MasterTracks Pro Mac - Passport Music Software

MasterTracks Pro Mac - Passport Music Software
PASSPORT
ASTER RACKS
RO
ForMacintosh
User’s Guide
LYRRUS INCORPORATED
PROGRAM LIMITED USE LICENSE AGREEMENT
YOU SHOULD CAREFULLY READ THE FOLLOWING TERMS AND CONDITIONS BEFORE INSTALLING
THE ENCLOSED SOFTWARE. INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE INDICATES YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THESE
TERMS AND CONDITIONS. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE WITH THEM, YOU SHOULD PROMPTLY RETURN
THE SOFTWARE UN-INSTALLED, AND YOUR MONEY WILL BE REFUNDED.
LICENSE
Lyrrus Incorporated has developed and provides the computer software program contained on this CD-ROM (the
'Program') andlicenses its use. You assume responsibility for the selection of the Program to achieve your intended results,
and for the installation,use and results obtained from the Program.
a. Permissible Uses
(i) Lyrrus Incorporated hereby grants you a personal, non-transferable and non-exclusive right and license to use the
Program under the terms stated in this Agreement. Title and ownership of the Program and the related documentation
remain in LyrrusIncorporated.
(ii) You may use the Program only on a single CPU.
(iii) You may not transfer or assign the Program or this license to any other person without the prior written consent of
LyrrusIncorporated.
(iv) You acknowledge that you are receiving only a LIMITED LICENSE to use the Program and related documentation
and that Lyrrus Incorporated retains title to the Program and documentation. You further acknowledge that Lyrrus
Incorporated has a valuable proprietary interest in the Program and documentation.
b. Restrictions
(i) You may not use, copy, reproduce, modify, alter, or transfer the program or any copy or merged portion, in whole or
in part, except as expressly provided in this license. (You may make a single copy of the Program for archival backup
purposes in support of your use of the Program on the single machine.)
(ii) You acknowledge that the program contains trade secrets of Lyrrus Incorporated. In order to protect such trade
secrets, you may not decompile, reverse engineer, disassemble or otherwise reduce the Program to a human perceivable
form. You may not modify, adapt, translate, rent, lease, loan, resell for profit, distribute, network, or create derivative
works based on all or any part
of the program or documentation.
(iii) You and your employees and agents are required to protect the confidentiality of the Program. You may not
electronically transfer the Program or accompanying documentation from one computer to another over a network. You
may not distribute or otherwise make the Program or documentation available to any third party, by time sharing or
otherwise, without the prior written consent of Lyrrus Incorporated.
(iv) IF YOU USE, COPY, REPRODUCE, MODIFY, ALTER, OR TRANSFER POSSESSION OF THE PROGRAM
OR ANY COPY OR MERGED PORTION, IN WHOLE OR IN PART, EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED IN
THIS LICENSE, YOUR LICENSE WILL THEREBY TERMINATE AUTOMATICALLY.
TERM
The license is effective until terminated. You may terminate the license at any time by destroying the Program and related
documentation, together with all copies thereof. This license will also terminate immediately if you fail to comply with
any term or condition contained herein. Upon such termination, you agree to return to Lyrrus Incorporated, at your own
expense, the Program
and related documentation, together with all copies and merged portions of the Program or related documentation in any
form.
EXPORT
You acknowledge that the laws and regulations of the United States may restrict the export and reexport of the Program.
You agree that you will not export or reexport the Program or related documentation in any form without prior written
consent of Lyrrus Incorporated and appropriate United States and foreign government approval.
QA Department
Jim Bryan
Damien Theopano
Mark Young
Product Management
John Lewis
Craig Snoke
©1993-1999 Lyrrus Inc. d/b/a GVOX Interactive Music. All Rights Reserved.
Encore, GVOX, GVOX Guitar, GVOX Guitar 101, GVOX Guitar SongBook, GVOX SongBook, SongBook,
GVOX Riffs, GVOX Bass, LYRRUS, the LYRRUS logo, PLAY WITH IT, Master Tracks Pro, MusicTime,
MusicTime Deluxe, Passport, Guitar 102, GVOX Keyboard, Guitar 103, Guitar 201, GVOX Interactive,
Quiktunes, GVOX.com, See It! Hear It! Play It!, See It! Hear It! Learn It!, EMC, IMC, GVOX Bass Drills and
the GVOX Logo are trademarks or are registered trademarks of Lyrrus Incorporated and its
affiliates. All rights reserved.
All copying, distribution or use of these materials, including the software, guide or other materials in whole or part,
except as expressly permitted by law, is prohibited. US Patents 5,270,475 and 5,567,903. Other US and foreign
patents pending.
This product is subjected to a limited warranty. See dealer for details.
ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE DISCLAIMED.
Microsoft and Windows are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. QuickTime and the QuickTime logo are trademarks
of Apple Computer, Inc. used under license. DIRECTOR® 1994, 1996 Macromedia Inc. Fender, the Fender
logo, The Fender Method, Stratocaster and the Stratocaster headstock are trademarks or registered trademarks
of Fender Musical Instruments Corp. All other trademarks are the property of their respective trademark owners.
Visit us at www.gvox.com.
Table of Contents
Chapter One: Basic Sequencer Operation
The Transport Window ................................................................................................ 1
The Counters ........................................................................................................ 3
Other Transport Controls ..................................................................................... 4
Special Record Modes ........................................................................................... 5
Selecting Insert Points for Special Record Modes. ................................................. 6
Thru ...................................................................................................................... 7
The Track Sheet ............................................................................................................ 8
Selecting Tracks to Play ......................................................................................... 9
Selecting Tracks to Record ..................................................................................... 9
Multi-Track Record ............................................................................................. 10
Using Multi-track Record with Guitar Controllers ............................................. 10
Soloing tracks ...................................................................................................... 11
Looping ............................................................................................................... 11
Naming tracks ..................................................................................................... 12
Setting the Playback Channel .............................................................................. 12
Multi-Channel Tracks ......................................................................................... 13
A Note on the Ports ............................................................................................ 14
Using the Pop-up Sliders ..................................................................................... 15
Setting the Initial Program Number .................................................................... 16
Using the Device Dialog ..................................................................................... 17
Tips/Hints ........................................................................................................... 20
The Volume Column .......................................................................................... 20
Using the Master Volume Fader .......................................................................... 22
Moving tracks ..................................................................................................... 23
Duplicating tracks ............................................................................................... 24
Transpose Lock ................................................................................................... 24
Playing a sequence ............................................................................................... 24
Recording a track ................................................................................................ 25
The Tempo Window .................................................................................................. 27
Resetting the original stored tempo ..................................................................... 28
TableofContents
i
Chapter Two: Editing in the Track Editor Window
The Measure Ruler ..................................................................................................... 30
Show/Hide "Measure Display" ................................................................................... 31
Using Markers ............................................................................................................ 31
Placing a marker .................................................................................................. 32
Naming markers .................................................................................................. 32
Moving to a marker ............................................................................................. 32
The Markers window .......................................................................................... 33
Editing in the Track Editor window ........................................................................... 33
Selecting measures to edit ................................................................................... 34
Selecting a block of measures .............................................................................. 34
Selecting an entire track ...................................................................................... 35
Selecting measures across all tracks ...................................................................... 35
Selecting and Editing While a Sequence is Playing ............................................. 36
Playing a Sequence from the Track Editor .................................................................. 36
Setting the playback point ................................................................................... 37
Shortcut to the Step Editor ........................................................................................ 37
Chapter Three: Using the Step Editor Window
The Notes .................................................................................................................. 40
Markers ...................................................................................................................... 41
Program Changes ....................................................................................................... 41
Icons and Information ................................................................................................ 42
Scrolling and zooming ................................................................................................ 43
Viewing different tracks ............................................................................................. 44
Playing a sequence ...................................................................................................... 44
Editing Data ............................................................................................................... 45
Regional editing .................................................................................................. 45
The Time Indicator ............................................................................................. 46
Selecting a region to edit ..................................................................................... 46
Inserting new notes .................................................................................................... 49
Show/Hide Velocity ............................................................................................ 51
Inserting the notes with a mouse. ............................................................................... 52
Step-time note entry from a MIDI instrument ................................................... 52
Rests and Corrections ......................................................................................... 53
Step-timing chords .............................................................................................. 53
Changing durations ............................................................................................ 54
Overdubbing and changing tracks ....................................................................... 54
Editing individual notes ...................................................................................... 54
Moving in Place: Shift-Clicking .......................................................................... 55
Copying a Note: Option-Clicking ...................................................................... 55
Stretching or Shrinking a Note ........................................................................... 56
ii
MasterTracksPro
Erasing a note ...................................................................................................... 56
Altering individual notes ..................................................................................... 56
Note Re-Mapping ............................................................................................... 58
Chapter Four: The MIDI Data and Event List Windows
The Data Windows .................................................................................................... 61
Common Features ............................................................................................... 62
Display Modes .................................................................................................... 62
"Ghost" Notes ..................................................................................................... 63
Icons and Information ........................................................................................ 63
Markers, Measures, Scroll Bars, and Zoom ......................................................... 64
Selecting MIDI data for Editing ......................................................................... 65
Entering MIDI data ............................................................................................ 66
Changing and Erasing Data ................................................................................ 67
Data density and the Zoom Factor ...................................................................... 67
The Pitch Bend Window ............................................................................................ 68
The Channel Pressure Window .................................................................................. 69
The Key Pressure Window ......................................................................................... 69
The Modulation Window .......................................................................................... 70
The Controllers Window ........................................................................................... 70
The Velocity Window ................................................................................................ 71
The Tempo Map Window .......................................................................................... 71
The Event List Editor ................................................................................................. 72
Changing events .................................................................................................. 73
Scrolling the List ................................................................................................. 73
Selecting a region ................................................................................................ 74
Inserting events ................................................................................................... 74
Removing Events ................................................................................................. 74
Filtering events .................................................................................................... 75
Changing and naming tracks .............................................................................. 75
The Big Counter Window .......................................................................................... 75
Chapter Five: Using the File Menu
About Master Tracks Pro Files .................................................................................... 78
Starting a new file ....................................................................................................... 78
Opening an Existing File ............................................................................................ 79
Closing files ................................................................................................................ 80
Saving files ................................................................................................................. 80
Using the Save As Command .............................................................................. 81
Using the Revert to Saved Command ................................................................. 81
Using MIDI Files ................................................................................................ 82
TableofContents
iii
Customizing the Program — the Preferences Command ........................................... 84
Preferences Saved ................................................................................................ 84
Quitting the Program ................................................................................................. 85
Chapter Six: Using the Edit Menu
Selecting a region ....................................................................................................... 87
Select All .................................................................................................................... 87
Edit Menu Basics........................................................................................................ 88
About the Clipboard .................................................................................................. 88
Undo .......................................................................................................................... 88
Cut ............................................................................................................................. 89
Cutting in Step Editor ........................................................................................ 89
Cutting in the MIDI Data Windows .................................................................. 90
Cutting in Track Editor ....................................................................................... 90
Copy .......................................................................................................................... 91
Paste ........................................................................................................................... 92
Pasting in the Event List Editor ........................................................................... 93
Pasting between windows .................................................................................... 93
Clear ........................................................................................................................... 94
Mix Data .................................................................................................................... 95
Dealing with Tied Notes ............................................................................................ 95
Notes tied into a region ....................................................................................... 95
Notes Tied Out of a Region ................................................................................ 96
Insert Measure ............................................................................................................ 97
Insert Data ................................................................................................................. 98
Delete Measure ........................................................................................................... 98
Editing MIDI Data While Playing a Sequence ........................................................... 99
The Change Filter ...................................................................................................... 99
Show Clipboard ....................................................................................................... 100
Chapter Seven: Using the Change Menu
Using the Change Filter ........................................................................................... 102
Channel .................................................................................................................... 103
Duration .................................................................................................................. 103
Selecting a Constant Duration .......................................................................... 103
Selecting a Percentage Change .......................................................................... 104
Add Clocks ....................................................................................................... 105
Velocity .................................................................................................................... 105
Continuous .............................................................................................................. 107
Mapping One Controller to Another ................................................................ 107
Changing controller data values ........................................................................ 109
iv
MasterTracksPro
Pitch Bend Range ..................................................................................................... 110
Conductor ................................................................................................................ 111
Changing the Meter .......................................................................................... 112
Changing the Beat ............................................................................................ 112
Setting Tempos .................................................................................................. 113
Looking at the Results ....................................................................................... 114
Listening to the Results ..................................................................................... 115
Locked Markers ................................................................................................ 115
Strip Data ................................................................................................................. 115
Setting Up the Operation .................................................................................. 116
Using Strip Data ............................................................................................... 117
Thin Continuous Data ............................................................................................. 118
Thin Notes ............................................................................................................... 120
Transpose ................................................................................................................. 120
Transpose Map .................................................................................................. 121
Humanize ................................................................................................................. 122
Quantize................................................................................................................... 123
Everything or Just the Attacks ........................................................................... 123
Setting the Quantization Value ......................................................................... 123
Ahead of and Behind the Beat ........................................................................... 124
Intensity ............................................................................................................ 125
Swing ................................................................................................................ 126
Sliding Notes ..................................................................................................... 127
Sliding Data ............................................................................................................. 127
Fit Time ................................................................................................................... 128
Locked Markers ................................................................................................ 129
Scale Time ................................................................................................................ 129
The Change Filter .................................................................................................... 131
Pitches ............................................................................................................... 132
Durations .......................................................................................................... 132
Velocities ........................................................................................................... 133
Channel ............................................................................................................ 133
Measures ........................................................................................................... 133
Beats and Sub-Beats .......................................................................................... 134
Combining filters .............................................................................................. 135
Executing and Recalling the Change Filter ........................................................ 136
Chapter Eight: Using the Windows Menu
The Main Windows ................................................................................................. 138
Track Editor ...................................................................................................... 138
Event List Editor ............................................................................................... 138
Step Editor ........................................................................................................ 138
TableofContents
v
The MIDI Data Windows ....................................................................................... 138
Pitch Bend ........................................................................................................ 139
Channel Pressure ............................................................................................... 139
Key Pressure ...................................................................................................... 139
Modulation ....................................................................................................... 139
Controllers ........................................................................................................ 139
Velocity ............................................................................................................. 140
Other Windows ........................................................................................................ 140
Tempo Map ...................................................................................................... 140
The Big Counter ............................................................................................... 140
Chapter Nine: Using the Songs and Layout Menus
The Songs Menu ...................................................................................................... 141
Using Multiple Songs ........................................................................................ 141
The Playlist ....................................................................................................... 142
Saving and Loading the Playlist......................................................................... 144
The Layout Menu .................................................................................................... 145
Show/Hide Grid ................................................................................................ 145
Show/Hide Markers .......................................................................................... 145
Show/Hide Program Changes ........................................................................... 146
Show/Hide Velocity .......................................................................................... 146
Show/Hide Position Indicator ........................................................................... 146
Follow Playback ................................................................................................ 146
Multi-Track Record ........................................................................................... 147
Chapter Ten: Using the Goodies Menu
Memory ................................................................................................................... 149
The Tempo Window ................................................................................................ 150
Transport .................................................................................................................. 150
Markers .................................................................................................................... 151
Notepad ................................................................................................................... 153
Master Fader............................................................................................................. 154
Sysex ......................................................................................................................... 154
Receiving System Exclusive Data ...................................................................... 154
Sending System Exclusive Data ......................................................................... 155
Loading and Sending Multiple Messages ........................................................... 156
Keyboard Setup ........................................................................................................ 156
MIDI Setup ............................................................................................................. 158
Assigning Playback Ports ................................................................................... 159
Assigning the Record Port ................................................................................. 159
Assigning the Synchronization Port ................................................................... 160
vi
MasterTracksPro
Transmitting Sync Commands .......................................................................... 160
Synchronization Selection ................................................................................. 161
Start Time ......................................................................................................... 162
SMPTE Dropout Parameter ............................................................................. 162
Click Setup ............................................................................................................... 163
Chase Controllers ..................................................................................................... 164
Record Filter............................................................................................................. 166
Chapter Eleven: Advanced Topics
Using Loops ............................................................................................................. 167
Re-barring ................................................................................................................ 168
Working with the Tempo Map ................................................................................. 168
Placing and Erasing Tempo Changes ................................................................. 170
Using the Conductor Command ...................................................................... 170
Working with External Synchronization ................................................................... 171
MIDI (“Ext”) sync ............................................................................................ 172
MIDI Time Code (“MTC”) sync ...................................................................... 173
Locked markers ........................................................................................................ 176
Printing the screen .................................................................................................... 177
I’ve Got A Question ................................................................................................. 177
Appendix A: MIDI Drivers, Interfaces and Sync Setup
MIDI Drivers ........................................................................................................... 181
Apple MIDI Manager .............................................................................................. 182
Powerbooks and MTPro ........................................................................................... 183
Connecting to serial ports ........................................................................................ 184
MIDI Time Piece support ........................................................................................ 184
OMS Support .......................................................................................................... 186
Sync Setup ................................................................................................................ 187
MIDI Machine Control ........................................................................................... 188
Appendix B: Common MIDI Setups
MIDI Thru .............................................................................................................. 189
Common MIDI setups ............................................................................................. 190
Appendix C: Version 6.0.1 Changes and new features
File Menu changes .................................................................................................... 193
Expanded MIDI file support .................................................................................... 193
Change Menu new feature ....................................................................................... 194
Device List Bank Select ............................................................................................ 194
TableofContents
vii
Appendix D: Using the built-in QuickTime Synthesizer
Installing QuickTime 2.0 ......................................................................................... 195
Using the Built-in Synth .......................................................................................... 196
Choosing Instruments .............................................................................................. 197
General MIDI .......................................................................................................... 197
Appendix E: Using the On-Screen Keyboard
Playing the Keyboard ............................................................................................... 199
Entering Chords ....................................................................................................... 199
Changing the Octave ................................................................................................ 200
Setting the Velocity .................................................................................................. 200
Displaying the Playback ........................................................................................... 200
Appendix F: Assignable Faders
The Assignable Faders .............................................................................................. 201
Appendix G: Keyboard Shortcuts
Transport Commands .............................................................................................. 203
Track Editor Commands .......................................................................................... 203
Window Commands ................................................................................................ 203
File Menu Commands .............................................................................................. 204
Edit Menu Commands ............................................................................................. 204
Change Menu Commands ....................................................................................... 204
Layout Commands ................................................................................................... 204
Goodies Commands ................................................................................................. 205
Step Editor and MIDI Data Window Commands ................................................... 205
Other Shortcuts ........................................................................................................ 206
Appendix H: Standard MIDI Controller Assignments
Index
viii MasterTracksPro
Basic Sequencer
Operation
1
Master Tracks Pro is designed to work much like a multitrack tape deck.
Although a sequence is stored in the Macintosh’s memory instead of on tape,
you still need controls that let you play, record, fast forward, rewind, and stop
the sequence. You also need a counter to tell you where you are in the sequence. The Transport window is where Master Tracks Pro provides these
features.
1.1 The Transport Window
The Transport Window
The center portion of the Transport Window has six screen “buttons” — Play,
Record, Fast Forward, Rewind, Pause, and Stop. They function just like their
counterparts on an actual tape deck. To “press” one of these buttons, you just
click on it with the mouse.
You can also execute the Play, Record, and Stop functions from the Macintosh
keyboard: the space bar alternates between Play and Stop, and the Enter key
activates Record. In addition, see the section on the Keyboard Setup command
in Chapter 10 for instructions on how to define MIDI keys for the transport
control.
BasicSequencerOperation
1
Here's how each of these transport functions works:
Play — plays the sequence beginning at the point currently indicated by the
Measure Counter. Pressing the Space bar on the Mac keyboard also starts
playback. Before starting playback, make sure the track or tracks you want to
hear are play-enabled in the Track Editor window (see page 9).
Record — starts recording on a track that's been record-enabled in the Track
Editor window (see page 9), beginning at the location in the sequence indicated
by the Measure Counter. Recording can also be started by pressing the Macintosh Enter key.
A track must be record-enabled before you start recording, or the command
will not function, and you will get an error message. Each time you record on a
track, the new data is recorded over any data previously recorded, and the
previous data is erased. However, if you start recording at any point in the
sequence other than the beginning, data previous to the point where you start
will be preserved. Likewise, any existing data in the remainder of the track past
the point at which you stop recording will remain untouched.
Any Record operation can be cancelled with the Edit menu’s “Undo” command (see Chapter 6 for details), however, if you don’t like a track you’ve
recorded and want to go over it, you don’t need to Undo it, since the program
will automatically erase the old track when you record the new track.
The program also provides Special Record Modes—Overdub, Looped Overdub, Punch-in and -out—which we’ll get to in a moment.
Rewind — Clicking on this button once moves the measure counter back one
measure. Clicking and holding moves the counter back continuously in onemeasure increments. Double-clicking sets it back to the beginning of the
sequence. The left-arrow key on the Macintosh keyboard has the same function: pressing it once moves the counter back one measure, and pressing and
holding moves it back continuously. In addition, if you have an extended
keyboard, you can press the “Home” key to get back to the beginning of the
sequence.
Fast Forward — Clicking on this button once moves the measure counter
2
MasterTracksPro
ahead one measure. Clicking and holding moves the counter forward continuously in one-measure increments. (The Macintosh right-arrow key does the
same thing.) Double-clicking sets it at the end of the sequence. If you have an
extended keyboard, you can press the “End” key to instantly get to the end of
the sequence. You can also click on Fast Forward while a sequence is playing
and hear the playback sped up (the right-arrow key won’t do this, however).
Stop — Clicking on the Stop button stops playback and recording. If the Auto
function is on, the sequence automatically rewinds to wherever you last started
playback. Whenever you click on Stop (or press the space bar), the program
sends out a MIDI “All Notes Off” command on all MIDI channels to make
sure that no notes are left “hanging” because of MIDI data errors.
Pause — Clicking on this button pauses both play and record. When you click
again, the sequence resumes playing or recording from where you stopped.
TheCounters
On the left side of the Transport window are two counters
that let you locate your current position in the sequence.
The Measure Counter at the top left displays the position in
the sequence in measures, beats, and individual “clocks” —
a clock being defined as 1/240th of a quarter-note. You can
move to any location in a sequence by clicking on the
1.2 The Counters
measure, beat or clock field in the Measure Counter, typing
in the number from the Mac keyboard, and then clicking on
Play or Record. Pressing the period key (or the Tab key after the first field is
selected) when the measure field is highlighted repeatedly “tabs” among the
three fields — measure, beat, and clock.
Pressing the period "." key when not in the measure field will bring up a "go
to..." dialog that allows you to type in a location and press Return to go to that
spot.
The Current Time Indicator shows the actual time location (in hours, minutes,
seconds, and frames) of your current position in the sequence. If you have
changed the tempo in a sequence, this counter will reflect those tempo changes.
Normally, the counter will show elapsed time from the beginning of the
BasicSequencerOperation
3
sequence — however, you can specify a non-zero Start Time for
the sequence if you are working in conjunction with an external
timecode source. The Start Time is set in the Sync Setup dialog
1.3 The Current
(Goodies menu). If you have set a Start Time, then the Current
Time Indicator
Time is calculated using the Start Time as the beginning of the
sequence. (The frames field in the Current Time Indicator will also be affected
by the setting of the SMPTE Format in the Sync Setup dialog box.)
OtherTransportControls
The other controls in the Transport window can, except as noted, be operated
while the sequencer is running in Record or Play.
1.4 Other Transport
Controls
Auto - If Auto is highlighted, and you stop playback, the
sequence will automatically "rewind" to the point where
playback (or recording) started last. If Auto is off, and you
click in any window at any location in the sequence, the
transport will locate to that point. With Auto on, the
transport stays where it is unless you click in one of the
Counter fields or use the Rewind or Fast-Forward buttons.
Click - When this control is on, you will hear a click tone on each beat of each
measure for the entire length of the piece during Record or Play. The click tone
can come from the Mac’s internal speaker (or its audio output jack), or it can
come from a MIDI instrument —a popular use is with the “Rim” sound of a
drum machine. Double-clicking on this control (or choosing “Click Setup”
from the Goodies menu) opens a dialog box for setting up how you want the
click to sound.
Count In - When this control is on, you get a click tone for one measure
before starting to play or record. The number of beats it counts is equal to the
meter of the first measure in the sequence, as determined in the Tempo Map.
The setting (internal speaker or MIDI) for the Count tone is the same as the
Click tone, but the two are independent; that is, one can be turned on without
the other.
Sync - This box determines whether the sequencer will synchronize to incoming
MIDI timing signals. Clicking on it toggles among three modes:
4
MasterTracksPro
•
“INT Sync” means the sequencer will play all by itself, with no external
timing signals needed (or wanted).
•
“EXT Sync” means that the sequencer requires a MIDI Start command,
MIDI clocks, and possibly a MIDI Song Position Pointer (as provided by
FSK-to-MIDI devices or SMPTE-to-MIDI convertors like the Fostex 4050
or Roland SBX-80 ) for it to start playing or recording.
•
“MTC Sync” means that the sequencer will wait for a MIDI Time Code
number that corresponds to some point in the sequence before it will start
playing or recording.
You cannot change the Sync setting while the sequencer is running. More
information about synchronization can be found in Chapters 10 and 11.
When stopping playback with the Option key down in MTC sync, the sync
mode is switched to internal.
When starting playback with the Option key down in internal sync, the sync
mode is switched to MTC.
SpecialRecordModes
Master Tracks Pro has 4 Special Record modes: Punch In, Overdub, Looped
Record, and Looped Overdub. These modes can be turned on and off with a
button in the Transport window. (The
button defaults to Punch In mode.) Doubleclicking on the Special Record Mode button
in the Transport Window (or choosing
Special Record Mode from the Goodies
menu) opens a dialog. This dialog lets you
choose a record mode. You can also set the
start and end points for the section in which
you want Record to be active (This option is
unavailable in Overdub mode.). When you
have made your choices, click OK.
1.5 The Record Mode dialog
BasicSequencerOperation
5
The four special record modes are:
Punch In: - Highlighting this box will activate a selected region for recording.
After you have clicked on Record or pressed the Enter key, the track(s) selected
for recording will start to record only when the measure counter passes the
punch-in point. The track(s) will stop recording (and go back to Play) when the
counter passes the punch-out point. If you start recording between the two
punch points, recording starts immediately.
Note: You can punch in on any track while the sequence is playing. Record
enable a track and start playback. Then press the Enter key when you want to
start recording. Press the space bar to stop.
Overdub: - Overdub mode lets you record onto an existing track without
erasing the existing data. This is similar to a Mix of two previously recorded
tracks, but done by playing in real time.
Looped Record: - Looped Record repeats the looped section and replaces the
last pass with the current pass each time it loops. The previous track is erased
each time around.
Looped Overdub (Drum Machine Style Recording): - This Record mode
repeats the looped section, retaining and playing the last pass while recording
the current pass each time the section loops (similar to the way in which most
drum machines record).
SelectingInsertPointsforSpecialRecordModes.
For any Punch, Looped Record and Looped Overdub, the in and out points
can be selected in any window. Click at one point, drag left or right to the
other, and release (this is similar to the procedure for selecting a region to edit,
which will be discussed in the next chapter). Double-click on the Punch box
and a dialog will open to confirm your settings. Click OK and you can proceed
with the punch in.
You can also get to this window without setting up a region. Double-click on
the Record Mode box and the window will open with values from the last time
you made a regional selection. You can use these values, or enter new measure,
6
MasterTracksPro
beat, and clock values for the punch points you want, from the Mac keyboard,
and then click on OK.
The Special Record Modes cannot be activated unless at least one track has
been record-enabled in the Track Editor window. When activated, the dot that
normally appears as the record-enable indicator in the Track Editor assumes the
form of a “button”.
De-activate a Special Record mode (and go back to normal record mode)
simply by clicking on the Icon to de-select it. As with a normal Record operation, if you don’t like the way a Punch or Overdub turns out, you can cancel it
with the Undo command in the Edit menu.
The Special Record Modes are unavailable for Fader Recording (see the Mixer
section later in this Chapter).
Note: Before you can record, you must select the track you wish to record by
clicking in the appropriate box of the “R” column of the Track Sheet.
Thru
This control is used when you’re recording from a master MIDI controller
which doesn't produce sound itself, or when you want to use one synthesizer to
control another while recording.
Clicking on Thru toggles it on and off. When it is on, the MIDI data
you send to the Macintosh will be echoed out one of the MIDI Out
ports on your computer’s MIDI interface.
1.6 The Thru
Button
Double-clicking on the Thru box brings up a dialog box for setting the Thru
port and channel. If the letter in the box is “A”, then the data will be sent out
through the interface connected to whichever port is designated as Port A
(usually the Modem port, although this can be changed in the MIDI Setup
dialog box). If the letter is “B”, the data will go out Port B. (A more detailed
explanation of how to use the ports appears later in this chapter.) The number
in the box indicates which MIDI channel the data will be echoed on. If, instead
of a channel number, a “–” appears there (for example, “A–”), all data will pass
thru on whatever channel (or channels) it is coming in on.
BasicSequencerOperation
7
The port and channel settings in the Thru box automatically change when a
track is record-enabled in the Track Window — the port and channel assignments of the track being recorded are assumed by the Thru box.
In Multi-Track Record mode (which can be selected from the Layout menu),
the Thru box will remain at its current setting regardless of what is going on in
the Track Window, and must be double-clicked for any changes to be made.
In Multi-Channel Mode (see page 13), Thru will follow all chosen channels at
the same time.
TheTrackSheet
The Track Editor is the display window for some of the most basic information
about your sequence. The left half of the Track Editor is called the Track Sheet
and lists the 64 tracks available in Master Tracks Pro and allows you to select
which tracks will record or play. You can also select a port and MIDI channel
for the data in each track, choose a name and an initial MIDI program change
for the track, set an initial volume for the track, solo one or more tracks, and
loop tracks independently. The right half (or Song Editor) shows which tracks
have MIDI data recorded on them, and in which measures. We’ll deal with this
half of the window in the next chapter.
If the Track Editor is not already on your screen, or if it is hidden by other
windows, you can activate it by choosing it from the Windows menu, or by
pressing ≈ - 1 on the Macintosh keyboard.
The basic operation of this half of the window is simple. To change any item in
the window, just click in its box. For settings that are either on or off, an icon
in the box indicates the setting is on, while an empty field means that the
setting is off.
For the “Chnl” (Channel) parameter, clicking on it opens a Change Channel
Dialog which lets you enter the port and channel number for the chosen track.
Master Tracks Pro will automatically sense the presence of a multi-port interface
such as the MOTU MIDI Time Piece for 128 channel operation - see the
Appendix for more information.
8
MasterTracksPro
For the “Prg” (Program Change) and “Vol” (MIDI Volume) parameters, there
are two modes - collapsed (numeric) and expanded (graphic). When collapsed,
clicking on the box makes a “pop-up slider” appear. We’ll deal with pop-up
sliders a little later. When expanded, you can access the Program Change
Device List and the Recordable Volume Sliders.
1.7 Collapsed (L) and Expanded (R) Program and Volume Columns
SelectingTrackstoPlay
You can select any combination of tracks in
your sequence to play back. Tracks that are
not selected, even if they contain MIDI data,
will not play. Click in the Play box of each of
the tracks that you want to play. The triangular play icon appears solid in each track’s Play
box to show that the track is play-enabled,
and it will sound when you start the sequence. Newly recorded or Pasted tracks
default as play-enabled.
1.8 Track 1 Play-enabled,
Track 2 muted
To turn play off for that track, click in the box again. The play icon will
become hollow, and the track will not be played when you start the sequence.
Tracks can be muted and turned back on during playback and recording.
Tracks that contain no MIDI data, not surprisingly, cannot be set to play.
SelectingTrackstoRecord
Normally, only one track can be selected for recording at a time. To enable a
track for recording, click in the Record box for that track. A red circle appears
BasicSequencerOperation
9
in the Record box to indicate that the track is record-enabled. When you start
the recording, all incoming MIDI data will be recorded on that track.
(If a Special Record mode has been enabled, the solid circle will be
replaced with a “button” icon.) As mentioned earlier, the port and
channel number in the Thru box will automatically change to match
the port and channel of the track selected for recording. If you don’t
1.9 Track 1
select a channel, MIDI data will be echoed on the same channel(s) it
Record-Enabled
is coming in on.
To turn off the recording function of a track, click on the Record column for
that track again. The record icon disappears. Of course, you can also disable a
track’s record function by enabling a different track. After you complete an
initial recording on a track, that track is automatically play-enabled.
Multi-TrackRecord
Master Tracks Pro has a special mode for recording multiple tracks at once (e.g.,
from a guitar controller with each string set to a different channel, or from two
or more keyboards connected to a merger). It is called, logically enough, MultiTrack Record mode, and it is turned on from the Layout menu. In this mode,
you can select as many tracks to record as you wish. The incoming data will
automatically be sorted out so that the data on each port and channel is recorded on a track that is assigned to that port and channel (in the “Chnl”
column).
To record-disable all tracks in the Multi-Track Record mode, hold down the
Option key while clicking on any active Record icon.
Using Multi-track Record with Guitar Controllers
You might set, for example, a guitar controller to transmit on channels 6
through 11, through the interface on port A. You would turn on Multi-Track
Record, and set track 1 on Master Tracks Pro to record on channel A6, track 2
to record on channel A7, and so on, through track 6 recording on channel A11.
Now each string is being recorded on its own track.
If data is coming in on a channel which is not assigned to a track, it will not be
recorded.
10
MasterTracksPro
For safety’s sake, and for convenience later when editing the tracks, we recommend
using an additional track to record the entire performance. Set the Channel on that
track to “–”, which means that all MIDI data coming into the designated port will be
recorded on that track, regardless of channel. Turn Thru on, and set its channel to “–”,
and you will be able to hear the entire guitar’s output.
Soloingtracks
The Solo command gives you an easy way to play a single track or a few tracks without
having to individually deactivate the Play box on all the other tracks. Then, when you
want to hear more tracks again, you only have to turn off Solo on the selected tracks.
To select a track for soloing, just click on the track’s Solo box. You’ll see a solid black
diamond pop up in the box. To turn solo off, just click on the box again. Any number
of tracks can be soloed at a time.
To turn off all Soloed tracks, hold down the Option key while clicking on any active
Solo icon.
Looping
Each track in a Master Tracks Pro sequence can be looped independently. When the
sequence gets to the end of a track, it plays the track over again from the beginning, no
matter what other tracks are doing. Since different tracks can be of different lengths,
this can be a very effective tool.
A track can only end on a measure boundary — a track cannot be, for example, 31
measures plus 2-1/2 beats. (However, you can make measures just about any length you
want — see the discussions in Chapters 7 [“Conductor”] and 11). Therefore, a track
always plays to the end of a measure before looping back, even if no notes are playing in
most of the measure, or even if the measure is completely empty, but still showing (as a
hollow rectangle) in the Track Editor window’s right half. Trimming empty measures
from the end of a track to put a loop point right at the end of the notes is discussed in
Chapters 6 and 11.
To set a track to loop, simply click in the Loop box for the track, at the far right of the
Track Editor window. The Loop icon will appear in the box. To shut the loop function
off, click on the loop box again, and the icon disappears.
BasicSequencerOperation
11
Note: If you start playback at a point after a track has ended, you obviously
will not hear that track. This is true even if the track is set to loop — you must
start playback at a point within the track you want to loop if you want to hear
it.
Namingtracks
Each track can have a name, which you can use to describe the music in the
track, or to remind yourself which instrument and/or sound you’ve chosen to
play the track. These track names are saved permanently with the sequence file
when you store it on a disk. Even a track that has no MIDI data can have a
name, so you can leave memos on them for yourself (although the Notepad
function is better designed for this — see Chapter 10).
1.10 Track name
dialog box
Click on the Name box in the track you wish to name. A dialog
box pops up and asks you to type in the name of the track. You
can use any combination of characters you wish. When you’re
finished, click on OK or press Return. If you want to return to
the Track Editor window without making any changes, click
Cancel.
For faster setup, you can quickly set any number of name fields. Hitting
Option-Enter or Option-OK after entering track names now
automatically brings up the name dialog for the next track.
1.11 Resizing the Name
Pane
To set the width of the Name pane, drag the mouse over the
double line between the Name and Chnl headings. When
the pointer changes to a double arrow, click the mouse and
drag right or left to adjust the size.
SettingthePlaybackChannel
The Channel box on each track contains the current MIDI channel setting for
playback of the track. To use this feature, you need a little background on the
way the program handles MIDI channel information.
Master Tracks Pro supports multiple-channel tracks. In normal record mode you
can record any combination of channels within a single track. Each recorded
12
MasterTracksPro
note has a channel assigned to it, based on the transmitting channel of the
device used to record the data (i.e., the master controller or keyboard). When
you mix or merge tracks, the channel identity of every note is retained, so that
within a single track you can have notes of many different channels. (So that
guitar controller we recorded earlier on one track would still maintain each
string’s identity.)
If you enter a number between 1 and 16 in the Channel box, then when you
play the track, all data on the track will come out on that MIDI channel.
However, if a dash (“–”) appears in the Chnl column, the track is unassigned,
and will play back exactly as it is stored in memory, with each note emerging on
the same MIDI channel it was received on.
To change the channel, click on the channel
field in the Track Sheet and type in a number
for the channel when the dialog appears. If you
type a quick “1” followed by a number 1
through 6 you can also type in two digit
channels 10 through 16. Of course, you can
also click on the channel and port you desire.
1.12 The Channel Dialog
The two rows represent the two basic port
choices (A & B). The “-” at the start of each column stands for “no
channelization”. With that choice selected any data on the track goes out on the
channel(s) it has been assigned to (remember - every message is assigned a
MIDI channel). Click on OK or press Return to enter it and return to the
Track Editor. Of course, you can click on Cancel to leave the setting as it was.
Remember that in normal Record mode, the “Thru” setting in the Transport
window follows the channel and port of any track that is record-enabled.
In Multi-Track Record mode, as discussed above, the Port and Channel
assignments apply to incoming as well as outgoing data. Only MIDI data
received on the assigned MIDI channel and port (as set in the Channel column) will be recorded on a track. If you wish all MIDI data coming in a port
to be recorded, put a “–” in the Channel column.
MultiChannelTracks
To use Multi Channel Mode, click on the Multi-Channel switch in the
BasicSequencerOperation
13
Channel dialog. Then select the channels (and
ports) you wish to use (up to 8). With
MultiChannel Tracks, a single part can play on up
to 8 channels at the same time. This allows you to
easily have multiple sounds play the same part. In
other words, you can have one note message on one
track sent out on two or more channels. Before, you
1.13 Multi -Channel setup
could only do this if you used a track for each
channel (by copying and pasting a track to other tracks and assigning each to a
different channel). Now your lead keyboard line may actually consist of your
Proteus’ Stereo Piano patch on channel 1, combined with a Roland Piano patch
on channel 2 and a Casio Sampler string patch on channel 3. You could
accomplish the same thing with three different copies of the same track assigned to different channels. If you started editing that part, though, you would
either have to recopy the edited part to the other tracks or make each edit three
times. Multi-channel tracks is one way to experiment with layering sounds.
Tips/Hints:
• For fast entry, hitting Option-Enter or Option-OK in the MIDI channel
dialog will automatically bring up the channel dialog for the next track.
• Use letter keys to choose ports, Tab to cycle through ports, and number keys
choose channels.
• The “Thru” control will follow Multichannel tracks
A Note on the Ports
Master Tracks Pro supports both the Modem and Printer ports of the Mac,
provided you have a compatible interface that can address both ports (such as
the MIDI Time Piece from MOTU), or two separate interfaces. This effectively
gives you 32 discrete channels for MIDI playback. The Port designation in the
Track Editor window lets you choose which software Port a track will be
assigned to: A or B. Translating these settings into hardware (i.e., which physical
port corresponds to which software Port) is the job of the MIDI Setup dialog
box, selected from the Goodies menu.
When you first boot up the program, both Ports A and B are assigned to the
Modem port. You can change this so that either or both of the software Ports is
assigned to the Printer port. See Chapter 10 for more details.
14
MasterTracksPro
Master Tracks Pro can also support a Multi-port interface such as the MIDI
Time Piece from Mark of the Unicorn for 16 or 32 port operation. See the
appendix for more information.
UsingthePop-upSliders
Before we get to dealing with the Program and Volume parameters, let’s
look at the pop-up sliders which are used to set them, and indeed are
used all over Master Tracks Pro. In some windows the sliders appear just
with numbers at the top, while in others, there is a line of text describing
what the slider is selecting.
When a pop-up slider appears, you have several options of how to set it.
When you click on the field that opens the slider and, without releasing
the mouse button, drag over to the “knob”, you can then make the knob
go up and down with the mouse. The slider’s numeric value is shown
above the slider itself, and when you release the mouse button, the
current value is entered in the parameter field the slider came from. If
you decide not to change the value of the parameter, you can drag the
mouse anywhere outside the slider box, and the displayed value will
become the value you came in with. Release the mouse button, and
everything is as it was.
1.14 Pop-up
Slider
When you click on the original field and immediately release the mouse
button without dragging it over to the slider, the slider opens in “entry” mode:
the value box at the top of the slider is highlighted, and you can type a new
value in from the Macintosh keyboard.
You can also increment the value of the slider by clicking the mouse above the
knob. If you click and hold, the value will continue to increment. You can
decrement the value the same way by clicking below the knob.
When you’ve entered or incremented to the value you want, click on OK or
press Return to enter the value, or click on Cancel to leave the value where it
was before you started.
If you open the slider box in “slider” mode, you can get into “entry” mode by
moving the slider up past the top of its range. The value box will highlight, and
BasicSequencerOperation
15
you can type in a new value. If you open the slider in entry mode, you can get
it into slider mode by clicking on the knob itself (or actually, anywhere within
the slider’s range). Adjust the knob, and when you let go of the mouse, the new
value is entered.
SettingtheInitialProgramNumber
A “program” is the MIDI term for an individual “setup” or “patch” on a MIDI
device, which is stored in the memory of the device. On a synthesizer or
sampler, a program is customarily equivalent to a particular sound (e.g.,
trumpet, bells, dog bark), while on a drum machine a program may be a
particular song, and on a MIDI effects device it may be a particular preprogrammed effect (e.g., long reverb, flange, distortion). Each program has a
number, and when a MIDI program change message is sent to the device, the
device responds by switching to the program whose number is in the message.
Master Tracks Pro allows you to record program changes at any point in a track,
and also to enter as many program changes as you like via the Step Editor
window (which will be discussed in Chapter 3). The Track Editor window lets
you set up an initial program change for a track that will be sent on the track’s
assigned channel whenever you start the sequence, before any notes play.
There are two ways to enter the initial program change. You can click on the
“Pgm” field for the track in question, and set the number with the pop-up
slider that appears. Following standard MIDI practice, a program change can
be numbered from 1 to 128. You can also expand the "Prg" column and click
to open a "Device" list for choosing a preset.
If the Program column for a track is showing “–” (which is the default), no
program change is sent when the sequence begins — your instrument will
remain set to whatever program it’s already on, until it receives a program
change from within the sequence (if there are any). Also, if the track’s Channel
assignment is “–”, no program change is sent (because the software has no way
of knowing which channel it should be sent on).
If you start the sequence from some point other than the very beginning, you
can arrange to have the program indicated in the Program field sent before the
sequence starts to play by turning on the “program chasing” function in the
16
MasterTracksPro
Chase Controllers dialog box, which is opened from the Goodies menu. When
that function is on, then, wherever you start in the sequence, the initial program change on each track will be sent, unless there are subsequent program
changes within the sequence prior to your starting point, in which case only the
latest program change for each track will be sent. See the discussion on Chase
Controllers in Chapter 10.
Note that when you enter a program change in the Track Editor, it is immediately sent out over MIDI on the track’s assigned channel. This will happen even
when a sequence is playing, so it’s an effective way to test different patches with
a track without resetting the synthesizer or effects unit.
Note: If you have two tracks assigned to the same MIDI channel and port, make
sure that you send out an initial program change on only one of them. If you try
to send out two program changes on the same channel at the same time, the
results might be unpredictable.
UsingtheDeviceDialog
You can view each track’s instrument programs as names in addition to numbers with Master Tracks Pro. Several lists of popular device program names
(factory presets) are supplied with Master Tracks Pro. You can also create
custom lists of program names to add custom or new instruments to the list.
The Device dialog can be used when setting an initial program change and can
be used when entering a preset change in the Step Editor.
1.15 The Device Dialog
BasicSequencerOperation
17
To use the Device dialog:
Click on the heading of the Program column (“Prg”) and the column expands
to show the program name.
Clicking in a Program Name field calls up the Device dialog. In the Device
dialog you can see the current device, the presets available, the track number/
name (if any) and two “copy” checkboxes.
To select a different program:
Click on a name or move to it using the arrow keys. When the name is selected, the corresponding MIDI program change is transmitted in real time.
To select a different device:
Click and hold on the triangle at the right of the Device box. The Device
Menu will appear, allowing you to either choose from the supplied list of
devices, or add a new device to the list.
To add a new device:
Select “Add New Device” from the Device Menu. The “Enter Text” dialog
will appear. Enter the name of the new device and click on “OK” or strike the
return key to return to the Device dialog. To enter the various program names
for the new device, simply select the desired location with the pointer or arrow
keys and enter the name. (See next item)
To change a program name:
Select a name from the list. The selected name will appear in the “Name” box
at the top of the dialog. Click on, and then drag across the “Name” box to
select the entire program name, and then enter the new program name. An
alternative method is to click in the “Name” box, activating the text cursor.
Choose any program name in the list and it will appear, selected, in the
“Name” box. If you then wish to change other program names for the same
device, simply choose the name to be changed from the list of program names
and it will appear, automatically selected, in the “Name” box.
To delete a device:
Select “Delete” from the Device Menu to delete the current device. Master
Tracks Pro will ask you if you are sure you want to delete that device. If you
do, click on yes or strike the return key.
18
MasterTracksPro
To rename a device:
You can rename the current device by selecting “Rename” from the Device
Menu. The “Enter Text” dialog will appear allowing you to change the name
of the current device.
Note: You can delete or rename any device on the list with the exception of the
following devices: Generic, Gen 8x8, and Roland MT-32.
To Clone a device:
If you have two or more of the same MIDI device, you will probably want to be
able to differentiate between those devices on the Track Sheet. The Clone
feature allows you to create multiple copies of the same device. Select the
device you wish to duplicate and then select “Clone” from the Device Menu.
The “Enter Text” dialog will appear. Enter the name of the clone device (for
example: If you are cloning the Korg M1, you may want to name the clone
“Korg M1 #2”). Click on “OK” or strike the return key to return to the Device
dialog. The clone is now the currently selected device and you can change the
appropriate program names.
To save or load a Device File:
You can save your custom device setups to disk. This enables you to easily
transfer them to other computers running Master Tracks Pro. Or you may wish
to load only those devices that are being utilized in the current sequence. It
also enables you to load your device setups into future updates of Pro.
To return to the Track Sheet:
After auditioning sounds and settling on your choice, you can either click OK,
hit Return, or double-click your program choice to return to the Track Sheet.
Your choice (both device and program name) will now appear in the Program
Name column of the Track Sheet.
“Copy Device to All Tracks” Checkbox
When you select “Copy Device”, the program names of all tracks will change to
the program names of that device. (The program numbers will be retained.) In
other words, the same program number will be transmitted via MIDI, but the
corresponding program name for the globally chosen device appears in the
Program Name field.
BasicSequencerOperation
19
"Copy Program name to Tracks Name" Checkbox
Clicking this checkbox will automatically put the current program name into
the "Name" field on the Track Sheet.
Tips/Hints
•
•
•
Choosing “Save Preferences” from the File menu will cause the current
device to be chosen by default when you open new files.
≈ - space bar can start and stop sequence playback from device dialog.
For initial program changes only: To make multiple track entries faster,
click on the track number to bring up the track fader, then select a new
track. This automatically sets (OKs) the previous track.
The Volume Column
MIDI Volume is a useful part of the MIDI specification that allows a device’s
overall volume to be controlled externally. (It should not be confused with
MIDI velocity, which is a measure of how hard a key is struck.) MIDI Volume
commands are continuous — that is, they can be used to control a note after
the note has been struck — so they can be used to control a mix. A mix always
has to have a starting level for each sound, and that’s where Master Tracks Pro’s
initial volume (“Vol”) parameter comes in.
1.16 The Volume Column Collapsed (L) and Expanded (R)
Like the Program column, the Volume column has two modes. The collapsed
(numeric) mode lets you view volume as a number. The expanded (graphic)
20
MasterTracksPro
mode lets you view and record volume changes in a track with an automated
mixer. You can toggle between the graphic and numerical displays by clicking
on the Volume/Vol heading.
Note: MIDI Volume is defined in the MIDI spec as Controller #7. Some
synthesizers do not recognize MIDI volume commands — consult your synth’s
manual to make sure.
Using the Numeric Volume Indicators
If a number between 0 and 127 is entered in this box (using a pop-up slider),
then a MIDI Volume command with that number is sent out on the channel
associated with the track when the sequence is started. This gives an initial
volume setting to the receiving synthesizer.
As with initial program changes, MIDI Volume commands will be “chased” if
the sequence is started at a point other than the beginning, provided that
“controller chasing” in the Chase Controllers dialog box is turned on. Also, any
entries made to this box while a sequence is running will have an immediate
effect on the corresponding track. This is a good way to test levels for a mix —
use this function to find the level for a certain section, and then use the Controllers window to enter it permanently in the sequence at the proper place.
If you don’t want any initial volume command to be sent, set the level to “-.”
This is the default setting. As with the Prg parameter, if the track has no
channel assignment, no initial MIDI Volume command will be sent, regardless
of the setting of the Vol parameter.
Using the Recordable Volume Faders
To use the faders, click on the heading box of the Volume column (“Vol”), the
column expands to become a set of volume faders that can be used in real time
to set or record MIDI volume levels for each of the tracks.
To record the faders:
Shift-click in the record field(s) of the Track Sheet (the icon
will appear as a miniature fader).
Press the Record Button (or the Enter key) to begin recording.
1.17 The
Fader Record
Icon
BasicSequencerOperation
21
Move the Fader(s) with the mouse to adjust volume.
The changes will automatically be merged into the track(s).
Using the Master Volume Fader
There is also a variable mode Master Fader window, selected from the “Goodies” Menu. With the Master Fader, you can fade all tracks at the same time or
use this control as a “group” fader to set the sub-mix of several tracks at once
(such as a multi-track drum part).
Click on the text field at the bottom of the fader to toggle the three modes:
Live: This mode sends out Volume (controller #7) to all tracks in real time
only—volume information is sent out but not recorded.
Absolute: This is also a real time mode, but it sends the absolute fader position
as the new “Master Volume” SysEx message. (Please note that there are very few
instruments that will respond to this new control.)
Record: This setting allows for recording volume changes on tracks.
To use the Master Fader in Record Mode:
Enable Fader Recording (shift-click in the R column) for the tracks you want to
control.
Click the Record button (or press the Enter key) to begin recording.
1.18 The
Master
Fader
Move the Master Fader(s) with the mouse to adjust volume. The changes will
automatically be merged into the tracks.
Note: While this method will retain the relative levels between tracks (until you
reach top or bottom) this will override any changes currently in the track!
To scale the initial volume level on all tracks simultaneously, press and hold the
option key and move the Master Fader up or down.
22
MasterTracksPro
Tips/Hints for Volume:
• Fader recording is only possible in “standard” record mode (no looping or
punching).
• When multi-track recording is on, all tracks are either in fader record mode
or MIDI record mode.
• If multiple tracks are assigned to the same channel, moving a fader on any
of those tracks will affect the volume of all tracks on that channel.
• The faders will appear “grayed out” on tracks that have not been assigned to
any MIDI channel. If a track has not previously been set to a particular
volume level, the fader will be “grayed out” until you click on it and drag it
to an appropriate position.
• Faders snap to default position whenever the counter is returned to top,
even with Chase off.
• ≈ - F opens the Master Fader window and brings it to the front.
• Master Fader mode is saved with prefs.
Movingtracks
In the Track Editor window, you can re-order the tracks freely. You may want
to do this so that all your drum and percussion tracks, which you recorded at
different times, are grouped together, or so that the tracks line up in order of
channel number, or for any number of other reasons.
1.19 Moving a Track
You move a track by clicking in the track’s number at the far left side of the
window, holding the mouse button, and dragging the track up or down to its
new position. If there is already a track in the new position, it will be pushed
aside to make room for the track you are moving. Master Tracks Pro always fills
in track slots the best it can; if, for example, you move Track 1 to the Track 9
slot, Tracks 2 through 9 will get pushed up one position. If you move Track 11
to the Track 3 slot, Tracks 4 through 10 will get pushed down.
BasicSequencerOperation
23
When you move a track in the left-hand side of the window, all of its data in
both sides of the window will move with it.
Duplicating tracks
If you want to set up a second track with the same parameters as an existing
track (name, channel, program, record/play status, etc.), hold down the Option
key before you press on the number of the track you want to duplicate. Now
drag to a new position, and the settings for that track will be a copy of the first
one (the first one will remain in place).
However, if there is any data on the track in the position (as shown in the
right-hand part of the window), it will be unchanged. Therefore the duplicated
track’s parameters will be imposed on the old track’s data. This can be an
effective tool for quick re-orchestration of complex files. (If the track has no
data, the new track initially will not be play-enabled. It will, however, become
play-enabled as soon as you put any data in it.)
Note that if the track that you are duplicating is record-enabled (a “•” appears
in the “R” box), then any copy you make of it by Option-dragging will be
record-enabled. If this happens, the original track will become record disabled
unless Multi-Track Record mode is on.
TransposeLock
1.20 A "Locked" Track
Tracks can be “locked” from transposing in this window by
shift-clicking on the track number in the Track Sheet. The track
will display a “lock” icon. This will prevent a drum track, for
example, from being transposed when you do a “Select All” in
the Track Editor. A lock icon will be displayed in the Transpose
dialog if a locked track is selected for transpose.
Playingasequence
To play a sequence, be sure the tracks you want to play are play-enabled and
check that the MIDI channel for each track agrees with the MIDI device that
you intend to play it on. If you wish, use the transport controls to move the
Measure Counter to the point in the sequence where you want to begin play-
24
MasterTracksPro
back (double-click on the rewind button to get it back to the beginning). You
can start playback in one of three ways:
1. Click on the Play button in the Transport window.
2. Press the space bar on the Mac keyboard.
3. Assign a key on your MIDI keyboard to start playback. Selecting a key for
this purpose is done with the Keyboard Setup command in the Goodies
menu. See Chapter 10 for details.
Once you start the play function with one of these controls, the Play button
becomes highlighted and the sequence will normally begin to play immediately.
However, there are two conditions under which it will not play:
If the Count In button is highlighted, you will get a one-measure count in
before the sequence starts, either from the Mac speaker or over MIDI, depending on how you have this feature set up. (If you don’t hear anything at all
during the count in, it may be that you have assigned the count to a MIDI
channel that has no receiving device assigned to it.)
If the Sync button (lower-right corner of the Transport window) is set to
“MTC Sync” or “EXT Sync”, the program will wait for an external MIDI
timing signal of one kind or another before starting. Click on it once or twice
until it says “INT Sync”. (If you have already tried to start the sequence, you
will have to click on Stop or press the space bar again before you can change
this parameter.)
During playback, you can change the tempo of the music using the scroll bar
on the Tempo window. (See more about this below.) You can also switch
between windows while the sequence is playing, examine data, and even edit in
any part of any track without interrupting playback.
Recordingatrack
To record a track, record-enable it by clicking in the Track Editor Record box
as described earlier.
BasicSequencerOperation
25
Master Tracks Pro can record on all 16 MIDI channels simultaneously on a
single track. If you record a track containing data on multiple channels, as you
might with a guitar controller, you can afterwards use the Strip Data command
on the Change menu to move the data for each channel onto its own track.
(See Chapter 7.) If you have a situation in which you are sending multiplechannel data to the program but only want to record the data from one channel, you can use Multi-Track Record, and just record-enable the track with the
desired channel assigned to it, or you can turn on the Record Filter from the
Goodies menu to filter out all channels except the designated one — see
Chapter 10 for details on this.
Master Tracks Pro can record all types of MIDI data, but if you want to keep
certain types of data from being recorded (such as aftertouch), you can use the
Record Filter to eliminate that as well. If you want to separate various types of
data after the recording is already complete, the Strip Data command on the
Change menu can be used.
Start recording with one of these three options:
1. Click on the Record button on the Transport window
2. Press the Enter key on the Macintosh keyboard.
3. Assign a key on your MIDI keyboard to start recording, using the Keyboard
Setup command (see Chapter 10).
Again, if you want to start recording immediately, the Count button must not
be highlighted and the Sync button must read “INT”.
When you’ve finished recording, click the Stop button in the Transport
window, press the space bar, or play the key on your MIDI keyboard that
you’ve assigned to the Stop function (which can be the same as the key you
assigned to Play).
When you have finished the first pass recording a new track, the program
automatically activates the track for playback, and the play icon appears in the
track’s Play box.
26
MasterTracksPro
In Master Tracks Pro if you record over an existing track, you will erase it. If
you want to overdub a second line on the same MIDI channel, assign another
track to that channel (option-drag the track in the Track Editor if you like) and
record your second pass on the new track. You can merge them later if you
want to. It’s a good idea to get in the habit of deactivating a track’s record
mode right after you’ve recorded it so you don’t record over it accidentally next
time — although you can always Undo an accidental Record pass. Click on the
track’s Record box in the Track Editor window, so that the circle disappears
from the box.
The Tempo Window
The Tempo window is a small but very important Master Tracks Pro window,
since it displays sequence tempo and meter information. (If the Tempo window
is not on the screen, or if it is hidden behind other windows, you can make it
visible by choosing it from the Windows menu.)
At the bottom of the Tempo window, from left to right, appear the time
signature, the value of a beat as interpreted by the program’s metronome (i.e.,
whether it sounds on each quarter-note, each eighth-note, or each dottedeighth in a 6/8 bar, etc.), and the tempo. These settings reflect the values at the
current position of the measure counter. If the meter and tempo stay the same
throughout a piece, then these values will not change regardless of the measure
counter position, but if there are tempo or meter changes, they will be reflected
in this window as the sequence plays or as you move the measure counter.
These values are all recorded in a special Master Tracks Pro track called the
Tempo Map. The Tempo Map allows each measure to have its own time
signature and beat note, and it allows tempo to be changed as often as you
could possibly want — up to 240 times per quarter-note
(i.e., on each clock). To change anything in the Tempo
Map, you can open the Change Conductor dialog box,
either by clicking on the time signature in the Tempo
window, or by choosing Conductor from the Change
menu. For some Tempo Map adjustments, you can use the
Tempo Map window (Windows menu). See Chapters 4,
1.21 The Tempo Window
7, and 11 for more information.
BasicSequencerOperation
27
However, as mentioned earlier, you can use the tempo scroll bar in the Tempo
window to make temporary changes in the tempo, even while a sequence is
playing or recording. This tempo change is not recorded as part of the sequence, and is called an “offset tempo”. You can see the current offset tempo
setting in the top of the Tempo window, while the “permanent” tempo setting
for the sequence is shown at the bottom. (If there is a tempo change in the
Tempo Map that occurs while you have made a tempo offset, that new tempo
will be offset as well, by the same factor.)
As is normal for a Macintosh program, there are three ways to change the offset
tempo using the scroll bar:
1. Click and hold on the scroll box in the scroll bar and drag it.
2. Click anywhere in the gray part of the scroll bar and the scroll box will
move rapidly toward that location and cause a corresponding rapid change
in the offset tempo setting.
3. Click or click and hold one of the arrow controls at either end of the scroll
bar. This changes the offset tempo value in 1-beat-per-minute increments.
The offset tempo scroll bar only functions when the program is in Internal sync
mode. If you are syncing to an external source, the scroll bar has no effect.
Resettingtheoriginalstoredtempo
You can easily return to the stored tempo (tempo with no offset) after you have
altered the tempo with the Tempo Offset (in the Tempo window) by clicking
in the "q = " field.
For the sake of this example, let’s say that the tempo map of your sequence is
set to a constant q =120 and you have set the Offset Tempo to 140. Click in
the q =120 field and the Tempo Offset will immediately snap back to 120, the
same value as the actual stored tempo.
28
MasterTracksPro
Editing in the
TrackEditorWindow
2
The right half of the Track Editor window shows how the tracks in a sequence
are constructed measure-by-measure. In this window, tracks can be edited one
measure at a time, or in groups of measures and/or groups of tracks. You can
move sections of music within a
sequence or build new sequences
from segments of other sequences.
You can also modify the data in a
variety of ways using the commands
in the Edit and Change menus.
Editing events individually or in
smaller regions is handled in the
Step Editor, MIDI Data, and Event
List windows, which are covered in
the next two chapters.
On the left edge of the right half of
2.1 The right half of the
Track Editor window
the Track Editor window are the
track numbers. Along the top are the measure numbers. Recorded tracks appear
on the screen as a horizontal row of rectangular boxes, each box representing a
measure. Solid black boxes contain MIDI data (which may or may not include
notes); hollow boxes are measures that have no MIDI data.
The grey vertical bar at the end of the data area represents the end of the
Tempo Map for the sequence. Even if the tracks you’re looking at are completely empty of MIDI data, and no measure boxes are on the screen, the grey
bar will still appear at the measure where the Tempo Map ends. As explained in
Editing in the Track Editor Window
29
the previous chapter’s section on looping, different tracks can be of different
lengths, The Tempo Map is always as long, or longer, than the longest data
track. If you record a track of any length in a brand-new sequence, a Tempo
Map of the same length is automatically created. It is possible to have a Tempo
Map that contains measures with no data, but it is impossible to have a measure
in a data track that has no corresponding Tempo Map. Details on changing the
length of a Tempo Map are in Chapter 6.
You can scroll through the track data in the Track Editor window using the
scroll bars as you do with other Macintosh programs. Scroll vertically to look at
other tracks, and scroll horizontally to look at earlier or later measures. You can
also scroll while selecting blocks of measures — we’ll get to this in a moment.
The Measure Ruler
The row of numbers at the top of the right side of the Track Editor window is
known as the “measure ruler”. It marks off measures in the sequence so that
you can keep track of which part of the sequence you’re looking at. The
number of a measure appears immediately to the left of the measure itself.
2.2 Measure Ruler
Clicking on a measure in the measure ruler selects that measure across all 64
tracks, plus the Tempo Map.
The number “1” always appears at the beginning of the measure ruler, and then
every fourth measure is numbered (4, 8, 12, 16, etc.), with short vertical marks
appearing for other measures. That’s the way the program defaults — if you
want to change the numbering scheme, press one of the number keys 3 through
0 on the Mac keyboard. The number you press will become the multiple of the
bars that are numbered: pressing 3 numbers measures 3, 6, 9, etc.; pressing 5
numbers measures 5, 10, 15, etc., and so on. Pressing 0 numbers every 10th
measure. The “+” key will increment your selection by 1 and the “-” key will
30
MasterTracksPro
decrement it. The measure-numbering scheme is not saved with the sequence;
instead it is saved in the Preferences file (see Chapter 5).
Show/Hide "Measure Display"
The Measure display is an indicator that shows you
exactly where the arrow pointer is in the Track
Editor. Use this to accurately select insert points for
precise cutting and pasting in the Track Editor.
Note: This indicator is only visible when the marker
ruler is showing.
2.3 Measure Display Indicator
UsingMarkers
Master Tracks Pro provides markers that let you identify a particular location in
your sequence so that you can return to it any time you wish. Markers placed in
the Track Editor window are always at the beginning of a measure. From other
windows it is possible to place markers within measures, but when you view
those markers in the Track Editor window, they will appear at the start of the
measure they’re in.
Master Tracks Pro markers look and act very much like Tab stops in a word
processing program. Markers are displayed at the top of the Track Editor, Step
Editor, and MIDI Data windows, just below the window’s title bar, in the
marker ruler.
2.4 Marker ruler
The marker ruler can be hidden in all windows — choose “Hide Markers” from
the Layout menu. To get the markers to reappear, choose “Show Markers”.
Markers are still active even when they are hidden.
Editing in the Track Editor Window
31
Placingamarker
When the marker ruler is visible, you’ll see a small box at its left end containing
a hollow upside-down triangle. This box is called the “marker well”. To place a
marker into the marker ruler, click and hold over the well. Another upsidedown triangle, the marker you’ll be placing, will appear just below the well.
Now, while still holding down the mouse button, drag the new marker to the
measure where you want to place it. Once you’ve positioned the marker, release
the mouse button.
The marker will remain where you’ve placed it, and will become solid black. In
addition, a vertical dotted line will appear below the marker, extending through
the track data indicators to help you see exactly where the marked measure is in
your sequence. You can move the marker any time by clicking and holding on
it, and dragging to its new location. You can delete a marker by dragging it off
the left edge of the window.
Naming markers
Master Tracks Pro lets you name the markers on the screen.
Once you’ve named a marker, the name appears to its
immediate right on the marker ruler in any window.
When you first place a marker, a dialog box appears that asks
you to give the marker a name. Type in the name from the
2.5 Marker name box
Mac keyboard, then click on OK or press Return to enter it
and return to the Track Editor. You don’t have to name the marker, just click
OK or press Return.
Moving to a marker
To move the Measure Counter and the front window (Track Editor, Step
Editor, or MIDI Data window) to the next marker in the ruler, press the Tab
key on the Macintosh keyboard. The view will change so that the next marker
is at the extreme left of the window. You can now record or play from this
point. If you want to reach another marker, then simply press the Tab key
repeatedly until you reach the marker you wish. (If the Auto function is turned
on, the Measure Counter will not change — only the data in the window.)
32
MasterTracksPro
When you are on (or past) the last marker, pressing Tab will have no effect.
To move back to a previous marker, press Shift+Tab. Again, the data lines up
so that the marker is at the left edge of the window. If you are on (or before)
the first marker in a sequence, pressing Shift-Tab will send you to the beginning of the sequence.
The Markers window
The Markers window, which is
accessible from the Goodies
menu, contains a complete list of
all markers in a sequence, and
lets you add, delete, re-position,
and re-name markers, as well as
“lock” them. Locking a marker
can be useful when you are
working with film or video and
need to line up specific visual
events with musical events. See
Chapters 10 and 11 for details.
2.6 The Markers window
Markers can also be imported into a sequence through a MIDI File. A Master
Tracks Pro marker is equivalent to a “text event” as described in the MIDI File
specification. When a MIDI File containing text events (see MIDI File Options
/File Menu - Chapter 8) is loaded into Master Tracks Pro, they will show up as
markers, and can be treated as if they were created within Master Tracks Pro.
EditingintheTrackEditorwindow
In the Track Editor window you can easily change MIDI data in large regions
using all the commands on both the Edit and Change menus (see Chapters 6
and 7 for more about the actual editing functions). Again, the smallest unit
available for editing changes in the Track Editor window is an entire measure,
and all edits are done on multiples of whole measures. Also, the edits you make
in the Track Editor window affect all types of MIDI data at once (in the
individual MIDI data windows, they just affect the data being shown in that
window). Commands like Cut on the Edit menu, or Channel on the Change
Editing in the Track Editor Window
33
menu, affect MIDI data such as controller data, sustain pedal, and program
changes, as well as note information.
Selecting measures to edit
To make changes to one or more measures of your sequence using Edit or
Change menu commands, the region of measures must first be selected.
Selected measures appear on the screen highlighted in inverse video. To select
one measure on a single track, click on one side of the rectangle corresponding
to that measure and drag slightly to the opposite side, until you see the rectangle highlighted, then release. To select adjacent measures and/or measures on
adjacent tracks, hold the mouse button down and keep dragging.
2.7 Selecting measures to edit
Selectingablockofmeasures
There are two ways to select a large block of measures across multiple tracks.
First, you can position the mouse pointer at one corner of the block, click, and
drag towards the diagonally opposite corner until the inverse highlight covers
all the measures you want to select. If all the measures you want to select aren’t
visible on the screen, you can scroll the screen simply by dragging to any edge
of the window. The window will scroll and the selection highlight will move
with it. This technique — known as “hot scrolling” — can also be used to
scroll the Track Editor window, even if you don’t want to select that particular
block of measures. In that case, when you’re through scrolling, simply click
again, and the selected block will be de-selected.
Second, a block can be defined by clicking at one corner of the block, holding
down the Shift key on the Mac keyboard, and then clicking on the diagonally
opposite corner.
34
MasterTracksPro
If you want to select a range that is larger than what you can see in the window,
click on one corner and use the scroll bars to move to the second point. Next,
hold down the Shift key and Click on the second point — the entire area
between the Clicks will be selected.
If you want to select measures in two tracks that are not adjacent to each other,
you can move the tracks so they are adjacent, as described in the previous
chapter. For example, if you want to perform an operation on Tracks 5 and 11,
grab the track number at the far left side of the window for number 11, and
drag it up so it’s directly underneath 5. Now the tracks will be numbered 5 and
6, and you can work on them together.
Selecting an entire track
To select an entire track for editing, click on the track number in the left hand
column next to measure 1 (not the far left “Tk” column). To select several
adjacent entire tracks, click and hold over the first track number in the group,
and drag the mouse up or down in the track number field.
2.8 Selecting an entire track
Selecting measures across all tracks
To select one measure in all tracks, click on the column for that measure (just
to the right of the number or vertical mark) in the measure ruler at the top of
the window. To select adjacent measures in all tracks, click and hold on the
column for the first measure in the group and drag to the column for the last
measure you want to include.
Editing in the Track Editor Window
35
5.9 Selecting measures across all tracks
To de-select a selected area, simply click anywhere in the right half of the Track
Editor window.
Note: If you plan to Cut, Copy, or Clear a region that includes notes that are
tied from or to other measures, you should read the section on tied notes in
Chapter 6 for details.
Selecting and Editing While a Sequence is Playing
You can select regions to edit and perform edits as a sequence is playing. If the
edit is performed on a section of the sequence that has already been played,
then you obviously won’t hear the results of the edit until the next time you
play the sequence. Sometimes if you perform an edit on a track while notes on
that track are sustaining, the notes will be interrupted. Rest assured this is just
temporary, and the notes will play to their full length the next time you play
the sequence.
PlayingaSequencefromtheTrackEditor
Click on the Play button or press the space bar to start playback. You can set
the Track Editor (or whichever window is in front) to scroll through the
sequence data during playback by choosing Follow Playback from the Layout
menu. When Follow Playback is on, and the Track Window is the active
window, a vertical highlight bar moves along the track data as the sequence
plays, to indicate the measure currently playing.
36
MasterTracksPro
Setting the playback point
With the “Auto” function off, you can set the starting point of a sequence
within the Track Editor window by pointing at the measure you want (scroll if
you need to) and clicking. The Measure Counter will reset itself to this measure
and the next time you click Play or Record, the sequence will start from this
point.
Note: You can control the playback point in the same way when you are using
the Step Editor window or any of the MIDI data windows.
ShortcuttotheStepEditor
From the Track Editor, you can move directly to the Step Editor window to
work on any specific measure in any track you wish. Simply double-click on
that track and measure in the Track Editor window, and the Step Editor
window will open at the point at which you’ve clicked.
Note that this function will not work if there are no measures at all in a sequence — if you want to start working on a sequence by entering data from the
Step Editor, you will have to open the window from the Windows menu or
press ≈+3.
Editing in the Track Editor Window
37
38
MasterTracksPro
Using the
Step Editor Window
3
The Step Editor window lets you view and edit note data, one track at a time.
It provides a variety of precision tools that let you input and edit notes individually or in groups. It also lets you perform certain editing operations on
non-note data, even though it doesn’t display it.
3.1 The Step Editor Window
To open the Step Editor window:
•
•
•
Choose it from the Windows menu, or
Type ≈ –3 on the Mac keyboard, or
Double-click on a specific track and measure in the Track Editor.
Using the Step Editor Window
39
In the first two cases, the window will open at the current cursor position in
whatever window was opened last, and on whatever track was last viewed in this
or any other data window, (if this is the first window opened, it will open at
measure 1 of Track 1). In the last case, the window will open on the track and
measure where you have clicked.
The Step Editor window contains a graphic display of one track’s worth of note
events. This area is divided by a grid of solid lines and a finer grid of dotted
lines that makes it easy to accurately determine the position of notes in the
window. The dashed lines indicate the note division between "E" and "F". The
solid lines indicate measure boundaries and octave divisions. The window
usually has a measure boundary at its left edge. The dotted lines show a pitch
division at every “white key”. You can turn off the dotted lines and just show
octave divisions (giving you a somewhat “cleaner” screen) with the Hide Grid
command in the Layout menu. You can bring the dotted lines back with the
Show Grid command.
TheNotes
The note data itself is displayed as a sideways “piano roll”. Each note is represented as a small horizontal rectangle, or block. The vertical position of the
block reflects the note’s pitch, and it can be referenced to the picture of the
piano keyboard at the left edge of the window. In addition, when you move the
cursor to a particular note, the pitch indicator box at the top of the window will
show its position as a note and an octave number (e.g., “G3”). Master Tracks
Pro can handle all MIDI pitches, which range from C–2 to G8 (middle C is
C3). Accidentals are always displayed as sharps.
The horizontal position of the block shows the note’s position in time. It is
referenced to the enlarged measure ruler that lies along the top edge of the data
area of the window. In this ruler, each “box” is a measure, and each short
vertical line within the box is a beat marker. (Remember, the beat may not
always be a quarter-note, depending on the beat setting in the Conductor
window.) If you move the cursor to a note, the time indicator box at the top of
the window will show the position in measures, beats and clocks of the cursor
(although not necessarily of the note).
40
MasterTracksPro
The horizontal length of the block represents the note’s duration. You can
estimate the duration of the note by comparing it against the markings in the
measure ruler. There are more accurate ways of determining note durations,
which we’ll get to in a moment.
Markers
Like the Track Editor, the Step
Editor window has a marker
ruler. If any markers are set,
they’ll be displayed here just as
in the Track Editor window.
The marker ruler can be toggled
on and off by selecting Show/
3.2 A Marker in the Step Editor
Hide Markers from the Layout
menu. Hiding the marker ruler expands the data area slightly so you can see a
greater range of notes. Markers are still active even if they are hidden.
Placing, moving, naming, and removing markers is done just the same as in the
Track Editor, using the marker well in the upper left corner of the window.
The only difference is that in the Step Editor, you can place markers anywhere
within a measure, to within an accuracy of one clock if necessary (see the
section on zooming on the next page). You can move the window forwards or
backwards to a marker by pressing Tab or Shift-Tab, respectively. If the Auto
function is turned off, the measure counter will follow. If the marker is inside a
measure, the left edge of the window will move to the beginning of the measure
that contains the marker.
Program Changes
A "Program Change" well lets you
select and change presets in a track.
Like the marker well, you can simply
grab the icon and drag a program
change to any location. Initial
program changes are marked with a
3.3 Program Well and Program Change
Using the Step Editor Window
41
hollow icon to show they cannot be dragged. Double click on a triangle to
change the program or to call up the Device List dialog.
Also, you can record program changes directly, by selecting them from your
MIDI instrument when in Keyboard Step entry mode.
Icons and Information
At the top of the Step Editor window there are two rows of icons and parameter
settings, collectively called the Toolbar. On the top row of the Toolbar, you’ll
see several note icons, representing the rhythmic values of the notes you can
insert with the pencil or step-enter from a MIDI keyboard; a tuplet box; and
controls for note articulation and velocity.
On the second Toolbar row are several note editing icons, the pitch and time
indicators already mentioned, the Current Track box, the MIDI channel
control box, and the name of the current track.
All of the items on the first Toolbar row, as well as the channel control box,
apply only to the input of new notes. The remaining options are used in a
variety of entry and editing functions.
Notes Only/
All Data
Eraser
Tool
Note Pencil
Tool
Note
Durations
Arrow
Pointer
Articulation
Input
Channel
Snap-to-Grid
Measure/Time
Value
Indicator
Pitch
MIDI Step
Indicator
Entry
3.4 The Step Editor Toolbar
42
MasterTracksPro
Record
Velocity
Track
Number
Track
Name
Scrollingandzooming
As in the Track Editor window (and like any standard Macintosh program),
you can scroll through the data in the Step Editor window using scroll bars.
Master Tracks Pro’s two Zoom commands let you decide how much of the track
data you can see at one time in the Step Editor window. Like a zoom lens, the
Zoom commands let you move your perspective in or out for different levels of
“magnification”. You can zoom in to work on small portions of the track more
precisely, or zoom out to see more notes at once.
The Zoom level you choose not only affects how much of the track you can see,
it also determines how precise your editing changes and additions can be. This
is because the Zoom level sets the minimum number of “clocks” that you can
move the mouse. When
you’re zoomed all the
way out, moving the
mouse by a single pixel
on the screen moves
you 24 clocks (1/10th
of a quarter-note) in the
sequence. When you’re
zoomed in all the way,
you can move the
mouse by individual
clocks (1/240th of a
quarter-note), allowing
3.5 Zooming In
you to place notes (or,
in other windows, any
MIDI data) with single-clock accuracy. At the maximum zoom level, the lefthand edge of the Step Editor window may no longer be a measure boundary,
because an entire measure will not fit into the window — instead, it will fall on
a beat.
Master Tracks Pro gives you six different Zoom levels. To zoom in one level,
choose the Zoom In command from the View menu or press ≈–[ (left bracket)
on the Mac keyboard. To Zoom out, choose the Zoom Out command, or press
≈–] (right bracket) on the keyboard.
Using the Step Editor Window
43
Viewing different tracks
The Step Editor window displays note data from only a single track at a time,
and you must switch the display to another track to edit its data. Change tracks
by clicking on the Current Track box (the box that says “T1” in it when you’re
looking at Track 1) or by pressing the “T” key on the Macintosh keyboard.
This brings up a pop-up slider, as described in Chapter 1 — set the slider to the
number of the track you want to view and let go, or click above or below the
“knob” to increment or decrement the track number, or type in the number of
the track on the Mac keyboard. As you move the slider or type in a new
number, the name of the track being selected (if it has one) appears above the
number. When the track you want appears, click OK or press Return.
When you change tracks, the name of the new track (if it has one) will appear
in the long box on the far right of the Current Track box. You can change the
track’s name (or give it one if it hasn’t got one) by clicking in that long box. A
dialog box opens for you to type in the name. Any name that you give a track
in this window will appear in the Track Editor window, and indeed, all windows with a track name box.
Playingasequence
As in the Song Editor window, you can play your sequence while you are using
the Step Editor window. At your option, you can have the Step Editor window
scroll through the track data while the sequence plays. Turn on the Follow
Playback command on the Layout menu to enable this feature. As the track
plays, a line of inverse video moves across the window, indicating the current
beat. The Step Editor Window must be selected as the active (front) window
for this indicator to show and for scrolling to take place during playback. The
advantage of turning Follow Playback off is that you can freely examine and
work on different sections of the track while it is playing, without the window
constantly resetting itself to show the current measure.
The playback/record starting point can be set by selecting the arrow pointer on
the second line of the Toolbar and clicking at the desired location in the
window (this will only work, as always, if Auto is off). The starting point can be
on a measure boundary, or anywhere within a measure.
44
MasterTracksPro
As in the Song Editor window, regions can be chosen for editing while a
sequence is playing. We’ll get more into this in a moment.
You can toggle various functions of the Track Editor window from within the
Step Editor window, using special Macintosh key combinations, so that you
don’t have to go back and forth so often. These commands will only affect the
track currently showing in the Step Editor window:
Option-P: Enables/disables playback of the track
Option-R: Toggles the record-enable function of the track, and changes the
Thru port and channel (if it is enabled) to the port and channel of
the track (if it has been assigned)
Option-S: Turns Solo on or off for the current track
Option-L: Turns Loop on or off for the current track
Editing Data
Master Tracks Pro’s Step Editor window lets you work with data in a number of
ways that fall into three main categories: regional editing, note insertion, and
individual-note editing. Regional editing lets you alter both note and non-note
data. Individual note editing only applies to notes.
Regionalediting
With regional editing, you can quickly edit a group of notes all at once. Using
the commands on the Edit and Change menus, you can move, copy, or delete
the note data; transpose the pitches of all the notes in the region; change MIDI
data such as MIDI channel and note velocity; and alter timing and expression
in several ways. See Chapters 6 and 7 for more details on these features.
You can also edit non-note data, although you
can’t see it. In the upper left corner of the
window is an icon with a picture of two notes.
If you click on it, it changes to the word “all”.
This icon toggles the non-note editing function. When you see the notes, it means that
any edits made in this window will only affect
3.6 The Notes/All Button
Using the Step Editor Window
45
note data. When you see “all”, it means that edits will affect both note data and
any other MIDI data (controllers, pitch bend, program changes, etc.) that
happens to fall within the region you specify.
The setting of this icon also affects Edit operations having to do with this
screen which may not be obvious — see Chapter 6 for details.
TheTimeIndicator
For many operations, you need to be able to locate notes precisely in the data
area both in terms of time and pitch. That guidance is provided by the time
and pitch indicators in the Toolbar, which were mentioned previously.
For many editing commands, the measure and beat markings in
the measure ruler at the top of the step editor window will give
3.7 Time and Pitch
you all the information you need to locate the end points of your
Indicators
region. For more precise work however, you can use the time
indicator in the Toolbar to begin and end the region at exactly the right point.
The time indicator usually displays the time value at the current position of the
cursor, in measures, beats and clocks — the exception is when you have
grabbed a note for editing, which will be discussed later.
Since all editing operations occur on clock boundaries, how precisely you can
define the beginning and end of a region depends on the Zoom level. At the
highest magnification, zoomed all the way in, you can define the region by
individual clocks (1/240th of a quarter-note). When you’re zoomed all the way
out, on the other hand, the resolution is much coarser, and the smallest movement of the mouse represents 24 clocks, or one-tenth of a quarter-note.
Selectingaregiontoedit
In the Step Editor window, there are a number of ways to set up regions for
editing. Regions can have their boundaries on any clock, not just on measure
boundaries, but they can only cover one track at a time.
To select a region, first choose the arrow pointer from the second line of the
Toolbar, or press the “A” key on the Mac keyboard. Move the pointer into the
data area of the window, above and to the left of the first note you wish to
46
MasterTracksPro
include in the region (not on it). Click and
hold the mouse button, and drag the pointer
down and to the right, so it is both past and
below the last note you wish to include.
As in the Track Editor window, you can “hotscroll” the screen while selecting a region by
dragging the pointer to the right or bottom
screen boundaries. As you select a region, the
region becomes highlighted in inverse video.
Release the mouse button when you’ve
included all the notes you want.
3.8 Selecting a Region
You have now defined a rectangular region
that has horizontal boundaries (time) and vertical boundaries (pitch). Any notes
(or other data if “all” is selected) within those boundaries will be included in
the editing operation you choose next from the Edit or Change menu; any data
outside the boundaries will not be included. (The vertical boundaries apply
only to notes, regardless of what editing mode you are in, while the horizontal
[time] boundaries apply to all data.)
The rectangle does not have to be selected from upper-left to lower-right in the
manner described — that was just an example. You can define it by selecting
any corner of the rectangle you like and moving up or down, and left or right.
If you want to select all the pitches within a
time frame, double-click and hold at the left
or right edge of the time frame at the second
click, and move the mouse to the left or right.
If you want to select one or more entire
measures (with all pitches), single-click and
hold in the measure ruler, and drag the mouse
left or right for multiple measures.
All of these selection methods support Shiftclicking — if you click once in the data
window, and then Shift-click somewhere else
(either on the screen or at a point you’ve
3.9 Selecting All Pitches
Using the Step Editor Window
47
scrolled to), the two clicks become the opposite corners of the selection rectangle (as long as neither of them is directly on a note). If you double-click in
the data area and Shift-click elsewhere, the two clicks become the left and right
sides of an “all-pitches” selection region. If you single-click in the measure ruler
and Shift-click elsewhere, the clicks become the left and right sides of an allpitches region that begins and ends on measure boundaries.
Important: Edit menu commands will only affect notes in the selected region if
those notes begin within the region. That’s one reason to pay attention to the
Zoom level while you’re selecting a region — a note can appear to be within
the selected region when it actually starts slightly before the beginning of the
region, and you may be zoomed out too far to see this. If the beginning of a
note falls within the selected region, the entire note will be altered by the
command you use, even if the end of the note isn’t included in the selected
region.
There is an exception to this rule, however. A note in the selected region that is
tied over from an earlier measure is recognized by commands such as Cut,
Copy, and Clear if the region begins precisely on the measure boundary. In this
case, the region will include that portion of the note that starts at the measure
boundary — but not the portion that precedes the measure. Don’t worry too
much about this for now — it’s explained more in Chapter 6.
Before Cut
After Cut
3.10 Notes that start before a selected region are not included in the region unless
the region starts on a measure boundary
48
MasterTracksPro
InsertingNewNotes
Master Tracks Pro gives you two ways to insert new notes in your sequence in
the Step Editor window: you can use the mouse exclusively, or you can enter
the desired pitch by playing the corresponding key on your MIDI keyboard, in
“step-time” entry.
You can “audition” notes by holding down the
Command (≈) key. The pointer turns into a hand,
with one finger pointing up. Move the hand up and
down in the data area so that the finger is on the
same level as a note you want to hear, and click the
mouse. The note will sound, on the MIDI channel
assigned for the track in the Track Editor window, at
the velocity shown in the Step Editor’s velocity box,
for as long as you hold the mouse button down.
6.11 The Audition Pointer
You can re-trigger the note by releasing and pressing the mouse button, or you
can hold the button down and move the mouse, and every time you reach a
new pitch, it will sound. Besides reminding you what a particular track sounds
like before you enter data into it, this feature is very useful for drum machines
or samplers with split keyboards, in that you can look for a sound associated
with a particular pitch easily without going to your keyboard or recording any
data.
The first task in the entry process is to select values for the duration, velocity,
MIDI channel, and articulation of the note(s) you want to enter.
Duration - Choose the duration, or rhythmic value, by clicking on the appropriate note icon at the left side of the top line of the Toolbar. Selecting the dot
icon multiplies the duration of the note value by 1-1/2. You can also select note
durations using the numeric keys on the Mac keyboard: typing “1” select the
whole note, “2” the half, “3” the quarter, etc. up to “7” for the 64th. Typing
“D” adds the dot to the selected value.
If you wish, you can select a combination of note values, and all the selected
values add together for the total duration of the note you are inserting. To select
more than one value, click on the first note duration you want to select, and
Using the Step Editor Window
49
then Shift-click on the remaining note durations (this does not work with the
Mac keys).
You can enter notes with non-integral duration values, referred to as “Tuplets”.
To enter these, click over the word “Tuplet” in the tuplet box in the top line of
the Toolbar. When the box is highlighted, any notes you insert will have the
tuplet value shown in the box. For example, say the value in the tuplet box is
3:2, and you’ve selected the eighth-note duration icon. If you turn the tuplet
command on, the timing of the notes you insert will be adjusted so that three of
these notes would fit in the time normally occupied by two regular eighth-notes
(i.e., a quarter-note). This is equivalent to eighth-note triplets. You can choose
a wide range of tuplet values to create complex polyrhythms or to experiment
with other unorthodox note timings. For example, for a 16th-note quintuplet
(five notes in the space of a quarter-note), you would set the duration value to
16th-note, and then set the tuplet value to 5:4 — or set the duration to eighthnote and the value to 5:2.
To set a new tuplet value, click on one of the numbers in the tuplet box. A
pop-up slider appears, which can be set anywhere from 1 to 64. When you’ve
finished adjusting one number, adjust the other one. Remember that the tuplet
will not actually take effect unless the Tuplet command in the left side of the
tuplet box is highlighted. (To make tuplets from existing notes, use the Change
Duration or Scale Time commands — see Chapter 7.)
Articulation - Articulation, velocity, and input channel are also set using popup sliders which appear when you click in the appropriate boxes.
Articulation refers to the percentage of the note’s duration value that it actually
plays. An eighth-note duration with 50% articulation will actually result in a
16th-note. By varying the articulation setting, you can make changes in note
length to define phrases as legato and staccato passages. Shorter articulations
produce a more staccato effect. The range of the articulation variable is 1% to
100%.
Velocity - The velocity box gives you control over both the note-on and noteoff velocities. Note-on velocity is usually (but not always) related to volume.
Velocity values can range from 1 to 127 (a note-on velocity value of 0 is defined
in the MIDI specification as a form of note-OFF, so it is not available). Very
50
MasterTracksPro
few MIDI devices respond to note-off velocity, so
unless you have one of those, it’s best to leave that
parameter at 64.
3.12 Record Velocity
Switch (On)
You can choose to record or ignore the velocity from your keyboard when you
step enter notes. Click on the On Vel and Off Vel rectangle to toggle the
“Record Velocity” switch. A normal display will record keyboard velocity,
while an inverse display will enter all notes with the velocity value chosen in the
“On Vel” field .
Show/HideVelocity
The velocities of each note can be shown as a
line at the beginning of the note in the Step
Editor. Simply choose Show Velocity from
the Layout menu to activate. Velocities (when
shown) can be edited by clicking on the head
of the note with the arrow tool and dragging
the line up and down. When changing
velocity in this manner, the current value is
shown in the Vel On field.
3.13 Velocity Tails
Input Channel - The MIDI channel control box (the one next to the Current
Track box, marked “C1” or whatever the current MIDI channel is) determines
the MIDI channel identity of the note(s) you place. If the track has a specific
channel assigned to it in the Track Editor window, then this parameter will
show that channel. If it is an unassigned track (the Chnl column in the Track
Editor says “–”), it will say “C1”. You can change the setting, of this parameter
by clicking in it. A pop-up slider appears with a range of 1 to 16.
After you reset this parameter, any notes that you enter will have the new
parameter setting as their channel number. Of course, if the track has a channel
assignment, then these individual-note channel numbers will be irrelevant, but
if it has no assignment, the channel number of each note will determine what
MIDI channel it plays on. This setting will also affect which MIDI channel
notes will sound on when the previewing “hand” icon is being used (assuming
there is no channel assignment for the track).
Using the Step Editor Window
51
InsertingtheNoteswithaMouse
To insert notes using the mouse, first select the pencil icon in the Toolbar by
clicking on it, or press the “P” key on the Mac keyboard. When you move the
pointer to the data area, it becomes a crosshair that lets you position the new
note exactly where you want it on the screen. You can place notes anywhere,
but have the choice of free placement or a "Snap-to-Grid" option.
To activate “Snap-to-Grid”, click on the note icon in the middle of the bottom
row of icons to highlight it. Any notes placed with the grid on will be quantized to the selected note value. Select different note values by double-clicking
on the note icon. When placing notes with snap-to-grid off, watch the keyboard graphic at the left of the data area and the measure and beat markings
along the top as you align the crosshair. Also keep an eye on the pitch and time
indicators in the Toolbar so you can locate the position precisely.
When you have the correct position, single click on the mouse. A new note bar
will be inserted into the data area at that position, its length corresponding to
the duration, velocity and articulation you selected.
Step-TimeNoteEntryfromaMIDIInstrument
Step-time entry from a MIDI keyboard is a very useful feature of most good
sequencers. In Master Tracks Pro’s implementation of it, track number and
duration are determined by the computer, and note pitch and velocity are read
in from the MIDI keyboard.
You can select the durations, articulation, and input channel as described
above. Note the relationship between duration and articulation: duration
determines how far apart the notes will be (i.e., the rhythm), while articulation
determines how long they will be. So using the same example as above, a string
of notes with eighth-note duration and 50% articulation will be recorded as
16th-notes with a 16th-rest between each one.
When the "Vel" window is highlighted, you can step record the velocity of each
note as it is played from the keyboard. When not highlighted, you record a
constant value as set in the "Vel" window.
52
MasterTracksPro
Once you’ve set the parameters, turn on step-time entry by clicking on the little
“keyboard” icon next to the arrow in the Toolbar. (A track does not have to be
record-enabled in the Track Editor window for step-time entry to be active.)
Since you’re using your MIDI keyboard to enter pitch and velocity data, you
don’t need a crosshair — the mouse pointer becomes an I-beam cursor when
you move it into the data area.
Position the I-beam at the horizontal position where you want to enter the first
note. Use the time indicator in the Toolbar for precision. Once you’ve positioned the cursor properly, click on the mouse to activate the insertion point
for step-time note entry. (If you don’t position and click the cursor, the entry
point defaults to the left edge of the window.)
Now you can enter notes by pressing the corresponding keys on your MIDI
keyboard. Each time you play a key, a new note bar will appear at the pitch and
time you specified, and the I-beam cursor advances to the next insertion point.
As you continue to insert notes, the Step Editor window scrolls appropriately.
RestsandCorrections
Pressing Return on the Mac keyboard inserts a rest corresponding to the
currently selected note duration. If you make a mistake during the pitch entry
process, press the Delete (Backspace) key on the Mac keyboard to delete the last
entry and move the cursor back. You can delete as many notes as you want with
the Delete key, but only within the current pass — if you reposition the cursor
with the mouse, then the Delete key will have no effect on notes entered before
you moved the cursor.
By the way, the Delete key always moves the cursor back to the selected duration, whether or not any notes have been recorded in that space. For example,
if you want to start step-time entry a 32nd-note before a downbeat, select
32nd-note as the duration, place the cursor on a downbeat, then press Delete
once before starting to play the notes.
Step-TimingChords
You can step-time enter chords just as easily as notes. The program determines
whether two notes are to be treated as a chord if the second note begins before
Using the Step Editor Window
53
the first note ends, i.e., if you press down the second key before you release the
first one. This means that you don’t have to play all the notes in a chord
perfectly simultaneously: you can easily construct chords of any size by simply
playing them very legato, and not releasing any note until the next note is
played. It also means that you must be careful when entering single-note lines
not to play too legato, or the program may interpret what you are playing as
chords.
Changing durations
During the step-time entry process, you can switch to new note durations using
the note icons on the Toolbar, the Mac numeric keys, and/or the tuplet box.
You can also speed up the process by assigning duration values to specific MIDI
keys, using the Keyboard Setup command on the Goodies menu — see Chapter 10 for details.
Overdubbing and changing tracks
You can reset the I-beam cursor and start step-time recording anywhere on a
track, even if there are already notes in the track. Unlike normal recording,
step-time recording will not erase existing notes. As mentioned earlier, if you
record a step-time track on top of an existing track and make a mistake, the
Delete key will only affect the notes entered in the most recent pass (i.e., since
you last placed the cursor), not any previously-entered or recorded notes.
You can switch tracks in the middle of a step-time recording by changing the
value in the Current Track box (click on it or press “T” to bring up the slider).
If you switch tracks in the middle of a pass, than any Delete key operations will
only work on the current track, not on the previous track.
Editing individual notes
To move an individual note somewhere else in the track, or to make a copy of a
note at another location, start by clicking on the icon of the pencil in the
Toolbar, or press the “P” key on the Mac keyboard. The cursor now becomes a
crosshair. Place the crosshair directly over a note (anywhere in it), click, and
hold. A dotted border will appear around the note bar, and while you continue
54
MasterTracksPro
to hold the mouse button, drag this “ghost note” to a new pitch and/or time in
the sequence.
The time indicator window in the Toolbar has up to now been showing the
location of the cursor. When you click on a note and start to move it, however,
it changes to show the starting position of the note, to help you place it accurately. When the note is correctly positioned, release the mouse button. The
ghost will be returned to life as a solid note bar at the new location, and the old
note bar at the previous location will vanish. The time indicator will once again
follow the cursor.
Moving in Place: Shift-Clicking
There will be times you want to shift a note’s position in time but not change
its pitch, or vice-versa. To make these operations easier, Master Tracks Pro
provides a way, similar to that used in many Macintosh graphics programs, of
locking in a note’s pitch or start time during a move operation.
To lock in the pitch or start time, hold down the Shift key and then click and
hold on the note. Now, as you continue to hold down the mouse button,
whichever way you first move — horizontally or vertically — becomes the only
way you can move: the mouse locks in the note’s position on the other axis. As
above, the time indicator will follow the note’s starting position while you are
moving it. So if you first move the mouse horizontally, you’ve locked in the
pitch, and you can’t move the note vertically, only horizontally (in time). On
the other hand, if your first mouse movement is a vertical one, you will be able
to change the pitch of the note but the start time will be locked.
Copying a Note: Option-Clicking
If you hold down the Option key while clicking a note, then the “ghost note”
that appears is actually a copy of the original note, and when you move it to a
new location, the original note does not disappear, but stays where it is (it may
“blink out” for a moment. The new note has the same duration, velocity, and
channel attributes of the original, but obviously will be different in terms of
pitch and/or starting time.
Using the Step Editor Window
55
You can use the Option and Shift keys together, making it easy to build chords
from a single note. The time indicator will follow the new note’s starting time
as you place it.
Stretching or Shrinking a Note
If you click on a note with the crosshair cursor anywhere in the right half of
the note, you can change its duration. Holding the mouse button, move to the
right to lengthen the note, or move to the left to shorten it. The time indicator
will show the beginning of the note. You can stretch a note as far as the right
edge of the window. If you want to stretch it more, either Zoom out (≈–]) or
scroll the screen so that the end of the note falls in the middle of the screen
(yes, you can stretch a note that starts previous to the left edge of the window).
There is also a limit to how small you can make a note this way — about two
pixels at the current magnification (no, you can’t shrink a note so much it
disappears).
Erasinganote
To erase an individual note, first click on the eraser
icon in the Toolbar, or press the “E” key on the
Mac. Now when you move the pointer down into
the data area, it becomes a crosshair inside a circle.
To erase a note, simply position this eraser cursor
anywhere along the note and click. The note will
disappear from the window. If you have trouble
erasing a note, move the window (with the scroll
3.14 Erasing a Note
bar) so that the note appears as close as possible to
the left edge, and zoom in on it. You’ll find it easier
to erase notes at higher magnifications. You can also erase notes by selecting a
region and choosing Clear or pressing the Delete or Backspace key on the
Macintosh keyboard — more on this in Chapter 6.
Altering individual notes
Besides working with note data on a graphic level, Master Tracks Pro lets you
deal with MIDI events numerically, for the greatest possible accuracy. You can
also deal with an alphanumeric list of all MIDI events on a track in the Event
56
MasterTracksPro
List window, discussed in the next chapter, or you can deal with individual
events using the Edit Note window feature.
To get to the numerical characteristics of a single note, first select the arrow
pointer from the Toolbar, or press “A” on the Mac keyboard. Then move the
arrow directly over the note you want to edit, and double-click.
The Edit Note window will pop up in the vicinity of the note, although it
won’t obscure the note. To help you remember which note you’re working on,
the note becomes gray-highlighted.
3.15 The Edit Note Window
The Edit Note window shows the start time (in measures, beats, and clocks),
the note name and octave number, the On and Off velocities, the duration
(also in measures, beats, and clocks), and the MIDI channel. Note that the
duration is displayed in units relative to the time signature of the measure that
the note begins in — i.e., if the note starts in a 3/4 measure and is four beats
long, it will be displayed as “01:01:000” (one measure plus one beat), even if
the measure it ends in happens to be a 4/4 bar.
To change one of the values in the window, select it by clicking on it. It will
become highlighted. Use the arrow controls at the right of the window, or the
arrow keys on the Mac keyboard, to change the value incrementally (holding
the arrow or key down will make the value change rapidly), or else type in a
new value from the Mac keyboard. (For pitch names, type the letter, then the
“#” sign [Shift-3] if you need an accidental, then the octave number.) Master
Tracks Pro won’t let you enter any invalid settings for these parameters, and will
beep at you if you try.
Using the Step Editor Window
57
You can also move among the various fields in the Edit Note window by
pressing the Tab key.
Additionally, the Pitch value can be set by selecting the Pitch field, and then
pressing the appropriate key on your MIDI keyboard.
Once all the parameters in the Edit Note window are to your liking, click on
OK or press Return to finalize them and close the window. You can click on
Cancel instead to return to the Step Editor window without making any
changes.
Note Re-Mapping
You can isolate notes of a specific pitch in a track and transpose them to
another pitch, in one operation. This is known as “Note Re-Mapping”. It is
useful when you want to change the mode of a track (to go from C major to C
dorian for example, you might change all the Es to Ebs and the Bs to Bbs), or
even more commonly, when you have created a track using one drum machine,
and want to play it on another on which the drum/note assignments are
different.
To use this feature, first select the arrow cursor (or type “A”), and then move it
to the left side of the window where the picture of the piano keyboard appears.
Move the mouse so it is on the pitch that you want to change, and press the
button. You will hear that pitch sound over the current MIDI channel, and all
of the notes on that pitch will be selected.
Continue holding the button and drag up or down to the pitch that you want
the notes transposed to. As you pass over each “key” on the keyboard, you will
hear it sound over MIDI. When you arrive at the pitch you want, let go of the
mouse button.
You can use this feature to copy selected notes as well: hold down the Option
key as you select and drag the notes. The original notes will remain where they
were, and new notes will appear at the destination pitch. This can be very
useful for doubling individual drum sounds (putting a bass drum hit under
every crash cymbal, for example), or for building chords out of individual
notes.
58
MasterTracksPro
3.16 Re-Mapping a Note
Note that this re-mapping transposes every note at the selected pitch on the
entire track, from beginning to end, not just the ones showing in the window.
If you need to transpose notes in only part of a track, use the Transpose
function and the Change Filter (Chapter 7).
Using the Step Editor Window
59
60
MasterTracksPro
The MIDI Data and
EventListwindows
4
As we have seen, essentially only MIDI note data is edited in Master Tracks
Pro’s Step Editor window. But Master Tracks Pro can edit all other types of
MIDI data as well, and different graphic windows are provided for them. In
addition, an “Event List” window shows all of the MIDI data on a track
together, so that it can be compared and edited.
Non-note MIDI data can be recorded from a keyboard, just like notes, as part
of a track. (In the Step-Time Entry mode, however, only note data is recorded.)
It can also be entered into a track by hand, as in the Step Edit window, or by
the Paste and Mix Data commands.
The Data Windows
Like the Track Editor and Step Editor windows, the MIDI Data windows are
opened from the Windows menu, or by Macintosh Command-key combinations. The windows and their key combinations are as follows:
Pitch Bend ............................................................ ≈ -4
Channel pressure (aftertouch) ............................... ≈ -5
Key pressure (polyphonic aftertouch) ................... ≈ -6
Modulation (controller #1) ................................... ≈ -7
Continuous controllers ......................................... ≈ -8
Velocity ................................................................ ≈ -9
Tempo Map ......................................................... ≈ -0
The Event List ...................................................... ≈ -2
The Big Counter .................................................. ≈ -B
Using the MIDI Data and Event List Windows
61
If a window is open but hidden behind other windows on the screen, you can
bring it to the foreground by choosing it on the Windows menu or with its
Mac key combination. If a window is open, its name will appear on the Windows menu with a check mark. If it is the active window, its name appears in
outline. Only one of the seven MIDI Data windows can be open at a time. If
one is open and you open another, the new one will take the place of the old,
assuming its position and size.
Common Features
The first six MIDI Data windows look and work essentially alike, and have
many characteristics in common with the Step Editor window as well. We will
look at the common operations of all the windows first, and then examine the
specific characteristics of each window. (The Tempo Map window will be
discussed in Chapter 11.)
Most of each window is devoted to a data area, where individual MIDI events
on a track appear as vertical lines or as points. The height of each line or point
corresponds to the numeric value of the event, while the horizontal location of
the line or point specifies when in the track the event occurs.
DisplayModes
Sometimes you will prefer to view MIDI events in a window as vertical lines —
called “skyline” mode. Other times, you will prefer to see them as points —
actually tiny crosses. You toggle between these modes by pressing any character
key on the Mac keyboard (but not Tab, Shift, Return, space bar, etc.) when a
MIDI data window is active. The mode setting will be the same for any MIDI
window that is opened subsequently, until you change it by again pressing a
Macintosh key.
4.1 Data Display Modes, Skyline (L) and Points (R)
62
MasterTracksPro
"Ghost"Notes
A transparent view of the Step editor can be placed on any of the graphic edit
windows, creating a “layered” view of notes and any controller window. Called
“Ghost Notes” in a view window, this shows a grayed out copy of notes behind
view data.
4.2 Ghost Notes in the Velocity Window
To turn on this display, click the box in the upper left corner of view window.
The vertical position of the notes is the same as in the Step Editor window if it
is open; if not, an arbitrary range is selected.
IconsandInformation
At the top of each window, just below the window title bar, you’ll see a single
row of icons and data called the Toolbar. The three icons in the left portion of
the Toolbar are the same as their counterparts in the Step Editor window: an
arrow for selecting data, a pencil for entering it, and an eraser for erasing it.
4.3 A Data Window Toolbar
Using the MIDI Data and Event List Windows
63
To the right of the icons, there’s a time indicator that displays the pointer’s
position in the track, in measures, beats, and clocks. Next is a “value” indicator,
which gives the data value corresponding to the pointer’s current vertical
position in the data area. Finally come boxes showing the number of the track
currently on display, which MIDI channel will be assigned for new event
insertions (again, this is only relevant if the track has no channel assignment in
the Track Editor window), and the name of the current track. Click in any of
these boxes to change its value — the track number and MIDI channel boxes
are adjusted with pop-up sliders, while opening the track name box will give
you a text dialog box. A name given to a track in this window will appear in all
other windows as well.
Markers,Measures,ScrollBars,andZoom
Just below the Toolbar is the marker ruler. As in the Step Editor window, you
can add, delete, or move markers at any point in the track, and move to them
using Tab and Shift-Tab. You can hide the marker ruler with the Hide Marker
command on the Layout menu if you like, which will slightly expand the data
window. Markers remain active even if the ruler is hidden.
Below the marker ruler is the measure ruler, which
marks the position of measures (numbers) and beats
(vertical lines) in the track.
4.4 A Marker in one of the
Data Windows
Use the scroll bar controls to move the MIDI Data
window displays just as you would with the Track
Editor or Step Editor. The measure ruler can help you
keep track of where you are in the sequence as you
scroll.
Playback position can be set by clicking at the desired location in any MIDI
Data window (as long as the Auto function is turned off), the same way as in
the Track and Step Editor windows.
You can use the Zoom In and Zoom Out commands on the Layout menu to
get a close-up view of a small amount of data for precise work, or to see more of
the MIDI data on screen at a time. To move in one zoom level, choose the
Zoom In command on the Layout menu, or type ≈–[ on the Mac keyboard.
64
MasterTracksPro
To zoom out one level, choose Zoom Out, or type ≈–]. As in the Step Editor
window, the Zoom level ranges between 1 and 24 clocks per pixel.
Selecting MIDI data for Editing
As in the Step Editor window, you use the various mouse pointers to make
different kinds of changes on events in the various MIDI Data windows.
To use the commands in the Edit or Change menus on MIDI Data window
data, you must first select a region within the track. As in the Step Editor, this
is done with the arrow pointer, but your choices here are much simpler. First
select the arrow pointer by clicking on its icon in the Toolbar. Then move the
pointer within the data area to the left edge of the region you want to select,
using the time indicator in the Toolbar to help you locate the desired point in
the sequence precisely. Click the mouse and drag to the right. As you move the
mouse, the region will be highlighted in inverse video.
When you reach the right edge of the region, release the mouse button. You
can now perform Edit and Change menu operations on the selected region.
Shift-clicking and “hot scrolling” are supported in the MIDI data windows, and
you can select a region by moving either left-to-right or right-to-left. Note that
there are no “vertical boundaries” to the selected area. Also, a selected region
must be contiguous. You can select a whole measure by clicking in the measure
ruler; drag the pointer left or right to select more whole measures.
4.5 Selecting Data for Editing
Using the MIDI Data and Event List Windows
65
Note: When you make an edit in one of the MIDI Data windows, only the type
of data shown in that window is affected. For example, if you Cut two measures’ worth of pitch bend from a track, only the pitch bend data is cut — any
notes or other controllers remain intact.
You cannot move data from one type of window to another: you cannot Copy
a measure of pitch bend and Paste it into a channel-pressure window. (Which is
not to say you cannot change a neat pitch bend move into a similar move on
another kind of controller. To do that sort of thing, a “mapping” function is
provided in the Continuous command on the Change menu — see Chapter 7.)
You can, however, move MIDI data from one track to another.
Entering MIDI data
To insert individual MIDI events or modify existing ones, first select the pencil
icon in the Toolbar. The pointer will then become a crosshair. (Use the Channel box in the Toolbar at the top of the window to select the MIDI channel for
the new event if the track you are working on has no channel assignment in the
Track Editor window.)
Now move the crosshair to the position in the data area where you want the
data event to go. Use the time indicator in the Toolbar to locate the exact time
in the track where you want to insert the event along the horizontal axis of the
graph. Use the value indicator to position the pointer vertically for the correct
value. Click the mouse. If you are in skyline mode, a vertical line will appear,
extending from the bottom of the window (or 0 level) to the height representing the data value. If you are in cross mode, a single cross will appear at the
point where you clicked.
You can insert multiple consecutive events simply by holding down the mouse
button and dragging the pointer to draw a curve on the data area. This makes it
easy to add smooth pitch bend or modulation wheel changes. You can draw a
data curve in either the forwards or backwards direction. If you double back
and draw over your curve, the last value entered will take precedence.
In skyline mode, when you insert consecutive events, the graph will appear to
be filled in with solid black under the curve you draw. Nevertheless, each event
along the curve can still be edited individually.
66
MasterTracksPro
Data inserted with the pencil in a MIDI Data window can be “Undone”.
Choosing “Undo” from the Edit menu will cancel the last data insertion,
whether it was an individual event or a sweep.
ChangingandErasingData
To change an event that is already part of a track, just insert a new event at the
same time. When you do, the old event will be erased.
To erase events completely, click on the eraser icon in the Toolbar. The pointer
will become a crosshair within a circle. Move the pointer directly over the event
you wish to erase and click. The event line or cross will disappear. You can also
drag the eraser over a series of events with the mouse button down and “wipe”
them all out.
The eraser does not have to be over the actual event to erase it — putting the eraser
pointer at any point on the screen and clicking the mouse will erase any event
that occurs at the time indicated by the pointer’s horizontal position. Therefore, to
“wipe” out a block of data, you do not have to trace over every individual event
with the eraser — merely set it at a point corresponding to the beginning of the
area you want to erase, hold the mouse button, and sweep it to the end of the
area you want to erase. All events during the time period you’ve swept over will
be erased. (You can also delete selected data with the Clear command or the
Delete key — see Chapter 6.)
DatadensityandtheZoomFactor
The Zoom level you use in a MIDI Data window not only determines the
screen resolution, it also determines the density of the data as it is being entered.
If you enter data on a screen with 24 clock per pixel resolution, then you can
enter only ten events per quarter note. If you enter data in the one clock per
pixel view, 240 events can be entered during each quarter note.
High-resolution MIDI events (particularly controllers) tend to sound more
natural, but they can use up much of the MIDI stream’s available bandwidth,
causing delays or “choking” if the data gets too thick. Determining the correct
resolution for a particular musical purpose sometimes requires a little experi-
Using the MIDI Data and Event List Windows
67
mentation, but finding a good compromise is usually not difficult. The Thin
Data item in the Change menu facilitates this (see Chapter 7).
4.6 The Same Pitch Bend Data Viewed at Two Different Zoom Levels
Note that changing the resolution of the screen will not affect data that has
already been placed in the track. Data placed in a zoomed in, high-resolution
view (for example, 2 clocks per pixel) can be edited in a lower-resolution track
(for example, 12 clocks per pixel). If such editing is done with an Edit or
Change menu function, the resolution of the data will not change. However, if
it is done with the pencil or eraser, the new data will only have the resolution of
the current window.
The Pitch Bend Window
Pitch bend data can take either positive or
negative values. A pitch bend value of 0 indicates no bend. Therefore, the Pitch Bend
window has a horizontal dotted line running
through the middle of the data area marking
the zero point. The area above the line, which
represents positive pitch bend values, is marked
with a “+” in the left border. The area for
negative values below the line is marked with a
“–”. Values range from +127 to –128.
4.7 The Pitch Bend Window
Shortcut Key: ≈-4
68
MasterTracksPro
The Channel Pressure Window
Channel Pressure, also known as aftertouch, affects all notes on a given MIDI
channel. It has a range of 0 to 127.
Shortcut Key: ≈-5
4.8 The Channel Pressure Window
The Key Pressure Window
Key Pressure, also known as polyphonic aftertouch, affects individual MIDI
notes. This window has an extra parameter on the second row of the Toolbar,
“MIDI Pitch”, which lets you specify which note to assign the key pressure
event to. You can change the note simply by playing it on your MIDI keyboard
(you don’t have to click anywhere), or you can click on the box to bring up a
pop-up slider. You can adjust
this by moving the slider
itself, or by typing in the note
name and number above the
slider (accidentals can only be
entered as sharps). If you
change the MIDI Pitch, the
data entered with any previous pitch setting will turn
gray, while data entered with
4.9 The Key Pressure Window
the current pitch setting will
be in black.
Using the MIDI Data and Event List Windows
69
Key Pressure has a range of 0 to 127.
Shortcut Key: ≈-6
The Modulation Window
Modulation refers to the “Mod” wheel (or lever)
found next to the Pitch Bend wheel on many synthesizers. Modulation is actually MIDI Controller #1 and
you can also edit or create Modulation data in the
Controllers window. Modulation has a range of 0 to
127.
Shortcut Key: ≈-7
4.10 The Modulation Window
The Controllers Window
The Controllers window has an extra parameter, “Ctrl Number”, in the
Toolbar that lets you specify the number of the MIDI controller you want to
edit. Controller #1 is usually modulation wheel, #7 is usually volume, #64 is
sustain pedal, and so on. You can work on the data for each controller individually — when you change the Ctrl Number setting (it uses a pop-up slider), only
the data pertaining to that controller is displayed. Any editing you do, whether
with the pencil and eraser or with the Edit and Change menus, will affect only
the controller that is currently displayed.
Consult the owner’s
manuals of your MIDI
devices to see which
controllers they support. A
list of standard MIDI
controller numbers appears
at the end of this manual.
4.11 The Controllers Window
70
MasterTracksPro
Shortcut Key: ≈-8
The Velocity Window
This window allows you to see and edit velocity as vertical lines for each note.
The Pencil can be used to draw velocity “curves” on a track.
Shortcut Key: ≈-9
4.12 The Velocity Window
The Tempo Map Window
The Tempo Map window shows beat value, time signature and tempo. The
tempo is represented by a horizontal line moving through the measures.
Tempo changes can be inserted on any clock with the pencil pointer and erased
with the eraser. Tempo is always indicated on every bar line — these cannot be
erased with the eraser but they can be changed with the pencil.
Cut, Copy and Paste do
not work in the Tempo
Map window. If you wish
to copy and paste the
tempo map, you must do
so in the Track Editor
window. Select the
measures you wish to
copy using the measure
ruler at the top of the
Track Editor window by
4.13 The Tempo Map Window
Using the MIDI Data and Event List Windows
71
dragging or Shift-clicking, and then paste them elsewhere (do not use Mix
Data). After pasting, you can then strip out the data (notes, etc.) if you like,
leaving only the tempo map. More on this topic can be found in Chapter 11.
Shortcut Key: ≈-0
The Event List Editor
The Event List Editor window shows an alphanumeric display of all of the data,
MIDI event by MIDI event, on a single track. You can change the display so
that it shows only certain types of data, and you can move forwards and
backwards along the track in two different ways. You can edit any information
that appears on the list, delete events, and add new events.
Shortcut Key: ≈-2
Clicking on the word “Measure” toggles the displayed time between SMPTE and measure/beat/
clock. The Event List Editor can be a powerful “cue
sheet” when using SMPTE as the display mode.
“Hits” can be entered by simply typing in the
SMPTE location and playing/typing the data.
4.14 The Event List Editor
Ignoring the window’s Toolbar for a moment, let’s
look at the data list itself. Each MIDI event appears
on its own horizontal line. The first column shows
an icon denoting the type of event. The icons are, in
the order they appear in the Toolbar: note, program
change, pitch bend, controller, channel pressure,
and key pressure. (Note that there is no icon for
modulation — it’s displayed as controller #1.)
The second column shows the time at which the event occurs. The third
column shows the channel number of the event (only relevant if the track is to
be played back without a MIDI channel assigned in the Track Editor).
The columns that follow show the data associated with each event. Program
72
MasterTracksPro
change, channel pressure, or pitch bend events will have a single data entry.
Controller events will have two data entries: the first is the controller’s number,
and the second the controller’s value. Key pressure events will also have two
entries: the note number, and the pressure value.
Note events have four entries. Each note is actually two MIDI events, a note-on
and a note-off. The entries are: the note name; note-on velocity, prefixed with
an exclamation point (!); note-off velocity, prefixed with an upside-down
exclamation point (¡); and duration, in measures, beats, and clocks.
Changing events
The way to change any data entry value on the list is to click on it once. The
field will highlight, and you can type in the new value. If the value you want to
change is a MIDI note or Program Change, you can also enter it by playing the
MIDI note or sending the program change from your MIDI keyboard.
4.15 Editing the Event List
Press Return to enter the new value, or press Tab to move on to the next field
in the same line. If you change the time of an event, the list will automatically
re-order itself so that the event is in the proper place. Note that you cannot
change the type of entry this way — to change a type of event, you must delete
the current event and insert a new one.
Scrolling the List
You can move up and down the Edit List using the scroll bar at the right side of
the window, You can also move to a specific spot in the sequence by clicking on
the “Goto...” box in the Toolbar, and then typing in the measure, beat, and
clock of the desired location.
Using the MIDI Data and Event List Windows
73
Selecting a region
Just like in the other editing windows, you can select a region in the Event List
Editor for an Edit or Change operation. To set an event as one boundary of a
region, click in the icon for that event (not in any of its data fields). You can
hold the mouse and drag up or down until you come to the other boundary,
and then let go. (Like the other windows, this window will “hot-scroll” when
you get to the top or bottom and there is more data beyond.) The region will
be selected.
You can also click once at one boundary event, and then move or scroll and
move to the other boundary event, and Shift-click.
Once you select a region, you can perform any operation on it from the Edit or
Change menus. When you do a Paste or a Mix Data, you will get a dialog box
asking you where (measure, beat, clock) to start the Paste or Mix operation.
The box will appear with default values corresponding to the beginning of the
last region you selected.
Inserting events
Inserting an event on the list is very simple. In the Toolbar, click the type of
event you wish to insert. The measure field of the new event will be highlighted; type any new data you wish into it and any other fields you might want
to change.
Removing Events
You can remove events from the Event List. Simply click on the event icon in
the "Event" column, and press the Delete Key or choose Clear from the Edit
menu.
There is one restriction on this operation - If two events on a track occur at
precisely the same time, you will not be able to select them separately. In order
to separate them you must change the time for one of them. The simplest way
to do this is to click on the "clocks" column and change the value by one.
74
MasterTracksPro
Filtering events
The “Filter” function on the Toolbar lets you eliminate certain types of data
from the list so that you can see others more clearly, and also lets you select
what kind of data to perform editing operations on. It does not erase the data, it
temporarily removes it from view. If you have controller data on a track, for
example, and only want to look at or work on notes, you can hide the controller data. If you just want to see program changes to make sure they’re correct,
you can hide the notes. If there is something strange going on in a track, and
you don't know what it is, just look at one data type at a time until you find it.
Clicking and holding the mouse on “Filter” opens a small box which lets you
check off which items you want to see. A check mark next to an item means all
data of that type will appear on the Event List. No check mark means that type
of data will be hidden. If a data type is hidden, it will not be affected by a Cut
or Copy operation in this window.
Changing and naming tracks
As in the Step Editor and all the MIDI Data windows, you can only view one
track at a time in the Event List Editor. You can change which track you’re
looking at by clicking in the box on the Toolbar which contains the letter “T”
and a number, and then using the pop-up slider that appears. You can also
name or rename the track you are looking at by clicking in the box to the right
of the track number, and typing the new name into the dialog box that appears.
This new name will now appear in the Track Editor and all other windows.
The Big Counter Window
This window shows an enlarged display of the measure/beat/clock indicator.
This enables you to see the current time when you’re not close to your computer.
Shortcut Key: ≈-B
Using the MIDI Data and Event List Windows
75
4.16 The Big Counter Window
76
MasterTracksPro
Using the File Menu
5
The File menu has a variety of commands that let you
manage your sequence files. Many of these commands
work just as they do in most other Macintosh applications, so if you’ve had any previous experience with
the Mac you’ll already be familiar with how to use
them.
The File menu also includes the “Save Preferences”
command, which allows you to set up the program the
way you like, and store that setup on your Master
Tracks Pro working disk or hard disk.
Master Tracks Pro reads and writes two different types
of sequence files: files created by Master Tracks Pro
itself, and MIDI files. Master Tracks Pro files can also
be opened by Encore, Passport’s professional notation
5.1 The File Menu
software. MIDI Files are an industry standard format
for storing MIDI sequences. If you own any programs that support this format,
you will be able to share sequence files with these programs. We will discuss
dealing with MIDI Files later in this chapter.
UsingtheFileMenu
77
About Master Tracks Pro Files
A Master Tracks Pro file is a single sequence, either in its temporary form in
your Macintosh’s memory, or stored more permanently on a disk. A file is open
when you’re working with it in your Mac’s active memory, whether you loaded
it from disk or started it as a new sequence from scratch. When you close a file,
it is removed from memory, and you can only work on it again by reloading it
(opening it) from the disk.
You can have up to 16 files open at a time, although only one file will be
“active” at a time. (You cannot open the same file twice, but if you need to have
two versions of a file open at the same time, you can make a duplicate of the
file in the Finder before you open it, or save the original version under a
different name using Save As, and then open that.) The name of the active file
appears at the top of the Transport window. The names of all open files appear
on the Songs menu, and you can choose which file you want to be active from
that menu. You can also play multiple open files one after the other using the
Playlist feature on the Songs menu. See Chapter 9 for more details.
Be sure to save your sequence files frequently while you work with them, so that
you don’t lose your work because of a power failure, glitch in the fabric of the
universe, or other problems with your system. You can store files on any disk or
drive in your system, as long as there is enough space, using options in the Save
and Save As commands.
Note: While you can load any file from a previous version into Master Tracks
Pro, you may not be able to open a file created by the current version in a
previous version.
Starting a new file
To create a brand new sequence, choose the New command from the File
menu or press ≈-N on the Mac keyboard. When the new file is opened, any
windows you had open remain on the screen in the same position, but all the
existing data disappears. Master Tracks Pro calls the new file “Untitled” followed by a number, until you rename it with a name of your own choice using
78
MasterTracksPro
the Save As command. (The program will let you save a file with the name
“Untitled [number]”, but it is not good practice to do that.) Every time you
open a new file it is given a unique number so that no two open files have the
same name. If you already have 16 open files, the New command will be
disabled.
OpeninganExistingFile
Choose the Open command or press ≈-O on the Mac keyboard when you
want to load an existing file into Master Tracks Pro for playback or further
editing.
As with all Macintosh programs, a dialog box will pop up showing the name of
the disk in the currently selected drive at the upper right, and the names of all
the Master Tracks Pro files stored on that disk in a scrollable box at the left. If
the list of files is too long to fit into this box, you can use the scroll bar at the
right side to scroll through the list to the file you want. You may also type the
first letter of the file name to bring you to files starting with that letter, or the
first few letters to bring you to your file.
If the file you want is on a disk in another drive, click on Drive to select
another drive. If you want a file on a disk that’s not currently in any drive, click
on Eject, wait for the drive to eject the disk, and insert the disk you want.
Once you’ve located the file you want to open, click over any portion of the
name. The name will now be highlighted, indicating that it is selected. If you
make a mistake, you can select a new file name just by clicking on it. When
you’ve selected the correct file, click on Open or double-click on its name. The
dialog box will disappear, and Master Tracks Pro will load the file, and make it
the active file.
You can also open a file directly from the Finder by double-clicking on it. If
Master Tracks Pro is on the same disk or on another disk that has been inserted
into a drive, the program will automatically load, and the file will be open and
active. You can load multiple files from the Finder by clicking on one, then
Shift-clicking on all the others, and then double-clicking on one of them (or
UsingtheFileMenu
79
typing ≈-O). The files will be opened in the order you selected them, with the
last one being the active one. (This technique also works in MultiFinder with
the program already running.)
After the file is opened, the same set of windows you were using before you
opened the file will still be on the screen, but the data in the windows will now
be from the newly opened file.
Closing files
Use the Close command to end work on a particular file without leaving the
program or closing any other files. When you choose the Close command,
you’ll be given an opportunity to save the current file if you’ve made any
changes since it was last saved.
If there are other files open, the file that was most recently active before the file
you are closing will again become active. All the windows you’ve been using
will remain on the screen, but they will show data for the newly-active file. If
no other file was open, the windows will be empty and the title bar on the
Transport window will say “Untitled [number]”.
If you want to close all of the open files at once, press and hold down the
Option key, then open the File menu. The Close command now says “Close
all”. Choose it and all of the files will close, and if any of them have been
changed since the last time they were opened, you will get the opportunity to
save the new versions.
Note that clicking in the close box of the Track Editor window does not close a
file — it merely closes that window. Don’t be confused.
Saving files
The Save command stores the sequence that is currently active onto the disk. As
soon as you choose the Save command or press ≈-S on the Mac keyboard,
Master Tracks Pro will save the current version of the sequence to the same disk
80
MasterTracksPro
file that it came from, without any further action on your part, overwriting the
existing file of the same name.
If the file has not been saved before when you execute the Save command, it
will actually behave like a Save As Command.
Using the Save As Command
The Save As command lets you save a new file for the first time, or save a file
that has previously been saved, with a new name or in a different folder or disk.
This command is especially useful when you want to store different versions of
a file as you work on it, so that you have the option of coming back to earlier
versions later on.
When you choose the Save As command, a dialog box appears, which allows
you to choose a name for the file before you save it. If you’re saving a previously
saved file, the current name of the file appears in the file name field. If the
sequence has never been saved before, the file name field will be blank.
You enter a new name by typing it in. If a name already exists, and you leave
the file name field highlighted, the old name will disappear as soon as you start
to type in the new name. You can change the folder on a disk where you want
to put the file in the usual way, by clicking on the name of the folder or disk at
the top of the dialog box, dragging down to a higher-level folder or the disk
level, and then opening the desired folder from the list that appears. You can
change the disk and the drive where you want to put the file by clicking on the
Drive and/or Eject buttons.
If you decide you don’t want to save the file after all, you can click on Cancel at
any time. To go ahead and save the file with its new name, click on Save or
press Return. After a few moments, you’ll be returned to the main Master
Tracks Pro screen.
Using the Revert to Saved Command
Choosing the Revert to Saved command restores the currently active file to the
way it was when you last saved it. (If the file has never been saved, this com-
UsingtheFileMenu
81
mand is disabled.) Use this command when you’ve made changes in a sequence
that you know you don’t want to keep.
When you choose the Revert to Saved command, Master Tracks Pro pops up a
dialog box asking you if you’re sure that you want to discard the changes you’ve
made since the last time you saved the file. If you want to go ahead with the
command, click on Yes, and the last saved version of the file will be loaded
from disk, replacing the data that was in memory. To cancel the command,
click on Cancel.
Using MIDI Files
MIDI Files are an industry standard format that has been adopted by many
software manufacturers. They allow you to exchange sequencer files between
various programs, including Master Tracks Pro. You can create files on Master
Tracks Pro and play them with other programs, such as other sequencers or
notation programs, and vice-versa.
MIDI Files are typically about 35% smaller than Master Tracks Pro files with
the same amount of musical information, and thus take less room on your disk
and less time to transmit by modem.
You can save the active sequence as a MIDI File by choosing Export MIDI File
from the File menu. This will bring up a dialog box asking you to name your
file. You cannot save a MIDI File with the same name as a Master Tracks Pro
sequence file, so the dialog box defaults with the name of the current sequence
and the prefix “M-” attached — for example, “M-Big Intro”.
You can open a MIDI File by choosing “Import MIDI File” from the File
menu. A dialog box will appear showing all of the available MIDI Files, and
you can double-click on one to open it. The MIDI File will open exactly as if it
was a sequence file (with any options as shown below). The MIDI File’s name
will appear in the Songs menu. If you have 16 files (Master Tracks Pro or MIDI
Files) already open, you won’t be able to open a new MIDI File. Also, you can’t
open the same MIDI File twice. You can work with the MIDI File just as if it
was another sequence.
82
MasterTracksPro
When a MIDI File is the active sequence, the Save command on the File menu
is disabled. If you want to save it as a Master Tracks Pro file, you must use “Save
As...”. (You cannot save it as a Master Tracks Pro file under the same name it
has as a MIDI File.) If you want to save it as a MIDI File, choose “Export
MIDI File.” You can Export a MIDI File with the same name that you Imported it with — the exported version will erase the earlier version. The Exported version can be a different Type than the Imported version.
If you would like to do some experimenting with MIDI Files, a MIDI File
version of the Bach Invention we played with in Chapter 3 is on the Master
Tracks Pro program disk, in the “Songs” folder.
MIDI File Options
Selecting MIDI File Options opens a dialog box giving you the choice of saving
(Exporting) the sequence as a Type 0 or Type 1 MIDI File as well as Importing
options.
A Type 1 MIDI File saves the sequence in multiple tracks. Each track has
multi-channel capability, just like Master Tracks Pro. In a Type 1 MIDI File,
tracks do not have channel assignments per se, but just as with the Type 0
MIDI File, notes are given channel assignments based on their track’s channel
assignments or (with unassigned tracks) their original channel assignments. In
Type 1 MIDI Files, track labels are preserved. This format is easier to use with
multitrack files, since you don’t have to
separate the tracks out after a transfer, the
way you do with Type 0 files (use the Strip
Data command in the Change menu for
this — see Chapter 7), but fewer programs
recognize it.
A Type 0 MIDI File puts all of the sequence
data on a single track. Channel assignments
are preserved on a note-by-note basis. If a
sequence track has a channel assignment in
the Track Editor window, then all notes on
that track are saved assigned to that channel.
If the track is unassigned to a MIDI channel
5.2 The MIDI File Options Dialog
UsingtheFileMenu
83
(“–”), the notes are saved with their original channel identities. Type 0 MIDI
Files are the most commonly used at the present time, and you will find it
easier to exchange data with the largest number of other programs if you use
this type.
You can also choose to export the Master Tracks Pro Conductor (Tempo) track
as a tempo and meter track template.
The first Import option lets you choose to import the standard MIDI file
format of "Lyrics" as Master Tracks Pro markers.
The second import option is useful for situations where you want to paste
several files together and wish to use or ignore the first (initial) program and/or
volume change.
Customizing the Program — the Preferences Command
Once you’ve been working with Master Tracks Pro a while, you will find that
there are arrangements of windows and settings of various program parameters
that you find particularly useful. These settings can be saved as a “Preferences”
file.
When you choose Save Preferences, your settings are saved in a file in your
System folder. Under System 7, the preferences file is stored in the Prefs folder
inside your System folder.
Now, the next time you start Master Tracks Pro, the program will read the
Preferences file as it loads, and will come up on the screen with the windows
you want open at the positions and sizes you chose. In addition, the settings of
the functions in the menus and windows just described will be as specified in
the Preferences file.
PreferencesSaved
When you choose Preferences from the File menu, the program takes a “snapshot” of the current positions and sizes of any open windows on the screen and
also records the following data elements:
84
MasterTracksPro
•
In the Edit menu — the Change Filter settings and the MIDI File Options
•
In the Change menu — the Transpose Map settings
•
In the Layout menu — Show/Hide Grid, Show/Hide Markers, Follow
Playback, Multi-Track Record, and Zoom resolution
•
In the Goodies menu — Keyboard Setup, MIDI Setup, Click Setup, Chase
Controllers, and Record Filter parameters
•
In the Device List — the default device
•
In the Master Fader window — the current mode (Live/Absolute/Record)
•
In the Transport window — Auto, Thru, Metronome, Count In, and Sync
setting.
•
In the Track Editor window — the measure ruler numbering scheme (every
third bar is numbered, or every fourth bar, etc.)
•
In the Step Editor window — The All Data/Notes only setting
•
In the Event window — The measure/SMPTE setting
•
In any View window — The Ghost Notes on/off setting
QuittingtheProgram
Choose the Quit command or press ≈-Q on the Mac keyboard when you want
to end a Master Tracks Pro session. If any of the open files have been altered
since the last time you saved them, the program will give you a chance to save
the new versions.
If you wish not to avail yourself of this opportunity — in other words, if you
just want to shut everything down without saving — then when the first “Do
You Wish to Save Changes…” dialog box appears, hold down the Option key
as you click on “No”.
UsingtheFileMenu
85
86
MasterTracksPro
6
Using the Edit Menu
Master Tracks Pro’s Edit menu contains commands
that are used within the Track Editor, Step Editor, or
MIDI Data windows to edit MIDI data in selected
measures or regions.
Selecting a region
To use any of these commands on a specific region, the
region must first be selected using the mouse as
described in the previous chapters on the Track Editor,
Step Editor, MIDI data, and Event List Editor windows. When you select a region, it becomes highlighted.
6.1 The Edit Menu
Select All
If you want to use an Edit command on an entire sequence or track, you can
skip the above step by using the Edit menu’s special command, Select All (or its
command-key equivalent, ≈-A). If you choose this command when the Track
Editor window is active, it selects the entire sequence. If you use it when the
Step Editor, Event List Editor, or any MIDI Data windows are active, it selects
the entire track (as displayed in the Current Track box in the window’s
Toolbar). In the Step Editor, if the “mode” is showing “all”, then all of the data
Using the Edit Menu
87
in the track is selected. If it is showing the two notes, only note data is selected.
In the Event List Editor, only visible (non-“filtered”) events are selected. When
you use the Select All command, the window’s entire data area (the sequence or
track) becomes highlighted.
EditMenuBasics
The Edit menu capabilities start with basic Cut, Copy, Paste, and Undo editing
commands, much like those you’ll find in many other Macintosh programs.
With Cut, Copy, and Paste, and a couple of supplemental commands, you can
transfer data from any location in a sequence to any other location, or even to
another sequence entirely.
Some of the Edit commands work slightly differently depending on which
window you’re working with. Those differences are described with each of the
commands.
AbouttheClipboard
The Clipboard is the temporary storage location for MIDI data that Master
Tracks Pro uses when you move or copy data within a sequence, or from one
sequence to another. For faster performance, the Master Tracks Pro Clipboard is
stored in RAM, the computer’s internal memory, and not on disk like some
Macintosh Clipboard files. The effect of this is to speed up editing considerably. But there is a trade–off. The problem with this approach is that the data
in the Clipboard will be lost if you quit the program, or if you lose power or the
computer fails for some other reason. If you want to save its contents, you must
paste it into a sequence and save the sequence using the File menu commands.
Undo
At the top of the Edit menu is the Undo command, which can also be executed
by pressing ≈-Z on the Mac keyboard. This command allows you to cancel the
last operation you made on your sequence with any of the commands on the
88
MasterTracksPro
Edit or Change menus, or to cancel the last Record or Punch pass. The Undo
command on the menu will change to reflect what it is you can Undo — if the
last alteration you made was a Paste, the menu command will read “Undo
Paste”, and so on.
Undo also works when you are drawing data into any of the MIDI data windows (although not the Step Editor window). When you draw anything into a
data window, the menu item changes to “Undo Insert Data”. If you choose it,
the last insertion you made by clicking and releasing the mouse (which could be
a single event or a sweep) will be cancelled.
If you change your mind about an Undo and want to “Un-Undo” it, the
program lets you “Redo” an alteration. If you want to compare the way something sounds before and after an operation, you can toggle back and forth
between Undo and Redo to your heart’s content.
As in most Mac programs, Undo only applies to the last change you made in
the sequence. As soon as you use another Edit or Change command, or start
recording a new track, or draw in new data, the previous change becomes
permanent and can no longer be removed with Undo.
Cut
Use the Cut command to remove MIDI data from the region you’ve selected,
and place it in the Master Tracks Pro Clipboard. You can execute the Cut
command by choosing it from the Edit menu, or by pressing ≈–X on the Mac
keyboard.
Cutting in Step Editor
In the Step Editor window, if the mode icon is showing
two notes, only notes are removed — any controllers,
program changes, or other data is left intact. If the icon
says “All”, then all data for that region is Cut. In the
MIDI Data windows, the Cut command removes only
the data showing in that window on the track indicated
in the Current Track box.
6.2 Edit Mode Icons in the
Step Editor
Using the Edit Menu
89
Cutting in the MIDI Data Windows
In the Controllers window, Cut will work only on data belonging to the
controller number showing in the menu bar. In the Key Pressure window, Cut
will work only on data belonging to the MIDI Pitch showing in the menu bar.
In the Event List Editor, Cut will work only on visible data.
Cutting in Track Editor
In the Track Editor window, the Cut command removes all types of data in the
selected measures and tracks. Sometimes the measures that are cut are removed
from a track, and sometimes they are left intact, but empty (shown as hollow
rectangles). What happens to the measures depends on how they’ve been
selected:
•
If you’ve selected an entire track (or more than one track) in the Track
Editor window by clicking on the track number at the left edge of the right
half of the window, the Cut command removes the track entirely.
•
If you only select a few measures within a track (or
tracks), the Cut command removes the data from
those measures, but leaves the measures themselves
intact. However, if you select all of the measures in a
track from a point in the middle to the end of the
track, the Cut command removes those measures
completely, shortening the track.
Shortening a track by cutting measures off the end is
the technique to use for changing the length of a track
for looping purposes. The Loop function always goes to the end of each
track, whether or not there is data in all of the measures.
6.3 Cutting Data from Measures
6.4 Track 1 Will Loop After 8 Measures
(L) or 4 Measures (R)
90
MasterTracksPro
By making sure that no empty measures
appear at the end of a track, you can have
the track loop as soon as the actual data
on the track is finished playing (at the
next measure boundary, that is).
•
If you use the measure ruler at the top of the Track
Editor window to select one or more measures across
all the tracks in the sequence, the Cut command
removes the measures completely, and the remainder
of the sequence gets shifted to the left to fill in the
gap. (This function is essentially duplicated by the
Delete Measures command, described later.) This
will also be the case if you select the measures within
the data window and scroll down so that all 64
tracks are selected. (Since the measures are removed
completely, the Tempo Map associated with those
measures is also removed.)
6.5 Cutting Measures from
All Tracks
Note: If you use this command to change the Tempo Map over a region that
contains locked markers, you will get a message asking you how to handle the
markers. See Chapter 11 for a discussion of this.
•
If you select the measures within the data window and don’t select all 64
tracks, then the Cut command will remove data from the selected measures
and tracks, but will leave those measures intact. (It will also leave the
Tempo Map intact.)
•
If you’ve selected the entire sequence in the Track Editor window using the
Select All command or with the mouse, Cut removes all data, leaving a
blank sequence with no Tempo Map.
Copy
The Copy command makes a copy of the data in the selected region and puts it
on the Master Tracks Pro Clipboard. The existing data is not changed. In
addition to selecting the Copy command with the mouse, you can also execute
it by pressing ≈-C on the Mac keyboard.
The types of data and selection criteria for the Copy command are the same as
they are for the Cut command. The Copy command, of course, cannot remove
measures, but if an entire measure or group of measures is selected in the Track
Using the Edit Menu
91
Editor window across all 64 tracks and copied, the Tempo Map associated with
that measure or group is put on the Clipboard along with the MIDI data.
Note that when you select a region and Copy it, the region stays selected. This
allows you to perform a Change operation (see the next chapter) on a selected
region while keeping it on the Clipboard — copy a region, change it, and then
paste the original into a different place.
Paste
Paste places the contents of the Clipboard (put there by a Cut or Copy) into
the sequence, beginning at the location of the blinking cursor, and replaces any
existing data that occupies the same measures and/or tracks. You can choose the
command with the mouse, or use ≈-V from the Mac keyboard. Note that,
unlike most of Master Tracks Pro’s editing commands, you do not select a
region for the Paste command to act on, you select a single point to insert data
from. If you have selected a region and try to Paste, the command will not
function.
If the Clipboard contains data from more than one track (in the Track Editor),
data from the lowest-numbered track in the Clipboard goes into the track
marked by the cursor, and data from subsequent tracks is automatically inserted
into the next tracks, in order. So if you have copied data on tracks 4, 5, and 6,
and place the insertion point on Track 11, the data will be pasted to tracks 11,
12, and 13.
You can paste data anywhere you like — into empty tracks, into the same
tracks at a different point in the sequence, into tracks with data already on
them, or into other sequences. Pasting is a “destructive” function: if you paste
notes into a region that already contains notes, the new notes will replace the
old ones. The destruction is regional, meaning that it depends on the size of the
region on the Clipboard, not where the actual events are within that region —
in other words, if you have copied one measure of notes and three empty
measures onto the Clipboard and then paste it onto an existing track, you will
end up with one measure of notes and three empty measures, even if there were
notes in all four measures before you pasted. For a non-destructive paste, use
the Mix Data command, described below.
92
MasterTracksPro
Pasting in the Event List Editor
Paste works slightly differently in the Event List Editor. When you choose
Paste, a dialog box comes up asking you where (measure, beat, clock) to paste
the data. The value in the box will be the location of the beginning of the last
regional selection you made, which makes it easy to paste into another track at
the same spot, or into the same track at a different measure (change the measure, leave the beat and clock alone).
Pasting between windows
You can only Paste data from one window into the same type of window. For
example, you cannot paste notes into a Pitch Bend window, or Pitch Bend into
the Track Editor. You cannot even paste controllers into different controllers: if
you have controller data on the Clipboard, you can only paste it into a controller window if the Controller number showing is the same as the Controller
number of the window the data came from. (You can change one type of
controller data to another, using the Continuous command described in the
next chapter.)
However, data cut or copied from the Track Editor can be pasted into the Step
Editor window, one track at a time (if you cut or copy more than one track,
only the first track will be pasted). Any non-note data taken from the Track
Editor will also be pasted into the track, regardless of whether the Step Editor is
in “notes only” or “all” mode, and will appear when you open the appropriate
windows.
Multiple Pasting
When you paste a region into a window, the cursor goes to the next clock
position after the region you’ve just pasted. For example, in the Step Editor
window, if you paste a region 100 clocks long starting right on a beat, the
cursor will end up at clock number 101. Similarly, in the Track Editor, if you
paste a two-measure section starting at measure 5, the cursor will be right at the
beginning of measure 7.
This fact, combined with the fact that after a paste operation the data on the
Clipboard remains on the Clipboard, means that you can perform multiple
Using the Edit Menu
93
pastes, one after another, simply by repeatedly choosing Paste or typing ≈-V.
This can be useful when you want to repeat a passage a certain number of times
— select a region that encompasses the passage, copy (or cut) it, and then paste
it as many times as you want. (In the Step Editor, if you want the repeats to be
rhythmically consistent, make sure the region you choose is a whole number of
beats long.) One obvious use for this is constructing a drum track — you can
create a one- or two-measure pattern, copy it, and then just paste it the number
of times you need to fill up the whole track.
Clear
Clear works similarly to Cut, except that the data is removed without placing it
in the Clipboard. This gives you an alternative way to remove portions of your
sequence. It is useful when you want to remove data from your sequence, but
you don’t want to erase what is already on the Clipboard.
To use the Clear command, choose it from the Edit menu after you’ve selected
the region you want to clear. Alternately, you can simply press the Delete
(backspace) key after selecting a region.
Like Cut, Clear only works on data in the current window: in the Track Editor,
it removes all data; in the Step Editor it removes either all data or just notes,
depending on the setting of the mode icon; in the Event List Editor it removes
only visible data; and in the MIDI Data Windows it removes only the type of
data displayed in the window.
Clear differs from Cut in that you cannot remove measures from a track with
Clear, you can only erase the data within them. Therefore, if you select an
entire track from the Track Editor window and select Clear (or press Delete),
the track will still be there, it will just consist of empty (hollow) measures —
whereas if you had selected Cut, the track would have disappeared completely.
If you select all 64 tracks in one measure and choose Clear, you will end up
with a measure with no data in it; had you chosen Cut, the measure would have
been removed and all measures to the right would have shifted over to fill in the
gap.
94
MasterTracksPro
Mix Data
The Mix Data command works similarly to the Paste command, except that the
data in the Clipboard that you’re inserting in the sequence is merged with
existing data already in the sequence. Like Paste, Mix Data needs to see a single
insertion point, not a region, to work with. The Macintosh keyboard equivalent
for Mix Data is ≈-M.
The same restrictions on moving data among windows described above with
the Paste command apply to the Mix Data command. As with Paste, data
remains on the Clipboard after a Mix Data operation, and the cursor moves to
the end of the region affected by the operation, so that multiple Mix Data
commands are possible — so you can, for example, lay a short cymbal pattern
on top of a kick and snare track by copying the cymbal pattern, setting the
cursor to the beginning of the drum track, and repeatedly choosing Mix Data
or typing ≈-M. The Mix Data command does not impose a Tempo Map over
the mixed region.
DealingwithTiedNotes
As mentioned in Chapter 3, Master Tracks Pro handles notes that are tied over
bar lines a little differently than you might expect. These rules are designed to
make editing in the Track Editor easier, so that you do not always have to
worry about whether the notes you want to work with begin precisely on
downbeats.
Notes tied into a region
Normally, if you select a region of notes to Cut or Copy, and the region
contains notes that started prior to the beginning of the region, those notes will
not be affected by the operation. However, if the selected region starts on a
measure boundary, any note in that region which is tied over from an earlier
measure will be included in the region, but only that part of the note that falls
within the region.
Using the Edit Menu
95
6.6 Cutting a Tied Note on a Measure Boundary and Pasting it One Measure Later
In other words, if a note starts on beat 4 of measure 1 and continues until beat
3 of measure 2, and you select a region starting on the beginning of measure 2
and choose Copy, the Clipboard will contain a note that starts immediately and
has a duration of 2 beats. If you select the same region and choose Cut, the
original note will get cut off at the beginning of measure 2, and the Clipboard
will again contain a 2-beat note that starts immediately.
Notes Tied Out of a Region
A variation on this rule applies to notes that begin within a selected region and
end after it. Under normal circumstances, notes like this are moved to the
Clipboard in their entirety by a Copy or Cut operation. However, if the note
extends past a measure boundary and the selected region does not, then the
portion of the note that moves to the Clipboard is cut off at the measure
boundary.
Here’s an example. A note starts at beat 3 of measure 1 and continues to beat 3
of measure 2. With the mouse, select a region that starts on beat 2 of measure 1
and continues to beat 4 of measure 1. When you Copy that region, the Clipboard will contain 1 beat of silence, and then a note that is exactly 2 beats long
— i.e., as much of the note as appeared in measure 1. When you Cut that
region, the first part of the note on the display is cut off, and only the part after
the beginning of measure 2 remains. The Clipboard again contains 1 beat of
silence followed by a 2-beat note.
96
MasterTracksPro
6.7 Cutting a Tied Note Before a Measure Boundary
and Pasting it One Measure Later
Remember, in the Track Editor, a selected region always starts on a measure
boundary. In the Step Editor, a selected region can start on a note boundary if
the mouse is clicked when the “clocks” indicator in the time indicator box reads
“000”, or (and this is much easier) if the region is selected by double-clicking in
the measure ruler.
InsertMeasure
The Insert Measure command (≈-I) allows you to put empty measures into a
sequence. You might use this command to insert a new section into the middle
of a composition or to add a blank space or countdown at the beginning. When
new measures are inserted into a track, they initially show up in the Track
Editor as hollow boxes. All subsequent measures are pushed to the right.
You can use the command from any graphic editing window — in the Track
Editor, put the cursor at the point where you want to insert the measure, and in
the Step Editor, or MIDI Data windows, put the cursor at a point (or on an
event) inside the measure that is going to follow the inserted measures (e.g., to
insert measures between measures 4 and 5, put the cursor inside measure 5).
When you select the command, a dialog box opens up asking you how many
measures to insert, and whether to insert them on all tracks (thereby making
the whole sequence longer, including the Tempo Map), or just on the selected
track (thereby shifting the remainder of that track over to the right, relative to
Using the Edit Menu
97
all the others). You cannot insert measures on more than one track at a time
without inserting measures on all of them — if you want to lengthen just two
or three tracks and leave the others alone, you’ll have to do the operation on
each of the tracks, one at a time.
When you insert measures on all of the tracks, the new measures will assume
the meter, beat, and last tempo of the measure immediately before the insertion
point. If you want to change any of these, use the Conductor command from
the Change menu (see the next chapter) after inserting the measures.
InsertData
The Insert Data command is a shortcut command that combines the "Insert
Measure" command (see above) and the Paste command. Insert Data automatically inserts measures and places the clipboard information into those measures.
Please note that since "Insert Measure" command is not un-doable, only the
Paste portion of this command can be un-done.
DeleteMeasure
The Delete Measure command (≈-D) is the opposite of the Insert Measure
command. It gives you a convenient way to remove measures from a sequence
or from a single track. When you remove measures from an entire sequence, the
Tempo Map for those measures is removed as well, and the sequence is shortened. The command is equivalent to selecting the measures from the measure
ruler in the Track Editor window and choosing Cut — except the data is not
placed on the Clipboard.
Note: If you use either the Insert Measure or Delete Measure commands in a
region that contains locked markers, you will get a message asking you how to
handle the markers. See Chapter 11 for a discussion of this.
98
MasterTracksPro
Editing MIDI Data While Playing a Sequence
Master Tracks Pro allows edits to be performed while a sequence is playing. Any
operation will take effect immediately — if the change is over a portion of a
track that has not been played yet, then when the measure counter reaches that
portion, you will hear the changes right away. If the change is over a portion of
the track that has already played, obviously you won’t hear the changes until
the next time you play the track.
In some cases, if a note is being sustained on a track you are editing, when you
do the edit, the note will cut off. This is only temporary, and then next time
you play the track the note will play for its full value.
The only edit operations that you can’t do while the sequence is playing are
those that involve the Tempo Map in any way (although you can change
tempos on a temporary basis while playing, using the Conductor window).
Therefore, you cannot Insert or Delete Measures while playing, nor can you
select a measure over all 64 tracks (using the measure ruler in the Track Editor)
as this would affect the Tempo Map.
If you are playing a track while editing it, you should turn off Follow Playback,
so that the screen doesn’t jump away from you while it plays.
TheChangeFilter
The Change Filter is a special set of parameters that can be used by Master
Tracks Pro to limit or delineate the data that is affected by an operation on the
Change menu. Once the parameters in the Change Filter are set up, they stay
that way until you alter them. You can even save them as part of the Preferences
file so that they show up the same every time you boot the program.
You can set the Change Filter parameters from the Edit menu, or you can set
them from within any of the dialog boxes that open when you perform a
Change operation. Because it is more relevant to the Change operations, we
will save the detailed discussion of the Change Filter for the next chapter.
Using the Edit Menu
99
6.7 The Change Filter Dialog
Show Clipboard
Show Clipboard pops up a small window which describes the current contents
of Master Tracks Pro’s clipboard. The window tells you which tracks the data
was taken from, the beginning and ending points (in measures, beats, and
clocks) of the origin of the data, and whether the data was cut or copied.
6.8 The Clipboard
Window
100 MasterTracksPro
The Clipboard window remains on screen until you close it.
As long as it is open, the command on the Edit menu
changes to “Hide Clipboard”. It’s likely that if you leave it
open, the Clipboard window will get buried under other
screen windows. If this happens and you want to see it again,
the best thing to do is to close it (choose Hide Clipboard)
and then open it again (Show Clipboard). This will bring it
to the front.
Using the
Change Menu
7
While the Edit menu commands let you move or
delete regions of notes, the Change Menu contains
commands that allow you to regionally alter MIDI
and timing data in sophisticated ways. Unlike the Edit
menu commands, the Change menu commands will
normally affect all notes and “continuous” data —
controllers, pitch bend, and channel pressure —in the
region selected, regardless of what window is currently
open. So you can, for example, change the durations
of notes in a region by selecting the region in the
Channel Pressure window. An exception to this is the
Scale Time command, which will be discussed shortly.
Some Change commands, like Velocity, work only on
notes, while others work on both notes and non-note
data. The Continuous command works only on nonnote data, and the Conductor command works only
on the tempo map and not on MIDI data at all.
7.1 The Change Menu
The restrictions on using the Change commands are the obvious ones: in the
Step Editor, Event List Editor, or any of the MIDI Data windows, you can
only define a region on one track, while in the Track Editor you can define a
region on as many tracks as you like. In the Track Editor, region boundaries
must be on measure boundaries, while in the Step Editor, Event List Editor,
and MIDI Data windows region boundaries can be on any clock.
Using the Change Menu
101
Included in the Change menu are commands for changing the MIDI channel
of recorded notes, note durations, note velocities, continuous MIDI data
(controllers, pitch bend, and aftertouch), and tempo and meter in the selected
region. There are also commands for stripping different types of data out of a
track, transposing pitch, and for changing the rhythmic relationships of MIDI
events.
As with Edit menu commands, you must first select a region before you can use
the Change commands. To select a region, use the mouse as described in the
previous chapters. Then pull down the desired Change menu item, and the
operation will begin. All of the Change menu items have dialog boxes for
determining how the operation should proceed. At any time, in any of those
boxes, you can click on Cancel and you will return to the window you came
from, with the region still selected, but with no operation having taken place.
Once you complete a Change menu operation, the selected region stays selected, which makes it easy to go ahead and perform another operation on the
same data right away. Since many of the operations complement each other,
this can be a great time-saver.
Also as with Edit commands, notes that begin before a selected region but end
in it are not affected by Change menu commands, but notes that begin within
the region and end after it are affected. (All the exceptions having to do with
tied notes do not apply.)
Finally, like Edit commands, Change commands can be made while a sequence
is running. The same restrictions apply — no operations can be made that
affect the Tempo Map, so operations that cover all 64 tracks are not allowed.
Also, the “Channel”, “Conductor”, and “Fit Time” commands can only be
used when the sequencer is not running.
Using the Change Filter
Many of the Change menu dialog boxes have an item labelled “Change Filter”.
This is a special set of parameters that let you limit what data will be affected by
the Change operation. We will cover using the Change Filter at the end of this
chapter.
102 MasterTracksPro
Channel
This command permanently changes the MIDI channel assignments of all the
data in a selected region (both notes and non-note data) to a new channel
number. After selecting the region, choose the Channel command from the
Change menu.
When the Change Channel dialog box appears,
type in the channel number (1 to 16) you wish
to assign to the data in the selected region.
Click on OK or press Return on the Macintosh keyboard to complete the process. Click
on Cancel to exit from the command without
making any changes.
7.2 The Change Channel Dialog
Remember that this command has no real effect on any track unless the track is
not assigned to a MIDI channel in the Track Editor window (the Chnl field
reads “–”). If all you want to do is change the playback channel of a track, it’s
much easier just to change the Channel number in the Track Editor.
Duration
Choosing the Duration command pops up a dialog box that allows you to alter
the duration of each note in the region — i.e., how long it lasts. The dialog box
gives you two choices for changing note durations. The first option in the box
lets you set all notes in the region to the same duration, which you can specify.
The second option lets you change all of the durations by a given percentage.
Selecting a Constant Duration
Activate this option by clicking in the radio button next to the words “Set all
values...”. Next, select the duration you wish by using the arrow controls (or
Mac keyboard arrow keys) to choose the appropriate duration icon. The range
available is 64th-note to dotted whole-note. When you select a duration icon,
the box immediately to the right shows how many clocks that duration is
equivalent to. If you want to set shorter or longer durations, or durations that
fall between the given values, you can double-click on the numeric box and
Using the Change Menu
103
7.3 Change Duration Dialog
type in the number of clocks you want the notes to be. The allowable range is 1
(1/240th of a quarter-note) to 32767 (a little over 34 measures in 4/4 time).
You can also select a tuplet resolution. Select the tuplet values you want by
clicking in the two boxes at the far right for the numerator and denominator of
the tuplet, and then click on the “tuplet” box to turn on the function. The
number in the clock box will change to reflect the tuplet value you’ve set up.
The tuplet values will be relative to the duration icon showing on the left side
of the dialog box. For example, if an eighth-note icon is showing, “3:2” means
the duration will be equal to one note in a triplet that fills the space of two
eighth-notes. Two eighth-notes = 2 x 120 = 240, divided by 3 = 80, so the
duration of these notes will be 80 clocks, and the number in the clock box will
be 80. If a quarter-note icon is showing, “5:4” means the duration will be equal
to one note in a quintuplet that fills the space of four quarter-notes: 240 x 4 =
960 ÷ 5 = 192 clocks. If the tuplet you’ve created doesn’t divide into an even
number of clocks, the program will round off the value to the nearest clock.
Selecting a Percentage Change
The second option in the Change Duration dialog box allows you to scale all
duration values in the selected region by a percentage of their current values, so
that their relative durations are preserved. Click in the radio button beside the
words “Change to...” to select it, so that the solid black dot appears. Now type
in the percentage of the current duration values, within the range of 1 to
9999%, you wish to change them by. The program will round values off to the
nearest clock value, and will not produce notes with a duration of 0. Values of
104 MasterTracksPro
less than 100% will shorten notes, and values greater than 100% will lengthen
them.
After selecting the option you wish, Click on OK or press Return to complete
the command, or click on Cancel to return to your work without making any
changes.
Note that in this dialog box, as in all Master Tracks Pro dialog boxes, you can
move among the various numeric (or text) fields by pressing the Tab key. Each
time you press Tab, the cursor jumps to the next field, and it becomes highlighted. If you need to set a lot of parameters in a dialog box, this can save a lot
of mouse movement.
Add Clocks
The third option in the Change Duration dialog box allows you to add a
specified number of clocks to every note in the selected region.
Velocity
The dialog box that pops up when you choose the Velocity command lets you
change the velocity values for all notes in a selected region.
Velocity can affect a patch’s volume and/or its timbre, so changing velocity is
useful for adding “punches” to a track or to change the loudness of a track or
passage relative to other tracks. You can bring velocity values up or down over
time to create swells, crescendos, and decrescendos.
The first task when this box is open is to decide whether your changes will
apply to note-on velocities, note-off velocities, or both. Click in the radio
button next to one or both of these choices in the dialog box. Most synths do
not transmit or recognize note-off velocities, so you can usually leave that
choice off.
Next, you must decide from among five options for altering the velocity values.
Click the button next to the option you select. They are:
Using the Change Menu
105
7.4 Change Velocity Dialog
•
Set all velocity values in the region to a specific value, between 1 and 127.
•
Change all velocity values by a specific percentage, from 1 to 999% (100%
means no change). Any values calculated to be greater than 127 will be set
to 127, and any values less than 1 will be set to 1. (A MIDI note-on command with a velocity of 0 is defined as a note-off, and you don’t want that.)
•
Have all velocity values in the region change smoothly from one number at
the beginning of the region to another number at the end of the region (i.e.,
create a crescendo or diminuendo). The values can go up or down, and they
must be between 1 and 127.
•
Have all velocity values in the region change smoothly by one percentage at
the beginning of the region and by a different percentage at the end of the
region, and interpolate everything in between. This allows you, for example,
to perform a crescendo without imposing a strict note-to-note velocity
increase over a region. Values can be between 1% and 999%. Again, the
resulting velocity values will be between 1 and 127.
106 MasterTracksPro
•
Add or subtract (using a negative value) a set amount, between -127 and
127, to all velocity values in the region. When you choose this selection,
you can also select “limits” for the operation so that no notes go above a
certain level or below a certain level. This is useful for “compressing” tracks,
or for changing the velocity of tracks which are being played on instruments
with velocity switches (they change sounds when a certain velocity is
reached), which you don’t want to trigger. Again, the resulting velocity
values will be between 1 and 127.
After selecting which of these five options you wish to use, click on the appropriate data box(es) for that option, type in the value(s) or percentage(s) you
want, and Click on OK or press Return.
Note that when changing velocity over time, the value calculated for a specific
note will be based on its relative position in the selected region, not its numerical
order in the region. This is best illustrated by the following example: Let’s say
you select a region two beats long, and specify a velocity change over that
region from 50 to 100. If the first note in the region occurs right at the beginning of the region, its velocity will be 50. However, if the first note occurs
halfway through the region (one beat after it starts), its velocity will be 75. This
may seem obvious, but it’s an important principle to keep in mind when
selecting regions in which there are areas of no data. It applies equally to
changes in continuous controllers, described below.
Continuous
Choosing the Continuous command brings up a dialog box with a number of
functions having to do with data from MIDI controllers (including modulation
wheel), Pitch Bend, or Channel Pressure (aftertouch). You can use this command to “map” data from one MIDI controller to another, or change the values
of the controller data, or both.
Mapping One Controller to Another
The mapping function is useful if you have a master MIDI instrument that
generates one kind of controller information, and a synthesizer that responds to
Using the Change Menu
107
7.5 Change Continuous Data Dialog
a different kind. For example, you may have a MIDI wind driver that generates
lots of Breath Controller data (Controller #2), and a synthesizer that doesn’t
read Breath Controller, but responds to Channel Pressure. By mapping the
Breath Controller data to channel pressure, you can take advantage of the wind
driver’s expressive capabilities with this particular synthesizer.
To map one data type to another, first select the type of data you wish to
operate on in the selected region, from the choices listed under “Select Data
Type” in the upper left corner of the dialog box. Click in the radio button next
to the choice you select so that a solid black circle appears. If you’ve chosen the
“Controller #” option, you must also type in the desired controller number,
from 0 to 127, in the corresponding box. (A list of standard MIDI Controller
numbers appears in Appendix C.)
Next, click in the box labelled “Map Data Type To” at the right of the dialog
box. An “X” will appear in the box. Now choose the data type to which you
want to map the existing data by clicking in the button next to your choice.
Again, you must type in a number if you select the “Controller #” option.
108 MasterTracksPro
Changing controller data values
To change data values, you must first select the type of data you wish to work
on, as described above. Next, click in the box labelled “Change Data Values” so
that an “X” appears in the box. As with velocity, you now have five choices:
•
Set all values in the region to a specific value, between 0 and 127 (–128 and
+127 for pitch bend). Unlike velocity, there is no reason not to allow
controller values of 0.
•
Change all values by a specific percentage, from 1 to 999% (100% means
no change). Any values calculated to be greater than 127 will be set to 127
(pitch bend values below -128 will be set to -128).
•
Have all values in the region change smoothly from one value at the beginning of the region to another value at the end of the region. The values can
go up over time or down, and they must be within the normal range.
•
Have all values in the region change smoothly from one percentage at the
beginning of the region to another percentage at the end of the region. This
allows you, for example, to exaggerate or make less prominent a controller
move without interfering with its basic action or making it excessively
smooth. It’s especially useful for MIDI-controlled mixing, in which you
want to achieve an overall effect over a period of time without tampering
with the smaller motions within that time. Values can be between 1% and
999%. Again, the resulting values will be between 0 and 127 (or -128 and
+127 for pitch bend).
•
Add or subtract (with a negative value) a set amount, between -127 and
127, to all values in the region. When you choose this selection, you can
also select “limits” for the operation so that the values do not go above or
below certain levels. Once again, the resulting values will be between 0 and
127 (pitch bend between -128 and +127).
After selecting which of these five options you wish, click on the appropriate
data box(es) for that option and type in the value(s) or percentage(s) you’ve
chosen.
Using the Change Menu
109
You can perform both a mapping operation and a changing-data-value operation at the same time. The re-mapped data will have its values changed.
Once you’ve made all your choices, click on OK or press Return to complete
the command. Click on Cancel at any time to exit the dialog box without
making any changes.
Keep in mind that no operation in this box will take place unless at least one of
the boxes “Map Data Type To” and “Change Data Values” is checked. Selecting a radio button or entering a controller number in a box is not enough to
make the operation happen.
Note: Operations in the Continuous window will not create controller data on a
track — it will only alter data that is already there, either recorded or drawn
in. If there is no data there to begin with, these operations will have no effect.
Also, as with the Velocity command, the value a controller ends up with after a
Continuous “change over time” operation depends on the position of the
controller event within the selected region, not whether it is the first event to
occur.
Pitch Bend Range
Bend ranges vary among MIDI instruments. If you use Master Tracks Pro to
record a melodic line that contains pitch
bend using a particular synth module, you
may find that the bend range changes
when you play the sequence back using a
different synth module. The Pitch Bend
Range feature lets you easily adapt the
bend range to suit different synth modules.
7.6 The Change Pitch
Bend Dialog
110 MasterTracksPro
The Change Pitch Bend dialog allows you
to enter the bend range of the original
module (in semitones) and the range that
you wish to change to. You can still use
the “Pitch Bend” option in the “Change Continuous Data” dialog (Change
Menu), but this method is more simple and straightforward.
Conductor
Within every Master Tracks Pro sequence is a track called the Tempo Map. The
Tempo Map contains meter and beat information for every measure, and
tempo information for every clock in a sequence. All of the tracks in a sequence
follow the meter and tempo dictated by the Tempo Map. You can change the
Tempo Map within the Tempo Map window (see Chapter 11), and you can
also perform some operations on the Tempo Map using the Conductor command. (Do not confuse this command and its dialog box with the “Conductor
Window” entry on the Windows menu, which merely opens or brings forward
the real-time Conductor window on the screen.)
You can select a region for editing
with the Conductor command from
any window. However, the command only operates on measure
boundaries — if you are in the Step
Editor window and select a region
that starts somewhere in measure 10
and ends somewhere in measure 13,
the Conductor command will
operate from the beginning of
measure 10 to the end of measure
13.
Once you select a region and choose
“Conductor”, a dialog box opens
7.7 The Change Conductor Dialog
up. At the top of this box are small
text boxes with the starting and
ending measure numbers of the region you’ve selected. In point of fact, unlike
the other Change menu commands, it is not necessary to select a region before
choosing Conductor, because of these boxes. Therefore, the Conductor command on the Change menu is always active (in black type).
Using the Change Menu
111
If you don’t select a region first, then the dialog box will open with the entire
sequence selected: measure 1 in the left-hand box and the last measure of the
sequence in the right-hand box. If you don’t want to work on the whole
sequence, click in one or both of the boxes and type in the measure numbers
you want.
Besides choosing it from the Change menu, you can also access the Conductor
command by double-clicking on the time signature in the Conductor window.
Changing the Meter
To change the meter (time signature) over the specified measures, click in the
box next to the words “Set Meter”. Then click on the upper and lower metersetting boxes immediately to the right, and enter the new meter. The upper
number can be anywhere between 1 and 16; the lower number must be 1, 2, 4,
8, 16, 32, or 64.
When you change the meter in a measure, the data in and around the measure
does not move — only the barline does. So if, for example, measure 10 is a 4/4
measure and you change it to 5/4, then a note previously on the downbeat of
measure 11 will now be on the 5th beat of measure 10.
Changing the Beat
At the same time you select a meter, you must also select a beat value. The beat
value has no real effect on the music, it merely affects the metronome. In a 4/4
measure, a beat value of a quarter-note will cause the metronome to sound once
per beat, while a beat value of an eighth-note will sound twice per beat. In a 6/8
measure, a beat value of a dotted-quarter will cause the metronome to sound on
every third eighth-note, which is standard practice.
If you want the metronome in a 4/4 measure to go twice as fast, for example,
but not change the basic tempo, you can change the beat to eighth-note and
double the tempo. The metronome indicator in the Conductor window will
then reflect this change.
To change the beat value of the specified measures, click in the box next to “Set
Meter” and use the arrows next to the beat indicator (or the Macintosh arrow
112 MasterTracksPro
keys) to select the beat value you want. You cannot select a beat value that does
not go evenly into the time signature — for example, you cannot set a beat
value of dotted-quarter note in a 4/4 measure.
Remember that you are setting both parameters simultaneously — if you have a
complex passage with changing time signatures over several measures, and you
wish to change the beat value of those measures, you cannot do it in one
operation, because then all of the measures will end up with the same time
signature. Therefore, you must set the beat for all the measures first, and then
change the time signature in each measure individually. Alternatively, you can
change the beat value in each measure individually.
Setting Tempos
The Conductor command can do five tempo-changing tasks over a selected
region:
•
Set all tempo values in the region to a specific value.
•
Change all tempo values up or down by a specific percentage.
•
Add or subtract (with a minus value) a set amount to all tempo values in the
region. Limits can be imposed on this function so that the tempo never goes
faster than a certain speed or slower than a certain speed.
•
Have the tempo of the region change smoothly, up or down, from one
value at the beginning of the region to another value at the end of the
region.
•
Have all tempos in the region change smoothly from one percentage at the
beginning of the region to another percentage at the end of the region. This
is useful for achieving an acceleration or deceleration over a period of time
in which you have already made tempo changes, and you don’t want to lose
them. This operation will maintain the proportionality of those tempo
changes while it creates an overall speed-up or slow-down.
After selecting which of these five options you wish, click on the appropriate
data box(es) for that option and type in the value or percentage(s) you want.
Using the Change Menu
113
The range of permissible values for tempos is 10 to 300 bpm with the beat
value set to quarter-note (with the beat value at eighth-note, the maximum
tempo is 600 bpm, and at sixteenth-note, the maximum is 1200 bpm). Any
existing tempo values that are changed by addition or percentage multiplication
so that they are out of range will be truncated to the maximum or minimum
values.
Note that when you are changing meter and/or beat, you must have one of the
tempo operations selected. If you don't want to make any changes in the tempo
(just the beat or meter), then select “Change to .... % of current values” and
type in “100”. There will be no change in the tempo, and it will be as if this
part of the window were turned off.
Click on OK or press Return to complete the Conductor command. Click on
Cancel to exit the command without making any changes to the sequence.
Looking at the Results
If you go to the Tempo Map window (from the Windows menu or type ≈-0),
you can see the results of the Conductor command’s actions directly. When
tempos in a region are set to a specific value, then only one tempo change
occurs per measure. When tempos are changed by addition or percentage
multiplication, tempo changes occur exactly where they did prior to the change
7.8 The Tempo Map Window
114 MasterTracksPro
— at least once per measure, more than that if there were other tempo changes
inside measures before the operation. When tempos are changed over time,
then a new tempo change occurs on each beat within the specified time (a beat
being defined here as the denominator of the time signature: every quarter-note
in 4/4 time, every eighth-note in 4/8 time, etc.) You can also insert tempo
changes by hand in the Tempo Map window — see Chapter 11. If you want
tempo changes to occur on places other than even beats, then you must enter
them manually in the Tempo Map window.
Listening to the Results
The Conductor commands let you set up a complex rhythm track before you
record any notes. Since you can change meter and beat on every bar, and tempo
as often as you like, you can easily create a highly accurate click track for a
rhythmically complex tune. Try using the commands to create a track with
wildly varying meters and tempos and listen to it with the metronome on
(“Click”, on the Transport window, enabled).
A Tempo Map is a sequence, even if it has no notes in it. You can save it to disk
and use it as a rhythmic template for other sequences, and you can export it as a
MIDI File for use in other programs.
Locked Markers
If you use the Conductor command to change the Tempo Map over a region
that contains locked markers, you will get a message asking you how to handle
the markers. See Chapter 11 for a discussion of this.
Strip Data
The Strip Data command gives you a way to set limits on the data being cut or
copied from a selected region. The various limitations offered to you can be
used one at a time or in combination.
Data selected in the Strip Data dialog box can either be Cut, in which case it is
removed from the selected region and placed on the Clipboard, or it can be
Using the Change Menu
115
7.9 The Strip Data Dialog
copied, in which case it is placed on the Clipboard without removing it from
the track. The choice of whether to cut or copy is made at the bottom of the
dialog box with radio buttons. Once the data is on the Clipboard, it can be
pasted anywhere in a sequence, or in another sequence, or forgotten about.
Setting Up the Operation
Items in the Strip Data dialog box are selected with checkboxes. If there is an
“X” in an item’s box, then the data named in that item will be stripped. If the
box is blank, the corresponding data will be left alone.
The first item is Channel. If this item is selected, only data in the region that is
assigned to the channel in the box (type in the channel number you want) will
be stripped. Remember, this will deal with individual data items as they are
recorded, and the setting of a track’s Channel assignment in the Track Editor
window will have no bearing on what data is affected by this command.
The next items are Pitch Bend, Channel Pressure, Key Pressure, Modulation,
and Program Change. Checking on any of these will strip the appropriate data
from the track(s).
116 MasterTracksPro
Controllers will strip all controller data, unless the radio button directly below
it is checked, in which case only data from the controller whose number appears
in the box immediately to the right will be stripped.
Notes will strip all notes from the region, unless the radio button directly below
it is selected, in which case only notes between the specified notes will be
stripped. (The specified notes are included in the range of notes that gets
stripped.) The range of possible notes is C-2 to G8. Accidentals must be
referred to as #’s, e.g., G#3. You can also specify notes by their MIDI numbers,
i.e., 0 to 127, or by clicking in a box and then playing the note you want on
your MIDI keyboard.
Using Strip Data
The Strip Data command has many uses. You can create keyboard “splits” by
stripping different ranges of notes from a track and pasting them to other
tracks. You can remove controller information from one instrument and make
it apply to a different one. You can change a single-track Type 0 MIDI File
into a multitrack sequence by stripping the data from the single track one
channel at a time, and pasting it to other tracks. You can use it to conserve
memory and keep MIDI data flow down by removing unnecessary controllers
from tracks (like aftertouch recorded from a DX7).
Remember that the various items in the Strip Data dialog box can be combined, so that you could, for example, only take out pitch bend on channel 4,
or take out notes above middle C and sustain pedal (controller #64), leaving
everything else.
Note that some of the action of the Strip Data command is duplicated in the
MIDI Data windows. For example, if you want to remove pitch bend from a
track, you can do it with Strip Data, or you can open the Pitch Bend window,
select a region, and choose Cut or Clear. Strip Data is especially useful when
you want to work on more than one track at a time, or when you want to
remove more than one type of data at a time.
The action of the Strip Data command can be further enhanced by the Change
Filter — see the discussion later in this chapter.
Using the Change Menu
117
Thin Continuous Data
The Thin Continuous Data feature allows you to reduce the density of continuous MIDI data (pitch bend, pressure, and/or controllers), saving memory
and also keeping the MIDI data stream from “choking”. The bandwidth of
MIDI is not unlimited — it allows about 1000 commands to be sent each
second — and when you are using a lot of continuous data on several tracks, it
is quite possible to exceed that bandwidth. The result is that data gets to its
destination late, and tempos slow down and speed up seemingly randomly, or
notes sound out of time or even get lost completely. If continuous data is used
conservatively, the chances of this happening are much reduced, and this
command can help.
7.10 The Thin Continuous Data Dialog
Selecting the Thin Continuous Data function opens a dialog box that lets you
select specific types of data for thinning over the region you’ve already selected.
You can choose to thin Pitch Bend, Modulation (Controller #1), Channel
Pressure, Key Pressure, and/or all Controllers, or only one specific controller.
You can then specify how much to thin out the data, both in terms of time and
in terms of data value.
The “Times” value you specify will be the density over time of the data — that
is, how fast the commands will occur — after the thinning is completed.
118 MasterTracksPro
Specifying 1 clock will essentially change nothing, unless two events happen to
occur at the same time, in which case one of them will be eliminated. Specifying higher numbers will cause the events to occur further apart. The “Values”
value specified will determine how the data will “jump” from one event to the
next. Specifying a high number will cause the resolution of the data to become
relatively coarse, and more step-like than continuous. Specifying 1 will mean
only redundant data — that is, commands that occur twice in a row with the
same value — will be eliminated.
The thinning operation has some “intelligence” programmed into it — it
doesn’t just wipe out data blindly. In any region being thinned, the operation
will always maintain the first data value, the last value, and the highest and
lowest values, and if the values go up and down repeatedly, it will maintain all
of the peaks and all of the lowest dips.
Generally speaking, putting lower numbers in these values will produce results
that have less audible effect on the music, which is desirable. Higher numbers
will have more of an effect on the data density, and will therefore help more to
prevent choking, but the effect may be more audible. A certain amount of
experimentation is sometimes necessary — start with lower numbers, and if you
still have problems, increase them gradually.
7.11 Before and After a Thin Continuous Data Operation
Using the Change Menu
119
Thin Notes
The Thin Notes dialog allows you to
remove duplicate notes within a certain
clock range and then in order by the
following removal precedence:
7.12 The Thin Notes Dialog
1. shorter duration
2. lower velocity
3. second in line
Transpose
The Transpose command changes the pitch of all the notes in the selected
region up or down. The transposition is chromatic — all notes are transposed
equally. It can be chosen from the Change menu or by typing ≈-T.
7.13 The Transpose Dialog
When you choose this command, a dialog
box appears which asks you to enter the note
you are transposing from, and the note
which you want to transpose to. To enter
these notes, click on the appropriate box,
and then type in a pitch letter name, a # sign
if you’re entering an accidental, and the
octave number. Valid pitches range between
C-2 and G8. Alternatively, you can type in
the MIDI pitch value (0 to 127), or play the
appropriate note on your MIDI keyboard.
The actual entries that you type in are not crucial, but the interval between
them is. In other words, if you type E5 in the “from” box and E6 in the “to”
box, the transposition will be exactly the same as if you typed C3 in the “from”
box and C4 in the “to” box — up one octave. The dialog always opens with
“C3” in both boxes, so it might be faster for you to think of your transpositions
relative to that note where possible.
120 MasterTracksPro
You can also tell the Transpose function to make all notes a specific note. This
is particularly useful when you are mapping one drum machine to another
(although the Re-Mapping function in the Step Editor is faster), or when you
want a rhythm instrument, like a kick drum, to exactly follow a bass line: copy
the bass line to a new track, and then Transpose all the notes on that track to
the note corresponding to the kick drum.
Press Return or click on OK to enter the transposition and return to your
work. Click on Cancel to exit without making any changes.
Transpose Map
The Transpose Map is a simple, yet powerful way to transform sequences and
convert drum parts. With this feature, any note(s) over the entire range of
MIDI can be quickly assigned to any other note using our unique keyboard
display.
7.14 The Transpose Map Dialog
Simply click on the note box and type in (or play from your MIDI instrument )
the new note for that pitch. You can display the note boxes as MIDI note
numbers instead or pitches.
Using the Change Menu
121
To create special "mode" tables you can select to copy all pitches to their
relative octaves.
You can also Save and Load custom maps. The file extension .MTPM will be
created for custom Maps.
Humanize
The Humanize command is an especially useful feature designed to make a
sequence — especially one entered in step-time or already quantized — less
machine-like and rigid. It does this by randomly shifting the start time, duration, and/or velocity of each note in the selected region.
When you select the Humanize command, a dialog box appears that lets you
choose whether to apply the randomization effect to start times, durations, or
velocities. Click on the box next to each option you want to select. You can
select one, two, or all three.
Next, you must enter a maximum value for each of the changes. The Humanize
command will randomly change the value of each note in the selected region,
adding or subtracting a number somewhere between 0 and the maximum value.
For example, if you tell the program to humanize start times to a maximum of
3 clocks, some notes will be delayed 3 clocks, some delayed 2, some delayed 1,
some advanced 1 clock, some advanced 2 clocks, some advanced 3, and some
not moved at all.
In the case of start times and durations, type in the maximum number of clocks
that will be added or subtracted to existing values when the Humanize command goes to work. For velocities, type in a number between 1 and 127.
In practice, very small values work best for achieving subtle variations in highly
mechanical music. Large values will produce wide and random changes that are
sometimes useful, but not always predictable.
When you’ve made your selections, click on OK or press Return to enter them
and complete the command. Or click on Cancel to exit without making any
changes.
122 MasterTracksPro
Quantize
The Quantize command aligns the start times of all notes in the selected region
to an imaginary timing “grid”. The grid divides the region into intervals of a set
number of clocks. When you use the Quantize command, the command moves
the start time of every note within the region so that it falls precisely at the
beginning of the nearest grid interval.
Everything or Just the Attacks
The first choice in the Quantize dialog box that opens when you invoke the
command is whether you want to
quantize entire notes or just the
start (attack) times of the notes. If
you choose (with the radio
button) “Attacks only”, then the
start time of the note will be
quantized, while the end of the
note will stay where it is, thereby
changing the duration. This is
useful if you have an event whose
ending time is more important
than its duration. If you choose
“Entire note”, the duration will
be maintained, and the end of the
7.16 The Quantize Dialog
note will move right along with
the beginning. This is generally more musical, and is useful when a note has a
certain envelope characteristic which you want to maintain.
Setting the Quantization Value
The most common use of quantization is to rhythmically “correct” notes that
have been played in by a live performer so that they fall directly on a beat or
subdivision. Another use is to set up rhythms — especially polyrhythms — that
would be difficult if not impossible for a human to play, such as 13 over 7. For
that reason, Master Tracks Pro lets you quantize to just about any rhythmic
value imaginable. The procedure for setting up quantization values is the same
Using the Change Menu
123
as used to set up duration values explained earlier in this chapter: you can
choose a timing value with the arrows (or arrow keys) from among the rhythmic icons; you can type in a numerical value; or you can design a “tuplet” value
(see the earlier discussion under "Duration" about setting up tuplets).
Ahead of and Behind the Beat
7.17 Quantizing to the Nearest Quarter Note
In a conventional quantization function, notes that lie more than 50% of the
way between two points on the quantization “grid” will be quantized to the
later point, while notes that are less than 50% of the way are quantized to the
earlier point. Master Tracks Pro lets you change this ratio with the “Include
notes up to...” function, so that if you consistently play a little early or a little
late to the beat, you don’t end up with lots of notes moved to the wrong place.
124 MasterTracksPro
The program defaults with an “Include notes...” setting of 35%. This means
that notes 35% or less ahead of the beat will be quantized to the beat (moved
later), while notes more than 35% ahead will be quantized to the previous beat
(moved earlier). Another way of looking at it is that notes up to 65% late will
be quantized to the previous beat.
This setting favors players who are late — players who tend to rush and find
themselves ahead of the beat should use a setting like 70%, in which case only
notes more than 30% late will be quantized to the next beat.
Intensity
As mentioned in the discussion on
the Humanize command, quantization can make a musical passage
sound overly mechanical if it is not
used carefully. One way to overcome
this is with the Intensity parameter in
the Quantize dialog box. The
Intensity parameter determines how
close to the actual quantization point
the program will bring notes when
they are quantized. If the Intensity is
set to 100%, the notes will be
quantized exactly to the quantization
“grid”. If it is set to 0%, they won’t
be quantized at all. If it is set to 50%,
they will move halfway towards the
grid.
7.17 Quantizing...
with Intensity at 50%...
Here’s an example. You have a note
that occurs 100 clocks after a beat,
and you are quantizing to quarternotes. If the Intensity interval is set to
100%, the note will be moved to
occur right on the beat (clock 0). If it
is 70%, the note will move 70% of
the way towards the beat, and will
...and with Intensity at 100%
Using the Change Menu
125
end up 30 clocks after the beat. If it is 20%, it will occur 80 clocks after the
beat. If it is 0%, it will stay 100 clocks after the beat.
Swing
The Swing function will impart a swing feeling to a track by delaying the start
of every alternate note by a designated amount. For example, if you have a
measure of even eighth-notes and you use the Swing function set to eighthnotes, then every second eighth-note — the “and” of every beat — will be
delayed by the amount you specify. In addition, the duration of the first eighthnote on each beat will be lengthened, and the duration of the second eighthnote will be shortened.
You can set the Swing function to work with any length note from 64th to
whole-note (you can’t swing dotted notes), and you can set the Swing ratio
anywhere between 50% and 75%, in increments of 1/10th of a percent. Setting
it to 50% means there will be no swing — the notes will come out exactly even.
Setting it to 75% means that the second note will occur three-quarters of the
way into the beat (assuming the beat is equal to twice the quantization factor).
In other words, again using eighth-notes, a ratio of 75% will produce a dottedeighth followed by a sixteenth. “Triplet swing” can be produced with a ratio of
66.7%, which is the default setting for the function.
You can use the Swing feature without Quantizing, although the function
works better on quantized notes, or notes entered in Step-Time.
Sliding Notes
«« «« «« ««
=====
_«ˆ _ˆ« _ˆ« _ˆ«
£
£
«« «« «« ««
=====
_«ˆ _j
«ˆ _«ˆ _j
«ˆ
«« . «« «« . ««
=====
_«ˆ _ˆ« _ˆ« _ˆ«
7.18 Examples of Swing Settings
126 MasterTracksPro
Swing at 50%
Swing at 66.7%
Swing at 75%
A very useful feature of the Quantize command is the ability to shift or slide
tracks slightly forwards or backwards. When this function is turned on, then
after the quantization is performed, all the notes in the track are moved the
specified number of clocks to the left or the right. This is invaluable for creating
passages that are a little ahead of the beat or a little behind, or to compensate
for synthesizer voices with especially long or short attack times.
You can also slide notes without quantizing them — just turn on the slide
function and make sure the quantization function is turned off.
When you’ve set up all your selections, click on OK or press Return to complete the Quantize command. If you wish, you can click on Cancel to exit
without making any changes. (If you Cancel, the settings you make in the
window will be maintained, so you can come back and try the operation again
later without having to set up all the parameters from scratch.)
Here’s a good example of how to combine commands over a selected region to
achieve a musical goal. To emphasize a downbeat, drummers will sometimes
rush a fill at the end of a bar and leave a bit of a gap before the downbeat. You
can create this effect by selecting the fill, quantizing it to sixteenth-notes,
sliding it over to the left, say, 12 clocks, and then (remember, you don’t have to
re-select the region) Humanizing the start times 6 clocks. This will give the
effect of the fill being early, but the timing change won’t jump out at you, but
is subtle, thanks to the randomization.
Slide notes affects note data only - Pitch Bend and other controller information
on a track is not moved. See the following section on the Slide Data command.
Sliding Data
The "Slide Data" command differs from slide
notes in that all data - (including controller
info) is moved as specified.
Fit Time
7.19 The Fit Time Dialog
Using the Change Menu
127
The Fit Time command lets you stretch or squeeze a given section of music so
that it fits exactly into a particular amount of time. It works by scaling all the
tempos in the Tempo Map for the selected region proportionally, so that the
relationships between any existing tempo or meter changes in the region are
preserved. In this way, although you change its overall timing, you don’t lose
the feel — accelerandos, ritards — of the music.
Unlike the Conductor command, Fit Time will work on any selected region,
whether or not it is on measure boundaries. It will create tempo changes at the
beginning and end of the region (regardless of whether they fall on even beats)
as well as on any beats where it deems it necessary.
When you choose Fit Time, the dialog box that
opens shows the time of the selected region as it
stands, in minutes, seconds, and frames (there are 24,
25, or 30 frames per second, depending on the
settings in the MIDI Setup dialog box — see Chapter
14). To change the time of the selected region,
merely type the numbers you want into the boxes.
7.20 The Fit Time Dialog
(You can use the Tab key to move among them.) The
Tempo Map over the selected region will be recalculated to reflect the new time. The notes themselves will not move, and the
barlines will stay where they were — only the Tempo Map (which is only
visible if its window is open) will be affected.
Fit Time is a remarkably useful feature for film and video work. It works
equally well whether you are using internal sync or MIDI Time Code. (With
conventional MIDI Sync — clocks and pointers — the internal Tempo Map is
ignored, and so the Fit Time function unfortunately doesn’t have much use.)
Its effects can be subtle or gross, and it can be used to advance or delay a single
note or to change the timing of an entire piece. It could be considered the
function that most sets apart Master Tracks Pro from a conventional tape
recorder: you cannot change the timing of a musical passage on tape to fit a
visual cue without altering its pitch and the sound of the orchestra, but that is
precisely what Fit Time accomplishes.
You can also use Fit Time to create a blank sequence, with just Tempo Map
128 MasterTracksPro
information, in preparation of writing a film track. If you know, for example,
that you want to cover a scene that lasts 14 seconds and 10 frames and you
want to do it in four measures of music, you can select the first four measures
of a blank sequence, choose Fit Time and type in 14 seconds and 10 frames,
and then when you click OK you will end up with a Tempo Map which has the
correct tempo for a four-measure piece exactly 14 seconds and 10 frames long.
The tempo is calculated for you — you may never have to use a clickbook or
calculator again.
Although it has many uses, Fit Time also has its limits. Don’t try to squeeze or
stretch a section a ridiculous amount. Remember that only tempos between 10
and 300 quarter-notes per minute are allowed, so trying to make a two-second
region last for 60 minutes will definitely not work.
Locked Markers
If you use this command to change the Tempo Map over a region that contains
locked markers, you will get a message asking you how to handle the markers.
See Chapter 11 for a discussion of this.
Scale Time
The Scale Time feature changes the timing relationship of the events in a
selected region to the rest of the sequence, without changing the Tempo Map.
When you select a region and choose this command, a dialog box opens. If you
type two numbers into the dialog box, the program will
move the start times of all events in the region so that
they are further away or closer to the beginning of the
region by the ratio between the two numbers. For
example, if the ratio you specify is “1 to 2”, then each
event will be twice as far from the beginning of the
region as it was before the operation, and the effect will
be that the passage now plays at half speed, with
respect to the rest of the sequence. The Tempo Map
7.21 The Scale Time Dialog
controlling the sequence, however, is not affected. If
Using the Change Menu
129
the ratio is “2 to 1”, the events in the region will play at double speed.
You can specify any two positive integers (no zeroes or negative numbers) for
the ratio. If you enter “10 to 317”, then the music will slow down by a factor of
31.7. If you are scaling notes, you can also specify whether note durations will
be affected by the Scale Time operation, in addition to start times. If you put
an “X” in the box marked “Scale note durations”, then the length of each note
will be altered by the specified ratio.
Scale Time is an excellent way to set up polyrhythms with existing material. If
you have an eighth-note melody and you want to stretch it out to dottedeighths while maintaining a constant rhythm underneath, select the melody and
Scale it with a ratio of 2 to 3. If you suddenly want a rhythm track to run at
triple-speed for a measure, select a measures’ worth of the track, and Scale it
with a ratio of 3 to 1. (You’ll have to Copy the resulting third of a measure and
Paste it twice to fill out the bar.)
If you expand a region with Scale Time, and there is data already on the track
after the region you are expanding, the expanded data will overlap into the
existing data. If you shrink a region, the end of the region will be left empty —
data from subsequent measures will not be “pulled in” to fill the gap.
As we mentioned at the beginning of this chapter, Scale Time works on both
7.22 Scale Time Before (L) and After (R)
Expanded Notes Overlap with Existing Notes
130 MasterTracksPro
notes and non-note data, but not always at the same time. If you execute the
command from the Track Editor or Event Editor window, all data is acted
upon. From the Step Editor window, non-note data is affected only if the
window is in “All” mode, otherwise only notes are affected. From any of the
MIDI data windows, only the data displayed is affected — not the notes and
not any other data.
The Change Filter
Normally, all data within a selected region is affected by a Change operation.
But data which is affected by the operation can be restricted by the Change
Filter. The Strip Data function goes a certain distance towards being able to
isolate specific types of data for editing; the Change Filter goes much further,
and lets you do so without removing the data from its context. It provides a
way to narrow editing commands so that they work only on very specific
musical events.
Whenever you choose a Change-menu command (except Conductor, Thin, Fit
Time, or Scale Time), the dialog box that opens contains the item “Use Change
Filter”. If you click on the box next to “Use”, then the Change Filter parameters that have been set up previously will become active in the operation that
follows. If you click in the oval surrounding the words “Change Filter”, the
Change Filter dialog box opens, and you can set the parameters right then and
there. (You can also open the Change Filter dialog box and set the parameters
from the Edit menu by choosing “Change Filter”.)
The Change Filter parameters work similarly to the parameters in the Strip
Data dialog box, except they are somewhat more sophisticated. When an item
is selected by putting an “X” in the box immediately to its left, then only the
data within the range specified in the boxes to the right of the item is affected
by the Change command. You can use as many items as you like.
For example, a Transpose command on a track would normally involve all
pitches. If you just wanted to transpose pitches in the octave C3 to C4, then
within the Transpose dialog box, you could click on “Change Filter”, and then
within the Change Filter dialog box, click on “Pitches” and specify the notes
Using the Change Menu
131
C3 and C4.
Pitches
7.23 The Change Filter Dialog
The first item in the Change Filter dialog box is, indeed, Pitches. Pitches can be
entered in the “from” and “to” boxes by typing in their names from the Mac
(always use “#”s for accidentals); by typing in their MIDI numbers (0-127); or
by playing them on a MIDI keyboard. Being able to isolate data by pitch is
extremely useful and has many applications. One obvious one is that it will let
you quantize the snare drum on a track (if the drum’s note is C#4, set both
Pitch parameters to C#4), and leave the other drums alone.
Durations
The second item is Durations. The parameters are in clocks (240 clocks = 1
quarter-note) and can be set anywhere between 1 and 9999. Limiting durations
in an operation can be useful in a number of ways. If your keyboard technique
132 MasterTracksPro
isn’t perfect and you occasionally hit two keys instead of one, chances are the
wrong notes will be very short, say around 20 clocks, and you can eliminate
them, leaving longer notes alone, by setting the Durations parameters in the
Change Filter to 1 and 25, and using Strip Data in the Cut mode. If you have a
string part that alternates staccato and legato, and you want to bring out the
long notes without making the whole track louder, you can use the Velocity
command, increasing all notes by 150%, but specifying in the Change Filter
only durations between, say, 180 and 1000.
Velocities
The next item is Velocities, which refers only to note-on velocities, and can
range from 1 to 127. Sorting notes out by velocity is another good way to
eliminate keyboard mistakes — Strip out all the notes with velocities below 20,
for example. It also has expressive uses: you can exaggerate accents on a track,
for example, by increasing note velocities by 125% only if they exceed 80 to
begin with.
Channel
This item is useful when dealing with multi-channel tracks (which are unassigned in the Track Editor window), which you might have as a result of
importing a Type 0 MIDI File, or recording a guitar controller not in MultiTrack Record mode. By turning this on, you can work only on notes within the
track that are assigned to a specific channel. It makes it possible to work with a
multi-channel track without having to Strip each channel’s data and Paste it
onto another track.
Measures
This item lets you specify that the operation will not apply to every measure,
but only to some — alternate measures, every third measure, every fourth, etc.
It is chosen with radio buttons: the default is “all measures”, but you can
change it by clicking on the other button next to the word “Every” and typing
in the number you want. The beginning of the editing region is considered to
be in the first measure, regardless of whether it is at the beginning of the
measure or somewhere in the middle — measure number 2 begins at the next
Using the Change Menu
133
measure boundary.
An example of how this feature can be used: Break up a melody line between
two instruments by stripping off (in Cut mode) every second measure and
pasting it to a different track. Another example: Humanize the fills on a drum
track, but leave the rest of the track in strict quantized rhythm, by applying the
Humanize function only to every fourth measure.
Beats and Sub-Beats
The final item in the Change Filter dialog box restricts the action of a Change
command to particular beats or fractions of beats within a measure. The filter is
enabled by clicking in the box next to the word “Start”.
Each one of the little circles that looks like a note-head is actually a radio
button. By clicking in it you are telling the program that if it finds a note
occurring at this rhythmic location in the measure, it should perform the
operation on it. Notes occurring elsewhere in the measure are to be left alone.
The window allows you to specify rhythmic locations in measures up to nine
beats long. These locations can be on beats, or on sub-beats — either 1/4-beats
(sixteenth-notes, assuming that a quarter-note is a beat), or 1/3-beats (triplet
eighth-notes). If you apply this filter to a measure that’s, say, four beats long,
than any instructions you give for notes occurring on beats 5 through 9 are
ignored. (If your measure is more than nine beats long, you cannot address any
beat past 9. Sorry.)
Here’s an example of how this item can be used: you have a passage of eighth
notes in 4/4 time over several measures, and you want to accent certain notes in
the passage, which fall on the downbeat and on the “and” of 3. You would click
on the first sixteenth-note in the group labelled “1” and the third sixteenth in
the group labelled “3”. Enable the filter by clicking next to “Start”, and then
use the Velocity command to increase the specified notes by 130%.
Another use for this filter would be if you only wanted to quantize notes
occurring on beats, leaving the notes between beats to fend for themselves. Or
the converse: make the rhythm a little more fluid by humanizing the beats
134 MasterTracksPro
within the bar, but leaving the downbeat right on zero.
You can click on as many radio buttons as you want, even all of them. You can
mix 1/4-beats and 1/3-beats freely, even within the same beat. Option-click to
clear all sub-beats.
The text box in the “Start” line lets you specify an overall tolerance for the
locations. If this box says “0”, then only data occurring precisely on the designated locations will be included in the operation. Numbers larger than 0 mean
that the events can be a little “off”, either before or after the location by the
specified number of clocks, and still be included. To decide what number to
put in the window, it helps to keep in mind that a quarter-note is 240 clocks,
therefore a sixteenth-note is 60 clocks, and a triplet eighth-note is 80 clocks. To
keep everything in perspective, if you turn on all the sixteenth-note radio
buttons and set the window to 40 (half the distance between two sixteenthnotes), all of the data in a measure will be included in the operation.
Keep in mind that this filter by itself does not actually quantize notes within the
specified window, it merely makes them available to a Change operation.
The beat restrictions can be useful when working with non-note data as well.
To help avoid MIDI “choke” on beats, when lots of things tend to happen at
the same time, you can strip all Channel and Key Pressure within 5 clocks of
every beat. Or, you can create a certain kind of expressive gesture by doubling
(increasing by 200%) the modulation on only the fourth beat of every bar. You
can create a percussive track out of a continuous sound by setting Controller #7
(MIDI Volume) to 127 on the first 16th-note of every beat, and setting it to 0
on the second 16th-note.
Combining filters
Remember that all of these filter parameters can be used together, so that you
can specify (to use an absurd example) that an operation will only affect notes
between C#5 and B7, if they are at least 40 clocks but no more than 600 clocks
long, if they have a velocity between 62 and 90, if they were recorded on
channel 12, and if they occur within 4 clocks of the third sixteenth-note of the
second beat in measures divisible by 7! You will certainly come up with more
Using the Change Menu
135
practical combinations.
Executing and Recalling the Change Filter
When you have finished setting up the parameters in the Change Filter, press
Return or Click on OK to return you to the dialog box you came from (or, if
you accessed the Filter from the Edit menu, to the main screen). When you get
back to the dialog box, you will see the Filter has automatically been enabled.
Set up the rest of the parameters in the dialog box, and click OK or press
Return, and the Change is executed according to the dialog box parameters and
the Change Filter restrictions.
Once the parameters in the Change Filter are set up, they stay that way until
you specifically alter them (or Quit Master Tracks Pro). This is true even if you
end up disabling the Change Filter or even Cancelling the operation from
which you called up the Filter. You can save the Change Filter parameters as
part of the Preferences file, so that the dialog box opens with the same parameters every time you boot the program.
136 MasterTracksPro
Using the
Windows Menu
8
The Windows menu provides access to any of the main Master Tracks Pro
operation and data windows. If a window is not
currently on the screen, or if it is hidden behind other
windows, you can open it, bring it to the front, and
make it the active window either by choosing it from
the Windows menu or using the appropriate command-key combination from the Macintosh keyboard.
When a window is open, a check mark appears next to
its name on the Windows menu. When it is the active
window, its name appears in outline.
8.1 The Windows Menu
We have covered the action of most of the windows in
previous chapters, but here they are again, for reference.
Remember that only one of the MIDI Data windows
(≈-4 through ≈-0) can be open at a time. Opening one
while another is open will cause the new one to assume
the size and position of the old one. Also remember that the current window
sizes and positions can be saved using the Save Preferences command on the
Edit menu.
Using the Windows Menu
137
The Main Windows
TrackEditor
The Track Editor window allows you to see and name all the tracks in your
sequence. It lets you choose which tracks to play, record, solo, and loop. You
can enter MIDI channel assignments and initial MIDI program numbers and
MIDI volume commands for each track in the sequence. The right half of the
window provides a graphic display of the sequence in units of measures, and
shows you where the end of the sequence falls. It allows you to select regions for
editing or changing on a measure-by-measure basis. You can also place and
display markers that allow you to quickly find specific places in a sequence.
EventListEditor
The Event List Editor window presents all the MIDI data on a track in alphanumeric form for precise editing. It allows you to insert, delete, and alter
individual events, as well as select regions for Edit and Change operations.
StepEditor
The Step Editor window lets you see and edit MIDI note data graphically. You
can input, move, stretch, copy, and erase individual notes anywhere on the
graph, and you can also edit note parameters numerically. You can record notes
in step-entry mode, and you can select regions of notes for Edit and Change
operations with a resolution of up to 1/240th of a quarter-note. In this window
and all of the MIDI Data windows, you can place and display markers with
sub-measure resolution, and name tracks.
The MIDI Data Windows
Please note that any of the following windows can have a transparent view of
the Step Editor place on them. See Chapter 4 for more info.
138 MasterTracksPro
PitchBend
The Pitch Bend window allows you to display and edit pitch bend data. You
can enter, edit, and erase individual pitch bend events, and you can draw in
consecutive events graphically. You can also select regions of pitch bend events
for editing.
ChannelPressure
The Channel Pressure window lets you work with MIDI channel pressure data,
also called “aftertouch”. Using a graph in the window, you can add, edit, and
erase individual channel pressure events, and you can also draw them in
consecutively on the graph. Regions of channel pressure events can be selected
for editing operations as well.
KeyPressure
The Key Pressure window is the window for displaying and working with
MIDI key pressure data, also called “polyphonic aftertouch”. You can enter,
change, or erase key pressure events on the graph in the window, draw in
consecutive events, or select regions of events for editing operations.
Modulation
The Modulation window lets you display and edit MIDI modulation data
(Controller #1) which usually corresponds to the mod wheel on your synthesizer. The graph lets you input, edit, or erase modulation events, draw them in
as a group, and select events in regions for editing operations.
Controllers
The Controllers window lets you enter and edit data for any MIDI controller,
numbers 0 through 127. (Remember, Modulation is Controller #1, not #0.)
Using the graph in the window, you can enter, edit, or erase individual controller events, draw them in consecutively, and select them in regions of editing
operations. A list of standard MIDI Controller assignments appears in Appendix H at the end of this manual.
Using the Windows Menu
139
Velocity
The Velocity window lets you see and edit the velocity of any note. You can
edit or erase individual velocities, and you can select them regionally for editing
operations.
Other Windows
Tempo Map
The Tempo Map window shows in graphic form the time signature (meter),
beat unit, and tempo of a sequence from moment to moment. You can insert,
erase, and edit individual tempo changes, and select regions for editing.
TheBigCounter
The Big Counter window allows you to see an enlarged view of the Measure/
SMPTE counter.
140 MasterTracksPro
UsingtheSongs
and Layout Menus
9
The Songs Menu
Master Tracks Pro lets you open several sequence files at a
time and move among them freely. It also lets you play all
open files in any order you like, for live-performance
situations. Create a “Song Set” containing a list of songs
stored on disk that will load automatically, in order.
UsingMultipleSongs
9.1 The Songs Menu
To open multiple sequences, or “Songs”, just go to the File menu and Open
them. Each file will open and become the “current” sequence as soon as you
open it. As you open each file, its name is added to the Songs menu, and you
can view the entire list when you open that menu.
The current sequence — the one you can listen to and edit — is denoted on
the menu by a check mark. If you want another sequence to become the
current one, simply select it from the menu (you cannot do this while a sequence is playing, however, which is just as well). Sequences that are not
current are still open, and if you want to store them on disk, they must be saved
as individual files.
To close a sequence, you must first make it the current sequence, and then if
you have made any changes in it since the last time it was saved, the program
will ask if you want to save this latest version. When you Quit the program, if
there are any open sequences which have undergone any changes since the last
time you saved them, you will be asked if you want to save each of them, one at
Using the Songs and Layout Menus
141
a time. (If you just want to shut everything down without saving, hold down
the Option key when you click on “No” the first time you are asked if you want
to save, and the rest of the files will close without asking.) The same thing will
happen if you hold down the Option key while selecting “Close”.
The maximum number of songs that can be open at one time is 16. If they are
particularly long, or if you are using a Macintosh with a small amount of
memory (or you have allocated a small amount of RAM in MultiFinder), you
may be limited to fewer than 16.
ThePlaylist
Besides helping you keep track of multiple open songs, the Songs menu lets you
construct a “Playlist” for playing any number of sequences automatically, one
after another, without selecting or loading them separately.
9.2 The Song Playlist Dialog
Choosing the “Song Playlist” command from the Songs menu opens up a
window in which you can construct a Playlist from the currently open songs.
You can arrange the songs in any order. If the order you see isn’t right, use the
mouse to move any song into a different slot by clicking on the song name,
holding the mouse button, dragging the song into the slot where you want it,
and releasing. The other songs in the list will move aside to make room for the
change.
142 MasterTracksPro
You cannot insert a blank song into a Playlist slot, nor can you “double” a song
on a Playlist — if you want to play a song twice, Save it under a different name
(use Save As), then re-open the original version. Both versions will now be on
the Playlist and you can arrange them as you wish.
The “Start” arrow lets you select a starting point for playing the Playlist. Click
and drag it to move it. If you have some songs open that you don’t want to
include on the Playlist, put them at the beginning of the list and move the Start
arrow below them.
Once you’ve determined your song order and starting point, you can set up
how the songs will flow into each other. You can have them go automatically,
with a pause between them (for applause, of course) that can be anywhere from
0 to 999 seconds (for really thunderous ovations) long. Or, you can tell the
program to wait before going on to the next song until it receives a MIDI
message, or until you press a key on the Macintosh. The MIDI message can be
any note or controller (like sustain pedal, portamento pedal, data switch, etc.)
you designate. You can also wait for a signal before the first song in the list
plays. Click Play (or hit the Space Bar) and then send the signal (Mac key or
MIDI message) and the song will then play.
If you click on the radio button next to “Note”, you can specify which note will
start the next song by typing in its name (use #’s for accidentals), or its MIDI
number, or by playing it on your MIDI keyboard. If you click on the radio
button next to “Controller”, you can type in the number of the controller
command you want the program to wait for.
Note that this setting will be global for the entire Playlist — the program will
always wait the specified number of seconds, or wait for the designated notes or
controller, before proceeding to the next song, regardless of where in the
Playlist it happens to be.
To get the Playlist started, click on Play in the Playlist window or press the
Space Bar. To leave this window, click on Exit. The window will maintain the
Playlist after you close it, unless you close any of the individual song files or
open new ones. To stop the playback without leaving the window, click on
Pause or Stop. If you clicked Pause, the song will start playing from where you
left off when you click Play again or hit the Space Bar. If you clicked on Stop
Using the Songs and Layout Menus
143
the song will restart from the beginning when you hit the Space Bar or click
Play. Click on Exit to stop play and leave the window.
SavingandLoadingthePlaylist
When a Playlist is constructed, you can save it to disk, just like any other file,
using the Save Song Set command. The Song Set is just a list — it does not
actually contain the sequences in it, which must be saved individually. When
you load a Playlist from disk, using the Open Song Set command, all of the
sequences on the list open automatically, in the correct order. For this to
happen, however, all of the sequences must be in the same folder on the desktop as
the Song Set itself. If any sequences are not in the folder, they will not load, and
you will get an error message (other sequences which are in the folder will load,
however).
144 MasterTracksPro
The Layout Menu
The Layout Menu contains several commands that
determine the appearance of data windows. These
commands can influence your interaction with the
program in important ways.
Show/Hide Grid
This command is a toggle that lets you switch
between two versions of the Step Editor window grid.
The grid always displays a dotted vertical line at each
measure boundary, but you have two choices when it
9.3 The Layout Menu
comes to the light horizontal lines that represent
pitch: you can display a dotted horizontal line for every “white key,” or you can
hide the full grid and display only the solid horizontal lines at octaves.
The octave grid gives an uncluttered screen, while the full grid provides more
help in precise placement of notes. Which grid you use is a matter of convenience and personal style.
When the full grid is visible, you can switch to the octave grid by choosing
Hide Grid on the Layout menu. Conversely, when the octave grid is on screen,
you can switch to the full grid by choosing Show Grid.
9.4 Hide Grid (L) and Show Grid (R)
Show/Hide Markers
This is a toggle command that lets you display or remove the marker ruler from
the Track Editor, Step Editor, and MIDI Data windows. Using markers and
Using the Songs and Layout Menus
145
the marker ruler is discussed in the chapters on the Track and Step Editor
windows and in Chapters 10 and 11.
When the marker ruler is not visible, you can display it by choosing Show
Markers on the Layout menu. To remove it, choose Hide Markers. This toggle
is global for all windows: setting it in any window sets it for all of them. With
markers hidden, the Data areas of the windows expand to show more data.
Note that when they are hidden, the markers are still active: you can still Tab
and Shift-Tab to them, and they will always appear in the Markers window.
This command interacts must be set to "Show Markers" in order to see the
Position Indicator window (see below).
Show/Hide Program Changes
This is a toggle command that lets you display or remove the Program changes
from the bottom of the Step Edit window.
Show/HideVelocity
This is a toggle command that lets you display or remove the Velocity display at
the beginning of notes in the Step Edit Window.
Show SMPTE Time
This is a toggle command that lets you display either SMPTE time or Measure/
Beat/Clock time in relevant windows.
Show/HidePositionIndicator
This is a toggle command that lets you display or remove the Position Indicator
in the Marker area of the Track Sheet. This display is only available if you also
select "Show Markers".
FollowPlayback
When the Follow Playback feature is active, the Track Editor, Step Editor, and
MIDI Data windows scroll as the sequence plays, displaying a highlight to
146 MasterTracksPro
indicate the beat or measure that is currently playing. With this feature off,
these windows remain as you left them during sequence playback.
To activate the Follow Playback feature, choose it on the Layout menu. When
the feature is active, a checkmark appears next to it on the menu. To deactivate
Follow Playback, simply choose it again. The check mark will disappear.
When Follow Playback is deactivated, you can scroll to and examine any
location in any window independently of the playback (measure counter)
position. If you are editing a track while the sequence is playing, it is usually
more convenient to have Follow Playback deactivated, so the window doesn’t
jump around when you’re trying to select a region.
Multi-TrackRecord
This is a toggle command that lets you choose either normal recording or
Multi-track recording. See Chapter 1 for more details.
Zoom In and Zoom Out
The Zoom commands let you choose how much data you see in the Step
Editor and MIDI Data windows. To get the big picture on your sequence, use
the Zoom Out command to place more measures on the window. For precise
work, use the Zoom In command to show a smaller amount of the sequence at
higher “magnification”. Six separate levels of zoom are available, so you can
easily adjust the display to fit your needs.
The Zoom level set by the Zoom In and Zoom Out commands also determines
the number of clocks displayed per pixel on the screen, and thus affects the
resolution at which you can edit data in the Step Editor and MIDI data
windows. (A pixel is the smallest dot on the Mac screen and the minimum
distance interval you can move your mouse.)
If you zoom all the way in to the highest level of magnification, each pixel
represents a single clock (1/240th of a quarter-note). This is the best level for
precise work when you’re editing notes, pitch bend, or other MIDI data. When
you zoom further out, the clock-per-pixel ratio increases, to a maximum of 24
clocks (1/10th of a quarter-note) per pixel.
Using the Songs and Layout Menus
147
The setting of the Zoom level can also affect how densely MIDI data will be
placed in a track. For details, see the discussion of “Data Density and the Zoom
Factor” in Chapter 4.
Note: if any measures in the current sequence use a smaller division of the
measure than quarter-notes (e.g., if a time signature is 6/8, 5/16, etc.), then the
widest “zoom out” level will not be available.
148 MasterTracksPro
Usingthe
Goodies Menu
10
The Goodies menu contains a number of important
features that greatly enhance Master Tracks Pro’s
flexibility. Many of the program’s more advanced
functions are accessed from this menu.
The first six entries open and close operational
windows.
Memory
The Memory window helps you keep track of how
much RAM the program is using at any one time.
To open it, select this item from the menu. It will
stay open until you close it.
10.1 The Goodies Menu
It is possible, if you are working with several large sequences simultaneously,
that Master Tracks Pro will run out of memory and will not be able to perform
certain operations. This window can serve to warn you when this might
happen. It shows how much memory is used by the current songs, how much is
used by the Clipboard, and how much is still available in RAM
for additional musical data — either the computer’s total
memory, or, if you are running it under MultiFinder, the
program’s allocated RAM.
If you encounter a memory shortage, there are several things
you can do:
10.2 The Memory
Window
Using the Goodies Menus
149
•
Close any sequences you are not currently working on.
•
Use the Strip Data or Thin Continuous Data functions to eliminate or thin
out controller, pitch bend, and/or pressure data wherever possible.
•
Clear the Clipboard by copying a blank measure. This frees up any memory
in the Clipboard for use in the sequence.
•
If you are running any DAs at the same time as Master Tracks Pro, close
them.
•
If you are running the program under MultiFinder, allocate more memory
to Master Tracks Pro by doing the following:
Quit the program, go to the Finder, click once on the Master Tracks Pro
icon and type ≈-I, or pull down “Get Info” from the File menu. In the box
labelled “Application memory size (K)”, type in a number that is about 200
greater than the number that appears there (initially, that number should be
1000). Close the “Info” box and re-start the program.
The Tempo Window
10.3 The Tempo
Window
The Tempo Window displays the current sequence tempo, meter,
and beat. It also provides a scroll bar for making temporary changes
to a sequence’s tempo. It is discussed in Chapter 1. Most of the
time, this window will be open.
Transport
The Transport window contains controls for operating the sequencer: Play,
Stop, Pause, Record, Fast Forward, and Rewind. It also contains counters for
showing the current start position for the sequencer, both in measures/beats/
clocks and in hours/minutes/seconds/frames. In addition, it contains controls
for setting various sequencer functions, including Punch-in and -out, audible
click, audible count-off, auto-return of the sequence counter, MIDI Thru
(echo) setting, and synchronization mode.
150 MasterTracksPro
You cannot “put away” the Transport window; however, it could end up being
hidden behind another window, in which case selecting it from the Windows
menu will bring it to the foreground. The Transport window is also the only
window that you do not need to select before you can work in it. If another
window is selected, such as Track Editor, there is no need to “de-select” it in
order to operate the Transport controls.
This is not true of the Measure Counter, however — clicking in any of the
counter fields will select the Transport window, bringing it to the foreground,
and de-select any other windows.
10.4 The Transport Window
Markers
The Markers window shows all of the markers in a sequence in order, displaying each marker’s name, musical location (measure/beat/clock), and real-time
location (hour/minute/second/frame). In this window markers can be added,
deleted, re-positioned, and locked.
To change the location of a marker — either in real time or musical time —
click on any number in either of the marker’s time fields, and type in a new
number. You can move among the digits in the field by using the Tab key.
When you enter any new numbers in the musical-time (“Measure”) column,
the real-time (“Time”) column is automatically re-calculated, and vice versa.
When the time is changed, if the marker is now out of order, it will automatically re-position itself on the list. To change the name of a marker, double-click
on the name, and type in the new name. Press Return when you are done.
To delete a marker, single-click on the marker’s name and then click on the box
marked “Delete” at the top of the window. To add a new marker, simply click
Using the Goodies Menus
151
on the box marked “Add” and a new marker named “Marker n” (n is a number)
will be added to the list, and it will be given the Measure and Time numbers of
the last marker already on the list.
10.5 The Markers Window
You can lock and unlock markers from this window. Locked markers are useful
for showing “fixed” points in a sequence, which might correspond to specific
visual events or sound effects on a film. A locked marker will not immediately
move when you perform any operation on the measure it is located in which
affects the timing of the marker, such as a Conductor change, Fit Time, or
Insert Measure. If you try, you will get a dialog box asking you whether the
marker should stay where it is in real (i.e., SMPTE) time, or should move with
the music. You can also specify at that time whether markers will always stay
with time or move with music. Unlocked markers will always move with the
music. See Chapter 11 for more on this.
To lock or unlock an individual marker, click in the column labelled “Lock” in
the line for that marker. A little padlock icon will appear. To unlock, click on
the padlock. To lock or unlock all of the markers on a list, click at the top of
the window where it says “Lock All” or “Unlock All”.
Clicking in the center box at the top of the window opens the MIDI Setup
dialog box, for setting the sequence’s synchronization mode and start time,
among other parameters. More details later in this chapter.
152 MasterTracksPro
The Markers window can stay open while other windows open and close. If it
becomes hidden by other windows, select it from the Windows menu and it
will come to the forefront.
Markers can be moved within any of the data windows while a sequence is
playing, but they cannot be moved in the Markers window while a sequence is
playing.
Notepad
The Notepad provides a convenient way of recording memos, track assignments, marker lists, and any other text data you might feel would be appropriate to accompany a sequence. The contents of the Notepad are saved with the
sequence it is opened inside of, and they are automatically loaded into Master
Tracks Pro whenever the sequence is opened, whether you actually open the
Notepad or not.
The Notepad accepts text data like
any Macintosh text processor. It is
in fact very similar to the original
Macintosh “Note Pad” desk accessory, except that each sequence file
has its own Notepad, and Master
Tracks Pro’s version puts all information on a single “page” of unlimited length. The Notepad window
can be re-sized as large or as small as
you like. Text in the window will be
re-formatted to fit the current size,
and the window size will be remembered when you close the Notepad
and open it again.
10.6 The Notepad Window
The Notepad window has two functions in it: “Get track info” and “Get
markers”. The first will bring the track information — track number, channel,
initial program and volume, and name — into the Notepad, headed by the
sequence name. The second will bring the list of all markers, including name,
Using the Goodies Menus
153
musical time, and actual time, into the Notepad, again headed by the sequence
name.
Once entered into the Notepad, text can be manipulated in all of the usual
ways, using the mouse and the commands on the Edit menu. Text in a
Notepad can also be imported from and exported to other Macintosh applications through the Macintosh Clipboard, using the Edit commands.
MasterFader
The Master Fader window is used to control the overall volume of selected
tracks. See Chapter 1 for more info.
The rest of the items on the Goodies menu deal with various advanced features
of Master Tracks Pro.
Sysex
Sysex is a feature that allows you to send and receive MIDI system exclusive
data, such as synthesizer patches, to and from the MIDI devices in your system.
You can store this data in files on disk, and then retrieve it at any time to send
to your instrument. Since each instrument has a different system exclusive data
format, you can only do “bulk dumps” with Master Tracks Pro — that is, you
can store and send data as one continuous file, and the data cannot be edited.
Note: Master Tracks Pro only supports system exclusive transfers to and from
MIDI devices that do not require “handshaking”. Consult your owner’s manual
to see if your particular device requires handshaking.
To use the Sysex feature, choose Sysex on the Goodies menu. When you do,
the System Exclusive dialog box appears.
ReceivingSystemExclusiveData
Before you can receive system exclusive messages from your synths or other
MIDI devices, you’ll need to know how to send them from the devices. Con-
154 MasterTracksPro
sult your owner’s manuals
for instructions. When
you’re ready to proceed,
click on Receive in the
System Exclusive dialog
box. Then instruct the
transmitting device to start
sending. Master Tracks Pro
will now record any system
exclusive data it receives.
10.7 The System Exclusive Dialog
You can receive up to 512 separate system exclusive messages in one file. When
you send the data back to the device later, it will be sent on the same channel it
was received on. To assist you in recording multiple system exclusive messages
in a single file, the program counts the number of messages it receives and
displays the count. In addition, each time a new message is received, the
program attempts to identify the System Exclusive ID byte sent with the
message. If it is successful, it will display the manufacturer’s name in the memo
field in the dialog box.
When you’ve finished sending the system exclusive data from the device(s) to
Master Tracks Pro, click on Stop in the dialog to shut off the receiving process.
Now you need to store the system exclusive data. Begin by giving the file a
name. Click on the Filename field and type in the name there. You can also
place a memo about the data in the Memo box. To do so, click in the box or
press Tab, and enter your memo.
When you’ve named the file and written the memo, click on Save. A File dialog
box will pop up. The name in the Filename field here will default to the name
you’ve given the file from within the System Exclusive box. You can keep that
name or type in another one, and then save the system exclusive file as you
would any other Macintosh file.
SendingSystemExclusiveData
To send a system exclusive file to your MIDI device, the first thing you need to
do is retrieve it from the disk. Select Sysex from the Goodies menu and click on
Using the Goodies Menus
155
Open. This brings up a standard File dialog box. When you’ve located the
desired file, open it.
Before you can successfully send a system exclusive file to a MIDI device, you
must first get the device ready to receive it by following the appropriate steps
listed in its owner’s manual. When you’re ready, click on Send in the System
Exclusive dialog box. Master Tracks Pro will send the file in its entirety. Usually
the receiving device will inform you about whether or not the transfer was
successful.
When you’ve finished your system exclusive operations, click on Quit in the
dialog box to return to the main program screen. If you have any data in the
receive buffer that you haven’t saved to disk, the program will ask you if you
want to save it.
LoadingandSendingMultipleMessages
Master Tracks Pro’s Sysex feature remembers the MIDI Channel (also sometimes referred to as the “Device ID”) of each message it receives, and when it
sends a system-exclusive file with multiple messages, each message will go out
on the same channel it came in on. If you want to save all of the patches
associated with a particular sequence, and each of your MIDI devices has a
selectable Basic Send and Receive channel, set each device to a different channel
and then dump their contents consecutively into a Master Tracks Pro Sysex file
while the “Receive” button is highlighted in the Sysex dialog box. Then save all
of this information as one file.
When you want to reload all your equipment with the patches for the sequence,
just load the Sysex file and click on Send, and watch each of your MIDI devices
receive its information in turn.
Keyboard Setup
One of Master Tracks Pro’s most useful features is the ability it gives you to
operate all the sequencer transport controls, and to select durations in the Step
Editor, using a MIDI keyboard, freeing you from the need to move back and
forth between the Mac and your synth.
156 MasterTracksPro
Selecting the Keyboard Setup command pops up a dialog box that lets you
configure Master Tracks Pro for MIDI keyboard control of these functions.
When you’ve made your configuration settings,
click on OK to enter them and return to the
program, or click on Cancel to return without
entering the changes. Your MIDI keyboard
setup can be stored using the Preferences command from the File menu.
The options for transport control are at the left
side of the Keyboard command dialog box. To
assign a function to a MIDI key, click in the box
to the left of the function name and an “X” will
10.8 The Keyboard Setup Dialog
appear. Then click on the text box to the right of
the function name, and immediately play the key to which you want to assign
that function. (Alternatively, you can type in the pitch letter name and octave
number [use #’s for accidentals], or the MIDI Pitch number [0-127].) You can
de-activate any individual command by clicking in its box and removing the
“X”.
Being able to activate the functions individually allows you to use only the ones
you really need, leaving you more keys to play. You can assign the same key to
Play and Stop or to Record and Stop, and the program will toggle between the
two functions when you play that key. When you are recording a sequence, the
keys that you assign to Record, Stop, and Pause will not be recorded.
Now to activate the assignments you’ve made, click on the small box next to
“Use in Transport”. An “X” in the box means that keyboard transport control is
now active. You can turn it off again at any time, without disturbing the
settings, by clicking on the box again.
In Chapter 3, we described how to perform Step-Entry recording in the Step
Edit window. The Keyboard dialog box allows you to change Step-Entry
durations from the MIDI keyboard itself, by assigning each duration to a
specific MIDI key (which you then cannot use for note entry). As with the
transport controls, each duration can be assigned a MIDI key by clicking on the
box to the left of the duration icon until it displays an “X”, then clicking on the
text box to the right of the icon, and playing the desired MIDI note from the
Using the Goodies Menus
157
keyboard, or else typing in the note’s name or number. In addition to the
standard durations, you can also assign a key to:
•
•
•
•
a rhythmic “dot”, which increases the most recently-set duration by 50%,
a rest,
the “backspace” (or delete) key, which erases the last note entered, and
the “tuplet” toggle, although the nature of the tuplet still has to be set on
the screen.
You can assign as many, or as few, of the durations and functions as you like.
To enable the Step-Entry keyboard input function, click on the box next to
“Use in Step Input”. An “X” will appear in the box indicating that keyboard
control of note durations is now active. You can turn it off again by clicking on
the box once more.
You can use both the Step-Entry and the Transport keyboard controls at the
same time. The program will prevent you from assigning the same MIDI key to
two different functions within the same set of controls (except as noted above).
MIDI Setup
The MIDI Setup dialog box lets you choose which software Ports (A and B) are
connected with which Macintosh ports (modem and printer) or connection to
the Apple MIDI Manager. It also lets you choose what mode of synchronization to use when running the sequencer, and how to respond to synchronization information. Choosing “MIDI Setup” opens a window with a number of
radio buttons and parameter boxes. The window can also be opened from the
Markers window, by double-clicking on the numerical display (the sequence
Start Time) at the top in the center of the window. MIDI Setup parameters are
stored in the Preferences file.
Master Tracks Pro will automatically sense the presence of a multi-port interface
such as the MOTU MIDI Time Piece. Please refer to the MTP manual for
more information on multi-port use.
The rest of this section deals with Master Tracks Pro’s internal MIDI Drivers.
158 MasterTracksPro
AssigningPlaybackPorts
As discussed in the section on
setting channels in Chapter 1,
Master Tracks Pro will assign a
track to play back on a channel
on either of two software Ports
(referred to below with an
upper-case “P”), A and B. This
gives the program effective
control over 32 MIDI channels
(or more depending on the
interface), as each Port can
address 16 MIDI channels. You
can take advantage of this
10.9 The MIDI Setup Dialog
feature if you have two MIDI
interfaces, one connected to
each physical (hardware) port (lower-case “p”) on the Macintosh — the modem
port and the printer port. (A track’s playback setting will also affect how data is
recorded on it in the Multi-Track Record mode — although this does not
apply to normal recording.)
The MIDI Setup window lets you decide which software Ports will be assigned
to which physical ports. You can assign both software Ports to a single physical
port, or to different ports. (You cannot connect a software Port to both physical
ports.) If you want to take advantage of the program’s 32-channel capability,
you will assign them to different ports. To set up the assignment, click on the
radio button for each software Port that assigns it to the physical port of your
choice. If you are using only a single MIDI interface, then you should assign
everything to just one port.
AssigningtheRecordPort
In normal record mode, Master Tracks Pro only allows you to input MIDI data
on either physical port. Use the next row of radio buttons to choose the physical port to which your main MIDI controller will be connected.
Using the Goodies Menus
159
AssigningtheSynchronizationPort
Master Tracks Pro can record or play a sequence based on the computer’s own
internal clock, or locked to incoming MIDI synchronization signals. When you
are using the sequencer with an external synchronizer, the information from the
synchronizer has to come in through a cable connected to a physical port — the
next row of radio buttons lets you choose which port to use for this purpose.
It is generally a good idea to keep incoming data for recording and incoming
synchronization data separate, so whichever port you select for recording, you
should select the other for synchronization (unless you only have one interface,
in which case you will have to merge the incoming data).
When you are using MIDI Time Code synchronization (selected elsewhere in
this window), the program forces you to keep those signals separate: synchronization information will only appear at the printer port, and you will only be able
to record from the modem port. Therefore, you cannot use MIDI Time Code
sync and record MIDI data at the same time with a single MIDI interface.
Transmitting Sync Commands
Master Tracks Pro lets you transmit MIDI synchronization commands (start,
stop, continue, Song Position Pointer, and clocks) whenever you play or record
a sequence. These commands can be used to control a drum machine or
another sequencer, or they can be converted into audio (FSK) signals which can
be recorded on tape. Recorded FSK signals can then be used later on to synchronize the sequencer to the tape.
You can tell Master Tracks Pro to send MIDI sync commands out the modem
port, printer port, both ports, or neither. MIDI sync can be sent even when the
sequencer is itself being synchronized to an external timing device.
If you have no need to send MIDI sync, you should probably turn it off of both
ports. It uses up a fair amount of the MIDI data stream’s bandwidth, and can
cause or exaggerate some timing problems under extreme conditions.
160 MasterTracksPro
SynchronizationSelection
A set of radio buttons on the left side of the screen selects the type of synchronization that the program will use when it records and plays sequences. “Internal”
means the program will play from the computer’s internal clock, and all
transport commands (start, stop, rewind, etc.) will be handled by the computer.
“External” means that the program will accept MIDI start, stop, continue,
clocks, and Song Position Pointer commands. These commands are generated
by other sequencers, drum machines, and tape-to-MIDI convertors such as the
MIDI Time Piece, Roland SBX-80 or the J.L. Cooper PPS-1 (in “FSK” mode).
When the program is in “External” mode, the tempo, as well as the play, stop,
and continue functions, and often the rewind and fast-forward functions as
well, are under the control of the external device, although the Record function
is toggled from the program.
“MIDI Time Code (P)” means that the program will read MIDI Time Code
data, as generated by devices such as the MIDI Time Piece or the J.L. Cooper
PPS-1 (in “MTC” mode). When the program is in “MIDI Time Code” mode,
the Tempo Map of the sequence is still active (although the overall tempo of
the sequence will change if the speed of the incoming MIDI Time Code data
changes). The play, stop, continue, and rewind and fast-forward functions will
all be under external control, although the Record function is toggled from the
program.
Note: The “(P)” is a reminder that MIDI Time Code will only be read by the
program if it appears at the Printer port.
If these three choices seem familiar, it’s because they are exactly the same as the
choices provided when you toggle the “Sync” box on the Transport window,
discussed in Chapter 1.
To the right of these buttons are four buttons for setting the type of SMPTEderived MIDI Time Code that the program will respond to. (This setting
makes no difference when using Internal or External sync — only MIDI Time
Code.) The choices are 24 frames per second (film), 25 frames per second
(European television), 30 frames per second “non-drop” (North American
Using the Goodies Menus
161
television), and 30 frames per second “drop frame” (also North American
television). The type of SMPTE timecode that has been recorded on the audio
or video tape you are synchronizing the sequence to will determine this selection.
See the next chapter for more information on using external synchronization.
StartTime
These parameter boxes let you set a starting time (also known as a “synchronization offset”) for the sequence when you are synchronizing the program to
MIDI Time Code. It is rare that you will want a musical sequence to start right
at the point on a tape where the SMPTE timecode reads zero — more likely it
will read something like 1 hour, 12 minutes, 35 seconds, 14 frames. This
feature allows you to determine at exactly what SMPTE time on the tape (as
transmitted over MIDI Time Code) Master Tracks Pro will start to play its
sequence. You enter the time by typing in the hour, minute, second, and frame
number of the starting point. Point and click on each field separately, or use the
Tab key to move among them.
The numbers you enter here will become the “Start Time” for the sequence
even if you are not using MIDI Time Code synchronization (although it will
have no effect on the actual playing of the sequence in Internal or External sync
modes). When the measure counter is at 01:01:000, the “Current Time”
indicator below it will show this Start Time, and as you play or move about the
sequence, this figure will be added to the actual length of the sequence in the
Current Time indicator. In addition, the Start Time will appear in the window
at the top center of the Markers window, and the “time” fields of all the
markers in the window will have this value added to them.
Besides being saved in the Preferences file, the Start Time is also saved with the
sequence file when you save it, and will appear automatically when you re-open
it.
SMPTE Dropout Parameter
When playing or recording a sequence to SMPTE-derived MIDI Time Code, it
is always possible that there will be a dropout on the SMPTE track on the
162 MasterTracksPro
master tape, causing the MIDI Time Code stream to be interrupted. Normally,
this would cause a sequencer to stop. Master Tracks Pro, however, lets you
overcome tape dropouts by letting the sequencer continue to play for a certain
period of time without incoming MIDI Time Code. During that interval,
hopefully the SMPTE track will re-appear, and the MIDI Time Code will
resume, and you’ll never hear the difference.
Setting this parameter to 0 means that the program will stop immediately when
the MIDI Time Code stops. Setting it to 1 means that the program will tolerate
a one-second dropout of the time code before it stops, and setting it to 2 means
that there can be a two-second dropout. (Setting it to 1 or 2 also means that the
sequencer will continue for that many seconds after you stop the tape, which is
a small price to pay for dropout-proofing.) During the one or two seconds of
un-synchronized play (also known as “flywheeling”), the sequencer will run at
the tempo it was running at just before the drop-out (by reverting to internal
clock), thereby avoiding any sudden jumps in speed.
Again, this setting has no effect when using Internal or External sync.
ClickSetup
The Click and Count features (turned on from the Transport window — see
Chapter 1) can use either the Macintosh’s internal speaker or an external MIDI
device to sound the metronome beat. This command lets you make that choice,
and determine exactly what outgoing MIDI data will serve as the metronome.
Choose this item from the menu,
and a dialog box opens. At the top
are two radio buttons. Choosing
“Internal” means the metronome
will sound at the Macintosh speaker
(and at the computer’s audio output,
from which it can be amplified). The
volume can be set from the Macintosh “Control Panel” desk accessory.
10.10 The Click Settings Dialog
Using the Goodies Menus
163
Choosing “MIDI” means the metronome will be generated as MIDI notes. The
boxes immediately below let you determine what notes they will be. The first
row, “Bar click”, determines what will happen on the downbeat of each measure (remember, time signatures and beat settings can change throughout a
sequence, and the metronome click will follow those time signature and beat
changes faithfully). The next row, “Beat click”, determines what happens on
each of the other beats in the measure.
You get to choose the Port (A or B), MIDI channel, MIDI note, note-on
velocity, and duration for each type of click. The duration is in arbitrary values
from 1 to 8; 1 is equal to about 10 milliseconds, and 8 about 120 milliseconds.
Most drum machines don’t respond to note durations (they just sound when
they receive a note-on), so you may not have to worry about this parameter.
Note: you can also access this window by double-clicking in the “Click” box in
the Transport window.
ChaseControllers
When you are editing a complex sequence, you often need to jump around to
different parts of the sequence to listen to particular passages. When you stop a
sequence at one point, and then start at another, it can happen that your
synthesizers are set to the wrong
program numbers. That’s because
there may be a program change in
the sequence that hasn’t been played
because you skipped over that
section. Or, a program change was
executed in a track and then you
jumped back to a point before it was
supposed to occur, but your synthesizer is still set to the later program.
10.11 The Chase Controllers Dialog
164 MasterTracksPro
The same thing can happen with
controllers and other continuous
data. If you are in the middle of a
big pitch bend sweep and you stop the sequence and move to somewhere else,
your synthesizer is left with the pitch bend still engaged, and it will be way out
of tune when you next start the sequence. If you do a volume (controller #7)
fade at the end of a sequence, and then re-start the sequence earlier, the synthesizer will still be faded down, and you won’t hear anything!
Master Tracks Pro overcomes this problem with its “Chase” feature. When the
program is “chasing”, it means that if you start a sequence in the middle, the
program will look backwards over the entire sequence, to determine whether
there are any program changes, controller changes, pitch bends, and/or
aftertouch commands on each track prior to your starting point. (This includes
the initial program changes and volume settings in the Track Editor window.)
If there are, then before the sequence starts to play, the program will send out
the most recent changes and commands on each track, thereby setting all of the
synthesizers to their proper state.
The program is intelligent enough to know the difference between, for example, controller #6 and controller #8 commands, and if it finds great gobs of
both of these on a track, it will only send out one — the latest — of each.
The Chase Controllers command opens a dialog box that lets you turn on the
chasing function, and also lets you determine what data the program will chase
and what data it will ignore. The check box at the top turns on and off the
function. An “X” in it means the program will chase the designated commands.
Each type of command then gets its own check box — an “X” means the
program will chase that type: Pitch Bend, Program Changes, Channel Pressure,
Key Pressure, and Controllers. The “Controllers” parameter can be refined
further: three radio buttons let you chase all controllers, only certain controllers
(you get to choose up to four by typing their numbers into the boxes), or all
controllers except certain controllers (again, choose up to four).
Generally speaking, this feature will be used with every box enabled, and “all
controllers” chosen. The program doesn’t run any faster if you do only partial
chasing, but the options are there if you find you have a use for them.
Using the Goodies Menus
165
RecordFilter
As it is recording a track, Master Tracks Pro can selectively record only the
MIDI data you wish, filtering out any data that you don’t want to record.
Choose the Record Filter command on the Goodies menu to bring up a dialog
box that lets you choose which combination of MIDI data types will get
recorded. The Record Filter is similar to the Strip Data command on the
Change menu, except that it gets rid of the data before it gets into the sequence.
10.12 The Record Filter Dialog
With this feature you can independently accept or reject each MIDI
data type: pitch bend, channel
pressure, key pressure, modulation,
program changes, notes, and MIDI
controllers (all of them). For example, you may want to conserve
memory by filtering out aftertouch,
which some keyboards generate
continuously. You can also have the
program recognize data on only one
MIDI channel, rejecting other
channels, and you can have it
quantize the notes as you record.
Each type of MIDI data has a check box next to it. An “X” in the box means
that data will be accepted when a track is recorded. If there is no “X”, that type
of data will be rejected. Data on all channels will be recorded unless the “Only
on channel” box is checked. When this is checked, type the number (1-16) of
the channel whose data you want to accept into the box immediately to the
right, and data on all other channels will be ignored.
The quantization function works similarly to the Quantize command on the
Change menu (see Chapter 7), although it is somewhat simplified. You can
select a quantization factor using the duration icons or by typing in clock
numbers, or by setting up a “tuplet”. You can specify how far ahead or behind
the beat notes must be to get quantized one direction or another — the default
setting of 35% means notes 35% or less ahead of the beat will be moved to the
next beat, while notes more than 35% ahead will be moved to the previous one.
166 MasterTracksPro
Advanced Topics
11
This chapter will explain some of the more advanced uses of Master Tracks Pro.
At the end of the chapter are answers to a few common questions that will crop
up when using Master Tracks Pro.
UsingLoops
Individual tracks can be looped during playback. This feature is especially
useful with short repeating sections such as bass or drum parts. Loops encourage speed and spontaneity in music-making and also save memory. Use them to
work out your ideas.
To take advantage of this feature, record the part you want to loop once, and
then edit if necessary. Trim the loop using the Cut command (not Clear) to get
the proper number of measures to loop — a track ends where there are no more
filled or hollow measures present on the track in the Track Editor window
(even if it’s not the end of the sequence — which is indicated by the grey
vertical bar). Turn on the track’s loop control and let the part play back. Lay
down other parts or even other loops against it by recording on other tracks.
Remember that the loop is only stored in memory once, and always starts at the
beginning of the sequence. You can start the sequence in the middle, and the
looped track will start and then loop when it reaches the end, but if you start
playback past the point where the looped track ends, the track will not playback
at all. A track cannot start to loop in the middle of a sequence; if a track starts
at measure 6 and is set to loop, then each time around you will first hear five
measures of silence, because the loop will include the first five (empty) bars.
AdvancedTopics
167
Once your song or song section is complete, you should copy and paste the
looped part into the track so that it fills out to the end of the sequence. This
will give you the flexibility of Master Tracks Pro’s song structure, and it will also
let you create subtle variations in the loop each time it plays using the Change
menu or other regional editing commands. Once you have copied your looped
part you can append as many copies of it as you like by repeatedly selecting
Paste (≈-V) or Mix Data (≈-M). The insert point automatically moves to the
end of each paste.
Master Tracks Pro’s loop feature requires you to loop to the nearest measure but
if your phrase ends in the middle of a measure and you want to loop it anyway,
this can be accomplished by re-barring the last measure of the track. Let’s say
you’re working in 4/4 time but you want the track to loop a two-and-a-half-bar
phrase. Select measure 3 (which should be the last bar of the track) and choose
Conductor from the Change Menu. Click in the circle next to Set Meter and
set the meter to 2/4 time. Measure 3 will now become a 2/4 measure, and
measure 4 can be Cut from the track. Your track will now loop where you want
it to.
Re-barring
Except when you are working with odd-length loops, time signatures and
placement of measure boundaries within a Master Tracks Pro sequence are
normally a matter of convenience for editing, and have no effect on the way the
music is actually played. However, it can be helpful to keep them in mind if
you are planning to use a sequence generated with Master Tracks Pro in a
music-notation program that reads MIDI Files, such as Passport’s Encore™.
Changing bar lines within Master Tracks Pro may be easier than doing so in a
notation program, so you might want to make sure all your time signatures and
bar lines are correctly lined up before exporting the MIDI File.
Working with the Tempo Map
The Tempo Map is the timing basis of any sequence. It is accessed in the
Tempo Map window (≈-0), and can also be changed using the Conductor
command on the Change menu.
168 MasterTracksPro
11.1 The Effect of Fit Time on the Tempo Map
AdvancedTopics
169
The resolution of the tempo map is the same as any other data window — 240
clocks per quarter-note — and you can place tempo changes on any clock.
(Meter and beat changes, for obvious reasons, can only occur on measure
boundaries.)
Placing and Erasing Tempo Changes
You can place tempo changes by selecting the pencil icon from the window’s
Toolbar (or pressing P on your Mac’s keyboard), then moving the crosshair
pointer to the location and tempo value you want, and clicking the mouse. You
can erase a tempo change by selecting the eraser icon (or pressing “E” on the
Macintosh keyboard), and moving the crosshair-in-a-circle pointer to the exact
spot at which the change occurs, and clicking. You have to be right on top of a
tempo change to erase it — if you are at all off, nothing will happen. Zoom In
if you have trouble.
There is always a tempo setting at the beginning of every measure. This tempo
setting can be changed (by inserting a different tempo), but it cannot be erased.
If you insert a tempo change in the middle of a measure, it is only effective
until the next tempo change — which will be at the next measure boundary (if
not sooner). If you want to change the tempo of a sequence from a point in the
middle of the sequence all the way through to the end, use the Conductor
command from the Change menu, and set the new tempo for all of the measures in question. You can then go into the Tempo Map window and make the
other tempo changes earlier, if you like.
For example, say you are going along at 120 bpm and you want to change the
tempo right in the middle of measure 6 to 180 bpm, and keep it there until the
end of the sequence at measure 20. First, open the Conductor command dialog
box, select measures 7 through 20 and “Set all tempos” to 180. Then go into
the Tempo Map window, select the pencil, and put the cursor on beat 3 of
measure 6, at a value of 180, and click.
Using the Conductor Command
When you use the Conductor command to put a new tempo into one or more
measures of a sequence, normally the tempo setting will appear only at the
170 MasterTracksPro
beginning of every measure. If you use any of the “Change over time” commands, however, then tempo changes will occur on every beat. If you have
multiple tempo changes inside one or more measures and you use the Conductor command on those measures, the original tempo changes will be erased and
new ones — either on the measure boundaries or on the beats — will be
inserted.
This rule does not apply if you use the “Add” feature or either of the “change by
percent” features on the measures in question. In these cases, all of the tempo
changes will remain where they are, but their values will change up or down.
The Fit Time command works the same way as the “change by percent”
feature: it will perform its calculations on existing tempo changes — on measure boundaries, on beats, or between beats — and leave them in place, just
changing their values proportionately so that the overall time of the selected
region is what you specify. The Fit Time command may, however, add additional tempo changes, either at the beginning of the region selected, or on beats
within the region.
Master Tracks Pro calculates tempos in whole numbers of beats per minute. If
you import a sequence or tempo map from another source, any fractional or
decimal tempo values will be rounded off to the nearest whole number. It may
also happen that when you specify a Fit Time or other operation that would
result in a fractional tempo, the program will alternate between two wholenumber tempos over the region to achieve the desired result.
WorkingwithExternalSynchronization
Master Tracks Pro generates its own time base from the Macintosh’s highly
accurate internal clock when sync is set to “Internal” in MIDI Setup (or “Int”
on the Transport window). When “Transmit Sync” is on, it will send out
MIDI timing messages, including Song Position Pointer, Start, Continue,
MIDI clocks, and Stop, corresponding to the Transport window activity. For
example, whenever you move the Transport to a new location in the sequence,
a corresponding MIDI Song Position Pointer message is sent out. This can be
used to control drum machines or other sequencers.
AdvancedTopics
171
MIDI(“Ext”)sync
If Sync is set to “Ext” in the MIDI Setup, the program accepts a time base
reference from an external MIDI source, in the form of MIDI “Clocks”. The
source can be another sequencer, a MIDI drum machine, a tape-sync-to-MIDI
convertor such as the MIDI Time Piece, or a SMPTE-to-MIDI convertor such
as the Roland SBX-80 or Fostex 4050. Connect the MIDI output of the
convertor to the input of the Macintosh’s MIDI interface. Go to the MIDI
Setup dialog box (from the Goodies menu) and set the “Receive Sync on Port”
radio button to the hardware port (modem or printer) that the MIDI interface
receiving the MIDI sync is connected to — a typical setup might have the
Master Keyboard/Controller connected to the modem port and the external
sync box connected to the printer port.
MIDI clocks only occur 24 times per quarter-note, so Master Tracks Pro will
interpolate its 240 clocks per quarter-note from the incoming MIDI Clocks.
The Play, Stop, and locating functions of Master Tracks Pro will now be taken
over by the external MIDI source. When the program receives a Song Position
Pointer command, followed by a string of Clocks, the measure counter will
automatically locate to that point and the sequence will start to play. When the
Clocks stop, the program stops. (If the synchronizer does not send Song
Position Pointer, you will have to reset the external source back to the beginning of the song each time you start, and set Master Tracks Pro’s measure
counter to 0 as well, or else each device will have no way of knowing where the
other is.)
If you want to Record or Punch a track, stop the tape, set up the Record and/or
Punch parameters (enable tracks, set In and Out times, etc.), and click on
Record before you start the external MIDI source.
You can edit any data while the sequence is running while synched to MIDI
Clocks, except Conductor and Tempo Map data. If you want to hear what an
edit sounds like without running the external source, you can take Master
Tracks Pro out of Ext Sync mode and put it in Int Sync mode, and then put it
back into Ext Sync mode when you want to run it with external timing again.
(The sequencer must be stopped every time you change the synchronization
mode.)
172 MasterTracksPro
When synced to MIDI Clocks and Song Position Pointers, all tempo and meter
changes are under the control of the external synchronizer, and the Tempo
Map in the sequence is ignored. If you have tempo changes in a sequence you
want to preserve, you have to enter them into the synchronizer — consult the
synchronizer’s manual for the best way to do this. Some synchronizers have a
“learn” function which allows them to record a tempo map as it comes into
them. To use this function, connect a MIDI cable between the Macintosh
interface’s output and the synchronizer’s input. Set Master Tracks Pro on Int
Sync, and turn “Transmit sync” on. Set the synchronizer to record the incoming tempo information, and then start the sequencer. Again, see the
synchronizer’s manual for more instructions.
MIDI Time Code (“MTC”) sync
MIDI Time Code (MTC) is an addition to the MIDI specification that allows
direct synchronization of MIDI devices, like sequencers, to SMPTE timecode
without first converting it into MIDI Clocks and Song Position Pointer
commands.
SMPTE timecode is the standard form of synchronization in recording studios,
video production studios, and audio-for-video post-production facilities. It is an
audio signal that can be recorded on tape, and it serves two functions: to tell the
world how fast the machine is going, and where on the reel of audio or videotape it is at any moment. This information is used to synchronize machines to
each other, and to automate editing, among many other tasks.
Each spot on the tape has a unique timecode number based on the location’s
elapsed time: hour, minute, second, and frame. The number of frames in a
second is determined by the timecode format. There are four formats in current
use: 24 frames per second (standard for film), 25 frames per second (European
television), 30 frames per second “non-drop” (North American television), and
30 frames per second “drop frame” (also North American television, with
certain frames left out to make up for timing discrepancies inherent in the
medium).
SMPTE timecode cannot be run through a MIDI cable, because it goes too fast
and is electrically incompatible. But there are devices that can convert SMPTE
into MIDI Time Code, which is a series of MIDI commands that convey to a
AdvancedTopics
173
MIDI-reading device the same information as SMPTE timecode: where am I,
and how fast am I going. This way MIDI sequencers and other time-dependent
devices can be part of a professional SMPTE-based system.
One of the major advantages of using MIDI Time Code with a sequencer is
that MIDI Time Code is tempo-independent, unlike MIDI Clocks and Song
Position Pointers. When you use a conventional SMPTE-to-MIDI Clocks-andPointers convertor, all of the tempo information has to be entered into the
convertor, which is often a difficult and tedious process, and editing tempos all
has to be done by hand. The convertor then sends out actual tempo information, and the sequencer follows. Furthermore, many such convertors, once you
have created a tempo map inside them, do not allow that tempo map to be
stored, and if you want to use the convertor for different pieces of music, then
every time you do a new piece, you have to reconstruct the tempo map all over
again.
MIDI timecode, on the other hand, sends no tempo information, just a steady
stream of data based on the speed of the SMPTE timecode it is derived from —
that is, the speed of the tape. A sequencer reading MTC uses that stream as a
time base to generate its own tempos. For a program that allows complex tempo
changes like Master Tracks Pro, this means that all tempo changes can be
manipulated freely within the sequencer. Furthermore, a Tempo Map created
within a sequence is automatically stored as part of that sequence, and is loaded
back in when the sequence is loaded in.
Plainly, Master Tracks Pro’s advanced tempo-editing functions — the changeover-time features of the Conductor command, the Fit Time command, the
editing capabilities of the Tempo Map window — are of little use when the
sequencer’s tempo is being determined by an outside source. All of these
features, however, are usable when the program is reading MIDI Time Code.
To use MIDI Time Code with Master Tracks Pro, start by running an audio
cable from the SMPTE output of your audio or videotape deck to the “SMPTE
In” jack of your SMPTE-to-MTC convertor. Then run the MIDI output of the
convertor to the interface connected to the Mac’s printer port. Remember that
when using MIDI Time Code, you must use the Printer port to read the sync
signal, and you can only record incoming MIDI data on the modem port. Set
the MIDI Setup dialog box to receive MTC, or toggle the “Sync” box in the
174 MasterTracksPro
Transport window until it reads “MTC Sync”.
Now you must determine a starting time for the beginning of the sequence. If
you are using a videotape with “burned-in” timecode (numbers that appear in a
little window on the screen), you can determine the hour, minute, second, and
frame number of the point in the tape at which you want the music to begin.
Open the MIDI Setup dialog box and type these numbers in where it says
“Start Time”.
While you’re at it, click on the radio button corresponding to the SMPTE
format on the tape you are using — this is very important . You can also set the
SMPTE dropout time. Start with it at 0 — if you run into trouble, you can
always reset it later.
If the videotape does not have burned-in SMPTE (or you’re syncing to audio
tape), you can find out the SMPTE location of your starting point by running
the tape, and looking at the “Current Time” indicator on the program’s
Transport window. If the program is receiving MIDI Time Code, this indicator
should show the absolute time of the incoming code, whether the sequencer is
running or not. Stop the tape right at the point where you want the sequence to
start, and look at the Current Time indicator. Enter that time as the Start Time
in the MIDI Setup window. This method is not quite as accurate as using
burned-in SMPTE, but it will usually be satisfactory. You can always make
adjustments later, if necessary.
The Play, Stop, and locating functions of Master Tracks Pro will now be taken
over by the external tape recorder. When the program receives a MIDI Time
Code number of a frame that corresponds to any point within the sequence, it
will automatically locate to that point and start to play. If it receives an MTC
number that is before the sequence’s starting point or after its end, it will
display the number in the “Current Time” indicator, but otherwise will do
nothing.
If you want to Record or Punch a track, stop the tape, set up the Record and/or
Punch parameters (enabling tracks, setting In and Out times), and click on
Record before you start the tape. You can edit any data while the sequence is
running synched to MIDI Time Code, except Conductor and Tempo Map
data. You can edit Conductor and Tempo data when the sequencer is stopped.
AdvancedTopics
175
Using the Fit Time command to make a musical cue fit precisely into a visual
sequence on a videotape is one of the more exciting uses of Master Tracks Pro’s
MTC capability: use the burned-in SMPTE to determine the starting point of
the visual sequence and exactly how long it is (subtract the starting time from
the time at the end), then set Master Tracks Pro’s Start time to the visual’s start
time, select the region comprising the musical cue, choose Fit Time, and type
in the length.
If you want to hear what an edit sounds like without running tape, you can
take Master Tracks Pro out of MTC Sync mode and put it in Int Sync mode.
Put it back into MTC Sync mode when you want to run it with tape again.
(The sequencer must be stopped whenever you change synchronization mode.)
Locked markers
Whenever you do any changes in a Tempo Map, whether directly in the
window or using the Conductor command, if there are markers in the affected
area, they will stay at the measure, beat, and clock where you set them. This is
not true, however, if you have locked them in the Markers window.
Locked markers are useful in a situation using external synchronization, as they
can be used to mark not just musical cues, but also visual events, sound effects,
or other cues.
When you change the timing on a section with locked markers, you will get a
dialog box warning you of the situation. You then have a choice: you can move
the markers with the music, as if they weren’t locked, in which case their
Measure numbers will stay the same but their Time numbers will change (this
would be appropriate if the marker is a musical one called, for example, “horn
theme”); or you can keep the markers with time, in which case their Time
numbers will stay the same but their Measure numbers will change (for example, “big flash”).
You can also tell the program not to show you this box every time you try to
move a locked marker by clicking on one of the “Always” buttons. If you are
working primarily with markers that are real-time based, click “Always stay
with time”. If the markers are primarily music-based, click “Always move with
176 MasterTracksPro
music”. To clear the “always” status and get this dialog box back, open the
Markers window and click on “Lock all” or “Unlock All”.
Printingthescreen
You can save a picture of the screen in PICT format from within Master Tracks
Pro, and also print the screen on a printer connected to the Printer port (assuming you don’t have a MIDI interface there). This is a feature that lets you easily
document your compositions, default settings and other dialog box settings.
Save the screen by pressing ≈-Shift-3. The first picture will appear on the
desktop at the “root” level (not in any folder) as “Screen 0”.
Subsequent attempts will show up as “Screen 1”, “Screen 2”, thru “Screen 9”.
You can only save up to ten screens (saving more will erase the first ones).
You can Print the screen without saving it to disk by pressing ≈-Shift-4.
I’veGotAQuestion
Here are answers to a few common questions about Master Tracks Pro.
I click Play, but there’s no sound.
If the sequencer is not running (the Measure Counter isn’t changing), check to
see that the Sync box is set to “INT Sync”. If it isn’t, the program will wait to
receive external timing signals before it plays.
Also make sure that “Count In” is not enabled — if it is, you will have to wait a
measure’s worth of beats before starting, and you may not be hearing this
count-off if the Count is assigned to a MIDI channel (in the Click Setup dialog
box) that is not being received by any device in your system.
If the sequencer is running, it may be that no tracks are play-enabled. Make
sure the “P” column on the Track Editor contains a black triangle on those
tracks you want to hear, and that you haven’t “Solo”-ed a track that has no data
where you happen to be playing. Also check your MIDI cables and interface,
and the port assignments in the MIDI Setup dialog box.
AdvancedTopics
177
Finally, make sure that you haven’t inadvertently turned down all of your
synthesizers by sending them MIDI Volume (Controller #7) “0” commands at
the end of a sequence, and then not sending an initial volume command at the
beginning when you start it again.
I record-enabled a track, then went into step-time entry, and the information is on the wrong track.
The record-enable function and the step-time entry function are independent
of each other. Step-time entry will occur on whichever track is showing in the
Current Track box in the Step Editor window. Step-time entry is non-destructive — i.e., if there is data already on a track, it will not be erased when more
data is entered over it.
The notes coming out of my synthesizer sound “phasey” when I play it. or I
have a 16-voice synthesizer but it only seems to be playing eight notes.
You may be getting “doubled” notes caused by Master Tracks Pro echoing
MIDI data back to a synthesizer which is itself being played from a keyboard.
This is because you have the “Local Control” switched on — meaning that the
synthesizer is being controlled by its own keyboard — plus the program is
taking all the incoming data and routing it through the “Thru” function and
sending it back out again a millisecond or two later. Correct the situation either
by switching Local Control off (consult your synthesizer’s manual) or turning
off the Thru function in the Transport window.
I have data in the Clipboard, but I can’t seem to Paste it into my sequence.
First, make sure you have selected a single point to Paste (or Mix Data) from,
not a region. Master Tracks Pro will not Paste data into a region. Second, make
sure the type of data you are trying to Paste is the same as the window you are
trying to Paste into. You can only move data from one window to an identical
window — the exception being that you can move data from the Track Editor
to the Step Editor, one track at a time.
I put the cursor in a measure in the middle of my sequence to do some editing,
but then every time I click Play, it jumps back to the beginning, or somewhere
else in the sequence.
178 MasterTracksPro
The “Auto” function in the Transport window is on. This means that the
cursor will go back to the previous starting point each time you click on Play or
Record. You can reset the cursor by typing a new measure, beat, and/or clock
value into the Measure Counter (click on it or else type “.”), or by turning off
the Auto function and moving the cursor.
Letushearfromyou.
You can play a part in the evolution of Master Tracks Pro. We are always
extremely interested in your feedback on the program and your suggestions for
further enhancements. The current version of Master Tracks Pro is the result of
suggestions and comments from thousands of users just like you. Let us know
what you want to see next and we will try to implement your ideas.
Remember, you have not just purchased a disk and a couple of hundred printed
pages — you have invested in the expertise and experience of all the people
involved in the Master Tracks Pro project, both within Passport Designs, and
among the ranks of the program’s users. Thank you for your support.
AdvancedTopics
179
180 MasterTracksPro
A
MIDIDrivers,Interfaces
andSyncSetup
Before you can use Master Tracks Pro, there are certain hardware and software
requirements that you need to be aware of. You have a choice of MIDI drivers.
The driver you choose will be determined by weighing your needs and may be
limited by the hardware you’re using.
MIDIDrivers
MIDI software requires the use of a “driver” to send information out of the
Macintosh modem and printer (serial) ports. The MIDI Setup item in the
Goodies menu gives you the choice of using either the Passport MIDI driver,
the Apple MIDI driver (MIDI Manager), the MOTU MIDI Time Piece, or
OMS. The Passport MIDI driver is included in the program. The Apple
MIDI driver is a System extension that is installed by the Master Tracks Pro
Installer. The MIDI Time Piece uses a special implementation of the Passport
driver. OMS is an alternative driver that can be helpful for configuring large
MIDI systems. The driver you use depends on what kind of computer you
have and whether or not you are using other MIDI software.
If you run Master Tracks Pro and choose the MIDI Setup item from the
Goodies menu, the MIDI Setup dialog box will appear. The MIDI Setup
dialog allows you to select a MIDI driver and choose the serial port that you
will use for your MIDI interface.
Master Tracks Pro initially defaults to the Passport MIDI driver. Your MIDI
driver and port selections can be saved with preferences.
If the Passport MIDI driver is selected, you can designate the port that Master
Tracks Pro will use for receiving and transmitting MIDI data.
Appendices
181
Note: The Passport MIDI driver requires System 7. Use MIDI Manager if you
are running under System 6.
If MIDI Manager is selected, Master Tracks Pro will use the Apple MIDI
driver. We highly recommend using the Apple MIDI driver. It can be used
effectively on all but the slowest Macs. If you’re not sure, try it out to see how
it works. If you experience difficulty (hung notes, MIDI data “choke,” or other
performance problems), you can always switch to the Passport driver.
Choose MIDI Time Piece if you are using a MIDI Time Piece multi-port
interface and are not using OMS. See MIDI Time Piece Support on page 13 for
more information.
Note: The MIDI Time Piece driver requires System 7.
Choose OMS if you are using OMS to configure your MIDI system. See OMS
Support/New MIDI Setup on page 23 for more information.
What is the Apple MIDI Manager?
MIDI Manager is a System extension from Apple computer that was designed
to enable the Macintosh operating system to support MIDI. There are actually
three necessary components: MIDI Manager, the Apple MIDI driver, and the
PatchBay. The PatchBay lets you “connect” MIDI software to the Mac serial
ports and other MIDI Manager-compatible programs. MIDI Manager and
PatchBay are necessary if you have more than one application sharing the MIDI
port. If you have a Mac Plus or SE, you’ll need at least 2.5 meg of memory and
System 6.0.2 or higher to use MIDI Manager. MIDI Manager can be used
with great success on Macs with 68020 or higher microprocessors.
182 MasterTracksPro
PowerBooksandMasterTracksPro:
MIDIManagerversion2.0.2
Master Tracks Pro’s installation program will automatically install MIDI
Manager v2.0.2 if you are running on a PowerBook. MIDI Manager v2.0.2 will
prevent the loss of incoming data that can occur when using one of these
computers and transmitting large blocks of data such as System Exclusive
transfers. MIDI Manager v2.0.1 is installed for all other computers.
The fixes in MIDI Manager v2.0.2 only affect the modem port on
PowerBooks. The printer port’s behavior has not been improved and it should
not be used.
Note: If at any time you wish to install MIDI Manager v2.0.2 you can do so
using Master Tracks Pro’s Custom installation option. You should be aware,
however, that MIDI Manager v2.0.2 may cause problems during floppy disk
insertion on the Macintosh Plus. According to Apple, the fixes for the modem
port are only required for the 140, 145, 160, 170, or 180 model PowerBooks.
If you are using MIDI Manager and you install Master Tracks Pro to a hard
disk that you are using with a PowerBook but the initial installation was done
with a desktop Mac, you’ll need to make sure that MIDI Manager v2.0.2 is
installed on the PowerBook. There are two ways to do this. You can run a
Custom Install on the PowerBook and install only MIDI Manager v2.0.2. The
other option is to do a Custom Install of MIDI Manager v2.0.2 after installing
Master Tracks Pro to your desktop Mac. You can then copy or move the
necessary components to a folder on your hard disk so that you can manually
copy them to the PowerBook’s System folder. You’ll need MIDI Manager
v2.0.2 (Extensions folder>System folder), the Apple MIDI Driver (System
folder), PatchBay Help (System folder), and PatchBay (Apple Menu Items
folder>System folder).
Note: If you’re using a Mac Plus, be sure to either remove MIDI Manager
v2.0.1 from your System folder before installing v2.0.2 or re-install v2.0.1 after
installing v2.0.2.
Appendices
183
ConnectingtotheSerialPorts
If you are using the Passport MIDI driver, you can simply assign Master Tracks
Pro to one of your Mac’s serial ports (printer or modem). Use the MIDI Setup
dialog (Goodies menu) to assign the port.
If you chose the Apple MIDI Manager option, the port connections are made
automatically. If you run the PatchBay DA or application while Master Tracks
Pro is running, you’ll see (at least) two icons, one representing Master Tracks
Pro and one representing the Apple MIDI driver. For more information, read
the PatchBay Help file after you have installed MIDI Manager.
MIDI Time Piece Support
Master Tracks Pro supports Mark of the Unicorn’s MIDI Time Piece (MTP)
multi-port interface. The MTP works only with the MIDI Time Piece driver or
OMS. MIDI drivers are selected in the MIDI Setup dialog (Goodies menu). See
MIDI Setup for more information. The MIDI Time Piece driver is a special
version of the Passport driver and is included in the Master Tracks program.
Note: The Passport and MIDI Time Piece drivers require System 7.
If you use OMS with Master Tracks Pro, there are no distinct differences
between using the MTP and any other MIDI interface. The devices you’ve
specified in your OMS setup appear in place of the port designations in Pro.
If you use Master Tracks Pro’s MIDI Time Piece driver, some changes occur in
Pro’s interface. When you click on the channel field (“Chnl”) in the Track Editor’s
Track Sheet, the Choose Port/Channel dialog offers a choice of sixteen ports
divided into two sets of eight ports each (cables A through H and K through P). If
you have one MTP you can use either one of these groups by setting it to 1-8 (AH) or 9-16 (K-P). If you have two linked MTPs, you can use all sixteen ports.
You can choose from 16 channels on each port. As in the regular channel
dialog, selecting a box in the column headed by a dash (-) means that data will
be transmitted on that port on the channel on which it was recorded. See the
184 MasterTracksPro
manual for channelization specifics and for information on Multi-Channel
tracks and selecting ports and channel numbers from your Mac keyboard.
Master Tracks Pro supports the MTP’s “smart” (cablizing) mode. If you are
running Master Tracks Pro with another application that does not fully support
the MTP, click Stop in Pro’s Transport window to set the MTP to “dumb”
(non-cablizing) mode before you switch to the other application. In plain
English, when the MTP is set to dumb mode, all data will be sent to all eight
MIDI outs (sixteen with two MTPs). If you do not switch to dumb mode,
data will only appear at one of the MTP’s MIDI outs.
Note: Due to limited buffer size, Chase Controllers works with the MTP two
ports at a time (you can see the MIDI Out lights on the MTP chase). Also sysex
messages are not “cabled” for the MTP.
ConnectingtheMIDITimePiece
As stated previously, you can use a MIDI Time Piece with Master Tracks Pro
if you’re using either OMS or the MIDI Time Piece driver. If you use OMS,
refer to the OMS and MIDI Time Piece documentation for details about
connecting the MTP to your Mac and configuring OMS.
If you want to use Master Tracks Pro’s MIDI Time Piece driver, follow the
instructions below to connect the MTP to your Mac.
1. Connect the Computer jack on the back panel of the MIDI Time Piece to
your Mac’s modem port. You must use the modem port.
2. Set the MTP’s speed to 1 megahertz. On the MIDI Time Piece I, set the
switch on the MTP’s front panel to “1 Megahertz Asynchronous”. On the
MIDI Time Piece II, use the Global Hardware Setup menu to set the Mac
Speed to 1MHz. The MIDI Time Piece driver does not support the MTP’s
FAST mode.
3. Turn the MIDI Time Piece on.
4. Run Master Tracks Pro.
5. Choose the MIDI Setup item from the Goodies menu. The MIDI Setup
dialog appears.
6. Use the pop-up menu (MIDI Uses...) to choose the MIDI Time Piece
driver.
7. Click OK.
Appendices
185
OMS Support/New MIDI Setup
The MIDI Setup dialog was getting a bit unwieldy, so we’ve split it into two
dialogs (see also New Dialog—Sync Setup). The MIDI Setup dialog serves two
purposes. Its primary use is to select a MIDI driver. It is also used to map
undefined ports to an available port.
There are four driver choices: Passport Drivers, MIDI Manager, MIDI Time
Piece, and OMS (see Installation for more information about the Passport
Drivers and MIDI Manager). MIDI Manager and OMS are only available if
you’ve installed them in your System. MIDI Time Piece is only available if you
have a MOTU MIDI Time Piece connected to your modem port (see MIDI
Time Piece Support on page 13 for more information.)
If you choose OMS, an OMS menu will appear to the right of Master Tracks
Pro’s Goodies menu. This menu allows you to choose an input device and to
alter your OMS setup.
If you open a sequence created with another MIDI setup, Master Tracks may
need to map undefined ports to a port available to your setup. For example, if
you attempt to load and play a sequence created with a MIDI Time Piece
(which can have up to 16 ports) on a system configured for the Passport Driver
(which supports only two ports), you can route data from the additional ports
to one of the ports available with the Passport Driver.
Note: The Passport Driver requires System 7.x. If you’re running under
System 6.0.7, you’ll need to use either MIDI Manager or OMS.
186 MasterTracksPro
New Dialog—Sync Setup
The Sync Setup dialog is used to specify the clock or sync source that Master
Tracks Pro will use for its timing reference. You can also choose a port on
which to transmit sync information. (In previous versions of Master Tracks
Pro, sync setup was part of the MIDI Setup dialog.)
You have four options for transmitting sync data: No Sync, MIDI Clocks,
MIDI Time Code, and MIDI Machine. No Sync doesn’t really require an
explanation; when you choose No Sync and play a sequence, no sync data will
be transmitted. MIDI Clocks transmits standard MIDI start, stop, continue,
song position pointer, and clock messages. MIDI Time Code transmits...you
guessed it: MIDI Time Code. And MIDI Machine transmits the MIDI
Machine Control messages for start, stop, and locate along with MIDI Time
Code. (See MIDI Machine Control for more information.)
It is generally recommended that you dedicate a port to transmitting sync data
when you have multiple ports available. Use the port pop-up to designate the
port.
There are three choices for a sync source: Internal, External, and MIDI Time
Code. Internal uses your computer’s own internal timer as the basis for Master
Tracks Pro’s clock. External enables Master Tracks to sync to external sources
that transmit MIDI start, stop, continue, clock, and song position pointer
messages. MIDI Time Code allows Master Tracks to sync to an external source
that generates MIDI Time Code. Master Tracks can receive MIDI Time Code
on any port, but make sure that there is only one source.
The checkbox labeled “Respond to MIDI Start/Stop in internal sync” enables
you to start or stop Master Tracks Pro from an external device even when Pro is
synced to the computer’s internal clock. Some MIDI keyboards, for example,
have buttons that can be dedicated to specific tasks such as sending MIDI start
or stop messages.
The remainder of the Sync Setup dialog’s features are exactly the same as
described in the User’s Guide (except the SMPTE frame-rate is now chosen
with a pop-up rather than radio buttons).
Appendices
187
MIDI Machine Control
The MIDI Machine Control (MMC) messages for Start, Stop, and Locate have
been mapped to Master Tracks Pro’s Transport controls. Master Tracks will
send MMC messages only when the Sync Setup dialog has been set to transmit
them (see New Dialog—Sync Setup for more information).
You may have to experiment to find the most efficient setup for your system.
For example, we found that the best way to control an ADAT’s transport from
Master Tracks Pro is to transmit MMC messages to the ADAT while syncing
the sequencer to MIDI Time Code (MTC) from the ADAT (some sort of
SMPTE to MTC converter is necessary to do this).
Note: When Pro’s sync source is MIDI Time Code and you are locating to a
specific point in a sequence/tape, it will actually locate to a point 3 seconds prior
to that in order to give you some pre-roll.
188 MasterTracksPro
B
Common MIDI Setups
MIDI Thru
In order to set up the best working environment, there is an item in Master
Tracks Pro’s Transport window that deserves some attention right now. It is
the small button labeled “Thru.” Perhaps it’s best to start by explaining what
MIDI thru is.
If you have a MIDI instrument or sound module, chances are pretty good that
it has MIDI in, out and “thru” ports. Generally speaking, the thru port
transmits MIDI data as it’s received by the MIDI in port (the data goes
“through” the instrument and is immediately re-transmitted). How is this
useful? It allows you to chain several MIDI devices together and control them
all with one stream of MIDI data.
Master Tracks Pro’s MIDI thru feature is slightly different. When MIDI thru
is turned on in Master Tracks Pro, MIDI data received at the MIDI in port of
your computer’s MIDI interface is immediately transmitted from the interface’s
MIDI out port. This enables you to play into Master Tracks Pro with a MIDI
instrument and have that MIDI data control a separate MIDI instrument or
sound module at the same time.
MIDI thru is turned on by clicking the Thru button in the Transport window.
The Thru button also indicates the MIDI channel that the MIDI thru data will
be transmitted on. When no thru channel assignment is made ( - ), the data is
transmitted on the channel it was received on.
There are two ways to set the MIDI thru channel. You can double-click on the
Thru button and enter a channel number in the dialog that appears. Or, if you
have assigned channels in the Track Sheet window, record-enabling a track will
automatically switch the Thru channel to that track’s MIDI channel.
Appendices
189
Common MIDI Setups
It would be impossible to describe each possible combination of MIDI instruments and interfaces here. But there are a few general assumptions that can be
made. Three very basic MIDI systems are described in this section.
System One
The most basic setup you could have would include a Mac-compatible sound
module and your computer running Master Tracks Pro. There are several
sound modules available that can connect directly to your computer’s modem
or printer port, without the need for a separate MIDI interface. You still need
to make sure that Master Tracks Pro is “connected” to that port via your driver
and port selection in the MIDI Setup dialog (Goodies menu). If you don’t
have a module that connects directly to your Mac, you can also use any MIDI
sound module and any Mac-compatible MIDI interface.
MIDI controller (optional)
Sound Module or
MIDI interface
Computer Running
Master Tracks Pro
With this setup you could use the mouse or Master Tracks Pro’s graphic, onscreen keyboard to enter notes. You can also use your computer’s keyboard to
enter notes (QWERTY Note Entry mode). If you have a faster Macintosh, you
can even record simple melodies in real time from your computer’s keyboard.
190 MasterTracksPro
System Two
System two consists of a single MIDI instrument with its own sound generating capabilities, a MIDI interface, and your computer running Master Tracks
Pro. The MIDI out of the instrument is connected to the MIDI in of the
interface; the MIDI out of the interface is connected to the MIDI in of the
instrument.
Synthesizer
MIDI Interface
Computer Running
Master Tracks Pro
There is also a slight variation of this setup. If you are using a multitimbral
instrument with the ability to receive MIDI data on several channels simultaneously, you may want to turn the instrument’s local control off. An
internal sound generator
Synthesizer (local control off)
MIDI Interface
Computer Running
Master Tracks Pro
instrument’s local control is normally on. What this means is that its keyboard
is controlling its internal (“local”) sound-generating hardware. When local
control is off, the performance data from the instrument (notes, pitch bend,
sustain pedal, etc.) is transmitted via the MIDI out port, but it does not
control the local synthesizer hardware. In other words, you play the keyboard
and the only thing that comes out is MIDI data, no sound. If you connected
the instrument’s MIDI out to its own MIDI in, you would generate sound.
Turning local control off essentially splits an instrument into a master controller and a separate sound module.
So, why would this be useful? If you are working on a song with multiple
tracks on multiple MIDI channels, you can turn on Master Tracks Pro’s MIDI
Thru option and use Master Tracks Pro to determine which channel (and
Appendices
191
therefore which of your synth sounds) is currently being played by the keyboard
(record-enabling a track will automatically switch MIDI Thru to that track’s
channel). That’s generally much easier than changing the channel on your
synth every time you want to work on a different staff.
SystemThree
A slightly more sophisticated setup uses a MIDI master controller (a keyboard
or some alternate controller) and one or more sound modules. This requires
you to use Master Tracks Pro’s “Thru” feature.
Sound Module
Sound Module
MIDI controller
MIDI Interface
MIDI Data From Master Keyboard Only
MIDI Data From TraxAnd Master Keyboard
192 MasterTracksPro
Computer Running
Master Tracks Pro
(MIDI Thru On)
Version6.0.1Changes
andnewfeatures
Some changes have been made to Master Tracks Pro’s menu items since the
publication of the original manual for version 6.
FileMenu
The Import/Export MIDI File items have been removed. If you choose Open,
you can now open any type of file that is supported by Master Tracks Pro (Pro
files and Standard MIDI files). If you open a Standard MIDI file, edit it, and
then save it, it will be saved as a MIDI file, not a Master Tracks Pro file. If you
want to save it in a different format, choose the Save As item from the File
menu. The Save As dialog now contains two radio buttons enabling you to
choose between Master Tracks Pro and Standard MIDI file formats. The
Standard MIDI file type is selected in the MIDI File Options dialog.
Expanded MIDI File Support
Type 0 standard MIDI files (multiple channels on a single track) are automatically “exploded” when opened. That is, data is stripped out according to
channel, and each channel’s data is assigned to its own track in Master Tracks
Pro.
Any file with the extension “.MID” can be selected from the Open dialog. This
enables you to open files on shared PC volumes, PC floppies, or from a BBS
without having to change the file type.
Appendices
193
C
Change Menu
There is a new item in the Change menu called Join Notes. This is used to rejoin broken notes. For example, if you select a measure or measures across all
tracks and choose Cut from the Edit menu, you remove not only note data but
also the selected measures. If a note begins before the selected region, sustains
through it, and ends after the region, a new note-on message is inserted at the
beginning of the first measure following the cut. If you were to look at this
region in the Step Editor window after making the cut, you would see what
appears to be one note that sustains across the measure line. But it is actually
two notes butted up against each other. To make them a single note, select
both notes in the Step Editor and choose Join Notes from the Change menu.
TheDeviceListBankSelect
The MIDI spec allows for up to 128 presets. Some instruments respond to a
“bank select” message that give you access to multiple banks of up to 128
presets each. Simply enter the appropriate bank number in the Bank text box
and then choose the desired preset.
Please note that this will only work with instruments that respond to this
command via MIDI. These include the Roland Sound Canvas, the Peavey
DPM3SE, Kurzweil K2000, Korg Wavestation and a few other instruments.
The fact that an instrument has more than 128 presets does not necessarily
mean that it will respond to bank select messages. For example, the Emu
Proteus 1 and 2 do not respond to MIDI bank selection.
Roland GS instruments require a special bank switch message. Simply select the
Roland GS checkbox when working with these instruments.
When saving a MIDI File, the bank select message at the beginning of a track is
automatically exported along with the initial program change.
You can change any device (except Generic, Generic 8x8 and General MIDI) to
any other available device.
194 MasterTracksPro
Using the Built-in
QuickTime Synthesizer
Built-InSynth
The new version of QuickTime® includes a built-in, General MIDI-compliant
synthesizer. We have made it possible for you to play your Master Tracks Pro
songs back through the Mac’s sound system using this QuickTime built-in
synth, thereby eliminating the need for any additional hardware. You’ll
probably still want to use your home keyboard or other MIDI instrument for
recording purposes, but you can get surprisingly good playback quality using
just Master Tracks Pro and the built-in synth.
InstallingQuickTime2.0
QuickTime is a System extension from Apple Computer that allows your
computer to play back digital video with an accompanying audio and MIDI
soundtrack. In order to support MIDI playback, the QuickTime™ Musical
Instruments System extension is also needed. This extension, in tandem with
QuickTime 2.0 and the Mac’s sound capabilities, gives you a software MIDI
synthesizer which Master Tracks Pro can use.
If you choose to do a complete installation of Master Tracks Pro, QuickTime
will be installed to your System. If not, you can run the installation again and
either do a complete re-installation or do a custom installation choosing just
QuickTime and any other components that you’d like to install.
Note: QuickTime 2.0, QuickTime Musical Instruments, and Sound Manager
3.0 are necessary to use the built-in synth. These require System 7 and a 68020
or better processor and will be installed automatically if you choose the Easy
Install option.
Appendices
195
D
UsingtheBuilt-InSynth
To use the QuickTime synthesizer, choose Built-in Synth Mode from the
Goodies menu. Several changes from the normal operating mode occur when
you do this.
• The MIDI Setup dialog is unavailable.
Master Tracks Pro’s MIDI output is directed exclusively to the Built-in Synth, so
port selections are unnecessary.
• MIDI In, Out, and Thru are disabled.
Any external MIDI instruments connected to your computer via a MIDI
interface cannot be used for either note entry or playback. You can use Master
Tracks Pro’s on-screen, graphic keyboard to enter notes, but you may experience a
discernible delay between the time the note is played and the time it actually
sounds. This delay varies depending on the type of computer being used.
• Master Tracks Pro’s Device List dialog will not appear.
Normally, the Device List dialog appears when you click in the Track Editor’s
Program Name column (see the User’s Guide for more information). When the
Built-in Synth is active, QuickTime’s Choose Instrument dialog will appear
instead. See Choosing Instruments for more information.
• No channel dialog appears.
The Built-In Synth supports the 16 standard MIDI channels, but port
selections are ignored. Therefore, when you click in the Track Editor’s Channel
column, a pop-up appears that lets you choose a channel only. If you choose “-”
the track will play on the MIDI channel on which it was recorded.
As noted previously, there is a delay associated with the Built-in Synth. This
can make it difficult to record in real time. But, since all of the notes are
delayed by the same amount, pre-recorded and step-entered songs will play
back fine.
The Built-in Synth will play back through your Mac’s internal speaker. You
can use your Mac’s audio out jack to connect it to your stereo or other monitoring system.
The Built-in Synth status (on or off) is saved with preferences.
196 MasterTracksPro
ChoosingInstruments
Choosing instrument sounds for the Built-in Synth is simple. Simply click in
the Track Editor’s Program Name column just as you would to select sounds
for any other synthesizer. Instead of the Device List dialog, you’ll see
QuickTime’s Choose Instrument dialog.
First you need to choose an instrument category. Instrument categories group
similar instrument sounds together. For example, there are different categories
for Piano, Guitar, Strings & Orchestra, and Sound Effects. Each of these
categories contains several instrument choices. There is also a category for
Drum Kits. This is only available when the staff is assigned to MIDI channel
10, in accordance with the General MIDI spec (which dictates that drums are
always on channel 10 in songs arranged for General MIDI instruments). Click
on the Category pop-up menu to see all the choices.
Next you need to choose a specific instrument. Click on the Instrument popup to see the choices. You can click on the dialog’s keyboard to hear the
sounds.
You may notice that some of the choices are italicized. The Built-in Synth
contains all 128 instrument names available under the General MIDI spec. It
does not, however, contain all 128 sounds. One sound may be mapped to
several different instruments. For example, in the Strings & Orchestra category
only Violin and Timpani are not italicized. The same sound used for Violin is
also used for Viola, Cello, and the other italicized choices. This is just so that
General MIDI songs will play back with sounds that approximate the intended
sounds. That doesn’t mean it’s the best sound for your song. Sometimes a
different sound might make a better substitute. When you’re writing your next
country hit, transposing Slap Bass 1 up an octave or two might sound more like
a Telecaster than Electric Clean Guitar does. Feel free to experiment.
A Word About General MIDI
General MIDI is an extension of the MIDI specification that defines common,
specific instrument and channel assignments for General MIDI-compatible
songs and instruments. This allows MIDI song files to be played back on any
General MIDI synthesizer with the proper instrumentation and sounds.
Appendices
197
198 MasterTracksPro
Using the On-screen
Keyboard
A new item, Keyboard, has been added to the Windows menu. The Keyboard
window is a graphic, on-screen keyboard that can be “played” with your mouse
or from your computer’s QWERTY keyboard. This enables you to input
music from a keyboard in step time or real time without the need for a MIDI
keyboard.
PlayingtheKeyboard
To play the keyboard with your mouse, simply click on the keys. If a MIDI
sound module is connected to your computer, you will hear the notes sound as
you click on the keys. The instrument sound you hear is determined by the
current Thru channel and the sound that’s assigned to that channel. (You can
change the Thru channel by double-clicking on the Thru button in the Transport window or by record-enabling a track in the Track Editor.)
To play the graphic keyboard from your computer’s keyboard you must first
enable QWERTY note entry mode. Click the checkbox labeled QWERTY
Keyboard Note Entry or press Q. The illustration shows the QWERTY keys
you can “play” and their corresponding notes.
Input notes in step time or real time just as you would with a MIDI keyboard.
Chords
As you may already have noticed, you can’t enter chords with your mouse. You
also can’t play more than a few notes at a time from your QWERTY keyboard.
There is, however, a simple method for step-entering chords. Hold the shift
key and click on the notes that make up the chord. When you release the shift
key, the notes will be scored as a chord.
You can also use the shift key to enter chords from your QWERTY keyboard.
Appendices
199
E
ChangingtheOctave
You can click any of the keys in the Keyboard window with your mouse, but if
you’re using your QWERTY keyboard your range is limited to an octave and a
fourth (from C to the F in the next highest octave).
To shift the range up or down by octaves, drag on the little QWERTY keyboard icon in the Keyboard window (you must be in QWERTY Keyboard
Note Entry mode to do this). You can drag the keyboard icon left or right in
one octave increments. You can also use the + and - keys to transpose up and
down, respectively.
SettingtheVelocity
Note events entered with the Keyboard window, using either the mouse or
QWERTY keyboard, are assigned default velocity values of 100 (note on) and
64 (note off). You can set the velocity values using the Step Editor’s menu bar.
Set the note-on and note-off velocities to the desired values. (Click directly on
the numbers in the menu bar and use the pop-up to set new values.) Then
click within the velocity box (anywhere but the numbers) to highlight the entire
box. When the box is highlighted, Master Tracks Pro will use those velocity
values for all notes entered. This is true whether the notes are recorded in real
time or entered in step time.
DisplayingthePlayback
When you play a sequence back in Master Tracks Pro, the Keyboard window
will indicate which notes are being played. The Keyboard honors muted and
soloed tracks, so you can view individual parts as they play. For example, if you
just want to see (and hear) the bass line in a song, solo the bass track in the
Track Editor window.
200 MasterTracksPro
AssignableFaders
F
Using the Assignable Faders
The faders in the Track Editor window can be assigned to any of the 127
standard MIDI controllers. Like the Channel and Program Name columns, the
Controller column is expandable. When minimized, the Controller column
simply shows the controller number assigned to that track’s fader. Click on the
“Ctl” heading to expand the column. The expanded column shows the controller name. Click in the column to change the controller. Use the pop-up
slider to choose a controller or, if you know the controller number, enter the
number from your computer’s keyboard. If you press and hold the option key
while choosing a controller, that controller will be assigned to all the tracks.
Tip: When the controller pop-up is on screen, you can use the up and down
arrow keys to browse through the controllers. Pressing the left or right arrow
key OKs your choice.
The faders are recordable. Hold the shift key while record-enabling a track to
go into fader record mode. The fader record icon will appear in the Record
column. Begin recording and move the fader as desired. Data for the assigned
controller will be recorded as you move the fader. If any other MIDI data had
been recorded previously, the controller data will be merged into it. If data for
the current controller had been recorded previously, it will be overwritten by
the new data.
If you want to send more than one type of continuous controller message to a
single destination (for example volume and pan), simply assign multiple tracks
to the same channel and assign the appropriate controllers to those tracks.
Note: Recording fader movements in normal record mode will overwrite all
pre-existing data in the track.
Appendices
201
202 MasterTracksPro
Keyboard Shortcuts
Transport Commands
G
Space Bar .......................................... Start and Stop Transport
Enter Key .......................................... Record
Left arrow ......................................... Move to beginning of previous measure
Right arrow ....................................... Move to beginning of next measure
Period (“.”) ........................................ Brings up Go To Dialog
M ...................................................... Click (metronome) On/Off
/ ........................................................ Count (count-in) On/Off
Track Editor Commands
Numeric keys 3–0, +, – ..................... Change measure ruler display value
Tab ................................................... Move to next marker
Shift-Tab........................................... Move to previous marker
Backspace (Delete) ............................ Clear selected data.
Window Commands
≈
≈
≈
≈
≈
≈
≈
≈
≈
≈
≈
≈
-
1 ................................................. Track Editor Window
2 ................................................. Event List Editor Window
3 ................................................. Step Editor Window
4 ................................................. Pitch Bend Window
5 ................................................. Channel Pressure (Aftertouch) Window
6 ................................................. Key Pressure Window
7 ................................................. Modulation Window (Controller #1)
8 ................................................. Controllers Window (all Controllers)
9 ................................................. Volume Window
0 ................................................. Tempo Map Window
B ................................................. Big Counter Window
K ................................................. On-Screen Keyboard Window
Appendices
203
File Menu Commands
≈ - N ................................................ Create new sequence
≈ - O ................................................ Open sequence from disk
≈ - W ................................................ Close current sequence
Option-≈ - W ................................... Close all sequences
≈ - S ................................................. Save current sequence to disk
≈ - R ................................................. Revert to Saved
≈ - E ................................................. Export a MIDI File
≈ - Q ................................................ Quit Master Tracks Pro
Edit Menu Commands
≈
≈
≈
≈
≈
≈
≈
≈
-
Z ................................................. Undo/Redo most recent change or record
X ................................................. Cut selected region
C ................................................. Copy selected region
V ................................................. Paste at designated point
M ................................................ Mix Data at designated point
D ................................................ Delete measure(s)
I .................................................. Insert measure(s)
A ................................................. Select All
Change Menu Commands
≈
≈
≈
≈
≈
-
U ................................................ Change Conductor
- .................................................. Strip Data
T ................................................. Change Transpose
H ................................................ Humanize
= ................................................. Quantize
Layout Commands
≈
≈
≈
≈
-
\ .................................................. Show SMPTE/Measure Time
/ .................................................. Multi-Track Record
[ .................................................. Zoom In
] .................................................. Zoom Out
204 MasterTracksPro
Goodies Commands
≈ - F ................................................. Master Fader
≈ - Y ................................................. Sysex
≈ - L ................................................. Chase Controllers Dialog
Step Editor and MIDI Data Window Commands
Numeric keys 1–7, D ........................ Select duration value and “dot”
Tab ................................................... Move to next marker
Shift-Tab........................................... Move to previous marker
≈ - [ .................................................. Zoom In
≈ - ] .................................................. Zoom Out
Return ............................................... Enters a rest in Step Editor
Backspace (Delete) ............................ Clear selected data.
Delete last note in Step-Editor
A ....................................................... Selects Arrow pointer
P ....................................................... Selects Pencil pointer
E ....................................................... Selects Eraser pointer
T ....................................................... Track selector (pop-up slider)
C ....................................................... Controller selector (Controllers window)
Option-P........................................... Toggles (turns on/off) track playback
Option-R .......................................... Toggles the record-enable function of the
track (and selects Thru, if enabled)
Option-S ........................................... Toggles track Solo
Option-L........................................... Toggles track Loop
Up-arrow/Down-arrow ..................... Increment/Decrement selected value
(Edit Note window, and duration values
in dialog boxes)
Any other letter, number, or punctuation key Toggles between “skyline”
display mode and “cross” display mode (MIDI Data Windows)
Appendices
205
OTHER SHORTCUTS
HidingtheTrackSheet
The Track Sheet portion of the Track Editor window can be hidden by clicking
on the “Tk” button in the upper left corner of the window. This enables you
to view a greater number of measures.
ArrowKeysandPop-upSliders
The up and down arrow keys can be used to change the values of Master Tracks
Pro’s pop-up sliders. For example, when you click in the Track Editor’s Prg
(minimized Program Name) column a slider will appear. Use the up or down
arrow key to choose a new program number. Then press the left or right arrow
key to enter your choice.
206 MasterTracksPro
StandardMIDI
ControllerAssignments
H
The MIDI Specification allows for 128 different Continuous Controllers, numbered from 0 to 127. Although theoretically any of these Controllers can be used
for any musical purposes, instrument and software manufacturers have agreed that
some of them are to be considered reserved for certain specific functions. The list
of these functions appears below. Any Controller numbers not listed are not
assigned specific functions.
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
Controller
#1 ............................................... Modulation Wheel
#2 ............................................... Breath Controller
#4 ............................................... Foot Controller
#5 ............................................... Portamento Time
#6 ............................................... Data Entry Slider
#7 ............................................... Volume
#8 ............................................... Balance
#10 ............................................. Pan
#11 ............................................. Expression
#64 ............................................. Sustain (Damper Pedal)
#65 ............................................. Portamento Switch (Pedal)
#66 ............................................. Sostenuto (Middle Pedal)
#67 ............................................. Soft Pedal
#69 ............................................. Hold
#91 ............................................. Effects Depth
#92 ............................................. Tremolo Depth
#93 ............................................. Chorus Depth
#94 ............................................. Celeste (Detune) Depth
#95 ............................................. Phaser Depth
#96 ............................................. Data Increment (+ switch)
#97 ............................................. Data Decrement (– switch)
#122 ........................................... Local Control (Off=0, On=127)
#123 ........................................... All Notes Off
#124 ........................................... Omni Mode Off
#125 ........................................... Omni Mode On
#126 ........................................... Mono Mode On
#127 ........................................... Poly Mode On
Appendices
207
208 MasterTracksPro
Index
A
Absolute. See volume: Master Volume Fader
accidentals 40
Add Clocks 105
"all" icon 45, 89
All Notes Off 3
arrow 46, 57, 63, 65
articulation 50
auto 4
B
beat value 112
Big Counter window 75, 140
C
Change Conductor 27
Change Filter 131
Change Menu 101
channel 8, 103
Channel Pressure 69
Channel Pressure window 139
Chase Controllers 164
Chnl. See channel
Clear 94
click 4
Click Setup 163
Clipboard 88
show 100
I
clocks-per-quarter note 3
Close 80
Conductor 111, 170
Continuous 107
controller
Changing data values 109
maping 107
Controller #7 21
controller chasing 21
Controllers window 70, 139
Copy 91
"Copy Device" checkbox 19
"Copy Program" checkbox 20
count In 4, 25
cue sheet 72
current position 27
current sequence 141
Current Time 162
indicator 3
Cut 89
D
Delete key 53
Delete Measure 98
Device List
in the Step Editor 42
drop frame 173
duration 49, 73, 103
add clocks 105
scale 104
Index
209
E
Edit
while playing 99
Edit menu 88
eraser 56, 63, 67
Event List Editor 72
Inserting events 74
Event List Editor window 138
EXT Sync 5
insert points 6
INT Sync 5
Intensity 125
K
Key Pressure 69
Key Pressure window 139
Keyboard Setup 156
Keyboard Step entry 42
F
L
file
active 78
MIDI File 82
Master Tracks Pro file 78
File menu 77
“Filter” button 75
Fit Time 128, 171, 176. See cue
flywheeling 163
follow playback 146
Layout Menu 145
left-arrow key 2
Locked Markers 129
Looped Overdub 6
Looped Record 6
Looping 11, 167
G
Get Info 150
Ghost Notes 63
Goto... 73
grid
show/hide 145
guitar controller 10
H
Hide Markers 31
home key 2
Humanize 122
I
Initial Program Number 16
Input Channel 51
Insert Data 98
Insert Measure 97
210 MasterTracksPro
M
marker 41
delete 151
lock / unlock 152
locked 115, 176
move 32, 151
name 32, 151
ruler 64, 146
well 32
markers
show/hide 145
Markers window 33, 151
Master Volume Fader 22
meas/beat/clock
show/hide 146
measure
boundry 11
counter 3, 27
delete 98
display 31
insert 97
number 29
ruler 30, 40, 64
selecting 34
Memory window 149
meter 112
metronome 27, 112, 164
MIDI
"choking" 118
delay 67
multiple channels 159
MIDI (“Ext”) sync 172
MIDI Data window 62, 138
MIDI File 77, 82
export 82, 83
Type 0 83
type 1 83
MIDI pitch 40
MIDI Setup 158
MIDI sync 160
MIDI Time Code 161
MTC Sync 173
MIDI Volume 9
mix. See Volume
Mix Data 95
mod wheel 70
modem Port 14
modem port 158
Modulation window 70, 139
MTC Sync 5
Multi-Track Record 10
MultiChannel Track 12, 13
multiple sequences 141
N
note
copy 55, 58
lock pitch 55
moving 55
preview 49
re-mapping 58
Scale durations 130
start time 55, 57
stretching 56
tied 95
note icon 42
note-off velocity 73
note-on velocity 73
Notepad window 153
O
offset tempo 28
Overdub 6
P
Paste 92
multiple paste 93
patch. See program
pause 3
pencil 52, 54, 63, 66
period key 3
Pitch Bend 68
Pitch Bend Range 110
Pitch Bend window 139
play 2, 24, 44
play-enabled 9
playback point 37
playlist 142
save/load 144
polyphonic aftertouch. See Key Pressure
Pop-up Sliders 15
position indicator
show/hide 146
Preferences 84
printer port 14, 158
program 16
name 18
program change 9, 41
initial 16, 41
show/hide 146
Punch In 6
Index
211
Q
Quantize 123
Sliding notes 127
R
randomize. See Humanize
re-barring 168
record 2, 10, 25
Record Filter 26, 166
Rest 53
Revert 81
rewind 2
rhythmic value 49
right-arrow key 3
S
Save 80
Save As 81
Scale Time 129
Select All 87
serial ports 158
Show Markers 31
Sliding Data 127
SMPTE 72, 161, 162, 173
dropout 162
show/hide 146
Snap-to-Grid 52
Solo 11
Song list
start 143
Song menu 142
Song Playlist 142
Song Position Pointer 160
Start Time 162
start time 4
Step Editor
"ghost" view 63
Hide/Show Grid 40
note display 40
pitch division 40
212 MasterTracksPro
velocity control 50
Step Editor window 39, 138
Step Time Entry
recording velocity 52
with a mouse 52
Step Time entry from MIDI Keyboard 52
Stop 3
Strip Data 115
sub-beat 134
sustain pedal 70
Swing 126
Sync 25
synchronization 158, 171
external 161
Internal 161
MIDI (Ext) sync 172
MIDI Time Code (“MTC”) sync 173
offset 162
SMPTE 173
Transmitting Sync 160
Sysex 154
receiving 154
sending 155
T
Tab 31
tempo 113
inserting changes 170
offset 28
tempo change 3
Tempo Map 27, 111, 168
end 29
Tempo Map window 71, 140
Tempo window 27
Thin Continuous Data 118
Thin Notes 120
Thru 7
tied notes 95
time indicator 55, 64
in the Step Editor 46
time signature 27, 112
track
duplicate 24
Moving 23
multiple-channel 12
name 12, 75
number 29
selecting 35
Track Editor
editing 33
Track Editor Window 8
Track Editor window 138
Transport window 150
Transpose 120
Transpose Lock 24
Transpose Map 121
tuplet 50, 104
U
Undo 2, 88
V
Velocity 50, 105
change 105
show/hide 51, 146
Velocity window 71, 140
Volume 20
faders 21
initial 20
Master Volume Fader 22
W
Window
Display mode 62
Z
zoom in/out 43, 64, 67, 147
Index
213
214 MasterTracksPro
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising