Hráadéast - American Radio History

Hráadéast - American Radio History
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1999
V/S/ÓÑ
Production Suite
Technology
Using computers
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diting
for video
MPEG
The problem's in the details
24fps as a
mastering format
Another format to support?
The Way It HAStoBe
TV-1000 and TV -80
Audio Consoles
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9fri RRIS
Communlcatlons
February 1999
Volume 41
Number 2
Broadcast
ENGINEERING
THE JOURNAL OF O/G/TAL TELEV/S /ON
4
Features
76 High -resolution production
technology
By Kirk A. Law
Moving large images requires large bandwidths.
80 Splicing MPEG transport streams
By Norm Hurst
Numerous factors come into play when splicing MPEG bitstreams.
86 Video edge devices
By Richard Bauarshchi
Moving digital video over existing networks is getting easier.
92 Mastering at 24p
By Jim Mendrala
Will 24p become a new video mastering format?
Beyond the Headlines
NEWS
EchoStar and News Corporation strike a deal
NABET lockout ends
Unlit tower involved in near miss
20 DTV momentum builds
22 WETA goes live from the White House
26 Centralization: Local vs. regional
12
14
18
FCC UPDATE
28
FCC adopts online call sign system
EXPERT'S CORNER/VENDOR VIEWS
30
HDTV
-Is it worth the trouble?
Digital Handbook
TRANSITION TO DIGITAL
36
The concept of resolution
COMPUTERS AND NETWORKS
40
The EBU /SMPTE Task Force
- Part Il,
Systems
ASK DR. DIGITAL
46
Found: filter specs
(continued on page 6)
February 1999
A
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Systems Design & Integration
SYSTEMS DESIGN SHOWCASE
50
Florida's News Channel: The new world of local TV news
TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION
60
Workplace hazards
PRODUCTION CLIPS
64
Audio compression systems
New Products & Reviews
APPLIED TECHNOLOGY
96
102
106
Philips Integrated DTV solutions
ECI's Video Quality Assessment System
NUCOMM dual digital HD/NTSC STL
TECHNOLOGY IN TRANSITION
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114
Commercial insertion systems
NEW PRODUCTS
116
Videotek DPA-90 serial digital processing amplifier,
plus other new products
BUSINESS WIRE
132
HBO purchases 19 Panasonic D -5 systems,
plus other business news
Departments
08
10
112
140
145
146
Editorial
Reader Feedback
Management
Classifieds
Advertisers' index
EOM
FREEZE FRAME
WEB SITE DIRECTORY
www.broadcastengineering -com
Feature Articles
Departments
Marketing /Advertising
Reader Resources
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Article archives
Buyers Guide
Contact the Editors
New Products &
Reviews
Classifieds /Jobs
6
A look at the technology that shaped this industry.
Name this tower?
Name this famous landmark
and the year construction
started. Selected winners
will receive their choice
reprint article of
Questions? Contact:
the tower's construction.
Jim Saladin
913/967 -1905 fax
[email protected]
Send the answers to:
February 1999
of a
Broadcast Engineering
T -shirt or
Broadcast Engineering
BROaDCáST
._, er>Gneenr>G
brad dick @intertec.com
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1
Editorial
Bargain hunting
Even with today's digital technology, getting a bargain TV set isn't always easy. Around Thanksgiving
decided to replace a little 5 -inch B/W TV set I'd used in my bedroom with a new 13 -inch model. What
I thought would be easy and cheap was both harder and more expensive than expected.
First, I discovered 13 -inch TV sets come in three flavors; $129, $149 and $189. That's about it. It
didn't matter where I looked or what brand I looked at. That was the price.
However, the Friday after Thanksgiving has great sale prices. I almost hate to admit that the call of
a bargain had me standing in line at a Wards store at 5:30 a.m. It's cold, dark and windy, but hey, I'm
getting a bargain. Little did I know how I'd soon blow the whole
process it big time.
When 6 a.m. arrives, the doors open, and pandemonium explodes.
Unprepared for the carnage, I watch as people push and shove me
out of the way to get into the store. Once they got into the store, they
begin running for their buys. Never having been in the store, I
wander around, clueless as to protocol.
Once I find the electronics section, I quickly look for the sales
items. The reason behind my 6 a.m. insanity was the store's ad for
a $99 13 -inch TV. Remember, I knew what these sets cost and, and
I was going to save $30.
About 50 people reached the electronics section before me and
they're scarfing up sale items like crazy. As I looked for my TV, I
notice a stack of about 30 new stereo VCRs on sale for $99. People
were snapping up them two at time. You'd have thought they were
loaves of bread and these folks were starving.
Finally, after almost 45 minutes, I managed to locate and buy my
$99 TV set. I was about to learn just what a bargain can cost.
Once home, I discover that the TV's speaker was mounted on the side, not the front. It's a small point,
but the darn thing drove me batty. The volume had to be really cranked just to hear anything. This
would never do. So I returned the set and began hunting for one with a front- mounted speaker.
I searched store after store, after store. No acceptable sets for $99. Sales were over and besides, the
cheap ones had their speakers on the side.
At this point, my desire for cheap lost out to expediency and functionality. Besides, I'd spent more
time looking for that darn TV than I had my last car! So, I decided to just spend the extra $30 and buy
a $129 TV because it had two important features. First, the speaker was mounted in the front -where
it's supposed to be. And second, the set had channel and volume controls on the front panel. Very useful,
especially when you're at the TV and the remote is across the room, or worse-lost?
But that's not the end of my bargain hunting story. Remember my early morning trip to Wards? Just
before they opened the doors, the first 200 people in line got a coupon to buy up to two Furbys for $29
each. I got my coupon, looked at it, and thought, "Why would I want a Furby ?" Sticking the coupon
in my pocket, I never gave it another thought.
Just before Christmas, Furbys were selling for $200 apiece in local papers. Let's see now, $400-$60 =
a $340 profit. I wonder what size TV could I have gotten for that?
I
/-/
Brad
/`/
Dick, editor
Send comments to:
direct: [email protected].com
website: www.broadcastengineering.com
8
Broadcast Engineering
February 1999
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Fixing lip sync
distortion in the audio.
The delay is changed by using a FIFO
David Pickett's question on lip sync
problems and your response were quite
interesting to me. Pixel sells tracking
audio delays to correct lip sync problems, and I have some knowledge of the
problem. Generally, the problem has
been quite bad on the West Coast for
several years, but nobody really paid
attention until advertisers started demanding compensation for commercials which aired with bad lip sync
problems. Nothing like a little lost revenue to bring a problem to the forefront
of technology.
The problem, in simple terms, is easy
to correct
just add a compensating
audio delay everywhere the video gets
delayed. Unfortunately, this is an expensive problem since the video gets
delayed by a significant amount in virtually every video device from the camera (frame memory based digital processing) to the consumer TV (digital
special effects and full -time frame -based
video noise reduction). With the addition of some heavy-duty video processing for compression encoding and decoding, the problem gets really bad.
The added headache is that most of
the video delays have a habit of changing very quickly by large amounts. This
is caused by frame synchronizer pointer
crossings and compression equipment
catching up or falling behind, depending on instant changes in the video
content. Tracking audio delays can be
made to keep up with the quickly changing video delay, but since audio is more
or less continuous, making large audio
delay changes quickly without introducing artifacts is very difficult. Many
MPEG equipment designers have built in audio delays, but they usually suffer
from one of four deficiencies:
The delay is set to the average video
delay of the video and left unchanged
(this guarantees the lip sync will be bad
all the time but rarely really bad).
The delay is changed by stealing or
repeating audio samples, which often
results in clicks, pops and severe
memory and reading audio out of the
memory slower or faster than it is written into the memory (this causes a pitch
change).
Using a FIFO memory but limiting
the rate of change to around 1 percent
so the pitch change is not very noticeable. The audio delay correction will
lag video delay changes by a considerable time
around 30 seconds for an
MPEG encoder, usually occurring during commercial time.
We have found that the FIFO approach with DSP processing to correct
the pitch error works well, and we can
change audio delay at a 20 percent rate
without any pitch error and with minimum tempo error. Very few professionals can detect a one -second delay
change made at the 20 percent rate with
typical speech and background music
found in commercials.
The audio delay problem can be solved,
but in order to keep the cost down,
video equipment manufacturers need
to add a digital delay signal output
(DDO) to their equipment. This is basically a 2V p -p (TTL level source terminated in 7552) square wave output on a
BNC connector. This signal has a positive duration matching the video delay.
The signal needs to be repeated constantly at a rate that guarantees approximately a 50 percent duty cycle when
the video device is at maximum delay
with a minimum positive period matching the minimum video delay, or at least
20µs so the receiving device knows it is
there at minimum delay. For example, a
four -field video synchronizer would
output a positive pulse matching the
current video delay every eight fields,
with the minimum positive duration
being 63.51is assuming the synchronizer has a minimum delay of 1H. If every
video processing device had this output
then it would be a simple matter for
facilities to add a companion audio
delay to keep lip sync in alignment.
For more information on these prob-
10
February 1999
-
Broadcast Engineering
-
lems, we have published several appli-
cation notes on our website:
pixelinstruments.com.
CARL COOPER
PIXEL INSTRUMENTS
Poor man's PC70
The camera on Page 12 of the
November issue and the
response
from Rick
Pitchford
caught my
eye. There
must have
been a typo because the camera was the Norleco LDH -1, not
LHD -1. It was the
"poor
man's"
PC70. I had three of them in a corporate
studio and remember well the reasons
they were $75K less than a PC70.
The photo shows the side door open,
which was necessary to do registration.
You had to insert a screwdriver in the
pots for each channel and do the subtractive registration process while leaning sideways to see the grid in the viewfinder. The Plumbicons were Grades B
& C and virtually could never be registered in the corners. Their CCUs were
also limited and color balancing between studio cameras was almost impossible. To top it all off, the CCUs only
had composite out so chromakeyers
had to be composite, not RGB, and
keying was always less than perfect.
They were sort of "state -of-the -art"
for the price and we produced several
hundred programs with them over their
lifetime.
Regards,
LYNN YEAZEL
DISTRIBUTION MANAGER
TEKTRONIX MEASUREMENT BUSINESS
DIVISION
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Circle (12) on Free Into Card
News
EchoStar and News Corporation strike
a
deal
BY LARRY BLOOMFIELD
EchoStar Communications Corp. announced that it would acquire assets
from Rupert Murdoch News Corp. The
deal would give EchoStar a license to
operate a high -powered DBS business
at 110° W. If managed properly, these
newly acquired assets could adversely
affect the viewer projections of DirecTV
and PrimeStar.
Under terms of the agreement, Echo Star will get two new, Loral-built satellites that are expected to be launched
sometime this year. The deal for the two
new birds includes construction, launch
and insurance at the expense of the
seller, News Corp. Also included in the
deal is a recently constructed, suburban- Phoenix DBS uplink center with an
initial capacity of about 500 program
channels. EchoStar also gets a worldwide licensing agreement to manufacture and distribute set -top boxes internationally using NDS encryption/decoding technology with no less than a
500,000 -unit purchase commitment by
Ecgostarll with solar panels being readied for launch.
an affiliated entity of News Corp.
In addition to the already impressive
program packages EchoStar offers its
subscribers, this deal comes with a three year retransmission consent agreement
for DISH Network to rebroadcast Fox
Wir
FRAME GRAB
A look at the issues driving
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today's technology
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Broadcast Engineering
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Network owned- and -operated local station signals to its respective markets. In
addition, EchoStar will enter into an
agreement to carry the Fox News Channel on DISH Network.
With this deal, EchoStar and long
distance telephone company MCI also
get a nonexclusive right to bundle Echo Star's DBS service with MCI's telephone
services on a mutually acceptable basis.
The combination of EchoStar's newly
acquired satellites at the 110° W orbital
slot and its current satellites at 119°
(DISH Network) will provide over 500
channels of programming, Internet/data
delivery and HDTV, along with the
capability of broadcasting to the continental U.S., Alaska, Hawaii, and the
territories in the Caribbean. A company statement says that EchoStar is "positioned to become a one -dish solution
for local -to -local channels."
Litigation between EchoStar and News
Corp. will be withdrawn upon closing.
There is little doubt that this deal will
have the consent of EchoStar's shareholders, and its board of directors has
already approved the agreement. The
transaction's last hurdle is that it is
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Circle (13) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
subject to appropriate regulatory approvals.
With the government looking for ways
to create competition in the marketplace for program distributors, this
move should turn up the heat. EchoS-
tar's CEO and chairman, Charlie
Ergen, has been at the head of the line
at attempting to give the viewers what
they want. Commenting on this deal,
Ergen said, "This agreement provides
EchoStar with an opportunity to offer
consumers an alternative to rising cable
prices and poor cable service. It also
strengthens EchoStar's efforts to provide local network channels for consumers who live in areas that don't get
a reliable picture from a conventional
off -air antenna."
For additional information, see
www.dishnetwork.com.
NABET lockout ends
fhe National Association of Broadcast Employees and Technicians (NABET), an affiliate of the Communications Workers of America, called off a
boycott of ABC/Disney by 2600 of its
workers after two and a half months.
The lockout, which began on Nov. 2 as
a one day strike by workers over changes in medical benefits and then escalated when the network locked workers
out, ended with NABET agreeing to
submit the network's contract offer to
members for a ratification vote.
Over the course of the lockout, many
of ABC's broadcasts were affected by
the inexperienced staff behind the scenes,
as well as the network's difficulty in
booking guests for its news interviews.
Camera crews were excluded from several news conferences during the network's critical election night coverage,
and politicians, particularly Democrats,
were loath to cross picket lines to appear on such staples as "Nightline,"
"Good Morning America," and "This
Week." Several notable entertainers also
refused to cross lines, including Tony
Bennett and comedian Adam Sandler.
Even the network's sports coverage was
notably affected. "Monday Night Football," usually a showplace for technical
excellence, drew the ire of media and
viewers alike for repeated production
glitches and poor camera work.
According to NABET /CWA president
14
Broadcast Engineering
John Clark, "Disney/ABC was willing
to keep presenting its viewers inferior
news, public affairs and sports coverage indefinitely, it appears, in order to
dictate contract terms."
Though they are recommending that
the contract be ratified by a member
vote, the union may not be wholly
satisfied with the offer. The union membership "deserves a
Disney empire and the contemptuous
attitude that Disney management takes
toward its workers and the collective
bargaining process."
Ballots for the ratification of Disney/
ABC's offer were mailed to the union's
membership near the end of January
and were due back by February 5. Results will be announced shortly thereafter.
better contract
than this one," said
CWA president
Morton Bahr, "but
I am recommending ratification on
the basis that it's
the best settlement
John Clark
that can be reached
NABET /CWA
at this time withpresident
out unduly prolonging the hardship that Disney /ABC
has inflicted."
Bahr also hinted that NABET /CWA
would take a different approach to resolving its differences with the network.
"It became very clear to us that ABC's
labor policies are now totally dominated by the parent company. We're going
to have to develop a unified, multi union approach to dealing with the
KATU -TV goes
Study spotlights EAS
noncompliance
The Federal Communications Commission urged broadcasters to come
into 100 percent compliance with the
Emergency Alert System (EAS). Upon
the recent release of a survey of 653
AM, FM and TV broadcast stations,
the Commission said stations have improved compliance with EAS mandates
but must increase their efforts.
One of the most disturbing results of
the survey indicated that 85 stations
either had not installed EAS equipment
or had equipment that wasn't working.
The FCC mandates that all stations
have an EAS encoder and decoder in
operating condition. The survey indi-
online
KATU -TV has partnered with Transport Logic to put its analog broadcasts
on the Web. The world can now view KATU's local shows at www.katu.com.
For those who don't know, KATU is Fisher Broadcasting's ABC affiliate on
Channel 2 serving Portland, OR.
"The addition of Web -based broadcasting continues our technology push.
KATU is the first commercial TV
station in Portland with HDTV
and we plan to continue to be a
Thursday
!waryt1_
technology leader," said Jim
LOCAL NEWS ..DfO
customer
services
Crownover,
Nowt
Tir Fo.e of
manager of KATU -TV.
GM
WI
Local
Viewers can watch KATU's local
Programs anos .......M1
programming with a browser and
MIam.rr.rr
N..wnpa
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a Real Player. Those who do not
have Real Player can download
f7t.. 16 pe.= r... r..i
one by going to KATU's website.
"Our commitment to offering
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our viewers the ability to see local
REM ION
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news on the Internet is significant.
c_..,-+m0mmannmerr
We think that viewers will begin
""tee
to check our site while traveling to
-Alf -I =1=1=1=11
see what is happening at home,"
said Jim Boyer, KATU -TV general
manager.
MEN
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February 1999
r
2eigust5, f#-92
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SONY'
cates only 87 percent compliance.
Only 83 percent of surveyed stations
were monitoring the correct stations.
Every area has a primary station, and
there's also the National Weather Service, sometimes called the NOAA weather radio station. Since all states, territories, etc., have plans in operation as we
speak, it wouldn't be hard to find out
what you should be monitoring.
One hundred fifty stations reported
they had failed to save EAS monitor
printouts along with a copy of the station log. The FCC requires that stations
log the weekly and monthly test and any
equipment malfunction.
EAS Handbooks are required and can
be downloaded from the Commission's
website for free, but there were 98
stations that didn't have a copy. If you
are one of those who need a copy of the
handbook, getting EAS information is
simple. Go to the FCC websitc:
www.fcc.gov. Once there, click on
"search" and enter "EAS." You'll get a
whole list of things on EAS, including
how to download the handbook.
The final area mentioned in the FCC
report was about stations sending and
receiving the weekly EAS tests. Stations
must also retransmit a monthly test.
According to the FCC, "This reflects on
how well stations may handle messages
during an emergency." One hundred
fifty-six stations apparently did not comply.
EAS is a life- saving tool. In 1998, the
FCC received over 500 reports from
broadcasters who have activated EAS
locally to broadcast public notices about
events such as tornadoes, flash floods
and evacuations. No one can count
how many lives may have been saved.
Because EAS compliance is not at 100
percent, the FCC's field offices will conduct inspections of AM, FM and TV
stations to ensure that the stations are
meeting the EAS requirements: Furthermore, the Commission may issue forfeitures to stations that do not meet the
EAS requirements. The FCC says it is
stepping up its inspection program this
month.
For more information, see
www.fcc.gov /cib /News_Releases/
easenf.html.
Questions?
Contact our authors with
e -mail. page 26.
18
Broadcast Engineering
Unlit tower involved
in near miss
According to FCC Report No. 019827, a helicopter on an urgent emergency
call near Muleshoe, TX, which is about
half way between Amarillo and Lubbock, was forced to "alter its approach
pattern" when the pilot unexpectedly
encountered a nearby unlit antenna
structure. The pilot notified the local
police, who, in turn, notified the FCC.
The FCC's Dallas Office investigated
and took steps to ensure that the tower
was promptly lit and that the FAA was
notified of the outage.
The event underscores the necessity of
properly lit towers.
A recent FCC audit of existing anten-
na structures found 368 structures out
of 1331 (28 percent) were not registered as required by FCC rules. Owners
of those structures requiring an FCC
registration whom have not done so
must register their structures immediately.
The FCC's Compliance and Information Bureau (CIB) is continuing its investigation of the Texas near miss. CIB
Bureau Chief Richard D. Lee said, "Unlit antenna structures present a special
hazard to law enforcement and emergency medical personnel. I cannot stress
too strongly the need for complete compliance with FCC rules. Violations in
this area can place life and safety at risk.
Enforcement of these requirements is a
top priority."
The FCC rules are very simple and
Analysts say analog until 2025
Without the adoption of an alternate system, the government might miss
its goal of switching off analog broadcasts in 2006 by nearly 20 years, or
so say findings published in a report entitled "Selling off the airwaves
Strategies for the transition to digital broadcasting," from Strategy Analytics Inc.'s Interactive Home Service. According to the report, the "universal
broadband" strategy will not allow analog to be switched off by 2013. That
strategy requires "recognition and promotion of cable and DBS satellite
networks as official public service TV distributors and support for mass
adoption of in -home networking technologies." Such recognition has not
occurred.
Strategy Analytics predicts consumers will not warm to HDTV receivers
and set -top boxes, with only 190,000 receivers purchased by the end of
1999. While this will provide a revenue stream worth $700 million to
manufacturers during the first 12 months, it is only a fraction of the
audience broadcasters need to make a transition worthwhile. While
Strategy Analytics predicts the demand will rise steadily, only nine percent
of U.S. households will be watching DTV by 2006. A switch -off at that
point would not only leave millions of homes without TV and render tens
of millions of TV sets useless but would be suicide for the TV broadcast
industry.
"Unless regulators adopt a new approach to the analog switch -off, there
is a risk that these frequencies could still be occupied by NTSC until the year
2025," comments David Mercer, interactive home service director at
Strategy Analytics.
Many have ignored the fact that most homes have multiple TV sets. Even
in households with cable and/or satellite TV, at least one unit, if not all,
relies on terrestrial transmissions for part of its reception. Strategy Analytics says, "Regulators should encourage or enforce multiroom distribution
of video signals to ensure the benefits of broadband are available to all
devices in the home."
"The airwaves are a valuable asset. Analog TV makes inefficient use of
them," says Mercer. "Getting from today's analog environment to a
completely digital world will be much tougher than people realize."
For additional information, see Strategy Analytics Inc.'s website at
www.strategyanalytics.com.
-
February 1999
Tiernan produces the most
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-
clear. Antenna structures over 200 -feet
high, or in certain areas designated by
the Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA), must be lit from dusk until dawn.
If a top tower light is extinguished for
more than 30 minutes, the FAA must be
notified so that a Notice to Airman
(NOTAM) can be issued.
FCC rules also require, with certain
limited exceptions, that broadcast tower structures be registered. "These registration rules are as essential and sensible as the need for automobiles to
have license plates. There are no good
reasons for failing to comply with this
basic requirement," Lee said.
The FCC welcomes public input about
unlit radio towers. If you do call about
an unlit tower, you may be saving someone's life.
The Commission can be reached at 1888-CALLFCC (1- 888 -225 -5322). To
see a copy of the FCC Report No. CI 9827, go to www.fcc.gov/Daily_Releases /
SBE
calls for candidates
The Society of Broadcast Engineers is looking for candidates for
its upcoming national elections. Interested parties must be members
of the Society in good standing and must hold SBE certification at
any level.
The upcoming election will decide six two -year seats on the Board
of Directors. Board postions are strictly at- large. In addition, the
Society will be filling all four officer's seats. Officers serve only one year terms. The current president, Edward J. Miller, and vice
president, Troy Pennington, are prohibited from holding their
offices again by the Society's bylaws.
The deadline for nomination is July 5. A candidate must have 10
member nominations to be included on the final ballot. Ballots will
be mailed to the SBE general membership at the beginning of
August. Those elected by the membership will be installed in
October of this year at the SBE's national meeting in Madison, WI.
Anyone interested in running for office should contact Joe Snelson
at [email protected], Larry Wilkins at wilkins @wlwi.com, or
Richard Farquhar, the committee chaiman, at rick @rafassociates.com
(800- 632 -2367).
Daily_Business /1998/db981130/
nrci8027.txt.
be sold by 2003, the next 10 million in
2004 and 2005, and 10.8 million to be
sold in 2006.
DTV Momentum
builds
www.cemacity.org
CEMA rejects Forrester results
The Consumer Electronic Show was
evidence of continuing growth for DTV
equipment. According to the president
of the Consumer Electronics Manufacturers Association (CEMA), Gary Shapiro, more than 13,000 DTV sets were
sold
within
weeks after the
launch of digital
broadcasting.
He reported
that all major
manufacturers
are involved in
development of
DTV products
Gary Shapiro,
and early conpresident CEMA
sumer reception
has been enthusiastic. At the association's
January electronics show, set manufacturers were asked what percentage of digital
sets sold in 1999 would be high definition
sets. The panelists at the set -makers session were unanimous; at least two thirds
of all sets sold would be HDTV.
CEMA estimates digital television sales
of 150,000 sets by the end of 1999, and
sales of 600,000 in the year 2000. CEMA
projects that the first 10 million sets will
20
on CEMA and home theaters see
Broadcast Engineering
Home theatre sales exceed $10 billion
Echoing the success of DTV sets, home
theater is a rapidly growing segment of
consumer sales. New home theater sales
reached $10.64 billion in 1998 according
to industry analysis. "Home theater is a
growing trend with American families.
Already 20 percent of US households own
a home theater as compared to 4 percent
just five years ago," said Shapiro.
CEMA research also confirmed the
support of home theater by custom installers. Roughly 40 percent of home
theater sales are through custom installations. More than 80 percent of set
manufacturers support custom installers either through technical support, dedicated product lines or marketing assistance. Sales of home theaters are shown
below:
Retail sales without installation: 60
percent
Custom installation through retail
stores 26 percent
Custom installation sales (non retail
store) 14 percent.
The survey results were supported
through a wide cross -section of the home
theater industry. For more information
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
In a fiery response to recently released
research from Forrester Research, Shapiro issued the following statement: "The
Forrester research results are wrong.
Forrester makes predictions in its report
about what consumers want without
talking to consumers. Our HDTV research is based on consumer opinion
surveys and consumer focus groups that
included HDTV demonstrations. The
results of our research are clear: Consumers want high definition TV and, in
demonstration after demonstration, they
express a strong preference for HDTV
over standard definition TV.
"HDTV is like ice cream. You can read
about ice cream. But until you taste it,
you don't know how good it is.. Our
research tells us that when consumers
see HDTV, they are excited about the
technology and willing to pay for it,"
Shapiro said.
Shapiro was responding to a recent
statement from Forrester that consumers will not support HDTV. (Editor's
note: For a summary of the Forrester
data on predicted TV set sales, see the
Framegrab on page 68 of the January
1999 issue.)
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WETA goes live from
the White House
WETA -TV and Worcester, MA -based
Telecast Fiber Systems Inc. (TFSI)
teamed up for the first PBS/HDTV transmission of "In Performance at the
White House."
The broadcast was the first live origination of an uncompressed HDTV program to a network and on to an affiliate
for digital broadcast. The uncompressed
1080i signal from the HD remote truck
at the White House was fed to TFSI's
Digital Viper unit beside the truck so it
could be then transmitted at 1.5Gb /s
over 14 miles of Bell Atlantic glass to
the PBS's Master Control in Alexan-
dria, VA.
Once the signal got to Alexandria,
PBS used its new HD encoder to compress and encode the program in real
time down to 19.39Mb/s. The bitstream
was then transmitted over a second
fiber circuit to WETA -TV for live broadcast by a new Harris Sigma -series, full power digital transmitter.
By bringing fiber to the truck, the
Digital Viper moves the transmission
DEMARC to the
closest possible
point to the broadcaster. This substantially reduces
the possibility of interference or distance limitations
between the truck
and the transmission path. A distinct advantage to
this approach is
that the uncompressed signal can
be optically split to
multiple users with
compression or
conversion to different format .
done at the last
stage.
For additional information, see TFSI's website at
www.telecastfiber.com.
Telecast digital Viper 442 at PBS master control.
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Centralization: Local
vs. regional
On several of the professional TVrelated Internet forums, the subject of
"group ownership" and centralization
has been, and probably still is, a hot
topic. In light of Congress' growing
interests in this area and the recent
acquisitions and mergers in the DBS
part of the industry, this buzz isn't
confined to the Internet.
In case you are one of the few who
haven't heard, DirecTV has acquired
United States Satellite Broadcasting
(USSB) from Huber Communications.
USSB has shared satellites with DirecTV for some time. In addition, a
much larger deal, DirecTV's bid for
PrimeStar, will apparently go through.
Furthermore, Echo Star acquired News
Corporation's space assets over the
U.S. as well as the ultramodern Gilbert, AZ, operations, control and uplink center. That boils down to only
two DBS players for the U.S.
Many are concerned about local-intolocal and others about the
lack of grassroots access
as the result of this swing
several are quite accomplished. As an
example, Adair has written a chapter
in the Electronics' Technician Antenna
Handbook on Interference.
When speaking with Adair about the
centralization issue, she said, "My guess
is that if ownership caps were lifted,
we would see rapid consolidation of
over- the -air broadcast television with
a move to regionalized operations centers and smaller local studio/sales offices." This would have a definite impact on not only her business, but all
the small independent production and
post -production facilities whose bread
and butter is supplemented by doing
an occasional local shoot for "the TV
station."
Adair pointed out that there is one
factor often overlooked; the production resources in a community that
could be used to produce content. Many
high schools have the required equipment (and plenty of free labor) to produce and air a football or basketball
game. There is plenty of local content
that could make it to air in smaller
control and centralization of all operations, plant configuration, scheduling, programming, billing and all other aspects of the broadcast station for
any group owner or broadcaster irrespective of the size or number of program channels or the station's geographical location. With the dramatic
increase in group ownership and the
many regional networks already
formed with their corresponding centralized broadcast centers, this should
come as no surprise.
The concept of the local station serving its community has given way, in
many cases, to bottom -line concerns.
Despite the local cable- access channels, and with the relaxing of the FCC
rules on required local public- service
and public- events programming, small
communities are increasingly at a loss
for the dissemination of local informa-
tion.
It is possible that the days of the small
businessperson are numbered. There
will probably never be another "Mom and -Pop" broadcast facility unless the
family name is linked to a
multimillion -dollar bank
account. Even the smallest of radio stations sells
toward centralization.
today for a million plus.
The FCC's policies conImagine what it will be
cerning group ownership
like to bid against the largare currently under review
er corporations when the
because of the number of
auctioning of TV specstations some interests
trum is a part of our daily
have amassed under curlives after 2006.
rent policies.
The "local information
There are probably thousource" position is still
sands of rural supportup for grabs in most comtype operations that are
munities. In a few marbeing hard hit by this cenkets broadcasters are
tralization trend. One
moving to capitalize on
such entrepreneur, Robin
the opportunity. The big
Adair, CET, owns DULNot every post production facility needs million -dollar equipment to
CA SCENES, a video and produce programming. This studio at DULCA, located in Columbia, KY, problem for most of these
services today is accessipost -production business relies on cost -effective solutions to produce local programming.
bility and lack of promoin Columbia, KY. Many
of these "local" houses received their markets if that market had the addi- tion. As the lines between the computstart as allied business. Adair said, tional capacity. DTV will help in that er market and broadcasting become
more obscure and information is cached
"We started out as an electronics re- area with multicasting.
The future holds in store more cen- in home media servers for demand pair, off -air antenna installation and
service business that grew with tech- tralization, with small local facilities based consumption, the market for
nology to include both big dishes and available for local- interest content in- these kinds of services should grow
sertion. Even this can be run from a dramatically.
the newer small DBS dishes."
Typical of this kind of rural opera- major control point. You can't, in some
tion, the owners have backgrounds in ways, blame the broadcaster, as it saves
Send questions and comments to:
[email protected]
money.
of
radio
and
TV
broadthem
differing aspects
Software is currently available that
cast. Many have college training in
addition to practical experience and will permit a single point of remote
26
Broadcast Engineering
February 1999
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Web: www.faroudja.com
Circle (16) on Fns Info Card
FCC
U.date
FCC
adopts online call sign system
BY HARRY MARTIN
rules further refined
In dealing with petitions for reconsideration of its earlier Report and
Orders in its DTV proceeding, the
e FCC has adopted a new streamlined system whereby broadcast
licensees can reserve new and changed
call signs for their stations via the
DTV
Internet.
Commission resolved the following
remaining issues:
DTV power increases. The Commission will permit parties to submit
applications requesting DTV power
increases above the former 200kW
limit, up to a maximum of 1000kW.
Requests to increase power above
200kW must include engineering
documentation demonstrating compli-
This new online electronic call sign
system will enable users to determine the availability and licensing
status of call signs; to request an
initial call sign or change an existing
call sign; and to determine more easily the appropriate fee. The system
will allow applicants to effectively
reserve a selected call sign as soon as
the user has submitted its call sign
request. In addition, because all the
steps and instructions to reserve call
signs are included within the online
system, it will prevent users from
filing defective or incomplete call
sign requests. The Mass Media Bureau will announce by public notice
how and when the transition to the
new call sign system will be effectuated, and it expects to implement the
new system following the Bureau's
relocation to the Portals Building in
early 1999.
Licensees or permittees requesting
an initial or changed call sign must
provide their e-mail address, and the
Commission will then e-mail to them
a unique validation code for the
transaction. This procedure will allow the tracing of inappropriate call
sign requests and discourage unauthorized entries into the reservation
system.
Dateline
TV stations in Delaware and
Pennsylvania must file renewal
applications on or before April
1, 1999. Stations in the following states must file ownership
reports by April 1, 1999:
Delaware, Indiana, Kentucky,
Pennsylvania, Tennessee and
Texas.
28
Broadcast Engineering
ance with the de minimis interference
standard with respect to all affected
stations assumed to be operating at the
DTV power level specified for their
allotments or at 200kW, whichever is
greater.
Hours of Operation. All DTV
stations which voluntarily commence
DTV service prior to their applicable
construction deadlines have complete
discretion with respect to their operation schedules. Once their DTV construction deadlines have passed, licensees must operate their DTV stations during the same time periods
that they operate their existing analog
facilities.
Eligibility. The Commission reaffirmed its DTV eligibility standards.
Only those parties who held a license or a construction permit for a
full -power TV station as of April 3,
1997 are entitled to receive a DTV
license. Accordingly, the Commission denied reconsideration petitions
arguing that certain NTSC applicants whose applications were pending as that date, should be awarded a
DTV channel. However, the Commission will afford new NTSC permittees, whose applications were not
granted on or before the April 3
cutoff and, thus, were not eligible to
receive an initial DTV paired license,
the choice of immediately constructing either an analog or DTV station
on their existing channel. If these
February 1999
permittees initially choose to construct an NTSC facility, they may request Commission authorization to
convert to DTV on their existing channel at any point during the transition
period.
At the end of the transition period,
the Commission will reassign all out of-core DTV broadcasters, including
pending applicants, to channels within
the core. The Commission is confident
that sufficient channels will be available to provide all out -of -core stations
with a new channel.
Modification applications. The
Commission denied petitioners' requests that they be granted full DTV
service replication for modified facilities, even for those reflected in modification applications filed prior to the
April 3, 1997 DTV eligibility deadline.
The Commission determined that spectrum conservation issues made it impossible to provide DTV allotments
that would match the service areas
requested in all pre -cutoff NTSC modification applications.
While the Commission will continue
to process modification applications
for NTSC stations, where such a proposed modification would result in
interference to the predicted service of
a DTV station, the application will be
dismissed.
In the event an application seeking
modification of NTSC facilities is granted, the Commission will not automatically increase the facilities of the associated DTV allotment to replicate the
new NTSC service area. If parties with
pending NTSC modification applications wish to have their DTV facilities
modified, they must file a separate
application for modification of the
DTV station.
Harry C. Martin is an attorney with Fletcher,
Heald ér Hildreth, PLC., Rosslyn, VA.
Send questions and comments to:
[email protected]
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www.americanradiohistory.com
Ex.ert'sCorner Vendor Views
HDTV
-
Is it
worth the trouble?
BY JERRY WHITAKER, BE CONFERENCE CONSULTANT
-
digital sysNew technologies
in
general,
tems
and computers in
particular
-
promise to radically
change the TV industry as we know it.
Indeed, they are already remaking the
entertainment, information, and commercial landscape. The ongoing implementation of DTV in general, and
HDTV in particular, represents the
culmination of these trends. DTV
developed as much for hybrid computer/TV systems as for broadcasters
represents a significant challenge to
video professionals, but it also offers
unprecedented opportunities to those
willing to take some risks.
Consumers in the U.S. have demonstrated an insatiable appetite for new
electronic gadgets. TV broadcasters
have, in the past, been the benefactors
of this growth market. Now, as con-
-
Bruce F. Miller
From the broadcaster's perspective,
who needs the aggravation of another channel to drain significant dollars away from an established station?
Sure, the FCC
has loaned you
the spectrum
space but not
the significant
capital to place
it on the air, the
sponsors who
are willing to
pay premiums
for advertising
on that channel, the source
of attractive HDTV programs and any
guarantee that anyone will see that new
digital channel. So why bother? Besides,
standard DTV has been accepted by the
buying public that has purchased satellite service, and it doesn't seem to be
clamoring for HDTV.
Maybe, you think, "If I wait a year or
two, the FCC will rescind the Sixth
Report and Order, the Fifth, etc., and the
30
Broadcast Engineering
sumers branch out from traditional
over -the -air entertainment sources to
other media, broadcasters have a whole
new ball game with which to deal. The
continuing decline in network viewership is just one indicator of this trend.
While it is certainly true that one reason for lower viewership at the flagship
networks is the plethora of choices,
thanks in large part to cable and DBS,
it is also true that many people are
simply turning off their TVs and turning on their computers for information, entertainment, and shopping. The
genie is out of the bottle and it will
never go back in. To compete in today's
environment requires some dramatic
and, in some cases, difficult choices.
The questions now looming over the
TV industry with regard to HDTV are
essentially a repeat of previous major
consumer appliance "upgrades" (i.e.,
color, the compact disc, and computers
in all their many variations). It is fair
to point out, however, that in the case of
DTV, there are a few new twists over
the previous upgrade examples. Prime
among them is that the FCC plans to
shut down NTSC within the next decade. We can debate at length over
when that will really happen, but rest
assurred that it will happen.
The next significant issue, of course,
is whether to take full advantage of the
DTV system and transmit the highest quality HDTV signal, or multiple
streams of SDTV. This important, and
immediate, issue is addressed this
month: HDTV: Is it worth the trouble?
Our two commentators have extensive
experience in what HDTV is capable of
and what is at stake for TV.
industry will return to the comfort zone
of NTSC. And even if ATSC is not
banished, certainly in a year or two the
cost of conversion will be lower than it
is today. I'll have a choice of vendors for
everything I need and will be able to
obtain competitive quotes. If I wait until
closer to the deadline for my station's
market to get on the air digitally, someone will have resolved all the tower and
reception issues and I can simply copy
what they have learned."
If your current line of thinking mirrors
the previous paragraphs, then you do not
need a business plan
going- out-ofbusiness plan would be more in order.
HDTV is catching on and you need to be
a part of it. Vendors are actively seeking
input from potential users by asking how
they can craft their products to meet your
needs. If you haven't assessed your needs
yet, the products that come to market at
theis year's NAB Show will be designed
without your suggestions.
HDTV will ultimately replace standard- definition TV, just as CDs have
replaced LPs. As the program content
improves, the public will demand the
quality. The public will probably not
remember if your station was the first in
your market with HDTV, but it will
certainly pass you by if you offer no
HDTV. Remember that this is the public
that is funding the resurgence of the
theaters that offer frequent new material, mind -boggling visual experiences and
-a
February 1999
-
ear -catching surround sound. With
HDTV, your station can offer that experience in the comfort of the viewer's home.
Start your business plan today to phase in HDTV earlier rather than later. The
spectacular video and audio will be your
initial reward, but don't stop there. Determine how best to use the significant data
carrying capacity that resides in the
19.4Mb/s stream you send to every one of
your viewers. Even if you use only 600kb/s,
that's 10 times more than most high -end
modems deliver. There's a revenue stream
in data to reward you for innovation.
When you finally give birth to the new kid
on the block, you will forget the pain and
revel in the experience.
President, Model Station Project, Inc., Wash-
ington, DC.
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the quality of all shows.
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That's why we've put just as much
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With more than ten years of HDTV
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Now, when you're converting to HD,
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The MDD2000 is the
Circle (9) on Free Info Card
o
maintained. It is also important because of our downconversions to PAL.
We believe that HD broadcasting will
come about. But, we also believe that
standard definition broadcasting will
continue. Our objective is to transfer
movies one time only, and have that
one master serve all needs. Clearly, for
this strategy to work, we must transfer
at the highest resolution. We use the
1080 format. Our resulting product
can then be supplied as a 1080 product,
or downconverted to the 720 or 480
formats.
What about other television programming? About 75 percent of prime time
programming is captured on film at 24
frames per second. In the old days, the
film would be cut to put together the
program. Then the resulting film would
be transferred to NTSC video. If a PAL
version was needed, it would come
from a second transfer. In this case, a
true "master" -the 35mm film -was
made. Today, each shot is separately
transferred to video, and then treated
as if it were 60Hz interlaced video
rather than 24fps film. Edit timing is
based on 60Hz fields, not 24Hz frames.
In this case, the "master" is the NTSC
Robert Hopkins, Ph.D
Is HDTV worth the trouble? Abso-
lutely.
Since 1995, the Sony Pictures High
Definition Center has been transferring movies to high-definition digital
tape. These
master tapes
have
been
placed in our
vault in anticipation of future
HD demands,
whether that is
for prerecorded media or
broadcasting.
In the meantime, the HD
master is downconverted for all current needs. This includes PAL and
NTSC, pay -per-view, broadcasting,
VHS, laser disc, DVD, etc. The down converted copy is demonstrably superior to a 525 -line or 625 -line transfer.
In our transfers, we are careful to
maintain proper 3:2 pulldown. This is
important because digital broadcasting will be more efficient if the proper
24Hz characteristic of the movie is
video. The 24fps character of the film is
broken. The temporal flow of the program is uneven.
HD, at 24fps 1080p scan, offers a
solution to this problem. If the shots are
transferred to 24fps video, and edit timing is based on 24fps, we will have
"recreated" the master from the old
days, except it is already electronic. It
can be broadcast at 24fps, or downconverted to the 720 or 480 formats. It can
easily be made into a 60 Hz signal,
interlaced or progressive, by "inserting"
a 3:2 pulldown. It can easily be made
into a 50Hz signal by playing the 24Hz
tape at 25Hz. By posting the show in this
manner, this single master can be used to
satisfy all needs, 50Hz or 60Hz, high definition or standard -definition. The
HD Center is interested in 241-Iz electronic shooting also. We want to be able
to seamlessly mix material shot on film
and material shot electronically. This is
for material that will end up as video, and
for material which will end up as film. We
believe the easiest way to accomplish this
is to shoot video at 24fps.
Vice president and general manager of the Sony
Pictures High -Definition Center, Culver City,
CA
February 25 -27, 1999
33rd
Omni Rosen Hotel
SMPTE
Orlando, FL
Innovation,
Implementation
Advanced
and OperationMotion Imaging The Challenges
Conference of Change
Ear practical solutions to today's most important motion imaging
challenges, the 33rd SMPTE Advanced Motion Imaging Conference
takes an in -depth look at the issues advancing the industry.
Session topics include:
Acquisition
Integration
Post -Production
Distribution and Transmission
plus an all -day seminar:
System Interfaces, Networking.
and Connectivity
34
Broadcast Engineering
CONTACT SMPTE
to receive more information:
T SMPTE
Fax: 914.761-3115
Phone: 914.761-1100
Mail to: 595 W. Hartsdale Ave., White Plains, NY 10607
or visit the SMPTE web site at www.smpte.org
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
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BREAKING SOUND BARRIERS
BOOTH: LVCC L21328
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www.americanradiohistory.com
FAX 415 -863 -1373
www.dolby.com
Digital Han
Transition to Disital
The concept of resolution
BY MICHAEL ROBIN
elevison resolution specifications are
factors. The resolution of a photograph the horizontal and vertical scanning prosometimes quoted and often misrep- is the same in all directions.
cess, television pictures exhibit two types
resented. Picture resolution may be deof spatial resolution vertical and horscribed using several different numbers, Television pictures
izontal.
all of which claim to be accurate. The
Video pictures are scanned horizontalVertical resolution: In interlaced vidbasics of analog and digital resolution ly and vertically. The result is an electri- eo, the vertical resolution is equal to the
were covered in past columns (see March cal representation (in volts) of picture number of active lines multiplied by the
and April 1998), therefore, this article brightness values (in candelas per square Kell factor, (usually taken as 0.7). Vertiwill provide another viewpoint
on the subject.
Picture source
Flicker frequency Frames per second Flicker threshold
Movies
48Hz
24
68.5 cd /m
Spatial resolution
50Hz television
50Hz
25
99.4 cd /m'
Photographs are essentially
60Hz television
60Hz (nominal)
30 (nominal)
616.7 cd /m2
-
two -dimensional representa-
tions of events frozen in time.
Table
The difference between a photograph and motion pictures is the
latter is typically a sequence of successive, related pictures. The ability of
photographs to reproduce fine detail is
typically expressed as the number of
lines per millimeter that can be separately recognized. Values range from below
50 to around 1000 and depend on the
emulsion, the contrast of the subject,
and the color of the light, as well as other
1.
The CFF for commonly encountered flicker frequencies.
meter) at specific locations on the scanned
image at a given moment in time. The
electrical representation may be analog
or digital.
Television pictures are made up of a
given number of lines per picture, specific to the scanning format. Conventional
standard definition formats (525/60 or
625/50) use interlaced scanning. Due to
FRAME GRAB
A look at tomorrow's technology
Growth for Internet surges upward
While projections differ, all show increased usage
120
loo
80
60
i
40
20
o
U.S
eStats'98
36
Worldwide
4E- Marketer' 99 5 arec:
Non -U.S.
estats'99
www.rStats.cmn
Broadcast Engineering
www.americanradiohistory.com
cal resolution is expressed in lines per
picture height (LPH). It is independent
of the transmission bandwidth. In the
525/60 scanning standard, the vertical
resolution is equal to 0.7 x 485, or
339LPH.
Horizontal resolution: The number
of picture elements per active line duration that the television picture needs to
resolve horizontally is equal to the aspect ratio (e.g. 4:3 or 16:9) multiplied by
the vertical resolution. This results in a
characteristic optimal (minimum) bandwidth that the transmission medium,
from the camera output to the receiver's
CRT, needs to handle. Horizontal resolution is expressed in LPH and in an
optimized system is equal to the vertical
resolution. Each scanning standard is
characterized by a resolution factor expressed in lines/MHz. The resolution of
a given system is equal to the resolution
factor multiplied by the system bandwidth (in MHz). In standard -definition
systems (SDTV) the resolution factor is
about 80 lines/MHz. In the slightly suboptimal NTSC system, with a nominal
bandwidth of 4.2MHz, the horizontal
resolution is about 80 x 4.2 = 336LPH.
For equal horizontal/vertical resolution
(339LPH) the system bandwidth should
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Ss* us at NAB Booth 01.22257
be slightly higher (4.28MHz). It is im-
mise. When two adjacent lines in two
consecutive fields have different luminance valúes, the result is small area
flicker, at the frame rate, and is highly
objectionable. To avoid these problems,
tion would be more near to the actual
number of active lines.
Digital- related resolution: The digital
related resolution is usually expressed as
a number equal to the number of active
computers, which have no wide band- lines per picture. Due to the interlace
elements per active line would be 4/3 x width signal distribution constraints, use ambiguity, the actual vertical resolution
333 = 444. The two numbers, 333 and progressive scanning, a high number of is lower because the Kell factor plays a
444, are occasionally used to describe scanning lines and picture refresh rates limiting role. In a noninterlaced display,
the horizontal resolution.
in excess of 60Hz. ATSC recommenda- such as a computer, the vertical resolutions, included in the DTV standard, tion equals the number of active lines.
Temporal resolution
allow for a choice of interlaced or proHorizontal resolution. In digital sysAn important property of the human gressive scanning formats. It is predict- tems the horizontal resolution can be
visual system (HVS) is persistence of able that in the future there will be a expressed in two ways:
vision. Once an image has been formed trend towards the use of progressive
Analog- related resolution: In a "black on the retina, the eye acts as a storage scanning.
box" consisting of an A/D, a processor
device. The visual sensation of the image
and a D/A the analog- related resolution
is retained for a finite length of time. As
Digital system considerations
depends on the sampling frequency and
a consequence, we can be fooled into
There are several considerations unique the combined effects of the anti -aliasing
believing that a sequence of static pic- to resolution in digital systems, among and reconstruction filters. In an SDTV
tures represents motion whenever the them:
scanning system the resolution factor is
display rate exceeds 10 pictures per secQuantizing or amplitude resolution. about 80 lines/MHz. Other scanning sysond. However, eliminating the flicker In digital systems the term resolution is tems have different resolution factors.
phenomenon requires still higher pic- often used to represent the number of
*Digital related resolution: In a 4:2:2 ture rates. The display rate is chosen to unique analog signal voltage levels the type digital system, the digital -related
provide a sufficiently rapid succession to system is capable of recognizing. For resolution is expressed as the number of
avoid display flicker at levels of image example a system with a resolution of pixels per active line, i.e. 720 Y pixels,
brightness appropriate for giv360 B -Y pixels and 360 R -Y
CCIR B, G cut-off frequency (5 MHz)
rV Filter cut -off frequency (5.75 MHz)
en viewing environments. The
pixels.
These numbers are
A
NTSC cut-off frequency
frequency
L
(4.2 MHz)
4- Nyquist
(6.75 MHz)
critical flicker frequency (CFF)
sometimes called pixel densidepends on the display brightties. The pixel numbers do
ness and is the minimum rate
not define the resolution and
of display, at a given picture
their indiscriminate use may
brighmess, at which the HVS
create confusion. Figure 1
does not perceive flicker.
presents the case of the 4:2:2
Early movies used 17 picluminance signal. It shows the
tures per second. Contemporelationship between the ideMHz
rary movies use 24 pictures
alized response of four typi3
per second, with each picture
cal luminance bandwidth -limLuminance samples
projected twice. This results in
iting filters, the number of
line
per
active
100
200
400
300
500
600
700
448 5)3 6 3
7QO
a display rate of 48 pictures
samples per picture width (acper second. The TV picture
tive line) and the horizontal
Horizontal resolution in
(frame) has a refresh rate of
resolution in LPH. The quotlines per picture height
80
160
240
400
480
560
320
(LPH)
460
540
336
30Hz (525/60 scanning staned figures are calculated usdard) or 25Hz (625 /SO scan- Figure 1. The relationship between idealized luminance banding a figure of 80 lines/MHz
ning standard). Each frame is
width, the resulting number of samples /active line and the
of bandwidth for both SDTV
horizontal resolution.
made up of two successive inscanning standards. If the
terlaced fields with a refresh
anti -aliasing and reconstrucrate of 60Hz or 50Hz. Historically, the 10bits/sample is capable of producing tion filters are neglected, a 4:2:2 compovalues for the field repetition frequency 210 = 1024 different voltage levels at the nent digital black box would be capable
were chosen to be equal to the power line output.
of producing pictures with an equivalent
frequency, 60Hz in the U.S., Canada and
Vertical resolution. In digital systems bandwidth of 6.75MHz (the Nyquist
Mexico, and 50Hz in other parts of the the vertical resolution can be expressed frequency), resulting in 720 samples (pixworld. Today they are only nominally in two ways:
els) per active line or a horizontal resolurelated to the power line frequency.
Analog- related resolution: In an in- tion of 540LPH. To avoid aliasing and
Interlaced scanning is used to reduce terlaced system the analog vertical reso- beat phenomena, pre- and post -filters
the transmitted bandwidth. It causes large lution is equal to the number of active with a cutoff frequency of 5.75MHz are
picture areas of uniform color and bright- lines per field multiplied by the Kell being used. An idealized brickwall filter
ness to flicker at the field rate (large area factor usually taken as 0.7. Ideally in a with a cutoff frequency of 5.75MHz
flicker) and is an acceptable comprononinterlaced system the vertical resolu- would result in horizontal resolution of
portant to note that the horizontal resolution is numerically smaller than the
number of resolved picture elements
per active line. In the same 4.2MHz
system, the number of resolved picture
3
2
I
38
Broadcast Engineering
1
I
February 1999
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460LPH and 613 analog pixels per active line. By comparison, an idealized
5MHz brickwall filter (CCIR B,G) would
result in a horizontal resolution of 400
LPH and 533 analog pixels per active
line and a similar 4.2MHz filter (NTSC)
would result in a horizontal resolution
of 336 LPH and 488 analog pixels per
active line. Practical low -pass filters result in reduced performance and related
horizontal resolution. It is important to
remember that although the 13.5MHz
luminance sampling frequency results in
720 digital samples per active line, the
actual horizontal resolution depends on
the analog low-pass filter characteris-
Com.uters
&
tics. Unfortunately, technical literature
and equipment specifications often quote
unrealistic figures. It is up to users to
draw the proper conclusions. Computer
displays use digitally generated pixels
and, thus, have no analog bandwidth related limitations other than the CRT
display resolution and the characteristics of the analog drive (red, green, blue)
circuits.
With digital TV concepts and implementations, the trend is towards expressing the picture resolution as the
number of pixels per active line multiplied by the number of active lines per
field. The 4:2:2 signal resolution is thus
expressed as 720x480 and the two ATSC
recommended HDTV signals are specified as having a resolution of 1280x720
and 1920x1080 respectively. This trend
tends to ignore the original definitions of
horizontal and vertical resolution and is
gradually replacing them in equipment
and system specifications.
Michael Robin, former engineer with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation engineering
headquarters, is an independent broadcast consultant located in Montreal, Canada. He is coauthor of Digital Television Fundamentals,
published by McGraw -Hill.
Send questions and comments to:
[email protected]
Networks
The EBU /SMPTE Task Force
- Part II,
Systems
BY BRAD GILMER
the 1998 International Broad
casting Convention in Amsterdam,
the EBU/SMPTE Task Force published
a report on the future of television
technology. This is the second article in
a series that explores the report and its
impact on the industry at large. The
Task Force report is divided into four
sections Systems, Compression, Wrappers and Metadata, and Networks and
Transfer Protocols. This month we focus on Systems.
At
these catcgurtes.
Communications
The model also describes how system
communications should be structured.
distribution, storage, transmission and
emission and archiving were identified
as operational areas, also called activities. These activities are shown along
one plane of the model. Both the activities and user requirements differ for
each of these areas. Equipment, standards and processes must be designed
to fit the particular needs of each area.
From a different viewpoint, the activities can be divided according to type or
planes. Typical planes within a broadcast facility include video essence, audio essence, data essence and metadata.
Essentially, all types of program content can be placed into one (or more) of
approach has a number of
benefits, including the ability to make
changes on one layer without affecting
other layers. -Broadcasters will likely
use a four-layer model that closely follows the International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) Open Systems
Interconnect (OSI) model. The layers
within the Task Force model are application, network, data link and physical.
At the base of the model is a critical
control and monitoring.
element
Control and monitoring will be increasingly important as systems migrate from
conventional media on tape machines
to disks and other media under the
control of computer systems. As a consequence, the Task Force strongly recommends that a common control and
monitoring architecture be standardized so that this primary user requirement can be satisfied. Beyond that, an
open -protocol, object-based approach
is recommended.
The following list of essential characteristics were identified by the Task
Force as critical for building large, integrated systems:
Extensibility: devices need to be add-
40
February 1999
The Systems model
The Systems group developed a model
that was used as the basis for its work
(see Figure 1). Pre -production, acquisition and production, post -production,
Broadcast Engineering
A layered
-
ed and removed without upsetting existing networked devices. Likewise, new
features need to be smoothly integrated.
Scalability: the addition of a large
number of devices must be possible
D1, D2, 03, D5, HDCAM,
HD
D-1000
None
DV25
(DVCAM, DVCPRO)
738 kb/s
DV50
(DVCPRO50. Digtal-S)
1.47 Mb/s
Betacam SX, Digital Betacam,
HDD -2700
2.880 Byte /Frame
Table
1.
Extra data space available on
today's digital VTRs.
without the need for major reconfiguration.
Resource allocation: dynamic allocation of resources between activities
must be supported.
Consistent interface: the system
should provide a consistent interface
for common services.
Asset/resource location: finding and
"the TIME MACHINE"
Create Commercial Time
The Time Machine is a new technological break through product, which
reduces program time, to create commercial insertion time. it is a self contained,
small 3U rack mountable unit which
requires no data compression.
The Time Machine is capable of
changing time without changing the
pitch (frequency) of the video or audio
programming. The Time Machine consists of a main frame which houses the
memory and all of the electronics necessary for control of the video and audio Time Machine storage. A maximum of
30 seconds of video and two channels of
time reduction audio is available.
"the TIME MACHINE"
features include:
Edit down long programs
Emergency news break with no
program loss
Adjustable time reduction
No data compression
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retrieving program content and resources should be possible with a minimum
of human interaction.
Fault tolerance: the system should be
fault tolerant and provide failure recovery to ensure service continuity.
Security: if multiple users use distributed resources, security mechanisms are
required.
Interoperability: the system should
allow the use and exchange of devices
from different manufacturers in a common system.
Furthermore, as broadcasters begin to
employ networking technologies in addition to conventional routing, issues of
latency and Quality of Service (QoS)
will become critical. QoS and bandwidth need to be controllable by the
requirements of resources and applications. For example, video streaming may
require a particular bandwidth to operate effectively and this must be satisfied
by the control interface. In addition,
command latency (the time betweencommand and action) needs to be deterministic for many real -time applications;
certain system commands must get
through no matter what. For instance, it
would be unacceptable to wait until a file
transfer is complete before a command
to stop the transfer would be processed.
As broadcasters and equipment manufacturers, we need to start thinking about
the concept of a contract for a particular
QoS. In broadcast facilities, there is an
expectation, or contract, when a source
is routed to a destination using an analog
or digital router. The signal is expected
Figure
42
1.
to be there 100 percent of the time, and
the command to perform the switch will
be interpreted by the router control logic
and executed at the next vertical interval. With computer networks, even highspeed networks, there is no such guarantee. If you want to send a file from one
system to another, it may get there immediately or it may take some time depending on network traffic. Further, unless
ATM is being used, there is no way to
prioritize the traffic, no way to specify
the transfer time and no pre- determined
amount of time for control execution.
The Task Force recognized that these
features are critical to operations, and
that they must be standardized and incorporated into products to build large
integrated systems in the future. This
subject will be covered more thoroughly
in Part 5 of this series.
Object models and device abstraction
The Task Force strongly reconunended that standards be
developed, and that
manufacturers employ an object-oriented approach to future control systems
(see Figure 2). There are three layers that
are conceptually like layers of an onion.
At the center of the model is the device to
be controlled. Surrounding it is a transaction-based control protocol. Next is a
functional API (application programming interface), and finally an object
wrapper.
Transaction -based control protocols
are low -level protocols such as RS-422.
Functional APIs define the device control in terms of a set of procedure (sub-
The Task Force's system model
Broadcast Engineering
Fehruar, 1999
routine) calls. APIs can encapsulate a
whole sequence of messages into a single
call. This is a key point in support of
using an object -based approach to control. Each layer of abstraction simplifies
communication with the device. It reduces the amount of information a common control system must have about the
specific characteristics of a particular
device, which allows the control system
to focus on complex issues of resource
allocation without having to perform
low -level command translation for each
device type.
The object wrapper encapsulates the
API for a device or service and acts as a
proxy. For example, a video server object wrapper can be written that serves as
a generic interface for the control system. The same object wrapper can be
used to control devices from multiple
manufacturers. Ultimately, this should
translate into control systems that are
more flexible and less costly.
In an object -based system it would be
convenient to have an object registry
wrapper. This wrapper encapsulates a
system entity that keeps track of objects
within the system. As devices and software modules are loaded and unloaded, they register with the object registry.
The module's presence and characteristics are then made known to other
objects in the system. The registry is
essentially a database with a complete
description of devices and services available on the network. Through registry
queries, objects can learn about the
network and devices that are connected
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to it. The registry is an abstraction of
the system itself. How is this useful?
Lets assume someone wants to design a
device that will gang -roll a number of
VTRs when a sporting event is about to
start. A client on the system retrieves
objects of type VTR that have been
assigned to a particular group. When the
client detects an incoming record command, it then sends the appropriate command to all the VTRs in this group. With
distributed object systems, one or more
objects can live in the same device, or a
single object can be spread over several
devices, which allows object-based systems to attain high levels of extensibility
and reliability through distributed implementations.
Using an object registry also allows the
network to be reconfigured on the fly.
When a new device is brought on line, a
simple entry in the database advertises
its availability. This is a very economical
way to make control systems extensible.
Data essence and metadata
Data essence is information other than
video essence or audio essence, which
has inherent stand -alone value. This is
unlike metadata, which is contextual.
Examples of data essence include subti-
Distributed Studio Objects
Video
Server
Library
Server
Figure 2. The Task Force has proposed on object- oriented approach to controlling devices which simplifies communications.
tie text, scripts, HTML and still images.
Data essence also includes program logs,
playlists, and as -run logs.
Metadata is information other than
video essence or audio essence that must
be linked to have any value. Examples
include sync, timecode, GPS coordinate
data, and MPEG presentation time
stamps.
Further information on object oriented technologies & Java
" Object-oriented Analysis and Design
with Applications" by Grady
2nd edition, February 1994
Addison Wesley Object Technology Series
"The Common Object Request Broker (CORBA): Architecture and
Object Management Group,
Specification ", Revision 2.2 Feb. 1998
Framingham, MA 01701, USA
"Architecture of the Virtual Broadcast Studio" by Ken Guzik:
SMPTE Journal Vol. 106, December, 1997
www.smpte.org /publ /abs9712.html
"Discovering OPENSTEP: A Developer Tutorial - Appendix A, Object
Oriented Programming ":
www.developer.apple.com /techpubs /rhapsody/
DeveloperTutorial _NT /Apdx_OOP.pdf
OPENSTEP White papers:
www. enterprise. apple .com /openstep /whitepapers.html
" CORBA Overview ":
Booch,
www.infosys.tuwien.ac.at/Research/Corba/OMB/
arch2.htm #446864
"Java Programming Language ", 2nd. Edition, by Ken Arnold and James
Gosling: Addison Wesley
Java home page: www.java.sun.com
Java 8 -page overview: Java. sun .com /dots/overviews /java /javaoverview-1.html
44
Broadcast Engineering
February 1999
System users will want to transfer data
essence without having to think about it.
To accommodate such a requirement, it
is highly desirable that standardized formats be employed for these essence types
whenever possible. The use of proprietary coding inhibits the user from designing an efficient system. Standards
exist for many of the data essence types
listed above, but there are no standards
for program logs, playlists or as -run
logs. A key recommendation of the Task
Force is that such standards be devel-
oped.
Another issue considered by the group
was the question of repetition rates for
data essence and metadata. In some environments such as distribution, this is
critical. In the distribution or transmission chain there is only one transportation mechanism or pipe available to send
data from one place to another. Of course,
data essence and metadata are also competing with video and audio essence for
a share of the bandwidth. Because communications in these pipes is serial, it is
critical to establish the metadata time
slice. Some data will be critical and must
be repeated frequently to ensure proper
reception. For example, MPEG transmissions cannot be properly decoded
without much of the header info, therefore a high repetition rate is required.
Other data may not be as essential, so a
lower repetition rate may be acceptable. If the transfer is accomplished
using file transfer, repetition may not be
required at all.
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Studio Objects
Services
Devices
Control Room Monitor
Network Routers
Monitors
Transmitters
File Servers
Studio
Studio A Monitor
B
Tape Decks
Monitor
Dl Tape Decks
Dl Deck
1
Dl Deck
2
Dl Deck
Beta Tape Decks
Beta Deck
3
1
Beta Deck
2
Object categories in the registry hierarchy
Specific objects in the studio
Figure
3. A
network object registry tracks network objects and their properties.
Users of data essence and metadata
may wish to store these materials for
later use. Today, this information is
typically stored either on the tape itself,
or in a separate file on disk (e.g. closed caption information). To date, this has
not been much of a problem. However,
as the use of HTML and other webbased data increases, and as the association of this data with program content
becomes more common, other storage
media may be required. The Task Force
report contains an interesting table listing tape formats along with any additional data space (see Table 1).
Linking metadata to its original content essence is easy when the material is
stored on videotape with the content.
However, the problem becomes more
complex when metadata is separated
from content essence for storage. Linking the two is critical, and work is ongoing at SMPTE on how to do this. One
issue is whether the link must be unique.
However, the amount of content generated daily, combined with the prospect
of increased metadata in the future, means
guaranteeing uniqueness is difficult.
Other issues relate to whether the link
contains any information itself, or whether it is just a random number that allows
systems to link content essence and metadata together. In many facilities, house
or show numbers convey information
about the media they refer to. For example, tape number BB343 might be Brady
Bunch show number 343. Conveying
information in a link or identifier might
be useful for humans, but it is very
difficult to guarantee uniqueness in such
systems when the number of items becomes large.
For further information see the Broadcast Engineering website at:
www.broadcastengineering.com. Next
month we will take a detailed look at the
Task Force's views on compression.
Brad Gilmer is president of Gilmer & Associates, a management and technology consulting firm.
SE
40
Send questions and comments to:
[email protected]
Ask Dr. Digital
Found: filter specs
BY STEVE EPSTEIN, TECHNICAL EDITOR
checked with Sony
about putting filters
in the filter wheel. That
Iwould like to put a
I
filter in my Sony
r
BVP500 studio cameras.
The lenses are Canon
J20xSUPERs. I am look ing for a promist and a
fog, and I do not know
what size I need. Any help
would be most appreciated.
Fernando Bellido
Peru
46
Broadcast Engineering
camera comes with several different imagers.
Depending on the imager, the camera has 1 or 2 filter wheels.
In either case, the filter wheels are full.
It is possible to replace an unused filter(s)
with the promist and/or the fog. Sony
supplies the filter specs to Tiffen as to
the exact size requirements. Tiffen makes
both a promist ($174.75) and a fog
filter ($153.75) that fit that camera.
February 1999
You can contact Tiffen at
800 -645-
2522 or
www.tiffen.com.
Be aware that those
filters are installed in a critical portion
of the optical path. Only high quality
filters should be used and they need to
be installed with the utmost care.
I also checked with Canon concerning
a front of the lens filter. The thread size
on the frontmost lens element is
182P1mm. The glass portion of the
filter is 178mm in diameter with a thick-
DV 12. Perfect balance
despite the ups and downs
-..
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...
íli
lJ)I;
f9'
Ationow.
2
9
4
f
tiia ;
`.
_
1 \ 1
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igriJ
.
1G.
...`<_
-
I___i__
..of electronic reporting.
L\
1
-
ping in five steps, touch and go
Sachtler GmbH. Germany,
for speedy changes of location,
Gutenbergstr.
and highly sensitive counterba-
become hugely popular. They are
lance
need to use
But do they ensure
a
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to
Special applications? Or shooting
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a
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much to report.
for
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call. We have the name
And including all the things you
Give us
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America.
of
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weather conditions?
You'll find that Sachtler provides
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kilograms. Even fast pan-
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carrying capacity of up
has
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also in five steps. You
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fast, light and highly versatile.
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I
;F
Compact digital cameras have
a
I
.
sachtler
-68 44
ness of 5mm. A larger, less critical filter
can be screwed on the front of the lens.
Canon offers a clear filter (PFJ -201)
that fits that lens, but does not have a
promist or fog. You can reach Canon at
201 -816 -2900 orwww.usa.canon.com.
the October issue, ai reader asked
Ina question concerning the use of
twisted pair or coax for digital
audio. It was my opinion that
either one worked, and the choice
boiled down to personal preferences -would you rather install
XLRs or BNCs? Here is some
additional information concerning that
particular choice from a reader:
Under certain circumstances, AES
audio may need to be patched. When a
patch cord is inserted into a destination, the source impedance is no longer
110W or 75Ws. In coaxial patches,
there is adequate separation of the coax
center conductor from nearby signals
to prevent crosstalk. In a leaf-type
patch, such as those used for twisted
pair, there is not. There are components
at 6MHz or so, and these behave like
RE We have encountered crosstalk to
an open circuited 110Ohm channel,
and have not encountered with coax
channels.
Interconnection to source and destination equipment is commonly 110Q,
where you need to use transformers.
Interconnection to terminal equipment
(distribution amps, routers, etc.) is commonly available in either format. There
are few connections that require transformers on both ends of a coaxial run,
within a given facility. In cases where
both ends are 1100 and patching is not
necessary, there is no advantage to using coax. Many facilities will have a few
locations like this, and the rest of the
facility can be wired easily with coax.
If you intend to use Video DA's for
AES, there are a few cautions:
1. Assure that the bandwidth is adequate. There can be slew rate distortion
if the amp isn't good to 40MHz or so.
This significantly reduces the length of
cable runs, possibly disabling the system entirely.
2. Ensure the DC component on the
amp's output is zero volts. DC offsets
can create problems in downstream
equipment.
3. Make certain that the amplifier gain
48
done by
looping a square wave through the input to a termination at the A input of an
oscilloscope, then taking the output to
a termination at the B input of the
scope. Invert one of the signals and
superimpose them so that the trailing
edge of a negative transition lines up
with the leading edge of a positive transition. Ideally, there will be two unbroken horizontal lines on the scope. Adjust for zero offset, adjust for unity
gain, and check for nonlinear gain.
Adjusting the square wave's frequency
will allow you to check for bandwidth
and other problems.
Based on these potential problems
including screwdriver drift -video DA's
are not really a good solution.
NVision has published a book called
THE BOOK that details this information. See page 43. You can obtain a copy
by contacting NVision's Tom Crabb at
tomcrabb @nvisionl.com, or at 1 -800719 -1900.
is exactly unity. This can be
-
Tom Norman, CPBE
Systems Engineer
Harris Broadcast Systems
Dr. Digital responds
Thanks for the info Tom. Personally
I'd use coax, I like working with it and
sometimes I think I could install BNCs
in my sleep. Now that I think about it,
some of my former employers would
probably swear I've done just that.
However, checking with friends who
work in radio (you know-TV without
pictures); they prefer twisted pair. In
any event, it is always a good idea to
pick one or the other as the house
standard and use adapters accordingly.
By the way, anyone interested in a
The
copy of THE BOOK can circle (297) on
the Free info card and we'll get that info
to Tom Crabb at NVision.
charged
Anyone
with the responsibility of keeping equipment operating knows
the value of service literature and spare parts.
Over the last few months
I have received several
requests for those particular items. Two of which have
proven to be extremely elusive.
The first request comes from the
not -so -happy owner of a Toshiba
transmitter. It seems the finals in this
24kW solid state transmitter are getting scarce. I have checked with
Toshiba (both the US and Japanese
offices) as well as some domestic
semiconductor manufacturers and
come up empty handed. Does anyone know where I can get replacements for a 2SK1310F FET?
The second request is for service
manuals. A local cameraman is looking for a service manual(s) for an old
(read tube) Thomson camcorder. The
unit looks like it was OEMed from
Sony and has Thomson CSF labels.
The model number of the camera is
MC -613, and the dockable Betacam
(not SP) recorder is model number
VR -611. Let me know of you would
be willing to lend or sell me a copy of
these service manuals (or their Sony
equivalents).
As usual, if you need some help or
have a comment, drop me a note.
Send questions and comments to:
[email protected]
Dr. is listening.
g
Problems?
Questions?
Solutions?
Comments?
Contact the Dr. at
drdigital @compuserve.com
Broadcast Engineering
www.americanradiohistory.com
What do we really need in a video server?
(Shared Central Storagelis the key. We connect everything
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we start with five playback channels
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with a networ
see, we gain the
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tr.jc hit ect
Modular with no restrictions.
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how do we ensure
let's build in a decoder for
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confidence monitoring.
Okay, what format?
MPEG
of course, It's
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Cost thousands less just by using off -the -shelf storage
what about
It
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so how do we make it happen?
call (Vela
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Circle (21) on Free into Card
By George Thorry
(Cybersets," "ATM switched broadband Intranet," and "local branding" are
phrases that are common currency when Bob Brillante talks about Florida's
News Channel. Brillante is the founder and managing partner of Florida's
News Channel (FNC), an all- digital news network that employs break
throughs in virtual sets and fiber-optic transmision.
Florida's News Channel's assignment desk supports news bureaus across the state with an ATM- switched broadband intrenet.
50
Broadcast Engineering
FeDruary 1999
Unsure
of the path to
digital transi
i_
we'll take you there
While digital technology is the mandated future of the
television industry, the path to digital transition is a
confusing journey for many broadcasters.
Professional Communications Systems brings the expertise
and experience necessary for planning and managing
the many tasks involved in the digital transition
process. We design this process for your station, in your
market, addressing your specific needs.
the resources; financial, technical and human.
the experience, including transitions involving
relocation. We have the relationships; architects, contractors, manufacturers. And we have the training systems
to get your people up to speed in a hurry.
We have
We have
If you're unsure of
the path to digital transition, let us take you there.
The deadline is rapidly approaching.
E
Technology Fvolves
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Circle (22) on Free Into Card
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Circle (23) on Free Into Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
4:22
The launch of FNC last September represents the culmination of five years of
planning for what is being called "the
new world of television news." This new
world combines several new technologies for the first time, including virtual
news environments, digital servers and a
high -speed, fiber -optic network.
The news network will deliver original
and exclusive news programming to seven major market areas in the state: Jacksonville, Orlando, West Palm, Broward/
Dade County, Naples/Fort Myers, Tampa/St. Petersburg, and Tallahassee/Pana -
cast video servers with RAID storage
systems. The network chose ASC because it offered the flexibility to add as
few as two server channels at a time,
affording FNC the ability to add capacity in gradual increments. These servers
act as a jukebox, playing back all of the
elements that comprise the network's
30- minute newscasts through the control room, including intros, graphics and
the virtual news environments.
These cybersets create virtual reality
environments customized to each market. This technology affords FNC considerable economies of scale vs. constructing, maintaining and staffing seven separate customized hard sets. FNC's
news director likens the network's concept to a video wire service, whereby
prerecorded elements can be modular-
FNC's master control facility is capable of sending up to 20 local news feeds.
ma City. Each will receive fully customized local newscasts from FNC's network operations center in Tallahassee.
Producing the news at FNC is a continuous process. Throughout the day the
network's nine field news bureaus and
seven broadcast partners send local news
coverage from around the state via fiber-
optic transmission to producers in Tallahassee assigned to each affiliated market. These field packages and each instudio shot are pre -taped for merging
with the virtual sets. During production,
producers can switch from shot to shot,
just as they would in a hard set studio
setting.
The stories are then digitized onto ASC
servers and sent back out to cable subscribers over the fiber network. The
network operates ASC VR325 -2 broad-
54
Broadcast Englnooring
ized into any of the network's feeds.
FNC feels that because its typical news
wheel is pre -recorded as several video
modules, its news is more timely and gets
to the viewer more quickly. Rather than
having to tear down and then rebuild an
entire feed to update its news, the station
uses a nonlinear approach and simply
plugs in the necessary number of new
content modules.
In addition to cablecasting originally
produced news wheels throughout the
day, the network prides itself on its live
coverage capabilities. For example,
FNC's affiliate in the Tampa/St. Petersburg market, GTE Media Ventures, established 48 fiber terminals throughout
the region to provide news crews with
instant access for feeding live news events
to cable subscribers. When a story breaks
February 1999
at the Tampa courthouse or the new
Buccaneers stadium, FNC can simply
plug into one of these fiber terminals and
go live. There's no need to set up ENG or
satellite trucks. FNC's statewide ATM
network has the flexibility to distribute
breaking news to any single market or
open up the entire network and send its
live pictures to cable homes throughout
the state.
Creating the news wheel begins with
FNC's news anchors sitting in a completely empty brightly lit blue room introducing each story. The server adds
digital quality news environments complete with local scenes and branding
elements to promote the local cable affiliate.
The network realizes further economies by running its seven local newscasts from two virtual studios. ORAD is
providing Softset, a cyberset solution
running an original set design by Devlin
Design Group through a Silicon Graphics Onyx2 engine. Each virtual studio
has an identical control room equipped
with Tektronix/Grass Valley switchers,
Chyron Max CGs, Wheatstone SP8 audio boards, and Pinnacle's DV Extreme
and Lightning for effects and still -store
graphics. The two virtual studios and
hard set studio feature Sony BVP -550
cameras with Vinten robotic camera systems in the virtual sets.
FNC will use Panasonic DVCPRO
equipment for its digital ENG activity.
Field bureaus are equipped with AJLT75 laptop editing systems for rapid
turnaround and AJ -D700 cameras. The
field equipment packages also include
Lowel lighting kits, Anton Bauer battery
systems, Sennheiser shotguns, and Sony
wireless microphones. All ENG traffic
will be received and transmitted on an
OS-3 or DS -3 circuit in an ATM format,
then via ATM through FNC's fiber, and
then compressed and decompressed using MPEG 4:2:2 by Tektronix codecs.
NewsMaker Systems' StarDrive newsroom automation and production system manages the newsroom's computer
needs and controls the recording of all
FNC feeds directly into ASC VR300
video servers. The system accurately
controls the operation of the ASC servers and the playout of the news and
commercial product to the network's
individual zones. These servers feed nearly 100 terminals on the StarDrive system,
and 48 separate production devices. The
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StarDrive automation system controls
the ASC VR channels, the Link -AVS
16x1 routing switchers, ChannelMatic
audio signal tone generators, and 360
Systems DigiCarts. Under StarDrive's
control, individual clips are scheduled
independently for playback to any or all
of the regional newscasts.
Tampa -based Professional Communications Systems, a division of Media
General of Richmond, is performing the
integration process for FNC at its serial
digital 601 -based facility. The integration requires a number of conversions
for the move from analog to digital 601
to ATM.
Florida's News Channel also maintains several satellite uplinks and downlinks. Editing is performed on Scitex
StrataSpheres. StrataSphere was chosen
for its capability to perform real -time
nonlinear editing. The system also allows multiple video layering without
degradation, thereby saving FNC rendering steps.
To carry its innovative blend of next century technology and up-to- the -minute
local information, FNC has built an
ATM -switched broadband intranet. This
high-speed, fiber-optic transmission system links Florida's telecommunications
companies and public venues with a
high -capacity path capable of transporting vast amounts of video, voice and
data simultaneously. The news network
is one of the first networks in the world
to deploy a digital statewide ATMswitched video transport system.
With an ATM switched network, FNC
can generate a broadcast-quality signal
using relatively little bandwidth: approximately 10Mb as compared to the much
larger allocations required by proprietary networks. The Tektronix receivers
positioned throughout the network are
totally controllable from Tallahassee,
allowing FNC to easily change parameters via a web GUI.
With its massive infrastructure for information delivery, cutting -edge newsgathering technology and commitment
to the communities it serves, FNC will
revolutionize the way news is reported,
produced and delivered. This revolution
is well under way and, for the people of
Florida, will bring a new world of TV
news.
George Thorry is vice president
for Florida's Neuss Channel.
56
of marketing
Broadcast Engineering
One of two identical digital production suites at FNC.s Tallahassee network operations
cerner.
Equipment List
360 Systems Digicart II
ADC video patch bays
Angenieux 16x8.3 AIF EPF lenses
Anton Bauer battery/charger
system
Best 60kW UPS
BVS MK6 chromakeyer
Canon IF Pro 18x zoom ENG lens
Cantoni G107 camera support
system
Chyron Codi
Chyron MAX!PLUS
Clearcom intercom
Wheatstone TV-600 console
Crown D -75A speaker amps
DPS -465 frame sync
ESE master clock system
Fluke 79 multimeter
Hitachi V-1565 dual -channel
scope
Ikegami color picture monitors
Kohler 350kW generator
Leitch CES -3501 FS timing system
Leitch SPG -2612N sync generator
Leitch VES -6800 logo generator
Link AVS- 16/B /C 16x1 routing
switcher
Link ND, D/A converters
Link PDE -890 closed-caption
decoder
Link video DAs
Lowell VP-98 lighting kit
Panasonic AJ -D640 DVCPRO
recorders
Panasonic AJ -D700 DVCPRO
camcorders
Panasonic AJ -0750 DVCPRO
recorders
Panasonic AJ -LT75 DVCPRO
laptop editing system
Parker Vision CameraMan system
Philips 25 -inch color monitors
Pinnacle DVEXtreme
February 1999
Pinnacle lightning
ProBel 64x64 DV routing
switcher
QN On-Cameral
5
teleprompter
Rane AVA -22 dual -channel A/V
delay
Scitex DVeousFX
Scitex StrataSphere NLE system
SO IRIX workstation
Shure ECD14 /84 wireless
microphone system
Sony B/W monitors
Sony color monitors
Sony BVP-550 cameras
Sony PVW -2800 Betacam SP
recorders
Stantron racks
Tekniche A/D converters
Tektronix 1720-SCH vectorscopes
Tektronix 1730-D digital
waveform monitors
Tektronix 2200 -Plus production
switcher
Tektronix 601 waveform monitors
Tektronix 740 audio monitors
Tektronix TDS -430A digital scope
Tektronix TSG -170D test
generator
Truevision Targa 2000RTX video
boards
Ultimatte -8 digital compositing
system
Ultimatte 300 keyer
Vertex 3.8m TVRO system
Videotek DM-141A stereo
demods
Vinten tripods and studio dollies
Vinten Multicontroller II
Vinten Osprey studio pedestals
Vinten Petrel pan & tilt heads
Winsted edit suite console
Winsted frames
Wohler rack audio monitors
To Galileo, an elaborate puzzle
waiting to be pieced together.
$
Galileo didn't invent the telescope, but he did use it to change the way people saw the
universe. Sony realized the need to do the same with the newsroom. So we developed
a
NewsBase
MAV -t000 Server
complete line of equipment that lets you go digital today, either piece by piece, or all at once. Like our
Our digital newsroom can go together piece by piece.
So it's only as elaborate as you need it to be.
NewsBase"
server system and DNE -I000 nonlinear editor, which speed news to air and cut transfer
time to zero by letting you edit directly from tape or server. This MPEG -2 based
system maintains the highest quality image from acquisition to delivery. Then there's
DNE -t000 Editor
our ClipEdit'° desktop system which puts video editing right at journalists' fingertips and integrates with
News
MAV-1000 Server
DNE -1000 Editor
CilpEdit Workstation
Betacam SX DNW -A715 VTR
Betacam SP playback compatible
MPEG -2 4:2:2 P ®ML storage
Edit directly from tape or server
Desktop video editor
RAID -3 reliability
Real -time effects
Compatible with any Windows NT
MPEG -2 4:2:2 P ®ML
Scalable input/outputs and storage
Faster than real -time video transfer
based news text system
Preread for A/B roll editing
AvidNews, AP's ENPS and most other news text systems. Looking to take smaller steps toward ne..
productivity? We've got stars in that galaxy, too -from small playback servers to
Alifft iinif% till
portable laptop editors to VTRs, which are backward compatible with Betacam SP
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equipment. Add our rugged Betacam SX' and DVCA M'" camcorders, and you'll have unprecedented new,
video quality under any lighting conditions. Sony makes all the open standards
Betarom SX
DNW -A75 VER
products you need to make sense of the digital universe. And backs them with reliable service and corn-
prehensive support programs. So when you look to Sony, you see a
sky
full of opportunity for improving
your news operations. For the complete digital
.r t
picture, call I -800 -685 -SONY, ext. NEWS or visitwww.sony.com /newsroom.
Betacam SX
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Betacam SX DNW -9WS Came ra
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Betacam SX DNW -A225
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SONY
Systems Design &
Transmission & Distribution
Workplace hazards
BY DON MARKLEY
those in the industry don't
often give it much thought, we
work in areas the general public would
consider risky. For example, we work
around towers and rarely consider the
possibility of falling objects (except ice).
We routinely work around voltages capable of turning one into a crispy critter
and around electromagnetic fields capable of inducing ailments not curable
by Viagra (so they say). Maybe it's time
to give such problems a little more
thought and get into the game of CYA
(an old parlor game otherwise known
as "contemplate your ancestors ").
Most engineers are mindful of the
FCC and its inspections. Efforts are
normally made to comply with all applicable FCC regulations and to operate stations in a legal and responsible
manner. However, this tends to induce
a case of tunnel vision in which other
controlling agencies are ignored. Such
seems to be the case with regard to the
Occupational Safety and Health AdWhile
ministration (OSHA). The general approach by stations seems to be keeping
a very low profile in the sincere hope
that: A) nothing will go wrong for which
the station can be blamed; and B) maybe we just won't be noticed. Not only is
such an approach shortsighted, but it
eliminates a potentially useful tool for
the station's staff.
OSHA concerns
I he tirst step is
to accept the fact that
OSHA isn't out to get you. Instead, it is
concerned with making the workplace
as safe as possible for everyone -a goal
that should be shared by all. As the
person responsible for the station's technical operation, it would be a good idea
to stop by the local OSHA office. For
starters, it has a great deal of information available to help you avoid future
problems and to explain its regulatory
requirements. Secondly, this is a chance
to meet the local staff and explain the
types of projects currently underway at
FRAME GRAB
A look at the consumer side of DTV
Internet spending an inexact science
There is little consensus on web advertising dollars
$400
ActivMedia
$500
Forrester Research
$597
Cowles/Simba
Yankee Group
'
dImmosMl
a"
;iire.- $650
r
Internet Advertising
Bureau
0906
Jupiter
Communnications
$940
Millions
60
Broadcast Engineering
'$630
ebY
.
It
Source: www.emarkeiencom
,
1999
your facility. They can provide some
good advice on areas of concern. At this
stage of the project they really are there
to help. In fact, if there are concerns
regarding some aspect of your facility or
construction project, OSHA can have
someone check it out and advise you of
the steps needed to comply with regulations. There won't be any fine -just help.
As a station engineer, be aware that
staff safety training is a necessity. In
addition, increase your awareness of
how hazards are be evaluated and treated. As a fairly obvious example, let's
look at ENG trucks. The hazards involved in its operation include mast extension problems relative to overhead
wires and non -ionizing radiation levels
near the microwave link. Unless you are
using a home -brew microwave system,
the radiation levels around the dish are
simply not significant. However, the
staff should be advised of the radiation risks and certainly must be trained
concerning the mast.
As part of the safety training, a written
hazard assessment should be prepared
which identifies all hazards involved with
the truck. The hazard assessment should
be posted for all operators to read. Next,
a safety meeting should be held to discuss the hazards and how they are to be
treated or eliminated. All operators
should be trained concerning proper
procedure in the event an accident occurs. Training should include establishing a proper procedure for getting help,
removing the vehicle from the danger, if
possible, and reporting the incident to
the proper authorities. Make sure that
everyone understands the hazards. Record
the name and date that each operator
received the safety training. Keeping training records is a legal necessity.
Dealing with outside contractors
With regard to projects being carried
out by others, the procedure changes
t
rs
make an easy shift
to DTV transmission.
When you choose DTV transmission solutions from
Itelco, shifting to digital television gets a lot smoother.
We're the only manufacturer that can supply a fully loaded
range of state -of-the -art transmission solutions, including
SS, 10T, tetrode, and diacrode transmitters. And our dual purpose DTV/NTSC microwave systems ensure that driving
your signal to the transmitter will be as easy as coasting on
cruise control.
Itelco has four decades of experience serving the most
demanding broadcasters in the world. And with our new
manufacturing facility in Denver, Colorado and our service
and support locations in Denver and Miami, our round -theclock customer care is better than ever.
The first commercial DTV station in the USA is transmitting
ATSC digita! television using ltelco's digital television transmitters.
See us at NAB Booth #5408
For a test drive, call us at (303) 461 -8000
or visit our web site :It \c \ \c it:lco-usa.com
- itelcoo
Circle 132) on Free Into Card
somewhat. Stations should have a written agreement with all contractors that
specifically identifies who is responsible for both hazard assessment and
safety training. An example of this
would be a tower project. The responsible tower company representative
should perform an assessment of the
project and its hazards. That assessment should be posted on the site and
all workers should be required to be
aware of its contents. To protect the
station and you (CYA), require a statement from the tower contractor that
they accept full responsibility for the
hazard assessment, that they have provided all safety training required for the
project, and that they will provide all
necessary safety equipment to comply
with OSHA regulations. Then, require
a listing of all of the employees who will
be working on the project for the contractor along with the date on which
they received their safety training.
Before you start thinking that this
is a bit of overkill, realize that many
tower companies are currently doing
some or all of these items routinely.
A number of the larger firms have
been working closely with OSHA to
develop workable standards and
methods for tall tower work. The
items listed in the previous paragraph
are a good start.
Remember, if something goes wrong,
someone will be held responsible for
managing the project. If adequate documentation fixing that responsibility
does not exist, OSHA will make the
determination as to who will bear the
burden. You may not like its decision.
typical transmitter site contains numerous potential hazards that, among others, may
include falling objects. high voltage and fuel storage.
A
supervisory position,
you must learn to protect yourself from the errors
If you are in any type of
a
of others.
Certainly there are some areas where
the station and its management must
bear the responsibility. These include
the normal station operations and such
areas as the previously mentioned ENG
truck. As a chief engineer, you should
not be held responsible for safety training of a tower crew, its work practices
or equipment. To protect yourself and
the station, get it in writing.
If something does go wrong and an
accident occurs, don't try to cover up
the actual events under any circumstances. If OSHA does get involved,
answer all questions fully and honestly. If you have honestly been trying to
operate safely and to protect your staff,
you aren't going to be hung out to dry.
Yes, you may get a fine but you will
one knew of the danger but didn't tell
anyone or just tried to push on through
hoping that no one would get hurt.
OSHA doesn't like that, nor should
you want them to. You are also in the
workplace - don't do stupid or risky
things yourself and don't tell someone
else to do them.
It is strongly recommended that you
consult good legal counsel when starting any major project. It is also a good
idea for routine operations just to be
sure that you are complying with all
applicable safety regulations. For new
or major projects, let your attorney
fashion the documents that establish
responsibility as described in the earli-
62
February 1999
Broadcast Engineering
er paragraphs. Doing that provides
reasonable assurance that the documents will hold up in case of an accident. By doing this, you have engaged
in the old CYA game once again by
placing the responsibility in the hands
of someone who is being paid to accept
it. Remember if something goes
wrong, ambulance chasers will be
learn a lot about how to manage your
staff in the future. The fine will be
enough to get your attention but isn't
going to put you out of business. On
the other hand, if it is determined that
you knew of a dangerous condition
and tried to get the work done anyway,
you are in deep trouble. The really big
fines concern accidents where some-
www.americanradiohistory.com
coming out of the walls to go after
anyone with pockets, regardless of
how deep they are. It isn't enough,
sadly, to simply do your own work.
If you are in any type of a supervisory position, you must learn to protect yourself from the errors of others. Otherwise, you may see all that
you have worked for go down the
drain faster than that cheerleader
left you for the quarterback.
Don Markley is president of D. L. Markley
and Associates, Peoria, III.
streu
Send questions and comments to:
[email protected]
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http://www.usa.canon.corn
Emmy winner for "Implementation in Lens
Technology to Achieve Compatibility with
CCD Sensors."
Circle (24) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Canon
Production Clips
Audio compression systems
BY JIM STARZYNSKI
olby Labs' AC -3 audio bit reduction technology made its debut in
the 1991 film Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country. Who could guess that
this new technology would play such an
important role for recording and
transmitting audio in the not- so -distant future?
That future is now, and AC- 3/Dolby
Digital is just an example of the many
formats that let us experience high quality multichannel digital sound that
otherwise would be impossible to fit
into our present storage and transmission mediums. Let's take the journey
and explore bit reduction technology
by analyzing the way we hear and perceive sounds, and then proceed with the
terminology, variations, formats and
applications of digital audio coding.
pulses to the brain, creating a sound.
So what does this have to do with
audio coding? The ripples in the fluid of
the inner ear stimulate the exact nerve
endings for a particular pitch and loudness and also impact nerve cells nearby.
As the ripple's amplitude diminishes,
some hair cells are moved causing only
minor stimulation. The hearing process
uses filtering and can produce aural
masking. The latter is a phenomenon in
which a louder sound masks a softer
sound happening at the same time. Although minor stimulation occurs, the
softer impulses they create are not perceived. This forms the basis for audio
perceptual coding of a lossy, frequency
domain transform coding system. A
lossy system's mathematical algorithm
uses hearing as a model. The goal is to
determine what parts of a sound are
important for accurately perceived reproduction and which aren't. This psy-
bit reduced and then quantized. After
coding, the new audio signal retains
only what's perceivable and, as a result,
fits into a smaller amount of bandwidth. If done effectively, the resulting
audio closely matches the sound of the
original source and non -perceived
sounds are eliminated and not using up
bandwidth. The goal is to maintain as
much freedom from error as possible;
however, the process is always a compromise.
Accuracy vs. bandwidth
It's the precision of the codec based on
the psychoacoustic model that sets the
various coding schemes apart from each
other. Some simply sound different or
better. Each is formulated for a particular application: multichannel DVD film
soundtracks, the transmission of digital
audio for DTV, or high -end audio to
name a few. Another example, lossless
In order to understand how perceptubit reduction, uses a method simial digital audio compression works
lar to computer file zipping and
(actually, bit reduction or coding
unzipping, not perceptual coding
are more accurate terms), it's helpto process audio. There's no loss of
ful to understand the human audisound or data whatsoever, theretory system. A vibration (sound)
fore lending the process to the
causes air pressure changes that
preservation of pristine sound but
are funneled by the outer ear and
still using less bandwidth than the
routed into the auditory canal.
original signal.
This pressure impacts the earUnfortunately, lossless coding
drum. The bones in the middle
requires more bandwidth than
ear couple this movement to an
lossy methods and can't apply to
oval window, the outermost surmany current storage and transface of the inner ear. This causes
mission mediums that must fit
ripples in the fluid inside the invideo and other data with the
ner ear's vestibule. When these
audio. In what's termed near ripples move, hair cells growing
lossless coding or time -domain
on the cochlea membrane get stimulated, just like seaweed inside a Audio compression technology has enabled the coding, a digital signal is broken
audio between remotely
into frequency sub -bands by filcurrent. The frequency of the rip- transfer of high quality here
is some of the equiplocated studios. Shown
ple effects a portion of the cell ment used to record announcers from remote ISDN- tering. Predictive analysis is used
rows tuned for that particular equipped studios and home -based announcers. to process these signals; the codsound. We identify this stimula- Equipment includes: Telos Zephyr, APT Reporter, er predicts what the next digital
Wohler speakeramp and an RDL Mini Mixer
sample in audio signal will be
tion as pitch. The amplitude of
the ripple causes a greater or lesser choacoustic -based process uses band and subtracts this from the actual
number of cells in that row to react, filtering and masking as the key to the sample. A resulting small error is transcreating what we understand as loud- formula for the codec (coder/decoder). mitted to the decoder, which adds the
Executing this concept with an algo- prediction back in from identical tables
ness. These cells are connected to the
eighth nerve, which passes these im- rithm allows a digital audio signal to be stored in its memory. There is no psy-
The inside story
64
Broadcast Engineering
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Extron Electronics
The Industry's First
Six-Band Video Equalizer
Extron Electronics introduces the industry's first six-band
video equalizer, an entirely new approach to achieving
superior picture quality. The EQ 100 improves video for
videoconferencing, post-production work, duplication and
The Enron EQ 100 features:
Six -band video equalizer for precise detail adjustment
Intuitive LCD window and onscreen displays to make
home theater applications by allowing sharpness to be
increased
adjustments and store settings
without introducing ringing or other video noise.
This level of improvement
is
of
image sharpness
not possible using single
Outputs composite, S-Video, component and digital video
sharpness controls common to display devices. Single
Each
controls alter the video level at a very broad range of video
frequencies. The EQ 100 can increase sharpness at any of
input can
use an
automatically saved picture setting
or may be customized to any of twelve additional settings
stored in memory
six target frequencies without affecting the video level at
Compatible with all international video formats:
undesired frequencies.
NTSC 3.58, NTSC 4.43, PAL and SECAM
The EQ 100
A three -line adaptive comb filter reduces chroma crawl
full, six -band video graphics equalizer that
allows all six bands (from 0 MHz to 6 MHz) to be finetuned individually and independently. The enhanced video
is a
outputs to any display device that accepts
S- Video,
a
and provides stable output
IR and RS -232 capabilities for third party control of all
features and functions
composite,
component (Y, R -Y, B -Y) or CCIR 601 digital
Video equalization is the right way to improve video.
The EQ 100 has a list price of $4,995.
EQ 100 to be connected to
A/V switchers for audio to follow video
RS -232 loop -out allows the
(4:2:2) input. Bottom line: the EQ 100 gives you complete
control over the image sharpness on your screen.
Extron's
CCIR 601 (4:2:2) serial digital input and output
For complete details visit our website at
http://www.extron.com/product/eq100.stm
Extron Electronics
800.633.9876
EXTRON ELECTRONICS/RUB SYSFEMS, INC.
1230 South Lewis Street, Anaheim, CA 92805
800.633.9876 714.491.1500 FAX 714.491.1517
C.S.A.
EXTRON ELECTRONICS, EUROPE
Beeldsdiemmeg 6C, 3821 AH Amersfoort
.31.33.453.4040 FAX .31.33.453.4050
EXTRON ELECTRONICS, ASIA
41 B Kara Ayer Road, Singapore 089003
.65.226.0015 FAX .65.226.0019
The Netherlands
Singapore
Circle (25) on Fr,. Info Cord
www.americanradiohistory.com
EXTRON ELECTRONIC INFORMATION
E 1RONWEBTM: www.atron.com
EBTRONFAXTM: 714.491.0192
24 -hour access -worldwide!
choacoustic model and 4:1 data -compression ratios can be achieved.
Effective digital audio bit reduction lets
us store, transmit and enjoy high -quality
audio which otherwise would be impossible to do with noncoded signals. Its
progression has been quite a feat. One
can only imagine what cutting edge improvements audio coding technology will
bring to the next millennium.
The technologies
Here's a rundown of popular coding
schemes and applications for their use.
here's a connector designed
application"
and built for the "killer
Series.
Trompeter's UPL2000
APT/Audio Processing Technology is
a Dublin -based company whose APT-X
near- lossless algorithms are used for
ISDN, studio -to- transmitter links and
digital audio workstations. It provides
technology to other manufacturers for
everything from component -level
through PCB -sub assemblies to complete systems.
Dolby Laboratories is a San Francisco-based company that develops audio technology for film, music recording, video, television and multimedia
on a pro and consumer level. It licenses
.:
LOOS
Cos
.. ..
high bit ra
Specially engineer& for
video si al transmissions,
new BNC offers a
1.485 Gbps
provement of >I d
performan
rs
from other s
over prod
b
to deliver re
Built ru
ce over time, a
perfor
riced
connector is competit
and available today.
°.E.
decoding.
y,
The UPL2000 is availa
PM
M
90° models.
n straight, 45° and
in stations,
sizes support transmission
cable
diameter
Various
popular
post-production
and GEPCO cable models.
Belden,
new UPL2000!
r signal...get the
compro -e
©TROMPETER
GET QUOTES FAST... VISIT OUR WEBSITE TODAY
www.trompeter.com or call: 818 707 -2020
Circle (26) on Free Into Card
66
Broadcast Engineering
technology to suppliers and manufactures pro audio equipment. Dolby AC -3/
Dolby Digital is the accepted format for
ATSC DTV in the U.S. Its algorithms
are lossy.
DTS/Digital Theatre Systems is a California -based company that develops
audio technology for the motion picture, music and video/audio pro and
consumer industries. It has developed a
lossy audio -coding scheme called DTS
Coherent Acoustics that runs at bit
rates up to 4.096Mb/s and is capable of
up to eight channels of 96kHz/24 -bit.
MLP Meridian Audio is a U.K. -based
company manufacturing consumer audio equipment. A recent development,
Meridian Lossless Packing, is a coding
scheme without a psychoacoustic model. It's geared toward the high -end audio market and saves bandwidth in a
way similar to the way computer files
are compressed. It's capable of up to
164 channels, 44.1- 192kHz at 24-bits.
MPEG (Motion Pictures Expert
Group) is a working group in a subcommittee of ISO/IEC that generates generic standards for video and audio compression. Manufacturers of encoders
develop their own programming to cornply within a pre -established MPEG syntax. MPEG is also involved with defining the means for multiplexing of audio
and video into one bitstream, such as
the ATSC -transport stream. MPEG systems are lossy. MPEG definitions are
described as dashed numbers and layers. The dash number represents a phase
of encoding (MPEG -1, MPEG -2 , etc.)
and the layers represent the complexity and efficiency of the encoding and
February 1999
MUSICAM is a New Jersey -based
company specializing in ISDN audio
codecs. It uses a form of MPEG -2 Layer
II with an enhancement allowing dynamic bit allocation. In the early 90s the
MUSICAM name was close to synonymous with MPEG-type coding.
Sony ATRAC (Adaptive Transform
Acoustic Coding) is a lossy technology
developed by Sony for consumer and
broadcast applications of its Minidisc
System. The minidisc records 74 minutes of bit -reduced stereo audio on a
2 1/2 -inch computer -like magneto -
optical diskette.
Jim Starzynski
is a
project engineer at NBC
headquarters, New York.
DBMAX
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"I don't use the DBMAX on some of my projects, I use it on all of my
projects. It has a remarkable collection of presets that sound great ".
Ed Greene: Production Mixer, Audio Plumber
Grammys, Oscars, Tonys, Emmys, ER LIVE
"Our clients have very specific requirements for the dynamic
range of their digital audio. The DBMAX is the tool we use to
fulfill those requirements ".
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Larry Fischer: Chief Engineer CVC
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The DBMAX enables the user to add a new level of definition to their
sound. The 5 -band compressor is transparent and the additional
dynamics tools are phenomenal ".
Christopher Boyes: Sound Designer / Re- recording Mixer
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dynamics can be a challenge in a
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environment. The DBMAX was designed to make it easy for you to handle
technical details.
MAXIMUM LEVEL
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response.
Resolution: Processing of all 24bits of an
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Precise Input/Output metering with adjustable
Defined Overload condition. Output Clip LEDs
adjustable from 1 -12 successive samples.
With the DBMAX it is easy to move from
client to client or to target the mix for a VTR.
DAT. DAW or broadcast.
Load your favorite preset and use different
level setups to conform to any client's
specifications or standards.
OPTIMUM QUALITY
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CLIENT TO CLIENT
Maintain maximum level and simultaneously
eliminate overshoots.
Maximum efficiency: 5 -band compression.
Limiting: Sample accurate, distortion
reduced Limiter.
Multi Slope: Add gain at mid -levels
without squashing the transients.
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The PCMCIA card slot supports up to a
2 MB SRAM card for installing new
operating software or for transfer and
archiving of presets.
The foes of this brochure is Production.
The DBMAX also provides a variety
of tools for use in Transmission
processing. Read more about this in the
separate Transmission brochure.
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for post -processing real -time fades, or
a fade time may be dialed in and an
autofade executed.
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level specifications. This convenient
feature is unique to the DBMAX.
COMPRESSOR
The heart of the DBMAX is the most
powerful dynamics tool you've ever heard:
A five -band Compressor with adjustable
slopes and cross -over frequencies. The
advanced Look -ahead Delay may be used to
reduce dynamic distortion and transient
overshoots.
The user interface is very Intuitive.
The Navigation Control allows for easy
adjustment of parameters.
Insert examples: Parametric EQ, Normalizer,
Dynamic EQ /De- esser, AGC (Automatic Gain
Control), MS Encode /Decode and Stereo
Enhance.
final wide -band Limiter ensures
maximum level in either an Analog or a
Digital peak sensing environment. Soft
clipping may also be added for further
optimization. DBMAX now enables you to
deliver perfect results for both the Analog
and the Digital environment.
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Properly used multi -band compression is
often a more desirable form of EQ - with the
DBMAX you can do both.
With the high quality multi -band Parametric
EQ, you can adjust the spectral content of
your mix and preserve or enhance its
transparency and energy.
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Three simultaneous pre- dynamics inserts
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Digital audio environment HF limiting is
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the world, the Wizard will produce optimum
settings for you. Play a bit of your source
material and press the OK key.
1.0
14
LIMITER
Both the five -band and wide -band Limiters
may be used simultaneously and each has
variable look -ahead capability.
The multi -band Limiter acts on peak material
in each band.
TOOLS
For alignment and signal
precision tools are included:
check, many
Peak Hold Meter with 0.1dB resolution.
Surround Meter showing L, C, R, S levels.
Phase Correlation Meter with time -base.
Internal Headroom Metering.
Oscillator for calibration 30Hz -15kHz at
levels from -30dBfs to OdBfs.
Digital Status Tool lets you monitor input
status and decide how status bits are
handled through the machine - great
when converting from S /PDIF to
AES /EBU or vice versa.
DBMAX
DBMAX
The auto -sensing power
supply
automatically
input for preset changes,
Bypass, or for connecting an
optional TC Digital Master Fader.
AES/EBU
&
S/PDIF
Digital I/O's with outputs
FIVE BAND DIGITAL
COMPRESSOR & LIMITER
GPI
always active.
Balanced Analog I /O's with
outputs always active.
These connectors carry
both RS485/RS422 and
MIDI for remote control.
Word Clock BNC input ensures accurate
and
sample rate synchronization
asynchronous sample rate conversion.
accepts and adjusts itself
to 100 -240 V, 50/60 Hz
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:
EMC
DIGITAL INPUTS AND OUTPUTS
COMPLIES WITH:
XLR (AES/EBU)
CONNECTORS:
55103 -1 and
IEC 65, EN
CERTIFIED TO:
dither 8 -24 bit
OUTPUT DITHER:
HPF TPDF
WORD CLOCK INPUT.
BNC, 75 ohm, 0.6 to 10 Vpp
SAMPLE RATES:
32 kHz, 44.1 kHz. 48 kHz
ENVIRONMENT
PROCESSING DELAY.
0.5ms ®48kHz
OPERATING TEMPERATURE:
32°
STORAGE TEMPERATURE:
-22°
DIO:
DC to
23.9 kHz
+-
55103 -2
SAFETY
S/PDIF (20 bit), EIAJ CP -340. IEC 958
FREQUENCY RESPONSE
EN
CISPR 22, Class B
AES/EBU (24 bit),
FORMATS:
EN
FCC part 15, Class B
RCA Phono (S /PDIF)
001 dB @ 48 kHz
HUMIDITY.
60065, UL 1419 and CSA E65
F (0° C to 50° C)
to 167° F (-30° C to 70°
Max. 90% non -condensing
F
to 122°
F
C)
SAMPLE RATE CONVERSION
PCMCIA INTERFACE
THD +N:
Asynchronous
120 dB
-106 dB 44.1 to 48 kHz @
INPUT RATE RANGE:
31 kHz to 49 kHz
CARD FORMAT.
Supports up to
CONNECTORS:
XLR balanced (pin 2 hot)
5
IMPEDANCE:
20 kohm (balanced)
CONTROL INTERFACE
RS485/RS422:
MIDI:
MAX. INPUT LEVEL:
+27 dBu (balanced)
-4 dBu (balanced)
24 bit (1 bit, 128 times oversampling)
GPI, PEDAL,
1/4 inch phone jack
TYPE:
DYNAMIC RANGE:
1
kHz, -2 dBFS
ANALOG INPUTS
MIN INPUT LEVEL (FOR 0 DBFS):
A TO D CONVERSION:
A To D DELAY.
CONNECTOR:
PC Card, 68 pin type
STANDARDS:
PCMCIA 2.0, JEIDA 4.0
FADER:
10 Hz to 20 kHz: +0/ -0.2 dB
LCD:
< -80 dB, 10 Hz to 20 kHz
DIMENSIONS:
56 x 128 dot graphic LCD -display
19" x 1.75" x 8.2" (483 x 44 x 208 mm)
typical -100 dB ®
WEIGHT
-95 dB (0.0018 %)
FREQUENCY RESPONSE:
CROSSTALK:
®
1
kHz, -6 dBFS (FS
1
ß
+18 dBu)
kHz
MAINS VOLTAGE:
ANALOG OUTPUTS
POWER CONSUMPTION:
CONNECTORS:
XLR balanced (pin 2 hot)
BACKUP BATTERY LIFE:
BY -PASS:
Through relay
40 ohm (balanced)
WARRANTY
D TO A CONVERSION:
D To A DELAY.
DYNAMIC RANGE:
THD:
FREQUENCY RESPONSE:
CROSSTALK:
Pin DIN
In /Out/Through: 5 Pin DIN
Anodized aluminum face and top plate
Plated and painted steel chassis
THD:
FULL SCALE OUTPUT RANGE:
MB SRAM
GENERAL
® 48 kHz
>103 dB (unweighted), >106 dB(A)
MAX. OUTPUT LEVEL:
cards
FINISH:
0.8 ms
DYNAMIC RANGE:
IMPEDANCE:
2
1
+26 dBu (balanced)
-4 dBu to +26 dBu (balanced)
24 bit (1 bit, 128 times oversampling)
0.57 ms ® 48 kHz
>100 dB (unweighted), >104 dB(A)
-86 dB (0.005 %) ® 1 kHz, -6 dBFS (FS ® +18 dBw
10 Hz to 20 kHz: +0/ -0.5 dB
< -60 dB, 10 Hz to 20 kHz
typical -90 dB @ 1 kHz
PARTS AND LABOR:
5.2 Ib. (2.35 kg)
100 to 240 VAC, 50 to 60 Hz (auto -select)
<20 W
>10 years
1
year
Note:
Due to Continuous development and standardaabce all
specdrtatlons are subject to change without nonce
OPTIONAL DIGITAL MASTER FADER AVAILABLE
t.c. electronic
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0
innAste
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TC ELECTRONIC A /S, SINDALSVEJ 34, DK -8240 RISSKOV, DENMARK
HTTP: / /WWW.TCELECTRONIC.COM
EMAIL: INFO @TCELECTRONIC.COM
TC ELECTRONIC INC., 790 -H HAMPSHIRE ROAD, WESTLAKE VILLAGE, CA 91361, USA PHONE: (805) 373 1828 FAX: (805) 379 2648
doifev -ryda
11i:d
NAB99
is
1111
!J
your one -stop shop for ideas, innovations and solutions.
If you've never been to NAB ask anyone who has
that it's more than just
a
trade show. NAB99
is
-
and you'll learn
the industry rally point
where digital comes into focus and you can explore the entire
convergence marketplace.
Celebrate creativity. Spark innovation. And decide what "out -of -the
box" technology and business solutions to buy, and from whom
all in one place, all at one time.
This is the
power and spirit of NAB99!
Start planning today:
www.nab.org /conventions/
Or call 1.800.342.2460
or 1.202.429.4194
CONVERGENCE
marketplace
www.americanradiohistory.com
HDTV telecine suite featuring C Reality, Glendale, CA. Photo by Tony David of Tony David Photography.
72
Broadcast Engineering
Februar; 1999
ution
.
r .; rr--
ion --_
ogy
OMIT
By Kirk A. L
Moving large
images requires
large bandwidths
Broadcast Engineering
www.americanradiohistory.com
73
A Henry
suite at Henninger Video, Arlington. VA.
The advent of DTV in the
U.S. has heralded a new
tions. Historically, the performance of
era in the post- production industry. The desire
for DTV and, more importantly, HDTV content by the networks has lead early adopters to search
for DTV- compatible hardware and software solutions. HDTV formats require
approximately six times the resolution
of today's uncompressed
component digital for-
matched the performance of dedicated
hardware solutions; most notably in
the area of data throughput and manipulation. With the onslaught of HD,
accommodating multistream, uncompressed content may require a reversion
to the more traditional, linear method
of content manipulation and editing.
mats. Implementing
these high -resolution
formats will require sig-
nificant
changes
throughout facilities.
Over the last 10 years,
the post-production industry has embraced
computer -based solu-
74
Color-space
(Sampling)
computer -based systems has not
# Bits /component
YCrCb (422)
8
YCrCb (422)
10 -bits
RGB (444)
-bits
10 -bits
16 -bits
8
RGB (444)
RGB (444)
Table
1.
Broadcast Engineering
-bits
#
Bits /pixel
Many manufacturers now offer a range
of dedicated HDTV production equipment and are 1advocating a reversion
to linear-based editing models. At face
value, this appears to be a step backwards for the post -production industry.
For many, dedicated equipment is required in HDTV production environments (i.e., live environments). A wide
range of nonlinear, multilevel computByte Rounded
# Bytes /Pixel
Reference Name
16 -bits
2
20 -bits
24 -bits
3
YCrCb8
YCrCb10
3
RGBB
30 -bits
48 -bits
4
RGB10
RGB16
Color pixel definitions
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
6
er-based editing and compositing solutions are available, but the throughput
capabilities of these systems are limited
relative to high definition.
The tremendous amounts of data inherent in high- resolution productions
require a new approach to computer
system architecture. Within a post -production environment, bottlenecks become the weak links. If film be can
converted to digital and stored on a
local server in real time but cannot be
transferred to the editing bay in real
time, that becomes a bottleneck. This
bottleneck reduces the facility's overall
efficiency, and, in terms of HD production, most owners would prefer to test
the waters without making a huge capital outlay. Not everyone wants to do
HDTV 100 percent of the time. Many
of today's solutions are either standardresolution or high -definition. Only a
few products support both. However,
scalable resolution computer -based solutions can provide support for both
standards, and more importantly, these
can accommodate all of the proposed
HDTV formats.
The push for the many DTV resolutions has caused many to dream of
digital film mastering and publishing to
the respective distribution formats.
There is a great deal of discussion around
the generation of a digital master, as
well as its format. Although image repurposing has traditionally been more
important to the animation/film production crowd, those involved with
episodic production must consider this
as a possible direction for their facility.
There are a number of transmission or
distribution paths for this content ranging from Web to HDTV or electronic
cinema distribution. Broadcast news
production and weekly broadcast production might also use digital masters
utilizing compressed digital formats
instead of the higher resolutions.
prefer a 60Hz progressive format. Episodic production, along with its medium -to -long shelf-life assets (the new
season of 90210 and its potential for
syndication) fit somewhere in the middle. When the program goes into syndication, however, the distribution method may be different from the original
target, e.g., [email protected] versus an
original in NTSC. The need for asset
repurposing reveals a strong overlap
Irrage
Image
14-Siza
V-Stze
(Pinsk)
(Plans)
720
720
1280
1280
1920
1920
1920
486
486
720
720
1080
1080
1080
1440
1556
2048
__1920
2048
2048
Frame
Rate
(Hz)
29.97
59.94
23.976
59.94
23.976
29.97
59.94
23.976
23.976
23.976
1049
486030i
20.97
22.10
55.24
49.72
62.15
124.29
66.29
76.40
100.56
4864460p
720©24p
720060p
1080024p
1080030i
1080060p
1440©24p
1556024p
2048024p
YCrCb8
YCrCb10/RGB8
2- Bytes/pix
3- Bytes/pix
(MB /s)
(MB /s)
20.97
41.95
44.19
110.48
99.43
124.29
248.58
132.58
152.81
201.13
31.46
62.92
66.29
165.72
149.15
186.44
372.87
198.87
229.21
301.69
RG810
4- Bytes/pix
(MB /s)
RGI16
(M
6-Byt
41.95
83.90
88.39
220.96
198.87
248.58
497.17
265.16
305.62
402.25
ix
62.92
125.85
132.58
331.44
298.30
372.87
745.75
397.73
458.42
602.38
Table 2. Formats and their streaming bandwidth equivalents. Color pixels are rounded
up to the nearest byte boundary.
with animation/film/post-production facilities in the areas of data handling,
storage, archiving and manipulation of
a scalable image format.
Film scanners with HiPPi (100MB/s)
interfaces have helped usher in some
new approaches to handling larger resolution digital masters. This approach
provides approximately six frames per
second of 2048x2048 image resolution
data. A new interface, gigabit system
network (GSN) called Super HiPPi operates at 800MB/s. On film scanners,
tions methods versus linear or a combination of the two. The choice of the
application, computer and peripheral
supplier vendors and their respective
philosophy towards how they solve the
format dynamic range problem will ultimately determine a substantial portion of a facility's capabilities.
Multiresolution creative editing suites
can employ one or more basic data
handling models:
The editor works directly with the
uncompressed video/data.
PCIX (R or W)
750
65SGIXIO(R
and
W
600
550
-
500-
e
m
W
PCI-64066Mhz (R or W)
400P
350
300-PCI-32066Mhz
PCI-64033Mhz
The digital master
Many users are considering the use of
a progressive, 24Hz format for use as a
"film -like" digital master. Animation,
film, and post- production facilities (long
shelf -life assets) have been thinking
along these lines for some time. Live
broadcast uses (short shelf -life assets,
e.g., today's news) may fit this format,
but not as well. Generally, high -dollar
live broadcasts, such as sports, would
Streaming
Format
Pixel Rate Reference
(M Pixels/s)
Name
this allows for real -time acquisition of
2048x2048 resolution content to digital storage. Several manufacturers are
adopting this interface to help solve the
data movement problem.
The real need now facing those in
animation, post, and broadcast is format dynamic range or having a scalable
infrastructure to handle a mix of media
formats. There are several issues to
consider when using nonlinear opera-
(R or W or
R or W
213u:.-
10ó
50
-
-
-
--
-
PCI-32e33Mhz ;
n
[email protected]
486060p
720024p 720060p 1080a24p 1080030i 1080060p 1440024p 1556024p 2048024p
Format Type
LYCrCb8 2- Bytes/pixel (MB /s)
RGB10 4-Bytes/pixel (MB/s)
Figure
1.
YCrCb10 8 RGB8 3- Bytes/pixel (MB/s)
RGB16 6-Bytes/pixel (MB/s)
Streaming real -time bandwidth for various raster sizes along with computer
I/O expansion bus de -rated bandwidths.
Febnidiv 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
75
v
E153
'The editor creates an EDL based on
a proxy and subsequently conforms a
full -resolution master in a linear or
VTR -like manner.
The editor works on a combination
of compressed proxies or uncompressed
images. Real -time compression/decom pression processors are used as appropriate for compiling transitions and effects. Compiling may be accelerated to
be real -time or faster-than -real -time with
specialized hardware.
Each workflow offers various advantages and disadvantages. The approach
computer-based solutions use to handle
compressed and uncompressed data varies. Some computer manufacturers promote a memory- centric style that frees
application vendors from specific or
predetermined hardware processing algorithms. By leveraging high -memory
bandwidth architecture, many streams
of higher resolution images can be shuttled about in real -time or faster-thanreal -time depending on the application's
desires and on the size and configuration of the system.
Several vendors take a bus -based approach. This method keeps the real time streaming imagery away from the
main processor and memory subsystem
in favor of hardware accelerators that
reside in the I/O bus space of the computer, e.g., the PCI bus. Other solutions
include the use of over -the -top buses
(NOTE:
ßb
Sunset Post's new HDTV telecine suite featuring
that run between the various PCI devices and bypass the system's main memory. While bandwidth to these devices
may be achieved, they are typically not
Realtime BW calculations use 20% de rating of Inte rface Peak BW for protocol overhead)
%RTime
%RTime
720(024p
%RTime
%RTime
[email protected]
YCrCb10 &
[email protected]
%RTime
YCrCb10 &
[email protected]
Used as
Interface
Interface
Disk /Network
Peak
YCrCb8
RGB10
RGB8
RGB10
Type
Interface
MB /s
20.97MB/s
88.39MB/s
165.72MB/s
186MB /s
402.25MB/s
Future/Y
800
3052%
724%
386%
344%
159%
1000bT ENET
NN
125
477%
113%
60%
54%
25%
Serial HiPPi
Y/Y
100
381%
91%
48%
43%
20%
Fibre Channel
Y/Y
100
381%
91%
48%
43%
20%
ATM -0C12
N/Y
77.75
297%
70%
38%
33%
15%
Ultra -SCSI
Y/N
40
153%
36%
19%
17%
8%
SCSI -II F/W
Y/N
20
76%
18%
10%
9%
4%
ATM -0C3
N/Y
74%
18%
9%
8%
4%
100bT ENET
NN
48%
11%
6%
5%
2%
FDDI
N/Y
48%
11%
6%
5%
2%
DS3
NN
21%
5%
3%
2%
1%
10bT ENET
NN
19.38
12.5
12.5
5.63
1.25
5%
1%
0.6%
0.5%
0.2%
GSN
486(430i
RGB8
Table 3. Network and disk bandwidths compared to image formats as a percentage o
their real -time streaming requirements.
76
Broadcast Engineering
February 1999
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C
Reality in Glendale, CA
as scalable as the memory-centric approach. This approach may not offer
much leverage for the eventual GHzand- beyond processors, radically increasing memory-controller bandwidths
and graphics and imaging accelerators
that will eventually become off- the-shelf
equipment.
Multiresolution digital formats
To understand a computer's ability
to handle streaming media efficiently, one must first understand the rate/
size of the problem. Table 1 lists the
color pixel definitions, while Table 2
includes raster sizes, frame rates, and
the real -time streaming rates for these
images in MB/s.
There are two general issues when
dealing with higher resolution images.
The first is interfacing the computer
with higher resolution equipment, such
as scanners and HDTV equipment. The second is moving
and manipulating the image
stream within the computer.
As Table 2 illustrates, the
bandwidth needed to sustain
real -time throughput is wide,
ranging from 21MB/s to
756MB/s. Several of these raster sizes, rates and precisions
will be supported under interface standards set by SMPTE.
The availability of SMPTEdefined interfaces will allow
computer manufacturers to
offer I/O solutions compatible
with traditional broadcast
equipment.
In addition, there are other
types of I/O solutions. These
are made up of digital disk I/O
devices, RAM or frame I/O Flipside Editorial's Smoke room featuring straight to finish editing techniques that combine both
devices, and analog or digital offline and online editing in one editing box.
computer graphics output formatted for HDTV raster types. While case with nonlinear editing. Some man- some basic components in common.
these devices provide real -time record ufacturers apply up to a 50 percent de- Combined, these components and their
for a short sequence into their local rating on the disk subsystem's (not the architecture determine the unit's capastorage, they generally have less -than- disk interface itself) peak data rate. This bilities:
real -time interfaces to a computer. The allows the data rate to be sustained, and
Processor speed: number of, type,
throughput from the HD device to the prevents dropped frames. This is a form multiple instruction ability, and data
computer for these types of devices of dynamic range allocation imposed cache handling all affect processing
might range from two to 12 frames per on the disk subsystem.
while streaming images.
second, which is generally acceptable
Memory subsystem: Amount, confor animation and visual effects, but is Computer architecture and
figuration, and type affect data availsomewhat slow for true editing applica- requirements
ability while processing and available
tions. Some computer workstations can
Most computer architectures have bandwidth while streaming.
handle outputting all ATSC high -resolution image formats as well as higher
resolutions in real -time directly from
CPU i
CPU
the graphics subsystems.
Typically, computer graphics subsystems output RGB analog video. Several commercial devices are available to
Processor Bus
convert from HD analog RGB to digital
parallel or serial digital YCrCb. Native
digital video out to HDTV interfaces
will eventually appear on the output of
Memory Controller
these graphics devices. In terms of storage and networking, Table 3 lists the
I/O Controller
major interfaces implemented in today's computers and compares their
peak ratings to the throughput requireI/O Controller
ments of several interesting image
streams.
To increase bandwidth, disk subI/O Option
I/O Option
I/O Option
systems based on SCSI, Ultra -SCSI, and
Fibre Channel are typically striped together. Generally, disk subsystems are
I/O Expansion Bus
much less efficient when performing
random access operations. Such is the Figure 3. Typical computer architecture
I
I
T
Bust
February 1999
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Broadcast Engineering
77
CPU
(3)
I
Memory
Control
Memory
Memory controller: Affects the ability to multitask and overall bandwidth
handling.
I/O controller: Must complement the
memory controller, otherwise throughput bandwidth may suffer. Low- latency, event-handling mechanisms help
handle interactive tasks while stream-
I/O
Control
(4)
Graphics
I/O
Image
ing images.
Processor interface bus to the memory controller: Able to handle large
amounts of data throughput and han-
(1) "I /O- Path"
(2) "DISK- Path"
(3) "CPU- Path"
(4) "GFX- Path"
dle processor and UO data requests
Image -to -Mem
Disk -to -Mem
CPU -to -Mem
GFX -to -Mem
and /or
and /or
and /or
and /or
Mem -to -Image
Mem -to -Disk
Mem -to -CPU
Mem -to -GFX
efficiently.
Memory controller interface
bus
to I/O controller: Able to handle
multiple and simultaneous high -bandwidth traffic streams coming to/from
memory and I/O devices.
I/O expansion bus for 1/O options
and peripherals: Must be able to handle
Figure 4. Example of memory- centric data movement paths
high bandwidths, provide efficient methods of fault handling and bus contention with other I/O devices while still
supplying good throughput. Must have
a good balance of data I/O for streams
of bytes as well as smaller bursts of
bytes.
Figure 3 shows
chitecture.
a
basic computer ar-
Data path definitions for
memory-centric programming
Let's examine the data paths that are
involved with a memory- centric data movement paradigm. It is important to
acknowledge the bandwidths needed to
stream images to and from main memory and to the various consumers of this
data within the system. Some examples
are video to memory and memory to
disk. A memory- centric data movement
approach allows applications to pro-
Bus Width
Bus Type
(#bits)
PCI -32 @33Mhz
PCI -32 @66Mhz
32
32
PCI -64 @33Mhz
64
64
64
16
PCI -64 @66Mhz
PCIX
XI0
Table
78
5. I/O
gram to the computer's standard resources. This natural data -flow programming approach results in scalable
applications as new technology becomes available. Figure 4 illustrates
some typical data flows.
The most common form of I/O bus
technology today is the Peripheral
Component Interface bus (PCI bus)
with PCI I/O peripherals. The PCI
bus standard specifies both 32 -bit
and 64 -bit versions with different
clock speed choices. These clock
speeds and the number of bits representing the data bus are factors governing maximum possible bandwidth
over this interface. One rule of thumb
suggests de- rating the theoretical bus
bandwidth by 20 percent to get the
protocol overhead for bus transactions. Other areas of de- rating must
be taken into account at all the points
through which data flows. A PCI bus
configuration might be able to handle the data rate, but the I/O controller, memory controller, and memory
subsystem may become bottlenecks.
Additionally, the PCI bus is a half duplex bus, meaning that devices on
the bus share it for read and write
operations. Therefore, the realizable
bandwidth to memory is based on
the I/O expansion bus, the I/O controller, the memory controller and
the type of memory subsystem. The
operation system's ability to allow
system tuning for low- latency and
real -time performance is important
as
well.
The bit and speed combination of
32 -bits at 33MHz is the most common configuration found in today's
consumer PCs. Typically, consumerlevel PCs cannot realize the bandwidth potential of this bus. Much of
this due to price /performance design
Bus Clock
Speed (MHz)
Theoretical
Bandwidth (MB /s)
Half or Full
Duplex Bus
De-rated
Bandwidth (MB/s)
Technology
Availability
33
66
33
66
133
400
128 (RD or WR)
264 (RD or WR)
264 (RD or WR)
528 (RD or WR)
1064 (RD or WR)
1600 (800 RD & WR)
Half
Half
Halt
Half
Half
»105
Now
..211
Now
Now
Now
Full or simult. Reads & Writes
expansion bus configurations and bandwidth comparisons.
Broadcast Engineering
f
ebuiary 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
»211
»420
»850
»1200 (600 RD & WR)
Proposed
Now
points and application focus. Consequently, many PC systems achieve
only 20- 50MB /s.
Silicon Graphics offers an additional proprietary I/O expansion bus
called XIO. XIO has high bandwidth,
low latency, and allows for scalable
I/O peripherals and related application solutions. XIO delivers a theoretical bandwidth of 800MB /s in a
I/0
Ctl
full -duplex fashion. Full- duplex
means there is a dedicated read and
write bus in the infrastructure. This
allows 800MB /s in both directions
simultaneously. (see Table 5)
It becomes obvious that many of
the formats listed in Table 2 are not
supportable in real -time on the most
common PCI I/O expansion buses.
Figure 1 shows the de -rated bus
bandwidths superimposed over the
streaming bandwidth data for various image resolutions.
Other components of the computer
architecture must be well matched
with the ability of the I/O expansion
bus for the system to perform as
desired. In the case of multiple
streams of large images, one may
require multiple I/O controllers and
a well- designed memory controller
architecture to achieve a well performing memory- centric application.
Figure 5 illustrates data -flow paths
example that could be used in a memory- centric application in a production suite. Observe the number of
times an image passes through the 1/
O bus and its controller, memory
controller, and main memory subsystem. In the example, the image
data passes through these subsystems
four times. In the case of
1920x1080 @30i with YCrCb8, this
would be as much as approximately
496MB/s of sustained bandwidth, or
approximately 124MB /s per stream
through each of these points within
the architecture. In this case, the I/O
bus would need to handle approximately 248MB/s as would the disk
subsystem.
This bandwidth requires the use of
high -performance subsystems
throughout the architecture. To the
extent possible, multiple subsystems
might be used in parallel to ease
some of this burden. This might take
the form of multiple I/O controllers
to allow spreading the bandwidth
Streams:
Disk(2) >Mem ->GFX(2)
2
Stream:
Image(1) ->Mem >Disk(1)
1
-
OPERATION 1
(e.g., film to disk)
(e.g.,
OPERATION 2
2- stream edit in GFX)
2- Streams:
2- Streams:
Image(1)8Disk(1)- >Mem- >GFX(2)
Disk(2) ->Mem >CPU(1)- >Mem- >GFX(2)
OPERATION 4
OPERATION 3
+ stored clip edit)
(e.g., live
(e.g., live w/ processing + stored clip edil)
Figure 5. Typical streaming -media data paths through
a
generic computer architecture.
requirements across multiple I/O
expansion busses.
There are a host of important items
that must be considered for high resolution, multistream editing. For
example, disk- storage technology
choices, networking choices, storage area networking architecture and
the overall facility workflow must
all be understood for high- resolution image handling. This is especially true for multiformat high -resolution image editing. The fundamental limitation of dealing with
memory- centric applications requiring multiple standard and high -def-
type of architecture may be sufficient for solving problems when
smaller amounts of data need to be
moved, but becomes a critical bottleneck when dealing with uncompressed and /or larger image resolutions of digital media. Handling
multiple streams of high -resolution
data within an off -the -shelf computer system is not as illusive as one might
think. Predictions are that if technology continues at its current pace, the bar
will continue to lower, offering more
computer architectures the ability to
handle larger data rates.
inition streams on traditional work-
Kirk Law is a senior director of engineering for
Digital Media at Silicon Graphics Computer
Systems, Mountain View, CA.
stations and servers is that they typically use an inadequate or nonscalable bus -based architecture. This
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
79
By Norm Hurst
Numerous factors come into
play when splicing MPEG bitstreams
PEG is everywhere.
With MPEG, switch-
ing from one
bitstream to another is described as
splicing. Splicing one MPEG transport
stream to another requires a splicer, and
all splicers are not the same. This article
examines the difficulties of MPEG splicing and provides some questions to ask
when purchasing a splicer.
1
Making the switch
Switching NTSC or PAL is relatively
simple. Frames in the videostream occur
regularly. Once the frame boundaries
are lined up and have the same timebase
(using a frame sync, if necessary), the
switch from the old signal to the new
signal is done during the vertical blanking interval. Switches from A to B and
back again can be done on any chosen
frame. It's seamless and frame accurate.
The same thing can be done with MPEG
streams by first decoding to video, then
switching the video and finally re -encoding the switched video. This is seamless and frame accurate, but has two
drawbacks: high cost and reduced picture quality. Encoders are expensive,
and each time the stream is decoded and
re- encoded additional coding artifacts
are produced (technologies such as the
MOLE may reduce this problem). Directly splicing the bitstream would be a
better solution. Two things make splicing difficult. The first is different frame
types and the second is VBV bitstream
buffering.
MPEG uses three different frame types;
I, P and B. I frames are self- contained
and independent, while P and B frames
www.americanradiohistory.com
MPEG
contain mostly frame differences. Jumping into a bitstream at a P or B frame
means the I frame to which the P or B
frame refers is missing. The result is
garbage until the next I frame. To add to
this, B frames are frame differences
from both a previous and a future frame.
They are sent out of order, after the
future frame that they reference.
The amount of time required to send
MPEG frames varies. Because video
frames occur at regular intervals, MPEG
decoders use a buffer to reconcile the
differences between input and output
data rates. MPEG encoders must carefully construct bitstreams to prevent
decoder buffer over /underflow. Splicing different bitstreams together can
cause buffer management problems.
Picture types
Much of MPEG's compression capais a result of sending only the
changes between frames. A P frame
instructs the decoder to predict the next
frame from the previous P or I frame in
frames are sent delayed: instead of 5, 6,
7, 8 we have 5, 8, 6, 7.
With B frames in the stream, splicing
complexity increases. In terms of presentation order, the old stream can be
left after any P or I frame, but not after
a B frame-that cuts off the backward
prediction reference frame. In the bit stream, this means leaving after a P or I
frame and all the B frames (if any) that
immediately follow it. For example, to
exit the old stream after frame Ps, (see
Figure 2) the out point would immediately follow frame B4, otherwise the
new stream would have one or more
holes due to missing B frames.
Getting out of a stream is one thing,
getting into the new one is another. The
obvious in -point is an I frame, but it is
not that simple. Consider frame Is in
Figure 3. How will the decoder interpret the next two frames (B6 and B7)?
The problem is not that frames 7 and 8
precede frame 9 but that those two B
frames may reference frame Ps, which
will not exist in the spliced stream. If
they do reference Ps, they belong to an
open Group of Pictures (open GOP).
Open GOPs contain frames which reference frames in another GOP, whereas
closed GOPs do not. Most encoders
make a running sequence of open GOPs,
presenting a challenge to splicers trying
to make sense of the first B frames in the
GOP after a splice.
Buffer problems
Every decoder has a bitstream buffer
at its input. At startup, the buffer fills
for some period of time before the first
picture is removed for decoding. This is
called the startup delay, the value of
each frame's startup delay is contained
in the stream itself. Decoders that do
not honor the startup delay risk a buffer
overflow or underflow at some later
time. An underflow will likely cause the
picture to freeze while an overflow will
result in data loss and could have disasterous results.
When a bitstream ends and stops going into the buffer, some bits still remain; perhaps several pictures worth. It
can take several picture times (frames)
bility
the stream. The coded P frame merely
carries fine tuning information to fix up
prediction errors.
Consider splicing from one I -P bit stream to another. With no B frames,
the presentation order and the transmission order are the same (see Figure
1). Exiting the old stream after frame Pi
and entering the new stream at frame
P39, results in the decoder trying to
reconstruct frame 39 by making a prediction from frame 1. Having created
one garbage frame, the decoder then
reconstructs frame 40 by predicting from
the garbage frame 39. This continues
until frame 42 (an I frame) provides a
valid starting point. Without B frames,
the old stream can be left at any point.
B frames are like P frames, except the
prediction is made from both the previous I or P frame and also the next one.
For example, in Figure 2, frames 6 and
7 are B frames, and they are each predicted from frames 5 and 8. The decoder cannot reconstruct frame 6 or 7 until
it has reconstructed the frames needed
to predict them, (frames 5 and 8). Both
frames 5 and 8 must appear in the
bitstream before frames 6 and 7. B
82
Broadcast Engineering
Old Stream
P6 P7 P8 P9
IIO
P38 P39 P40 P41 14' P43 P44 P45 P46
147
New Stream
137
P,
PI
10
P1 P4
Splice ??
1
Figure 1. Entering a new stream just before a P frame (frame 39 here), results in
nonsense until the next frame occurs because the predictions are made (incorrectly)
based on the wrong frame (frame 0).
I
I
Bad Out Point: 0
Old Stream
I,
B() B
I
"
1
P; B3 B4 P; B6 B7
2 - - 5
I47
Good Out Point: 0
1
23
45
Figure 2 B frames are sent out of order, so leaving stream after the desired last Pframe,
but before all the following B frames, leaves holes in the frame sequence, possibly
producing a motion freeze just before the splice.
a
In Point?
Prediction OK.
Figure 3. Entering a stream at an frame does not always work. The first B frames after
the frame may refer to the P frame before the frame. Because this P frame does not
exist in the spliced stream, the result could be a short motion judder after a splice.
I
I
February 1999
I
for the decoder to finish decoding these
remaining pictures. The time between
when the bitstream ends and the last
picture is decoded is called the ending
delay. Like the startup delay, the ending
delay is unique for each frame in the
stream.
A splice can be thought of as the
overlap of the ending delay of the old
stream and the startup delay of the new
stream. The trick is overlapping these
without causing the buffer to underflow or overflow. To have an unbroken
sequence of frames and avoid a buffer
overflow, the startup delay of the new
stream at the desired inpoint should be
one frame -time (or less) longer than the
ending delay of the old stream at the
desired out point. When this happens, it
is possible to create a seamless splice.
When the startup delay is less than the
ending delay, delay must be added to
the new stream. There are several ways
to do this. Sometimes the ending delay
of the outgoing stream is shorter than
the startup delay of the new stream. To
honor the startup delay of the new
stream, the decoder must wait after
decoding the last frame of the old stream
before decoding the first frame of the
new stream. During this time the picture will probably freeze (MPEG specifications do not define decoder behav-
MPEG Splicing Glossary
closed GOP n. a Group of Pictures which does not contain pictures that make reference to pictures in the preceding GOP.
crash splice n. A simple -minded switch with totally unpredictable results, usually due to syntactic or semantic errors in the
spliced stream.
ending delay n. The time it takes the last frame of a bitstream to traverse the decoder buffer. It is a unique value for each
frame in a given bitstream.
frame-accurate adj. (1) a splice which occurs precisely at the frames selected by the user. (2) A splicer capable of splicing
precisely at the frames selected by the user.
inpoint n. (1) a splice point that has been specifically preconditioned to provide an opportunity to enter that bitstream, esp.
of SMPTE inpoint. (2) a place in a bitstream where a person has decided to enter the bitstream. (3) a place in a bitstream
where a splicer has decided to enter the bitstream.
new stream n. (1) ) in relation to a particular splicing operations, the stream that is switched to. (2) the portion of a spliced
stream following a splice. Also called "inbound stream" or "in stream."
nonseamless splice n. a splice which is not a seamless splice: it is either not visually seamless or not syntactically seamless.
May cause a momentary freeze, blank screen, or motion judder. Many nonseamless splices may appear to be seamless to
some viewers; whether it is good enough is subjective. The appearance of the splice usually depends on the relationship
between the two spliced streams at the time of the splice.
old stream n. (1) in relation to a particular splicing operation, the stream that is switched away from. (2) the portion of a
spliced stream preceding a splice. Also called "outbound stream" or "out stream."
open GOP n. a Group of Pictures which contains pictures that make reference to pictures in the preceding GOP. Open
GOPs are difficult to splice into for this reason.
out point n. (1) a splice point that has been specifically preconditioned to provide an opportunity to leave that bitstream,
esp. of SMPTE outpoint. (2) a place in a bitstream where a person has decided to leave the bitstream. (3) a place in a bitstream
where a splicer has decided to leave the bitstream.
PCR discontinuity n. a step change in the sequence of program clock reference samples that are sent with each program.
PCR discontinuities are allowed by MPEG, so a seamless splice may include one, but some decoders have a hard time
decoding smoothly through a discontinuity.
performance symmetry n. the characteristic of a splicer whose A and B inputs may be interchanged without affecting the
performance.
preconditioned adj. of a bitstream, constrained more than the basic MPEG requirements to create splice points which are
opportunities to splice.
progressive update or progressive refresh n. A valid MPEG coding technique that avoids the use of I frames, but instead
codes a few macroblocks in each picture. Without I frames, these streams are difficult to splice into.
restamping n. the process of continually offsetting PCR and timestamp values, usually to remove a discontinuity introduced
by splicing.
seamless splice n. a splice which is both syntactically seamless and visually seamless.
SMPTE 312M n. An industry standard which defines how MPEG bitstreams may be further constrained (preconditioned) to
create splice points which facilitate performing a seamless splice at those points, and which defines a command protocol for
signaling downstream splicers.
splice (1) n. the process of leaving one bitstream and joining another. (2) v. the act of such joining. (3) n. the place in the
resulting bitstream where the joint has been made. Splice types include crash, syntically seamless, visually seamless, seamless, and non -seamless.
splice point n. (1) a place in a bitstream that has been preconditioned to provide an opportunity to perform a splice, esp. of
SMPTE splice point. (2) a place in a bitstream where someone has decided to enter or leave the bitstream.
splicer n. a device that can switch from one bitstream to another.
startup delay n. The time it takes the first frame of a bitstream to traverse the decoder buffer. It is a unique value for each
frame in a given bitstream.
syntactically seamless splice n. a splice which results in a bitstream which meets the syntactic and semantic requirements of
MPEG -2 Video and Systems specs 13818 -1 and 13818 -2. Not necessarily a visually seamless splice (possibly due to insertion
of transition frames).
transition sequence, transition frames n. a short bitstream sequence of frames synthesized by a splicer to interpose between
the end of the old stream and the beginning of the new stream, usually to control buffer levels.
visually seamless splice n. a splice which results in an unbroken sequence of decoded frames such that the last frame of the
old stream is followed by the first frame of the new stream without intervening transition frames, but which is not a syntactically seamless splice. Visual performance may depend on decoder characteristics that are not defined by MPEG-2.
I
February 1999
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Broadcast Engineering
83
arrival of an I frame from the network.
Frame-accuracy, or the lack of it, may
affect your operations.
WIEEG
for under these conditions). Transport
stream splicers which claim to create a
seamless splice under these circumstances are either wonderfully clever or violating the laws of physics and MPEG.
SMPTE 312M describes standard
ways to precondition an MPEG stream
to create seamless inpoints and seamless outpoints at locations selected during the encoding process. The encoder
forces a certain buffer delay at these
points, and ensures that outpoints appear after the last B frame following an
anchor frame, and that inpoints start
with an I frame at a closed GOP. Unfortunately, SMPTE 312M does not define
when or how often streams should contain splice points.
Manufacturers have devised splicers
that can perform reasonable splices
under most conditions on streams that
have not been preconditioned. However, sometimes the streams conspire to
make splicing difficult. Under these
conditions, splicer performance can be
vastly different from one manufacturer
to another, as each has a different technique for cheating time to match up
mismatched stream delays at the splice.
Splicer evaluation
It is important to remember that just
because a splicer can make a visually
seamless splice once does not mean it
can do it under all conditions. Different
streams, no control over one or more
streams, or even decoders or IRDs from
other manufacturers could cause less
than ideal splices.
Because splicer performance depends
on the state of the two streams at the
splice, be wary of canned splicer demos.
Ask if you can push the button that
causes a switch, and ask if there are
multiple sources. Switch back and forth
several times, and note if there is an
occasional performance difference when
switching from A to B vs. B to A. Ask if
the bitstreams are the same bit rate, or
if switching among bit rates can be
demonstrated. Switching from a lower
bit rate to a higher one can cause a
buffer overflow if done incorrectly.
Ask what the worst -case frame accuracy is, and on what it depends, e.g. the
84
Broadcast Engineering
Consider this: You have a 30- second
(900 -frame) spot for which the ad agency is paying $900,000 each time it goes
to air. That's $1000 a frame. They want
all the frames they paid for. If a splicer
delays the start of the spot by three
frames to match it to the outpoint delay,
what happens at the end of the spot?
Are the last three frames cut off, or does
the schedule slip by three frames (at
every splice)? Or put another way, how
big an avail slot is needed to guarantee
that all 900 frames get shown? 903
frames? 907?
Additional questions for splicer manufacturers regarding input could include:
*Does the splicer work with any ATSCand DVB- compliant streams? Does it
support AC -3 audio? Will it work with
MP @ML, and MP @HL? Will it work
VBV Buffering
Consider an end -to-end encoder and decoder system. Video frames go into the
encoder at 30f/s (for example) and emerge from the decoder at 30f/s. But
between encoder and decoder is the world of the bitstream, where picture
boundaries occur at irregular intervals. Decoders have a bitstream buffer at their
input to reconcile the world of regular and irregular frame boundaries. Encoders
must construct bitstreams so that the decoders' buffers will neither underflow nor
overflow.
The MPEG specification defines a theoretical decoder's buffer model called the
Video Buffering Verifier, or VBV. The VBV is a bitstream constraint. It is not a
decoder specification. These bitstream constraints allow a practical decoder
buffer to be designed.
To understand the concept of splicing MPEG video we must understand the
VBV model.
The VBV models a theoretical decoder's buffer. There is no physical buffer it
is just a model used to constrain the bitstream as it is created. This imaginary
buffer is simple: a FIFO with an input and an output.
To be MPEG -compliant, bitstreams must meet a simple constraint: neither
underflow nor overflow the VBV buffer, which make the buffer fullness of great
interest. Buffer fullness depends on two simultaneous buffer processes: input and
output. The MPEG specification defines how and when bits enter the buffer, and
how and when bits leave the buffer.
one picture at a time. All bits
Buffer output: Bits leave the buffer in chunks
for a given picture are removed from the buffer instantaneously (remember, it's a
model). Pictures are generally removed from the buffer at regular intervals, once
per frame. Exceptions include the effect of 3 -2 pulldown and field pictures. The
time at which a given picture is removed from the VBV buffer is called the
decode time for that picture.
Buffer input: There are two modes of buffer input: variable bit rate (VBR) and
constant bitrate (CBR). In VBR, mode bits enter the buffer until it is full and then
input stops. Input resumes when the buffer is no longer full (due to the output
process removing bits). In the CBR mode, bits simply enter the buffer continuously at a constant bit rate for each picture, and it is up to the encoder to ensure
that the buffer does not overflow.
Startup delay, buffer initialization: When a decoder resets and begins to
decode a stream, the VBV buffer is empty. The VBV buffer is filled for a period of
time specified in the bitstream (in CBR mode) or until it is full (in VBR mode), at
a rate specified in the bitstream (both modes). This determines the initial buffer
fullness, and is crucial to prevent overflow or underflow at a later time.
Ending Delay: When the bitstream ends (buffer input stops), the buffer still
contains bits, which drop from the buffer one picture at a time until the buffer is
empty.
Splicing: The trick with splicing is to connect bitstreams which are likely to
have mismatched ending and startup delays. This implies some kind of delay
jump, and something's got to give. There are two basic scenarios: short-intolong, and long- into -short.
When splicing from a short delay to a long delay, some wait time is required.
This usually causes a buffer underflow. When this happens, the decoder must
wait for data and the picture freezes momentarily. Instead, the splicer can add
time by inserting transition frames. Or, ideally, the last few frames of the old
stream can be requantized to remove some bits and increase the ending delay.
When splicing from a long delay to a short delay, the splicer can add time by
holding off the new stream a precise moment, to make up the time difference, or
by adding null stuffing bits to the end.
-
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
with 422P @ML?
'Does the splicer require one input to
always be present, even if not selected?
For instance, does the primary input
provide the timing reference for the
output, even when a different stream is
selected?
Are splices between streams with different bit rates possible? What about
between HD and SD streams?
How are open GOPs at an inpoint
handled?
What happens when switching to a
bitstream that uses progressive refresh
and contains no I frames at all?
And for output:
Is the spliced stream continuously
MPEG compliant through each splice?
Does the picture quality at the splice
depend on decoder behavior not defined by the MPEG -2 specification or
insert a PCR discontinuity at the splice?
Either is valid MPEG. Seamless splices
may have a PCR discontinuity, but decoding smoothly through a PCR discontinuity is difficult. Does the splicer
restamp time references in the SMPTE
312M splice_info_section?
For systems:
Is the delay constant through the splicer or does it change from splice to splice?
Is the splicer performance the same
switching from network to local as it is
switching from local to network?
'Does one of the feeds have to be
locally controlled or can you splice two
live feeds? Does the performance change
when splicing two live feeds?
Is extra bandwidth required in the
multiplex to achieve the specified performance? How much? What if there is
no extra bandwidth available at the
in the mux changed?
'What effect does statistical multiplexing (stat -mux) have on the splicer's
performance?
Can splices be made into encrypted
streams?
Can the splicer work with a multiprogram transport stream that contains only
one program clock reference packet identifier (PCR PID) to which all of the
programs make reference, or must each
program have an independent PCR PID?
'Does the splicer understand and take
advantage of SMPTE 312M protocol
when present? Does the splicer pass
SMPTE protocol for downstream splicers?
Creating a continuous program stream
by switching from one signal source to
another is a basic operation, but the
advent of compressed MPEG streams
has made this simple function a very
challenging one. Although some of the
issues involved have been examined, there
are other important subjects such as
audio, system control, statistical multiplex, splicing aux data, etc. that remain.
Many manufacturers have devised
clever ways of switching the bitstream
directly, instead of decoding, switching
and re- encoding. The performance of
these techniques varies, so buyers need
to select carefully. This field is so new
that not even price is a good predictor of
performance. However, a long series of
make -goods could quickly make the
cost of any splicer a small issue.
IOld stream ends
A/VI-
Ending delay
Old stream
New Stream begins
vf,
Startup delay
`
Last old picture is
decoded
New stream
Buffer fullness is as it would
be if the new steam had
started with an empty buffer.
A/vvvy
First new picture is
decoded
Norm Hurst is a Senior Member, Technical
Staff with the Sanroff Corporation, Princeton,
Spliced stream
Figure 4. When the old stream ends it akes the last frame ending delay to get through
the buffer. When the new stream starts, the decoder must wait the startup delay before
decoding the first frame. These delay times are unique for each frame in each stream.
Splicing involves overlapping these two processes without overflowing the buffer.
does the spliced stream determine the
picture at all times?
Is the splicer frame accurate? Under
what conditions? Is control of the start
time of the new stream required to
achieve this level of performance?
Is the splicer seamless? With any
MPEG-2- compliant stream, or only with
certain preconditioned streams? Is control of the start time of the new stream
required to achieve this level of performance?
Does the splicer restamp the program clock reference (PCR), or does it
time of the splice?
Can a 900 -frame spot be inserted
a 900 -frame avail without truncating any frames from the spot
or the program? If not, how many
frames are needed to guarantee
that all 900 frames will play out?
'What does the splicer do with
a multiprogram transport stream?
Can any stream in the mux be
replaced? Are the program association table (PAT) and program
map table (PMT) remapped? Is
the relative delay of the programs
in
NJ.
Acknowledgments. Thanks to
Thanks to the following who contributed to
this glossary: Jose Brunheroto, Guy Cherry,
Katie Cornog, Hillel Gazit, Mukta Kar, Tassos
Nakassis, Marty Picco, and Chris Ward.
For more information:
A FAQ on the SMPTE 312M splicing
standard:
www.mpeg.org/MPEG/splicing-FAQ.html
A guide to splicing by Philips:
www.broadcast.philips.com/hi-tech/
splice.htm
A paper on splicing from NDS:
Dallard, Nigel and Bock, Alois; "Splicing
Solutions in Digital Broadcast Networks ",
IBC'98 Proceedings, pp. 557 - 561.
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Roger
Andersson, Katie Cornog, Bo Ferm, Michael
Isnardi and Marty Picco who contributed to
this article.
Broadcast Engineering
85
www.americanradiohistory.com
-Video edge
;..,
devices
By Richard Bauarschi
Moving digital video over existing
networks is getting easier
www.americanradiohistory.com
LT
As TV studios and post -production
facilities transition to an all digital infrastructure, these changes will likely
turn the world of video transmission
inside out. Sending broadcast quality
video over any distance presents quite a
challenge, and digital video is making
that challenge ever more difficult. In the
comfortable world of NTSC, the video
transmission interface is always the
same: 1Vpp into 7552. In digital video,
there are as many interfaces as there are
opinions on which is best. Common
bitstreams include data rates of 19.4,
25, 38.8, 45, 50,155, 270 and 360Mb/
s as well as 1.5Gb/s. Because it's no
longer a simple, universal interface, a
variety of needs must be accommodated.
Point -to -point video transmission is
traditionally broken up into two categories, local loop and wide area or long
haul circuits. For local loop transmission, solutions include microwave, a
variety of fiber optic solutions and a few
the type of fiber and the terminal equipment used. Disadvantages include the
fact that it is a dedicated fiber line and,
while in use, it cannot be shared for
other services. Furthermore, it is difficult to find and too expensive for most
occasional users to install. When available, it's usually the cable companies
and alternate carriers that may be willing to lease it. Alternate access carriers
do not offer dial tone services, but do
offer bulk traffic hauling via DS1, DS3,
or SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) to long distance points of presence.
TV-1. Telco service based on analog
NTSC transmission with a specific set
of tariffs and performance characteristics. This service can be based on a
number of different rate structures, beginning with hourly, all the way up to
multi -year contracts. In most major cities, switched video services are available, or are becoming available.
270Mb /s SDI. In a few areas of the
country, carriers are implementing
switched 270Mb /s SDI networks for
non -compressed local loop transport of
serial digital video. The initial thrust for
SDI circuits was from post -production
houses that needed high quality circuits
for collaboration, review and approval.
Digital Interface
Data Rate
Equivalent
Comments
DSO
64kb /s
1.544Mb/s
6.312Mb /s
One VF Channel
24 x DSO
4 x DS1
Basic building block
Popular in data world
Not widely used
44.736Mb/s
28 x DS1 or 7
DS1
DS2
DS3
Table
1.
x
DS2
Most popular for video
North American telco digital hierarchy
free space optical links. For wide area
applications, the choices are limited to
on- network terrestrial carrier circuits,
or satellite -based circuits.
Today's local loop
For years, local loop video transmission has been accomplished using privately owned microwave systems. However, over the last decade microwave
frequencies have become virtually exhausted in most major metropolitan
areas. Telco fiber -based services are increasingly being used for new video
circuits. Fiber services presently available include:
Dark fiber. Fiber that is in place, but
not being used by its owner. The advane is that bandwidth is limited only by
Broadcast Engineering
As more and more broadcasters convert their facilities to SDI, switched
services are becoming more viable.
Despite its attractiveness, 270Mb /s
services are likely to remain in the local
loop. Getting beyond the local loop
requires compression. It is almost impossible to secure dark fiber from Los
Angeles to New York, for example, and
even if it were possible, the cost would
be astronomical. In an on- network scenario, the 270Mb /s data does not easily
scale into the telco hierarchy without
compression, or through the use of very
high bandwidths such as SONET OC12 (622Mb/s). Typically, the SDI data is
compressed into a 155Mb /s SONET
OC -3 payload, or a standard 45Mb/s
DS3 asynchronous payload. Some man-
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
ufacturers are introducing a 622Mb /s
SONET OC -12 solution for transporting 270Mb /s SDI streams, but the price
of such circuits is prohibitive and availability is limited.
Over the long haul
Long -haul video circuits are based on
transmission systems that scale into the
existing interexchange networks. Carriers like AT &T, MCI, Sprint, Vyvx and
others, all use digital networks descended from voice and data hierarchy.
The traditional North American digital hierarchy (see Table 1) is based on a
very rigid set of interface standards.
The approach made sense when it was
developed because the only real concern was in coming up with a method of
multiplexing digitized voice circuits onto
a coaxial or a microwave carrier. Data
transport was a low priority, and video
was analog. The typical services offered
include:
DSO (64kb /s). Although sometimes
fractionalized, DSO is usually the lowest common building block. It is the
digital equivalent of one voice -grade
telephone circuit. Multiple DSOs are
often bonded together, or combined in
a process called inverse multiplexing to
gain greater aggregate throughput.
DS1 (1.544Mb /s). Also known generically as T1, DS1 was initially made
up of 24 DSOs plus framing bits. These
circuits have recently been fractional ized into 1/4 T1 (384kb/s), 1/2 T1
(756kb/s) and 3/4 T1(1.152kb/s). Fractionalization allows services of different bandwidths to be supported in a
DS1.
DS2 (6.312Mb/s) Although officially
part of the hierarchy, DS2 never became
popular except as a microwave modulation rate to support four DS1s on the
same carrier.
DS3 (44.756Mb/s). DS3 is considered by many to be the new ubiquitous
network connection. The term DS3 video is often used, but there are some
misconceptions about how the service
works. Do not call your local exchange
carrier and ask for a DS3; you are likely
to be transferred to the business service
folks, who will quote an obscene amount
of money. Clear -channel DS3s are tariffed in accordance with the equivalent
voice and data capacity. Telco business
service people could care less what you
put in the DS3, they just know what
MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
LEC
(Local Exchange Carrier)
Core
Public Network
Switchers
Servers
LANS
MAN
Network
Access Mux
-J
Remote
Control
Figure
1:
PBX
Switch
Simplified ATM network.
SONET
The movement towards DS3 ubiquity
began in the 1980s when digital fiber
systems came of age. Early products
were limited to 45Mb/s, but eventually
560Mb /s asynchronous fiber systems
became the norm. These heavy route
SONET Interface
Electrical Interface
0C-1
STS -1
STS -3
STS -12
STS -48
STS -192
2.
410
1
compressed video service is one that
simply makes use of part or all of a DS3
and it is tariffed as a video service, on a
different scale from other services.
Table
MAN
Washington
DC
Switch
they have to charge for it. However, a
0C-3
0C-12
0C-48
0C-192
New York
Telephone
VTR
User
Edge
i
SONET transmission rates
systems could support 12 DS3s on a
single fiber. The downside was that the
entire digital payload had to be demultiplexed to gain access to any part
of it; an expensive proposition.
Early in the 1990s, carriers began to
deploy SONET transmission systems.
The primary benefit in deploying a synchronous network, like SONET, is that
you can see into the entire aggregate
datastream and selectively extract any
individual channel without demultiplexing the entire payload. SONET fiber
systems allow simpler, less expensive,
intermediate repeaters, where traffic can
be added or dropped. All existing North
American asynchronous digital transport services, like DS1 and DS3 can be
mapped into SONET payloads.
A big advantage in SONET transmission is that basic building blocks can be
combined or concatenated to support
large- bandwidth requireData Rate
ments like video. The
SONET equivalent of a
DS3 is known as an OC1. It is a 51.84Mb/s datastream with 49.5Mb/s of
useable payload. If, for
example, more bandwidth than 49.5Mb/s is
needed, SONET technology allows
multiple OC -1 s to be concatenated into
an OC -3, thus providing triple the bit
rate while still existing within the SONET hierarchy. Such a circuit would be
known as an OC -3c. Higher order concatenations, like OC -12c and OC -48c
are also possible. This kind of flexibility
is not possible in the asynchronous
51.84Mb/s
155.52Mb/s
622.08Mb/s
2488.32Mb/s
9953.28Mb/s
world.
Table 2 is a summary of the various
SONET transmission rates. It is easiest
to remember that the SONET carrier
number (i.e. OC -3) is an exact multiple
of the OC -1 rate. In looser terms, it can
also be related to the number of DS3s
that can be mapped into a SONET
payload. An OC -12 can support 12
DS3s.
A new development, known as Dense
Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM)
now allows multiple optical transports
to coexist on the same fiber, similar to
combining multiple microwave systems
on the same waveguide. The continuous deployment of extremely fast SONET transports, DWDM in the long
haul, and interexchange networks will
eventually provide enough bandwidth
to crisscross North America with virtually any video application.
ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
technology has been rolling out for the
better part of this decade. Following on
the heels of X.25 packet switching and
frame relay, ATM has long held the
promise of providing a universal solution for combining totally disparate
February 1999
Broadcast Englnearing
89
data in the same pipeline and seamlessly
switching it through network nodes to
its final destination. Because of its wide ranging adaptability, ATM is a key technology contender in both local and long
haul video transmission, and it is completely compatible with SONET transmission systems.
What is ATM, and why does it make
sense in the broadcast or post- production world? To begin with, it is important to visualize ATM as a switching
technology versus a transmission technology. That is not to say that ATM
does not bring new dimensions to transmission; it's quite the opposite. The real
strength of ATM is in its ability to
studio and may consist of an edge switch,
or an access multiplexer. Access multiplexers do not provide any switching,
rather they serve as a concentration
point for various datastreams into an
ATM switched network. An ATM edge
switch is used for data switching within
the facility, and between the facility and
the outside world. If you have seen the
terms access concentrator and access
multiplex, both mean the same thing.
Access multiplexers include interface
ports for video, audio and machine
control (see Figure 1). These are connected to an edge switch that accepts
inputs from LANs, as well as voice
(PBXs) and data servers. The edge switch
may be connected to a telco core switch,
for local and metro area switching tasks,
and finally passed to the wide area. An
edge switch is sometimes placed between the access multiplexer and a carrier core switch, and performs like a
traditional facility data router.
.
/
VP #1
VC #1
VC#1
VC #2
ff
Ph
Ch
vC #1
VP #2
...
VC #2
_
Virtual Path + Virtual Channel = Virtual Channel Connection
Vcc is the basic connection between ATM Devices
Characterized by grade of service
Cell sequence preserved
Figure 2: ATM virtual paths and channels.
provide seamless switching of disparate
information through a single transmission medium.
Living on the edge
There have been numerous technologies developed for data transport and
switching over the years. After considerable experience with all of the available methods, ATM has turned out to
be the best choice for video as well as
other forms of data. The primary reason is that it is technically scalable from
T1 at 1.5Mb/s to OC -192 at 10Gb/s. As
much or as little bandwidth as needed
can be used within the network.
In simple terms, ATM networks capable of delivering video are made up of
access nodes and switch nodes. Switch
nodes may be core switches, enterprise
switches, or edge switches, depending
on their placement. Access nodes are
network edge devices located at the
90
Broadcast Engineering
In a network such as the one in Figure
offer a variety of
ATM services tailored to customer needs
in terms of aggregate bandwidth and
type of circuit. Circuits no longer need
to be active at all times. A User Network
Interface (UNI) -compliant ATM access
1, local carriers can
device can make calls, much like a normal voice telephone call. If a post-production house in Los Angeles wishes to
send video to a broadcaster or another
post facility in New York, a call is set
up, the video is transferred, and the call
is torn down once the process is complete. Beyond the fixed monthly port
charge, the cost for the video delivery to
New York is based on the bandwidth
requested and the duration of the connection. The same action holds true for
a metropolitan area connection that
never leaves the LA basin.
Within the video world, there have
been some concerns associated with
February 1999
ATM in the areas of latency and jitter.
Video professionals have always had to
deal with latency, whether it was pre rolling a VTR to make an edit or the
delay associated with a satellite return
path. The issue boils down to network
congestion, noise bursts, or some combination of the two. An excellent cure
for ATM latency and jitter is buffering.
Products that include dynamic buffering for the audio and video allow the
system to be optimized for network
conditions. Furthermore, buffering allows audio and video delays to be adjusted independently to maintain synchronization. When properly implemented, the net effect is a predictable
absolute delay with synchronized signals.
The magic of ATM
ATM cells are 53 bytes in length, and
include five header bytes. The 48 bytes
in the payload can contain video, LAN,
Tl, audio, SMPTE time code, literally
anything that is presented to the proper
interface at the access multiplexing device. These cells are organized in the
transmission medium as virtual channels that take virtual paths. Figure 2
shows a physical channel, which could
be an OC -12 at 622Mb /s. Virtual path
#1 originated in Los Angeles, and is
destined for New York. It contains two
virtual channels, one is video, and one
is data. Each virtual channel is made up
of some number of ATM cells. Here is
where some of the magic of ATM lies.
In an ATM network, it is possible to
use the bandwidth in any way necessary
to pass the traffic. A 50Mb /s MPEG -2
channel would send cells at a certain
rate. A 25Mb/s MPEG -2 stream would
send cells at half that rate. The amount
of bandwidth used is proportional to
the rate of cell transmission. This makes
for an infinitely flexible multiplex
scheme. The pipe can be filled with any
number of cells at different rates as long
as the pipe's aggregate
bandwidth is not
exceeded. Each cell has an address that
ATM switches can read, making the
network an automated router and delivery system.
As mentioned, ATM is capable of
dial- tone -like connectivity. The two
main modes of operation are permanent virtual circuits (PVC), and switched
virtual circuits (SVC). The PVC is always connected and the carrier charges
For post production, ATM provides
an ideal, scalable solution in the local
loop or the wide area. Video transmission rates may be adjusted to support
lossless compression of SDI to an OC3 rate, or to a much lower and therefore
less expensive bit rate for viewing dailies. It's a pay -as- you -go situation. Additional features such as timecode, machine control, PBX tie lines and Ethernet LANs, may be supported by the
same
ATM
edge device and network.
For broadcast groups and networks,
edge devices readily support point -topoint and point-to- multipoint transport.
It is not much of a stretch to envision a
news director in Atlanta browsing footage on a server via IP video,
through an
Internet connection to a sister station in
Detroit. Upon finding an interesting
clip, the director then downloads the
same video by setting up a real -time
broadcast quality ATM link on the same
network connection. The cost of IP
browsing was nil, and the high -quality
transfer was only a few minutes in
length, thus not very expensive.
For HDTV, ATM can and will offer
the flexible array of short, medium, and
Video edge devices such as the Synctrix FiberHydrant (foreground) can be easily
integrated into a facility's equipment room.
accordingly. The SVC is the ATM equivalent of a telephone call, complete with
the signaling and billing intelligence
that a voice circuit offers.
Another attribute of ATM is the ability to choose a quality of service or QoS.
The two dominant service choices are
Constant Bit Rate (CBR) and Variable
Bit Rate (VBR). CBR guarantees a certain data rate, and in doing so, the
maximum bandwidth needed is reserved
for this data whether it is being used or
not. In the VBR mode, cells are sent
only as the traffic requires, and bandwidth in the network is reserved according to a traffic contract specifying
peak and sustained data rates. Interestingly, VBR is inherently more efficient
than CBR because cells are only sent as
needed rather than at a fixed rate. Figure 3 shows the mapping of ATM cells
into a SONET OC -3 payload, and illustrates the difference between CBR and
VBR QoS levels.
traditional business services, like T1,
Ethernet, token ring HSSI, DS3 PLCP,
etc.
The wide scale deployment of optical
transmission equipment, coupled with
a growing need to move digitized video
easily over small and large distances has
lead to the development of a new breed
of ATM access multiplexers. These products bring video interface options that
support analog and digital video and
audio as well as a simple graphic user
interface, providing the user with a set
of tools not previously available at any
price.
long -haul transmission solutions.
Whether it is distribution quality at
19.4Mb /s, contribution quality at
360Mb /s (mezzanine level), or uncompressed at 1.5Gb/s, the secret is in its
adaptability, scalability, and in its compatibility with all types of synchronous
transmission standards.
Rich Bauarschi is vice president of sales and
marketing for Synctrix, Glendale, CA.
Payload= 148.5Mb /s
Header
VBR Cell
Empty Cell
Empty Cell
CBR Cell
1
CBR Cell
CBR Cell
Empty Cell
Empty Cell
Empty Cell
CBR Cell
in establishing services for broadcast
and production video, the access multiplexer is the most visible network appendage, and one that will be extremely
important in supporting the services
needed to efficiently operate a digital
television station or post -production
facility. The first wave of ATM access
hardware was specifically aimed at the
Empty Cell
VBR Cell
Empty Cell
VBR Cell
Video edge devices
VBR Cell
CBR
Empty Cell
CBR Cell
OC -3 Frame
II
VBR Cell
Empty Cell
(155Mbits)
CBR Cells must be sent with regular period
II
VBR /UBR data held if CBR Cell is ready
Empty Cells or Data inserted as needed
Figure 3: Mapping ATM into
a
SONET OC -3 frame.
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
91
1
Will 24p become
a
new video mastering format?
n the FCC's questionable decision to let users decide, the ATSC DTV
standard permits the transmission of any one of five video formats: three
SDTV formats (480x704, 16:9, non -square pixels; 480x704, 4:3, non square pixels; and 640x480, 4:3, square pixels) and two HDTV formats
(1080x1920 and 720x1280, 16:9, square pixels). Add to this mix each
format's respective variations of interlaced or progressive scanning and you have
yourself standardized confusion.
With the advent of DTV, high -end transfer rooms like this one at Laser Pacific are finding their schedules increasingly full. Shown
is a DaVinci HD color correction system.
92
Broadcast Engineering
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
duction and post industries. For instance, the
cost of a telecine to accommodate all these formats would be enormously expensive
not
to mention operationally inefficient.
-
A new mastering
format
For some, the solution
has been to step back and
look at the primary
Bob Festa, director of telecine/
colorist in a Spirit bay at Encore Santa Monica, CA .
Mir
To many, the plethora of choices is
creating an impossible scenario for the
production and post community. In the
past, producers have delivered products in NTSC, PAL or component, at
either 30fps interlaced (60 fields/sec) or
25fps interlaced (50 fields/sec). With
the introduction of DTV, the major
networks and independent TV groups
are able to specify a variety of formats
from the famous ATSC Table 3. Without leadership, we've ended up with
some programs being produced at
1080x1920 at 30fps interlaced and some
at 720x1280 at 60fps progressive. Other producers want to create content at
480x640 at 30 interlaced, while still
others want 480x704 at 24fps progressive. The result is an impossible operational and financial burden on the pro-
source of content- film.
The 24fps progressive
capture rate, high detail
and resolution make film the media of
choice for the majority of producers.
So, the question becomes, why not take
advantage of that? Because most prime time TV programs today originate from
film, it's desirable to transfer those programs in the most efficient manner.
Finally, because HDTV and data scan
telecines are expensive, transfer costs
are likewise costly. It doesn't make sense
to transfer film to HDTV then change
the telecine to NTSC, then change it
again to PAL to create the needed master tapes.
To solve conversion problems between
original material and multiple transmission standards, most of which originate from the ubiquitous 24p film standard, a new mastering format has been
proposed to the video community. The
new solution is to master at 1080x1920,
24p. This will simplify the process of
converting to the various video standards the networks and broadcasters
worldwide want to use. The process
makes the final video program spatially
and temporally compatible with 480p
24, 480p 60, 720p 60 and 1080i 30.
For purposes of this article, all references to 24fps and 30fps also apply to 24/
1.001 and 30/1.001, except where noted.
The SMPTE proposal
In addition to a 24p master format
recommendation, conversions from the
24p master format and 24p display
issues were also discussed at a recent
SMPTE working group meeting. The
committee is currently accepting comments from the production and the post
industries on these issues. The proposal
includes two important characteristics:
A 1080x1920, 16:9, 24p mastering
format standard for film -originated TV
programs.
A new 24p standard referred to as
48sF where each frame is progressively
scanned and output as two segmented
Frames (sF). With this new format, segmented Frame 1 contains all the odd
lines of the frame, and segmented Frame
2 contains all even lines of the frame
derived from the progressively scanned
film frame. It's important to keep in
mind some new nomenclature. A small
f is used to indicate frame as opposed to
a capital F for segmented Frame.
Because all HDTV telecines internally
scan film progressively at 24fps, the
image can be easily output at
1080x1920, 24p. Today, a telecine will
output a signal in 30i or 25i for composite, component or standard digital
interface (SDI). However, HDTV recorders like the D -5 only record 60 or
50 fields. A native 24p videotape or disc
recorder, while possible, isn't available.
Although several equipment manufacturers have unofficially stated they plan
to show 24p hardware at NAB99, deliveries would be later. If this concept
flies, producers could have the devices
they need to begin supplying content in
the new format by the fall 1999 season.
The use of a 1080x1920, 24p mastering format means that all telecine film to -tape transfers would be done at the
highest resolution possible under the
ATSC's transmission standard. Just as
important, all other lower -quality formats can be derived from this 24p master format. This means that NTSC,
PAL, or even the HDTV 720x1280
formats with their slightly lower resolution can be downconverted from a high definition 24fps master. With the 24fps
rate, higher-frame or segmented Frame
rates can easily be generated. As far as
DTV is concerned, there is no reason to
convert to a higher rate. Only those
programs that have to be simulcast and
transmitted as NTSC or PAL would
have to use the conversion to a higher
interlace frame rate. (Editor's note: For
another viewpoint on this issue, see
Paul McGoldrick's EOM column on
page 146.)
In order to simplify the transfer process to make a 1080x1920 image, 24p
becomes the more economical format
of choice. It complies with ATSC Table 3
and is progressive. Being a film rate and
February 1999
Broadcast Engineering
93
Z
progressive, it compresses more efficiently than interlaced formats. A 1080x1920,
24p signal can easily be upconverted to
a higher frame rate, such as 30p, 60p
(using 3:2 pull- down), 72p, or 25p, S0p
and 75p. Even 25fps countries can take
the 24p recording and play it back at
25fps. That's only a 4 percent change in
speed and is comparable to what is
being done today in the movie theaters.
Progressively scanned 24fps images
running through an MPEG encoder
can reduce the needed bit rate (compared to 30i) anywhere from 25 percent to 35 percent. Image quality may
be improved without increasing the bit
rate. With a lower frame rate and adjacent picture elements from the progressive scan, motion vector calculations become more efficient because
there is more time (per frame) to perform the computations.
Why a 485F signal?
The second suggested change, 48sF,
has come about because of the need to
meet a shortened product development
time and, therefore, production schedules pertaining to equipment for the fall
The cost of a film
transfer
Transferring film to tape is
expensive. In a typical telecine
suite, an average one -hour movie
requires approximately 40 hours of
actual telecine machine time.
Because of reel changes and color
correction considerations, another
week is usually added to the
production of just one telecine
transfer of a color master.
During the second week, more
film handling is required for the
many and varied broadcast
formats, such as pan- and -scan,
letterbox, anamorphic or squeeze
portrayals, NTSC, PAL in 4:3 and
16:9, and HDTV in 16:9. All NTSC,
PAL and HDTV distribution masters
made from those telecine transfer
color masters take anywhere from
three to five times the length of the
source to process.
94
Broadcast Engineering
1999 season. This can be done by converting 24p images into signals that resemble an interlaced signal. Later, by
recombining the two segmented Frames,
a full progressive frame is restored. Because most HDTV recorders are interlace (field) based, a modification to convert the recording operation to a slower
field rate is relatively easy. The machines
would just record two segmented Frames
of two fields.
Therefore, the process would be to
capture images at 24p and then convert
them to 48sF with each segmented Frame
having half the number of scan lines
(540 instead of 1080). One argument for
the process presented by two equipment
manufacturers, is that because24pequipment does not exist, the use of 48sF
would enable HDTV products to be
released quickly. With only slight modifications to existing equipment, a 48sF
signal could be recorded on interlace
of
a second, but then read out that
same signal three times during the next
1/24 of a second. Although this might
raise the monitor's price because of the
added frame buffer, there would be no
visible flicker. In ATSC transmissions,
the display conversion is handled by
the receiver/decoder. All incoming video standards are converted to the receiver's native display format.
instead
devices.
The monitor problem
With 24p, some problems do arise.
One concerns monitoring the signal. If
you've ever watched a movie at 24fps
with a single-bladed shutter, you'll recall
that the flicker drove you nuts. A slightly
faster 25fps is no better. So how do we
monitor a 24p image?
Long ago, the film industry recognized
the flicker problem and adopted the use
of a two- bladed shutter and limited the
light on the motion -picture screen to 16
foot Lamberts. With an open -gate projector, this helped reduce flicker and was
highly successful. All movies shown today use this technique. But to view a
24p video, a CRT display device needs
to display the frame captured in 1/24
of a second at least three times that
24fps rate (72fps) before the next frame
is shown. This requires the monitor to
reproduce the 24p at 72fps. The problem in a CRT display is that, because of
the phosphor's decay time, it must be
continuously refreshed.
Some of the new microdisplay products, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), digital micromirror devices (DMD), liquid -crystal displays
(LCD) and flat -panel plasma displays,
do not have the same decay time problem. Therefore, 24p looks fine and is
free of flicker. However, a CRT moni-
tor would require a frame buffer. The
buffer would take in the signal in 1/24
February 1999
Do we need another standard?
An important issue is whether the use
of 48sF will result in the installation of
a new set of segmented -Frame and
desegmented -Frame black boxes. Furthermore, monitoring, as addressed
above, is another issue. Do we need
another standard? Will the problems
created outweigh any advantages?
Video editing with such a new standard does create serious issues. For
instance, the editing software must
track every frame. When looking at a
piece of content, it will have to ask, "Is
this segmented Frame 1 or segmented
Frame 2 ?" Switchers with DVEs will
need to convert interlaced pictures to
progressive frames internally with
frame buffers.
Under this proposal, only true
1080x1920, 24p video from film -originated material would be distributed
around a facility unless converted to
some other desired format. Devices
that use a CRT and need to reduce the
24p flicker, or recorders that cannot
record the 24p signal directly, would
need to use the 48sF format. Any translations or conversions for display or
recording should be handled internally in the device and be transparent to the
user. 48sF, with its own set of problems,
should be kept out of production and
post-production environments. The48sF
format should never be used outside of
any piece of video equipment.
1080x1920, 24p mastering format for
production, post and broadcast facilities
should be the standard of choice.
1080x1920, 24p is the K.I.S.S. (Keep It
Simple, Stupid) approach and gives everyone something that will work without needing patches just to keep other
things in order. Adding another video
standard to the ATSC standard is neither acceptable nor desired.
Jim Mendrala is vice president
of technology at
Real Image Technology Inc., Val Verde, CA.
.,
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At Shure, we put the "audio" into audio /video.
Contact your local Shure dealer for a catalog full of
microphones, circuitry products and problem solvers
for all your broadcast and production needs.
SNVííZE
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he Saunil ul Professionals... Worldwide'
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Circle (35) on Free Info Card
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New Products & Reviews
Philips integrated DTV solutions
BY M. MICHAEL D'AMORE
tion of SD and HD converters and a
digital master control switcher such as
5. broadcasters are facing the difthe Philips Saturn.
ficult task of building a completely
SDTV with HD pass- through and
new digital broadcast systems, while at
NTSC transmission:
the same time, preserving today's NTSC
Many facilities will want to operate
revenue stream. Needless to say, this is
NTSC and DTV facilities in paraltheir
and
expensive
task.
a complex
lel
for
a period of time. Such an operaWhile no one can predict the future of
tion is shown in Figure 1. This configuDTV, Philips firmly believes that we'll
ration is centered around SDI interconall get there, but that the process should
nections and centralbe an evolution rathized storage. In this
er than a revolution.
.,...«:wd.
Tank earyo.r
Alias NEUnbOn
model, the router hanIn order to maximize
dles both analog and
options and opporN-.
hory
digital signals, which
tunities, while keepmeans legacy analog
ing risk to a miniequipment need not be
mum, Philips' beN.N
e
-fo 1.024.5.
replaced until needed.
lieves that a time This approach offers
phased building several advanstations
block approach to
Mobs Stan Ntlur CTpd Pane
initial proThe
tages.
DTV should be used.
My..N
cess becomes the founRegardless of station
dation for total migra-.11=1~
or market size, each
DN
knew
tion to DTV at a later
Ruh, woe Pool
broadcaster will be
VideoSvvw
Dirylel
VWeo/AObC
date. Having a digital
required to operate
-112 Channel*
Up to 270 leaps
N15C
infrastructure offers
at two facilities, anDeateloNw.
xlnr
(....a.
both consistent picture
alog NTSC and
quality and operation DTV, until the anahere.
By
as
shown
want
to
take
a
minimalist
step
1.
Many
stations
will
al/control advantages.
Figure
log spectrum is evenan SDI infrastructure, both NTSC and SD can be easily handled by
adding
Plus, and for many statually returned to the
centralized server and digital master control switcher.
tions critical to their
government. This
business plan, this
means that automabecomes
the basis for future
one
of
platform
architectures,
will
bepractical
studio
tion and station connectivity
operation.
which should meet the needs of most multi -channel
come increasingly important.
The minimal step does have one disWith this in mind, an important key stations.
Multiple NTSC transmission capa- advantage. It doesn't allow the facility
for broadcasters is to seek vendors that
to originate HDTV material. This could
can provide a complete line of hard- bility:
ready
put the station in a disadvantaged comFor those broadcasters not yet
ware and software systems for the storage, switching, distribution, and trans- for DTV transmission, upgrading to petitive position with stations using
mission of both HD and multichannel SDI capability should be the first step. higher resolution formats.
Figure 2 solves the problem of not
programming. In addition, these solu- The multichannel capability is especialimplebeing
able to handle HDTV programneeding
to
tions must also be scalable to meet the ly important to those
ming. In this scenario, the HD signal is
individual needs and budget of each ment an LMA.
Such a facility can be centered on captured by satellite and output at
station.
analog equipment, thereby greatly ex- 19.39Mb/s to an MPEG splicer. This
tending the life of legacy equipment. allows local inserts to be added to the
DTV transmission solutions
Regardless of a station's particular The facility can grow through the addi- network's HD Feed.
DTV plans, the selected solutions need
to be based on a serial component digital infrastructure. For those that have
already made the conversion to serial
digital, further upgrades and equipment
expansion will be easier because of the
range of products available to meet
your needs and budget.
Let's first look at some example scenarios to getting into DTV. Here are five
Building for DTV
qM11
400
-
Prytanet
I
96
Broadcast Engineering
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
g
80,010
hours of TV at
your fingertips.
(Eyedrops not included.)
StorageTek® can help you
transition all your station's
video to digital and ensure
that the only things you risk
straining are your eyes. Our
MediaVault broadcast solutions
deliver fully automated digital
archives that are reliable and
can store from 80 to 80ß00 hours
of video. So you can digitally access
program material, improve efficiency,
lower maintenance costs and reduce
errors. And we have the hardware,
software, 24
x
7 service and 25 years'
experience to make the transition
successful. In short, MediaVault eases the
pressures on your mind and your wallet.
Your eyes, however, are another story.
Til
First look at this. Call 1-800- STORTEK, ext.400.
See how we've helped major stations
transition to digital video.
www.storagetek.com /video
r
1998 StorageTechnologr
StorageTek is
a
Corporation. All rights reserved.
registered trademark of Storage Technologe Corporation.
StorageTek
Where the world's information goes.
Circle (36) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
This model has
the advantages of
providing the benefits of a strictly
SDTV solution,
plus a cost-effective
HDTV transmission path. Another
major advantage to
.
s..r..
11.......
mar..
.Mios SYVn
separate
HD
-10
1/1141TY
:'.
Mat. CorbM P.M
this approach is
that it's not necessary to purchase a
When coupled with a
Philips StatCast, statistical multiplexing can be
used to optimize channel
Con....
0111V.
uu udll
bandwidth allocations
according to each channel of programming's
content. This maximizes
the usage of available
spectrum. Such a configuration can permit the
insertion of opportunistic programs and data ser-
vices.
MPEG -2 encoder.
An important part of
This model does assume that your netthis configuration is the
MPEG -2 splicer. It allows
work will be delivHD.
this
Figure
2.
For
those
stations
wanting
to
be
able
to
passthrough
switching between HD
ering HD as
works well. The network feed at 19.39Mb/s is routed directly to air,
19.39Mb/s com- approach the
and multi -channel SD
need (and expense) to re- encode the signal.
avoiding
program streams as needpressed streams. Its
disadvantages ined. Advantages include
full HD transmission along with SD
clude the amount of local branding and HD equipment and converters.
keyed inserts that can be added. Also,
HD transmission and SD multicast multicasting capability. It supports insqueeze- and -tease effects not yet avail- with NTSC transmission:
sertion of opportunistic program serFigure 3 illustrates how a broadcaster, vices such as regional news and adverable with today's technology.
HDTV digital transmission with who prefers the most optimized usage tising, data broadcasting, even internet
NTSC transmission:
of valuable DTV bandwidth, can pro- services.
The next step in terms of complexity is vide both HD and multicast programs
to build an island of HD capability. The while still maintaining full control over Making the right choice
Regardless of where you are in your
stations could install a separate 1.5Gb/ the NTSC program stream.
With this solution, one HD channel DTV migration, making the right equips router just to handle HD signals.
Along with an HD MPEG -2 encoder, and up to 14 simultaneous SD channels ment choice is but the first decision. Just
this system provides full capability for can be controlled by a single Philips as important is the company to provide
HD production.
Saturn digital master control switcher. the support for those devices.
When considering all the options to
Key advantages include capability for Each HD or SD channel has its own
HD local branding and key inserts along dedicated video and audio processors building for DTV, there are at least five
with providing a consistent high quality and encoders. This allows additional major points to consider. Be sure your
picture throughout the day. A disad- channels to be added with minimal system supplier can:
Provide a modular system solution
vantage is the cost of adding an island of system re-configuration.
that protects your current and future
equipment investment.
Trou. c......
Provide an organized and natural
(for your station) progression to digital
and DTV operation.
Support multiple DTV transition sce»MN
narios. There is no one right approach,
a.,.,..,
so don't be boxed into a package that
doesn't fit your needs.
Coordinate with a range of software/
Sources
....
......
..,....,..._
Coro
d
.16 ._*15^...5
firmware vendors and that the company will make upgrades available to enaF
Idllllllllll
sure maximum life of the system.
-er
ll -to
Provide after -sale support to their
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(as needed)
Figure 3. A full -blown HD and SD multicasting operation is shown here. Local insertion
of both HD and SD material is possible. along with some HD production capability.
98
Broadcast Engineering
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
M. Michael D'Amore is vice president of Business and Technology Development for Philips
Digital Video Systems.
Cue up
DTV.
#
As digital broadcasting
becomes reality, take the cue
from NDS. We have decades
of experience in the development
of unique end -to -end MPEG, DVB
and ATSC solutions, so we can help you
stay at the forefront of the new world of
digital broadcasting.
NDS designs all our products to integrate
seamlessly into total systems. So whether you just
want a high -definition encoder or the ability to do
multicasting, network splicing, full system control or
traffic inte -faces, you can rack up a perfect solution with
NDS. Plus, ()Jr worldwide service and support keeps your
operation running smoothly. You get the capability you need
today, with the abil ty to easily grow tomorrow.
Start preparing now for DTV. Contact NDS today or visit our web site.
We'll make sure you don't get caught behind the eight ball.
N CO S
WORLD LEADER
WORLD VISION
NDS Americas Inc.
3501 Jamboree Road Suite 200.
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949.725.2542 www.ndsworld.com
1999 NOS Americas Inc.NDS u
a
tradanark of NDS.
AN
other trademarks are the
popery of then reswave owes M
ogha reserved
Circle (33) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
ADVERTISEMENT
NVISION Achieves the Impossible
These days,
the pages of this maga-
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full of articles
and letters discussing the transition
to an all digital environment. DTV, DVB,
DVB -ASI, and HDTV are the acronyms
NV;311OG'
U
(NVOr>... u.....,..,,
du jour.
Discussions often refer to the difficulties of
creating and operating a multi- format system that will allow all of the desired digital
formats to coexist -without adding a couple
of trillion to the national debt, or significantly impacting the cost of medical insurance due to a massive surge in stress related
illness.
"NVISION
has surprised the
industry by announcing a new
family of universal digital video
NVISION's ENVOY Series 6128 router
routers, ... called ENVOY."
Grass Valley, California -based
NVISION
of the answers to these questions. For several years, NVISION has been
helping the industry front -runners solve the
difficulties of incorporating digital audio signals within a video system. Indeed they have
introduced several 'firsts' over the years, including synchronous AES routing, dynamic
data routing, and digital audio signal management. Apparently, this company has been
quietly laboring in the California Sierra foothills to bring some astonishing developments
to the market.
has found some
At the heart of any system
the routing
equipment. New signal formats and standards often require that additional layers of
routing be added due to lack of signal compatibility. Router manufacturers are telling
SDI
is
t^r.Trss-
Many manufacturers agree that 1.5 Gbit
routing
is a
relatively straightforward
Gbit
Input Card
NVISION
signals -in the same switch, at the
industry by announcing a new family of universal digital
video routers capable of managing a wide
range of signal formats.
has surprised the
Matrix
SDI
Output Card'
8x2
1.5 Gbit
Output Cai'á
N
H
I'
"ENVOY users will be able to route
same
time."
With the ENVOY
series, digital video
rout-
ing is available at competitive pricing. Three
frame sizes are available: 64', 1282, and 256
x 128.
x8
Clock Generator
Input and output modules include SDI
(143,177, 270 and 360 Mbits) and HD -SDI
(1.5 Gbit). Different I /Os can be included
in the same switch, as can dual references to
allow simultaneous dual standard 59.94 and
50Hz vertical interval switching. Outputs
include dual connectors for each destination,
to minimize DA requirements.
standard rate SDI and HD -SDI
Crosspoint
1.5
Also, NVISION assures us that they have
cured the problems associated with pathological signal content at both SDI and HDSDI data rates, by developing novel design
implementations for cable drivers, equalizers, and reclockers. And, the ENVOY
design ensures that no signal inversions take
place; for systems handling DVB -ASI data
streams, this is essential. (DVB -ASI is NRZ
coded and cannot be inverted.) These facts,
combined with the ability to control the
router from an existing control system, provide the user with tremendous flexibility.
extension of 270 Mbit technology. However, most are able to provide only a limited
solution for 270 Mbit /1.5 Gbit signal management.
High Speed
Input Card
x8
our industry that in order to accommodate
full bandwidth HD formats, switch sizes
must be kept to 162 or 322, or additional and
separate routing is required. When asked if
HD -SDI (1.5Gbit) signals could be managed from within a large SDI routing system, the answer is resounding: "Impossible."
This new router family, called ENVOY, is
designed around a novel high speed cross point architecture that will handle data rates
in excess of 1.5 Gigabits. This structure is
combined with various I/O modules to
accommodate several data rates. ENVOY
users will be able to route any standard rate
SDI signals and HD-SDI -within the same
switch, at the same time.
et--
am*
8x2
--
This new router series will enable users to
purchase an expandable SDI router and add
HD -SDI I /Os incrementally, as and when
required.
Looks to me like NVISION has achieved
the impossible!
NVISION
can be contacted at
1
800 719
1900 or by fax at (530) 265 1021. You can
visit their website at www.NVISION1.com.
Control System
Interface & CPU
oy Series Routing Switch, Block Diagram
eNVTM
www.americanradiohistory.com
Good morning, Chuck.
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ot
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New Products
&
A ' t lied Technolo
ECI's Video Quality Assessment System
BY ORLY STETTINER AND MARK LUTSKER
the use of compressed digital
video becomes more common, the
ability to evaluate video compression
systems has become a vital function,
one that is especially important to manufacturers developing compression
products or using compression products in other applications. The ability to
evaluate and compare the quality of
video after the compression and decompression process has proved to be a
difficult task.
Evaluating compression systems is difficult because video quality can be measured in either a subjective or an objective manner. Subjective measurements
are the results of observers providing
their opinion of the video quality. But
subjective testing is a complex and timeconsuming process that is not practical
for product and system development.
Objective measurements are performed with the aid of computerized
instruments that give numeric or graphical indications based on mathematical
algorithms. But researchers have determined regular mathematical difference
calculations do not correlate well with
the difference perceived by the human
As
eye has a very nonlinear response in
these color spaces and some changes
are more noticeable than others.
Research was required to find a new
color space that is truly "homogenous"
for the human eye (uniform steps in each
component result in uniform difference
observed by the human eye). A "difference" in this color space is proportional
to the difference perceived by the HVS.
The second problem that the eye does
not perceive a pixel as a stand -alone
object; rather our brain takes into account the pixel's surroundings. This
fact is well -documented by a number of
phenomena: bright objects appearing
brighter when against a dark background, greater sensitivity to distortions in the green component vs. the red
or blue components, and distortions in
contours or edges being much more
visible than in non -edge regions.
For every pixel, it is important to analyze its environment and grade each one
GRADE
100 %
90%
Broadcast Enginsaring
Interpreting the picture's grade
The graphical tool developed by ECI
enables users to give a grade to an entire
sequence, to each picture in the sequence and even to look at the block
level to identify problem areas within
each picture.
Moreover, the program provides insight into the compression technique.
For example, when two different rate
control (or motion estimation) algorithms are applied, using the same bit
rate and GOP structure, it is easy to see
EXPECTED ARTIFACTS
No visual differences between original and resulting
Very slight illegibility. In some cases, non-complete
contrast and color coincidence.
In some cases, very slight edge noise; slight contrast
80%
and color non -coincidence.
70%
Slight edge noise & slight edge oscillations, contrast
and color non-coincidence, slight genera illegibility.
Edge problems (noise, oscillations, vibrations),
60%
contrast and color non -convergence, slight blurring.
Edge problems become serious in some places,local
50%
contrast and color failures of convergence, noise effects, blurring.
40%
Serious edge problems,contrast & color failures of
convergence, blurring,tiling.
Very bad edges, bad contrast & color convergence,
30%
serious blurring, serious tiling, slight jerkiness.
Block distortion, no contrast & color convergence,
20%
smearing, jerkiness, shapes are hardly recognizable.
10%
Severe block distortion, severe smearing; severe
jerkiness, most of the shapes are not recognizable.
Total picture distortion.
0%
Defining the problem
102
"blocks" in a manner that incorporates
human visual system properties.
video sequence.
visual system.
ECI Telecom developed an objective
testing system for company use that
would produce results similar to those
of subjective testing. The goals were
twofold: to gain expertise in video quality assessment and to improve the video
quality of the ECI Hi -TV system and
ATM broadband service multiplexer.
The first problem in developing an
objective quality assessment tool is that
the human eye does not perceive changes in pixels (or color) in a linear manner.
That is, if we keep two of the components of the usual color spaces (e.g.,
RGB, YCbCr) constant while adding
consistent amounts of the third component, we would expect that the eye will
see the "jumps" in a linear manner. The
based on parameters measured for its
surroundings. Special attention is given
to edge and contour distortions, to which
the human eye is particularly sensitive.
In the same manner, a grade for the
entire picture will be based on the grade
of each "block," again taking into account the grades of the surrounding
Table
1.
Grades given by ECI's Objective Video Quality Assessment Tool.
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
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www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast
Solutions
for broadcast professionals.
Figure 1. Comparison of original and two pictures with added
artifacts. From left to right - original picture, picture graded 50
percent and picture graded 25 percent.
quality differences between the resulting
sequences. This enables the developers to investigate and
the perceived
improve compression algorithms.
Grades are given in percentages and indicate particular
artifacts caused by the compression standard (Table 1).
Figure 1 illustrates detected quality grades with the addition
of artifacts. The picture on the left is the original, the one in
the middle is graded at 50 percent and the one on the right
"My job
is to make
sure our listeners hear
a seamless, interactive
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is graded 25 percent.
Graphical tool
In addition to assigning grades to a picture, the system also
includes an option for a graphical analysis mode that allows
a professional user to investigate and analyze a single picture
in detail from numerous aspects.
So fay we have described the "quality assessment" mode of
the ECI Telecom evaluation system, which provides grades to
a picture that is similar to subjective results.
A second (optional) mode of the system, which we believe to
be unique and attractive, is a powerful graphical analysis
mode, which allows a professional user to investigate and
analyze a single picture in detail from numerous aspects.
The tool enables the user to focus in the desired area of the
picture and zoom from a frame/field level down to macro
block, block and even pixel level. At each level, the application enables the user to look at the original reference picture,
and two different degraded pictures, perhaps from different
encoders or from the same encoder, using different compression parameters. The different pictures are shown separately
for luminance and each chrominance component, illustrating the effects of each component on the overall quality
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104
Broadcast Engineering
degradation. Naturally, "low" quality is indicated if it is
possible to see the original contours on the luminance
difference picture.
Moving a cursor across the picture will show the numeric
values of each pixel. Alternatively, the Discrete Cosine Transform values of each block can be presented visually to
provide more understanding of the picture's behavior in the
frequency domain, as a way of optimizing the compression
system.
ECI Telecom's Video Quality Assessment System is proving
to be an extremely useful tool that can help the analysis of
digital compressed video. The tool provides a scalar "grade"
and the means to interpret this grade, analyzing each picture
down to the pixel level and optimizing compression algo-
rithms.
The newly developed color space, selected as a basis for the
analysis, is unique and believed to be a reliable estimation of
the human visual system model. Thus, objective quality
results given by the system are correlated to those of subjective testing.
Orly Stettiner is marketing manager and Mark Lutsker is algorithms
engineer of the professional television networking division of ECI
Telecom Inc., Petah Tikva, Israel.
February 199.
www.americanradiohistory.com
i\ Lrl/ r
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Think.
New Products
As flied Technolo
NUCOMM dual digital HD /NTSC STL
BY DAVID O. THOMAS
has been learned in the past
few years about microwave HDTV
STL systems and their performance. It
was not long ago we were all wondering
how we were going to transmit our
HDTV and NTSC signal out to the
transmitter site.
Much
Topics
When planning a HDTV STL, there
are two key areas to consider: modulation formats and data rate throughput
capacity. It is important to understand
the relationship and tradeoffs between
the modulation formats used and the
throughput capacity vs. the performance
of the link or Fade Margin. For example,
the modulation format QPSK offers a
robust signal (better than analog). However, its data throughput capacity is limited compared to other digital modulators. 16QAM offers high throughput,
but the link performance does not fair as
well as an analog link.
There are typically two types of "all
digital" HDTV STL systems. One system transmits just the 19.39Mb/s ATSC
signal. The other more complicated system carries the ATSC and MPEG-2 NTSC
encoded signal. In the second case, an
encoder is required to digitize the analog
signal or compress a digital signal and
(5)
M
u
Video &
Audio
19.39Mbit/s
HDTV
-
Combine this data rate with the
19.39Mb/s and the result
is
34.39Mb/s.
Modulation types vs. link performance
Table 1 illustrates link performance vs.
modulation types. The analog signal
starts off at a high S/N level but rapidly
declines as the receive signal level decreases. As the receive signal level approaches -80dBm, the audio becomes
noisy and then is lost at around -82dBm.
At this time, the video has become noisy
and is finally lost at -86dBm. Now compare this to the digital signals. The QPSK
modulation, for example, starts out at
60dBm S/N but remains flat as the receive signal levels decreases out to 80dBm. It is at this point that the S/N
FT6
1
Nucomm
)
(
(4)
P.D.
(2)
Hot Standby
(8)
Controller
BPF
(2)
19.39MbìVs
Antenna
T
(4)
GPS
Transmitter
Nucomm
Digital (4)
Modulator
X
Encoder
(5)
To
M
U
l9Ì
Locked
(optional)
FT6
Nucor=
-
begins to roll off until picture is lost at
89dBm. QPSK has an extended threshold range when comparing it to the
analog NTSC signal.
For the 16 QAM modulation, video is
lost much sooner at -81dBm. The video
signal performance for 8PSK and 8VSB
modulation types (not shown) are maintained until -85dBm. In all digital modulation types, the picture is perfect up to the
moment the system reaches its respective
threshold level. This is unlike analog NTSC
where the video quality gradually degrades before being lost in the noise.
This is where you must decide which is
more critical: fade margin (link performance) or throughput capacity.
QPSK and 8PSK provide a robust signal but lower data throughput compared to the other modulation types. 16
QAM has a very high data throughput
capacity but is susceptible to poor envi-
ronmental conditions and multipath
conditions. The threshold level shown
for 16 QAM is best case. Due to environmental and multipath conditions, the
threshold is far less than -81dBm.
COFDM and 8VSB have excellent data
throughput capacity and robusmess.
More work is being conducted to prove
their market viability. COFDMand/or 8VSB
look promising for ENG applications.
Modulation vs. receiver threshold
Transmitter
Nucomm
Digital (4)
Modulator
X
19.39Mbit/s
then combine or multiplex it with the
ATSC signal. In either case, different
data rates result, thus giving an option as
to which modulation format gives the
best data throughput capacity and link
performance.
In cases where a second microwave
channel is not available, multiplexing
the ATSC and MPEG -2 encoded NTSC
signal on one microwave channel is one
solution. Therefore, the link must operate at a higher data rate. It is typical to
run the MPEG-2 encoder at 15- to 20Mb/
s and achieve excellent video quality.
)
Output
- 10MHz
Standard
The various modulation formats use
forward error correction techniques
(FEC) and adaptive equalization to
improve link performance. FECs help
to extend receiver threshold levels and
reduce the effects of selective fading.
There are several types of FEC available. Many work together within the
modulator and they include Viterbi,
Reed Solomon and interleaving. To
further improve link reliablity, adaptive equalization is used to overcome
multipath conditions.
Figure
106
1.
HDTV STL transmitter block diagram of NTSC
Broadcast Engineering
+
HDTV with full redundancy
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
compression
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For more information on MAXIM and the other standards converters in our range:
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o
DNF
Modulation type Threshold level
DOES
INDUSTRIES
CONTROL
Building Blocks For Your Specific Applications
QPSK
8PSK
16QAM
8VSB
COFDM
-89dBm
-86dBm
-81 dBm
-85dBm
-84dBm
Data Rate throughput
for a 25MHz channel: w FEC
32.0Mbs
48.0Mbs
64.0Mbs
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Note. Forward error correction (FEC) used: V=5/6 and RS= 168/204
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EN500
VGA TO NTSC ENCODER
This stable, reliable encoder accepts RGB and
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The EN500 plugs directly into an unused ISA slot
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The EN500 is available in NTSC or PAL standards.
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Circle (42) on Free Info Card
110
1.
The modulations, their thresholds and throughput capacity.
SIL systems vs. modulation types
For those broadcasters lucky enough to have a second SU RF
channel, one can be used for high-definition and the other for
NTSC. The HD SU accepts the 19.39 ATSC signal, modulates it
and upconverts the 70MHz modulated signal to the microwave
frequency. At the receive end, the microwave frequency is downconverted to 70MHz and then demodulated to recover the 19.39
ATSC signal that feeds the HDTV transmitter The systems are
available in redundant and nonredundant configurations.
To achieve the best performance from this link, sending a
19.39Mb/s ATSC signal only, QPSK should be chosen. The
19.39 signal fits well within the 32Mb /s limit for this configuration. There is extra room to send other data signals if needed.
HDTV
Serial
Converters
Controllers
Table
Broadcast Engineering
Dual digital HDTV STL system
For those not so lucky to have a second RF channel, there are two
systems available that combine both the ATSC and NTSC signal.
A dual digital system whereby both the NTSC and ATSC signals are
digital. The other system, dual stream, combines an analog NTSC
and the ATSC 19.39 signals. This article will focus on the dual
digital approaches.
The dual digital system (Figure 1) combines the NTSC and ATSC
signals. This system digitizes the NTSC signal and multiplexes it
with the ATSC signal. The two signals combined gives a combined
data rate. The combined signal is then fed to the modulator and
upconverted the to the 70MHz microwave transmit frequency. At
the receive end, the microwave signal is downconverted to 70 MHz
and demodulated. This signal feeds the demultiplexer where both
ATSC and digitized NTSC signals are recovered. At this point, the
ATSC signal is fed to the HD transmitter and the digitized NTSC
signal is decoded and fed to the NTSC transmitter
In the dual digital configuration, the NTSC encoder is running at
15Mb/s and is multiplexed with the 19.39Mb/s ATSC signal. The
result is a data rate of 34.39Mb/s from the multiplexer. An 8PSK
modulator could be used for this system. There is about 13Mb/s of
data rate left for other requirements such as control and monitoring.
Conclusion
Having a second STL channel can certainly make life easier but
most stations will not be so lucky. Dual digital will allow you to
send both the NTSC and 19.39 ATSC signal down one micro-
wave channel.
The modulator plays a vital role in the STL link by determining
throughput and system performance. Examine each situation
and determine what is more important, performance or data
throughput. Remember QPSK provides the best performance
but limited data capacity whereas 16QAM provides high data
throughput but a lower level of system performance.
David O. Thomas is the director of sales and marketing for Nucomm Mc,
Hackettstown, NJ.
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Rarely do two people simultaneously recognize a difference in posi-
tions or interests. That first person
usually has the greatest opportunity
to influence whether the conflict will
escalate and harden. In that pivotal
moment he can turn in one of two
directions. It should be understood
that there are no neutral actions, especially when our guard is up in anticipation of a fight.
A lot happens in those first few moments when one person realizes the
possibility of conflict. He can lower
his guard in an attempt to foster a
positive response to the other person.
On the other hand, he can close up and
look for more signs of disagreement.
His attitude and action can set the
tone and influence the situation, the
rules by which they will engage in
discussion, and the tempo of the action. Actually, some apparent differences can be resolved even before the
other person realizes there is a conflict. The first person can choose to
observe the situation coolly, looking
for ways to settle the matter without
engaging the other person in discussion. The second person in the situation can also use that pivotal point to
stay open, even if the first person has
already acted, but the second person's
actions will have less effect in the
situation.
Suppose you are that first person to
experience a conflict rising. You feel
vulnerable and instinctively put your
guard up. Ironically, that reaction with will make you even more vulnerable. In
that pivotal moment, your choice towards remaining open serves not only to
move you toward eventual resolution,
but also to protect you. You will appear
safer to others in the situation, and you
will maintain more options, including
the option to escalate later on. Instead of
following your natural instinct to look
112
Broadcast Engineering
for more bad signs and prepare to defend
yourself or retaliate, you will find it
natural to stay aware and open. You will
then gain more information about the
situation and more insight into the motivation and real meaning of the other
person's actions.
this other side's greatest need? What is
most important to them? These questions are particularly important if the
other side doesn't know their greatest
need.
Step Three: Listen attentively to the
other side
The roundtrip to resolution
It's always more productive to be proactive, to see how you can clear the air.
The benefits to both parties are obvious:
if it's a relationship you wish to continue,
you can do so; if it isn't, you can at least
be civil to the people whenever you meet
them. You haven't created an enemy.
I know it is difficult to reach an agreement when tension is rising, but if you
follow a four step process it is easier to
reach a resolution to conflict than any
alternative I have found. If you are serious about wanting to change your method of operating in the world, memorize
and practice these four steps every day in
the low- level conflicts that will arise
frequently in your office, in your manufacturing plant and in your home.
If you steady yourself and decide to be
proactive rather than reactive, you will
be proud and satisfied with the results
and the ensuing relationships. It's an
accomplishment that is well worth the
effort.
The following is a brief summary of the
four steps.
Step One: Tell yourself the truth
In ,a moment of confrontation,
either
real or imagined, we escalate into the
hottest negative reaction we can summon. At such moments, we need to
slow down the process and seek personal clarity by asking the important
question: What do we want? What's
our bottom line?
Listen to the other side and demonstrate to them that you have heard their
concerns. Proper respect must be shown
at all times. You must mean it.
Power plays will not work at this stage,
or later on for that matter.
Step Four: Prove you are fair
When you propose a solution, prove
that you are fair, by addressing the
other person's interests first. Describe,
in that person's language, how they
can benefit.
Then you can discuss the benefits of
such a resolution to yourself as well.
A roundtrip will work because it
teaches you how to go slow in order to
go fast. What seems like an agonizingly slow process will prove to be a fast
lane to resolution. Please spend enough
time to get clear about the two most
important factors at every stage in the
negotiation: your most important need
and the other person's most important
need.
By taking the time, you will get centered and accumulate the information
necessary to formulate the correct approach to the situation. Then and only
then, you can move more quickly. The
beginning of a conflict is the time to
become sure of what you are doing, to
slow yourself down to the point where
you can be honest about yourself and
empathetic about the other person.
Kare Anderson is a speaker and author.
sEnL
Step Two: Reach out to the other side
Ask yourself these questions. What is
February 1999
Send questions and comments to:
[email protected]
eve
everything
you hear
52
Calrec Ranae
medium
:
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Over 35 years of experience
Open natural sound
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Proven ergonomic designs
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High standard of construction
Excellent sales support
T Series
only one UK based audio
manufacturer who can offer you
all of the above.
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For broadcast consoles there is
only one place where you can
believe eierything you hear...
Calrec Audio.
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Calrec Audio Ltd.
For Further Information Contact:
Studio Consultants (New York)
(212) 586 7376 Fax
Tel
e -mail
:
:
:
(615) 871 0094 Fax
e -mail
:
:
West Yorkshire, HX7 8EZ, UK
(212) 582 2169
scidoug @ad.com
Redwood (LA & Nashville)
Tel
Nutclough Mill, Hebden Bridge
(615) 872 7080
doe
redwood @itdn.net
Circle (44) on Free Into Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Telephone
Fax
E
+44 (0) 1422 842159
:
+44 (0) 1422 845244
:
-mail enquiries @calrec.com
:
Website
:
www.calrec.com
In Transition
Technolos
Commercial insertion systems
BY BE STAFF
rest of your infrastructure. If the server
outputs 601 and you need analog NTSC,
what will a convertor cost? Second, consider how much storage is needed. Be
sure you allow for growth. Third, what
bit rate (quality level) is required? In
general, you can trade image quality for
storage time. Fifth, determine how much
redundancy is needed. Do you really
Commercial insertion systems might
be thought as money printers. They
represent a cost-effective and efficient
way to air commercials and short seg-
ments into cable and TV stations' programming. When considering the purchase, what should you look for?
First, be sure the system can output a
signal in a format compatible with the
Manufacturer
Channelmatic /LIMT
nSTREAMS
Ouantel
Model
LVS 300
adSTREAMS
SpotRunner
need a mirrored backup, or would backup power supplies and a spare card be
sufficient? Finally, consider how you'll
get material into the system. Are editing
and record features standard with the
system? There are many flavors of solutions available, so consider several vendors' products before you decide.
SeaChange
Spencer Technologies
Vibrint Technologies
Broadcast MediaCluster
Spotstore
Vibrint Video Server
JPEG, MPEG -2
Analog composite
800/1200
Video
MPEG -2
DVCPRO
MPEG -2
MPEG -2
ouptut signal
or serial digital
Automation
Major
and archiving
and all archiving
interfaces
mediums
T &B
vendors
-
JAZ,
DAT, DVD
Louth protocol
Comprehensive
remote control
(RS -422)
TCP /IP and
protocol,
FTP
compliant with
(proprietary)
major
Drake, Florical, Louth,
Odetics, Omnibus
Louth, Odetics, and
Louth, Odetics and
Spencer archiving
Sony BVW-75 (RS -422)
software (proprietary)
automation
suppliers
Fault -resilence Single- channel
RAID
RAID storage,
X
automated
redundant capable
redundant
backup
capable
facilities
MediaCluster
(proprietary)
RAID -5 with redundant
RAID 3, redundant
controllers, power
local storage, mirroring
and fans
schemes
800 series: four
maximum 100 hours,
4GB internal hard drive,
channels
DVCPRO
channels (three in one
maximum 16 channels
supports two 18Gb
48 hours scalable;
per chassis,
4 channels
out) 11hours at 25 Mb /s
TCP/ IP
max imum
200 minutes
-
(hours of
storage, I/O
more than
channels)
Image
-
software,
capacity
Server
RAID
integrity,
maximum 24
24 hours
1200 series: 12 channels
144GB per
8Mb /s
chassis, chassis
and 96 hours at 8 Mb /s
can be stacked
or 32 hours at 8 Mb /s.
15 Mb/s
quality in bits /s
drives, four channels
or 33 at 8Mb /s.
DVCPRO
compressed
15 Mb/s 4:2:2 profile
coding up to 24 Mb /s
100 Mb /s, scalable from
8 Mb /s to 100 Mb /s
MPEG -2 4:2:2
25Mb /s or
50 Mb /s
Can storage
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
#292
#293
#294
#295
#296
be scaled in
I/O and capacity?
Free Into Card
114
#291
Broadcast Engineering
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
or 4:2:0
video, up to 40 Mb/s
Compare Ikegami's
HL -45
With Any Camera In Its Class.
liti2
Ikegami's lightweight digital HL -45 portable
camera features new generation ASICs that
support reductions in camera size, weight and
power consumption.
Unique high -performance 520,000-pixel IT
CCD image sensors guarantee low smear,
(comparable to an FIT chip), while a resolution of
900 TVL, sensitivity of f9 at 2000 Lux and a S/N
of 63dB, provide outstanding picture quality.
The HL-45 incorporates an RGB DTL system to substantially
enhance resolution in all colors, excluding the skin tone
color, where the Skin Detail feature provides a softer, more
youthful appearance. The camera can be operated with
an optional triax system with component, RGB and
with a full range of recorders.
A memory card for instant file recall is standard.
ENC out, and is dockable
Contact an Ikegami Regional Sales Office or an Ikegami
dealer and ask to take the Ikegami Challenge.
A
LIGHTWEIGHT DIGITAL PORTABLE CAMERA
It: (310 370.2400s (U.S.A.), Inc.
Brook Avenue, Maywood,
07607 East Coast: (201) 368-9171
West Coast: 1310) 370"1430 Southeast: (Y54)
(954) 735 -2203 Southwest:
Southwest: (972) íW9.23-3 Midwest: (630) 0349774
Websife Q http: /www.ilegami.com
/
Circle (49) on Free into Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
New Products
HD production switcher with chroma
Digital processing amplifier
Videotek DPA -90 serial digital processing amplifier:
provides control of six video parameters including hue,
video gain, chroma gain and Y/C delay; can be operated
by front-panel controls or two remote control panels;
features automatic detection of 525/60 or 625/50 formal
digital inputs, full resolution, 10-bit processing and EDH
support and alarms; 800 -800-5719, 610 -327 -2292; fax 610327 -9295; www.videotek.com.
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keying
Grass Valley Model 110-HD production switcher:
now offers chroma keyer option with auto-setup function; features 1080i and 720p operation form same panel
and 3 -bus multilevel mix effects system; 800-547 -8949; fax
503 -627 -7275; www.tektronix.com.
Circle (252) on Free Into Card
Format transcoder
Feral Industries' A4:2:25X transcoder: format
transcoding and time -based correction solution produces
broadcast -quality images; accepts and provides Y/C (S)
component (YUV) and serial digital signals; 913 -492 -4666;
fax 913 -895 -7496; www.grunder.com.
Circle (253) on Free Info Card
Digital multichannel encoder
Dolby DP569 digital multichannel encoder:
supports encoded bit rates from 56 to 640Kb/s and
channel configuration from mono to 5.1-channel
surround sound; it lets broadcasters use time code to
trigger configuration changes automatically for
smooth program transitions, disk -authoring facilities
can use timecode to encode separate program
segments accurately and create single encoded
soundtrack files; other features include fault- monitoring circuits that warn of system failure, bypass
connections for hot -standby operation in broadcast
installations and remote control from Windows95 /NTequipped devices; 800 -33- DOLBY, 415 -558-0200; fax
415 -863 -1373; www.dolby.com
Circle (254) on Free Info Card
Cassette storage
cabinet
111111111MP
Winsted Corporation
Model 17144: storage
cabinet is designed for
F----
.......
DVCPRO medium and 8mm
cassette -sized tapes; cabinets
are 88 inches high, 4 1/2
inches deep and 36 inches
wide; each cabinet section
has 14 shelves and can hold
616 8mm cassettes or 588
DVCPRO tapes; 8004472257; fax 800 -421 -3839;
www.winsted.com.
Circle (255) on Free Info Card
....
e
e
Digital signal processing convertible
cameras
Panasonic AW-E300, AW -E600 3-CCD convertible
cameras: permit use of plug- and -shoot video cards and
are available with three optional feature cards; the AWE300 offers 800 lines of horizontal resolution 63dB S/N
ratio and high -speed shutter with seven settings; the AWE600 features a high -speed shutter with seven settings, a
higher S/N ratio and 850 lines of horizontal resolution;
800 -528 -8601; www.panasonic.com.
HDTV digital signal generator
Leader LT 4400: HDTV signal generator operates in
the 1125/59.54 interlaced system with 1035 or 1080
lines displayed; provides three SDI outputs with eight
channels of embedded digital audio and a separate
AES/EBU stereo output; 800 -645 -5104; fax 516 -2315295; www.leaderusa.com.
Circle (256) on Free Info Card
116
Broadcast Engineering
. .
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Circle (257) on Free Info Card
THE SMOOTH
TRANSITION TO HDTV
Silicon Graphics' workstations and servers
are already HDTV compliant. Whether you
decide on 480P,, 720P, 080i, or simply stick
I
with standard resolution, we have you covered.
Silicon Graphics workstation -based solutions
are at the heart
of today's live broadcast
graphics for news, sports and special events.
Many of our customers are already editing
HDTV content. Let our Origin' video
computing platform solve your media streaming
needs, from thousands
of MPEG streams to
DVCPRO and uncompressed HDTV.
No other open platform
at the core of
has as many media
management and distribution applications. To
entertainment
find out more about Silicon Graphics broadcast,
cable, and satellite solutions, check out our
Web site at www.sgi.com /broadcast.
rets reserved. Si con Graphics
regrstered trademark and Ong n and the Silicon Graphics logo
are trademarks. of S,I,con Graphics. Inc. DVCPRO is a trademark
of Mat ushrta Electnc Capa ehen of Amenca
®
is a
1998 Silicon Graphics. Inc. All
4-0 Si/iconGraphics
Circle (50) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Windows to the Web
Front Page News
!ASV, MAIM VIDEO
,mnING ON Your
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PC
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New Products and Announcements:
www.pinnaclesys.com
Component routing switcher
Knox Video Technologies RS8x8 RGBS: new component switchers available in RGB, RGBS and also capable of
routing R -Y, B -Y standard; offers maximum bandwidth of
200 MHz; features Phoenix connectors and headroom
greater than +18dB; 301 -840 -5805; fax 301 -840 -2946;
www.knoxvideo.com.
Pinnacle Systems: Pinnacle Systems' broadcast products give professionals the cutting edge tools needed to
create dazzling productions faster and more affordably than
ever before. These innovative digital video manipulation
tools perform a variety of on -air, production, and post production functions such as the addition of special effects,
image management, capture, storage, and play -out, as well
as graphics and title creation.
Circle (258) on Free Info Card
NP battery
Aspen Electronics' Platinum NP battery: delivers 50W
of power (13.2V/ 3.9 AmpHours) in same physical pack as
a 25W NiCad NP-1B battery; provides more than one
thousand life cycles with no memory effect; 714 -379 -2515;
fax 714 -379 -2517; www.aspenelectronics.com.
Circle (259) on Free Info Card
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cunP ewar
PmatNSAVVI
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.CPWN91
www.broadcastengineering.com
Real -time editing system
Real Time Blossom Fury LX: a complete turnkey real time editing system; features Pentium II technology,
128MB RAM, one hour of Beta SP-quality storage, real time keying and titling, 99 layers of video and audio and
66 filters; 305 -266 -2800; fax 305 -261 -2544;
www.blossomvideo.com
Circle (260) on Free Info Card
Broadcast Engineering: Broadcast Engineering is the only
technology- driven online magazine in the industry. Its editorial environment delivers practical, informative articles on
digital technology, systems integration, management, how to installation, and systems and equipment maintenance. It
is a package geared toward TV stations, cable/telcom, production, post- production, business TV, satellite and interactive television.
Home Page
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Digital audio tapes
www.technicalpress.com
Technical Press is a web -based reference site that
supports more than adozen video engineering books,
including DTV: The Revolution in Electroniclmaging.
Also available are articles on digital video technologies and applications, and a detailed series on the
history of broadcast engineering.
Fuji DPA and DPD digital audio cassettes: for eight channel ADAT and DTRS digital audio recording systems;
DPA digital audio cassettes offer high -output magnetic
particles with a retentivity of 185mT and coercivity of 72
kA /m; DPD audio cassettes employ specially formatted
double- coating technology to achieve high output and
C /N; www.fujifilm.com
Circle (261) on Free Info Card
118
Broadcast Engineering
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
delivering the promise of
multi -channel digital broadcasting
North America
International
Far East
DAL Inc. (East Coast)
35 Airport Road
Suite 350
Morristown. NJ 07960
USA
Tel. +973 631 6200
Fax. +973 631 6206
DAL Group
14 Cedarwood
Chineham Business Park
Chineham
Basingstoke
Hampshire RG24 8WD
DAL Far East
23 Jaian Sri Hartamas 10
50480 Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
Tel. +60 3 651 4654
Fax. +60 3 653 2448
DAL Inc. (West Coast)
6167 Bristol Parkway
Suite 104
Culver City, CA 90230
USA
J,aJïfr iJ wurid
in LI] ! lJ ïJchannel
automation
Circle (51) on Free Into Card
UK
Tel +44 1256 379000
Fax. +44 1256 707359
See us at NAB Booth LVCC #L18118
www.drake- automation.com
www.americanradiohistory.com
DAL
Drake Automation
Windows to the Web
Digital Interface module set
-lZn r
(ninmui/üo/iuo , /i,/e/im/inim/
Telecast Fiber Systems Viper TX/RX292: a digital
interface module set for the Viper fiber optic system; with
TX/RX292 module Viper system can carry digital formats
including high definition; when used with other modules
Viper system can carry NTSC/PAL analog video, audio,
intercom and control data; 508 -754-4858; fax 508 -7521520; www.telecast-fiber.com.
Circle (262) on Free Info Card
www.sterlingcm.com
Sterling Communications International: Sterling Communications International, a full-service advertising and marketing communications agency, specializes in design and implementation of
integrated communications for video. broadcast, satellite and cable
products manufacturers. Our services include branding, corporate
identity. marketing plans. advertisements, corporate / product
brochures. collateral, direct mail promotions, annual reports, packaging, catalogs copywriting. digital media, and more.
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www.winsted.com
Winsted Corporation: Winsted offers a full line of modular
consoles, rack cabinets, file server workstations, tape storage,
and editing desks. The most complete line of accessories in the
industry complement this extensive offering. Winsted's 164 page fully -illustrated catalog includes an easy -to- understand
modular components section that allows you to design your own
console, or you can receive a free consultation with a Winsted's
system design engineer. To receive a free catalog or learn more
about Winsted at their Web site www.winsted.com or call toll
free at 800 -447 -2257.
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Panasonic AG-DV2000 VTR: a DV- format desktop
editing VTR that offers picture quality of more than
500-line resolution and a high S/N ratio of 50dB;
features digital component video quality, jog /shuttle
control, IEEE 1394 DV terminal and digital PCM audio;
800 -528 -8601; www.panasonic.com
Circle (263) on Free Info Card
Input display and resizing unit
Feral Industries QS-440 Quad Split: a multiple input
display and resizing device; can accept up to four video
inputs and combine them into a single video output;
offers composite and Y/C inputs and outputs; 913 -4924666; fax 913 -895 -7496; www.grunder.com.
Circle (264) on Free Info Card
info @ntc.com
National TeleConsultants is the
largest independent television facility design and system integration company in the world. NTC is known for building creative and
cost effective multi-channel network facilities, production studios
and television stations. Call us at 818 -265 -4400 and let us put
our 19 years of experience to work for you.
National TeleConsultants:
120
Broadcast Engineering
February 1999
Like what you're reading?
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Wandel & Goltermann
Communications Test Solutions
Ow Ulm*,
Dual- stream nonlinear
editor
Sony ES-3 Editstation: a dual- stream
Windows NT nonlinear editor that
features direct digital link and i.Link (IEEE 1394) interface support for DV and DVCAM
digital video footage. The system provides digital
connectivity through i.Link, SDI and SDTI interfaces
and provides a direct digital link between the VTR and
hard drives while editing DV and DVCAM video
footage. 800 -686 -SONY; www.sony.com /professional.
Circle (265) on Free Info Card
Portable spectrum analyzer
Americas 2398 portable spectrum analyzer:
offers a frequency range of 9kHZ to 2.7kHZ; proficient in
performing wireless infrastructure, TV broadcast or cable
IFR
Digital high definition
character generator
Chyron HD Duet system:
a real -time
HDTV video graphics processing platform,
features seven high- bandwidth Chyron
expansion slots, 2D and 3D scalable video graphics
engine, integrated downstream keyer, 32X CD-ROM
drive, 4GB hard drive, and Windows NT operating
systems; 206 -784 -8434 (U.S.); fax 516 -845 -5210;
www.chyron.corn.
Circle (266) on Free Info Card
Nonlinear editing system
Panasonic newsBYTE: a fast transfer
editing work station, uses FTP to send
DVCPRO clips from newsBYTE to SGI
server; can connect to nearly any Internet, Intranet or
Extranet server; system's internal disk array can store
approximately 70 minutes of DVCPRO video and two
hours of audio; 800 -528-8601; www.panasonic.com.
television field testing and high -quality measurements in
production and laboratory environments; 316 -522 -2981;
fax 316 -522 -2328; www.ifrinternational.com.
Circle (270) on Free Info Card
New master control features
Grass Valley M -2100 master control system: now
features Squeezeback Crop and Framestore Keyer;
Sqeezeback Crop provides transitioned removal of
foreground lines and is configurable as part of Squeezeback system; Framestore Keyer offers internal nonvolatile
storage of pages of video and key signals and storage of
station ID logos; 800 -547 -8949; fax 503 -627 -7275;
www.tektronix.com.
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Video Scaler
Spectrum VLI 200: a variable line
interpolator designed for AV venues and
home theaters where video signals are
RGB
viewed on large screen displays; accepts
any video source including NTSC /PAL composite video and S- Video; features decoding, adaptive
comb filtering and de- interlacing; 510- 814-7000; fax
510 -814 -7026;
www.rgb.com
Circle (268) on Free Info Card
Special effects software
Ice ICE'd Final Effects Complete
Version 1.0: designed for use with
ICE's BIueICE hardware card; speeds
creation of special effects from two to 45
times over former FEC product; offers over 130
accelerated software effects filters for widely used
video and film finishing environments; 888 -ICE -THIS,
781 -768 -2300; fax 781 -768 -2301; www.iced.com.
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High -resolution image converter
Analog Way high resolution -to-video Studio Scan
XTD 820 R: compatible in input with resolutions
between 640x480 to 1600x1280; converts images to all
video supports; available with digital video output D1
(4:2:2) and offers genlock and zoom functions; + (33
1) 64 47 14 14; fax +( 33 1) 64 47 14 73.
Circle (272) on Free Info Card
On -board camera light
Sachtler 21D MicroSun: a 21W daylight lamp
designed for use on cameras; also serves as a compact
special effects light; generates three times as much
light as common halogen lamps; 089 321 58 -200;
fax 089 321 58-227.
Circle (273) on Free Info Card
122
Broadcast Engineering
February 1999
In video, living with your work takes on new meaning. At Quantegy, we're dedicated to the manufacturing
Some people wake up
and go to work.
You wake up and you're,_
of professional media, so we share the very same passion that you do for your craft. From our precision
still at work.
mechanisms to our patented formulations, we examine every detail of the manufacturing process to
deliver consistent, unmatched performance.
Yes,
we're probably both
a
bit obsessed with our product.
But the way we look at it, our job is to help you keep your mind on work. And not on your tape.
Cali 1.800.752.0732
Fax
1.80C.628.0535
,,
www.quantegy.com
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www.americanradiohistory.com
,rj
MORE
than
MEETS
the
EYE.
3
r
Video fluid head
Bogen Photo G1380- Series Pro Video fluid head:
available for a full range of lightweight ENG /EFP cameras,
portable digital cameras and lightweight DV cameras;
includes six specific counterbalanced springs; accommodates cameras and lenses from 2.2 to 22 pounds; 201 -8189500; fax 201 -818 -9177; www.bogenphoto.com.
Environmental control system
Liebert Deluxe System/3 Upflow DX environmental control system: new design maximizes
installation flexibitiy and reliablity for cooling critical
equipment; uses two semihermetic compressors;
microprocessor controls maximize energy efficiency;
800 -877 -9222; fax 614 -841 -6973; www.liebert.com.
Circle (274) on Free Info Card
Circle (276) on Free Info Card
Digital audio cart replacement system
Virtual Sound and Video V -Cart:
digital audio cart
replacement system for Macintosh; features 10,000 -entry
playlist, rapid file editing, and manual or automatic
recording modes; 732 -274 -9451; www.V -CART.com.
a
Circle (275) on Free Info Card
VGA to NTSC encoder
Broadcast Video Systems EN500: accepts RGB and
horizontal drive or sync from computer -generated VGA
source; outputs encoded, interlaced video complete with
EIA sync; plugs directly into an unused ISA slot on host PC;
905- 764 -1584; fax 905 -764 -7438; www.bvs.on.ca.
Circle (277) on Free Into Card
7,e GALLERY
8 -VSB MODULATOR
For HDTV Terrestrial Broadcast System
Conforms to ATSC Specs
All Solid State Construction for High
Reliability
Digital Implementation for High Performance
Indications for Lock and Error Conditions
Options for
- Non-Linear 6 Linear Pre -correction
- External / Internal 10MHZ Reference
- SMPTE -310M Input
- Remote Control
- SNR Duality Indicator
Demod / Remod
-
,....
The
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Perfect Digital Audio Interface
Interfacing an
analog VTR to a digital plant or
new digital recorder to an analog plant? The
low cost ADA2008 is the perfect choice!
a
It features the award winning AD2004
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THD +N: -107 dB(0.00045°k)20Hz -20kHz
9 pSec
intrinsic jitter
KTech
AES lock with >50 dB jitter reduction
9.segment true digital level meters
I
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External redundant power
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available
PH
www.benchmarkmedia.com BENCHMARK MEDIA SYSTEMS, INC.
sales @benchmarkmedia.com Phone 800- 262 -4675, FAX 315437 -8119
Circle (56) on Free Info Card
1
24
Broadcast Engineering
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Telecommunications, Inc.
San Fernando Mission Blvd.
Suite I oO
Mission Hills CA 91 345
SSO
I
(8 18) 36 -2248 FAX (8 18) 270 -20I 0
I
INTERNET www.ktechtelecom.com
Email: skuh @ktechtelecom.com
Circle (59) on Free Into Card
yam
Action
Air
to
in the Blink
of
an Eye.
e
.
Introducing
"1
RIM
- -.
a
DiskCam_
The Digital Disk Recorder
for Field Acquisition.
is the revolutionary new digital recorder
that combines the efficiency of MPEG -2 compression
and cost -effective, rewritable disk technology.
DiskCam'"
Take
your best shot.
- including good
shot marker and loop recording - let you finish your
story faster. And nothing ever comes in contact with the
disk, eliminating drop -outs, wrinkles and other disasters.
DiskCam's in- camera editing functions
The future
of television,
fully dockable with the present.
DiskCam is compatible with most existing tape and
non- linear editing systems, and docks with virtually any
camera. MPEG -2 Studio Profile compression provides
exceptional picture quality with 16x9 support for DTV.
Server -based technology enables collaborative editing
and Internet video delivery.
Go
straight to the disk.
DiskCam's direct -to -disk editing makes "jog and shuttle"
thing of the past. Each disk is guaranteed for 300,000
20- minute record -erase cycles.
a
DiskCam peripherals make your editing suite.
Editor (VDE) and Desktop Data Drive
(DDD) make DiskCam truly practical for today's studio.
The Video Disk
Designed for both tape and data environments, the
DDD's unique, dual-head design provides direct,
non -linear random access, plus high speed transfer
To
find out more about the DiskCam product suite,
call NEC at
1- 888 -383 -4DTV
or visit
us
at www.nec.com.
just imagine
NEC MULTIMEDIA
Discover DiskCam at NAB'99 Booth L -12116
DiskCam is a trademark of NEC Corperanon.
©1999 NEC America. Inc.
Circle (46) on Free Into Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
NEC
Math Fiber Optics
microtranceiver:
RS -232
designed to extend the
normal transmission range
of most RS-232 compatible
equipment and accessories;
may be configured for either
point -to-point or repeat modules;
operates with all data rates up to
200Kb /s; 516-273 -0404; fax 516 -2731638; www.commspecial.com.
DVCPRO camcorder
Circle (278) on Free Info Card
Panasonic Al -D400 DVCPRO camcorder: is
designed for an array of applications from event
videography to electronic newsgathering; features
Camera remote control panel
Telemetrics CP- ITV -VC3 Serial Control Panel: designed
specifically for Canon's VC -C3 Pan/Tilt Cameras; provides
joystick control with programmable presets for each
three low- smear, low- noise, 1/2 -inch, 410,000 -pixel
FIT CCDs; with viewfinder, battery and cassette
pack the Al -D400 weighs less than 13 pounds; 800528 -8601; www.panasonic.com.
camera; offers control over zoom, focus and iris adjustment; 201 -8489818; fax 201 -8489819; www.
i
telemetricsinc.com.
Tektronix M2T 300 video edge device: delivers high -
Circle (278) on Free Info
Circle (279) on Free Info Card
Video edge device
quality, real-time MPEG -2 digital video at any bandwidth;
able to support a number of video-trunking applications
including post-production, event coverage and studio/
transmitter links; 800 -547 -8949; fax 503 -627 -7275;
Card
www.tektronix.com.
Circle (280) on Free Info Card
Lightning Fast Information
For you, the Internet is a tool, not a toy. You don't
have time to fill out cards, send it out via snail
mail and then wait and wait and wait. But what
else can you do?
Now get your inquiries answered faster with
Broadcast Engineering's NEW online reader
service "cards." Your request is automatically
e- mailed to the companies who have the product,
or you can link directly to Web sites for the
service information you need.
Quick, easy and lightning fast. Check it out on:
126
Broadcast Engineering
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Digital Color corrector
Videotek SDC -831 Digital Color Corrector:
has
internal 4:4:4, 16-bit processing; provides control of gains,
gamma and black levels for total video and components;
features include RGB gamut legalizing, encoded gamut
legalizing and vector
limiting; can be used
with any combination of up to 30
panels and units;
Tektronix offers upgrades for measurement set and waveform monitor
Tektronix 1735HD Waveform Monitor: now
supports analog video signals used to create 480p,
800 -800-5719, 610327 -2292; fax 610327 -9295;
www.videotek.com.
720p and 1080i DTV formats; earlier 1735HD monitors
can be upgraded to support new DTV rates.
Circle (282) on Free Info
Card
Tektronix VM700T automated video measurement set: now offers SDTI analysis as standard
feature on the Option 15 serial digital video analyzer;
delivers real -time acquisition, analysis of SDTI transport interface and associated data packets and
synchronizing signals; 800 -547 -8949; fax 503 -627 -7275;
www.tektronix.com.
Circle (281) on Free Info Card
949 -852 -8511; fax 949 -852 -8930;
Fibre Channel disk drives
Leitch 18GB Fibre Channel disk drives: drive reduces
the cost of storage for the Leitch ASC VR300 broadcast
video server; the FCR -301 disk array holds 10 18GB Fibre
Channel disk drives; 800 -387 -0233; fax 416 -445 -0595.
Circle (283) on Free Info Card
Evertz offers software for closed
caption encoder
Evertz XDS Packet Control Software: Windows 95
application program designed for use with the Evertz
8074 Closed Caption Encoder; allows insertion of network
station call leters and time information into the XDS
portion of Line 21 of the VITC; 905 -335 -3700; fax 905 -3353573; www.evertz.com
ID,
RAID -based storage
Storage Concepts FibreRAID Express: storage system
for applications that require continuous transfer capabilities of over 80 MB/s; offers RAID 3 architecture; connects
to host using a dual Fibre Channel interface; 800 -525 -9217,
www.storageconcepts.com.
Azden Corp. offers new microphones and element
Azden now offers two new microphones for use with
their VHF and UHF body -pack transmitters; the Sony
ECM-44 is a omnidirectional electret condenser lavalier
microphone; comes with standard 3.5 mm connector or
four -pin locking Hirose connector. The K & K Sound
Systems CMX -5 is a gel- mounted soft cardioid capsule
that withstands up to 140 dB SPL.
Azden also offers the VLM capsule used in the Audix 0M3xb as an alternative element for Azden's 41 HT wireless
UHF hand held microphone /transmitter; capable of
handling up to 140 dB SPL; 516-328 -7500; fax 516 -3287506; www.azdencorp.com.
Circle (284) on Free Info Card
You can't do HDTV
without fiber...
From the trusted name in video transport
for field applicaticns, now comes the latest
addition to the Viper series.
And you can't do fiber without Telecast.
rd.Telecast
Fiber Systems, Inc.
one product you can now handle HDTV
AND all other formats. Call now or vis t our
web site for more information.
In
Circle (47) on Free Info Card
February 1999
Broadcast Engineering
131
Business Wire
Business
HBO has purchased 19 Panasonic AJHD2700 D -5 HD VTRs and three HD
Smart-Cart automation systems in what
Panasonic bills as the largest sale of D5 high -definition recording systems. The
sale represents the delivery of Panasonic's 3006 D -5 VTR worldwide.
American Product Services purchased
Sony Electronics' DXC -H10 high -definition camera for graphics capture. The
camera is part of a larger purchase of
equipment in APS's high-definition edit
suite. APS is the first broadcast -level
studio to purchase the camera.
Liman Video Rental, New York, has
selected Canon's HJ15X8B Standard
Zoom and HJ9X5.5B Wide Angle
Zoom lenses for its HDTV customers.
Ulster TV, Belfast, Northern Ireland,
will be installing a Telex Communications Inc. RTS ADAM Digital Intercom
System in its new master control room.
The digital intercom system will serve
the entire Ulster TV facility and links to
OB and remote trucks.
JB Broadcasting, Torrence, CA, and
the Texas Network have purchased automation systems from Channelmatic/
LIM T.
Composer and producer Stephen Bray
purchased two Otan Radar II HDR
series digital multitrack recorders for
his Saturn Sound Studios.
WaveFrame has announced the sale of
three 24 -track WaveFrame 408 -Plus
digital audiostations to Pacific Sound
Services, the audio post -production division of LaserPacific Media Corporation.
Panasonic has delivered its first
AV-
HS31101080I MilleniuM High- Definition Switcher to Post Logic, a post facility that specializes in HD feature trans-
132
Broadcast Engineering
Otari Corp. is expanding its Northeast Regional Sales & Support office to
include a demonstration facility. The
demonstration space will feature the
ADVATA Digital Production System and
RADAR II GDR Series Digital Multitrack.
Cyclotron at Post Perfect has been
using Quantel's Hal Express to produce
two branding shots for The History
Channel.
fers and commercial, trailer and long form finishing. Post Logic also purchased
two AJ- HD2700 D -5 HD VTRs.
Tektronix and Avid Technology Inc.
have announced the incorporation of
Avstar Systems LLC, a joint newsroom
computer venture. Avstar, which began
operating this month, will produce digital news production products.
JVC has announced NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory bought a DLA -G10
direct -drive image light amplifier for
project design and 3 -D rendering.
Mira Mobile Television has added
five Sony BVP 500 studio cameras with
three 70x and two 55x Fujinon lenses
for use in its production trucks.
Drake Automation Inc. opened its
third office in Culver City, CA. The new
office's phone number is 310 -645 -7171.
Fairlight ESP has announced the sale
of a Fairlight Medialink Fast Audio
Network Solution and four MFXPI."
digital audio workstations to Superdupe Recordings in New York.
National Finance SportsDesk and Sharp
Jets- Giants Report programs.
Five TV stations have recently purchased Euphonix's 3100B broadcast
mixing system during the last three
months. The stations are KCBS, Hollywood; KCNC, Denver; KNSD, San Diego; KNVX, Phoenix; and WTXF, Philadelphia.
MSG Network has been using Orad's
Cyberset M virtual set system for its
February 1999
Fujinon has announced the sale of six
HA20x7.5BEVM lenses and two
HA10x5.2BEVM wide -angle lenses to
Bezel Corp., a video equipment rental
house. The new lenses will be used to
complement Bexel's Sony HDW-700
high-definition camcorders.
Harris Corp. has entered an exclusive
agreement to provide Hearst -Argyle
Television Inc. with a full range of digital and analog TV equipment. In the
first transaction, Harris will provide
SigmaCD UHF DTV transmitters to
two Hearst -Argyle stations.
CNN Airport Network has begun using Scientific- Atlanta's PowerVu satellite transmission system. CNN Airport
Network offers programming at 1350
gates in 32 airports throughout the U.S.
Tektronix will be rebuilding the transmission infrastructure and installing a
new server-based commercial transmission facility for three Dutch National
Channel of NOB, a Dutch broadcasting
services corporation. NOB will be
Put it all Together
'ëheCHYRON
APRISA 100
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Unite Your Broadcast Assets
Today's broadcaster
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www.americanradiohistory.com
equipped with six Profile PDR300 Video Servers, a Grass Valley M -2100 master control switcher, Grass Valley routing products and WFM601 waveform
for signal analysis.
The state of Nebraska has awarded
COMARK, a division of THOMCAST
Communications Inc., Alexandria, VA,
a contract to produce a complete planning study for the transition of the
Nebraska Educational Telecommunications network to DTV.
be reached at 312 -755 -1766.
Johnson Broadcasting Company of
Texas has selected JVC's 4:2:2 DIGITAL-S for KNWS-TV of Houston and
KLDT-TV of Dallas. Johnson Broadcasting uses BR-D750 edit recorders to
dub shows and uses BR -D350 recorders for on -air playback. KNWS -TV
crews also use a BR-D40 recorder
docked with a KY-D29 camera for local
sporting events.
line analog console from Calrec Audio
Ltd. The console will be installed in a
53 -foot NCP III TV truck.
Granada Media Group has purchased 12 Panasonic DVCPRO VTRs
(AJ- D750/650/230), two AJ -D700
camcorders and five AG -EZ1 DV
palmcorders for its new joint venture
shopping network called Shop!
Quanta Inc. has opened a sales office
serving the Midwest in downtown Chicago. The office is located at 541 North
Fairbanks. The Chicago sales staff may
People
Charles Steinberg, president of Sony
Electronics' Broadcast and Professional Company, was named adviser to Dr.
New Century Productions, Allentown,
PA, received a 60-channel Q2 dual in-
Teruaki Aoki, president and chief operating officer of Sony Electronic. Michael A. Vitelli, executive vice president of
Broadcast and Professional Company,
assumed responsibility for BPC operations.
Jeffery Klitzner will be the group manager for nonlinear editing systems for
Panasonic Broadcast & Digital Systems
Co.
Magni Systems Inc., Hillsboro, OR.,
has appointed Richard Friedland,
former chief executive officer of General Instrument Corporation, to its board
of directors.
Pluto Technologies, Boulder, CO, has
appointed Pete Mountanos to its board
of directors.
Like what you're reading?
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Circle (58) on Free Into Card
See us at NAB
Booth #L22465
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-mail:
sales @swager.com
Internet: www.swager.com
Circle (57) on Free Info Card
1
34
Broadcast Engineering
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
-Call for a Free Demo Integrated Tracking Systems
718 -217 -8678
Circle (60) on Free Into Card
One must have all the tools...
Broad Light
Broad Light
w/Diffusion Gel
Combo Light
Mini -Cool Light
Hollywood Soft Kit 111
Light Stand
Micro-Lux Light
COOLBrick
Video Kit
Field Power Kit
L-10 Battery
Delta Force Charger
T Bar Clamp
NiCd Power Belt
Rock Solid U-3
tEL
Lamps
LCE Power Belts
U -3
Diffusion & Gels
Hollywood Soft Kit I
Location Kit
411411104
Klipper Mounts
11144111(
Light/Sound Bracket
Bam Doors
For Mini -Cool
Mini -Cool
Diffusion/Filters
fr-;-:11111
Stable Cam w/Micro-Lux
Egg Crate
AC Dimmer
Cool Kit
Putty Knife
L-2.3 Battery
Tough, Protective Case
to make light do anything.
COOL- LUXM
PRO TOOLE FOR THE TRADE
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X
See us at NAB, LVCC Booth
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THE PROFESSIONAL'S SOURCE FOR PHOTO,
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SONY
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74
UVW-100B
Digital (DVCAM) Camcorder
DSR-20
I
OSR -200A Field Package:
/A 10110 18 Baller, Case Adapter
-2006 Caini i,r.h -r
11
3 NP -F930/B / 2v 4000 rnAH Batteries
AC-0900/B AC Adaplec Triple Battery Charger
OVUM Onllty
adapter
avides two selectable audio modes a two channel mode with
a lour channel mode with 32
i1L12bn recording
rial -size cassette mechanism accepts both nuns size (up lo 40
and standard size 01/CAM tapes lop to 184 mmulesl
nmutes)
ilhoat an adapter
Editing Capability
quipped with Control L interlace. the DSR -20 can perform simae time code -based editing when connected to another OSR-20
'r other similarly equipped VCRs/cameras like the OSR30. BSA
!008 or DSRPO1 When using the 10E -120 or FS -3 EditSlallan
./stem the DSR-20 can
a feeder player
as DV IIEEE1394) Input and output When connected to other
'V equipped machines. the DSR -20 utters digital dubbing or
mea audio and data without any detelorahon o1 image and
mind quality In addition in the -Digital dubbing Including TC
may- mode lull information of video audio and urne cade 0l the
,0gmal tape can be coped to another lape Especially uselul
..ten making working copies of the original
Recurd)Ptaybaek Functions
natv repeat function lot repealed playback Aber reaching
er the end of the tape the bust blank portion or the IIrsl Index
ont the OS20 automatically rewinds the lape Zhen slaps
alewnq pact he seumem anon
IS 611/ /I6brl recording and
:-
-
11
r
VCT -014 Tnpod Adapter
LC- 2000CP System Case
Player/Recorder
PVM- 14N5U/14N6U
Power -on recording/playback capability 10m unattended automaii
VCR operation When connected to an external timer and the
VCR's TIMER switch is sel to REC. the DSR -20 starts recording
as SOW as power is turned on (dewrse. when the TIMER is sei
to REPEAT, the VCR goes into Auto Repeal mode and starts play
mg back the moment power Is furred On
In addition to Control L. the OSA 20 also incorporates a Control
S and RS-232 interlace for remote control operation Basic VCR
functions can be controlled from a PC via RS -232 while Control
S allows control via the optional DORM -10 Remote Control In
addition. with the Control S Input/output connector two or more
(up to 50) DSR 20'5 can he daisy-chained and controlled him
one DORM-10 Remote Control
External sync input enables synchronized playback mimo other
VCRs Especially important in NB roll conhgural10ns
Calwnbnus
The OSA20 be powered by AC or DC Ideal tor mobile appbca,
Irons. the 056 -20 can be connected to a 12V power supply like a
car battery or battery bell 6 powered via the 4 -pin OLA DC input
Can perform searches for Index Points. which ate recorded on
the tape as -in- point- marks everktime a recording stags The
051120 can also search lot photo data recorded on a DVCAM
cassette by the OSRPO100/200N000 or where the recording
date has been clanged
Supplied with the RM0520 Wireless Remote for control of
basic VCR lunchons And again when two of more VCRs ame
connected via Control S they can be 51muttaneously controlled
om one ireless remote by simply sending one command to
ii
nnnl..rnlhaI,
&
20N5U/20N6U
13 -inch and 19 -inch Presentation Monitors
'
With high quality performance and Ilexiblln,
presentation monitors are ideal for any enviment. They use Sony's legendary
Trinilran CRT and Beam Current Feedback
Circuit for high resolution of 500 lines as
well as stable color reproduction They also
accept worldwide video signals. have a builtn speaker and are rack mountable The
PVM- 14N5U/20N5U are designed tor simple
114 ture viewing. the PVM -14N6U and 20N6U
,urn RGB input and switchable aspect raira
They Feature)
500 lines of horizontal resolution
handle NTSO NTCC443 PAI aftn
g
I
PVM- 14M2U/14M4U
nnlrast. bright-
,I- .ewl,anpi,lnlenIs (volume.
ispecl ratio) are displayed as easy -tocad on screen menus
Closed captioning is available with the
x'
&
optional BEM- 104 Caption Vision Board
PVM- 14N6U/20N6U Only:
(Last Input Swech) Contact closure
remote control allows you to woe a
remote to an existing system so that the
monitor's Input can be remotely controlled to switch between the last previously selected input and the current
input
4 3/ 16 9 5wilchable aspect ratio
20M2U/20M4U
13 -inch and 19 -inch Production Monitors
DXC -637
PVW-637
best Vnnbn. bou monitors ever the l'VM M Seres pro'. irle nhnuung palme guebT, e
of use atta e ,ruge of uphnnal
uclmns They are Identical except That the " M4 models Incorporate Sonys state-of-the-art HR Trinitron CRt display technoln. and have SMPTE C phosphours instead of P22.
.
Perfect ceincorder uperalmn
nsper. sharper looking edges.
ech has two composite. S -Video and component input
i'Y /By, analog ROB) For more accurate color reproduction. the component level can be adjusted according to the
nput system Optional BKM-101C (video) and BKM -102
moat. jar SMPTF ?5QM ,nn,a gmiho mp.it
(
will
Compact size lightweight and low power
consumption
Hugh density three 2/3 -Inch IT Hyper HAD
sensors
800 TV lines of horizontal resolution
HAD sensor structure
? dimensional optic low pass filter
scan function for shooting computer dis
Hyper Gam mode
0 171oí u, iron lions enable cam
e
1
high quality component
acquisition or with the
EW'g0001or handy
operation
Can be combined with the
recorders from Panasonic
or JVC
Can be connected with tom
puter equipment via CA325A/325B camera adapter
-
ling swiftly
..
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DXC -637
3 -Chip Color Video Camera
Dual Pixel Readout tecmmin;.
Can be coupled directly
with the DSR- /PW31or
PW3
$7495
Fulinon 161 Zoom tons tripod plate and hard case
Also available
-'
to N
n or
DV-CAM packages
r
a
UVW- 1600/UVW -1800
Betacam SP Editing Player
Betacam SP Editing Recorder
The UVW 1600 and UVW 1800 are the ¡Dies hell nl Ire UVW seres They
offer the superiority of Betacam SP with sophisticated editing features.
They feature an RS-422 9 -pin interlace. built-in TBC5 and Time Code
operation Inputs/outpuls include component composite and S-Video
All the feelures of the UVW- 1200f11g0A PLUSOptional BVR50 allows remote TBC adlustment
mode
RS-422 interlace for editing system expansion
of the
Two types of component output, via three BNC connectors
UVW
or a Betacam 12 -pin dub connector
1800
Frame accurate ednrng 15 assured thanks to sophisticated
video. audio Ch -1.2 and little code cali be Inserted indepenservo control and built-in time rode operation In the Insert
dently or In any combinalron
PVW- 2600 /PVW- 2650 /PVW-2800
BETACAM SP PRO SERIES
-- (promise performance is needed. (here is
nndnlity and comprehensive support tor its
the PVW series as the standard in broadcast
and post production The PVW Series Includes the PVW-2600 Player. POW
2650 Player with Dynamic Tracking and the PVW 2800 Editing Recorder
They feature built -in TBCs. LTCNITC came code operation and RS -422 serial Interface. They also offer composite. S Video and component video
inputs and outputs Most important they are built for heavy. every day duty
t, II,), estahtshed
0011t-n1 TBC's and
digital dropout compensation assure consistent picture performance Remote TBC adjustment can
be done using the optional BV &50 TBC Remote Control
The PVW-2600. PVW-2650 and PVW-2800 )generates as
well) read VITC/ LTC time code as well as User Bits E[tilnt
time code. Regen/Preset. or Rec -Run/ EreeRun selections
Built-in character generator displays time code or CTL data
Set -up menu for presetting many functional parameters
Two longltudmal audio channels with DON C type NH
v
her ognlzable monochrome pictures at u;
-.d m forward and reverse Color at .,
'
1
-
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Two types ofcomponent connection, three BNC conneclii'
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and S -Video signals
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speed
r
PVW-2650 Only
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Built -m comprehensive editing t,
Dvnamic Motion Control with no.
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800 SERIES UHF WIRELESS
MICROPHONE SYSTEMS
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models also use SMPTE C phosphours tor the most critical
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Dark 11111 for a higher contras) ratio (black to white) and
Camcorder
1
the
the DSR20 is a versatile DVCAM VCR with a very compact chassis and a variety of convenient functions tor recording playback and
ample editing It features auto repeal playback. power -on recording/playback multiple machine control interlaces. AC DC capability and
.ink REEF 13941 input and oulpul And of course It otters the stunning Image and sound quality inherent to the DVCAM formal
;nlizing the DVCAM formal the DSR -V10 provides the recordrig/playback quality and reliability regmred for prolessronal use
tln also play luck consumer DV l01m al lapes without any spe-
SP
1
xlR input.
OVCAM
Betacam
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Records Drop/Non -Drop Frame time code Tome cull can be
read either as RC came code or as SMPTE time code
Has a large I-inch 06W viewfinder wrlh 550 lines of resolution
lot easy lousing even in low contrast lighting slluatrons
Separate information sub panel displays unie code. battery trine.
tape remaining and other camcorder tondrions without cluttering
up the viewfinder
Records 164b1/d8kH, audio on one stereo track or
12bil/32kHz with two pairs of stereo (racks (L DR I. 12/62). so
you can add stereo music or narration
One-point stereo electret condenser mec tor clear stereo separation Dpectivity can be selected from 0. 90° 8 120°
Automatic 8 manual 120 -step) audio level record controls
Monitor 0010 MIT. .010,11, m Iron ni. CD panel which has
_.
an active VI) -
OSR
3 -CCD
Mme affordable Iban evel. the UVW'IOOI 's
re
lotion 60dB S/N ratio. 26-pin VTR nnertaee. Cunlpacl devign and ee,e
lunation- making It ideal for held shoolmg applications
:2 inch Power HAD CCDS attain sensitivity of F11 at 2000
precast aluno (4 lux low tight). 700 Imes of resolution 8 6048 S/N ratio
minum.
5Gam -up can be preset in 1dB steps from tdB to 18dB
inch DXF'601
Auto Iris detects the fighting conditions and adlusts tar the
viewfinder is
proper exposure
rugged yet
Cleat Scan records computer monitors without horizontal
comfortable
bands across the screen Shutter speed can be set !tom
while providing
60 4 to 200.3 Hz in 183 steps Also has a variable high
600 lines of
speed shutter from /100 to 1/2000 of a second
resolution
SMPTE LTC lime code and UB generator /reader Rec Run/
Large diameter eye cup
Free Run. PresetiRegen are easily set For multi- camera
reduces eye strain and simoperation genlak to an external lime code is provided
plifies focusing Dropter 441US1Genlock rnpul and built-in color bar generator
ments (3 to 0) compensates for differences In eve
26 -pin VTR Interlace for feeding component composite and
Zebra level indicators. safety zone and center marker gm -llei
S-Video signals to another VTR for simultaneous recording
alor Shows tape remaining and audio levels
Sartslop are controlled and external VTR status such as
With Anton/Bauer Digital Batteries remaining battery poem,
floc and Tally are shown in the viewfinder
Is displayed on the LCD panel and through the viewfinder
8-digit LCD display Indicates lime data warnarg indicalions
Weighs 151b with vew/finder battery, lape and lens
and video status Battery status audio level are also shown
Shoulder pad is adiuslahle so you maintain optimum bill
in a bar graph r.,ni.r
-
enbIning a compact and Ice
oral Processing) and the H.
eo journalists event and wind, . ii n.,Jr,imi,I. rdhreen, ono leer/in/eh runic, bibi,
s of hml+onlal resolution. 48611+ or 32kH/ digital audio three hour record Ilme and milt
m illumination 013 lux is only the beginning Other features include 169/4 3 capability
'Wady Shot high resolution I inch viewfinder time code operation lime/date superimpose
in and an IE(E -1394 interlace for direct digital output Oilers lull automatic as well as
ienual control or locus iris, gain while balance and shuner speed
Venable servo 10X optical power zoom lens goes horn 5910
',9mm In 1710 24 seconds The manual zoom rocker Is continuonly variable right up to where the digital 20X doom kicks In
mys Super Steady Shot reduces high treguency camera shake
eilhout compromising Image quality SteadyShol uses horizontal
ind vertical motion sensors that allow it to work accurately while
min'. moving (even shooting tram a carl and shooting on
w light condemns
es digital effects including audio and video fade overlap and
w Shutter
.atomatic and manual locus iris. shutter gain and white bale Iris is adjustable in 12 levels tram F1 610111 shutter
um 1,4 lo 130000 01 a second in 12 steps Gain from -3dB to
18dB in 8 steps
.'ebta Pattern indicator. buit-m ND tiller
:ustom Preset torchon lets you preset. store and recall custom
stings for color Intensity. while balance (bluish or reddishi
nerpress and brightness
es Photo Date/Time. Shutter Speed. Ins Gain and Fstop for
...icy recall So il you have to r. 01001 you 1,100 0010 0rmgnna!
rhinos for every scene and tan- .
St.)
SONY
rAL
DSR -200A
3 -CCD
,Iris
Beam Curren! Feedback Circuit
4 3116 9 switchable aspect ralle
True multi -system mmntors they
handle lour color system
signals NTSC. NTSC 4.43. PAL, and SECAM
External sync input and outpulcan be set so that it will
automatically switch according to the input selected
Switchable color temp 6500K (broadcast). 9300k (pleasing
picture). User preset. (32001( to 10000K).
Blue gun. underscan and HN delay capability
Dmsceen menus for monitor adluslmenuoperation
Parallel remote control and Tally via 20 -pm connector
;cal 5 handheld and bodypack transmrners and 6
PPP.civets, Sony's UHF is recognized as the out
,tendmg wireless me system for prolessronal applications
Operating in the 800 MHz band range. they are barely affected by external noise and interference They incorporate a
PLL (Phase Locked Loop) synthesized control system Thal
makes it easy lo choose from up to 282 operating hequendes. and with the use of Sony's pre programmed channel
plan. it is simple to choose the correct operating frequencies
lot simultaneous multn channel operation. Additional features. like space diversity rchEololy ens indicators. reliable
and mit range,
circuit technology ensure low rinse. wide
dynamic range, and extremely stable signal transmission and
reception Ideal for broadcasting stations. film pmduclion
-
-
facilrbes. and ENG work.
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Calibrated drag knobs
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Single rotation counterbalance
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Standard 100mm leveling ball Lightweight. only 5.9 lbs
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i oath movement and
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CAO 01 Single -Stage ENG
CAO 2A 2 -SMge ENG
Carbon Fiber System:
Carbon Fiber System:
CADDY Fluid Head
CADDY Fluid Head
ENG 2-Stage Carbon Fiber Tripod
ENG Smgle -Stage Carbon Fiber Tripod
SP 100 Lightweight Spreader
SP 100 lightweight Spreader
Transport Cover 100
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VHS
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B
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VISION 8 AND 11
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P6120HMP
PRO -130 SYSTEMS
While ENG camera technology evolves faster
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seven levels of drag
Vnbrahonless vertical and horizontal
brakes
Suitable tot production work. this compact fluid head assures mobility and is
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with EFP accessories
Sachtler Touch 8 Go quick release with
auto camera lock and safely lever
Enlarged contact surface for camera
MFeasioeat Grade
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800
N ewTe k
Calibar Pocket
St.)
PHOTO
VIDEO
PRO AUDIO
731
3 -0z.
KNOX VIDEO
-Sized Test Generator
a hall pond pen and running on a single battery. Calibar is an NTSC test signal generator that packs a rack
worth of lest equipment into a battery operated instrument. Calibar is the fastest, easiest and most portable way
calibrate video equipment No patch bay racks. Just one cable So besides giving you tact accurate readings in
the studio. Ifs perfect tor off -site events or trouble-shooting in the held
RS4x4 /8x8/ 16x 16/ 1 6x8/ 1 2x2
et to
Designed tor studio and field operation. II produces 24 test
pattern !unctions at the touch of a button 10 -lid precision
digital-tu-analog conversion assures highly accurate signals.
Calmar s combination of low cost. portability and toll -tealured operation makes rl ideal for broadcast engineers. tele.non production racrlibes and video post huilons
Clñhurf300INI
*349
Video /Audio Matrix Routing Switchers
Tuck Calibar in your pocket and you're
ready to go. Touch the button to generate
SMPTE color bars, touch it again to callbrate convergence and so on
With the supplied AC adapter. it also tune-
hots
as a
Knoxs family of high performance. 3-channel routing switchers are etrmnely vet
sable. easy-to-use and very affordable Housed in an ultra -thin rack
mount chasiss they accept and route on the vertical Interval) vti
Wally any video signal, including off- the -air and non- timebase
corrected video They also route balanced or unbalanced stereo
audio The audio follows the video or you can route the audio separately (breakaway audio) Each of the switchers otters manual
control via Iront panel operation They can also be controlled
remotely by a PC, a Knox RS Remote Controller. or by a Knox
Remote Keypad via their RS -232 port Front panel LEDs indicate the current routed pattern at
all times. Knox switchers are ideal for applications such as studio -feed control and swrtcher input con.
1101, plus they have an Internal timer allowing timed sequence of patterns tor surveillance applications as well.
black burst generator
PC -CODI & PC
Scribe
Text and Graphics Generator and Video Titling Software
COVI lilt orporales d tirOadwsl duds tj encoder and a node baud eetV
linear keyer for the highest quality wartime video character generation
and graphics display. A video graphics software engine running under
Windows 95 /NT. PC Scribe offers a new approach and cost effective
solution for composing titles and graphics that Is ideal tor video production and display applications Combined their a total solution for real
time character generation with the quality you expect trom Chyron
PC
Accept and routes virtually any one -volt NTSC or PAL video
signal Input to any or all video outputs
Accept and route two -volt mono or stereo unbalanced
audio inputs to any or all audio outputs.
Video and audio inputs can be routed independently they
don't need to have the same destination
Can store and recall preset cross-point patterns (Not avantable on RS12x2.I
Front panel key -pad operation for easy manual operation
Can also be controlled via RS232 interface with optional
RS Remote Controller or Remote Keypad
Front panel LED Indicators display the present routing patterns at all times
An Internal battery remembers and restores the current
pattern in case of power [allure
-
Hardware
PC -COOT
Fully- antralrased displays Display and non -display buffers
Less than 10 nanosecond effective pixel resolution
16 7 mullion color selections Fast. teatime operations
Character, Logo and PCX Image transparency
Variable edges border drop shadow and offset
Full position and lustily control of character and row
User definable nntercharacter spacing (squeeze d expand)
Multiple rolVcrawl speeds
Automatic character kerning
User definable lab/template fields
Shaded backgrounds of variable sizes and transparency
Software controlled video timing
User definable
read effects playback wipes pushes. fades
NTSC or PAL sync generator with genlock
Board addressabdrty for multi- channel applications
Auto display sequencing Local message/page memory
Preview output with safe -title/cursor /menu overlay
Composite and S-video input with auto-genlock select
LEADER
PC- Scribe Software:
Number of fonts is virtually unlimited Also supports most
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and the level of anti-abasing applied is selectable
Adrysl a wide range of character attributes Wide choice of
composition tools.
Characters. words. rows and fields can color tlash
Character rolls. crawls and reveal modes Speed is selectable and can be auto timed with pauses Messages can be
manually advanced or prat into sequences alnmt mdh page
transmons
Multiple preview windows can be displayed simultaneously
Transitions effects include cut. lade, push. wipe. reveal.
peel. zoom. matrix. wipe. spiral. split. weave and litter
Import elements to build graphics. This Includes OLE
objects. INFiNITi RGBA and TGA with alpha channel. Scribe
also imports and exports TIFF. JPEG. PCX. TGA. BMP. GIF.
CLP. ASCII IMG SGI. PICT and EPS formats
!PC-001:11 and PC- Scribe Bundle
Manulactunng test and measurement equipment for over 40 years. Leader Instruments
is the standard which others are measured against for reliability, performance and
most important -cost effectiveness.
5860C
TRUEVISION/A v d
TARGA 1 000/MCXpress NT
1V. 2H. 2V,
1
5100
Professional Video Production Workstation
simultaneous side-by-side
waveform and vector monitoring Featured is an electronically- generated vector scale that precludes
the need for fussy centering adjustments and eases phase adfustmerits from relatively long viewing distances Provision is made for
selecting the phase reference from either A or B inputs or a separate
external timing reference
4- Channel Component / Composite WAVEFORM
TARGA 1000 Features:
5100D
compositing Capture. edit and playback Iull -motion. full -resolution 60 fields per second digital video with fully synchronized CDquality audio
Digital Waveform/Vectorscope
The 5100D can work in component digital as well as component analog tacilrtres (and mixed operations) II provides comprehensive waveform. vector. timing and picture monitoring capabilities Menu driven control tunctions extend familiar waveform
observations into highly specialized areas and include local calibration control. the ability to show or blank SAV /EAV signals in
both the waveform and picture, the ability to monitor digital signals rn GBR or YCbCr form. line select with an adjustable window). memory storage of test setups with the ability to provide on- screen labels flexible nnsnr measurements automatic
525/60 and 625/50 operation and much much more
Genlock using separate sync input for working in prolessional video suites
Audio rs digitized at 44 KH/ or d8KHz sampling rates. for
professional quality stereo sound Delivers perfectly synchronized audio and video
1
MCXpress Features:
The ideal tool for video and multimedia producers who require predictable project
5870 Waveform/Vectorscope w /SCH and Line Select
two -channel WavetormNector monitor. the microprocessor-run 5870 pennrls overlaid via ielonn and vector displays.
R inputs for precision amplitude and timing /phase matching. Use ill decoded R -Y allows relatively high- resolution DG and DP measurements The 5870 adds a precision SCH measurement with on- screen numerical
readout of error with an analog display of SCH error over field and line times Full-raster line select Is also featured with
on -screen readout 01 selected lines. a strobe on the PIX MON output signal to highlight the selected line. and presets tor
up to nine lines for routine checks
A
a
as well as overlaid A and
treamlined interlace Otters integration with third-party Wmdnws applications. professional editing features. powerful media
management. Rile tool and a plug-in effects architecture It also natures multiple output options including so you save time
rd money by reusing media assets across a range al video and multimedia protects
TARGA 1000/MCXpress Turnkey Systems:
5872A
300 -watt. 6-Bay Full Tower ATX Chassis
Pentium ATX Motherboard with 512K Cache
Pentium II- 300 MHz Processor
Matron Mdlenium II AGP 4MB WRAM Display Card
64MB fOns 168-Pin DIMM) S-DRAM
Quantum Fireball 6 4GB IDE System Drive
Seagate Barracuda External 9 1G SCSI-3 Ultra Wide Capture Drive
Adapter AHA- 2940UW Ultra Wide SCSI-3 Controller Card
Tear CD-532e 32% EIDE Internal CO -ROM Drive
3.5' Foppy Drive
Altec-Laosmg ACS -48 3 -Piece Deluxe Speaker System
Viewsonic G771 17-inch (1280 x 1024) Monitor (0 27mm dot pitch)
Focus 2001A Keyboard
Microsoft MS Mouse
Windows NT 4.0 Operating System Software
Avid MCXpress for Windows NT
Truevisron TARGA 1000 or 1000 Pro Video Capture Card
All the npeoihnn nrl.anduYs ill the 5870.
5864A
Combination Wareform/Vectorscope
except
SCH Is deleted pine select retained).
lvm input .v veturrn mo itor that otters lull monitoring
facilities ton cameras. VCRs and video transmission links The
5864A offers front panel selection of A or B inputs. the choice
x1211 or 2V display with sweep magnrhahon, and flat Ire quency response or the Insertion of an IRE Intel In addition.
a swrtchable gain boost of %4 magnifies setup to 30 IRE
units. and a dashed graticule line at 30 units on screen tacititales easy setting of master pedestal Intensity and focus are
fixed and automatic for optimum display Supplied with an
Instruction manual and DC power cable
making
5854
Waveform Monitor
A
(
it
deal lot satellite work
Vectorsc pe
compact vectorsco ce .the 58
provides pre
checkout of camera encoders and camera balance. as
well as the means for precise genlock adjustments for two or
more video sources Front panel controls choose between A
and B inputs for display and between A and B for decoder reference. Gain is hued or variable. with from panel controls for
gain and phase adjustments A gain boost of 5% tacllitales
precise camera balance adlusPnents In the held Supplied
with a DC power cable
A dual channel
-
n
Designed tor EFP and ENG (electronic held production and electronic news gathering) operations, they feature compact size.
light weight and 12 V DC power operation Thus full monitoring facilities can be carried into the held and powered from NP -1
batteries, battery belts and vehicle power Careful thought has been given to the reduction of operating controls to lacnrlate the
maximum on monitoring options with the operating simplicity demanded in field work
0995.00
16495.00
Circle (55) on Fro* Into Card
164
/
composite facilities Features are overlaid and parade waveform displays. component vector dnspiays and automate bow-tie or
"shark ton" displays for Imung checks. Menu-driven options select formal (525/60. 625/50. and 1125/60 HDTV). lull line -select.
vector calibration, preset front- panel setups and come Om screen readout of uan rates line select preset numbers. trigger
source. cursor time and volts.
The TARGA 1000 delivers high processing speed for video and audio effects. titling and
With TARGA 1000
With TARGA 1900 Pro Icompnnont Inpul/ooqut)
the Ideal culnparlion fur the
58600. the 5850C adds
The 5100 handles three channels of component signals plus a fourth channel for composite srgr als. in mixed component
Incorporating the award-winning TARGA 1000 video card and Avid MCXpress NT non -linear editing software. this lully-conligured workstation meets the needs of production professionals. corporate communicators. educators and Internet authors
throughput and high- quality results when
reatmg video and digital media for trarnmg. promotional/marketing material. local television and cable commercials, CDROM
od lnternetOntranet distribution Based on Avid's industry-leading technology. it combines a robust editing functionality with
VECTORSCOPE
twouipul wavetorm'Donat. the
5850C leatures
s/div and 2V mag time bases as well
as vertical amplifier response choices of gat. IRE (low
pass) chroma and 01F-STEP The latter laahtates
easy checks of luminance linearity using the staircase
signal A PIX MON output lack reeds observed (A or
B) signals to a picture monitor and the unit accepts
an external sync reference Bunt -in calibrator and onoff control of the DC restorer Is also provided
A
*w
5850C
WAVEFORM MONITOR
2995.001
1H
Compression can be adjusted on the fly l0 optimize for
image quality and/or minimum storage space Has compos
Ile and S-video inputs/outputs. Also available with component input/output (TARGA f 000 PRO)
Internal vertical Interval switching firmware allows on -air
switching
Housed m a thin prolde rackmount f" chassis
Also except the RS12x2 are available In S-Video versions
with /without audio.
Models RS16x8 and RS16%16 are also available m
RGB/component version
With optional Remote Video Readout. the RS16x8 and
RSt6x16 can display active routes on a monitor at remote
locations. via a composite signal from a BNC connector on
the rear panel.
The RS4x4, RS8x8 and RS16r16 are also available with
balanced stereo audio They operate at 660 ohms and handle the full range of balanced audio up to .4 dB with professional quick-connect. self -locking. bare'wme Oonnertors
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Trumpeter Patch Panels elects (venous)
3M Pulse Dist Amp $710
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PvWOnrt SVHS Duplication AG-781
Sony
Sony
500
WEB
Equipment
Wanted
KEYSTONE INTL, INC.
We
Pittston, PA 18640
FAX (570) 654 -5765
website: keystoneint.com
respond to all Employee 8 Employer
Inquiries: Alan Cornish / Mark Kelly
COMPUTER SPECIALIST for TV Network Affiliate WINK -TV, the CBS affiliate In SW Florida,
is looking for a Computer Specialist who has
an in-depth knowledge of Computer systems,
including PC, Mac, and LAN hardware and
software. Minimum five years experience in
computer installation and maintenance, preferably in the Broadcast Industry. Successful
applicant will assume responsibility in maintenance and expansion of the Company's computer based technical systems. Please send
resume to: Charles E. Ramsey WINK -TV Engineering Dept. 2824 Palm Beach Boulevard
Fort Myers, Florida 33916
VIDEO PRODUCTION ENGINEER We need a
client oriented Engineer who can work as a
team player on single and multiple camera
productions. Work with all of the newest
Betacam SP and Digital formats. Previous
video engineering experience necessary.
Videographer / Production Tech: We need a
client oriented individual who can work on
single and multiple camera productions as a
Videographer / Proudction Tech. Good light ing/camera skills and a knowledge of audio/
video systems necessary. Our clients include
Fortune 500 companies and the most creative
and demanding production companies. If you
have an attention to detail and commitment to
perfection, please send your resume to Clark
Production Associates - 296 Brodhead Road Bethlehem, PA. 18017 - Fax 610 -694 -9700
TELEVISION ENGINEERING OPERATIONS
SUPERVISOR We're looking for a working
supervisor to oversee all aspects of our Master Control operation. Proven supervisory
skills and an intimate knowledge of commercial broadcast operations is required. Send
resume to: Curt Meredith, WTVD NewsChannel
11, ABC, P.O. Box 2009, Durham, NC 27702, or
FAX to 919-687-2292. EOE
Look us up on the web! http //www.broadcastengineering.com
:
1
42
Broadcast Engineering
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Help Wanted
MAINTENANCE ENGINEER ABC -15 KNXV-TV
Phoenix, AZ KNXV is seeking an experienced
Maintenance Engineer. The Ideal candidate
must have a high school diploma or equivalent and a two-year electronic technical degree or equivalent. Duties include preventative maintenance and emergency repairs of
audio, video and radio frequency (RF) equipment and systems. Emphasis on Betacam SP
equipment, ENG cameras and miscellaneous
news equipment. Install video, audio and RF
equipment. Must be familiar with various test
instruments, alignment apparatus and be
knowledgeable of personal computers. Must
have a valid driver's license and provide proof
of insurability. Must demonstrate the ability
to work well with other people; possess skills
of time management and self -motivation. Able
to transport heavy equipment (75 lbs.). Ability to work successfully in a fast -paced environment on multiple projects. EOE/M /F/D/V
No phone calls please. Qualified applicants
send resume and salary history to: Human
Resources /KNXV -TV 515 North 44 Street
Phoenix, AZ 85008
UPN 45, KUVI in Bakersfield, California has an
immediate opening for
ENGINEER.
a
"hands-on" CHIEF
Applicants should possess
strong working knowledge of routing and production switchers, high power UHF transmitters (klystron or IOT), new studio & control
room design & construction, the maintenance
of Sony Betacam & one -inch video tape formats and must be familiar with current FCC
Rules and Regulations. For consideration, fax
a confidential resume including salary requirements to: (310) 348 -3659, Attention: "Bakersfield Chief Engineer Position ". EOE.
IMMEDIATE OPENING WDAY -TV, Fargo, ND,
has a full-time opening for a Broadcast Engineer. Person will be on the technical electronic repair staff which requires experience
in this field. Position requires a good driving
record, minimum of a two year degree or experience, and a strong knowledge of computers.
Send resume to: Tom Thompson, CE, WDAYTV PO Box 2466, Fargo, N.D. 58108 or Fax:
Tom Thompson at (701) 241 -5368
MAINTENANCE/REMOTE ENGINEER Repair
and adjust TV /Radio equipment. Assist in
construction of new equipment or modification of existing facilities. Assist remote production team. FCC general radiotelephone
operator license, background in analog and
digital troubleshooting required. Resume to:
Human Resources, WMFE, 11510 East Colonial
Drive, Orlando, FL 32817. Deadline for resume: February 26, 1999, or later if not filled by
that date. EOE.
MAINTENANCE ENGINEER Houston's leading Spanish language TV Station has an immediate opening in our Engineering Department
for a Maintenance Engineer. Position entails
all facets of TV Studio maintenance. Prefer
candidates with a minimum of two years of TV
broadcast experience including computer/digital service and operation. Electronic technician degree or equivalent required. We offer
competitive pay and great benefits. Please
send resume to: Maintenance Engineer, KXLNTV, 9440 Kirby Drive, Houston, TX 77054 EOE
ENGINEERING MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN
Able to install, repair and maintain various
types of broadcast equipment including, but
not limited to, tape machines; switchers; DVE;
video monitors; related terminal gear. Odetics
TCS-90 knowledge a plus. Able to work with
video servers and Avid systems. Requires two
years experience with live broadcast /ENG;
working knowledge of broadcast systems; willing to work nights/weekends; good driving
record. Send resume to: Engineering Department MAC America Communications P.O. Box
5068 Phoenix, Arizona 85010
SOFTWARE ENGINEER Incline Village, NV
Sierra Design Labs is a leading supplier of high
Looking to fill a
position in your
company?
Advertise in the
Help Wanted
section of
Broadcast Engineering!
Call Brian at 800- 896 -9939
for more information.
performance videodisk array products, with a
comprehensive family of digital video disk
recorders and video networking solutions. The
Software Engineer would be responsible for
writing and maintaining firmware for real -time
disk array devices and video networking devices. The skill set required includes: Knowledge of SCSI and / or Networking; Experience
with Real Time Operating Systems such as
VxWorks, pSOS, etc.; Very Familiar with C or
C..; Works well with Hardware Engineers, logic
analyzer, Customers; Video, Audio, and/or DSP
experience a plus Excellent compensation
package includes competitive salary, outstanding benfits, profit sharing, and relocation. FAX
resume: 702 -831 -5710, Email: [email protected],
4SCII or MSWord. Mail resume: SE 1298_003,
999 Tahoe Blvd., Incline Village, NV 89451
Web Page: www.sdlabs.com. All responses
held in strict confidence. EOE
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
BROADCAST ENGINEER, TELEVISION The
University of Kansas Medical Center seeks a
manager for Instructional Services. Responsibilities Include hands-on management of compressed video, microwave, audio conf erencing,
audio and video production, audio-visual services, classroom management, scheduling,
designing and installing new high tech teaching systems. Requires Bachelor's degree in
broadcast engineering technology, television,
education or related fields; experience can
substitute for education on a year-for -year
basis; four years technical experience in broadcasting engineering, distance education, television, or related field, three years of managerial experience with at least one year of supervisory responsibilities; excellent organizational, interpersonal, oral and written communications skills, detailed knowledge of television, video, computer and other electronic
communication technologies. Prefer experience in a higher education institution, development and /or operation of computer
conferencing, audio conferencing, other telecommunication technologies and television
or related field; experience using computer
databases, spreadsheets, and other software
for managerial decision- making. Salary mid upper $40s. Excellent benefits. Send letter of
application, resume and 3 references to Rhonda
Miner, Dept. of Information Resources -Dykes
Building, 2100 W. 39th Ave., Kansas City, KS
66160 -7180.
Equal Opportunity /Affirmative
Action employer
HOME & GARDEN TELEVISION is seeking to
fill a full-time position in the following technical areas: NETWORK ENGINEERINGSUPERVISOR 5 years experience in broadcast televi-
sion engineering or network television engineering including 2 years in a supervisory role.
Satellite or related RF experience is a must.
Experience in a digital video and audio systems important, particularly relating to video
server and archive systems. Extensive corn puter experience required. Familiarity with
UNIX, VMS, & Windows NT preferred. Experience with digital compression and scrambling
systems a plus. NETWORK OPERATOR Must
have extensive cart machine, video file server,
switcher, automation and chyron experience.
Background in a digital environment a plus.
Must be familiar with satellite transmission
principles and their application in a network
environment. The E.W. Scripps Company is an
equal opportunity employer providing a drugfree workplace through pre -employment
screening. We offer a comprehensive salary
and benefits package. Qualified candidate
should send a confidential resume with salary
requirements to the following address. No
phone calls please. Human Resources PO Box
50970 Knoxville, TN 37950
NORTHWEST TELEPRODUCIIONS/CHICAGO
is looking for a motivated person for its Engi-
neering Department. Candidate should have
video equipment repair /installation and computer experience. Please send resumes to
SteveZ @Nwtele.com or mail to Northwest
Teleproductions, 142 East Ontario St. Chi cago, IL 60611.
Broadcast Engineering
143
Help Wanted
ASSISTANT
CHIEF ENGINEER
KRON -TV
The NBC affiliate in San Francisco seeks
The New York Network (NYN), a function of Advanced Learning and
Information Systems, Office of the Provost, State University of New York
System Administration provides television production and transmission services
for SUNY, the agencies of State government and electronic media. Located in
the Alfred E. Smith State Office Building in Albany, NYN also operates SUN YSAT, a satellite television network. NYN seeks nominations and applications
as
follows:
TV MAINTENANCE/COMPUTER TECHNICIAN
will involve the operation, maintenance and repair of electronic
equipment for satellite and base band video, studio and field production as
well as computer equipment for in -house LAN and broadcast digital compression system. Candidate will, on occasion, be required to work off -site at
transmission facility and/or remote studio locations.
The position
Candidates for the position should possess a college degree or equivalent in
electronics or related field, and have -2 years experience in broadcast studio
maintenance. Salary: $29,500
1
SATELLITE ENGINEER
The successful candidate
will perform operations for satellite
and terrestrial
transmissions as well as occasional field assignments as a mobile uplink
technician. Exper -ience in both digital and analog important. Strong computer
skills necessary. Applicant should have excellent people skills and be able to
work nights and weekends. SBE and/or FCC certification is helpful.
Candidates for the position should possess a college degree or equivalent in
electronics or related field, and have -2 years experience in broadcast transmission. Salary: $26,500
1
a
highly skilled individual to manage
a
staff of technical maintenance
engineers, develop and manage an
operating budget, and train technical
staff on electronic systems and
equipment requirements. Includes
heavy internal customer interaction
requirements in a very fast-paced work
environment. Requirements: 8+ years
of in -depth technical experience
focused on computer, network, and
digital technologies (to include digital
video servers, storage solutions,
networking, schemes, video
compression technologies, and
computer systems support at a
broadcast-quality level,) minimum of
3 years management experience in a
technical work environment, and
excellent interpersonal skills. BS in
Electrical Engineering and work
unionized
a
experience in
environment preferred.
Please send resumes by Friday,
February 26, 1999 to KRON-TV Human
Resources, PO Box 3412, San Francisco,
CA 94119. Pre -employment drug
testing and background checking
required. EOE.
Send resume and letter of application indicating position of interest by
February 16, 1999 to: Roy T. Saplin, Jr., Search Chair, New York Network,
Alfred E. Smith State Office Building, 12th Floor, P.O. Box 7012, Albany,
New York 12225.
The State University of New York is an EEO /AA employer. Applications from women,
minority persons. disabled workers and/or Vietnam Era Veterans are especially welcome.
Broadcast Engineers
Interview at NAB!
ENGINEER
TELEVISION/RADIO BROADCAST TECHNICIAN
TAFT Broadcasting Company of Houston, Texas, a prime contractor for
the Department of Defense, is responsible for the design, installation and
24 -hour maintenance of the Broadcast Center for the American Armed Forces
located on March ARB, in Moreno Valley, CA. Taft Broadcasting Company is currently looking for a qualified Maintenance Broadcast Engineer/Technician. This is not an operator position. Applicant must have
experience with trouble shooting to a component level on equipment used in
a television broadcast station. Heavy VTR maintenance and alignment experience on BVW75's preferred. High quality soldering on printed circuit
boards is required. Special consideration will be given to applicants that
have a FCC license, are certified by the Society of Broadcast Engineers
(SBE) or have credentials of equivalent knowledge and experience. Applicant will work directly with computer automated systems and software. For
local interview, please mail or fax resumes to the following address:
Taft Broadcasting Company
P.O. Box 8170, Moreno Valley, CA 92522 -8170 or
Fax to: (909) 413 -2376, Attention Cristie Jakway, Personnel Manager
EOE
144
Broadcast Engineering
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Tired of working
2nd and 3rd shifts?
Audio Video Resources, in Phoenix, has
an immediate opportunity for the right
candidate. We have a customer base of
2000+ clients for the repair, maintenance, and integration /installation of
broadcast cameras, VTR's, and
multisync monitors. We are looking for
4 -5 years experience in a broadcast en-
vironment with a proven track record
working on Sony, JVC, and Panasonic.
Generous salaries and full benefit package including 40IK. EOE. Drug test
required. Fax info /resume:
Attn. J.L. at 602- 274-7416.
We can create a custom reprint for
any marketing effort without breaking
your budget.
For a quote call:
Jenny Eisele
Phone: 913- 967 -1966
Fax. 913-967-1898
Broa dcast
ENGINEERING
Reader
Service
Nadia
',limber
Reader
Service
AA/wiser
Holey
Mn
ADCTeleccexnunications
29
17
6124038886
Andrew Corporation
22
7
7083493300
NECAmerica
Audio Precision
13
13
800231 -7350
NVision Inc.
AvidTechnobgy
43
29
8009492843
Oderics, Inc.
21
N D S Americas Inc.
33
949725-2554
125
46
8883834DIV
100-101
34
530265-1000
6
800243.2001
141
101
88842241600
Panasonic Broadcast
5
Benchmark Media System
124
56
800262-4675
Philips Digital Video
7
10
54,55
800947-9928
PinnacleSystemslnc.
136- 139
Holm
99
Beck Associates
B&HPhot -Video
Advertiss
Minter
80052880
800962-4287
.
105
39
650-526-1600
Broadcast Video Systems
110
42
905- 764-1584
Primelmagelnc
41
28
403867á519
Calrec Audio Ltd.
113
44
142- 2842159
Prof. Communication Sys.
51
22
813-8%5353
Canon USA Broadcast Lens
63
24
KO.3214389
Quantegy Inc.
123
45
7704862800
516845-200D
Quantel Ltd.
11
12
446-3548777
SachtlerGMBH
47
20
893-2158200
SeaChange
23
14
5088970100
95
35
800255f-URE
50
&D636.8184
Chyron
133
Coollux
135
53
803A0X-LUX
Digital Transport Systems
121
52
619675-1410
52.53
23
877-CMCCM
DiviCom
Shure Brothers Inc
.
DNF Industries
110
43
818-252-01%
SiliconGraphics
117
Dolby Labs Inc.
35
18
415. 5580200
SMPTE
34
31
DPS
Drake Automation Ud
ExtronElectronics
FantouiCortpary
8
606371 -5533
119
51
172-787.1100
65
25
714491 -1500
142
102
408297 -2700
D
16
408735-1492
GenlnerConrnniatiors
104
38
800945-7730
Harris Corp/Broadcast Div
3
4
606282-4800
140
56
626-355-3656
115
49
201 -368.9171
Faroud)a
Henry Engineering
Ikegami
Intertec Publishing
Itelco
ITS
Integrated Tracking Sys.
WC Professional Products
KTe
hTe4emmmmiatiars
126
108-109
Sony Electronics
Sony Electronics
36
57
8109fí -5601
SystemsWirelessLtd
103
37
703471 -7881
TCElectronic
6 7-
24 -25
107
40
KOK -5825
124
59
81 &3612248
19,27
800231 -%73
3
800231-673
Videotek, Inc.
514-333-1772
W heaLVone Corporation
I34
71
58
SIORIBC
97
718-21741678
11
Raymond E. Maloney, President and CEO
Cameron Bishop, President
Stephanie Hanaway, Div. Dir. of Marketing
Doug Coonrod, Corporate Art Director
85635-SONY
134
60
80
-
70
131
80099&3588
47
5%7544858
TelexCommunicatias
45
3D
800392-3497
Tiernan Communications
19
5
619-587-0252
Trompeter Electronics
66
26
81
Vela Broadcast
49
21
801-464-1600
2
8008005719
1
25263&7000
31
8189910360
147
811-41V -TEST
Windows to theWeb
202429-5350
360 Systems
Advertising Coordinator
Sandra Ferguson, Classified Adv. Coordinator
Barbara Kummer, Circulation Director
Leann Sandifar, Circulation Manager
Customer Service: 913 -967 -1711 or 800 -441 -0294
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Kathy Lewis,
80635.93NY
StorageTek
Telecast Fiber Systems
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57 -59
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TECHNICAL CONSU LTANTS
Jerry Whitaker, Technical Program Consultant
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80)635-90NY
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8002E88606
Leitch Incorporated
NAB Broadcasters
32.33
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Snell
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EDITORIAL
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February
1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
145
For DTV, film doesn't cut it
BY PAUL MCGOLDRICK
Ihave always been ambivalent about
film. As a trainee engineer being taken through all the operational jobs in a
studio, it was exciting to be handed a
piece of just- edited 16mm film destined
for air within a few seconds. Not only
did your fingers seem to turn to butter,
but you knew if you looked over your
shoulder, everyone would be staring.
Once the telecine rolled, the output
had to be adjusted. Within the first
couple of frames, levels and balance
had to be set with minimum annoyance to an observant viewer.
That situation was usually self- created. The most important items always
seemed to be the last ones to come in.
We did not have the luxury of ENG,
not because equipment was unavailable but because there were union problems related to the reduction of staffing
levels for electronic pickup.
We have now come full circle. Film is
the accepted standard behind DTV.
Film of whatever width can be slapped
into a modern telecine and all the allowed compression formats can be
produced. Everyone has been saying
that as long as the production is shot in
film, it will provide the simplest, high performance storage available for latin whatever staner transmission
dard is desired.
-
-
Subliminal viewing
There are several differences between
the viewing experience in a movie theater and a typical home theater, negative and positive. For me, the negatives
include the overall cost of the experience
unless you're good at smuggling popcorn and sodas in under your
as well as the surrounding
coat
noise of your fellow moviegoers, the
uncomfortable seats, the sticky floor
...well, you understand what I mean.
The positives in a decent theater include the great audio and the experi-
-
146
Broadcast Enginsaring
ence of seeing all the details on a screen
bigger than anything we could dream
of in a home, even in HDTV.
How much of that experience is subliminal? If the print has a relatively
poor color balance, you will begin to
ignore it within minutes. The darkness
does strange things to your reference
points (something you learn really
quickly when you fly by instruments:
believe the instruments, not what your
senses tell you). Within minutes, the
print looks perfect. The same scenario
applies to audio; unless the distortion
or hum is really high, you sink into the
experience.
For DTV there is a completely different set of circumstances. Even with
good source materials and a reason-
starship jumps into warp/hyper/light
(choose one) speed.
Motion artifacts in the standards
conversion process, as well as the A/DD/A processing of DTV, can be controlled to a large extent. Of course this
is somewhat dependent on the dollars
and memory you are willing to throw at
the algorithms. When the source material itself is at fault it is not fixable.
There have been several recent meetings to finalize production standards
at 24fps throughout the electronic
chain. That is a perfectly allowable
standard and practice under the Table 3
constraints of ATSC's A53 document.
If we are going to have film as the
master standard for all formats across
all international boundaries, the film
If we are going to have film as the master
standard for all formats across all international
boundaries, the film industry needs to go faster.
able home setup there will probably be
more light in the viewing area. There
will likely be less artificial noise and a
reduction in things such as the dynamic range of the material being viewed.
Color balance is not an issue hopefully. But there is another feature of film
that theater viewing hides: It moves
too slowly.
Motion artifacts
Producers will expend many millions
of dollars on upcoming projects. They
will use sophisticated computer rendering and color key (sorry, "blue
screen") techniques to make everything believable. But everything will be
shot at a speed that is too slow. A 24fps
rate doesn't cut it as the tail end of a
February 1999
www.americanradiohistory.com
industry needs to go faster, preferably
by changing the film rate to 30fps. As
far as I can deduce, the 24fps standard
was the hand -cranking maximum. I
don't think technology has that limit
today.
Yes, there would have to be a lot of
camera changes, there would have to
be a lot of projector and editing equipment changes. But the film industry is
adept at accepting change in film
width, audio standards and the like,
so speeding up the film should be
minor. Then film can truly be considered the master source for imaging
into the 21st century.
Paul McGoldrick is an industry consultant
based on the West Coast.
Experience Juno's
Picture Perfect Upconversion
The Art of Upconversion
upconversion is an art form, Leitch's
Juno" is a masterpiece. We've spent
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techniques that, combined with
technology's latest advances, have
produced one of our industry's finest
if
works of art.
Leitch's Juno upconverter uses award winning, motion-adaptive interpolation
to convert your standard -definition
digital signals to high -definition, wide screen format -with virtually no artifacts.
Just as great paintings are crafted with
many brushes, masterful upconversion
requires various processing filters. Juno
analyzes your signal pixel -by -pixel and,
for every image, dynamically selects the
filter that will maximize detail to
enhance the beauty of your high definition output.
For even greater aesthetic quality,
Juno takes advantage of matching
input fields by auto -detecting 3:2 film
sequences in the input signal and
adjusting the processing apertere
accordingly.
With powerful built -in noise reduction,
audio delay, and both SDI and analog
1/Os, Juno requires no external frames,
so it consumes just 2 RU of your
precious space. Its colorimetry accurately converts SD color space to I-ID color
space, and sophisticated processing
gives you dynamic and variable aspect
ratio conversion.
Commission the fine upconversion
artists at Leitch. Entrust
your high- definition
canvas to Juno.
www.leitch.com
Call
1-800-231-9673 for
more information.
Circle (3) on Free Into Card
>
LEITCH
International /Canada
Europe -44
101
+1
ENGINEERING THE BIG PICTURE"
(4161445-9640 (800) 387 -0233
1483 -591000
Australia
U.S.A.
+61 (2) 9939 -3355
Eut +1
Latin America «I i_m_n :,vl -un11
.I (l4H8) 843 -7004
Brazil +55 (11) 867 -0218
Hong Kong +(852) 2776 -0628
(800) 231 -9673. U.S.A. Weal
Japan +81
(31
5423 -3631
See us at NAB Booth #L22257
www.americanradiohistory.com
601
Made E
TSM 51
INPUT
VIEW
IN PRE
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REP
CHANNEL
111
T/R
CWo
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W/M
DISPLAY
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SAW/EAV
STORE
FILTER
MEMORY
CAL
VLCT FMI
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/,HD
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CSC,
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V
OR
POWER
601 format
waveform monitor TVM,821D.
Videotek's newest addition to the test instrument family is just what you asked for...easy & familiar
Make your 601 production and post- production
activities easier than ever with the new
dual- channel TVM -821D waveform monitor and
vectorscope. The newest scope in Videotek's line
offers advanced features and convenience,
including:
Simultaneous display of 2 digital inputs enables:
Parade view for signal comparison.
Overlay view for system timing.
Dedicated buttons eliminate confusing menus
and multi- function keys.
12-bit processing with 8x oversampling
ensures accurate measurements.
Four programmable user memories
allow one-touch recall of favorite
settings.
Analog audio display shows stereo
amp ttude, phase, and separation.
mraÚul
525/625 auto-select input and multi voltage power supply allow use around
the globe.
CE Certified.
Variety of case options for field use or
rack- mounting.
Affordable price brings 601 measurement
within reach.
Call today to find out more about this and
other innovative 601 solutions that will ease
your way into the digital revolution.
=
Premium Quality, Intelligent Design,
Smart Price...That's Videotek.
MIm
VIDEOTEK`M
Zero Defects Company
A
Five Year Warranty
180-9001 Certified
Circle (2) on Free Info Card
243 Shoemaker Road. Pottstown, PA 19464 Toll Free: (800) 800 -5719 (610) 327 -2292 Fax: (610) 327 -9295
Visit us on the Worldwide Web: www.videotek.com
www.americanradiohistory.com
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