handbook - Litebuilt
ITEM
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
1
LITEBUILT® AERATED LIGHTWEIGHT & COMPOSITE CONCRETE
3
2
CHARACTERISTICS & PROPERTIES OF LITEBUILT® AERATED CONCRETE
3
3
APPLICATIONS FOR LITEBUILT® AERATED CONCRETE
4
4
SUNDRY APPLICATIONS
5
5
MIXING OF LITEBUILT® AERATED CONCRETE
6
6
WATER : CEMENT RATIO
9
7
CURING OF LITEBUILT® AERATED CONCRETE
9
8
STRENGTH
10
9
SHRINKAGE
12
10
EXPANSION
12
11
ACOUSTIC INSULATION
12
12
THERMAL INSULATION
12
13
FIRE RESISTANCE
15
14
FASTENER SELECTION AND INSTALLATION
16
COPYRIGHT – DISCLAIMER
Copyright © PAN PACIFIC MANAGEMENT RESOURCES PTY LTD ABN 30 007 101 073. All rights
reserved. Reproduction or distribution with out express written permission of PAN PACIFIC MANAGEMENT
RESOURCES PTY LTD is prohibited.
LITEBUILT® is a registered Trademark of PAN PACIFIC MANAGEMENT RESOURCES PTY LTD.
The information presented herein is supplied in good faith and to the best of our knowledge was accurate
at the time of preparation. No responsibility can be accepted by PAN PACIFIC ENGINEERING PTY LTD
or its staff for any errors or omissions. The provision of this information should not be construed as a
recommendation to use any of our products in violation of any patent rights or in breach of any statute
or regulation. Users are advised to make their own determination as to the suitability of this information
in relation to their particular purposes and specific circumstances. Since the information contained in this
document may be applied under conditions beyond our control, no responsibility can be accepted by us for
any loss or damage caused by any person acting or refraining from action as a result of this information.
HB-COMB0710
2
1. LITEBUILT® Lightweight Aerated & Composite Concretes
LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete is created by inclusion of a
multitude of micro air bubbles in a cement based mixture.
This is achieved by mixing the concentrated LITEBUILT®
Foaming Chemical with water and generating foam therefrom,
generally by using compressed air. To achieve the optimum
results, an Aerator is required. The foam is then mixed with
the sand / cement / water slurry using conventional ready
mix or permanent concrete mixing facilities. LITEBUILT®
Aerated Concrete behaves like ordinary dense weight
concrete in most aspects, such as curing.
LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete has good mechanical
strength, together with a high insulation value over a wide
range of densities.
LITEBUILT® FOAM GENERATOR
2. Characteristics & Properties of LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete
Some of the benefits from using LITEBUILT® Lightweight Concrete include:
 Rapid and relatively simple construction.
 Low cost of LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete, in comparison to other methods producing
lightweight concretes.
 Good Thermal insulation properties give energy conservation advantages, which reduce
operating costs (heating/air-conditioning).
 With LITEBUILT® Aerated & Lightweight Composite Concretes the result is lower building
costs, more efficient building designs.
 Handling & cartage costs greatly reduced.
 Weight reductions from 10% to 87% over standard dense weight concrete depending on mix
proportions and materials.
 Significant reduction of overall weight results in savings in structural frames, footings or piles.
Such savings are often the multiple of the actual cost of the material itself.
 Economical in transportation, lower crane capacity required and reduction in manpower.
 The use of LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete in pre-cast or tilt-up construction enables a reduction
in crane size, it requires minimum labour for erection.
 LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete can be sawn by hand, sculptured and penetrated by nails and
screws.
 LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete is extremely easy to screed, and may be placed on site at
thicknesses down to 40 mm (1.5 ins).
3
A combination of the other materials can also be
included in the mix, depending on the application
and requirements, such as:
 Expanded Clay
 Polystyrene
 Cork
 Polypropylene
 Vermiculite
 Flyash
 Volcanic Ash
LITEBUILT® AERATED CONCRETE
3. Applications for LITEBUILT® Aerated & Composite Concretes
The use of lightweight concrete in building is becoming increasingly extensive. The following are
some of the typical applications principally in use at present.
Density 300-600 kg/m3 (19 - 38 lbs/ft3) Made with Cement & Foam Only
This material is used in roof and floor as insulation against heat and sound and is applied on rigid
floors (i.e. in itself it is not a structural material).
It is used for tennis courts and interspace filling between brickwork leaves in underground
walls, insulation in hollow blocks and any other filling situation where high insulating properties
are required.
Density 600-900 kg/m3 (38 - 56 lbs/ft3) Made with Sand, Cement & Foam
Used for the manufacture of precast blocks and
panels for curtain and partition walls, slabs for
false ceilings, thermal insulation and soundproofing
screeds in multi-level residential and commercial
buildings. LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete of this
density range is also ideal for bulkfill application.
Density 900-1200 kg/m3 (56 - 75 lbs/ft3) Made with
Sand, Cement & Foam
This material is used in concrete blocks and panels
for outer leaves of buildings as well as partition walls,
concrete slabs for roofing and floor screeds.
LITEBUILT® LIGHTWEIGHT MASONRY COLUMNS
4
Density 1200-1600 kg/m3 (75 - 100 lbs/ft3) Made with Sand, Cement & Foam
This material is used in precast panels of any dimension for commercial and industrial use, insitu
casting of walls, garden ornaments and other uses where structural concrete of lighter weight is
an advantage.
4. Sundry Applications
Rigid Pavement Floor Screeds
A layer of foam concrete under ceramic tiles, marble paving, cement tiles etc. Generally a
500 kg/m3 (31 lbs/ft3) density is used, made form cement and foam only, in order to gain thermal and
acoustic insulating properties and at the same time, to load the structure as little as possible.
The minimum recommended thickness for such a screed is 40 mm (1.5 ins).
Before pouring the material onto an existing floor, the surface should be made wet, however
care should be taken to avoid large areas of water, which will effect the moisture content of the
foam concrete.
Elastic Pavement Floor Screeds
This application is for floors covered with carpet, timber parquetry, vinyl tiles etc. As the paving
material is directly glued onto the floor screed in many instances, the most suitable density is
1100 kg/m3 (69 lbs/ft3), using 2:1 sand cement ratio. The pavement is laid as described for rigid
pavements, excepting that particular care is taken to trowel off the surface by hand or by mechanical
trowel 24 hours after pouring.
Heat Insulation for Roofs
The ideal density for this purpose is 500 kg/m3 (31 lbs/ft3) made only with cement and foam.
The value of K for heat transmission under these circumstances can be obtained from Table 3.
The minimum thickness must never be less than 40 mm (1.5 ins).
It is recommended that the surface be wet before pouring without undue water lying on the
surface.
Inter-Space Filling
For such use, the normal density is about 400 kg/m3 (25 lbs/ft3) made from cement and foam only.
The cavities should be filled in successive stages, doing no more than 600-700 mm (2 ft) at a time,
allowing at least 12 hours between each pour.
5
Lightweight Masonry Blocks
LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete is an ideal material
for producing lightweight masonry blocks, reducing
or eliminating the need for autoclave curing. The
density which is used usually varies between
600 kg/m3 and 1100 kg/m3 (38 lbs/ft3 and 69 lbs/
ft3) depending on the mechanical strength that is
required, or alternatively, the desirable amount of
thermal insulation.
LITEBUILT® FOAMED CONCRETE LITEBLOK™
Precast Panels
The normal density adopted for this type of usage
varies between 1200 kg/m 3 and 1600 kg/m 3
(75 lbs/ft3 and 100 lbs/ft3). The density chosen is
usually dependent upon the strength required, the
dimensions (ie thickness etc).
Where sandwich panels are used, employing dense
weight concrete as well as LITEBUILT® Aerated
Concrete, it is advisable to cast the normal concrete
into the mould first and follow immediately with the
foam concrete, so that the bond between the two
materials is homogenous.
LITEBUILT® AERATED LIGHTWEIGHT PANEL CASTING
5. Mixing of LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete
There are two principle mixtures which constitute the majority of Aerated Concrete construction.
Cement + LITEBUILT® Foaming Agent
While the cement mixer or premix concrete truck is in motion, the water and cement are introduced
and allowed to mix until a thoroughly consistent mixture is achieved. When this has taken place, the
required amount of foam can be injected into the mixer and the mixing continued until the foam is
completely enveloped into the total mix. The mixture is then ready for discharging into the moulds
or wherever it is to be placed. The proportion of cement, water and foam for mixtures of various
weights can be obtained from Table 1.
Note: Although it is possible to have neat cement mixes, the addition of some sand (about 25%)
is recommended in order to prevent the formation of lumps.
6
Cement + Sand + LITEBUILT® Foam
In this situation the water, sand, cement are added to the mixer in that order and thoroughly mixed
into a homogenous mortar before adding the foam. The components of the mix are outlined in
Table 1.
Cement + Lightweight Aggregate + LITEBUILT® Foam
Because of the lightweight matrix formed by the
mixture of cement, water and foam, lightweight
aggregates can be used without the tendency to
float when the mix is vibrated. Typical aggregates
which are used are:- expanded shale or clay,
scoria, pumice, vermiculite or flyash. The inclusion
of such material is only recommended if it is locally
available as its procurement from afar often results
in a higher cost of the final product. Moreover, it
is often increasing the overall density for a given
strength, since simply a higher foam content can
achieve better results.
LITEBUILT® FOAM BEING INJECTED INTO CONCRETE TRUCK
Table 1 (Metric): Mix Proportions – Sand, Cement and LITEBUILT® Foam
Quantity of Sand & Cement Kgs Per Cubic Meter
3:1
Density
Kg/m3
2:1
1:1
Cement
only
Sand
Kg
Cement
Kg
Sand
Kg
Cement
Kg
Sand
Kg
Cement
Kg
1600
1148
383
–
–
–
–
–
1400
1005
335
–
–
–
–
–
1200
861
287
756
378
–
–
–
1100
790
263
693
347
–
–
–
1000
–
–
630
315
–
–
–
900
–
–
567
284
412
412
–
800
–
–
–
–
366
366
–
700
–
–
–
–
320
320
581
600
–
–
–
–
275
275
498
500
–
–
–
–
–
–
415
400
–
–
–
–
–
–
332
300
–
–
–
–
–
–
249
Note: Water Content = 0.4 to 0.5 litre per Kg cement
7
Table 1 (US Measures): Mix Proportions – Sand, Cement and LITEBUILT® Foam
Quantity of Sand & Cement Kgs Per Cubic Meter
3:1
2:1
1:1
Sand
lbs
Cement
lbs
Sand
lbs
Cement
lbs
Sand
lbs
Cement
lbs
Cement
only
lbs
100
1938
646
–
–
–
–
–
87
1686
562
–
–
–
–
–
75
1453
484
1276
638
–
–
–
69
1337
446
1174
587
–
–
–
62
–
–
1055
527
–
–
–
56
–
–
953
476
692
692
–
50
–
–
–
–
618
618
–
44
–
–
–
–
544
544
986
38
–
–
–
–
469
469
852
31
–
–
–
–
–
–
695
25
–
–
–
–
–
–
560
19
–
–
–
–
–
–
426
Density
lbs/ft3
Note: Water Content = 0.4 to 0.5 pints per lbs cement
Dense Weight Concrete + LITEBUILT® Foam
The addition of up to 10% LITEBUILT® Foam into a normal dense-weight concrete mix has the
effect of
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Reducing the density.
Increasing the slump so that the water: cement ratio can be reduced.
Eliminates “bleed water”.
Allows early trowelling of the surface.
Difficulties in pumping are eliminated even in hot weather.
Improving the resistance to freeze-thaw attrition.
Even though the reduction in water: cement ratio produces an increase in strength, it is
usually necessary to slightly increase the cement content of the mix to maintain the specified
compressive strength.
Specific mix details, densities and strengths can be supplied if required.
8
Pumping LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete
LITEBUILT® Foam has an extremely strong bubble
structure and can stand pumping to unusual heights
without loss of entrained air.
The most suitable pump for this purpose is a
“squeeze” type pump. In some situations a screw
feed pump is also satisfactory.
Water Absorption
The water absorption of LITEBUILT® Aerated
Concrete is low, due to its closed cellular
structure.
SQUEEZE TYPE PUMP FOR LITEBUILT® AERATED CONCRETE
6. Water : Cement Ratio
The amount of water to be added to the mix depends upon the moisture content of the sand, but
as an average figure, 40-45 litres (40-45 pints) of water is used for every 100 kilograms (100 lbs)
of cement. Additional water is added as a content of the foam, thereby bringing the total water:
cement ratio up to the order to 0.6. In general, when the amount of foam is increased, as for lighter
densities, the amount of water can therefore be decreased. The water : cement ratio should be
kept as low as possible in order to avoid unnecessary shrinkage in the moulds, however, it should
be remembered that, if the amount of water added to cement and sand in the first instance it too
low, the necessary moisture to make a workable mix will be extracted from the foam when it is
added, thereby destroying some of the foam which is naturally an expensive way of adding water to
the mix.
Tests should be carried out on any particular mix which is required so that the resulting cellular
concrete will have a flowable, creamy consistency.
7. Curing of LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete
Since many of the properties of Aerated Concrete
depend upon the successful process of curing,
outlined below are some of the methods whereby
its strength can be increased.
Air Curing
This is probably the easiest and most popular
method of curing. It is a slow, but acceptable system
which enables a turn around of moulds every
24 hours on average, depending on the ambient
temperature.
LITEBUILT® LIGHTWEIGHT AERATED CONCRETE TILT UP PANELS
9
Steam Curing
When precast Aerated Concrete panels and slabs are made under factory conditions in order to
obtain a relatively fast turn-around of moulds, it may be economic to induce an early strength into
the concrete by applying heat from steam to the underside of the moulds. This causes a rise in
temperature in the concrete and a resulting increase in strength.
The reason for steaming from the underside is to avoid the increase in temperature creating small
cells of compressed air with sufficient pressure to fracture the cement shell around the cell. Due
to the weight of concrete above the lower layers this does not take place and by the time the
temperature increases on the upper face, the cement has already acquired sufficient strength to
resist the cells exploding off and giving a rough surface to the slab or panel.
Depending upon the type of cement used in the mix, steam curing is not begun until at least five
hours after casting, and even then the increase in temperature is well controlled and should not
exceed 70°C (167°F). The extent of steam curing depends upon the climate but as a general rule
it can be subdivided into 2 hours required for raising the temperature, 4 hours maintaining the
temperature and 2 hours lowering the temperature slowly to avoid thermal shock.
8. Strength
Compressive Strength
The compressive strengths of LITEBUILT® Aerated
& Lightweight Composite Concrete is influenced by
many factors, such as density, age, moisture content,
the physical and chemical characteristics of component
materials and mix proportions. Hence it is desirable
to keep the mix proportions, type of cement and sand
or other fillers as well as the method of production
constant. A relationship exists between the density
and the strength. Any change to the factors mentioned
above could vary that relationship quite markedly.
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TESTING MACHINE
Table 2 (Metric): Compressive Strengths for LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete
Density
300 400 500
Kg/m3
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200 1400 1600
Sand
Cement
Ratio
0:1
0:1
0:1
0:1
1:1
1:1
1:1
1:1
2:1
2:1
2:1
3:1
3:1
3:1
3:1
7 Days
Mpa
0.3
0.8
2.0
3.5
0.8
1.4
2.5
3.0
1.4
2.2
3.8
3.0
4.0
8.0
10.0
28 Days
0.7
Mpa
2.0
3.5
4.0
2.0
3.5
4.5
5.0
3.2
5.2
8.5
7.0
10.0
12.0
18.0
7 Days
Kg/cm2
8.2
20.4 35.7 8.2
22.4 38.7 30.6
40.8
81.6
102.0
3.1
14.3 25.5 30.6 14.3
28 Days
7.1 20.4 35.7 40.8 20.4 35.7 45.9 51.0 32.6
Kg/cm2
53.0 86.7 71.4 102.0 122.4 183.5
10
Table 2 (US Measures): Compressive Strengths for LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete
Density
lbs/ft3
12
25
31
Sand
Cement
Ratio
0:1
0:1
0:1
2:1
2:1
2:1
7 Days
psi
43
116 290 507 116 203 362 435 203
319
551
38
0:1
1:1
44
50
1:1
1:1
56
1:1
62
28 Days
101 290 507 580 290 507 652 725 464
psi
69
75
87
100
3:1
3:1
3:1
3:1
435
580
1160 1450
754 1232 1015 1450 1740 2610
The compressive strength can be significantly
increased through effective and special curing
methods. Moist curing has a profound effect on
increasing compressive strength. For products such
as foamed concrete building blocks, it is advisable
to cling- or stretch-wrap the pallets, thus assisting
in the moisture retention for longer. Steam curing is
another option, if curing time is crucial.
LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete has a virtually linear
increase in compressive strength over the first
12 month, unlike dense weight concrete, which
levels out much earlier.
LITEBUILT® LIGHTWEIGHT ARCHITECTURAL ORNAMENTS
Compressive strength will continue to increase indefinitely due to the reaction with CO2 present
in the surrounding air. Again, the significant difference is that LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete
has a higher rate of curing than dense weight concrete. Where the level of compressive strength
is critical, methods of accelerating the natural CO2 curing process are available as part of our
LITEBUILT® range of products. There are various methods and it can be applied in particular with
factory produced building elements such as blocks and panels.
Tensile Strength
Depending on the method of curing, the tensile strength of foamed concrete can be as high as
0.25 of its compressive strength with a strain of around 0.1% at the time of rupture.
Shear Strength
Generally the shear strength varies between 6% and 10% of the compressive strength. Shear
reinforcement is seldom required in flooring and roofing units.
11
9. Shrinkage
LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete, like all cement materials has a shrinkage phenomena during the
setting stage. The amount of shrinkage is dependant upon various factors e.g. type of cement,
type of curing, size, and quality of sand, amount of cement in the mix, density of foamed concrete,
as well as the water: cement ratio.
The greater extent of shrinkage occurs during the first 28 days, after which time it is negligible.
During the first 28 days, if the conditions of manufacture of the foamed concrete are well controlled,
shrinkage can be kept under 0.1%.
This fact is of particular importance since cracks in walls – often caused by foundation movements
– are regularly blamed on concrete shrinkage. If a crack occurs beyond the initial 28 days after the
concrete was poured, it is virtually impossible that this is due to shrinkage.
10. Expansion
The coefficient of linear expansion for LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete is of the same order as that
of normal concrete, i.e. 0.000009 per degree Centigrade (0.000005 per degree F). This factor becomes important when using LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete on large areas of roof slabs, which
are exposed to heat and cold.
11. Acoustic Insulation
LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete has a high sound absorption capacity. In general, dense weight
concrete tends to deflect sound whereas LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete absorbs sound. Sound
transmission, however, on conventional walls, over most of the audible frequency range may be
higher by 2-3% when compared to dense weight concrete. This slight disadvantage is in most
cases academic, since most walls are either rendered, painted or both. This in turn will make a
wall deflect the sound as does dense weight concrete.
Low frequency noise on the other hand is being greatly absorbed by LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete,
thus it is often used as an insulating layer on structural concrete slabs to restrict noise transmission
from floor to floor in multi level residential or office buildings.
12. Thermal Insulation
Thermal insulation is one of the outstanding
characteristics of LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete
Lightweight Concrete.
Due to its cellular structure, LITEBUILT® Aerated
Concrete offers a very low transmission of
heat. This means that in most cases the use
of supplementary insulation in floors and walls
is unnecessary.
FLOORSCREED APPLICATION
12
The high insulating value of the material becomes important as energy is saved by cutting
both heating and air conditioning requirements, giving greater comfort in a wide range of
climatic conditions.
Table 3 shows the relationship between the thermal conductivity and various densities.
LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete’s thermal performance greatly reduced the occurrence of condensation
from atmospheric humidity, arising as the result of changes in ambient temperature.
LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete is completely non-toxic.
Table 3 (Metric): Thermal Insulation with LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete
Concrete
Density
kg/m3
λ
R Value
100mm
50mm
100mm
150mm
200mm
300
0.065
1.54
1.03
0.58
0.40
0.30
400
0.080
1.25
1.21
0.69
0.48
0.37
500
0.095
1.05
1.38
0.80
0.56
0.43
600
0.115
0.87
1.57
0.93
0.67
0.47
700
0.130
0.76
1.23
0.89
0.63
0.52
800
0.150
0.66
1.37
1.00
0.71
0.54
900
0.175
0.57
1.52
1.13
0.81
0.61
1000
0.205
0.48
1.69
1.27
0.94
0.70
1100
0.230
0.43
1.82
1.39
1.02
0.78
1200
0.270
0.37
2.02
1.55
1.15
0.98
1400
0.346
0.43
2.31
1.83
1.39
1.08
1600
0.436
0.28
2.06
2.10
1.63
1.29

=
K
=
Note:
K at Selected Concrete Thickness
Thermal Conductivity Coefficient
Thermal Transmission Coefficient
Densities 300-600 are cement/foam mixes
Densities 700 and over are cement/sand/foam mixes
13
Table 3 (US Measures): Thermal Insulation with LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete
Concrete
Density
pcf
λ
R Value
per inch
2"
4"
6"
8"
19
0.429
2.54
6.80
3.83
2.64
1.98
25
0.528
2.06
7.99
4.55
3.17
2.44
31
0.627
1.73
9.11
5.28
3.70
2.84
38
0.759
1.44
10.36
6.14
4.42
3.10
44
0.858
1.25
8.12
5.87
4.16
3.43
50
0.990
1.09
9.04
6.60
4.69
3.56
56
1.155
0.94
10.03
7.46
5.35
4.03
63
1.353
0.79
11.15
8.38
6.20
4.62
69
1.518
0.71
12.01
9.17
6.73
5.15
75
1.782
0.61
13.33
10.23
7.59
6.47
88
2.284
0.71
15.25
12.08
9.17
7.13
100
2.878
0.46
13.60
13.86
10.76
8.51

=
K
=
Note:
K at Selected Concrete Thickness
Thermal Conductivity Coefficient
Thermal Transmission Coefficient
Densities 19-38 are cement/foam mixes
Densities 44 and over are cement/sand/foam mixes
In many parts of the world, new homes are required to have insulated walls and ceilings in order
to conserve energy. Table 4 indicates the superior economics of using cellular foamed concrete
over other insulating materials commonly used.
14
Table 4: Comparative Table of the Most Commonly Used Building & Insulating Materials
Required
Cost
Thickness comparison
(meters) to at equivalent
Achieve
K value 0.70
K=0.70
Kcal/m2h°C
Density
Kg/m3
Kcal/m2h°C
Relative
cost
Per m3
Placed
Marble
2700
2.9
–
3.5
–
Concrete
2400
1.3
2.92
1.58
40
Hollow Clay Brick
2000
0.8
3.4
0.97
34
Litebuilt® Foam Concrete
1600
0.5
2.52
0.61
15.7
Litebuilt® Foam Concrete
400
0.08
1
0.097
1
Expanded Cork
100
0.03
8.72
0.036
3.2
Rock Wool
100
0.032
5.8
0.040
2.37
Expanded Polystyrene
25
0.030
3.56
0.036
1.31
Expanded Polyurethane
35
0.022
11.72
0.026
3.1
Material
13. Fire Resistance
LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete is extremely fire resistant and thus well suited to fire rated
applications. Furthermore, the application of intense heat, such as an oxy torch held close to
the surface, does not cause the concrete to spall or explode as is the case with normal dense
weight concrete.
The result of this is that the reinforcing steel remains
cool and protected for a much longer period. Tests
and certificates from various authorities indicate that
150 mm (6 ins) of LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete
achieves in excess of a four hour fire rating.
In tests undertaken in Australia, a LITEBUILT®
Aerated Concrete wall panel, 150 mm (6 ins) in
thickness was exposed to temperatures in the
vicinity of 1200°C (2192°F), with the unexposed
surface only increasing by 46°C (115°F) after 5
hours.
Notes: Tests undertaken at BHP Research &
New Technology.
LITEBUILT® PANEL BEING PREPARED FOR FIRE TESTING
The requirements for some specific authorities for 4 hour rating indicate: –
Italy 133 mm (5.3 ins), New Zealand 133 mm (5.3 ins), Australia (EBRS-Ryde) 105 mm (4 ins)
All tests, both in Australia and internationally, indicate that LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete is greatly
superior to normal concrete. Even at reduced thicknesses LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete will not
burn, spall or give off toxic gases, fumes or smoke.
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14. Fastener Selection and Installation
The cellular structure of LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete requires specialised fasteners for the
attachment of both structural framing members and non-structural fittings.
Metal sleeved expanding anchors are not recommended as they may become loose due to their
design characteristics.
Detailed in this section are recommended fasteners for a variety of applications. The choice
of fastener is dependent on the nature and the requirement of the application, and the desired
finish.
The following information has been supplied by the various approved manufacturers and may be
purchased through their authorised outlets.
Frame – Fixings and Plastic Plugs
“Frame – Fixings” normally refers to a range of fasteners comprising various lengths and diameters
of plastic plugs with matching length/diameter screws. These fasteners rely on expansion and
friction grip within LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete to provide holding power.
The majority of frame fixings are designed as “through fixings” where the plastic plug is installed
through the fixture. Capacities will differ with
relation to gripping profile, rate of expansion and
diameter. Increased embedment, greater than the
recommended manufacturers minimums do not
generally improve performance. Approved suitable
plastic plugs are not normally used as a “through
fixing”, appropriate screws are normally supplied
separately and the plug is normally installed prior to
locating and securing the fixture. Selection criteria
is important and the following notes should be
PLASTIC WALL PLUGS
considered: –
 Determine live and dead load requirements.
 Select fastener diameter and required embedment appropriate to capacity required.
 Fastener lengths are determined by fixing thickness and manufacturers recommended
embedment into LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete (Plasterboard would be considered as a
component of the fixing thickness).
 All drilled holes in LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete should be made using high speed twist drills
suitable for steel or wood, (masonry drill bits should not be used). When using hammer-drills
the hammer mode should be turned OFF.
 Edge distances and fastener spacings should conform to the manufacturers recommendations,
care should be taken with regard to the orientation and direction of expansion. Hole depth
should be considered taking into account the manufacturers recommended embedment with
an additional allowance for debris accumulation.
 Fastener head styles should be selected to provide the desired appearance, normally a
countersunk head style for fixing timber fixtures and a hex head style for metal sections.
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Mechanical Fasteners
This category includes fasteners that do not rely on expansion for a friction based gripping action.
Where the anchor possesses some “undercut” properties they may be classified as “mechanical”
fasteners. Selection would depend the nature of the application and reference should be made to
your fastener supplier.
Fastener Application Guide for Litebuilt® Aerated Concrete
Timber Door Frames – Pre Assembled
Position door frames plumb and square at desired locations, assemble LITEBUILT® Aerated
Concrete block walls securing the rear of the jambs with approved block ties.
Timber Door Frames – Unassembled
Fix timber jambs to LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete block work using approved frame – fixings as
per manufacturers instructions. To ensure a stable fixing it is recommended that full width packers,
to suit the width of the jambs, are used. Attention should be given to the direction of expansion
when fixing into 100mm or 150mm (4 ins or 6 ins) LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete internal walls.
Fixings should be located above door hinges for additional support.
Timber Window Frames
Pack window frames as required and fix with appropriate fasteners. Gaps between the frame and
the blocks should be filled with expanding foam to provide draught, noise and heat resistance.
Aluminium Window Frames
Subject to design, aluminium window frames may be available in different profiles. Should the
windows have an attached timber reveal, use the same methods as timber windows. Some
residential window frames have an attached “fin” that may be inserted into pre-cut slots made in
the LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete block opening, some manufacturers have a special block tie
that attaches to the “fin” which is placed between block courses.
Commercial aluminium window frames may be fixed through the glazing recess providing that the
fixing head size is suitable. It is also recommended that a paintable silicone caulk be used to seal
between the LITEBUILT® Aerated Concrete blocks and the aluminium window frames.
Kitchen / Bathroom Cupboards and Shelving
Fastener selection depends on the required load capacity. A general guide would call for the fastener
selection to be based on the load requirements, the manufacturers recommended embedment, the
cupboard or shelf fixing thickness, with an allowance made for plasterboard or other wall finishes,
and the desired head style. Appearances may benefit by selecting a fixing with optional snap-on
plastic cover caps.
Hand Rails, Towel Rails and Grab Handles
Due to the large number of variations in design, it is recommended that fastener selection information
be sought from your supplier.
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