenna and has a gain of 10 to 20 dB with a beam width of 40° to 20°.
40. Driven arrays consist of two or more half wavelength elements, each receiving power from the
transmission line.
41. The three most popular driven arrays are the collinear, end-fire, and broadside.
42. A widely used driven array is the log periodic antenna which exhibits gain, directivity, and a wide
operating frequency range.
43. A radio wave propagates through space in one of three ways: ground wave, sky waves, or direct waves.
44. The ground or surface wave leaves the antenna and follows the curvature of the earth. The ground
wave is only effective on frequencies below 3 MHz.
45. The skywave propagates from the antenna upward where it is bent back to earth by the ionosphere.
46. The ionosphere is a portion of the earth's atmosphere 30 to 250 mi above the .earth that has been
ionized by the sun.
47. The ionosphere is made up of three layers of different ionization density: the D, E, and F layers. The F
layer is the most highly ionized and causes refraction or bending of radio waves back to earth.
48. The refraction of the ionosphere causes a radio signal to be bent back to earth with little or no
attenuation long distances from the transmitter. This is known as a skip or hop.
49. Multiple skips or hops between the ionosphere and earth permit very long distances, even worldwide,
communications. This effect is useful over the 3- to 30-MHz range.
50. At frequencies above 30 MHz, propagation is primarily by the direct or space wave which travels in a
straight line between transmitting and receiving antennas. This is known as line-of-sight
communications.
51. Radio waves ate easily blocked or reflected by large objects. This is particularly true of VHF, UHF, and
microwave signals.
52. The communications distance at VHF, UHF, and microwave frequencies is limited to the line-of-sight
distance between transmitting and receiving antennas.
53. The line-of-sight distance D is limited by the curvature of the earth and is dependent upon the heights
h, and h, of the transmitting and receiving antennas, respectively.
D = 2ht + 2hr
54. To extend transmission distances at VHF, UHF, and microwave frequencies, relay stations known as
repeater stations receive and retransmit signals.
SELF-TEST
Supply the missing word(s) in each statement.
Choose the letter that best answers each question.
The two basic types of transmission line are _____.
If one wire of a transmission line is connected to ground, the line is said to be _____.
The distance that a signal travels during one cycle is called the _____.
One wavelength that a frequency of 450 MHz is m _____.
A line 4 in. long represents one-half wavelength at a frequency of _____ GHz.
The physical dimensions of a transmission line determine its _____.
To a generator, a transmission line looks like a(n) _____ made up of distributed _____ and _____.
A coax line has a shield braid with an inside diameter of 0.2 in. and a center conductor with a diameter
of 0.057 in. The characteristic impedance is _____ .
9. The attenuation of 250 ft of RG-11U coax at 100 MHz is _____ dB. (SeeFig.9-7) (page 211-Frenzel)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
10. For optimum transfer of power from a generator to a load of 52 , the transmission line impedance
should be _____ .
11. The current and voltage along a properly matched line are _____.
12. If a transmission line is not terminated in its characteristic impedance, _____ will develop along the line
13. If a load and line have mismatched impedances, power not absorbed by the load will be _____.
14. Patterns of voltage and current variations along, a transmission line with a mismatched load are known
as _____.
15. A 52- coax bas a 36- antenna load. The SWR is _____.
16. If the load and line impedances are matched, the SWR will be _____.
17. All incident power on a line will be reflected if the line is _____ or _____ at its end.
18. The ratio of the reflected voltage to the incident voltage on a transmission line is called the _____.
19. The maximum voltage along a transmission line is 150V, and the minimum voltage is 90V. The SWR is
_____.The reflection coefficient is _____.
20. The reflection coefficient of a transmission line is 0.75. The SWR is _____.
21. An open or shorted transmission line will have a reflection coefficient of _____ and an SWR of _____.
22. Transmission lines, one-quarter or one haIf wavelength can be used as _____.
23. A transmission line bas an SWR of 1.75. The power applied to the line, is 90 W. The amount of reflected
power is _____ W.
24. A shorted quarter-wave line looks like a(n) _____ impedance to the generator.
25. The following lines look like a series resonant circuit: a _____ /4 line; a _____ /2 line.
26. Transmission lines less than /4 or between /4 and /2 act like _____ or _____.
27. An open transmission line 6 in. long acts as a _____ resonant circuit at a frequency of 492 MHz.
28. A coax bas a velocity factor of 0.68. One half wavelength of this coax at 120 MHz is _____ ft long.
29. Radio waves are made up of _____ and _____ fields.
30. The polarization of a radio wave depends upon the position of its _____ with respect to the earth's
surface.
31. The antenna is connected to the transmitter or receiver by a(n) _____.
32. A radio wave has its magnetic field horizontal to the earth. It is, therefore, _____ polarized.
33. One of the most widely used and simplest antennas is the half-wave _____.
34. The length of a doublet antenna at 150 MHz is _____ ft.
35. The feed impedance of a dipole antenna is approximately, _____ .
36. The horizontal radiation pattern of a dipole looks like a(n) _____.
37. The measure of an antenna's directivity is _____.
38. An antenna that radiates equally well in all horizontal directions is said to be _____.
39. A quarter-wave vertical antenna is commonly known as a(n) _____ antenna.
40. The length of a quarter-wave vertical antenna at 890 MHz is _____ in.
41. For proper operation of a vertical antenna, the shield of the feed coax must make a good connection to
_____ or a set of quarter-wave wires called _____.
42. The horizontal radiation pattern of a quarter-wave vertical is a(n) _____.
43. The feed impedance of a quarter-wave vertical is approximately _____ .
44. An antenna that transmits or receives equally well in two opposite directions is said to be _____.
45. A unidirectional antenna transmits best in _____ direction(s).
46. A directional antenna that focuses the energy into a narrow beam has _____ since it effectively
amplifies the signal.
47. To have gain and directivity, an antenna must have two or more _____.
48. List two basic types of antenna arrays.
49. The three basic elements in a Yagi antenna are _____.
50. The two parasitic elements in a beam antenna are the _____.
51. A Yagi may have one or more _____ elements.
52. The beam width of a Yagi is usually in the range of _____ to _____ degrees.
53. The length of the driven element in a Yagi at 222 MHz is _____ ft.
54. List three kinds of driven arrays.
55. True or false. Yagis and driven arrays may be operated either horizontally or vertically.
56. A popular wideband driven array is the _____ array.
57. An impedance-matching circuit used to make the antenna, transmission line, and transmitter
impedances match is the _____.
58. A transformer used for impedance matching is the _____.
59. A quarter-wavelength section of transmission line used for impedance matching is called a(n) _____.
60. A coax balun has an impedance-matching ratio of _____.
61. A quarter-wavelength of coax with a velocity factor of 0.7 at 220 MHz is _____ in.
62. List the three paths that a radio signal may take through space.
63. A radio wave that propagates near the surface of the earth is called a(n) _____ or _____ wave.
64. The radio wave that is refracted by the ionosphere is known as a(n) _____ wave.
65. A radio wave that propagates only over line-of-sight distances is called a(n) _____ or _____ wave.
66. The surface wave is effective only at frequencies below about _____ MHz.
67. The upper part of the earth's atmosphere ionized by the sun that affects radio waves is called the
_____.
68. The _____ layer has the greatest effect on a radio signal.
69. The ionized atmosphere causes radio waves at some frequencies to be _____.
70. True or false. Radio waves are easily reflected by large objects.
71. True or false. The ionosphere reflects radio waves.
72. Only signals in the _____ to _____ MHz range are significantly affected by the ionosphere.
73. Worldwide radio communications is possible thanks to _____ transmission.
74. The VHF, UHF, and microwave signals travel in a(n) _____.
75. To increase transmission distances at VHF and above, special stations called are _____ used.
76. A microwave relay station contains a(n) _____ and a(n) _____ operating on different frequencies.
ANSWERS
1. balanced, coax
2. unbalanced
3. wavelength
4. 0.667
5. 1.475
6. characteristic or surge impedance
7. low-pass filter, capacitors, inductors
8. 75.23
9. 6.25
10. 52
11. constant or fiat
12. standing waves
13. reflected
14. standing waves
15. 1.44
16. 1
17. open, shorted
18. reflection coefficient
19. 1.67,0.25
20. 7
21. 1, infinity
22. tuned or resonant circuits
23. 6.3 [0.07(90)=6.3] (See Fig. 9-12.)
24. high or infinite
25. open, shorted
26. inductors, capacitors
27. series
28. 2.788
29. electric, magnetic
30. electric field
31. transmission or feed line
32. vertically
33. dipole or doublet
34. 3.12
35. 73
36. figure eight
37. beam width
38. omni directional
39. ground plane
40. 3.16
41. earth ground, radials
42. circle
43. 36.5
44. bidirectional
45. one
46. gain
47. elements
48. parasitic, driven
49. director, reflector, driven element
50. director, reflector
51. director
52. 20, 40
53. 2.1
54. collinear, end-fire, broadside
55. true
56. log-periodic
57. antenna tuner
58. balun
59.Q section, matching stub
60. 60.4:1
61. 9.39
62. ground or surface wave, sky wave, direct or space wave
63. ground, surface
64. sky
65. 65. direct or space
66. 3
67. ionosphere
68. F
69. refracted or bent
70. true
71. false
72. 3, 30
73. multiple hop
74. straight line
75. repeaters
76. transmitter, receiver
CHAPTER 10
Microwave Techniques
1. Microwaves are radio signals in the frequency range from I to 300 GHz.
2. The RF spectrum below UHF is mostly already fully occupied leaving little or no room for the growth of
new radio services.
3. At microwave frequencies, tremendous bandwidth is available for new radio services as well as for
wide-bandwidth signals such as TV, multiplexed signals, or computer data.
4. The microwave frequencies are used primarily for telephone communications, radar, and satellite
communications.
5. Other microwave applications include cable TV, space communications, radio astronomy, and heating.
6. The primary benefit of microwaves is wide bandwidth availability.
7. The main disadvantages of microwaves are that they are limited to line-of-sight transmission distances,
conventional components are not usable, and circuits are more difficult to analyze and design.
8. The allocation of the RF spectrum is handled by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the
United States.
9. Balanced transmission line is not used for microwaves because of radiation losses. Coaxial cable is not
used because of its high attenuation.
10. The preferred transmission line for microwaves is waveguides.
11. Because of the short physical length of transmission lines at microwave frequencies, quarter- and halfwave lines are commonly used for tuned circuits and filters.
12. Two printed circuit board implementations of transmission lines, called stripline and microstrip, are
widely used to create resonant circuits and filters.
13. A waveguide is a hollow metal pipe with a circular or rectangular cross section used for carrying
microwave signals from one place to another.
14. A waveguide acts like a high-pass filter, passing all frequencies above its cut-of frequency and rejecting
those below it.
15. The cutoff frequency fco of a waveguide depends upon its physical size. For a rectangular waveguide, it
is 300/2a. where a is the wide dimension of the waveguide in meters.
16. The microwave signal carried by a waveguide is made up of electric (E) and magnetic (H) fields that
bounce off the walls of the waveguide as they propagate along its length.
17. The modes of a waveguide describe the various patterns of electric and magnetic fields that are
possible.
18. A transverse electric (TE) mode is one where the electric field is transverse or perpendicular to the
direction of propagation.
19. A transverse magnetic (TM) mode is one where the magnetic field is perpendicular to the direction of
propagation.
20. Waveguides are available in standard lengths and sizes, and special pieces are used for right-angle
bends and 90° twists.
21. Half-wavelength sections of waveguides with shorted or closed ends are known as resonant cavities
since they "ring" or oscillate at the frequency determined by their dimensions.
22. Cavity resonators are metallic chambers of various shapes and sizes that are used as parallel-tuned
circuits and filters. They have a Q of up to 30,000.
23. Point-contact and Schottky or hot-carrier diodes are widely uses as mixers in microwave equipment as
they have low capacitance and inductance.
24. Varactor diodes are widely used as microwave frequency multipliers. Multiplication factors of 2 and 3
are common with power levels up to 20 Wand efficiencies up to 80 percent.
25. Step-recovery or snap-off diodes are also widely used as frequency multipliers with multiplication
factors up to 10, power ratings up to 50 W. and efficiencies approaching 80 percent.
26. A Gunn diode is a microwave semiconductor device used to generate microwave energy. When
combined with a microstrip, stripline or resonant cavity, simple low power oscillators with frequencies
up to 50 GHz are easily implemented.
27. Both I MPATT and TRAPATT diodes are GaAs devices operated with high reverse bias to produce
avalanche breakdown. Both are used in microwave oscillators.
28. A klystron is a vacuum tube used for microwave amplification and oscillation.
29. Klystrons use a cavity resonat or to velocity modulate an electron beam which imparts energy to
another cavity, producing power amplification. Klystrons are available which produce from a few to
many thousands of watts.
30. A single-cavity reflex klystron is used as a microwave oscillator.
31. Klystrons are being gradually replaced by Gunn diodes and traveling-wave tubes.
32. A magnetron is a diode vacuum tube used as a microwave oscillator in radar and microwave ovens to
produce powers up to the megawatt range.
33. In a magnetron, a strong magnetic field creates circular paths of electron flow to excite cavities into
oscillation.
34. A traveling-wave tube (TW T) is a microwave power amplifier with very wide bandwidth.
35. A microwave signal applied to a helix around the TW T produces velocity and density modulation of the
electron beam over a long distance which induces a higher-power signal in the helix.
36. The most commonly used microwave antenna is the horn, which is essentially a rectangular waveguide
with a flared end.
37. A pyramidal horn flares in both waveguide dimensions. A sectoral horn flares in only one dimension.
38. Horn antennas are directional and produce a beam width in the 10° to 60° range with a gain in the 10to 20-dB range, depending upon dimensions.
39. A parabolic or dish-shaped reflector is used with most microwave antennas to focus the RF energy into
a narrow beam and increase gain.
40. The parabolic reflector usually has a diameter that is no less than 10 wavelengths at the operating
frequency.
41. The gain and directivity of a parabolic reflector antenna is directly proportional to its diameter.
42. Parabolic reflector antennas are fed by placing a horn antenna at the focal point or by placing the horn
at the center of the reflector and placing a small reflector at the focal point. The latter is known as
Cassegrain feed.
43. A helical antenna is made up of six to eight turns of heavy wire or tubing to form a coil or helix. It is fed
with coax and is backed up with a reflector.
44. Helical antennas are used at UHF and microwave frequencies and have a gain in the 12- to 20-dB range
and a beam width in the 12° to 45° range.
45. Helical antennas produce circular polarization where the electric and magnetic fields rotate. The
polarization may be right-hand or left-hand depending upon the direction in which the helix is wound.
46. Helical antennas can receive either vertically or horizontally polarized signals but can only receive a
circularly polarized signal of the same direction.
47. A popular omnidirectional microwave antenna is the bicone.
SELF-TEST
Supply the missing word(s) in each statement.
Choose the letter that best answers each question.
Microwaves are frequencies above _____ GHz,
The main advantage of microwaves is that more of the _____ is available for signals.
List seven reasons why microwaves are more difficult to work with than lower frequency signals.
The applications most commonly found in the microwave region are _____ and _____.
List four popular uses for microwaves.
The government agency that regulates radio communications in the United States is the _____.
Name four techniques that have helped squeeze more signals into the given spectrum.
Two reasons why conventional transistors won't work at microwave frequencies are _____ and _____.
At microwave frequencies, conventional components like resistors, capacitors, and inductors act like
_____ circuits.
10. The TV channels 2 to 13 occupy a total bandwidth of about 72 MHz. At a frequency of 200 MHz, this
represents a bandwidth of _____ percent of the spectrum space. At 2 GHz, it represents _____ percent.
11. True or false. Twin lead is not used at microwave frequencies.
12. The main disadvantage of using coax for microwave signals is its high _____.
13. Coax is not used beyond frequencies of about _____ GHz.
14. A hollow metal pipe used to carry microwaves is called a(n) _____.
15. Two types of transmission line made of PCB material used to produce tuned circuits and filters are
_____.
16. The two ways to couple or extract energy from a waveguide are by using a _____ or a _____.
17. A waveguide acts as a(n) _____ filter.
18. A rectangular waveguide has a width of 1.2 in. and a height of 0.7 in. The waveguide will pass all
signals above _____ GHz.
19. A waveguide has a cutoff frequency of 5 GHz.
a. True or false. It will pass a signal of 8 GHz.
b. True or false. It will pass a signal of 3 GHz.
20. The magnetic and electric fields in a waveguide are designated by the letters _____ and _____,
respectively.
21. The basic operating mode of most waveguides is designated _____.
22. If the H field in the waveguide is perpendicular to the direction of signal travel, the mode is said to be
_____.
23. A one-half wavelength section of waveguide shorted at both ends creates a(n) _____.
24. A cavity resonator acts as a(n) _____ circuit.
25. Resonant cavities are used as _____.
26. Mechanically varying the cavity's dimensions allows its _____.
27. List three reasons why conventional diodes and transistors do not work in the microwave region.
28. A point-contact diode has a(n) _____ anode and a(n) _____ cathode.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
29. A microwave diode with an N-type silicon cathode and a metal anode forming a junction is called a(n)
_____ diode.
30. The most common application of microwave signal diodes is in _____ circuits.
31. A diode that acts like a VVC is a(n) _____ diode.
32. Two types of diodes widely used as frequency multipliers are the _____ and _____ diodes.
33. A diode with no junction that is widely used with a cavity resonator to form an oscillator is the_____
diode.
34. The _____, _____, and _____ diodes are also used as oscillators.
35. Microwave diodes that cause a current decrease for a voltage increase have what is known as a(n)
_____ characteristic.
36. An IMPATT diode operates with _____ (forward, reverse) bias.
37. A tunnel diode operates with _____ (forward, reverse) bias.
38. True or false. Klystrons can be used as amplifiers or oscillators.
39. True or false. A magnetron operates as an amplifier.
40. A TW T is an _____ (amplifier, oscillator).
41. The operating frequency of klystrons and magnetrons is determined by _____.
42. The cavities in a klystron produce _____ modulation of the electron beam.
43. In a klystron amplifier, the input is applied to the _____ cavity and the output taken from the _____
cavity.
44. A one-cavity klystron that oscillates is known as a(n) _____ klystron.
45. Low-power klystrons are being replaced by _____, and high-power klystrons are being replaced by _____.
46. A(n) _____ causes the electrons in a magnetron to travel in circular paths.
47. Two major applications of magnetrons are in _____.
48. The TW T is a microwave _____.
49. Density modulation of the electron beam in a TW T is produced by a(n) _____.
50. The major benefit of a TW T is its wide _____.
51. The most commonly used microwave antenna is the _____ antenna.
52. Increasing the length of a horn antenna causes its gain to _____ and its beam width to _____.
53. A horn antenna is six wavelengths long at 8 GHz. That length is _____ in.
54. The beam width of a horn antenna is usually in the _____ to degree _____ range. ,
55. The width of a horn antenna is 8 cm. The height is 6 cm. The operating frequency is 8 GHz. The beam
angle is _____ degrees. The gain is _____ dB. Assume k = 0.5.
56. Horn antennas have _____ (narrow, wide) bandwidth.
57. The geometric shape of a microwave reflector is a(n) _____.
58. In order for a dish, reflector to work, the antenna must be located at the _____ of the dish.
59. The antenna used with a dish reflector is usually a(n) _____.
60. A parabolic reflector antenna has a diameter of 9 m. The frequency of operation is 8 GHz. The gain is
_____ dB. The beam width is _____ °.
61. The effect of a parabolic reflector on an antenna is to _____ gain and _____ beam width.
62. A dish with a horn at its center and a small reflector at the focal point is said to use _____ feed.
63. The benefits of a helical antenna are its _____ and _____.
64. The gain of a helical antenna is typically in the _____ to _____ –dB range.
65. The beam width of a helical antenna is in the _____ to _____ degree range.
66. The helical antenna radiates a(n) _____ polarized wave.
67. The acronym RHC P means _____.
68. A popular omni directional microwave antenna is the _____.
69. True or false. A helical antenna will receive either vertical or horizontally polarized signals.
70. True or false. An RHC P antenna can receive a signal from an L HC P antenna.
ANSWERS
1. 1
2. bandwidth or spectrum
3. more difficult to analyze; different measurement techniques; resistors, capacitors, and inductors act
like LCR circuits; conventional semiconductors do not work owing to internal capacitances and long
transit time; special, expensive vacuum tubes are used for power amplification; line-of-sight
transmission differences; excessive signal reflection and absorption
4. telephone, radar
5. television signal relay, space communications, radio telescopes, microwave heating
6. Federal Communications Commission
7. improved receiver selectivity, SSB, multiplexing, reduced FM deviation
8. internal capacitance, long transit time
9. LCR
10. 36, 3.6
11. true
12. attenuation
13. 6
14. waveguide
15. microstrip, stripline
16. probe, loop
17. high-pass
18. 4.921
19. (a) true, (b) false
20. H, E
21.TEO,1
22. transverse magnetic
23. cavity resonator
24. parallel resonant
25. tuned circuits, filters
26. resonant frequency
27. high capacitance, high inductance, long transit time
28. P-type silicon, tungsten whisker
29. Schottky barrier, or hot carrier
30. mixer
31. varactor
32. varactor, snap-off or step-recovery diode
33. Gunn
34. IMPATT, TRAPATT, tunnel
35. negative resistance
36. reverse
37. forward
38. true
39. false
40. amplifier
41. cavity resonators
42. velocity
43. buncher, catcher
44. reflex
45. Gunn diodes, TWTs
46. permanent magnet
47. radar, microwave ovens
48. amplifier
49. helix
50. bandwidth
51. horn
52. increase, decrease
53. 11.8
54. 10, 60
55. 37.5, 13.3
56. wide
57. parabola
58. focal point
59. horn
60. 55.39, 0.242
61. increase, decrease
62. Cassegrain
63. simplicity, low cost
64. 12, 20
65. 12, 45
66. circularly
67. right-hand circular polarization
68. bicone
69. true
70. false
CHAPTER 11
Introduction to Satellite Communications
1. A satellite is a physical object that orbits a celestial body.
2. A communications satellite containing electronic equipment acts as a repeater or relay station between
two earth stations.
3. The basic component of a communications satellite is a receiver-transmitter combination called a
transponder.
4. A satellite stays in orbit because the gravitational pull of the earth, is balanced by the' centripetal force
of the revolving satellite.
5. Satellite orbits about the earth are either circular or elliptical.
6. Satellites orbit the earth from heights of 100 to 22,300 mi and travel at speeds of 6800 to 17,500 mi/h.
7. A satellite that orbits directly over the equator 22,300 mi from earth is said to be in a geostationary
orbit. It revolves in synchronism with the earth's rotation, so it appears to be stationary when seen
from points on the earth.
8. A satellite is stabilized in orbit by spinning it on its axis or building in spinning flywheels for each major
axis (roll, pitch, yaw).
9. Attitude adjustments on a satellite are made by firing small jet thrusters to change the satellite's
position or speed.
10. The location of a satellite is determined with latitude and longitude measurements that designate a
point on the earth subsatellite point (SSP) directly below the satellite.
11. Azimuth and elevation angles determine where to point an earth station so that it intercepts the
satellite.
12. Satellites are launched into orbit by rockets that give them vertical as well as forward motion.
13. A geosynchronous satellite is initially put into an elliptical orbit where its apogee is 22,300 mi high. The
apogee kick motor is then fired to put the satellite into its final circular geostationary orbit.
14. Many satellites are put into orbit by launching them from NASA's space shuttle.
15. Most satellites operate in the microwave region.
16. Microwave satellites operate on assigned frequency bands designated by a letter. Common
communications satellite bands are the C (3.4 to 6.425 GHz) and Ku (10.95 to 14.5 GHz) bands.
17. Satellite bands are typically 500 MHz wide and are divided into 12 segments, each 36 MHz wide. A
transponder is used to cover each segment.
18. Frequency reuse is a technique that allows two sets of transponders to operate on the same frequency,
thus doubling channel capacity. The two sets of channels use antennas of different polarizations to
prevent interference with one another.
19. Spatial isolation is another technique for frequency sharing. It uses highly directional spot-beam
antennas to prevent interference between stations on the same frequency.
20. The main subsystems in a satellite are the communications; power; telemetry, tracking; and control
(TIC); propulsion; attitude stabilization; and antenna subsystems.
21. A transponder consists of a low-noise amplifier (LNA) that receives and amplifies the up-link signal, a
mixer that converts the signal to another (lower) frequency, and a high-power amplifier that
retransmits the signal on its new down-link frequency.
22. Double-conversion transponders use two, mixers, one to translate the up-link signal to an IF where it is
amplified and filtered, and another to translate the signal to its final down-link frequency.
23. Regenerative transponders demodulate the up-link signal to recover the baseband signals and then use
them to remodulate a downlink transmitter. This improves the SIN ratio.
24. In a broadband transponder, a single mixer converts all channels within the 500-MHz bandwidth
simultaneously to their downlink frequencies. These are selected by channel bandpass filters and then
amplified by individual power amplifiers.
25. In a channelized transponder, each channel has its own LNA, bandpass filters, mixer, and high-power
amplifier.
26. The power subsystem consists of solar panels, batteries, dc-to-dc converters, and regulators. The solar
panels convert sunlight into de power to operate all satellite electronics and to charge the batteries
that take over when sunlight is blocked.
27. The TTC subsystem contains a receiver that picks up commands from a ground station and translates
them into control signals that initiate some action on board. The telemetry system monitors physical
conditions within the satellites and converts them into electrical signals that are transmitted back to
earth.
28. The propulsion system consists of the apogee kick motor that puts the satellite into final orbit and the
jet thrusters that are used for positioning and attitude control.
29. The stabilization subsystem for attitude control consists of spin components or three-axis flywheel
gyros.
30. The antenna system consists of one or more highly directional horn or parabolic antennas and an
omnidirectional TTC antenna.
31. Earth stations consist of transmit, receive, power, antenna, TIC, and ground control equipment (GCE)
subsystems.
32. The transmit subsystem takes the baseband voice, video, or computer data signals: multiplexes them;
and uses the composite signal to modulate a carrier. An up converter translates the signal to its final
up-link frequency before it is amplified and transmitted.
33. The most common forms of modulation used are FM and QPSK.
34. Transistor power amplifiers are used in low-power earth stations; klystrons are used in high-power
narrowband stations; and TWTs are used in high-power broadband stations.
35. Earth stations feature large- parabolic dish antennas with high gain and directivity for receiving the
weak satellite signal.
36. The receive subsystem in an earth station amplifies the signal with an LNA and then separates the
channels with bandpass filters. Down conveners translate the signals to a lower IF where they are
demodulated and demultiplexed.
37. The GCE in an earth station interfaces the baseband signals to the transmit and receive subsystems.
The receive GCE performs demodulation and demultiplexing. The transmit GCE performs modulation
and multiplexing.
38. The most common application for satellites is communications.
39. Another major use of satellites is surveillance and reconnaissance.
40. Film cameras, TV cameras, infrared sensors, and radars are all used to observe a variety of conditions
on earth from surveillance satellites.
41. Satellites playa major role in military and defense systems not only for communications but also for
surveillance.
42. The 24-satellite Global Positioning System (GPS) makes accurate navigation possible anywhere on
earth with a low-cost microwave receiver.
43. Consumers use satellite TV receivers to intercept TV signals transmitted by networks and cable TV
companies.
SELF-TEST
Supply the missing word(s) in each statement.
Choose the letter that best answers each question.
1. A satellite is kept in orbit by a balance between two forces: _____.
2. A satellite that revolves in the same direction as the earth rotates is said to be in a _____ (posigrade,
retrograde) orbit.
3. The geometric shape of a noncircular orbit is a(n) _____.
4. The center of gravity of the earth is called the _____.
5. The time for one orbit is called the _____.
6. The angle of inclination of a satellite is _____ degrees if it orbits over the equator and is _____ degrees if
it orbits over the north and south poles.
7. To prevent excessive signal attenuation and noise in the atmosphere, satellite angles of elevation of
less than _____ degrees should be avoided.
8. A satellite that rotates around the equator 22,300 mi from the earth is said to be in _____ orbit.
9. Small jet thrusters on a satellite are fired to correct the satelIite's _____.
10. Name two ways satellites are stabilized in space.
11. The three axes of a satellite are _____.
12. The point on the earth directly below a satellite is called the _____.
13. Satellites are located by earth coordinates expressed in terms of _____.
14. The two angles used to point a ground station antenna are _____.
15. A satellite is put into final geosynchronous orbit from its transfer orbit by firing the _____.
16. The most common use of a satellite is _____.
17. A communications satellite is basically a radio _____.
18. A(n) _____ transmits an up-link signal to the satellite.
19. The signal path from a satellite to a ground station is called the _____.
20. The basic communications electronics unit on a satellite is known as a(n) _____.
21. Most communications satellites operate in the _____ frequency range.
22. The most popular satellite frequency range is 4 to 6 GHz and is called the _____ band.
23. Military satellites often operate in the _____ band.
24. The Ku band extends from _____ to _____ GHz.
25. The bandwidth of a typical satellite is _____ MHz.
26. A typical C band transponder can carry _____ channels, each with a bandwidth of _____ MHz.
27. The term used to refer to the technique of using antenna polarization to separate signals on the same
frequency to double the number of channels is _____.
28. Using very narrow beam width antennas to isolate signals on the same frequency is known as _____.
29. The most common baseband signals handled by a satellite are _____.
30. The input circuit to a transponder is the _____.
31. List the three main functions of a transponder.
32. A(n) _____ circuit in the transponder performs the frequency conversion.
33. Power amplification in a transponder is usually provided by a(n) _____.
34. A(n) _____ transponder provides amplification at an IF of 70 or 150 MHz.
35. A transponder that demodulates the baseband signals and then remodulates a carrier is known as a(n)
_____ transponder.
36. The circuit that provides channelization in a transponder is the _____.
37. The two basic architectures for multichannel transponders are _____.
38. The main power supplies in a satellite are the _____.
39. During an eclipse, the satellite is powered by _____.
40. The TTC subsystem is used to _____ operations on a satellite.
41. Attitude correction is made by firing _____.
42. The signals to be communicated by' the earth station to the satellite are known as _____ signals.
43. The receive or up-link subsystem uses a _____ to translate the satellite signal to an IF before
demodulation and demultiplexing.
44. A common IF in an earth station receiver is _____ MHz.
45. The functions performed by the receive GCE section are _____.
46. The functions performed by the transmit GCE section are _____.
47. The two types of modulation used in the transmit GeE are _____.
48. A(n) _____ in the transmit subsection translates the modulated signal to the final transmission
frequency.
49. _____ are often used to replace Los for channel selection in earth station transmitters and receivers.
50. List the three main types of power amplifiers used in earth stations.
51. Most earth stations operate from the ac power line but have built-in _____ for emergency operation.
52. True or false. All earth stations contain telemetry, control, and instrumentation subsystems.
53. The main use of satellites is for _____.
54. Name four types of surveillance sensors.
55. What are the name and the purpose of the 24-satellite system developed by the military?
56. Name three uses for surveillance satellites.
57. Consumers use satellites for _____.
ANSWERS
1. centripetal force, gravitational pull
2. posigrade
3. ellipse
4. geocenter
5. period
6. 0,90
7. 5
8. geosynchronous or geostationary
9. attitude
10. spin, three-axis stabilization
11. yaw, pitch, roll
12. subsatellite point
13. latitude, longitude
14. azimuth, elevation
15. apogee kick motor
16. communications
17. relay station
18. earth station
19. down link
20. transponder
21. microwave
22. C
23. X
24. 10.95, 14.5
25. 500
26. 12,36
27. frequency reuse
28. spatial isolation
29. voice, video, computer or digital data
30. low-noise amplifier
31. signal amplification, frequency translation, power amplification
32. mixer
33. TWT
34. double-conversion
35. regenerative
36. bandpass filter
37. broadband, multichannel
38. solar panels
39. batteries
40. monitor, control
41. jet thrusters
42. baseband
43. down converter
44. 70
45. demodulation, demultiplexing
46. modulation, multiplexing
47. FM, QPSK
48. up converter
49. frequency synthesizers
50. transistor, TWT, klystron
51. backup power or uninterruptible power supply
52. false
53. communications
54. film cameras, TV cameras, nfrared sensors, radar
55. Global Positioning System (GPS), navigation
56. weather forecasting, spying, earth resources, monitoring
57. TV reception
CHAPTER 12
Data Communications
1. Data communications is the transmission and reception of binary data between computers and other
digital equipment.
2. The earliest form of electronic communications, the telegraph, was a type of data communications.
3. Turning a carrier off and on in a code of dots and dashes is a kind of data communications known as
continuous wave (CW).
4. Teletype is a form of telegraph that uses the 5-bit Baudot code to transmit between typewriters like
units.
5. The most widely used binary data communications code is the 7-bit American Standard Code for
Information Interchange (ASCII).
6. Another popular code is the 8-bit Extended Binary Coded Decimal Inter- change Code (EBCDIC) used
mainly in IBM systems.
7. The two main methods of data transmission are serial and parallel. In serial transmission, each bit is
transmitted sequentially. In parallel transmission, all bits are transmitted simultaneously.
8. Serial transfers are slower than parallel transfers but require only a single line or channel. Parallel
transfers require multiple channels of lines called a bus.
9. The speed of data transmission is designated in terms of bits per second (bits/s) or baud.
10. Baud rate is the number of symbol changes per second. A symbol is an amplitude, frequency, or phase
change.
11. The channel-or bit-rate capacity of a channel is directly proportional to the channel bandwidth and the
time of transmission.
12.The channel capacity or binary signal transmission speed C in bits per second is equal to twice the
channel bandwidth B when no noise is present (C = 2B).
13.When multiple levels or symbols are used to encode the data, the channel capacity C is greater for a
given bandwidth B, or C = 2BLog2N where N is the number of symbols used.
14.The channel capacity C in bits per second is proportional to the channel bandwidth B and the power
SIN ratio, or C = Blog2 t1 + SIN).
15. The, bit rate is higher than the baud (symbol) rate if multiple-level (symbol) encoding is used.
16. The two methods of data transmission are asynchronous and synchronous. In asynchronous
transmission, data is sent one character at a time with start and stop bits. In synchronous transmission,
data is sent as a continuous block of multiple characters framed with synchronization characters.
17. Synchronous transmission is faster than asynchronous transmission.
18. In data communications, a binary 1 is referred to as a mark and a binary 0 as a space.
19. Signals, whether voice, video, or binary, transmitted directly over a cable are known as baseband
signals.
20. Voice and video signals are analog but may be converted to digital for data communications
transmission.
21. Signals that involve a modulated carrier a called broadband signals.
22. Communications of binary data signal over the telephone network which is designed for analog signals
is made possible by using a modem.
23. A modem is a modulator-demodulator unit that converts digital signals to analog and vice versa.
24. The most commonly used modulation techniques in modems are frequency-shift keying (FSK), phaseshift keying (PSK), and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM).
25. Frequency-shift keying uses two frequencies for binary 0 and 1 (1070 and 1270 Hz or 2025 and 2225
kHz). It operates at speeds of 300 baud or less.
26. Modems capable of transmitting at standard higher rates of 1200, 2400, 4800, and 9600 bits/s use PSK
and/or QAM.
27. Binary PSK (BPSK) uses a carrier of 1600 or 1700 Hz where a phase of 0° represents a binary 0 and a
1800 phase shift represents a binary 1, or vice versa.
28. Binary PSK is generated by a balanced modulator.
29. Binary PSK is demodulated by a balanced modulator.
30. To properly demodulate BPSK, the carrier at the demodulator must have exactly the same phase as the
transmitting carrier.
31. A special carrier recovery circuit in the receiver produces the correct phase carrier from the BPSK
signal.
32. Differential PSK eliminates the need for a special reference phase carrier by using a coding technique
where the phase of each bit is referenced to the previous bit.
33. Quadrature PSK uses four equally spaced phase shifts of the carrier to represent two bits (dibit). For
example, 00 = 45°, 01 = 135°,11 = 225°, 10 = 315°.
34. In 8-PSK, 3 bits are coded per phase change. In 16-PSK, 4 bits are coded per phase change. Thus the
bit rate is 3 or 4 times the symbol rate change or baud rate.
35. Quadrature amplitude modulation uses a combination of QPSK and two-level AM to code 3 bits per
baud. Each of the eight possible 3-bit combinations is represented by a unique phase and amplitude
signal.
36. A protocol is a rule or procedure that defines how data is sent and received.
37. Protocols include "handshaking" signals between the transmitter and receiver that indicate the status
of each.
38. The Xmodem protocol is widely used in personal computers.
39. In synchronous communications, a variety of special characters are sent before and after the block of
data to ensure that the data is correctly received.
40. Bit errors that occur during transmission are caused primarily by noise.
41. The ratio of the number of bit errors that occur for a given number of bits transmitted is known as the
bit error rate (BER).
42. Error-detection and -correction schemes have been devised to reduce bit errors and increase data
accuracy.
43. One of the most widely used error detection schemes add a parity bit to each character transmitted,
making the total number of binary Is transmitted odd or even. If a bit error occurs, the parity bit
derived at the receiver will differ from the one transmitted.
44. Parity generator circuits are made up of multiple levels of exclusive OR (XOR) gates.
45. Another name for parity is vertical redundancy check (VRC).
46. The longitudinal redundancy check (LRC) is another way to test for errors. Corresponding bits in
adjacent data words are exclusive-ORed to generate a block check character (BCC) that is appended to
the transmitted block.
47. The VRC and LRC provide a coordinate system that will identify the exact location of a bit error so that
it may be corrected.
48. A widely used error-detection scheme is the cyclical redundancy check (CRC) where the data block is
divided, by a constant to produce a quotient and remainder. The remainder is the CRC character which
is attached to the transmitted data block and compared to the CRC computed at the receiver.
49. A network is any interconnection of two or more stations that can communicate with one another.
50. An example of a wide area network (WAN)is the telephone system. An example of a metropolitan area
network (MAN) is a cable TV system.
51. A local area network (LAN)is an interconnection of stations in a small area over short distances such as
in an office building, on a military base, or on a college campus.
52. Local area networks were conceived to allow PC users to share expensive peripherals such as hard
disks and printers but are now used for general communication and the sharing of software and data.
53. The most common physical configurations or topologies of LANs are the star, ring, and bus.
54. The bus is the fastest. The ring is the least expensive but is disabled if one station fails.
55. The star configuration is commonly used to connect many terminals and PCs to a larger mainframe or
minicomputer.
56. The three most commonly used transmission media in networks are twisted pair, coax, and fiber-optic
cable.
57. Twisted pair is inexpensive and easy to work with and is widely used for short distance, low-speed
LANs. It is not shielded, so it is susceptible to noise.
58. Coax is the most widely used medium because of its high-speed capability and its shielding against
noise.
59. Fiber-optic cable is growing in usage as its price declines. It has the highest speed capability of any
medium.
60. Local area networks use both baseband and broadband techniques. Baseband refers to transmitting
the information signal directly on the medium.
61. Broadband refers to using modulation techniques to transmit the data on carriers that can be assigned
specific channels over a wide frequency range on a common medium.
62. Broadband systems require the use of modems at each node.
63. Spread spectrum (SS) is a modulation and multiplexing technique used primarily in data
communications that deliberately spreads the signal out over a wide bandwidth rather than trying to
restrict it to a narrow band.
64. The two most widely used types of spread spectrum are frequency hopping (FH) and direct sequence
(DS).
65. Spread spectrum offers the benefits of privacy or security of communications, immunity to jamming,
and lower sensitivity to frequency-selective fading.
66. In frequency-hopping SS, the serial binary data usually modulates a carrier by FSK. The FSK signal is
mixed with a sine wave from a frequency synthesizer to form the final RF signal. The frequency
synthesizer is switched at a rate of speed higher than the rate of the data signal, dwelling only briefly
on each of many channel frequencies. Thus, the signal is broken up into small pieces and spread over a
wide frequency range.
67. The frequency-hopping scheme is controlled by a pseudorandom binary code that switches at random
from binary 0 to 1 and vice versa. The random nature of the signal causes the frequency to jump all
over the band, distributing pieces of the signal hither and yon. The pseudorandom code acts like digital
noise and thus is called a pseudorandom noise (PSN) code.
68. In direct-sequence SS, the serial data is mixed with a higher-frequency PSN code in an X-OR circuit. The
resulting higher frequency binary signal produces more higher-frequency sidebands, thereby spreading
the signal out over a wider bandwidth. The X-OR output usually phase-modulates the final carrier.
69. Because an SS signal is spread out randomly over a wide bandwidth, many signals can share a band
without interference. A narrowband receiver will no respond to an SS signal except to interpret the
random signals as a form of low-level noise.
70. The main problem in receiving SS signals is in acquiring the signal and synchronizing the transmitted
PSN code to the same internally generated PSN code in the receiver. In direct-sequence SS, an
electronic correlator circuit is responsible for achieving synchronism.
71. Different stations sharing a given band are defined and identified by their unique PSN code.
72. Spread spectrum was originally developed for and used in military equipment. In 1985, the FCC
authorized SS for commercial or civilian use in the 902- to 928-, 2400- to 2483-, and 5725- to 51150MHz bands.
73. The new applications for spread spectrum include wireless LANs, wireless computer modems, and
telemetry systems.
SELF-TEST
Supply the missing word(s) in each statement.
Choose the letter that best answers each question.
Data communications is the transmission of _____ information.
True or false. Audio and video signals may be transmitted using data communications techniques.
The earliest form of data communications was the _____.
The earliest form of radio data communications is known as _____.
The Morse code is made up of combinations of _____ and _____ to represent characters.
Give the Morse code for the following characters (see Fig. 12-2): K, 8, ,. (page 310-Frenzel)
The 5-bit code used in teletype systems is called the _____ code.
A system of data communications using type writer like devices to send and receive coded messages is
known as _____.
9. If in the Baudot code the character 11011 is sent and then the code 00111, the character _____ is
received.
10. The most widely used binary data code is _____ which uses 7 bits to represent characters.
11. An 8-bit data code used in IBM systems is known as _____.
12. Write the ASCII codes for the following characters: B, 3, ?
13. What ASCII character is transmitted to ring a bell? BEL = _____.
14. The two types of data transmission are _____.
15. True or false. Serial data transfers are faster than parallel transfers.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
16. The digital circuit often used to perform parallel-to-serial and serial-to-parallel data conversions is the
_____
17. In asynchronous transmissions, _____ and _____ bits are used to signal the beginning and end of a
character.
18. The speed of a serial data transmission is usually expressed in _____.
19. The number of symbols occurring per second in a data transmission is called the _____.
20. True or false. There can be more than i bit per baud in data transmissions.
21. True or false. Asynchronous transmission is faster than synchronous transmission.
22. In synchronous data transmission, data is sent in _____ of characters with special codes to signal the
beginning and end.
23. In serial data transmission, a binary 0 is called a(n) _____ and a binary 1 is called a(n) _____.
24. The study of efficient information transfer is known as _____.
25. The amount of information transmitted is proportional to the system _____ and the _____ allowed for
transmission.
26. The channel capacity of a 5-kHz bandwidth binary system is _____ bits/s assuming no noise.
27. If an 8-level encoding scheme is used in a 100 kHz bandwidth system, the channel capacity is _____
bits/s.
28. True or false. Multilevel or multisymbol binary encoding schemes permit more data to be transmitted in
less time, assuming a constant symbol interval.
29. By using a multisymbol encoding scheme, a higher bit rate can' be achieved with _____ (more, less)
bandwidth.
30. The channel capacity of a 6-MHz channel with an SIN ratio of 25 dB is _____ Mbits/s.
31. The minimum allowable bandwidth for a binary signal with a bit rate of 200 kbits/s is _____ kHz.
32. A modem contains both _____ and _____ circuits.
33. Modems convert _____ signals to _____ signals and vice versa.
34. The transmission medium most widely used with modems is the _____.
35. Modems are the interface between _____.
36. _____ modulation is used in low speed modems.
37. In FSK, binary 0 and I levels are represented by different _____.
38. In an FSKs modem, a high frequency represents a(n) _____ and a low frequency represents a(n) _____.
39. The typical frequencies used in a full duplex FSK modem are as follows:
 originate 0 _____ Hz and 1 _____ Hz;
 answer 0 _____ Hz and 1 _____ Hz.
40. The IC used to perform serial-to-parallel and parallel-to-serial conversions and other operations in a
modem is known as a(n) _____.
41. The modulation method that represents bits as different phase shifts of a carrier is known as _____.
42. In BPSK, phase shifts of _____ degrees and _____ degrees used to represent bif\ary 0 and binary 1,
respectively.
43. The circuit used to produce BPSK is a(n) _____.
44. The circuit-used to demodulate BPSK is a(n) _____.
45. A(n) _____ circuit is used to generate the carrier to be used in demodulating a BPSK signal.
46. A carrier recovery circuit is not needed with _____ PSK modulation.
47. The key circuit used in a DPSK modulator is the _____.
48. The number of different phase shifts used in QPSK is _____.
49. In QPSK, how many bits are represented by each phase shift?
50. The number of bits represented by each phase shift in 16-PSK is _____.
51. The circuit used to create a dibit is known as a(n) _____.
52. A circuit that converts a 2-bit binary code into one of four dc voltage levels is known as a _____.
53. Quadrature amplitude modulation is a combination of _____ modulation and _____ modulation.
54. True or false. Modems must transmit signals in the 300-Hz to 3-kHz range.
55. True or false. Carrier recovery is not required in a QPSK demodulator.
56. True or false. When QPSK is used, the bit rate is faster than the baud (symbol) rate.
57. True or false. Each phase and/or amplitude change can represent only one bit.
58. True or false. With QAM, a 9600 bits/s signal can be transmitted within a 3000-Hz bandwidth.
59. Rules and procedures that describe how data will be transmitted and received are referred to as _____.
60. List five methods of error detection and correction.
61. The process of exchanging signals between transmitter and receiver to indicate status or availability is
called _____.
62. A popular protocol used in personal computer data communications is known as _____.
63. A string of characters making up a message or part of a message is referred to as a(n) _____ of data.
64. Stop and start bits are used with, _____ (asynchronous, synchronous) data.
65. Synchronous protocols usually begin with the _____ character.
66. The characters that indicate message number, destination, or other facts are collectively referred to as
the _____.
67. The _____ character designates the beginning of a message, while the character _____ indicates its end.
68. One simple but time-consuming way to ensure an error-free transmission is to send the data multiple
times. This is called _____.
69. One type of special self checking error code is the _____ code.
70. Errors in data transmission are usually caused by _____.
71. The ratio of the number of bit errors to the total number of bits transmitted is known as the _____.
72. A bit added to the transmitted character to help indicate an error is called the _____ bit.
73. A number added to the end of a data block to assist in detecting errors is known as the _____
74. Write the correct parity bits for each number.
a. Odd: 0011000 _____
b. Even: 1111101 _____
c. Odd: 0101101 _____
d. Even: 1000110 _____
75. Another name for parity is _____.
76. The basic building block of a parity generator circuit is the _____ gate.
77. Performing an exclusive OR on corresponding bits in successive data words produces a(n) word.
78. An error-detection system that uses a BCC at the end of a block is known as a(n) _____.
79. Dividing the data block by a constant produces a quotient that is discarded and a remainder called the
_____ character.
80. The CRC circuit is basically a(n) _____.
81. True or false. If a bit error cart be identified, it can be corrected.
82. The telephone system is an example of a _____.
83. True or false. A cable TV system is considered a network.
84. Most networks re smaller and cover shorter distances and are referred to as _____.
85. The acronym PBX means _____.
86. True or false. PBXs cannot be used with digital data.
87. The three main types of LAN topologies are _____.
88. A PBX is a type of _____ topology LAN.
89. An LAN that uses a central controller for multiple stations is the _____ topology.
90. One type of LAN connects multiple terminals and PCs to a large central _____ computer.
91. A LAN in which the message is passed from one station to the next until the destination is reached is
called a(n) _____.
92. The stations or users in a network are referred to as _____.
93. A network in which all stations attach to a common cable is called a(n) _____.
94. 94: The fastest network configuration is the _____.
95. In a(n) _____ LAN configuration, if one station fails, the whole system fails.
96. A connection from a LAN to a mainframe computer is known as a(n) _____.
97. A connection from one LAN to another is called a(n), _____.
98. The three transmission media used in LANs are _____.
99. An extended variation of the bus topology is called the _____.
100. List the three main disadvantages of twisted pair cable.
101. _____ is the most widely used medium in LANs.
102. The medium that permits the highest data rates is _____.
103. The longest transmission distances can be achieved with _____ medium.
104. Give the average maximum data rates in Mbits/s for each medium: twisted pair, coax, fiber-optic
cable.
105. The digital, voice, or video voltages are referred to as _____ signals.
106. When the basic data signal is sent directly over the medium, the type of operation is said to be _____.
107. _____ operation uses modulation techniques and FDM techniques to increase speed and the number of
operational channels.
108. Broadband operation requires the use of a(n) _____ at each node.
109. Spread spectrum is both a _____ and a _____ technique.
110. The two main types of spread spectrum are _____ and _____.
111. In a frequency-hopping SS system, a _____ circuit generates the transmitter frequency.
112. In a frequency-hopping SS system, a _____ circuit selects the frequency produced by the synthesizer.
113. True or false. The hop rate is slower than the bit rate of the digital data.
114. To a narrowband receiver, an SS signal appears as a type of _____.
115. Two or more stations using SS and sharing a common band are identified and distinguished from one
another by their unique _____.
116. The length of time a frequency-hopping SS transmitter stays on one frequency is called the _____.
117. In a direct-sequence SS transmitter, the data signal is mixed with a PSN signal in an _____ circuit.
118. True or false. In a direct-sequence SS system, the chip rate is faster than the data rate.
119. The type of modulation used with direct sequence SS is usually _____.
120. The most difficult part of SS communications is initiating and maintaining _____ prior to and during
transmission.
121. The process of comparing one direct sequence SS signal to another in an effort to obtain a match is
called _____.
122. The two main benefits of SS are _____ and _____.
123. The main circuit used in making a PSN code generator is a _____.
124. The frequencies allocated to spread spectrum by the FCC for civilian applications are _____, _____, and
_____ MHz.
125. Two growing applications for SS are _____ and _____.
ANSWERS
1. binary or digital
2. true
3. telegraph
4. continuous wave (CW)
5. dots, dashes
6. K= _._; 8= _ _ _.. ;
, = _ _.._ _
7. baudot
8. teletype
9. M
10. ASCII
11. EBCDIC
12. B = 1000010; 3 = 0110011; ? = 0111111
13. 0000111
14. serial, parallel
15. false
16. shift register
17. start, stop
18. bits per second (bits/s)
19. baud rate
20. true
21. false
22. blocks
23. space, mark
24. information theory
25. bandwidth, time
26. 10,000
27. 60,000
28. true
29. less
30. 50
31. 100
32. modulator, demodulator
33. analog, digital (or binary)
34. telephone network
35. computers
36. frequency-shift keying
37. frequencies
38. mark (1), space (0)
39. 1070, 1270, 2025, 2225
40. universal asynchronous receiver transmitter (UART)
41. phase-shift keying
42. 0, 180
43. balanced modulator
44. balanced modulator
45. carrier recovery
46. differential
47. XNOR
48. four
49. 2 bits
50. four
51. bit splitter (or shift register)
52. 2-t0-4 level converter
53. amplitude, PSK
54. true
55. false
56. true
57. false
58. true
59. protocols
60. redundancy, special error-checking codes, parity, block check code, cyclical redundancy check
61. handshaking
62. Xmodem
63. block
64. asynchronous
65. SYN or sync
66. header
67. STX, ETX or ETB
68. redundancy
69. ARQ exact-count
70. noise
71. bit error rate
72. parity
73. block check character
74.
a. 1
b. 0
c. 1
d. 1
75. vertical redundancy check
76. exclusive OR
77. block check character
78. longitudinal redundancy check
79. cyclical redundancy check
80. shift register
81. true
82. wide area network
83. true
84. local area networks
85. private branch exchange
86. false
87. star, ring, bus
88. star
89. star
90. mainframe (or mini)
91. ring
92. nodes
93. bus
94. bus
95. ring
96. gateway
97. bridge
98. twisted pair, coax, fiber-optic cable
99. tree
100.noise susceptibility, short distances, low data rates
101.coax
102.fiber-optic cable
103.coax
104.1, 10,50
105.baseband
106.baseband
107.broadband
108.modem
109.modulation, multiplexing
110.frequency hopping, direct sequence
111.frequency synthesizer
112.pseudorandom noise code generator
113.false
114.noise
115.PSN code
116.dwell time
117.X-OR
118.true
119.PSK
120.synchronism
121.correlation
122.security, jam-proof
123.shift register
124.902- to 928-, 2400- to 2483-, 5725- to 5850-MHz
125.wireless LANs, wireless computer modems
CHAPTER 13
Fiber-Optics Communications
1. The information-carrying capacity of a cable or radio channel is directly proportional to its bandwidth.
2. The RF spectrum is heavily used and occupied. Only in the microwave region is there room for
expansion.
3. Light is an electromagnetic signal like a radio wave but is much higher in frequency. It can be used as a
carrier for information signals.
4. Because of the very high frequency of light compared to typical information signals, tremendous
bandwidth is easily available.
5. Light waves carrying data signals can be transmitted in free space but are greatly attenuated by
atmospheric effects and require pinpoint alignment.
6. Most light-wave communication is by way of a glass or plastic fiber cable that acts as a "light pipe" to
carry light modulated by information signals.
7. The main components of a light-wave communications system are an AID converter, a light source
transmitter, a fiber optic cable, a photo- or light detector with amplifier and shaper, and a DIA
converter.
8. Because of the great attenuation of light in a fiber-optic cable, repeater units are used to amplify and
regenerate the signals over long distances.
9. The primary application of fiber-optic communications is in long-distance telephone systems.
10. The primary advantages of fiber-optic cables over conventional cables and radio are wider bandwidth,
lower loss, lightweight, small size, strength, security, interference immunity, and safety.
11. The main disadvantage of fiber-optic cable is that its small size and brittleness make it more difficult to
work with.
12. Light waves, like radio waves, are a kind of electromagnetic radiation.
13.Light waves occur at very high frequencies in the range of 3 x 1011 to 3 X 1616 Hz.
14. Wavelength rather than frequency is used to express the place of light in the spectrum.
15.15...The wavelength of light is expressed in terms of nanometers (1 nm = 10-9 m) or micrometers (1
m = 10-6 m). Micrometers are also called microns.
16. The visible light spectrum is from 700 nm (red) to 400 nm (violet).
17. The optical spectrum is made up of visible light, infrared at lower frequencies and ultraviolet at higher
frequencies.
18. Infrared rays cannot be seen, but they act like light waves and can be manipulated in similar ways as
with a lens or mirrors.
19. Light waves, like microwaves, travel in a straight line.
20. The angle at which light strikes a surface is called the angle of incidence. The angle at which light is
reflected from a surface is called the angle of reflection. The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of
reflection.
65
21. When a light ray passes from one medium to another, it is bent. This is called refraction.
22. The amount of refraction is called the index of refraction n and is the ratio of the speed of light in air to
the speed of light in another medium, such as water, glass, or plastic (n = 1 in air, n = 1.3 in water, n =
1.5 in glass).
23. The angle of the incident light ray determines whether the ray will be reflected or refracted.
24. The critical angle is the angle of incidence that causes the refracted light to travel along the interface
between two different media.
25. If the angle of incidence is made greater than the critical angle, reflection occurs instead of refraction.
26. Light entering a fiber-optic cable has an angle of incidence such that the light is reflected or bounced
off the boundary between the fiber and the external media. This is called total internal reflection.
27. Fiber-optic cables are made from glass and plastic. Glass has the lowest loss but is brittle. Plastic is
cheaper and more flexible, but has high attenuation.
28. A popular fiber-optic cable with a glass core and plastic cladding is called plastic clad silica (PCS).
29. The cladding surrounding the core protects the core and provides an interface with a controlled index
of refraction.
30. Step index means there is a sharp difference in the index of refraction between the core and cladding.
31. Graded index means that the index of refraction of the core varies over its cross section, highest in the
center and lowest at the edges.
32. A single-mode cable is very small in diameter and essentially provides only a single path for light.
33. Multimode cores are large and provide multiple paths for the light.
34. Multiple light paths through a step-index core cause a light pulse to be stretched and attenuated. This
is called modal dispersion and it limits the upper pulse repetition rate and thus the information
bandwidth.
35. Multiple light paths in a graded-index core are controlled so that they converge at multiple points along
the cable. Modal dispersion does occur, but it is not as severe as that caused by a step-index core.
36. Modal dispersion does not occur in single mode cores.
37. The three most widely used types of fiber optic cables are multimode step-index, single-mode stepindex, and multimode graded-index.
38. The primary specification of a fiber-optic cable is attenuation which is usually expressed as the loss in
decibels per kilometer.
39. Light loss in a fiber-optic cable is caused by absorption, scattering, and dispersion.
40. Cable attenuation is directly proportional to its length.
41. Cable losses range from 1 dB/km in glass single-mode step-index cable to 100 dB/km for plastic
multimode step-index cable.
42. Fiber-optic cables can be spliced by gluing.
66
43. Special connectors are used to connect cables to one another and to the equipment.
44. Fiber-optic systems use light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and semiconductor lasers as the main light
sources.
45. Light-emitting diodes are used in short distance low-speed systems. Injection laser diodes (ILDs) are
used in long distance, high-speed systems.
46.Most LEDs and ILDs emit light in the in. visible near-infrared range (0.82 to 1.55 m).
47.A popular operating frequency is 1.3 m because fiber-optic cable has an attenuation null at this
wavelength.
48. Laser diodes emit monochromatic or single-frequency light. The light waves are coherent, so they
reinforce one another to create an intense and finely focused beam.
49. Intense laser light is produced by an ILD because reflecting surfaces in the structure form a cavity
resonator for the light waves.
50. The most commonly used light sensor is a photodiode.
51. A photodiode is a PN junction that is reverse-biased and exposed to light. Light increases the leakage
current across the junction. This current is converted into a voltage pulse.
52. PIN junction diodes are faster and more sensitive than conventional photodiodes.
53. The fastest and most sensitive light detector is the avalanche photodiode (APD).
54. The APD operates with a high reverse bias so that when light is applied. Breakdown occurs and
produces a fast, high-current pulse.
55. The receiver portion of a fiber-optic system is made up of a photodiode, amplifier, and shaper.
56. Fiber-optic systems are rated by the speed and the product of the bit rate and the distance.
57. A measure of the quality of a fiber-optic system is the maximum distance between repeaters.
SELF-TEST
Supply the missing word(s) in each statement.
Choose the letter that best answers each question.
1. Fiber-optic cables carry _____ rather than electrical signals.
2. The three main types of information carried by fiber optic-cables are _____, _____, and _____.
3. The major use of fiber-optic cables is in _____.
4. Fiber-optic cables are made of _____ or _____.
5. The main benefit of fiber-optic cable over electric cable is its _____.
6. True or false. Fiber-optic cable has more loss than electric cable over long distances.
7. True or false. Fiber-optic cable is smaller, lighter, and stronger than electric cable.
8. List the two main disadvantages of fiber optic cable.
9. The two most commonly used light sources in fiber-optic systems are _____.
10. Voice and video signals are converted into before being transmitted by a light beam.
11. The device that converts the light pulses into an electrical signal is a(n) _____.
67
12. Regenerative units called _____ are often used to compensate for signal attenuation over long
distances.
13. Light is a type of _____ radiation.
14. A fiber-optic cable can be viewed as a light _____.
15. Light travels in a
a. Circle
b. Straight line
c. Curve
d. Random way
16. The wavelength of light is usually expressed in _____ or _____.
17. The lowest-frequency visible light is
a. Red
b. Violet
18. A micrometer, or micron, is a length of _____ of a _____.
19. The wavelength range of visible light is _____ to _____ nm.
20. Infrared light has a wavelength that is
a. Less than 400 nm
b. More than 700 nm
c. Less than 700 nm
21. The optical spectrum is made up of what three parts?
22. The speed of light in air is _____ m/s or _____ mi/s.
23. True or false. The speed of light is slower in glass or water than it is in air.
24. The number that tells how fast light travels in a medium compared to air is the _____ of _____.
25. Light beams can be bounced or their direction can be changed by _____ with a(n) _____.
26. The bending of light rays due to speed changes when moving from one medium to another is called
_____.
27. If a light ray strikes a mirror at an angle of 30° from the normal, it is reflected at an angle of _____ °
from the normal.
28. When the angle of refraction is 90° to the normal, the ray travels along the _____ between the two
media. Therefore, the incident ray strikes the surface at the _____ angle.
29. When the incident ray strikes the interface at an angle greater than the critical angle, _____ occurs.
30. The critical angle depends upon the value of the _____ of _____.
31. Which material has the best optical characteristics and lowest loss?
a. Plastic
b. Glass
c. they are equal
32. The core is protected by the _____.
33. In PCS cable, the core is _____ and the cladding is _____.
34. The index of refraction is highest in the
a. Core
b. Cladding
35. List the three main types of fiber-optic cable.
36. Stretching of the light pulse is called _____.
37. List the two types of cable in which light pulse stretching occurs.
38. High-frequency pulses can be best transmitted over _____ cable.
39. Pulse stretching causes the information capacity of a cable to
a. Increase
b. Decrease
40. Graded index means that the _____ of _____ of the core varies over its cross section
41. Single-mode step-index cable has a Core diameter in the range of
a. 100 to 1000 m
b. 50 to 100 m
c. 2 to 15 m
42. A _____ is applied over the cladding to protect against moisture, damage, etc.
43. A common protective layer in a cable is made of _____ mesh.
44. Fiber-optic cables are available with the following number of cores: _____.
68
45. Light loss in a cable is called _____.
46. Light loss is caused by _____.
47. Light loss is measured in _____ per_____.
48. A cable with a loss of 5 dB will have _____ percent of the input appear at the output (see Fig. 13-19).
(page 365-Frenzel)
49. True or false. A kilometer is longer than a mile.
50. Which cable length will have the least attenuation?
a. 40 ft
b. 120 ft
c. 1780 ft
d. 1 km
51. Three cables with attenuations of 9, 22, and 45 dB are spliced together. The total attenuation is _____
dB.
52. True or false. Fiber-optic cables may be spliced.
53. To conveniently link and attach fiber-optic cables to one another and related equipment, _____ are used.
54. The two most common light sources used in fiber-optic transmitters are _____.
55.The most popular light wavelength is _____ m because fiber-optic cable attenuation is lowest at that
wavelength.
56.True or false. The light from a 1.55 m LED is visible.
57. Usually LEDs are made of _____.
58. Single frequency light is called _____.
59. The condition of all emitted light waves being in phase is known as _____.
60. A single-frequency intense light source is known as a(n) _____.
61. The reflective surfaces on a laser diode structure form a(n) _____ that produces in-phase light waves.
62. For normal operation, LED and ILDs are _____ (reverse, forward)-biased.
63. Which is faster, an LED or ILD?
64. Which produces the brightest light, an LED or ILD?
65. During normal operation, all photodiodes are _____ (reverse, forward)-biased.
66. Light falling on the PN junction of a photodiode causes the diode's _____ current to increase.
67. The most sensitive and fastest light detector is the _____.
68. 68-.The two main circuits in a fiber-optic receiver are _____.
69. The product of the bit rate and distance of a system is 90 Mbits·km/s. The rating at 3 km is _____
Mbits/s.
70. In today's systems, the average maximum distance between repeaters is between _____ and _____ mi.
ANSWERS
1. light
2. voice, video, computer data
3. telephone systems
4. glass, plastic
5. wide bandwidth
6. false
7. true
8. brittleness, difficult to work with
9. LEDs, semiconductor lasers
10. binary or digital pulses
11. photocell or light detector
12. repeaters
13. electromagnetic
14. pipe
15. b
16. micrometers (microns), nanometers
17. a
18. one-millionth, meter
69
19. 400, 700
20. b
21. visible, infrared, ultraviolet
22. 300,000,000; 186,000
23. true
24. index, refraction
25. reflection, mirror
26. refraction
27. 30
28. critical
29. reflection
30. index, refraction
31. b
32. cladding
33. glass, plastic
34. a
35. multimode step-index, single-mode step-index, multimode graded-index
36. modal dispersion
37. multimode step-index,
38. multimode graded-index, single-mode step-index
39. b
40. index, refraction
41. c
42. protective coating
43. Kevlar
44. 2, 6, 12, 18, 24
45. attenuation
46. dispersion, absorption, scattering
47. decibels, kilometer
48. 31
49. false
50. a
51. 76
52. true
53. connectors
54. LED. laser
55. 1.3
56. false
57. gallium arsenide
58. monochromatic
59. coherence
60. laser
61. resonant cavity
62. forward
63. ILD
64. ILD
65. reverse
66. leakage
67. avalanche photodiode
68. amplifier, comparator-or shaper
69. 30
70. 6.17. 18.5 (10 and 30 km)
70
CHAPTER 14
Modern Communications Applications
1. Facsimile or fax is an electronic communication technique for transmitting printed documents including
text, line drawings, photos, and other graphical information via telephone lines or radio.
2. Fax machines scan the document to be transmitted using photo-optical techniques to create a
baseband signal that modulates a carrier prior to transmission.
3. The receiving fax machine demodulates the carrier to recover the baseband signal which is sent to a
printer where the original document is faithfully reproduced.
4. The quality of reproduction is a function of the scanning resolution in lines per inch. The greater the
number of scan lines, the finer the definition.
5. The most widely used device to convert the scanned lines into an electrical signal is a light-sensitive
semiconductor component known as a charge coupled device (CCD).
6. The CCD contains thousands of tiny capacitors that charge to a value proportional to the light intensity.
The capacitors are sequentially sampled. Their charges are read out, creating an analog signal
corresponding to the lines scanned.
7. The baseband signal modulates a carrier prior to transmission; AM, FM, and PSK are commonly used.
8. Facsimile standards for modulation, transmission speed, and other factors are set by the International
Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT). There are four basic standards designated
group 1 through 4.
9. Group I fax machines are analog and use FM where black is 1500 Hz (or 1300 Hz) and, white is 2300 Hz
(or 2100 Hz). Resolution is 96 lines per inch, and transmission, speed is 6 min per page. Group 1
machines are no longer used.
10. Group 2 machines are analog and use FM or vestigial sideband AM with a 21O0-Hz carrier. Resolution is
96 lines per inch, and transmission speed is 3 min per page or less.
11. Group 3 machines use digital techniques and PSK or QAM to achieve speeds of up to 9600 baud over
the telephone lines. Resolution is 200 lines per inch, and transmission times are less than I min, with
less than 30s being common. Most modern fax machines are of the group 3 type.
12. Group 4 fax machines are digital and are designed for wideband telephone lines. Digital transmission
rates are 56 kbits/s. Resolution is 400 lines per inch. Few group 4 machines are in use yet.
13. Most fax printers are of the thermal type and use special heat-sensitive paper, although laser printers
using xerography are used in some higher-priced machines.
14. Fax is widely used by newspapers, business, and the military. Radio fax is used for transmitting weather
satellite photos to earth.
15. Cellular radios provide telephone service in vehicles and are used as portable telephone units.
16. The area served by cellular telephones is divided into small zones called cells.
17. Each cell is served by a repeater containing a low-power transmitter and a receiver.
18. The cells are connected by wire to a computer-controlled master station called the mobile telephone,
switching office (MTSO). The MTSO links to the telephone system.
71
19. By operating at high frequencies in the spectrum and through the application of frequency reuse, many
channels are available to users.
20. There are 666 full-duplex telephone channels in most service areas.
21. The receive frequencies are in the 870-to 890-MHz range.
22. The transmit frequencies are in the 825-to 845-MHz range.
23. Channel spacing is 30 kHz.
24. Spacing between the simultaneously used transmit and receive frequencies is 45 MHz.
25.Cellular radios use' FM with a maximum deviation, of 12 kHz.
26. Mobile cellular transmitters have a maximum output power of 3 W which can be decreased in steps
under the control of the MTSO to minimize adjacent cell interference.
27. Mobile cellular receivers are of the dual conversion type with a 45- or 82.2-MHz first IF and a 10.7-MHz
or 455 kHz second IF.
28. Both transmit and receive frequencies are determined by PLL frequency synthesizers that are set by
the MTSO to a clear channel.
29. The MTSO monitors received cell signal strength [received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and
transmitter power output and makes decisions about when to "hand off" the mobile unit to another cell
to maintain optimum signal strength.
30. The MTSO controls transmitter power as well as transmit and receive frequencies. Serial digital data
containing this information is transmitted to the mobile unit whose logic section interprets it and
effects the changes.
31. Each cellular radio contains a PROM called the number assignment module (NAM) which stores the
unit's telephone number referred to as the mobile identification number (MIN).
32. Most cellular radios contain two microprocessors, one for controlling the logic section and another for
operating the displays and dialing circuits in the handset and control section.
33.Radar b the acronym for radio detection and ranging.
34. Radar uses a reflected radio signal from a target to determine its distance, azimuth, elevation, and
speed.
35.Radio waves travel at a speed of 186,000, mi/s or 162,000 nmi/s. Knowing the speed of radio waves
permits the distance (range) of a remote target to be determined.
36.Radio signals travel at a speed of 5.375 S/nmi or 6.18 S/nmi.
37.The distance D in nautical miles to a target can be computed by knowing the total delay time T in
microseconds for a signal to reach the target and return. (D = T/12.36).
38. The strength of the reflection is a function of the wavelength of the radar signal and its relationship to
the size of the target. Optimum reflection is obtained when the size of the target is one-quarter
wavelength or larger of the signal frequency. Most radars operate in the microwave part of the
spectrum.
72
39. The bearing or azimuth of a target with respect to the radar set is determined by a highly directional
antenna. A narrow beam-width antenna is rotated continuously over 360° and the detection of a
reflection from a target at a given bearing gives the target's direction.
40. There are two basic types of radar: pulse and continuous wave (CW).
41. In pulse radar, the transmitter emits microwave energy in the form of repetitive sine wave bursts or
pulses.
42. The pulse repetition time (PRT) is the time interval between the beginning of successive pulses.
43. The pulse repetition frequency (PRF) or the pulse repetition rate in pulses per second is the reciprocal
of PRT (PRF = 1/PRT).
44. The ratio of the pulse burst duration to the PRT is known as the duty cycle and is usually expressed as a
percentage.
45. The PRT and duty cycle set the range of a radar: a short PRT and pulse width for short range, and a
long PRT and pulse width for long range.
46. The reflection from the target occurs in the interval between successively radiated pulses.
47. In CW radar, constant-amplitude-constant frequency signal is continuously radiated. If the target is
stationary, the reflected signal contains no distance information.
48. Continuous wave radar relies on the Doppler effect to produce frequency modulation of the carrier.
49. The Doppler effect is the change in frequency that occurs as the result of relative motion between the
transmitter and a target. The Doppler effect occurs with sound, radio, and light signals.
50. The relative speed between transmitter and target is directly proportional to the amount of Doppler
frequency shift.
51. The CW Doppler radar is used for speed measurement. Police radars are an example.
52. By frequency modulating a CW radar with a sawtooth or triangular wave, the frequency difference
between the transmitted and received signals can be used to compute the distance or range to a
target.
53. Radar sets consist of a transmitter, a receiver, an antenna, a master timing section, and a display.
54. Most radar transmitters use a magnetron oscillator, although some high-power radars use klystrons or
TWTs. Low-power radars use a Gunn diode oscillator.
55. Radar receivers are super heterodynes with diode mixers.
56.The radar antenna is usually a horn with a parabolic reflector that rotates over a 360 angle.
57. A duplexer is a waveguide assembly that allows both transmitter and receiver to share the same
antenna.
58. Spark-gap tubes called transmit-receive (TR) and anti-transmit-receive(ATR) tubes prevent high-power
energy from the transmitter from getting into and damaging or desensitizing the receiver.
59. The radar display is normally a cathode ray tube (CRT) that is calibrated to read out the range, bearing,
and other data.
73
60. The most common CRT readout is the plan position indicator (PPI) where the radar is at the center and
a radius rotates to reveal reflected targets as blips.
61. Phased array radars use a matrix of dipoles or slot antennas with variable phase shifters to permit
automatic, high-speed, electronic beam switching; beam width changes; and sweeping or scanning.
62. Television is the radio transmission of sound and pictures in the VHF and UHF ranges. The voice signal
from a microphone frequency modulates a sound transmitter. A camera converts a picture or scene into
an electrical signal called the video or luminance Y signal, which amplitude modulates a separate video
transmitter. Vestigial sideband AM is used to conserve spectrum space. The picture and sound
transmitter frequencies are spaced 4.5 MHz apart, with the sound frequency being the higher.
63. TV cameras use either a vacuum tube imaging device such as a vidicon or a solid-state, imaging device
such as the charge coupled device (CCD) to convert scene into a video signal.
64.A scene is scanned by the imaging device to break it up into segments that can be transmitted serially.
The National Television, Standards Committee (NTSC) standards call for scanning the scene in two 262
½ line fields which are interlaced to form a single 525-line picture called a frame. Interlaced scanning
reduces flicker. The field rate is 59.94 Hz, and the frame or picture rate is 29.97 Hz. The horizontal line
scan rate is 15,734 Hz or 63.6 S per line.
65.The color in a scene is captured by three imaging devices which break a picture down into its three
basic colors of red, green, blue using color light filters. Three color signals are developed (R, G, B).
These are combined in a resistive matrix to form the Y signal and are combined in other ways to fonti
the I and Q signals. The I and Q signals amplitude modulate 3.58 MHz subcarriers shifted 90 from one
another in balanced modulators producing quadrature DSB suppressed signals that are added to form a
carrier composite color signal. This color signal is then used to modulate the AM picture transmitter
along with the Y signal.
66. A TV receiver is a standard superheterodyne receiver with separate sections for processing and
recovering the sound and picture. The tuner section consists of RF amplifiers, mixers, and a frequency
synthesized local oscillator for channel selection. Digital infrared remote control is used to change
channels in the synthesizer via a control microprocessor.
67. The tuner converts the TV signals to intermediate frequencies of 41.25 MHz for the sound and 45.75
MHz for the picture. These signals are amplified in IC IF amplifiers. Selectivity is usually provided by a
surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter. The sound and picture IF signals are placed in a sound detector to
form a 4.5 MHz sound IF signal. This is demodulated by a quadrature detector or other FM demodulator
to recover the sound. .Frequency multiplexing techniques similar to those used in FM radio are used for
stereo TV sound. The picture IF is demodulated by a diode detector or other AM demodulator to recover
the Y signal.
68. The color signals are demodulated by two balanced modulators fed with 3.58-MHz subcarriers in
quadrature. The subcarrier is frequency- and phase-locked to the subcarrier in the transmitter by
phase-locking to the color subcarrier burst transmitted on the horizontal blanking pulse.
69. To keep the receiver in step with the scanning process at the transmitter, sync pulses are transmitted
along with the scanned lines of video. These sync pulses are stripped off the video detector and used
to synchronize horizontal and vertical oscillators in the receiver. These oscillators generate deflection
currents that sweep the electron beam in the picture tube to reproduce the picture.
70. The color picture tube contains three electron guns that generate narrow electron beams aimed at the
phosphor coating on the inside of the face of the picture tube. The phosphor is arranged in millions of
tiny red, green, and blue color dot triads or stripes. The electron beams excite the color dots or stripes
in proportion to their intensity and generate light of any color depending upon the amplitude of the red,
green, and blue signals. The electron beam is scanned or deflected horizontally and vertically in step
74
with the transmitted video signals. Deflection signals from the internal sweep circuits drive coils in a
deflection yoke around the neck of the picture creating magnetic fields that sweep the three electron
beams.
71. The horizontal output stage, which provides horizontal sweep, is also used to operate a flyback
transformer that steps up the horizontal sync pulses to a very high voltage. These are rectified and
filtered into a 30- to 35-kV voltage to operate the picture tube. The flyback also steps down the
horizontal pulses and rectifies and filters them into low-voltage dc supplies that are used to operate
most of the circuits in the TV set.
72. Cable television is the transmission of multiple TV signals which are frequency multiplexed on a single
cable to be used in lieu of over-the-air signal transmission. The headend of a cable TV station collects
TV signals from local stations and from other sources by satellite and then modulates and multiplexes
these signals on a cable that is sent to subscribers.
73. The main cable from the headend, called the trunk, takes the signals to other distribution points and to
other cables called feeders, which transmit the signals to neighborhoods. The feeders are then tied to
cable drops connected to each house. The cable signals are amplified at several points along the
distribution path to maintain strong signals. A cable TV decoder box or tuner selects the desired
channel and converts it into a channel 3 or 4 TV signal that connects to the TV receiver for
presentation.
SELF-TEST
Supply the missing word(s) in each statement.
Choose the letter that best answers each question.
1. Images are converted into electrical signals by a process of _____ with a light source and photosensitive
detector.
2. The most common transmission medium for fax signals is _____.
3. Standards for fax transmission are set by the _____.
4. The modulation method used in group 1 machines was PM with black = _____ Hz and white= _____ Hz.
5. Vestigial sideband AM is used in group _____ machines.
6. The photosensitive device used in most modern fax machines to convert a scanned line into an analog
signal is a(n)
7. Most modem fax machines are of the group _____ type.
8. To ensure compatibility between sending and receiving fax machines, control logic carries out the
process of _____ by audio tones prior to transmission.
9. The most commonly used type of printer in a fax machine is a(n) _____ printer.
10. The upper speed limit of a G3 fax machine over telephone lines is _____ baud.
11. The resolution of a G3 fax machine is typically _____ lines per-inch.
12. The two modulation techniques used in G3 machines are _____.
13. A fax transmission is usually _____ (full, halt) duplex.
14. The speed and resolution of group 4 fax transmissions are _____ kbits/s and _____ lines per inch.
15. True or false. Fax can transmit photos and drawings as well as printed text.
16. True or false. Fax signals may not be transmitted by radio.
17. True or false. Group 4 transmission do not use the standard telephone lines.
18. The area to be served by a cellular telephone system is divided into adjacent _____.
19. The master control station for a group of cells is called the _____.
20. Name two reasons why there are more channels, available in cellular systems than in older mobile
telephone systems.
21. The number of channels available is _____.
22. True or false. Cellular telephone radios operate full duplex.
23. The type of modulation used in a cellular radio is _____.
24. The maximum power output of a cellular transmitter is _____ W.
25. The transmit frequency range is _____ to _____ MHz.
75
26. The receive frequency range is _____ to _____ MHz.
27. Channels pacing is _____ kHz.
28. Separation between send and receive frequencies is _____ MHz.
29. Transmit and receive frequencies are determined by a(n) _____.
30. Common first IFs are _____ and _____ MHz. Common second IFs are _____ and _____ MHz.
31. The APC circuit causes the transmitter power to _____ based on an input control signal from the MTSO.
32. A _____ allows the transmitter and receiver to share an antenna.
33. True or false. The transmit and receive channel is selected by the operator. .
34. The source of the frequency divider ratios in the frequency synthesizer PLLs is the _____.
35. Name two signals that are transmitted back to the cell site and are monitored by the MTSO.
36. Name three conditions in the transceiver that are controlled by the MTSO.
37. A dc signal derived from the demodulator and used to tell the MTSO about received signal strength is
called the _____.
38. A receiver has a first IF of 82.2 MHz. The second IF is 456 kHz. The LO frequency on the second mixer is
_____ MHz.
39. The section of the cellular transceiver that interprets the serial digital data from the cell site and MTSO
is the _____ unit.
40. How many microprocessors do most cellular transceivers contain?
41. The handset is part of the _____ section of the transceiver.
42. When the speed of radio signals is known, radar can be used to determine the _____ of a target.
43. An echo is the _____ from a target.
44. The directivity of the radar antenna determines the _____ of a target.
45. The speed of a radar signal is _____ s/nmi.
46. The elapsed time between radiating a radar signal and receiving its echo is 43.2 s. The target distance
in nautical miles is _____.
47. If a target is 1000 yd away, the time period between the transmission of the signal and receipt of the
echo is _____ s.
48. One nautical mile is equal to _____ statute miles.
49. For optimum reflection from a target, the wavelength of the radar signal should be _____ compared to
the size of the target.
50. Radars operate in the _____ frequency range.
51. True or false. Both the transmitter and receiver in a radar share the same antenna.
52. The two main types of radar are _____.
53. A frequency shift of sound, radio, or light waves that occurs as the result of the relative motion
between objects is called the _____ effect.
54. A CW radar operates at a frequency of 14 GHz. A frequency shift of 25 kHz is produced by a moving
target. Its speed is _____ mi/h.
55. True or false. Distance can be measured with constant-frequency CW radar.
56. A waveguide assembly that lets the transmitter and receiver share an antenna is called a(n) _____.
57. The most commonly used component in a radar transmitter is a(n) _____ tube.
58. Both TR and ATR tubes incorporate a(n) _____.
59. The output display in a radar is usually a(n) _____.
60. A display that sweeps outward from the center of the screen while rotating is known as a(n) _____.
61. A radar using multiple antennas to shape the beam width and automatically adjust directivity is known
as a(n) _____ radar.
62. The bandwidth of a standard TV signal is _____ MHz.
63. The video carrier is _____ modulated and the sound carrier is _____ modulated.
64. The spacing between the sound and picture carriers is _____ MHz.
65. TV stations operate in the _____ and _____ regions of the spectrum.
66. The brightness signal produced by a video camera is called the _____ or _____ signal.
67. Two electronic imaging devices used in TV cameras to produce video signals are the _____ and the
_____.
68. The process that breaks up a picture or scene into serially transmitted signals is called _____.
69. The three basic colors of light which can be used to produce any other color are _____ , _____, and _____.
70. A NTSC TV picture or one frame of video is composed of _____ scan lines.
71. A field consists of _____ scan lines.
76
72. The field and frame rates are _____ and _____ Hz respectively.
73. The time needed to scan one horizontal line in a color TV set is _____.
74. To keep the picture at the receiver in step with the transmitted signal, _____ are added to the video.
75. The circuit that lets the picture and sound transmitters use the same antenna is the _____.
76. The color in a scene is generated by a camera that develops three signals that represent the amount of
_____, _____, and _____ light present along every scan line.
77. The red, greed, and blue color signals are combined in a resistive matrix to produce the two color
signals called _____ and _____.
78. The two color signals are fed to _____ circuits that produce _____ modulation.
79. The color signals modulate a subcarrier with a frequency of _____.
80. The characteristic of the composite color signal that tells the receiver the transmitted color is its _____.
81. The _____ signal can be formed by adding the color signals in the following proportion: 0.11B +0.59G +
O.3R.
82. Channel selection in the tuner is accomplished by using a(n) _____ for a local oscillator.
83. The _____ portion of a modern TV set uses digitally coded infrared signals for channel, volume, and
other changes.
84. A channel 33 UHF TV station has a picture carrier frequency of 585.25 MHz. The sound carrier
frequency is _____.
85. The frequency of the video signal representing fine detail along a scan line can have a frequency up to
about _____.
86. The TV receiver sound IF is _____ MHz, and the picture IF is _____ MHz.
87. The name of the special filter that provides most of the adjacent channel selectivity for the TV receiver
is _____.
88. Spectrum space is conserved by using _____ modulation for the video in a TV signal.
89. In the TV receiver, the picture and sound IF beat together to form the sound IF of _____ MHz.
90. Two common sound demodulators in TV receivers are the _____ and the _____.
91. The composite color signal is demodulated in two _____ demodulator circuits fed with quadrature 3.58MHz signals from a subcarrier oscillator.
92. The. 3.58-MHz subcarrier oscillator in the receiver is phase- and frequency-synchronized to the _____
signal transmitted along with the horizontal sync pulses.
93. The _____ circuit strips the horizontal sync pulses from the video detector output.
94. The horizontal sync pulses synchronize in internal sweep oscillator to a frequency of _____ Hz.
95. The vertical sweep oscillator is synchronized to a frequency of _____ Hz by as sync pulse derived by
_____ the horizontal sync pulses occurring during the vertical blanking interval.
96. The horizontal and vertical sweep signals are currents with the shape of a(n) _____.
97. The sweep signals are applied to the _____ assembly around the neck of the picture tube.
98. The electron beam is generated by the _____ element in the picture tube and focused into a narrow
beam by the
99. The electron beam is deflected and swept across the face of the picture tube by _____ generated by the
_____.
100.A color CRT contains _____ electron guns to excite the color dot triads on the face of the tube.
101.The _____ circuits ensure that the electron beams strike the correct color dots.
102.The _____ stage is used as switching power supply to develop the HV required to operate the picture
tube.
103.The transformer used to step up and step down the horizontal sync pulses is called the _____.
104.The name given to the cable TV station that collects and distributes the cable signals is _____.
105.The, main cables used to distribute the TV signals to subscribers are called the _____ and _____.
106.The coaxial cables that feed individual houses are called _____ and typically have a characteristic
impedance of _____ ohms.
107.The cable TV station may change the TV signal frequency by translating it to another frequency by
using a _____.
108.Cable attenuation occurring during distribution is overcome by using _____.
109.The cable box used by the subscriber contains two, main circuits, the _____ and the _____.
110.The output of the cable box is a TV signal on channel _____ or _____ that is connected to the _____ of
the TV set.
111.Four advantages of cable TV are _____, _____, _____, and _____.
77
ANSWERS
1. scanning
2. telephone lines
3. C I TT
4. 2300, 1500
5. 2
6. charge coupled device
7. 3
8. handshaking
9. thermal
10. 9600
11. 200
12.PSK , Q AM
13. half
14. 56K, 400
15. true
16. false
17. true
18. cells
19. mobile telephone switching office
20.more spectrum space at the higher frequencies, frequency reuse of channels.
21. 666
22. true
23. FM
24. 3
25. 825, 845
26. 870, 890
27. 30
28. 45
29. frequency synthesizer
30. 45,82.2, 10.7,0.455
31. change or decrease
32. duplexer or isolator
33. false
34. MT SO
35. transmitter power level received signal level
36. transmit frequency, receive frequency, transmitter power.
37.receive signal strength indicator (R SSI )
38. 82.656
39. logic
40. two
41. control
42. distance or range
43. reflection
44. bearing or azimuth
45. 6.18
46. 3.5
47. 6.1
48. 1.15
49. short
50. microwave
51. true
52. pulse, continuous wave
53. Doppler
78
54. 589
55. false
56. duplexer
57. magnetron
58. spark gap
59. CRT
60.plan position indicator (PPI )
61. phased array
62. 6 MHz
63. amplitude, frequency
64. 4.5 MHz
65. VHF, UHF
66. luminance Y
67.vidicon, C C D
68. scanning
69. red, green, and blue
70. 525
71. 262 ½
72. 60 (59.94) and 30 (20.97) Hz
73.15,734 Hz (63.6 .s)
74. sync pulses
75. diplexer
76. red, green, blue
77.I, Q
78.balanced modulator, DSB suppressed in-phase and quadrature carrier AM
79. 3.58 MHz
80. phase
81. Y or luminance
82. frequency synthesizer
83. remote control
84. 589.75 MHz
85. 4 MHz
86. 41.25, 45.75 MHz
87. surface acoustic wave (SAW)
88. vestigial sideband AM
89. 4.5 MHz
90. quadrature detector and differential peak detector
91. balanced
92. color burst
93. sync separator
94. 15,734 Hz
95. 59.94 Hz, integrating
96. linear sawtooth
97. yoke
98. cathode, electron gun
99. magnetic fields, yoke coils
100.three
101.convergence
102.horizontal sweep output
103.fly back
104.head end
105.trunk, feeder
106.drops, 75
107.mixer
108.amplifiers
79
109.mixer, frequency synthesizer channel selector
110.3, 4, antenna jack
111.less noise and signal attenuation for a better picture, greater reliability of reception, premium cable
programming, and no need for an antenna
80
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement