Current fraud trends in the financial sector

Current fraud trends in the financial sector
Current fraud
trends in the
financial sector
June 2015
Contents
Financial services megatrends04
08
Frauds in financial institutions: Understanding the types and modus operandi 10
Regulatory and legislative landscape19
Global trends in fraud prevention and detection21
Transformation through technology: The advent of a new world of financial services
2
PwC
Message from ASSOCHAM
In the globalised and liberalised business environment of the last few years, we face a drastically increasing volume of frauds, especially
in the financial sectors in India. The Indian financial services sector has witnessed exponential growth in the last decade—a growth
that has not been without its pitfalls, as incidents of fraud have also been on the rise. Fraud results in significant losses to the public
exchequer, thus adversely affecting service delivery.
Financial fraud is big business, contributing to an estimated 20 billion USD in direct losses annually. Industry experts suspect that this
figure is actually much higher, as firms cannot accurately identify and measure losses due to fraud. The worst effect of financial frauds
is on FDI inflows into India.
The time has come for financial services organisations to pursue a more strategic approach to fraud management within. To overcome
this challenge, they need strict and focussed steps. There needs to be transparency at all levels in organisations to reduce frauds.
To provide a holistic outlook with good understanding of the current financial sector scenario, regulatory viewpoints, anti-fraud
resources, tools, knowledge and best practices, ASSOCHAM along with PwC India has drafted this paper, in an attempt to understand
and establish sound business practices for reputation enhancement and growth, by equipping organisations against fraud.
I am sure this study will provide rich insight and adequate knowledge to all stakeholders.
With best wishes,
D S Rawat
Secretary General
ASSOCHAM
Foreword
In today’s volatile economic environment, the opportunity and incentive to commit frauds have both increased. Instances of
asset misappropriation, money laundering, cybercrime and accounting fraud are only increasing by the day.
With changes in technology, frauds have taken the shape and modalities of organised crime, deploying increasingly
sophisticated methods of perpetration. As financial transactions become increasingly technology-driven, they seem to have
become the weapon of choice when it comes to fraudsters.
In this paper, we share our perspective on the trends in frauds in the financial sector, the changing regulatory landscape and the
ways for fraud prevention and control. We hope these insights will help the financial services industry combat fraud and other
forms of economic crime.
Best regards,
Dinesh Anand
Partner and Leader, Forensic Services
PricewaterhouseCoopers Pvt Ltd. India
Financial services megatrends
New technologies reshaping
financial services
Growing trend of cyber frauds with growth in NEFT/RTGS transactions
Whether it’s financial transactions,
customer experience, marketing of
new products or channel distribution,
technology has become the biggest driver
of change in the financial services sector.
Most financial institutions are therefore
insisting on cashless and paperless
transactions.
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
900,000
800,000
700,000
600,000
500,000
400,000
300,000
200,000
100,000
Susceptibility to fraud: Flipside
of technology breakthroughs
The new technologies adopted by financial
institutions are making them increasingly
vulnerable to various risks such as
phishing, identity theft, card skimming,
vishing, SMSishing, viruses and Trojans,
spyware and adware, social engineering,
website cloning and cyber stalking.
Younger generation as a new
market for financial institutions
At the start of the century, Ray Kurzweil,
Futurist and Chief Engineer at Google,
rightly predicted that “20,000 years of
evolution would be crammed into the next
100.”
1
11-12
13-14
14-15
NEFT/ RTGS Value (in billion INR)
Cyber fraud cases (reported to RBI) value (in billion INR)
*2014-2015 numbers extrapolated for 3 months
Growing trend of cyber frauds with growth in mobile banking transactions
1,200
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
1,000
800
600
400
200
11-12
In 2020, the average Indian will be 29
(lower than the average age in China
and Japan). India’s workforce will be the
largest and youngest in the world.2
12-13
12-13
13-14
14-15
Mobile banking transactions (MBT) value (in billion INR)
Cyber fraud cases (reported to RBI) value (in billion INR)
*2014-2015 numbers extrapolated for 3 months
Source: https://www.rbi.org.in/scripts/NEFTView.aspx
The Economic Times, 4 March 2015
The younger generation in India today has
financial and social independence. They
are not only driven by high aspirations but
are also technology savvy, well informed
and connected through social media.
•
According to RBI records , 22 million of the 589 million bank account
holders use mobile banking apps.
•
The volume of mobile banking transactions has risen from around
18,190 million INR in 2011–12 to approximately 1,018,510 million
INR in 2014–15.
Hence, financial institutions are eager
to tap into this new market by offering
services and products that are tailored to
their requirements.
1. http://www.kurzweilai.net/the-law-of-accelerating-returns
2. https://www.pwc.in/en_IN/in/assets/pdfs/publications/2014/indian-workplace-of-2022.pdf
4
PwC
Evolving regulatory framework driving increased compliance among financial institutions
•
Regulations governing financial institutions are set to have a huge impact.
•
The reporting requirements of the financial sector have never been this stringent.
The regulatory framework in India is
continuously evolving. Driven by the need
for stricter regulatory compliance and the
global standards of delivering financial
products and services, the regulators can
be seen as becoming more aggressive
and stringent in enforcing the existing
regulations. At the same time, they are
also striving to constantly evolve these
legislations and statutes to keep up with
the international technology and service
standards.
According to the RBI, the primary
responsibility of preventing frauds lies
with banks themselves3 (Circular No. DBS.
FrMC.BC.No.1/23.04.001/2013-14).
Customer at the forefront
Changing technology and rapid flow of
information have placed the customer at
the centre. It is critical for every financial
institution to understand customer needs
and expectations and offer customised
services.
As the world shrinks, financial institutions
need to set new standards for product
and service delivery that not only satisfy
customers but also ensure regulatory
compliance and help them stay ahead in
their business.
Financial inclusion to spur
growth
meticulous steps for financial inclusion,
wherein banks have been advised to devise
financial inclusion plans congruent with
their business strategies and comparative
advantages to make them an integral part of
their corporate business plans.
According to RBI governor Raghuram Rajan,
“financial inclusion refers to universal
access to a wide range of financial services
at a reasonable cost. This includes not only
banking products but also other financial
services such as insurance and equity
products.”
The following schemes have been
introduced as part of this initiative:
• Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana
• Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana
Keeping in mind the twin objectives
of financial stability and customer
protection, the government has taken
• Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana
• Atal Pension Yojana
Changing landscape of financial services
•
In India, the financial services sector operates as an arrangement of institutions—formal and informal—that facilitates the flow of
surplus funds in the economy to deficit spenders.
•
The institutional arrangement in the financial services sector consists of scheduled commercial banks (SCBs), insurance
companies, non-banking financial companies (NBFCs), mutual funds, specialised foreign institutional investors (specialised FII),
urban co-operative banks (UCBs), regional rural banks (RRBs), national pension scheme (NPS) fund and other smaller financial
entities.
•
Like many developing economies, India has an informal financial system consisting of loan brokers, NGOs helping self-help groups
(SHGs), share brokers and traders, pawnbrokers, etc. Given the heterogeneous nature of entities and activities, no consistent
database of customers and transactions is available. Informal financial agencies are also not considered very reliable in terms of
customer protection.
Spread of bank branches for scheduled commercial
banks: Decadal growth
Deployment of aggregate and priority sector credit
50%
45%
Rural
Semiurban
Urban
Metro
1980–81 to
1989–90
7.26%
3.55%
4.4%
4.63%
1990–91 to
1999–2000
-0.91%
3.3%
3.7%
6.24%
2000–01
2000 – 01toto
2009–10
2009-10
-0.37%
3.78%
5.77%
7.19%
Total
0.93%
2.67%
3.69%
4.55%
5%
Bank branches as
of March 2014
44,699
31,298
21,310
19,143
0%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
2011
2008
2005
2002
1999
1996
1993
1990
1987
1984
1981
1978
1975
1972
1969
10%
Priority sector lending as a % of GDP
Growth in banking outlets via business correspondents
Schedule Commercial Banks' credit as a % of GDP
Scheduled commercial banks’ deposits as a % of GDP
: 77%
CAGR
60%
3. https://rbi.org.in/scripts/NotificationUser.aspx?Id=7344&Mode=0
33,042
330,302
Number of BCs as of
Number of BCs as of
50%
40%
Current fraud trends in the financial sector
5
Evolving risks in the financial
services sector
Income and Assets) and Imposition of
Tax Act, 2015, financial institutions are
under growing pressure to eliminate
this malignancy.
According to an RBI report,4
provisioning for loan losses is a critical
component of effective financial
reporting and prudential supervision.
However, provisioning reduces an
institution’s reported net income for the
period in which it is recognised.
While some of the risks in the financial
services sector have always been there,
they keep changing with the constantly
evolving technology standards and
regulatory framework.
• Cybercrime: A majority of the banks in
India offer online and mobile banking
services. Most of the transactions
are conducted via payment cards,
debit and credit cards, and electronic
channels such as ATMs. Consequently,
both private and public banks as well
as other financial institutions in India
are becoming increasingly vulnerable
to sophisticated cyberattacks.
• Loan loss: The risk of loan loss is high
in India. Due to lack of appropriate due
diligence and monitoring of loans, the
number of loan defaults has increased
in recent years. The non-performing
assets are growing in last few years
while the GDP has been declining.
• Money laundering: India has
witnessed numerous terror attacks
and remains a potential target for
such strikes. Stringent regulatory
requirement and media scrutiny
have made it mandatory for financial
institutions to perform strict
compliance checks to prevent the use
of money laundering to fund terrorist
activities.
According to the 2013 Norton Report,6
India ranks among the top 5 countries in
terms of number of cybercrime incidents
such as ransomware, identity theft and
phishing attacks.
• Black money: According to the Global
Financial Integrity Report,5 the total
amount of illicit money moving out of
India rose to 439.59 billion USD (28
lakh crore INR) from 2003 to 2012. In
2012, India ranked third globally, with
an estimated 94.76 billion USD (nearly
6 lakh crore INR) in illicit wealth
outflows.With the passing of the new
Black Money (Undisclosed Foreign
According to the PwC Global Economic
Crime Survey 2014, cybercrime was
one of the top economic crimes reported
by organisations across the world,
including India.
• Identity theft: With the proliferation
of mobile devices and online
platforms, the nature of identity theft
has changed in today’s world.
Gross NPA vs GDP in India
11.4%
10.4%
8.8%
7.0%
5.4%
FY03
6.5%
5.2%
3.9%
FY02
8.4%
6.7%
4.5%
3.3%
FY01
9.3%
8.4%
8.0%
7.2%
4.2%
9.6%
9.5%
FY04
FY05
FY06
2.5%
FY07
FY08
GDP
Source: Reserve Bank of India
2.2%
2.3%
FY09
FY10
2.5%
2.4%
FY11
3.1%
FY12
FY13
4.9%
4.5%
3.6%
FY14E
GNPA
Source: Trends in Indian banking sector, Reserve Bank of India
Credit growth vs growth in GNPA + restructured assets (RAs)
155.1
27.9
27.9
23.2
FY05
PwC
18.0
11.5
FY06
FY07
FY08
40.2
21.3
FY09
6.0
16.8
4. http://rbidocs.rbi.org.in/rdocs/PublicationReport/Pdfs/DDP033012FL.pdf
(1.2)
5. http://www.gfintegrity.org/reports/
(8.4)
(13.9)
6. http://www.symantec.com/about/news/resources/press_kits/detail.jsp?pkid=norton-report-2013
6
54.1
54.0
43.2
FY10
FY11
16.6
FY12
15.1
FY13
Spread of bank branches for scheduled commercial
banks: Decadal growth
Deployment of aggregate and priority sector credit
50%
45%
Rural
Semiurban
Urban
Metro
1980–81 to
1989–90
7.26%
3.55%
4.4%
4.63%
1990–91 to
1999–2000
-0.91%
3.3%
3.7%
6.24%
2000–01 to
2009–10
-0.37%
3.78%
5.77%
7.19%
Total
0.93%
2.67%
3.69%
4.55%
5%
Bank branches as
of March 2014
44,699
31,298
21,310
19,143
0%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
2011
2008
2005
2002
1999
1996
1993
1990
1987
1984
1981
1978
1975
1972
1969
10%
Priority sector lending as a % of GDP
Growth in banking outlets via business correspondents (BCs)
Schedule Commercial Banks' credit as a % of GDP
Scheduled commercial banks’ deposits as a % of GDP
%
: 77
CAGR
60%
33,042
330,302
Number of BCs as of
March 2010
Number of BCs as of
September 2014
50%
40%
30%
20%
Access to bank accounts
2011
2008
2005
2002
1999
1996
1993
1990
1987
1984
1981
1978
1975
0%
1972
~ 425 million
access to bank
adults had
accounts in 2014
1969
~ 296.1 million
access to bank
adults had
accounts in 2011
10%
Demand deposits as a % of GDP
Time deposits as a % of GDP
Number of basic saving bank deposit accounts (BSBDAs)
2014
2010
50
million
CAG
R: 57%
305
million
Total growth of deposits and credit of scheduled
commercial banks (1980–2010)
16.15%
Demand
deposits
Time
deposits
17.54%
Credit
17.61%
Sources: RBI – Statistical tables relating to banks in India; RBI – Trends and progress of banking in India reports; Madras School of Economics research; World
Bank Findex; Census 2011; Planning Commission; PwC analysis
8
PwC
Current fraud trends in the financial sector
7
citizens to store all their certificates and official documents,
including birth certificates, university degrees and income tax
documents, in a digital format online and access them using their
Aadhaar numbers. Users can log into their DigiLocker by providing
their Aadhaar number, enabling them to share the link of a cloud
folder having digital copies of verified certificates, instead of
physical copies of documents. Additionally, the Aadhaar linked
e-signatures project will provide greater security to online
documents, by allowing an individual to digitally sign electronic
versions of documents which would otherwise require dongles for
authentication.
discussed in the context of potential regulation and investment in
any kind of stored value business by an offshore company and is
subject to unreasonably high minimum capitalisation. Availability
of good quality data remains a challenge, despite efforts made by
the central and state governments as well as the central bank on
collecting and publishing data. While digital holds the promise of
solving traditionally impossible puzzles of low-cost service delivery
and risk mitigation, it also poses new challenges for authorities
dealing with cross-border controls, licensing, state and central
taxes, by blurring the lines of jurisdiction. A more collaborative
approach between service providers, policymakers and financial
services companies will be required to put in place the right digital
infrastructure for tomorrow’s financial services for all.
Transformation through technology: The
advent of a new world of financial services
The Digital India dream
• The Digital India programme
is a transformed version of
the already running National
e-Governance Plan.
• The project aims to provide
thrust to nine pillars identified
as growth areas.
• These pillars include broadband
highways, everywhere mobile
connectivity, Public Internet
Access Programme, e-Governance,
e-Kranti (which aims to give
electronic delivery of services),
information for all, electronics
manufacturing, IT for jobs and
early harvest programmes.
7.9
billion INR
42,300
Wi-Fi in 400
universities and
public places in 25
cities by June 2015
Villages to
be provided
universal mobile
access by 2018
320
billion INR
10 million
persons in towns and
villages provided
with IT services or
business training
Cost of establishing
rural broadband in
2.5 lakh villages by
March 2017
1,130 billion
INR Total investment
in Digital India
programme
Source:
Logging
intodocuments
Digital Banking
Source:
Official
policy
18
`
PwC
Policy and market trends
In August 2014, the government of India
announced a planned investment of 1,330
billion INR in the Digital India project that
aims to provide universal mobile phone
access, broadband access in 250,000
villages and Wi-Fi hotspots in every city
with a population of 1 million plus by the
year 2020.
As per Celent’s banking practice study,
total bank IT spending across North
America, Europe and Asia-Pacific will
grow to 196.7 billion USD in 2015, an
increase of approximately 4.6% over 2014.
2015 to 70.3 billion USD. The IT spend by
Indian banking and securities companies
in 2015 will be 15% more than the 46,600
crore INR spent in 2014.
The majority of the growth is expected
to come from banks in the Asia-Pacific
region: The spending of banks in this
region is expected to grow by 5.6% in
Mobile financial services
RBI issued the guidelines
for mobile banking
transactions
October 2008
Nonbanks/NBFCs
permitted to issue mbased semi-closed
instruments
April 2009
RBI issued guidelines
on prepaid instruments
August 2009
Banks permitted to
issue semi–closed
instruments through
agents/BCs
September 2010
Immediate
payment services (IMPS)
launched in India
Source: Gartner forecast worldwide: Enterprise IT spending by vertical industry market
8
PwC
November 2010
RBI Master
circular on mobile
banking transactions
issued in July 2014
July 2014
Draft guidelines
for licensing of
payment banks
Proliferation of social media
Increased risk of fraud
The internet is fast becoming the
favoured mode for performing financial
transactions—checking one’s bank
balance, requesting for bank statements
and chequebooks, upgrading debit cards
and even purchasing virtual goods. Also,
financial institutions are increasingly
using social media platforms to engage
their customers and enhance their service
offerings.
Such technological solutions also expose
customers as well as financial institutions
to the risk of bank spoofing, hijacking of
mobile phones and SIM card cloning.
One of the largest private sector banks
in India recently launched a multi-social
payment app that allows customers to
transfer money through social media
channels.
Rewards vs risks: Is reliance on social
media a double-edged sword?
While social media platforms have many
advantages, they also carry inherent
risks of security breaches. Financial
transactions via social media channels,
and especially those on mobile banking
apps, are prone to malware attacks.
Modern banking
Currently, 74% of the Indian population
has mobile phones. Mobile payment
volumes have hence registered a steady
rise.
finance companies (NBFC) prefer to bank
offline. As per a recent article in Business
Standard, though NBFCs are offering online
services, not many customers have been
using them.
If NBFC customers do take the digital route
in future, they are more likely to do so via
mobile phones and not the online channel.
As per the Minister of Communications
and IT, Government of India, cyber fraud
cases worth 497 crore INR have been
reported by the RBI and CBI since 2011.7
Recent innovative financial services
such as mobile wallets have also been
targeted by fraudsters. Similarly, money
management tools are becoming
increasingly susceptible to cyber threats
and related frauds.
The insurance industry in India is also
looking at adopting new channels of
distribution that are already in place
internationally. In one such initiative, a
US auto insurance major installed Direct
on the Spot Kiosks at public places with
transactional capabilities. These kiosks
allow customers to scan their driver’s
license in order to obtain quotes and walk
away fully insured in less than five minutes.
Emerging technologies
Capital markets
• Digitised and automated account
opening procedures
The growing dependency of security
exchanges on internet-based (IP) platforms
has led to higher reputation, market and
operational risks. Technological innovations
have affected everything from software to
system design and architecture. Some of
these innovations are the use of extensible
mark-up language (XML) as the industry
IP language, straight through processing of
data, pervasive or diffuse computing and
grid computing, as well as the increased use
of the internet and wireless technology.
Security of mobile banking a top concern
• Biometric products for enrolment,
storage and verification of documents
Other financial institutions
Like banks, mutual funds are also prone
to risks posed by emerging technologies.
Mutual fund houses received about 21,000
complaints from investors in 2014–158.
Unlike banks, customers of non-banking
A recent study on e-commerce in India by
Accel Partners estimated that shopping
through mobile phones grew by 800% in
2013. It is expected to show a compound
annual growth rate of 150% by 2016.
According to a report published in ICFE Fraud Magazine,9 in 2013, 46% of
the complaints or identity theft frauds reported globally involved breaches of
government documents. Over 20% of all identity theft frauds or complaints
were related to breaches of data of financial institutions (e.g. credit card,
loan or other bank information).
Branchless banking: An upcoming trend
RBI circular November 2014:10 It has been reported that in some cases even
though the original cheques were in the custody of the customer, cheques with
the same series had been presented and encashed by fraudsters.
Connectivity is the backbone of
digital banking. The high volume of
ICT transactions through banking
correspondents has motivated the
institutions to develop a solution that
combines a mobile phone and a card
reader to function together as a micro
ATM. This solution transfers data using
USSD technology that does not require a
smart phone or internet connection and is
thus accessible by a larger population.
National crime records bureau statistics11
• Total number of cases of cybercrime registered in India in 2013: 4,356
• Total number of arrests made: 2,098
Common types of identity theft frauds/Complaint percentages in 2013
A banking correspondent (intermediary)
Attempted identity theft fraud
can use this device to deposit or withdraw
Other identity theft fraud
money for a customer in rural areas
Employment related fraud
Phone or utilities fraud
where banking facilities are scarce,
Government documents or benefit fraud
thus integrating these regions into core
Loan fraud
banking systems.
Bank fraud
Credit card fraud
6.60%
18.50%
5.40%
9.70%
46.40%
2.40%
6.40%
13.50%
Note: These percentages don’t add up to 100 because some of the complaints include more than one type of identity theft.
7. http://www.freepressjournal.in/over-rs-490-cr-involved-in-cyber-fraud-cases-since-2011-govt/
8. https://www.amfiindia.com/
9. http://www.fraud-magazine.com/default.aspx
10. https://www.rbi.org.in/scripts/BS_CircularIndexDisplay.aspx?Id=9322
11. http://ncrb.gov.in/
Current fraud trends in the financial sector
9
Frauds in financial institutions:
Understanding the types and modus operandi
Evolution of fraud
1990–1999
•
Hawala transactions
•
Ponzi schemes
•
Fake currency
•
Cheque forgery
•
Advancing loans without adequate due diligence
•
Siphoning of investors’ money through fictitious companies
•
Use of fictitious government securities
2000–2015
10 PwC
•
Tax evasion and money laundering
•
Black money stashed abroad
•
Cybercrime
•
Debit/credit card fraud
•
Identity theft
•
Fake demat accounts
•
Benami accounts
•
Collusive frauds emanating kickbacks to employee of financial institutions
•
Use of forged instruments such as stamp papers and shares
•
Violation of Know Your Customer (KYC) norms
Overview of frauds in the financial sector:
Bribery and corruption: Corruption is one of the biggest
challenges faced by the Indian economy. Various surveys
and studies conducted by industry bodies like Transparency
International have identified corruption as a key risk for Indian
corporates.
• Cybercrime: According to RBI, in 2012, 8,322 cases of
cyber frauds amounting to 527 million INR were reported.
Although the number of cases reported decreased from
15,018 in 2010, the total amount involved increased from
405 in 2012, implying that the average value per cyber fraud
case has increased significantly.
• Data security: In addition to website defacement and
distributed denial of service, hackers have been making
use of social media to launch more sophisticated attacks.
Hacking attacks are tailored to target a particular
organisation or entity and are often focussed on gathering
valuable sensitive data.
India ranked 85 among the 170 countries included in Transparency
International’s Corruption Perceptions Index - 2014 . This ranking
has gone up by 9 points as compared to the country’s rank of 94 out
of 177 in 2013. Some of the key reasons for high corruption in India
are the lack of a strong legal framework and enforcement of anticorruption laws, red-tapism and a result-oriented approach.
Fraud landscape: An overview
• Terrorist financing: It involves the raising and processing
of assets to supply terrorists with resources to pursue their
activities. While money laundering and terrorist financing
differ in many ways, they often exploit the same vulnerabilities
in financial systems that allow for an inappropriate level of
anonymity and non-transparency in the execution of financial
transactions.
• Fewer instances but increased financial impact: According
to the RBI, while the number of fraud cases has declined
from 24,791 cases in 2009–10 to 13,293 cases in 2012–13
— i.e. a 46% drop—the amount involved has increased
substantially from 2037.81 crore INR to 8646.00 crore
INR—i.e. an increase of 324%.14
• Money laundering: The goal of a large number of criminal acts
is to generate a profit for the individual or group that commits
the act. Money laundering is the processing of these criminal
proceeds to disguise their illegal origin. This process enables the
criminal to enjoy profits without jeopardising their source.
• Pareto law applies: A granular analysis in this study reveals
that nearly 80% of all fraud cases involved amounts less
than 1 lakh INR, while on an aggregated basis, the amount
involved in such cases was only around 2% of the total
amount involved.15
• Tax evasion: The general modus operandi to evade tax include
wrongly availing CENVAT credit, non-registration, short
payment of taxes, wrong classification and undervaluation of
services.
• Major risk areas: Corruption and cash in hand are the most
fraud vulnerable areas in the financial services sector.16
• Latest reported facts and figures: In India, frauds worth
11,022 crore INR were unearthed in public sector banks
between April–December 2014; 2,100 cases of fraud were
reported to the RBI.17
The extent of tax evasion can be
evaluated from the fact that the
Directorate General of Central
Excise Intelligence (DGCEI)
registered 1,144 cases of service
tax evasion involving a revenue of
7,928.22 crore INR during 2013–
14 as against 841 cases involving
a revenue of 4,693 crore INR in
2012–13.13
13. http://www.business-standard.com/article/pf/
about-rs-8-000-cr-service-tax-evasion-detectedduring-2013-14-114040600173_1.html
14. https://rbi.org.in/scripts/BS_SpeechesView.
aspx?Id=826
15. https://rbi.org.in/scripts/BS_SpeechesView.
aspx?Id=826
16. http://www.acfe.com/rttn/docs/2014-report-tonations.pdf
17. http://rbidocs.rbi.org.in/rdocs/Speeches/PDFs/
DGKCAF290713.pdf
Current fraud trends in the financial sector
11
Fraud risks: Banking
Fraudulent documentation
Fraudulent documentation involves altering, changing or
modifying a document to deceive another person. It can also
involve approving incorrect information provided in documents
knowingly. Deposit accounts in banks with lax KYC drills/
inoperative accounts are vulnerable to fraudulent documentation.
Some examples:
• An individual illegally obtains personal information/
documents of another person and takes a loan in the name of
that person.
• He/she provides false information about his/her financial
status, such as salary and other assets, and takes a loan for
an amount that exceeds his eligible limits with the motive of
non-repayment.
• A person takes a loan using a fictitious name and there is a
lack of a strong framework pertaining to spot verifications of
address, due diligence of directors/promoters, pre-sanction
surveys and identification of faulty/incomplete applications
and negative/criminal records in client history.
• Fake documentation is used to grant excess overdraft facility
and withdraw money.
• A person may forge export documents such as airway bills,
bills of lading, Export Credit Guarantee Cover and customs
purged numbers/orders issued by the customs authority.
Multiple funding/diversion/siphoning of funds
Siphoning of funds takes place when funds borrowed from
financial institutions are utilised for purposes unrelated to the
operations of the borrower, to the detriment of the financial
health of the entity or of the lender. Diversion of funds, on the
other hand, can include any one of the following occurrences:
• Use of short-term working capital
funds for long-term commitments not in
conformity with the terms of sanction
• Using borrowed funds for creation
of assets other than those for which the
loan was sanctioned
• Transferring funds to group
companies
• Investment in other companies by
acquiring shares without the approval of
lenders
• Shortage in the usage of funds as
compared to the amounts disbursed/
drawn, with the difference not being
accounted for
Identity theft
Fraudsters are devising new ways to exploit loopholes in
technology systems and processes. In case of frauds involving
lower amounts, they employ hostile software programs or
malware attacks, phishing, SMSishing and whaling (phishing
targeting high net worth individuals) apart from stealing
confidential data.
In February 2013, the RBI advised banks to introduce certain
minimum checks and balances such as the introduction of twofactor authentication in case of ‘card not present’ transactions.18
Some examples:
• Unauthorised emails asking for account information for
updating bank records are sent by fraudsters. The customer
information is then misused for misappropriating funds.
• Access rights for making entries are given to unauthorised
people.
18. https://rbi.org.in/scripts/NotificationUser.aspx?Id=7874&Mode=0
12 PwC
• Bank employees keep original Fixed Deposit (FD) receipts
with themselves and hand over phony FD receipts to
customers. They then revoke FDs by forging signatures.
• Lost/stolen card: It refers to the use of a card lost by a
legitimate account holder for unauthorised/illegal purposes.
• Account takeover fraud: An individual illegally obtains
personal information of valid customers and takes control of
the card account.
• Theft of valuables: Fraudsters open bank lockers to take key
impressions of other lockers and then use duplicate keys to
steal assets.
Internet banking and related frauds
Around 65% of the total fraud cases reported by banks were
technology-related frauds (covering frauds committed through/
at an internet banking channel, ATMs and other payment channels
like credit/debit/prepaid cards), whereas advance-related fraud
accounted for a major proportion (64%) of the total amount
involved in fraud.19
Some examples:
• Triangulation/site cloning: Customers enter their card details
on fraudulent shopping sites. These details are then misused.
• Hacking: Hackers/fraudsters obtain unauthorised access to
the card management platform of banking system. Counterfeit
cards are then issued for the purpose of money laundering.
• Online fraud: Card information is stolen at the time of an
online transaction. Fraudsters then use the card information to
make online purchases or assume an individual’s identity.
• Lost/stolen card: It refers to the use of a card lost by a
legitimate account holder for unauthorised/illegal purposes.
19. https://rbi.org.in/scripts/BS_SpeechesView.aspx?Id=826
Current fraud trends in the financial sector
13
• Debit card skimming: A machine or camera is installed at an
ATM in order to pick up card information and PIN numbers
when customers use their cards.
• ATM fraud: A fraudster acquires a customer’s card and/or PIN
and withdraws money from the machine.
• Social engineering: A thief can convince an employee that he
is supposed to be let into the office building, or he can convince
someone over the phone or via e-mail that he’s supposed to
receive certain information.
• Dumpster diving: Employees who aren’t careful when throwing
away papers containing sensitive information may make secret
data available to those who check the company’s trash.
• False pretences: Someone with the intent to steal corporate
information can get a job with a cleaning company or other
vendor specifically to gain legitimate access to the office
building.
• Computer viruses: With every click on the internet, a
company’s systems are open to the risk of being infected with
nefarious software that is set up to harvest information from
the company servers.
Incorrect sanctioning or external vendor-induced
fraud
According to PwC’s Global Economic Crime Survey 2014,20
external fraudsters are still the main perpetrators of economic
crime for the majority of financial service organisations (57% in
2014 and 60% in 2011).
Financial institutions are prime targets for external frauds, given
the amount of money fraudsters can potentially obtain as well as
the sensitivity of data held by these organisations (credit card and
personal identity details, for example).
The financial services sector also tends to be more strictly regulated
and as a result, many business processes and functions have
corporate controls in place. This makes it more difficult for frauds
to be internally perpetrated without discovery. The absence of
a proactive and robust monitoring framework, however, does
not allow the entity to identify conflict of interest issues such as
employees or agents having a close relationship with other entities. • Inflation of projected sales figures or past income: Large
and unusual year end transactions resulting in profit for the
Some examples:
enterprise.
• Falsified Valuations: External consultants advising loan
• Others: Faking net worth of directors, faking CA certificates
borrowers to fabricate their valuation report and inflate the
or financial statements, inflating sundry debtors or reducing
amount of funds that can be borrowed
sundry creditors, reference checks not being conducted,
• Corporate espionage: Sharing trade secrets or confidential
irregularities in repayments for loans availed from other
customer information with the competitor for commercial
banks, frequent start-ups, maintenance of a large number of
benefits
small enterprises, etc.
• Merchant collusion: Merchant owners and/or their employees
conspiring to commit frauds using their customers’ accounts
and/or personal information
• Ponzi scheme: A type of pyramid scheme, where money from
new investors is used to provide returns to previous investors
• Off shore investing: External vendors convincing investors to
invest in outside companies by showing higher returns when
the companies don’t exist in reality
• Bogus offerings: Investing in a bogus company (no operations,
earnings or audited financial statements)
Counterfeit cheques
Counterfeit or fake cheques that look too good to be true are
being used in a growing number of fraudulent schemes, including
foreign lottery scams, cheque overpayment scams, internet
auction scams and secret shopper scams. Unsuspecting sellers
get stuck when scammers pass off bogus corporate or personal
cheques.
Tunnelling/phoenixing or asset stripping
• Misappropriation of loan disbursements: Loans of lesser value Even though the above-mentioned terms are interchangeably
being disbursed to farmers and funds being misappropriated by used, in the banking world, asset stripping primarily implies
taking company funds or assets of value, and leaving behind
intermediators through false documentation
debts.
20. http://www.pwc.com/gx/en/financial-services/publications/global-economiccrime-survey-2014-financial-services.jhtml
14 PwC
This can happen when a company’s directors transfer only the
assets of one company to another and not the liabilities. The
result is a dormant company which has to be liquidated as it has
large liabilities that cannot be met.
Some examples:
• Asset stripping: Fraudsters deliberately target a company or
companies to take ownership, move the assets and then put
the stripped entity into liquidation.
• Phoenixing: Directors of a company move the assets from
one limited company to another to ‘secure’ the benefits of
their business and avoid the liabilities. Most or all directors
will usually be the same in both companies. This usually is a
way of ‘rescuing’ the assets of a failing business rather than
targeting a company.
• Teeming and lading: In order to maintain the liquidity
situation artificially, amounts received from the subsequent
debtor are credited to the earlier debtor’s account so that one
debtor’s account does not show an outstanding balance for a
long time. Such a process is continued till the time the original
amount misappropriated is finally replaced or till the time the
cashier is caught.
Overvaluation or absence of collaterals
Absence of stringent guidelines on the due diligence of
professionals assisting borrowers at the time of disbursement of
loans may result in valuation agencies or advocates facilitating
the perpetration of frauds by colluding with the borrowers to
inflate security valuation reports.
Some examples:
• Concealing liabilities: Borrowers concealing obligations
such as mortgage loans on other properties or newly acquired
credit card debts in order to reduce the amount of monthly
debt declared on the loan application
• Misstatement: Deliberately overstating or understating the
property’s appraised value; when overstated, more money
can be obtained by the borrower in the form of a cash-out
refinance, by the seller in a purchase transaction, or by the
organisers of a for-profit mortgage fraud scheme
• Cash back schemes: The true price of a property illegally
being inflated to provide cash-back to transaction participants,
most often the borrowers, who receive a ‘rebate’ that is not
disclosed to the lender
• Shot gunning: Multiple loans for the same home being
obtained simultaneously for a total amount greatly in excess
of the actual value of the property
Current fraud trends in the financial sector
15
Mobile banking: Risks
There are two types of mobile financial
services that are currently offered in
the Indian market—mobile banking
and mobile wallets. Being an easy and
convenient mode of transacting, there
has been a 55 times rise in value usage of
mobile banking and 5.5 times rise in the
volume of transactions between FY12 and
FY15.
After the recent changes to RBI policy,
customers of semi-closed pre-paid
instruments (PPIs) can now do the
following:
• Load up to 1,00,000 INR in wallets
• Transfer money from their wallet to
any bank account
This move, on one hand, enhances the
convenience and adoptability of a mobile
wallet and on the other, makes it more
susceptible to fraud risks.
Risks associated with mobile
banking
• Mobile banking application being
mapped to an incorrect mobile
number: For bank customers who do
not use mobile banking, an employee
of the bank could attach an associate’s
mobile number to the bank account
and install a mobile application on his
mobile device. The customer’s account
is compromised by the associate and
he or she does not get any notification
about the same.
• Creating fake and non-existent users
on the mobile financial services
platform: Most of the banks appoint
a third party vendor to develop a
mobile application to be integrated
with their core banking system. The
vendor may create two unauthorised
users with rights to initiate and verify
transactions, and transfer funds from
the organisation to his associates’
wallets, effectively stealing money
from the bank.
• Malware: The increase in the
number of mobile banking users
is accompanied by a rise in attacks
through malware.
• Data theft: Mass attacks are possible
through the theft of credentials which
can be used for personal benefits.
16 PwC
• SIM swap: SIM swap means replacing
the old SIM with a new one, when the
old gets lost or damaged, or when one
needs a differently sized SIM card. If
a fraudster manages such a swap, he
can carry out numerous fraudulent
transactions using the mobile number
of the victim. For instance, the valid
mobile station international subscriber
directory number (MSISDN) is moved
to another handset. The user has no
access to their account and receives no
notification. The user with the other
handset, on knowing the PIN, can
transact in the account.
• Fake or similar interface apps:
Fake applications, with exactly the
same user interface as the original
application, are being created to steal
confidential information shared by the
user.
Risks associated with mobile wallets
• Increased risk of money laundering:
Transfer of money into and out of
a mobile wallet from or to a bank
account is now possible. Cash-in from
the bank account of an individual and
cash-out to a different bank account
of another individual can be used as a
platform for laundering unaccounted
money.
• Unauthorised deductions from the
wallet of a customer (especially a
dormant or infrequent customer
account): Employees of the mobile
wallet service provider may misuse
the balance stored in the wallet of a
customer by making unauthorised
deductions. Moreover, in case of a
mis-happening to a customer with no
nomination facility, the balance in the
customer’s account is not passed on to
his family members and remains with
the service provider, which ultimately
becomes a low-hanging fruit for the
fraudsters.
• Failure to conduct proper due
diligence of merchants: If the
merchant on-boarded by the service
provider is a fraudster, and the
payment is made by the customer for
fictitious goods or services from the
merchant, cash can be rotated with
minimum transaction fees.
• No auto log off facility: An individual
usually opens the application on
his mobile device for availing of the
services and closes the application,
instead of logging out. If the mobile
device is stolen or lost and a fraudster
opens the application, he can misuse
the remaining balance in the service
provider’s wallet.
Fraud risks: Insurance
companies
Large accumulations of liquid assets make
insurance companies attractive for loot
schemes. These companies are under
great pressure to maximise the returns on
investing the reserve funds, making them
vulnerable to high-yielding investment
schemes.
The insurance industry has witnessed
an increase in the number of fraud cases
over the last couple of years. A growing
number of organisations are realising that
frauds are driving up the overall costs of
insurers and premiums for policyholders,
which may threaten their viability and
also have a bearing on their profitability.
To keep these risks under check, a detailed
framework for insurance fraud monitoring
has been laid down with effect from
2013–14 and is applicable to all insurers
and reinsurers.
• Policy holder and claims fraud: Policy
holder committing fraud against the
insurer at the time of purchase and/or
execution of an insurance product
• Intermediary fraud: Intermediaries
committing frauds against the insurer
and/or policyholders
• Internal fraud: Employees commit
fraud suo moto or in collusion with
external parties or amongst themselves
against the insurer
Broad categories of fraud risks in
the insurance sector
Misrepresentation: Misrepresenting
critical information relating to a
profile (incorrect income, educational
qualification, occupation, etc)
Example: The proposal form mentioned
that the client had a shop in the market,
whereas investigations revealed that the
client was a small-time vendor sitting on a
footpath.
Forgery or tampering documents:
Forging the customer’s signature in any
document, proposal or any supporting
document
Example: The client (staying in one city)
and working as a surgeon was required
to countersign the application form for
some corrections. The form came back
and it was found that the signatures were
forged by the advisor, who was the client’s
brother.
Bogus business: Proposal forms submitted
for non-existent customers
Example: A sales manager or broker logs
in the proposal of a non-existing client
Cash defalcation: Agent collecting the
premium but not remitting the cheque to
the insurance company, owing to which
the insured has no coverage
Example: The advisor had collected the
premiums from the customer and had not
deposited the same for almost a month;
it came to the insurer’s notice when the
customer was sent the lapsed letter.
Mis-selling: A selling practice wherein the
complete, detailed and factual information
of a product is not given to the customer
(also called product misinformation);
can include incomplete or incorrect
representation of the terms and conditions
such as guaranteed returns, rider features,
charges, linked product vs endowment,
facility of top-up vs regular premium,
premium holiday, etc
Example: The customer was given a cover
of 1 lakh INR and the premium was 5 lakh
INR. This was a clear case of mis-selling
as even the facility of a top-up was not
explained to the client.
Pre-signed forms: Obtaining pre-signed
blank forms and filling the address change
request (ACR)/contact number change
(CCR) without actually physically seeing
the client or satisfying oneself about the
client
Example: While the proposal form
mentioned that the customers were
working in an electronic agency, in reality
they were working in some other business.
Doctor’s nexus: Doctor being involved
with the perpetrators in committing life
insurance fraud
Example: A doctor gave clean medical
reports, while the fraudster influenced the
doctor to conceal the information.
Current fraud trends in the financial sector
17
Fraud risks: NBFCs
Incorrect KYC details
KYC details are collected and assessed
by the institution at the time of customer
on-boarding as well as during re-KYC. A
fraudster can find an opportunity to use
incorrect KYC details during the customer
lifecycle to commit fraud.
Some examples:
• Tampering of KYC details
• Fraudulent KYC details such as a fake
PAN being provided by the investor,
change in name and other personal
details not being updated, leading to
opportunities for fraudsters to remit
money to incorrect bank accounts and
dummy customers
• Units of different account holders
with the same or similar name getting
consolidated despite varying bank
details and addresses in different folios
• Mismatch between folios (schemes)
consolidated vis-à-vis those requested
for consolidation as per the customer
application
Incorrect date and time stamp
A time stamp is a digital signature that
establishes the integrity of a reference
submitted by a subscriber on a specific date
and at a certain time. In order to carry out
a malafide action, the original time stamp
gets stripped and replaced with a fresh
time stamp when the SIP transmits it to a
subscriber.
Example:
The staff or broker providing preferential
treatment to an investor by stamping the
receipt of an application or redemption form
with an incorrect time or date
18 PwC
Misappropriation, siphoning
of funds by brokers or
intermediaries
Some examples:
• The broker cheating the investor or
account holder by taking a blank
cheque and later misusing the same
• Dormant accounts such as mutual fund
investments with long-term maturity
or redemption not being monitored
by investors regularly, making them
susceptible to fraud
• Employees taking undue advantage
of the lack of segregation of duties
and manipulating the settlement or
clearing account reconciliations
Incorrect commission or
incentives
Lax internal controls may give way to
malpractices such as creation of agent or
broker codes in the system and collusion
in order to avail of extraneous commission
and incentives.
Some examples:
• Employees creating fictitious
agent or broker identities with a
motive of personal profiteering and
misappropriating the commission
or incentives passed on to the other
agents or brokers
• Employees conspiring with an agent
or broker for pay-out of commission
or incentives at rates higher than the
predetermined ones
• Walk-in customers being shown as
referrals through agents or brokers,
resulting in wrongful commission
pay-out
• Commission being paid on selfinvestment and withheld cases
Front running and insider
trading
In order to pass on the benefit of windfall
gains of the stock market to investors, the
broker may resort to unethical practices
such as front running and insider trading.
Some examples:
• Broking house being paid “under
the table” in order to portray the
company’s stock as the favourite,
causing the investor to buy the stock
• A broker buying shares based on
insider information from companies,
without any structured information
that recommends the purchase
• Analysts and brokers buying shares in a
company just before the broking house
recommends the stock as a strong buy
Missing dividend payments or
discrepancies
The investor may be lured by a broker
or other intermediaries to put money in
stocks with supposedly attractive returns.
These intermediaries may collude with
sham companies and cause a discrepancy
in dividend payments to investors.
Some examples:
• Diversion of dividend payments to
dummy customers
• Incorrect intimation of record date,
dividend percentage and ex-dividend
NAV by the AMC—excess or short payouts to investors
• Dividend pay-out files not being
verified with dividend registry—excess
or short pay-outs to investors
Regulatory and legislative landscape
On how to stay afloat in the sea
of regulatory changes
Regulations and laws governing the
financial services sector in India are
continuously evolving. For any growing
organisation, it is critical to keep up with
the changing laws in order to mitigate risk
and stay ahead.
By taking short-term steps to adapt to the
regulatory amendments, we can avoid
long-term consequences impacting the
business future of a financial institution.
Banking
The RBI issued a master circular on
‘Frauds – Classification and Reporting’.
The circular has fixed the responsibility
of preventing frauds on banks, exposing
them to a completely new horizon of
financial risks. Further, banks are now
required to report to the RBI the “complete
information about frauds and the followup action taken thereon”.
With the shift from traditional ways of
responding to frauds to new ways of
robust reporting and risk monitoring
systems, banks can now control financial
and reputational risks more efficiently.
Mobile banking
With the rapid growth in users and wider
coverage of mobile phone networks,
mobile banking is increasingly coming
up as a significant delivery channel for
extending banking services to customers.
Putting the onus on banks, the RBI has
issued operative guidelines to regulate
this channel, suggesting reporting of
suspicious transactions to its financial
intelligence unit.
Owing to the heavy reliance on telecom
operators for its services, the prevention
and detection of frauds in mobile banking
have become even more complex.
To keep a check on frauds, banks need to
incorporate a greater level of scrutiny, by
deploying advanced tools and technology
capable of protecting the customers
against unethical activities.
Insurance
The Insurance Regulatory and
Development Authority (IRDA) has
issued an Insurance Fraud Monitoring
Framework (IFMF) in order to guide the
implementation of measures to minimise
the vulnerability against frauds in the
insurance sector.
IFMF mandates for the insurance
companies to set up a risk management
committee, followed by disclosure of
adequacy of the systems in place to
safeguard against frauds. In order to
reduce the exposure, the IRDA has
mandated that insurance companies
have fraud risk management systems
for reinsurers. Proficiently designed
processes, continuous monitoring and
management of fraud risk will go a long
way in keeping a check. In addition to this,
a well-established fraud risk management
system will answer key questions related
to complicated threats.
NBFCs
The NBFC sector has evolved considerably
in terms of its size, operations,
technological sophistication, as well
as entry into newer areas of financial
services and products. NBFCs are now
deeply interconnected with entities in
the financial sector, on both sides of their
balance sheets. Being financial entities,
they are as exposed to these risks as banks.
Acknowledging the risk factors applicable
to NBFCs, the RBI has issued a master
circular on reporting of frauds. The
circular lays down a road map similar
to the one for banks. Akin to the
banking sector, the circular has fixed
the responsibility of preventing frauds
on NBFCs, subjecting them to uncertain
financial risks. The RBI has further
mandated the reporting of frauds by
NBFCs in a prescribed format. This is
expected to pose certain challenges to
NBFCs and may require many to re-visit
their business model. These regulations
call for NBFCs to invest in upgrading
their systems and processes and equip
them with advanced tools to prevent as
well as detect frauds in parlance with the
emerging threats by way of technology.
Current fraud trends in the financial sector
19
Key regulatory drivers for the financial services sector
Regulator or law
Salient features
Reserve Bank of India Act,
193421
• Is aimed at advising banks about fraud prone processes and the safeguards necessary for
prevention of fraud
• Has made fraud reporting a mandatory process
• Mandates all banks to file suspected transaction reports
• Instructs them to follow KYC, AML and CFT guidelines
• Issues guidelines for the classification and reporting of frauds
Securities and Exchange Board
of India Act, 199222
• Protects the interests of investors from fraudulent activities of corporates
• Empowers the regulatory authority to appoint an investigating authority to conduct investigations
Companies Act, 2013
• Empowers the Serious Fraud Investigation Office (SFIO) with powers to probe companies
suspected of fraud
• According to the act, the SFIO’s report filed in a court for framing charges is to be equivalent to a
police report under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973
• Authorises the auditor to act as a whistleblower and report fraud to the central government, audit
committee or the board, depending on the quantum of fraud (as prescribed)
• Places the primary responsibility for prevention and detection of fraud on the company’s board of
directors and management
Insurance Regulatory and
Development Authority Act,
199923
• Protects the interests of policy holders and secures fair treatment for them
• Prescribes the IFMF to address and manage fraud risks
• According to this act, all insurance companies are required to have in place an anti-fraud policy,
duly approved by their respective boards
Pension Fund Regulatory and
Development Authority Act,
2013
• Directs an investigation into the affairs of intermediaries or persons associated with the pension
fund
• Entrusts the Central Recordkeeping Agency (CRA) or the annuity service provider with managing
the withdrawals from the national pension
Forward Contracts (Regulation)
Act, 1952
• Makes provisions for investigation, enforcement and penalty in case of contravention of the
provisions of the act
Prevention of Money
Laundering Act, 2002
• Prevents money laundering and provides for the confiscation of property derived from, or involved
in, money laundering and for related matters
• Requires banks and other specified institutions to maintain a record of clients and transactions,
and furnish them to the prescribed authority; this record needs to include full-fledged money
changers, money transfer service providers, and casinos under its reporting regime
The Black Money (Undisclosed
Foreign Income and Assets)
and Imposition of Tax Act,
201524 25
• Deals with the problem of black money (undisclosed foreign income and assets)
• Penalises the concealment of foreign income and makes attempting to evade tax in relation to
foreign income a criminal liability
• Specifies the applicable tax rates or assets, scope of income to be taxed, tax authorities, penalty
and prosecution in relation to undisclosed foreign income and assets
The Benami Transactions
(Prohibitions) Amendment Bill,
2015 (to be passed)
• Defines a “benami transaction” as a transaction where a property is held by or transferred to a
person, but has been provided for or paid by another person
• Seeks to amend the Benami Transactions Act, 1988
• Aims to:
• Broaden the horizon of the existing
• Establish adjudicating authorities and an appellate tribunal to deal with such transactions
• Specify the penalty for entering into benami transactions
National Bank for Agriculture
and Rural Development Act,
198126
• Authorises banks to frame an internal policy for fraud risk management and fraud investigation
Small Industries Development
Bank of India Act, 1989
• Instructs to form an audit committee in terms of RBI guidelines for reviewing cases of fraud and
action taken thereon
National Housing Bank Act,
198727
• Issues guidelines on causes and remedial action in terms of incidence of frauds in housing finance
• Shares the modus operandi and causative factors of housing finance frauds (The Fraud
Management Cell has been collecting such information from housing finance companies, the RBI,
IBA, etc, and circulating the same to HFCs to enable them to take adequate precautions, exercise
due diligence and initiate timely corrective actions to avoid such fraudulent incidences in future).
21. Master Circular on ‘Frauds – Classification and Reporting’ DBS.CO.CFMC.BC.No.1/ 23.04.001/2014-15. Circular on ‘Risks and Controls in Computers and
Telecommunications’ DPSS.CO.PD.No.1017/02.23.001/2014-2015
22. Circular on Fraud Classification and Reporting for NBFC DNBS (PD).CC. No. 315 /03.10.42 /2012-13 SEBI (Prohibition of fraudulent and unfair trade practices
relating to securities market) Regulations 2003
23. Circular on Insurance Fraud Monitoring Framework IRDA/SDD/MISC/CIR/009/01/2013
24. http://www.prsindia.org/billtrack/industry-commerce-finance/
25. http://www.prsindia.org/uploads/media/Black%20Money/Black%20money%20act,%202015.pdf
26. (Ref.No.NB.DoS.HO.POL.CFMC/ 3662 /P. 78/2009-10 dated 10 November 2009. Circular No. 189 /DoS. 40 /2009)
27. NHB(ND)/HFC/BP&P/2966/2005
20 PwC
Global
in fraud prevention and
Fraud risktrends
assessment
In certain jurisdictions, FS regulatory requirements exist for risk areas like money laundering
detection
and fraud. Our survey asked about fraud risk assessments (“FRAs”) and the results reveal a
surprising number of FS organisations still do not carry any out. It is possible that if FRAs took
place more regularly additional economic crime would have been detected. Other economic
crime areas such as bribery, corruption and money laundering also benefit from thorough
Similarly, the IRDA is also in the process
enterprise-wide risk assessments. Many financial institutions are thus
of setting up an insurance fraud repository
implementing their fraud control and
in order to reduce monitoring costs,
reporting frameworks to generate
The percentage of FS respondents whose
organisations
not of
perform using
annual
FRAsdetection
has
advanced
and prevention
information
in a way that did
the level
systems
deployed
at the
fraud identified,
prevented
andother
actual industries
increased from 18% to 25%, This appears
to be better
than
(where
43%
doindustry
not level.
The initiative
is expected
to identify
losses
incurred
are identified.
This into account
have annual FRAs), but is considered
to be
relatively
high taking
that FS
regulators
fraudulent claims right at the processing
approach has enabled the benefits of
tend to expect or even fully requireskilled
such resources
a risk assessment
in many
stage, before the payment occurs, and
and automated
tools to jurisdictions.
is aimed to ensure better screening of
be quantified more precisely.
proposals at in
thetheir
underwriting stage. This
A further 12% of FS respondents do not know whether any FRAs were performed
project aims at establishing an industryThe
role
of
regulators
organisation during the survey period. When asked why, 32% noted they did not know what an
wide single fraud database that will
FRA involves (compared to 30% in other
industries
in 2014,
36% of FS respondents
in 2011).
Regulators
and investigative
agencies
eliminate the need
for individual insurers
are
trying
to
gear
up
for
the
changed
to do the same, and targets to ensure
Another 27% perceived a lack of value in FRAs.
environment. In 2012, the Central Bureau
better flow of information among the
of Investigation (CBI) announced that it
insurers.
It appears that over 50% of respondents
from FS organisations that did not
carry out any FRAs
is developing a Bank Case Information
SEBI
is in the process of getting its existing
Source:
Economic
Times ET
(Aug 8, 2015):
during
the survey
period
fail to see System
the correlation
between
fraud, working conditions,
(BCIS) to curb
banking frauds.
business
intelligence gathering software,
CBI keen to be lead investigator of big ticket
This database
the names
of
organisational culture and the effectiveness
ofcontains
corporate
controls.
And yet,
almost
onedetecting
in all 5fraudulent
which
is used for
corporate loan default cases.
accused persons, borrowers and public
activities
in
capital
markets,
upgraded.
serious frauds was detected by Fraud
Risk compiled
Management
FRM remains the most
servants
from the(“FRM”).
past records.
Current
scenario
effective
method in fraud detectionThe
(17%
experienced
by FS respondents were
RBI of
hasserious
released frauds
a new framework
to
Industry-wide trends
detected
this way).
Only 13% of frauds
detected
through
suspicious transaction reporting
checkwere
loan frauds
by way
of early warning
Financial
institutions
are enhancing
signals
for banks
and red data
flagging
of
Whilst
the legal
environment
their
processes, controls
fraud risk
(compared
to 19%and
in 2011).
6% were
detected
through
analytics
(an
option
not offered
in and
accounts where defaulters shall have no
regulators have pushed the financial
management frameworks to minimise the
the 2011 survey) – which is likely toaccess
become
a more
important
tool in
inthe
theright
future.
to further
banking
finance. Itdetection
also
sector
direction, individual
opportunities for fraud as well as reduce
plans
to
set
up
a
Central
Fraud
Registry
institutions
are
alsoknow”)
taking the lead in
Surprisingly,1
in
5
FS
respondents
did
not
confirm
a
method
of
fraud
detection
(“Don’t
the time taken in their detection. Funding
that
can
be
accessed
by
all
Indian
banks.
protecting
their
earnings
and reputation.
forcompared
fraud control
toinitiatives,
only 8%however,
in 2011.
In addition, the CBI and Central Economic
Intelligence Bureau (CEIB) will share their
databases with banks.
continues to compete with other business
initiatives and is mostly challenged on a
cost–benefit basis.
Fig 5: Economic crime detection methods in FS organisations
8
18
19
8
for
ce
law
5
By
cid
ac
6
en
en
t
ics
lyt
ta
a
na
ete
rd
he
6
me
nt
Co
(bo rpor
th ate
IT
an secu
d p rit
hy y
sic
al
Inv
se
es
cu
tig
rity
ati
)
ve
me
dia
Ro
tat
ion
of
pe
rso
nn
el
ds
tho
on
cti
au
dit
ern
Int
By
21
7
56%
9
Da
13
Ot
14
al
st
iou
pic
Su
s
17
me
uti
ne
)
(ro
sa
c
ran
an
ing
Wh
ist
leb
low
ma
ris
k
ud
tio
n
dt
ipoff
nt
me
ge
na
2011 – FS
20
Fra
no
w
Do
n't
k
2014 – FS
rep
s
ort
ing
Economic crime detection methods in FS orgaisations
3
3
2
1
7
3
3
3
2
% FS respondents
Source: PwC Global Economic Crime Survey 2014
Current fraud trends in the financial sector
21
PwC’s Global Economic Crime Survey
2014: Financial Services Sector
Analysis identified that suspicious
transaction reporting, effective fraud risk
management measures, whistleblowing
processes and tip-offs helped financial
services organisations to detect most
frauds.
Top trends
• Automated analysis tools: Today, the
industry is increasingly aware of the
need for automated analysis tools that
identify and report fraud attempts in
a timely manner. Solution providers
are providing real-time transaction
screening, third-party screening as
well as compliance solutions.
• Sector-oriented benchmarking
solutions: Solutions aimed at assessing
the fraud vulnerability of financial
institutions are now available. They
help in formulating a targeted and
cost-effective action plan against fraud
risks.
• Data visualisation tools: These
are being used to provide a visual
representation of complex data
patterns and outliers to translate
multidimensional data into meaningful
pictures or graphics.
• Behavioural analytics: This is helping
businesses identify enemies disguised
as customers. The data analytics
implemented by the institutions to
understand customer behaviour,
preferences, etc are also helping in the
detection of fraudulent activity either
in real-time or post mortem.
• Deep learning: Internet payment
companies providing alternatives to
traditional money transfer methods are
using deep learning, a new approach
to machine learning and artificial
intelligence that is good at identifying
complex patterns and characteristics of
cybercrime and online fraud.
• The internal audit function: This
function is being altered to include
fraud risk management in its
scope. The changed technological
landscape requires the old ways
of internal auditing to give way to
new, technologically equipped audit
functions. Annual audit planning
may no longer be fully effective and
flexible audit plans are the need of the
hour, as fraud risk assessments require
extensive use of forensic and data
analytics solutions.
Important fraud prevention and detection tools
Governance
Behavioural
analytics
Awareness
initiatives
Deep
learning
Data
visualisation
Forensic
tools
Compliance
solutions
Detection
Automated
controls
Investigation
cells
Prevention
Third-party
screening
Real-time
screening
Flexible
audit
plans
Benchmarking
Internal
controls
Fraud
risk
assessment
22 PwC
Vigil
mechanism
retail banking and corporate banking
or integrating subsidiary banks where
different information systems are used).
Back to basics
Hiring reliable management and
building relationships with genuine
clients, suppliers and partners are of
utmost importance. The lack of correct
background information can lead to both
reputation and business risks. Effective
background checks of employees and
associates are thus recommended.
It is difficult but also necessary to integrate
data from various sources to be able to
derive the benefits of analytics techniques.
Financial institutions do face challenges
in maintaining the efficiency of anti-fraud
security controls at an enterprise-wide
level. Challenges arise while integrating
channels or within applications and tools
(integrating online and ATM transactions,
The three lines of defence can only be
strengthened by technology and not
replaced by it. The tone at the top is
critical in the fight against fraud. Lack
of customer and/or staff awareness
can result in failure of even the best of
technology solutions. It takes a concerted
effort to be able to build, maintain
and sustain an effective fraud risk
management programme.
Organisations need to build awareness
around the latest technological and
procedural vulnerabilities and fraud
schemes, to be able to remain one step
ahead of the fraudsters.
In addition, incident management
procedures need to be well defined and
comprehensive, in order to ensure that
incidents of fraud are managed without
exposing the organisation to any legal or
reputational risks. Forensic tools can be
used to navigate IT systems for evidence of
malfeasance such as information deletion,
policy violations and unauthorised access.
These tools can help the company legal
counsels to prepare for a suit to be filed
against the fraudster.
Apart from internal controls, financial
institutions need to also educate the
customers. Since the manoeuvres used by
cyber-criminals to target sensitive financial
data are sophisticated and constantly
changing, financial institutions must look
at existing security controls with a new
approach and risk appetite.
Governance
Three lines of defence
Board of directors/Executive committee/C-Suite
Internal policies, guidelines and controls, fraud risk management strategy
Fraud scenarios, transaction monitoring scenarios and compliance program testing
Preventative
Awareness, culture, people, training and development
1st line of defence
Operations
Core process components
Automated controls, data analytics, deep learning technology
Loans mystery shopping
Fraud risk assessment
Real-time monitoring
Customer and employee education
Hotlines/whistleblower mechanism
Oversight
Detective
2nd line of defence
Monitoring and surveillance
(Program and controls testing, escalation and investigation, data management, metrics)
Analysing identified red flags
Reporting (regulatory/internal)
Internal audit/independent review/investigations
3rd line of defence
Key components of an effective anti-fraud programme
Governance
and control
model
• Periodic reviews
and transparent
management reporting
Periodic review
• Effective technology
solutions to be implemented
for business to run in sync
and data to be available
consistently
• A well-defined
governance structure
Policies and
procedures
Staff
awareness and
training
Technology
framework
• Employ qualified and
experienced staff to enable
supervision and monitoring
Effective data
• Develop policies and procedures
to provide guidance to business
• Policies to be structured in
layers to cover all products and
services across locations
• Data capturing to be consistent
and adequate
• Data flow from various systems
to be unhindered
• Data sanctity to be preserved
Human capital
Current fraud trends in the financial sector
23
24 PwC
Notes
Current fraud trends in the financial sector
25
About ASSOCHAM
Contacts
The knowledge Architect of Corporate India
The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry
of India (ASSOCHAM)
The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of
India (ASSOCHAM), India’s premier apex chamber, covers a
membership of over 4 lakh companies and professionals across
the country. ASSOCHAM is one of the oldest Chambers of
Commerce which started in 1920. ASSOCHAM is known as the
“knowledge chamber” for its ability to gather and disseminate
knowledge. Its vision is to empower industry with knowledge so
that they become strong and powerful global competitors with
world class management, technology and quality standards.
ASSOCHAM is also a “pillar of democracy” as it reflects diverse
views and sometimes opposing ideas in industry groups. This
important facet puts us ahead of countries like China and will
strengthen our foundations of a democratic debate and better
solutions for the future. ASSOCHAM is also the “voice of industry”
– it reflects the “pain” of industry as well as its “success” to the
government. The chamber is a “change agent” that helps to create
the environment for positive and constructive policy changes and
solutions by the government for the progress of India.
As an apex industry body, ASSOCHAM represents the interests
of industry and trade, interfaces with the government on policy
issues and interacts with counterpart international organisations
to promote bilateral economic issues. ASSOCHAM is represented
on all national and local bodies and is, thus, able to pro-actively
convey industry viewpoints, as also communicate and debate
issues relating to public-private partnerships for economic
development.
The road is long. It has many hills and valleys—yet the vision
before us of a new resurgent India is strong and powerful. The
light of knowledge and banishment of ignorance and poverty
beckons each member of the chamber to serve the nation and
make a difference.
5 Sardar Patel Marg, Chankyapuri, New Delhi – 110021
Tel: +91-11-46550555 Fax: +91-11-23017008/9
Website: www.assocham.org
Southern Regional Office
D-13, D-14, D Block, Brigade MM,
1st Floor, 7th Block, Jayanagar,
K R Road, Bangalore – 560070
Telephone: +91-80-40943251-53
Fax : +91-80-41256629
E-mail: [email protected],
[email protected], [email protected]
ASSOCHAM Western Regional Office
4th Floor, Heritage Tower,
Bh. Visnagar Bank, Ashram Road,
Usmanpura, Ahmedabad-380 014
Tel: + 91-79- 2754 1728 / 29, 2754 1867
Fax: + 91-79-30006352
Email: [email protected]
[email protected]
Eastern Regional Office
F 4, “Maurya Centre” 48, Gariahat Road
Kolkata-700019
Telephone: 91-33-4005 3845/41
Fax: +91-33-4000 1149
E-mail: [email protected]
ASSOCHAM Regional Office Ranchi
503/D, Mandir Marg-C
Ashok Nagar
Ranchi-834 002
Email: [email protected]
Phone: +91-9835040255
About PwC
Contacts
PwC helps organisations and individuals create the
value they’re looking for. We’re a network of firms in
157 countries with more than 184,000 people who are
committed to delivering quality in Assurance, Tax and
Advisory services. Tell us what matters to you and find out
more by visiting us at www.pwc.com.
Dinesh Anand
Partner and Leader, Forensic Services
M: +91 9818267114
Email: [email protected]
In India, PwC has offices in these cities: Ahmedabad,
Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi NCR, Hyderabad, Kolkata,
Mumbai and Pune. For more information about PwC
India’s service offerings, visit www.pwc.in
PwC refers to the PwC network and/or one or more of its
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Please see www.pwc.com/structure for further details.
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Gaganpreet Singh Puri
Partner, Forensic Services
M: +91 9818756955
Email: [email protected]
Dhruv Chawla
Leader, Financial Crime and Compliance
M: +91 8130166550
Email: [email protected]
Dhritimaan Shukla
Director, Forensic Services
M: +91 9899038326
Email: [email protected]
pwc.in
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AK 385 - June 2015 Current fraud trends in the financial sector .indd
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