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Agilent
PNA Series Network
Analyzer
Printed Version of PNA Help
User’s and Programming Guide
Supports Firmware A.08.00
March 12, 2008
Warranty Statement
THE MATERIAL CONTAINED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED “AS IS,” AND IS SUBJECT
TO BEING CHANGED, WITHOUT NOTICE, IN FUTURE EDITIONS. FURTHER, TO THE
MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, AGILENT DISCLAIMS ALL
WARRANTIES, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WITH REGARD TO THIS MANUAL AND
ANY INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE. AGILENT SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ERRORS OR FOR INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES IN CONNECTION WITH THE FURNISHING, USE, OR
PERFORMANCE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR ANY INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN.
SHOULD AGILENT AND THE USER HAVE A SEPARATE WRITTEN AGREEMENT WITH
WARRANTY TERMS COVERING THE MATERIAL IN THIS DOCUMENT THAT CONFLICT
WITH THESE TERMS, THE WARRANTY TERMS IN THE SEPARATE AGREEMENT WILL
CONTROL.
DFARS/Restricted Rights Notice
If software is for use in the performance of a U.S. Government prime contract or subcontract, Software
is delivered and licensed as “Commercial computer software” as defined in DFAR 252.227-7014 (June
1995), or as a “commercial item” as defined in FAR 2.101(a) or as “Restricted computer software” as
defined in FAR 52.227-19 (June 1987) or any equivalent agency regulation or contract clause. Use,
duplication or disclosure of Software is subject to Agilent Technologies’ standard commercial license
terms, and non-DOD Departments and Agencies of the U.S. Government will receive no greater than
Restricted Rights as defined in FAR 52.227-19(c)(1-2) (June 1987). U.S. Government users will receive
no greater than Limited Rights as defined in FAR 52.227-14 (June 1987) or DFAR 252.227-7015 (b)(2)
(November 1995), as applicable in any technical data.
Certification
Agilent Technologies, Inc. certifies that this product met its published specifications at the time of
shipment from the factory. Agilent Technologies, Inc. further certifies that its calibration
measurements are traceable to the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology, to the
extent allowed by the Institute's calibration facility, and to the calibration facilities of other
International Standards Organization members.
Contacting Agilent
Assistance with test and measurements needs and information on finding a local Agilent office are
available on the Web at: http://www.agilent.com/find/assist
If you do not have access to the Internet, please contact your Agilent field engineer.
In any correspondence or telephone conversation, refer to the Agilent product by its model number
and full serial number. With this information, the Agilent representative can determine whether your
product is still within its warranty period.
Printed Version of PNA Help User’s and Programming Guide
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Whats New
41
Administrative Tasks
PNA User Accounts and Passwords
46
Computer Properties
49
Error-check and Disk Defragmenter
52
Operating System Recovery
53
Windows Considerations
54
Applications
Gain Compression Application (Opt 086)
56
Noise Figure (Opt 029)
77
Pulsed Application (Opt H08)
91
WideBand Pulsed App
105
Frequency Offset (Opt 080)
Frequency Offset (Option 080)
106
Frequency Converting Device Measurements
116
Frequency Offset Calibration
117
Conversion Loss
119
Conversion Compression
123
Isolation
125
Harmonic Distortion
128
Return Loss and VSWR
130
Frequency Converter Application (Opt 083)
Known Issues
132
Overview
133
Using the Frequency Converter Application
135
Calibrations
145
Configure a Mixer
166
Configure an External LO Source
175
How to make a VMC Fixed Output Measurement
183
How to make an SMC Fixed Output Measurement
192
Embedded LO (Opt 084)
200
1
Characterize Adaptor Macro
206
SMC with a Booster Amp
213
Time Domain (Opt 010)
216
Quick Start
Front Panel Tour (E836x and PNA-L)
232
Front Panel Tour (PNA-X)
238
Rear Panel Tour (E836x and PNA-L)
246
Rear Panel Tour (PNA-X)
247
Powering the PNA ON and OFF
251
PNA User Interface (E836x and PNA-L)
254
Traces, Channels, and Windows on the PNA
257
Basic Measurement Sequence
265
Frequency Blanking
266
Internal Second Source
269
Connectivity Guide
271
PNA Preferences
272
VNC
275
Using Help
276
1. Set Up a Measurement
Preset the PNA
284
Measurement Parameters
292
Measurement Classes
300
Frequency Range
303
Power Level
311
Sweep Settings
320
Trigger Setup
330
External Triggering
334
Trigger Model Animation
343
Data Format and Scale
344
Preconfigured Measurement Setups
353
Path Configurator
357
Customize Your Analyzer Screen
360
Copy Channels
372
2
ADC Measurements
376
System Impedance
379
2. Optimize a Measurement
Dynamic Range
381
Dynamic Range-4 Jumpers
383
Dynamic Range-Test Set Option
384
Number of Data Points
385
Phase Accuracy
387
Electrically Long Devices
391
Reflection Accuracy
393
Measurement Stability
396
Noise Reduction Techniques
398
Crosstalk
406
Effects of Accessories
407
Fastest Sweep
408
Multiple State Measurements
410
Fastest Data Transfer
413
Using Macros
414
3. Calibrate a Measurement
Calibration Overview
418
Calibration Standards
420
Calibration Wizard
424
Select a Calibration
439
Using Cal Sets
443
Error Correction and Interpolation
451
Calibration Thru Methods
455
Accurate Calibrations
461
Validity of a Cal
464
ECal
469
ECal User Characterization
477
TRL Calibration
489
Calibration Preferences
493
Measurement Errors
497
3
Modify Cal Kits
509
Power Calibration
528
Fixture Compensation
542
Port Extensions
554
Characterize Adaptor Macro
206
Delta Match Calibration
560
4. Analyze Data
Locate Data Using Markers
564
Math & Memory Operations
574
Equation Editor
580
Use Limits to Test Devices
593
5. Output Data
Save and Recall Data
598
Drive Mapping
612
Print
614
Tutorials
App Notes
620
Network Analyzer Basics
622
Connector Care
623
ESD Protection
634
Measurements
Absolute Output Power
635
AM-PM Conversion
637
Amplifier Measurements
642
Antenna Measurements
645
Balanced Measurements
648
Complex Impedance
654
Comparing the PNA Delay Functions
657
Deviation from Linear Phase
659
External Source Control
662
Gain and Flatness
666
Gain Compression
669
Group Delay
674
4
High-Power Measurements using a PNA
680
High Power Measurements using a PNA-X
681
Impedance Matching Model
683
Phase Measurements
687
Reverse Isolation
690
Reflection Measurements
693
Reflected Waves
697
Time Domain Measurements
216
Programming
698
COM
Commands
Objects
The Analyzer Object Model
699
Application Object
701
AuxTrigger Object
707
BalancedMeasurement Object
709
BalancedTopology Object
711
CalFactorSegments Collection
713
Calibrator Object
714
CalKit Object
719
CalManager Object
721
CalSet Object
723
CalSets Collection
728
CalStandard Object
729
Capabilities Object
731
Channel Object
733
Channels Collection
740
E5091Testset Collection
742
E5091Testset Object
744
EmbeddedLO Object
746
EmbeddedLODiagnostic Object
748
ENRFile Object
750
Equation Object
752
5
ExternalTestsets Collection
754
Fixturing Object
756
FOM Collection
761
FOMRange Object
763
GainCompression Object
766
GainCompressionCal Object
769
Gating Object
771
GuidedCalibration Object
773
HWAuxIO Object
776
HWExternalTestSetIO Object
779
HWMaterialHandlerIO Object
781
IIFConfiguration Object
783
IMixer Interface
786
InterfaceControl Object
789
Limit Test Collection
790
LimitSegment Object
792
Marker Object
794
Measurement Object
797
Measurements Collection
804
NAWindow Object
805
NAWindows Collection
807
NoiseCal Object
808
NoiseFigure Object
810
PathConfiguration Object
812
PathConfigurationManager Object
814
PathElement Object
816
Port Extension Object
818
PowerLossSegment Object
820
PowerLossSegments Collection
822
PowerMeterInterface Object
823
PowerMeterInterfaces Collection
825
PowerSensor Object
827
PowerSensorCalFactorSegment Object
829
6
PowerSensors Collection
830
Preferences Object
831
PulseGenerator Object
833
SCPIStringParser Object
835
Segment Object
837
Segments Collection
839
SignalProcessingModuleFour Object
841
SMC Type Object
844
SourcePowerCalibrator Object
846
TestsetControl Object
849
Trace Object
851
Traces Collection
853
Transform Object
854
TriggerSetup Object
856
VMC Type Object
858
Properties
AcceptTriggerBeforeArmed
861
AcquisitionDirection
862
AcquisitionMode
863
Active Cal Kit
864
Active Channel
865
Active Marker
866
Active Measurement
867
Active NAWindow
868
ActiveXAxisRange
869
ADCCaptureMode
870
ALCLevelingMode
871
Active Trace
872
AllowArbitrarySegments
873
Alternate Sweep
874
AmbientTemperature
875
Application
876
Arrange Windows
877
7
Attenuator Mode
878
Attenuator
879
AutoIFBWAdjustment
881
AutoOrient
882
AutoPortExtConfig
883
AutoPortExtDCOffset
884
AutoPortExtLoss
885
AutoPortExtSearchStart
886
AutoPortExtSearchStop
887
AutoPortExtState
888
AuxiliaryTriggerCount
889
AuxTriggerScopeIsGlobal
890
Averaging Count
892
Averaging Factor
893
Averaging ON/OFF
894
AvoidSpurs
895
BalancedMode
896
Bandwidth Target
897
Bandwidth Tracking
898
BB_BalPort1Negative
899
BB_BalPort1Positive
900
BB_BalPort2Negative
901
BB_BalPort2Positive
902
BBalMeasurement Property
903
Begin Response
904
Begin Stimulus
905
BroadbandTuningSpan
906
Bucket Number
907
C0
908
C1
909
C2
910
C3
911
Cal Factor
912
8
Cal Type (applied)
913
Calibration Name
915
Calibration Port
916
Calibration TypeID
917
Cal KitType
920
CalKitType (FCA)
921
CalMethod
923
Cal Power
924
Center
925
Center (Meas)
926
Center Frequency
927
Channel Number
928
CharacterizeMixerOnly
929
CharFileName
930
CharMixerReverse
931
CitiContents
932
CitiFormat
933
CmnModeZConvPortImag
934
CmnModeZConvPortReal
935
CmnModeZConvPortZ0
936
CmnModeZConvState
937
CompatibleCalKits
938
CompressionAlgorithm
939
CompressionBackoff
940
CompressionDeltaX
941
CompressionDeltaY
942
CompressionInterpolation
943
CompressionLevel
944
ConnectorType
945
ControlLines
946
Count
948
Couple Ports
949
CoupleChannelParams
950
9
Coupled
951
Coupled Markers
952
CoupledParameters - Gate
953
CoupledParameters - Transform
954
CustomChannelConfiguration
955
CW Frequency
956
Delay
957
Delay pulse
958
Delay_trigger
959
DelayIncrement
960
DeltaMarker
961
Description
962
DescriptiveText
963
DeviceInputPort
964
DeviceLinearPowerLevel
965
DeviceOutputPort
966
DiffPortMatch_C
967
DiffPortMatch_G
968
DiffPortMatch_L
969
DiffPortMatch_R
970
DiffPortMatchMode
971
DiffPortMatchState
972
DiffPortMatchUserFilename
973
DiffZConvPortImag
974
DiffZConvPortReal
975
DiffZConvPortZ0
976
DiffZConvState
977
Display Format
978
DisplayAutomationErrors
980
DisplayGlobalPassFail
981
DisplayRange
982
Distance
983
DistanceMarkerMode
984
10
DistanceMarkerUnit
985
Divisor
986
Do1PortEcal
987
Do2PortEcal
988
Domain
989
DUTTopology
990
Dwell Time
991
ECALCharacterization (smc)
992
ECALCharacterization (vmc)
993
ECALCharacterizationEx
994
ECALIsolation
995
ECALModuleNumberList
996
EcalOrientation
997
EcalOrientation1Port
999
EcalOrientation2Port
1000
ECALPortMapEx
1002
ElecDelay Medium
1004
Electrical Delay
1005
Element
1006
Elements
1007
Embed4PortA
1008
Embed4PortB
1009
Embed4PortC
1010
Embed4PortD
1011
Embed4PortList
1012
Embed4PortNetworkFilename
1014
Embed4PortNetworkMode
1015
Embed4PortState
1016
Embed4PortTopology
1017
Enable
1018
Enabled
1019
EnableSourceUnleveledEvents
1020
EndOfSweepOperation
1021
11
ENRFile
1022
ENRID
1023
ENRSN
1024
Error Correction
1025
ErrorCorrection(Channel)
1026
External ALC
1027
ExternalTriggerConnectionBehavior
1028
ExternalTriggerDelay
1030
Filter BW
1031
Filter CF
1032
Filter Loss
1033
Filter Q
1034
FilterErrors
1035
FilterMode
1037
FirmwareMajorRevision
1038
FirmwareMinorRevision
1039
FirmwareSeries
1040
FixturingState
1041
FootSwitch
1042
Footswitch Mode
1043
Format (Marker)
1044
Format
978
Frequency
1046
Frequency Span
1047
FrequencyList
1048
Frequency Offset Divisor
1049
Frequency Offset Frequency
1050
Frequency Offset Multiplier
1051
Frequency Offset Override To CW
1052
Frequency Offset State
1053
Gate Shape
1054
Gate Type
1055
GPIBAddress
1056
12
GPIB Mode
1057
GPIBPortCount
1058
HandshakeEnable
1059
ID
1060
IDString
1061
IF Bandwidth Option
1062
IF Bandwidth
1063
IFDenominator
1064
IFFilterSampleCount
1065
IFFilterSamplePeriod
1066
IFFilterSamplePeriodList
1067
IFFilterSamplePeriodMode
1068
IFFilterSource Property
1069
IFGainLevel
1070
IFGainMode
1071
IFGateEnable
1072
IFFrequency
1073
IFFrequencyMode
1074
IFNumerator
1075
IFSideband
1076
IFSourcePath
1077
IFStartFrequency
1078
IFStopFrequency
1079
ImpedanceStates
1080
Impulse Width
1081
IndexState
1082
Input A
1083
Input B
1084
Input C
1085
InputDenominator
1086
InputFixedFrequency
1087
InputIsGreaterThanLO
1088
InputNumerator
1089
13
InputPower
1090
InputRangeMode
1091
InputStartFrequency
1092
InputStopFrequency
1093
InternalTestsetPortCount
1094
Interpolate Correction
1095
Interpolated
1096
InterpolateNormalization
1097
Interrupt
1098
IsContinuous
1099
IsECALModuleFoundEx
1100
IsFrequencyOffsetPresent
1101
IsHold
1102
IsMarkerOn
1103
IsolationAveragingIncrement
1104
IsOn
1105
IsReceiverStepAttenuatorPresent
1106
IsReferenceBypassSwitchPresent
1107
IsSParameter
1108
IterationsTolerance
1109
Kaiser Beta
1110
L0
1111
L1
1112
L2
1113
L3
1114
Label
1115
Label Testset
1116
LastModified
1117
LimitTestFailed
1118
Limit Line Begin Stimulus
905
Limit Line End Stimulus
1119
Limit Line Begin Response
904
Limit Line End Response
1120
14
Limit Type
1121
Line Display
1122
LoadCharFromFile
1123
LoadPort
1124
LocalLockoutState
1125
Locator
1126
LODeltaFound
1127
LODenominator
1128
LOFixedFrequency
1129
LOFrequencyDelta
1130
OBS_LogMagnitudeOffset
1131
LOName
1132
LONumerator
1133
LOPower
1134
LORangeMode
1135
Loss
1136
Loss (sourceCal)
1137
LOStage
1138
LOStartFrequency
1139
LOStopFrequency
1140
MagnitudeOffset
1141
MagnitudeSlopeOffset
1142
Marker Annotation
1143
Marker Bucket Number
907
Marker Format (all)
1144
Marker Format (indiv)
1044
Marker Interpolate(all)
1146
Marker Interpolate (indiv)
1096
Marker Number
1147
Marker Position
1148
Marker Readout
1149
Marker ReadoutSize
1150
Marker State
1151
15
Marker Type
1152
Marker X-axis Value
1153
Marker Y-axis Value
1154
Maximum Frequency
1156
MaximumFrequency (capabilities)
1157
MaximiumFrequency (sourceCal)
1158
MaximumIFFilterSampleCount
1159
MaximumIFFrequency
1160
MaximumIterationsPerPoint
1161
MaximumNumberOfChannels
1162
MaximumNumberOfTracesPerWindow
1163
MaximumNumberOfWindows
1164
MaximumNumberOfPoints
1165
MaximumReceiverStepAttenuator
1166
MaximumSourceALCPower
1167
MaximumSourceStepAttenuator
1168
MaxPreciseTuningIterations
1169
Mean
1170
Medium
1171
Minimum Frequency
1172
MinimumFrequency (capabilities)
1173
MinimumFrequency (sourceCal)
1174
MinimumIFFilterSampleCount
1175
MinimumIFFrequency Property
1176
MinimumNumberOfPoints
1177
MinimumReceiverStepAttenuator
1178
MinimumSourceALCPower
1179
Mode
1180
Multiplier
1181
Name (Calset)
1182
Name (CalKit object)
1183
Name config
1184
Name element
1185
16
Name FOMRange
1186
Name (meas)
1187
Name (trace)
1188
NetworkFilename
1189
NetworkMode
1190
NoiseAverageFactor
1191
NoiseAverageState
1192
NoiseBandwidth
1193
NoiseGain
1194
NoiseSourceCalKitType
1195
NoiseSourceCold
1196
NoiseSourceConnectorType
1197
NoiseSourceState
1198
NoiseTuner
1199
NoiseTunerIn
1200
NoiseTunerOut
1201
NominalIncidentPowerState
1202
NormalizePoint Property
1203
Number (meas)
1204
Number
1205
NumberOfFrequencyPoints
1206
Number of Points
1207
Number of Points (Meas)
1208
NumberOfPorts
1209
NumberOfPorts(Testset)
1210
NumberOfPowerPoints
1211
NumberOfSweeps
1212
Offset
1213
OffsetReceiverAttenuator
1214
OffsetSourceAttenuator
1215
OmitIsolation
1216
OneReadoutPerTrace
1217
Options
1218
17
OrientECALModule
1219
OutputFixedFrequency
1221
OutputPort
1222
OutputPorts calset
1224
OutputPorts
1225
OutputRangeMode
1226
OutputSideband
1227
OutputStartFrequency
1228
OutputStopFrequency
1229
Parameter
1230
Parameter_elo
1231
Parent
1232
PassFailLogic
1233
PassFailMode
1234
PassFailPolicy
1235
PassFailScope
1236
PassFailStatus
1237
Path Property
1238
PathCalMethod
1239
PathConfiguration
1241
PathThruMethod
1242
Peak Excursion
1244
Peak Threshold
1245
PeakTo Peak
1246
Period
1247
Phase Offset
1248
Port 1
1249
Port 2
1250
Port 3
1251
Port2PdeembedCktModel
1252
Port2PdeembedState
1253
PortArbzImag
1254
PortArbzReal
1255
18
PortArbzState
1256
PortArbzZ0
1257
PortCatalog
1258
PortCLogic
1259
PortCMode
1260
PortDelay
1261
PortExtState
1262
PortExtUse1
1263
PortExtUse2
1264
PortFreq1
1265
PortFreq2
1266
Port Label
1267
PortLogic
1268
PortLoss1
1269
PortLoss2
1270
PortLossDC
1271
PortMatching_C
1272
PortMatching_G
1273
PortMatching_L
1274
PortMatching_R
1275
PortMatchingCktModel
1276
PortMatchingState
1277
PortMode
1278
PortsNeedingDeltaMatch
1279
Power Slope
1280
Power Acquisition Device
1281
PowerLevel
1282
Power Meter Channel
1283
Power Meter GPIBAddress
1284
PowerOnDuringRetraceMode
1285
PowerSweepRetracePowerMode
1286
PreciseTuningTolerance
1287
PreferInternalTriggerOnChannelSingle
1288
19
PreferInternalTriggerOnUnguidedCal
1290
RangeCount
1291
rangeNumber
1292
R1 Input Path
1293
Readings Per Point
1294
ReadingsTolerance
1295
ReadyForTriggerState
1296
Receiver Attenuator
1297
ReceiverCount
1298
ReceiverStepAttenuatorStepSize
1299
Receive Port
1300
ReduceIFBandwidth
1301
ReferenceCalFactor
1302
Reference Marker State
1303
Reference Level
1304
Reference Position
1305
RemoteCalStoragePreference
1306
ReverseLinearPowerLevel
1307
SafeSweepCoarsePowerAdjustment
1308
SafeSweepEnable
1309
SafeSweepFinePowerAdjustment
1310
SafeSweepFineThreshold
1311
SB_BalPortNegative
1312
SB_BalPortPositive
1313
SB_SEPort
1314
SBalMeasurement
1315
Scope
1316
Search Function
1317
SecurityLevel
1318
Segment Number
1319
SelectPort
1320
Show Statistics
1321
ShowProperties
1322
20
SICL
1323
SICLAddress
1324
Simultaneous2PortAcquisition
1325
SmartSweepMaximumIterations
1326
SmartSweepSettlingTime
1327
SmartSweepShowIterations
1328
SmartSweepTolerance
1329
Smoothing Aperture
1330
Smoothing ON/OFF
1331
SnPFormat
1332
Sound On Fail
1333
SourceCount
1334
Source Port
1335
SourcePortCount
1336
SourcePortMode
1337
SourcePortNames
1338
Source
1339
SourcePowerCalPowerOffset
1340
Source Power Correction
1341
Source Power Option
1342
Source Power State
1343
Span
1344
Span (Meas)
1345
SSB_BalPortNegative
1346
SSB_BalPortPositive
1347
SSB_SEPort1
1348
SSB_SEPort2
1349
SSBMeasurement
1350
Stage1Coefficients
1351
Stage1Frequency
1352
Stage1MaximumCoefficient
1353
Stage1MaximumCoefficientCount
1354
Stage1MaximumCoefficientSum
1355
21
Stage1MinimumCoefficientCount
1356
Stage2Coefficients
1357
Stage2MaximumCoefficient
1358
Stage2MaximumCoefficientCount
1359
Stage2MaximumCoefficientSum
1360
Stage2MinimumCoefficientCount
1361
Stage3FilterType Property
1362
Stage3FilterTypes Property
1363
Stage3Parameter Property
1364
Stage3ParameterMaximum Property
1365
Stage3ParameterMinimum Property
1366
Stage3Parameters Property
1367
Standard Deviation
1368
Standard For Class
1369
Start Frequency_CS
1371
Start Frequency
1372
Start Power
1374
Start
1375
Start (Meas)
1376
State
1377
State pulse
1379
Statistics Range
1380
StatusAsString
1381
Step Rise Time
1382
StepData
1383
StepTitle
1384
StimulusValues
1385
Stop Frequency
1386
Stop Frequency_CS
1388
Stop Power
1389
Stop
1390
Stop (Meas)
1391
strPort2Pdeembed_S2PFile
1392
22
strPortMatch_S2PFile
1393
SweepEndMode
1394
SweepHoldOff
1395
Sweep Generation Mode
1396
Sweep Time
1397
SweepTimeOption
1398
Sweep Type
1399
System Impedance Z0
1400
SystemName
1401
Target Value
1402
Test Port Power
1403
TestSetType
1405
Text
1406
ThruCalMethod (FCA)
1407
ThruCalMethod
1408
ThruPortList
1409
Title
1411
Title State
1412
TotalNumberOfPoints
1413
Touchscreen
1414
Trace Math
1415
TraceTitle
1416
TraceTitleState
1417
Tracking
1418
Transform Mode
1180
Trigger Delay
1419
TriggerInPolarity
1420
TriggerInType
1421
TriggerOutDuration
1422
TriggerOutInterval
1423
TriggerOutPolarity
1424
TriggerOutPosition
1425
TriggerOutputEnabled
1426
23
TuningIFBW
1427
TuningMode
1428
TuningSweepInterval
1429
Trigger Mode
1430
Trigger Signal
1431
Trigger Type
1432
Type (calstd)
1433
Type_ts
1434
TZImag Property
1435
TZReal Property
1436
UnusedChannelNumbers
1437
USBPowerMeterCatalog
1438
UseCalWindow
1439
UsedChannelNumbers
1440
Use Power Loss Segments
1441
Use Power Sensor Frequency Limits
1442
User Range
1443
User Range Max
1444
User Range Min
1445
UserPresetEnable
1446
Valid
1447
ValidConnectorType
1448
Value element
1449
Values
1450
Velocity Factor
1451
View
1452
Visible
1453
WGCutoffFreq
1454
Width
1455
Window Number
1456
Window State
1457
XAxisAnnotation
1458
XAxis Point Spacing
1459
24
XAxisStart
1460
XAxisStop
1461
YAxisAnnotation
1462
YScale
1463
Z0
1464
Methods
Abort
1465
AbortPowerAcquisition
1466
Acquire Cal Standard
1467
Acquire Cal Standard2
1469
AcquireCalConfidenceCheckECALEx
1471
AcquirePowerReadingsEx
1472
AcquireStep
1474
Activate
1475
Activate Marker
1476
Activate Window
1477
Add (channels)
1478
Add (measurement)
1479
Add (naWindows)
1482
Add (PowerLossSegment)
1483
Add (PowerSensorCalFactorSegment)
1484
Add (segments)
1485
Add Testset
1486
Allow All Events
1487
AllowChannelToSweepDuringCalAcquisition
1488
Allow Event Category
1489
Allow Event Message
1490
Allow Event Severity
1491
Apply
1492
ApplyDeltaMatchFromCalSet
1493
ApplyPowerCorrectionValuesEx
1494
ApplySourcePowerCorrectionTo
1495
AutoPortExtMeasure
1496
25
AutoPortExtReset
1497
Autoscale
1498
Averaging Restart
1499
Build Hybrid Kit
1500
Calculate Error Coefficients
1501
Calculate
1502
Change Parameter
1504
CheckPower
1507
Clear
1508
Close CalSet
1509
ComputeErrorTerms
1510
ConfigEnhancedNB2
1511
ConfigEnhancedNBIFAtten
1513
ConfigNarrowBand3
1514
ConfigurationFile
1516
Configurations
1517
Configure
1518
Continuous Sweep
1519
Copy
1520
CopyToChannel
1522
Create SParameterEX
1523
CreateCalSet
1525
CreateCustomCal
1526
CreateCustomCalEx
1527
CreateCustomMeasurementEx
1528
CustomCalConfiguration Method
1531
Create Measurement
1532
DataToMemory
1536
Delete
1537
Delete Marker
1538
Delete All Markers
1539
DeleteCalSet
1540
DeleteConfiguration
1541
26
Delete ShortCut
1542
Delta Marker
961
Disallow All Events
1543
DisplayNAWindowDuringCalAcquisition
1544
DisplayOnlyCalWindowDuringCalAcquisition
1545
Do Print
1546
DoECAL1PortEx
1547
DoECAL2PortEx
1548
DoneCalConfidenceCheckECAL
1550
DoReceiverPowerCal
1551
EnumerateCalSets
1553
Execute
1554
Execute Shortcut
1555
GenerateGlobalDeltaMatchSequence
1556
GenerateErrorTerms
1557
GenerateSteps
1558
Get AuxIO
1559
Get Cal Standard
1560
Get CalManager
1561
Get CalSetByGUID
1562
Get CalSetCatalog
1563
Get CalSetUsageInfo
1564
Get Cal Types
1565
Get Complex
1566
Get DataByString
1568
Get Data
1570
Get ECALModuleInfoEx
1572
Get ErrorCorrection
1573
Get Error Term
1574
Get Error Term2
1576
Get Error Term By String
1578
Get Error Term Complex
1580
Get Error Term Complex2
1582
27
Get Error Term Complex By String
1584
Get Error Term List
1586
Get Error Term List2
1588
Get ExtendedCalInterface
1589
Get ExternalTestSetIO
1590
Get Filter Statistics
1591
Get Guid
1592
get InputVoltageEX
1593
Get Input1
1595
Get IsolationPaths
1596
Get MaterialHandlerIO
1597
Get NAComplex
1598
Get NumberOfGroups
1600
Get Output
1601
Get Output Voltage
1602
Get OutputVoltage Mode
1603
Get Paired Data
1604
Get Port
1606
Get PortC Data
1607
Get PortNumber
1608
GetRaw2DData
1609
GetRaw2DDataIm
1611
GetRaw2DDataRe
1613
Get Reference Marker
1615
Get Required Eterm Names
1616
Get Scalar
1617
Get Shortcut
1619
Get SnPData
1620
Get SnpDataWithSpecifiedPorts
1621
Get SourcePowerCalDataEx
1623
Get SourcePowerCalDataScalarEx
1625
Get Standard
1627
Get Standard By String
1629
28
Get Standard Complex
1630
Get Standard Complex By String
1632
Get StandardsList
1633
Get Standard List2
1635
Get StandardsForClass
1636
Get StepDescription
1638
Get SupportedALCModes
1639
Get Test Result
1640
Get Trace Statistics
1641
Get X-Axis Values
1642
Get XAxisValues (Meas)
1643
Get X-axis Values Variant
1644
Has CalType
1645
Hold
1647
Hold (All Chans)
1648
Initialize
1649
Item
1650
LaunchCalWizard
1652
Launch Dialog
1653
LaunchPowerMeterSettingsDialog
1654
Load Configuration
1655
LoadENRFile
1656
LoadFile
1657
Manual Trigger
1658
MessageText
1659
Next IF Bandwidth
1660
Number of Groups
1661
Open CalSet
1662
Parse
1664
Preset (app and chan)
1665
Previous IF Bandwidth
1666
Print To File
1667
Put Complex
1668
29
Put Data Complex
1670
PutENRData
1672
Put ErrorTerm
1673
Put ErrorTerm2
1675
Put Error Term By String
1676
Put ErrorTerm Complex
1677
Put ErrorTerm Complex2
1679
Put Error Term Complex By String
1681
Put Formatted Scalar Data
1682
Put NAComplex
1684
Put Output
1686
Put Output Voltage
1687
Put Output Voltage Mode
1688
Put Port
1689
Put PortCData
1691
Put Scalar
1692
Put Shortcut
1694
Put SourcePowerCalDataEx
1695
Put SourcePowerCalDataScalarEx
1696
Put Standard
1697
Put Standard By String
1699
Put Standard Complex
1700
Put Standard Complex By String
1702
Quit
1703
Read Data
1704
Read Raw
1705
Recall
1707
Recall Kits
1708
Remove
1709
Reset
1711
ResetLOFrequency
1712
ResetTuningParameters
1713
Restore Cal Kit Defaults
1714
30
Restore Cal Kit Defaults All
1715
Resume
1716
Save
1717
Save (CalSet)
1719
Save CalSets
1720
SaveCitiDataData
1721
SaveCitiFormattedData
1722
SaveENRFile
1723
Save File
1724
Save Kits
1725
Search Filter Bandwidth
1726
Search Max
1727
Search Min
1728
Search Next Peak
1729
Search Peak Left
1730
Search Peak Right
1731
Search Target
1732
Search Target Left
1733
Search Target Right
1734
SelectCalSet
1735
Set All Segments
1736
Set BBPorts
1738
Set Cal Info
1739
SetCalInfoEx
1741
Set Center
1743
Set CW
1744
Set Electrical Delay
1745
Set FailOnOverRange
1746
Set IsolationPaths
1747
Set PowerAcquisitionDevice
1749
Set Frequency LowPass
1750
SetPortMap
1751
Set Reference Level
1752
31
Set SBPorts
1753
Set SSBPorts
1754
SetupMeasurementsForStep
1755
Set StandardsForClass
1756
Set Start
1758
Set Stop
1759
Show Marker Readout
1760
Show Status Bar
1761
Show Stimulus
1762
Show Table
1763
Show Title Bars
1764
Show Toolbar
1765
Single
1766
Store
1767
StoreConfiguration
1768
StringToNACalClass
1769
StringtoNAErrorTerm2
1771
SweepOnlyCalChannelDuringCalAcquisition
1772
TestsetCatalog
1773
UserPreset
1774
UserPresetLoadFile
1775
UserPresetSaveState
1776
Write Data
1777
Write Raw
1778
WriteSnpFileWithSpecifiedPorts
1780
Events
OnCalEvent
1782
OnChannelEvent
1784
OnDisplayEvent
1786
OnHardwareEvent
1788
OnMeasurementEvent
1790
OnSCPIEvent
1792
OnSystemEvent
1794
32
OnUserEvent
1796
Examples
CalSet_Examples
1797
Getting Trace Data from the Analyzer
1799
Perform a Guided Cal using COM
1802
Perform an ECal
1805
Perform a Source Power Cal
1807
Perform an Unguided Cal using COM
1810
Perform an Unknown Thru or TRL Cal
1813
Perform Global Delta Match Cal
1815
Writing Cal Set Data using COM
1816
Upload a Source Power Cal
1818
Upload Segment Table
1820
Create and Cal an SMC Measurement
1822
Create and Cal a VMC Measurement
1824
Create an SMC Fixed Output Meas
1827
Create a Pulsed Measurement
1829
Create a Balanced Measurement
1831
Perform an ECAL Confidence Check
1835
Limit Line Testing Example with COM
1837
E5091Testset Control
1838
Errors and the SCPIStringParser Object
1839
External Testset Control
1841
PathConfiguration Example
1843
Events Example
1844
Concepts
Configure for COM-DCOM Programming
1845
COM Fundamentals
1850
Getting a Handle to an Object
1854
Collections in the Analyzer
1857
COM Data Types
1858
PNA Automation Interfaces
1860
Working with the Analyzer's Events
1862
33
Read and Write Calibration Data using COM
1866
C and the COM Interface
1868
Using .NET
1871
SCPI
Commands
SCPI Command Tree
1873
Common Commands
1875
Abort
1878
Calculate
Correction
1879
Custom
1885
Data
1889
Equation
1896
Filter
1899
Format
1905
FSimulator
1907
Function
1909
GCData
1914
Limit
1918
Marker
1924
Math
1941
Mixer
1943
Normalize
1944
Offset
1947
Parameter
1950
RData
1958
Smoothing
1960
Transform
1963
Control
1972
Display
1983
Format
1999
Hardcopy
2001
Initiate
2002
34
Memory
2005
Output
2014
Route
2016
Sense
Average
2017
Bandwidth
2019
Correction
Correction
2021
Guided Cal
2046
Cal Kit
2066
Cal Stds
2074
Cal Sets
2095
Extensions
2109
Session
2118
SMC
2124
VMC
2132
Couple
2142
FOM
2144
FOMSegment
2153
Frequency
2164
Gain Compression
2168
IF
2183
IF (PNA-X)
2188
Mixer
2197
MixerEmbedLO
2215
Multiplexer
2229
Noise
2240
Offset
2248
Path
2252
Power
2257
Pulse
2258
Roscillator
2262
Segment
2263
35
Sweep
2273
XAxis
2282
Source
2283
Source Correction
2294
Status
2310
System
2326
Trigger
2347
Examples
Catalog Measurements
2361
Create an FOM Measurement
2362
Create an S-Parameter Measurement
2365
Create a Balanced Measurement
2366
Channels, Windows, and Measurements using GPIB
2371
Setup Sweep Parameters
2373
Setup the Display
2374
Triggering the PNA
2376
GPIB using Visual C
2381
Guided 2-Port or 4-Port Cal
2385
Guided 2-Port Comprehensive Cal
2388
Guided ECal
2394
Guided Mechanical Cal
2396
Guided 1-Port on Port 2
2398
Guided TRL Calibration
2400
Guided Unknown Thru or TRL Cal
2402
Global Delta Match Cal
2404
Unguided ECAL
2405
Unguided 2-Port Mech Cal
2406
Unguided 1-Port Cal on Port 2
2408
Unguided 2-Port Cal on a 4-Port PNA
2410
Unguided_Cal_on_Multiple_Channels
2419
ECAL Confidence Check
2423
Source and Receiver Power Cal
2426
Upload a Source Power Cal
2435
36
Perform a Sliding Load Cal
2439
Load Eterms during Cal Sequence
2440
Create New Cal Kit
2441
Modify a Calibration Kit
2447
Create and Cal a VMC Measurement
2449
Create and Cal an SMC Measurement
2452
Create an SMC Fixed Output Measurement
2454
Create and Cal a GCA Measurement
2457
Create and Cal a Noise Figure Measurement
2462
Show Custom Window during Calibration
2465
Getting and Putting Data
2468
Getting and Putting Data (definite block transfers)
2470
Control an External Test Set
2473
Transfer Data using GPIB
2475
Establish a VISA Session
2477
Status Reporting
2479
Create a Custom Power Meter Driver
2481
GPIB Pass Through
2485
PNA as Controller and Talker/Listener
2486
Send SCPI Commands using a Socket Client
2488
Concepts
GP-IB Fundamentals
2492
The Rules and Syntax of SCPI Commands
2497
How to Configure for GPIB, SCPI, and SICL
2501
Getting Data from the Analyzer
2505
Understanding Command Synchronization
2509
Calibrating the PNA Using SCPI
2514
The PNA as a USB Device
2519
Reading the Analyzer's Status Registers
2520
Configure for VISA and SICL
2523
VEE Examples
VEE Pro Runtime
2526
Basic Control VEE
2527
37
ECal with Confidence Check using VEE
2529
Data Access Map
DataMapSet
2530
Rear Panel IO Connectors
Interface Control
2531
Auxiliary IO connector
2537
External TestSet IO Connector
2542
Material Handler IO Connector
2548
Pulse IO (PNA-X)
2561
Power IO (PNA-X)
2563
Programming Guide
698
New Programming Commands
2565
COM versus SCPI
2580
Remotely Specifying a Source Port
2582
Using Macros
414
Networking the PNA
Drive Mapping
612
Connecting the PNA to a PC
2583
Easy vs Secure Configuration
2586
Changing Network Client
2587
Product Support
Troubleshoot the PNA
2588
List of Error Messages
2592
About Error Messages
2653
Accessories
2657
USB to GPIB Adapter
2664
Firmware Update
2667
PNA Configurations and Options
2673
Option Enable
2682
Instrument Calibration
2686
Other Resources
2687
SCPI Errors
2688
Technical Support
2699
Diagnostic Tools and Adjustments
38
3.8 GHz Frequency Adjust
2704
10 MHz Reference Adjust
2706
Display Test
2708
LO Power Adjust
2709
Offset LO Power Adjustment
2711
Operators Check
2712
Option H11 Verification
2715
Phase-Lock IF Gain Adjust
2718
System Verification
2720
Source Cal
2731
Receiver Cal
2734
Receiver Display
2737
IF Access
IF Access User Interface Settings
2739
External Test Head Configuration
2743
PNA-X IF Path Configuration
2747
Controlling External Devices
E5091 Test Set Control
2751
External Testset Control
2755
Interface Control
2531
USB to GPIB Adapter
2664
Aux IO Connector
2537
Handler IO Connector
2548
Test Set IO Connector
2542
Power IO Connector (PNA-X)
2563
Configure an External LO Source
175
Synchronize an External PSG Source
662
Specifications
E8356A, 57A, 58A
2766
E8801A, 02A. 03A
2767
N3381A, 82A, 83A
2768
E8361A
2769
E8362A, 63A, 64A
2830
39
E8362B, 63B, 64B
2831
N5230A 2-Port
2877
N5230 4-Port
2955
N5242A
2990
N5250A
3110
Glossary
3117
40
What's New in PNA Code Version A.08.00
Noise Figure Application (Opt 029)
Gain Compression Application (Opt 086)
'Sweep' Trigger Mode
Custom Cal Window settings (remote only)
New Equation Editor Functions
Minimum Number of Points = 1
See New 8.0 Programming Commands
To check your PNA code version, click Help, then About Network Analyzer
What's New in PNA Code Version A.07.50
USB / LAN power sensor support
Increased Number of Points to 20,001
'Extra' Security Setting
Wideband Pulsed Application (PNA-X)
Expanded right-click mouse capabilities (PNA-X)
IF Path Configuration for all receivers (PNA-X)
External Source Control
Consistency improvements
Generic (Non-Agilent) sources are NOT supported in this release. This could result in errors in remote
programs.
Copy Source Power Cal Macro
Note: This firmware revision can be installed on ALL PNA models that use Windows XP.
Highlighted text on this page (until 6.04) describes features that are NEW for most PNA models. These features
have already been released for PNA-X models.
See New 7.50 Programming Commands
41
What's New in PNA Code Version 7.22
Enhanced Response Calibration
PNA-X Support for Millimeter-wave (Please read CAUTION)
External Source Control for ALL measurement types
Embedded LO Measurements
ADC Receiver Measurements
What's New in PNA Code Version 7.21
Wider IF Bandwidths (PNA-X Only)
Produce receiver power calibration of PNA reference receiver
Isolation Cal (SCPI and COM only)
What's New in PNA Code Version 7.20
New PNA-X models includes the following features:
Internal Second Source (some models)
Improved Front-Panel User Interface
10.4 inch Hi resolution LCD Touchscreen
Fully functional Hardkey / Softkey layout
Trace Zoom
Trace Max - isolates a single trace
Marker Drag with mouse or touchscreen
Expanded Right-click mouse capabilities
Custom Trace Titles
Memory Normalize
Increased Rear-Panel Capabilities
Auxiliary Triggering
42
Pulse I/O
Power I/O
IF Path Configuration
RF Path Configurator
Measurement Classes
Source and Receiver Attenuation Offset
Updated Pulsed Application
True Mode Stimulus Application (Webpage)
New PNA Preferences Help Topic
See New 7.20 Programming Commands
What's New in PNA Code Version 7.1
New PNA-L 4-port models
FOM and Power dialog support for 2 Internal Sources
See New 7.1 Programming Commands
What's New in PNA Code Version 6.2
Option 551 Multiport Test Set Control
QSOLT Calibration Method
Calibration Preferences
Unlimited number of windows
Source Power Cal using a PNA receiver only
Choose ports for saving sNp files
Channel Trigger State added to Status Bar
FCA and Cal Set viewer data can be saved to *.prn files
Cal Channel created for performing calibrations
New in PNA Help:
43
Improved FOM Setup Examples
See New 6.2 Programming Commands
What's New in PNA Code Version 6.04
Updated Print and Page Setup dialog
Selectable Power Sweep retrace level
Turn power OFF during a retrace in single band sweep.
Inverse Smith and Unwrapped Phase added to PNA display formats.
Opt. 082 SMC Measurements
Equation Editor
Remote SCPI over LAN from non-windows PC using Sockets/Telnet
Citifiles recalled to channel 32 and below.
ECal User-Characterization allowed beyond ECal module frequency range
New in PNA Help:
FCA Measurement Examples (VMC and SMC)
Comparing the PNA Delay Functions
PNA Online Web Help
See New 6.04 Programming Commands
What's New in PNA Code Version 6.0
Calibrate using an External Trigger Source
(This could affect your remote programs.)
Calibrate with an Offset Load Standard
(Cal Kits that you use may now include this standard.)
Corrected Measurement visible in Cal Window
External Testset Control
New FCA capabilities
44
Characterize Adaptor Macro creates S2P files from two 1-port Cal Sets.
1.1 GHz CPU and related capabilities
Error-checking and Disk Defragmenter recommendation
Agilent VEE Runtime Installed
*.csa file type is default for Save As and Auto Save
Bandwidth Markers search for "Valley" response
SimCal SCPI Preference
Application Code (software) Revision number now contains 6 digits instead of 4.
(This could affect your remote SCPI and COM programs.)
Rev 6.0 is NOT supported on PNA models using Windows 2000. For more information, see the PNA support
website.
Rev 6.0 is NOT supported on PNA models N3381A, N3382A, N3383A.
Last modified:
9/28/06
Cross-browser
45
PNA User Accounts and Passwords
When the PNA power is switched on, it automatically logs into Windows using the default user name and
password. This gives anyone full access to the analyzer. The following steps can be taken to increase security of
your PNA.
Require users to logon when the PNA computer is turned ON - Learn how to enable this feature
Setup individual accounts on the PNA with varying level of access - Learn how to Add or Change User
Accounts and Passwords
Please read about Anti-virus protection for your PNA
Existing User Accounts
The following user accounts already exist on new PNAs:
Default User Account
Beginning in April 2004, PNAs were shipped from the factory with the default user name is PNA-Admin and
the password is agilent.
For PNAs shipped before that, the default user name is Administrator and the password is either tsunami
or left blank.
These accounts are created by Windows and cannot be deleted.
We recommend you change the password and, if desired, the user name.
DO NOT FORGET YOUR NEW PASSWORD. You will not be able to start your PNA without it.
Agilent Account This Administrator account is created by Agilent for service purposes. Each PNA has a
unique password for this account. Although allowed by Windows, please do not delete this account.
Guest Account This account allows anyone to type in any name, without password, and gain limited access
to the PNA files. This account is created by Windows and cannot be deleted. It can be renamed. This
account is turned OFF when the PNA is shipped.
Notes
Although allowed by Windows, do NOT setup an Administrator account without a password. Internet viruses
look for, and exploit, this condition.
You can create as many user accounts as you like.
The user name is not case sensitive. The password IS case sensitive.
The PNA local policies are set so that, if logon is required, you must retype the user name (and password)
every time. Do not change the local policies on the PNA.
How to Require Users to Logon when the PNA Computer is turned ON.
How do I know which Operating System I have?
46
Windows 2000
Windows XP
On the Windows taskbar, click Start, then Settings,
then Control Panel
On the Windows taskbar, click Start, then Run
Double click Users and Passwords
Type control userpasswords2 then click OK
Check Users must enter a user name and
password to use this computer.
Check Users must enter a user name and
password to use this computer.
To turn this function OFF, perform the same procedure, but clear the checkbox. The account that is selected when
the checkbox is cleared is the account that is automatically logged on when the PNA is turned ON.
Add or Change User Accounts and Passwords
If the analyzer is in a secure environment, you can setup PNA users by name and grant various levels of access.
This is particularly important when the PNA is remotely controlled or accessed over LAN.
You can designate a person as the administrator and then configure the PNA to allow others to use it with reduced
permissions. That is, other people can be signed on to use the analyzer but they will not have the ability to perform
all of the administrative functions that you can as the administrator.
How to add or change a user account and password
How do I know which Operating System I have?
Windows 2000
Windows XP
In the analyzer System menu, point to Configure,
and click Control Panel.
Click Start, then point to Settings, then click Control
Panel
In the Control Panel window, scroll down and select
the Users and Passwords application.
Click User Accounts
On the Users tab, if the Add button appears dimmed,
select the Users must enter a user name and
password to use this computer check box near the
top of the window.
Follow the prompts to:
Change an account
Create a new account
Change the way users log on or off.
Click Add to enter the information for yourself or for
another user.
CAUTION: Although allowed by Windows, do NOT
allow an Administrator account without a password.
Internet viruses look for, and exploit, this condition.
In the User name box, enter a user name for the
user. In the Full name box, enter the full name of the
user.
47
In the Description box, enter a description for the
user. Then, click Next.
In the Password box, have the user type a password.
Have the user retype the password in the Confirm
password box. Then, click Next.
Select the level of access that you wish to grant this
user.
Note: Standard users and restricted users ARE ABLE
to switch GPIB modes and install firmware.
Note: Standard users and restricted users are NOT
able to switch GPIB modes and install firmware.
There are several other levels of security that you
may grant in the Other list. A description of each of
these other levels is displayed beneath the Other box
when it is selected. Then, click Finish.
In the Users for this computer box, validate the user
name and security level group of the user.
If you want this user to be able to use the network
analyzer without entering their password each use,
clear the Users must enter a user name and
password to use this computer check box. Click
OK.
When the Automatically Log On window is
displayed, have the new user type their password in
the Password box and have them retype the
password in the Confirm Password box.
Click OK to complete this user addition.
In the File menu, click Close to close the Control
Panel.
48
PNA Computer Properties
The PNA uses a personal computer and a Windows operating system. The following are common tasks that you
may need to perform on the PNA computer.
View or change Full Computer Name
Check IP Address
Check the amount of RAM
Check CPU Speed
Set Time and Date
Turn OFF Speaker
Other Administrative Task Topics
View or change Full Computer Name
Your PNA has a unique computer name that identifies it on a network. To view or change the computer name, you
must first minimize the PNA application.
How do I know which Operating System I have?
Windows 2000
Windows XP
On the desktop, right-click My Computer
On the desktop, right-click My computer Icon
Click Properties
Click Properties
Click the Network Identification tab at the top of the
dialog box
Click the Computer Name tab at the top of the dialog
box
Click Properties
Click Change next to "..rename this computer.."
message
Type your new Computer Name
Type your new Computer Name
Note: To add your computer to a domain, or to set up the networking configuration, contact your company's I.T.
department. This setup is custom for each company.
To restore the PNA application, click PNA Analyzer in the task bar at the bottom of the screen.
Check IP Address
If your PNA is connected to a LAN, you can view the IP address and other networking information.
1.
49
1. Minimize the PNA application
2. Click Start, then Run
3. Type cmd, then click OK
4. At a DOS prompt, type ipconfig /all
Check the amount of RAM
Random Access Memory (RAM) is the amount of working memory in your computer. The PNA application can
require up to 512 MB of RAM depending on the settings you use. If your PNA is operating slowly when you have
more than four windows open or if you routinely use more than 1601 data points, you may need to upgrade to 512
MB.
To view the amount of PNA RAM, you must first minimize the PNA application.
How do I know which Operating System I have?
Windows 2000
Windows XP
On the desktop, right-click My Computer
On the desktop, right-click My computer Icon
Click Properties
Click Properties
Click the General tab at the top of the dialog box
Click the General tab at the top of the dialog box
The amount of RAM appears at the bottom of the
window.
The amount of RAM appears at the bottom of the
window.
To restore the PNA application, click PNA Analyzer in the task bar at the bottom of the screen.
Check CPU Speed
The speed of the PNA processor (CPU) is a factor in determining how quickly the PNA processes data. See PNA
configurations to learn if you can upgrade your PNA CPU. To check your PNA CPU speed, you must first minimize
the PNA application.
How do I know which Operating System I have?
50
Windows 2000
Windows XP
On the desktop, right-click My Computer
On the desktop, right-click My computer Icon
Click Manage
Click Properties
Open System Tools folder, then click System
Information.
Click the General tab at the top of the dialog box
Click System Summary.
The CPU speed appears near the bottom of the
window
After refreshing, the CPU speed appears at the end
of the Processor entry.
To restore the PNA application, click PNA Analyzer in the task bar at the bottom of the screen.
Set Time and Date
Both Windows 2000 and XP
To set the time and date on your PNA, you must first minimize the PNA application.
1. Move the cursor to the lower corner of the screen
2. When the taskbar appears, double-click on the displayed time. This opens the Date/Time Properties dialog
box.
3. Change the date, time, and time zone as appropriate.
To restore the PNA application, click PNA Analyzer in the task bar at the bottom of the screen.
Turn OFF | ON Speaker
When the PNA is generating errors, you may want to turn the speakers off to quiet the beeping. Learn more about
errors.
1. To turn ON or OFF the PNA speaker, you must first minimize the PNA application.
2. Then click Start, Control Panel, then Sounds and Audio Devices.
3. Under Device Volume, check Mute.
Last Modified:
20-Sep-2007
Added speaker OFF
51
Run Error Check and Disk Defragmenter
When the PNA is shutdown unexpectedly or power is removed without first shutting down, large amounts of Hard
Disk Drive space is rendered unusable. If shutdown in this manner enough times, the PNA could become unstable
and no longer work.
This Hard Disk Drive space can be recovered by first running Windows Error-checking to find and correct errors
on the disk, and then the Disk Defragmenter to recover Hard Disk Drive space.. These programs should be run
routinely, about every 1 to 4 weeks, depending on how often the PNA is unexpectedly shutdown.
To learn more about Disk Defragmenter, see the Windows Help file.
Follow this procedure to run these programs:
Windows 2000
Windows XP
On the desktop, double-click My Computer
On the desktop, double-click My Computer
Select Local Disk (C:)
Select System OS
Click File, then Properties
Click File, then Properties
Click the Tools tab
Click the Tools tab
Error-checking
Click Check Now.
Check Automatically fix file system errors.
Click Start.
Click Yes to run disk check on next restart.
Manually restart the PNA. The disk check will run before Windows restarts.
Approximately every six months, check the second box in addition to the first box. The error-checking process
takes much longer, but performs a more complete check.
Defragmentation
Click Defragment Now...
Click Defragment to begin the defragment process.
Click Close when defragmentation is complete.
52
Recovering from PNA Hard Drive Problems
The leading cause of PNA failures is problems with the PNA Hard Disk Drive (HDD). These problems are usually
preventable (see Preventing PNA HDD Problems), and in many cases, recoverable. The following could save you
weeks of downtime and the cost of replacing your PNA HDD.
This document is now on the Agilent PNA Support Website: http://na.tm.agilent.com/pna/. When at this webpage,
click the Hard Drive Recovery link.
If your PNA does experience a Hard Disk Drive Problem, you will not be able to access this Help file, but you may
be able to access the Internet from another computer.
53
Microsoft Windows® XP / 2000 Considerations
In this topic:
Microsoft Windows on the PNA
Using USB
Plug & Play Stability and Security
LAN Connections
Single and Double Click option
Windows XP Theme
Printing
Microsoft Windows on the PNA
Beginning in April 2004, the PNA is shipped from the factory with a modified version of Microsoft Windows
XP operating system. Previously, the PNA was shipped with Windows 2000. The PNA application performs
identically using these two operating systems.
Beginning in Dec. 2005 with PNA Rev 6.0, firmware cannot be upgraded on PNA models that use Microsoft
Windows 2000. For more information, see the PNA support website.
To determine which Operating System is installed on your PNA:
1. Minimize the PNA application
2. On the PNA desktop, click Start.
3. Along the side of the Start menu appears one of the following:
Windows 2000 Professional
Windows XP Professional
VERY IMPORTANT Protect your hard drive!
The leading cause of PNA failures is problems with the PNA Hard Disk Drive (HDD). These problems are usually
preventable, and in many cases, recoverable. Learn more about protecting your PNA.
Using USB
The PNA has at least two USB ports for connecting devices: one on the front panel and at least one on the rear
54
panel. The main advantages of USB are “hot” connects and disconnects and fast data transfer speeds. Electronic
Calibration modules are now available with USB connections.
The first time you plug a device into a USB port there is some wait time. Windows reports it is identifying the
hardware, then searching for the correct driver, then installing the driver (if it was found).
Connecting that same device back into that same port later is quick and easy, but if you move the device to a
different USB port, you will have to wait through the hardware ID and driver search again.
Learn about USB limitations.
Note: Certain USB devices (such as ECAL modules) require you be logged on with Administrator privileges the first
time you plug them into the PNA. This must be done for each serial number. Click Next to choose the default
settings when installing new USB devices.
Plug & Play Stability and Security
Plug & Play capabilities is similar to Win 95 and 98. It provides both a stable and secure operating environment.
You may notice also that it greatly reduces the number of required reboots.
LAN Connections
Windows supports DHCP and fixed IP addressing. Also, “Hot” connect and disconnect of the LAN cable, as well as
a visual indicator of LAN status in system tray area, makes LAN connections more intuitive. In addition, the
Hardware Wizard helps users with system hardware configuration.
Single and Double Click option
By default, Windows allows a single-click method of launching icons. To revert to double-clicking, click Start, then
Settings, then Control Panel, then click Mouse. In the Mouse Properties dialog, select Double-click to open an
item. Then click OK.
Windows XP Theme
The PNA application is designed for, and best viewed in, Windows Classic theme. To change the theme from
Windows XP to Windows Classic,
1. Minimize the PNA application.
2. Right-click on the Desktop, then click Properties.
3. On the Theme tab, under Theme select Windows Classic.
Printing
Adding a printer should be done outside of the PNA application. Learn more.
55
Gain Compression Application GCA (Opt 086)
Features, Requirements, and Limitations
Gain Compression Concepts
Understanding the GCA Displayed Traces
Gain Compression Parameters
Compression Methods
Acquisition Modes
Using Gain Compression App
GCA Measurement Tips
See Also
GCA Calibration
App Note Amplifier Linear and Gain Compression Measurements
Other PNA Applications
Features, Requirements, and Limitations
Features
Fast, easy, and complete Gain Compression measurements for amplifiers.
Many compression parameters to choose from, including gain, input power at compression, output power at
compression, input match, and compression level.
Several compression methods to choose from, including deviation from linear gain, deviation from max gain,
back-off, and X/Y.
Three acquisition methods to choose from: Power per Freq, Freq per Power, and SMART Sweep
SMARTCal Calibration Wizard to guide you through Full 2-Port or Enhanced Response calibration, plus
Source Power calibration.
Supports Frequency domain Wideband Pulse measurements. However, Time domain measurements are
NOT supported.
Requirements
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PNA-X with Opt 086 (software option only) must be enabled.
When performing an optional calibration:
ECal module or Calibration Kit
Power meter and power sensor
Limitations with GCA
Number of points limited to 20,001 for two-dimensional acquisitions, 10,000 points for SMART Sweep.
Standard CW power sweep is NOT supported in a Gain Compression channel.
No Independent IFBW, Independent power levels in segment table.
Stepped sweep mode only.
Linear, Log, and Segment frequency sweep modes only.
2-port DUTs ONLY.
The following PNA Features are NOT Available in a Gain Compression channel:
Unratioed receiver measurements (A, B, R)
ECal User Characterization
Fixture Deembedding
FOM or FCA
External Test Set Control (Option 551)
Interface Control
Copy Channel
IF Path Configuration
Time Domain
Equation Editor - Equation traces are not allowed in the GCA channel, but GCA traces can be referenced in
an equation trace that resides in a standard channel. Learn more.
Port extensions
Balanced measurements
Point and Sweep trigger
Save Formatted Citifile data.
57
Time Domain Pulse measurements in the Wideband Pulse App are NOT supported.
Gain Compression Application Concepts
What is Gain Compression
An amplifier has a region of linear gain, where the gain is independent of the input power level. This gain is
commonly referred to as small signal gain. As the input power is increased to a level that causes the amplifier to
approach saturation, the gain will decrease. The 1 dB gain compression is defined as the input power level that
causes amplifier gain to drop 1 dB relative to the linear gain.
Terms used in GCA
Linear Power Level The specified input power that yields linear gain (also known as 'small-signal gain') in the
amplifier.
Reference gain The measured gain that is used as a reference for determining compression level. The
Compression Method that is used could cause this value to be different.
Compression level The specified amount of gain reduction from the reference gain.
Target gain The gain at the specified compression level. Although this term does not appear in GCA, it is
important to understand when discussing the various compression parameters.
For example, when using Compression from Linear Gain method with the following settings:
Linear gain (measured at Linear Input power) = 10.2 dB
Compression level (specified) = 1 dB
Target gain = 9.2 dB
This is called 'Target' gain because GCA will search for the closest measured gain to 9.2000 dB. It may not
measure this gain exactly.
Compression point The operating point at which the measured gain is closest to the Target Gain. All
compression parameters report data for this operating point.
Understanding the GCA Displayed Traces
One of the most important concepts to remember with GCA is that, each frequency data point represents many
measurements using different input power levels.
58
Some things to notice about how GCA displays compression data:
1. The X-axis values are ALWAYS frequency. Imagine behind each frequency data point, a traditional power
sweep curve with corresponding measurements and calculations to find the specified compression point.
2. The Y-axis values are always reported at the compression point. The value that is displayed depends on the
compression parameter that you choose. The S-parameters that are displayed in a GCA channel are
always measured at the linear and reverse power level.
Example: Five of the six GCA compression parameters are displayed in the above image. The missing trace,
DeltaGain21 is discussed below.
Markers are placed at 4.549 GHz for all of the parameters.
Tr 3 CompIn21 (Input power at the compression point) shows the marker value to be -5.4117 dBm. This is
the power into the DUT that was required to achieve the compression point Notice that this is about the
same input power required to achieve the specified compression at ALL frequencies.
Tr 5 CompGain21 (Gain at the compression point) shows the marker value 9..6443 dB . This is the
measured gain at the compression point.
It is NOT possible to see the gain at a different input power at this frequency by viewing a GCA compression
parameter. The compression parameters display values ONLY at the compression point. However, this data
CAN be viewed by saving saving 2D data to a csv file, or displayed on the PNA by running a macro at that
single frequency.
Gain Compression Parameters
There are several Gain Compression parameters, as well as standard S-parameters that can be measured in a
GCA channel.
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How to add or change GCA Parameters
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press MEAS
1. click Response
2. then select a parameter
2. then Measure
3. then select a parameter
Linear S-Parameters
For convenience, the standard S-parameters are offered in a GCA channel. S11 and S21 are measured at the
specified Linear Input level. S22 and S12 are measured at the specified Reverse power level.
Parameter
Description
When Measured
S11
Input Match
Always
S21
Gain
Always
S22
Output Match
See Reverse
S12
Reverse Isolation
See Reverse
Compression Parameters
Note: The following table assumes: DUT Input = PNA port 1 and DUT Output = PNA port 2.
When the Port mapping is different, the parameters in GCA are updated accordingly. For example, with Input =
port 2 and Output = port 1, then "CompIn12" would be displayed.
The raw data for these parameters are always measured.
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Parameter
CompIn21
CompOut21
CompGain21
CompS11
RefS21
DeltaGain21
Description
Input power at the compression point.
Output power at the compression point.
Gain at the compression point.
Input Match at the compression point.
Linear Gain value used to calculate the compression level. This is
calculated differently depending on the compression method.
CompGain21 MINUS Linear Gain (in Log Mag format). This trace can be
used to learn a lot about the DUT compression point. Learn more.
Compression Methods
GCA offers the following methods to find the compression point of an amplifier using GCA:
Compression from Linear Gain
The Reference Gain is measured using the specified Linear (Input) Power Level. The Target Gain is calculated
as the Linear Gain minus the specified Compression Level. For example 8.3 dB - 1 dB = 7.3 dB.
Compression from Max Gain
Available ONLY in 2D Acquisition modes.
The linear region of an amplifier gain may not be perfectly linear. After all data is acquired at each frequency, the
highest gain value is used as the Reference (S21) Gain. The Target Gain is found in the same way as
Compression from Linear Gain.
Backoff and X/Y method
These two compression methods are very similar.
Both methods specify a difference in input power (X axis) between the linear region and compression point.
For the Y-axis difference:
Backoff method specifies Compression Level which is a difference in Gain.
X/Y method specifies Delta Y which is a difference in Output Power.
GCA searches for these points differently for 2D sweeps and SMART sweep.
The following images show how Backoff and X/Y method is calculated at ONE frequency.
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The compression point (yellow circle) is where 10 dB more input
power yields 1 dB less gain than at the reference point (blue
circle).
The compression point (yellow circle) is where 10 dB more input
power yields only 9 dB more output power than at the reference
point (blue circle).
Acquisition Modes
The GCA offers three modes for data acquisition: Two 2D sweep modes, and SMART sweep.
Note: A traditional power sweep at a single frequency is NOT offered in the GCA channel. However, macros are
provided to easily measure and view this data along with GCA data. Learn more.
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2D (two-dimensional) Sweeps
This is the easiest method to understand, and the least efficient for finding the compression point. Both 2D sweep
modes work as follows:
1. All GCA measurements begin by measuring S-parameters at the specified Linear Power level. Reverse
parameters are measured ONLY if Full 2-port calibration is applied or if a reverse parameter is displayed.
Learn more about Cal choices.
2. Gain measurements are then made at ALL of the specified frequency and power values. Although these are
conceptually 2-Dimensional sweeps, a single sweep is constructed in firmware. See Data Points Limit.
3. After data has been measured, a search is performed to find the compression point. You can choose to
interpolate between the two measured points closest to the target gain. Learn more.
As each sweep is performed, dots are plotted next to the Ch indicator in the lower left corner of the display to
indicate progress for the current sweep.
Note: For Backoff and X/Y compression method, GCA does not verify that the specified Start - Stop power range is
at least the size of the specified Backoff or X value. The closest compression point is always reported.
2D Sweep Modes
2D Sweep Power per Frequency - Input power is stepped from Start to Stop at each specified frequency.
From the following example you can see that the device is exposed to the highest power level (p3) at the
first frequency (f1). This could heat the device early in the measurement and affect compression results.
The following examples show (frequency, power) values for three frequency points and three power points,
resulting in a total of 9 measurements:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
f1,p1
f1,p2
f1,p3
f2,p1
f2,p2
f2,p3
f3,p1
f3,p2
f3,p3
2D Sweep Frequency per Power - Frequency is swept from start to stop at each specified power level as
follows:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
f1,p1
f2,p1
f3,p1
f1,p2
f2,p2
f3,p2
f1,p3
f2,p3
f3,p3
Viewing and Saving 2D Data
It is NOT possible to plot ALL of the 2D measurement data on the PNA display. However, it can be saved to a .csv
file and then read into an Excel spreadsheet. The initial S-parameter measurement data is not saved to this file.
To save 2D data:
With a 2D measurement active, click File, then Save As, then select File Type .csv file.
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The last complete 2D sweep data is saved. See Save Data Types.
You can also view on the PNA all power sweep information at a selected frequency using a macro. Learn more.
SMART Sweep
SMART Sweep is usually the fastest and most accurate method to measure Gain Compression. Unlike the 2D
acquisition modes which measure all of the specified frequency / power points, SMART Sweep performs a series of
power search iterations. At each frequency, an 'intelligent guess' of input power is made to find the compression
level that is within tolerance. This guess is further refined with each successive power search iteration sweep.
SMART Sweep continues to iterate until one of the following conditions occur:
1. ALL data points are within tolerance. When the compression level for a data point achieves the specified
tolerance, it continues to be measured and input power changed to improve the measurement within
tolerance.
2. The specified compression level can NOT be achieved for the remaining frequencies that are not in
tolerance. Either the Start power is too high or the Stop power is too low.
3. Maximum iterations have been achieved. If a measured gain is not within the specified tolerance before the
specified Max number of Iterations has been reached, then the last power reading is used as the
compression point.
The Iteration Counter, Dots, and Bangs
Next to the Ch indicator, in the lower left corner of a GCA window, the following annotation appears:
An iteration counter is incremented each time input power is adjusted.
A dot appears when another 10% of the frequency points are within tolerance.
! (bangs) are displayed after the last iteration. Each bang represents 10% of the data points that are NOT
within tolerance.
SMART Sweep and Compression Method
The intelligent guess process works differently depending on the compression method. This is important because
Backoff and X/Y compression methods subject the DUT to significant changes in input power during an iteration
sweep. This can affect the DUT and the measurement results.
Learn all about Backoff and X/Y compression methods.
ALL GCA measurements begin by measuring S-parameters at the specified Linear Power level. Reverse
parameters are measured ONLY if Full 2-port calibration is applied or if a reverse parameter is displayed. Learn
more about Cal choices.
Backoff and XY Because both compression methods specify the separation between the 'linear" region and
the "compressed" region, each iteration requires two sweeps at different power levels over the same
frequency range. The first sweep measures the DUT at the Backoff or X power level. The second sweep
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measures the DUT at the compressed power level, specified by the Start and Stop power range. At the
beginning of the second sweep, the power level rises by the Backoff or X value. The specified Settling Time
is applied at this point to allow the DUT time to react to this significant change in power level. Also Safe
Sweep can be used to minimize this change in input power.
Compression From Linear Gain After the reference gain is measured at the linear input power, the next
iteration measures the DUT at a power level half way between the linear power level and the stop power.
The next sweep, depending upon the compression level of the DUT, either increments or decrements the
power by ¼ of the difference between stop power and start power. The third iteration sweep then uses a
curve-fit algorithm to precisely find the compression point.
Note: The DUT can be subject to significant changes in power from one iteration sweep to the next. This
can be minimized by the use of SAFE Sweep and careful selection of the corresponding settings.
Compression from Max Gain NOT offered with SMART Sweep.
Using the Gain Compression Application
The following is a general procedure for performing a GCA measurement. The challenge with GCA is configuring a
measurement that yields the true compression performance of YOUR DUT. This requires knowledge of the Gain
Compression settings and knowledge of the DUT.
See specific dialog boxes below.
1. Disconnect the DUT if preset or default power levels may damage the PNA or DUT.
2. Preset the PNA, or configure a suitable User Preset that will be safe in case the DUT is connected.
3. Create a GCA channel. Learn how. The default trace is S21.
4. Start GCA Setup dialog and configure the measurement settings based on the DUT, adapters, attenuators,
booster amplifiers, and fixtures to be used in the measurement.
5. Save the instrument state (optional).
6. Connect DUT and apply bias and RF power as appropriate. The default measurement for a GCA channel is
S21 (amplifier gain). Inspect the gain measurement to ensure the DUT is operating as expected.
7. Add GCA compression parameter traces. Learn how.
8. Adjust the measurement settings to yield satisfactory compression parameters. See GCA Measurement Tips.
9. Start and complete the GCA Calibration wizard.
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8.
9.
How to start the Gain Compression Setup dialog
To provide quicker access, use the Setup softkey. Learn how.
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press FREQ
1. Click Stimulus
2. then Frequency
2. then [Gain Compression Setup]
3. then Gain Compression Setup
Frequency tab - Gain Compression -dialog box help
Configures the frequency settings over which Gain compression is to be measured, as well as the
measurement method.
Sweep Type
Choose a method in which to sweep frequency: Linear, Log, and Segment Sweeps. This setting applies to all
data acquisition modes.
Segment Sweep
Note: The segment table shown on the dialog is 'READ-ONLY'.
Learn how to Create and edit the Segment Sweep table.
Independent IFBW and Power are NOT available.
CW sweep is NOT available. A traditional gain compression measurement using power sweep at a single
CW frequency can be performed in a standard S-parameter channel. See the Single frequency macro.
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Data Acquisition Mode
Specifies HOW the gain compression data is collected.
SMART Sweep
At each frequency, input power is 'intelligently' adjusted to find a measured gain equal to the target gain.
Faster and more accurate than 2D sweeps to measure Gain Compression point at a number of
frequencies.
Learn ALL about SMART Sweep
2D (two-dimensional) Sweeps
Sweep Power per Frequency Performs a series of power sweeps at each successive frequency.
Sweep Frequency per Power Performs a series of frequency sweeps at each successive power level.
Learn ALL about 2D sweeps
Sweep Settings
Click each to learn more about these settings.
Number of points Number of frequency points to measure. The Frequency points may be limited due to
the number of specified Power points. See Data Points Limit.
IF Bandwidth Set this value to yield acceptable trace noise when measuring gain at the linear power
level. This level of noise contributes directly to the accuracy of compression point. A lower value
(narrower IFBW) allows for more accurate, but slower, measurements. See GCA Measurement Tips to
see how to best set IFBW.
Start / Stop, Center / Span frequencies. Set the frequency range over which to measure Gain
compression.
Data Points Limit
The maximum number of measurement data points depends on Acquisition method and Compression method
as follows:
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SMART sweep
Compression method
Compression from linear gain
Number of frequency points is
reduced to ensure the total
number of data points does not
exceed the specified limit.
2D sweep
Number of power points is
reduced to ensure the total
number of data points does not
exceed the specified limit.
Data points = freq points
Max = 20,001
Data points =
(freq. points) * (power points)
Compression from max gain
NOT supported
X/Y and Backoff
Data points = 2 * freq points
Max power points = 2,001
Max data points = 20,000
Max = 20,001
Note: Although the dialog box will allow you to enter any number of frequency or power points, the values are
checked when OK or Apply is pressed. If a limit is exceeded, the relevant data points are reduced to the
maximum allowable number without warning.
Power tab - Gain Compression dialog box help
Configures RF power and Power Sweep settings for Gain Compression measurement.
Power ON (All channels) Check to turn RF Power ON or clear to turn power OFF for all channels.
Input Port
Select the PNA port that is connected to the DUT Input.
Linear Power Level The input power that yields the linear gain of the DUT. The linear gain is used as the
reference gain when calculating the Compression from Linear Gain. Input match is also measured at this
power level.
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Source Attenuator Specifies the attenuator setting associated with the port connected to the input of the
DUT. This attenuator will affect the range of available power into the DUT Learn more about Source
Attenuation.
All PNA channels in continuous sweep must have the same attenuation value. Learn more.
Receiver Attenuator Specifies the attenuator setting for the receiver associated with the input of the DUT.
When the power into the receiver test port is around +10 dBm, the PNA receiver may be in compression.
However, with receiver attenuation, lower input power levels may become too noisy to make accurate power
measurements. In this case, lower IFBW to reduce noise. Learn more about Receiver Attenuation.
Source Leveling Specifies the leveling mode. Choose Internal. Open Loop should only be used when
doing Wide Band Pulse measurements.
Output Port
Select the PNA port that is connected to the DUT Output.
Reverse Output Power Sets power level into the output of the DUT for reverse sweeps. Port power is
automatically uncoupled.
Reverse power is applied to the DUT ONLY under the following conditions. Otherwise, this setting is ignored.
When Linear Output Match or Linear Reverse Isolation parameters are requested.
When Full 2-port correction is used. You can perform a full 2-port cal and downgrade to an Enhanced
Response Cal to prevent reverse power from being applied to the DUT. Learn more.
Source Attenuator Specifies the attenuator setting for the port connected to the DUT output. This setting
will affect the range of available power at the DUT output port.
Receiver Attenuator Specifies the attenuator setting for the receiver associated with the DUT output port.
Source Leveling Specifies the leveling mode. Choose from: Internal (normal operation) or Open (use
ONLY for WB Pulse measurements).
Power Sweep
Power Points Number of power points to measure for 2D acquisition modes. The Power Points may be
limited due to the number of frequency data points. See Data Points Limit. This setting is NOT available in
SMART Sweep, which uses only enough power points to find the specified compression level.
Start and Stop Power
2D sweep In Backoff, X/Y, and Compression from Max Gain methods, sets the range of power levels
that are applied to the DUT to find BOTH the Reference Gain and Compression point. Make sure this
range is wide enough to include both. For example, if the Backoff level is 10 dB, then the power range
must be greater than 10dB. Otherwise, GCA will report a compression value using the closest
reference gain and compression point, which may be inaccurate. In Compression from Linear Gain,
the reference gain is measured at the Linear Power Level, so the Start and Stop power levels are used
to find the compression point.
SMART sweep Sets the range of power over which GCA will search for the compression point. The
reference gain is found using the Linear Power Level, Backoff, and X values, depending on the
Compression Method. To reduce the number of iterations that are required to find the compression
point, limit the Start / Stop power range to the input levels that will achieve compression. Do not include
the linear region.
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Note: If your DUT requires more input power to achieve compression below 3.2 GHz, use the PNA-X Hipower mode, available from the RF Path Configuration dialog. The disadvantage to this is higher harmonic
content.
Power Step (Size) Calculated value from current Start, Stop, and Points settings. This setting can NOT be
changed directly.
Path Configuration click to launch the RF Path Configuration dialog.
Compression tab - Gain Compression dialog box help
Compression Method
Learn ALL about these Compression Methods
Compression from Linear Gain The specified compression level is measured from the linear gain. The
linear gain is measured using the Linear Power Level that is specified on the Power tab.
Compression from Max Gain The specified compression level is measured from the maximum gain level.
Not available in SMART sweep.
Compression from Back Off This compression method uses the Compression Level and Back Off values
for finding the compression point.
X/Y Compression This compression method uses the specified parameters (X and Y) as the criterion for
finding the compression point.
2D Sweep - Compression Point Interpolation
Check the box to calculate and display interpolated compression traces.
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The Target gain is calculated using a complex linear ratio between the two closest measured values. All
compression parameters are then interpolated using this same ratio.
Clear the box to display compression parameters for the closest compression point, either high or low, to the
level specified in the Compression Method setting.
SMART Sweep
Learn ALL about Smart Sweep.
Tolerance Specifies an acceptable range for measuring the compression level. Reducing this value can
significantly increase the number of iterations that are required to find the compression point.
Maximum Iterations Specifies the maximum number of power search iterations SMART Sweep is allowed.
Reducing this value can cause SMART sweep to terminate before all compression levels are found to within
the specified tolerance.
Show Iterations When checked, the compression parameter traces are updated at the completion of each
power search iteration. When cleared, compression parameter traces are updated when SMART Sweep
completes the power search iteration process.
End of Sweep Specifies the power level applied to the DUT at the completion of a GCA measurement.
GCA performs numerous power and frequency sweeps on the DUT during the overall measurement process.
This setting has no affect on these intermediate sweeps. This setting only applies at the end of the very last
sweep in the GCA channel.
In addition, this setting applies ONLY to the GCA channel. All other channels operate independently of this
setting. Therefore, the power applied to the DUT after all channels have been measured may be different from
this setting.
Choose from:
Default Use the default PNA method. Learn more.
RF OFF RF power is turned off when GCA completes a measurement cycle.
Start Power RF power is set to the start power level.
Stop Power RF power stays at the stop power level.
Settling Time
Used ONLY in SMART Sweep when Back Off or X/Y compression algorithms are selected.
This setting allows additional dwell time when the input power changes from the back-off level to the
compression level. Learn more.
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Safe Sweep Mode dialog box help
For use with SMART Sweep ONLY.
When enabled, Safe Sweep increases the input power to the DUT by the specified amounts, allowing the
compression point to be achieved gradually. While this will increase the number of iterations required to
achieve compression, it also minimizes the possibility of driving the DUT too far into compression.
Safe Mode (Enable) Check to enable Safe Sweep.
Coarse Increment Sets the maximum change in input power, up or down, which will be applied to the DUT
from one iteration to the next. Default = 3.0 dB.
Without Safe Sweep, the maximum change in input power can be the entire Backoff or X value when using
these compression methods.
Fine Increment Once the Fine Threshold has been achieved, this becomes the maximum change in input
power, up or down, which will be applied to the DUT. Default = 1.00 dB
Fine Threshold Specifies the compression level in which Safe Sweep changes from the COARSE to the FINE
increment. Default = .75 dB. This means that, by default, the PNA uses the Fine Power Adjustment when
compression reaches 0.75 dB.
GCA Measurement Tips
There are many settings in the Gain Compression Application. Here are a few tips when using GCA to learn as
much as possible about the compression characteristics of your DUT in the most efficient manner.
DUT Compression Characteristics and GCA
Although GCA provides excellent results with a wide variety of amplifiers, it works best with amplifiers which have a
monotonic compression curve. In some cases where the compression curve is not monotonic, for example if the
amplifier gain expands before it compresses, the correct compression level may not be found.
To help a SMART sweep find the correct compression point, limit the Start and Stop power levels around the
anticipated compression point. Learn more.
The following two power-sweep traces are examples of non-monotonic gain:
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DeltaGain
A DeltaGain trace is the best way to see how closely GCA is actually measuring to the desired compression level.
In addition, you can view the phase of DeltaGain to see the phase deviation between the compressed gain and the
reference gain. DeltaGain is calculated as:
DeltaGain = Measured Gain (watts) / Ref Gain (watts)
In LogMag format: DeltaGain = (Measured Gain) - (Ref Gain)
With SMART Sweep, DeltaGain (in LogMag format) shows how soon certain frequencies achieve the specified
tolerance. Learn more.
Some other settings which may be helpful:
Trigger source: Manual allows you to analyze data and make adjustments while allowing the device to cool.
Construct Limit Lines around the compression point at the tolerance level.
Use this macro as a starting point. When edited or run from an external computer (either with remote
desktop or a mapped drive) you can make setting changes in the macro and quickly rerun the measurement.
The following image shows a DeltaGain21 trace using SMART Sweep. The Limit Lines were added manually.
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In the above image:
Relevant
Settings
Method = Compression From Linear Gain
Compression level = 1
Iteration Tolerance = 0.05 dB.
Maximum Iterations = 10
Displayed
Results
A data point on -1.00 indicates that, at that frequency, the exact compression level (1 dB) was
measured.
Several frequencies did not achieve the specified tolerance (0.05 dB) before the Max Iterations
(10) was reached.
FAIL and red data points outside the limit lines.
Nine dots (....) indicate that 90% of the data points achieved the specified compression
level.
one ! indicates that 10% of the data points did not achieve compression.
Learn more about the Iteration Counter and annotation.
SMART Sweep Tips
Compression from Linear Gain is the easiest compression method to understand and control in SMART
Sweep. Learn more.
If SMART Sweep requires more than twenty iterations, this is an indication that something is wrong. Try
changing the Tolerance setting, Frequency Range, Start / Stop power range, IF bandwidth, or Dwell Time.
If the number of iterations required to achieve the desired compression level changes significantly from one
set of measurements to the next, this could be due to other effects, such as heating. Try increasing the dwell
time or using a wide-band pulse measurement configuration.
If the DUT should not be significantly overdriven into compression, or the changes in the input power should
be limited, use Safe Sweep mode with Deviation from Linear Gain compression method.
Single Frequency Macro
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Because GCA displays only the compression point for each frequency, and not the entire power sweep, it can be
difficult to see some of the more subtle aspects of a measurement. However, it is easy to see a traditional power
sweep at a single frequency using one or both macros that are provided with GCA.
With a 2D sweep (NOT SMART Sweep) a script that is stored on the PNA hard drive automatically creates a
traditional power sweep measurement in a standard channel using the same stimulus setting as the GCA channel.
Use a marker in the GCA channel to specify the frequency for the measurement.
The script has two modes of operation:
View Mode displays all of the previous 2D sweep data at that frequency.
Measure Mode performs a new measurement at that frequency.
Both modes create a new S-Parameter channel using the same stimulus settings as the GCA channel, including
port power, attenuator, IF Bandwidth, and dwell settings. The new channel does not support calibration or pulse
characteristics.
To see noise on a measurement, or use the Measure macro in continuous sweep. Adjust the IFBW and
averaging until the noise versus sweep speed meets your needs.
To see other effects of your DUT at a specific frequency, use the View macro and the Measure macro with
2D sweep mode. Both macros present data using a standard channel. The View macro shows 2D data at a
specific frequency, while the Measure macro shows freshly measured data at the same frequency. Ideally,
the data from these two would be identical. However, changes in your DUT behavior due to heating or other
effects can cause these to be different. If significant differences exist, try:
Using the 2D Frequency per Power setting rather than Power per Frequency
Adjusting the dwell time
Adjusting IFBW
Use a wide-band pulse configuration
How to setup the Macros
Each macro must be setup separately.
1. Press Macro, then Macro Setup.
2. Select a blank line, then click Edit.
3. In Macro Title, type a short description such as Meas GCA or View GCA.
4. Click Browse, then navigate to C:\Program Files\Agilent\Network Analyzer\Applications\GCA\GCA.vbs
5. In Macro run string parameters:
1. Type M for the Measure macro or V for View macro.
2. Optional: Supply the following additional parameters in any order:
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1.
2.
To run the program from a remote computer, specify the full computer name of the PNA .
Channel in which to create the measurement. If not specified, Measure is created in Ch30 and
View is created in Ch31.
Example: Run string parameters for the Measure macro run from a remote computer in Channel
5.---- M MyPNA 5.
6. Click OK.
How to run the Macros
On a GCA channel:
1. Create a 2D sweep. Either Power per Freq or Freq per Power. Both macros always create a power sweep
at the frequency of interest.
2. Create a CompIn trace.
3. On the CompIn trace, right-click and select Add Marker. Drag the marker to the frequency of interest.
4. Press Macro, then select either by the short description your provided in Step 3.
Last Modified:
23-Aug-2007
New topic
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Noise Figure Application (Opt 029)
The Noise Figure Application makes fast, easy, and accurate noise figure measurements using the PNA-X.
Features, Requirements, and Limitations
Noise Concepts
How the Noise Figure Application Works
Noise Parameters
Using Noise Figure App
Noise Figure Measurement Tips
See Also
Noise Figure Calibration
Agilent Noise Figure App Note 57-1
Noise Figure Application Features
Cold Noise Source method includes match correction for highly accurate noise measurements.
Operates from 10 MHz to 26.5 GHz.
Measures noise figure values ranging from 0 to 30 dB.
Measures amplifiers with gain ranging from -20 to +40 dB.
ENR values are interpolated for frequencies between the supplied data points.
Requirements
PNA-X with option 029
Agilent 346C Noise Source: Covers the same frequency range as the PNA-X.
An adapter may be necessary to connect the Noise Source to the PNA port 2 reference plane during
calibration.
Noise Tuner (N4691B ECal module -m-f recommended) Opt 029 provides an additional cable and adapter
to connect the ECal module to the front-panel connectors. Learn more.
Cal Kit (or second ECal module) with same connector type and gender as DUT connectors.
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Recommended: An accurate thermometer. Learn more.
Limitations with Noise Figure
All PNA functions are supported except the following:
Does NOT work with FCA (opt 083) or Frequency Offset (opt 080).
All frequency sweeps are STEPPED. Analog sweep is NOT available.
No External Test Set Control (Opt 550 or 551)
No Receiver calibration.
No Enhanced Response Cal
No ECal User Characterization.
No Fixture Deembedding.
No Pulsed Measurements
No Copy Channels
No saving Formatted Citifile data.
Noise Concepts
The following conceptual information is a short summary taken from the Agilent Noise Figure App Note 57-1.
All electronic circuits have some degree of random noise. The most common form is thermal noise, which
increases as the temperature of the circuit increases.
The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of components in a communications system is a very important parameter. To
improve the S/N ratio, it is usually easier and more cost-effective to reduce noise than to increase signal power. In
order to reduce noise, an accurate method to measure noise is required.
Noise Figure
Noise figure is the degradation in the signal-to-noise ratio as a signal passes through a device. For example, in the
following images:
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(a) At the INPUT of an amplifier:
(b) At the OUTPUT of the same amplifier:
The noise floor is -100 dBm, the signal
is at -60 dBm, 40 dB above the noise
floor.
The gain has boosted the signal AND the
noise floor by 20 dB.
The amplifier then added 10 dB of its own
noise.
The output signal is now only 30 dB
above the noise floor.
Since the degradation in signal-to-noise
ratio is 10 dB, the amplifier has a 10 dB
noise figure.
For consistency, noise measurements are calculated as if using a 1 Hz bandwidth, although measurements are
almost always made at higher bandwidths.
The following formula shows the lowest possible noise power in dBm at 290° K (room temperature). The only way
to measure noise lower than this is to make the measurement at a lower temperature.
P = 10LOG(4.0 x 10 -21 watts/.001 watt)
P = -174 dBm / Hz
How the Noise Figure Application Works
The noise figure application includes two noise receivers which measure the noise coming out of the DUT. The
noise receivers are calibrated using a characterized noise source. Learn more about the noise calibration process.
A major source of noise measurement error is caused by a poor impedance match at the DUT input. Therefore,
during every measurement, the Noise Figure Application uses an ECal module to present at least four different
impedances at the input of the DUT. This "Noise Tuner" is connected to the PNA port 1 front-panel loops which is
in the PNA internal source path. From the measurements at various impedance states, the PNA calculates the
noise out of the DUT as though the PNA were exactly 50 ohms. No assumptions are made regarding the input
impedance of the DUT.
Here is how a noise figure measurement is made:
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The DUT input is always connected to the PNA source at port 1.
The DUT output is always connected to the PNA receivers at port 2.
The sweep numbers are annotated on the PNA display as they occur.
1. With the noise tuner in the THRU state, S-parameter measurements are made to accurately characterize the
gain of the DUT. This requires sweeps in both forward and reverse directions. (sweep #1 and #2).
2. The noise measurements are performed next. PNA source power is turned OFF and the noise tuner is
switched to the first impedance state.
3. At each frequency, the noise receiver samples a large number of readings in order to attain one valid
measurement. If Noise Averaging is selected, the specified number of measurements are made and
averaged together to obtain one noise measurement. This continues for all frequencies (sweep #3).
4. The next noise tuner impedance state is switched IN and the noise measurements in step 3 are repeated.
This occurs until measurements are made at all impedance states. At least four impedance states must be
used. (sweeps #4, #5, #6+)
5. Calibration error terms are applied and calculations made to simulate the measurement with a perfect 50
ohm input impedance. The sweep result is plotted on the PNA display.
6. The PNA begins sweeping again with step 1.
PNA-X Block Diagram with Noise Figure components
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Noise Figure Components are shaded yellow
At test port 1 front-panel loops, a DPDT switch connects the noise tuner (ECal module) in series
with Source1 providing several different input impedances. Learn more.
At test port 2, DPDT switch and coupler to route RF from the DUT output to two noise
receivers. The appropriate receiver is automatically switched as required for frequency being
measured.
Making S-parameter measurements and the Noise Tuner Switch
The default setting for the port 1 DPDT switch is EXTERNAL, as shown in the above diagram. This setting always
provides incident power through the front panel loop. When an ECal module is connected, it may NOT be in the
THRU state, which is necessary for accurate S-parameter measurements. This can be changed in any of the
following ways:
Set the switch to INTERNAL for the S-parameter channel using the path configuration dialog.
Set the switch to INTERNAL for the S-parameter channel using the following commands
SCPI - SENS:PATH:CONF:ELEM:STAT “Port1NoiseTuner”, “Internal”
COM - PathConfiguration.Element(“Port1NoiseTuner”).Value = “Internal”
Change the preferred default setting to INTERNAL using SCPI or COM.
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Set the Noise Tuner (ECal module) to the THRU state using CONT:ECAL:MOD:PATH:STATE.
Noise Figure App vs Noise Figure Analyzer
In comparing the PNA Noise Figure App measurements with the NFA Series Noise Figure Analyzer measurements,
you may obtain different results. This is because the Noise Figure Analyzer assumes that the DUT has a perfect 50
ohm input. The PNA Noise Figure App measures the source match and calculates the noise figure as though it
were a perfect 50 ohm match. In addition, the PNA measures the amplifier gain with vector error correction applied
to reduce measurement uncertainty.
Noise Parameters
Several noise parameters, as well as standard parameters, can be measured in a GCA channel.
How to add or change Noise Figure Parameters
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For PNA-X
1. Press MEAS
2. then select a parameter
1. Click Response
2. then Measure
3. then select a parameter
Noise Parameters that are offered
Noise Figure - Explained above in Noise concepts).
T-Effective - The effective temperature, in Kelvin, of the measured noise level. For example 290° K = -174
dBm/Hz.
DUT Noise Power Density - The total noise generated by the DUT, without system noise.
DUT Relative Noise Power - DUT Noise Power Density MINUS 290° K, expressed in K and normalized to
room temperature.
System Noise Power Density - The total noise measured at the noise receivers. This includes noise
generated by the DUT plus the noise generated by the PNA noise receivers and other system components.
System Relative Noise Power - System Noise Power Density MINUS 290° K, expressed in K and
normalized to room temperature.
Standard Parameters that are offered
S-parameters: S11, S21, S22, S12
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Unratioed parameters using the following notation: (Receiver, source port). These parameters REPLACE
the active GCA measurement. To do this (from front-panel ONLY), press MEAS , then [More], then
[Receivers].
(R1,1), (R2,2), (A,1), (A,2), (B,1), (B,2)
Using the Noise Figure Application
Use the following general procedure to make measurement with the Noise Figure App:
1. Connect Tuner and Noise Source.
2. Create a Noise Figure Measurement.
3. Make Noise Figure Settings.
4. Perform Calibration First copy your Noise source ENR file to the PNA.
5. Connect the DUT:
DUT Input to PNA port 1.
DUT Output to PNA port 2. For highest Noise Figure accuracy, there should be the least amount of
electrical loss possible between the DUT output and the PNA Port 2.
6. Measure Noise Figure.
7. Optional Click File, then Save to save Noise Figure data in the following formats: (available ONLY when NF
correction is ON.)
*.CTI Citifile
*.PRN
*.nco Noise Correlation Matrix data in S2P format. Learn more about this data.
See Also: Measurement Tips
Connect Noise Tuner and Noise Source
1. Connect the noise source to the 28V connector on the PNA-X rear panel. The Noise Source is turned ON
and OFF automatically as needed during a calibration. Connect the noise tuner to Port 2 reference place
when prompted during calibration.
2. Connect the noise tuner (ECal module) On the PNA front panel, remove the Port 1 jumper cable SOURCE
OUT / CPLR THRU. Connect tuner using the cable (N5242-20137) and adapter (85082-60013) supplied with
Opt 029.
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Create a Noise Figure Measurement
1. On the PNA-X front panel, press Meas, then [Measurement Class]
2. Select Noise Figure Cold Source, then either:
OK delete the existing measurement, or
New Channel to create the measurement in a new channel.
3. A Noise Figure measurement is displayed. To select additional parameters to display, click Response, then
Measure, then select a parameter from the list.
How to start the Noise Figure Setup dialog
To provide quicker access, use the Setup softkey. Learn how.
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press F REQ
1. Click Response
2. then Measure
2. then [Noise Figure Setup]
3. then Noise Setup
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Noise Figure Setup dialog box help
Note: In this topic, the term Jitter is used to describe the trace-to-trace fluctuations in a measurement. In other
topics, this is called 'trace noise'.
Bandwidth/Average
The following two settings work together to achieve the optimum balance of measurement accuracy versus
speed. Both settings can be changed after calibration to make faster measurements with minimal effect on
calibration accuracy.
Noise Bandwidth Increase the bandwidth to make faster measurements. However, a wider setting reduces
the frequency resolution of the measurement. More frequencies are essentially smoothed together to
produce a flatter response, which could hide the actual noise performance of the DUT.
Noise Averaging Factor Increase the number of averages to reduce jitter. This also increases
measurement speed. For maximum accuracy, increase the averaging factor for the noise calibration. It can
then be reduced to improve measurement speed.
Noise Receiver Gain
With knowledge of your DUT gain, set the appropriate amount of receiver gain in order to optimize the power
level at the noise receiver.
The following values reflect the SUM of the DUT gain (dB) PLUS NF (dB). For example: DUT gain = 20 dB; NF
= 10 dB; SUM = 30 dB.
Select High if the SUM is relatively low (<30 dB).
Select Medium if the SUM is about average (20 dB to 45 dB).
Select Low if the SUM is relatively high (>35 dB).
There is considerable overlap in these settings. Because all three gain settings are calibrated with each Noise
Calibration, this setting can be changed after calibration to achieve the least amount of jitter without
overpowering the noise receiver.
When too much power is detected at the noise receiver, a warning message appears, and the next lower gain
setting is automatically selected.
Only ONE gain setting can be used for the entire frequency range of your noise measurement. Therefore, it
may be necessary to use two noise channels with different frequency ranges and gain settings to achieve the
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very highest noise figure accuracy.
Ambient Temperature
Enter the room temperature at the time of the measurement, in Kelvin. For best results, use a thermometer to
read the temperature at the PNA test port 1 or the DUT input cable.
This ambient temperature number has an inverse relationship to the noise figure. When using the effective
noise temperature (Te) format, a 3 degree increase in the ambient temperature will make the overall
measurement result drop 3 degrees.
Impedance States
Noise Tuner Displays the ECal module to be used as a noise tuner. Select the Noise Tuner during
calibration on the Select Cal Method dialog.
Max Acquired Impedance States Select the number of impedance states in which to make noise
measurements. At least FOUR impedance states are required. Learn more
Frequency Tab - Noise Figure dialog box help
These settings can also be made from the normal PNA setting locations. Click links below to learn how.
Sweep Type
Choose a sweep type. Learn more.
Sweep Settings
Click each to learn more about these settings.
Number of points
IF Bandwidth For standard PNA receiver measurements. This setting is important for improving noise
measurement accuracy. Learn more.
Start / Stop, Center / Span frequencies.
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Power Tab - Noise Figure dialog box help
Note: S-parameter power settings are critical for accurate Noise Figure measurements. See Noise Figure
Measurement Tips.
Configures RF power settings for the S-parameter measurements that occur before noise measurements. Input
power to the DUT is turned OFF during noise measurements.
These settings can also be made from the normal Power setting locations.
Power ON (All channels) Check to turn RF Power ON for all channels.
DUT Input Port
PNA Port 1 is connected to the DUT Input. This can NOT be changed.
Note: Input power levels are critical for accurate Noise Figure measurements. Learn more.
Power Level The input power to the DUT during S-parameter measurements.
Source Attenuator Auto Check to automatically select the correct attenuation to achieve the specified input
power. Clear, then select attenuator setting that is used achieve the specified Power Level. Learn more about
Source Attenuation.
All PNA channels in continuous sweep must have the same attenuation value. Learn more.
Receiver Attenuator Specifies the receiver attenuator setting for port 1.
Source Leveling Specifies the leveling mode. Choose Internal. Open Loop should only be used when
doing Wide Band Pulse measurements (not available with Noise figure measurements).
DUT Output Port
PNA Port 2 is connected to the DUT Output. This can NOT be changed.
Output Power Sets power level in to port 2 for reverse sweeps. Port power is automatically uncoupled.
Reverse sweeps are always applied to the DUT when Full 2-port correction is applied. Enhanced Response
Cal is NOT available for Noise Figure measurements.
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Source Attenuator Specifies the source attenuator setting for reverse power.
Receiver Attenuator Specifies the receiver attenuator setting for port 2. Learn more about Receiver
Attenuation.
Source Leveling Specifies the leveling mode. Choose Internal.
Noise Path Configurator dialog box help
Port 1 Noise Tuner Switch The orange line between CPLR THRU and SRC OUT represents the Noise
Tuner. The External setting switches IN the Noise Tuner when making noise measurements.
Port 2 Noise Receiver Switch allows you to make Noise Receiver measurements.
To prevent premature wear on the above two Noise switches, the PNA does not allow these switches to be
thrown when sweeping a Noise channel and non-Noise channel. To make Noise Figure measurements and
non-Noise Figure measurements in different channels and continuously trigger both, set these switches to the
same state as the Noise channel:
With the non-Noise Figure channel active, go to Noise Path Configurator.
Set Noise Tuner switch to External. This routes source power to the front-panel loops, and to the Noise
Tuner when connected. Use CONT:ECAL:MOD:PATH:STATE to set the internal state of the Noise Tuner
to THRU, which creates a small amount of additional loss in the source path.
Set Noise Receiver Switch to Noise Receiver.
Noise Figure Measurement Tips
Note: In this topic, the term Jitter is used to describe the trace-to-trace fluctuations in a measurement. In other
topics, this is called 'trace noise'.
Noise Figure measurements are extremely sensitive and vulnerable to small changes in temperature and the
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surrounding environment. Cell phone usage and other wireless devices can affect measurement results.
For highest Noise Figure measurement accuracy and stability, there should be the least amount of electrical loss
possible between the DUT output and PNA Port 2.
S-Parameters
S-parameters are used to measure the gain of the DUT before each series of noise measurements. Jitter in the Sparameter measurements corresponds directly to jitter in the noise measurements.
In general, for best measurement accuracy, the power level at the B receiver (port 2) should be close to +10 dBm.
Much below this level, measurements have more jitter. Above this level, the B receiver starts to compress,
although there is no warning or annotation that shows this condition is occurring.
The best way to monitor power at the B receiver is to display a B,1 measurement. With your DUT in place and
powered ON, change the input power to the device and note the power at the B receiver.
For low-gain amplifiers, use 5 dB of source attenuation to improve the uncorrected match of port 1.
For high-gain amplifiers, source and receiver attenuation may be required. Use the lowest possible
attenuation values.
S-parameter Calibration
During a noise calibration, it is also important that the power level at the B receiver (port 2) be close to +10 dBm.
However, this can be challenging since calibration is performed without the DUT in place. Because of this, it is
often necessary to set source power higher during the calibration than during the measurement. This will cause the
'CD' annotation on the status bar. However, measurement results are accurate as long as the step attenuators and
other configuration switches are in the same position and all receivers remain in their linear range (below +10
dBm).
It is best to find the optimum power and attenuation settings for both the calibration and subsequent noise
measurements before performing a calibration.
IF Bandwidth
Jitter is further reduced by narrowing the IF bandwidth. If the calibration needs to be performed at a low source
power, or with receiver attenuation due to high DUT gain, the IF bandwidth should be reduced during the calibration
to reduce jitter. The IF bandwidth can then be increased to improve measurement speed. The CD annotation can
be ignored when changing IFBW after calibration.
Noise Settings
See Noise Figure dialog box help for a complete description of these important settings.
Temperature
Noise Figure measurements are extremely sensitive to temperature. As such, there are two settings that require an
accurate temperature measurement: At the DUT input, and at the Noise Source connector.
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Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Immunity
When a 3Vm-1 radio-frequency electromagnetic field is applied to an N5242A with Opt 029 according to IEC
61000-4-3:1995, degradation of performance may be observed. When the frequency of the incident field
matches the frequency of a measured noise figure or gain, the values displayed will deviate from those
expected. This phenomenon will only affect that specific frequency, and the analyzer will continue to perform to
the specification at all other frequency sample points.
The N5242A with Opt 029 may be unable to calibrate a chosen frequency sample point if the frequency
matches that of an incident electromagnetic field.
Last Modified:
29-Jun-2007
MX New topic
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Narrowband Pulsed Application
The Narrowband Pulsed Application is a Visual Basic program that provides a user interface for making pulsed
measurements.
Learn about the New Wideband Pulsed Application.
Required Options
Physical Connections
Using the Narrowband Pulsed Application
How to Configure Pulse Generators and Receivers
Calibration in Pulse Mode
Pulse Profiling
Signal Reduction versus Gate Width
Pulsed Frequency Converter Measurements
Writing your own Narrowband Pulsed Application
The following enhancements were made In PNA Rev. 7.2:
Enhanced Pulse Measurement Capabilities
Support for Internal Pulse Generators / Modulators (PNA-X only)
For more conceptual information see our Pulsed Measurement App Notes.
See PNA-X Block Diagram of IF Path / Pulse Generators / Source Modulation
Other IF Access Topics
Required Options and Equipment
The PNA H08 option provides the Narrowband Pulsed Application. The following options are also required. If your
PNA does not have the required options, a message is displayed on the screen. For more information, see PulsedRF Measurements Configuration Guide
E836x models: Opt 014 (front panel access) and Opt 080 (frequency offset). To use the internal receiver
gating feature of the Narrowband Pulsed Application, your PNA must have the H11 hardware option.
PNA-X models: None; however Opts 021. 022. and 025 greatly enhance speed, performance, and
convenience.
PNA-L models: HO8 NOT available
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Agilent 81104A or 81110A Pulse Generator with ONLY the 81105A or 81111A output modules. The 81112A
module does NOT have selectable 50 ohm/1K ohm output impedance/load compensation to drive the 1K
ohm PNA IF gates. For more information, see the 81100 Family of Pulse Pattern Generators Technical
Specifications at: http://cp.literature.agilent.com/litweb/pdf/5980-1215E.pdf
Physical Connections
Each 81110A Pulse Generator has two output modules. Each output can drive a PNA IF Receiver or Source
Modulation (Z5623A H81).
Connect the Pulse Generators as follows:
81110A front panel connectors
Connect GPIB cables to the 81110As and PNA.
Connect the PNA 10 MHz Ref Out to the 81110A 10 MHz IN.
If using two 81110As for a total of 4 outputs, then connect the TRIGGER OUT of one to the EXT INPUT of
the other 81110A.
Connect the 81110A OUTPUTs to the PNA rear panel IF inputs to be gated. The outputs are mapped in the
Pulsed Generator Configuration dialog box.
Connect the Z5623A H81Pulse Test Set (optional) to the PNA front-panel port 1 loops as follows:
PNA
H81
Src Out
Source IN
CPLR THRU
CPLR THRU
RCVR R1 IN
RCVR R1 Out
See Also
PNA Front-panel loops
PNA-X rear-panel
PNA IF connectors
81110A Documentation
Z5623A H81 Documentation
92
Using the Narrowband Pulsed Application
How to start the Narrowband Pulsed Application
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For PNA-L and E836x models
1. Click System
1. Press
until Pulse is visible
2. then Macro
3. then Pulse
2. then
For PNA-X
1. Press SYSTEM
1. Click Utility
2. then System
2. then [Macro]
3. then Macro
3. then [Pulse]
4. then Pulse
See Also
See programming commands to launch the Macro remotely.
See how to write your own custom Narrowband Pulsed Application.
Keypad Data Entry
The PNA front-panel Numeric Entry and Navigation keys can be used for dialog box input. Also, a keyboard can be
used to enter values, including alpha characters for prefixes (for example, u for usec.) . After typing values, first
press Enter, then press Tab to go to the next field.
The following is an image of the main dialog box:
93
Pulsed Application Main dialog box help
Note: An error message may appear on the PNA stating that the response frequency has exceeded the
maximum allowed frequency.
The Narrowband Pulsed Application may set the offset frequency (option 080) of the PNA to some value
other than zero (the default value). If the stop frequency is set to the maximum of the PNA model, then the
error message will appear.
To fix this, set the stop frequency to a value that is at least 2 KHz less than the maximum allowed. For
example, if you have a 20 GHz PNA, and the stop frequency is set to 20 GHz, and the error message
appears, then set the stop frequency to 19.999998 GHz
See Block Diagram of IF Path / Pulse Generators / Source Modulation
Configure
You can configure more than one channel to make pulsed measurements, but the channels must use the same
pulse generator settings.
Only the Agilent 81110A Pulse Generator is supported with the Narrowband Pulsed Application. Refer to the
81110A documentation for pulse repetition frequency and duty cycle capabilities.
See also:
Configure Receivers
Converter Measurements
Edit / Undo Pulse Application settings revert to those when Apply was last pressed.
94
Desired PRF and IFBW Enter the DESIRED values. When Calculate is pressed, one or both of these values
may change.
Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF): Frequency of the pulses from the Pulse Generator.
Pulse Repetition Interval: 1/ PRF Changes to either PRF or this setting changes both.
Receiver IF Bandwidth: IF Bandwidth of the PNA. Choose a setting from 1 Hz to 10 KHz.
Fixed PRF When checked, (default setting) the Calculate algorithm will NOT adjust the PRF, but only
change the IF Bandwidth.
Modulation/Gates The Source Modulation and four PNA receiver gates can each have their own, or share,
Pulse Generator outputs. Shared outputs have identical Width and Delay values. To configure and enable
outputs, click Configure, then Pulse Generators to launch the Pulsed Generator Configuration dialog box.
Width Pulse Width.
Delay The delay that occurs before the pulse.
Duty Cycle Calculated Duty Cycle of the source and each of the selected receivers. Updated when Calculate
is pressed.
Pulse Mode On When this box is checked, the PNA is enabled for Pulsed measurements. The PNA Status
Bar annotation indicates the following:
G Internal IF gates enabled.
F Filtering for Pulsed Measurements enabled.
Apply All selections are sent to the pulse generator and the active channel of the PNA.
Calculate All selections are calculated and valid PRF and IFBW values are entered in their fields. If these
settings are not acceptable, try changing the values you previously entered and click Calculate again. When
acceptable values are attained, click Apply to send these values to the pulse generator and PNA.
Pulse Profile Launches the Pulse Profile dialog box. Same as clicking View / Pulse Profile. If not available,
check Pulse Mode ON, click Calculate, then Apply.
Minimize Click to minimize the dialog box to make changes in the PNA application. To see the dialog again,
select Macro, Pulse, or turn the Status Bar ON.
Save All settings from the Narrowband Pulsed Application are saved in a *.ppf file. These settings are NOT
saved with PNA instrument state.
Recall Restore settings from the specified *.ppf file that were previously saved.
Close Closes the dialog box without saving changes.
95
How to configure Pulse Generators / Modulators and Receivers
From the Pulse App main dialog box
Learn about...
Configure Receiver Gain
Converter Measurements
No Pulse Generators When checked, the Narrowband Pulsed Application does NOT attempt to
communicate with internal or external pulse generators. This setting is used for troubleshooting
purposes.
No SW Gating When checked, the improved SW gating sensitivity is turned OFF. This setting is used
for troubleshooting purposes.
96
Pulsed Generator Configuration dialog box help
See Block Diagram of IF Path / Pulse Generators / Source Modulation
This dialog may look different depending on the PNA model and number of receivers available.
Configures either the internal pulse generators (PNA-X models with relevant options), or Agilent 81110A Pulse
Generator outputs. You can configure each 81110A Pulse Generator with either one or two 81111A output
modules.
The Source Mod and four PNA receiver gates can each have their own, or shared, pulsed generators allowing
identical Width and Delay values which are selected on the Main dialog.
To share an external generator output between one or more PNA inputs, use the same GPIB address and
output module for each PNA input.
Internal Pulse Gen Output (available ONLY on the PNA-X opt 025)
Specify the Pulse Gen (1 through 4) to use to modulate each of the PNA receiver IF gates or Sources.
External Pulse Generator settings
GPIB Addr: The GPIB address of the 81110A.
Output: The output module of the 81110A.
Master: The 81110A that uses the 10 MHz reference signal from the PNA.
Enabled: Turns the pulse output ON.
External Gate/Modulator settings
High: Specify a 'TTL-High' voltage level
Low: Specify a 'TTL-Low' voltage level
Ext Impedance: Impedance of the modulator used to create the pulse.
Complement: When this box is cleared, TTL HIGH is the pulse. When checked, TTL LOW is the pulse.
Using Internal Modulators When this box is checked, the voltage, impedance, and complement values are
forced to settings that prevent damage to the internal modulator.
Using Internal Pulse Generators Makes the appropriate settings on this dialog available.
Using Internal PNA gates When this box is checked, the voltage, impedance, and complement values are
forced to settings that prevent damage to the internal gates.
97
Receiver Gain Configuration dialog box help
See Block Diagram of IF Path / Pulse Generators / Source Modulation
This dialog may look different depending on the PNA model and number of receivers available.
Sets the gain of each PNA receiver manually or automatically.
Auto - The PNA selects the best gain level to make pulsed measurements.
Use the following to manually set the gain for each receiver.
Low - about 0 dB of gain
Medium - about 17 dB of gain
High - about 24 dB of gain
The PNA-X has the following attenuation settings:
Low - 30 dB of attenuation
Medium - 15 dB of attenuation
Hi - 0 dB of attenuation
Calibration in Pulse Mode
To perform a calibration in pulse mode (option H08), first configure and apply the pulse parameters (PRF, Pulse
Width, Delays, IF gating, and so forth) before calibrating the system. This will ensure the PNA is configured
properly during the calibration and measurement.
When performing Unknown Thru or TRL calibrations, ALL receivers must be gated. Otherwise, the error terms will
not be correct after the calibration has completed. This can be accomplished by either having a separate pulse
generator output for each of the IF gates, or by connecting pairs of the IF gates together with BNC-T's. For
example, if the pulse generator does not have enough outputs, then connect the R1 and R2 IF gates to the same
pulse generator output. Also, connect the A and B IF gates to either separate outputs (recommended) or one
output (reduces flexibility). The error terms will then be valid after the calibration is complete.
Pulse Profiling
Pulse profiling provides a time domain view of the pulse envelope. Profiling is performed using a measurement
technique that "walks" a narrow receiver "snapshot" across the width of the pulse. This is analogous to using a
camera to take many small snapshots of a wide image, then piecing them together to form a single, panoramic
view.
Pulse Profiling can be performed using ratioed or unratioed measurements.
Pulse Profiling is performed at a single CW frequency.
98
How to perform Pulse Profiling
From the Pulse App main dialog box,
Click the Pulse Profile button. or:
If this setting is unavailable, check Pulse Mode ON, click Calculate, then Apply.
Pulse Profile dialog box help
Learn about Pulse Profiling (scroll up)
See Block Diagram of IF Path / Pulse Generators / Source Modulation
Modulation / Gates
These setting duplicate those found on the main Pulse App dialog box.
In Pulse Profile, the Gate Delay settings (highlighted in yellow) are significant only with certain Measurement
Parameter and Couple Gates settings.
Time Parameters
Start, Stop These two combine to make the window of the assembled pulse profile. To view the entire
pulse, the start and stop values must be at least as wide as the Source Modulation Width plus Delay value.
Step Each consecutive snapshot is incremented by this value until the stop value is reached. Therefore, the
number of points for the pulse profile measurement can be calculated as: (Stop - Start) / Step. The higher the
number of points, the longer it takes to make the measurement.
99
Measurement Parameter
CW Freq. Frequency of the PNA source.
Source Port The PNA port supplying the source power. Only required for single receiver (unratioed)
measurements.
Param(eter) Only those receiver gates (and relevant measurements) that are configured in Pulsed
Generator Configuration are available.
Note: When a single receiver (unratioed) is selected, Gate Delay Settings (highlighted in yellow on above
dialog image) are ignored.
If the reference receiver gate is NOT configured, the average of the Source Modulation pulse is used as the
reference. For example: With S21 Selected, but ONLY B receiver gate is configured, then...
B Gate is walked across the Source Modulation pulse.
Source Modulation pulse average is used as reference (not
gated).
Coupled Gates Used when the appropriate receiver gates are configured for your S-parameter
measurement ONLY. This setting is ignored when a single receiver (Param) is selected.
Uncoupled (box cleared) The reference gate is FIXED at the delay setting as the test gate is walked
across the Source Modulation pulse as dictated by the Time Parameter settings.
For example:
S21 Selected, B and R1 receiver gates configured, Gates Uncoupled
B Gate is walked across the Source Modulation pulse.
R1 gate is fixed at pulse width and delay setting.
Coupled (box checked) The reference gate is walked synchronously with the test gate as dictated by the
Time Parameter settings. Only the difference between the test and reference gate delay values is
significant; NOT the absolute values.
100
For example:
S21 Selected, B and R1 receiver gates configured, Gates Coupled
B gate delay = 3 microseconds,
R1 gate delay = 2 microseconds
Difference = 1 microsecond
B Gate is walked across the Source Modulation pulse.
R1 gate is fixed at pulse width and delay setting.
B gate leads R1 gate by 1 microsecond.
Data Format Log Magnitude, Linear Magnitude, or Phase (only available if S-parameter selected).
Buttons
Show Gates Allows you do change the receiver gating width and delay while looking at the results.
Apply Gate Settings Click after making changes to gate settings.
Continuous Sweep Check, then click Measure, to continuously measure pulse profiling.
Measure Click to start the pulse profile measurement. Becomes Stop when continuously sweeping.
Marker to Delay After making a measurement, you can drag the display maker to any point along the trace.
Click this button and the marker time is entered into the Receiver Delay field on the main dialog box.
Save Data Saves time domain data to the PNA hard drive in any of the following formats:
Touchstone (*.s1p)
Comma delimited (*.prn)
Citifile (*.cti)
Learn more about these data formats
Signal Reduction versus Gate Width
Signal Reduction versus Gate Width
PRF = 1 MHz
The following two figures show the performance of the internal IF gates as the width is narrowed.
101
The following is a zoomed image of the shaded area (above).
The straight line shows the theoretical loss in dynamic range due to duty cycle effects when using
narrowband detection.
The curved (red) line shows the actual measured performance of the gates.
The minimum gate width for <1dB deviation from theoretical is approximately 20ns.
See the specifications for the option H11 and option H08.
102
Pulsed Frequency Converter Measurements
The Narrowband Pulsed Application works with both FCA (option 083) and standard Frequency Offset (opt 080)
measurements. On the Configure menu, check Converter Measurements. When checked, this setting prevents
the Narrowband Pulsed Application from overwriting frequency offset values. This may limit the number of PRF and
IFBW solutions that are returned when Calculate is pressed on the main Pulsed Application dialog box.
Note: Pulse Profiling can NOT be performed with frequency converter measurements.
Writing your own Narrowband Pulsed Application
You can use the Narrowband Pulsed Application or use an example program as a template for making your own
Narrowband Pulsed Application.
The Narrowband Pulsed Application uses a custom .dll to perform the calculations that are necessary to make
pulsed measurements. Use the COM Method below to send and return values to agilentpnapulsed.dll. Then use
SCPI or COM commands to control the PNA.
E836x
PNA-X
Example Program
E836x Create
PNA-X Create
COM Methods
ConfigNarrowBand3
ConfigEnhancedNB2
ConfigEnhancedNBIFAtten
SCPI commands
SCPI
SCPI
COM commands
COM
COM
Install and Register the Pulsed .dll on your PC
To create your own Narrowband Pulsed Application, or run the Narrowband Pulsed Application from a remote PC,
you must do the following:
1. Copy the following files from the PNA C:\program files\agilent\network analyzer\ to a directory on your PC.
agilentpnapulsed.dll
OffsetList.txt
prfbw.txt
prfbwmixer.txt
2. To register the ActiveX DLL in Microsoft Windows Operating System:
103
2.
From a command prompt on your PC, navigate to the directory where you copied the DLL.
Type: regsvr32 agilentpnapulsed.dll and press Enter
For Operating Systems other than Windows, see their associated help files to learn how to register DLL files.
Last Modified:
20-Feb-2008
Added physical connections
6-Nov-2007
Edited Ext Impedance
22-Jun-2007
converted to NB pulsed
122-Jun-2007
Updated for MX
104
Wideband Pulsed Application
The Wideband Pulsed Application configures the PNA-X internal pulse generators and modulators for measuring
pulsed S-parameters using the wideband mode detection technique.
The Wideband Pulse Application is designed to be used with the PNA-X with Opts 021, 022, and 025.
Note: Wideband Pulse application is NOT supported on the E836x and PNA-L models.
See Also
To learn more about wideband detection, see Application Note 1408-12.
See a Visual Basic example: Create a Wideband Pulsed Measurement using the PNA-X
Learn about the Narrowband Pulsed Application.
Download and Install the Wideband Pulsed Application
This application is installed and run as a macro on the PNA-X. Learn more about macros.
1. Go to http://na.tm.agilent.com/pna/apps/applications.htm
2. Click the download link
3. Save the downloaded file to the PNA hard drive
4. Double-click the downloaded file to install the Wideband Pulsed Application on the PNA.
5. Configure the macro. Learn how. The application is installed at C:\Program Files\Agilent\Network
Analyzer\Applications\WB Pulse\Wideband_pulse.exe
To learn more about Wideband pulsed application, click Help in the application.
Last Modified:
22-Jun-2007
MX New topic
105
Frequency Offset Mode
Frequency Offset Mode (FOM) provides the capability to have the PNA Sources tune to frequencies that are
different (offset) from the PNA Receivers.
PNA Option 080 provides you with the hardware and basic software capability to make Frequency Offset
Measurements. This topic discusses the PNA settings that are relevant to making these types of measurements.
See Frequency Converting Device Measurements for more information on making specific device measurements.
Note: The Frequency Converter Application Option 083 simplifies the task of making extremely accurate frequency
offset measurements on MOST frequency converting devices.
Frequency Offset Dialog Box
Setup Examples
Test Set (Reference Switch) Dialog Box
Other Frequency Offset topics
How to make Frequency Offset settings
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Channel
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Frequency Offset
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press STIMULUS
1. Click Stimulus
2. then [Frequency Offset]
2. then Frequency
3. then Frequency Offset
106
Frequency Offset dialog box help
The following are major changes to FOM:
Stimulus and Response are now called Sources and Receivers.
Sources and Receivers settings can be made in two ways:
1. By Coupling to the Primary (Channel) settings. This is the only method used in previous
releases.
2. By Uncoupling and setting Sources and Receivers values independently. This is the new,
simplified method.
External sources can be controlled form this dialog. Learn more.
Note: Source2 supplies power for ports 3 and 4. Turn Source2 power ON using the Power and Attenuators
dialog. This (Frequency Offset) is the only dialog for controlling the frequency of Source 2. Learn more about
Source2.
Frequency Offset (ON/OFF) Enables Frequency Offset Mode on ALL measurements that are present in the
active channel.
When FOM is NOT enabled, all frequencies are the same as the active channel.
Tip: First make other settings on this dialog box, then click Frequency Offset ON.
Primary The current Active Channel settings. When a Source or Receiver is coupled to the Primary settings,
its Sweep Type is the same as that of the Primary. The frequency settings of the coupled range are
mathematically derived from the Primary settings using the Multiplier, Divisor, and Offset values. With this
approach, only the Primary settings need to be changed in order to affect change in the coupled Sources and
Receivers. Changes to the Primary channel settings occur when Frequency Offset is checked ON. See
example using Primary and Coupled setting.
Tip: Primary settings are ONLY used when Sources and Receivers are Coupled. It is often easier to
Uncouple, then set Sources and Receivers independently.
Source and Source2 if available. Learn more about Internal Second Source.
Receivers All receivers that are used in the channel, including Reference receivers, are tuned to the
specified frequency settings.
107
Mode
Coupled Source and Receiver settings are mathematically derived from the Primary settings using
Multiplier, Divisor, and Offset values. Learn more.
Uncoupled Source and Receiver settings are entered independently, without reference to Primary settings.
When Uncoupled, Source and Receiver Ranges can use separate sweep types.
Sweep Type Click to change the type of sweep for each range. Only available for Primary and Uncoupled
Sources and Receivers.
Unsupported Sweep Type combinations
Power Sweep and Segment Sweep can NOT be used together.
Uncoupled Log Sweep yields invalid data whenever the sources are offset from the receivers.
Coupled Log Sweep is allowed only for the following two conditions:
1. The offset = 0, the multiplier = 1, and the divisor = 1.
2. The multiplier = 0
Settings To change settings, click IN the appropriate Settings cell, then click Edit.
If coupled, invokes the Coupled dialog.
If uncoupled or Primary invokes the Uncoupled settings dialog.
X-Axis Select the settings to be displayed on the X-Axis.
X-Axis Point Spacing Only available when a Segment Sweep Type is selected as the X-Axis display. Learn
more.
Note: When Frequency Offset is enabled, ALL receivers on the channel, including the reference receivers,
tune to the new offset frequencies, Therefore the source and reference receiver will be at different
frequencies. Therefore, FOM measurements that include a reference receiver, which includes all Sparameters, display invalid data.
To measure and display measurements at both the source and receiver frequencies, you must use two
channels. Use Equation Editor to calculate the conversion loss. See a calibrated FOM conversion loss
example.
Learn how to calibrate frequency offset measurements.
108
Coupled settings dialog box help
Coupled Formulas:
Range Start = [Primary Start x (Multiplier / Divisor)] + Offset
Range Stop = [Primary Stop x (Multiplier / Divisor)] + Offset
Where:
Offset Specifies an absolute offset frequency in Hz. For mixer measurements, this would be the LO
frequency. Range is +/- 1000 GHz. Offsets can be positive or negative.
Multiplier Specifies (along with the divisor) the value to multiply by the stimulus. Range is +/- 1000.
Negative multipliers cause the stimulus to sweep in decreasing direction. For downconverter mixer
measurements, this would be for setups requiring the Input frequency to be less than LO frequency.
See an example.
0 (zero) as the multiplier nulls the Primary setting. Then the Offset value adds to zero.
Divisor Specifies (along with the multiplier) the value to multiply the stimulus. Range is 1 to 1000.
109
Primary and Uncoupled settings dialog box help
This dialog will vary depending on the sweep type:
Linear and Log frequency
Uncoupled Log sweep yields invalid data whenever the sources are offset from the receivers.
Select Start/Stop or Center/Span
Frequency Enter values
Points (Primary only) Enter number of data points for the sweep.
Power
CW Freq Enter frequency in Hz.
Points (Primary only) Enter number of data points for the power sweep.
CW Time
CW Freq Enter frequency in Hz.
Sweep Time Enter time to complete one sweep. Enter 0 for the fastest sweep.
Segment Sweep Edits are made exactly like the standard segment table.
For Advanced Users: Uncoupled Segment Sweep offers great flexibility in configuring measurements. In
segment sweep mode:
The OK button is NOT available until the total number of data points for all segments matches the
number of Primary data points.
Independent IF Bandwidth and Independent Sweep Time are available ONLY on the Primary (channel)
and the Uncoupled Receivers - NOT Sources.
Independent Power is available ONLY on the Primary (channel) and the Uncoupled Sources - NOT
Receivers.
Setup Examples
Although the Frequency Offset settings can be used with many types of devices, these examples include mixer
terminology.
See a Mixer Compression and Phase (AM-PM) Measurement using FOM.
See a calibrated FOM conversion loss example.
1.
Fixed LO - Upconverter
Swept Stimulus (Mixer Input): 1000 MHz - 1200 MHz
Fixed LO: 1500
110
Swept Response (Mixer Output): 2500 MHz to 2700 MHz
Make the following settings on the FOM dialog
Source: Uncoupled
Sweep Type: Linear
Click Settings, then Edit. In the Source dialog:
Start Frequency = 1000 MHz
Stop Frequency = 1200 MHz
Receiver: Uncoupled
Sweep Type: Linear
Click Settings, then Edit. In the Receiver dialog:
Start Frequency = 2500 MHz
Stop Frequency = 2700 MHz
LO Settings
Set external source to CW - 1500 MHz.
Source2: Uncoupled (Only with Second PNA Internal Source)
Sweep Type: CW Time
Click Settings, then Edit. In the Source2 dialog:
CW Frequency = 1500 MHz
2.
Fixed LO - Downconverter (Input < LO)
Swept DECREASING Stimulus (Mixer Input): 1100 MHz to 1000 MHz
Fixed LO: 2500 MHz
Swept INCREASING Response (Mixer Output) 1400 MHz to 1500 MHz
Make the following settings on the FOM dialog
Primary: Not used
Source (Input): Uncoupled
Sweep Type: Linear
Click Settings, then Edit. In the Source dialog:
Start Frequency = 1100 MHz
Stop Frequency = 1000 MHz
Receiver (Output): Uncoupled
Sweep Type: Linear
Click Settings, then Edit. In the Receiver dialog:
Start Frequency = 1400 MHz
111
Stop Frequency = 1500 MHz
LO Settings
Set external source to CW - 2500 MHz.
Source2: Uncoupled (Only with Second PNA Internal Source)
Sweep Type: CW Time
Click Settings, then Edit. In the Source2 dialog:
CW Frequency = 2500 MHz
3.
Swept LO - Fixed Output - Upconverter
Swept External LO measurements in Frequency Offset Mode can be very difficult. The external LO source
must be synchronized with the swept output or input (as in this case). See Synchronizing and External
Source Control to see how this is done. The Frequency Converter Application Opt 083 performs makes
these measurements easily.
Swept Stimulus (Mixer Input): 1000 MHz to 1100 MHz
Swept LO: 1500 MHz to 1400 MHz
Fixed Response (Mixer Output): 2500 MHz
Make the following settings on the FOM dialog
Source: Uncoupled
Sweep Type: Linear
Click Settings, then Edit. In the Source dialog:
Start Frequency = 1000 MHz
Stop Frequency = 1100 MHz
Receiver: Uncoupled
Sweep Type: CW Time
Click Settings, then Edit. In the Receiver dialog:
CW Frequency = 2500 MHz
LO Settings
If using external source, set to sweep from 1500 - 1400 MHz.
If using Source2 (Second Internal Source):set to Uncoupled, then:
Sweep Type: Linear
Click Settings, then Edit. In the Source2 dialog:
Start Frequency = 1500 MHz
Stop Frequency = 1400 MHz
112
4.
Power Sweep for Mixers
To measure the gain compression of a mixer, the input power to the mixer is swept. The input and output
frequencies are fixed but offset from one another.
This is a good use of Coupled settings because the same compression test can be performed at several
different frequencies. With coupled Source and Receiver ranges, the Primary (channel) frequency can be
easily changed from the front panel. The coupled source and receiver frequencies will update accordingly.
Swept Input Power: -10 dBm to 0 dBm
Fixed Input Frequency: 1500 MHz
Fixed LO: 500 MHz
Fixed Output: 2000 MHz
Make the following settings on the FOM dialog
Primary:
Sweep Type: Power Sweep
Click Settings, then Edit. In the Primary dialog:
CW Frequency = 1500 MHz
Source: Coupled
Default settings make CW Frequency: 1500 MHz (same as Primary)
Receiver: Coupled
Default settings make Sweep Type: CW Time
Click Settings, then Edit. In the Receiver dialog:
Offset = 500 MHz
LO Settings
If using external source, set to CW: 500 MHz.
If using Source2 (Internal Second Source),:set to Coupled, then:
Sweep Type: Power Sweep
Click Settings, then Edit. In the Source2 dialog:
CW Frequency = 500 MHz
Test Set Reference Switch
PNA models with option 081 have a switch in the test set that allows you to bypass the port 1 reference receiver
through the front panel Reference 1 connectors. This switch lets you easily switch between standard S-Parameter
measurements and measurements using a reference mixer. You could use this feature to make standard S11
measurements and converter transmission measurements relative to a reference ("golden") mixer.
Note: The Frequency Converter Application Option 083 simplifies the task of making extremely accurate phase
113
measurements on MOST frequency converting devices.
How to access the Test Set dialog box
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Channel
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Test Set
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press TRACE/CHAN
1. Click Trace/Chan
2. then [Channel]
2. then Channel
3. then [More]
3. then More
4. then [Path Config]
4. then Path Config
5. select
5. Select
Test Set dialog box help
Note: This feature is only available on PNA models with Option 081 - external reference switch.
R1 Input Path
Internal: bypass R1 Loop Connects the port 1 source directly to the R1 receiver.
External: flow through R1 Loop Allows direct access to the R1 receiver through the Reference 1 frontpanel connectors.
See block diagram of reference switch.
Last modified:
114
25-Feb-2008
Added link to AM-PM procedure
16-Oct-2007
Minor edits
11/21/06
MQQ Modified for new dialog
115
Frequency Converting Device Measurements
Many frequency offset measurements can be made using the PNA with option 080. The following is a list of some
of those measurements and how they are made.
Conversion Loss
Conversion Compression
Return Loss and VSWR
Isolation
Harmonic Distortion
See Also: Frequency Offset Measurement Accuracy
116
Frequency Offset Measurement Accuracy
This topic discuss methods that can be used to make accurate frequency offset measurements.
Calibrations
Mismatch Errors
Accurate and Stable LO
See other Mixer Measurement topics
Calibrations
With Frequency Offset measurements, the stimulus and response frequencies are different. Standard calibration
error terms are calculated using reference measurements. Therefore, traditional calibration methods such as full 2port SOLT cannot be used with frequency offset.
Source and Receiver Power calibrations can be used to calibrate your Frequency Offset measurements.
Frequency Converter Application (option 083) offers fully calibrated scalar and vector frequency offset
measurements.
Source Power calibration:
Sets accurate power level at stimulus frequencies regardless of the receiver that will be used in the
measurement.
Can be copied to other channels with copy channels feature.
Can be interpolated.
Receiver Power Cal:
Requires a source cal to have already been performed and applied.
Cannot be copied to other channels.
Therefore:
Start by performing a source power cal over the combined stimulus and response frequencies.
Copy the channel to other needed channels and the source power cal is copied.
Change the frequency range of the copied channel to response frequencies.
Perform a receiver cal at the response frequencies on individual channels.
117
Change the frequency range to stimulus frequency and switch frequency offset ON.
On Status Bar, ensure that source and receiver cals are ON (source cal will be interpolated).
See Frequency Offset Conversion Loss Measurements to see a step-by-step example.
Mismatch Errors
Mismatch errors result when there is a connection between two ports that have different impedances. With Sparameter measurements, these mismatches are measured and mathematically removed during a full 2-port
calibration. This is much more difficult with frequency offset measurements. A much easier solution is to use highquality attenuators on the input and output of the mixer.
By adding a high-quality attenuator to a port, the effective port match can be improved by up to twice the value of
the attenuation. For example, a 10-dB attenuator, with a port match of 32 dB, can transform an original port match
of 10 dB into an effective match of 25 dB. However, as the match of the attenuator approaches the match of the
original source, the improvement diminishes.
Note: The Frequency Converter Application (option 083) uses calibration techniques that correct for mismatch
errors.
The larger the attenuation, the more nearly the resulting match approaches that of the attenuator, as shown in the
following graphic. However, excessive attenuation is not desired because that will decrease the dynamic range of
the measurement system.
Accurate and Stable LO
When using frequency offset mode, if the LO signal is not accurate and stable, the output signal will not be at the
expected response frequency. As a result, the output signal can fall on the skirts of the PNA receiver IF filter, or fall
completely outside of the receiver filter passband.
Also, the LO power level is critical in mixer measurements. Be sure to monitor these power levels closely.
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Conversion Loss (or Gain)
What is Conversion Loss?
Why Measure Conversion Loss?
How to Measure Conversion Loss
See other Frequency Converting Device Measurements
What is Conversion Loss?
Conversion loss is defined as the ratio of the power at the output frequency to the power at the input frequency with
a given LO (local oscillator) power. This is illustrated in the graphic below. A specified LO power is necessary
because conversion loss varies with the level of the LO, as the impedance of the mixer diode changes.
Why Measure Conversion Loss?
Conversion loss (or gain in the case of many converters and tuners) is a measure of how efficiently a mixer
converts energy from the input frequency to the output frequency. If the conversion loss response of a mixer or
converter is not flat over the frequency span of intended operation, valuable information may be lost from the
resulting output signal.
How to Measure Conversion Loss
Conversion loss is a transmission measurement. It is measured by applying an input signal (stimulus) and an LO
signal at specific known power levels, and measuring the resulting output signal level. Because the output
frequency is different from the input frequency, frequency offset mode (option 080) must be used for this
measurement.
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Note: This measurement is made much easier if your PNA has the Frequency Converter Application
Equipment Setup
Example: A calibrated Conversion Loss (Down-converter) measurement
Swept Input with Fixed LO = Swept Output
RF Input: 3.1 - 3.3 GHz
LO: 2.2 GHz
IF Output: 900 - 1100 MHz
PNA setup and calibrate on channel 1
1. On channel 1 create an unratioed R measurement over the ENTIRE input and output frequency span (.9 3.3 GHz). This will be the base source power cal that will be copied to the R and B channel measurements.
2. Perform a source calibration using a power meter. This makes the power level at the input of the mixer very
accurate.
Setup Reference measurement on channel 2
1. Copy channel 1 to channel 2 which will display the reference input to the mixer. The channel 1 source power
cal is copied with the other channel settings.
2. Change measurement to R1 unratioed.
3. Change RF Input frequency to 3.1 - 3.3 GHz. The source power cal becomes interpolated.
4. Perform receiver power cal. Do not need to make physical connections. The PNA source is internally
connected to the R1 receiver. Makes the R receiver read the source power level.
1.
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4.
Setup B measurement on channel 3
1. Copy channel 1 to channel 3. This channel will display the output of the mixer. The channel 1 source power
cal is copied with the other channel settings.
2. Change measurement to B unratioed.
3. Change IF Output frequency to .9 - 1.1 GHz. This causes the source power cal becomes interpolated.
4. Connect thru line from port 1 to port 2.
5. Perform receiver power cal. This makes the B receiver read the source power at the IF Output frequencies.
6. Turn OFF receiver power cal. This prevents an error when changing to input frequencies (next step).
7. Change RF Input frequency to 3.1 - 3.3 GHz. This changes the channel back to the mixer RF Input
frequencies.
8. Enable Frequency Offset.
9. Change Offset to (-2.2 GHz). This tunes the B receiver to the IF Output frequencies .9 to 1.1 GHz. Note:
The minus sign indicates a down-converter measurement.
10. Turn ON receiver power cal.
Measure the Mixer
1. Connect the mixer.
2. Adjust scaling to suit your needs.
3. Enable markers to read power levels for each trace.
The display below shows:
Ch3 B receiver (bottom trace) absolute output power.
Ch2 R1 receiver measurement (top trace) absolute input power to the mixer.
With this method, the conversion loss math (B/R1) can be performed with Equation Editor (not shown). The B/R1
ratio measurement is not supported with receiver power Cal turned on. However, conversion loss (C21)
measurements can be made directly and are much easier using the Frequency Converter Application, FCA (Opt
083).
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Conversion Compression
What is Conversion Compression?
Why Measure Conversion Compression?
How to Measure Conversion Compression
Measurement Accuracy Considerations
See other Frequency Converting Device Measurements
What is Conversion Compression?
Conversion compression is a measure of the maximum input signal level for which a mixer will produce linear
operation. It is very similar to the gain compression experienced in amplifiers.
To understand conversion compression, you must first understand conversion loss. This is the ratio of the mixer
output level to the mixer input level. This value remains constant over a specified input power range. When the
input power level exceeds a certain maximum level, the constant ratio between input and output power levels
begins to change. The point at which the ratio has decreased 1 dB is called the 1-dB compression point. This is
illustrated in the graphic below.
Why Measure Conversion Compression?
Conversion compression is an indicator of the dynamic range of a device. Dynamic range is generally defined as
the difference between the noise floor and the 1-dB compression point.
How to Measure Conversion Compression
The equipment and setup used to measure conversion compression are essentially the same as for measuring
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conversion loss and is illustrated in the following graphic.
The PNA performs a power sweep using frequency-offset mode and the resulting display shows the mixer's output
power as a function of its input power. The 1-dB compression point (or others such as 3-dB) can be determined
using markers.
Measurement Accuracy Considerations
Equipment Setup Considerations
The couplers in the PNA have very good directivity. If the return loss of the DUT is bad, the reflected signal
gets sampled by the PNA and can result in errors. This relates to error in DUT gain. To increase the
accuracy, an attenuator can be added between the PNA's source port and the DUT's input port. Normally a
6- to 10-dB attenuator is sufficient. Addition of this attenuator, however, decreases the available drive to the
DUT.
With high drive levels the PNA can be driven into compression resulting in measurement error. With
excessive drive levels, the PNA can be damaged. Add an attenuator between the output of the DUT and the
receiver input of the PNA to avoid these problems.
Calibration Considerations
Source power calibration can be used to provide a high level of accuracy for this measurement.
If your PNA has the Frequency Converter Application (option 083), you can perform a Scalar Mixer
Calibration to obtain a more accurate measurement.
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Isolation Measurements of Frequency Converting Devices
What is Isolation?
Why Measure Isolation?
How to Measure Isolation
See other Frequency Converting Device Measurements
What is Isolation?
Isolation is a measure of the leakage, or feedthrough, from one port to another. The more isolation a mixer
provides, the lower the amount of feedthrough. Isolation is measured at the same frequency as the stimulus, not
the converted or shifted frequency. Therefore, Frequency Offset capability is not necessary for these
measurements.
Three main isolation terms are of interest for mixer measurements:
LO-to-OUT isolation (VLO)
LO-to-IN isolation (VLO)
IN-to-OUT feedthrough (VIN)
Why Measure Isolation?
Any unwanted signal "leaking" through the device will mix with the desired output signal creating intermodulation
products, adding to intermodulation distortion. These unwanted signals may be difficult to filter out.
How to Measure Isolation
Use the following setups to measure the isolation of a mixer:
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Note the following:
The Input to Output isolation is very dependent on the LO power level. Isolation should be measured with the
LO power at its normal operating level.
Each of the ports not being tested should be terminated with an impedance typical of actual operation. This
may not always be the characteristic impedance, Z0 (usually 50 or 75 ohms). For example, if the OUT port of
a mixer is intended to be directly connected to a filter, then this filter should be used when measuring the
LO-to-IN feedthrough.
LO-TO-IN ISOLATION
LO-TO-OUT ISOLATION
IN-TO-OUT ISOLATION
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Measuring Converters vs. Mixers
Measuring IN-to-OUT feedthrough of a converter is identical to that of a mixer. The IN-to-OUT feedthrough is
generally very small for a converter due to the inclusion of an IF filter in the device. Because of this, the
measurement may require the PNA to have increased dynamic range.
Measuring LO leakage (LO-to-OUT and LO-to-IN) of a converter requires a different technique because the LO port
is typically not accessible:
The PNA can be tuned to the frequency of the LO signal and either the OUT or IN port connected to the PNA
receiver port. The PNA source port is not connected.
A spectrum analyzer can be connected to either the OUT or IN port and tuned to the frequency of the LO
signal.
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Harmonic Distortion
What is Harmonic Distortion?
Why Measure Harmonic Distortion?
How to Measure Harmonic Distortion
Measurement and Accuracy Considerations
See other Frequency Converting Device Measurements
What is Harmonic Distortion?
Harmonics are multiples of any signal appearing at the mixer input and also multiples of the LO input. The
distortion of the mixer's output characteristics caused by these harmonics is referred to as harmonic distortion.
Harmonic distortion is caused by non-linearities in the device.
Harmonics are NOT signals created by two or more signals interacting (mixing); these signals are known as
intermodulation products, which result in intermodulation distortion.
Why Measure Harmonic Distortion?
It can degrade the performance of devices connected to the output of the mixer.
The harmonics can also mix with other signals present in the mixer, adding to the intermodulation distortion
of the mixer.
How to measure Harmonic Distortion
The harmonics can be measured using the PNA with Frequency Offset (option 80). The frequency of the LO to the
mixer is set to zero and multiplier of the RF input is used to set the IF frequency (the harmonic). The equipment
setup is shown below.
Since harmonics are specified in dBc, the fundamental RF and both the second and third harmonics are measured
and the differences calculated. Multiple channels can be used to do this.
1. Connect the equipment.
2. Setup the measurement for calibration. See also Measurement and Accuracy Considerations.
Use three channels and frequency offset mode:
Channel 1 = F1 to F2
Channel 2 = F1 to 2F2 (frequency offset mode, multiplier = 1)
Channel 3 = F1 to 3F2 (frequency offset mode, multiplier = 1)
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Perform a source power calibration and receiver power calibration over the entire frequency range. See
Measurement and Accuracy Considerations.
Reduce the frequency span and increase the frequency offset multiplier on Channels 2 and 3:
Channel 2 = F1 to F2 (frequency offset mode, multiplier = 2)
Channel 3 = F1 to F2 (frequency offset mode, multiplier = 3)
Note: Because the frequency span has been changed from that used for calibration, the source and
receiver calibrations will be interpolated.
Connect the DUT, make the measurement, and calculate the harmonic response:
Set up markers on Channels 1, 2 and 3, and determine the difference between the marker values to get the
dBc value of each harmonic.
Channel 1 - Channel 2 = 2nd harmonic (dBc)
Channel 1 - Channel 3 = 3rd harmonic (dBc)
Note: Be sure to set the markers to the appropriate stimulus. Channel 2 markers should be set to twice the
frequency of Channel 1 markers. Channel 3 markers should be set to three times the frequency of Channel
1 markers.
Measurement and Accuracy Considerations
Equipment Setup Considerations
A filter must be used at the input of the mixer to remove the PNA source harmonics.
Calibrations
If your PNA has the Frequency Converter Application (FCA), you can perform a Scalar Mixer Calibration to
obtain a more accurate measurement.
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Return Loss and VSWR
What are Return Loss and VSWR?
Why Measure Return Loss and VSWR?
How to Measure Return Loss and VSWR
See other Frequency Converting Device Measurements
What is Return Loss and VSWR?
Return loss and VSWR are both linear reflection measurements, even when testing frequency conversion devices,
because the reflected frequency is not converted. These measurements are essentially the same as for filters and
amplifiers. Learn more about Reflection Measurements.
Why Measure Return Loss and VSWR?
Devices which have poor return loss and VSWR result in loss of signal power or degradation of signal information.
How to Measure Return Loss and VSWR
Setup the PNA measure return loss and VSWR as you would any two-port device. Connect your frequency
converting device as shown in the following diagrams:
RETURN LOSS AND VSWR OF MIXER INPUT PORT
RETURN LOSS AND VSWR OF MIXER OUTPUT PORT
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RETURN LOSS AND VSWR OF MIXER LO PORT
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Frequency Converter Application Known Issues
To see the current list of known FCA issues, please visit http://na.tm.agilent.com/fca/ and click the known FCA
issues link.
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Frequency Converter Application
The Frequency Converter Application (Option 083) simplifies testing of frequency converting devices.
Note: Option 082 allows you to make only SMC calibrations and measurements.
Advanced calibration techniques that provide exceptional amplitude and phase accuracy.
Simple setup using PNA models with Internal Second Source.
Control of external signal sources for use as local oscillators.
A graphical set-up dialog box that lets you:
quickly set up the PNA for single or dual conversion devices.
calculate and choose where mixing and image products will fall.
For more information, see the following topics:
Using FCA
Configure Your Mixer
FCA Calibrations
Configure an External LO Source
SMC with a Booster Amp
CharacterizeAdaptor Macro
Measure a DUT with an Embedded LO
Examples
How to make a VMC Measurement
How to make an SMC Measurement
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Notes:
For a detailed understanding of FCA, see our Mixer Measurements App Notes.
Please submit FCA issues that you find, as well as enhancement requests, to [email protected]
See Known Issues with the FCA
FCA is NOT supported on PNA-L Models. However, Opt 082 (SMC only) IS supported on PNA-L Models.
FCA is NOT supported when using external Millimeter Modules.
Copy Channels does NOT work with FCA.
Last modified:
13-Feb-2008
Added note about Copy Channels
Nov 28, 2006
Added clarification to PNA-L note
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Using the Frequency Converter Application (Option 083)
What's New in FCA
Overview
How to Create a Measurement
FCA Measurements Offered
FCA Measurement Settings
Change a Measurement
Speed Up Swept LO SMC Measurements
Use Nominal Incident Power
Select X-axis Display
Save Trace Data
Avoid Spurs
Examples (not in this topic)
How to make a VMC Measurement
How to make an SMC Measurement
Note: Please submit FCA issues that you find, as well as enhancement requests, to [email protected]
(See Known FCA Issues.)
Not sure if your analyzer is equipped with Option 083? Here's how to identify your analyzer.
Other Frequency Converter Application topics
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Other Frequency Converter Application topics
What's new in FCA with Rev 7.2
Support for PNA-X and Internal Second Source as LO
What's new in FCA with Rev 6.2
Option 082 allows you to make SMC calibrations and measurements. (VMC is NOT available.)
What's new in Rev 6.0:
Calibrated Swept LO measurements.
Create any of the Mixer measurements that are offered. For example, in the past if you wanted an SC12
measurement, you first had to create an SC21 measurement, and then change it to SC12. You can also
create more than one mixer measurement at the same time.
FCA calibrations are streamlined for consistency and ease of use.
Added SMC Power meter and offset settings.
Embed/De-embed networks for Waveguide, in-fixture, or on-wafer measurements.
Characterize Adaptor Macro creates S2P files from two 1-port cal Sets.
SMC-Forward and SMC-Reverse measurements can now be performed in the same channel. Therefore, we
no longer refer to them as separate measurement types.
Previous Instrument State files that include an FCA measurement can NOT be recalled by Revision 6.0.
FCA is NOT supported when using External Test Set Control.
Overview
The following is an overview of how to make an FCA measurement:
1. DECIDE to make either a Scalar measurement or Vector measurement. The calibration method is unique to
each of these. See a comparison of these two measurement types.
2. CREATE one or more FCA Mixer measurements.
3. Setup and CALIBRATE your Scalar or Vector measurement.
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2.
3.
How to Create an FCA Measurement
Note: An FCA measurement and a non-FCA measurement can NOT reside on the same channel.
PNA-X: First assign a VMC or SMC measurement class to a channel. Learn how.
E836x and PNA-L: From the New Trace dialog. click Application
Then change the default measurement to one you choose by doing the following:
How to Change an FCA Measurement
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Click Trace
1. Press
2. then Measure
2. then
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press MEAS
1. Click Trace/Chan
2. then select parameters
2. then Measure
3. then select parameters
New FCA Measurement dialog box help
Select one or more Scalar Mixer or Vector Mixer measurements.
SMC and VMC measurements MUST be made on separate channels.
After you create a mixer measurement, you can configure the FCA measurement and make other FCA
settings.
FCA Measurements Offered
Learn how to change the FCA measurement.
137
Important Note: Connecting your DUT to the PNA using FCA:
RF and IF terminology is NOT used in the FCA because the PNA does not know how the DUT is labeled or
how it will be used. Instead, the general terms INPUT and OUTPUT are used.
INPUT - The DUT port connected to PNA Port 1.
OUTPUT - The DUT port connected to PNA Port 2.
INPUT and OUTPUT Frequencies are specified using the Configure Mixer dialog box.
Vector Mixer/Converter Measurements
VC21 Conversion Loss/Gain (default) - stimulus at Input, response at Output
S11 - stimulus and response at Input
S22 - stimulus and response at Output
R1 - stimulus at Input, measures absolute power at the R1 receiver (uncorrected)
B - stimulus at Input, measures absolute power at the B receiver (uncorrected)
VC12 (reverse conversion loss) is NOT offered because of the reference mixer.
See Also: Measure a DUT with an Embedded LO
Scalar Mixer/Converter Measurements
Ratioed
SC21 Conversion Loss/Gain - stimulus at Input, response at Output
SC12 Conversion Loss/Gain - stimulus at Output, response at Input
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S11 stimulus and response at Input
S22 stimulus and response at Output
Unratioed These measurement do NOT use a reference receiver.
IPwr (Incident Power) - stimulus and response at Input
RevIPwr (Reverse Incident Power) - stimulus and response at Output
OPwr (Output Power) - stimulus at Input, response at Output
RevOPwr (Reverse Output Power) - stimulus at Output, response at Input
See Also: SMC with a Booster Amp
Channel / Window Selections
Channel Number Select the channel for the new traces.
Create in New Window
Check to create new traces in a new window.
Clear to create new traces in the active window. When the PNA traces per window limitation has been
reached, no more traces are added.
Auto-Create Windows Check to create new traces in as many windows as necessary. See PNA number of
windows limitation.
FCA Measurement Settings
Most of the FCA measurement settings in the remainder of this topic are made using the following menu selection.
The choices will be slightly different depending on the active FCA measurement.
139
How to select several FCA measurement settings
1. First create an FCA measurement, then...
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Trace
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Measure
3. select setting
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press MEAS
1. Click Response
2. then select setting
2. then Measure
3. then select setting
Speeding Up Swept LO SMC Measurements
Swept LO measurements require that an external LO source step in frequency. This can be extremely slow
depending on your measurement setup. The following features together will significantly speed up your SMC (NOT
VMC) swept LO measurement:
BNC External LO trigger method
Use Nominal Incident Power
Apply Cal Set or Cal Type
Use Nominal Incident Power
Each data sweep of a fully corrected SC21 measurement actually requires FOUR data sweeps. Three of the
sweeps are not displayed. When you select Use Nominal Incident Power, the reference receiver (R1 or R2) does
not measure incident power. Instead, the incident power is assumed to be at the level that was set with the Source
Power Calibration that is done as part of every SMC measurement. The degradation in accuracy is very negligible if
the input or output of your test device is well-matched. This selection eliminates sweeps ONLY when either:
Output Power is measured OR
SMCRsp is applied.
140
This selection applies to all SMC measurements. This selection never eliminates VMC sweeps.
See how to select Use Nominal Incident Power.
Select X-axis Display for FCA Measurements
FCA measurements typically have more than one swept parameter. You can choose to view the response (output)
of the measurement on the Y-axis while displaying any of the swept parameters (Input, LO1, LO2, Output) on the
X-axis of the PNA display.
For example, the following image shows an SMC Fixed Output response versus the swept Input.
Output: 100 MHz (data trace)
Input: 2 GHz to 23 GHz (X-axis)
LO: 1.9 GHz to 22.9 GHz (not shown)
Marker annotation shows Output power at Input frequency.
See How to Select X-axis Display
Save Trace Data
You can save your Frequency Converter measurement data in S2P format to disk.
Note: This is the only method to save Frequency Converter .S2P files from the front panel. Do NOT click File,
Save As... to save these S2P data files.
Beginning with PNA release 6.03, save FCA .S2P files remotely using the standard Save SNP programming
commands.
See How to Save Trace Data
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Save Data to File dialog box help
Allows you to save Frequency Converter measurement data to an S2P file. The data is saved in S2P format
much like standard PNA data. Learn more about .S2P files.
Note: This is the only method to save Frequency Converter .S2P files. Do NOT click File, Save As... to save
these S2P data files.
S2P Data Format Select the data format. This selection is independent of the PNA display.
Save As Click to specify a file name and location for the saved data.
Exit Closes the dialog box without saving the data. To save the data, you must click on the Save As button
before clicking the Exit button.
Notes:
Each record contains 1 stimulus value and 4 parameters (total of 9 values) as follows:
Stim Real(p1) Imag(p1) Real(p2) Imag(p2) Real(p3) Imag(p3) Real(p4) Imag(p4)
where pX is the parameter depending on measurement type:
Measurement
Type
p1
p2
p3
p4
Scalar
S11
SC21 (FWD)
SC12 (REV)
S22
Vector
S11
VC21
VC12
S22
Mixer
Characterization
Directivity
Source Match
Reflection
Tracking
M21
If correction is OFF, data is only saved for the active parameter. Zeros are saved for all other parameters.
If correction is ON, data is saved for all of the parameters.
All files contain the following Header Information: Brackets [ ] contain parameters.
!Agilent [Instrument Model Number]: [version]
!Mixer S2P File: [Mixer Measurement Type]
!Parameters: [Parameter List]
!Calibration State: [On/Off]
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!# Begin Mixer Setup
![Mixer Setup parameters listed here]
![Mixer Parameter 1]
.
.
![Mixer Parameter n]
!# End Mixer Setup
# [S2P data here]
Avoid Spurs
The Avoid Spurs feature of the Frequency Converter Application attempts to prevent unwanted mixing products
from appearing on the PNA screen. The Avoid Spurs feature does not significantly impact measurement speed.
Note: The Avoid Spurs feature is OFF by default for FCA calibrations. For highest accuracy, make measurements
with the Avoid Spurs feature at the same state (ON or OFF) as was used when calibrating.
To enable Avoid Spurs, check Avoid Spurs on the Mixer Setup dialog box.
Description
A spur, or spurious signal, is a term used to describe the unwanted product of two signals mixing together. When
you configure the mixer setup dialog box for a desired Output, the PNA computes the frequencies of potential
unwanted signals. By manipulating internal PNA hardware, these signals are avoided and do not appear on the
PNA display. This means you do not need to use external filters to prevent spurious signals from appearing on the
PNA display.
The time required for the PNA to compute the frequencies of unwanted spurious signals MAY be noticeable
depending on the number of data points in your measurement. However, once computed, the time required for the
PNA to avoid the spurs is usually insignificant.
Limitations
The Avoid Spurs utility cannot avoid every spur. However, when there is a choice of spurs to avoid, it will avoid the
largest spur.
The Computation of Avoided Spurs
The Avoid Spur computer avoids the following spurs:
LO, and its interaction with internal PNA components, and 16 of its harmonics.
Input frequencies and 16 of its harmonics.
Undesired Image frequencies (Sum or Difference) and 16 of its harmonics.
Last modified:
5-Oct-2007
Added link to embedded LO
143
144
Frequency Converter Application (Option 083) Calibrations
Frequency Converter Application (Option 083) offers two advanced calibration choices for mixer or converter
measurements that provide exceptional amplitude and phase accuracy.
Note: Option 082 allows you to make only SMC calibrations and measurements.
Comparison of Scalar and Vector Mixer Cals
SMC Setup and Overview
VMC Setup and Overview
FCA Calibration Wizard
How to Perform an FCA Calibration
Apply an FCA Cal Set and Cal Type
Examples (not in this topic)
How to make a VMC Measurement
How to make an SMC Measurement
Not sure if your analyzer is equipped with Option 083? Here's how to identify your analyzer.
To learn more about the FCA capability and improving FCA measurement accuracy, see FCA App notes.
Please submit FCA issues that you find, as well as enhancement requests, to [email protected] (See
Known FCA Issues.)
Other Frequency Converter Application topics
Comparison of Scalar and Vector Mixer Cals
145
Overview
Scalar Mixer Calibration
Vector Mixer Calibration
Provides highest Scalar (amplitude
only) accuracy for measurements
of conversion loss/gain.
Provides unparalleled accuracy for
measurements of relative phase
and absolute group delay.
Combines SOLT and power-meter
calibration.
Uses combination of SOLT
standards and a reciprocal
mixer/filter pair during calibration.
Simpler setup than Vector Mixer
Calibration.
More complicated setup and
calibration procedure than Scalar
Mixer Calibration.
After calibration, both reciprocal
and non-reciprocal mixers and
converters can easily be
measured.
Types of Transmission
Measurements
Both forward (SC21) and reverse
(SC12) directions.
Amplitude response VC 21
Phase response
Group delay
Power meter and sensor
Calibration mixer/filter combination
(must be reciprocal S21 = S12.)
Reference mixer
External source
Equipment Required
Common equipment for both SMC and VMC
Mechanical cal kit or ECal module
PNAs with one GPIB port require the Agilent 82357A USB/GPIB
Interface (Contact [email protected] for this product. The
82357B is not a direct replacement.)
See Comparison of Mixer Characterization using New Vector Characterization Techniques.
SMC Calibration Setup and Overview
146
Note: When using a PNA-L or PNA-X with Internal Second Source, the external source is NOT necessary.
Learn which PNA ports can be used for the LO.
Connect External Source and Power Meter to the PNA GPIB using any of the following methods:
For PNAs with two GPIB ports, connect these devices to the Controller port.
For PNAs with one GPIB port:
The Agilent 82357A USB/GPIB Interface - highly recommended - allows for the use of a remote PC to
control the PNA.
The standard GPIB Interface - with the following limitations:
The PNA cannot be controlled remotely as talker / listener over GPIB. First put the PNA in System
Controller mode. Learn how.
Available only on PNA releases 4.2 and later.
Learn how to Configure an External LO Source
Overview of the Scalar Mixer Calibration.
The Calibration Wizard guides you through this process.
1.
147
1. Connect a power meter / sensor to PNA Port 1. At each step of the input and output frequency, the PNA
measures:
input match of the power sensor
source power of the PNA
2. Perform two 2-port SOLT calibrations: one over the INPUT frequencies and one over the OUTPUT
frequencies of the DUT. (If your DUT is a linear device, the calibration uses only the INPUT frequency
range.) Use either a mechanical calibration kit or an ECal module.
How to configure two power sensors to cover the SMC measurement frequency range.
Using a dual channel power meter, with both sensors connected:
1. At the SMC Select DUT Connectors dialog, click View / Modify Source Cal Settings
2. At Source Calibration Settings dialog, click Power Meter Config
3. At Power Meter Settings dialog, click Sensors
4. At Power Sensor Settings dialog, clear the "Use this sensor only..." checkbox for both sensors.
5. Then enter the MIn and Max Frequencies for both sensors.
During the SMC Cal, you will be prompted to connect each sensor at the appropriate time.
VMC Calibration Setup and Overview
148
Note: When using a PNA-X with
Internal Second Source, the external
source is NOT necessary.
1
See note regarding LO
power out both second
source ports
Learn which PNA ports
can be used for the LO.
Measure a DUT with an
Embedded LO
Reference mixer provides a phase
reference for the measurements. The
reference mixer is connected in the
reference receiver path of the network
analyzer, between the source out and
receiver R1 in ports, as shown below.
149
The reference mixer is considered
part of the test system setup like the
test cables. It remains in place during
the entire calibration and
measurement process. The reference
mixer is switched in and out of the
measurement path by the PNA as
needed. See how to manually switch
the reference mixer.
The reference mixer does not need to
be reciprocal and does not have to
match the calibration mixer or the
mixer-under-test in performance. The
only requirement of the reference
mixer is that it cover the same
frequency range as the mixer undertest. In general, it is valuable to select
a reference mixer that can be used
with a variety of different setups. For
example, a broadband mixer can be
used in place of several narrow-band
alternatives.
A low pass filter on the output of the
reference mixer can be used to
suppress the LO leakage signal that
comes out of the reference mixer
output. It is not strictly needed, but
ensures that the PNA will not have
any source unlock or unlevel errors
due to the LO leakage.
Connect the Reference Mixer
INPUT to PNA Ref 1 Source out
Connect the Reference Mixer
OUTPUT to PNA Rcvr R1 In
Calibration mixer/filter is
characterized either before or during a
VMC calibration. It is used during the
VMC calibration as the THRU
standard. The calibration mixer/filter
combination must meet the following
requirements:
2
The mixer must be reciprocal over
the frequency range of the mixer
under test. This means that it has
the same magnitude and phase
response in the up-converting and
150
down-converting directions (C21 =
C12) as shown in the following
diagram.
If the Input and Output frequency
ranges are overlapping, the mixer
must have Input to Output Isolation
greater than 10 dB more than the
conversion loss in the overlapping
range.
The filter must reject the undesired
mixing product, and pass the
desired mixing product, at the
output of the cal mixer. This
requirement can be made easier by
characterizing the mixer/filter as a
downconverter. Learn more.
3
Power splitter
4
LO Source(s)
Note: When using a PNA-X with
Internal Second Source, the external
source is NOT necessary.
See note regarding LO power
out both second source ports
Learn which PNA ports can be
used for the LO.
Connect external sources to the PNA
GPIB using any of the following:
For PNAs with two GPIB ports,
151
connect to the GPIB Controller port.
For PNAs with one GPIB ports:
The Agilent 82357A USB/GPIB
Interface - highly recommended allows for the use of a remote PC
to control the PNA.
The standard GPIB Interface - with
the following limitations:
The PNA cannot be controlled
remotely as talker / listener over
GPIB. First put the PNA in
System Controller mode. Learn
how.
Available only on PNA releases
4.2 and later.
Learn how to Configure an External
LO Source
Overview of the Vector Mixer Calibration
The Calibration Wizard guides you through this process. The first three steps characterize the calibration mixer
that is used as the THRU standard during the calibration process.
1. Perform a 2-port SOLT calibration over the INPUT frequency range of the DUT, and another 2-port SOLT
calibration over the OUTPUT frequency range. Use either a mechanical calibration kit or an ECal module.
2. Characterize the input and output match of the calibration mixer/filter combination with the external LO
connected and the output terminated with an open, short, and load. Learn how to connect the calibration
mixer/filter. Once characterized, an S2P file is saved and can be recalled for use in subsequent VMC
calibrations using the same stimulus settings.
3. Connect the reference mixer between the Source Out and Rcvr R1 front-panel connectors. Connect the
output port of the calibration mixer/filter combination to PNA Port 2 (or at the end of the cable attached to
the port).
4. Measure the calibration mixer/filter combination as the THRU calibration standard.
5. The PNA calculates the error terms necessary to make corrected phase measurements of your
mixer/converter under test.
To learn more about VMC capability and improving measurement accuracy, see www.Agilent.com and search
for App notes (AN 1408-1) and (AN1408-3).
The FCA Calibration Wizard
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The following dialog boxes are presented during SMC, VMC, and Mixer Characterization (used in VMC).
Click a box to learn about that step.
Note: In the above diagram and following procedure:
yellow - steps that are common to both calibration methods.
tan - VMC only steps.
red - SMC only steps
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How to Perform an SMC, VMC, or Mixer Characterization Calibration
1. Create an FCA measurement, then...
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
MENU/ DIALOG
1. Click Calibration
2. then Calibration Wizard or Mixer Characterization
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press RESPONSE
1. Click Response
2. then [Cal Wizard]
2. then Cal Wizard
Calibration Setup dialog box help
Allows you to review and change the settings for your FCA calibration.
Waveguide/In-fixture/On-Wafer Setup Invokes the following Setup dialog box.
Edit Mixer Click to display the Configure Mixer dialog box.
154
Waveguide/In-fixture/On-Wafer Setup dialog box help
This dialog box appears ONLY if you checked the Waveguide/In-fixture/On-Wafer Setup box in the previous
Cal Setup dialog.
Allows you to embed (add) or de-embed (remove) circuit networks on the input and output of your mixer
measurement.
For Network1 (Input) and Network2 (Output) select Embed, De-embed, or None.
Browse Click to navigate to the .S2P file that models the network to embed or de-embed.
Notes
See To Embed or De-embed? and the associated procedures
Characterize Adaptor Macro can be used to create the S2P file.
The S2P file for Network1 (on the input of the mixer), must cover the Input frequency range.
The S2P file for Network2 (on the output of the mixer), must cover the Output frequency range.
The frequency range of the S2P file must be the same, or larger than, the frequency range of the
FCA measurement. If more frequencies are included in the file, and the data points do not exactly
match those of the measurement, interpolation will be performed.
In all cases:
Port 1 of each network is assumed to be connected to the PNA.
Port 2 of each network is assumed to be connected to the DUT.
155
Calibration Mixer Characterization dialog box help
VMC and Mixer Characterization ONLY
What is Calibration Mixer Characterization? For a brief explanation, see Calibration Mixer.
Select Mixer Characterization Method
Perform Characterization (requires a reference mixer) Performs a Mixer characterization in addition to
the VMC calibration. The mixer characterization file will be saved at the end for use in subsequent VMC
calibrations. Choose this selection if you do NOT already have a mixer characterization file to load.
Load characterization from file Loads an S2P calibration mixer characterization file. Click Browse to
locate the file.
The frequency range of the S2P file MUST be the same, or larger than, the frequency range of the FCA
measurement. If the S2P file frequency range is larger, or the data points do not exactly match those of
the measurement, interpolation will be performed.
The VMC calibration requires that the calibration mixer be connected in the same orientation as that in
which it was characterized. The direction in which it was characterized is not part of the file that is
recalled. You have to remember and connect it appropriately.
"Invalid Mixer Characterization File" is displayed if the frequency range of the S2P file is smaller that those
of the measurement.
Note: A Mixer Characterization Cal can be performed separately. Learn how.
156
Measurement Direction dialog box help
VMC and Mixer Characterization ONLY
This dialog box appears ONLY if your settings in the Mixer Setup dialog box indicate that your DUT is being
tested as an upconverter (input < output). It allows you to characterize the Calibration Mixer / Filter as a
downconverter (input > output) or an upconverter.
The following example shows why you would choose to characterize the calibration mixer as a downconverter.
Consider a DUT being used as an upconverter. The input frequency is 70 MHz, the LO is 20 GHz, and the
selected (+) output frequency is 20.07 GHz. If we chose (-) in the mixer setup dialog, the output frequency
would be 19.93 GHz.
Characterize as upconverter A very sharp cutoff filter is required to reject the undesired output of 19.93
GHz and pass the desired 20.07 GHz.
Characterize as downconverter The input frequency is 20.07 GHz; the LO is 20 GHz. The sum (+)
output is 40.07 GHz and the diff (-) output is 70 MHz. These are very easy to separate with a low-pass
filter. The original frequencies are always used in the downconversion process, so be sure to choose a
filter that will pass 70 MHz and reject 40.07 GHz.
See connection diagrams.
Select DUT Connectors and Cal Kits dialog box help
Allows you to specify the connector type of each DUT port.
The DUT port that is connected to PNA Logical Port 1.
DUT Port 1 Specify the Mixer Input connector type and the Cal Kit to use.
DUT Port 2 Specify the Mixer Output connector type and the Cal Kit to use.
Mixer Out Port (VMC and Mixer Characterization ONLY) Output port of the image filter that is connected to
the calibration mixer. Specify the Cal Kit / standards to use for the measurement of the calibration mixer / filter
combination.
View / Modify Source Cal Settings (SMC ONLY) These settings allow you change ALL SMC Source Cal and
Power Meter settings. Click to invoke the Source Cal Settings dialog. See how to configure two power sensors.
Note: If your DUT connectors are:
Waveguide Change the system impedance to 1 ohm before performing a calibration. See Setting
System Impedance.
157
Not listed (male and female) Select Type A as the connector type. Type A requires a calibration kit file
containing the electrical properties of the standards used for calibration (see Calibration kits).
Unspecified (like a packaged device) Select Type B as the connector type. Type B requires a
calibration kit file containing the electrical properties of the standards used for calibration (see Calibration
kits).
Modify Cal Check to invoke the Modify Cal dialog. If performing a Mixer Characterization Cal at the same time
as VMC Cal, two Modify Cal dialogs will be presented, one after the other.
Source Calibration Settings dialog box help
SMC ONLY Allows you to modify the settings that are used during the Source Calibration portion of an SMC
cal. These settings allow you to specify the accuracy of the Input power to the device.
Note: Be sure that the frequency range of your power sensor covers the frequency range of your measurement.
This does NOT occur automatically.
Power
Power Offset Allows you to specify a gain or loss (in dB) to account for components you connect between
the source and the reference plane of your measurement. For example, specify 10 dB to account for a 10 dB
amplifier in the path to your DUT. Offset power is added to, or subtracted from, the power level that is set in
the mixer configuration dialog box.
For information about how and when to use this setting, see SMC with a Booster Amp.
Accuracy
At each data point, power is measured using the specified Power Meter Settling Tolerance and adjusted, until
the reading is within this Accuracy Tolerance or the Max Number of Readings has been met. The last power
reading is plotted on the screen against the Tolerance limit lines.
Tolerance Sets the maximum desired deviation from the specified Cal Power level.
Max Number of Readings Sets the maximum number of readings to take at each data point for iterating the
source power.
158
Use Reference Receiver for Fast Iteration
When checked, the first reading at each data point is used to calibrate the reference receiver. Subsequent
readings, if necessary to meet your accuracy requirement, are measured using the reference receiver. This
technique is much faster than using the power meter with almost no degradation in accuracy.
NOTE:Do NOT use the Reference Receiver for Fast Iteration feature if there is a component before the
power sensor that exhibits non-linear behavior, such as a power amplifier in compression.
Power Meter Config Invokes the Power Meter Settings dialog box. See how to configure two power sensors.
OK Applies settings and closes dialog.
Cancel Cancels changes and closes dialog.
Modify Frequency Cal dialog box help
For SMC and VMC calibrations - NOT for Mixer Characterization.
Thru Calibration Options
Thru Cal Method For each Thru connection, choose the Thru method. Learn more about these choices.
Mod Stds Click to invoke the Modify Calibration Selections dialog box.
The following selections are available ONLY if using an ECal module.
Do orientation When this box is checked (default) the PNA senses the ECal model and direction in which
the ECal module port is connected to the PNA ports. If power to the ECal module is too low, it will appear as
if there is no ECal module connected. If you use low power and are having this problem, clear this check box
to provide the orientation manually.
Orientation occurs first at the middle of the frequency range that you are calibrating. If a signal is not
detected, it tries again at the lowest frequency in the range. If you have an E8361A or E836xB PNA and do
an ECal completely within 10 - 20 MHz OR 60 - 67 GHz, you may need to do orientation manually. There
may not be sufficient power to orient the ECal module at those frequencies.
View/Detect ECal Characterizations Appears only if an ECal module is selected for use. Click to invoke
the View ECal Modules and Characterizations dialog box. Displays a list of ECal modules that are connected
to the PNA.
159
Specify how the ECal module is connected dialog box help
This dialog box appears when the Do orientation checkbox in the previous Modify Frequency dialog box is
cleared.
Click the ECal Port that is connected to each PNA port.
Modify Mixer Cal dialog box help
Mixer Characterization ONLY. The Thru standard is not measured. Therefore, the Thru Cal Method choices
are not available.
View / Detect ECal Characterizations Available ONLY if using an ECal module. Invokes the Select ECal
Module and Characterization dialog box.
Select the ECal Port to be connected to the Output of the Calibration Mixer dialog box help
Select the ECal Port to be connected to the output of the image filter of the Calibration Mixer / Filter
combination. See connection diagram of Calibration Mixer / Filter combination.
160
Vector Mixer Cal dialog box help
VMC and Mixer Characterization
Connect the Open, Short, and Load standards to the image filter output, then click Measure.'
This portion of the calibration characterizes the calibration mixer.
The connection is different depending on if the calibration mixer is an upconverter being characterized as a
down converter.
Note:
The following are simplified connection diagrams - the reference mixer and LO signals must also be
connected.
As a Downconverter. (The PNA automatically switches to make the S22 measurement on the device.)
As an Upconverter
Done Click to proceed to the Calibration Complete dialog. Available only after all measurements for the
calibration are complete.
161
Scalar Mixer Calibration - Power Cal dialog box help.
SMC ONLY Perform the power-meter portion of the calibration.
Connect your power sensor to port 1 as shown in the diagram. Then click Measure.
Measure Begins the power meter measurements and then continues to the next step.
Done Click to proceed to the Calibration Complete dialog. Available only after all measurements for the
calibration are complete.
Abort Sweep Stops the power meter measurement.
Back Returns to the previous dialog box.
Next Continues to the next calibration step. Does NOT make a measurement.
Notes
Beginning with Rev 6.0, a power meter measurement is only necessary on port 1.
SMC calibration performs 10 averages at the beginning and at the end of the power cal step to ratio the
difference between normal and offset R1 measurements in the calibration band of frequencies. The
averaging is done to remove a reasonable amount of noise from the ratio measurement.
From Source Calibration dialog you can use the Power Loss Compensation Table to compensate for an
adapter used to connect the power meter sensor.
See how to configure two power sensors.
162
Measure Calibration Standards dialog box help
Prompts for standards to be measured. Connect the standard, then click Measure.
Measure Measures the mechanical standard and continue to the next calibration step.
[ReMeasure] Replaces Measure after standard has been measured. Allows you to remeasure a standard.
Done Click to proceed to the Calibration Complete dialog. Available only after all measurements for the
calibration are complete.
Back Returns to the previous dialog box.
Next Does NOT make a measurement. Proceeds to the next required step.
Cancel Exits the Calibration Wizard.
Save Mixer Characterization dialog box help
VMC ONLY
Allows you to save the characterization data of your calibration mixer. When performing another VMC
calibration using the same calibration mixer, this S2P file can then be recalled.
Browse Navigate to the location where you want to save the characterization data of your calibration mixer.
Either use the default file name or enter a custom file name.
Next Saves the mixer characterization file and continues with the next step in the full system calibration
routine.
Finish Replaces Next if you are only characterizing the calibration mixer instead of performing a full system
calibration. Saves the mixer characterization file and exits the mixer characterization routine.
163
Calibration Completed dialog box help
Finish Save to the channel's calibration register.
Save As User Cal Set Invokes the Save as User Cal Set dialog box AND save to the channel's calibration
register.
Cancel Calibration is NOT applied or saved.
Learn about Calibration Registers.
Learn about User Cal Sets
Create and Apply an FCA Cal Set or SMC Cal Type
You can create an FCA measurement and apply an existing Cal Set as you can with any PNA measurement. Learn
about Cal Sets. In addition, from a Cal Set, you can apply a specific SMC Cal Type to an existing SMC
measurement.
Although the Cal Type selection is available for VMC, there is only one VMC Cal Type.
How to apply an SMC Cal Type
1. Create an SMC measurement
2. Calibrate or apply an existing SMC Cal Set, then...
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
MENU/ DIALOG
1. Click Calibration
2. then Cal Type
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press CAL
1. Click Response
2. then [Manage Cals]
2. then Calibration
3. then [Cal Type]
3. then Manage Cals
4. then Cal Type
164
Select Calibration Type dialog box help
Each SMC measurement requires FOUR sweeps. Three of these are hidden. If the input and output of your
mixer is well-matched to the PNA, you can apply SMCRsp Cal Type to speed up your SMC measurements.
This is most noticeable when making fixed input or fixed output measurements, which requires an external LO
to sweep with the PNA.
SMC_2P: (Response + Input + Output) All four sweeps required. Most accurate.
SMCRsp: No Input or Output match. Saves two sweeps.
SMCRsp+In: No Output match. All four sweeps required.
SMCRsp+Out: No Input match. All four sweeps required.
Last modified:
6-Mar-2008
Added procedure for two sensors
30-Aug-2007
Modified 82357A text
01-Jan-2007
MX Added PNA-X UI
165
Configure a Mixer
How to Start the Mixer Setup dialog box
Learning the Mixer Setup Dialog Box
Rules for Configuring a Mixer
Using Power Sweep for Testing Mixers
Input > LO Example
Configure Swept LO Measurements
Fractional Multiplier Examples
See Also
How to make a VMC Measurement example
How to make an SMC Measurement example
Measure a DUT with an Embedded LO
Note: Please submit FCA issues that you find, as well as enhancement requests, to [email protected]
(See Known FCA Issues.)
Other Frequency Converter Application topics
How to start the Mixer Setup dialog box
1. Create an FCA measurement. Then...
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Click Trace
1.
2. then Measure
3. then Configure Mixer
166
2.
3.
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press FREQ
1. Click Response
2. then [Input, LO, or Output]
2. then Measure
3. then Configure Mixer
Learning the Mixer Setup dialog box
Click on sections of the image to learn about a setting.
Note: This image shows two LOs.
Important Note: Connecting your DUT to the PNA using FCA:
RF and IF terminology is NOT used in the FCA because the PNA does not know how the DUT is labeled or how
it will be used. Instead, the general terms INPUT and OUTPUT are used to describe the following PNA
behavior:
INPUT - the stimulus frequencies, BEFORE conversion by your DUT.
OUTPUT - the response frequencies, AFTER conversion (either UP or DOWN) by your DUT. Specify UP
or DOWN conversion using the + or - symbol for each output.
See Fractional Multiplier Examples (below)
167
Mixer Setup dialog box help
Throughout the dialog box, the Mixer / converter ports are color coded (Input, LO1, IF1, LO2, Output)
Rules for Configuring a Mixer
Red Apply and OK buttons indicate that one or more of the following settings are invalid.
1. The INPUT start frequency can NOT exceed the stop frequency.(The OUTPUT start frequency CAN
exceed the stop frequency.)
2. INPUT or OUTPUT frequencies cannot be outside the range of the PNA.
3. Any combination of INPUT and LO which results in an OUTPUT that sweeps through zero Hz is NOT
allowed.
4. The range for the numerator and denominator of a fractional multiplier is from +1 to +10. Negative
values are NOT allowed.
Power Sets the power level of the input signal, and both LO signals.
Frequency Format Selects the format to specify the frequency information for each signal in your test setup.
The Input, LO1, LO2, IF, and Output frequency information can be specified using start/stop or center/span
formats. Only LO1, LO2, IF, and Output formats can be set to Fixed. When you select a swept LO, you can
also select the information you want to display on the X-axis.
LO1 and LO2 Source Configuration Buttons Performs the same function as the configuration buttons on
the lower diagram. The current source, or Not Controlled is displayed on the button label. Click to launch the
Select Source dialog.
Resulting Frequencies Either sets or calculates the frequency values for each of the signals in your test
setup. For example, if you enter the Input frequency range and press the Calculate button adjacent to the Input,
the PNA will calculate and display the Output frequencies.
Go to the Mixer Setup image
Input > LO
These check boxes remove ambiguity when using the Calculate button to determine the INPUT frequency.
Check if the INPUT is GREATER THAN the LO
Clear if the INPUT is LESS THAN the LO
Check if the IF1 is GREATER THAN the LO2
Clear if the IF1 is LESS THAN the LO2
These boxes are only used when all 3 of the following conditions are TRUE:
(If ALL 3 are NOT true, the PNA does not read these boxes).
1. Difference (Low) sideband
is selected for the corresponding Calculate button AND
2. Output frequency is less than the LO frequency AND
3.
168
1.
2.
3. The Green or Blue Calculate button is used to calculate the Input frequency.
To learn more, see this example.
Fractional Multiplier
The combination of (numerator / denominator) forms a fractional value that is multiplied by the input and LO
frequency ranges (also the IF and LO2 frequency ranges for a test setup with two LOs). These values are used
to Calculate the response frequency of the PNA receiver. Use the fractional multipliers to:
replicate the action of harmonic mixers
replicate the action of multipliers and dividers that may exist in your test setup
tune the PNA receiver frequency to a harmonic of the mixer/converter
See Fractional Multiplier examples.
Go to the Mixer Setup image
Mixer-Product Selector Determines whether the receivers will tune to the Sum (+) or the Difference ( - ) of the
Input and LO frequencies. Click the adjacent Calculate button after your selection.
Calculate buttons Calculates frequency information based on your other mixer settings. The mixer port
settings next to the Calculate button you press remain fixed. For example, in a 1-LO scenario, specify the Input
and LO frequencies, specify + (sum), then click the Calculate button next to the Input. The input remains fixed
and the output frequency range is calculated for you.
Hide / Show Diagrams Hides and displays the test setup diagram. Your measurement trace is displayed when
the diagram is hidden.
LOs Click 1 or 2 to select the number of LO sources in your test setup. When you select 2 LOs, the IF1
frequencies are set for you. You can also measure devices with an Embedded LO.
Avoid Spurs Check to invoke the Avoid Spurs feature.
Load Loads a previously-configured mixer attributes file (.mxr).
Note: A .mxr file includes an LO source name. However, It does NOT include the LO Source configuration.
Therefore, when using a .mxr file that was created on a different PNA, the PNA will display an error if does not
find the LO Source configuration using EXACTLY the same LO source name.
Save Saves the settings for your mixer/converter test setup to a mixer attributes file (.mxr).
Apply Applies the settings for your mixer/converter test setup to the measurement. The mixer setup dialog box
remains OPEN. If shaded red, see rules.
OK Applies the settings for your mixer/converter test setup to the measurement. The mixer setup dialog box
CLOSES. If shaded red, see rules.
Cancel Closes the mixer setup dialog box and does NOT apply the settings.
Frequency Diagram: Provides a display of the frequency information for the signals in the test setup.
Go to the Mixer Setup image
169
Select Source dialog box help
This dialog is launched when clicking the Mixer Setup LO1 or LO2 button.
Click one of the following to select a source for LO control:
An existing External Source setup. Calibrate the source using a standard Source Power Cal.
A port number to use an internal second source
Not controlled the PNA will not attempt communication to control a source for the LO.
Manage External Sources button to launch the External Source Configuration dialog.
Note: VMC measurements using a PNA-X with Internal Second Source
Source 2 is automatically configured to supply power to BOTH available ports simultaneously. This setting
can NOT be changed.
In addition, power can be uncoupled to provide different power levels at each port This feature allows power
to be delivered to both the DUT LO and Reference Mixer LO without use of a splitter. See VMC setup.
Using Power Sweep for Testing Mixers
To measure the gain compression of a mixer, you need to sweep the input power to the mixer. The input and
output frequencies are fixed but offset from one another. To set Power Sweep and the input and output frequencies
of the mixer under test:
1. On the mixer dialog box, set the LO frequency, identical input start and stop frequencies, and identical output
start and stop frequencies. These selections create fixed input and output frequencies.
2. On the PNA menu, click Sweep, then Sweep Type. Select Power Sweep. Do NOT change the CW
170
1.
2.
frequency on the Power Sweep dialog box. The mixer dialog box settings will not be automatically updated.
For more information, see Conversion Compression.
Input > LO Example
For the following single stage mixer:
Output = 2 GHz
LO
= 3 GHz
Diff (-) selected
Clicking Calculate Input could yield two Input frequencies:
Formula for Diff:
Input - LO = Output
Substitute our example values in the formula:
Input - 3GHz = 2 GHz
Solving the formula can yield either:
Input = 5 GHz
OR
Input = 1 GHz
(Although 1-3 = - 2 GHz, the analyzer displays the absolute value of the frequency.)
Check - use the Input frequency (5 GHz) that is greater than LO (3 GHz)
Clear - use the Input frequency (1 GHz) that is less than LO (3 GHz)
Configure Swept LO Measurements
Note: With a corrected VC21Swept LO measurement, the phase data is displayed relative to the phase of the
calibration mixer that was used during the VMC calibration. In addition, Group delay display format is NOT valid.
171
See Examples of Fixed Output Measurements
SMC
VMC
Fractional Multiplier Examples
Example 1
Use the LO fractional multiplier to replicate the action of the third-harmonic mixer so the PNA can accurately
calculate the receiver frequency. The input and LO frequencies are known.
Enter these settings in the Mixer Setup dialog box:
Input Start Freq: 30 GHz
Input Stop Freq: 40 GHz
LO Fixed Freq: 16 GHz
Mixer-Product Selector: - (difference)
LOs: 1
LO fractional multiplier: 3/1
INPUT fractional multiplier: 1/1
Click Calculate Output
Results:
Output Start Freq: 18 GHz
Output Stop Freq: 8 GHz
Example 2
Use the fractional multipliers to tune the PNA receiver frequency to the second harmonic of the mixer's 14 GHz
172
fundamental output. The input, LO, and output frequencies are known.
Enter these settings in the Mixer Setup dialog box:
Input Start Freq: 4 GHz
Input Stop Freq: 4 GHz
LO Fixed Freq: 10 GHz
Mixer-Product Selector: + (Sum) of the input and LO signals
LOs: 1
INPUT fractional multiplier = 2/1
LO fractional multiplier = 2/1
Click Calculate Output
Results:
Output Start Freq: 28 GHz
Output Stop Freq: 28 GHz
Example 3
Use the LO fractional multiplier to replicate the action of the divide-by-two mechanism inside the mixer package.
Having done this, the PNA can accurately calculate the receiver frequency. The input and LO frequencies are
known.
173
Enter these settings in the Mixer Setup dialog box:
Input Start Freq: 45 MHz
Input Stop Freq: 50 MHz
LO Fixed Freq: 670 MHz
Mixer-Product Selector: + (Sum) of the input and LO signals
LOs: 1
INPUT fractional multiplier = 1/1
LO fractional multiplier = 1/2
Click Calculate Output
Results:
Output Start Freq: 380 MHz
Output Stop Freq: 385 MHz
Last Modified:
20-Apr-2007
MX Updated for internal second source
174
Configure an External Source
Beginning with PNA Rev. 7.22 , an external source can be configured and controlled by the PNA for all FOM (opt
080), FCA (opt 083), or Millimeter Wave (opt H11) measurements. Without one of these options you must control
an external source manually.
Also, the External Source Control feature only supports List-sweep mode, which a PSG limits to 1601 points.
Manual source control supports Step-sweep mode, in which a PSG allows up to 65,535 points.
See Synchronize an External Source for help with manual source control,
After a one-time Configuration of an External Source , it must be selected for each measurement using the Select
Sources dialog .
In this topic:
How to Select an External Source
How to Connect an External Source to the PNA
How to Configure an External Source
Add New Source
See Also the following examples:
How to make a VMC Measurement
How to make an SMC Measurement
Beginning with PNA Rev 7.5...
Generic (Non-Agilent) sources are not supported with this release.
With an external source selected, the PNA WILL now allow an S-parameter measurement to be made at the
same time as an FCA measurement.
All External Sources, including those used for FCA LO, are now calibrated by doing a standard Source Power
Calibration .
FCA external sources are now selected and managed using the standard dialogs shown in this topic.
175
How to Select an External Source
For an FCA measurement
1. In the Configure Mixer dialog box, click the LO 'Control' button
2. In the Select Source dialog, click Select External Sources to launch the Select Sources dialog.
For all other FOM (opt 080) measurements, do the following:
Using front-panel
[softkey] buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
MENU/ DIALOG
See Remotely Specifying a Source Port
1. Click System
2. then Configure
3. then Select External Source
For PNA-X and 'C' models
See Remotely Specifying a Source Port
1. Press SYSTEM
1. Click Utility
2. then [Configure]
2. then System
3. then [Select External Source]
3. then Configure
4. then Select External Source
176
Select Sources dialog box help
See What's new with External Source Control with PNA Rev. 7.5.
For FOM (Opt 080) measurements, once you select an external source from this dialog box, it becomes
available from the following PNA dialog boxes as if it were an internal PNA source:
FOM (turn ON and set freq, power)
Power (set power level)
Source Power Cal (Calibrate the external source)
New / Change Trace (set source port for a measurement)
A ll Sources The sources that are currently configured appear in this list. There is no limit to the number of
sources that can be selected.
Click Add All>> to move all sources to the Selected list.
Click a source name, then click Add> to add that source to the Selected list.
Configure Click to launch the Configure External Source dialog to add a source to the list.
Selected The sources that are currently selected.
Click <Remove All to un-select all sources.
Click a source name, then click <Remove to un-select that source.
Move Up and Down Changes the order of the sources in the list. The order indicates the order that the
sources appear in the FOM, Power, Source Power Cal, and New / Change Trace dialog boxes.
Important Notes
All newly selected or reordered sources are preset, with source power OFF. Source power must be
turned ON in the Power dialog . Frequency Offset must be enabled in the FOM dialog .
When reordering a list of sources using Move Up / Down, any existing PNA frequency and power
settings for those sources will be preset and must be reentered.
When daisy-chaining multiple sources in Hardware List triggering , the source to receive the Trigger
signal from the PNA must be the first source listed in the Selected column of this dialog.
The PNA controls the triggering of an external source. Therefore, PNA triggering must be set to
Internal , not External.
Your source selections remain until you recall an instrument state with different selections, or perform
a factory preset.
Communication with the selected sources is checked when OK is pressed. Make sure that the source
is turned ON and the GPIB address in the configure dialog is accurate.
177
If communication with a source is broken after the dialog box is closed, a message appears and
channel triggering is put in Hold mode.
The same source can NOT be used more than once in the same channel.
How to Connect an External Source to the PNA
1. GPIB or LAN, use one of the following methods:
The Agilent 82357A USB/GPIB Interface .
Dedicated Controller and Talker/Listener GPIB ports .
USB or LAN using Visa Alias . Both of these interfaces are configured using Agilent ACE (IO libraries)
which is installed on the PNA.
1. In ACE, click
2. Select LAN (TCPIP0) or USB0 , then click OK.
3. Click, then enter the IP address of the external source.
4. Click Test Connection to verify communication.
5. Click OK .
6. In the list of connected instruments, right click the external source, then Add VISA Alias .
7. Enter the same PNA source name that was, or will be, used in the Add New Source dialog.
The standard GPIB Interface (One GPIB port) - with the following limitations:
The PNA cannot be controlled remotely as talker / listener over GPIB. First put the PNA in
System Controller mode. Learn how.
If this method does not work initially, first close, then restart the PNA application, then put the
PNA in System Controller mode , then click Controlled on this dialog box. This should resolve
any GPIB hang-up issues with the external source.
2. External sources should always share the same 10 MHz Reference signal as the PNA. Connect a BNC cable
from the PNA 10 MHz Ref Output to the External Source Input.
3. See Hardware List Triggering Connections
178
3.
How to Configure an External Source
For an FCA measurement :
In the Configure Mixer dialog box, click LO Control
OR
In the Select Source dialog, click Manage External Sources
For all other measurements:
Click Configure from the Select Sources dialog
OR
As follows:
Using front-panel
[softkey] buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
MENU/ DIALOG
See Remotely Specifying a Source Port
1. Click System
2. then Configure
3. then External Source Config
For PNA-X and 'C' models
See Remotely Specifying a Source Port
1. Press SYSTEM
1. Click Trace/Chan
2. then [Configure]
2. then Channel
3. then [External Source Config]
3. then Hardware Setup
4. then External Source Config
Note: If an External Source Not Found error occurs, the Agilent I/O Library may no longer be running. To check,
look in the Windows task bar of the PNA for the I0 icon. If not present, restart the IO library. Click Start, Programs,
Agilent I/O Libraries, IO Control.
179
External Source Configuration dialog box help
This dialog box is used to perform a one-time configuration of an external source.
All External Sources, including those used for an FCA LO, are calibrated by doing a standard Source Power
Calibration .
Available Sources
Lists the sources that have been previously configured.
Add Displays the Add New Source dialog box . Type a unique source name.
Modify Makes changes to the selected source. Launches Modify Source dialog, exactly like Add New Source .
Remove Removes an external source from your setup.
Trigger Mode ONLY used when the external source is stepped, as with FCA swept LO measurements.
Notes
MM Wave Test Heads: The PNA trigger settings are automatically configured and must not be changed.
The PNA automatically controls triggering of the external source. PNA triggering can be set to Internal,
Manual, or External. When set to External, the trigger signal must come through a PNA rear panel
connector that is not being used to trigger the external source.
See SCPI and COM examples of an SMC fixed output measurement.
For more information, see:
Speeding Up Fixed Output SMC Measurements
PNA Trigger model
Software CW (GPIB) Slowest method.
180
The external source receives the CW frequency and trigger signal from the PNA over GPIB.
Used with ALL sources, including generic (not listed), and Agilent 837X sources.
Hardware List (BNC) Fastest method.
Note: If the number of data points used in the measurement exceeds the capability of the external source, the
PNA automatically switches to Software CW (GPIB) trigger mode. This will slow the measurement significantly.
Trigger Select the PNA rear panel connector to be used for triggering.
The external source receives a list of CW frequencies from the PNA, then receives BNC trigger signals as
required from the PNA.
Used with ALL except generic (not listed) sources.
MM Wave Test Heads: Hardware List mode is ALWAYS used.
The sources must be connected as follows:
PNA-X models: Connect multiple sources using the following daisy-chain, or directly using Aux1 or
Aux2. See rear panel Aux connectors
E836x and PNA-L models - Use rear-panel BNC Trigger connectors as follows:
1 External Source
Daisy-chain 2 External Sources
Note: Source 1, which receives
the trigger out of the PNA, must be
listed first on the Select Sources
dialog box.
Source Type
181
Shows the model number of the external source that is selected in the displayed list.
Edit Commands Only available with generic (non-Agilent) sources. Not available in the A.07.50 release.
GPIB Address Sets the GPIB address of the selected external source.
Timeout (sec) Sets a time limit for the source to make contact with the PNA. If this time limit is exceeded, the
PNA stops the measurement procedure and displays a diagnostic-type error message. If this occurs, check the
connections of your PNA and source.
Use the standard Source Power Calibration to calibrate the external source.
Add / Modify New Source dialog box help
Allows you to add or modify an external source. The new or modified source appears in the list of sources
displayed in the External Source Configuration dialog box .
Source Name Enter a unique name for your source.
Note: If you enter a source name that existed since that last PNA Shutdown, the old Source Type will be
remembered and displayed on the External Source dialog. Either use a new name, or delete the old name,
then restart the PNA application before re-entering the name.
Source Type Select a source type from the scrolling list.
Generic (Non-Agilent) sources are not supported.
Last Modified:
11-Feb-2008
Added limitation note at top
23-Jan-2008
Added Selected ordering notes
5-Nov-2007
Added links for remote selection
18-Jul-2007
Edited for FCA LO Cal changes
30-Apr-2007
MX Modified for ALL external source config.
182
How to make a VMC Fixed Output Measurement
The following is a step-by-step example illustrating how to measure a mixer in swept LO mode using FCA Vector
Mixer Calibration.
There are fewer components required for SMC as compared to VMC, and fewer measurement steps. Therefore, if
you do NOT need to make relative phase measurements, SMC is an easier measurement. Also, ONLY SMC (not
VMC) can measure the reverse conversion loss of the mixer.
This procedure can also be used for making fixed LO measurements, which is quite similar. Although the external
source is still required, the physical triggering cables that connect the PNA and External Source are not required.
Required Equipment
N5242A (PNA-X), E8362B, E8363B, E8364B or E8361A PNA series network analyzer
with option 083 (FCA)
with PNA Rev 6.03 or greater
GPIB External Source (Agilent ESG or PSG works best) **
Reference Mixer (see requirements)
Calibration Mixer/Filter (see requirements)
Power splitter **
ECal module with connectors that match the Input and Output connectors of the DUT. You can use adapters
to make the ECal module match the DUT connectors, but first perform an ECal user-characterization with the
adapters attached. ECal makes the FCA calibration much easier.
Cables and adapters
Optional GPIB Power meter and sensor (for LO power calibration)
** Not necessary when using PNA-X with Internal Second source
The example mixer
The example device is a mixer with the following characteristics:
LO and Input Frequency Range: 2 GHz to 4.2 GHz
Output Frequency Range: DC to 1.3 GHz
We will measure:
Fwd Conversion Loss (VC21)
Input match (S11)
183
Output match (S22)
Rev Conversion Loss is NOT possible because of the reference mixer.
VMC Setup
Connect the devices as shown in the following diagram:
Note: This setup can also be used for SMC measurements, allowing you to make VMC and SMC measurements
simultaneously on separate channels. The Reference Mixer is automatically switched during SMC measurements.
The Cal Mixer/Filter is not used.
Notes:
When using a PNA-X with Internal Second Source, the external source is NOT necessary.
See note regarding LO power out both second source ports
Learn which PNA ports can be used for the LO.
The low-pass filter on the output of the Reference Mixer is recommended, but NOT required. Learn more.
184
Make Connections on the Instrument rear panels:
1. Connect the PNA and Source using two GPIB cables. A USB to GPIB adapter can also be used if you need
to control the PNA from a remote PC.
2. Using a BNC cable, connect the Source 10 MHz Reference Output to the PNA 10 MHz Reference Input.
3. Using two BNC cables, connect the Source and PNA Trigger connectors as shown in the following image.
This is not necessary when making fixed LO measurements.
Create the Measurement
For this document:
Front-panel hardkeys are formatted as "Press Trace"
Menus are formatted as "Click System"
1. Connect the DUT.
2. On the PNA, click System, then point to Configure, then click SICL/GPIB/SICL. On the SICL/GPIB/SICL
dialog, click System Controller. This allows the PNA to control the Source and Power Meter.
3. On the Source, note the GPIB address.
4. Press Preset to make sure you are starting with a known state.
5. Press Trace, then Delete to delete the default trace.
6. Press Application to create a new FCA measurement.
7. Under Choose an application, select Vector Mixer/Converter.
8. Under Select measurement parameter, select VC21.
9. Click OK.
Configure the Mixer settings
1.
2.
185
1. Press Measure Setups, then Mixer
2. Enter the Mixer setup values as shown in the image below.
Notes:
Rather than enter ALL of the frequency settings, you can enter the Input and the Output frequencies,
then click Calculate LO.
If Input>LO is NOT checked, the PNA assumes you want the Input < LO frequencies, and higher LO
frequencies are calculated as a result.
The <Controlled> LO power level setting specifies the power out of the external source (not at the
DUT) unless an LO power cal is performed.
The Avoid Spurs feature is useful for eliminating spurs in test setups with excessive LO leakage.
When the settings are valid, the background color around the Apply and OK buttons changes from
Red to Green.
Configure the External LO Source
When using a PNA-X with Internal Second Source, the external source is NOT necessary.
See note regarding LO power out both second source ports
Learn which PNA ports can be used for the LO.
1. Click Not Controlled to set up the External LO source. The following dialog appears:
186
1.
2. Select a configured source from the All Sources column and click Add. If no sources appear, then click
Configure. The following dialog appears:
Depending on the model of your source, this is what it looks like AFTER entering the settings.
3. Click Add, to add a source.
187
3.
4. In the Add New Source dialog, type an identifying Source Name, such as the model of your source. In Source
Type, select the model of source you are using. Then click OK.
5. Back in the External Source Configuration dialog, click Controlled, to tell the PNA to assume control of the
source.
6. Click Hardware List (BNC), which is the fastest measurement method. This method requires the BNC
Trigger cables that connect the PNA and source. If not available, Software CW can be used, but
measurements are much slower.
7. If necessary, change the GPIB Address to match that of the source. This is NOT automatically detected.
8. Click OK to return to the Mixer Setup dialog. The Not Controlled should now read Controlled.
9. Save the mixer settings in a file so you can recall them easily. Click Save…, then type a descriptive filename,
such as “FixedOutputMixer”.
10. Click OK to close the Mixer Setup dialog. If there is a problem communicating with the source, the PNA will
display an error here. See Problems?
11. The two traces should begin to sweep, as the external source steps in frequency. It should look something
like this:
Because of the reference mixer, the uncorrected VMC measurement can look like it has gain.
188
Problems?
Not sweeping:
On the PNA, press Sweep, then Trigger, then Continuous to start the PNA sweeping. Watch for error
messages on the PNA and source.
Problems communicating with the source:
Press Measure Setup, then Mixer to start the Mixer setup dialog. Click Software CW trigger, then close
the dialog. Perform the previous statement to start sweeping. If this works, then something is wrong with
Hardware (BNC). Check the trigger cables on the rear panel.
As a last resort, try rebooting the PNA. First, save the entire setup to a .csa file. When the PNA preset
measurement appears, recall the .csa file to resume at this step.
If the source is sweeping, and the PNA Input is sweeping, but there is still no output.
Check power levels at the LO and Input.
Check the DUT by making a fixed LO measurement - much easier.
Perform a VMC Calibration
Note: Optionally perform a Source Power Cal before the VMC Cal to specify the LO Power at the DUT. This
requires a power meter be connected to the GPIB.
1. Disconnect the DUT.
2. Connect the ECal module to a PNA USB port.
3. Click Calibration, then Calibration Wizard. Because the VC21 measurement is active, the Cal Wizard
automatically begins a VMC Calibration.
4. At the Calibration Setup dialog, click Next.
5. At the Calibration Mixer Characterization dialog, click Next. We will perform characterization of the
Calibration mixer as part of the VMC cal. Later we will save the Calibration mixer characterization so that, in
future VMC calibrations that use this same frequency range, we can recall the Calibration mixer
characterization by clicking Load Characterization from file.
6. At the Select DUT Connectors and Cal Kits dialog, for DUT Port 1 select the connector type and gender of
your DUT INPUT. For DUT Port 2 select the connector type and gender of your DUT OUTPUT. Then select
ECal as the Cal Kit to use for each connector. Click Next.
7. At the Select the ECal Port to be Connected dialog, ensure that Port A is selected for Port 1, then click
Next.
8. At the Vector Mixer Calibration Step 1 of 3 dialog, connect the ECal module Port A to the Port 1 cable, and
189
7.
8.
Port B to the Port 2 cable. Then click Measure. This portion of the calibration gathers the linear (nonfrequency-translating) error terms of the test setup at the input and output frequencies.
9. At the Vector Mixer Calibration Step 2 of 3 dialog, connect the following, then click Measure. This portion
of the calibration will connect reflection standards to characterize the S-parameters of the calibration
mixer/filter.
Port 1 cable to the Input of the calibration mixer.
LO cable to the LO port of the calibration mixer.
ECal module to the Output of the calibration mixer/filter.
10. At the Vector Mixer Calibration Step 3 of 3 dialog, disconnect the ECal module and connect the Port 2
cable to the output of the calibration mixer/filter, then click Measure. This step completes the calibration
using the characterized mixer/filter as a Thru standard.
11. At the Save Mixer Characterization dialog, click Browse, then type a unique filename and click OK. Then
click Next. This saves the Calibration Mixer characterization to an S2P file. This file can be recalled for
subsequent VMC calibrations.
12. At the Calibration completed dialog, you can choose to save the VMC calibration as a User Cal Set.
Otherwise, click Finish to complete the VMC calibration. Correction is turned ON and applied to the VMC
trace that we set up earlier.
What is happening?
Because Fixed Output or Fixed Input FCA measurements require an external source to sweep, the measurements
are much slower. When correction is ON, you will see that there are times when nothing is happening on the
screen. This is because there are background measurements being made but not displayed.
This is exactly the same as when full 2-port correction is applied to an S-parameter. All four parameters are
measured, then correction is applied, then all four measurements are updated. This occurs much faster when there
is no external source. With a VMC measurement, there is no VC12 (reverse transmission measurement), so there
are only three background measurements. With correction OFF, the traces are updated as the data is measured.
You can see this taking place by creating the following measurements.
Create S11 Input and S22 Output Match
1. Press Trace, then Application. Click S11 and S22, then click OK to add these measurements to the same
channel.
2. While the source is sweeping, watch the source port indicator on the front of the PNA. First, the port 1
indicator will light for two sweeps, then the port 2 indicator will light for 1 sweep while all 3 traces update.
3. Turn correction OFF for ALL measurements. Notice that the relevant traces will update as the sweep is
occurring.
The following image shows the corrected Conversion Loss (VC21), Input Match (S11), Output Match (S22) and the
uncorrected Conversion Loss (VC21), which is a memory trace.
190
191
How to make an SMC Fixed Output Measurement
The following is a step-by-step example illustrating how to measure a mixer in swept LO mode using FCA Scalar
Mixer Calibration.
There are fewer components required for SMC as compared to VMC, and fewer measurement steps. Therefore, if
you don't need to make relative phase measurements, SMC is an easier measurement. Also, ONLY SMC (not
VMC) can measure the reverse conversion loss of the mixer.
This procedure can also be used for making fixed LO measurements, which is quite similar. Although the external
source is still required, the physical triggering cables that connect the PNA and External Source are not required.
Required Equipment
E8362B, E8363B, E8364B or E8361A PNA series network analyzer
with option 083 (FCA)
with PNA Rev. 6.03 or greater
GPIB External Source (Agilent ESG or PSG works best)
ECal module with connectors that match the Input and Output connectors of the DUT. You can use adapters
to make the ECal module match the DUT connectors, but first perform an ECal user-characterization with the
adapters attached. ECal makes the FCA calibration much easier.
GPIB Power meter and sensor
Cables and adapters
The example mixer
The example device is a down-converter mixer with the following characteristics:
LO and Input Frequency Range: 2 GHz to 4.2 GHz
Output Frequency Range: DC to 1.3 GHz
We will measure:
Fwd Conversion Loss (SC21)
Input Match (S11)
Output Match (S22)
Reverse Conversion Loss (SC12)
SMC Setup
Connect the devices as shown in the following diagram:
192
Make Connections on the Instrument rear panels:
1. Connect the PNA, Source, and Power Meter using two GPIB cables. A USB to GPIB adapter can also be
used if you need to control the PNA from a remote PC.
2. Using a BNC cable, connect the Source 10 MHz Reference Output to the PNA 10 MHz Reference Input.
3. Using two BNC cables, connect the Source and PNA Trigger connectors as shown in the following image.
This is not necessary when making fixed LO measurements.
Create the Measurement
For this document:
193
Front-panel hardkeys are formatted as "Press Trace"
Menus are formatted as "Click System"
1. Connect the DUT.
2. On the PNA, click System, then point to Configure, then click SICL/GPIB/SCPI. On the SICL/GPIB/SCPI
dialog, click System Controller. This allows the PNA to control the Source and Power Meter.
3. On the Source and Power Meter, record the GPIB addresses.
4. Press Preset to make sure you are starting with a known state.
5. Press Trace, then Delete to delete the default trace.
6. Press Application to create a new FCA measurement.
7. Under Choose an application, select Scalar Mixer/Converter.
8. Under Select measurement parameter, select SC21.
9. Click OK.
Configure the Mixer settings
1. Press Measure Setups, then Mixer
2. Enter the Mixer setup values as shown in the image below.
Notes:
Rather then enter ALL of the frequency settings, you can enter the Input and the Output frequencies,
then click Calculate LO.
If Input>LO is NOT checked, the PNA assumes you want the Input < LO frequencies, and higher LO
frequencies are calculated as a result.
The LO power level setting specifies the power out of the external source; not at the DUT) unless an
LO power cal is performed.
The Avoid Spurs feature is useful for eliminating spurs in test setups with excessive LO leakage.
When the settings are valid, the background color around the Apply and OK buttons changes from
Red to Green.
194
Configure the External LO Source
1. Click Not Controlled to set up the External LO source. The following dialog appears:
Depending on the model of your source, this is what it looks like AFTER entering the settings.
2. Click Add, to add a source.
195
2.
3. In the Add New Source dialog, type an identifying Source Name, such as the model of your source. In Source
Type, select the model of source you are using. Then click OK.
4. Back in the External Source Configuration dialog, click Controlled, to tell the PNA to assume control of the
source.
5. Click Hardware List (BNC), which is the fastest measurement method. This method requires the BNC
Trigger cables that connect the PNA and source. If not available, Software CW can be used, but
measurements are much slower.
6. If necessary, change the GPIB Address to match that of the source. This is NOT automatically detected.
7. Optional: Click LO Power Calibration to calibrate the LO Power level at the DUT.
8. Click OK to return to the Mixer Setup dialog. The Not Controlled should now read Controlled.
9. Save the mixer settings in a file so you can recall them easily. Click Save…, then type a descriptive filename,
such as “FixedOutputMixer”.
10. Click OK to close the Mixer Setup dialog. If there is a problem communicating with the source, the PNA will
display an error here. See Problems?
11. The trace should begin to sweep as the external source steps in frequency. It should look something like this:
196
Problems?
Not sweeping:
On the PNA, press Sweep, then Trigger, then Continuous to start the PNA sweeping. Watch for error
messages on the PNA and source.
Problems communicating with the source:
Press Measure Setup, then Mixer to start the Mixer setup dialog. Click Software CW trigger, then close
the dialog. Perform the previous statement to start sweeping. If this works, then something is wrong with
Hardware (BNC). Check the trigger cables on the rear panel.
Can the PNA communicate with the power meter? If not, there is something wrong with the GPIB
communication.
As a last resort, try rebooting the PNA. First, save the entire setup to a .csa file. When the PNA preset
measurement appears, recall this .csa file and continue at this step.
If the source is sweeping, and the PNA Input is sweeping, but there is still no output.
Check power levels at the LO and Input.
Check the DUT by making a fixed LO measurement - much easier.
Perform an SMC calibration
1. Disconnect the DUT.
2. Connect the ECal module to a PNA USB port.
3. Click Calibration, then Calibration Wizard. Because the SC21 measurement is active, the Cal Wizard
automatically begins an SMC calibration.
4. At the Calibration Setup dialog, click Next.
5. At the Select DUT Connectors and Cal Kits dialog, for DUT Port 1 select the connector type and gender of
your DUT INPUT. For DUT Port 2 select the connector type and gender of your DUT OUTPUT. Then select
ECal as the Cal Kit to use for each connector. Click Next.
6. At the Scalar Mixer Calibration Step 1 of 2 dialog, connect the power sensor to the Port 1 test cable, then
click Measure. The data will be used to correct for input mismatch errors. Beginning with PNA Rev 6.0,
power measurements are no longer required at port 2.
7. At the Scalar Mixer Calibration Step 2 of 2 dialog, connect the ECal module Port A to the Port 1 cable, and
Port B to the Port 2 cable. Then click Measure. This portion of the calibration gathers the linear (nonfrequency-translating) error terms of the test setup at the input and output frequencies.
8.
197
7.
8. At the Calibration completed dialog, you can choose to save the SMC calibration as a User Cal Set.
Otherwise, click Finish to complete the SMC calibration. Correction is turned ON and applied to the SMC
trace.
What is happening?
Because Fixed Output or Fixed Input FCA measurements require an external source to sweep, the measurements
are much slower. When correction is ON, you will see that there are times when nothing is happening on the
screen. This is because there are background measurements being made but not displayed.
This is exactly the same as when full 2-port correction is applied to an S-parameter. All four parameters are
measured, then correction is applied, then all four measurements are updated. This occurs much faster when there
is no external source. With correction OFF, the traces are updated as the data is measured. You can see this
taking place by creating the following measurements.
Create S12 Upconverter, S11 Input and S22 Output Match
1. Press Trace, then Application. Click S11, SC12, and S22, then click OK to add these measurements to the
same channel.
2. While the source is sweeping, watch the source port indicator on the front of the PNA. First, the port 1
indicator will light for two sweeps, then the port 2 indicator will light for 2 sweeps. During the last sweep, all 4
traces update.
3. Turn correction OFF for ALL measurements. Notice that the relevant traces update as the sweep is
occurring.
With the SC12 measurement you can see the reciprocity of the mixer.
Note: With the recent improvements to FCA, this step is MUCH easier than before. SMC forward and reverse
measurements can now reside in the same channel and are calibrated automatically at the same time.
Last Modified:
198
1-Jan-2007
MX New topic
199
Embedded LO Measurements
The Embedded LO feature allows you to make VMC measurements of mixers that have a FIXED LO inside the
DUT. SMC (Scalar) measurements are not allowed because phase information is used in the LO measurement
process.
Note: This feature is available as Opt 084, and must be enabled.
Measurements of these devices are challenging for a couple of reasons:
1. The VMC measurement process requires the use of a reference mixer that has the same LO frequency as
the DUT. A separate internal or external source must be used for the reference mixer LO. This LO must be
controlled by the PNA. A PNA with an internal second source is much faster.
2. The PNA receivers need to be tuned to the correct frequency to measure the mixer output, which is highly
dependent on the exact LO frequency.
For both of these reasons, the PNA is required to accurately know the frequency of the Embedded LO.
How we measure the embedded LO
The nominal frequency of the embedded LO is input into the Mixer Setup dialog. The LO source for the reference
mixer is tuned to this value.
Before each DUT measurement sweep, background sweeps are made to determine the frequency of the
embedded LO to a configurable degree of accuracy.
Background sweeps...
Broadband Sweep - rough measurement of the embedded LO frequency, made around a selectable data
point over a selectable frequency span. The input signal to the DUT is tuned to a selectable CW frequency.
The reference mixer is not used. The B receiver is swept across a selectable span around the anticipated
output frequency. The difference between the frequency of the found signal and the desired output
frequency is then applied as an adjustment to the Reference Mixer LO frequency.
Precise Sweep The reference mixer LO is tuned to the result of the broadband measurement. VC21 is
measured at the selectable data point. Measurements of phase versus time are made, from which the exact
offset frequency is computed, until either the tolerance value or maximum iterations are met.
How to make a VMC measurement of a DUT with an Embedded LO
1. Create a standard VMC measurement.
2. In the mixer setup dialog, enter the nominal frequency of the embedded LO as the LO frequency.
3. Perform a VMC calibration.
4. Launch and complete the Embedded LO Mode dialog box (below)
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3.
4.
The LO source for the Reference Mixer can be either:
An Internal source when using a PNA-X that has two sources.
An External source:
Must be controlled by the PNA. Learn how.
Must be locked to the PNA using the 10 MHz reference.
During Calibration
The LO source is shared between the Reference Mixer and the Calibration Mixer/Filter. This requires a splitter
when using an external source, as shown in the following image.
During the Measurement
Only the Reference Mixer uses the LO source. Terminate the LO source port that is no longer used by the
Calibration Mixer/Filter to ensure that the match seen by the Reference Mixer LO port does not change after
the calibration, as shown in the following image. This precaution is not necessary when using the internal
second source (ports 3 and 4) of the PNA-X.
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How to Launch the Embedded LO Mode dialog box
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Trace
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Measure
3. then Embedded LO
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Not Available
1. Click Trace/Chan
2. then Measure
3. then Embedded LO
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Embedded LO dialog box help
The Tuning Settings balance LO measurement speed versus accuracy. You can tell that accuracy is becoming
compromised when noise starts to appear on the VMC measurement trace.
Scroll up to learn more about the Embedded LO measurement process.
Embedded LO Mode On Check to enable measurement of the Embedded LO.
Tuning Point Select, or specify, the data point in the mixer sweep that will be used to find the embedded LO
frequency. If a marker is enabled, that data point can be used. For broadband and Precise sweeps, choose a
point in the mixer sweep where noise is least likely to be found. This is generally the center of a sweep or the
center of a filter if used.
LO Frequency Delta The absolute difference between the measured embedded LO frequency and the LO
setting that is entered in the Mixer Setup dialog. This value is updated each time the embedded LO frequency
is measured. Entering a value is a way to change the LO frequency on the mixer setup without invalidating the
calibration.
Reset Set the LO Frequency Delta back to 0 Hz
Find Now The PNA finds and measures the actual LO frequency using the current dialog settings. This data
is displayed in the Status box.
Tuning Settings These settings determine the amount of time spent versus the degree of accuracy to which
the LO Frequency is measured. You can tell that accuracy is becoming compromised when noise starts to
appear on the VMC measurement trace.
Reset Set all Tuning Settings back to the defaults.
Broadband and Precise Do the entire tuning process for each background sweep.
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Precise only Does NOT perform broadband tuning on each sweep. Use this setting when the embedded LO
is stable.
Disable tuning Only the previously measured LO Frequency Delta is applied to the reference mixer LO and
PNA receivers.
Sweep Span Narrowing the sweep span limits the number of data points that are measured in the
broadband sweep and makes the measurement faster.
Max Iterations The maximum number of Precise sweeps to make. When this number is reached, the final
measurement is used.
Tolerance When two consecutive Precise measurements are made within this value, the final measurement
is used. If this is not achieved within the Max Iterations value, then the last measurement is used. This is the
best of the 'Tunings settings' to change to improve accuracy.
Tuning IFBW IF Bandwidth used for Broadband and Precise tuning sweeps. The larger the IFBW, the faster
the sweep, but the signal may not be found.
Tune every Set the interval at which tuning is performed before a measurement sweep. 'Tune every 3
sweeps' means that every third measurement sweep is preceded by tuning sweeps. If the embedded LO
drifts, or if regularly changing DUTs, use 'Tune every 1 sweep'.
Status Allows textual and graphical representation of the Embedded LO measurement sweeps.
Clear Removes the text information currently being displayed.
Graph Launches the following graphical (spectrum analyzer type) display sweeps of the latest embedded LO
measurement.
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Embedded LO Diagnostic dialog box help
Presents a graphical (spectrum analyzer type) display of the latest embedded LO measurement.
Click Previous and Next to view available Broadband and Precise sweeps. The LO Frequency is displayed in
the Marker annotation.
Last Modified:
5-Oct-2007
Added config image and text
5-Jul-2007
Update access point
6-Apr-2007
MX New topic
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Characterize Adaptor Macro
This external Macro application creates an S2P file that models a device such as an adaptor, the input OR output
side of a test fixture, or an on-wafer probe head. This is done by calculating the four S-parameters of the device
from two 1-port calibrations; one on side A of the device and the other on side B of the device. Such S2P files can
be used for embedding (adding) or de-embedding (removing) the device from subsequent S-parameter
measurements and FCA calibrations.
This application, along with the FCA Embed/De-embed feature, can be especially useful when performing FCA
calibrations.
An SMC calibration requires a power meter measurement at the port 1 reference plane. This could be very
difficult in on-wafer applications where the measurement reference plane is at the tip of a probe. This macro,
in conjunction with the Embed/De-embed feature, enables you to model the probe and connect the power
sensor at the coax connector where the probe connects.
Likewise, a VMC calibration requires that a calibration mixer be used for the Thru standard. Again, this can
be very difficult in on-wafer applications where the measurement reference plane is at the tip of a probe. This
macro, in conjunction with the Embed/De-embed feature, enables you to model the probe and connect the
calibration mixer at the coax connectors where the probe connects.
Also in this topic:
To Embed or De-embed?
Procedures
How to start the Characterize Adaptor Macro
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Click System
1. Press
repeatedly
2. Press
2. then Macro
3. then AdaptorChar
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press SYSTEM
1. Click Utility
2. then [Macro]
2. then Macro
3. then [AdaptorChar]
3. then AdaptorChar
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2.
2.
3.
3.
Characterize 2-Port Adaptors, Probes, Fixture Paths (S2P) dialog box help
Important Notes
The device to be characterized (probe, adapter...) MUST be reciprocal (S21 = S12).
Two 1-port cals must be performed and saved to Cal Sets BEFORE using the Characterize Adaptor
application.
The frequencies and number of points of the two Cal Sets MUST be identical.
CRITICAL: The calculations that are performed to create the S2P file require that Calset 1 ALWAYS be
from the side closest to the PNA and Calset 2 ALWAYS be from the other side of the device.
If your application that uses the resulting S2P file requires that the ports be reversed, it must be done on
the S2P file using an external program such as Microsoft Excel.
The majority of this topic describes the characterization of a 2-port device from two 1-port cal sets.
However, you can also use the cal sets from two 2-port calibrations, or one 2-port and two 1-port
calibrations. See procedures for both.
Learn more about the Characterize Adaptor Macro.(scroll up)
Connected <PNA host name> The two 1-port Cal Sets can reside in another PNA. Click to connect to another
PNA that is DCOM configured. Learn how to configure DCOM.
Adaptor Type Select the type of device to be characterized.
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Note: The image that appears in the macro does not influence the calculations. It only appears to help you
visualize the measurement reference plane of the Cal Sets.
Select Calset 1 and Calset-2 Select a 1-port Cal Set from each list. Although all Cal sets are listed, only the
Cal Sets that have error terms to satisfy a 1-port calibration may be used.
Cal Port Select the port within the selected Cal Set which represents the modeled device. The Cal Ports must
be the same for both selected Cal Sets.
Characterize and Save Calculates four S-parameters, then invokes the Save As dialog with S2P file type.
This button is not available until valid Cal Sets and Cal Ports are selected.
Close Closes the dialog box.
To Embed or De-embed?
To make an accurate measurement, the setup configuration during the DUT measurement MUST exactly match
the setup configuration during Calibration. In other words, if you calibrate with an adapter, you must also measure
the DUT with the same adapter.
However, the PNA provides some flexibility by allowing you to ‘Virtually’ add (embed) or remove (de-embed) an
adapter from either the measurement or an FCA calibration. Knowing how to do this can be confusing.
In the following, if you are NOT making an FCA measurement, then your only choice is A. Also, “adapter ” can
mean any type of 2-port device:
To perform a calibration WITHOUT the adapter, but make DUT measurements WITH the adapter, do either of the
following:
A. Remove (de-embed) the adapter from the DUT measurement OR
B. Add (embed) the adapter during the FCA Calibration.
To perform a calibration WITH the adapter, but make DUT measurements WITHOUT the adapter, do either of the
following:
A. Add (embed) the adapter during the DUT measurement, OR
B. Remove (de-embed) the adapter from the FCA Calibration.
Procedures
Create an S2P file using Characterize Adaptor Macro
De-embed the S2P file from DUT measurement
Embed the S2P file in DUT measurement
Embed or De-embed the S2P file with FCA Cal
De-Embedding a Fixture that has a THRU Standard
De-Embedding a Fixture with No THRU Standard
Create an S2P file using the Characterize Adaptor Macro
1.
2.
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1. Configure your PNA measurement (frequency span, power level, IF bandwidth, and number of points).
2. Perform a 1-port SmartCal at the reference plane. Save the cal to a User Cal Set using a descriptive name
(for example, Ref Plane).
3. Connect the adapter to be characterized at the reference plane.
4. Perform another 1-port SmartCal at the end of the adapter. Save it to a User Cal Set using a different
descriptive name (for example, Adapt End).
5. Start the Characterize Adaptor Macro.
6. In the Select Calset1 field of the dialog box, select the Cal Set for the reference plane (from step 2 above).
7. In the Select Calset2 field of the dialog box, select the Cal Set for the end of the adapter (from step 4
above).
8. Click Characterize and Save. In the resulting dialog box, enter the .S2P file name and location.
9. Click Close.
To De-embed the adapter (S2P file) from subsequent S-parameter measurements:
Note: Subsequent measurements must have the same or smaller frequency range (within the Start / Stop
frequencies) as that of the S2P file.
1. Perform a 2 port SOLT calibration without the adapter/fixture.
2. Select 2-port De-embedding:
1. For PNA-X and E836xC: click Response, then Cal, then More, point to Fixtures, then click 2 port Deembedding.
2. For E836xA/B, click Calibration, point to Fixtures, then click 2 port De-embedding.
3. Select the Port to add the adapter to, then select User Defined (S2P file).
4. Click Use S2P file and select the S2P file created using the Characterize Adaptor macro.
5. Check Enable De-embedding, then click Close.
6. Enable Fixturing:
1. For PNA-X and E836xC: click Response, then Cal, then More, point to Fixtures, then click Fixturing
on/OFF.
2. For E836xA/B, click Calibration, then Fixturing on/OFF.
7. Sim appears in the Status Bar to indicate that Fixture Simulation is ON.
To Embed the adapter (S2P file) into subsequent S-parameter measurements:
1.
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1. Perform a 2 port SOLT calibration including the adapter. Note the port number on which the adapter is
calibrated.
2. Select Port Matching:
1. For PNA-X and E836xC: click Response, then Cal, then More, point to Fixtures, then click Port
Matching
2. For E836xA/B, click Calibration, point to Fixtures, then click Port Matching.
3. Under Choose Circuit Model for Matching, select the Port that the adapter was on during calibration, then
select User Defined (S2P file).
4. Press Use S2P File and navigate to the S2P file created using the Characterize Adaptor macro.
5. Check Enable Port Matching, then click Close.
6. Enable Fixturing:
1. For PNA-X and E836xC: click Response, then Cal, then More, point to Fixtures, then Fixturing
on/OFF.
2. For E836xA/B, click Calibration, then Fixturing on/OFF.
7. Sim appears in the Status Bar to indicate that Fixture Simulation is ON.
To Embed or De-embed the S2P file with FCA Cal:
1. Configure the mixer SMC or VMC measurement (frequency span, power level, IF bandwidth, and number of
points).
2. Click Calibration, then Calibration Wizard.
3. On the Calibration Setup dialog box, check Waveguide/In-fixture/On-Wafer Setup, then click Next.
4. On the Waveguide/In-fixture/On-Wafer Setup dialog box, click Help to learn how to Embed or De-embed the
S2P file.
De-Embedding a Fixture that has a THRU Standard
A test fixture is generally regarded as a single 'bed' in which a DUT is placed. However, for modeling purposes
such as this, it is separated into two circuits: Fixture A on the input of the DUT, and Fixture B on the output.
Use this procedure to perform calibrations WITHOUT the test fixture while making measurements WITH the test
fixture. A calibration is performed once WITH the test fixture, and then again as it wears with use and electrical
performance changes. The fixture is de-embedded from subsequent measurements to match the regular
calibrations that are performed without the fixture.
If you have a THRU standard for your test fixture, you can perform a full 2-port calibration in the fixture, and from
that create the required S2P files for de-embedding.
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1. Perform a full 2-port CAL 1 at the connections of the PNA to the fixture as shown above. Save to
MyCalSet1.
2. Perform a full 2-port CAL 2 where the DUT is inserted (reference plane). Save to MyCalSet2.
Follow the Create an S2P file procedure, beginning with step 6, using the following selections:
1. Create #1 S2P file:
1. For CalSet1, choose MyCalSet1 and select CalPort=1
2. For CalSet2, choose MyCalSet1 and select CalPort=2
3. Save to FixtureA.s2p
2. Create #2 S2P file:
1. For CalSet1, choose MyCalSet2and select CalPort=1
2. For CalSet2, choose MyCalSet2and select CalPort=2
3. Save to FixtureB.s2p
Follow steps in To De-embed the adapter...
Perform these steps TWICE; once for each of the following S2P files:
1. For PNA Port 1, select FixtureA.s2p
2. For PNA Port 2, select FixtureB.s2p
De-Embedding a Fixture with No THRU Standard
This procedure is a slight modification of the above. Cal 2 is performed from two 1-port cals when a THRU standard
for the fixture is not readily available.
1. Perform a full 2-port CAL 1 at the connections of the PNA to the fixture as shown above. Save to
MyCalSet1.
2. CAL 2 is performed using two 1 port cals
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2.
Cal2A at the Fixture A / DUT plane. Save to MyCalSet2A
Cal2B at the Fixture B / DUT plane. Save to MyCalSet2B
In the Create an S2P file...Step 6 above, except:
1. Create #1 S2P file:
1. For CalSet1, choose MyCalSet1 and select CalPort=1
2. For CalSet2, choose MyCalSet2A and select CalPort=2
3. Save to FixtureA.s2p
2. Create #2 S2P file:
1. For CalSet1, choose MyCalSet1and select CalPort=2
2. For CalSet2, choose MyCalSet2Band select CalPort=2
3. Save to FixtureB.s2p
Follow steps in To De-embed the adapter above, except:
1. For PNA Port 1, select FixtureA.s2p
2. For PNA Port 2, select FixtureB.s2p
Last modified:
12-Feb-2008
New procedures
24-Jan-2008
Fixed error in procedures and added section
30-Nov-2007
Clarified and highlight order of calsets.
26-Feb-2007
Fixed " Note: Subsequent measurements...".
12-Sept-2006
Added link to programming commands
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SMC with a Booster Amp
If your mixer measurement requires more source power on the input than the PNA can provide, a booster amplifier
can be used to provide the additional power. This topic describes how to configure and make a calibrated SMC
measurement using a booster amplifier.
Connect
Connect the booster amplifier between the Source-Out and Coupler-Thru connectors on the front-panel as shown
in the following diagram.
Item
Description
a
SOURCE OUT
b
Item
Description
h
RCVR B IN
RCVR R1 IN
i
CPLR ARM
c
SOURCE OUT
j
PORT 2
d
CPLR THRU
k
CPLR THRU
e
PORT 1
l
SOURCE OUT
f
CPLR ARM
m
RCVR R2 IN
g
RCVR A IN
n
SOURCE OUT
Measurement and Calibration Setup
In the following procedure:
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Test Port power is the power level out of the source.
Corrected power is the power level you require at the mixer input and output.
This procedure assumes you will applying stimulus power to the mixer input to make SC11 and SC21
measurements, and to the output of the mixer to make SC22 and SC12 measurements.
1. Determine the gain of the booster amplifier. If the gain has significant slope across the input and output
range of the mixer, see Booster Amp with a Gain Slope.
2. Determine the corrected power for both the input (port 1) and output (port 2) of the mixer.
3. Calculate the Test Port power for both ports by subtracting the gain of the amplifier from both the input and
output corrected power levels.
For example, the following values assume a 25 dB booster amp on port 1 as in the diagram above.
Port 1 (input)
Port 2 (output)
Corrected
Power
-
Amp Gain
=
Test Port
Power
0 dBm
-
25 dB
=
-25 dBm
-20 dBm
-
25 dB
=
-45 dBm
4. On the PNA Power dialog, clear the Port Power Coupled checkbox, which allows different power levels for
each port.
5. Enter the calculated Test Port Power values for each port.
6. During the SMC Cal Wizard Select DUT Connectors and Cal Kits dialog, click View/Modify Source Cal
Settings to invoke the Source Calibration Settings dialog.
7. In Power Offset, enter the booster amplifier gain.
Booster Amp with a Gain Slope
SMC calibration takes place over the entire input and output range of the mixer. Therefore, the booster amplifier
will also be subjected to the entire input and output frequency range of the mixer.
To compensate for a gain slope, you might have to experiment with the source attenuator setting, power-offset
value, and initial power value to get a combination that will not cause the PNA source to go unleveled during or
after the cal.
For example, assume the booster amp gain is 30 dB at the low end, and 20 dB at the high end. If you enter 30 dB
for the power offset value, the PNA might run out of ALC range when the actual gain drops to 20 dB. The PNA will
try to increase its source power to account for the 10 dB gain drop. Therefore, pick a power offset value that is in
the middle of the amplifier gain band (25dB).
If possible, select a PNA attenuator setting that puts the ALC approximately in the middle of its range at the desired
corrected power with the mid-band gain. This condition means the ALC can set the power higher and lower to
account for the gain slope, without unleveling.
214
If the gain slope is too large, then there may not be a setting that prevents a source unlevel. In this case, a flatter
booster amp must be used.
215
Time Domain
Time Domain allows you to view a device response as a function of time. The following are discussed in this topic:
Overview
How the PNA Measures in the Time Domain
Calibration for Time Domain
Transmission Measurements
Measurement Response Resolution
Measurement Range and Alias Responses
How to make Time Domain Settings
Gating
Window Settings
Note: Time Domain measurements are only available on PNAs with Option 010. See PNA Options
See the updated App Note: Time Domain Analysis Using a Network Analyzer.
Overview
In normal operation, the PNA measures the characteristics of a test device as a function of frequency. With Time
Domain (opt 010), the frequency information is used to calculate the inverse Fourier transform and display
measurements with time as the horizontal display axis. The response values appear separated in time, allowing a
different perspective of the test device's performance and limitations.
The graphic below compares the same cable reflection measurement data in both the frequency and time domain.
The cable has two bends. Each bend creates a mismatch or change in the line impedance.
The frequency domain S11 measurement shows reflections caused by mismatches in the cable. It is
impossible to determine where the mismatches physically occur in the cable.
The time domain response shows both the location and the magnitude of each mismatch. The responses
indicate that the second cable bend is the location of a significant mismatch. This mismatch can be gated
out, allowing you to view the frequency domain response as if the mismatch were not present. Distance
Markers can be used to pinpoint the distance of the mismatch from the reference plane.
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How the PNA Measures in the Time Domain
Time domain transform mode simulates traditional Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR), which launches an impulse
or step signal into the test device and displays the reflected energy on the TDR screen. By analyzing the
magnitude, duration, and shape of the reflected waveform, you can determine the nature of the impedance
variation in the test device.
The PNA does not launch an actual incident impulse or step. Instead, a Fourier Transform algorithm is used to
calculate time information from the frequency measurements. The following shows how this occurs.
A single frequency in the time domain appears as a sine wave. In the following graphic, as we add the fundamental
frequency (F0), the first harmonic (2F0), and then the second harmonic (3F0), we can see a pulse taking shape in
the Sum waveform. If we were to add more frequency components, the pulse would become sharper and narrower.
When the PNA sends discrete frequencies to the test device, it is in effect, sending individual spectral pieces of a
pulse separately to stimulate the test device.
During an S11 reflection measurement, these incident signals reflect from the test device and are measured at the
A receiver. This is when the time domain transform calculations are used to add the separate spectral pieces
together.
For example, consider a short length of cable terminated with an open. All of the power in the incident signal is
reflected, and the reflections are 'in-phase' with the incident signal. Each frequency component is added together,
and we see the same pattern as the simulated incident would have looked (above). The magnitude of the reflection
is related to the impedance mismatch and the delay is proportional to the distance to the mismatch. The x-axis
(time) scale is changed from the above graphic to better show the delay.
Alternately, the same cable terminated with a short also reflects all of the incident power, but with a phase shift of
180 degrees. As the frequency components from the reflection are added together, the sum appears as a negative
impulse delayed in time.
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Calibration for Time Domain
For simplicity, we have discussed incident signals reflecting off discontinuities in the test device. By far the most
common network analyzer measurement to transform to time domain is a ratioed S11 measurement. An S11
reflection measurement does not simply display the reflections measured at the A receiver - it displays the ratio (or
difference) of the A receiver to the Reference receiver. In addition, the S11 measurement can also be calibrated to
remove systematic errors from the ratioed measurement. This is critical in the time domain as the measurement
plane, the point of calibration, becomes zero on the X-axis time scale. All time and distance data is presented in
reference to this point. As a result, both magnitude and time data are calibrated and very accurate.
The following shows where the time domain transform occurs in the PNA data flow: (see Data Access Map)
1. Acquire raw receiver (A and R1) data
2. Perform ratio (A/R1)
3. Apply calibration
4. Transform data to time domain
5. Display results
Therefore, although a time domain trace may be displayed, a calibration is always performed and applied to the
frequency domain measurement which is not displayed.
Transmission Measurements
The most common type of measurement to transform is an S11 reflection measurement. However, useful
information can be gained about a test device from a transformed S21 transmission measurement. The frequency
components pass through the test device and are measured at the B receiver. If there is more than one path
through the device, they would appear as various pulses separated in time.
For example, the following transmission measurement shows multiple paths of travel within a Surface Acoustic
Wave (SAW) filter. The largest pulse (close to zero time) represents the propagation time of the shortest path
through the device. It may not be the largest pulse or represent the desired path. Each subsequent pulse
represents another possible path from input to output.
218
Triple travel is a term used to describe the reflected signal off the output, reflected again off the input, then finally
reappearing at the output. This is best seen in a time domain S21 measurement.
Measurement Response Resolution
In the previous paragraphs, we have seen that using more frequency components causes the assembled waveform
to show more detail. This is known as measurement response resolution, which is defined as the ability to
distinguish between two closely spaced responses.
Note: Adjusting the transform time settings improves display resolution, but not measurement resolution.
The following graphic shows the effect of both a narrow and wide frequency span on the response resolution. The
wider frequency span enables the analyzer to resolve the two connectors into separate, distinct responses.
Resolution Formula
For responses of equal amplitude, the response resolution is equal to the 50% (-6 dB) points of the impulse width,
or the step rise time which is defined as the 10 to 90% points as shown in the following image.
219
The following table shows the approximated relationship between the frequency span and the window selection on
response resolution for responses of equal amplitude.
Window
Low-pass step
Low-pass impulse
Bandpass impulse
(10% to 90%)
(50%)
Minimum
0.45 / f span
0.60 / f span
1.20 / f span
Normal
0.99 / f span
0.98 / f span
1.95 / f span
Maximum
1.48 / f span
1.39 / f span
2.77 / f span
For example, using a 10 GHz wide frequency span and a normal window in Bandpass impulse mode, response
resolution (in time) equals:
Time Res = 1.95 / frequency span
Time Res = 1.95 / 10 GHz
Time Res = 195 ps
To calculate the physical separation (in distance) of the responses which can be resolved, multiply this value times
the speed of light (c) and the relative velocity (Vf) of propagation in the actual transmission medium. In this case, Vf
= 0.66 for polyethylene dielectric.
Distance Res = 195 ps x c x Vf
Distance Res = 195 ps x (2.997925 E8 m/s) x .66
Distance Res = 38 mm
For reflection measurements, because of the 2-way travel time involved, this means that the minimum resolvable
separation between discontinuities is half of this value or 19 mm.
Although a wider frequency span causes better measurement resolution, the measurement range becomes limited.
Also, increasing the frequency range can cause a measurement calibration to become invalid. Be sure to adjust the
frequency span BEFORE performing a calibration.
220
Measurement Range and Alias Responses
Measurement range is the length in time in which true time domain responses can be seen. The measurement
range should be large enough to see the entire test device response without encountering a repetition (alias) of the
response. An alias response can hide a true time domain response.
To increase measurement range in both modes, change either of these settings:
Increase the number of points
Decrease the frequency span
Notes:
After making these settings, you may need to adjust the transform time settings to see the new measurement
range.
Decreasing the frequency span degrades measurement resolution.
Make frequency span and number of points settings BEFORE calibrating.
Maximum range also depends on loss through the test device. If the returning signal is too small to measure,
the range is limited regardless of the frequency span.
Alias Responses
An alias response is not a true device response. An alias response repeats because each time domain waveform
has many periods and repeats with time (see How the PNA Measures in the Time Domain). Alias responses occur
at time intervals that are equal to 1/ frequency step size.
The PNA adjusts the transform time settings so that you should only see one alias free range on either side
(positive and negative) of zero time. However, these settings are updated only when one of the toolbar settings are
changed.
To determine if a response is true, put a marker on the response and change the frequency span. A true device
response will not move in time. An alias response will move.
For example, in the above graphic, the marker 1 response occurs at 14.07 inches. When the frequency span is
changed, this response remains at 14.07 inches. The marker 2 response moves.
Range Formula
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You can calculate the alias-free measurement range (in meters) of the PNA using the following formula for TDR
(reflection) measurements:
Range (meters) = (1/ f) x Vf x c
Where:
f = frequency step size (frequency span/number of points-1)
Vf = the velocity factor in the transmission line
c = speed of light = 2.997925 E8 m/s
For example: For a measurement with 401 points and a span of 2.5 GHz, using a polyethylene cable (Vf = 0.66)
Range = (1 / (2.5E9 / 400)) x 2.997925 E8 m/s x 0.66
Range = 6.25E6 x 2.997925 E8 m/s x 0.66
Range = 32 meters
In this example, the range is 32 meters in physical length. To prevent the time domain responses from overlapping
or aliasing, the test device must be 32 meters or less in physical length for a transmission measurement.
To calculate the one-way distance for a reflection measurement rather than round-trip distance, simply divide the
length by 2. In this case, the alias-free range would be 16 meters.
How to make Time Domain Settings
The following launches the Time Domain toolbar
On the toolbar, click More... to launch the Time Domain dialog box
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Trace
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Transform
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press ANALYSIS
1. Click Marker/Analysis
2. then [Transform]
2. then Transform
3. then [More]
4.
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2.
2.
3.
4. then [Transform Tool]
Transform dialog box help
Category Select Transform, Window, or Gating
Transform Turns time domain transform ON and OFF.
Coupling Settings Launches the Trace Coupling Settings dialog box.
Time Settings
The following settings adjust the display resolution, allowing you to zoom IN or OUT on a response. They do
NOT adjust measurement range or measurement resolution.
These settings automatically update (when one of these values are updated) to limit the display to one aliasfree response on either side of zero time.
Start Sets the transform start time that is displayed on the PNA screen.
Note: Zero (0) seconds is always the measurement reference plane. Negative values are useful if moving the
reference plane.
Stop Sets the transform stop time that is displayed on the PNA screen.
Center Sets the transform center time that is displayed in the center of the PNA screen.
Span Sets the transform span time that is split on either side of the Center value.
Transform Mode
Transform modes are three variations on how the time domain transform algorithm is applied to the frequency
domain measurement. Each method has a unique application.
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Mode
Benefit - application
Limitation
Low pass
Impulse
Highest resolution.
In both Low pass modes, frequencies down to DC and
negative frequencies are extrapolated. Therefore, the Start
frequency is adjusted when you click Set Freq.Low Pass
Most useful for seeing small
responses in devices that pass
low frequencies, such as
cables.
Low pass
Step
Easiest to identify inductive
and capacitive discontinuities
in devices that pass low
frequencies, such as cables.
Band
pass
Impulse
Easiest method - can be used
with any frequency sweep.
Most useful for measuring
band limited devices such as
filters and DC blocked cables.
Because this will affect calibration accuracy, be sure to
calibrate AFTER completely setting up your time domain
measurement.
Does NOT show capacitive and inductive reactance
For the same frequency span and number of points, band
pass mode has twice the impulse width, which hides
closely spaced responses degrading the response
resolution.
The following chart shows how to interpret results from various discontinuity impedances using Low pass Step
and either Low pass or Band pass Impulse modes.
Effect on Measurement Range
Band pass mode - measurement range is inversely proportional to frequency step size.
Low pass mode - measurement range is inversely proportional to the fundamental (start ) frequency AFTER
clicking Set Freq. Low Pass.
Set Freq. Low Pass USE ONLY IN LOW PASS MODES
Recomputes the start frequency and step frequencies to be harmonics of the start frequency. Start frequency is
computed by the following formula: Low Pass Start Frequency = Stop Frequency / Number of points.
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The computed value must always be greater than or equal to the analyzer's minimum frequency.
Note: The number of points or stop frequency may be changed in order to compute this value.
Distance Marker Settings Launches the Distance Marker Settings dialog box.
Gating
Perhaps the most beneficial feature of time domain transform is the Gating function. When viewing the time domain
response of a device, the gating function can be used to "virtually" remove undesired responses. You can then
simultaneously view a frequency domain trace as if the undesired response did not exist.. This allows you to
characterize devices without the effects of external devices such as connectors or adapters.
Note: When a discontinuity in a test device reflects energy, that energy will not reach subsequent discontinuities.
This can "MASK", or hide, the true response which would have occurred if the previous discontinuity were not
present. The PNA Gating feature does NOT compensate for this.
The following measurements images show a practical example how to use and perform gating. The test device is a
10inch cable, then a 6 dB attenuator, terminated with a short. The following four discontinuities are evident in
window 2, from left to right:
1. A discontinuity in the test system cable which appeared after calibration. It is identified by marker 2 at -10.74
inches (behind the reference plane).
2. A discontinuity in the 10 inch device cable shortly after the reference plane.
3. The largest discontinuity is the attenuator and short shown by marker 1 at -12.67 dB ( 6 dB loss in both
forward and reverse direction).
4. The last discontinuity is a re-reflection from the device cable.
We will gate IN the attenuator response. All other responses will be gated OUT.
Window 1. Create original S11 frequency domain trace. Shows ripple from all of the reflections.
Window 2. Create a new S11 trace - same channel; new window. Turn Transform ON.
Window 3. On the transformed trace, turn gating ON. Center the gate on the large discontinuity (2.500ns). Adjust
gate span to completely cover the discontinuity. Select Bandpass gating type.
Window 4. On the original frequency measurement, turn Gating ON (Transform remains OFF). View the
measurement without the effects of the two unwanted discontinuities. The blue trace is a measurement of the 6 dB
attenuator with the unwanted discontinuities PHYSICALLY removed. The difference between the two traces in
window 4 is the effect of "masking".
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Learn how to launch the Transform dialog box
Transform Gating dialog box help
Gating Turns Gating ON and OFF.
Coupling Settings Launches the Setup Trace Coupling dialog box.
Start Specifies the start time for the gate.
Stop Specifies the stop time for the gate.
Center Specifies the value at the center of the area that is affected by the gating function. This value can be
anywhere in the analyzer range.
Span Specifies the range to either side of the center value of area that is affected by the gating function.
Gate Type Defines the type of filtering that will be performed for the gating function. The gate start and stop
226
flags on the display point toward the part of the trace you want to keep.
Bandpass - KEEPS the responses within the gate span.
Notch - REMOVES the responses with the gate span.
Gate Shape Defines the filter characteristics of the gate function. Choose from Minimum, Normal, Wide,
Maximum
Gate Shape
Passband Ripple
Sidelobe Levels
Cutoff Time
Minimum Gate
Span
Minimum
±0.1 dB
-48 dB
1.4/Freq Span
2.8/Freq Span
Normal
±0.1 dB
-68 dB
2.8/Freq Span
5.6/Freq Span
Wide
±0.1 dB
-57 dB
4.4/Freq Span
8.8/Freq Span
Maximum
±0.01 dB
-70 dB
12.7/Freq Span
25.4/Freq Span
Cutoff time -- is the time between the stop time (-6 dB on the filter skirt) and the peak of the first sidelobe. The
diagram below shows the overall gate shape and lists the characteristics for each gate shape.
T1 is the gate span, which is equal to the stop time minus the start time.
T2 is the time between the edge of the passband and the 6 dB point, representing the cutoff rate of the
filter.
T3 is the time between the 6 dB point and the edge of the gate stopband.
For all filter shapes T2 is equal to T3, and the filter is the same on both sides of the center time.
Minimum gate span -- is twice the cutoff time. Each gate shape has a minimum recommended gate span for
proper operation. This is a consequence of the finite cutoff rate of the gate. If you specify a gate span that is
smaller that the minimum span, the response will show the following effects:
distorted gate shape that has no passband
distorted shape
incorrect indications of start and stop times
227
may have increased sidelobe levels
Window Settings
There are abrupt transitions in a frequency domain measurement at the start and stop frequencies, causing
overshoot and ringing in a time domain response. The window feature is helpful in lessening the abruptness of the
frequency domain transitions. This causes you to make a tradeoff in the time domain response. Choose between
the following:
Minimum Window = Better Response Resolution - the ability resolve between two closely spaced
responses.
Maximum Window = Dynamic Range - the ability to measure low-level responses.
Learn how to launch the Transform dialog box
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Transform - Window dialog box help
Coupling Settings Launches the Setup Trace Coupling dialog box.
The window settings balance response resolution versus dynamic range.
Minimum Window = Best Response Resolution
Maximum Window = Best Dynamic Range
The following three methods all the set window size. For best results, view the time domain response while
making these settings.
Minimum - Maximum Move the slider with a mouse to change the window size
Kaiser Beta Changes window size using a Kaiser Beta value
Impulse Width Changes window size using an Impulse Width value
Learn more about Windowing (top)
How to make Trace Coupling Settings
You can launch the Trace Coupling Settings dialog box from any of the following dialog boxes:
Transform
Gating
Window
Learn more about using the front panel interface
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Trace Coupling Settings dialog box help
Trace coupling allows you to change time domain parameters on a measurement, and have the same changes
occur for all other measurements in the channel.
For example:
If you are simultaneously viewing a frequency domain measurement and time domain measurement,
and Coupling is enabled in this dialog box,
and ALL Gating Parameters are checked in this dialog box,
and on the time domain measurement you change the Gate Span parameter,
Then the frequency domain measurement will automatically change to reflect the time domain gated
span.
Coupling ON/OFF Check to enable coupling. All of the measurements in the active channel are coupled.
The following parameters are available for coupling:
Transform Parameters
Stimulus Start, Stop, Center, and Span TIME settings.
State (On/Off) Transform ON and OFF
Window Kaiser Beta / Impulse Width
Mode Low Pass Impulse, Low Pass Step, Band Pass
Gating Parameters
Stimulus Start, Stop, Center, and Span TIME settings.
State (On/Off) Gating ON and OFF
Shape Minimum, Normal, Wide, and Maximum
Type Bandpass and Notch
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Distance Marker Settings dialog box help
To launch this dialog box, click Dist. Marker Settings on the Transform dialog box.
When markers are present on a time domain measurement, distance is automatically displayed on the marker
readout, marker table, and print copy. To learn how to create markers on your measurement see marker
settings.
This dialog box allows you to customize the time domain distance marker readings.
These settings affect the display of ALL markers for only the ACTIVE measurement (unless Distance Marker
Unit is coupled on the Trace Coupling dialog box.
Marker Mode Specifies the measurement type in order to determine the correct marker distance.
Select Auto for S-Parameter measurements.
Select Reflection or Transmission for arbitrary ratio or unratioed measurements.
Auto If the active measurement is an S-Parameter, automatically chooses reflection or transmission. If the
active measurement is a non S-Parameter, reflection is chosen.
Reflection Displays the distance from the source to the receiver and back divided by two (to compensate for
the return trip.)
Transmission Displays the distance from the source to the receiver.
Units Specifies the unit of measure for the display of marker distance values.
Velocity Factor Specifies the velocity factor that applies to the medium of the device that was inserted after
the measurement calibration. The value for a polyethylene dielectric cable is 0.66 and 0.7 for Teflon dielectric.
1.0 corresponds to the speed of light in a vacuum. This is useful in Time Domain for accurate display of time
and distance markers.
This setting can also be made from the Electrical Delay and Port Extensions dialog boxes.
Last Modified:
11-Sep-2007
Edits to resolution and rage formulas
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Front Panel Tour
PNA-L and Microwave Models
See the PNA-X Front Panel Tour
Click on the sections of the front panel for information.
Power Switch
Toggles the analyzer between the On and Hibernate conditions. This switch is not connected to the power supply.
Learn more about powering the PNA ON and OFF.
Front-Panel Access Jumpers
Provides access to the measurement path. Learn more.
Test Ports
PNA test ports internally switch between source and receiver allowing measurement of your device in two
directions. Two different lighting methods are used to indicate the source and receiver port:
For 9 GHz and below PNA models
A green light indicates the source port.
An orange light indicates the receiver port.
All other PNA models:
An illuminated image next to the test port indicates the source.
See Input Damage Levels
USB
This Type A Universal Serial Bus (USB) connector allows you to connect a keyboard, mouse, ECAL module, or
other USB device.
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Contact 1: Vcc; 4.75 to 5.25 VDC, 500 mA maximum.
Protected with an automatically-resettable 1A fuse.
Contact 2: –Data
Contact 3: +Data
Contact 4: Ground
See USB limitations.
3.5" Floppy Disk Drive
Installs files on the analyzer hard drive or stores data files from the analyzer. Access the disk drive by using
Windows Explorer.
Unformatted Data Capacity: 2MB
Compatible with: High Density (2HD), and Normal Density (2DD)
Transfer Rate: 500 kbits/second
Probe Power
The 3-pin (m) connectors supply power for active probes.
Top Pin: Ground
Left Pin: +15 VDC ±2%, 400 mA maximum; protected by PTC @0.5A
Right Pin: –12.6 VDC ±5%, 300 mA maximum; protected by PTC @0.5A
(PTC=slow acting, automatically resettable fuse)
The PNA-X does NOT provide probe power.
Navigation Keys
233
These keys allow you to navigate through menus and dialog boxes and select choices from the active entry
toolbar.
Left / Right
Moves left and right through menus
Moves tab-left and tab-right within dialog boxes
Up / Down
Moves up and down through menus
Behaves as follows in a dialog box:
Modifies a numeric value
Moves through items in a drop-down list
Moves through options buttons in a group of option buttons
Click
F1...F4 Keys
Makes a selection just like a mouse click
Selects choices from the active entry toolbar. The color of the key corresponds to the
active entry toolbar choice.
Learn more about Active Entry Keys.
Entry Keys
These keys allow you to enter values for measurement settings.
Numeric Keys
Units Keys
Selects values for measurement settings, then press Enter or G/n or M/u to complete
the selection.
Completes the value selection, assigning a unit of measurement. Select either
G/n (Giga/Nano) E12 or E-12
M/u (Mega/micro) E6 or E-6
Then press Enter to complete the value entry.
Decimal point
Plus - Minus Backspace Key
Enters a decimal point to designate fractions of a whole number.
Toggles between a positive and negative value entry if it is the first key pressed in the
entry.
Backs up the cursor and deletes any previous selection.
Enter
Enters the values that you select for the measurement settings.
Knob
Rotate to increase or decrease the value of the active entry.
Display Keys
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Controls window and trace configuration
Trace
Window
First press brings up the Trace Active Toolbar. Subsequent presses allow you to cycle
through the measurement traces in a window, making each trace active in turn. You
can make modifications only to active functions. This key also allows you to create or
delete traces, using the function keys.
First press brings up the Window Active Toolbar, where you can create, select, and
delete windows, using the function keys.
Subsequent presses of this key cycle through the windows that are currently set up,
making each window active in turn. You can make size modifications only to an active
window. A window must also be active to cycle through the traces in the window.
Measure Setup
Arrange
Allows you choose from four pre-configured measurement setups.
Allows you to choose from four window arrangements: Overlay, Stack 2, Split 3, Quad
4. Learn More about Arranging the Display
Channel Setup Keys
Controls channel settings.
Start/Stop
Sets the frequency range of the channel.
Center/Span
Power
Sweep Setup
Channel
Sweep Type
Trigger
Avg
Cal
Sets the source power level.
Defines several sweep settings.
Select an active channel, or delete the active channel. A channel must be active to
modify any channel settings. Learn more about Channels.
Sets the sweep type and associated settings.
Sets how the start of the measurement sweep is initiated.
Applies measurement averages which reduces noise. The analyzer performs a complex
exponential average of a number of sweeps that you specify. Learn more about
Averaging
Initiates a measurement calibration. The Calibration Wizard appears if you press
Menu/Dialog, Cal. Otherwise, pressing the Cal key makes the calibration active entry
toolbar appear. Learn more about Calibration
Command Keys
235
OK
Help
Cancel
Menu/Dialog
Closes a dialog box and enters any values made in the dialog box.
Launches the analyzer Help file.
Closes a dialog box.
Allows you to browse the menus with the Navigation keys. Also allows you to display
dialog boxes by pressing Menu/Dialog and then a key in the Channel, Trace, or Utility
blocks. Learn more.
Trace Setup Keys
Performs many trace settings. Learn more about Traces.
Measure
Allows you to select an S-parameter measurement. Through the dialog box you can
also select an arbitrary ratio, or unratioed power measurement. Learn more.
Format
Allows you to select the format the analyzer uses to display the measurement data.
Learn more.
Scale
Allows you to specify the value the analyzer uses to scale the displayed measurement
response. You can also let the analyzer automatically set the Y axis scales to fit the
entire measurement trace on the screen. Learn more.
Marker
Allows you to activate a marker and set the value. Markers provide numerical readout
of measured data. Learn more.
Marker Table
Limit Table
Marker Search
Marker Function
Math/Memory
Displays the table of values that allow you to view the data readout for all of the
markers on the active trace. Learn more.
Displays the table of values that allow you to create pass / fail testing based on these
limit segments. Learn more.
Provides access to the marker search functions. If there is no marker displayed, this
key will activate a marker. Learn more.
Allows you to change measurement settings, based on the location of an active marker.
If there is no marker displayed, this key will activate a marker. Learn more.
Allows you to select math and memory functions that the analyzer performs on the
measurement data. Learn more.
Utility Keys
236
Save
Allows you to save instrument states, calibration data, and measurement data to a file.
Learn more.
Changes the selected window to the full measurement screen size and then restores it
to the previous window size. Restores the PNA application if minimized. Learn more.
Preset
Presets the PNA. Learn more.
Recall
Recalls a file from the hard drive. Learn more.
Print
Prints a displayed measurement. Learn more.
Macro/Local
When the analyzer is being controlled through automation, pressing this key allows the
analyzer to respond to front panel key presses.
When the analyzer is in normal operation, pressing this key accesses a set of user
macros that are in the form of executable files. You can title and store up to 12 macros.
When you repeatedly press this key, the titles in the active entry toolbar rotate through
three sets of four titles.
The executable files must already be on the hard drive and setup as a macro. Learn
more.
237
PNA-X Front-Panel Tour
See Also
The PNA-X Display area
PNA-X Models / Options
PNA-X Rear-Panel Tour
Familiar Hardkey layout, similar to Agilent 8720 and 8753 Network Analyzers
Back to the familiar layout, significantly different from legacy PNA models. Most measurement settings are made
from the Stimulus Block and the Response Block.
Fully functional Hardkey/Softkey selections consistent with Menu (mouse) selections
Access ALL PNA settings from the front panel using hardkey/sofkeys or from the Menu using a mouse. Both
methods are consistent; learn the menu structure once, and it applies to both methods of UI navigation.
Power Switch
Used for choosing between power-on ( | ) and standby (O) state.
238
Learn to power ON and OFF the PNA.
Test Ports
The PNA-X is available with 2 or 4 test ports.
Learn about the Test port connectors .
Learn about the Input damage levels.
Front panel Access Jumpers
These connectors provide direct access to the PNA source and receivers. This allows you to make a wide variety
of measurements and improve dynamic range. All PNA-X models have these same jumpers for each test port.
See the PNA-X front panel jumpers specifications
USB Hub
This USB hub contains four USB ports to power your PNA peripherals. There are also four USB ports on the rear
panel.
Limitation: The total power consumption for all eight USB ports is limited to 4.0 amps. If this limit is exceeded, all
USB ports are disabled until a device is removed and power consumption falls below the limit. When first
connected, Agilent ECal modules 8509x and N4431 draw significantly more current than other modules.
Ground terminal
Connect a banana-type plug to this terminal for grounding to the PNA chassis.
No probe power
Probe power is NOT provided with the PNA-X.
Hardkeys
TRACE/CHAN Keys
Manages the Traces and Channels on the PNA display.
239
Hard Key
1, 2, 3, 4
Traces
Channels
Invokes these Softkeys
Makes the corresponding trace active.
Invokes the Traces softkey menu which allows you to create a new trace, select a trace,
delete a trace, or maximize the trace.
Invokes the Channels softkey menu which allows you to manage channels.
RESPONSE Keys
Performs operations on measurement traces after data is measured - not including Data Analysis operations.
Hard Key
Meas
Invokes these Softkeys - Click to learn more
Measurement selections
S-Parameters
Balanced Parameters
Measurement Class
More Meas
Receivers
Format
Scale
Format
Scale
Electrical Delay
Phase Offset
More
Velocity Factor
Media -Waveguide/coax
Waveguide cutoff freq
Display
Display settings
Arrangements (Overlay...)
Windows (Managing)
Measurement Setups
Display Items
240
Title
Trace Status
Freq Stimulus
Marker Readout
Toolbars
Tables
Status Bar
Hide Sofkeys
Minimize App
Avg
Averaging
Smoothing
IF Bandwidth
Cal
Start Cal
Cal Wizard
Preferences
Global Delta Match
Correction
Power Cal
Source Cal
Receiver Cal
Manage Cals
Cal Set
Cal Type
Cal Set Viewer
Properties (must have a Cal ON) no idea what this is
Port Ext Toolbar
Interpolation
Fixtures
241
ON |Off
Port matching
lots more
Manage Cal Kit
Manage ECal
System Z0
Velocity Factor
MARKER/ANALYSIS Keys
Control all aspects of Data Analysis including Markers and Math functions..
Hard Key
Marker
Invokes these Softkeys - Click to learn more
Markers
Properties
Delta Markers
Discrete
Type
Coupled
Functions
Search
Memory
Marker Search
Data/ Memory Math
8510 Mode
Analysis
Limit Lines
Limit Test
Global Pass/Fail
Trace Statistics
Gating
Transform
Windowing
242
Coupling
Distance Marker
Equation Editor
STIMULUS Keys
Controls settings that determine what data (stimulus range), and how data (sweep type and triggering), is
measured.
Hard Key
Freq
Invokes these Softkeys - Click to learn more
Frequency Range
Frequency Offset Mode
Power
RF Power level
Power Slope
Power and Attenuator settings
Sweep
Sweep Time
Number of Points
Sweep Type
Sweep Setup
Segment Table settings
Trigger
Trigger settings
UTILITY Keys
Performs global PNA operations.
Hard Key
Save
Invokes these Softkeys - Click to learn more
File Save
Manage Files
Define Data Saves
User Preset
Print
Print
Print to file
Page Setup
Macro/Local
Macro Setup
Run Macros
243
Recall
System
File Recall
Security
Configure
SICL / GPIB
Control Panel (Windows)
System Z0
Power Meter Settings
Millimeter Module
Service
Help
Error Messages
About NA
User Key
Touchscreen
Preset
Preset
User Preset
ENTRY Keys
Hard Key
OK
Cancel
Help
Invokes these Softkeys
Closes a dialog box and enters any values made in the dialog box.
Closes a dialog box.
Launches this Help file.
Bk Sp
Back Space. Backs up the cursor and deletes any previous selection.
1 to 9
Selects values for measurement settings, then press Enter or G/n - M/u - k/m to complete
the selection.
G/n
M/u
k/m
Completes the value selection, assigning a unit of measurement.
G/n (Giga/Nano) E12 or E-12
M/u (Mega/micro) E6 or E-6
244
k/m (kilo/milli) E3 or E-3
Enter
Enters the values that you select for the measurement settings.
Off
Decimal point
+/-
Enters a decimal point to designate fractions of a whole number.
Plus - Minus Toggles between a positive and negative value entry if it is the first key pressed
in the entry.
Knob
Rotate to increase or decrease the value of the active entry.
Navigation Keys
These keys allow you to navigate through menus and dialog boxes and select choices from the active entry toolbar.
Hard Key
Left / Right
Invokes these Softkeys
Moves left and right through menus.
Moves tab-left and tab-right within dialog boxes.
Up / Down
Moves up and down through menus.
Behaves as follows in a dialog box:
Modifies a numeric value
Moves through items in a drop-down list
Moves through options buttons in a group of option buttons
Click
Makes a selection just like a mouse click.
Last Modified:
23-Aug-2007
Added front panel jumpers image
245
Rear Panel Tour
PNA-L and Microwave Models
See the PNA-X Rear Panel Tour
This image includes ALL rear-panel features.
Your PNA may not have this capability or look.
Click on a connector for detailed information.
See this rear-panel with a 1.1 GHz CPU Board.
246
PNA-X Rear Panel
Click image to learn more.
10 MHz Reference IN/OUT
10 MHz Reference Input When a 10 MHz external reference signal is detected at this port, it will be used as the
instrument frequency reference instead of the internal frequency reference.
10 MHz Reference Output This BNC(f) connector outputs a frequency reference signal for use by other test
equipment.
See specifications for these ports.
VGA Connector Learn more
USB Hub
This USB hub contains four USB ports to power your PNA peripherals. There are also four USB ports on the front
panel.
Limitation: The total power consumption for all eight USB ports is limited to 4.0 amps. If this limit is exceeded, all
USB ports are disabled until a device is removed and power consumption falls below the limit. When first
connected, Agilent ECal modules 8509x and N4431 draw significantly more current than other modules. See
specifications.
USB Device Learn more
247
LAN Connector
This 10/100BaseT Ethernet connection has a standard 8-pin configuration and auto selects between the two data
rates.
Line Power
See specifications
GPIB Controller and Talker/Listener Ports
The PNA-X can be a GPIB Controller and Talker/Listener. Learn more.
RF Path Access
These connectors allow RF Path Configuration.
IF Path Inputs
Option 020 adds these connectors, which allow access to the PNA Receiver / IF paths.
These are labeled A, B, C/R1, D/R2, R.
For 2-port PNA-X models, use A, B, R1, R2.
For 4-port PNA-X models, use A, B, C, D, R.
See IF Path configuration block diagram.
Settings are made using SCPI and COM ONLY.
Power I/O
Has some of the AUX I/O connector functionality on the PNA-L and E836xB models.
See Details
28 V (BNC output)
Used to power a noise source for the Noise Figure App.
External and AUX Trigger I/O
248
MEAS TRIG IN - When enabled, PNA is triggered by signals on this connector. Learn more.
MEAS TRIG RDY When enabled, PNA ouputs a 'READY' signal on this connector to other devices. Learn
more.
AUX TRIG 1&2 IN When enabled, PNA accepts signals on these connectors which indicates that the external
devices is ready to be triggered. Learn more.
AUX TRIG 1&2 OUT When enabled, PNA outputs signals on these connectors either before or after a
measurement. Learn more.
Test Set I/O
See Details
Bias IN and Fuses
Apply Bias to the PNA ports through these BNC connectors.
See specifications
Material Handler I/O
See details.
Pulse I/O
See Details
RF and LO OUT
Caution: LO OUT has more power than previous PNA models.
249
See Specifications
1.6 GHz CPU See CPU Speed / Performance
Last modified:
4-Sep-2007
June 6, 2007
January 11, 2007
Added 28V image
Added RF and IF connector images
MX New topic
250
Powering the PNA ON and OFF
The following is described in this topic:
How to...
Hibernate
ON
Shutdown
Turn OFF Autostart
Notes
During boot up of Windows or of the Network Analyzer application program, do NOT press keys on the front
panel, rotate the RPG knob, or connect a USB device. Doing so MAY lead to a front panel lockup state.
If the PNA front-panel keypad or USB ports are not responding, SHUTDOWN or RESTART the PNA; do NOT
Hibernate. This causes the PNA drivers to awaken from hibernation in the same corrupt state.
How to Log off, Shut down, Restart, or Hibernate the PNA.
WITH a Mouse
1. On the PNA System menu, click Windows Taskbar
2. On the Windows Taskbar, click Shutdown
3. In the What do you want the computer to do? list, choose an action:
Log off (closes programs and disconnects from the network)
Shut down
Restart (shutdown and start)
Hibernate
4. Click OK to perform the action
WITHOUT a Mouse
To Hibernate, BRIEFLY press the front-panel PNA power button.
To Shutdown - ONLY if the PNA is locked and you cannot operate the mouse or keypad - Press and hold
the power button for at least four seconds. This practice should be avoided! Repeated shutdowns in
this manner WILL damage the hard drive. Learn more about damaging the PNA hard drive.
Recommended - To SAFELY shutdown the PNA without a mouse, configure the PNA so you can choose
251
what to do when the power button is briefly pressed (as in Step 3 above). PNAs shipped after June 2005
are already configured this way:
1. From Windows Control Panel, select Power Options
2. Click Advanced Tab
3. Under Power buttons, select Ask me what to do.
4. Click OK to end configuration.
The next time the power button is pressed, a dialog box will ask What do you want the computer to
do? Use the PNA front panel Tab and Enter keys to choose an action.
Tip: If it is not already running, press the Preset button (on the PNA front-panel) to start the PNA
application.
Hibernate Mode
In hibernate mode the current instrument state is automatically saved to the hard disk before the PNA is
powered OFF.
When the PNA is powered ON, this instrument state is loaded, thus saving time over a full system boot-up.
A password is NOT required to resume PNA operation after Hibernate mode.
The hibernation state is the normal OFF state. A small amount of standby power is supplied to the PNA when
it is in the hibernation mode. This standby power only supplies the power switch circuits and the 10 MHz
reference oscillator; no other CPU-related circuits are powered during hibernation. To guarantee that your
measurements meet the PNA specified performance, allow the PNA to warm-up for 90 minutes after the
power button light has changed from yellow back to green.
ON Mode
To turn ON the PNA press the yellow power button.
The power button will change to green when power is ON.
Turn OFF PNA Autostart
The PNA application (835x.exe) always starts automatically when power is turned ON. To cause the PNA to NOT
Autostart, do the following:
1. Minimize the PNA application.
2. From Windows Explorer, navigate to and double-click the following file: C:/Program Files/Agilent/Network
Analyzer/Service/Toggle_PNA_Autostart.
252
2.
The script toggles the PNA Autostart mode ON and OFF.
Shutdown Mode
In shut down mode the current instrument state is NOT automatically saved before the PNA is powered OFF.
When the PNA is again powered ON, a full system boot-up is performed and the PNA powers-up in the
preset settings.
A password is required to resume PNA operation after being in Shutdown mode.
To guarantee that your measurements meet the PNA specified performance, allow the PNA to warm-up for
90 minutes after the power button light has changed from yellow back to green.
The PNA should only be shut down for service or to provide security via password protection.
The power button will change to yellow when power is OFF.
Note: If the PNA is locked and you cannot operate the mouse or keypad, shut down the PNA by pressing and
holding the power button for at least four seconds.
This practice should be avoided! Repeated shutdowns in this manner WILL damage the hard drive. Learn more
about damaging the PNA hard drive.
Unplugging the PNA
Remove the power cord from the PNA ONLY when the power button is yellow, in either Hibernate or
Shutdown mode. If the power cord is removed while the power button is green (PNA ON), damage to the
hard drive is likely.
The button will remain yellow for several seconds after the power cord has been removed.
When plugged back in and the power button is pressed to ON, the PNA starts in the mode it was in when the
power cord was unplugged, either Hibernate or Shutdown.
253
Front Panel Interface
All PNA models except PNA-X
There are three ways to use the front panel keys:
Active Entry Toolbar (quickest)
Launch Dialog Boxes
Navigate Menus (most comprehensive)
Other Quick Start topics
Active Entry Toolbar
Not all settings can be made this way. For making ALL settings use Menus.
You can make settings quickly using this four step procedure.
( 1 ) Press a key
( 2 ) View active entry
( 3 ) Select a function
( 4 ) Enter a value (if necessary)
Launch Dialog Boxes,
To quickly launch MOST dialog boxes:
254
( 1 ) Press the Menu/Dialog Key
( 2 ) Select a function key
Navigate Menus
You can access ALL PNA functions using Menus:
( 1 ) Press the Menu/Dialog Key
( 2 ) Use the direction keys to navigate through the Menus. Use the "Click" key to make a selection.
( 3 ) Other Command keys are available for cancelling or seeking Help (if necessary)
255
256
Traces, Channels, and Windows on the PNA
It is critical to understand the meaning of the following terms as they are used on the PNA.
Traces - Managing
Channels - Managing
Windows - Managing
Note: You may experience a significant decrease in computer processing speed with combinations of the following:
increased number of points, number of traces, and calibration error terms (full 2-port or 3-port). If this becomes a
problem, you can increase the amount of RAM with PNA Option 022. To monitor the amount of PNA memory
usage, press Ctrl Alt Delete, select Task Manager, then click on the Performance tab.
Other Quick Start topics
Traces are a series of measured data points. There is no theoretical limit to the number of traces. However, the
practical limit is the maximum number of windows * the maximum number of traces per window (8).
In addition, one memory trace can be stored and displayed for every data trace. Learn more about Math / Memory
traces.
Trace settings affect the presentation and mathematical operations of the measured data. The following are Trace
settings.
Parameter
Format and Scale
Smoothing
Correction ON / OFF
Electrical Delay
Phase Offset
Trace Math
Markers
Time Domain (Opt 010)
Managing Traces
How to Select a trace
How to Delete a trace
257
How to Move a trace
How to Maximize a trace
How to Create a new trace
How to Change the trace parameter.
How to display a custom trace title.
How to Select a Trace
A trace must be selected (active) before its trace settings can be changed.
How to know which trace is Active?
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press TRACE repeatedly
1. Click the Trace Status button.
For PNA-X models
1. For Traces 1-4, press the corresponding Hard Key
2. For other trace numbers, press TRACES
3. then [Select Traces]
4. Select a trace number in the Entry toolbar.
258
1. Click the Trace Status label or trace.
How to Delete a Trace
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press TRACE
1. Right-click the Trace Status button, then click
Delete.
For PNA-X models
1. For Traces 1-4, press the corresponding
Hard Key
1. Right-click the Trace Status label, then click
Delete.
2. For other trace numbers, press TRACES
3. then [Select Traces]
4. Select a trace number in the Entry toolbar.
How to Move a trace to a different window
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Not available
1. Not available
For PNA-X models
1. Select the trace to move.
2. Press TRACES
1. Right-click the Trace Status label, then click Move
Trace.
3. then [Move Trace]
4. Select a window number in the following
dialog.
PNA-X ONLY
259
This dialog is launched by clicking Trace/Chan, then Delete Trace
The Select Trace dialog is launched by clicking Trace/Chan, then Select Trace
Select, Delete, Move Traces dialog box help
Both the Select Trace and Delete Trace dialogs work the same.
Select a trace, then click OK.
Only ONE trace can be Selected or Deleted.
Note:
To EASILY select a trace, click the Trace Status label.
To EASILY delete a trace, right-click the Trace Status label, then click Delete.
Trace Max - PNA-X ONLY
Makes the active trace the ONLY trace on the display. All other traces are hidden.
How to do Trace Max
Select Trace, then Trace Max.
With Trace Max ON, select a different trace from the Traces softkeys to make that trace visible.
To make all traces visible again select Trace Max OFF
Trace Title
A Trace Title overwrites the Measurement Parameter in the Trace Status area, the Status Bar, and hardcopy
prints.
This title has priority over Equation Editor titles.
The practical limit is about 70 characters if there is only one trace.
Spaces are accepted but not displayed; use underscores.
The title is annotated as follows:
260
How to enter a Trace Title
1. Click the Trace Status label to select a trace.
2. Click Trace/Chan, then Trace, then Trace Title.
3. Click Enable, then type the trace title. Click Keyboard to type with a mouse.
4. To remove the trace title, clear the Enable checkbox, or delete the text from the dialog entry.
Channels contain traces. The PNA can have up to 32 independent channels.
Channel settings determine how the trace data is measured . All traces that are assigned to a channel share the
same channel settings. A channel must be selected (active) to modify its settings. To select a channel, click the
Trace Status button of a Trace in that channel. The following are channel settings:
Frequency range
Power level
Calibration
IF Bandwidth
Number of Points
Sweep Settings
Average
Trigger (some settings are global)
Managing Channels
How to Select a Channel
A channel must be selected (active) before its settings can be changed.
To make a channel active, select a trace in that channel.
261
How to Turn ON or OFF a Channel
Click Trace/Chan, then Channel, then Turn On / Off Channel.
Turn ON | OFF Channel dialog box help
Both the Turn ON and Turn OFF dialogs work the same.
Select a channel, then click OK. Only ONE channel can be selected
When turning ON a channel, the new channel is always the Standard Measurement Class with an S11 trace.
Note: To create more than one trace in a new channel, click Trace, then New Trace
Windows are used for viewing traces.
The PNA can show an UNLIMITED number of windows on the screen (16 windows previous to PNA release
6.2) with the following limitations:
The COM property MaximumNumberOfWindows returns 1000 ('unlimited' is not a number).
The SCPI status register can only track the status of up to 576 traces.
Each window can contain up to 8 traces (4 traces previous to PNA release 5.2).
Windows are completely independent of channels.
Learn to create and manage windows.
The following is a window containing two traces. Both traces use the same channel 1 settings as indicated by the
annotation at the bottom of the window.
262
PNA-X shows the window number in the lower-left corner of the window. The following shows window 5.
Managing Windows How to make various window settings
New, Close, Tile, Cascade, Minimize, Maximize
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Click Window
1. Press
For PNA-X models
1. Press RESPONSE
1. Click Response
2. then [Display]
2. then Display
3. then [Windows]
3. then Windows
263
Close Window dialog box help
Select a window, then click OK. The remaining windows are tiled.
Only ONE window can be selected.
Traces contained in a closed window are deleted.
Note: To EASILY close a window, click the X in the upper right corner of a window. The X is only visible when
Title Bars are enabled. The remaining windows are NOT tiled.
See Customize the PNA screen to learn how to make other window settings
Last modified:
15-Oct-2007
9/19/06
MX New settings
MQ Modified for unlimited number of windows
264
Basic Measurement Sequence
The following process can be used to setup all PNA measurements:
Step 1. Set Up Measurements
Reset the analyzer, create a measurement state, and adjust the display.
Step 2. Optimize Measurements
Improve measurement accuracy and throughput using techniques and functions.
Step 3. Perform a Measurement Calibration
Reduce the measurement errors by performing a calibration.
Step 4. Analyze Data
Analyze the measurement results using markers, math operations, and limit tests.
Step 5. Print, Save or Recall Data
Save or print the measurement data.
265
Frequency Blanking
Note: To learn how to erase memory before moving your PNA out of a secure area, see
http://na.tm.agilent.com/pna/security.html.
For security reasons, you can prevent frequency information from appearing on the PNA screen and printouts.
How to set Frequency Blanking
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click System
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Security
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press UTILITY
1. Click Utility
2. then [System]
2. then System
3. then [Security]
3. then Security
266
Security Setting dialog box help
None All frequency information is displayed on the screen and printouts.
Low security level
Frequency information is blanked from the following:
Display annotation
Calibration properties
All tables
All toolbars
All printouts
To re-display frequency information, revisit this dialog box and select None.
High security level
Low security level settings PLUS:
GPIB console is inactive
To re-display frequency information, perform an instrument preset, or recall an instrument state with security
level of None.
Extra security level
High security level settings PLUS:
All ASCII data saving capability (.snp, .prn, .cti) is DISABLED.
To re-display frequency information, perform an instrument preset, or recall an instrument state with security
level of None.
For ALL security levels:
Frequency information is NOT blanked from the following:
The Frequency Converter Application (opt 083) dialog box information or printouts.
Service Adjustment Programs
Your remote COM or SCPI programs.
Last Modified:
17-Jul-2007
Added Extra setting
267
268
Internal Second Source
The following PNA models include an internal second source.
Model
(click to see block diagram)
Total
# of Ports
Frequency
N5230A Opt 146
4
300 KHz - 13.5 GHz
N5230A Opt 246
4
300 KHz - 20 GHz
N5242A Opt 224
2*
10 MHz to 26.5 GHz
N5242A Opt 400
4
10 MHz to 26.5 GHz
How to use the second source
Set frequency using the Frequency Offset Opt 080 dialog.
Set power using the Advanced Power dialog.
Source power calibration of the second source is performed as usual.
Using FCA, click the LO button to set frequency and power.
The specifications of the second source are the same as source 1.
Benefits / Uses of the second source
Up to five times faster than stepping an external source.
Measure Mixers with internal swept or fixed LO.
Measure TOI or Intermodulation distortion.
Internal Second Source Restrictions
Source 1 and Source 2 are available at specific ports as follows:
N5230A (PNA-L) models:
Source 1 power available at Port 1 OR Port 2; NOT at both ports simultaneously.
Source 2 power available at Port 3 OR Port 4; NOT at both ports simultaneously.
N5242A Opt 224 (PNA-X 2-port model):
269
Source 1 power available at Port 1 OR Port 2; NOT at both ports simultaneously.
Source 2 (SRC 2) power available at Out 1 AND Out 2; BOTH ports simultaneously.
N5242A Opt 400, 419, 423 (PNA-X 4-port models):
Source 1 power available at Port 1 OR Port 2; NOT at both ports simultaneously.
Source 2 power available at Port 3 AND Port 4; BOTH ports simultaneously.
Opt 423 ONLY - Source 2 power is available at Port 4 AND either Port 3 OR Port 1 (through the combiner as
"Port 1 Src2"). See block diagram for N5242A Opt 423
Remotely Accessing the Internal Second Source
See
Last modified:
23-Jul-2007
1123-Jul-2007
10/02/06
Added remote section
MX Added PNA-X models
MQQ New topic
270
Networking and Connecting the PNA
The PNA as a PC
PNA User Accounts and Passwords
Drive Mapping
Connecting the PNA to a PC
Easy versus Secure Configuration
Changing Network Client
Using VNC to Control the PNA User Interface
GPIB / COM Programming
Configure for COM/DCOM Programming
82357A USB to GPIB Interface
The PNA as GPIB System Controller
How to Configure for GPIB, SCPI, and SICL
Controlling External Devices
E5091 TestSet Control
External Testset Control
Interface Control Feature
TestSetIO Connector
Handler IO Connector
AuxIO Connector
271
PNA Preferences
The following is a list of PNA preferences. Most of these are set using SCPI or COM commands. SCPI commands
can be easily set from the PNA front panel. For more information, click the links below.
Calibration
UI Setting
SCPI
COM
Auto-save User
Cal Set
None
SENS:CORR:PREF:CSET:SAVE
None
For Guided Cal,
set external
trigger.
None
SENS:CORR:PREF:TRIG:FREE
PreferInternalTriggerOnChannelSingle
For Unguided
Cal, set external
trigger.
None
SENS:CORR:PREF:TRIG:FREE
PreferInternalTriggerOnUnguidedCal
Sets behavior
for simulated cal
None
SENS:CORR:PREF:SIMCal
None
Show or not, the
first 'Method'
Page of the Cal
Wizard.
Cal Preferences
None
None
Set and order
default Cal
Types
Cal Preferences
None
None
Perform
orientation of the
ECal module
during
calibration?
ECal Wizard
SENS:CORR:PREF:ECAL:ORI
OrientECALModule
Specify ECal
port mapping
when orientation
is OFF
ECal Wizard
SENS:CORR:PREF:ECAL:PMAP
ECALPortMapEx
Preference
File Save
272
UI Setting
SCPI
COM
Specifies the contents
of subsequent citifile
saves.
Data Define
MMEM:STOR:TRAC:CONT:CIT
CitiContents
Specifies the format of
subsequent citifile
saves.
Data Define
MMEM:STOR:TRAC:FORM:CIT
CitiFormat
Preference
Measurements
UI Setting
SCPI
COM
Mathematically
offset for receiver
attenuation.
None
SYST:PREF:ITEM:OFFS:RCV
OffsetReceiverAttenuator
Mathematically
offset for source
attenuation.
None
SYST:PREF:ITEM:OFFS:SRC
OffsetSourceAttenuator
Turn RF power ON
or OFF during a
frequency sweep
retrace.
None
SYST:PREF:ITEM:RETR:POW
PowerOnDuringRetraceMode
For power sweep,
maintain source
power at the start or
stop power level.
None
SYST:PREF:ITEM:PSRT
PowerSweepRetracePowerMode
Sets the External
Trigger OUT
behavior to have
either Global or
Channel scope.
None
TRIG:PREF:AIGL
AuxTriggerIsGlobal
Preference
Errors
Preference
Report source
unleveled events as
errors?
Display Error
Messages?
UI Setting
SCPI
COM
None
SYST:ERR:REP:SUNL
EnableSourceUnleveledEvents
Error Preferences
None
None
273
Last Modified:
5-Feb-2007
MX New topic
274
Using VNC to Control the PNA User Interface
VNC (Virtual Network Computing) allows you to control the User Interface of a PNA from any PC. The PNA display
appears on the connected PC display. Mouse and keyboard control can occur from both the PNA and PC, although
not simultaneously.
Both the PNA and PC must be connected to the internet. The responsiveness of the PNA while using VNC is
dependent of the speed of your internet connection.
Every PNA is shipped with VNC installed. However, you must download and install the VNC software onto the PC
from http://www.realvnc.com/.
Once installed, the following procedure will help you configure VNC to view and control the PNA application from
your PC.
On the PNA, run VNC Server
To do this:
1. Click View, then Minimize Application.
2. Click Start, Programs, RealVNC, Run VNC Server.
The first time you run VNC Server, you will set a password to control access from remote PCs.
To automatically start VNC when the PNA computer boots, drag a Run VNC Server shortcut to your User
"startup" folder. The following is the Administrator folder: C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\Start
Menu\Programs\Startup
On the PC, run VNC Viewer
To do this:
1. Download (http://www.realvnc.com/) and install VNC on the PC.
2. From the PC Desktop, click Start, Programs, RealVNC, Run VNC Viewer
3. When prompted for the Hostname, type the full computer name or IP address of the PNA.
4. When prompted for the password, type the password you set when configuring VNC on the PNA.
275
Using Help
Help Rev. 2008-03-10
PNA Rev. A.08.00
© Agilent Technologies, Inc. 2008
This topic discusses the following:
PNA Documentation
Printing Help
Copying Help to your PC
Launching Help
Navigating Help
Help Languages
Glossary
Dialog Boxes
About Network Analyzer
Documentation Warranty
Suggestions Please
Other Quick Start Topics
PNA Documentation
This Help file, which is embedded in the PNA, is the Users Guide and Programming Manual for the PNA. The
help file is automatically updated on the PNA when firmware is updated. Only the PNA Installation and Quick Start
Guide is shipped with new PNA instruments.
Hardcopy manuals are no longer available for purchase with the PNA.
All PNA documentation, including the latest online Web Help version of this Help file, and a printable .PDF
version of the Help file, are available at http://na.tm.agilent.com/pna/help/index.html.
Printing Help
Beginning with the PNA 5.2 release (March 2005), we once again offer a .pdf version of PNA Help. Download the
.pdf file from http://na.tm.agilent.com/pna/help/index.html. You can still print individual PNA Help topics by clicking
the Print icon at the top of the PNA Help window.
Copying Help to your PC
276
With the Help system on your PC, you can read about the PNA while away from it. You can also Copy and Paste
programming code from this Help system directly into your programming environment.
The Help file is located on your PNA hard-drive at C:\ Winnt\ Help\ PNAHelp.chm. If both the PNA and PC are
connected to LAN, you can map a drive and copy the file directly.
The Help file can also be downloaded from http://na.tm.agilent.com/pna/help/index.html.
Launching Help
The Help system can be launched in three ways:
1. From the front panel Help button.
2. From the Help drop-down menu
3. From Dialog Box Help
Navigating Help
The Help Window contains 3 panes (regions):
1. Toolbar Pane
2. Topic Pane
3. Navigation Pane
Toolbar Pane
The Toolbar is at the top of all Help windows. It allows you to resize the window, browse and print the selected
topic.
277
1. Hide or show the navigation pane
2. Locate the topic in the table of contents
3. Back to topic visited previously
4. Forward again if Back was clicked
5. Go to the Home page.
6. Print the topic pane.
Navigation Pane
Click the following tabs in the Navigation Pane to access information in the Help system:
Table of Contents Tab
Index Tab
Search Tab
Favorites Tab
(Table of )Contents Tab
1.
2.
3.
4.
278
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Click tab to select Table of Contents.
Click a book to access related topics.
Click to display a topic.
Right click to access menu.
Click to display specifications
Click to display glossary
Index Tab
The index tab allows you to type a keyword and go to only the most applicable topics.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click tab to select index.
Type keyword to find topics of interest.
View suggested topics. (Double-click to display topic.)
Click to display topic.
Search Tab
TIP: To Search any topic for a keyword, press Ctrl and F.
The following rules apply for using full-text search:
Searches are not case-sensitive.
You can search for any combination of letters (a-z) and numbers (0-9).
Punctuation marks (period, colon, semicolon, comma, and hyphen) are ignored during a search.
You can group the words of your search using double quotes or parentheses. Examples: "response
calibration" or (response calibration). This requirement makes it impossible to search for quotation marks.
Use Wildcard expressions:
To search for one undefined character use a question mark (?). For example, searching for cal? will
find calc and calf.
To search for more than one undefined character use an asterisk (*). Searching for Cal* will find
calibration and calculate.
Use Boolean operators to define a relationship between two or more search words.
279
Search for
Example
Results will show topics containing:
Two words in the same topic
response AND
calibration
Both the words "response" and "calibration".
Either of two words in a topic
response OR
calibration
Either the word "response" or the word "calibration" or both.
The first word without the
second word in a topic
response NOT
calibration
The word "response" but not the word "calibration".
Both words in the same
topic, close together.
response
NEAR
calibration
The word "response" within eight words of the word
"callibration".
Favorites Tab
The favorites tab allows you to store (bookmark) the topics you refer to most often so that they can be recalled
easily.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click tab to view stored topics in Favorites.
Remove selected topic.
Display selected topic.
Add (store) current topic.
Topic Pane
The Topic pane allows you to view the contents of the selected topic.
280
Help Languages
Beginning with PNA Rev A.08.00, PNA Help is offered in English ONLY.
Glossary
The Glossary holds definitions of words, in alphabetical order.
Note: Click on a word in green text throughout Help to see the glossary definition.
Dialog Boxes
281
About Network Analyzer
To learn the following about the PNA, click Help, then About Network Analyzer:
Model number (see list of PNA models)
Frequency range
Serial number
Installed options
Application Code (firmware) version
Version of hard drive in the analyzer
Documentation Warranty
THE MATERIAL CONTAINED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED "AS IS," AND IS SUBJECT TO BEING
CHANGED, WITHOUT NOTICE, IN FUTURE EDITIONS. FURTHER, TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED
BY APPLICABLE LAW, AGILENT DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WITH
REGARD TO THIS MANUAL AND ANY INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
TO THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
AGILENT SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ERRORS OR FOR INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES IN
CONNECTION WITH THE FURNISHING, USE, OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR ANY
INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN. SHOULD AGILENT AND THE USER HAVE A SEPARATE WRITTEN
AGREEMENT WITH WARRANTY TERMS COVERING THE MATERIAL IN THIS DOCUMENT THAT CONFLICT
WITH THESE TERMS, THE WARRANTY TERMS IN THE SEPARATE AGREEMENT WILL CONTROL.
Suggestions Please!
282
Please let us know about your experience using PNA Help. Send your comments to:
[email protected] Comment about any aspect of the help system. Here are a few areas that you
might consider:
Does anything appear to be broken?
Did you find what you were looking for?
Was the information you found helpful?
Any suggestions as to how we can improve the help system?
Your comments go directly to the help system authors. For help with technical questions, please refer to Technical
Support.
283
Preset the PNA
When you Preset the PNA, it is set to known, or preset conditions. You can use the factory default preset
conditions, or define your own User Preset conditions.
Preset (Default) Conditions
User Preset Conditions
See other 'Setup Measurements' topics
Preset Default Conditions
How to Preset the PNA
Tip: Press the Preset button to start the PNA application if it is not already running.
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press Preset
1. Click System
2. then Preset
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press Preset
1. Click Utility
2. then Preset
Click to view the factory preset conditions.
Frequency Settings
Power Settings
Sweep Settings
Segment Sweep Settings
Trigger Settings
Display Settings
284
Response Settings
Calibration Settings
Marker Settings
Limit Test Settings
Time Domain Settings (Option 010)
Global Display Settings
Frequency Settings:
Measurement Parameter S11
Start Frequency Minimum frequency of the PNA
Stop Frequency Maximum frequency of the PNA
CW Frequency 1 GHz
See the PNA configurations for the minimum and maximum
frequency of your PNA
Power Settings:
Test Port 0 dBm for E8356/7/8A
Power 0 dBm for E8801/2/3A
0 dBm for N3381/2/3A
-5 dBm for N5230A - 20 GHz
-10 dBm for N5230 - 40 GHz
-15 dBm for N5230 - 50 GHz
-12 dBm for E8362/3/4 A or B, standard
-15 dBm for E8361A
-17 dBm for E8362/3/4 A or B with option UNL or
014
Power On
Port Power On
Coupled
Auto On
Attenuation
Attenuator 0 dB
Value
Power Slope Off
Slope Value 0 dB/GHz
285
Sweep Settings:
Type Linear Frequency
Mode Continuous
Generation Analog
Auto Sweep Time On
Number of Points 201
Segment Sweep Settings:
Active Segments 1
Start Frequency PNA start frequency
Stop Frequency 1 MHz for E8356/7/8A
1 MHz for E8801/2/3A
1 MHz for N3381/2/3A
1 GHz for E836xA/B
Number of Points 21
Power PNA preset test port power
IF Bandwidth 50 KHz for N5230A
35 kHz for all other models
Reduce IF BW at ON
Low Frequencies
Dwell Time 0
Trigger Settings
Source Internal
Mode Sweep
Display Settings:
Format Log Mag
These settings apply for formats when selected:
286
Format
Scale
Log Mag
10 dB/
5
0 dB
45 degrees/
5
0 degrees
Group Delay
10 nsec/
5
0s
Linear Mag
100 munits/
0
0 units
SWR
1 unit/
0
1 unit
Real
2 units/
5
0 units
Imaginary
2 units/
5
0 units
Polar
1 unit/
n/a
1 unit
Smith Chart
1 unit/
n/a
1 unit
Phase
Reference Reference
Position
Value
Response Settings:
Channel Number 1
IF Bandwidth 50 KHz for N5230A
35 kHz for all other
models
Averaging Off
Averaging Factor 1
Smoothing Off
Smoothing Factor 1% of span
Electrical Delay 0 s
Velocity Factor 1.0
Phase Offset 0 degrees
Math/Memory Trace View Data
287
Calibration Settings:
Correction State Off
Interpolation State On
Calibration Type None
Cal Kit Number Current Cal Kit Number
System Z0 50 ohms
Port Extensions State Off
Port Ext. Values 0
Input A, B
Port 1, 2
Marker Settings:
Initial Frequency Current Center Frequency
Reference None
Interpolation On
Format Trace Default
Type Normal
Function Max Value
Domain Full Span
Table Empty
Coupling Always uncoupled
Limit Test Settings:
Limit Testing Off
Line Display ON
Sound on Fail Off
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Limit List Settings:
Type (OFF, MAX, OFF
MIN)
Begin Stimulus 0
End Stimulus 0
Begin Response 0
End Response 0
Time Domain Settings:
Transform State Off
Transform Mode Band Pass
Transform Start -10 ns
Transform Stop 10 ns
Window 6.0 (Kaiser-Bessel factor)
Gating State Off
Gating Start -10 ns
Gating Stop 10 ns
Gate Type Band Pass
Gate Shape Normal
Global Display Settings:
Trace Status On
Frequency/ Stimulus Off
Marker Readout On (when a marker is activated)
Toolbars Shown Active Entry
Status Bar State ON
User Preset Conditions
The analyzer can be preset to either factory default conditions or User Preset conditions.
289
How to set User Preset
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click System
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then User Preset
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press SAVE
1. Click Utility
2. then [User Preset]
2. then User Preset
User Preset dialog box help
With a User Preset saved and enabled, when the PNA is Preset, the User Preset settings are recalled instead
of the factory default settings. Calibration data is NOT recalled with a User Preset. Learn more about
instrument state settings.
User Preset Enable
Check - The PNA is preset to User Preset conditions when the Preset button is pressed.
Clear - The PNA is preset to Default conditions when the Preset button is pressed.
Save current state as User Preset Click to store the current instrument state as the User Preset conditions.
File is stored as C:/ Program Files/ Agilent/ Network Analyzer/ Documents/ UserPreset.sta.
Load existing file as User Preset Click to retrieve an instrument state to be used as the User Preset
conditions.
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Last modified:
9/27/06
MX Added UI
9/12/06
Added link to programming commands
291
Measurement Parameters
This topic contains the following information:
S-Parameters (pre-selected ratios)
Ratioed (choose your own ratio)
Unratioed Power (absolute power)
How to Select a Measurement Parameter
Learn about Balanced Measurements
See other 'Setup Measurements' topics
S-Parameters
S-parameters (scattering parameters) are used to describe the way a device modifies a signal. For a 2-port device,
there are four S-Parameters. The syntax for each parameter is described by the following:
S out - in
out = PNA port number where the device signal output is measured (receiver)
in = PNA port number where the signal is applied (incident) to the device (source)
Move the mouse over each S-parameter to see the signal flow:
For two-port devices:
When the source goes into port 1, the measurement is said to be in the forward direction.
292
When the source goes into port 2, the measurement is said to be in the reverse direction.
The analyzer automatically switches the source and receiver to make a forward or reverse measurement.
Therefore, the analyzer can measure all four S-parameters for a two-port device with a single connection.
See the block diagram (including receivers) of your PNA.
Common Measurements with S-Parameters
Reflection Measurements
(S11 and S22)
Transmission Measurements
(S21 and S12)
Return loss
Insertion loss
Standing wave ratio (SWR)
Transmission coefficient
Reflection coefficient
Gain/Loss
Impedance
Group delay
S11, S22
Deviation from linear phase
Electrical delay
S21, S12
Receiver Measurements
A 2-port PNA typically has four receivers: A, B, R1, and R2.
Your PNA may not have 2 reference and 2 test port receivers. See the block diagram of your PNA.
R1 and R2 are reference receivers. They measure the PNA source signal as it leaves the PNA and is
incident on the DUT.
R1 measures the signal out of Port 1
R2 measures the signal out of Port 2.
A and B are test port receivers. They measure the signal out (or reflecting off ) of the DUT.
A measures the signal into PNA Port 1
B measures the signal into PNA Port 2
You can specify measurements using one or two of the available receivers.
Note: Beginning with PNA Rev. 7.22, you can use the internal ADC (Analog-Digital Converters) as measurement
receivers. Learn more.
Ratioed Measurements
Ratioed measurements allow you to choose your own ratio of any two receivers that are available in your PNA. Sparameters are actually predefined ratio measurements. For example S11 is A/R1.
The following are common uses of ratioed measurements:
293
Comparing the phase between two paths of a device. An example could be something simple like a power
splitter or more complicated like a dual-channel receiver.
Measurements that require a higher dynamic range than the analyzer provides with S-parameters.
Your PNA MAY have front-panel jumper cables that go directly to measurement receivers. Learn about the frontpanel jumpers on your PNA.
Unratioed (Absolute Power) Measurements
The unratioed power parameter allows you to look at the absolute power going into any of the measurement
receivers that are available on your PNA.
The reference receivers are internally configured to measure the source power for a specific PNA port. Performing
an absolute power measurement of a reference receiver using a different source port will measure very little power
unless the front panel jumpers are removed and signal is applied directly to the receiver. An example of this would
be an R1 measurement using port 2 as the source.
Measuring phase using a single receiver yields meaningless data. Phase measurements must be a
comparison of two signals.
Averaging for Unratioed parameters is computed differently from ratioed parameters.
How to create a NEW trace
PNA-X
The only measurements that can be created are those in the same measurement class as is currently
assigned to the active channel. To create a measurement other than these, first assign the appropriate
measurement class to a new or existing channel. Learn how.
After that is done...
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press TRACE
1. Click Trace
2. then [Active Entry keys]
2. then New Trace
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press TRACE 1, 2, 3, OR 4
1. Click Trace/Chan
2. then New Trace
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1.
1.
2.
How to CHANGE the active trace
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press MEASURE
1. Click Trace
2. then [Active Entry keys]
2. then Measure
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press MEAS
1. Click Response
2. then Measure
E836x and PNA-L models:
Click a tab to select the TYPE of measurement:
The tabs are populated ONLY with measurements and receivers that are available for your PNA configuration.
S-Parameters
Balanced
Different measurements are available depending on the
selected topology.
295
Receivers
Ratioed
Unratioed
The internal ADCs (Analog-Digital Converters) can be
used as measurement receivers. Learn more.
Learn about new logical receiver notation.
Gain Compression
Noise Figure
Channel / Window Selections
New / Change Measurement dialog box help
Note: The only measurements that are available are those in the measurement class currently assigned to
the active channel. Other measurements are NOT compatible.
To create a measurement other than these, first assign the appropriate measurement class to a new or
existing channel. Learn how.
Click a tab to create or change measurements.
When creating NEW measurements, you can choose more than one.
When changing an EXISTING measurement, you can choose ONLY one.
Tabs
S-Parameter Select a predefined ratioed measurements. Learn more about S-parameters.
Balanced Select a balanced measurement type. (Multiport PNAs ONLY)
Change Click to invoke the Balanced DUT Topology / Logical Port mappings dialog box. Learn more
about Balanced Measurements.
Receivers Select receivers to make Ratioed and Unratioed (absolute power) measurements. Learn more
about receiver measurements.
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Logical Receiver Notation
With PNA Rev 6.2, Ratioed and Unratioed measurements can also use logical receiver notation to refer
to receivers. This notation makes it easy to refer to receivers with an External Test Set connected to the
PNA. You do not need to know which physical receiver is used for each test port.
aN - Reference receiver for logical port N
bN - Test port receiver for logical port N
For example:
Ratioed: "b12/a1" refers to the logical test port 12 receiver / the logical port 1 reference receiver.
Unratioed: "b10" refers to the logical test port 10 receiver.
The old style notation (A, B, R1 and so forth) can still be used to refer to the PNA physical receivers.
However, ratioed measurements MUST use the same notation to refer to both receivers; either the physical
receiver notation (A, R1) or the logical receiver notation (aN, bN). For example, the following mixed notation
is NOT allowed: A/b3 and a5/R2.
Programming
When entering receiver letters using programming commands, neither logical or physical receiver notation
are case sensitive.
Ratioed Check Activate to create or change a measurement. Select a receiver for the Numerator, select
another receiver for the Denominator, then select a source port for the measurement.
The Source port is ALWAYS interpreted as a logical port number.
For convenience, the table is populated with common choices.
Learn about External Test Sets and Ratioed Measurements
Learn more about Ratioed Measurements.
Unratioed Same as Ratioed, but select 1 as the Denominator.
Learn More about Unratioed Measurements.
See the block diagram of receivers in YOUR PNA.
The internal ADCs (Analog-Digital Converters) can be used as measurement receivers. Learn more.
Channel / Window Selections
These selections are NOT AVAILABLE when changing an EXISTING measurement. Learn how to change a
measurement.
297
Channel Number Select the channel for the new traces.
Create in New Window
Check to create new traces in a new window.
Clear to create new traces in the active window. When the PNA traces per window limitation has been
reached, no more traces are added.
Auto-Create Windows Check to create new traces in as many windows as necessary. See PNA number of
windows limitation.
About Measurement Parameters (top of page)
Balanced DUT Topology / Logical Port mappings dialog box help
New Check out the True Mode Stimulus Application being offered at www.agilent.com/find/balanced.
Create or edit DUT Topology and Logical Port Mapping.
A Logical Port is a term used to describe a physical PNA test port that has been remapped to a new port
number.
Any Two physical PNA ports are mapped to One Balanced Logical port
Any One PNA physical port is mapped to One Single-Ended Logical port
Note: These selections apply to ALL measurements in the channel. If the device topology is changed, any
existing measurements in the channel that are incompatible with the new topology will be automatically
changed to one that is compatible.
Topology: Describes your DUT as you would like it tested. The following device topologies can be measured
by a multiport PNA.
Balanced / Balanced
(2 logical ports - <4 actual ports>)
Single-ended / Balanced
(2 logical ports - <3 actual ports>)
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Single-ended - Single-ended / Balanced
(3 logical ports - <4 actual ports>)
These topologies can be used in the reverse (<==) direction to measure:
Balanced / Single-ended topology
Balanced / Single-ended - Single-ended topology
For example, to measure a Balanced / Single-ended topology, measure the S12 (reverse direction) of a
Single-ended / Balanced topology.
Learn about Logical Port mapping when using an External Test Set.
Learn more about Balanced Measurements
Last modified:
10/11/06
Added new UI
9/19/06
MQ Added logical receiver notation and Multiport meas toolbar.
9/12/06
Added link to programming commands
299
Measurement Classes
Measurement Classes are categories of measurements that can coexist on a channel.
What are Measurement Classes
How to assign a Measurement Class to a Channel
Measurement Class Dialog Box Help
See other 'Setup Measurements' topics
What are Measurement Classes
The following table shows the three Measurement Classes currently available for the PNA. Within each of these
classes there are a number of measurements.
Measurement Class
Examples of Measurements
Standard S-Parameters
S11, S22, R, A/R1
Scalar Mixer Measurements
SC21, S11, RevOPwr
Vector Mixer Measurements
VC21, S11, B
Measurement Classes are categories of measurements that can coexist on a channel. A measurement from one
class can NOT reside in a channel with a measurement from another class. For example, a VC21 measurement
can NOT reside in a channel that is currently hosting Scalar Mixer Measurements.
The Measurement Class dialog is accessed in the following ways:
How to assign a Measurement Class to a Channel
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Not Available
1. Not Available
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press MEAS
1. Click Trace/Chan
2. then [Measurement Class]
2. then Measurement Class
300
Measurement Class dialog box help
Measurements in a measurement class can NOT coexist in a channel with a measurement of a different
measurement class. Select a measurement class for the active measurement channel.
Title Bar Indicates the active channel to which the measurement class will be assigned.
Measurement Class Choose the measurement class.
Note: The list of measurements is provided for display only. If you choose to create the measurement class in a
new channel, a default measurement (usually S11) will be created. To change the measurement, click Trace,
then select a new measurement.
Next Click to invoke the following dialog. NOT available when the selected measurement class is the same as
the active channel.
Choose to do the following:
OK - Delete the existing measurements in the active channel. Create the new measurement class, and
default measurement, in that channel.
Cancel - Do not create the new measurement class. Leave the old measurements (and class) in that
channel and return to the Measurement Class dialog box.
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Last Modified:
18-Jun-2007
MX New topic
302
Frequency Range
Frequency range is the span of frequencies you specify for making a device measurement.
How to Set Frequency Range
Zoom
CW Frequencies
Frequency Resolution
Frequency Band Crossings
See other 'Setup Measurements' topics
How to set Frequency Range
There are two ways to set the frequency range:
A. Specify the Start and Stop frequencies of the range.
B. Specify the Center frequency and desired Span of the range.
See the frequency ranges of all PNA models
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press START/STOP
or CENTER/SPAN
1. Click Channel
2. then Start/Stop
or Center/Span
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press FREQUENCY
1. Click Stimulus
2. then Frequency
303
Frequency Start/Stop dialog box help
Start Specifies the beginning frequency of the swept measurement range.
Stop Specifies the end frequency of the swept measurement range.
Frequency Center/Span dialog box help
Center Specifies the value at the center of the frequency sweep. This value can be anywhere in the analyzer
range.
Span Specifies the span of frequency values measured to either side of the center frequency.
Zoom - PNA-X ONLY
Zoom allows you to easily change the start and stop frequencies or start and stop power levels in a power sweep.
Zoom operates on the Active Trace and all traces in the same channel as the active trace, regardless of the
window in which they appear.
304
How to Zoom in a measurement window
1. Left-click the mouse or use a finger, then drag across a portion of a trace.
2. Release the mouse or lift the finger and the following menu appears:
3. Select from the following:
Zoom - changes the channel stimulus settings to the left and right border values of the Zoom selection
Zoom xy - changes the channel stimulus settings as above. In addition, the Y-axis scale of the active trace
changes to the approximate scale of the Zoom selection.
Zoom Full Out - changes the channel stimulus settings to the full span of the current calibration. If no
calibration is ON, then the stimulus settings are changed to the full span of the PNA model.
Notes
The stimulus settings are changed for ALL traces in the active channel, regardless of the window in
which they appear.
If markers are in the selected area, they remain in place.
If markers are in the unselected area, they are moved to the right or left edge of the new span. When
Zoom Full Out is selected, the markers are moved back to their original location.
Zoom is NOT available for the following:
Smith Chart or Polar display formats
CW Time and Segment sweep type
Frequency Offset Measurements
FCA Opt 083 Measurements
CW Frequencies
Measurements with a CW Time sweep or Power sweep are made at a single frequency rather than over a range of
frequencies.
305
How to set CW Frequency
1. Set Sweep Type to CW Time or Power.
You can also set CW frequency from within the Sweep Type dialog box.
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
2. Press START/STOP
or CENTER/SPAN
1. Click Channel
2. then CW Frequency
For PNA-X and 'C' models
2. Press FREQ
2. Click Stimulus
3. then [CW]
3. then Frequency
4. then CW Frequency
CW Frequency dialog box help
CW Type a value and the first letter of the suffix (k,m,or g) or use the up and down arrows to select any
value within the range of the PNA.
Frequency Resolution
The resolution for setting frequency is 1 Hz.
Frequency Band Crossings
The frequency range of the PNA covers several internal frequency bands. The higher the frequency range of the
306
PNA, the larger the number of bands. The source power to your DUT turns off as the stimulus frequency is swept
through these band crossings. To learn more, see Power ON and OFF during Sweep and Retrace.
The listed frequencies in the following tables are the stop frequency of the specified band, and the start frequency
of the following band.
Frequency band crossings are different for the following models:
3 GHz, 6 GHz, and 9 GHz Models
E8362A/B, E8363A/B, E8364A/B
E8361A
N5230A (2-port models)
N5230A (4-port models)
N5242A
For 3 GHz, 6 GHz, and 9 GHz (discontinued) PNA models:
Band
Frequency
1
10 MHz
2
748 MHz
3
1500 MHz
4
3000 MHz
5
4500 MHz
6
6500 MHz
For E8362 / 63 / 64 A/B
(A models do not have band 0)
307
Band
Freq (GHz)
Band
Freq (GHz)
Band
Freq (GHz)
.045
0
1
0.748
9
7.60
17
25.60
2
1.500
10
10.00
18
30.00
3
3.00
11
12.00
19
32.00
4
3.80
12
12.8
20
36.00
5
4.50
13
15.20
21
38.40
6
4.80
14
16.00
22
40.00
7
6.00
15
20.00
23
45.60
8
6.40
16
22.80
24
48.00
For E8361A
Band
Freq (GHz)
.045
0
Band
Freq (GHz)
Band
Freq (GHz)
9
10.00
18
32.00
1
0.748
10
12.00
19
36.00
2
1.500
11
12.80
20
40.00
3
3.00
12
15.40
21
44.70
4
3.80
13
16.00
22
46.20
5
4.00
14
20.00
23
51.20
6
4.50
15
24.00
24
60.00
7
6.00
16
25.60
25
64.00
8
7.70
17
30.00
For N5230A 2-port models
308
Band
Freq (GHz)
Band
Freq (GHz)
Band
Freq (GHz)
1
.045
11
10.500
21
28.600
2
.748
12
12.500
22
31.250
3
1.5
13
15.750
23
31.500
4
3.125
14
16.667
24
33.333
5
4.167
15
18.750
25
37.000
6
5.250
16
21.000
26
40.500
7
6.250
17
22.500
27
41.667
8
7.875
18
25.000
28
42.000
9
8.333
19
26.250
29
46.800
10
9.375
20
26.500
30
For N5230A 4-port models
Band
Freq (GHz)
0
.00112
1
Band
Freq (GHz)
9
8.333
0.010
10
9.800
2
0.040
11
10.500
3
0.748
12
12.500
4
1.500
13
15.000
5
3.125
14
15.750
6
4.166
15
16.666
7
5.250
16
18.750
8
6.250
17
20.100
For N5242A
309
Band
Freq (GHz)
Band
Freq (GHz)
Band
Freq (GHz)
0
Reserved
12
.396
24
8.50
1
Reserved
13
.500
25
10.664
2
.014
14
.628
26
12.00
3
.019
15
1.00
27
12.80
4
.027
16
1.50
28
13.51
5
.038
17
2.00
29
15.40
6
.053
18
3.00
30
16.00
7
.075
19
3.20
31
18.00
8
.105
20
4.00
32
20.00
9
.146
21
5.32
33
21.328
10
.205
22
6.75
34
22.50
11
.250
23
8.00
35
24.00
Last modified:
10/23/06
MX Added new band crossings
10/16/06
Moved phase lock lost indicator
9/12/06
Added link to programming commands
9/27/06
MX Added UI
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Power Level
Power level is the power of the PNA source at the test ports.
How to make Power Settings
Power Dialog Help
Power and Attenuation Dialog Help
Source Unleveled
Setting Independent Port Power
Optimum Attenuation Value
Receiver Attenuation
Power ON and OFF during Sweep and Retrace
See other 'Setup Measurements' topics
Power Settings
The test port output power is specified over frequency ( See the Power Range and Frequency Range specifications
for your PNA)
How to make Power settings
Use one of the following methods to set port power. Only the menu can be used to launch the Power and
Attenuators dialog box.
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Click Channel
1.
2. then Power
2. then
For PNA-X and 'C' models
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1. Press STIMULUS
1. Click Stimulus
2. then [Power] or [Power and Attenuators]
2. then Power or Power and Attenuators
Power dialog box help
Defines and controls the PNA source power and attenuation.
Power On (All Channels) Check to enable source power for all channels. Only turns power ON if channel
power setting is ON or Auto. See Advanced Power.
Note: Power ON/OFF setting and Instrument State Save and Recall.
If power is OFF when an instrument state is saved, the power will be OFF when the state is recalled.
If power is ON when an instrument state is saved, then when recalled, the power setting will be the SAME
as the current power setting. To protect your DUT, power will NOT be turned ON by an instrument state
recall if the current power setting is OFF.
User Preset follows this instrument state save/recall behavior.
Instrument Preset always includes Power ON.
Port 'n' Active source port for which power is being set.
Port Power Sets the power level for the specified port.
To accurately set the power level at any point after the test port, perform a Source Power Calibration.
See the specified power range of your PNA model.
Power Sweep
Start / Stop Power Set the start and stop power values of a power sweep. These settings are only available
when Sweep Type is set to Power Sweep. Sweep power can also be set from the Advanced Power dialog
box.
312
Zoom - allows you to easily change the start and stop power levels in a power sweep. Learn how.
Learn more about Power Sweep.
Power Slope
Helps compensate for cable and test fixture power losses at increased frequency.
Slope Select to set the power slope. Clear to set power slope OFF.
With power slope enabled, the port output power increases (or decreases) as the sweep frequency
increases.
The units of power slope are dB/GHz.
Power slope can only be set to values of 0.5, 1, 1.5, or 2 (positive or negative).
Power and Attenuators dialog box help
Defines and controls the PNA source power and attenuation for the active channel.
Beginning with PNA Rev. 7.21, external sources can be controlled from this dialog. Learn more.
Power On (All Channels) Check to enable source power for all channels. Only turns power ON if channel
power setting is ON or Auto.
Port Powers Coupled
Coupled (checked) The power levels are the same at each test port. Set power at any test port and all
test ports change to the same power level.
Uncoupled (cleared) The power levels are set independently for each test port. Uncouple power, for
example, if you want to measure the gain and reverse-isolation of a high-gain amplifier. The power
required for the input port of the amplifier is much lower than the power required for the output port.
Learn more about Setting Independent Port Power
Name Lists the PNA test ports.
State ON and OFF are valid ONLY on PNA models with an internal second source.
313
Auto Source power is turned ON at the specified test port when required by the measurement. This is
the most common (default) setting.
ON Source power is ALWAYS ON, regardless of measurements that are in process. Use this setting to
supply source power to a DUT port that always requires power, such as an LO port. This could turn OFF
power at another test port. Learn about internal second source restrictions.
OFF Source power is never ON, regardless of the measurement requirements. Use this setting to
prevent damage to a sensitive DUT test port.
Port Power Sets the power level at the output of the source.
To accurately set the power level at any point after the test port, perform a Source Power Calibration.
See the specified power range of your PNA model.
Start / Stop Power Available ONLY when sweep type is set to Power Sweep. Set the start and stop power
values of a power sweep. Learn more about Power Sweep.
In PNA release 6.04 you can specify whether to maintain source power at either the start power or stop
power level at the end of a power sweep. To do this, send SYST:PREF:ITEM:PSRT from the GPIB
Command Processor Console.
Auto Range Check to allow the PNA to select the optimum attenuation value to achieve the specified test
port power.
Clear to manually set the attenuation for each port. Type or select the attenuation value in the adjacent
Attenuator Control box.
Attenuator Control When Port Powers are Uncoupled, manual attenuator control allows you to set a wide
range of power levels by setting the attenuation. See Setting Independent Port Power. Also use manual
attenuation control when a measurement requires a very good impedance match with the source, such as
with oscillators or conditionally unstable amplifiers. Choose an attenuation level of 10 dB or more to ensure
the best source match.
When Port Powers are Coupled, changing one port Attenuation Control value changes all port values.
Attenuation is in between the Source and the test port. Power to the reference receiver is not attenuated and
is therefore higher than at the test port by the amount of attenuation. This will make an uncalibrated
measurement using a reference receiver appear as though there is added attenuation at the test device. See
the PNA Block diagram.
Note: With PNA release 7.2, a preference can be set to mathematically offset (or NOT) the power at the
reference receiver by the amount of source attenuation. Because the reference receiver is not in the
attenuation path, there is more power at the reference receiver than at the test port by the amount of source
attenuation.
By default, ALL PNA models currently offset the reference receivers. See Block diagram.
See the SCPI and COM commands used to set the preference.
Leveling Mode
Internal Standard ALC leveling. Power level within an attenuator setting is limited to the ALC Range. See
Source Unleveled.
Open Loop (Used during pulse conditions with the internal source modulators). No leveling is used in setting
314
the source power. The lowest settable power, without attenuation, is limited to -30dBm. The source power
level accuracy is very compromised. Use a source power calibration to make the source power somewhat
more accurate.
Source Unleveled
When the power level that is required at a test port is higher than the PNA can supply, a Source Unleveled error
message appears on the screen and the letters LVL appear on the status bar.
To perform a power sweep, the range of power is usually limited to the range of the Automatic Leveling Control
(ALC) loop. (The PNA-X allows a very wide power range using Open Loop).
PNA specifications guarantee the ALC power range over which the PNA can supply power without an unleveled
indication. However, the actual achievable power range on your PNA is probably greater than the specified range.
How to calculate the specified achievable power range
From the specifications for the N5230A Opt 245 for the frequency span from 15 GHz to 20 GHz:
Max Leveled Power = -8 dBm
Power Sweep Range (ALC) = -17 dB
For this frequency range the specified power range is calculated as:
Max = -8 dBm
Min = (-8)-(17) = -25 dBm
When using Source Attenuators:
with 10dB of attenuation, this becomes -18 dBm to -35 dBm
with 20dB of attenuation, this becomes -28 dBm to -45 dBm, and so forth.
See the output power specs for your PNA.
To resolve an unleveled condition, change either the Test Port Power or Attenuator setting. If an Unleveled
condition exists within the specified power range, contact Technical Support.
Setting Independent Port Power
The PNA allows you to uncouple port power and specify different power levels at each test port. There are a few
things to consider when setting independent port powers.
Does your required high and low power levels fall within the specified Min and Max power range of the PNA?
See Unleveled Indicator. If they do not, you may need to use the internal Source Attenuators.
Does the PNA have source attenuators? If so, how many source attenuators? Some PNA models have one
attenuator for each port. In most multiport PNA systems, the attenuators are shared by at least two test ports.
See PNA Options to see the availability and range of source attenuation on your PNA.
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Note: To prevent premature wear on source and receiver attenuators, the PNA does not allow attenuators (or
other mechanical switches) to switch between settings when continuously triggering. Attenuator values are set
for the entire channel.
When different channels are used and settings require an attenuator to switch value, only one channel is
allowed to sweep continuously. All other channels are automatically put in Trigger Hold.
To override this condition, change the 'Hold' channel to Single trigger or Group trigger, which allows up to 2
million triggers. The attenuator will then be allowed to switch settings for each channel.
Optimum Attenuation Value
The attenuator has different positions, allowing a wide range of power levels. The number of power ranges
available is determined by the source attenuation installed in your PNA. See PNA Options to see the availability
and range of source attenuation on your PNA.
Each range has a total specified span ( 25 dB in the following Attenuation Values graphic ).
The optimum setting is the middle of the range. This range provides the best accuracy and performance of
the source leveling system. The optimum ranges are the blue regions in the following graphic.
An attenuator setting can be selected manually or automatically. If automatic is selected, the blue optimum
ranges (shown in the following graphic) are used.
(Attenuator ranges vary, this particular range is 70 dB)
Note: Error correction is fully accurate only for the power level at which a measurement calibration was performed.
However, when changing power within the same attenuator range at which the measurement calibration was
316
performed, ratioed measurements can be made with nearly full accuracy (non-ratioed measurements with less
accuracy).
Receiver Attenuators dialog box help
Type or select independent attenuation values for each receiver.
Receiver Attenuation, available as option 016 on some PNA models, is used to attenuate the output signal from
the device under test to avoid damaging the PNA receivers. The PNA receivers typically start to compress at
around +10 dBm. This causes the power level at the receiver to be less than the power at the test port by the
specified amount of attenuation.
Note: With PNA release 7.2, a preference can be set to mathematically offset (or NOT) the displayed trace
by the amount of receiver attenuation. This causes the display to show the power at the test port.
By default:
PNA-L and E836xB do NOT offset the display.
The PNA-X DOES offset the display.
See the SCPI and COM commands used to set the preference.
When an external test set is connected, Receiver Attenuation control is only available for the physical receivers
in the PNA. Switching receiver attenuation using logical receiver notation is NOT allowed.
CAUTION! You can damage the analyzer receivers if the power levels exceed the maximum values. See your
analyzer's Technical Specifications for the maximum input power to a receiver.
The receiver attenuator characteristics are:
Range:
0 to 50 dB (E8361A only)
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0 to 35 dB (all other applicable PNA models)
Resolution:
10 dB (E8361A only)
5 dB (all other applicable PNA models)
Power ON and OFF during Sweep and Retrace
The frequency range of the PNA covers several internal frequency bands. The higher the frequency range of the
PNA, the larger the number of bands. For example, a 9 GHz PNA has 6 frequency bands, a 50 GHz PNA has 25
frequency bands. See the frequency band crossings.
Power to the DUT is turned OFF during band changes to avoid causing power spikes to the DUT.
Retrace occurs when the source gets to the end of your selected frequency span and moves back to the start
frequency. Power to the DUT is again turned OFF when retracing across frequency bands.
Therefore, the following occurs for various stimulus settings:
1. Single band sweep - The power to the DUT is always ON, even during retrace.
In PNA release 6.04, a preference setting can turn power OFF during a retrace. Only available in single band
frequency and segment sweeps.
2. Multi-band sweep - The power to the DUT is turned OFF while sweeping across a band crossing. It is
turned OFF again during retrace.
3. Power sweep - Because power sweep is always done at a single frequency, the frequency is always within a
single band and the source power is always ON. At the end of a power sweep, power is immediately set to
the start power.
In PNA release 6.04, this behavior can be changed with a preference setting.
4. Single sweep:
Manual trigger mode - At the end of a multiband sweep, power is turned OFF during retrace, and then
power is turned back ON before arming for the next trigger.
Hold mode - Power can be ON or OFF depending on when and how Hold mode is entered. However,
power can be immediately turned OFF manually or remotely.
Caution: Avoid expensive repairs to your PNA. Read Electrostatic Discharge Protection.
Last modified:
318
26-Mar-2007
Clarified retrace power OFF
11/16/06
Added new retrace features
10/23/06
Modified for new power diag
10/17/06
Clarified leveling
9/12/06
Added link to programming commands
319
Sweep Settings
A sweep is a series of consecutive data point measurements taken over a specified sequence of stimulus values.
You can make the following sweep settings:
Sweep Type
Sweep Time
Sweep Setup
See Triggering and other 'Setup Measurements' topics
How to set Sweep Type
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press SWEEP TYPE
1. Click Sweep Type
2. then [Active Entry keys]
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press SWEEP
1. Click Stimulus
2. then [Sweep Type]
2. then Sweep
3. then Sweep Type
Sweep Type dialog box help
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Note: Sweep Settings are not applied until either OK or Apply is pressed.
Channel The active channel when Sweep Type was selected. Sweep settings will be applied to this channel.
Sweep Type
Linear Frequency Sets a linear frequency sweep that is displayed on a standard grid with ten equal horizontal
divisions.
Start Sets the beginning value of the frequency sweep.
Stop Sets the end value of the frequency sweep.
Points Sets the number of data points that the PNA measures during a sweep. Range: 2 to
20001.(Default is 201).
Log Frequency The source is stepped in logarithmic increments and the data is displayed on a logarithmic xaxis. This is usually slower than a continuous sweep with the same number of points.
Start Sets the beginning value of the frequency sweep.
Stop Sets the end value of the frequency sweep.
Points Sets the number of data points that the PNA measures during a sweep. Range: 2 to 20001.
(Default is 201).
Power Sweep Activates a power sweep at a single frequency that you specify. Learn about power sweep
Start Sets the beginning value of the power sweep.
Stop Sets the end value of the power sweep.
CW Frequency Sets the single frequency where the PNA remains during the measurement sweep.
CW Time Sets the PNA to a single frequency, and the data is displayed versus time.
CW Frequency Sets the frequency where the PNA remains during the measurement.
Sweep Time Sets the duration of the measurement, which is displayed on the X-axis.
Points Sets the number of data points that the PNA measures during a sweep. Range: 2 to
20001.(Default is 201).
Segment Sweep Sets the PNA to sweep through user-defined sweep segments. Learn how to make these
settings.
Independent Power Levels Check to set the source power level for each segment. Test port uncoupling
is also allowed.
Independent IF Bandwidth Check to set the IF bandwidth for each segment.
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Independent Sweep Time Check to set the duration of the measurement for each segment.
X-Axis Point Spacing Check to scale the X-Axis to include only the segments. Learn more.
Allow Arbitrary Segments Check to allow arbitrary frequencies (overlapped or reverse sweeps). Learn
more
Show Table Shows the table that allows you to create and edit segments.
Hide Table Hides the segment table from the screen.
OK Applies setting changes and closes the dialog box.
Apply Applies setting changes and leaves the dialog box open to make more setting changes.
Cancel Closes the dialog. Setting changes that have been made since the last Apply button click are NOT
applied.
Power Sweep
A power sweep either increases or decreases source power in discrete steps. Power sweep is used to characterize
power-sensitive circuits, with measurements such as gain compression or AGC (automatic gain control) slope.
In the Sweep Type dialog, specify Start power, Stop power, and CW Frequency. Power can be swept over any
attainable range within the PNA ALC range.
Note: If the PNA has source attenuators, and the attenuation must be changed in order to achieve the requested
start and stop power, click Channel, then Power to set the power and attenuation.
The PNA does NOT allow a single power sweep over a range that requires attenuator switching. However, two
power sweeps can be performed in different channels. The attenuators will not be allowed to switch continuously,
but triggering can be performed using single or group triggering. Learn more.
The remaining power settings apply in power sweep mode:
Port Power is always coupled.
Test Port Power setting is ignored.
Attenuator Control is always Manual.
Power Slope (dB/GHz) is ignored. The output frequency is CW.
Click Sweep, then Number of Points to change the step size of the power sweep.
Beginning with PNA release 6.04 you can specify whether to maintain source power at either the start power or
stop power level at the end of a power sweep. To do this, send SYST:PREF:ITEM:PSRT from the GPIB Command
Processor Console.
Segment Sweep
Segment Sweep activates a sweep which consists of frequency sub-sweeps, called segments. For each segment
you can define independent power levels, IF bandwidth, and sweep time.
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Once a measurement calibration is performed on the entire sweep or across all segments, you can make calibrated
measurements for one or more segments.
In segment sweep type, the analyzer does the following:
Sorts all the defined segments in order of increasing frequency
Measures each point
Displays a single trace that is a composite of all data taken
Restrictions for segment sweep:
The frequency range of a segment is not allowed to overlap the frequency range of any other segment.
The number of segments is limited only by the combined number of data points for all segments in a sweep.
The combined number of data points for all segments in a sweep cannot exceed 20001.
All segments are FORCED to have power levels within the same attenuator range to avoid premature wear of
the mechanical step attenuator. See Power Level.
How to make segment sweep settings
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press SWEEP TYPE
1. Click Sweep
2. then [Active Entry keys]
2. then Segment Table
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press SWEEP
1. Click Stimulus
2. then [Sweep Type]
2. then Sweep
3. then Sweep Type
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Insert Segment - adds a sweep segment before the selected segment. You can also click the "down" arrow
on your keyboard to quickly add many segments.
Delete Segment - removes the selected segment.
Delete All Segments - removes all segments.
Note: At least ONE segment must be ON or Sweep Type is automatically set to Linear.
To Modify an Existing Segment
To make the following menu settings available, you must first show the segment table.
Click View, point to Tables, then click Segment Table.
The above graphic shows the Segment table with all independent settings selected, including source power
uncoupled (two power settings).
STATE Click the box on the segment to be modified. Then use the up / down arrow to turn the segment ON or
OFF.
START Sets start frequency for the segment. Click the box and type a value and the first letter of a suffix (KHz,
Mhz, GHz). Or double-click the box to select a value.
STOP Sets stop frequency for the segment. Click the box and type a value and the first letter of a suffix (KHz,
Mhz, GHz). Or double-click the box to select a value.
POINTS Sets number of data points for this segment. Type a value or double-click the box to select a value.
To set IFBW, Power, and Sweep Time independently for each segment:
1. On the Sweep menu, click Sweep Type, then Segment Sweep.
2. Check the appropriate Sweep Properties boxes
3. Then click the box and type a value or double-click the box and select a value.
Note: If the following are NOT set, the entire sweep uses the channel IFBW, Power, and Time settings.
IFBW Sets the IF Bandwidth for the segment.
POWER Sets the Power level for the segment. You can also UNCOUPLE the test port power. See Power
Coupling.
TIME Sets the Sweep time for the segment.
X-Axis Point Spacing - Segment Sweep ONLY
This feature affects how a segment trace is drawn on the screen.
How to select X-Axis Point Spacing
On the Sweep Type dialog box, click Segment Sweep
Then check X-Axis Point Spacing
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Without X-axis point spacing, a multi-segment sweep trace can sometimes result in squeezing many
measurement points into a narrow portion of the x-axis.
With X-axis point spacing, the x-axis position of each point is chosen so that all measurement points are
evenly spaced along the x-axis.
For example, given the following two segments:
Without X-Axis Point Spacing
With X-Axis Point Spacing
Arbitrary Segment Sweep
This feature allows arbitrary frequencies to be entered into the segment sweep table. With this capability, segments
can have:
overlapping frequencies.
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the stop frequency less than the start frequency (reverse sweep).
How to enable Arbitrary Segment Sweep
1. On the Sweep Type dialog box, click Segment Sweep
2. Check Allow Arbitrary Segment Sweep
Notes:
Unusual results may occur when using arbitrary sweep segments with markers, display settings, limit lines,
formatting, and some calibration features.
When Allow Arbitrary Segment is checked, X-axis point spacing is automatically turned ON.
Sweep Time
The PNA automatically maintains the fastest sweep time possible with the selected measurement settings.
However, you can increase the sweep time to perform a slower sweep.
How to set Sweep Time
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press SWEEP SETUP
1. Click Sweep
2. then [Active Entry keys]
2. then SweepTime
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press STIMULUS
1. Click Stimulus
2. then [Sweep]
2. then Sweep
3. then [Sweep Time]
3. then Sweep Time
326
Sweep Time dialog box help
Specifies the time the PNA takes to acquire data for a sweep. The maximum sweep time of the PNA is 86400
seconds or 1 day. Learn about other settings that affect sweep speed.
Note: If sweep time accuracy is critical, use ONLY the up and down arrows next to the sweep time entry box to
select a value that has been calculated by the PNA. Do NOT type a sweep time value as it will probably be
rounded up to the closest calculated value. This rounded value will not be updated in the dialog box.
The actual sweep time includes this acquisition time plus some "overhead" time.
The PNA automatically maintains the fastest sweep time possible with the selected measurement
settings. However, you can increase the sweep time using this setting.
Enter 0 seconds to return the analyzer to the fastest possible sweep time.
The Sweep Time setting is applied to the active channel.
The sweep time is per sweep. A full 2-port cal requires two sweeps, both using the specified sweep time.
Learn more.
A Sweep Indicator
appears on the data trace when the Sweep Time is 0.3 seconds or greater, or if
trigger is set to Point Sweep Mode. The indicator is located on the last data point that was measured by
the receiver. If the indicator is stopped (point sweep mode) the source has already stepped to the next
data point.
Sweep Setup
How to make Sweep Setup settings
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press SWEEP SETUP
1. Click Sweep
2. then Sweep Setup
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press STIMULUS
1. Click Stimulus
2. then [Sweep]
2. then Sweep
3. then [Sweep Setup]
3. then Sweep Setup
327
Sweep Setup dialog box help
Channel Specifies the channel that the settings apply to.
Stepped Sweep When checked (Stepped Sweep) the PNA source is tuned, then waits the specified Dwell
time, then takes response data, then tunes the source to the next frequency point. This is slower than Analog
Sweep, but is more accurate when testing electrically-long devices.
When cleared (Analog Sweep) the PNA takes response data AS the source is sweeping. The sweep time is
faster than Stepped, but could cause measurement errors when testing electrically-long devices.
When the dialog checkbox is cleared, the PNA could be in either Analog or Step mode. There is no display
indication of whether the PNA is in Analog or Stepped Sweep. Step mode is automatically selected for a
number of reasons. Here are some of the reasons:
IF Bandwidth is at, or below, 1 kHz.
Source Power Correction is ON unless doing CW measurement.
When more than one source is turned ON (multisource PNA models).
When step mode is a faster way to take the data.
For all FOM and FCA measurements.
For all ADC measurements.
For all MMwave measurements.
Dwell Time Specifies the time the source stays at each measurement point before the analyzer takes the data.
Only applies to stepped sweep. The maximum dwell time is 100 seconds. See also Electrically Long Devices.
Alternate Sweeps When checked, the PNA measures only one receiver per sweep.
When cleared, the PNA measures both the A and B receivers (if used) each sweep. See also Crosstalk.
External ALC Available ONLY on 3 GHz, 6 GHz, and 9 GHz PNA models (now discontinued).
When checked, the analyzer is enabled to receive an external signal that you provide for leveling the source
output. The external ALC signal input connector is the External Detector Input on the rear panel.
Last modified:
328
21-Jun-2007
3-May-2007
Increased max data points
Updated Step mode conditions
9/27/06
MX Added UI
9/12/06
Added link to programming commands
329
Trigger
A trigger is a signal that causes the PNA to make a measurement sweep. The PNA offers great flexibility in
configuring the trigger function.
View the interactive Trigger Model animation to see how triggering works in the PNA.
How to Set Trigger
Source
Scope
Channel Settings
Restart
External and Auxiliary Triggering (separate topic)
See other 'Setup Measurements' topics
How to set Triggering
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press TRIGGER
1. Click Sweep
2. then Trigger
3. then Trigger
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press TRIGGER
1. Click Stimulus
2. then [Trigger...]
2. then Trigger
3. then Trigger
Note: The Continuous, Single, and Hold settings apply ONLY to the active channel. These settings are available
from the Trigger menu, Active Entry keys, and softkeys
330
Trigger Setup dialog box help
View the interactive Trigger Model animation to see how triggering works in the PNA.
Trigger Source
These settings determine where the trigger signals originate for all existing channels. A valid trigger signal
can be generated only when the PNA is not sweeping.
Internal Continuous trigger signals are sent by the PNA as soon as the previous measurement is complete.
Manual One trigger signal is sent when invoked by the Trigger button, the active toolbar, or a programming
command.
External Trigger signals sent out or received from various connectors on the rear panel. Learn more about
External and AUX Triggering.
Manual Trigger! - Manually sends one trigger signal to the PNA. Available ONLY when Manual trigger is
selected.
Trigger Scope
These settings determine what is triggered.
Global All channels not in Hold receive the trigger signal [Default setting]
Channel Only the next channel that is not in Hold receives the trigger signal. This is not obvious or useful
unless Trigger Source is set to Manual. This setting enables Point Sweep mode.
Channel Trigger State
These settings determine how many trigger signals the channel will accept.
Continuous The channel accepts an infinite number of trigger signals.
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Groups The channel accepts only the number of trigger signals that is specified in the Number of Groups
text box, then goes into Hold. Before selecting groups you must first increment the Number of Groups text
box to greater than one.
Number of Groups Specify the number of triggers the channel accepts before going into Hold. If in Point
Sweep, an entire sweep is considered one group.
First increment to desired number, then select 'Groups'.
Single The channel accepts ONE trigger signal, then goes into Hold.
Another way to trigger a single measurement is to set Trigger Source to Manual, then send a Manual
trigger. However, ALL channels are single triggered.
Hold The channel accepts NO trigger signals.
Trigger Mode
These settings determine what EACH signal will trigger.
Sweep and Point modes are available ONLY when both Trigger Source = MANUAL or EXTERNAL AND
Trigger Scope = CHANNEL.
Channel Each trigger signal causes ALL traces in that channel to be swept in the order specified below.
Sweep Each Manual or External trigger signal causes ALL traces that share a source port to be swept in
the order specified below. When in Groups or Single trigger, the count is decremented by one after ALL
traces in ALL directions are swept.
When correction is ON which requires sweeps in more than one direction, traces on the screen will not
update until all of the relevant directions have been swept. For example, with all four 2-port S-Parameters
displayed:
When correction is OFF, trigger 1 causes S11 and S21 to update; trigger 2 causes S22 and S12 to
update.
When Full 2-port correction is ON, trigger 1 causes NO traces to update; trigger 2 causes ALL SParameters to update. Learn more about sweeps with correction ON.
Point Each Manual or External trigger signal causes one data point to be measured. Subsequent triggers go
to the same trace until it is complete, then other traces in the same channel are swept in the order specified
below. When in Groups or Single trigger, the count is decremented by one after ALL data points on ALL
traces in the channel are measured. See Also, the (point) Sweep Indicator and SCPI Triggering example for
use with External.
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Trace Sweep Order
For ALL Trigger Modes, traces within each channel are always swept in the following order. Trigger
signals continue in the same channel until all traces in that channel are complete. Triggering then
continues to the next channel that is not in HOLD.
Traces are swept sequentially in source-port order. For example, in a channel with all four 2-port Sparameters, first the source port 1 traces (S11 and S21) are swept simultaneously. Then the
source port 2 traces (S22 and S12) are swept simultaneously.
In addition, when Alternate sweep is selected, traces are swept sequentially in source-port /
receiver-port order. In the above example, first the S11 trace is swept, then S21, then S12, then
S22.
Restart (Available only from the Trigger menu) Channels in Hold are set to single trigger (the channel accepts
a single trigger signal). All other settings are unaffected, including decrementing trigger Groups.
See Also
External and AUX Triggering.
Interactive Trigger Model animation
Last modified:
26-Oct-2007
Added Trigger Mode
15-Dec-2006
Added MX capability
9/12/06
Added link to programming commands
333
External and Auxiliary Triggering
External and Auxiliary triggering are both used to synchronize the triggering of the PNA with other equipment or
events.
Overview
Capability Summary for each PNA Model
Dialogs
Auxiliary Triggering (PNA-X only)
External Trig (IN) Dialog (All models)
I/O2 Trig Out Dialog (PNA-L and E836x)
See Also
Controlling a Handler
Synchronizing an External Source
PNA Triggering
Overview
The manner in which External Triggering is performed has evolved throughout the PNA history, with each new
model becoming more comprehensive and flexible. Unfortunately, our ability to update the older models is limited
as a large part of external triggering is dependent on the PNA hardware. Where possible, we have updated the
capability of the older models with software.
Ready Signals versus Trigger Signals
A 'Ready for Trigger' signal is different from a Trigger signal. The ready signal indicates that the instrument sending
the signal is ready for measurement. The instrument receiving the ready signal would then send a trigger signal,
indicating that the measurement will be made, or has been made. Usually the slower instrument sends the trigger
signal. The following two scenarios illustrate when the PNA is faster, and slower than the external device:
A material handler is very mechanical and takes a relatively long time to load and discharge parts. Therefore,
the PNA sends a 'Ready' signal when it is setup to measure, and the handler sends a trigger signal to the
PNA when it is ready for a measurement. Additional signals are available on the PNA Handler I/O to indicate
that the PNA sweep has ended, and that the handler can setup for the next measurement. See a procedure.
Alternatively, an external source usually sets up for the next measurement much faster than the PNA. This is
because the PNA acquires data, and moves both source and receivers for the next measurement. In this
case, the external source sends a 'Ready' signal. The PNA then begins the measurement and sends a
trigger signal AFTER the measurement has been made. This indicates that the measurement is complete
334
and that the source should setup for the next measurement. See a procedure. Beginning with A.07.22, the
PNA can control an external source from within the firmware. Learn more.
Capability Summary for each PNA Model
The following describes the capabilities and recommended method of triggering for each PNA model.
PNA-X
The PNA-X has the most comprehensive, flexible, and easy to understand of all models in the PNA family. The
following are two reciprocal pairs that can be used to accomplish efficient triggering.
Signal Pair
Rear-Panel Connectors
Control Settings
(click to learn more)
PNA Ready for Trigger
(OUT)
MEAS TRIG RDY and Handler I/O p21
Meas Trigger TAB
Trigger IN to PNA
MEAS TRIG IN and Handler I/O p18
Meas Trigger TAB
Trigger OUT of PNA
AUX TRIG OUT (1&2)
AUX Trig TAB
Ext Device Ready (IN to
PNA)
AUX TRIG IN (1&2)
AUX Trig TAB
PNA-L models
The I/O (TRIG IN) and I/O TRIG OUT) signal pair is the recommended signal pair to synchronize the PNA-L
and external devices. Both signals result in triggering the other instrument; neither of these signals indicate a
'Ready' condition.
Recommended
Rear-Panel Connectors
Control Settings
Trigger IN to PNA
BNC IN
External TAB
Trigger OUT of PNA
BNC OUT
I/O Trig TAB
Other Signals
Rear-Panel Connectors
Control Settings
AUX I/O p18
SCPI and COM Only
Handler I/O p21 (some PNA-L models)
SCPI and COM Only
AUX I/O p19
SCPI and COM Only
Handler I/O p18 (some PNA-L models)
SCPI and COM Only
Signal Pair
PNA Ready for Trigger (OUT)
Trigger IN to PNA
335
Ext Device Ready (IN to PNA)
None
N/A
E836xA/B/C
The I/O (TRIG IN) and I/O TRIG OUT) signal pair is the recommended signal pair to synchronize the E836x and
external devices. Both signals result in triggering the other instrument; neither of these signals indicate a
'Ready' condition.
Recommended
Rear-Panel Connectors
Control Settings
Trigger IN to PNA
BNC IN
External TAB
Trigger OUT of PNA
BNC OUT
I/O Trig Out TAB
Other Signals
Rear-Panel Connectors
Control Settings
PNA Ready for Trigger
(OUT)
AUX I/O p18
SCPI and COM Only
Trigger IN to PNA
AUX I/O p19
SCPI and COM Only
Ext Device Ready (IN to
PNA)
None
N/A
Signal Pair
See how to access the Trigger Dialog
336
Aux Trig 1 - Aux Trig 2 dialog box help
This reciprocal pair of signals on PNA-X models ONLY, offers high flexibility, and robust synchronization with
external devices.
When enabled, the PNA-X waits indefinitely for a 'Ready IN' signal on the AUX IN connector from an
external device.
When received, the PNA is triggered from the usual trigger sources (Internal, External, or Manual).
The trigger output signal on the AUX OUT connector can be sent BEFORE or AFTER data acquisition.
Each channel can be configured differently.
Two pair of AUX TRIG connectors allow two external devices to be controlled simultaneously.
See Also
See how to use these connectors to synchronize with External Sources.
To use the opposite reciprocal pair, see Meas Trig IN and Ready OUT pair.
Dialog Settings
Note: The Aux Trig 1 and Aux Trig 2 tabs are identical.
Enable Check to use the Aux1 or Aux2 connectors to output signals to an external device.
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Channel All settings on this dialog affect the specified channel ONLY.
OUT (Trigger)
After receiving the Aux Trig IN 'Ready' signal, the trigger signal comes from any of the following Trigger
Sources:
Internal - trigger occurs immediately.
Manual - trigger occurs when the Trigger button is pressed.
External - trigger occurs when Meas Trig In signal is received. This must be configured independently.
The following settings control the properties of the signals sent out the rear panel AUX TRIG OUT (1&2)
connectors:
Polarity
Positive Pulse Outgoing pulse is positive.
Negative Pulse Outgoing pulse is negative.
Position
Before Acquisition Pulse is sent immediately before data acquisition begins.
After Acquisition Pulse is sent immediately after data acquisition is complete.
Per Point Check to cause a trigger output to be sent for each data point. Clear to send a trigger output for
each sweep. This setting controls the trigger output signal regardless of the channel Point trigger setting,
which causes the PNA channel to trigger per point. For example, to trigger the PNA channel per point, and
output a trigger signal per point, both this, and the channel setting must be checked ON.
Pulse Duration Specifies the duration of the positive or negative output trigger pulse.
Ready for Trigger Handshake
When checked, the PNA waits indefinitely for the input line at the rear panel AUX TRIG OUT (1&2) connectors
to change to the specified level before acquiring data. This signal indicates that the external device is ready for
PNA data acquisition. If the signal arrives before the PNA is ready to acquire data, it is latched (remembered).
When NOT checked, the PNA-X does not wait, but outputs trigger signals when the PNA-X is ready.
This signal does NOT trigger the PNA-X. The trigger signal is generated from any of the usual sources:
Internal, Manual, or External.
IN (READY)
Ready High PNA responds to the leading edge of a pulse on the Aux1 or Aux2 In connector.
Ready Low PNA responds to the trailing edge of a pulse on the Aux1 or Aux2 In connector.
Delay Time that the PNA waits after receiving the Handshake input before data acquisition.
See how to access the Trigger Dialog
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Dialog box as it appears on a PNA-X. This tab is labeled External on PNA-L and E836x models
Meas (External) Trigger dialog box help
Learn how to External Trigger during Calibration
Main Trigger Input
Global / Channel Trigger Delay After an external trigger is received, the start of the sweep is held off for
this specified amount of time plus any inherent latency.
When Trigger Scope = Channel, the delay value is applied to the specified channel.
When Trigger Scope = Global, the same delay value is applied to ALL channels.
Source The PNA accepts Trigger IN signals through the following rear-panel connectors:
Meas Trig IN BNC (PNA-X ONLY)
Handler I/O Pin 18 (PNA-L and PNA-X ONLY)
I/O 1 (TRIG IN) BNC (PNA-L and E836x ONLY)
Aux I/O - pin 19 (PNA-L and E836x ONLY)
Level / Edge
High Level The PNA is triggered when it is armed (ready for trigger) and the TTL signal at the select input
is HIGH.
Low Level The PNA is triggered when it is armed (ready for trigger) and the TTL signal at the select input
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is LOW.
Positive Edge After the PNA arms, it will trigger on the next positive edge. If Accept Trigger Before Armed
is set, PNA will trigger as soon as it arms if a positive edge was received since the last data was taken.
Negative Edge After the PNA arms, it will trigger on the next negative edge. If Accept Trigger Before
Armed is set, PNA will trigger as soon as it arms if a negative edge was received since the last data was
taken.
Note: Edge triggering is NOT available on the following PNA models: E835xA, E880xA, N338xA, E8362A,
E8363A, E8364A.
Accept Trigger Before Armed When checked, as the PNA becomes armed (ready to be triggered), the
PNA will immediately trigger if any triggers were received since the last taking of data. The PNA remembers
only one trigger signal. All others are ignored.
When this checkbox is cleared, any trigger signal received before PNA is armed is ignored.
This feature is only available when positive or negative EDGE triggering is selected.
Configure this setting remotely using CONTrol:SIGNal (SCPI) or ExternalTriggerConnectionBehavior
(COM).
Ready for Trigger Indicator
Connector to send the PNA 'Ready' OUT signal.
On the PNA-X, when Meas Trig IN is enabled, then Meas Trig Ready (OUT) is also enabled.
Choose from:
Handler I/O p21
AUX I/O p18
See how to access the Trigger Dialog
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I/O2 Trig Out dialog box help
This TAB appears ONLY on E836X and PNA-L models with a Trig I/O rear-panel connector.
Enable When checked, the PNA sends synchronized trigger signals out the rear-panel I/O (TRIG OUT) BNC
connector.
Channel
Global - Trigger output properties apply for ALL channels. This is the default setting and is consistent
with pre-7.2 release behavior. In this mode, the Per Point setting (below) is not allowed, but is coupled to
the channel Point trigger property. In other words, when a channel is in point sweep mode, the trigger
output will be sent per point.
Channel Trigger output properties are channel dependent. To output trigger signals for each point,
check Per Point (see below).
Note: This Channel / Global setting can be changed ONLY by using the following Preference commands:
SCPI Trig:Pref:AIGLobal
COM - AuxTriggerIsGlobal Property
The current setting is annotated at the bottom of the dialog as:
Compatibility Mode on: Aux Trigger Scope = global
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AUX (I/O) TRIG OUT (To Device)
Polarity The trigger pulse output from the PNA is either in the Positive or Negative direction.
Position The trigger pulse output is sent either BEFORE or AFTER data is acquired.
Per Point (Channel mode only) Check to cause a trigger output to be sent for each data point. Clear to
send a trigger output for each sweep. This setting controls the trigger output signal regardless of the channel
Point trigger setting, which causes the PNA channel to trigger per point. For example, to trigger the PNA
channel per point, and output a trigger signal per point, both this, and the channel setting must be checked
ON.
Pulse Duration Specifies the duration of the positive or negative output trigger pulse.
Learn how to calibrate while in External Trigger
Note: Beginning with PNA Rev 6.0, Guided and Unguided Calibration CAN be performed in External Trigger
mode. With this optional behavior, while Trigger Source is set to External, trigger signals must be sent for
Calibration sweeps. This behavior does not apply to FCA calibrations.
To revert to pre-6.0 behavior, (the PNA calibrates using Internal trigger signals while Trigger Source is set to
External), send these SCPI or COM commands. You can send SCPI commands using the GPIB console.
The following dialog box appears on the PNA screen while the PNA is waiting for an External trigger signal.
Click Abort to cancel the wait for a trigger signal.
Last Modified:
3-Mar-2008
25-Jan-2007
Many edits
MX New topic
342
Trigger Source
Speedometer
Internal
Manual
Trigger Scope
Global
Channel
Continuous
Groups
5
Continuous
Groups
5
Continuous
Groups
Single
Single
Single
Hold
Hold
Hold
Point
Point
Point
5
About the trigger model
Read Text description of triggering behaviors.
This model does not include the new Sweep trigger mode.
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Data Format and Scale
A data format is the way the PNA presents measurement data graphically. Pick a data format appropriate to the
information you want to learn about the test device.
How to set Format
Rectangular (Cartesian) Display Formats
Polar
Smith Chart
Scale, Reference Level and Position
Magnitude Offset
See other 'Setup Measurements' topics
How to set the Display Format
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press FORMAT
1. Click Trace
2. then Active Entry keys
2. then Format
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press FORMAT
1. Click Response
2. then Format
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Format dialog box help
Log Mag
Phase / Unwrapped Phase
Group Delay
Smith / Inverse Smith Chart
Polar
Linear Mag
SWR
Real
Imaginary
Rectangular Display Formats
Seven of the nine available data formats use a rectangular display to present measurement data. This display is
also known as Cartesian, X/Y, or rectilinear. The rectangular display is especially useful for clearly displaying
frequency response information of your test device.
Stimulus data (frequency, power, or time) appears on the X-axis, scaled linearly
Measured data appears on the Y-Axis.
Log Mag (Logarithmic Magnitude) Format
Displays Magnitude (no phase)
Y-axis: dB
Typical measurements:
Return Loss
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Insertion Loss or Gain
Phase Format
Displays Phase (no magnitude)
Y-axis: Phase (degrees)
The trace 'wraps' every 180 degrees for easier scaling.
Typical Measurements:
Deviation from Linear Phase
Unwrapped Phase
Same as Phase, but without 180 degree wrapping.
Group Delay Format
Displays signal transmission (propagation) time through a device
Y-axis: Time (seconds)
Typical Measurements:
Group Delay
See also:
Comparing the PNA Delay Functions.
Phase Measurement Accuracy
Linear Magnitude Format
Displays positive values only
Y-axis: Unitless (U) for ratioed measurements
Watts (W) for unratioed measurements.
Typical Measurements:
reflection and transmission coefficients (magnitude)
time domain transfer
SWR Format
Displays reflection measurement data calculated from the formula (1+r)/ (1-r) where r is reflection
coefficient.
Valid only for reflection measurements.
Y axis: Unitless
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Typical Measurements:
SWR
Real Format
Displays only the real (resistive) portion of the measured complex data.
Can show both positive and negative values.
Y axis: Unitless
Typical Measurements:
time domain
auxiliary input voltage signal for service purposes
Imaginary Format
Displays only the imaginary (reactive) portion of the measured data.
Y - axis: Unitless
Typical Measurements:
impedance for designing matching network
Polar Format
Polar format is used to view the magnitude and phase of the reflection coefficient (G) from your S11 or S22
measurement.
You can use Markers to display the following:
Linear magnitude (in units) or log magnitude (in dB)
Phase (in degrees)
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The dashed circles represent reflection coefficient. The outermost circle represents a reflection coefficient (G)
of 1, or total reflected signal. The center of the circle represents a reflection coefficient (G) of 0, or no
reflected signal.
The radial lines show the phase angle of reflected signal. The right-most position corresponds to zero phase
angle, (that is, the reflected signal is at the same phase as the incident signal). Phase differences of 90°,
±180°, and -90° correspond to the top, left-most, and bottom positions on the polar display, respectively.
Smith Chart Format
The Smith chart is a tool that maps the complex reflection coefficient (G) to the test device's impedance.
In a Smith chart, the rectilinear impedance plane is reshaped to form a circular grid, from which the series
resistance and reactance can be read (R + jX).
You can use Markers to display the following:
Resistance (in units of ohms)
Reactance as an equivalent capacitance (in units of farads) or inductance (in units of henrys)
Inverse Smith Chart (also known as Admittance)
Same as standard Smith Chart , except:
The plot graticule is reversed right-to-left.
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Admittance (in units of siemens) instead of resistance.
Interpreting the Smith Chart
Every point on the Smith Chart represents a complex impedance made up of a real resistance (r) and an
imaginary reactance (r+-jX)
The horizontal axis (the solid line) is the real portion of the impedance - the resistance. The center of the
horizontal axis always represents the system impedance. To the far right, the value is infinite ohms (open).
To the far left, the value is zero ohms (short)
The dashed circles that intersect the horizontal axis represent constant resistance.
The dashed arcs that are tangent to the horizontal axis represent constant reactance.
The upper half of the Smith chart is the area where the reactive component is positive and therefore
inductive.
The lower half is the area where the reactive component is negative and therefore capacitive.
Scale, Reference Level and Position
The Scale, Reference Level and Reference Position settings (along with format) determine how the data trace
appears on the PNA screen.
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How to set Scale, Reference Level, and Position
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press SCALE
1. Click Scale
2. then Active Entry keys
2. then Scale
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press SCALE
1. Click Response
2. then Scale
3. then Scale
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Scale dialog box help
Scale
Per Division Sets the value of the vertical divisions of a rectangular display format. In Polar and Smith Chart
formats, scale sets the value of the outer circumference. Range: 0.001dB/div to 500 dB/div
Autoscale - Automatically sets value of the vertical divisions and reference value to fit the ACTIVE data trace
within the grid area of the screen. The stimulus values and reference position are not affected.
The analyzer determines the smallest possible scale factor that will allow all the displayed data to fit onto 80
percent of the vertical grid.
The reference value is chosen to center the trace on the screen.
Autoscale All Automatically scales ALL data traces in the ACTIVE WINDOW to fit vertically within the grid
area of the screen.
Reference
Level In rectangular formats, sets the value of the reference line, denoted by
Range: -500 dB to 500 dB.
on the PNA screen.
In Polar and Smith chart formats, reference level is not applicable.
Position In rectangular formats, sets the position of the reference line. Zero is the bottom line of the screen
and ten is the top line. Default position is five (middle).
In Polar and Smith chart formats, reference position is not applicable.
Magnitude Offset
Magnitude Offset allows you to offset the magnitude (not phase) data by a fixed and / or sloped value in dB. If the
display format is Linear Magnitude or Real (unitless), the conversion from dB is performed and the correct amount
of offset is implemented.
How to set Magnitude Offset
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Scale
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Magnitude Offset
For PNA-X and 'C' models
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1. Press SCALE
1. Click Response
2. then [More]
2. then Scale
3. then [Magnitude Offset]
3. then Magnitude Offset
Magnitude Offset dialog box help
The Magnitude offset setting affects only the active trace.
Offset Offsets the entire data trace by the specified value.
Slope Offsets the data trace by a value that changes with frequency. The offset slope begins at 0 Hz.
For your convenience, the offset value at the start frequency is calculated and displayed.
See where this operation is performed in the data processing chain.
Last modified:
9/12/06
Added link to programming commands
9/27/06
MX Added UI
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Pre-configured Measurement Setups
Pre-configured setups for NEW measurements
Pre-configured arrangements for EXISTING measurements
Before reading this topic, it is important to understand Traces, Channels, and Windows in the PNA.
See other 'Setup Measurements' topics
Pre-configured Setups for NEW Measurements
Each of the following setups creates new traces. Existing traces and their settings will be lost, unless you first
save them.
How to select a pre-configured measurement setup
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
No programming commands
1. Press MEASURE SETUPS
1. Click Window
2. then Active Entry keys
2. then Meas Setups
No programming commands
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press RESPONSE
1. Click Response
2. then [Display]
2. then Display
3. then [Meas Setups]
3. then Meas Setups
The following are the four pre-configured measurement setups:
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Arranging Existing Measurements
The following arrangements place EXISTING measurements into pre-configured Window arrangements using a
sort algorithm.
How to select an Existing measurement arrangement
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Click Window
1. Press
2. then Arrange
2. then Active Entry keys
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press DISPLAY
1. Click Response
2. then Display
Overlay Arrangement
This configuration places all existing traces in a single window, all overlaid on each other.
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Stack 2 Arrangement
This configuration places all existing traces in two "stacked" windows.
Split 3 Arrangement
This configuration places all existing traces in three windows, two on top and one below.
Quad 4 Arrangement
This configuration places all existing traces in four windows, one window in each screen quadrant.
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Sort Algorithm
The sort algorithm for the Arrange Windows feature is designed to:
Divide traces among windows based on their properties
Group traces with common properties
The algorithm sorting is based on the following trace properties, in order of priority:
1. Format: circular (polar or Smith) versus rectilinear (log mag, lin mag, group delay, etc.)
2. Channel number
3. Transmission versus reflection
Note: The PNA traces per window limitation overrides this algorithm. An error occurs if the arrange selection
cannot be completed with the current number of traces on the screen.
Last modified:
9/27/06
MX Added UI
9/12/06
Added link to programming commands
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Path Configurator
Allows you to configure hardware components that are available with selected PNA-X options.
How to access Path Configurator
Using HARDKEY [softkey] buttons:
PNA Menu using a mouse:
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Not Available
1. Not Available
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press TRACE/CHAN
1. Click Trace/Chan
2. then [Channel]
2. then Channel
3. then [More]
3. then Hardware Setup
4. then [Hardware Setup]
4. then Path Config...
5. then [Path Config...]
The following image shows configuration with PNA-X Opt 423 (4-port, internal 2nd source, combiner, and
mechanical switches). Your PNA-X may not include these options.
See other RF path configuration diagrams.
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Path Configuration dialog box help
Different paths can be configured for each channel.
See Noise Figure tab help of the Path Configuration.
Configuration
Select, store, and delete factory configurations or user-defined configurations. Configurations are stored on the
PNA hard drive.
Any configuration can be saved, and later recalled, from this dialog. Click Store, type a configuration name,
then click OK.
Text area Displays text describing the physical connections required to complete the configuration. The text
for factory configurations can NOT be edited. Text is saved as part of the configuration.
Cancel Closes the dialog and returns the configuration settings to the state they were in when the dialog was
opened. Cancel does NOT undo Store and Delete actions that were performed while the dialog was open.
Notes
Click or touch anywhere within a box to actually cycle through the available settings.
Some switch settings alter graphics in areas other that where the switch is thrown.
If you don't hear switches clicking, this could be why:
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Electronic switches are orange on the path configuration dialog. These switches do not make
noise when being thrown. Mechanical switches are blue.
The channel is in hold and not sweeping.
PNA switch wear prevention logic does NOT allow mechanical switching with continuous triggering.
To override the logic use group or single triggering. Learn more.
Orange lines are jumpers on the front or rear panel.
Notice on the block diagrams:
Extra filtering is available to optimize harmonics below 3.2 GHz on OUT1 of both sources. These
filters are not used in the Hi Pwr setting. See specifications.
Each source optionally has pulse modulation capability.
Copy channel feature copies path configuration settings.
Saved and recalled as part of an instrument state.
Last modified:
January 5, 2007
MX- New topic
359
Customize the PNA Screen
You can customize your PNA screen by showing or hiding the following display elements. All of these selections
are made from the PNA View menu.
Status Bar
Toolbars
Tables
Measurement Display
Data and Memory Trace
Title Bars
Minimize Application
Learn about using pre-configured measurements and windows arrangements
Learn about Traces, Channels, and Windows on the PNA
See other 'Setup Measurements' topics
Status Bar
When enabled, the status bar is displayed along the bottom of the PNA screen. The primary status bar shows the
following:
Channel Trigger State (Cont, Groups, Single, Hold)
Active channel
Measurement parameter for the active trace
Trace Math
Error correction for the active trace
Averaging Factor for the active channel
Smoothing Percentage
Transform (On)
Gating (On)
IF Gating Enabled for Pulsed App: (G)
Manual IF Filtering for Pulsed App: (F)
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Delay if invoked using Phase Offset, Electrical Delay, or Port Extensions.
Loss if invoked using Magnitude Offset or Port Extensions.
GPIB status: Local (LCL), Remote Talker Listener (RMT), or System Controller (CTL).
Error Status: (LVL, LCK, etc)
Note: A second level status bar appears when using External Test Set Control or Interface control.
The status bar state (ON or OFF) will not change when the PNA is Preset.
How to display the Status Bar
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click View
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Status Bar
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press DISPLAY
1. Click Response
2. then [More]
2. then Display
3. then [Status Bar]
3. then Status Bar
Toolbars
You can display up to five different toolbars to allow you to easily set up and modify measurements.
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How to display toolbars
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click View
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Toolbar
3. then the toolbar to turn ON/OFF
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press DISPLAY
1. Click Response
2. then [More]
2. then Display
3. then [Toolbars]
3. then More
4. then Toolbars
List of toolbars:
Active Entry
Markers
Measurement
Sweep Control
Stimulus
Time Domain
Port Extension
All Off
Note: There is also a Cal Set toolbar available for Monitoring Error Terms.
Active Entry Toolbar (For N5230A and E836xA/B models)
The active entry toolbar is displayed at the top of the screen, below the menu bar. It allows you to make selections
from the active function using the mouse or by pressing the front panel key with the corresponding color.
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Learn more about using the front panel interface
Entry Toolbar (For PNA-X and 'C' models)
When used with softkeys, this area allows numeric values to be entered for PNA-X settings. From the keyboard,
enter G for Giga, M for Mega or milli, K for kilo, and so forth.
Markers Toolbar
The markers toolbar allows you to set up and modify markers. It shows:
Marker number
Stimulation value
Marker functions:
Delta
Start/Stop
Center/Span
Tip: To use the Front Panel Knob to change marker position, first click the Stimulus field of the marker toolbar.
Then turn the knob.
Learn more about Markers
Measurement Toolbar
The measurement toolbar allows you to create a new trace for a desired S-parameter measurement in a current
window or new window.
Sweep Control Toolbar
In left to right order, the buttons on this toolbar set the active channel to:
Hold mode
Single sweep, then Hold mode
Continuous sweep
Learn more about Channel Trigger State.
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Stimulus Toolbar
The stimulus toolbar allows you to view, set up, and modify the sweep stimulus. It shows the:
Start value
Stop value
Number of points
Time Domain
The Time Domain toolbar allows you to do the following:
Turn Transform and Gating ON / OFF
Change the Start / Stop times for both Transform and Gating
More...launches the Time Domain Transform dialog box
X Closes the toolbar
The front panel Tab key steps through all of the settings on all of the toolbars on the display. If Tab does not work,
press one of the Active Toolbar (color) keys.
Port Extension
The Port Extension toolbar allows you to set Port Extensions while viewing the measurement trace. Learn more
about Port Extensions.
All Off
This allows you to hide all toolbars with a single selection.
Tables
Tables are displayed at the bottom of the selected window. Only one table may be displayed at a time for a window.
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How to display tables
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click View
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Tables
3. then the table to turn ON/OFF
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press DISPLAY
1. Click Response
2. then [More]
2. then Display
3. then [Tables]
3. then More
4. then Tables
List of tables:
Marker Table
Limit Line Table
Segment Table
Marker Table
You can display a table of marker settings. These settings include the:
Marker number
Marker reference (for delta measurements)
Frequency
Time and Distance (for Time Domain measurements)
Response
Learn more about Markers
Limit Line Table
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You can display, set up, and modify a table of limit test settings. These include:
Type (MIN, MAX, or OFF)
Beginning and ending stimulus values
Beginning and ending response values
Learn more about Limit Lines
Segment Sweep Table
You can display, set up, and modify a table of segment sweep settings. These include:
State (On/Off)
Start and Stop frequencies
Number of Points
IF Bandwidth (if independent levels)
Power Level (if independent levels)
Sweep Time (if independent levels)
Learn more about Segment sweep
Measurement Display Items
How to show and hide Measurement Display items
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click View
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Meas Display
3. then the display item to show/hide
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press DISPLAY
1. Click Response
2. then [Display Items]
2. then Display
3. then Display Items
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2.
2.
3.
Measurement Display items:
Trace Status
Frequency Stimulus
Marker Readout
Limit Test Results
Limit Lines
Title
Trace Status
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
Trace status buttons are displayed to the left of each window.
The depressed button indicates the Active Trace.
Click to select a trace.
For PNA-X and 'C' models
Trace status is annotated at the top of each window.
The highlighted trace number indicates the Active Trace.
Click to select a trace.
Trace Status shows the following:
Trace number (Tr x). This is the trace number of the channel; NOT the window trace number which is used in
many programming commands.
Measurement parameter. This can be replaced with a custom Trace Title.
Format
Scaling factor
Reference level
How to show/hide Trace Status
Frequency/Stimulus
Frequency/stimulus information is displayed at the bottom of each window on the screen. It shows:
Channel number
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Start value
Stop value
How to show/hide Frequency/Stimulus information
Marker / Bandwidth / Trace Statistics Readout
How to show/hide Readout settings
The Marker / Bandwidth / Trace Statistics Readout area, in the upper-right corner of each window, can contain up
to 20 total readout lines. However, all readout lines may not be visible depending on the window size and whether
Large Marker Readout is enabled.
The image shows 3 readout lines.
Markers use one readout line per marker.
Marker Bandwidth and Trace Statistics use three readout lines per trace.
Marker Readout
Checked - Shows readout information.
Cleared - Shows no readout information.
One Readout Per Trace
Checked - Shows the readout of only the active marker for each trace.
Cleared - Shows up to 20 total readouts lines.
Large Marker Readout
This setting also controls Trace Statistics readout.
Checked - Shows the marker readout in large font size for easy reading.
Cleared - Shows the marker readout in normal font size.
Learn more about Markers
Limit Line Test Results
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Limit line test results, Pass or Fail, are displayed on the right side of the designated window.
Limit Lines
Limit lines are displayed for the active trace in the designated window. Their position depends on:
Limit levels
Format
Scaling
Reference level
Learn more about Limit Lines
How to show/hide Limit Lines and Results
Title
You can create and display a title for each window using the keyboard. You can also use the following Title Entry
dialog box.
The title is displayed in the upper-left corner of the selected window.
To clear a title, delete the title from the dialog box entry area and click OK.
See also Trace Titles
How to show/hide a Title
Data Trace and Memory Trace
You can view or hide the active data or memory trace.
Make a trace active by clicking the trace status button
To view a memory trace you must first store a trace in memory. Click Trace, then Math / Memory, then Data
=> Memory.
Learn more about Math operations
Title Bars
The Title bar shows the window number and Minimize / Maximize icons.
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Checked - Title bars for all PNA windows are shown.
Cleared - Title bars for all PNA windows are hidden. This allows more room to display measurement results.
How to show/hide the Title Bars
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click View
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Title Bars
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press DISPLAY
1. Click Response
2. then [More]
2. then Display
3. then [Title Bars]
3. then More
4. then Title Bars
Minimize Application
The Network Analyzer application can be minimized to show the desktop and Windows taskbar.
How to minimize the Network Analyzer Application
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click View
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Title Bars
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press DISPLAY
1. Click File
2.
2.
3.
370
1.
1.
2. then [Windows]
2. then Minimize Application
3. then [More]
4. then [Minimize]
To restore the PNA application, click the PNA application on the Windows taskbar.
Last modified:
27-Aug-2007
Edited readout section
9/12/06
Added link to programming commands
9/27/06
MX Added UI
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Copy Channels
You can copy the channel settings from an existing channel to a new or another existing channel.
Why Copy Channels
How to Copy Channels
List of Channel Settings
Other Setup Measurements Topics
Why Copy Channels
Copy channel settings if you need to create several channels that have slightly different settings.
For example, if you have an amplifier that you want to characterize over a frequency span with several different
input power levels.
Follow these steps:
1. Create one measurement with your optimized channel settings.
2. Copy that channel to new channels.
3. Change the power level on the new channels.
The alternative to using Copy Channels is to create new default measurements on new channels. Then change
every channel setting to your new requirement. This is very time consuming and thus shows the benefit of the Copy
Channels feature.
Note: Copy Channels does NOT work with any of the PNA Applications, such as FCA, Gain Compression, or Noise
Figure.
372
How to Copy Channels
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
PNA Menu using a mouse
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Channel
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Copy Channel
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press TRACE/CHAN
1. Click Trace/Chan
2. then [Channel]
2. then Channel
3. then [More]
3. then Copy Channel
4. then [Copy Channel[
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Copy Channel dialog box help
Copies an existing channel's settings to another channel.
Copy channel: Select a channel to copy.
to: Scroll to select a channel to copy settings to. Channel numbers that are currently being used are
highlighted. They can be selected and overwritten.
Notes:
You can copy channel settings to ONLY one new or existing channel. Repeat this operation to copy to
more than one channel.
The new channel is ALWAYS copied to the Active window. If you want the new channel in its own
window, first create a new measurement in a new window. Then make sure it is the Active window before
you copy the channel into it.
The measurement in the new channel becomes the active measurement.
Only the channel settings are copied. The measurement trace is NOT copied to the new channel.
If measurements already exist on a channel being copied to, the measurements on that channel
will not change, but they will assume the new channel settings.
If a NEW channel is copied TO, an S11 measurement is created in order to view the channel
settings.
For example:
1. Existing channel 1: S21 measurement
2. Copy channel 1 to NEW channel 2
3. Result: channel 2: S11 measurement with channel 1 copied settings. Both measurements are in the
same window. The S11 measurement is the active measurement.
For more information see Traces, Channels, and Windows on the PNA
List of Channel Settings
Frequency Span
Power
Cal Set usage
Source Power Cal data
IF Bandwidth
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Number of Points
Sweep Settings
Average
Trigger (some settings)
Last modified:
13-Feb-2008
9/12/06
Added note about Apps
Added link to programming commands
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ADC Measurements
The PNA is equipped with one or more ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) inputs. These ADC inputs can be used
as measurement receivers and display measurements on the PNA screen.
Analog Inputs can be used for measuring from -10V to +10V. These inputs can be considered auxiliary
receivers and used in a similar way as S-Parameter receivers.
Analog Output Sense inputs (AOS1 and AOS2) can be used to measure the corresponding DAC outputs.
Analog Ground input (AG1) can be used to measure the instruments analog ground (PNA-X only).
Supported Hardware
PNA-X: Power I/O connector
Other models: Aux I/O connector
How to create ADC receiver measurements
For PNA-X and 'C' models
The New and Edit Measurement commands are extended to
include ADC receiver measurements.
1. Press TRACES
1. Click Trace/Chan
2. then [New Trace]
2. then New Trace
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New Trace (ADC) dialog box help
Note: Sweep speed slows dramatically when measuring more than two ADC receivers.
On the New Trace dialog, click the Receivers tab.
Activate - check any empty line to create a trace.
Numerator - select from the following:
AI1 - Input 1 (PNA-X only)
AI2 - Input 2
AOS1, AOS2 - Output sense 1 or 2
AIG - Analog ground (PNA-X only)
Denominator - NOT available (ONLY unratioed measurements)
Source Port - The ADC receiver is measured when the specified source port is sweeping.
ADC receiver traces are labeled as shown in the following images:
The ADC1 input is being measured, with 2 as the source port.
The Y axis is U (unitless).
The default trace format is Real (linear).
ADC Traces and other useful PNA functions
Although most PNA functions work with ADC traces, the following may be especially useful.
Equation Editor can be used with the trace data. Although the PNA-X ADC is measuring voltage (-10V to
+10V range in 14 bits), by using a trace formula, this voltage can represent other types of measurement
parameters (such as current, temperature, or a scaled voltage). See PAE example.
Trace averaging and Trace Smoothing can be used to remove trace noise.
Dwell time can be used to allow for settling.
PNA Functions Not Supported
Calibration for ADC receivers is NOT supported.
Use with FCA is NOT supported.
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While the PNA is sweeping an ADC measurement, do NOT use the rear-panel Analog I/O SCPI commands.
Last Modified:
19-Apr-2007
MX New topic
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Setting System Impedance
The system impedance can be changed for measuring devices with an impedance other than 50 ohms, such as
waveguide devices. The PNA mathematically transforms and displays the measurement data as though the PNA
ports were the specified impedance value. Physically, the test ports are always about 50 ohms.
How to change the System Impedance
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click System
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Configure
3. then System Z0
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press SYSTEM
1. Click Utility
2. then [Configure]
2. then System
3. then [System Z0
3. then Configure
4. then System Z0
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System Z0 dialog box help
Allows you to change the system impedance (default setting is 50 ohms).
Z0 Displays the current system impedance.
For 75 ohm devices:
1. Change the system Z0 to 75 ohms.
2. Connect minimum loss pads (75 ohm impedance) between the analyzer and the DUT to minimize the
physical mismatch.
3. Perform a calibration with 75 ohm calibration standards.
For waveguide devices:
1. Change the system Z0 to 1 ohm.
2. Perform a calibration with the appropriate waveguide standards.
Last modified:
9/27/06
MX Added UI
9/12/06
Added link to programming commands
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Dynamic Range
Dynamic range is the difference between the analyzer receiver's maximum input power and the minimum
measurable power (noise floor). For a measurement to be valid, input signals must be within these boundaries.
Increasing dynamic range is important if you need to measure very large variations in signal amplitude, such as
filter bandpass and rejection. The dynamic range is shown below for an example measurement.
To help reduce measurement uncertainty, the analyzer dynamic range should be greater than the response that the
DUT exhibits. For example, measurement accuracy is increased when the DUT response is at least 10 dB above
the noise floor. The following methods can help you increase the dynamic range.
Increase the Device Input Power
Reduce the Receiver Noise Floor
Use the Front-Panel Jumpers (if your PNA has a configurable test set)
Other topics about Optimizing Measurements
Increase Device Input Power
Increase the DUT input power so that the analyzer can more accurately detect and measure the DUT output power.
However, use caution - too much power can damage the analyzer receiver or cause compression distortion.
Caution! Receiver input damage level: +15 dBm.
See how to increase input power to the device
Tip: You can further increase dynamic range by using an external booster amplifier to increase the input power to
the DUT. See High Power Amplifier Measurements.
Reduce the Receiver Noise Floor
You can use the following techniques to lower the noise floor and increase the analyzer's dynamic range.
Reduce crosstalk between the PNA receivers when measuring signals close to the noise floor. See Receiver
Crosstalk.)
Use Sweep Averaging - learn more about Sweep Average
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Reduce the IF Bandwidth - learn more about IF Bandwidth.
In Segment sweep mode each segment can have its own IF bandwidth. For example, when measuring a
filter:
In the passband, the IF bandwidth can be set wider for a fast sweep rate, as long as high-level trace
noise is kept sufficiently small.
In the reject band, where noise floor contributes significantly to measurement error, the IF bandwidth
can be set low enough to achieve the desired reduction in average noise level.
Use the Front-Panel Jumpers (if your PNA has the configurable test set)
If your PNA has FOUR front-panel jumpers, you can bypass the test-port couplers and apply signals directly into
the receivers. See Dynamic Range - 4 Jumpers. Using this configuration, you can achieve up to 143 dB dynamic
range with Response Calibration using segment sweep mode.
If your PNA has MORE THAN FOUR front-panel jumpers (Configurable Test Set), you can use the front-panel
jumpers to reverse a test-port coupler. See Dynamic Range - Configurable Test Set Option. Using this
configuration, you can achieve up to 143 dB dynamic range with Full 2-port Calibration using segment sweep
mode.
Note: Bypassing a port's directional coupler increases the port mismatch by approximately 15 dB (the coupling
factor of the directional coupler).
For information about upgrading your PNA to include front-panel jumpers, see PNA Options.
Discover the measurement possibilities using front-panel jumpers.
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Improving Dynamic Range with FOUR front-panel jumpers
To improve dynamic range you can bypass the test-port coupler and apply the signal directly into the receiver. As
shown in the following graphic, the signal is applied to the front-panel connector for the B In or Rcvr B In front-panel
jumper rather than Port 2. Using this configuration, you can achieve up to 143 dB dynamic range with response
calibration using segment sweep mode.
Explore the graphic with your mouse.
Note: Your PNA may not be equipped with front-panel jumpers or all of the components shown in this block
diagram.
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Improving Dynamic Range with Configurable Test Set Option
To improve dynamic range you can reverse the signal path in the test-port coupler and bypass the loss typically
associated with the coupled arm. As shown in the following graphic, the signal is applied to Port 2. The signal
bypasses the coupled arm via the jumper cable connected to the Coupler Thru (or Coupler In) and the Receiver B
In (or B In) ports. Using this configuration, you can increase the forward measurement dynamic range up to 143 dB
with full 2-port calibration using segment sweep mode. When making full 2-port error corrected measurements, the
reverse measurement is degraded by 15 dB, with up to 113 dB of dynamic range available.
Explore the graphic with your mouse.
Note: Your analyzer's block diagram may contain different components than shown below.
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Number of Points
A data point is a sample of data representing a measurement at a single stimulus value. You can specify the
number of data points that the PNA measures across a sweep. (A "sweep" is a series of consecutive data point
measurements, taken over a sequence of stimulus values.)
The PNA sweep time changes proportionally with the number of points. However, the overall measurement cycle
time does not. See Technical Specifications for more information on how the number of points, and other settings,
affect the sweep time.
Note: You may experience a significant decrease in computer processing speed with increased number of points,
number of traces, and calibration error terms (full 2-port or 3-port). If this becomes a problem, you can increase the
amount of RAM with PNA Option 022.
How to change the number of data points
Select a number or click Custom to invoke a dialog box
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For PNA-L and E836x models
1. Press SWEEP SETUP
1. Click Sweep
2. then Number of Points
2. then
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press SWEEP
1. Click Stimulus
2. then [Number of Points]
2. then Sweep
3. then Number of Points
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Number of Points dialog box help
Specifies the number of data points that the analyzer gathers during a measurement sweep. You can specify
any number from 1 to 20,001. The default value is 201.
Two data points are required for Time Domain.
Tips:
To achieve the greatest trace resolution, use the maximum number of data points.
For faster throughput use the smallest number of data points that will give you acceptable resolution.
To find an optimized number of points, look for a value where there is not a significant difference in the
measurement when you increase the number of points.
To ensure an accurate measurement calibration, perform the calibration with the same number of points
that will be used for the measurement.
Last modified:
14-Dec-2007
Decreased min to 1
21-Jun-2007
MX Increased maximum
9/12/06
Added link to programming commands
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Phase Measurement Accuracy
You can increase the accuracy of phase measurements by using the following PNA features.
Electrical Delay
Phase Offset
Spacing Between Frequency Points (Aliasing)
See Also
Port Extensions
Comparing the PNA Delay Functions.
Learn more about Phase measurements
Electrical Delay
Electrical delay is a mathematical function that simulates a variable length of lossless transmission line.
Use the electrical delay feature to compensate for the linear phase shift through a device. This feature allows you
to look at only the deviation from linear phase of the device.
You can set the electrical delay independently for each measurement trace.
How to set Electrical Delay
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Scale
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Electrical Delay
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press SCALE
1. Click Response
2. then [Electrical Delay]
2. then Scale
3. then Electrical Delay
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Electrical Delay dialog box help
Electrical Delay Specifies the value of delay added or removed, in units of time. This compensates for the
linear phase shift through a device. You can set the electrical delay independently for each measurement trace.
Velocity Factor Specifies the velocity factor that applies to the medium of the device that was inserted after
the measurement calibration. The value for a polyethylene dielectric cable is 0.66 and 0.7 for Teflon dielectric.
1.0 corresponds to the speed of light in a vacuum.
Velocity factor can also be set from the Port Extensions toolbar / More settings and Time Domain Distance
Marker Settings.
Media
Coax select if the added length is coax. Also specify the velocity factor of the coax.
Waveguide Select if the added length is waveguide. Also specify the low frequency cutoff of the waveguide.
Cutoff Freq Low frequency cutoff of the waveguide.
Learn about Electrical Delay (scroll up)
Phase Offset
Phase offset mathematically adjusts the phase measurement by a specified amount, up to 360°. Use this feature in
the following ways:
Improve the display of a phase measurement. This is similar to the way you would change the reference
level in an amplitude measurement. Change the phase response to center or align the response on the
screen.
Emulate a projected phase shift in your measurement. For example, if you know that you need to add a
cable and that the length of that cable will add a certain phase shift to your measurement, you can use phase
offset to add that amount and simulate the complete device measurement.
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How to set Phase Offset
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Scale
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Phase Offset
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press SCALE
1. Click Response
2. then [Phase Offset]
2. then Scale
3. then Phase Offset
Phase Offset dialog box help
Phase Offset Type a value or use the up and down arrows to select any value up to 360 degrees.
Learn about Phase Offset (scroll up)
Spacing Between Frequency Points (Aliasing)
The analyzer samples data at discrete frequency points, then connects the points, creating a trace on the screen.
If the phase shift through a device is >180° between adjacent frequency points, the display can look like the phase
slope is reversed. This is because the data is undersampled and aliasing is occurring.
If you are measuring group delay and the slope of the phase is reversed, then the group delay will change sign. For
example, the following graphic shows a measurement of a SAW bandpass filter.
The left measurement has 51 points and indicates the group delay is negative, which is a physical
impossibility. That is, the response is below 0 seconds reference line.
The right measurement shows an increase to 201 points which indicates the group delay is positive. That is,
the response is above the 0 seconds reference line.
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Tip: To check if aliasing might be occurring in a measurement, either increase the number of points or reduce the
frequency span.
Last modified:
March 10, 2008
Sept.12, 2006
MX Added UI
Added link to programming commands
390
Electrically-Long Device Measurements
A signal coming out of a device under test may not be exactly the same frequency as the signal going in to a
device at a given instant in time. This can sometimes lead to inaccurate measurement results. You can choose
between two techniques to eliminate this situation and increase measurement accuracy.
Why Device Delay May Create Inaccurate Results
Solutions to Increase Measurement Accuracy
Slow the Sweep Speed
Add Electrical Length to the R Channel
Other topics about Optimizing Measurements
Why Device Delay May Create Inaccurate Results
The following graphic shows an example of this situation:
In the network analyzer, the source and receiver are phase locked together and sweep simultaneously
through a span of frequencies.
The signal flow through the Device Under Test (DUT) is shown as different colors for different frequencies.
You can see as a stimulus frequency travels through the DUT, the analyzer tunes to a new frequency just
before the signal arrives at the receiver. This causes inaccurate measurement results.
.
If the analyzer is measuring a long cable, the signal frequency at the end of the cable will lag behind the network
analyzer source frequency. If the frequency shift is appreciable compared to the network analyzer's IF detection
bandwidth (typically a few kHz), then the measured result will be in error by the rolloff of the IF filter.
Note: There is no fixed electrical length of a device where this becomes an issue. This is because there are many
variables that lead to measurement speed. When high measurement accuracy is critical, lower the sweep speed
until measurement results no longer change.
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Solutions to Increase Measurement Accuracy
Choose from the following methods to compensate for the time delay of an electrically long device.
Slow the Sweep Speed
Add Electrical Length to the R Channel
Slow the Sweep Speed
The following methods will slow the sweep speed.
Increase the Sweep Time
Increase the Number of Points
Use Stepped Sweep
Set Dwell Time
Add Electrical Length to the R Channel
Note: This method applies to PNA models with front panel loops.
Instead of slowing the sweep, you can compensate for the electrical length of a cable or fixture.
a. Remove the R-channel jumper on the front panel of the analyzer.
b. Replace the jumper with a cable of about the same length as the device under test.
1. Add the cable on the R1 channel for S11 and S 21 measurements.
2. Add the cable on the R2 channels for S22 and S 12 measurements.
c. Set the analyzer for a fast sweep.
Configuration for S22 and S12 Measurements
This method balances the delays in the reference and test paths, so that the network analyzer's ratioed
transmission measurement does not have a frequency-shift error.
Note: This method works well if the delay is in a cable or fixture. For devices with long delays, this method is only
suitable for uncalibrated measurements.
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Reflection Accuracy on Low-Loss 2-Port Devices
To make accurate reflection measurements that have a 1-port calibration, you should terminate the unmeasured
port.
Why Terminate the Unmeasured Port
How to Terminate the Unmeasured Port
Resulting Measurement Uncertainty
Other topics about Optimizing Measurements
Why Terminate the Unmeasured Port
A 2-port calibration corrects for all 12 twelve error terms. A 1-port calibration corrects for directivity, source match
and frequency response, but not load match. Therefore, for highest accuracy, you must make the load match error
as small as possible. This especially applies for low-loss, bi-directional devices such as filter passbands and
cables. You do not need to be concerned with load match when you are measuring a device with high reverse
isolation, such as an amplifier.
How to Terminate the Unmeasured Port
Use one of the following methods:
Connect a high-quality termination load (from a calibration kit, for example) to the unmeasured port of your
device. This technique yields measurement accuracy close to that of a Full SOLT 2-port calibration.
Connect the unmeasured port of your device directly to the analyzer, inserting a 10 dB precision attenuator
between the device output and the analyzer. This improves the effective load match of the analyzer by
approximately twice the value of the attenuator, or 20 dB.
Resulting Measurement Uncertainty
The following graph illustrates the measurement uncertainty that results from terminating with and without a
393
precision 10 dB attenuator on the output of the test device.
Legend
Filter Reflection
-------------
Uncertainty with attenuator
................
Uncertainty without attenuator
The calculations below show how adding a high-quality 10 dB attenuator improves the load match of the analyzer.
Note: The corresponding linear value is shown in parentheses.
Network Analyzer:
Load match (NALM) = 18 dB (.126)
Directivity (NAD) = 40 db (.010)
Filter:
Insertion loss (FIL) = 1dB (.891)
Return loss (FRL) = 16 dB (.158)
Attenuator:
Insertion loss (AIL) = 10 dB (.316)
SWR (ASWR) = 1.05 (.024)
32.26 dB Return Loss
Calculations:
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Without Attenuator
rNA = (FIL)*(NALM)*(FIL)
= (.891)*(.126)*(.891)
=.100
With Attenuator
= (FIL)*(AIL)*(NA LM)*(AIL)*(FIL)
= (.891)*(.316)*(.126)*(.316)*(.891)
= .010
rAttenuator NA
= (FIL)*(ASWR)*(F IL)
= (.891)*(.126)*(.891)
= .019
Worst Case = r NA
Error (EWC) =.1
= rNA + rAttn.
=.01+.019
=.029
Uncertainty = -20log(FRL)+(EWC)+(NAD)
Adds = -20log(.158)+(.100)+(.010)
= 11.4 dB
= -20log(FRL)+(EWC)+(NAD)
= -20log(.158)+(.029)+(.010)
= 14.1 dB
Uncertainty = -20log(FRL)-(E WC)-(NA D)
Subtracts =-20log(.158)-(.100)-(.010)
= 26.4 dB
= -20log(FRL)-(E WC)-(NA D)
= -20log(.158)-(.029)-(.010)
= 18.5 dB
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Measurement Stability
There are several situations that can cause unstable measurements. To ensure that you are making repeatable
measurements, you can use various methods to create a stable measurement environment.
Frequency Drift
Temperature Drift
Inaccurate Measurement Calibrations
Device Connections
Other topics about Optimizing Measurements
Frequency Drift
The analyzer frequency accuracy is based on an internal 10 MHz frequency oscillator. See Technical Specifications
for stability and aging specifications.
If your measurement application requires better frequency accuracy and stability, you can override the internal
frequency standard and provide your own high-stability external frequency source through the 10 MHz Reference
Input connector on the rear panel.
Temperature Drift
Thermal expansion and contraction changes the electrical characteristics of the following components:
Devices within the analyzer
Calibration kit standards
Test devices
Cables
Adapters
To reduce the effects of temperature drift on your measurements, do the following.
Switch on the analyzer 1/2 hour before performing a measurement calibration or making a device
measurement.
One hour before you perform a measurement calibration, open the case of the calibration kit and take the
standards out of the protective foam.
Use a temperature-controlled environment. All specifications and characteristics apply over a 25 °C ±5 °C
range (unless otherwise stated).
Ensure the temperature stability of the calibration kit devices.
396
Avoid handling the calibration kit devices unnecessarily during the calibration procedure.
Ensure the ambient temperature is ±1°C of the measurement calibration temperature.
Inaccurate Measurement Calibrations
If a measurement calibration is inaccurate, you will not measure the true response of a device under test. To
ensure that your calibration is accurate, you should consider the following practices:
Perform a measurement calibration at the points where you connect the device under test, that is, the
reference plane.
If you insert any additional accessory (cable, adapter, attenuator) to the test setup after you have performed
a measurement calibration, use the port extensions function to compensate for the added electrical length
and delay.
Use calibration standards that match the definitions used in the calibration process.
Inspect, clean, and gage connectors. See Connector Care.
See Accurate Measurement Calibrations for more detailed information.
Device Connections
Good connections are necessary for repeatable measurements. To help make good connections, do the following:
Inspect and clean the connectors for all of the components in the measurement setup.
Use proper connection techniques.
Avoid moving the cables during a measurement.
397
Noise Reduction Techniques
Random electrical noise which shows up in the analyzer receiver chain can reduce measurement accuracy. The
following PNA functions help reduce trace noise and the noise floor which can lead to better dynamic range and
more accurate measurements.
Note: The trace noise in microwave PNAs becomes worse below 748 MHz and is especially obvious between 10
MHz and 45 MHz. See Reduce IFBW.
Sweep Average
IF Bandwidth
Trace Smoothing
See Also
Increase Dynamic Range
PNA data processing map.
Other topics about Optimizing Measurements
Sweep Average
Sweep average is a feature that reduces the effects of random noise on a measurement. The PNA computes each
data point based on the average of the same data point over several consecutive sweeps. You determine the
number of consecutive sweeps by setting the Average factor. The higher the average factor, the greater the
amount of noise reduction.
An Average Counter appears on the screen when Averaging is ON, displaying the number of sweeps that
has been averaged. The effect on the signal trace can be viewed as the Average Factor increases. This can
assist in the selection of the optimum number of sweep averages.
Channel wide - Averaging is applied to all measurements in a channel. The Average counter is displayed for
each channel.
Unratioed measurements - Although you can average unratioed (single receiver) measurements, you may
get unexpected results:
Phase results may tend toward 0. This is because phase measurements are relative by nature.
Measuring absolute phase with a single receiver appears random. Averaging random positive and
negative numbers will tend toward 0.
The noise floor does not drop when averaging unratioed measurements as on ratioed measurements.
Average vs IF Bandwidth - Both can be used for the same benefit of general noise reduction. For
minimizing very low noise, using Average is more effective than reducing system bandwidth. Generally,
Averaging takes slightly longer than IF bandwidth reduction to lower noise, especially if many averages are
required. Also, changing the IF bandwidth after calibration results in uncertain accuracy.
398
Calibration - Because averaging is a mathematical process that occurs after the raw measurement is made,
averaging can be turned ON before, or after, calibration without invalidating the error correction terms. If
averaging is ON before calibration, the measurement of calibration standards are averaged measurements.
More sweeps are needed to perform the calibration, but there will be less noise in the resulting error
correction terms. Subsequent corrected measurements will also have less noise error. In addition, noise is
further reduced by turning Averaging ON after calibration. See the PNA data processing map.
Point-averaging - The PNA does NOT have a "point-averaging" feature like the Agilent 8510 network
analyzer. That feature measures and averages each data point BEFORE moving to the next data point.
Therefore, all data points are averaged in a single, slower sweep. To accomplish similar results with the
PNA, try lowering the IFBW.
Effects of Sweep Average
How to Set Averaging
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Channel
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Average
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press AV G
1. Click Response
2. then [Averaging]
2. then Avg
3. then Average
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Average dialog box help
Average ON
Checked - Averaging is applied
Cleared - Averaging is NOT applied
Average Factor Specifies the number of sweeps that is averaged. Range of 1 to 65536 (2^16).
Restart Begins a new set of measurements that are used for the average. This set of measurements is equal
to the average factor.
Learn about Averaging (scroll up)
IF Bandwidth
The PNA converts the received signal from its source to a lower intermediate frequency (IF). The bandwidth of the
IF bandpass filter is adjustable from 40 kHz (for most PNA models) down to a minimum of 1 Hz.
Reducing the IF receiver bandwidth reduces the effect of random noise on a measurement. Each tenfold reduction
in IF bandwidth lowers the noise floor by 10 dB. However, narrower IF bandwidths cause longer sweep times.
Channel wide - IF bandwidth can be set independently for each channel
Segment sweep - IF bandwidth can be set independently for each segment of segment sweep.
Calibration - Changing the IF bandwidth after calibration will cause a 'C-delta' correction level, which means
that calibration accuracy is uncertain.
Effect of Reducing IF Bandwidth
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How to set IF Bandwidth
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Sweep
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then IF Bandwidth
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press AV G
1. Click Response
2. then [IF Bandwidth]
2. then Avg
3. then IF Bandwidth
IF Bandwidth dialog box help
IF Bandwidth Specifies the IF (receiver) bandwidth. The value of IF bandwidth is selected by scrolling through
the values available in the IF bandwidth text box. The IF BW is set independently for each channel.
The list of selectable IF Bandwidths is different depending on PNA model.
The following values are common to all models:
1 | 2 | 3 | 5 | 7 | 10 | 15 | 20 | 30 | 50 | 70 | 100 | 150 | 200 | 300 | 500 | 700 | 1k | 1.5k | 2k | 3k | 5k | 7k |
10k | 15k | 20k | 30k
In addition, the following values are PNA Model specific:
5230A Opts 020, 025, 120, 125, 140, 145, 146, 240, 245, 146
50k | 70k | 100k | 150k| 200k | 280k | 360k | 600k
N5230A Opts 220, 225, 420, 425, 520, 525:
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50k | 70k | 100k | 150k| 200k | 250k
E836x models:
35k | 40k
N5242A (PNA-X):
50k | 70k | 100k | 150k| 200k | 280k | 360k | 600k | 1M | 1.5M | 2M | 3M | 5M
The following limitations apply for the highlighted IFBW settings (1 MHz and above).
Note: These wider IFBWs do NOT provide faster sweep speeds. They are used to make wideband
pulsed measurements
Dwell time is not allowed.
Sweep times that are slower than the default value are not allowed.
Step sweep mode only - NOT available in Analog sweep.
External Trigger Delay is not allowed.
Number of points for CW sweep is limited to 1001.
A slight shift (.1dB) in Log Mag traces may be seen when switching in and out of these bandwidths.
Reduce IF BW at Low Frequencies
On PNA models with a maximum frequency of 20 GHz and higher, the trace noise becomes worse below 748
MHz. This is especially obvious between 10 MHz and 45 MHz and also when Time Domain is ON. See PNA
models / maximum frequencies.
When this box is checked, the PNA uses a smaller IF Bandwidth than the selected value at frequencies below
748 MHz.
This setting:
can be made for each channel.
is ON (checked) by default.
also applies to segment sweep.
is NOT available on 4-port PNA-L (model N5230A Opt 240 and 245).
Use the following calculations to determine the actual IF Bandwidth value that is used below 748 MHz.
If the result is NOT a selectable IF BW value, the next higher selectable value is used.
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10 MHz to 44.999999 MHz
45 MHz to 748 MHz
Not applicable
Not applicable
ALL 2-port 20 GHz PNA
models :
Actual IF BW = (selected IF BW)
x (.05)
Actual IF BW = selected IF BW
(No reduction)
ALL 40 GHz and higher
models:
Actual IF BW = (selected IF BW)
x (.025)
Actual IF BW = (selected IF BW)
x (.5)
Less than 20 GHz models:
PNA-X Models
Start Freq
Stop Freq
Actual IF BW = (selected IF BW) x n
10MHz
19 MHz
n = .05
19MHz+
53 MHz
n = .1
53 MHz+
75 MHz
n = .5
75 MHz+
26.5 GHz
n=1
+ indicates plus 1 Hz
Example:
On a 67 GHz PNA, the selected IF BW is 30 KHz.
With Reduce IF BW at Low Frequencies checked, the actual IF Bandwidths used are:
From 10 MHz to 44.999999 MHz: 30,000Hz * .025 = 750 Hz (PNA uses next higher selectable value:
1000 Hz.)
From 45 MHz to 748 MHz: 30,000Hz * .5 = 15 KHz
From 748 MHz to stop sweep: 30 KHz
OK Selects the value of IF bandwidth shown in the text box.
Learn about IF Bandwidth (scroll up)
Trace Smoothing
Trace smoothing averages a number of adjacent data points to smooth the displayed trace. The number of
adjacent data points that get averaged together is also known as the smoothing aperture. You can specify aperture
as either the number of data points or the percentage of the x-axis span.
Trace Smoothing reduces the peak-to-peak noise values on broadband measured data. It smooths trace noise and
does not increase measurement time significantly.
Because Trace Smoothing follows Format in the PNA data processing map, the formatted data is smoothed.
403
Smoothing is automatically turned off if the format is Polar or Smith Chart.
Learn more about Data Format Types.
See the PNA data processing map.
Tips:
Start with a high number of display points and reduce until you are confident that the trace is not giving
misleading results.
Do not use smoothing for high-resonance devices, or devices with wide trace variations. It may introduce
misleading information.
Smoothing is set independently for each trace.
Effects of Smoothing on a Trace
How to set Trace Smoothing
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Trace
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Smoothing
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press AV G
1. Click Response
2. then [Smoothing
2. then Avg
3. then Smoothing
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Smoothing dialog box help
Smoothing ON When checked, applies smoothing to the displayed trace.
Percent of Span Specify percent of the swept stimulus span to average. For example, for a trace that contains
100 data points, and specify a percent of span = 11%, then the number of data points that are averaged is 11.
Points Specify the number of adjacent data points to average.
Learn about Trace Smoothing (scroll up)
Last modified:
Sept.12, 2006
Added link to programming commands
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Crosstalk
Crosstalk is energy leakage between analyzer signal paths. This can be a problem with high-loss transmission
measurements. Although the crosstalk specification of the PNA is exceptional, you can reduce the effects of
crosstalk by doing the following:
Set the Sweep to Alternate
Perform an Isolation Calibration
Other topics about Optimizing Measurements
Set the Sweep to Alternate
Alternate sweep measures only one receiver per sweep. When one receiver is measured, the analyzer switches off
the other receiver. This helps reduce receiver crosstalk.
Learn how to set Alternate Sweep.
Notes
Alternate sweep mode is set independently for each measurement channel. Therefore, if multiple
measurement channels are in use, you may want to set Alternate sweep for each channel.
When more than one receiver is being used to make measurements, the Alternate Sweep setting doubles
the sweep cycle time.
The PNA noise floor has to be lowered substantially before crosstalk is visible. You may need to use
averaging or narrow the IF bandwidth.
Perform an Isolation Calibration
For transmission measurements, a response and isolation measurement calibration helps reduce crosstalk
because the analyzer measures and then subtracts the leakage signal during the measurement calibration. The
calibration improves isolation so that it is limited only by the noise floor.
Note: Isolation is never performed on a Smart (Guided) Calibration. Learn more.
Generally, the isolation error falls below the noise floor. So when you are performing an isolation calibration you
should use a noise reduction technique such as sweep averages or reducing the IF bandwidth.
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Effects of Accessories
Accessories in a configuration may affect the results of a device measurement. You can choose between two
analyzer features that reduce the effects of accessories.
Power Slope to Compensate for Cable Loss
Gating to Selectively Remove Responses
Other topics about Optimizing Measurements
Power Slope to Compensate for Cable Loss
If you have a long cable or other accessory in a measurement configuration where a power loss occurs over
frequency, apply the power slope function. This function increases the analyzer source power by a rate that you
define (dB/GHz).
1. In the Channel menu, click Power.
2. If the slope function is not already switched on, click the Slope check box.
3. In the dB/GHz box, enter the rate that you want the source power to increase over the frequency sweep.
Click OK.
Gating to Selectively Remove Responses
Gating is a feature in the time domain (option 010) that allows the analyzer to mathematically remove responses.
You can set the gate for either a reflection or transmission response, but you will see different results.
Gating a reflection response isolates a desired response (such as a filter's return loss), from unwanted
responses (such as adapter reflections or connector mismatches).
Gating a transmission response isolates a specific path in a multipath device that has long electrical
lengths.
See Time Domain Gating for more information.
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Achieve Fastest Sweep
You can achieve the fastest measurement sweep by adjusting the following:
Sweep Settings
Noise Reduction Settings
Measurement Calibration Choice
Unnecessary Functions
Other topics about Optimizing Measurements
Sweep Settings
Consider changing each of the following settings as suggested.
Frequency Span - Measure only the frequencies that are necessary for your device.
Segment Sweep - Use segments to focus test data only where you need it.
Switch Off Stepped Sweep - Use linear swept mode to minimize sweep time when possible.
Auto Sweep Time - Use this default to sweep as quickly as possible for the current settings.
Number of Points - Use the minimum number of points required for the measurement.
For more information on how number of points and other settings affect sweep cycle time, see Technical
Specifications.
Noise Reduction Settings
Using a combination of these settings, you can decrease the sweep time while still achieving an acceptable
measurement.
IF Bandwidth. Use the widest IF bandwidth that will produce acceptable trace noise and dynamic range.
Average. Reduce the average factor, or switch Average off.
Measurement Calibration Choice
Choose the appropriate type of calibration for the required level of accuracy.
When full 2-port error correction is applied, the PNA takes both forward and reverse sweeps to gather all 12 error
correction terms. This occurs even with a single S11 measurement displayed. All displayed measurements are
updated as the second sweep is performed. Both sweeps are performed using the specified sweep time.
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When calibrating greater than 2 ports, the following formula is used to determine the number of sweeps required:
N * (N-1) where N = the number of ports.
When full 3-port calibration is applied, 6 sweeps are required; forward and reverse for each port pair. With full 4port correction, 12 sweeps are required, and so forth.
To limit the measurement time, perform ONLY the level of calibration that your measurements require. For
example, if making only an S11 measurement, perform a 1-port calibration on that port.
Sweep speed is about the same for uncorrected measurements and measurements done using a response
calibration, or one-port calibration. For more information see Select a Calibration.
Unnecessary Functions
The analyzer must update information for all active functions. To achieve an additional increase in sweep speed,
switch off all of the analyzer functions that are not necessary for your measurement application.
Delete Unwanted Traces
Switch Off Unwanted Markers
Switch Off Smoothing
Switch Off Limit Testing
Switch Off Math Functions
Analyzer sweep speed is dependent on various measurement settings. Experiment with the settings to get the
fastest sweep and the measurement results that you need.
409
Switch Between Multiple Measurements
If you need to make multiple measurements to characterize a device, you can use various methods to increase
throughput. Experiment with these methods to find what is best for your measurement application needs.
Set Up Measurements for Increased Throughput
Arrange Measurements in Sets
Use Segment Sweep
Trigger Measurements Selectively
Automate Changes Between Measurements
Recall Measurements Quickly
Other topics about Optimizing Measurements
Set Up Measurements for Increased Throughput
To achieve optimum throughput of devices that require multiple measurements, it is helpful to know the operation
of the PNA. This knowledge allows you to set up the measurement scenarios that are best for your applications.
Learn more about Traces, Channels, and Windows on the PNA
Arrange Measurements in Sets
If you arrange measurements to keep the complete set of device measurements in one instrument state, you can
save them so that you can later recall a number of measurements with one recall function.
See Pre-configured Measurement Setups for more information.
Use Segment Sweep
Segment sweep is helpful if you need to change the following settings to characterize a device under test.
Frequency Range
Power Level
IF Bandwidth
Number of Points
The segment sweep allows you to define a set of frequency ranges that have independent attributes. This allows
you to use one measurement sweep to measure a device that has varying characteristics.
See Segment Sweep for more information.
410
Trigger Measurements Selectively
You can use the measurement trigger to make measurements as follows:
Continuously update only the measurements that have rapidly changing data.
Occasionally update measurements that have infrequently changing data.
For example, if you had four channels set up as follows:
Two channels measuring the data that is used to tune a filter
Two channels measuring the data for the out-of-band responses of the filter
You would want to constantly monitor only the measurement data that you use for tuning the filter. If you
continuously update all of the channels, this could slow the response of the analyzer so that you would not be able
to tune the filter as effectively.
Note: You must either trigger the infrequent measurement manually or with remote interface commands.
To trigger measurements selectively:
This procedure shows you how to set up two different measurements with the following behavior:
Channel 1 measurement will continuously update the data.
Channel 2 measurement will occasionally update the data.
1. In the Windows menu, click Meas Setups, Setup D.
Set Up a Measurement Trigger for Continuous Updates
2. In the Sweep menu, click Trigger, Trigger....
3. Under Trigger Source, click Internal.
4. Under Channel Trigger State, select Channel 1, and click Continuous.
Set Up a Measurement Trigger for Occasional Updates
5. Under Channel Trigger State, select Channel 2, and click Single, OK.
If you want the analyzer to trigger more than a single sweep, click the Enable Groups check box and
enter the number of sweeps.
6. In the System menu, click Keys, Trigger.
Update the Measurement
7. Click on the lower window to make Channel 2 the active channel.
8.
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7.
8. On the active entry toolbar, click the type of trigger you set up.
Click Single if you set up the analyzer for a single sweep per trigger.
Click Groups if you set up the multiple sweeps per trigger.
Note: A trace must be active for you to initiate a trigger for that measurement.
Automate Changes Between Measurements
If there are slight differences between the various measurements that you need to characterize a device, you may
find that it is faster to change the measurement settings using programming.
Recall Measurements Quickly
The most efficient way to recall measurements is to recall them as a set of measurements (instrument state).
It only takes a short time longer to recall an instrument state that includes multiple measurements, than it
does to recall an instrument state with only one measurement.
Each recall function has time associated with it. You can eliminate that time by setting up the measurements
as a set so you can recall them as a set.
See Save and Recall Files for more information.
412
Data Transfer Speed
When testing devices remotely using COM or SCPI, the following techniques can be used to transfer data quickly
between the PNA and remote computer, helping you achieve the best measurement throughput.
Use single sweep (trigger) mode to ensure that a measurement is complete before starting a data transfer.
Transfer the minimum amount of data needed. For example, a trace with a few points, using segment
sweep rather than a full trace with many linearly spaced points. Also, use markers instead of trace transfers.
Choose the REAL data format to provide the fastest transfer speed when using SCPI programs for
automated applications.
Use SCPI over LAN for applications that are automated with SCPI programs.
Use COM programs to provide the fastest transfer speed when using an automated application. See Data
Transfer Time specifications.
Other topics about Optimizing Measurements
413
Using Macros
Macros are executable programs that you write, load into the analyzer, and then run from the analyzer. You can
have up to 12 macros set up to run on the analyzer.
How to Setup Macros
How to Run Macros
Macro Example
How to Setup Macros
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Click System
1. Press
+
2. then Macro
2. Press
3. then Macro Setup
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press MACRO
1. Click Utility
2. then [Macro Setup]
2. then Macro
3. then Macro Setup
In the Macro Setup dialog box:
1. Click on a blank line below the last entry. (There may be NO entry.)
2. Click Edit
3. In the Macro Title box, type a descriptive title for your macro.
4. Click Browse.
5. Change Files of Type
6. Find and click your macro file
7.
8.
414
5.
6.
7. Click OK
8. Click OK on the Macro Setup dialog box.
Macro Setup dialog box help
Allows you to create a set of 12 macros so that you can launch other programs from within the PNA application.
Note: To add a Macro, select a blank line then click Edit
Macro Title Shows the titles that appear in the active entry toolbar when you press the Macro key. These titles
are associated with the executable files and should be descriptive so you can easily identify them. For example,
if you wanted to launch the Agilent Home Page, you could title the executable "Agilent Home."
Macro Executable Lists the complete path to the executable file. To follow the example of launching the
Agilent PNA Series Home Page, the path to the executable could be "C:\Program Files\Internet
Explorer\iexplore.exe.
Macro Runstring Parameters Lists the parameters that get passed to the program that is referenced in the
executable file. Again following the example of launching the PNA Series Home Page, you could assign the
runstring parameters "http://www.agilent.com/find/pna".
Edit Invokes the Macro Edit dialog box.
Delete Deletes the selected macro.
Up Allows you to reorder the macros, moving the selected macro up one line. For the 12 possible macros
there are 12 lines, indicating the order that they appear in the active entry toolbar when you press the Macro
key. Since there are four titles that can be shown at one time in the toolbar, when you repeatedly press the
Macro key, the toolbar changes the macro titles to the next set of four macro titles.
Down Moves the selection down one line in the list of macros.
415
Macro Edit dialog box help
Macro Title Allows you to modify the title that appears in the active entry toolbar.
Macro Executable Allows you to modify the complete path to the macro executable file.
Browse Allows you to look through drives and directories, to locate the macro executable file and establish the
complete path to the file.
Macro run string parameters Allows you to modify the parameters that are passed to the program referenced
in the executable file.
See Macro Setup dialog box
How to Run Macros
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Click System
1. Press
2.
until your macro is visible
2. then Macro
3. then select the macro to run
then
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press MACRO
1. Click Utility
2. then select the macro to run
2. then Macro
3. then select the macro to run
Macro Example
416
The following is an example Visual Basic Scripting (vbs) program that you can copy, install, and run on your PNA
Note: Print these instructions if viewing in the analyzer. This topic will be covered by the Macro Setup dialog box.
1. Copy the following code into a Notepad file.
2. Save the file on the analyzer hard drive in the C:\Documents folder. Name the file FilterTest.vbs
3. Close Notepad
4. Setup the macro in the PNA
5. Run the macro
'Start copying here
'This program creates a S21 measurement, with Bandwidth
'markers for testing a 175MHz Bandpass filter
'It is written in VBscript using COM commands
Set PNA = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application")
PNA.Preset
Set chan=PNA.activechannel
Set meas=PNA.activemeasurement
Set limts = meas.LimitTest
Set trce = PNA.ActiveNAWindow.ActiveTrace
meas.ChangeParameter "S21",1
chan.StartFrequency = 45e6
chan.StopFrequency = 500e6
trce.ReferencePosition = 8
PNA.TriggerSignal = 3
'Do Test
for t=1 to 5
call measure
call compare
next
msgbox("Done Testing")
sub measure
msgbox("Connect Device " & t & " and press OK")
PNA.ManualTrigger True
meas.SearchFilterBandwidth
end sub
sub compare
BW = meas.FilterBW
if bw>6.5e7 then msgbox("Failed BW: " & BW)
Loss = meas.FilterLoss
if loss>5 then msgbox("Failed Loss: " & Loss)
end sub
'End copying here
417
Calibration Overview
The following is discussed in this topic:
What Is Measurement Calibration?
Why Is Calibration Necessary?
Conditions Where Calibration Is Suggested
What Is ECal?
See other Calibration Topics
What Is Measurement Calibration?
Calibration removes one or more of the systematic errors using an equation called an error model. Measurement of
high quality standards (for example, a short, open, load, and thru) allows the analyzer to solve for the error terms in
the error model. See Measurement Errors.
You can choose from different calibration types, depending on the measurement you are making and the level of
accuracy you need for the measurement. See Select a Calibration Type.
The accuracy of the calibrated measurements is dependent on the quality of the standards in the calibration kit and
how accurately the standards are modeled (defined) in the calibration kit definition file. The calibration-kit definition
file is stored in the analyzer. In order to make accurate measurements, the calibration-kit definition must match the
actual calibration kit used. To learn more, see Accurate Calibrations.
Calibration Wizard provides the different calibration methods used in the PNA. See Calibration Wizard.
There are quick checks you can do to ensure your measurement calibration is accurate. To learn more see Validity
of a Measurement Calibration
If you make your own custom-built calibration standards (for example, during in-fixture measurements), then you
must characterize the calibration standards and enter the definitions into a user modified calibration-kit file. For
more information on modifying calibration kit files, see Calibration Standards.
Note: Instrument Calibration is ensuring the analyzer hardware is performing as specified. This is not the same as
measurement calibration.
Why Is Calibration Necessary?
It is impossible to make perfect hardware that would not need any form of error correction. Even making the
hardware good enough to eliminate the need for error correction for most devices would be extremely expensive.
The accuracy of network analysis is greatly influenced by factors external to the network analyzer. Components of
the measurement setup, such as interconnecting cables and adapters, introduce variations in magnitude and phase
that can mask the actual response of the device under test.
The best balance is to make the hardware as good as practically possible, balancing performance and cost.
Calibration is then a very useful tool to improve measurement accuracy.
418
Conditions Where Calibration Is Suggested
Generally, you should calibrate for making a measurement under the following circumstances:
You want the best accuracy possible.
You are adapting to a different connector type or impedance.
You are connecting a cable between the test device and an analyzer test port.
You are measuring across a wide frequency span or an electrically long device.
You are connecting an attenuator or other such device on the input or output of the test device.
If your test setup meets any of the conditions above, the following system characteristics may be affected:
Amplitude at device input
Frequency response accuracy
Directivity
Crosstalk (isolation)
Source match
Load match
What Is ECAL
ECal is a complete solid-state calibration solution. It makes one port (Reflection), full two and three-port calibrations
fast and easy. See Using ECal.
It is less prone to operator error.
The various standards (located inside the calibration module) never wear out because they are switched with
PIN-diode or FET switches.
The calibration modules are characterized using a TRL-calibrated network analyzer.
ECal is not as accurate as a good TRL calibration.
For information about ordering ECal modules, see Analyzer Accessories or contact your Agilent Support
Representative
419
Calibration Standards
This following section explains the general principles and terms regarding calibration kit files. To learn how to
modify calibration kit files, See Modify Calibration Kits.
About Calibration Kits
Calibration Standards
Standard Type
Standard Definitions
Class Assignments
See other Calibration Topics
About Calibration Kits
A calibration kit is a set of physical devices called standards. Each standard has a precisely known or predictable
magnitude and phase response as a function of frequency.
In order to calibrate the analyzer using the standards in a calibration kit, the response of each standard must be
mathematically defined and then organized into standard classes that correspond to the error models used by the
analyzer.
To be able to use a particular calibration kit, the known characteristics from each standard in the kit must be stored
into analyzer memory. This is done for you with the PNA. All Agilent Cal Kits containing standard definitions are
stored in the PNA. For a list of Agilent calibration kits, see Analyzer Accessories.
Calibration Standards
Calibration standards provide the reference for error-corrected measurements in the network analyzer. Each
standard has a precisely known definition that includes electrical delay, impedance, and loss. The analyzer stores
these definitions and uses them to calculate error correction terms.
During measurement calibration, the analyzer measures standards and mathematically compares the results with
"ideal models" of those standards. The differences are separated into error terms that are later removed from
device measurements during error correction. See Systematic Errors.
Standard Type
A standard type is one of five basic types that define the form or structure of the model to be used with that
standard. The standard types are shown below:
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Standard
Terminal Impedance
SHORT
zero ohms
OPEN
infinite ohms
LOAD
system impedance, Z0
THRU/LINE
no terminal impedance
ARBITRARY
user-defined
Standard Definitions
Standard definitions describe the electrical characteristics of the standards and the frequencies they will be used.
Standard definitions can be viewed from the Advanced Modify Cal Kit menu selection. Standard definitions include:
Minimum Frequency Specifies the minimum frequency the standard is used for calibration.
Maximum Frequency Specifies the maximum frequency the standard is used for calibration.
Z0 Specifies the characteristic impedance of the standard (not the system characteristic impedance or the
terminal impedance of the standard).
Delay Specifies a uniform length of transmission line between the standard being defined and the actual
calibration plane.
Type Specifies type of standard (SHORT, OPEN, THRU/LINE, LOAD, ARBITRARY).
Loss Specifies energy loss, due to skin effect, along a one-way length of coaxial cable.
Loss model equation:
The value of loss is entered as ohms/second at 1 GHz.
To compute the loss of the standard, measure the delay in seconds and the loss in dB at 1 GHz. Then use
the following formula:
Capacitance model equation:
C0, C1, C2, C3. Specifies the fringing capacitance for the open standard.
C = (C0) + (C1 x F) + (C2 x F²) + (C3 x F³)
(F is the measurement frequency).
The terms in the equation are defined when specifying the open as follows:
421
C0 term is the constant term of the third-order polynomial and is expressed in Farads.
C1 term is expressed in F/Hz (Farads/Hz).
C2 term is expressed in F/Hz².
C3 term is expressed in F/Hz³.
Inductance model equation:
L0, L1, L2, L3. Specifies the residual inductance for the short standard.
L = (L0) + (L1 x F) + (L2 x F²) + (L3 x F³)
(F is the measurement frequency).
The terms in the equation are defined when specifying the short as follows:
L0 term is the constant term of the third-order polynomial and is expressed in Henries.
L1 term is expressed in H/Hz (Henries/Hz)
L2 term is expressed in H/Hz².
L3 term is expressed in H/Hz³.
Class Assignments
Once a standard is characterized, it must be assigned to a standard "class". A standard class is a group of
standards that are organized according to the calibration of the PNA error model.
The number of classes needed for a particular calibration type is equal to the number of error terms being
corrected.
A class often consists of a single standard, but may be composed of multiple standards. These may be required for
accuracy or to cover a wide frequency range.
Example: A response calibration requires only one class, and the standards for that class may include an OPEN,
or SHORT, or THRU. A 1-port calibration requires three classes. A 2-port calibration requires 10 classes, not
including two for isolation.
The number of standards assigned to a given class may vary from one to seven for unguided calibrations. Guided
calibrations allow as many standards as needed.
Calibration Classes are assigned in the Advanced Modify Cal Kit menu selection.
The different classes used in the PNA:
S11A, S11B, S11C (S22A, S22B, S22C and so forth)
These are the three classes for port 1-reflection calibrations (three classes also for S22 and S33). They are used in
the one-port calibrations and the full two-port calibration. They are required in removing the directivity, source
match, and reflection tracking errors. Typically, these classes might consist of an open, a short and a load standard
for each port.
Transmission and Match (forward and reverse)
These classes are used to perform a full two-port calibration. The transmission class relates primarily to the
transmission tracking, while the match class refers to load match. For both of these classes, the typical standard is
a thru or delay.
422
Isolation
The isolation classes are used to perform a full two-port and the TRL two-port calibrations. The isolation classes
apply to the forward and reverse crosstalk terms in the PNA error model.
TRL THRU
These are used to perform a TRL two-port calibration. The TRL thru class should contain a thru standard or a short
line. If it contains a non-zero length thru standard, then the calibration type is called LRL or LRM.
TRL REFLECT
This class is used to perform a TRL two-port calibration. The TRL reflect class should contain a standard with a
high reflection coefficient, typically an open or short. The actual reflection coefficient need not be known, but its
phase angle should be specified approximately correctly (± 90 deg). The exact same reflection standard must be
used on both ports in the TRL calibration process.
TRL LINE or MATCH
These are used to perform a TRL two-port calibration. The TRL line or match class should contain line standards,
load standards, or both. If a line standard is used, its phase shift must differ from that of the TRL THRU standard
by 20° to 160°. This limits the useable frequency range to about 8 to 1. Two or more line standards of different
lengths may be specified to get broader frequency coverage. It is also common to include a load standard for
covering low frequencies, where the line's length would be impractically long. When a load is used, the calibration
type is called TRM or LRM.
Note: For more information, read application note 8510-5A, "Specifying Calibration Standards for the Agilent 8510
Network Analyzer". Although the application note is written for the Agilent 8510 series of network analyzers, it
applies to the PNA as well. The part number for the publication is 5956-4352.
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Calibration Wizard
The Calibration Wizard allows you to choose a Calibration method and then perform the calibration.
How to Start Calibration Wizard
Guided Calibration: Mechanical Standards
Unguided Calibration
Saving a Calibration
Other Cal Topics
How to start Calibration Wizard
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press CAL
1. Click Calibration
2. then Active Entry keys
2. then Cal Wizard
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press CAL
1. Click Response
2. then [Start Cal]
2. then Cal Wizard
3. then [Cal Wizard]
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Calibration Wizard Begin dialog box help
Select the calibration method:
SmartCal (Guided Calibration
This method provides a step-by-step "wizard" interface. You describe the connectors on your DUT and the
cal kits you will use; it walks you through the most accurate calibration possible.
Note: SmartCal DOES allow you to measure calibration standards in any order. However, you must click Next
and Back without measuring standards until you get to the standard you want to measure.
Supports ALL Cals EXCEPT simple open, short, and thru response Cals . See Also TRL Calibration
Use a different Cal Kit (including ECal) for each port.
Unguided Calibration
This method provides a familiar calibration interface, but with limited capability. You choose the type of cal to
perform; it allows you the flexibility to measure the standards in any order.
Supports all Cals EXCEPT full 3-port, full 4-port.
TRL is NOT supported on multiport PNAs.
Only one Cal Kit can be used.
Use Electronic Calibration
This method provides fast, software-controlled calibrations.
Only one ECal module can be used. Use SmartCal when more than one ECal module is needed.
Save Preferences
When cleared, you will continue to see this page on subsequent calibrations.
When checked, saves your calibration method choice and the dialog no longer appears.
To make this dialog re-appear, click Calibration, then Preferences.
Learn more about Calibration Preferences.
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The Calibration Window / Channel
During a Guided Calibration, a 'Cal Window' is created for you to view the connection of calibration standards
before standards are measured. This Cal Window uses a new Cal channel that is created and duplicates the
settings in the channel being calibrated. Correction is ALWAYS OFF for the displayed calibration channel. At
the completion of the calibration, the calibration channel and window are deleted.
With PNA Rev. 8.0, the measurement of calibration standards can be performed while viewing any PNA
window configuration you choose. The Cal Window is appended to your Custom Cal Window setting, and all
windows are visible and sweeping below the Cal Wizard before the Measure (cal standard) button is pressed.
The windows to be viewed and channels to be swept during the cal process are specified using SCPI
commands. See an example.
The new Cal Window settings do not work in a FCA channel.
SmartCal (Guided Calibration)
Guided Calibration automatically determines the calibration type and suggests a calibration kit that matches your
DUT connectors.
Guided Calibration can perform the following Cal Types:
ALL Cals EXCEPT Open, Short, and Thru Response Cals.
ECal on one or more ports, beginning with PNA firmware revision 5.24.
TRL - Learn how to do TRL cals
Note: SmartCal DOES allow you to measure calibration standards in any order. However, you must click Next and
Back without measuring standards until you get to the standard you want to measure.
The PNA displays the following dialog boxes when performing a Guided calibration.
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Select Ports for Guided Calibration dialog box help
Allows you to select ports to calibrate.
Cal Type Selection Select the number of ports to calibrate.
N Port Cal Configuration If not calibrating all PNA ports, specify which ports to calibrate.
Show Advanced Settings (Orientation & Thru Cal Section) Available only for ECal.
Back Return to Cal Wizard Begin dialog. If you did not see the 'Cal Wizard Begin' dialog but want to, click
Back, then clear the Save Preferences checkbox.
For greater than 4-port cals, see External Test Set calibration - Select Cal Type.
Select DUT Connectors and Cal Kits dialog box help
Allows you to select the connector type and Cal Kit for each DUT port to be calibrated.
Connectors To change selection, click the connector field for each DUT port.
If your DUT connectors are:
Waveguide Change the system impedance to 1 ohm before performing a calibration. See Setting
System Impedance.
Not listed You can create your own connector type and calibration kit file. The PNA includes the
following example cal kits that can be used as a template. See Calibration kits for more information.
If using a gendered (male and female) connector type, select Type A as the connector type.
If using a connectorless device such as on-wafer probes., select Type B as the connector type.
Cal Kits Select the Cal Kit to be used to calibrate each test port. The list for each DUT Port displays kits
having the same connector type as the DUT.
Identical ECal models connected? ECal modules can be distinguished by serial number. This can have
implications on your remote SCPI programs.
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85056K
To calibrate 2.4 mm connectors using the 85056K cal kit, select 85056D as the cal kit. The 85056K
definitions in the PNA are for 2.92mm standards (2.4mm plus 2.92 adapters). The 85056D kit
contains exactly the same standards WITHOUT the adapters.
TRL
To perform a TRL Cal, assign a TRL Cal Kit to the lowest port number of each port pair.
When selecting a TRL Cal Kit on a 4-port PNA, and a Global Delta Match Cal is not available, the Cal
type will be set to SOLT and a "Could not find a Global Delta Match Cal." message is displayed on
the dialog box. If the selected Cal Kit will not support SOLT, the Next button will not be available.
Then you must select a different Cal Kit to proceed or Cancel and perform a Global Delta Match Cal.
Modify Cal Check, then click Next, to Modify Cal (Standards AND Thru Method).
For greater than 4-port cals, see External Test Set calibration - Select DUT Connectors.
Error: Frequency Range dialog box help
The current cal kit does not cover the current frequency range of the measurement. Do one of the following to
correct the problem:
Frequency Change the frequency range of the active channel.
Edit Modify the class assignments so that a different standard is selected.
Back Select a different Cal Kit that covers the required frequency range.
Cancel Exit the Cal Wizard
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Modify Cal dialog box help
Thru #n
Lists the proposed Thru connections to be made during the calibration process. You can change these Thru
connections to better suit your test setup.
The proposed Thru connections are listed automatically.
Additional Thru connections can be selected for higher accuracy. Learn more.
Add Thru
Click to add a Thru connection. Learn more
Remove Thru
Select a Thru by clicking the "Thru #N" field or the "1st Port / 2nd Port" field. Then click "Remove Thru". This
selection is NOT available if the selected Thru is required for the calibration.
1st Port / 2nd Port
Click to select the two ports to be included in the Thru connection. The order of the port numbers is not critical.
Thru Cal Method
Lists the available Thru Cal methods for the specified port pairs.
Learn about the Thru Cal Method choices.
Cal Type/ Stds
Click to invoke the View / Modify Properties of Cal dialog box
Do orientation - Appears ONLY if an ECal module is selected for use.
When this box is checked (default) the PNA automatically senses the model and direction in which an ECal
module port is connected to the PNA ports. If power to the ECal module is too low, it will appear as if there is no
ECal module connected. If you use low power and are having this problem, clear this check box to provide the
orientation manually.
Orientation occurs first at the middle of the frequency range that you are calibrating. If a signal is not detected,
it tries again at the lowest frequency in the range. If you have an E8361A or E836xB PNA and do an ECal
completely within 10 - 20 MHz OR 60 - 67 GHz, you may need to do orientation manually. There may not be
sufficient power to orient the ECal module at those frequencies.
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Choose delta match - Available when a Delta Match Cal is required.
Check, then click Next to invoke the Select Cal Set for Delta Match dialog box.
Clear - The Cal Wizard uses the Global Delta Match Cal if available.
View/Detect ECal Characterizations - Appears ONLY if an ECal module is selected for use.
Click to invoke the View ECal Modules and Characterizations dialog box. Displays a list of ECal modules that
are connected to the PNA.
View/Modify Properties of Cal for Ports... dialog box help
Select calibration type
Another chance to change the Thru method.
Learn about the Thru Cal Method choices.
Advanced
Select the cal method for each connector of the Thru pair.
TRL is only available if a TRL cal kit was selected for the lowest port number of the port pair.
QSOLT Only available when "Defined Thru" or "Flush Thru" is selected.
"QSOLT 2 <= 1" refers to the receive port 2 and source port 1(where reflection standards are
connected).
Enhanced Response Only available when "Defined Thru" or "Flush Thru" is selected."EnhResp 2 <=
1" refers to the receive port 2 and source port 1.
View Modify Click to invoke the Preview and Modify Calibration Selections dialog box.
Note: Changes made to the Cal Kit through this dialog are temporary that last only for this calibration. To
make permanent changes to the Cal Kit, perform Advanced Modify Cal Kits.
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Select Cal Set for Delta Match dialog box help
This dialog box appears when a Delta Match Cal is required and Choose delta match was selected. Learn
more.
Displays the Cal Sets that meet the requirements of the Delta Match Cal.
Select either a User Cal Set or Global Delta Match Cal.
If there is no suitable choice for a Delta Match Cal:
1. Click Cancel, then Cancel again to quit the Cal Wizard.
2. Perform either a Global Delta Match Cal or a SOLT cal and save the result in a User Cal Set.
3. Start the Cal Wizard to re-initiate this calibration.
4. Select the Global Delta Match Cal or User Cal Set.
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Calibration Steps dialog box help
Note: Beginning in PNA Rev. 6.0, calibration can be performed with External triggers. Learn more.
As each new cal step prompt appears, the traces are setup for the next standard measurement. Also, sweeps
are triggered continuously until the Measure button is pressed. This way you can view the integrity of the
standard connection.
Prompts for standards to be measured.
Measure Click to measure the standard.
Done Click after a standard is re-measured and all measurements for the calibration are complete.
Next Click to continue to the next calibration step. Does NOT measure the standard.
If a standard is NOT measured, a warning appears and Done will not be available after the last Cal step.
Note: SmartCal DOES allow you to measure calibration standards in any order. However, you must click Next
and Back without measuring standards until you get to the standard you want to measure.
Sliding Load Measurement dialog box help
Allows you to measure the sliding load standard. Learn more about the Sliding Load standard.
To ensure an accurate calibration, carefully follow the instructions that were provided with your siding load.
To Measure a Sliding Load:
1. Connect the sliding load to the measurement port.
2. Position the sliding element, then click Measure. Do not move the sliding element until measurement is
complete.
3. Measure the sliding load for at least five and up to seven positions for best accuracy.
Note: The positions of the sliding element should cover the full length of the slide, but be unequally
spaced to reduce the possibility of overlapping data points. Most sliding loads have marks for each slide
position.
4. Click Done after the final measurement.
5.
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4.
5. Remove sliding load from the measurement port.
6. Measure the remaining standards.
Specify nominal delay dialog box help
This dialog appears ONLY when Adapter Removal or Unknown Thru calibrations are performed.
The following values were estimated from the measurement. Most of the time, they are adequate. However, for
CW sweep or frequency sweep with large step sizes, the accuracy of the values may be improved.
Nominal adapter delay To improve this value, measure and record the delay of the adapter with a dense step
size. Enter that value here.
Nominal phase offset (Waveguide ONLY). To improve this value, measure and record the phase offset of the
Waveguide adapter with dense step size. Enter that value here.
When one connector is coax and the other connector is waveguide, the phase offset has an ambiguity of 180
degrees. For consistency, the estimate provided here is always between 0 and 180 degrees. You can change
this estimate to any value between -180 degrees and +180 degrees.
For FCA calibrations, this dialog box appears twice: once for the input frequencies and once for the output
frequencies. The values can be slightly different.
The Calibration Complete dialog box appears after all standards are measured.
Unguided Calibration
The PNA displays the following dialog boxes when performing an Unguided calibration:
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Select Calibration Type for Mechanical Standards dialog box help
Unguided calibration does NOT support cals greater than 2 ports or ECal calibrations.
TRL Cal should be performed using Guided Calibration.
Calibration Type Selection
2-Port SOLT
1-Port SOL
TRL - NOT available on PNA models with more than 2 ports.
Response - Reflection and Thru (if the active measurement is transmission)
Cal Configuration If not calibrating all PNA ports, specify which ports to calibrate.
Back Return to Cal Wizard Begin dialog. If checked, you can clear the Save Preferences checkbox to see the
Begin page when the Cal Wizard begins.
View/Select Cal Kit Click to invoke the Select Cal Kit dialog box.
Next Click to continue to Measure Mechanical Standards dialog box.
Note: If the DUT connector type has an impedance other than 50 ohms (waveguide = 1 ohm), change the
system impedance before performing a calibration. See Setting System Impedance.
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Select Cal Type dialog box help
This dialog box only appears if the selected Cal Type is TRL in the previous dialog box.
TRL Reference Plane Select which standard to use to establish the position of the measurement reference
plane.
THRU Standard Select if the THRU standard is zero-length or very short.
REFLECT Standard Select if the THRU standard is not appropriate AND the delay of the REFLECT
standard is well defined.
TRL Impedance
LINE Standard Specifies that the characteristic impedance of the LINE standard should be used as the
system impedance. This ignores any difference between Offset Z0, Offset Loss, and System Z0.
SYSTEM Impedance Transforms the LINE standard impedance and loss to that of the system impedance
for use with the calibration error terms. The TRL calibration will first compute the error terms assuming the
LINE standard impedance is the system's characteristic impedance (same as previous LINE selection), then
modify the error terms to include the impedance transformation. This should only be used with coax since the
skin effect model used is a coaxial model.
Learn how to change System Z0.
To learn to substitute other calibration kits, see Advanced Modify Cal Kits
Select Cal Kit dialog box help
Displays the calibration kit files available for Unguided calibration. Select the desired calibration kit file and click
OK.
Choose class type Unguided TRL calibration is NOT available on the 4-port PNA.
Edit Class Assignments Allows modification of the selected Cal Kit class assignments.
To learn to substitute other calibration kits, see Advanced Modify Cal Kits
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Measure Mechanical Standards dialog box help
Note: Beginning in PNA Rev. 6.0, calibration can be performed with External triggers. Learn more.
Displays the calibration kit file and standards required for the calibration.
Standards may be connected and measured in any order.
Connect the standard to the measurement port and click its associated green button. A check mark
indicates the standard has been measured.
If a standard type contains multiple standards, the Multiple Standards dialog box opens to display the
multiple standards included in the calibration kit file.
If a sliding load is included in the calibration kit file, the Sliding Load dialog box opens to perform the
measurement with the standard.
Reflection Response Select EITHER Open or Short standard, then click Next.
Isolation Requires one load for each test port of the PNA. Learn more about Isolation. Use when your
measurement requires maximum dynamic range (> 90 dB). See also Isolation Portion of 2-Port
Calibration.
Normalize Available when performing a response cal for any measurement. After Normalize is pressed
and the Cal is complete, the data trace is flat when the same physical connections are present on the
port. This is similar to Data/Memory, except that the response cal is saved with Cal data and can be
applied to other like measurements. Data/Memory is still available after using Normalize. You would
usually connect a THRU standard when calibrating a transmission measurement, and a SHORT standard
when calibrating a reflection measurement.
Show Prompts Check to provide a reminder for the required connection when you click on the standard.
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Multiple Standards dialog box help
Select the standards to be measured.
Note: You may see both male and female standards. The Unguided cal has no knowledge of the gender of
your connector types. Choose the gender of your DUT connector; NOT the test port. Then click OK.
To modify this calibration class to show only one standard, on the Calibration menu, click Advanced Modify
Cal Kits. Select the Cal kit and click Edit Kit. In Class Assignment, click Edit. Learn more about Modify
Calibration Class Assignments.
Connect the standard to the measurement port and click its associated button. A check mark in the
Acquired box indicates the standard has been measured.
To cover the entire frequency range, you may need to measure more than one standard. The order in
which the standards are measured is important. The last standard that is measured will override the
others in respect to the frequency range of the standard definition. Example: In the case of measuring
both a broadband load and a sliding load, you would measure the sliding load last. This is because the
frequency range of the sliding load is a subset of the broadband load.
Learn more about Modify Calibration Class Assignments
Saving a Calibration
SmartCal, ECal, and Unguided Calibrations end with the following dialog box:
Calibration Completed dialog box help
Finish Save to the channel's calibration register.
Save As User Cal Set Invokes the Save as User Cal Set dialog box AND save to the channel's calibration
register.
Cancel Calibration is NOT applied or saved.
Learn about Calibration Registers.
Learn about User Cal Sets
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Save as User Cal Set dialog box help
Existing Cal Sets - Lists the Cal Set names saved on the PNA.
Select Cal Set from list or type new name below Specify a name for the new Cal Set. Either accept the
suggested new name, type a new name, or select a name from the list to overwrite an existing name.
Edit Name If there is no keyboard, click to start the PNA typing tool that can be used from the PNA front panel.
Save Saves the Cal Set to the new Cal Set name.
Learn about User Cal Sets
Last modified:
21-Sep-2007
Added note about no TRL on 4-port PNAs
January 20, 2007
Added note about any order for SmartCal.
January 20, 2007
MX Added UI
Sept 18, 2006
MQ Major modifications for multiport
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Select a Calibration Type
The following calibration types are available in the PNA.
Cal Type
Interface
Accuracy
Thru Methods allowed
TRL Family
SmartCal
Very High
NOT unknown or adapter removal
Both
High
All
Enhanced Response
SmartCal
High
Defined Thru or Flush Thru
QSOLT
(Quick SOLT)
SmartCal
Medium
Defined Thru or Flush Thru
Both
High
Not Applicable
Open/Short Response
Unguided
Low
Not Applicable
Thru Response
Unguided
Low
Known Thru or Flush Thru
SOLT
1-Port Reflection
Learn how to select a default Cal Type.
Other Cal Types (Separate Topic)
Source and Receiver Power Cals
FCA Scalar and Vector Mixer Cals
See other Calibration Topics
TRL Family
Application: Used to accurately calibrate any pair of ports when calibration standards are not readily available.
Note: A Delta Match Cal is required to cal test ports that do not have a dedicated reference receiver.
· Learn more about TRL family cal
· For more information on modifying standards, see Calibration Standards.
Calibration Method: SmartCal
General Accuracy: Very High
Standards Required: THRU, REFLECT, LINE or similar combination
Systematic Errors Corrected:
· Directivity
· Source match
· Isolation
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· Load match
· Frequency response transmission tracking
· Frequency response reflection tracking
SOLT
Application: Used to accurately calibrate any number of ports.
General Accuracy: High
Calibration Method: SmartCal, Unguided Calibration, ECal
Standards Required: (SHORT, OPEN, LOAD, THRU) or ECal module
Systematic Errors Corrected (on all ports):
· Directivity
· Source match
· Isolation
· Load match
· Frequency response transmission tracking
· Frequency response reflection tracking
Enhanced Response
Application: Used to calibrate two ports when only measurements in one direction (forward OR reverse) are
required. Measurements are faster because a second sweep is NOT required.
· Reflection Standards (OPEN, SHORT, LOAD) are connected to the source port to be calibrated.
· Defined THRU or Flush THRU standard is connected between port pairs.
· Much quicker than SOLT when using a mechanical cal kit. ECal can also be used.
To select Enhanced Response:
For a standard S-parameter Cal, select SmartCal in the Cal Wizard.
Then, for all cals:
1. At the 'Select DUT Connectors page', check Modify Cal, then click Next.
2. Under 'Cal Type', select Enhanced Response.
Enhanced Response cal also be selected as the default Cal Type using Cal Preferences.
General Accuracy: High
Calibration Method: SmartCal, ECal
Standards Required: (SHORT, OPEN, LOAD, Defined THRU or Flush THRU)
Systematic Errors Corrected:
· Directivity (source port)
· Source match (source port)
· Isolation
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· Load match (receiver port)
· Frequency response transmission tracking (receiver port)
· Frequency response reflection tracking (source port)
QSOLT (Quick SOLT)
Application: Used to quickly calibrate any number of ports. Developed specifically for use with external multiport
test sets.
Note: A Delta Match Cal is required to cal test ports that do not have a dedicated reference receiver.
· Reflection Standards (OPEN, SHORT, LOAD) are connected to only ONE of the ports to be calibrated. The
lower port number of the ports to be calibrated is selected by default. This can be changed through the Modify
Cal / Cal Type setting.
· Defined THRU or Flush THRU standards are connected from the reflection standard port to the remaining
ports to be calibrated.
· Much quicker than SOLT when using a mechanical cal kit.
· Based on TRL math.
General Accuracy: Not as high as SOLT
Calibration Method: SmartCal, ECal
Standards Required: (SHORT, OPEN, LOAD, Defined THRU or Flush THRU)
Systematic Errors Corrected:
· Directivity
· Source match
· Isolation
· Load match
· Frequency response transmission tracking
· Frequency response reflection tracking
1-Port (Reflection)
Application: Used to accurately calibrate any single test port for reflection measurements only.
Calibration Method: SmartCal, Unguided Calibration, ECal
General Accuracy: High
Standards Required: (SHORT, OPEN, LOAD) or ECal module
Systematic Errors Corrected:
· Directivity
· Source match
· Frequency response reflection tracking
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Open / Short Response
Application: Used to quickly calibrate any single test port for reflection measurements only.
Calibration Method: Unguided Calibration
General Accuracy: Low
Standards Required: OPEN or SHORT
Systematic Errors Corrected:
Frequency response reflection tracking
Thru Response (Isolation Optional)
Application: Used to quickly calibrate any pair of test ports for transmission measurements only.
Isolation is not usually recommended. Learn more about Isolation
Calibration Method: Unguided Calibration
General Accuracy: Low
Standards Required: THRU
Isolation: One LOAD for each PNA test port.
Systematic Errors Corrected:
· Frequency response reflection tracking
· Isolation
Last modified:
February 23, 2007
9/12/06
Added Enhanced Response
Added QSOLT
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Using Calibration Sets
What are PNA Cal Sets
Cal Registers and User Cal Sets
How to Manage and Apply Cal Sets
Examples of Cal Set Usage
Archiving Cal Sets using .cal files
See other Calibration Topics
What are PNA Cal Sets
At the completion of a calibration, all calibration data is stored to a Cal Set. The Cal Set can be applied later to any
channel that has the same stimulus settings as the Cal Set, thereby saving the time it takes to perform another
calibration. The following data is saved to a Cal Set:
Name
Cal Set Description
Cal Set Attributes - stimulus settings, cal type, port association
Standards data
Error term data
GUID (Globally Unique IDentifier)
Cal Registers and User Cal Sets
There are two types of Cal Sets:
Cal Registers (channel specific)
User Cal Sets
Calibration data is automatically saved to a Cal Register at the end of every calibration. You can also choose to
save the cal data to a User Cal Set.
Calibration Registers
New with PNA Release 5.0, Calibration Registers are designed to simplify calibrations for most users. When a
calibration is complete, the data is automatically saved to the channel's Cal Register, overwriting (or appended to)
the previous cal data stored in that register. This concept is similar to previous Agilent Vector Network Analyzers.
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Every channel has ONE dedicated Cal Register. They are named CHn_CALREG, where n is the channel
number. The name cannot be changed.
Cal Registers are more volatile because they are overwritten (or appended) each time a calibration is
performed on that channel. The Cal data is always saved, but only temporarily.
Cal Registers can be applied to other measurements, but ONLY on the same channel as the Cal Register.
User Cal Sets
At the end of a calibration, you can choose to also save cal data to an existing or new User Cal Set.
User Cal Sets can be applied to any number of channels simultaneously.
User Cal Sets are named by you for easy identification.
You can have an unlimited number of User Cal Sets.
At any time, you can copy Cal Register data to create a User Cal Set. See Cal Set Properties.
Appending Data in a Cal Set
At the end of a calibration, data is saved to the channel's Cal Register and, if you choose, to an existing User Cal
Set. The PNA attempts to append new error terms to a non-empty Cal Set. The existing Cal Set data is completely
overwritten UNLESS the new data can coexist with the existing data according to the following two rules:
The stimulus settings of the new data must exactly match the existing data.
The new cal must involve different ports from the existing cal.
For example:
Case 1 - An existing Cal Set contains a full 2-port cal between ports 1 and 2. Using the same stimulus settings, you
perform a 1-port cal on port 3. At the end of the cal, you click Save As User Cal Set and select the existing full 2port User Cal Set.
Result: The 1-port cal is appended to the 2-port User Cal Set. There is NO overlap between them.
Case 2 - Same situation as Case 1, except the 1-port cal is performed on port 1.
Result: The Cal Set will contain a 1 port cal on port1 and a 1 port cal on port 2. The overlapping tracking terms are
removed rendering the original full 2 port cal invalid.
How to Manage and Apply Cal Sets and Cal Types
The PNA attempts to apply a Cal Set, and turn error correction ON, for ALL of the measurements on the active
channel. This may not always be possible. For example, suppose a channel contains both S11 (reflection) and S21
(transmission) measurements. If a Cal Set that contains only an S11 Cal Type is applied to that channel, the Cal
Set does not contain the error terms to correct the S21 measurement. Error correction is turned ON for the S11
measurement and NOT turned on for the S21 measurement.
There are two ways to apply an existing Cal Set (Cal Register or User Cal Set) to a measurement:
1.
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1. Recalling an Instrument State with Cal data (.cst file) - A .cst file contains an Instrument State with all
measurement attributes AND a 'pointer' to the Cal Set that was used to calibrate the measurement. Before
saving a .cst file, be sure that a User Cal Set (NOT a Cal Register) is being used for the measurement.
Because Cal Registers are automatically overwritten when a new calibration is performed, it is likely that the
Cal Register data will change before the .cst file is recalled.
2. Create a new measurement and select a Cal Set to apply to the active channel.
Note: NEVER copy or modify Cal Sets from Windows Explorer or other applications. Cal Sets should only be
accessed through the PNA Application.
How to select and apply a Cal Set to the active channel
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Calibration
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Cal Set
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press CAL
1. Click Response
2. then [Manage Cals]
2. then Cal
3. then [Cal Set]
3. then Manage Cals
4. then Cal Sets
Calibration Selection dialog box help
This dialog box allows you to manage and apply Cal Sets.
Although the number of Cal Sets you can have is limited only by the amount of PNA memory, it is considered
unusual to have more than about 10 existing Cal Sets, or one current Cal Set for every unique channel setup.
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Old Cal Sets (with 'stale' data) should be deleted or overwritten.
The active channel's Cal Register always appears, even if empty. Cal Registers that belong to other channels
appear in the list of Cal Sets only if the channel exists, and only if they contain data.
Learn about Cal Registers.
Learn how to View the Error Terms of a Cal Set.
To apply a Cal Set to the active channel, click a row to select that Cal Set, then click Apply Cal.
Note: A Cal Set must have been generated from the same measurement class as the active channel in order
for it to Applied.
Columns click a heading to sort by that column
Cal Set Name Name to identify the Cal Set.
Description User-settable text to further identify the Cal Set.
Channels Channel numbers that are currently using this Cal Set. A blank entry means it is not currently in
use.
CalType / Ports Type of Cal contained in the Cal Set. Learn about applying appropriate Cal Types.
Cal Type Abbreviations:
1P, 2P, 3P, 4P... - Full n-Port calibrations
R - Response (instead of ports, shows the measurement type that it corrects.)
ER/x-y Enhanced Response, where x is the receive port; y is the source port.
VMC Vector Mixer Cal
SMC Scalar Mixer Cal
Modified Date and time the Cal Set was last modified.
Buttons
Copy Invokes the Save as User Cal Set dialog box. Type a name for the copy of the selected Cal Set data.
Show / Edit Properties Invokes the Cal Set Properties dialog box. This allows you to view all of the Cal Set
properties and create a duplicate User Cal Set from an existing User Cal Set or Cal Register.
Delete Permanently deletes the Cal Set after you choose OK to a warning prompt.
Delete All Permanently deletes ALL listed Cal Sets and Cal Registers after you choose OK to a warning
prompt.
Apply Cal Applies the selected Cal Set to the active channel. If the stimulus settings of the Cal Set and
channel are different, a choice must be made.
Unselect Available ONLY if the selected Cal Set is being used by the active channel. Click to 'Un-apply' the
Cal Set, then click Close to exit with the Cal Set un-applied.
OK Always APPLIES THE SELECTED CAL SET to the active channel, then closes the dialog box.
Close Exit the dialog box. Performs no further action.
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Cal Set Properties dialog box help
Allows you to view all of the Cal Set properties and create a duplicate User Cal Set from an existing User Cal
Set or Cal Register.
Name
Edit name of the User Cal Set. You can NOT change the name of a Cal Register.
Description Descriptive text to further identify the Cal Set.
Cal Set Properties Lists descriptive information and stimulus conditions of the Cal Set.
Learn how to View the Error Terms of a Cal Set.
Stimulus Setting Different between Cal Set and Measurement
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Select Cal Set -- Choose Stimulus Settings dialog box help
The Cal Set contains the channel stimulus settings that were in place when the Cal Set was saved. This dialog
appears when the Cal Set channel settings are different than those of the channel to which the Cal Set is being
applied. Choose between the following options.. (See above image).
A. Keep the Active Channel Stimulus settings. Interpolate if possible.
If the Cal Set frequency range is greater the active channel, then Interpolation will be turned ON.
Learn more about Interpolation Accuracy
If the Cal Set frequency range is less than the active channel, then this option is not available.
B. Keep the Cal Set Stimulus settings. The Active Channel stimulus setting are changed.
OK Make the change.
Cancel Cal Set will NOT be applied.
Examples of Cal Set Usage
The following examples show how Cal Sets increase flexibility and speed in making analyzer measurements.
Using one User Cal Set with many Channels
Using one Measurement with many Cal Sets
Using one User Cal Set with many Channels
It is possible to do one calibration, then apply it to several channels.
An example:
During a manufacturing process, you may have many calibrated channels. You may wish to continuously cycle
through the measurements and examine them individually. Occasionally, you may wish to refresh the calibration
without having to recreate all the measurement state files.
Here is how: Examine the stimulus settings for each channel. Then make the User Cal Set stimulus range a
super-set of the whole group. Each channel can then use the same User Cal Set. Some calibrations will be
interpolated. Note: Make sure that interpolation is turned on.
Notice in the following image, Cal Set 78 is used on more than one channel, in this case Channel 5 and 16 .
Channel
Cal Set
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Using one Measurement with many Cal Sets
The drawback with having one very large User Cal Set associated with many instrument states could be a loss of
accuracy due to interpolation. In such cases, consider using one User Cal Set for each stimulus setting.. The
stimulus conditions can then be changed for a channel by applying different User Cal Sets. Other settings (window
setups, measurement definitions, scaling, limits, markers) will not change. This may result in faster state changes
than if you saved and recalled *.cst files for each set of stimulus conditions.
Example #1: An amplifier needs to be measured at several input power levels. Calibrate at several power levels
and save each calibration in a separate User Cal Set. Then, apply the User Cal Sets to the single measurement
consecutively.
Example #2: Making an S21 Measurement, you need to measure both wide span and narrow span characteristics
of the device. One Cal Set covers the wide span setup; another the narrow span setup.
Archiving Cal Sets using .cal or .csa files
Because User Cal Sets can easily be deleted, provide extra backup by also saving your calibration as a .cal or .csa
file (see saving a .cal file).
Example:
One person performs a calibration, names and saves it as a User Cal Set. This Cal Set is available for any other
person to use. A second user could accidentally delete or modify the User Cal Set requiring the originator to repeat
the calibration.
Security can be provided for calibration data by saving the Cal Set to a .cal file or .csa file. At a later time, the file
could be recalled and the original calibration restored.
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Added link to programming commands
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Error Correction and Interpolation
Error Correction and Interpolation settings work together to provide you with the highest level of calibration
accuracy possible.
How to set Error Correction
Error Correction
Viewing Correction Levels
How to set Interpolation
Interpolation and Accuracy
See other Calibration Topics
How to set Error Correction
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Calibration
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Correction ON/off
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press CAL
1. Click Cal
2. then [Correction ON/off]
2. then Correction ON/off
Error Correction
The Error Correction ON setting means that the calibration error terms are applied to the measurement. Error
Correction is automatically turned ON when a calibration is performed or if a Cal Set is applied to a measurement.
The PNA attempts to turn error correction ON for ALL of the measurements on the active channel. This may not
always be possible when applying Cal Sets. For more information, see Applying Cal Sets.
When full 2-port error correction is ON, both forward and reverse sweeps are required to gather all 12 error terms,
even if only one reflection measurement is displayed. This may result in a higher measurement speed than
expected. Learn more.
You can always turn Error Correction OFF for the active measurement by clicking Correction OFF. The PNA will
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turn Error Correction OFF automatically when making stimulus changes under some conditions. To turn correction
back ON, click Correction ON. Then:
If Interpolation can NOT be performed, a dialog box will ask if you would like to change the stimulus settings
to those of the applied calibration. Click OK or Cancel.
If Interpolation can be performed, the stimulus setting will change and correction turned ON.
Viewing Correction Level
The correction level provides information about the accuracy of the active measurement. Correction level notation
is displayed on the status bar for different calibration types like response, full 2-port, TRL, or power calibration.
To View Correction Levels:
In the View menu, click Status Bar. The status bar appears and displays the following items:
a. Active Channel
b. Measurement parameter
c. Correction Level (see description below)
d. Calibration type
Correction Level
Accuracy
C
Full
Highest
C*
Interpolated
Uncertain
CD
Changed
Uncertain
No Correction
Lowest
No Cor
C Full Correction
Full Correction level is displayed immediately after a calibration is performed or when a valid Cal Set is applied. If
you require optimum accuracy, avoid adjusting analyzer settings after calibration so your measurement remains at
this level.
C* Interpolated Correction
"C star" appears in the status bar when a measurement is being interpolated. See Interpolation (above) and
Interpolation Accuracy.
CD Changed Settings
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"C-delta" appears in the status bar when one or more of the following stimulus settings change. The resulting
measurement accuracy depends on which parameter has changed and how much it has changed. For optimum
accuracy, recalibrate using the new settings.
Sweep time
IF Bandwidth
Port power
Stepped sweep enabled/disabled
No Corr No Correction
The following will cause the PNA to turn Error Correction OFF for the channel:
Decrease the start frequency
Increase the stop frequency
Change start frequency, stop frequency, or number of points with Interpolation OFF.
Change sweep type
How to set Interpolation
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Calibration
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Interpolation ON/off
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press CAL
1. Click Cal
2. then [More]
2. then More
3. then [Interplotion ON/off]
3. then Interplotion ON/off
Interpolation
Calibration interpolation adjusts calibration error terms to match changes to the following settings that you make
AFTER a calibration is performed or a Cal Set applied.
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The Interpolation ON setting means that interpolation is enabled for the active measurement. This does not
necessarily mean that the measurement is interpolated. When enabled (ON), if interpolation becomes necessary
because you change any of the following stimulus settings, then interpolation will be applied. When stimulus
settings change while interpolation is OFF, interpolation is NOT applied but instead, error correction is turned OFF.
Interpolation occurs (if enabled) when you change any of the following settings:
Start frequency increased
Stop frequency decreased
Number of points
Note: Decreasing the start frequency, or increasing the stop frequency will always turn correction OFF. (Exception:
Power Calibration DOES extrapolate to the start and stop frequencies.)
Interpolation Accuracy
When a measurement is interpolated, the accuracy of the measurements cannot be predicted. It may be affected
significantly or not at all. Identifying measurement errors in these cases must be determined on a case-by-case
basis.
Significant measurement inaccuracy WILL occur when the phase shift between measurement points increases
more that 180 degrees. The PNA will incorrectly interpolate the new phase data. For more information, see phase
accuracy.
In general, the chances of significant inaccuracy increases when interpolating measurements under the following
conditions:
when increasing, rather than decreasing, the frequency span between measurement points.
when frequency span between measurement points becomes much greater.
when measurement frequencies are very high, especially above 10 GHz.
Last modified:
March 10, 2008
Sept 12, 20/06
MX Added UI
Added link to programming commands
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Calibration Thru Methods
What is a Non-Insertable Device
Choosing a Thru Method
Flush Thru
Adapter Removal
Defined Thru
Unknown Thru
ECal Thru Method Choices
Other Cal Topics
What is a Non-Insertable Device
To understand the Thru method choices, you must first understand what is meant by "Non-Insertable device".
These definitions also apply to ECal modules. Substitute "ECal module" for "device". Then see ECal Thru Method
Choices.
A non-insertable device is one whose connectors could NOT mate together. They either do not have the same
type of connector or they have the same gender. This also means that the test port cables would not mate
together, as in the following diagram.
An insertable device is one whose connectors could mate together. They have the same type of connector and
opposite,or no, gender. This also means that the test port cables would mate together, as in the following diagram.
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Choosing a Thru Method of Calibration
The Thru method is selected from the Cal Wizard. Select the Modify checkbox in the Select DUT Connectors and
Cal Kits dialog box.
Notes:
For ECal, the following choices have different meanings. See THRU methods for ECal.
For 4-port calibration, see How can we measure only 3 THRU connections?
Choice for Insertable Devices: FLUSH Thru (also known as Zero-length Thru)
When calibrating for an insertable device, the test ports at your measurement reference plane connect directly
together. This is called a zero-length THRU, or Flush THRU meaning that the THRU standard has zero-length: no
delay, no loss, no capacitance, and no inductance. Your calibration kit may not have a physical THRU standard
because it is assumed you have an insertable device and will be using a zero-length THRU.
Choices for Non-Insertable Devices
The following methods calibrate for a non-insertable device:
Adapter Removal Accurate, but least convenient.
Defined Thru
Unknown Thru Cal Preferred method.
Swap-Equal-Adapters Method is a valid choice, but NOT included in the PNA firmware.
Adapter Removal Calibration
This method is potentially very accurate. However, it requires many connections which increases the chances of
inaccurate data.
Two full 2-port calibrations are performed: one with the adapter connected at port 1, and the other with the adapter
connected to port 2. The result of the two calibrations is a single full 2-port calibration that includes accurate
characterization and removal of the mismatch caused by the adapter.
Performing an Adapter Removal Cal requires:
a THRU adapter with connectors that match those on the DUT.
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calibration standards for both DUT connectors.
To select Adapter Removal during a SmartCal, select the Modify checkbox in the Select DUT Connectors and Cal
Kits dialog box. The Cal Wizard will guide you through the steps.
Learn how to perform an Adapter Removal Cal using ECal.
Defined Thru (also known as Known Thru, Cal Kit Thru, ECal Thru, Characterized Thru)
Defined Thru uses the THRU definition that is stored in the Cal Kit file or ECal module. The THRU standard may
have worn over time, making it not as accurate as when it was new. Defined Thru is usually more accurate than
Adapter Removal, but not as accurate as Unknown Thru method.
Notes
If performing an ECal, this is the THRU standard in the ECal Module.
If Defined Thru appears as a potential THRU method in the SmartCal Wizard, this means that there is a
defined THRU standard in the selected Cal Kit. This could be a Zero-length Thru. The SmartCal Wizard
will prompt you to connect the required standard when appropriate.
To define a THRU standard in a Cal Kit (not ECal module):
1. From the PNA Menu, click Calibration, Advanced Modify Cal Kits.
2. Select the Cal Kit
3. Click Edit Kit
4. Click Add
5. Select THRU
6. Complete the dialog box.
The next time you perform a Guided Cal, this Defined THRU standard will be available if the DUT connector types
match the THRU standard.
Unknown Thru Cal
Unknown Thru Cal is the preferred THRU method of calibrating the PNA to measure a non-insertable device.
The Unknown Thru calibration is also known as Short-Open-Load-Reciprocal Thru (SOLR) calibration.
Very easy to perform.
Better accuracy than Defined Thru and usually better than Adapter Removal.
Does not rely on existing standard definitions that may no longer be accurate.
Causes minimal cable movement if the THRU standard has the same footprint as the DUT. In fact, the DUT
can often BE the THRU standard.
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About the Unknown Thru Process
SmartCal guides you through the process. Although the following process describes ports 1 and 2, Unknown Thru
can be performed on any two ports when using a multiport PNA.
1. Perform 1-port cal on port 1.
2. Perform 1-port cal on port 2.
3. Connect Unknown Thru between ports 1 and 2.
4. Measure Unknown Thru.
5. Confirm Estimated Delay. This estimate may be wrong if there are too few frequency points over the given
frequency span. You can measure the delay value independently and enter that value in the dialog box.
The Unknown Thru Standard
Can have up to about 40 dB of loss and long electrical length.
Must be reciprocal: S21=S12.
Must know the phase response to within 1/4 wavelength (see step 5 above).
Can be the DUT if it meets these conditions.
Unknown Thru Limitations
Unknown Thru is NOT supported during a TRL calibration.
Beginning with PNA code release 5.25, Unknown Thru CAN be performed using a 4-port PNA-L that does
NOT have a reference receiver for each test port. However, a Delta Match Calibration is usually required
before the Unknown Thru is measured.
Unknown Thru is NOT supported on E8801A, E8802A, and E8803A.
ECal Thru Method Choices
When the ECal module connectors exactly match the DUT connectors, choose from the following THRU methods:
ECal Thru as Unknown Thru Learn more about Unknown Thru.
Measures the THRU state of the ECal module as an Unknown Thru.
The default method when the ECal module connectors match the DUT.
Very accurate and easy.
May require a Delta Match Cal.
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Flush Thru (zero-length Thru) Learn more about Flush Thru
Requires an insertable ECal module / DUT.
Remove the ECal module and connect the two reference planes directly together for a zero-length thru.
Accurate, but not as easy as 'ECal Thru as Unknown Thru'.
ECal (Defined Thru)
Measures the THRU state of the ECal module.
Very easy, but not very accurate.
Unknown Thru
Remove the ECal module.
Then connect a Thru adapter to be measured as Unknown Thru.
May require a Delta Match Cal.
When the ECal module connectors do NOT exactly match the DUT connectors, choose from the following two
methods:
Adapter Removal
Can be used with ECal when your DUT is NON-insertable. However, the ECal module MUST be insertable,
and the adapter connectors must exactly match the connectors of the DUT as in the following diagram.
Note: With PNA release 4.8, adapter removal now performs 2-port measurements on both sides of the adapter. It
previously performed 2-port measurements on one side and 1-port measurements on the other. This improves the
accuracy of the adapter removal calibration.
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ECal User Characterization
In cases when adapter removal cannot be performed, ECal User Characterization is ALWAYS possible if you have
the right adapters. A User Characterization is performed once and stored in the ECal module. However, accuracy is
compromised every time you remove, then reconnect, the adapter with the ECal module.
Last Modified:
20-Feb-2008
Added bullet for default ECal method
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Accurate Measurement Calibrations
Calibration accuracy is affected by the type of calibration, quality of the calibration standards, and the care with
which the calibration is performed. This section provides additional information about how to make accurate
calibrations.
Measurement Reference Plane
Effects of Using Wrong Calibration Standards
Data-based versus Polynomial Calibration Kits
Accuracy Level of Interpolated Measurement
Effects of Power Level
Using Port Extensions
Isolation Portion of 2-Port Calibration
Choosing a Thru Method
Learn how to determine the validity of your calibration.
See other Calibration Topics
Measurement Reference Plane
Most measurement setups will NOT allow you to connect a device under test (DUT) directly to the PNA front panel
test ports. More likely, you would connect your device to test fixtures, adapters, or cables that are connected to the
PNA.
A calibration takes place at the points where calibration standards are connected during the calibration process.
This is called the measurement reference plane (see graphic). For the highest measurement accuracy, make the
calibration reference plane the place where your DUT is connected. When this occurs, the errors associated with
the test setup (cables, test fixtures, and adapters used between the analyzer ports and the reference plane) are
measured and removed in the calibration process.
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Effects of Using Wrong Calibration Standards
Normally, a calibration is performed using a calibration kit that contains standards with connectors of the same type
and sex as your device under test.
However, your calibration kit may not always have the same connector type and gender as your device. For
example, suppose your device has 3.5mm connectors, but you have a Type-N calibration kit. If you use an adapter
to connect the Type-N standards to the 3.5mm test port, then the adapter becomes part of the calibration and NOT
part of the test setup. This will result in significant errors in your reflection measurements.
Data-based versus Polynomial Calibration Kits
The Select DUT Connectors and Cal Kits dialog box offers a data-based model and a polynomial model for the
newest high-frequency cal kits. See PNA Accessories. The data-based models provide higher accuracy for
describing calibration standards than the polynomial models. It is RECOMMENDED that the data-based model be
used if the most accurate results are desired.
Data-Based Model
Polynomial Model
How accurate is the model?
Provides highest calibration
accuracy. Eliminates the errors
that can be the result of
polynomial model approximations.
Provides high calibration
accuracy.
How does the model define
calibration standards?
Uses S-Parameter measurements.
Uses traditional four-term
polynomial calibration standard
modeling parameters.
How do I manually edit the
definitions of the calibration
standards when using the
model?
Use the Advanced Modify Cal Kit
function.
Use the Advanced Modify Cal Kit
function.
How do I use the Calibration
Wizard with the model?
Use only the SmartCal (Guided)
Calibration method.
Use the SmartCal (Guided) or the
Unguided Mechanical Calibration
methods.
Learn about the “Expanded Math” feature.
Effects of Power Level
To attain the most accurate error correction, do NOT change the power level after a calibration is performed.
However, when changing power within the same attenuator range at which the measurement calibration was
performed, S-parameter measurements can be made with only a small degradation of accuracy. If a different
attenuator range is selected, the accuracy of error correction is further degraded.
To check the accuracy of a calibration, see Validity of a Calibration.
Using Port Extensions
Use the port extensions feature after calibration to compensate for phase shift of an extended measurement
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reference plane due to additions such as cables, adapters, or fixtures.
Port extensions is the simplest method to compensate for phase shift, mismatch, and loss of the path between the
calibration reference plane and the DUT.
Learn how to apply port extensions.
Learn about characterizing a test fixture.
Isolation Portion of 2-Port Calibration
The isolation portion of a calibration corrects for crosstalk, the signal leakage between test ports when no device is
present. When performing an UNGUIDED 2-port calibration, you have the option of omitting the isolation portion of
the calibration.
Note: Isolation is never performed on a Smart (Guided) Calibration.
The uncorrected isolation between the test ports of the PNA is exceptional (typically >100dB). Therefore, you
should only perform the Isolation portion of a 2-port calibration when you require isolation that is better than 100dB.
Perform an isolation calibration when you are testing a device with high insertion loss, such as some filter
stopbands or a switch in the open position.
The isolation calibration can add noise to the error model when the measurement is very close to the noise floor of
the analyzer. To improve measurement accuracy, set a narrow IF Bandwidth.
How to perform an isolation calibration
Isolation is measured when the Load standards are connected to the PNA test ports. For best accuracy, connect
Load standards to BOTH test ports each time you are prompted to connect a load standard. If two Loads are not
available, connect the untested PNA port to any device that will present a good match.
Choosing a Thru Method
When calibrating for a non-insertable device, you must choose a method to calibrate for the THRU error terms.
This can have a significant effect on measurement accuracy. Learn more about choosing a thru method.
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Validity of a Calibration
This section helps you determine if your calibration is valid and how the analyzer displays correction level
information for your measurement.
Frequency Response of Calibration Standards
Validating a Calibration
Quick Check
ECal Confidence Check
Verification Kit
See other Calibration Topics
Frequency Response of Calibration Standards
In order for the response of a calibration standard to show as a dot on the smith chart display format, it must
have no phase delay with respect to frequency. The only standards that exhibit such "perfect" response are the
following:
7-mm short (with no offset)
Type-N male short (with no offset)
There are two reasons why other types of calibration standards show phase delay after calibration:
1. The reference plane of the standard is electrically offset from the mating plane of the test port. Such
devices exhibit the properties of a small length of transmission line, including a certain amount of phase
shift.
2. The standard is an open termination, which by definition exhibits a certain amount of fringe capacitance
and therefore phase shift. Open terminations which are offset from the mating plane will exhibit a phase
shift due to the offset in addition to the phase shift caused by the fringe capacitance.
The most important point to remember is that all standards are measured in order to remove systematic errors
from subsequent device measurements. As a result, if calibration standards with delay and fringe capacitance
are measured as a device after a calibration, they will NOT appear to be "perfect". This is an indication that
your analyzer is calibrated accurately and working properly.
Validating a Calibration
At the completion of a calibration or selection of a stored Cal Set, validation can accomplish the following:
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Improve Measurement Accuracy – Once a measurement calibration has been performed, its performance should
be checked before making device measurements. There are several sources of error that can invalidate a
calibration: bad cables, dirty or worn calibration standards that no longer behave like the modeled standards, and
operator error.
Verify Accuracy of Interpolation – You should validate the calibration if you are testing a device and the
measurements are uncertain because of interpolation. For more information see Interpolation Accuracy.
Verify Accuracy of Cal Standards – To check accuracy, a device with a known magnitude and phase response
should be measured.
Quick Check
For this test, all you need are a few calibration standards. The device used should not be one of the calibration
standards; a measurement of one of these standards is merely a measure of repeatability.
The following reflection and transmission Quick Check tests can be applied to all test ports.
To verify reflection measurements, perform the following steps:
1. Connect either an OPEN or SHORT standard to port 1. The magnitude of S11 should be close to 0 dB (within
a few tenths of a dB).
2. Connect a load calibration standard to port 1. The magnitude of S11 should be less than the specified
calibrated directivity of the analyzer (typically less than -30 dB).
To verify transmission measurements:
1. Connect a THRU cable (or known device representative of your measurement) from port 1 to port 2. Verify
the loss characteristics are equivalent to the known performance of the cable or device.
2. To verify S21 isolation, connect two loads: one on port 1 and one on port 2. Measure the magnitude of S21
and verify that it is less than the specified isolation (typically less than -80 dB).
Note: To get a more accurate range of expected values for these measurements, consult the analyzer's
specifications.
ECal Confidence Check
ECal Confidence Check is a method to check the accuracy of a calibration performed with mechanical standards or
an ECal module. The confidence check allows you to measure an impedance state in the ECal module (called the
confidence state), and compare it with factory measured data stored in the module.
In order for this test to be valid, the test ports of the ECal module must connect directly to the calibration reference
plane (without adapters).
How to Perform ECal Confidence Check:
1. Connect ECal module to the analyzer with the USB cable. See Connect ECal Module to the PNA. Note:
Terminate any unused ECAL ports with a 50 ohm load.
2.
3.
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1.
2. Allow the module to warm up for 15 minutes or until the module indicates READY.
3. Do one of the following to start ECal Confidence Check
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Calibration
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then ECal Confidence Check
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press CAL
1. Click Response
2. then [More]
2. then Cal
3. then [ECal]
3. then More
4. then [Confidence Check]
4. then ECal
5. then Confidence Check
On the following ECal Confidence Check dialog box:
4. Click Read Module Data. The following occurs:
ECal module is set to "confidence state".
PNA reads and displays stored data.
PNA measures and displays "confidence state".
5. If you want to view a different parameter, select Change Measurement and select the check box for the
desired parameter. (The default is the active channel parameter).
6. Select the viewing option in the Trace View Options block.
7. Compare the stored and measured data for each measurement parameter.
Notes:
If the two traces show excessive difference, there may be a loose or dirty connection at the test ports or
damage to the test cables. Carefully inspect the cables and connections. Then clean and gage each
connector, and re-calibrate if needed.
The User Characterization setting selects the user-characterization data instead of the factory
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characterization data (available when a User-Characterization is stored in the ECal module).
ECal Confidence Check dialog box help
Compares the accuracy of corrected (calibrated) data with stored data in the ECal module. For the check to be
valid, the module test ports must connect directly to the calibration reference plane (without an adapter). Learn
more about ECal Confidence Check.
Measurement
Change Measurement Opens the Measure dialog box.
Use ECal Module
Read Module Data
Copies stored data from the ECal module to Memory.
Changes state of ECal module to confidence state.
Measures and displays confidence state and Memory trace.
User Characterization Selects the user-characterization data (stored in the module) instead of the factory
characterization data (available when a User-Characterization is stored in the ECal module).
Scale Opens the Scale dialog box.
Show Prompts Check to show a reminder for the connection (default).
Trace View Options
Data and Memory Trace Displays current measurement data and Memory trace.
Data / Memory Performs an operation where the current measurement data is divided by the data in
memory.
Data + Memory Performs an operation where the current measurement data is added to the data in
memory.
Verification Kit
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Measuring known devices, other than calibration standards, is a straightforward way of verifying that the network
analyzer system is operating properly. Verification kits use accurately known verification standards with welldefined magnitude and phase response. These kits include precision airlines, mismatch airlines, and precision
fixed attenuators. Traceable measurement data is shipped with each kit on disk and verification kits may be recertified by Agilent.
See Analyzer Accessories for a list of Agilent verification kits.
Last modified:
March 10, 2008
9/12/06
MX Added UI
Added link to programming commands
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Using ECal
This topic discusses all aspects of performing an ECal:
ECal Overview
Connect ECal Module to the PNA
How to Perform a Calibration Using ECal
See Also:
ECal User-Characterization
Restore ECal Module Memory
See other Calibration Topics
ECal Overview
ECal is a complete solid-state calibration solution. Every ECal module contains electronic standards that are
automatically switched into position during a PNA measurement calibration. These electronic standards have been
measured at the factory and the data stored within the memory of the ECal module. The PNA uses this stored data,
along with the PNA-measured data, to calculate the error terms for a measurement calibration.
ECal modules are available in 2-port and 4-port models and a variety of connector types, covering many frequency
ranges. See Analyzer Accessories for more about available ECal modules and ordering information.
You can perform the following calibrations with ECal:
1-Port Reflection calibration
Full 2-Port calibration
Full 3-Port calibration
Full 4-Port calibration
Verify the validity of a mechanical or ECal calibration with ECal confidence check.
Care and Handling of ECal Modules
You can improve accuracy, repeatability, and avoid costly repair of equipment in the following ways.
Practice proper connector care. See Connector Care.
Protect equipment against ESD damage. Read Electrostatic Discharge Protection.
Do not apply excess power to ports. Refer to specifications provided with your ECal module.
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Connect ECal Module to the PNA
ECal modules are controlled and powered through a USB connection to the PNA. When you connect the module,
the PNA automatically recognizes the type of module, frequency range, and connector type.
"First Time" Note
When you connect an ECal module that has a serial number never before seen by that PNA, the Welcome to
the Found New Hardware Wizard will appear.
Click “No, not this time”, then click Next or Finish at the remaining dialog prompts.
You must be logged on to the PNA with Administrator privileges to complete the first time registration process.
This occurs automatically unless you change your default User Account.
ECal modules connect to the USB port on the front or rear panel of the PNA.
1. Wear a grounded wrist strap when making connections.
2. Connect the USB cable Type B connector to the ECal module and the USB cable Type A connector to the
front or rear panel USB connector of the analyzer, as shown in the following graphics.
ECal Module USB Port
Analyzer Front Panel USB Port
Notes:
Unused ECal modules that have completed a calibration may remain connected to the USB port.
You can connect and disconnect the ECal module while the analyzer is operating. However, DO NOT
connect or disconnect the module while data transfer is in progress. This can result in damage or at least
corrupted data.
A USB hub may be used to connect more than one USB device to the analyzer. See Analyzer Accessories
for more information about USB peripheral equipment.
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How to Perform a Calibration Using ECal
Select an ECal module that has connectors of the same type and gender as the DUT. If such an ECal module
is not available, a module with connectors different from the DUT can be used by using Advanced Settings or
User Characterization.
Connect the ECal module ports to the PNA ports. During the calibration process the PNA can either
automatically detect how the ECal module is connected, or the orientation can be performed manually.
Note: Terminate any unused ECal ports with a 50 ohm load.
1. Connect the ECal module USB cable to the analyzer USB. See Connect ECal Module USB to PNA USB.
2. Allow the module to warm up until it indicates READY.
3. Enter the analyzer settings. See Set Up Measurements.
4. Do one of the following to start the Calibration Wizard
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Calibration
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Cal Wizard
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press CAL
1. Click Response
2. then [Start Cal]
2. then Cal
3. then [Cal Wizard]
3. then Cal Wizard
5. In the Calibration Wizard Begin dialog box, click Use Electronic Cal (ECal).
Note: To calibrate with more than one ECal module, select SmartCal, then choose the ECal modules as your
Cal Kits.
471
Select Calibration Ports and ECal Module dialog box help
Allows you to select calibration type and settings.
Cal Type Selection / Configuration Select the number of ports to calibrate. Then select the port number
configuration.
4 Port ECal Available only if using a 4-port PNA. No additional configuration necessary.
3 Port ECal Available only if using a 4-port or 3-port PNA.
2 Port ECal
1 Port ECal- (Reflection) Advanced Settings are not available.
View/Select ECal Module Click to Select the ECal module if more than one ECal module is connected to the
PNA. Also, Select the User Characterization within the module. Learn more about User Characterization.
Show Advanced Settings Check to display the Advanced Settings when Next is clicked.
Back Return to Cal Wizard Begin dialog. If checked, you can clear the Save Preferences checkbox to see the
Begin page when the Cal Wizard begins.
Note: The PNA no longer allows ECal isolation to be performed. The inherent isolation of the PNA is better
than that attained with correction using an ECal module.
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ECal module not found dialog box help
Displays an error message indicating the ECal module is not connected or has not been recognized by the
network analyzer.
Retry Check the USB connections and click to continue.
Notes:
If your ECal module is not detected, try to unplug, then reconnect the USB connector to the PNA.
When the ECal module is connected to the network analyzer for the first time, it may take approximately 30
seconds for the analyzer to recognize the module and make it available for calibration.
For best accuracy, allow the ECal module to warm-up until it indicates READY.
Agilent 8509x and N4431 ECal modules, when first connected, draw significantly more current than other
modules. This could cause the USB to stop working in certain situations. See USB limitations.
See Connect ECal Module USB to PNA USB.
Select Module and Characterization dialog box help
ECal Module Select one of the ECal modules that are connected to the PNA.
Detect Connected ECals Click to rescan the USB for ECal modules.
Available Characterizations Select either the Factory Characterization of your ECal module or a User
Characterization. Once selected, that characterization becomes the default selection until the PNA is turned
OFF and restarted. When restarted, Factory again becomes the default selection.
473
Error: Frequency Range dialog box help
The current cal standards (or ECAL module) does not cover the current frequency range of the measurement.
Do one of the following to correct the problem:
Frequency Change the frequency range of the active channel.
Edit This selection is not relevant to ECal modules.
Back Select a different characterization that covers the required frequency range.
Cancel Re-characterize the module with an increased frequency range.
Select DUT Connectors and Cal Kits dialog box help
If the ECal module or selected User Characterization has more than one connector type, then the following
dialog box is presented which allows you to describe the DUT connector type. Otherwise, click next to proceed
to Advanced Settings (if checked) or ECal Steps.
Connectors
The available connectors are listed for each DUT port.
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Advanced Settings dialog box help
Thru #n
Lists the proposed Thru connections to be made during the calibration process. You can change these Thru
connections to better suit your test setup.
The proposed Thru connections are listed automatically.
Additional Thru connections can be selected for higher accuracy. Learn more.
Add Thru
Click to add a Thru connection. Learn more
Remove Thru
Select a Thru by clicking the "Thru #N" field or the "1st Port / 2nd Port" field. Then click "Remove Thru". This
selection is NOT available if the selected Thru is required for the calibration.
1st Port / 2nd Port
Click to change the two ports to be included in the Thru connection. The order of the port numbers (1st or 2nd)
is not critical.
Thru Cal Method
Lists the available Thru Cal methods for the specified port pairs.
Learn about ECal Thru Methods
Cal Type/ Stds
Click to invoke the View / Modify Properties of Cal dialog box
Do orientation
When this box is checked (default) the PNA automatically senses the model and direction in which an ECal
module port is connected to the PNA ports. If power to the ECal module is too low, it will appear as if there is no
ECal module connected. If you use low power and are having this problem, clear this check box to provide the
orientation manually.
Orientation occurs first at the middle of the frequency range that you are calibrating. If a signal is not detected,
it tries again at the lowest frequency in the range. If you have an E8361A or E836xB PNA and do an ECal
completely within 10 - 20 MHz OR 60 - 67 GHz, you may need to do orientation manually. There may not be
sufficient power to orient the ECal module at those frequencies.
Choose delta match
Available only when a Delta Match Cal is required.
Check, then click Next to invoke the Select Cal Set for Delta Match dialog box.
Clear - The Cal Wizard uses the Global Delta Match Cal if available.
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Specify how the ECal module is connected dialog box help
This dialog box appears when the Do orientation checkbox in the previous dialog box is cleared.
Click the ECal Port that is connected to each PNA port.
Electronic Calibration Steps dialog box help
Note: Beginning in PNA Rev. 6.0, ECal can be performed with External triggers. Learn more.
Displays the instructions for each measurement required for calibration.
Measure Measures the ECal standards.
Done Click when last standard has been measured.
Saving an ECal Calibration
When complete, you can save the new calibration. Learn how.
Last modified:
4-Sep-2007
14-Sep-2007
Sept. 12, 2006
Added First time note
MX Added UI
MQ Modified images for multiport
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ECal User Characterization
Overview
How to Perform a User Characterization
Restore ECal Module Memory
See also Using ECal
Other Calibration Topics
Overview
A user-characterized ECal module allows you to add adapters to the ECal module, re-measure the standards in the
ECal module, INCLUDING the adapters, then add that data to ECal memory. This extends the reference plane
from the module test ports to the adapters.
Why perform a user characterization?
If you need to use adapters with your ECal module, you could characterize your ECal module with the
adapters attached and perform subsequent ECals in a single step.
If you have a 4-port ECal module, you could configure the module with adapters of different connector types,
then perform a user characterization of the module. When you need to test a DUT with a pair of the
connector types on your module, calibrate the PNA with a 1-step ECal using the same two connectors on the
User-characterized module.
If you test devices in a fixture, you could embed the characterization of the fixture in the characterization of
the module. To do this, during the mechanical calibration portion of the user characterization, calibrate at the
reference plane of the device as you would normally calibrate. Then remove the fixturing to be embedded
and insert the ECal module to be characterized. When measuring the ECal module, the PNA removes the
effects of the fixturing and stores the measurement results in the user characterized ECal module.
Subsequent calibrations with that user characterized module will also remove the fixture effects.
Notes:
User Characterization does not delete the factory characterization data. The factory data is saved in the ECal
module in addition to the user characterization data.
You can save up to five different user characterizations in a single ECal module. There are memory
limitations; the PNA will determine if the contents of a user characterization will fit inside the module before it
is performed. Note: This is a new feature with PNA Rev. 3.0. Previous versions of PNA will NOT recognize
more than one user characterization.
Both 2-port and 4-port ECal modules support user characterization.
With PNA release 6.03, a user characterization can now be performed beyond the frequency range of the
ECal module. Although this practice is allowed, calibration accuracy with the extended user characterization
477
is likely to be degraded. To determine the level of degradation, compare measurements of a variety of
devices using a PNA with a mechanical cal kit calibration versus an ECal extended user characterization
calibration.
How to Perform a User Characterization
SUMMARY (A detailed procedure follows.)
1. Select adapters for the module to match the connector configuration of the DUT.
2. Either calibrate the PNA using mechanical standards or recall an existing Cal Set.
3. Measure the ECal module, including adapters, as though it were a DUT.
4. The measurement results are the characterization data that then gets stored inside the module.
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Note
A 2-port PNA can be used to perform a User Characterization on a 4-port ECal module. However, a 4-port
ECal module has SIX different port pairs. The PNA must be recalibrated for each port pair that uses unique
connecter types or gender.
If all 4 ECal module ports have the same connector type and gender, then only one PNA calibration is
required to measure all six port pairs.
If all 4 ECal module ports have different connector types or gender, then 6 calibrations are required.
When more than one PNA calibration is required during a User Characterization, then ALL calibrations must be
performed using the standard Cal Wizard, saved to Cal Sets, and then recalled from Cal Sets DURING the
User Characterization.
Detailed steps to Perform a User Characterization
1. Connect the ECal module to the network analyzer with the USB cable. See Connect ECal Module USB
to PNA USB.
2. Allow the module to warm up until it indicates READY.
3. Preset the analyzer.
4. Set up the measurement. For best accuracy, the IF bandwidth should be set to 1 kHz or less.
5. Start and complete the Characterize ECal Module Wizard:
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
No Programming commands
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Calibration
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Characterize ECal module
No Programming commands
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press CAL
1. Click Response
2. then [More]
2. the Cal
3. then [ECal]
3. then More
4. then [Characterize ECal module]
4. then ECal
5. then Characterize ECal module
479
Select Module and Characterization dialog box help
ECal Module Select one of the ECal modules that are connected to the PNA.
Detect Connected ECals Click to rescan the USB for ECal modules.
Available Characterizations Scroll to view all of the parameters of the stored characterizations. Select an
empty location or select to overwrite an existing characterization.
Data can NOT be deleted from the ECal module.
Next Click to continue to the Select Connectors for the Characterization dialog box.
See note regarding extended frequency use.
Select Connectors for the Characterization dialog box help
Note: When performing an ECal User Characterization, do NOT use a custom connector name that you added
to this list. If you need to use a custom-defined connector type, select "Type B", or one of the "Type A"
variations from the list of connectors for each port.
Allows you to select the adapters for the ECal module test ports. Select No adapter if no adapter is used on a
port.
PORT A Lists the connector types available for Port A.
PORT B Lists the connector types available for Port B.
PORT C Lists the connector types available for Port C (available with a 4-port ECal module).
PORT D Lists the connector types available for Port D (available with a 4-port ECal module).
Next Click to continue to the Calibrations to perform or recall dialog box.
480
Calibrations to perform or recall dialog box help
The PNA must be calibrated before measuring the ECal module and necessary adapters. This dialog box
displays the number and types of mechanical calibrations required for the characterization.
Guide me through this cal now Click to perform a Guided calibration. A calibration kit is required for each
connector type.
Note: TRL calibrations can NOT be performed on a 4-port PNA during the calibration portion of a User
Characterization. However, this type of Cal can be performed using the Cal Wizard, saved to a Cal Set, then
recalled at this point in the User Characterization.
If more than one calibration is required, this selection is not available. See Note.
Let me recall this cal from a cal set Click to select an existing Cal Set. You cannot select a Cal Set that is
currently in use. Learn more about Using Cal Sets.
Next Click to continue to either the Select Cal Kits or the Select Cal Set dialog box.
Select Cal Kits dialog box help
Provides a list of calibration kits to perform the calibration. Select the Cal Kit you will use for each port.
Enable Unknown Thru for characterizing the module Check to enable. This reduces the number of steps
required to characterize the THRU standard. This setting is available only on PNA models with one
reference receiver per test port.
Next Click to continue to the Select Cal Set dialog box.
481
Select Cal Set dialog box help
The calibration that you perform will be written to a Cal Set. This dialog box allows you to select a Cal Set to
overwrite, or to write to a new Cal Set. The current choice is visible below the Select Cal Set button.
Select Cal Set Click to open the Select A Cal Set dialog box.
Create new Cal Set Check to create a new Cal Set to store the calibration. Clear to select and overwrite a
stored Cal Set.
Next Click to continue to the Guided Calibration Steps dialog box.
Note: Remember the Cal Set name for future reference.
Guided Calibration Steps dialog box help
Instructs you to connect each calibration standard to the measurement port.
Measure Click to measure the standard.
Back Click to repeat one or more calibration steps.
Done Click after a standard is re-measured and all measurements for the calibration are complete.
Next Click to continue to the next calibration step. (Does not measure the standard.)
Cancel Exits Calibration Wizard.
The Specify nominal delay or Guided Calibration completed dialog box appears when the steps are
completed.
482
Specify nominal delay dialog box help
This dialog ONLY appears when Adapter Removal or Unknown Thru calibrations are performed.
The following values were estimated from the measurement. Most of the time, they are adequate. However, for
CW sweep or frequency sweep with large step sizes, the accuracy of the values may be improved.
Nominal adapter delay To improve this value, measure and record the delay of the adapter with a dense step
size. Enter that value here.
Nominal phase offset (Waveguide ONLY). To improve this value, measure and record the phase offset of the
Waveguide adapter with dense step size. Enter that value here.
When one connector is coax and the other connector is waveguide, the phase offset has an ambiguity of 180
degrees. For consistency, the estimate provided here is always between 0 and 180 degrees. You can change
this estimate to any value between -180 degrees and +180 degrees.
Guided Calibration completed dialog box help
Allows you to finish the calibration and continue to the next characterization steps.
No. Finish now Select to save Cal Set data.
Yes Allows selection of Save options.
Next Click to continue to the Exit to Inspect Quality of Calibration dialog box.
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Exit to Inspect Quality of Calibration dialog box help
Allows you to exit User Characterization to validate the calibration before proceeding with the characterization.
Back Allows you to repeat calibration.
Next Click to continue to the Characterization Steps dialog box.
Cancel Exits the Calibration.
To return to the current step:
1. Start User Characterization.
2. In the Select user number for new characterization dialog box, click Next.
3. In the Select Connectors for Characterization dialog box, click Next. (Previous entry is stored in
memory.)
4. In the Calibrations to perform or recall dialog box, recall the Cal Set that you just performed.
Characterization Steps dialog box help
Describes the instructions for each measurement required for characterization.
Measure Measures the ECal module.
Next Click to continue to the Information for the New Characterization dialog box when measurements are
complete.
484
Information for the New Characterization dialog box help
Allows you to describe the properties of the User Characterization.
Next Click to continue to the Write Characterized Data to the ECal module dialog box.
To minimize the number of characters, use the following 3-character codes to describe the connectors listed.
Connector Type
3-Character Code
1.0 mm female
10F
1.0 mm male
10M
1.85 mm female
18F
1.85 mm male
18M
2.4 mm female
24F
2.4 mm male
24M
2.92 mm female
29M
2.92 mm male
29F
3.5 mm female
35F
3.5 mm male
35M
7-16 female
16F
7-16 male
16M
Type F female
F7F
Type F male
F7M
N50 female
N5F
N50 male
N5M
485
N75 female
N7F
N75 male
N7M
APC 7
7MM
K-band waveguide
KBW
P-band waveguide
PBW
Q-band waveguide
QBW
R-band waveguide
RBW
U-band waveguide
UBW
V-band waveguide
VBW
W-band waveguide
WBW
X-band waveguide
XBW
Write Characterized Data to the ECal module memory dialog box help
The PNA writes User Characterization and factory characterization data to the ECal module memory. For more
information, see Restore ECal module memory.
Write Click to write data into the ECal module.
The Summary of new user characterization dialog box opens after data is saved to module.
Data can NOT be deleted from the ECal module.
486
Summary of new user characterization dialog box help
Verify the status of the ECal User Characterization.
ECal module model number
summary from user characterization
Cancel Click to exit (characterization complete).
Finish Click to exit (characterization complete).
Restore ECal Module Memory
When user-characterized data is written to the ECal module, the entire contents of ECal memory is also written to
the PNA hard drive. In the unlikely event that your ECal module memory is lost, you can restore the usercharacterized data to ECal memory.
How to Restore ECal Module Memory
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
No Programming commands
1. Click System
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Service
3. then Utilities
4. then Restore...
For PNA-X and 'C' models
No Programming commands
1. Press SYSTEM
1. Click Utility
2. then [Service]
2. then System
3. then [Utilities]
3. then Service
4. then [Restore...]
4. then Utilities
5.
487
3.
3.
4.
4.
5. then Restore...
Module to be restored dialog box help
Verify the Serial number of the module to be restored. If two modules are connected to the PNA , choose the
one to have data restored.
Next Click to write data to the module.
Last modified:
April 25, 2007
Sept. 20, 2006
Added note about can NOT delete data.
MX Modified for cross-browser
488
TRL Calibration
TRL (Thru, Reflect, Line) represents a family of calibration techniques that measure two transmission standards
and one reflection standard to determine the 2-port 12-term error coefficients. For example, TRM (Thru, Reflect,
Match), LRL (Line, Reflect, Line), LRM (Line, Reflect, Match) are all included in this family.
The traditional SOLT calibration measures one transmission standard (T) and three reflection standards (SOL) to
determine the same error coefficients.
Why Perform a TRL Cal?
The TRL Calibration Process
TRL Cal Kits
Cal Standards Used in TRL
TRL in 4-port PNA a
See other Calibration Topics
Why Perform a TRL Cal?
TRL calibration is extremely accurate, in most cases more accurate than an SOLT cal. However, very few
calibration kits contain TRL standards. TRL Cal is most often performed when you require a high level of accuracy
and do not have calibration standards in the same connector type as your DUT. This is usually the case when
using test fixtures, or making on-wafer measurements with probes. Therefore, in some cases you must construct
and characterize standards in the same media type as your DUT configuration. It is easier to manufacture and
characterize three TRL standards than the four SOLT standards.
Another advantage of TRL calibration is that the TRL standards need not be defined as completely and accurately
as the SOLT standards. While SOLT standards are completely characterized and stored as the standard definition,
TRL standards are modeled, and not completely characterized. However, TRL cal accuracy is directly proportional
to the quality and repeatability of the TRL standards. Physical discontinuities, such as bends in the transmission
lines and beads in coaxial structures, will degrade the TRL calibration. The connectors must be clean and allow
repeatable connections.
To learn more about Cal Standard requirements, see Cal Standards Used in TRL.
The TRL Cal Process
Although TRL can be performed using the Cal Wizard Unguided Cal selection, the following process uses the
easier SmartCal selection. Both selections require that you already have TRL calibration standards defined and
included in a PNA cal kit.
1. Preset the PNA
2. Set up a S-parameter measurement and the desired stimulus settings.
3. Click Calibration / Calibration Wizard
4.
489
2.
3.
4. Click SmartCal (Guided Cal).
5. Select the DUT connectors and Cal Kit for each port. The LOWEST port number of each port pair MUST
include TRL standards. TRL appears as the Cal Method.
6. Check Modify Cal, Next, then View/Modify to change default TRL options if necessary.
7. Follow the prompts to complete the calibration.
8. Check the accuracy of the calibration
TRL Cal Kits
Agilent Technologies offers two cal kits that include the required standards to perform a TRL calibration: 85050C
(APC 7mm) and 85052C (3.5mm). Both kits include the traditional Short, Open, and Load standards. (The Thru
standard, not actually supplied, assumes a zero-length Thru). In addition, the kits include an airline which is used
as the LINE standard. To use the airline, the kits include an airline body, center conductor, and insertion /
extraction tools. The APC 7 kit includes an adapter to connect the airline to the APC connector.
Cal Standards Used in TRL
These standards must be defined in your TRL cal kit:
THRU
Note: All THRU calibration methods are supported in a TRL Cal EXCEPT Unknown Thru.
The THRU standard can be either a zero-length or non-zero length. However, a zero-length THRU is more
accurate because it has zero loss and no reflections, by definition.
The THRU standard cannot be the same electrical length as the LINE standard.
If the insertion phase and electrical length are well-defined, the THRU standard may be used to set the
reference plane.
Characteristic impedance of the THRU and LINE standards defines the reference impedance of the
calibration.
REFLECT
The REFLECT standard can be anything with a high reflection, as long as it is the same when connected to
both PNA ports.
The actual magnitude of the reflection need not be known.
The phase of the reflection standard must be known within 1/4 wavelength.
If the magnitude and phase of the reflection standard are well-defined, the standard may be used to set the
reference plane.
LINE
490
The LINE and THRU standards establish the reference impedance for the measurement after the calibration is
completed. TRL calibration is limited by the following restrictions of the LINE standard:
Must be of the same impedance and propagation constant as the THRU standard.
The electrical length need only be specified within 1/4 wavelength.
Cannot be the same length as the THRU standard.
A TRL cal with broad frequency coverage requires multiple LINE standards. For example, a span from 2 GHz
to 26 GHz requires two line standards.
Must be an appropriate electrical length for the frequency range: at each frequency, the phase difference
between the THRU and the LINE should be greater than 20 degrees and less than 160 degrees. This means
in practice that a single LINE standard is only usable over an 8:1 frequency range (Frequency Span / Start
Frequency). Therefore, for broad frequency coverage, multiple lines are required.
At low frequencies, the LINE standard can become too long for practical use. The optimal length of the LINE
standard is 1/4 wavelength at the geometric mean of the frequency span (square root of f1 x f2).
MATCH
If the LINE standard of appropriate length or loss cannot be fabricated, a MATCH standard may be used instead of
the LINE.
The MATCH standard is a low-reflection termination connected to both Port 1 and Port 2.
The MATCH standard may be defined as an infinite length transmission line OR as a 1-port low reflect
termination, such as a load.
When defined as an infinite length transmission line, both test ports must be terminated by a MATCH
standard at the same time. When defined as a 1-port load standard, the loads are measured separately. The
loads are assumed to have the same characteristics.
The impedance of the MATCH standard becomes the reference impedance for the measurement. For best
results, use the same load on both ports. The load may be defined using the data-based definition, the
arbitrary impedance definition, or the fixed load definition.
See Modify Calibration Kits for detailed information about creating and modifying Calibration kit definitions.
Find more information about TRL standards at http://www.tm.agilent.com. Click "Technical Support". Use
"Application Notes" to search for App Note 8510-5A (part number 5956-4352). Although the application note is
written for the Agilent 8510 Series Network Analyzers, it also applies to the PNA.
TRL on a 4-port PNA and with an External Test Set
Beginning with the PNA code revision 5.25, TRL CAN be performed on a 4-port PNA and with an External Test Set
enabled. Previously, a TRL calibration required a PNA with a reference receiver for each test port. With the new
TRL method, a Delta Match Calibration is first performed and applied.
The accuracy of this TRL cal greatly depends on the accuracy of the Delta Match Calibration. With an accurate
Delta Match Calibration, the difference in accuracy between a traditional TRL cal and this TRL cal is negligible.
1.
491
How to Perform a TRL Cal on a multiport PNA
1. Click Calibration, Cal Wizard.
2. Select a TRL cal kit for the ports to be calibrated.
3. During the calibration, the Cal Wizard prompts you for a valid Delta Match Cal.
Last modified:
9/12/06
with Ext Test Set
492
Calibration Preferences Wizard
The following Cal Preferences are set from this Wizard:
1. Whether or not to show the first 'Method' Page of the Cal Wizard
2. Select and order the Cal Types that are available during a SmartCal with Mechanical Standards
3.
To change either of these choices, you must select Yes, Enable the calibration preferences at the first Wizard
page.
How to change Cal Preferences
Programming commands are NOT available for the preference settings discussed in this topic, although there
are other Cal Preferences that can be set remotely.
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Calibration
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Cal Preferences
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press CAL
1. Click Response
2. then [Start Cal]
2. then Cal
3. then [Preferences]
3. then Start Cal
4. then Preferences
493
Cal Preferences Wizard dialog box help
Use this dialog to change either of the following preferences:
Show or Hide the first page of the Cal Wizard
Select order of calibrations that are offered.
To change either of these choices, you must select Yes, Enable the calibration preferences.
Cal Preferences of... dialog box help
Use this dialog to change which Cal method to perform.
After making this selection, the first page of the Cal Wizard will not be shown on subsequent calibrations.
If you ONLY want to change the order of Cal Types that are offered (next page of the Cal Preferences), you
must do the following:
1. Select one of these choices and click Next.
2. Select and order the Cal Types, then click Next
3. Click Finish
4. Click Cal, then Cal Wizard.
5. On the first Cal Wizard page that shows, click Back, then clear the Preferences checkbox.
494
Cal Type Preferences dialog box help
This dialog is used to set which Cal Types are available, and the order in which they are selected as the default
choice, during a SmartCal with Mechanical Standards. This setting is also used to set the default Cal Type for
Guided calibrations using SCPI or COM.
The specified Cal Type order should allow you to make fewer changes to the Cal Type during a SmartCal with
Mechanical Standards.
For example, in the above image, the first Cal Type on the list is TRL. When doing a SmartCal with Mechanical
Standards:
If a TRL Cal Kit is available for the specified DUT connectors, then TRL becomes the default Cal Type.
If a TRL Cal Kit is NOT available, then the second Cal Type on the list (SOLT) is evaluated for
compatibility with the available Cal Kits, and so forth with the Cal Types that remain on the list.
If TRL is removed from the list, that Cal Type is NOT available for selection during a SmartCal with
Mechanical Standards.
Learn more about Cal Types.
See where you choose Cal Type during a SmartCal
Prioritized list of choices for default Cal Type Shows the current list of Cal Types and the order in which
they will be selected for Mechanical calibrations.
Change Click to invoke the Modify list of default Cal Types dialog.
Restore factory defaults Returns the list to the original selections and order. The factory defaults are in order
of accuracy from highest (TRL) to lowest (QSOLT).
Cancel Closes the dialog without making changes.
Notes:
Your Cal Type settings are saved only until the PNA application is closed. When re-opened, the factory
default settings are restored.
Learn more about QSOLT Calibration
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Modify list of default Cal Types dialog box help
Use this dialog to Add, Remove, and re-order the available Cal Types. There must be at least ONE selected
Cal Type to perform a SmartCal with Mechanical Standards.
Unselected Cal Types Cal Types in this list will not be presented as a choice during a Calibration.
Selected Cal Types Cal Types in this list will be presented, in order, as the default choice during a Calibration.
Click a Cal Type to select it, then click the following buttons to perform that operation.
Add / Remove buttons Click to Add and Remove the selected Cal Types from the Selected Cal Types list.
Move Up / Down Click to re-order the Selected Cal Types list.
Cal Preferences Complete dialog box help
Either Enable or Disable Cal Preferences.
Do you want to select ONLY Cal Type Preferences and continue to show the first Cal Wizard page? Learn how.
Last Modified:
1-Jan-2007
MX added UI
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Measurement Errors
You can improve accuracy by knowing how errors occur and how to correct for them. This topic discusses the
sources of measurement error and how to monitor error terms.
Drift Errors
Random Errors
Systematic Errors
3-Port Error Terms
4-Port Error Terms
Monitoring Error Terms
See other Calibration Topics
Drift Errors
Drift errors are due to the instrument or test-system performance changing after a calibration has been done.
Drift errors are primarily caused by thermal expansion characteristics of interconnecting cables within the test set
and conversion stability of the microwave frequency converter and can be removed by re-calibrating.
The time frame over which a calibration remains accurate is dependent on the rate of drift that the test system
undergoes in your test environment.
Providing a stable ambient temperature usually minimizes drift. For more information, see Measurement Stability.
Random Errors
Random errors are not predictable and cannot be removed through error correction. However, there are things that
can be done to minimize their impact on measurement accuracy. The following explains the three main sources of
random errors.
Instrument Noise Errors
Noise is unwanted electrical disturbances generated in the components of the analyzer. These disturbances
include:
Low level noise due to the broadband noise floor of the receiver.
High level noise or jitter of the trace data due to the noise floor and the phase noise of the LO source inside
the test set.
You can reduce noise errors by doing one or more of the following:
Increase the source power to the device being measured - ONLY reduces low-level noise.
497
Narrow the IF bandwidth.
Apply several measurement sweep averages.
Switch Repeatability Errors
Mechanical RF switches are used in the analyzer to switch the source attenuator settings.
Sometimes when mechanical RF switches are activated, the contacts close differently from when they were
previously activated. When this occurs, it can adversely affect the accuracy of a measurement.
You can reduce the effects of switch repeatability errors by avoiding switching attenuator settings during a critical
measurement.
Connector Repeatability Errors
Connector wear causes changes in electrical performance. You can reduce connector repeatability errors by
practicing good connector care methods. See Connector Care.
Systematic Errors
Systematic errors are caused by imperfections in the analyzer and test setup.
They are repeatable (and therefore predictable), and are assumed to be time invariant.
They can be characterized during the calibration process and mathematically reduced during measurements.
They are never completely removed. There are always some residual errors due to limitations in the
calibration process. The residual (after measurement calibration) systematic errors result from:
imperfections in the calibration standards
connector interface
interconnecting cables
instrumentation
Reflection measurements generate the following three systematic errors:
Directivity
Source Match
Frequency Response Reflection Tracking
Transmission measurements generate the following three systematic errors:
Isolation
Load Match
Frequency Response Transmission Tracking
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Notes about the following Systematic Error descriptions:
The figures for the following six systematic errors show the relevant hardware configured for a forward
measurement. For reverse measurements, internal switching in the analyzer makes Port 2 the source and
Port 1 the receiver. 'A' becomes the transmitted receiver, 'B' becomes the reflected receiver, and 'R2'
becomes the reference receiver. These six systematic errors, times two directions, results in 12 systematic
errors for a two port device.
For simplicity, it may be stated that ONE standard is used to determine each systematic error. In reality, ALL
standards are used to determine ALL of the systematic errors.
The following describes an SOLT calibration. This does not apply to TRL, or other types of calibration.
Directivity Error
All network analyzers make reflection measurements using directional couplers or bridges.
With an ideal coupler, only the reflected signal from the DUT appears at the 'A' receiver. In reality, a small amount
of incident signal leaks through the forward path of the coupler and into the 'A' receiver. This leakage path, and any
other path that allows energy to arrive at the 'A' receiver without reflecting off the DUT, contributes to directivity
error.
How the Analyzer Measures and Reduces Directivity Error.
1. During calibration, a load standard is connected to Port 1. We assume no reflections from the load.
2. The signal measured at the 'A' receiver results from the incident signal leakage through the coupler and other
paths.
3. Directivity error is mathematically removed from subsequent reflection measurements.
Isolation Error
Ideally, only signal transmitted through the DUT is measured at the 'B' receiver.
In reality, a small amount of signal leaks into the 'B' receiver through various paths in the analyzer.
The signal leakage, also known as crosstalk, is isolation error which can be characterized and reduced by the
analyzer.
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How the Analyzer Measures and Reduces Isolation Error
1. During calibration, load standards are connected to both Port 1 and Port 2.
2. The signal measured at the 'B' receiver is leakage through various paths in the analyzer.
3. This isolation error is mathematically removed from subsequent transmission measurements.
Source Match Error
Ideally in reflection measurements, all of the signal that is reflected off of the DUT is measured at the 'A' receiver.
In reality, some of the signal reflects off the DUT, and multiple internal reflections occur between the analyzer and
the DUT. These reflections combine with the incident signal and are measured at the 'A' receiver, but not at the 'R'
receiver.
This measurement error is called source match error which can be characterized and reduced by the analyzer.
How the Analyzer Measures and Reduces Source Match Error
1. During calibration, all reflection standards are connected to Port 1. Known reflections from the standards are
measured at the 'A' receiver.
2. Complex math is used to calculate source match error.
3.
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2.
3. Source match error is mathematically removed from subsequent reflection and transmission measurements.
Load Match Error
Ideally in transmission measurements, an incident signal is transmitted through the DUT and is measured at the 'B'
receiver.
In reality, some of the signal is reflected off of Port 2 and other components and is not measured at the 'B' receiver.
This measurement error is called load match error which can be characterized and reduced by the analyzer.
How the Analyzer Measures and Reduces Load Match Error
1. The Port 1 and Port 2 test connectors are mated together for a perfect zero-length thru connection. If this is
not possible, a characterized thru adapter is inserted. This allows a known amount of incident signal at Port
2.
2. The signal measured at the 'A' receiver is reflection signal off of Port 2
3. The resulting load match error is mathematically removed from subsequent transmission and reflection
measurements.
Frequency Response Reflection Tracking Error
Reflection measurements are made by comparing signal at the 'A' receiver to signal at the 'R1' receiver. This is
called a ratio measurement or "A over R1" (A/R1).
For ideal reflection measurements, the frequency response of the 'A' and 'R1' receivers would be identical.
In reality, they are not, causing a frequency response reflection tracking error. This is the vector sum of all test
variations in which magnitude and phase change as a function of frequency. This includes variations contributed
by:
signal-separation devices
test cables
adapters
501
variations between the reference and test signal paths
Frequency response reflection tracking error can be characterized and reduced by the analyzer.
How the Analyzer Measures and Reduces Frequency Response Reflection Tracking Error.
1. During calibration, all reflection standards are used to determine reflection tracking.
2. The average 'A' receiver response is compared with the 'R1' receiver response.
3. Complex math is used to calculate Frequency Response Reflection Tracking Error (see the following
diagram). This frequency response reflection tracking error is mathematically removed from subsequent DUT
measurements.
Note: In reflection response calibrations, only a single calibration standard is measured (open or short) and thus
only its contribution to the error correction is used.
Frequency Response Transmission Tracking Error
Transmission measurements are made by comparing signal at the 'B' receiver to signal at the 'R1' receiver. This is
called a ratio measurement or "B over R1" (B/R1).
For ideal transmission measurements, the frequency response of the 'B' and 'R1' receivers would be identical.
In reality, they are not, causing a frequency response transmission tracking error. This is the vector sum of all test
variations in which magnitude and phase change as a function of frequency. This includes variations contributed
502
by:
signal-separation devices
test cables
adapters
variations between the reference and test signal paths
Frequency response transmission tracking error can be characterized and reduced by the analyzer.
How the Analyzer Measures and Reduces Frequency Response Transmission Tracking Error.
1. During calibration, the Port 1 and Port 2 test connectors are mated together for a perfect zero-length thru
connection. If this is not possible, a characterized thru adapter is inserted. This allows a known amount of
incident signal to reach Port 2.
2. Measurements are made at the 'B' and 'R1' receivers.
3. Complex math is used to calculate Frequency Response Transmission Tracking Error (see the following
diagram). This frequency response transmission tracking error is mathematically removed from subsequent
DUT measurements.
.
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3-Port Error Terms
The following flow diagram displays the 3-port error term model:
where:
E = error term
DIR = Directivity
MAT = Forward Source Match and Reverse Load Match
TRK = Forward Reflection Tracking and Reverse Transmission Tracking
4-Port error terms
A full 4-port calibration requires the following terms:
Learn about the port numbering convention for error terms.
Source Port
1
1
2
3
4
DIR 1,1
LDM 1,2
LDM 1,3
LDM 1,4
RTRK
1,1
TTRK 1,2
TTRK 1,3
XTLK 1,2
XTLK 1,3
TTRK
1,4
LDM 2,1
DIR 2,2
LDM 2,3
LDM 2,4
TTRK
2,1
RTRK 2,2
TTRK 2,3
SRM 2,2
XTLK 2,3
TTRK
2,4
LDM 3,2
DIR 3,3
SRM 1,1
R
e
2
c
XTLK
2,1
P
LDM 3,1
XTLK 1,4
XTLK 2,4
LDM 3,4
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TTRK
3,1
o
r
3
TTRK 3,2
RTRK 3,3
XTLK 3,2
SRM 3,3
LDM 4,1
LDM 4,2
LDM 4,3
DIR 4,4
TTRK
4,1
TTRK 4,2
TTRK 4,3
XTLK 4,2
XTLK 4,3
RTRK
4,4
XTLK
3,1
t
4
XTLK
4,1
TTRK
3,4
XTLK 3,4
SRM 4,4
Reflection terms
DIR: Directivity
RTRK: Reflection Tracking
SRM: Source Match
Transmission terms
LDM:Load Match
TTRK: Transmission Tracking
XTLK: Cross Talk
How can we measure only 3 THRU connections?
On a 4-port PNA, a full 4-port cal can be performed while measuring only 3 THRU connections. Measuring more
than 3 THRU connections will give higher accuracy.
By measuring all of the reflection terms, and 3 transmission THRU connections, there is adequate information
available to calculate the remaining transmission terms. The following is a high level explanation of the concept.
The actual calculations are much more complex.
To simplify, let's substitute letters (A,B,C,D) for port numbers from the diagram above so that they can be combined
without confusion. Also for simplicity, let's assume that the source match and directivity errors are zero.
A
B
C
D
A
AA
AB
AC
AD
B
BA
BB
BC
BD
C
CA
CB
CC
CD
D
DA
DB
DC
DD
The reflection errors are all measured (AA, BB, CC, DD).
Lets assume we measure a THRU between ports AB, AC, AD. The reverse direction for these THRUs are
505
also measured at the same time (BA, CA, DA).
The terms left to calculate are BC, CB, BD, DB, CD, DC.
The following shows how the BC term is calculated from BA and AC:
Similarly:
CB is calculated from CA and AB
BD is calculated from BA and AD
DB is calculated from AB and DA
CD is calculated from CA and AD
DC is calculated from DA and AC
Monitoring Error Terms using Cal Set Viewer
You can use Cal Set Viewer to monitor the measured data and the calculated error term. This will help to
determine the health of your PNA and the accuracy of your measurements.
By printing or saving the error terms, you can periodically compare current error terms with previously recorded
error terms that have been generated by the same PNA, measurement setup, and calibration kit. If previously
generated values are not available, refer to Typical Error Term Data in Appendix A, "Error Terms", of the Service
Guide.
Note: The service guide for your PNA is available at http://www.agilent.com/find/pna
It is also on the CDROM that was shipped with your PNA.
A stable system should generate repeatable error terms over about six months.
A sudden shift in error terms over the same frequency range, power, and receiver settings, may indicate the
need for troubleshooting system components. For information on troubleshooting error terms, see Appendix
A , "Error Terms", of the Service Guide.
A subtle, long-term shift in error terms often reflects drift or connector and cable wear. The cure is often as
simple as cleaning and gauging connectors or inspecting cables.
Viewing Cal Set Data
Existing measurement traces are unaffected by the Cal Set Viewer.
The Cal Set data trace is presented in the highest unused channel number (usually 32) in the active window.
The Cal Set data trace is labeled as S11 in the status bar regardless of the type of error term or standard.
Only one Cal Set error term or standard data can be viewed at a time. However, a data trace can be stored
into memory and then compared to other data traces.
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How to access Cal Set Viewer
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Calibration
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Cal Set Viewer
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press CAL
1. Click Response
2. then [Manage Cals]
2. then Cal
3. then [Cal Set Viewer]
3. then Manage Cals
4. then Cal Set Viewer
How to use Cal Set Viewer
1. Use the down arrow to select a Cal Set. Then click either:
Error Terms - calculated data.
Standards - the raw measurement data of the Standard. ONLY available with Unguided Cal (not
ECal or Guided Cal).
2. Use the down arrow to select an error term or standard to view.
3. Select the Enable check box to view the data on the PNA screen.
Port numbering convention for error terms is the same as for S-Parameters:
E Term (Receiver, Source) with the following exceptions:
Load Match (2,1) - The match of port 2 which is measured by making an S11 measurement.
Load Match (1,2) - The match of port 1 which is measured by making an S22 measurement.
Transmission Tracking (2,1) - The port 2 receiver relative to the port 1 reference. (source=port 1).
Transmission Tracking (1,2) - The port 1 receiver relative to the port 2 reference. (source=port 2).
507
And so forth for multiport calibrations.
Last modified:
March 10, 2008
MX Updated UI
508
Modify Calibration Kits
You can create or modify calibration kit files using Advanced Modify Cal Kits.
About Modifying Calibration Kits
Creating a New Cal Kit from an Existing Cal Kit
Creating Custom Calibration Kits using a New Connector Family
How to Modify Cal Kits
Calibration Class Assignments
Waveguide Cal Kits
Note: For a detailed discussion of Cal Kits and standards, see App Note 1287-11.
See other Calibration Topics
About Modifying Calibration Kits
You can modify calibration kit files or create a custom one.
Note: You CAN modify Data-based Cal Kits. Learn how.
For most applications, the default calibration kit models provide sufficient accuracy for your calibration. However,
several situations exist that may require you to create a custom calibration kit:
Using a connector interface different from those used in the predefined calibration kit models.
Using standards (or combinations of standards) that are different from the predefined calibration kits. For
example, using three offset SHORTs instead of an OPEN, SHORT, and LOAD to perform a 1-port
calibration.
Improving the accuracy of the models for predefined kits. When the model describes the actual performance
of the standard, the calibration is more accurate. (Example: A 7 mm LOAD is determined to be 50.4O instead
of 50.0O.)
Modifying the THRU definition when performing a calibration for a non-insertable device.
Performing a TRL calibration.
Creating a New Cal Kit from an Existing Cal Kit
You can create a new custom Cal Kit using a copy of an existing Cal Kit as a starting point. Here is how:
1. From the Edit PNA Cal Kits dialog, click Import Kit to load the Cal Kit you want to use as a starting point. A
"Duplicate Name..." message appears. Click OK to load a duplicate copy of the Cal kit into the last position of
the Edit PNA Cal Kits dialog.
2.
3.
509
1.
2. Select the imported kit.
3. Click Edit Kit, then change the Cal Kit Name and Description.
4. Click Installed Kits - Save As to save the new Cal Kit to a .ckt file.
5. Recommended: Also click Edit PNA Cal Kits - Save As to save the entire collection of Cal Kits to a .wks file.
6. If using a new or modified connector, click Change Family to change the connector family.
7. Click Add or Edit to change connector descriptions and parameters.
8. Make modifications to your new custom Cal Kit as required. Save your work by clicking Installed Kits - Save
As
Note: Custom Cal Kits must be imported after a firmware upgrade. Learn more
Creating Custom Calibration Kits using a New Connector Family
To create a custom calibration kit that uses a new connector type, you must first define the connector family. The
connector family is the name of the connector-type of the calibration kit, such as:
APC7
2.4 mm
Type-N (50O)
Although more than one connector family is allowed, it is best to limit each calibration kit to only one connector
family.
If you are using a connector family that has male and female connectors, include definitions of both genders. If you
are using a family with no gender, such as APC7, only one connector definition is required.
Use the following steps to create a custom calibration kit:
1. In the Edit PNA Cal Kits dialog box, click Insert New to add the new connector family.
2. In the Edit Kit dialog box:
Type the Kit Description for the custom cal kit.
Click Add in the Connectors section of the dialog box.
3. In the Add Connector dialog box:
Type a Connector Family name.
Type a Description of the connector.
Select the Gender of one of the connectors.
Type the minimum and maximum Frequency Range.
510
Type the Impedance.
Click the down-arrow to select the Media.
Type the cut-off frequency.
Click Apply.
Click OK.
4. If you need to add another connector gender, in the Edit Kit dialog box :
Click Add in the Connectors section again for the next connector gender.
5. If you are adding another connector gender, repeat step 3.
Note: If you have male and female versions of the connector family, you probably do NOT also have a NO
GENDER version.
6. Now that the connector family is added to the custom cal kit, you are ready to add new calibration standards.
In the Edit Kit dialog box:
Under the list of standards, click Add.
7. In the Add Standard dialog box:
Select the type of standard (OPEN, SHORT, LOAD, or THRU).
Click OK.
8. In the Edit/Add Standards dialog box:
Complete the information in the dialog box for the standard you selected. Note that for banded
standards, the start and stop frequency may be different than the frequency range of the specified
connector. Edit the start and stop frequencies as needed.
Click OK when all the settings are correct.
9. Repeat steps 6 - 8, as necessary, to add all standards and definitions to the new custom cal kit.
10. Assign each of the standards to a calibration class. This is done through the Modify Calibration Class
Assignment dialog box.
11. Click File, PrintToFile. PrintToFile will generate a .prn file (ascii file with comma delimiters) that can be
imported into a spreadsheet.
12. Import the .prn file into an application such as Microsoft Excel, and print the results.
13.
511
12.
13. Use the spreadsheet to verify that each standard in the kit belongs to the same connector family and the
gender of each standard is properly specified. It is important that the connectors and genders for your
standards are correctly defined and verified in order for your SmartCal (guided calibrations) to work properly.
How to Modify Cal Kits
The series of dialog boxes that follow allow you to modify the standard definitions or class assignments of
calibration kit files.
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Calibration
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Advanced Modify Cal Kit
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press CAL
1. Click Response
2. then [More]
2. then Cal
3. then [Cal Kit]
3. then More
4. then Cal Kit
Edit PNA Cal Kits
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Edit PNA Cal Kits dialog box help
Provides access to all Agilent cal kits and allows modification of their standard definitions.
PNA Cal Kits and Firmware Upgrades
The default "factory" cal kits are overwritten when new firmware is installed. Your custom cal kits (files
with custom filenames) are NOT overwritten. However, the custom cal kits must be imported (click
Import Kit) into the new firmware.
All PNA cal kits can only be imported by the current firmware revision and later. They can NOT be
imported by PAST firmware revisions. Once a Cal Kit has been imported by a later firmware revision,
it cannot be imported by the previous version of firmware from which it originated.
When a firmware upgrade takes place, ALL cal kits, both factory and custom, that are present on the
PNA are saved to a single *.wks file using a unique filename. These files are NOT Excel spreadsheet
files. They are opened using the Open button (see below). They can be used as archives of cal kits
from previous firmware versions.
Open Opens an archive of cal kits from past firmware upgrades and 'Save As' operations.
Save As Saves ALL cal kits in the PNA to a *.wks file.
Restore Defaults Re-installs the default factory contents of all Agilent cal kits from the PNA hard drive. The
factory Agilent cal kits are stored on the PNA hard drive at C:/Program Files/Agilent/Network
Analyzer/PnaCalKits/factory.
Installed Kits
Import Kit Invokes the Import Kit dialog box.
Save As Saves the selected calibration kit and definitions (using .ckt file type).
Insert New Invokes a blank Edit Kit dialog box to create new calibration kit definitions.
Print to File Prints the contents of the selected cal kit to a .prn file.
Edit Kit... Invokes the Edit Kit dialog box to modify selected calibration kit definitions.
Note: You CAN NOW modify Data-based Cal Kits. Learn more.
Delete Deletes selected calibration kit file.
^ Selects previous / next calibration kit in list.
For more information see Creating Custom Calibration Kits using a New Connector Family.
513
Import Kit dialog box help
Note: No more than 50 cal kits can be imported.
Imports calibration kit definitions from hard disk or other drive that are saved in the various formats. With PNA
version 4.0 or later, four kit types can be imported.
Note: See PNA Cal Kits and Firmware Upgrades
Files of type Select the file type of your Cal Kit
Cal Kit Format
File Type
Current PNA Series Cal Kit
*.ckt
Old PNA Series Cal Kit (Version
1)
*.ck1
8510 Cal Kit
CK_*
8753, 8752, 8719, 8720, or 8722
Cal Kit
*.ck
File name Navigate and select your cal kit file.
Open Imports the selected file. The kit is added at the end of the list of cal kits.
Importing Kits other than current PNA Series Kits
Cal kit files from Agilent "legacy" network analyzers (listed above) may not contain information that the PNA
requires. Therefore, the PNA may modify the cal kit name and description, the cal standards, and the cal class
assignments in a best effort manner. You may need to correct these modifications after importing your legacy
cal kit to meet your specific requirements.
"Legacy" cal kit files are based on the analyzer test port sex; PNA cal kits are based on the Device Under
Test (DUT) connector sex. Therefore, when the kit is imported the standard's label and description are
reversed and are noted as F- (female) and M- (male) .
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When a Coaxial standard is detected in the kit file, a pair of male/female connectors is typically created.
Waveguide standards that are created as connector have no gender.
Edit Kit dialog box help
Identification
Kit Number Number of the selected calibration kit.
Kit Name Allows you to change the Name of the selected calibration kit.
Kit Description Allows you to change the description of the selected calibration kit.
Connectors
Note: You can NOT use a connector with a new or modified name to perform an ECal User Characterization.
Click the down arrow to change the connector type.
Add or Edit Invokes the Add or Edit Connector dialog box which allows you to add new connector type to
the calibration kit or edit the connector properties.
Change Family Invokes the Change Connector Family dialog box which allows you to rename the entire
connector family name.
515
Class Assignments
Click the down arrow to change the Class Assignment.
Edit Invokes the Modify Calibration Class Assignments dialog box.
Standards in Kit
Lists the current standards and descriptions in the cal kit.
Add... Invokes the Add Standard dialog box that allows you to add definitions for a standard.
Edit... Invokes the Edit dialog box that allows you to modify standard definitions for the selected standard:
either Open, Short, Load, or Thru.
Delete Deletes selected standard from calibration kit.
Add or Edit Connector dialog box help
Identification
Note: You can NOT use a connector with a new or modified name to perform an ECal User Characterization.
Connector Family Allows you to Add or Edit a specific connector name. If you change Connector Family to
a unique name, the name and selected Gender is ADDED to the list of connectors in that kit.
Note: To change the Connector Family Name of all connectors in the Kit, click Change Family on the previous
dialog box.
Description Displays connector type and gender.
Frequency Range
Min Allows you to define the lowest frequency at which the standard is used for calibration.
Max Allows you to define the highest frequency at which the standard is used for calibration.
516
Gender
Allows you to define the connector gender.
Impedance
Allows you to define the impedance of the standard.
Media
Allows you to define the medium (or 'geometry') of the connector: COAX or WAVEGUIDE.
Waveguide Cal Kits
If modifying or creating a waveguide cal kit, be sure to make the following settings. You can create a custom
waveguide cal kit using an existing factory waveguide Cal kit as a starting point. The factory cal kits already
have these settings.
Frequency Range: Min. frequency = Cutoff frequency.
Gender: No Gender
Impedance Z0: 1 ohm
Media: Waveguide
Cutoff Frequency enter the low-end cutoff frequency.
Height/Width Ratio Used to calculate waveguide loss. This value is usually on the data sheet for
waveguide devices. For more information see App Note 1287-11.
Other waveguide settings
If performing an Unguided Cal, change System Impedance to 1 ohm.
For waveguide, choose TRL (Thru-Reflect-Line) calibration type . These calibration types are more
accurate and take fewer steps than SOLT.
517
Change Connector Family dialog box help
Note: You can NOT use a connector with a new or modified name to perform an ECal User Characterization.
Performs a text "Search and Replace" function. Within the description field of each of the standards of the
current Cal Kit, it searches for the Previous Connector Name and replaces it with the New Connector Name.
Specify New Connector Name Allows you to replace the primary connector-family name from the selected
kit with the new connector-family name. The PNA allows multiple connector-families per kit.
Previous Connector Name Displays the primary connector-family name. All occurrences of the previous
connector name will be replaced throughout calibration dialog boxes. This includes calibration kit labels and
description fields.
Notes:
String replacement requires an exact match and is case sensitive. For example, "Type N" does not
match "type N", and "apc 7" does not match "APC 7".
Some calibration kits may include connector names that do not match strings within labels or
description fields. You may reuse the Change Connector Name dialog to standardize the name within
the kit, and then to replace the standard name with the new name.
Example:
Select the 85056A calibration kit. The default connector-family name is "APC 2.4". However, many
standard description files are labeled "2.4 mm". You may want to replace the connector family name
with a new name and update the standard descriptions to match the new name. For this kit, use a two
step procedure.
1.
Use the Change Connector Name dialog to replace "APC 2.4" with "2.4 mm".
2.
Use the Change Connector Name dialog to replace "2.4 mm" with the new name, "PSC 2.4 mm".
See Also Creating a New Cal Kit from an existing Cal Kit
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Modify Calibration Class Assignments dialog box help
Allows you to assign single or multiple standards to Calibration Classes.
There are two ways to get here:
1. Click Calibration
2. Click Advanced Modify Cal Kit..
3. Select the Cal Kit, then click Edit Kit
4. Under Class Assignments, select the Cal Method (SOLT, TRL), then click Edit
You can also get here during a SmartCal Calibration.
1. From the Select DUT Connectors and Cal Kits dialog, check Modify Cal, then click Next.
2. At the Modify Cal dialog, click a Mod Stds button.
3. At the View/Modify Properties Dialog, select the Cal Method (SOLT, TRL), then click View/Modify
To assign a standard to a calibration class:
1. Select the Calibration Kit Class
2. Select the standard from the Unselected Standards field
3. Click the right arrow to move the standard to the Selected Standards field.
Notes:
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3.
During an Unguided Cal all of the Selected Standards are presented. You then choose which of these
standards to measure.
The MATCH standards must be assigned to the FWD MATCH, REV MATCH, and LINE classes. See
TRL calibrations to learn more about TRL standards.
Use MOVE UP and MOVE DOWN to change the ORDER of the standard. The order is used during a
SmartCal to determine overlap priorities when:
Multiple standards are valid for a frequency - standards are presented in the order in which they
appear.
Using two sets of standards - modify the order in which standards appear to reflect the
configuration of your DUT. For example, for a DUT with a male connector on port 1 and a female
connector on port 2, order the devices within the S11 classes (A, B, and C) such that the MALE
standards are first in the list. Then order the S22 classes specifying the FEMALE standards as the
first in the list.
To Add or Edit standards, click Calibration then, click Advanced Modify Cal Kit.
See TRL Class Assignments
Learn more about Calibration Classes.
Calibration Class Label
The label that appears on the Unguided Cal - Measure Mechanical Standards dialog box. For example, the
Calibration Class Label "Modified OPEN" would yield the following prompt:
The following selections in this dialog box depend on your Class Assignment selection (SOLT or TRL) in the
Edit Kit dialog box.
SOLT ONLY
Link FWD TRANS, FWD MATCH, REV TRANS, and REV MATCH Check to automatically assign the standard
definition for FWD TRANS to FWD MATCH, REV MATCH, and REV TRANS. Clear to separately assign FWD
MATCH, REV MATCH and REV TRANS classes (SOLT calibrations only).
Expanded Calibration
The following two check boxes apply ONLY during Guided Calibrations. For Unguided Calibration, these
check boxes are ignored, including the case where the multiple standards dialog box is presented.
Measure all mateable standards in class Check this box to attain the very highest accuracy possible. For
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example, if a cal kit contains several load standards, during the calibration process you will be prompted to
measure each of the standards. This could require a significant amount of calibration time. When checked,
the "Use expanded math when possible" box is also checked automatically.
Use expanded math when possible Some kits contain multiple calibration standards of the same type that
together cover a very wide frequency range. (For example: multiple shorts, or a lowband load and a sliding
load.) If a calibration requires more than one standard to cover the calibration frequency range, there can be
regions of overlapping measurements. When this checkbox is selected, the PNA automatically computes the
most accurate measurement in the overlap regions using a "weighted least squares fit" algorithm. This
function improves accuracy without slowing the calibration speed.
Manually select this checkbox only when using a cal kit that contains multiple standards of the same
type. (For example: multiple shorts, or a lowband load and a sliding load.)
The checkbox is cleared by default when a polynomial model is selected from the cal kit menu.
The checkbox is selected by default when the 85058B or 85058E data-based model is selected from
the cal kit menu.
TRL ONLY
If TRL is selected as Class Assignment in the Edit Kit dialog box, the following changes appear in this dialog:
Calibration Kit Class
Learn more about TRL standards.
Isolation calibration is not usually necessary in the PNA.
LRL line auto characterization
Note: This setting ONLY applies if an LRL Cal Kit is being modified AND Testport Reference Plane is set to
Thru Standard AND the TRL Thru class standard and the TRL Line/Match class standard both have the same
values for Offset Z0 and Loss. Otherwise, this setting is ignored.
Check the box to allow the PNA to automatically correct for line loss and dispersion characteristics.
Clear the box if anomalies appear during a calibrated measurement which may indicate different loss and
impedance values for the Line standards.
Calibration Reference Z0 (TRL only)
System Z0 The system impedance is used as the reference impedance. Choose when the desired test port
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impedance differs from the impedance of the LINE standard. Also, choose when skin effect impedance
correction is desired for coax lines.
Line Z0 The impedance of the line standard is used as the reference impedance, or center of the Smith
Chart. Any reflection from the line standard is assumed to be part of the directivity error.
Testport Reference Plane (TRL only)
Thru Standard The THRU standard definition is used to establish the measurement reference plane. Select
if the THRU standard is zero-length or very short.
Reflect Standard The REFLECT standard definition is used to establish the position of the measurement
reference plane. Select if the THRU standard is not appropriate AND the delay of the REFLECT standard is
well defined.
Also, select If a flush short is used for the REFLECT standard because a flush short provides a more
accurate phase reference than a Thru standard.
Add Standard dialog box help
Allows you to add standards to the calibration kit file.
OPEN Adds an open to the calibration kit file.
SHORT Adds a short to the calibration kit file.
LOAD Adds a load to the calibration kit file.
THRU Adds a thru to the calibration kit file.
DATA BASED STANDARD Adds a data-based standard to the calibration kit file.
OK Invokes a blank Edit Standards: Open, Short, Load, Thru, or Data-Based dialog box.
For more information see Creating Custom Calibration Kits using a New Connector Family.
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Edit / Add Standards (Open, Short, Load, Thru, or Data-based)
Edit / Add Standards dialog box help
Note: For a detailed discussion of this value, search for App Note 8510-5B at www.Agilent.com.
The boxed areas of the previous graphic applies to all standard types.
The other areas change depending on the type of standard selected.
Identification
Standard ID Number in list of standards
Label Type of standard.
Description Description of standard.
Frequency Range
Min Defines the lowest frequency at which the standard is used for calibration.
Max Defines the highest frequency at which the standard is used for calibration.
Connector
Indicates the type and gender (Male, Female, None) of the standard.
Delay Characteristics
Delay Defines the one-way travel time from the calibration plane to the standard in seconds.
Z0 Defines the impedance of the standard.
Loss Defines energy loss in Gohms, due to skin effect, along a one-way length of coaxial cable.
The following applies to standard types Open, Short, Load, Thru, and Data-based
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Open Standard
C0, C1, C2, C3 Specifies the fringing capacitance.
Short Standard
L0, L1, L2, L3 Specifies the residual inductance.
Load Standard
Allows you to select the type of load.
Load Type
Fixed Load Specifies the load type as Fixed. The fixed load is assumed to be a perfect termination without
reflection.
Sliding Load A sliding load is defined by making multiple measurements of the device with the sliding load
element positioned at various marked positions of a long transmission line. The transmission line is assumed
to have zero reflections and the load element has a finite reflection that can be mathematically removed
using a least squares circle fitting method.
A sliding load cal can be very accurate when performed perfectly. It can also be very inaccurate when not
using proper technique. For accurate results, closely follow the users manual instructions for the
sliding load.
Arbitrary Impedance Specifies the load type to be have an impedance value different from system Z0. An
arbitrary impedance device is similar to a fixed load except that the load impedance is NOT perfect. Early
firmware releases of the PNA series used a fixed resistance value. A complex terminating impedance has
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been added to allow for more accurate modeling of circuit board or on-wafer devices.
The following Complex Impedance settings are available ONLY when Arbitrary Impedance is selected.
Real The real portion of the impedance value.
Imaginary The imaginary portion of the impedance value.
Offset Load In Jan 2006, Offset Load definitions were added to TRL and Waveguide Cal Kit files. Using an
Offset Load standard results in a more accurate calibration than with a Broadband Load. Therefore, when
performing a calibration using one of the modified Cal Kit definitions, you may be prompted to connect more
standards than before this change. To revert to using the Broadband Load Standard without offset, do the
following:
1.
Click Calibration, then Advanced Modify Cal Kit
2.
Select the kit, then click Edit Kit
3.
Under Class Assignments, click Edit
4.
Select Calibration Kit Class S11C (Loads)
5.
Under Selected Standards, select Broadband Load, then click Move Up until the standard is at the top
of the list. This will ensure that the Broadband Load is used first.
About Offset Load
An offset load is a compound standard consisting of a load element and two known offset elements
(transmission lines) of different length. The shorter offset element can be a zero-length (Flush-thru) offset.
The load element is defined as a 1-port reflection standard. An offset load standard is used when the
response of the offset elements are more precisely known than the response of the load element. This is the
case with waveguide. Measurement of an offset load standard consists of two measurements, one with each
of the two offset elements terminated by the load element. The frequency range of the offset load standard
should be set so that there will be at least a 20 degree separation between the expected response of each
measurement.
To specify more than two offset elements, define multiple offset load standards. In cases where more than
two offsets are used, the frequency range may be extended as the internal algorithm at each frequency will
search through all of the possible combinations of offsets to find the pair with the widest expected separation
to use in determining the actual response of the load element.
The following Offset Load settings are available ONLY when Offset Load is selected.
First Offset Standard
Second Offset Standard
Load Standard
Thru Standard
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Connectors
Defines connector type and gender at both ports.
Data-Based Standard
Note: To learn how to modify data-based standard files, visit http://na.tm.agilent.com/pna/dbcal.html
The modified file can then be uploaded into the PNA.
Upload Data From File
Click Browse to load data from a file.
Connectors
One Port Standard Currently only 1-port standards can be modified.
Port 1 Select the type of connector.
File Information Information about the standard that is read from the uploaded file.
Last modified:
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4-Jan-2008
26-Oct-2007
Added limit for imported kits
Added Height/Width for Add connector.
Moved waveguide settings.
2-Feb-2007
9/12/06
MX Added UI
Added link to programming commands
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Power Calibration
Source and Receiver Power Calibrations work together to provide very accurate power levels from the source, and
very accurate power measurements from the PNA receiver.
Source Power Calibration Overview
Supported Power Meters and Sensors
How to perform Source Power Calibration
Copy a Source Power Calibration to other Channels
Saving a Source Power Calibration
Reducing Time to Complete a Source Power Calibration
Receiver Power Calibration
Saving Receiver Cals
See other Calibration Topics
Source Power Calibration Overview
Perform Source Power Calibration when you need accurate power levels at some point in the measurement path
between the PNA test ports. For example, you need to characterize the gain of an amplifier across a frequency
range at a specified input power. You would perform a source power cal at the input of the amplifier to ensure the
exact power level into the amplifier across the frequency range.
Using a Source Power Cal, you can expect the power at the point of calibration to be within the range of the
uncertainty of the power meter and sensor that is used.
Note: You may not be allowed to perform a Source Power Cal unless you are logged on to the PNA with an
Administrator user account.
Source Power Calibration:
Is independent of measurement type. It corrects the PNA source regardless of which receivers are being
used in a measurement. Therefore, it can be used with both ratio or non-ratio measurements.
Applies ONLY to those measurements on the selected channel that use the test port that was specified as
the Source for the calibration. For example, if you specify Channel 1 and Port 1 as the source to be
calibrated, only those measurements on channel 1 that use port 1 as the source will be corrected.
Can be used in conjunction with other measurement calibrations, such as a full 2-port calibration. For highest
accuracy, perform the measurement calibration AFTER the source calibration.
Can be used with Power Sweep type. Source Power Cal will correct the power at all power levels across the
power sweep.
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Can be used with Port Power Uncoupled.
Forces sweep mode to Stepped on measurements with source power correction turned ON.
Beginning with PNA Rev. 7.50, an external source can be calibrated using Source Power Cal.
Overview of How it works:
Click to see the detailed procedure
1. Specify the measurement settings (frequency range, IFBW and so forth).
2. Start Source Power Calibration.
Note: When using an Agilent 848X power sensor (sensors that do NOT have built-in calibration factors),
enter the Cal Factors using the Power Sensor Settings dialog, because the PNA instructs the power meter
to NOT use the Cal Factor tables internal to the power meter.
3. Connect a power meter sensor to the point at which you want a known power level. This may be at the input
or output of your device, or some other point between the test ports.
4. The PNA source is stepped through the specified frequency range, and power is measured with the power
meter. At each data point, the source power is adjusted until the measured power is within your specified
accuracy level.
5. When complete, the power meter is preset. The source power calibration can be saved as part of the
instrument state.
6. The power meter is removed and the measurement path reconnected.
7. The calibration is automatically applied to the channel. All measurements on that channel using that source
port benefit from the source power cal.
Verify the source power calibration using the following procedure.
1. Connect the power meter as it was during the source power calibration.
2. Set the PNA to Point Trigger mode.
3. Trigger the PNA across the trace. Read about the behavior of the sweep indicator.
4. At each data point, the power meter should read the corrected power level within the specified tolerance.
Supported Power Meters and Sensors
Power Meters
The following power meters
All Agilent Power Meters are supported for use in a Source Power Calibration.
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See the current list of power meters at: www.agilent.com/find/powermeters
See a list of compatible power meter / sensor combinations.
The 82357A USB/GPIB Interface can be used to control the power meter.
LAN connectivity can ONLY be used with the Agilent P-series power meters.
In addition, you can Create a Custom Power Meter Driver for use with other power meters.
Power Sensors
You can perform a Source Power Calibration with ALL power sensors that are supported by the above power
meters. However, Source Power Calibration, operates slowly with the Agilent E930x and E932x power sensors, as
the two calibrations are not optimized for use with those sensors.
Up to two sensors can be used to cover the frequency span of the measurement.
USB power sensors are supported beginning with PNA Rev 7.50.
Only one USB power sensor can be used to cover the entire frequency span.
To select a USB power sensor:
1. Connect the sensor directly to one of the PNA USB ports.
2. From the main Source Power Cal dialog, click Power Meter Config.
3. On the Power Meter Settings dialog, select USB.
See note about Zeroing USB Power Sensors.
How to perform Source Power Calibration
1. Setup your measurement (sweep type, frequency range, IFBW, and so forth). By default, a Source
Power Cal is performed on the source port of the active measurement.
2. Connect coax cable, GPIB cable, and power sensors to the PNA as shown in graphic below.
This image does NOT apply to USB power sensors, which are connected directly to a PNA USB port.
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2.
3. Apply power to the power meter and allow 30 minutes warm-up time before beginning calibration.
4. Select Source Power Cal as follows:
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
See programming examples in SCPI and COM
1. Navigate using
MENU/ DIALOG
1. Click Calibration
2. then Source Power Calibration
For PNA-X and 'C' models
See programming examples in SCPI and COM
1. Press CAL
1. Click Response
2. then [Power Cal]
2. then Cal
3. then [Source Cal]
3. then Power Cal
4. then Source Cal
5. Complete the Source Power Cal dialog box (below), including Loss Compensation and Power Sensor
Settings, as needed.
Note: When using an Agilent 848X power sensor (sensors that do NOT have built-in calibration
factors), enter the Cal Factors using the Power Sensor Settings dialog, because the PNA instructs the
power meter to NOT use the Cal Factor tables internal to the power meter.
6. When complete, click Take a Cal Sweep in the Source Power Cal dialog box.
7.
8.
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6.
7. Follow the prompts to connect the sensors as required.
8. At this time you can change the Source Port setting and perform a Source Power Cal on a different port.
9. When calibration is finished, click OK. Correction is then applied and turned ON for the calibrated ports
on the active channel.
10. Remove sensor.
11. SrcPwrCal is displayed in the status bar when Source Power Correction is applied to the Active
Measurement.
To turn Source Power Correction OFF:
On the Calibration menu, point to Power Calibration, then click Source Power Correction on/OFF.
ONLY correction for the source port of the ACTIVE MEASUREMENT is turned OFF (regardless of port
power coupling setting.)
Interpolation
If the original stimulus settings are changed, Interpolation or EXTRAPOLATION is applied and SrcPwrCal* is
displayed in the status bar. This is different from measurement calibration interpolation. For example, if the
frequency span is increased, the PNA will extrapolate new correction values rather than turn correction off. This is
to protect your test device from being overpowered by the source. If the original settings are restored, then source
power calibration returns to full correction.
Source Power Cal dialog box help
Note: Be sure that the frequency range of your power sensor covers the frequency range of your measurement.
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This does NOT occur automatically.
Power
Cal Power The calculated power (in dBm) at the calibration point. This value is the specified PNA source
power plus the Power Offset value.
Power Offset Allows you to specify a gain or loss (in dB) to account for components you connect between
the source and the reference plane of your measurement. For example, specify 10 dB to account for a 10 dB
amplifier in the path to your DUT. Following the calibration, the PNA power readouts are adjusted to this
value.
Channel and Port Selection
Channel Specifies the channel on which to perform the calibration. This setting defaults to the active
channel.
Source Port Specifies the source port to be corrected. This setting defaults to the source port for the active
measurement.
Beginning with PNA Rev. 7.22, external sources can be controlled from this dialog. Learn more.
Accuracy
At each data point, power is measured using the specified Power Meter Settling Tolerance and adjusted, until
the reading is within this Accuracy Tolerance or the Max Number of Readings has been met. The last power
reading is plotted on the screen against the Tolerance limit lines.
Tolerance Sets the maximum desired deviation from the specified Cal Power level.
Max Number of Readings Sets the maximum number of readings to take at each data point for iterating the
source power.
Calibration Status
Allows you to turn Source Power Cal ON | OFF and view Cal data for each port, regardless of the active
measurement. This feature allows the Internal Second Source to be calibrated and turned ON | OFF, even
when being used as an incidental source in a measurement, such as an LO.
Calibration ON Check to turn Source Power Calibration ON for the specified source port.
The displayed text indicates when interpolation is applied for the calibration.
Buttons
Options Invokes the Source Power Cal Options dialog. Label to the left of the button displays the current
'Options' setting.
Power Meter Config Invokes the Power Meter Settings dialog box
Take Cal Sweep Begins source power calibration measurement.
OK Applies calibration. This button is disabled until the Take Cal Sweep has been pressed.
Cancel If a sweep is in progress, cancels the sweep. Press again to close the dialog.
See Also
Learn more about Source Power Cal
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Learn about External Testsets and Source Power Cal.
Source Power Calibration Options dialog box help
Provides options for measurement of the source power.
Use power meter only Traditional source power calibration using only a power meter to measure the
source power at each data point. Most accurate and slowest method.
Note: Because the following two settings use PNA receivers to make power measurements, they do NOT work
correctly when a Frequency Offset value is being used.
Use power meter for first iteration...When checked, the first reading at each data point uses a power
meter to calibrate the reference receiver. Subsequent readings, if necessary to meet your accuracy
requirement, are measured using the reference receiver. This technique is much faster than using the
power meter with almost no degradation in accuracy.
Note: Do NOT use the "first iteration" feature if there is a component before the power sensor that
exhibits non-linear behavior, such as a power amplifier in compression.
Use PNA receiver only This feature assumes that the receiver to be used has already been calibrated
by a source power cal using a power meter, then a receiver cal. That receiver can then used to quickly
calibrate other PNA source ports, or on another channel with different stimulus settings.
This would be useful, for example, if the power level of the measurement was below the sensitivity of the
power sensor. Calibrate the PNA receiver using a source power cal that is within the sensitivity of the
sensor. Then, use the calibrated receiver to perform a second source power cal at the reduced power
level.
The receiver is specified using logical receiver notation.
It is best to use the reference receiver for the source port to be calibrated. For example, if
calibrating source port 2, specify the "a2" receiver.
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To ensure an accurate source power cal, the frequency range over which the receiver was
calibrated must be the same or larger than the "receiver only" source power calibration.
All accuracy and settling tolerance and number of reading settings apply just as they do with a
power meter reading.
Produce receiver power calibration of PNA reference receiver Check to calibrate the appropriate
reference receiver to the power level that is measured at the calibration plane. Do this to make very accurate
measurements using the calibrated reference receiver. This cal is done in addition to the standard source
power cal using the any of the methods listed above. At the end of the source power cal measurement sweep,
you can optionally save the reference receiver cal to a Cal Set to be recalled at a later time. The Cal is saved
when the OK button is clicked to close the Source Power Cal dialog.
Power Meter Settings dialog box help
This dialog appears when you click the Power Meter Config button on the main Source Power Cal dialog.
Communication
GPIB / Address Select GPIB power meter. Then select the address for the power meter. Default is 13.
The PNA will search VISA interfaces that are configured in the Agilent IO Libraries on the PNA.
USB PNA scans the USB for connected power sensors. Select a power sensor from the list. Only ONE
USB power sensor can be configured to cover the entire frequency range of the calibration.
LAN Specify the Hostname or IP address of the Power Meter. This setting can ONLY be used with the
Agilent P-series power meters.
Sensors Invokes the power sensor settings dialog box.
Settling
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These Settling settings do not apply when a PNA receiver is the power measurement device. Each power
meter reading is "settled" when either:
two consecutive meter readings are within this Tolerance value or
when the Max Number of Readings has been met.
The readings that were taken are averaged together to become the "settled" reading. The settled reading is
then compared to the Accuracy Tolerance requirements (tolerance and max readings) specified on the
Source Power Cal dialog box.
Tolerance When consecutive power meter readings are within this value of each other, then the reading is
considered settled.
Max Number of Readings Sets the maximum number of readings the power meter will take to achieve
settling.
Sensor Loss Compensation
Use Loss Table Select this checkbox to apply loss data to Source Power calibration correction (such as for
an adapter on the power sensor).
Edit Table Invokes the Power Loss Compensation dialog box.
Power Loss Compensation dialog box help
Compensates for losses that occur when using an adapter or coupler to connect the power sensor to the
measurement port.
Delete Table Segment Deletes row indicated in the field.
Delete All Deletes all data in the table.
Note: To Add a Row to the table, click on a row in the table and press the down arrow on either the PNA front
panel or keyboard.
If you enter a single frequency/loss segment, the analyzer applies that value to the entire frequency
range.
You can enter up to 100 segments to achieve greater accuracy.
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Power Sensor Settings dialog box help
This dialog appears when you click the Sensors button on the Power Meter Settings dialog.
Note: Be sure that the frequency range of your power sensor covers the frequency range of your measurement.
This does NOT occur automatically.
Sensor A (B) Displays one of the following messages depending on type of sensor.
Not connected The PNA is not detecting a power sensor.
Cal factors are contained within this sensor The PNA detects an Agilent E-Series power sensor.
Reference Cal Factor and Cal Factor data are loaded automatically.
Sensor Data Allows entry for power sensor data:
Reference Cal Factor Specifies the sensor's Reference Cal Factor.
Cal Factor Table Specifies the frequency and corresponding Cal Factor for the sensor.
Delete Cal Factor Deletes the indicated row in the table.
Delete All Deletes all data in the table.
To Add a Row to the table, click on a row in the table and press the down arrow on either the PNA front panel
or keyboard. A row is added to the bottom of the table. The table is automatically sorted by frequency when OK
is pressed.
Use this sensor only Check this box to use this sensor over the entire frequency span of the measurement,
even if two sensors are connected to power meter. Clear to allow entry of minimum and maximum frequencies
for the sensor.
Minimum Frequency Specifies the minimum frequency range for the sensor when using dual sensors.
Maximum Frequency Specifies the maximum frequency range for the sensor when using dual sensors.
Perform Sensor Zeroing and Calibration Zero and calibrate the power sensor before taking data.
Note: There is no calibration needed in U2000 Series USB power sensors. Zeroing those sensors does NOT
require disconnecting them from the source port or DUT except, for highest accuracy, when the power level is
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below -30 dBm. For more information, please read the USB power sensor documentation.
Copy a Source Power Calibration to other Channels
A macro application is now available that copies a Source Power Calibration to other channels. Once downloaded
and installed on a PNA, the macro is automatically configured up. To learn more, click Help on the application main
dialog. Get the application from http://na.tm.agilent.com/pna/apps/applications.htm.
Saving a Source Power Calibration
Because Source Power Cal calibrates source hardware, the calibration data is saved as part of the Instrument
State, in either a .sta file or a .cst file. This correction is applied to all measurements on the channel that uses the
calibrated source. See Save Instrument State.
Reducing Time to Complete a Source Power Calibration
The time required to perform a Source Power Calibration depends on source power, number of points, and number
of readings taken. You can reduce this measurement time with the following methods:
Reduce number of points before calibration. You can reduce the number of points before the
measurement, then return the number of points to its original value after calibration is complete and
correction is ON. The analyzer will perform a linear interpolation, although with some loss in accuracy.
Use an Agilent E-Series sensor. You can obtain 40+ readings per second over GPIB with this type of
sensor on the PNA.
Increase power to the sensor. Lower power may have longer settling time with some sensors.
Check Use Reference Receiver for Iteration.
Receiver Power Calibration
Receiver power calibration mathematically removes frequency response errors in the specified PNA receiver, and
adjusts readings to the same, or a value offset from, the source power calibration level. It is the same as doing a
Response Cal or Data / Memory, (Normalization) but with the data shifted to the Cal Power value.
Use Receiver Power Calibration to make very accurate absolute power (amplitude) measurements.
Receiver Power Calibration:
Is ONLY allowed when making absolute power (unratioed) measurements.
Is most accurate when a source power calibration was performed first.
Applies to all unratioed measurements in the active channel using that receiver.
Can be saved in a Cal Set and later reapplied to a like measurement.
Interpolation
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Like other calibration types, if the original stimulus settings are narrowed, interpolation is applied and C* Rcvr Pwr
is displayed in the status bar. If the original stimulus settings are made wider, the PNA will turn Receiver Power
Correction OFF.
If the original settings are restored, then receiver power calibration returns to full correction.
How to perform a Receiver Power Calibration
1. Perform a Source Power Calibration.
2. Set the active measurement to unratioed. Learn How.
3. Connect a THRU line from the source port to the receiver port.
When performing a receiver power cal on a reference receiver, no connection is necessary as the
receiver is internally connected to the source.
When the receiver port and the source port are the same (receiver A, source port 1), then connect
an open or short to get maximum power to the receiver. This practice is not recommended. It is
best to use different ports for the source and receiver.
4. Ensure correction for Source Power Calibration is ON as indicated by Src Pwr Cal or Src Pwr Cal* in
the status bar.
5. Start the Calibration Wizard
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Calibration
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Cal Set
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press CAL
1. Click Response
2. then [Power Cal]
2. then Cal
3. then [Receiver Cal]
3. then Power Cal
4. then Receiver Cal
Complete the following dialog box, then click Next.
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Select Calibration Type for Unratioed Measurement dialog box help
Cal Type Selection Select Receiver Power
Receiver Power Configuration
Cal Power Specifies the power level to be displayed on the measurement when complete. (Source Port Power
+ Power Offset).
Source Port Power Test port Power set for the measurement. Learn how to change Test Port Power
Power Offset Allows you to specify a gain or loss (in dB) to account for components you connect between the
source and the reference plane of your measurement AFTER a source power cal has been performed.
Following the calibration, the PNA power readouts are adjusted to the Cal Power value.
Next Click to continue the Calibration Wizard.
Notes:
When Receiver Power Cal is finished, C RcvrPwr is displayed in the status bar and correction data is
applied to subsequent sweeps.
To turn correction OFF, click Calibration, point to Power Calibration, then set Receiver Power
Correction to OFF.
Learn more about Receiver Power Cal (scroll up).
Saving a Receiver Power Calibration
Beginning with PNA Revision 5.0, Receiver Power Cal is saved to a Cal Register and optionally to a User Cal Set.
It can be applied to measurements in the same way as other Cal Types. Previously, Receiver Power Cal data was
saved as part of an Instrument State and was only applied to the measurement on which it was performed.
Learn more about Saving PNA files types.
Last modified:
540
21-Feb-2008
4-Jan-2008
30-Oct-2007
20-Jul-2007
21-January 21, 2007
14 Sept-2006
Added 848x note
Added Cal note for USB sensors
Added link to supported Power meters/ sensors
Added USB / LAN support and Apply macro
MX Added UI
MQ Added Receiver-only SPC.
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Fixture Simulator
The following features allow you to mathematically add (embed) or remove (de-embed) circuits to, or from, your
PNA measurements. The mathematical models are applied to specific ports for all measurements on the channel.
See Also
"De-embedding and Embedding S-Parameter Networks Using a Vector Network Analyzer" App note. for more
conceptual information on Fixture Simulation.
Characterize Adaptor Macro can be used to create S2P files from Cal Sets.
To Embed or De-embed? and the associated procedures
Order of Fixture Operations
The fixturing operations are applied to the measurement results in the following order. This order can NOT
be changed.
In the PNA data processing chain, the Fixture Simulator functions occur at the same time as the Apply Error
Terms block.
First, the following Single-ended measurement functions are processed in this order:
1. Port Extensions
2. 2-Port De-embedding
3. Port Z (Impedance) Conversion
4. Port Matching Circuit Embedding
5. 4-Port Network (single-ended) Embed/De-embed
Then, Balanced measurement functions are processed in this order:
6. Balanced Conversion
7. Differential / Common Mode Port Z Conversion
8. Differential Matching Circuit Embedding
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7.
8.
Note: Port Impedance (Z) conversion uses values in the following prioritized order:
1. Balanced (Differential or Common Mode) - if enabled, these values are always used.
2. Single Port Impedance - if enabled, this value is used if Balanced is not enabled.
3. System Impedance - if neither balanced or single port is enabled, this value is used.
See an example of how these functions can be used to de-embed unwanted effects of a test fixture, and then
mathematically embed the DUT in the circuit in which it is used.
How to select Fixturing Simulator
About Fixturing ON/off
BOTH of the following must occur to turn a fixturing selection ON.
EITHER ONE will turn a fixturing selection OFF.
1. Check Fixturing ON/off
Port Extensions is NOT affected by Fixturing ON/off.
2. Check Enable on the individual fixturing selection dialog box.
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Calibration
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Fixturing Selections
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press CAL
1. Click Cal
2. then [More]
2. then More
3. then [Fixtures]
3. then Fixtures
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Port Matching dialog box help
This function specifies a circuit to embed (add) to the measurement results. See Order of Fixture Operations.
Enable Port Matching Check to apply the settings to the measurement results. Must also enable Fixturing
ON/off.
Port - Select Port in which to apply simulation.
Circuit Model for Matching - Choose one of the following that best emulates your fixture at the selected PNA
port:
PNA
DUT
PNA
DUT
PNA
DUT
Series L - Shunt C
Shunt C - Series L
Shunt L - Series C
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PNA
DUT
PNA
DUT
Series C - Shunt L
Shunt L - Shunt C
User Defined (S2P File)
None
Load a file that is specified with User
S2P File button.
Use no circuit model.
User S2P File Click to specify an S2P file of the circuit model to embed at the selected port. If the normalized
impedance value in a recalled User .S2P file is different from the port reference impedance setting of the PNA,
the PNA setting is used. Characterize Adaptor Macro can be used to create S2P files from Cal Sets.
Circuit Values
Capacitance (C), Inductance(L), Resistance(R), Conductance(G) Values for the specific components of
the circuit type that models your fixture.
Reset Restores the default values.
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2 Port De-embedding dialog box help
This function removes the effects of a test fixture from the measurement results.
The de-embedding operation recalls an .s2p file (Touchstone format) for a 2-port test fixture. The file includes
the electrical characteristics of a supplemental fixture or device. The file can be in any standard format (realimaginary, magnitude-angle, dB-angle) and can represent any 2-port test fixture.
In the following image, the 2-port fixture would be either Fixture A OR Fixture B. To de-embed both, perform
this operation twice.
Note: In all cases:
Port 1 of the fixture is assumed to be connected to the PNA.
Port 2 of the fixture is assumed to be connected to the DUT.
Enable De-embedding Check to apply the settings to the measurement results. Must also enable Fixturing
ON/off.
Port - The PNA port to which the recalled de-embedding file is applied.
From the drop-down menu, select User S2P.
User S2P File Click to specify an existing .S2P file. If the normalized impedance value in a recalled User .S2P
file is different from the port reference impedance setting of the PNA, the PNA setting is used. Characterize
Adaptor Macro can be used to create S2P files from Cal Sets.
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Port Z (Impedance) Conversion dialog box help
This function corrects the measurement and displays the results as if the measurement had been made into the
specified impedance value. However, the physical port termination is still approximately 50 ohms.
The specified impedance value is applied to all of the measurements on ONLY the active channel.
See Order of Fixture Operations.
Enable Port Z Conversion Check to apply the settings to the measurement results. Must also enable
Fixturing ON/off.
Z Resistance part of the desired reference impedance for the specified port and channel.
Close Applies the entries and closes the dialog box
See note about Port Impedance priority.
4-Port Embed/De-embed dialog box help
This function specifies a single-ended 4-port circuit (*.S4P file) to embed (add) or de-embed (remove) from the
measurement results. Computation takes place BEFORE Balanced conversion. See Order of Fixture
Operations.
There is a single normalized impedance value for each port in the *.S4P file. This impedance value must match
the impedance of the previous Port Z setting, or the PNA port impedance.
The PNA will interpolate if the number of data points that are read is different from the current PNA setting.
Enable 4-Port Embed/De-embed Check to apply the settings to the measurement results. Must also enable
Fixturing ON/off.
Topology: Select a DUT topology.
Refer to the images on 4-port embed/De-embed dialog box.
A - 2 PNA/DUT Ports
B - 3 PNA/DUT Ports
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C - 4 PNA/DUT Ports
Topology configurations that are not addressed with standard images in dialog box:
1. If you have a 4-port DUT; 4-port network on one side; None on the other side.
Specify Topology C.
Use 4-port Network on one side.
Use 4-port Network on the other side; set to None.
2. If you have a 3-port DUT and networks as follows:
Specify Topology B.
Use 4-port Network1 on one side.
Use 2-port network on the other side.
NA Ports - Select the PNA Port that is connected to each circuit port.
Note: The *S4P file always assumes that:
Network ports 1 and 2 are connected to the PNA
Network ports 3 and 4 are connected to the DUT
None, Embed, De-embed For Network1 and Network2, select:
None - The same as disabling.
Embed - Add the specified network circuit to the measurement results.
De-embed - Remove the specified network circuit to the measurement results.
Browse For both Network1 and Network2, navigate to find the .*S4P file to embed or de-embed.
OK Applies the changes and closes the dialog box.
Cancel Does NOT apply the changes and closes the dialog box.
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Differential Impedance Conversion dialog box help
This function sets the Differential impedance value for each balanced port.
The default value for R: is the SUM of the impedance values for both ports that make the logical port. If Port Z
Conversion is not enabled, then System Z0 values for both ports are summed.
See Order of Fixture Operations.
Enable Differential Z Conversion Check to apply the settings to the measurement results. Must also enable
Fixturing ON/off.
Logical Port Select the logical (balanced) port to receive impedance value. To see logical port numbers, see
the measurement topology.
R Real part of the impedance value.
jX Imaginary part of the impedance value.
Close Closes the dialog box.
See note about Port Impedance priority.
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Common Mode Impedance Conversion dialog box help
This function sets Common Mode Impedance value for each balanced port.
The default value for R: is calculated as follows.
(Z1 * Z2) / (Z1 + Z2)
Where ports 1 and 2 comprise the logical port:
Z1 = the Port Impedance values for port 1
Z2 = the Port Impedance values for port 2
If Port Z Conversion is not enabled, then System Z0 values for port 1 and 2 are used in the calculation.
See Order of Fixture Operations.
Enable Common Mode Z Conversion Check to apply the settings to the measurement results. Must also
enable Fixturing ON/off.
Logical Port Select the logical (balanced) port to receive impedance value. To see logical port numbers, see
the measurement topology.
R Real part of the impedance value.
jX Imaginary part of the impedance value.
Close Closes the dialog box.
See note about Port Impedance priority.
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Differential Port Matching dialog box help
This function allows the embedding of a differential matching circuit at a balanced port.
See Order of Fixture Operations.
Enable Differential Port Matching Check to embed the selected matching circuit to the measurement
results. Must also enable Fixturing ON/off.
Logical Port Choose Logical DUT port to receive the selected matching circuit. To see logical port numbers,
see the measurement topology.
Select Circuit Select a matching circuit. Choose from:
Shunt L - Shunt C Predefined circuit.
Circuit Values Choose from:
C Capacitance value
G Conductance value
L Inductance value
R Resistance value
User defined Select an *.S2P file that represents the matching circuit. Then click Browse to navigate to
the *.S2P file.
Note: For the *.S2P file:
Port 1 of the circuit is assumed to be connected to the PNA
Port 2 of the circuit is assumed to be connected to the DUT.
None No embedded circuit on selected port.
Close Closes the dialog box.
Fixture Simulator Example
The following example shows a DUT and the matching circuit with which the DUT will be used in its intended
application. When the DUT is tested in a high-volume manufacturing environment, multiple test fixtures are often
required. The most accurate way to test the DUT and ensure measurement consistency between the different test
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fixtures is to use a simple, repeatable, test fixture without the actual matching elements.
To get the desired performance data, the parasitic effects of the fixture must first be removed (de-embedded) from
the measured data. Then a perfect "virtual" matching circuit must be simulated and added mathematically
(embedded) to the corrected, measured data. The result is an accurate display of the DUT as though it was
actually tested with a physical matching circuit, but without the uncertainties of using real components.
Test Device and the circuit in which it will be used.
Circuit Simulation
This diagram does NOT refer to the order in which operations are performed.
See Order of Fixture Operations.
1. Create a balanced measurement using single-ended to balanced (SE-Bal) topology. Include all relevant
measurement settings (IFBW, number of points, and so forth). Once the measurement is created and
calibrated, the measurement parameter can be easily changed. For example, Sdd22 to Sds21.
2. Calibrate the measurement at the point where the simple test fixture is connected to the PNA. Use accurate
calibration standards and definitions.
3. Remove the effects of the three uncalibrated transmission lines of the simple test fixture. This can be done in
several different methods. The easiest is to use manual or automatic Port Extensions to move the calibration
reference plane to the DUT. This removes the electrical length and loss of the fixture’s transmission lines, but
does not account for fixture mismatch. Another method is to de-embed previously-created *.S2p files of the 3
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transmission lines. The files can be created using external ADS modeling software. Another alternative is to
create the *.S2P files by independently measuring all 3 ports of the test fixture and saving the results of each
to an S2P file.
4. With the test fixture connected to the PNA and a DUT inserted, the measurement results now appear as
though calibration was performed at the connections to the DUT, and the device was measured in a 50-ohm
single-ended test environment. The following steps will cause the results to reflect the performance of the
device as though the device is embedded in the circuit in which it will be used.
5. Port 1 of the device is a single-ended port and sees a source impedance the same as the PNA system
impedance, so no change is required. However, if Rs were a value other than 50 ohms, Port 1 Impedance
Conversion would be used to simulate the different impedance.
6. Port Matching is used to simulate L1 inductance. Select any of the Shunt L circuits to embed (add) to the
measurement results. Enter the value of L and R. The C and G values can be entered as 0 (zero).
7. Port Matching is used to simulate C1 and C2 capacitance. For both port 2 and port 3, select any of the
Series C circuits to embed (add) to the measurement results. Enter the value of C and G. The L and R
values can be entered as 0 (zero).
8. Balanced Conversion mathematically simulates the measurement in balanced mode.
9. Differential Port Matching is used to simulate L2 inductance. Select Shunt L- Shunt C and enter the
inductance / resistance value. The C and G values can be entered as 0 (zero).
10. Finally, Differential Z Conversion is used to simulate a circuit termination of 200 ohms. If you are making
Common Mode measurements, specify Common Mode Z Conversion.
Last modified:
March 10, 2008
Sept 12, 2006
MX Added UI
Added link to programming commands
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Port Extensions
Port extensions allow you to electrically move the measurement reference plane after you have performed a
calibration. The following two scenarios show how port extensions can be useful.
1. You have already performed a calibration, and then decide that you need to add a length of transmission line
in the measurement configuration. Use port extensions to "tell" the analyzer you have added the length to a
specific port.
2. You are unable to perform a calibration directly at your device because it is in a test fixture. Use port
extensions to compensate for the time delay (phase shift), and optionally the loss, caused by the added
transmission line of the fixture.
See Also
Fixture Compensation features
Phase Accuracy
Comparing the PNA Delay Functions
How to launch the Port Extensions toolbar
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Calibration
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Port Extension Toolbar
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press CAL
1. Click Response
2. then [Port Ext Tool]
2. then Cal
3. then Port Extension Tool
Port Extensions toolbar help
Port extensions settings affect all measurements on the active channel that are associated with a particular
port.
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Learn about Port Extensions (scroll up)
If you know the electrical length of additional transmission line, enter the value directly to the Delay
setting.
If you know the physical length of additional transmission line, increase the Delay setting until the
physical length setting (directly above Delay) is achieved.
If you do not know the electrical or physical length of additional transmission line, you must be able to
connect an OPEN or SHORT to the new reference plane at the point of the DUT. In most cases,
removing the DUT will leave a suitable OPEN at the new reference plane. Port Extensions can then be
added manually (as follows), or by using Automatic Port Extensions.
Manual Port Extensions Procedure
1. Select a calibrated S11 measurement.
2. Select Phase format.
3. With an OPEN or SHORT at the calibration reference plane, verify that the phase across the frequency
span is at or near zero.
4. Connect the added transmission line or fixture and attach an OPEN or SHORT in place of the DUT. In
most cases, removing the DUT will leave a suitable OPEN at the new reference plane. On the Port
Extension toolbar, increase Delay until the phase response is flat across the frequency span of interest.
5. If you know the loss of the additional transmission line, enter the Loss Compensation values using either
one or two data points.
Note: Most OPEN and SHORT standards have delay. Therefore, adjusting delay with this method results in a
delay equal to two times the delay of the OPEN or SHORT.
Port Extensions Settings
Port Extension Turns ON and OFF port extensions on all ports.
Port Select a PNA port for delay and loss values. Port Extensions settings affect ALL measurements on the
active channel that are associated with a particular port.
Delay The amount of port extension delay in time. To compensate for delay in additional transmission line,
enter a positive value.
Loss Compensation
The following settings, along with Loss at DC, allows the entire frequency span to be corrected for loss using a
curved-fit algorithm.
To compensate for loss in additional transmission line, enter a positive value which causes the trace to shift in
the positive (up) direction.
Loss1 Loss in dB at Freq1.
Use1 Check calculate and apply port extension Loss1 @Freq1 values. Also, check if using Loss at DC
value.
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Loss2 Loss in dB at Freq2.
Use2 ONLY available if Use1 is checked. Calculate and apply port extension Loss2 @Freq2 values.
Loss is calculated for each frequency data point (f) as follows.
If Use1 is checked and NOT Use2 then:
Loss(f) = Loss1 * (f/Freq1) ^ 0.5
If Use1 AND Use2 are checked, then:
Loss(f) = Loss1 * (f/Freq1) ^ n
Where:
n = log10 [abs(Loss1/Loss2)] / log10 (Freq1/Freq2)
Note: abs = absolute value
More Invokes the More Port Extensions Settings dialog box.
Auto Ext. Invokes the Automatic Port Extensions dialog box
Note: Individual receiver port extensions (A,B, and so forth) can no longer be set. (Sept. 2004)
Learn about Port Extensions (scroll up)
More Port Extensions Settings dialog box help
Note: Port Extensions settings affect ALL measurements on the active channel that are associated with a
particular port.
Other Port Settings
Port - Loss at DC Offsets the entire frequency span by this value. Use1 on the Port Extension toolbar must
also be checked. To compensate for loss at DC, enter a positive value which causes the trace to shift in the
positive (up) direction.
Channel Setting
Reset ALL Port Ext Settings All port extensions settings are changed to preset values. Port Extension
state (ON / OFF) is unaffected.
Velocity Factor Specifies the velocity factor that applies to the medium of the device that was inserted after
the measurement calibration. The value for a polyethylene dielectric cable is 0.66 and 0.7 for Teflon
dielectric. 1.0 corresponds to the speed of light in a vacuum.
Learn about Port Extensions (scroll up)
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Automatic Port Extension dialog box help
Automatic Port Extension AUTOMATICALLY performs the same operation as Manual Port Extension. By
connecting a SHORT or OPEN, the reference plane is automatically moved to the point at which the standard is
connected. In addition, Automatic Port Extension will optionally measure and compensate for the loss of the
additional transmission line.
Auto Port Extensions Procedure
1. Connect the added transmission line or fixture. Attach an OPEN or SHORT to all affected ports at the
new reference plane. In most cases, removing the DUT will leave a suitable OPEN at the new reference
plane.
2. On the Port Extension toolbar, click Auto Port Ext. Click Show Configuration to make additional
settings.
3. Click Measure to perform the port extension calculations. The resulting delay and loss settings are
entered into the port extension toolbar. These settings are saved with Instrument Save or you can
manually record the values and enter them again when required.
Settings
Measure either OPEN, SHORT, or both Press a button to make the measurement of the reflection standard.
Measure either OPEN or SHORT depending on which is most convenient. An ideal OPEN and SHORT, with
zero loss and delay, is assumed. Therefore, accuracy is most affected by the quality of the standard. In most
cases, removing the DUT will leave a suitable OPEN at the new reference plane. When measuring both OPEN
and SHORT standards, the average of the two is used and will slightly improve accuracy.
Selected Ports Indicates the ports that currently have automatic port extension enabled. By default, ALL PNA
ports are enabled. To disable a port, see Measure on Port Number below.
Note: Port Extensions settings affect ALL measurements on the active channel that are associated with a
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particular port.
Show/Hide Configuration Press to either show or hide the following configuration settings in the dialog box.
Measure on Port Number
Select port number to enable or disable automatic port extension.
Enable Check to enable the specified port. All enabled ports will have their reference plane automatically
adjusted after performing Automatic Port Extension.
Include Loss Check to automatically measure the loss in the additional transmission line and apply
compensation. To calculate loss compensation, frequencies at 1/4 and 3/4 through the frequency range are
usually used as Freq1 and Freq2 values. Learn more about Loss Compensation.
Adjust for Mismatch Only available when Include Loss is checked. During the measurement of the OPEN or
SHORT standard, mismatch could cause ripple in the magnitude (loss) response. The Loss compensation
curved-fit algorithm allows half of the ripple to be positive and half negative. When measuring low-loss devices,
it is possible that some magnitude responses could become slightly positive, indicating gain rather than loss.
Check - Offsets the trace to cause all of the data points to be at or below zero.
Clear - Most accurate application of the curve-fit calculation, but allows positive responses.
Prompt for Each Standard Check to invoke a prompt when the Measure OPEN or SHORT button is pressed.
The prompt will indicate which standard to connect to which port.
Method
Select the span of data points which will be used to determine correction values for phase and loss (optional). If
a portion of the current frequency span does not have flat or linear response, you can eliminate this portion
from the calculations by using a reduced User Span.
To calculate loss compensation, Current Span and User Span methods usually use frequencies at 1/4 and 3/4
through the frequency range as Freq1 and Freq2 values. See Loss Compensation to learn more about how loss
is calculated.
Current Span Use the entire frequency span to determine phase and loss values.
Active Marker Use only the frequency at the active marker, and one data point higher in frequency, to
calculate phase and loss values. If a marker is not present, one will be created in the center of the frequency
span.
User Span Use the following User Span settings to determine phase and loss values.
User Span
Start Enter start frequency of the user span.
Stop Enter stop frequency of the user span.
Learn about Port Extensions (scroll up).
See also Comparing the PNA Delay Functions
Last modified:
March 10, 2008
9/12/06
MX Added UI
Added link to programming commands
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Delta Match Calibration
A TRL Cal, QSOLT, or Unknown Thru Cal requires a reference receiver for each test port. The 4-port PNA-L model
does NOT have a reference receiver for each test port.
A Delta Match Calibration can be thought of as a software method which provides a reference receiver for each
test port when not otherwise available in the hardware. The Delta Match Calibration measures the source match
and load match of the PNA test ports, and then calculates the differences, or "delta", of the two match terms. The
results are then used to correct subsequent TRL, QSOLT, or Unknown Thru calibrations.
There are several ways to acquire the Delta Match Calibration:
1. From an existing User Cal Set that meets the following Delta Match criteria: (Not allowed for use with
external test sets.)
Must have been performed using ECal or as a guided mechanical Cal (not Unguided).
Must have the same start frequency, stop frequency, and number of points as the channel being
calibrated.
Must calibrate the ports that require the delta match terms.
2. From a Global Delta Match Calibration.
3. From a 'Self Delta Match' when other portions of the calibration fully characterize all ports using SOLT with
Defined Thru or Flush Thru. For example, when calibrating all four ports of a PNA-L, perform a SOLT
between ports 1 and 2, and also between ports 3 and 4, then Unknown Thru could be used between any
combination of the remaining ports. This is allowed with an external test set.
Which to use? A Self Delta Match Cal will always be used when possible. Otherwise, the Cal Wizard will use a
Global Delta Match Cal when available unless you select Choose Delta Match.
Global Delta Match Cal
A Global Delta Match Cal is an "all-inclusive" calibration that can be applied whenever the delta match terms are
required.
A Global Delta Match Cal differs from a standard SOLT Cal in the following ways:
It is always performed using a Flush Thru, a Known Thru, or an insertable ECal module. You can NOT use
an Unknown Thru in the calibration process.
Only two Thru connections are required to characterize the delta match terms on a 4-port PNA. This is less
than the minimum number of Thrus of a standard 4-port Cal.
Upon completion, the Global Delta Match Cal is stored as a special type of Cal Set and should be used
ONLY as a Delta Match Cal. It provides Delta Match error terms, but does NOT provide all of the standard
error correction terms.
To attain the highest accuracy, the following settings are automatically used to perform a Global Delta Match
Cal. When applied, it will likely be interpolated.
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Performed over the entire frequency range of the PNA.
Uses very dense data points, particularly at low frequencies.
Uses 100 Hz IF Bandwidth.
Note: For highest accuracy, perform Global Delta Match Cal using an insertable ECal module and select Flush-thru
as the Calibration Thru method.
How to perform a Global Delta Match Cal
These selections will only be available if the PNA hardware requires a Delta Match Calibration.
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Calibration
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Global Delta Match Cal
For PNA-X - Not required
For PNA 'C' Models
1. Press CAL
1. Click Response
2. then [Start Cal]
2. then Cal
3. then [Global Delta Match
3. then Start Cal
4. then Global Delta Match
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Delta Match Calibration. Select DUT Connectors and Cal Kit dialog box help
Only one Cal Kit is specified and necessary to perform a Delta Match Cal. However, ALL of the PNA test
ports are calibrated in a Delta Match Cal.
You must configure ALL test ports to terminate in the specified connector / gender using the necessary
adapters. The errors from adapters are removed during calibration, but the Thru connections must be
made as specified.
If you select an ECal module that does NOT cover the entire frequency range of the PNA, your
selection will change to a different Cal Kit. The Global Delta Match Cal covers the entire frequency range
of the PNA. Your selected Cal Kit or ECal module must also cover the frequency range of the PNA.
Guided Calibration Steps dialog box help
Click Measure for each standard.
When all standards have been measured, click Done to complete the measurement steps.
Delta Match Calibration Complete dialog box help
Click Finish to store the Global Delta Match Calibration as a special type of Cal Set.
By default, it will be used when a Delta Match Calibration is required.
It should ONLY be used as a Delta Match Cal. It does NOT provide all of the standard error correction terms.
Last modified:
562
9-Nov-2007
23-Feb-2007
9/12/06
Edits for requirements
Modified requirements for multiport
Added link to programming commands
563
Markers
Markers provide a numerical readout of measured data, a search capability for specific values, and can change
stimulus settings. There are 9 regular markers and one Reference marker (used with Delta markers) available per
trace. This topic discusses all aspects of markers.
Note: Marker Readout can be turned ON / OFF and customized from the View/Display menu. See Marker
Readout
Creating and Moving Markers
Delta Markers
Searching with Markers
Marker Functions (Change Instrument Settings)
Advanced Marker Settings
Marker Table
Other Analyze Data topics
How to Create Markers
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press MARKER The first button press creates marker 1.
1. Click Marker
2. To create more markers, use the Active Entry toolbar
2. then Marker
3. Or use the Marker toolbar
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press MARKER
1. Click Marker/Analysis
2. then [Marker n]
2. then Marker
3. select a marker number
Moving a Marker
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To move a marker, make the marker active by selecting its number in any of the previous 3 methods. The active
marker appears on the analyzer display as Ñ. All of the other markers are inactive and are represented on the
analyzer display as D. Then change the stimulus value using any of the following methods:
Type a value.
Scroll to a stimulus value using the up / down arrows. The resolution can not be changed.
Click the stimulus box, then use the front-panel knob.
Click and Drag Markers - PNA-X ONLY
Markers can also be moved across a trace using a finger (touchscreen) or by left-clicking and holding a marker
symbol. Then drag the marker to any point on the trace. This feature is NOT allowed in Smith Chart or Polar
display formats or with a Fixed Marker type.
Marker dialog box help
Marker Specifies the current (active) marker number.
Stimulus Specifies the X-axis value of the active marker. To change stimulus value, type a value, use the up
and down arrows, or click in the text box and use the front-panel knob.
On Check to display the marker and corresponding data on the screen.
Delta Marker Check to make the active marker display data that is relative to the reference (R) marker. There
is only one reference marker per trace. All nine other markers can be regular markers or delta markers. When a
delta marker is created, if not already displayed, the reference marker is displayed automatically.
A delta marker can be activated from the Marker dialog box or the Marker Toolbar.
Advanced... Invokes the Advanced Markers dialog box.
All Off Switches OFF all markers on the active trace.
Searching with Markers
You can use markers to search measurement data for specific criteria.
If there is no valid data match for any of the search types, the marker will not move from its current position.
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How to Search with Markers
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press MARKER SEARCH
1. Click Marker
2. Only Max, Min, Left Peak, and Right Peak search types are
available from Active Entry Keys
2. then Marker Search
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press SEARCH
1. Click Marker/Analysis
2. then Marker Search
Marker Search dialog box help
Marker Specifies the marker that you are defining.
Search Domain Defines the area where the marker can move or search. For full span, the marker searches
for specified values within the full measurement span. For user span, the marker searches for specified values
within a measurement span that you define. Learn more about Search Domain.
Search Type
Maximum Marker locates the maximum (highest) data value.
Minimum Marker locates the minimum (lowest) data value.
Next Peak Marker locates the peak with the next lower amplitude value relative to its starting position.
Peak Right The marker locates the next valid peak to the right of its starting position on the X-axis.
Peak Left The marker locates the next valid peak to the left of its starting position on the X-axis.
Threshold - Minimum amplitude (dB). To be considered valid, the peak must be above the threshold
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level. The valley on either side can be below the threshold level.
Excursion The vertical distance (dB) between the peak and the valleys on both sides. To be considered
a peak, data values must "fall off" from the peak on both sides by the excursion value.
For more information, see What is a Peak?
Target Enter the Target value. The marker moves to the first occurrence of the Target value to the right of
its current position. Subsequent presses of the Execute button cause the marker to move to the next value
to the right that meets the Target value. When the marker reaches the upper end of the stimulus range, it will
"wrap around" and continue the search from the lower end of the stimulus range (left side of the window).
If Discrete Marker is OFF, the marker locates the interpolated data point that equals the target value.
If Discrete Marker is ON and there are two data points on either side of the target value, the marker
locates the data point closest to the Target value
Bandwidth Four markers are automatically generated to find the first negative or positive bandpass in the
selected search domain. Specify the level in dB from the peak or valley where bandwidth is measured.
Bandwidth Search can be used ONLY with Log Mag display format.
To use Bandwidth Search on a peak or valley other than the maximum or minimum values, change the
Search Domain.
Enter a Negative number to search for a Peak bandpass, such as a filter S21 response:
Marker 1: Maximum value within the Search Domain.
Marker 2: Specified level DOWN the left of the peak.
Marker 3: Specified level DOWN the right of the peak.
Marker 4: Center frequency between markers 2 and 3.
Enter a Positive number to search for a Valley bandpass, such as a filter S11 response:
Marker 1: Minimum value within the Search Domain.
Marker 2: Specified level UP the left of the valley.
Marker 3: Specified level UP the right of the valley.
Marker 4: Center frequency between markers 2 and 3.
The following four values are displayed for Bandwidth Search:
BW: (Marker 3 x-axis value) - (Marker 2 x-axis value) = width of the filter.
Center Mathematical midpoint between markers 2 and 3.
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Q Ratio of Center Frequency to Bandwidth ( Center Frequency / Bandwidth ).
Loss Y-axis value of Marker 4. This is the loss of the filter at its center frequency. The ideal filter has
no loss (0 dB) in the passband.
Note You must either press Execute or check Tracking to initiate all search types.
Execute Click to cause the marker to search for the specified criteria.
Tracking Check to cause the marker to search for the specified criteria with each new sweep. The searches
begin with the first sweep after Tracking has been checked, based on the current search type and domain
information. Therefore, make sure that the search criteria are in the desired state before using the data. You
cannot manually change the stimulus setting for a marker if Tracking is selected for that marker.
What Is a "Peak"?
You define what the analyzer considers a "peak" by selecting the following two peak criteria settings:
Threshold - Minimum amplitude (dB). To be considered valid, the peak must be above the threshold level.
The valley on either side can be below the threshold level.
Excursion - The vertical distance (dB) between the peak and the valleys on both sides. To be considered a
peak, data values must "fall off" from the peak on both sides by the excursion value.
Example:
Threshold Setting: -10dB
Excursion Setting: 1dB
Scale = 1 dB / Division
Mouse over the graphic to find a valid peak.
Peak A = Valid Peak (Above Threshold and Excursion Settings)
Peak B = Invalid Peak (Below Excursion Setting)
Peak C = Invalid Peak (Below Threshold Setting)
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Search Domain
Search domain settings restrict the stimulus values (X-axis for rectangular format) to a specified span. Set the Start
and Stop stimulus settings of these User spans. If Start is greater than Stop, the marker will not move.
The default domain of each new marker is "full span".
There are 16 user-defined domains for every channel.
The user-defined domains can overlap.
More than one marker can use a defined domain.
The graphic below shows examples of search domains.
Marker Functions - Change Instrument Settings
The following settings change the relevant PNA settings to the position of the active maker.
How to change instrument setting using markers
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press MARKER FUNCTION
1. Click Marker
2. Only Center, Ref Level, and Delay are available
2. then Marker Function
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press MARKER
1. Click Marker/Analysis
2. then [Marker Function]
2. then Marker Function
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Marker Function dialog box help
Note: Marker Functions do not work with channels that are in CW or Segment Sweep mode.
Marker =>Start Sets the start sweep setting to the value of the active marker.
Marker =>Stop Sets the stop sweep setting to the value of the active marker.
Marker =>Center Sets the center of the sweep to the value of the active marker.
Marker =>Ref Level Sets the screen reference level to the value of the active marker.
Marker =>Delay The phase slope at the active marker stimulus position is used to adjust the line length to
the receiver input. This effectively flattens the phase trace around the active marker. (Additional Electrical Delay
adjustments are required on devices without constant group delay over the measured frequency span.) You
can use this to measure the electrical length or deviation from linear phase.
This feature adds phase delay to a variation in phase versus frequency; therefore, it is only applicable for
ratioed measurements. (See Measurement Parameters.)
Marker =>Span Sets the sweep span to the span that is defined by the delta marker and the marker that it
references. Unavailable if there is no delta marker.
How to select Advanced Marker settings
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press MARKER
1. Click Marker
2. then Marker
3. then Advanced on the Maker Dialog
For PNA-X and 'C' models
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1. Press MARKER
1. Click Marker/Analysis
2. then [Properties]
2. then Marker Function
3. then [Advanced Markers]
Advanced Marker dialog box help
Marker Specifies the marker number that you are defining.
On Check to display the marker and corresponding data on the screen.
Format Displays the marker data in a format that you choose. The marker format could be different from the
grid format. In the default setting, the marker and grid formats are the same.
Discrete Marker Check to display values at only the discrete points where data is measured. Clear to display
values that are interpolated from the data points. The interpolated marker will report y-axis data from ANY
frequency value between the start and stop frequency.
Coupled Markers Check to couple markers by marker number, 1 to 1, 2 to 2 and so forth. The markers will
remain coupled until this box in unchecked. Learn more about coupled markers.
Marker Type
Normal Has a fixed stimulus position (X-axis) and responds to changes in data amplitude (Y-axis). It can be
scrolled left and right on the X-axis by changing the marker stimulus value. Use this marker type with one of
the marker search types to locate the desired data.
Fixed Has a fixed X and Y-axis position based on its placement on the trace when it was set to fixed. It does
NOT move with trace data amplitude. It can be scrolled left and right on the X-axis by changing the marker
stimulus value.
Use this marker type to quickly monitor "before and after" changes to your test device. For example, you
could use fixed markers to record the difference of test results before and after tuning a filter.
Coupled Markers
The coupled markers feature causes markers on different traces to line up with the markers on the selected trace.
Markers are coupled by marker number, 1 to 1, 2 to 2, 3 to 3, and so forth. If the x-axis domain is the same (such
as frequency or time), coupling occurs across all channels, windows, and traces. Trace markers in a different x-axis
domain will not be coupled. If a trace marker has no marker to couple with on the selected trace, the marker
remains independent.
Coupled Markers Model
This model simulates the use of coupled markers in the PNA
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1. Click Trace A or Trace B
2. Click Coupled Markers
3. Notice the following:
* Markers on the unselected trace move to the x-axis position of the selected trace.
* If a marker number on the unselected trace has no corresponding marker on the selected trace, no
movement occurs for that marker.
4. Click Reset to run the model again. (There is no Reset for coupled markers on the PNA.)
Set Coupled Markers from the Advanced Markers dialog box.
Marker Table
You can display a table that provides a summary of marker data for the active trace. The marker data is displayed
in the specified format for each marker.
How to view the Marker Table
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Marker
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Marker Table
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press DISPLAY
1. Click Response
2. then [More]
2. then Display
3.
3.
4.
4.
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1.
1.
2.
2.
3. then [Tables]
3. then Tables
4. then [Marker Table]
4. then Marker Table
Last Modified:
4-Jan-2008
Added bookmark to move marker
17-Jul-2007
Clarified bandwidth search
2-Feb-2007
MX Added UI
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Using Math Operations
You can perform four types of math on the active trace versus a memory trace. In addition three statistics (Mean,
Standard Deviation and Peak to Peak) can be calculated and displayed for the active data trace.
Trace Math
Trace Statistics
Note: Trace Math (described here) allows you to quickly apply one of four math operations using memory traces.
Equation Editor allows you to build custom equations using several types of traces from the same, or different
channels.
Other Analyze Data topics
Trace Math
To perform any of the math operations, you must first store a trace to memory. You can display the memory trace
using the View options.
Trace math is performed on the complex data before it is formatted for display. See the PNA data processing map.
Markers can be used while viewing a memory trace.
How to select Trace Math
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press MATH /MEMORY
1. Click Trace
2. Only the following are available from Active Entry
2. then Math
Data>>Mem (stores Data trace into Memory)
Data/Mem (performs math operation: Data divided
by memory)
Data (displays data trace with no math operation
applied)
Mem on/OFF (turns Memory trace on or off)
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For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press MEMORY
1. Click Marker/Analysis
2. then Memory
3. then Memory
Normalize, available only from the Memory menu, (not on the Math / Memory dialog), performs the same
function as Data=>Memory, then Data / Memory.
Math / Memory dialog box help
Normalize, available only from the Memory menu, (not on the Math / Memory dialog), performs the same
function as Data=>Memory, then Data / Memory.
Data=>Memory Puts the active data trace into memory. You can store one memory trace for every displayed
trace.
Data Math
All math operations are performed on linear (real and imaginary) data before being formatted. See the PNA
Data flow (below).
Data Does no mathematical operation.
Data / Memory - Current measurement data is divided by the data in memory. Use for ratio comparison of
two traces, such as measurements of gain or attenuation. Learn more.
Data – Memory - Data in memory is subtracted from the current measurement data. For example, you can
use this feature for storing a measured vector error, then subtracting this error from the DUT measurement.
Learn more.
Data + Memory - Current measurement data is added to the data in memory. Learn more.
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Data * Memory - Current measurement data is multiplied by the data in memory. Learn more.
8510 Mode Check to simulate the Agilent 8510 data processing chain as it pertains to Trace Math and
Memory. This setting applies to all channels. When the box is checked or cleared, the PNA performs an
Instrument Preset and retains its setting through subsequent Instrument Presets.
This setting is saved as part of an instrument state. However, when recalled, this setting is assumed only
temporarily. When a subsequent PNA Preset is performed, the PNA reverts to the setting that was in effect
before the state was recalled.
This represents the relevant portion of the data flow. See the entire PNA data processing chain.
A settings change in any of the operations that occur after the Memory operation on the above PNA Data
Flow diagram changes both the Data trace and the Memory trace. For example, after storing a data trace to
memory, when you change the format for the Data Trace, the format for the Memory Trace is also changed to
the same setting.
Trace View Options
Data Trace Displays ONLY the Data trace (with selected math operation applied).
Memory Trace Displays ONLY the trace that was put in memory.
Data and Memory Trace Displays BOTH the Data trace (with selected math operation applied). and the
trace that was put in memory.
Learn more about Trace Math (scroll up)
(Data / Memory) and (Data - Memory)
(Data / Memory) and (Data - Memory) math operations are performed on linear data before it is formatted. Because
data is often viewed in log format, it is not always clear which of the two math operations should be used.
Remember: dividing linear data is the same as subtracting logarithmic data. The following illustrates, in general,
when to use each operation.
Use Data / Memory for normalization purposes, such as when comparing S21 traces "before" and "after" a change
is made or measurement of trace noise. In the following table, the Data/Mem values intuitively show the differences
between traces. It is not obvious what Data-Mem is displaying.
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S21 values to compare
Data/Mem
Data-Mem
0.5 dB and 0.6 dB
0.1 dB
-39 dB
0.5 dB and 0.7 dB
0.2 dB
-33 dB
Use Data - Memory to show the relative differences between two signals. Use for comparison of very small
signals, such as the S11 match of two connectors.
In the following table, Data/Mem shows both pairs of connectors to have the same 2 dB difference. However, the
second pair of connectors have much better S11 performance (-50 and -52) and the relative significance is shown
in the Data-Mem values.
S11 values to compare
Data/Mem
Data-Mem
-10 dB and -12 dB
2 dB
-24 dB
-50 dB and -52 dB
2 dB
-64 dB
Data * Memory and Data + Memory
Use Data * Memory and Data + Memory to perform math on an active data trace using data from your own
formulas or algorithms rather than data from a measurement. For example, if you want to simulate the gain of a
theoretical amplifier placed in series before the DUT, you could do the following:
1. Create an algorithm that would characterize the frequency response of the theoretical amplifier.
2. Enter complex data pairs that correspond to the number of data points for your data trace.
3. Load the data pairs into memory with SCPI or COM commands. The analyzer maps the complex pairs to
correspond to the stimulus values at the actual measurement points.
4. Use the data + memory or data * memory function to add or multiply the frequency response data to the
measured data from the active data trace.
Note: The data trace must be configured before you attempt to load the memory.
Trace Statistics
You can calculate and display statistics for the active data trace. These statistics are:
Mean
Standard deviation
Peak-to-peak values
You can calculate statistics for the full stimulus span or for part of it with user ranges.
There are nine user ranges per channel. These user ranges are the same as the search domains specified for a
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marker search in that same channel; they use the same memory registers and thus share the same stimulus
spans. If you specified search domains with marker search for a channel, you can recall these same spans by
selecting the corresponding user ranges. The user ranges for a channel can overlap each other.
A convenient use for trace statistics is to find the peak-to-peak value of passband ripple without searching
separately for the minimum and maximum values.
The trace statistics are calculated based on the format used to display the data.
Rectangular data formats are calculated from the scalar data represented in the display
Polar or Smith Chart formats are calculated from the data as it would be displayed in Log Mag format
See how to make Trace Statistics display settings.
How to activate Trace Statistics
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Trace
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Statistics
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press ANALYSIS
1. Click Marker/Analysis
2. then [Statistics]
2. then Analysis
3. then [Trace Statistics]
3. then Trace Statistics
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Trace Statistics dialog box help
See how to make Trace Statistics display settings.
Statistics Check to display mean, standard deviation, and peak to peak values for the active trace.
Span Specifies the span of the active trace where data is collected for a math operation. You can define up to
9 user spans per channel with Start and Stop. You can also define the user spans from the Marker Search
dialog box.
Start Defines the start of a user span.
Stop Defines the stop of a user span.
Learn more about Trace Statistics (scroll up)
Last Modified:
27-Aug-2007
2-Feb-2007
Edited trace display settings
MX added UI
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Equation Editor
Equation Editor, new with PNA release 6.03, allows you to enter an algebraic equation that can mathematically
manipulate measured data. The results are displayed as a data trace. Data that is used in the equation can be from
the same or different channels.
Note: Equation Editor is NOT available with FCA measurements.
Overview
How to start Equation Editor
Using Equation Editor
Data that is used in Equation Editor
Trace Settings, Error Correction, and an Example
Functions and Constants
Operators
Example Equations
Saving Equation Editor Data
Other 'Analyze Data' topics
Overview
Equation Editor allows you to enter an algebraic equation of standard mathematical operators and functions,
referencing data that is available in the PNA. Once a valid equation is entered and enabled, the display of the
active trace is replaced with the results of the equation, and updated in real-time as new data is acquired. For
equations that can be expressed with Equation Editor's supported functions, operators, and data. There is no need
for off-line processing in a separate program.
For example, enter the equation “S21 / (1 - S11)”. The resulting trace is computed as each S21 data point divided
by one minus the corresponding S11 data point. For a 201 point sweep setup, the computation is repeated 201
times, once for each point.
As another example, suppose you want the PNA to make a directivity measurement of your 3-port DUT. This is not
a “native” PNA measurement, but can be achieved using the Equation Editor. The desired result is the sum and
difference of LogMag formatted traces, expressed as: S12 + S23 - S13.
Because Equation Editor operates on unformatted complex data, the required equation is:
DIR = S12 * S23 / S13
DIR becomes a display label to help you identify the computed data trace.
On the equation trace, set the format to LogMag.
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How to start Equation Editor
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click Trace
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Equation
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press ANALYSIS
1. Click Marker/Analysis
2. then [Equation Editor]
2. then Analysis
3. then Equation Editor
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Equation Editor dialog box help
Notes
Double-click, or type, the Functions, Operators, and Data to build an Equation.
Equation Editor is NOT available with FCA measurements.
Scroll down to learn more about Using Equation Editor
Equation: The field in which equations are built. Click the down arrow to the right to use or modify equations
that have been previously saved. This is where equations are saved when you press 'Store Equation'.
Enabled Check this box to enable the equation that is currently in the Equation field. If the Enabled box is not
available, then the equation is not valid. If a data trace is used that is from a different channel than the Equation
trace, the channels MUST have the same number of data points to be valid.
<-Backspace Moves the cursor to the left while erasing characters.
<- Moves the cursor to the left without erasing characters.
-> Moves the cursor to the right without erasing characters.
Store Equation Press to save the current equation. To later recall the equation, click the down arrow to the
right of the equation.
Delete Equation Removes the current equation from the drop-down list.
Functions/Constants: See descriptions of Functions.
Operators: See descriptions of Operators.
Trace Data: Select from ALL of the currently displayed traces on ALL channels.
Ch Param Data: Select from undisplayed data that is available ONLY from the active channel (same channel
as the equation trace).
Note: With an external test set enabled, only parameters involving ports 1 through 4 are listed. However, all
available parameters can be typed directly into the Equation field.
See Data that is used in Equations.
Show "Tr" annotation Check to show the TrX annotation on PNA display and Trace Status buttons.
Keypad: Provided to allow navigation of the entire dialog with a mouse.
Using Equation Editor
1. Pick a trace in which to enter the equation
Equation Editor works on the active trace.
Either create a new trace, or click the Trace Status button on an existing trace to make the trace active.
2. Enter an equation
Start Equation Editor (click Trace, then Equation)
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Note: Equation Editor is NOT available for FCA measurements.
The equation text can be in the form of an expression (S21)/(1-S11) or an equation (DIR = S12 * S23 / S13).
This topic refers to both types as equations.
Either type, or double-click the Functions, Operators, and Data to build an equation.
Functions and Constants ARE case-sensitive; Data names are NOT case sensitive.
Learn more about referring to data traces.
3. Check for a valid equation
When a valid equation is entered, the Enabled checkbox becomes available for checking. When the Enabled box is
checked:
The Equation Trace becomes computed data.
The equation is visible on the Trace Status (up to about 10 characters).
The equation is visible in the trace Title area (up to about 45 characters) when the Equation trace is active.
The equation is visible in the Status Bar at the bottom of the display. This is updated only after the equation
is entered and the Trace Status button is clicked.
If an equation is NOT valid, and a trace from a different channel is used, make sure the number of data
points is the same for both channels.
Learn more about the Functions, Operators, and Data that are used in Equation Editor.
Data that is used in Equation Editor
Definitions
Equation trace A trace in which an equation resides.
Referred trace A trace that is used as data in an equation.
Example: eq=Tr2+S11 is entered into Tr1.
Tr1 becomes an equation trace.
Tr2 and S11 are both referred traces because they are used in the equation trace.
Notes
Referred traces are processed one data point at a time. For example, the expression “S11/S21” means that
for each data point in S11 and S21, divide point N of S11 by point N of S21.
Once an equation is enabled, the trace is no longer identified by its original measurement parameter. It
becomes an equation trace.
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An equation trace can NOT refer to itself. For example, an equation in Tr1 cannot refer to trace Tr1.
Referred traces can be selected from S-Parameters, Receiver data, and Memory traces.
See note regarding External Test Sets.
There are three ways to refer to traces:
The following distinction is important when discussing the three ways to refer to traces/data.
Trace - a sequential collection of data points that are displayed on the PNA screen.
Data - PNA measurements that are acquired but not displayed. When an equation trace refers to data that is
not displayed, the PNA will automatically acquire the data.
1. Using TrX Trace notation (for example, Tr2).
When a trace is created, check "Show Tr Annotation" to see the Tr number of that trace.
Simple - ALWAYS refers to displayed traces.
Must be used for referring to traces in a different channel as the equation trace.
All trace settings are preserved in the equation trace. If you do NOT want a trace setting to be used in the
equation trace, you must disable it in the referred trace.
If the referred trace is error corrected, then that data is corrected in the equation trace.
Used to refer to a memory trace (it must already be stored in memory). Append .MEM to the TrX trace
identifier. For example, Tr2.mem refers to the memory trace that is stored for Tr2.
2. Using S-parameter notation (for example, S11/S21)
Convenient - ALWAYS refers to data that is NOT displayed.
Refers to data that resides in the same channel as the equation.
NOT the same as referring to a displayed S11 trace using TrX notation. See Example.
The referred data includes NO trace settings.
If the channel has error correction available, then it can be applied by turning error correction ON for
the Equation trace.
3. Using Receiver notation (for example AB_2); NOT case sensitive.
At least one receiver is required, followed by an underscore and a number.
The letters before the underscore refer to the receivers.
Letters alone refer to physical receivers.
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Letters immediately followed by numbers refer to logical receivers. Learn more.
If two receivers are referenced, they are ratioed.
The number after the underscore refers to the source port for the measurement.
Examples
AR1_2 = physical receiver A / physical receiver R1 with 2 as the source port.
a3b4_1 = reference receiver for port 3 / test port receiver for port 4 with 1 as the source port.
Learn more about ratioed and unratioed receiver measurements.
Receiver notation is like S-parameter notation in that:
Refers to data that is NOT displayed and resides in the same channel as the equation.
The referred data includes NO trace settings.
If the channel has error correction available for that receiver, then it can be applied by turning error correction
ON for the Equation trace.
Referring to Traces in a different channel
When the equation trace refers to a trace on a different channel:
The trace must already be displayed.
Must refer to the trace using TrX notation.
The Equation trace and the referred trace MUST have the same number of data points or the Enable
checkbox will not be available.
The Equation trace is updated when the last referred data in the same channel is acquired. Therefore, to
prevent 'stale' data from being used, the Equation trace must be on a higher numbered channel than the
referred trace. This is because the PNA acquires data in ascending channel number order - first channel 1,
then channel 2, and so forth. If the Equation trace is on channel 1, and it refers to a trace on channel 2, the
Equation trace will update after channel 1 is finished sweeping, using 'old' data for the channel 2 trace.
Trace Settings, Error Correction, and an Example
This discussion highlights the differences between using S-parameter / Receiver notation and TrX notation when
referring to traces. The key to understanding the differences is realizing that S-parameter / Receiver notation
ALWAYS refers to data that is NOT displayed.
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Trace Settings Normalization, Trace Math, Gating, Phase and Mag Offset, Electrical Delay, Time Domain.
Equation Editor processing occurs on the equation trace immediately after error correction.
Referred Data/Trace (used in the equation) is taken from the following locations:
When using TrX notation, data is taken immediately before formatting . These traces are always displayed
and include Trace Settings.
When using S-parameter / Receiver notation, data is taken immediately after error correction. This data is
NOT displayed and includes NO trace settings (see example).
Error-correction and Equation Editor
Using TrX notation:
The Trace Settings and Error-correction on the referred trace are used in the Equation trace.
If error correction is NOT ON, then the raw, uncorrected data is used in the equation trace.
To see if error correction is ON, make the trace active, then see the Correction level in the status bar.
Turning error correction ON/OFF on the equation trace has no meaning. The referred data that is used in the
equation is ALWAYS what determines its level of correction.
Using S-parameter and Receiver notation:
Because the data is not displayed, NO trace settings are used in the Equation trace.
Correction can be turned ON/OFF if corrected data is available for the referred data. Exception: When using
S-parameter and Receiver notation to refer to a trace on a channel that has been calibrated with a Response
Cal or Receiver Cal, correction can NOT be turned ON, even though the Status Bar indicates otherwise. For
example: Tr1 is an S11 measurement with a Response Cal. Tr2 is an equation trace that refers to S11. The
Tr2 equation trace is NOT corrected, even though the Status Bar may indicate that it is corrected. However, if
Tr2 refers to Tr1 (not S11), the Tr2 equation trace is corrected.
Example
This example illustrates the differences when referring to a trace using S-parameter notation and TrX notation:
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Tr1 is an S11 measurement with no equation, 2-port correction ON, and Time Domain transform ON.
Tr2 is an equation trace that refers to Tr1. Tr2 is corrected because Tr1 is corrected. Tr2 is transformed
because Tr1 is transformed. If transform is turned ON for Tr2, the data will be transformed AGAIN, which
results in "unusual" data.
Tr3 is an equation trace that refers to S11. This is NOT the same as referring to Tr1. The S11 trace that is
referred to is a different instance of S11 that is NOT displayed, and has NO trace settings. Notice that Tr3
data is NOT transformed, although Tr1 is transformed. Correction for Tr3 can be turned ON and OFF
because a calibration was performed on the channel in which the S11 trace resides.
Note: X- axis annotation of the Equation trace is completely independent of the data that is presented. ONLY
the data values from a referred trace are used. For example, notice that the Equation trace Tr2 has
Frequency on the X-axis although the referred trace Tr1 is presented in Time.
Functions and Constants used in Equation Editor
ALL trace data that is used in Equation Editor is unformatted, complex data.
In the following table,
Function(scalar x) means that an automatic conversion from a complex number to its scalar magnitude is
performed before passing the value to the function.
Function(complex x) means that the entire complex value is used.
a, b, c, d are arguments that are used in the function.
Function/Constant
acos(scalar a)
asin(scalar a)
Description
returns the arc cosine of a in radians
returns the arc sine of a in radians
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atan(scalar a)
atan2
returns the arc tangent of a in radians
returns the phase of complex a = (re,im) in radians
has the following two argument sets:
atan2(complex a) - returns the phase in radians
atan2(scalar a, scalar b)
cpx(scalar a, scalar b)
cos(complex a)
e
exp(complex a)
im(complex a)
kfac(complex a, complex b,
complex c, complex d )
when entered in EE:
kfac(S11,S21,S12,S22)
ln(complex a)
log10(complex a)
mag(complex a)
max(complex a, complex b, ...)
median(complex a, complex
b,...)
returns a complex value (a+ib) from two scalar values
takes a in radians and returns the cosine
returns the constant =~ 2.71828...
returns the exponential of a
returns the imag part of a as the scalar part of the result (zeroes the imag
part)
k-factor:
k = (1 - |a|^2 - |d|^2 + |a*d-b*c|^2 ) / (2 * |b*c|)
returns a scalar result - the imaginary part of the complex result is always
0
returns the natural logarithm of a
returns the base 10 logarithm of a
returns sqrt(a.re*a.re+a.im*a.im)
returns the complex value that has the largest magnitude of a list of
values.
returns the median of a list of complex values
The median is determined by sorting the values by magnitude, and
returning the middle one.
If an even number of values is passed, then the smaller of the two
middle values is returned.
min(complex a, complex b, ...)
mu1(complex a, complex b,
complex c, complex d )
returns the complex value that has the smallest magnitude of a list of
values.
mu1 = (1 - |a|^2) / ( |d - conj(a) * (a*d-b*c)| + |b*c| )
when entered in EE:
mu1(S11,S21,S12,S22)
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mu2( complex a, complex b,
complex c, complex d )
mu2 = (1 - |d|^2) / ( |a - conj(d) * (a*d-b*c)| + |b*c| )
when entered in EE:
mu1(S11,S21,S12,S22)
for both mu1 and mu2 (Usually
written with the Greek character µ
)
phase(complex a)
PI
pow(complex a,complex b)
re(complex a)
sin(complex a)
sqrt(complex a)
tan(complex a)
xAxisIndex(scalar a)
xAxisTraceData(scalar a)
conj is the complex conjugate. For scalars a and b, conj(a+ib) =
(a-ib)
returns a scalar result - the imaginary part of the complex result is
always 0
returns atan2(a) in degrees
returns the numeric constant pi (3.141592), which is the ratio of the
circumference of a circle to its diameter
returns a to the power b
returns the scalar part of a (zeroes the imag part)
takes a in radians and returns the sine
returns the square root of a, with phase angle in the half-open interval (pi/2, pi/2]
takes a in radians and returns the tangent
New returns the numeric data point (a) of the sweep
New for each point (a) on the sweep, returns the x-axis value on the
selected channel.
Operators used in Equation Editor
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Operator
Description
+
Addition
-
Subtraction
*
Multiplication
/
Division
(
Open parenthesis
)
Close parenthesis
,
Comma - separator for
arguments (as in S11, S22)
=
Equal (optional)
E
Exponent (as in 23.45E6)
Example Equations
The following examples may help you get started with Equation Editor.
Offset each data point in Tr2 from Tr1 by 2dB
Use the function: pow(complex a, complex b) -- returns a to the power b.
20log(a) + 2 = 20log(x)
log( a ) + 2/20 = log( x ) // divide all by 20.
x = 10^(log(a) + 2/20) // swap sides and take 10 to the power of both sides
x = 10^log(a) * 10^(2/20)
x = a * 10^(2/20)
The equation is entered into Tr2 as:
Offset=Tr1*pow(10, 2/20)
To offset by 5 dB
Offset=Tr1*pow(10, 5/20).
Balanced Match using a 2-port PNA
SDD11 = (S11-S21-S12+S22)/2
Conversion loss
B_1/pow(10,-15/20)
B_1 is a receiver measurement;
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-15 is the input power in dBm
Third-order intercept point (IP3 or TOI)
TR1*sqrt(Tr1/Tr3)
Tr1 = input signal power
Tr3 = intermodulation power (both traces measured with single receivers)
Harmonics in dBc
B_1/Tr2
B_1 is tuned to a harmonic frequency
Tr2 = power at fundamental frequency, measured with B_1 receiver
PAE (Power Added Efficiency)
Pout - Pin / Pdc
Type the following equation into a new trace with an unratioed measurement, such as AI1. The data format is
REAL:
PAE = 100 * (.001*pow(mag(Tr1),2)-(.001*pow(mag(Tr1),2)/pow(mag(Tr2),2)))/(Tr3*Tr4)
Where:
Tr1 - a trace that measures unratioed B receiver.
Tr2 - a corrected S21 trace (amplifier gain)
Tr3 - a trace that measures ADC voltage (AI1) across a sensing resistor.
Tr4 = an equation trace containing Isupp = (Tr3 / value of sensing resistor).
Data is displayed in Real format with units actually being watts.
1-port Insertion Loss
When it is not possible to connect both ends of a cable to the PNA, a 1-port insertion loss measurement can be
made. However, the measured loss must be divided by 2 because the result includes the loss going down and
coming back through the cable. This assumes that the device is terminated with a short to reflect all of the power.
The 'divide by 2' operation is performed as follows using Equation Editor:
Tr1 - an S11 trace
Tr2 - an equation trace containing 20*log10(Tr1)/2
Saving Equation Editor Data
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Equation data can be saved to the PNA hard drive in the following formats:
Citifile (.cti) - Equation data is saved and recalled. The file header indicates the "underlying" s-parameter
trace type.
Trace (.prn) - read by spreadsheet software. Can NOT be recalled by the PNA.
Print to File (bmp, jpg, png) - saves image of PNA screen.
Equation data is NOT saved in .SnP file format. When attempting to save an Equation trace in .SnP format, the
"underlying" S-parameter data is saved; not Equation data.
Last Modified:
17-Oct-2007
Added new functions
30-Aug-2007
Added 1-port insertion loss
3-Jul-2007
18-Jun-2007
Added PAE and other notes
Added examples
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Using Limit Lines
Limit lines allow you to compare measurement data to performance constraints that you define.
Overview
Create and Edit Limit Lines
Display and Test with Limit Lines
Testing with Sufficient Data Points
Other Analyze Data topics
Overview
Limit lines are visual representations on the PNA screen of the specified limits for a measurement. You can use
limit lines to do the following:
Give the operator visual guides when tuning devices.
Provide standard criteria for meeting device specification.
Show the comparison of data versus specifications.
Limit testing compares the measured data with defined limits, and provides optional Pass or Fail information for
each measured data point.
You can have up to 100 discrete lines for each measurement trace allowing you to test all aspects of your DUT
response.
Limit lines and limit testing are NOT available with Smith Chart or Polar display format. If limit lines are ON and
you change to Smith Chart or Polar format, the analyzer will automatically disable the limit lines and limit testing.
Create and Edit Limit Lines
You can create limit lines for all measurement traces. The limit lines are the same color as the measurement trace.
Limit lines are made up of discrete lines with four coordinates:
BEGIN and END stimulus - X-axis values.
BEGIN and END response - Y-axis values.
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How to create, edit, and test with Limit Lines
All limit line settings are made with the limit table. Use one of the following methods to show the limit table:
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press LIMIT TABLE
1. Click Trace
2. then Active Entry keys
2. then Limit Test
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press ANALYSIS
1. Click Marker/Analysis
2. then [Limits]
2. then Analysis
3. then [Limit Test]
3. then Limit Test
Limit Table
Note: To ADD a limit line to the table, change the last limit line to either MAX or MIN
1. In the Type area of the Limit Table, select MIN or MAX for Limit Line 1.
The MIN value will fail measurements BELOW this limit.
The MAX value will fail measurements ABOVE this limit.
2. Click BEGIN STIMULUS for Limit Segment 1. Enter the desired value.
3. Click END STIMULUS for Limit Segment 1. Enter the desired value.
4. Click BEGIN RESPONSE for Limit Segment 1. Enter the desired value.
5. Click END RESPONSE for Limit Segment 1. Enter the desired value.
6. Repeat Steps 1-5 for each desired limit line.
Displaying and Testing with Limit Lines
After creating limit lines, you can then choose to display or hide them for each trace. The specified limits remain
valid even if limit lines are not displayed.
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Limit testing cannot be performed on memory traces.
You can choose to provide a visual and / or audible PASS / FAIL indication.
With limit testing turned ON:
Any portion of the measurement trace that fails is displayed in red.
Any portion of the measurement trace that does NOT fail remains unchanged and silent.
PASS is the default mode of Pass / Fail testing. A data point will FAIL only if a measured point falls outside of
the limits.
If the limit line is set to OFF, the entire trace will PASS.
If there is no measured data point at a limit line stimulus setting, that point will PASS.
Limit Test dialog box help
Show Table Shows the table that allows you to create and edit limits.
Hide Table Makes the limits table disappear from the screen.
Note: To ADD a limit line to the table, change the last limit line to either MAX or MIN
Limit Test
Limit Test ON Check the box to compare the data trace to the limits and display PASS or FAIL.
Limit Line ON Check the box to make the limits visible on the screen. (Testing still occurs if the limits are
not visible.)
Sound ON Fail Check the box to make the PNA beep when a point on the data trace fails the limit test.
Global Pass/Fail
The Pass/Fail indicator provides an easy way to monitor the status of ALL measurements.
Global pass/fail display ON Check to display the Global Pass/Fail status.
Policy: Choose which of the following must occur for the Global Pass/Fail status to display PASS:
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All Tests (with Limit Test ON) Must Pass - This setting reads the results from the Limit Tests. If all tests
(with Limit Test ON) PASS, then the Global Pass/Fail status will PASS.
All Measurements Must Pass - This more critical setting shows FAIL unless all measured data points fall
within established test limits and Limit Test is ON. Note: In this mode, if one measurement does NOT
have Limit Test ON, Global Pass/Fail will show FAIL.
Learn more about displaying and testing with Limits (scroll up)
Testing with Sufficient Data Points
Limits are checked only at the actual measured data points. Therefore, It is possible for a device to be out of
specification without a limit test failure indication if the data point density is insufficient.
The following image is a data trace of an actual filter using 11 data points (approximately one every vertical
graticule). The filter is being tested with a minimum limit line (any data point under the limit line fails).
Although the data trace is clearly below the limit line on both sides of the filter skirts, there is a PASS indication
because there is no data point being measured at these frequencies.
The following image shows the exact same conditions, except the number of data points is increased to 1601. The
filter now fails the minimum limit test indicated by the red data trace.
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Last Modified:
2-Feb-2007
MX Added UI
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Save and Recall a File
The PNA allows you to save and recall files to and from an internal or external storage device in a variety of file
formats.
How to Save a File
How to Recall a File
Instrument / Calibration State Files ( .csa, .cst, .sta, .cal)
Measurement Data Files (.prn, .sNp, .cti, .csv)
Define Data Saves
Managing Files without a Mouse
Other Data Outputting topics
How to Save a File
Use one of the following methods:
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press SAVE
1. Click File
2. then Save, Save As, or Auto Save
2. then Save, Save As, or Auto Save
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press SAVE
1. Click File
2. then [Save], [Save As], or [Auto Save]
2. then Save or Save As
Save Immediately saves the PNA state and possibly calibration data to the filename and extension you used
when you last performed a Save. Only .cst, .sta, and .csa files are remembered when Save is performed. This
file will be overwritten the next time you click Save. To prevent this, use one of the following methods.
Save As Invokes the Save As dialog box.
Auto Save (Only available from the Active Entry keys) Saves state and calibration data to the internal hard
disk in the C:\Program Files\Agilent\Network Analyzer\Documents folder. A filename is generated automatically
using the syntax "atxxx.csa"; where xxx is a number that is incremented by one when a new file is Auto
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Saved.
Note: You can NOT save Frequency Converter Application .S2P files using this method. To learn how, see
Using FCA, Save Data.
Save As dialog box help
Save in Allows you to navigate to the directory where you want to save the file.
File name Displays the filename that you either typed in or clicked on in the directory contents box.
Save as type
The following file types save Instrument states and Calibration data. You can save, and later recall,
instrument settings and calibration data for all channels currently in use on the PNA.
These file types are only recognized by Agilent PNA Series analyzers. Learn more about these file types.
*.csa - save Instrument state and actual Cal Set data (cal/state archive) Default selection.
*.cst - save Instrument state and a link to the Cal Set data.
*.sta - save Instrument state ONLY (no calibration data)
*.cal - save actual Calibration data ONLY (no Instrument state)
Note: Before saving a .cst file (Instrument State and link to Cal Set), be sure that a User Cal Set is being used
for the calibration; not a Cal Register. Cal Registers are overwritten with new data whenever a calibration is
performed, and may not be accurate cal data when the .cst file is recalled. Learn more about Cal Sets.
The following file types save Measurement data for use in spreadsheet or CAE programs. Click to learn more
about these file types.
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*.prn
*.sNp
*cti (citifile)
*.csv (used to save 2D Gain Compression data).
Note: To save the PNA screen as .bmp, .jpg, or .png graphics file types, click File / Print to File. Learn more.
Save Saves the file to the specified file name and directory.
How to Recall (open) a file
Select a file from the 'most recently used' list. The list is saved when the PNA application exits.
Use one of the following methods:
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Press RECALL
1. Click File
2. then Active Entry keys
2. then Recall
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press RECALL
1. Click File
2. then [Recall]
2. then Recall
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Recall dialog box help
Look in Allows you to select the directory that contains the file that you want to recall.
File name Displays the filename that you either typed in or clicked on in the directory contents box.
Files of type Allows you view and select files that are listed in categories of a file type.
Recall Recalls the file displayed in the file name box.
Note: *.sNp files cannot be recalled by the PNA.
Instrument State / Calibration Files
You can save, and later recall, instrument settings and calibration data for all channels currently in use on the
PNA.
An Instrument State contains almost every PNA setting. The following PNA settings are NOT saved and recalled
with Instrument State:
GPIB address
RF power ON/OFF (depends on current setting)
Test set I/O settings
The following file types are used to save and recall instrument states and Cal Set information:
File Types
Information that is stored for each channel
.sta
.cst
.csa
.cal
Instrument State Information
Channels/Traces
Averaging
Windows
Markers
Triggering
Math/memory
Format
Limits
Scale
More...
Stimulus Information:
Frequency range
Alternate sweep
Number of points
Port powers
IF bandwidth
Source attenuators
Sweep type
Receiver attenuators
Sweep mode
Test Set port map
Cal Set Information
GUID (Globally Unique Identifier)
provides link to Cal Set
Name, Description, Modify date
Stimulus Information:
Frequency range Alternate sweep
Number of points Port powers
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IF bandwidth Source attenuators
Sweep type Receiver attenuators
Sweep mode Test Set port map
Error Terms: Directivity, Crosstalk, Source match, Load match, Reflection
tracking, Transmission tracking
File Type Descriptions and Recall
The following describes each file type, and what occurs when the file type is recalled.
*.sta files
Contain ONLY instrument state information.
When recalled, they always replace the current instrument state immediately.
*.cst files
Contain BOTH instrument state and a LINK to the Cal Sets.
The quickest and most flexible method of saving and recalling a calibrated instrument state.
Channels need not have cal data to save as .cst file.
When recalled, the state information is loaded first. Then the PNA tries to apply a Cal Set as you would do
manually. If the stimulus settings are different between the instrument state and the linked Cal Set, the usual
choice is presented (see Cal Sets). If the linked Cal Set has been deleted, a message is displayed, but the
state information remains in place.
Because only a link to the Cal Set is saved, the Cal Set can be shared with other measurements.
*.cal files
Contain ONLY Cal Set information.
When recalled, the Cal Set is NOT automatically applied. Apply the calibration data to a channel as you
would apply any Cal Set.
Learn about Recalling
*.csa files
Contain ALL instrument state and the actual Cal Set; not a link to the Cal Set.
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The safest method of saving and recalling a calibrated instrument state. However, the file size is larger than
a *cst file, and the save and recall times are longer. In addition, because the actual Cal Set is saved, it is
very difficult to share the cal data with other measurements.
Channels need not be calibrated to save as .cst file.
The Cal Set that is saved could have been a Cal Register or a User Cal Set.
Learn about Recalling
Note: *.pcs files are the internal file format the PNA uses for storing cal sets. There is no reason for users to
access or copy these files.
Recalling Cal Sets
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Recalling Cal Sets dialog box help
Both .cal and .csa file types contain whole Cal Sets When these file types are recalled, the PNA checks to see
if the incoming Cal Set GUID matches an existing PNA Cal Set GUID. If it does, and if the rest of the Cal Set
contents are different in any way, then both of these Cal Sets can NOT coexist in the PNA and you are offered
the following choices.
Because all PNA channels are saved, there could be more than one Cal Set in either of these file types.
Overwrite The incoming Cal Set will replace the existing Cal Set.
Duplicate (Only available with .cal recalls.) Because the Cal Set is not automatically applied, you can choose
to apply either the original or duplicate Cal Set. The original Cal Set remains in the .cal file.
Cancel Abandon the recall operation.
The PNA will offer a choice as described in each file type below. Learn more about Cal Sets.
Measurement Data Files
Measurement data is saved as ASCII file types for use in a spreadsheet or CAE programs.
Note: Before saving measurement data, always trigger a single measurement, and then allow the PNA channel to
go into Hold. This ensures that the entire measurement trace is saved.
The following three file types are used by the PNA. You can select the content and the format of *.SnP files and
*.cti files through the Define Data Saves dialog box.
*.prn files
*.sNp (Touchstone)
*.cti (Citifile)
*.csv
*.prn Files
Prn files have the following attributes:
Comma-separated data which can be read into rows and columns by spreadsheet software, such as
Microsoft® Excel. To avoid the "delimiting" dialog boxes, change the filename extension from .prn to .csv.
Then open directly into Microsoft Excel.
Contain formatted and corrected stimulus and response data for the current active trace ONLY.
Are Output only - they cannot be read by the analyzer.
Beginning with Rev 6.2, FCA and Cal Set Viewer data can be saved to *.prn files
Example:
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"S11 Log Mag"
"Frequency (Hz)",
"dB"
3.000000e+005
,
-3.528682e+001 ,
4.529850e+007
,
-2.817913e+001 ,
9.029700e+007
,
-3.216808e+001 ,
1.352955e+008
,
-3.101017e+001 ,
.sNp Format (*.s1p, *.s2p, *.s3p. *.s4p, and so forth)
This file format is used by CAE programs such as Agilent's Microwave Design System (MDS) and Advanced
Design System (ADS).
Note: Frequency Converter Application .S2P files are saved using a different method. See Using FCA, Save Data.
.sNp data is Output only; it can ONLY be read by the PNA embed/de-embed functions.
.sNp data can be saved in various formats. See Define Data Saves
The amount of data that is saved depends on the file type that you specify and the amount of data that is
available:
To save sNp data with an external test set enabled, at the File, Save As dialog, select Snp File(*.s*p), then
complete the "Choose Ports " dialog.
File Type
# of Ports
# of S-parameters saved
*.s1p
1
1 S-parameter
*.s2p
2
4 S-parameters
*.s3p
3
9 S-parameters
*.s4p
4
16 S-parameters
...
...
...
*.sNp
N
N^2 S-parameters
.sNp data is generally used to gather all S-parameters for a fully corrected measurement. The PNA uses the data
that is available on the channel of the active measurement.
If correction is applied, then valid data is returned for all corrected s-parameters.
If requesting less data then is available, the Choose ports for sNp data dialog appears. Previous to PNA
release 6.2, data was returned beginning with the first calibrated ports until your request if fulfilled.
605
If correction is NOT applied, the PNA returns as much applicable raw data as possible using S-parameter
measurements on the selected channel. Data that is not available is zero-filled. For example, if correction is
NOT applied and the active measurement is S11, and an S21 measurement also exists on the channel, then
data is returned for the S11 and S21 measurements. Data for S12 and S22 is not available and therefore
returned as zeros.
IMPORTANT - ALL valid data is saved using the same format and settings (trace math, offset, delay, and so
forth) as the active measurement. This can cause the data that is saved for the non-active measurements to
be dramatically different from the data that is displayed. For example, when saving an S2P file, if the active
S11 measurement is set to Data/Mem (data divided by memory), then ALL 4 S-parameters are saved using
Data/Mem. The memory trace that is used in the Data/Mem operation is the same as that used in the active
(S11) measurement.
Before saving measurement data, always trigger a single measurement, and then allow the PNA channel to
go into Hold. This ensures that the entire measurement trace is saved.
.sNp Data Output
.sNp files contain header information, stimulus data, a response data pair for EACH S-parameter measurement.
The only difference between .s1p, s2p, and so forth, is the number of S-parameters that are saved.
The following is a sample of Header information:
!Agilent Technologies,E8362B,US42340026,Q.03.54
!Agilent E8362B: Q.03.54
!Date: Friday, April 25, 2003 13:46:41
!Correction: S11(Full 2 Port SOLT,1,2) S21(Full 2 Port SOLT,1,2) S12(Full 2 Port
SOLT,1,2) S22(Full 2 Port SOLT,1,2)
!S2P File: Measurements:S11,S21,S12,S22:
# Hz S RI R 50
Note: Although the following shows Real / Imag pairs, the format could also be LogMag / Phase or LinMag / Phase
*.s1p Files
Each record contains 1 stimulus value and 1 S-parameter (total of 3 values)
Stim Real (Sxx) Imag(Sxx)
*.s2p Files
Each record contains 1 stimulus value and 4 S-parameters (total of 9 values)
Stim Real (S11) Imag(S11) Real(S21) Imag(S21) Real(S12) Imag(S12) Real(S22) Imag(S22)
*.s3p Files
Each record contains 1 stimulus value and 9 S-parameters (total of 19 values)
Stim Real (S11) Imag(S11) Real(S12) Imag(S12) Real(S13) Imag(S13)
Real (S21) Imag(S21) Real(S22) Imag(S22) Real(S23) Imag(S23)
Real (S31) Imag(S31) Real(S32) Imag(S32) Real(S33) Imag(S33)
*.s4p Files (and so forth...)
Each record contains 1 stimulus value and 16 S-parameters (total of 33 values)
Stim Real (S11) Imag(S11) Real(S12) Imag(S12) Real(S13) Imag(S13) Real(S14) Imag(S14)
Real (S21) Imag(S21) Real(S22) Imag(S22) Real(S23) Imag(S23) Real(S24) Imag(S24)
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Real (S31) Imag(S31) Real(S32) Imag(S32) Real(S33) Imag(S33) Real(S34) Imag(S34)
Real (S41) Imag(S41) Real(S42) Imag(S42) Real(S43) Imag(S43) Real(S44) Imag(S44)
Choose ports for SNP File dialog box help
This dialog appears when selecting File, Save As, Trace sNp, and you request less data than is available, or
you want data for more than 4 ports. This dialog allows you to choose which S-parameter data to save.
Number of ports Select the number of ports for which data will be saved.
Arrow buttons Click to Add and Remove ports for the following columns:
Available Ports The PNA / External test set ports. There may NOT be valid data available for all of these
ports. Learn more.
Chosen Ports When OK is clicked, sNp data is saved for these ports.
OK Becomes available when the number of Chosen ports = the Number of ports to save. Click to save to
sNp file.
With Number of ports = 2, .s2p data is saved; with Number of ports = 3, .s3p data is saved, and so forth.
Learn more about sNp files
.cti CitiFiles
Citifile format is compatible with the Agilent 8510 Network Analyzer and Agilent's Microwave Design System (MDS).
Note: Before saving measurement data, always trigger a single measurement, and then allow the PNA channel to
go into Hold. This ensures that the entire measurement trace is saved.
You can do the following using citifiles :
save the active trace, or all traces. (see Define Data Saves
save formatted or unformatted citifile data
1.
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Save Formatted data
1. Set the format using Define Data Saves.
2. Click File then Save As
3. Select Citifile Formatted Data (*cti)
FCA, GCA, and NFA traces can NOT be saved as formatted Citifile data.
On the data access map, Formatted data is taken from location 2 or 4.
Save Unformatted data
1. Click File Save As
2. Select Citifile Data Data (*cti)
On the data access map, Unformatted data is taken from the block just before Format.
Recalling Citifiles into the PNA
To recall citifiles, click File then Recall. Specify (*.cti)
Recalled citifile data is ALWAYS displayed on the PNA using LogMag format, regardless of how the file was
stored.
Citifile traces are recalled into the same window / channel configuration as when they were saved. However, the
new recalled channel numbers begin with channel 32 and decrement for each additional channel.
For example, when a citifile is saved, two traces are in window 1, channel 1 and two additional traces are in window
2, channel 2. When recalled into a factory preset condition (1 trace in window 1, channel 1), the first two recalled
traces appear in window 2, channel 32, and the second two traces appear in window 3 channel 31.
If a channel is in use, you are prompted to create a new channel.
Yes - skip down to the next available channel.
No - add recalled data to the existing channel.
See also Traces, Channels, and Windows on the PNA
*.csv Files
This file format is available ONLY for saving 2D Gain Compression data. This data type can be read by
spreadsheet programs, such as Microsoft Excel. Learn about Gain Compression App (Opt 086).
Note: Before saving measurement data, always trigger a single measurement, and then allow the PNA channel to
go into Hold. This ensures that the entire measurement trace is saved.
When a 2D Gain Compression trace is active, the following is saved:
608
The data are organized by frequency regardless of the 2D method used to acquire the data. The above image
shows 5 power points at each frequency. For 201 frequency points and 5 power points, there are 1005 rows of
data.
If calibration is turned on when the file is saved, then all data are calibrated. Otherwise, raw data is saved.
Define Data Saves
How to select Define Data Saves
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click File
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Define Data Saves
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press SAVE
1. Click File
2. then [Define Data Saves]
2. then Define Data Saves
609
Define Data Saves dialog box help
CitiFile Contents Determines what is saved to a .cti file.
Auto - Saves the active trace. Additional traces are saved if correction is ON and Full 2-port or Full 3-port
calibration is performed. For Full 2-port calibration, 4 traces are saved. For Full 3-port calibration, 9 traces
are saved.
Single Trace - Saves the active trace in the currently selected window.
Displayed Traces - Saves all displayed data traces
Citifile Formatted Data
Auto - Data is saved in LogMag or LinMag if one of these is the currently selected display format. If format is
other than these, then data is saved in Real/Imag.
LogMag, LinMag, Real/Imag - Select output format.
The imaginary portion for all LogMag and LinMag data is output is in degrees.
SnP Formatted Data (.s1p, .s2p, .s3p) Learn more about SnP files.
Auto - Data is saved in LogMag or LinMag if one of these is the currently selected format. If format is other
than these, then data is saved in Real/Imag.
LogMag, LinMag, Real/Imag - Select output format.
The imaginary portion for all LogMag and LinMag data is output is in degrees.
Manage Files without a Mouse
The Manage Files dialog box is designed to be used from the front panel. It performs the same function as
Windows Explorer, but can be used without the use of a mouse or keyboard.
Learn more about using the Front-panel interface.
610
Manage Files dialog box help
Recall Opens a Network Analyzer file already stored in memory.
Rename Renames a file that is selected in the open folder.
Delete Removes a selected file from the open folder.
Delete All Removes all files of the file type selected that appear in the open folder.
New folder Create a new folder and give it a name
Last modified:
17-Oct-2007
24-Jul-2007
10/23/06
Added note for MM
Added clarification to define data save
Added pcs note
9/18/06
MQ Added choose ports for snp
9/12/06
Added link to programming commands
611
Drive Mapping
Drive mapping allows you to share disk drives between the PNA and an external computer. You can either map
from the PNA, or from your PC, to the other.
From the PNA, map to a drive on an External PC
From an External PC, map to a drive on the PNA
To prepare for Drive Mapping:
1. Both the PC and PNA must be connected to a shared computer network
2. You must know the full computer name of the PC (or analyzer) you are mapping TO. Tell me how
3. Your logon and password on the analyzer must be the same as that on the external PC. You can add your
PC logon to the analyzer. Tell me how
Note: These procedures require a mouse and keyboard. Also, the external PC must have Windows NT 4.0 (or
later).
From the Analyzer, map to a drive on the External PC
1. On the external computer desktop, go to Windows Explorer. In the listing of drives, right click on the drive
you want to share. Click Sharing.
2. In the dialog box, select Shared As. In the Share Name box, use the arrow key or type in a share name for
the drive. For example: C$. Click OK.
3. On the analyzer desktop, click Windows Explorer. From the Tools menu, click Map Network Drive. (To get
to the analyzer desktop, click View, then click Title Bars)
4. If you would like to connect to your external PC using a different logon, click Connect using a different
Logon. This logon must be registered on the analyzer and you must be currently logged on the external PC
using this logon.
1. In the Connect as box, type your logon name.
The logon name and password must be exactly the same on both the external PC and the analyzer.
2. In the Password box, type the logon password that you use on the external computer. Click OK. The
logon name and password must be exactly the same on both the external PC and the analyzer.
5. In the Folder box, type \(full computer name of analyzer)\share name (from step 2). (For example:
\SLT1234\C$ )
6. Click Finish.
1.
612
6.
From an External PC, map to a drive on the Analyzer
1. On the analyzer desktop, click Windows Explorer. Right click on the drive you want to share. Click on
Sharing...
2. In the dialog box, select Shared this folder. In the Share Name box, type in a share name for the drive. For
example: C$. Click OK.
3. On the external PC desktop, click Windows Explorer. From the Tools menu, click Map Network Drive.
4. If the current logon on your PC is different from the current logon on the analyzer, click Connect using a
different Logon to connect to using the current analyzer logon, .This logon must be registered on the
external PC. To see the current logon on either the PC or analyzer, hold Ctrl - Alt, and press Delete.
1. In the Connect as box, type the logon currently being used by the analyzer.
2. In the Password box, type the logon password that you use on the external computer. Click OK
5. In the Folder box, type \\computername (prep1)\share name (from step 2). (For example: \\SLT1234\C$ )
6. Click Finish.
613
Print a Displayed Measurement
The analyzer allows you to print a displayed measurement to a printer or to a file. The printer can be either
networked or local.
Connecting a Printer
Printing
Other Outputting Data topics
Connecting a Printer
You can connect your printer to the PNA using three different connector types:
Parallel connector
Serial connector
USB
In addition to connecting the printer directly to the PNA via one of the above interfaces, LAN connected printers are
also usable by the PNA.
Note: Early PNAs have a Centronics connector for connecting a printer. An adapter (36-pin male - 1284-C - to 25pin female) was shipped with those PNAs to allow connection with a standard parallel printer cable.
CAUTION: Do NOT connect your printer to the 25-pin female port labeled Ext. Test Set Interface. Voltage levels
of signal lines may damage the printer's I/O.
To Add a Printer
Note: If you try to print from the PNA application and the Add Printer Wizard appears, click Cancel and add the
printer using the following procedure.
1. From the PNA application, click View then click Minimize Application
2. On the Windows taskbar, click Start, point to Settings, then click Printers.
3. Double-click Add Printer.
4. Follow the instructions in the Add Printer Wizard.
For more information, refer to Microsoft Windows Help or your printer documentation.
Printing
Print a Hardcopy
614
Page Setup
Print to File
The measurement information on the screen can be printed to any local or networked printer that is connected to
the PNA. The graphic below shows an example of how a screen-capture image appears when printed. The Page
Setup settings allows you to customize the printed form of the measurement information.
How to Print a Hardcopy
Using front-panel
buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
HARDKEY [softkey]
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Click File
1. Press
2. then Print
For PNA-X and 'C' models
615
1. Press PRINT
1. Click File
2. then [Print]
2. then Print
3. then Print
Note: For information on the choices in the Print dialog box, see Windows Help.
Page Setup
The Page Setup dialog allows flexibility in the appearance that measurement data is printed. After setting up the
page, click File, then Print... to obtain a hard-copy.
How to select Page Setup
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click File
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Page Setup
For PNA-X and 'C' models
616
1. Press PRINT
1. Click File
2. then [Page Setup]
2. then Print
3. then Print Options
Page Setup dialog box help
Note: See Windows Help for information on the choices on the left side of this dialog.
Windows
Minimum vertical size Adjust to change the amount of a page that the measurement window fills. The
adjustment range is from 40 to 100%.
One window per page Check to print one window per page. Clear to print all selected windows without a
forced page break.
Only active window Check to print only the active window. Clear to print all windows.
Agilent logo Check to print the Agilent logo to the header.
Data and Time Check to add the current date and time to the header.
Global Pass/Fail Check to add the Global Pass/Fail status to the header.
Page Numbers Check to add page numbers (1 of n) to the header.
Channel Settings Table
Print Check to print the channel settings table.
Expand segment data Check to print segment sweep data.
Trace Attributes Table
Print Check to print the Trace Attributes Table. The Trace Attributes are measurement type, correction
factors ON or OFF, smoothing, options, and marker details. The Trace Attributes are listed by Trace ID# for
each window.
617
Each Trace ID# can have multiple entries depending on the number of markers associated with the trace.
The marker details are marker number, position and response. If there are multiple markers on a trace, the
trace attributes are only shown for the first marker. However, the trace attributes for the first marker apply to
all other markers on that trace.
The options column can have one or more options. D for Delay, M for Marker, G for Gating. Multiple options
selected would appear as follows: DMG.
Print marker data Check to print all marker data. The amount of data depends on how many markers are
created.
Print to a File
The analyzer can save a screen-capture image in any of the following formats:
.png (preferred format)
.bmp (bitmap)
.jpg
The analyzer automatically saves the file to the current path. If not previously defined, the analyzer automatically
selects the default path C:/Program Files/Agilent/Network Analyzer/Documents/
A .bmp file, like a .prn file, can be imported into software applications such as Microsoft Excel, Word, or Paint to
display a screen-capture image.
See Save and Recall files for more information.
How to Print to a File
Using front-panel
HARDKEY [softkey] buttons
Using a mouse with PNA Menus
For N5230A and E836xA/B models
1. Navigate using
1. Click File
MENU/ DIALOG
2. then Print to File
For PNA-X and 'C' models
1. Press PRINT
1. Click File
2. then [Print to File]
2. then Print
3. then Print to File
Last modified:
618
10/19/06
Modified for new print dialog
619
PNA Application Notes
The following links require an Internet connection.
Note: Check out the multimedia PNA Demo presentations, including 'Network Analyzer Basics'.
Calibrations
Improving Measurement and Calibration Accuracy Using the Frequency Converter Application (5988-9642EN)
On-Wafer Calibration Using a 4-port, 20 GHz PNA-L Network Analyzer (N5230A Option 240/245) (5989-2287EN)
ECal
Agilent Electronic vs. Mechanical Calibration Kits: Calibration Methods and Accuracy (5988-9477EN)
User Characterization: Electronic Calibration Feature Allows Users to Customize to Specific Needs (5988-9478EN)
Embedding / De-embedding
De-embedding and Embedding S-Parameter Networks Using a Vector Network Analyzer (5980-2784EN)
Amplifier Measurements
High-power measurements using the PNA (5989-1349EN)
Amplifier Linear and Gain Measurements (5988-8644EN)
Amplifier Swept-Harmonic Measurements (5988-9473EN)
Amplifier and CW Swept Intermodulation-Distortion Measurements (5988-9474EN)
Antenna Measurements
Triggering PNA Microwave Network Analyzers for Antenna Measurements (5988-9518EN)
New Network Analyzer Methodologies in Antenna/RCS Measurements (5989-1937EN)
Pulsed Antenna Measurements Using PNA Network Analyzers (5989-0221EN)
Balanced Measurements (Although the following refer to the ENA, they are also relevant to the PNA.)
On-wafer Balanced Component Measurement with the Cascade Microtech Probing System (5988-5886EN)
Network De-embedding/Embedding and Balanced Measurement (5988-4923EN)
Mixer Measurements
Mixer Transmission Measurements Using the Frequency Conversion Application (5988-8642EN)
Mixer Conversion-Loss and Group Delay Measurement Techniques and Comparisons (5988-9619EN)
Comparison of Mixer Characterization using New Vector Characterization Techniques (5988-7827EN)
Novel Method for Vector Mixer Characterization and Mixer Test System Vector Error Correction (5988-7826EN)
Measuring Absolute Group Delay of Multistage Converters Using PNA Microwave Network Analyzers (59890219EN)
Pulsed Measurements
620
Pulsed-RF S-Parameter Measurements Using Wideband and Narrowband Detection (AN 1408-12)
Accurate Pulsed Measurements (5989-0563EN)
Pulsed Antenna Measurements Using PNA Network Analyzers (5989-0221EN)
Other Measurements
New Time Domain Analysis
Using the PNA Series to Analyze Lightwave Components (5989-3385EN)
Using the PNA for Banded Millimeter-Wave Measurements (5989-4098EN)
PNA MM-Wave Network Analyzers: Analysis of Cable Length on VNA System Performance (5989-1941EN)
Basics of Measuring the Dielectric Properties of Materials (5989-2589EN)
Automation
Connectivity Advances for Component Manufacturers (5980-2782EN)
Introduction to Application Development using the PNA (5980-2666EN)
The 'Need for Speed' in Component Manufacturing Test (5980-2783EN)
621
Network Analyzer Basics
This self-paced two hour video discusses the basic concepts of Network Analysis.
The files are installed and should work on older PNA models. If the PNA link does not work, then use the internet
link, which requires an internet connection.
From the PNA: Proceed with Network Analyzer Basics.
From the Internet: http://wireless.agilent.com/networkanalyzers/pnademo.htm in both streaming and
downloadable format.
Last modified:
10/18/06
Added link to pnademo.
622
Connector Care
Proper connector care is critical for accurate and repeatable measurements. The following information will help you
preserve the precision and extend the life of your connectors - saving both time and money.
Connector Care Quick Reference Guide
Connector Cleaning Supplies
Safety Reminders
About Connectors
Gaging Fundamentals
Connector Care Procedures
See also mmWave Connector Care at http://na.tm.agilent.com/pna/connectorcare/Connector_Care.htm
Preventing Test Port Connector Damage
Handling and Storing Connectors
Do
Do Not
Keep connectors clean
Touch mating-plane surfaces
Protect connectors with plastic end caps
Set connectors contact-end down
Keep connector temperature same as analyzer
Store connectors loose in box or drawer
Visual Inspection
Do
Do Not
Inspect connectors with magnifying glass.
Use a connector with a bent or broken center conductor
Look for metal debris, deep scratches or dents
Use a connector with deformed threads
Cleaning Connectors
Do
Do Not
Clean surfaces first with clean, dry compressed air
Use high pressure air (>60 psi)
Use lint-free swab or brush
Use any abrasives
Use minimum amount of alcohol
Allow alcohol into connector support beads
Clean outer conductor mating surface and threads
Apply lateral force to center conductor
623
Gaging Connectors
Do
Do Not
Inspect and clean gage, gage master and device tested Use an out of specification connector
Use correct torque wrench
Hold connector gage by the dial
zero gage before use
Use multiple measurements and keep record of
readings
Making Connections
Do
Do Not
Align connectors first
Cross thread the connection
Rotate only the connector nut
Twist connector body to make connection
Use correct torque wrench
Mate different connector types
Connector Care and Cleaning Supplies
Description
Web Site
Swabs
http://www.berkshire.com/swabs.shtml
Lint Free Cloths- Air dusters
http://www.ccrwebstore.com
Isopropyl
http://www.techspray.com
Nitrilite Gloves and Finger Cots
http://www.techni-tool.com
Safety Reminders
When cleaning connectors:
Always use protective eyewear when using compressed air or nitrogen.
Keep isopropyl alcohol away from heat, sparks and flame. Use with adequate ventilation. Avoid contact with
eyes, skin and clothing.
Avoid electrostatic discharge (ESD). Wear a grounded wrist strap (having a 1 MW series resistor) when
cleaning device, cable or test port connectors.
Cleaning connectors with alcohol shall only be done with the instruments power cord removed, and in a wellventilated area. Allow all residual alcohol moisture to evaporate, and the fumes to dissipate prior to
energizing the instrument.
About Connectors
624
Connector Service Life
Connector Grades and Performance
Adapters as Connector Savers
Connector Mating Plane Surfaces
Connector Service Life
Even though calibration standards, cables, and test set connectors are designed and manufactured to the highest
standards, all connectors have a limited service life. This means that connectors can become defective due to wear
during normal use. For best results, all connectors should be inspected and maintained to maximize their service
life.
Visual Inspection should be performed each time a connection is made. Metal particles from connector threads
often find their way onto the mating surface when a connection is made or disconnected. See Inspection
procedure.
Cleaning the dirt and contamination from the connector mating plane surfaces and threads can extend the service
life of the connector and improve the quality of your calibration and measurements. See Cleaning procedure.
Gaging connectors not only provides assurance of proper mechanical tolerances, and thus connector
performance, but also indicate situations where the potential for damage to another connector may exist. See
Gaging procedure.
Proper connector care and connection techniques yield:
·
Longer Service Life
·
Higher Performance
·
Better Repeatability
Connector Grades and Performance
The three connector grades (levels of quality) for the popular connector families are listed below. Some specialized
types may not have all three grades.
Production grade connectors are the lowest grade and the least expensive. It is the connector grade most
commonly used on the typical device under test (DUT). It has the lowest performance of all connectors due
to its loose tolerances. This means that production grade connectors should always be carefully inspected
before making a connection to the analyzer. Some production grade connectors are not intended to mate
with metrology grade connectors.
Instrument grade is the middle grade of connectors. It is mainly used in and with test instruments, most
cables and adapters, and some calibration standards. It provides long life with good performance and tighter
tolerances. It may have a dielectric supported interface and therefore may not exhibit the excellent match of a
metrology grade connector.
Metrology grade connectors have the highest performance and the highest cost of all connector grades.
This grade is used on calibration standards, verification standards, and precision adapters. Because it is a
high precision connector, it can withstand many connections and disconnections and, thus, has the longest
life of all connector grades. This connector grade has the closest material and geometric specifications. Pin
diameter and pin depth are very closely specified. Metrology grade uses an air dielectric interface and a
slotless female contact which provide the highest performance and traceability.
625
Note: In general, Metrology grade connectors should not be mated with Production grade connectors.
Adapters as Connector Savers
Make sure to use a high quality (Instrument grade or better) adapter when adapting a different connector type to
the analyzer test ports. It is a good idea to use an adapter even when the device under test is the same connector
type as the analyzer test ports. In both cases, it will help extend service life, and protect the test ports from damage
and costly repair.
The adapter must be fully inspected before connecting it to the analyzer test port and inspected and cleaned
frequently thereafter. Because calibration standards are connected to the adapter, the adapter should be the
highest quality to provide acceptable RF performance and minimize the effects of mismatch.
Connector Mating Plane Surfaces
An important concept in RF and microwave measurements is the reference plane. For a network analyzer, this is
the surface that all measurements are referenced to. At calibration, the reference plane is defined as the plane
where the mating plane surfaces of the measurement port and the calibration standards meet. Good connections
(and calibrations) depend on perfectly flat contact between connectors at all points on the mating plane surfaces
(as shown in the following graphic).
Gaging Fundamentals
Connector gages are important tools used to measure center conductor pin depth in connectors. Connector pin
depth, measured in terms of recession or protrusion, is generally the distance between the mating plane and the
end of the center conductor, or the shoulder of the center conductor for a stepped male pin.
Typical Connector Gage
626
RECESSION
PROTRUSION
Recession and Protrusion
Pin depth is negative (recession) if the center conductor is recessed below the outer conductor mating plane,
usually referred to as the "reference plane". Pin depth is positive (protrusion) if the center conductor projects
forward from the connector reference plane.
Pin Depth
1. Recession of female contact
2. Recession of male pin shoulder
Difference with Type-N Connectors
627
Type-N connectors have the mating plane of the center conductors offset from the connector reference plane. In
this case the zero setting "gage masters" generally offset the nominal distance between the center conductor
mating plane and the connector reference plane.
When to Gage Connectors
Before using a connector or adapter the first time.
When visual inspection or electrical performance suggests the connector interface may be out of range.
After every 100 connections, depending on use.
Connector Gage Accuracy
Connector gages (those included with calibration and verification kits), are capable of performing coarse
measurements only. This is due to the repeatability uncertainties associated with the measurement. It is important
to recognize that test port connectors and calibration standards have mechanical specifications that are extremely
precise. Only special gaging processes and electrical testing (performed in a calibration lab) can accurately verify
the mechanical characteristics of these devices. The pin depth specifications in the Agilent calibration kit manuals
provide a compromise between the pin depth accuracy required, and the accuracy of the gages. The gages
shipped with calibration and verification kits allow you to measure connector pin depth and avoid damage from outof-specification connectors.
Note: Before gaging any connector, the mechanical specifications provided with that connector or device should be
checked.
To Gage Connectors
1. Wear a grounded wrist strap (having a 1 MW series resistor).
2. Select proper gage for device under test (DUT).
3. Inspect and clean gage, gage master, and DUT.
4. Zero the connector gage.
a. While holding gage by the barrel, carefully connect gage master to gage. Finger-tighten connector nut
only.
b. Use proper torque wrench to make final connection. If needed, use additional wrench to prevent gage
master (body) from turning. Gently tap the barrel to settle the gage.
c. The gage pointer should line up exactly with the zero mark on gage. If not, adjust "zero set" knob until
gage pointer reads zero. On gages having a dial lock screw and a movable dial, loosen the dial lock
screw and move the dial until the gage pointer reads zero. Gages should be zeroed before each set of
measurements to make sure zero setting has not changed.
d. Remove gage master.
5. Gage the device under test.
a. While holding gage by the barrel, carefully connect DUT to gage. Finger-tighten connector nut only.
b. Use proper torque wrench to make final connection and, if needed, use additional wrench to prevent
DUT (body) from turning. Gently tap the barrel to settle the gage.
c.
628
a.
b.
c. Read gage indicator dial for recession or protrusion and compare reading with device specifications.
Caution: If the gage indicates excessive protrusion or recession, the connector should be marked for disposal or
sent out for repair.
6. For maximum accuracy, measure the device a minimum of three times and take an average of the readings.
After each measurement, rotate the gage a quarter-turn to reduce measurement variations.
7.
If there is doubt about measurement accuracy, be sure the temperatures of the parts have stabilized. Then
perform the cleaning, zeroing, and measuring procedure again.
Connector Care Procedures
Inspecting Connectors
Cleaning Connectors
Making Connections
Using a Torque Wrench
Handling and Storing Connectors
To Inspect Connectors
Wear a grounded wrist strap (having a 1 MW series resistor).
Use a magnifying glass (>10X) and inspect connector for the following:
Badly worn plating or deep scratches
Deformed threads
Metal particles on threads and mating plane surfaces
Bent, broken, or mis-aligned center conductors
Poor connector nut rotation
Caution: A damaged or out-of-specification device can destroy a good connector attached to it even on the first
connection. Any connector with an obvious defect should be marked for disposal or sent out for repair.
To Clean Connectors
1. Wear a grounded wrist strap (having a 1 MW series resistor).
2. Use clean, low-pressure air to remove loose particles from mating plane surfaces and threads. Inspect
connector thoroughly. If additional cleaning is required, continue with the following steps.
629
2.
3. Moisten–do not saturate–a lint-free swab with isopropyl alcohol. See Cleaning Supplies for recommended
type.
4. Clean contamination and debris from mating plane surfaces and threads. When cleaning interior surfaces,
avoid exerting pressure on center conductor and keep swab fibers from getting trapped in the female center
conductor.
5. Let alcohol evaporate–then use compressed air to blow surfaces clean.
6. Inspect connector. Make sure no particles or residue remains.
7. If defects are still visible after cleaning, the connector itself may be damaged and should not be used.
Determine the cause of damage before making further connections.
To Make Connections
1. Wear a grounded wrist strap (having a 1 MW series resistor).
2. Inspect, clean, and gage connectors. All connectors must be undamaged, clean, and within mechanical
specification.
3. Carefully align center axis of both devices. The center conductor pin–from the male connector–must slip
concentrically into the contact finger of the female connector.
4. Carefully push the connectors straight together so they can engage smoothly. Rotate the connector nut (not
the device itself) until finger-tight, being careful not to cross the threads.
630
4.
5. Use a torque wrench to make final connection. Tighten until the "break" point of the torque wrench is
reached. Do not push beyond initial break point. Use additional wrench, if needed, to prevent device body
from turning.
To Separate a Connection
1. Support the devices to avoid any twisting, rocking or bending force on either connector.
2. Use an open-end wrench to prevent the device body from turning.
3. Use another open-end wrench to loosen the connector nut.
4. Complete the disconnection by hand, turning only the connector nut.
5. Pull the connectors straight apart.
To Use a Torque Wrench
1. Make sure torque wrench is set to the correct torque setting.
2. Position torque wrench and a second wrench (to hold device or cable) within 90° of each other before
applying force. Make sure to support the devices to avoid putting stress on the connectors.
631
2.
HOLD
CORRECT
METHOD
INCORRECT METHOD
(TOO MUCH LIFT)
3. Hold torque wrench lightly at the end of handle–then apply force perpendicular to the torque wrench handle.
Tighten until the "break" point of the torque wrench is reached. Do not push beyond initial break point.
TORQUING DIRECTION
STOP WHEN HANDLE BEGINS TO YIELD
To Handle and Store Connectors
Install protective end caps when connectors are not in use.
Never store connectors, airlines, or calibration standards loose in a box. This is a common cause of
connector damage.
Keep connector temperature the same as analyzer. Holding the connector in your hand or cleaning connector
with compressed air can significantly change the temperature. Wait for connector temperature to stabilize
before using in calibration or measurements.
Do not touch mating plane surfaces. Natural skin oils and microscopic particles of dirt are difficult to remove
from these surfaces.
Do not set connectors contact-end down on a hard surface. The plating and mating plane surfaces can be
damaged if the interface comes in contact with any hard surface.
Wear a grounded wrist strap and work on a grounded, conductive table mat. This helps protect the analyzer
and devices from electrostatic discharge (ESD).
632
633
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Protection
Protection against electrostatic discharge (ESD) is essential while removing or connecting cables to the network
analyzer. Static electricity can build up on your body and can easily damage sensitive internal circuit elements
when discharged. Static discharges too small to be felt can cause permanent damage. To prevent damage to the
instrument:
Always have a grounded, conductive table mat in front of your test equipment.
Always wear a grounded wrist strap, connected to a grounded conductive table mat, having a 1 MO resistor
in series with it, when making test setup connections.
Always wear a heel strap when working in an area with a conductive floor. If you are uncertain about the
conductivity of your floor, wear a heel strap.
Always ground yourself before you clean, inspect, or make a connection to a static-sensitive device or test
port. You can, for example, grasp the grounded outer shell of the test port or cable connector briefly.
Always ground the center conductor of a test cable before making a connection to the analyzer test port or
other static-sensitive device. This can be done as follows:
1. Connect a short (from your calibration kit) to one end of the cable to short the center conductor to the
outer conductor.
2. While wearing a grounded wrist strap, grasp the outer shell of the cable connector.
3. Connect the other end of the cable to the test port and remove the short from the cable.
See Analyzer Accessories for ESD part numbers.
634
Absolute Output Power
An absolute output-power measurement displays absolute power versus frequency.
What is Absolute Output Power?
Why Measure Absolute Output Power?
Accuracy Considerations
How to Measure Absolute Output Power
See other Amplifier Parameters topics
What is Absolute Output Power?
An absolute-output power measurement displays the power present at the analyzer's input port. This power is
absolute-it is not referenced (ratioed) to the incident or source power. In the log mag format, values associated with
the grid's vertical axis are in units of dBm, which is the power measured in reference to 1 mW.
0 dBm = 1 mW
-10 dBm = 100 mW
+10 dBm = 10 mW
In the linear mag format, values associated with the grid's vertical axis are in units of watts (W).
Why Measure Absolute Output Power?
Absolute output power is measured when the amplifier's output must be quantified as absolute power rather than a
ratioed relative power measurement. For example, during a gain compression measurement, it is typical to also
measure absolute output power. This shows the absolute power out of the amplifier where 1-dB compression
occurs.
Accuracy Considerations
The output power of the amplifier should be sufficiently attenuated if necessary. Too much output power could:
Damage the analyzer receiver
Exceed the input compression level of the analyzer receiver, resulting in inaccurate measurements.
Attenuation of the amplifier's output power can be accomplished using either attenuators or couplers
The amplifier may respond very differently at various temperatures. The tests should be done when the amplifier is
at the desired operating temperature.
How to Measure Absolute Power
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Do the following to measure absolute output power:
1. Preset the analyzer.
2. Select an unratioed power measurement (receiver B).
3. Set the analyzer's source power to 0 dBm.
4. Select an external attenuator (if needed) so the amplifier's output power will be sufficiently attenuated to
avoid causing receiver compression or damage to the analyzer's port-2.
5. Connect the amplifier as shown in the following graphic, and provide the dc bias.
6. Select the analyzer settings for your amplifier under test.
7. Remove the amplifier and connect the measurement ports together. Store the data to memory. Be sure to
include the attenuator and cables in the test setup if they will be used when measuring the amplifier.
8. Save the instrument state to memory.
9. Reconnect the amplifier.
10. Select the data math function Data/Memory.
11. Scale the displayed measurement for optimum viewing and use a marker to measure the absolute outputpower at a desired frequency.
12. Print or save the data to a disk.
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AM-PM Conversion
The AM-PM conversion of an amplifier is a measure of the amount of undesired phase deviation (PM) that is
caused by amplitude variations (AM) inherent in the system.
What Is AM-PM Conversion?
Why Measure AM-PM Conversion
Accuracy Considerations
How to Measure AM-PM Conversion
Other Tutorials topics
What Is AM-PM Conversion?
AM-to-PM conversion measures the amount of undesired phase deviation (PM) that is caused by amplitude
variations (AM) of the system. For example, unwanted phase deviation (PM) in a communications system can be
caused by:
Unintentional amplitude variations (AM)
Power supply ripple
Thermal drift
Multipath fading
Intentional modulation of signal amplitude
QAM
Burst modulation
AM-to-PM conversion is usually defined as the change in output phase for a 1-dB increment in the power-sweep
applied to the amplifier's input (i.e. at the 1 dB gain compression point). It is expressed in degrees-per-dB (°/dB).
An ideal amplifier would have no interaction between its phase response and the power level of the input signal.
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Why Measure AM-PM Conversion
AM-to-PM conversion is a critical parameter in systems where phase (angular) modulation is used, such as:
FM
QPSK
16QAM
It is a critical parameter because undesired phase deviation (PM) causes analog signal degradation, or increased
bit-error rates (BER) in digital communication systems. While it is easy to measure the BER of a digital
communication system, this measurement alone does not help you understand the underlying causes of bit errors.
AM-to-PM conversion is one of the fundamental contributors to BER, and therefore it is important to quantify this
parameter in communication systems.
Refer to the I/Q diagram below for the following discussion on how AM-to-PM conversion can cause bit errors.
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The desirable state change is from the small solid vector to the large solid vector.
With AM-to-PM conversion, the large vector may actually end up as shown with the dotted line. This is due to
phase shift that results from a change in the input power level.
For a 64QAM signal as shown (only one quadrant is drawn), we see that the noise circles that surround each
state would actually overlap, which means that statistically, some bit errors would occur.
Accuracy Considerations
With this method of measuring AM-to-PM conversion, the modulation frequency is approximately the inverse of the
sweep time. Even with the fastest power sweep available on most network analyzers, the modulation frequency
ends up being fairly low (typically less than 10 Hz). This could cause a slight temperature change as the sweep
progresses, especially if the amplifier has low thermal mass, typical of an unpackaged device. Results using this
method could differ slightly if the nonlinear behavior of an amplifier is extremely sensitive to thermal changes. (The
PNA series analyzers can make power sweeps <1 ms.)
The amplifier may respond very differently at various temperatures. The tests should be done when the
amplifier is at the desired operating temperature.
The output power of the amplifier should be sufficiently attenuated if necessary. Too much output power
could:
damage the analyzer receiver
exceed the input compression level of the analyzer receiver, resulting in inaccurate measurements
Attenuation of the amplifier's output power can be accomplished using:
Attenuators
Couplers
The frequency-response effects of the attenuators and couplers must be accounted for during calibration
since they are part of the test system. Proper error-correction techniques can reduce these effects.
The frequency response is the dominant error in an AM-to-PM conversion measurement setup. Performing a
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thru-response measurement calibration significantly reduces this error. For greater accuracy, perform a 2port measurement calibration.
How to Measure AM-PM Conversion
1. Preset the analyzer.
2. Select an S21 measurement in the power-sweep mode.
3. Enter the start and stop power levels for the analyzer's power sweep. The start power level should be in the
linear region of the amplifier's response (typically 10-dB below the 1-dB compression point). The stop power
should be in the compression region of the amplifier's response.
4. Select an external attenuator (if needed) so the amplifier's output power will be sufficiently attenuated to
avoid causing receiver compression or damage to the analyzer's port 2.
5. Connect the amplifier as shown in the following graphic, and provide the dc bias.
6. Select the analyzer settings for your amplifier under test in order to perform a swept-power gain compression
measurement at a chosen frequency. See Gain Compression.
7. Remove the amplifier and perform a measurement calibration. Be sure to include the attenuator and cables
in the calibration setup if they will be used when measuring the amplifier.
8. Save the instrument state to memory.
9. Reconnect the amplifier.
10. Use a reference marker to target the amplifier's input power at the 1-dB gain compression point. Select a
second marker and adjust its stimulus value until its response is 1-dB below the reference marker.
11. Change the S21 measurement from a log magnitude format to a phase format (no new calibration is
required).
12. Find the phase change between the markers. The value is the AM-to-PM conversion coefficient at the 1-dB
gain compression point.
13. Print the data or save it to a disk.
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13.
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Amplifier Parameters Reference
Gain
Gain Flatness
Reverse Isolation
Gain Drift Versus Time
Deviation from Linear Phase
Group Delay
Return Loss (SWR, r)
Complex Impedance
Gain Compression
AM-to-PM Conversion
Gain
The ratio of the amplifier's output power (delivered to a Z0 load) to the input power (delivered from a Z0 source). Z0
is the characteristic impedance, in this case, 50W.
For small signal levels, the output power of the amplifier is proportional to the input power. Small signal gain is the
gain in this linear region.
As the input power level increases and the amplifier approaches saturation, the output power reaches a limit and
the gain drops. Large signal gain is the gain in this nonlinear region. See Gain Compression.
Gain Flatness
The variation of the gain over the frequency range of the amplifier. See Small Signal Gain and Flatness.
Reverse Isolation
The measure of transmission from output to input. Similar to the gain measurement except the signal stimulus is
applied to the output of the amplifier. See Reverse Isolation.
Gain Drift versus Time (temperature, bias)
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The maximum variation of gain as a function of time, with all other parameters held constant. Gain drift is also
observed with respect to other parameter changes such as temperature, humidity or bias voltage.
Deviation from Linear Phase
The amount of variation from a linear phase shift. Ideally, the phase shift through an amplifier is a linear function of
frequency. See Deviation from Linear Phase.
Group Delay
The measure of the transit time through the amplifier as a function of frequency. A perfectly linear phase shift would
have a constant rate of change with respect to frequency, yielding a constant group delay. See Group Delay.
Return Loss (SWR, r)
The measure of the reflection mismatch at the input or output of the amplifier relative to the system Z0
characteristic impedance.
Complex Impedance
Complex impedance (1+G). The amount of reflected energy from an amplifier is directly related to its impedance.
Complex impedance consists of both a resistive and a reactive component. It is derived from the characteristic
impedance of the system and the reflection coefficient. See Complex Impedance.
Gain Compression
See Gain Compression Application.
AM-to-PM Conversion Coefficient
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The amount of phase change generated in the output signal of an amplifier as a result of an amplitude change of
the input signal.
The AM-to-PM conversion coefficient is expressed in units of degrees/dB at a given power level (usually P1dB,
which is the 1 dB gain compression point). See AM-PM Conversion.
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Antenna Measurements
This topic describes how to setup the PNA to make S21 measurements on an array of antennas. Measurements
can be made on up to 100 antenna arrays (Ports) and up to 15 discrete frequencies
Measurement Sequence
1. The PNA is set to a start frequency.
2. As the antenna moves, the PNA responds to each external trigger signal by measuring an antenna port.
3. When all ports are measured, the PNA increments to the next frequency
4. Again the PNA measures all ports, and so forth until all ports are measured at all frequencies in the forward
direction.
5. As the antenna begins moving in the opposite direction, the same sequence occurs, except the PNA
decrements in frequency until all ports are measured at all frequencies and the PNA is set back to the
original start frequency.
Once setup, only external trigger signals are sent to the PNA. After each trigger, measurement data is stored in
internal PNA memory.
How to set up the PNA
See the Antenna Macro to learn how to do this automatically.
1. On the System menu click Preset
2. On the Sweep menu point to Trigger then click Trigger
3. In Trigger Source click External
4. In Trigger Scope click Channel
5. Click OK
Forward Sweep
1. On the Trace menu click New Trace
2. Click S21 then Channel Number 1
3. On the Sweep menu point to Trigger then click Trigger
4. In Channel Trigger State check Point Sweep
5. Click OK
6.
7.
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4.
5.
6. On the Sweep menu click Sweep Type:then Segment Sweep
7. Click OK
8. On the View menu point to Tables then click Segment Table
9. Do this 15 times - Sweep menu point to Segment Table then Insert Segment
10. For each Segment in the Segment table:
1. Click State:and select ON
2. Double click both START and STOP Frequency: (each new segment ascends in frequency)
3. Double click Points: type Number of Ports (elements)
Reverse sweep
Repeat the following steps for each frequency: (up to 15)
Increment the channel number (X) Starting with Channel 2
Decrement the frequency (F)
1. On the Trace menu click New Trace...
2. Click S21 then Channel Number X
3. When a window contains four traces, check Create in New Window.
4. Click OK
5. On the Sweep menu point to Trigger then click Trigger
6. In Channel Trigger State check Point Sweep
7. Click OK
8. On the Sweep menu click Sweep Type:then Segment Sweep
9. Click OK
10. On the View menu point to Tables then click Segment Table
11. In the Segment table
1. Click State:and select ON
2. Double click both START and STOP Frequency F
3. Double click Points: type Number of Ports (elements)
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2.
3.
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Balanced Measurements
What are Balanced Devices?
Differential and Common Modes Model
Measuring Mixed Mode (Balanced) S-Parameters
Measuring Imbalance Parameters
Measuring CMRR
Port Mapping
How the PNA makes Balanced Measurements
Other Measurement Setup Topics
New Check out the True Mode Stimulus Application (TMSA) available for download at
http://na.tm.agilent.com/pna/apps/applications.htm
What are Balanced Devices?
Standard Single-ended devices generally have one input port and one output port. Signals on the input and output
ports are referenced to ground.
Balanced devices have two pins on either the input, the output, or both. The signal of interest is the difference and
average of the two input or output lines, not referenced to ground.
Differential and Common Modes Model
On balanced devices, the signal of interest is the difference and average of the two input or output lines. In
balanced device terminology, these signals are known as the Differential and Common modes.
The following model shows how two signals (A and B) combine to create Differential and Common mode signals:
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Signal A is fixed at 1V peak
Signal B is selectable
Differential is calculated as A minus B
Common is calculated as the AVERAGE of A and B
Note: Click Signal B selections to see various Differential and Common signals.
Signal A =1V
Differential
(A - B)
Signal B = SELECTABLE
Common (Avg)
(A + B) / 2
Calculations
Single-ended
0V
1 - 0= 1
(1 + 0)/2 = .5
180° Out of Phase.
1V
1 - (-1) = 2
(1 + (-1))/2 = 0
180° Out of Phase
2V
1 - (-2) = 3
(1 + (-2))/2 = -.5
In Phase
1V
1 - 1= 0
(1 + 1)/2 = 1
In Phase
2V
1 - 2 = -1
(1 + 2)/2 = 1.5
Notes:
Even when Signal B is 0V, like a Single -ended signal, there is still a unique Differential and Common mode
representation of the two individual signals.
The above model does not show a DUT. The difference and average of two signals can be calculated for
both the balanced INPUT and balanced OUTPUT of a device.
Measuring Mixed Mode (Balanced) S-Parameters
Mixed mode S-parameters combine traditional S-parameter notation with balanced measurement terminology.
Some balanced devices are designed to amplify the differential component and reject the common component.
This allows noise that is common to both inputs to be virtually eliminated from the output. For example, a balanced
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device may amplify the differential signal by a factor of 5, and attenuate the common signal by a factor of 5. Using
traditional S-parameter notation, an S21 is a ratio measurement of the device Output / device Input. Mixing this
with balanced terminology, we could view the amplifier's Differential Output signal / Differential Input signal. To see
this parameter on the PNA, we would select an Sdd21 measurement using the following balanced notation:
Sabxy Where
a - device output mode
b - device input mode
(choose from the following for both a and b:)
d - differential
c - common
s - single ended
x - device output "logical" port number
y - device input "logical" port number
See Also
Logical port mapping
Port mapping with External Test Sets
Measuring Imbalance Parameters
Imbalance is a measure of how well two physical ports that make up a balanced port are matched. With a perfectly
balanced port, the same amount of energy flows to both ports and the magnitude of the ratio of these ports is 1.
The notation is similar to traditional S-parameters. In the following diagrams, the letters a, b, c, and d are used
because any PNA port can be assigned to any logical port using the port mapping process.
For example, in the following single-ended - balanced formula, Sba indicates the device output port is logical port b
and the input port is logical port a.
Imbalance parameter when measuring a single-ended balanced device.
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Imbalance1 and Imbalance2 parameters when measuring a
balanced - balanced device.
Imbalance1 and Imbalance2 parameters when measuring a
single-ended - single-ended - balanced device.
Measuring CMRR (Common Mode Rejection Ratio)
CMRR is a ratio of the transmission characteristic in differential mode over the transmission characteristic in the
common mode of the balanced port as the measurement parameter. A high value indicates more rejection of
common mode, which is desirable in a device that transmits information in the differential portion of the signal. The
table below shows the CMRR parameter you can select when measuring each balanced device.
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Single-ended - balanced device
Balanced - balanced device
Single-ended - single-ended - balanced device
Device Topology and Port Mapping
As we have seen on balanced inputs and outputs, the signal of interest is the difference or average of two
BALANCED input or BALANCED output lines. It is also possible to have single-ended ports AND balanced ports on
the same device. The two balanced input or output lines are referred to as a single "logical" port.
When configuring a balanced measurement on the PNA, select a device 'topology'. Then map each PNA test port
to the DUT ports. The PNA assigns "logical ports". See how to set device topology in the PNA.
The following device topologies can be measured by a 4-port PNA.
Balanced / Balanced
(2 logical ports - <4 actual ports>)
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Single-ended / Balanced
(2 logical ports - <3 actual ports>)
Single-ended - Single-ended / Balanced
(3 logical ports - <4 actual ports>)
These topologies can be used in the reverse (<==) direction to measure:
Balanced / Single-ended topology
Balanced / Single-ended - Single-ended topology
For example, to measure a Balanced / Single-ended topology, measure the S12 (reverse direction) of a Singleended / Balanced topology.
How the PNA makes Balanced Measurements
The PNA does not provide true balanced measurements by stimulating both balanced inputs together and
measuring both outputs relative to one another. Instead, the PNA makes only Single-ended measurements. On a
Balanced/ Balanced device, it stimulates each input and measures each output individually. From the output data,
the PNA calculates the Differential and Common outputs from the DUT using the same math formulas as the above
model. However, all measurements and calculations on the PNA are performed in frequency domain using complex
(magnitude and phase) data. The Balanced S-parameter display data is then calculated from the Differential and
Common inputs and outputs.
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Complex Impedance
When making an S11 or S22 measurement of your device under test, you can view complex-impedance data such
as series resistance and reactance as well as phase and magnitude information. Complex impedance data can be
viewed using either the Smith Chart format or the Polar format.
What Is Complex Impedance?
Accuracy Considerations
How to Measure Complex Impedance
What Is Complex Impedance?
Complex-impedance data is information that can be determined from an S 11 or S22 measurement of your device
under test, such as:
Resistance
Reactance
Phase
Magnitude
The amount of power reflected from a device is directly related to the impedances of both the device and the
measuring system. For example, the value of the complex reflection coefficient (G) is equal to 0 only when the
device impedance and the system impedance are exactly the same (i.e. maximum power is transferred from the
source to the load). Every value for G corresponds uniquely to a complex device impedance (as a function of
frequency), according to the equation:
ZL= [(1 + G) / (1 - G)] ´ Z0
where ZL is your test device impedance and Z0 is the measuring system's characteristic impedance.
Complex Impedance is best viewed using either Polar or Smith Chart format.
Accuracy Considerations
The Smith chart is most easily understood when used with a full scale value of 1.0.
For greater accuracy when using markers in the Smith chart or polar formats, activate the discrete marker
mode.
The uncertainty of reflection measurements is affected by:
Directivity
Reflection tracking
Source match
Load match (with 2-port devices)
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With a 2-port calibration, the effects of these factors are reduced. A 1-port calibration provides the same accuracy
if the output of the device is well terminated. Refer to the graphic below for the following discussion.
If you connect the device between both analyzer ports, it is recommended that you use a 10 dB pad on the
output of the device to improve measurement accuracy. This is not necessary if you use a 2-port calibration
since it corrects for load match.
If you connect a two-port device to only one analyzer port, it is recommended that you use a high-quality load
(such as a calibration standard) on the output of the device.
How to Measure Complex Impedance
1. Connect the device as shown in the previous graphic.
2. Preset the analyzer.
3. Set up, calibrate, and perform an S11 or S22 measurement.
4. View impedance data:
a. Select the Smith Chart format.
b. Scale the displayed measurement for optimum viewing.
c. Position the marker to read the resistive and reactive components of the complex impedance at any
point along the trace.
d. Print the data or save it to a disk.
5. View the magnitude and phase of the reflection coefficient:
a. Select the Smith chart format or the Polar format.
b. Select either Lin Marker or Log Marker formats.
c. Scale the displayed measurement for optimum viewing.
d. Position the marker to read the frequency, magnitude, and phase of the reflection coefficient (G) at any
point along the trace.
e. Print the data or save it to a disk.
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e.
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Comparing the PNA "Delay" Functions
The PNA has three Delay functions which are similar but are used in different ways.
1. Group Delay format is used to display the Group Delay of a network. Group Delay is defined as:
-d(phi)/d(omega) -- where phi is radian angle, and omega is radian frequency.
Since it is defined by a derivative, the value must be determined from an analytic function. However, the PNA
makes discrete measurements, so we approximate the group delay by taking the finite difference:
-(1/360)*delta(phi)/delta(f) -- where phi is degree angle and f is frequency in Hz. The 1/360
does the proper conversion of degrees to radians and Hz frequency to radian frequency.
From this we can see that, if the phase response of a network varies with frequency, then the Group Delay must
vary as well. In fact, many filters are specified by the variation of their Group Delay.
If we measure the phase response of a lossless cable, it should be a straight line. But, of course, nothing is perfect.
The phase response will have a small amount of noise. This is due to trace noise of the PNA, and the loss with
real cables or transmission lines, which causes a small amount of non-linear phase change with frequency. So, if
we look at the Group Delay of a cable, we will see a small amount of variation. Also, if the frequency spacing is
small enough when you make the measurement, the delta(f) in the denominator becomes very small, so the
delay can have wide swings with just a little noise.
To overcome this issue, we sometimes add smoothing to a phase trace, which widens the effective delta(f),
called the aperture, and provides a less noisy Group Delay response. The Group Delay of a device is only valid for
a given frequency aperture. Learn more about Group Delay.
2. Electrical Delay function. On many filters, the passband response is specified for a maximum value of
"Deviation from Linear Phase". When looking at the passband of a multi-pole filter, one sees the phase changing
very rapidly. This makes it difficult to determine the linearity of the phase response. The Electrical Delay function
subtracts out a "LINEAR PHASE" equivalent to the delay time value computed as above. When you use this
function, you dial in the Linear Delay such that a CONSTANT PHASE SLOPE is removed from the phase trace,
until the phase trace is mostly flat. The remaining variation is the deviation from linear phase.
To make this task a little less tedious, the PNA has a marker function called Marker =>> Delay. This function
computes the Group Delay value at the marker position, using a 20% smoothing aperture, then changes the
Electrical Delay value to this value. Obviously, if the phase trace is not perfectly linear, moving the marker and
recomputing the delay will result in different values. The phase slope added by the electrical delay function applies
only to the current measurement. That is, each measurement (S11, S22, S12, S21) can have its own value of
electrical delay. Learn more about Deviation from Linear Phase.
3. Port Extension is a function that is similar to calibration. It applies to all the traces in a given channel. It
compensates for the phase response change that occurs when the calibration reference plane is not the same as
the measurement plane of the device.
Let's look at an example of a DUT that is mounted on a PCB fixture with SMA connectors. We can easily calibrate
at the SMA connectors. But if we add the fixture to measure the board-mounted device, the apparent phase of the
DUT is changed by the phase of the PCB fixture. We use port extensions to add a LINEAR PHASE (constant
delay) to the calibration routines to shift the phase reference plane to that of the DUT. This is ONLY valid if the
fixture consists of a transmission line with linear phase response, and this limitation is usually met in practice. The
main reason that it is NOT met is that there is mismatch at the SMA-to-PCB interface. This mismatch was not
removed with the error correction because it occurs AFTER the SMA connector. Ripple can be seen on the display
as signals bounce back and forth between the mismatch and the DUT. If the DUT is well matched, the ripple effect
is very small. However, when we use Automatic Port Extension (APE), and we leave the fixture open (the DUT
removed), the reflection is large and we see larger ripples. That is why APE uses a curve fitting process to remove
the effects of the ripple. For best effect, the wider the IF Bandwidth, the better we can "smooth-out" the ripples with
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curve fitting. Still, we are fitting a LINEAR PHASE SLOPE to the phase response, and thus we use only a single
Port Extension Delay value to represent the phase slope.
The method used by older VNAs to get this same functionality was to add a mechanical line stretcher to the
reference channel, which removed a fixed delay amount from the port. Port extensions give 1x the delay for
transmission at each port, and 2x the delay for reflection, so it differs somewhat from Electrical Delay above, in that
the math function depends upon the measurement being made. The signal passes twice through the fixture for
reflection (out and back), but only once for each port on transmission. For S21, the phase slope added is the sum
of the port 1 and port 2 Port Extension Delay values.
The "User Range" APE function is used in cases where a fixture has limited bandwidth, perhaps due to tuning
elements or bias elements. In this case, the model of constant delay for the fixture over the whole bandwidth is not
valid, so a narrower "User Range" of frequencies can be selected to compute the delay. Since the aperture is
smaller, there is more uncertainty in the delay computation for port extension. Also, for those who had been using
the Marker =>> Delay function to estimate the delay, we added the "Active Marker" selection to APE, which works
exactly the same as Marker->Delay. Learn more about Automatic Port Extensions.
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Deviation from Linear Phase
Deviation from linear phase is a measure of phase distortion. The electrical delay feature of the analyzer is used to
remove the linear portion of the phase shift from the measurement. This results in a high-resolution display of the
non-linear portion of the phase shift (deviation from linear phase).
What Is Linear Phase Shift?
What Is Deviation from Linear Phase?
Why Measure Deviation from Linear Phase?
Using Electrical Delay
Accuracy Considerations
See also Comparing the PNA Delay Functions
See other Tutorials
What Is Linear Phase Shift?
Phase shift occurs because the wavelengths that occupy the electrical length of the device get shorter as the
frequency of the incident signal increases. Linear phase-shift occurs when the phase response of a device is
linearly proportional to frequency. Displayed on the analyzer, the phase-versus-frequency measurement trace of
this ideal linear phase shift is a straight line. The slope is proportional to the electrical length of the device. Linear
phase shift is necessary (along with a flat magnitude response) for distortionless transmission of signals.
What Is Deviation from Linear Phase?
In actual practice, many electrical or electronic devices will delay some frequencies more than others, creating nonlinear phase-shift (distortion in signals consisting of multiple-frequency components). Measuring deviation from
linear phase is a way to quantify this non-linear phase shift.
Since it is only the deviation from linear phase which causes phase distortion, it is desirable to remove the linear
portion of the phase response from the measurement. This can be accomplished by using the electrical delay
feature of the analyzer to mathematically cancel the electrical length of the device under test. What remains is the
deviation from linear phase, or phase distortion.
Why Measure Deviation from Linear Phase?
The deviation from linear phase measurement accomplishes the following:
Presents data in units of phase rather than units of seconds (group delay). For devices that pass modulated
signals, units of phase may be most practical.
Provides a less noisy measurement than a group delay measurement.
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Using Electrical Delay
The electrical delay feature is the electronic version of the mechanical "line stretcher" of earlier analyzers. This
feature does the following:
Simulates a variable-length lossless transmission line, which is effectively added to or removed from the
reference signal path.
Compensates for the electrical length of the device under test.
Flattens the measurement trace on the analyzer's display. This allows the trace to be viewed at high
resolution in order to see the details of the phase nonlinearity.
Provides a convenient method to view the deviation from linear phase of the device under test. See the
following graphic.
Learn how to set Electrical Delay.
Accuracy Considerations
The frequency response of the test setup is the dominant error in a deviation from linear phase measurement. To
reduce this error, perform a 2-port measurement calibration.
How to Measure Deviation from Linear Phase:
1. Preset the analyzer.
2. If your device under test is an amplifier, it may be necessary to adjust the analyzer's source power:
Set the analyzer's source power to be in the linear region of the amplifier's output response (typically
10-dB below the 1-dB compression point).
Select an external attenuator (if needed) so the amplifier's output power will be sufficiently attenuated
to avoid causing receiver compression or damage to the analyzer's port 2.
3. Connect the device under test as shown in the following graphic.
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3.
3. Select an S21 measurement.
4. Select the settings for your device under test, including the following:
Format: phase
Scale: autoscale
5. Remove the device and perform a calibration.
6. Reconnect the device.
7. Scale the displayed measurement for optimum viewing.
8. Create a marker in the middle of the trace.
9. Press the >Delay Active Entry Key to invoke the Marker to Electrical Delay function. This flattens the phase
trace.
10. If desired, on the Scale menu, click Electrical Delay to fine-tune the flatness of the phase trace.
11. Use the markers to measure the maximum peak-to-peak deviation from linear phase.
12. Print the data or save it to a disk.
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Synchronize PNA with an External (PSG) Source
Beginning with PNA Rev. 7.22, the PNA External Source Control feature can be used to automatically control
external sources. However, this feature requires certain PNA options. Learn more.
Many PNA measurements require the use of at least one external source. For example, when measuring the
insertion loss of a mixer, the LO must be swept at the same time as the RF input. This requires the PNA and
external source to be synchronized.
The following procedure shows how to manually synchronize the PNA with an Agilent PSG Source. Although the
settings will be different, the concept is useful with other sources.
Hardware configuration
Connect the PNA and PSG Time Base (PNA 10 MHz OUT to PSG 10 MHz IN)
PNA-L, E836xB Models
Connect the PSG and PNA Trigger Connectors as follows:
PNA Trigger IN to Source OUT
PNA Trigger OUT to Source IN
PNA-X Models
Connect either pair (1 or 2) of the AUX Trigger I/O connectors as follows:
PNA AUX Trig IN to Source Trigger OUT
PNA AUX Trig OUT to Source Trigger IN
Learn more about the AUX Trigger capabilities.
PNA Settings
Number of points: Same as PSG
Frequency span: Does NOT have to be the same as PSG
PNA Trigger Settings
Trigger Source:
PNA-L and E836xB models: External
PNA-X: Internal, Manual
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Trigger Scope: Channel
Channel Trigger State: Same as PSG Sweep Repeat setting.(Continuous or Single)
Point Sweep: Checked
External / Auxiliary Trigger Settings
PNA-L and E836xB
PNA-X
Where settings are made:
External Tab
Aux Trigger Tab
Level / Edge:
Edge
Same as PSG (Hi or Low)
Accept Trigger Before Armed:
Checked
N/A
Handshake
N/A
Checked
Where settings are made:
I/O2 Trig Out Tab
Aux Trigger Tab
Enable
Checked
Checked
Polarity:
Same as PSG
Same as PSG
Position:
After
After
Per Point
Checked
Checked
Input
Output
PSG Settings
Number of points: Same as PNA
Sweep: Step or List
Sweep Trig: Free Run
Sweep Repeat: Same as PNA Channel Trigger State (Continuous or Single)
Sweep Direction: UP
Point Trig: Ext
Manual Mode: OFF
Trigger In / Out Polarity: Same as PNA
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What is Happening?
The following is a flow diagram showing the handshake / synchronization process between the PNA and an
External Source.
Text Description
1. After the measurement setup is complete, both instruments wait on the first data point of a measurement sweep.
Both instruments are configured for Continuous or Single sweep.
2. (see note below) A trigger signal from the source starts the measurement. This is usually accomplished by a key
press on the source front panel.
3. PNA data acquisition (measurement) starts, and then stops AFTER the first data point acquisition.
4. The PNA sends a trigger signal out to the source telling it to move to the next frequency data point. This signal
can optionally be sent BEFORE data acquisition if required by your application.
5. The external source and PNA move to the next data point. The source usually takes longer than the PNA.
6. The source sends the Ready for Trigger signal to the PNA.
PNA-L and E836xB models - If the source arrives first, the Accept Trigger Before Armed setting is used to
accept the trigger signal even if the PNA is not yet ready to start acquisition.
PNA-X using AUX Triggering - If enabled, the PNA waits indefinitely for a trigger signal from the source.
Although AUX triggering does NOT have the Accept Trigger Before Armed setting, the Ready for Trigger
signal is latched and has the same effect.
Step 2 Note PNA-X (Aux TRIG IN) The PNA looks for a level trigger at the start of each sweep, and an edge
thereafter. This assumes that the external source ready line will remain in the ready state (high or low) until
triggered (step 4) and will then transition to the NOT ready state while moving to the next frequency, and then
transition again to the ready state.
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How do you know when the PNA and PSG are in synch?
The measurement results are the ultimate test of whether the source and PNA are synchronized. However, it is
possible to see the PSG and PNA sweeping at exactly the same time.
First, lower the PNA IFBandwidth or increase the sweep time so that the sweep is slow enough to watch the sweep
indicator moving across the PNA screen. At the same time, watch the PSG "progress bar" as it moves through the
entire sweep.
If the PNA is stopped in the middle of a sweep, then retriggered, it returns to the first data point. The PSG
continues from where it stopped. Therefore, to re-synch the two instruments, the PSG needs to return to the first
data point. There are a number of ways to do this. One way is to press the PSG Manual button to ON, then OFF.
Then trigger a new sweep.
To trigger a sweep
Single Trigger mode: Both the PNA and PSG Single (trigger) buttons must be pressed (in any order) for
each trigger.
Continuous Trigger mode: First, reset the PSG to the first data point, then press the PNA Continuous
(trigger) button.
Maintaining Synchronization
In general, the above setup should start the two instruments sweeping simultaneously. However, any interaction
with the PNA could cause the PNA sweep to abort or delay, in which case the two instruments will be out of sync.
To avoid this, you can use the PNA Interface Control feature to send an ABORT to the external device after each
sweep.
When the PNA ends a sweep, it sends an ABORT to stop the source. A trigger signal is then sent, either
Continuous (automatically) or Single (manual). In either case, both instruments start sweeping in synch.
This takes more time to sweep, but maintains synchronization.
For example, to use this feature with Agilent’s PSG source, you would add the following:
On the “After Sweep End” tab, type:
24 :ABORT
Where 24 is the GPIB address of the source.
Last Modified:
11-Feb-2008
Updated note
1-Jun-2007
Added 7.22 update
1-Jan-2007
MX Updated for PNA-X
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Small Signal Gain and Flatness
Small signal gain is the gain in the amplifier's linear region of operation. This is typically measured at a constant
input power over a swept frequency. Gain flatness is the measure of the variation of gain over a specified
frequency range.
What Is Gain?
What Is Flatness?
Why Measure Gain and Flatness?
Accuracy Considerations
How to Measure Gain and Flatness
See other Amplifier Parameter topics
What Is Gain?
RF amplifier gain is defined as the difference in power between the amplifier output signal and the input signal. It is
assumed that both input and output impedances of the amplifier are the same as the characteristic impedance of
the system.
Gain is called S21 using S-parameter terminology
Gain is expressed in dB-a logarithmic ratio of the output power relative to the input power.
Gain can be calculated by subtracting the input from the output levels when both are expressed in dBm,
which is power relative to 1 milliwatt.
Amplifier gain is most commonly specified as a minimum value over a specified frequency range. Some
amplifiers specify both minimum and maximum gain, to ensure that subsequent stages in a system are not
under or over driven.
What Is Flatness?
Flatness specifies how much the amplifier's gain can vary over the specified frequency range. Variations in the
flatness of the amplifier's gain can cause distortion of signals passing through the amplifier.
Why Measure Small-Signal Gain and Flatness?
Deviations in gain over the bandwidth of interest will induce distortion in the transmitted signal because frequency
components are not amplified equally. Small-signal gain allows you to quantify the amplifier's gain at a particular
frequency in a 50-ohm system. Flatness allows you to view the deviations in the amplifier's gain over a specified
frequency range in a 50-ohm system.
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Accuracy Considerations
The amplifier may respond very differently at various temperatures. The tests should be done when the
amplifier is at the desired operating temperature.
The output power of the amplifier should be sufficiently attenuated if necessary. Too much output power
could:
damage the analyzer receiver
exceed the input compression level of the analyzer receiver, resulting in inaccurate measurements.
Attenuation of the amplifier's output power can be accomplished using:
attenuators
couplers
The frequency-response effects and mismatches of the attenuators and couplers must be accounted for during
calibration since they are part of the test system. Proper error-correction techniques can reduce these effects.
The frequency response is the dominant error in a small-signal gain and flatness measurement setup.
Performing a thru-response measurement calibration significantly reduces this error. For greater accuracy,
perform a 2-port measurement calibration.
Reducing IF bandwidth or using averaging improves measurement dynamic range and accuracy, at the
expense of measurement speed.
How to Measure Gain and Flatness
1. Preset the analyzer.
2. Select an S21 measurement parameter.
3. Set the analyzer's source power to be in the linear region of the amplifier's output response (typically 10-dB
below the 1-dB compression point).
4. Select an external attenuator (if needed) so the amplifier's output power will be sufficiently attenuated to
avoid causing receiver compression or damage to the analyzer's port-2.
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4.
5. Connect the amplifier as shown in the following graphic, and provide the dc bias.
6. Select the analyzer settings for your amplifier under test.
7. Remove the amplifier and perform a measurement calibration. Be sure to include the attenuator and cables
in the calibration setup if they will be used when measuring the amplifier.
8. Save the instrument-state to memory.
9. Reconnect the amplifier.
10. Scale the displayed measurement for optimum viewing and use a marker to measure the small signal gain at
a desired frequency.
11. Measure the gain flatness over a frequency range by using markers to view the peak-to-peak ripple.
12. Print or save the data to a disk.
13. This type of measurement can be automated.
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Gain Compression
Gain compression measures the level of input power applied to an amplifier that will cause a distorted output.
The Gain Compression Application (Opt 086) makes fast and accurate compression measurements.
What Is Gain Compression?
Why Measure Gain Compression?
Accuracy Considerations
How to Measure Gain Compression
See other Amplifier Parameter topics
What Is Gain Compression?
Gain compression occurs when the input power of an amplifier is increased to a level that reduces the gain of the
amplifier and causes a nonlinear increase in output power.
The analyzer has the ability to do power sweeps as well as frequency sweeps. Power sweeps help characterize the
nonlinear performance of an amplifier. Refer to the graphic below (a plot of an amplifier's output power versus input
power at a single frequency) for the following discussion.
The amplifier has a linear region of operation where gain is constant and independent of power level. The
gain in this region is commonly referred to as "small-signal gain."
As the input power increases, the amplifier gain appears to decrease, and the amplifier goes into
compression.
The most common measurement of amplifier compression is the 1-dB compression point. This is defined as
the input power (or sometimes the output power) which results in a 1-dB decrease in amplifier gain (relative
to the amplifier's small-signal gain).
Why Measure Gain Compression?
When driven with a sinusoid, the output of an amplifier is no longer sinusoidal in the compression region. Some of
the amplifier output appears in harmonics, rather than occurring only at the fundamental frequency of the input
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signal.
As input power is increased even more, the amplifier becomes saturated, and output power remains constant. At
this point, further increases in amplifier input power result in no change in output power.
In some cases (such as with TWT amplifiers), output power actually decreases with further increases in input
power after saturation, which means the amplifier has negative gain.
Since gain is desired in amplifier operation, it is important to know the limit of input signal that will result in gain
compression.
Accuracy Considerations
The network analyzer must provide sufficient power to drive the amplifier into saturation. If you need a higher inputpower level than the source of the analyzer can provide, use a preamplifier to boost the power level prior to the
amplifier under test. (See High-Power Component Measurements.) If using a preamplifier, you can increase
measurement accuracy in the following ways:
Use a coupler on the output of the preamplifier so that a portion of the boosted input signal can be used for
the analyzer's reference channel. This configuration removes the preamplifier's frequency response and drift
errors from the measurement (by ratioing).
Perform a thru-response calibration including the preamplifier, couplers, and attenuators in the test setup.
The output power of the amplifier should be sufficiently attenuated if necessary. Too much output power could:
Damage the analyzer receiver
Exceed the input compression level of the analyzer receiver
Attenuation of the amplifier's output power can be accomplished using:
Attenuators
Couplers
The frequency-response effects of the attenuators and couplers must be considered during calibration since they
are part of the test system. Proper error-correction techniques can reduce these effects.
The frequency response is the dominant error in a gain compression measurement setup. Performing a thruresponse measurement calibration significantly reduces this error.
The amplifier may respond very differently at various temperatures. The tests should be done when the
amplifier is at the desired operating temperature.
Reducing IF bandwidth or using measurement averages improves accuracy, at the expense of measurement
speed.
How to Measure Gain Compression
This procedure shows you how to make the following three measurements used to determine amplifier gain
compression:
1.
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1. A Swept-Frequency Gain Compression measurement locates the lowest frequency at which the 1-dB gain
compression first occurs.
2. A Swept-Power Gain Compression measurement shows the input power at which a in a 1-dB drop in gain
occurs as a power ramp is applied to the amplifier at a particular frequency point (found in measurement 1).
3. An Absolute Power measurement shows the absolute power out (in dBm) at compression.
Swept-Frequency Gain Compression Measurement
A measurement of swept frequency gain compression locates the frequency point where 1-dB compression first
occurs.
1. Preset the analyzer.
2. Select an S21 measurement parameter.
3. Set the analyzer's source power to be in the linear region of the amplifier's output response (typically 10-dB
below the 1-dB compression point).
4. Select an external attenuator (if needed) so the amplifier's output power will be sufficiently attenuated to
avoid causing receiver compression or damage to the analyzer's port-2.
5. Connect the amplifier as shown in the following graphic, and provide the dc bias.
6. Select the analyzer settings for your amplifier under test. To reduce the effects of noise, you may want to
specify a narrower IF bandwidth.
7. Remove the amplifier and perform a thru-response calibration. Be sure to include the attenuator and cables
in the calibration setup if they will be used when measuring the amplifier.
8. Save the instrument-state to memory.
9. Reconnect the amplifier.
10. Position a marker at approximately mid-span.
11. Adjust the analyzer's scale to 1 dB per division.
12.
13.
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10.
11.
12. Store the trace in memory and display Data/Mem.
13. Gradually increase the source power until a 1-dB decrease in gain is observed at the first frequency over
some portion of the trace.
14. Use markers to locate the frequency where the 1-dB decrease in gain first occurs. Note this frequency for
use in the following measurement.
15. Print the data or save it to a disk.
Swept-Power Gain Compression Measurement
A swept-power gain compression measurement shows the input power resulting in a 1-dB drop in gain as a power
ramp at a particular frequency (found in step 13 of the previous measurement) is applied to the amplifier.
1. If not already done, perform the previous measurement of swept-frequency gain compression.
2. Setup an S21 measurement in the power-sweep mode. Include the following settings:
Set the CW frequency to the frequency noted in step 14 of the previous measurement of sweptfrequency gain compression.
Enter the start and stop power levels for the sweep. The start power should be in the linear region of
the amplifier's response (typically 10 dB below the 1-dB compression point). The stop power should be
in the compression region of the amplifier's response.
3. Adjust the scale to 1-dB per division.
4. Use markers (including reference marker) to find the input power where the 1-dB decrease in gain occurs.
5. Print the data or save it to a disk.
Absolute Output Power Measurement
An absolute-power measurement shows the absolute power-out (in dBm) of the amplifier at compression.
1. Select an unratioed (absolute) power measurement. Choose the B input if using the test setup in the previous
graphic.
2. Retain the CW frequency used in the previous measurement of swept-power gain compression.
3. Set a marker to the input power level where the 1-dB decrease in gain occurs (found in step 4 of the previous
measurement).
4. Scale the displayed measurement for optimum viewing.
5. Read the marker value to find the absolute output power of the amplifier (in dBm) where the 1-dB decrease in
gain occurs.
6. Print the data or save it to a disk.
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6.
Note: The measurement calibration does not apply to absolute power. Therefore, if there is any attenuation
external to the analyzer, you will have to correct for it manually.
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Group Delay
Group delay is a measure of phase distortion. Group delay is the actual transit time of a signal through a device
under test as a function of frequency. When specifying group delay, it is important to specify the aperture used for
the measurement.
What is Group Delay?
Group Delay versus Deviation from Linear Phase
What Is Aperture?
Accuracy Considerations
How to Measure Group Delay
See also Comparing the PNA Delay Functions.
See other Amplifier Parameter topics
What Is Group Delay?
Group delay is:
• A measure of device phase distortion.
• The transit time of a signal through a device, versus frequency.
• The derivative of the device's phase characteristic with respect to frequency.
Refer to the graphic below for the following discussion:
The phase characteristic of a device typically consists of both linear and higher order (deviations from linear)
phase-shift components.
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Linear phase-shift component:
Higher-order phase-shift component:
Represents average signal transit time.
Represents variations in transit time for different
frequencies.
Attributed to electrical length of test device.
Source of signal distortion.
Refer to the graphic below for the following discussion:
In a group delay measurement:
The linear phase shift component is converted to a constant value (representing the average delay).
The higher order phase shift component is transformed into deviations from constant group delay (or group
delay ripple).
The deviations in group delay cause signal distortion, just as deviations from linear phase cause distortion.
The measurement trace depicts the amount of time it takes for each frequency to travel through the device
under test.
Refer to the following equation for this discussion on how the analyzer computes group delay:
Phase data is used to find the phase change (-df).
A specified frequency aperture is used to find the frequency change (dw).
Using the two values above, an approximation is calculated for the rate of change of phase with frequency.
This approximation represents group delay in seconds (assuming linear phase change over the specified
frequency aperture).
Group Delay versus Deviation from Linear Phase
Group delay is often a more accurate indication of phase distortion than Deviation from Linear Phase.
Deviation from linear phase results are shown in the upper region of the following graphic: Device 1 and device 2
have same value, despite different appearances.
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have same value, despite different appearances.
Group Delay results are shown in the lower region:
Device 1 and device 2 have different values of group delay. This is because in determining group delay, the
analyzer calculates slope of phase ripple, which is dependent on number of ripples which occur per unit of
frequency.
What Is Aperture?
During a group delay measurement, the analyzer measures the phase at two closely spaced frequencies and then
computes the phase slope. The frequency interval (frequency delta) between the two phase measurement points is
called the aperture. Changing the aperture can result in different values of group delay. The computed slope (delta
phase) varies as the aperture is increased. This is why when you are comparing group delay data, you must know
the aperture that was used to make the measurements.
Refer to the graphic below for the following discussion:
Narrow aperture:
Provides more fine detail in phase linearity.
Wide aperture:
Provides less fine detail in phase linearity because
some phase response averaged-out or not measured.
Makes measurement susceptible to noise (smaller signal- Makes measurement less susceptible to noise (larger
to-noise ratio) and analyzer phase detector resolution.
signal-to-noise ratio).
The analyzer's default setting for group delay aperture is the frequency span divided by the number of points
across the display. There are two ways to set the aperture to a different value.
1.
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1. Adjust the number of measurement points or the frequency span.
Increasing the number of points or reducing the frequency span narrows the aperture.
Decreasing the number of points and/or increasing the frequency span widens the aperture.
Note: if the aperture is too wide (more than 180° of phase shift between adjacent frequency points), errors in group
delay data will occur.
2. Use the analyzer's smoothing function.
Performs a single-sweep, moving average of adjacent data-points over a specified percentage of the
frequency span.
Results in an action similar to changing the frequency interval between points.
Allows a wider aperture because greater than 180º of phase shift can occur over the smoothing aperture.
Group delay measurements can be made on the following sweep types:
Linear frequency
List frequency sweep segment
The group delay aperture varies depending on the frequency spacing and point density, therefore the aperture is
not constant in segment sweep. In segment sweep, extra frequency points can be defined to ensure the desired
aperture.
Accuracy Considerations
It is important to keep the phase difference between two adjacent measurement points less than 180° (see the
following graphic). Otherwise, incorrect phase and delay information may result. Undersampling may occur when
measuring devices with long electrical length. You can verify that the phase difference measured between two
adjacent points is less than 180° by adjusting the following settings until the measurement trace no longer changes:
Increase the number of points
Narrow the frequency span
Electrical delay may also be used to compensate for this effect.
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The frequency response is the dominant error in a group delay test setup. Performing a thru-response
measurement calibration significantly reduces this error. For greater accuracy, perform a 2-port measurement
calibration.
Particularly for an amplifier, the response may vary differently at various temperatures. The tests should be done
when the amplifier is at the desired operating temperature.
How to Measure Group Delay
1. Preset the analyzer.
2. If your device under test is an amplifier, it may be necessary to adjust the analyzer's source power:
Set the analyzer's source power to be in the linear region of the amplifier's output response (typically
10-dB below the 1-dB compression point).
Select an external attenuator (if needed) so the amplifier's output power will be sufficiently attenuated
to avoid causing receiver compression or damage to the analyzer's port 2.
3. Connect the device under test as shown in the following graphic.
4. Select an S21 measurement.
5.
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4.
5. Select the settings for your device under test, including the following:
number of measurement points: maximum
format: delay
scale: autoscale
6. Remove the device under test and perform a measurement calibration.
7. Reconnect the device under test.
8. Scale the displayed measurement for optimum viewing.
9. Use the analyzer's smoothing feature to increase the aperture, reducing noise on the trace while maintaining
meaningful detail. To increase the aperture:
Switch on the analyzer's smoothing feature.
Vary the smoothing aperture (up to 25% of the span swept).
10. Use the markers to measure group delay (expressed in seconds) at a particular frequency of interest.
11. Print the data or save it to a disk.
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High-Power Amplifier Measurements Using a PNA
This topic is now covered in detail in Application Note 1408-10, High-power measurements using the PNA (59891349EN) at Agilent.com.
See Also
High-Power Amplifier Measurements using a PNA-X
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High Power Amplifier Measurements with the PNA-X
The following is a block diagram of the PNA-X Opt 423. The configuration displayed here is used to make high
power amplifier measurements using a preamplifier at the rear panel. The preamplifier can then be switched (SW1)
as needed using the RF Configurator.
Legend
Color
Component
Damage Level
Green
Bridges
+33 dBm
Blue
Couplers
+43 dBm
Orange
Bias-tees
+30 dBm
Purple
User-supplied pre-amp and high-power attenuator
N/A
Notes
At J11 (rear-panel), max power is 4 dB to 11 dB higher than Source 1 Out at front panel jumper due to loss of the
coupler thru arms, bias-tees, and cables.
At J10 max power +33 dBm, which is the damage level of the bridge. With +30 dBm into J10, there will be about
+15 dBm at R1, assuming 15 dB coupling factor for the R1 bridge. +15 dBm is the damage level of that receiver.
Therefore, it may be necessary to add attenuation in place of the R1 loop, not only to protect the receiver, but to
bring it out of compression. The 0.1 dB compression level spec for the R1 receiver is between -3 and -18 dBm,
depending on the frequency and option configuration.
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At Test Port 2 (DUT output): With the bias-tees (orange), only +30 dBm is allowed into the test port. With Opt H85
(bias-tees removed), +43 dBm is allowed. Add appropriate attenuation to not damage other components.
See Also
Front panel jumper specs.
RF Path Configurator
IF Path Configurator
Last Modified:
10-May-2007
MX New topic
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Impedance Matching Model
Impedance matching is a procedure used in circuit design to match unequal source and load impedances, thereby
optimizing the power delivered to the load from the source. Impedance matching is accomplished by inserting
matching networks into a circuit between the source and the load.
Introduction to the Model
Impedance Matching Model
Description of Exercises
Smith Chart Circuit Elements Paths
Forbidden Regions of the Smith Chart
Other Tutorials topics
Introduction
In this model, Smith Charts are used to visualize the interactive process of impedance matching to optimize
transmitted power in simple circuits. Simple series/shunt, inductance/capacitance matching networks are used, and
you can interactively adjust the values of corresponding L and C components. Adjusting the matching network
components changes the reflectance of the overall circuit. The reflectance of each part of the circuit is indicated on
the Smith Chart as a red or blue
ball.
As you adjust the sliders and modify the component values, the model calculates new values for the circuit
reflectance and moves the red
and blue
balls on the Smith Chart. The goal of each exercise is to move the
reflectance point from the center of the Smith Chart, which represents either the load or source, into the
appropriate
red and
blue rings which represent the desired matching condition. You can select three
different impedance matching problems of increasing difficulty by clicking on one of the three labeled tabs.
Impedance Matching Model
Maximize this window for optimum viewing. Click if the Impedance model is not visible.
Description of Exercises
The first exercise lets you use the Smith Chart to perform basic impedance matching between a resistive source
and a resistive load. A simple series-inductance shunt-capacitance network is used to match the 50 ohm source to
the 300 ohm load. The source reflectance of the circuit looking from the load toward the source is represented by
the red ball
, while the 300 ohm load is indicated by the stationary
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red ring.
The objective of the exercise is to interactively match these two impedances by adjusting the L and C sliders. The
model will provide graphical feedback by moving the red ball indicating circuit reflectance on the Smith Chart.
Adjust the series L and shunt C sliders to move the reflectance point from the center of the Smith Chart to the
matching impedance position inside the red ring. You can study the Smith Chart Circuit Element Paths below for
hints on how different circuit elements change circuit reflectance on the Smith Chart.
The second exercise provides the impedance matching experience of optimizing the transducer power gain of a
transistor amplifier. Matching the 50 ohm source to the input reflectance of the transistor, s* 11, and matching the
50 ohm load to the output reflectance of the transistor, s*22, optimizes the power delivered from the source,
through the transistor, to the load. You are required to match both the input red ball
and output blue ball
of the
transistor separately. Adjust the component values to move both reflectance points to their proper positions within
the red
and blue
rings.
The third part of the interactive impedance matching model is a collection of exercises involving a modular circuit.
You begin by constructing a circuit with either one or two modular drag-and-drop matching network components.
Once the matching networks have been added to the circuit, the sliders will become active and allow you to adjust
the component values. Then you will engage in impedance matching for the circuit you have just created! There are
8 different circuits you can construct and there are 5 different value pairs for s*11 and s*22on the Smith Chart,
altogether 40 impedance matching exercises. You will find that not all matching networks will work! For some
of the circuits you will be able to construct, you will not be able to position the red ball within the red ring or the
blue ball within the blue ring. To determine in advance which matching networks will work, take a close look at
the Forbidden Regions of the Smith Chart below. There are 5 different location pairs for s*11 and s*22
corresponding to different frequencies that can be matched. Use the frequency indicator to select an operating
frequency, and then drag-and-drop appropriate matching networks into the circuit and adjust the component values
to move both reflectance points to their proper positions within the red
and blue rings.
Smith Chart Circuit Elements Paths
The graphs below demonstrate how the various shunt and series L and C components change the circuit
reflectance on the Smith Chart. Assuming the given component is the last component in the matching network, the
circuit reflectance will move as indicated along constant resistance or constant conductance circles.
You can think of impedance matching using the Smith Chart as driving a car to a specific destination in Smith Town
- a city were none of the streets are straight! By adjusting circuit components in appropriate order, we can constrain
the circuit reflectance to paths along constant resistance or constant conductance circles. Just like road signs can
direct a car along the circular streets of Smith Town, so can we reach the matching impedance condition in a
straightforward and deterministic way.
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Forbidden Regions of the Smith Chart
For a given load reflectance, only certain L-C matching networks will be capable of transforming the source
impedance to the load impedance. In fact, for any load reflectance, exactly two of the four possible L-C matching
networks in the Transistor Amplifier-II model above will be able to do the matching job. But which two?
The charts below can be used to determine which matching networks will work in a given load situation. If the load
reflectance lies within the forbidden region of the Smith Chart for the indicated matching network, then that network
cannot perform the required matching operation. You cannot drive your car into the forbidden neighborhoods
of Smith Town! They are unpaved!
Use these charts to determine which matching network should be used. First, visually locate the position of the load
reflectance from the Transistor Amplifier-II model above on each of the four color Smith Charts below. Then,
eliminate the two networks whose forbidden regions overlap the reflectance point, and use one of the remaining
two networks to perform the impedance match.
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Phase Measurements
Knowledge of both magnitude and phase characteristics is needed for successful higher-level component
integration.
What are Phase Measurements?
Why Measure Phase?
Using the Analyzer's Phase Format
Types of Phase Measurements
See other Tutorials
What are Phase Measurements?
Phase measurements are made using S-parameters, just like amplitude measurements. A phase measurement is
a relative (ratio) measurement and not an absolute measurement. Phase measurements compare the phase of the
signal going into a device (the incident signal) to the phase of the device's response signal. The response signal
can be either reflected or transmitted. Assuming an accurate calibration has been performed, the difference in
phase between the two signals (known as phase shift) is a result of the electrical characteristics of the device
under test.
The following graphic shows the phase shift (in time or degrees) between an incident signal and a transmitted
signal (as might be seen on an oscilloscope display).
Why Measure Phase?
Measuring phase is a critical element of network analysis. The following graphic lists five reasons for measuring
both magnitude and phase.
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When used in communications systems to pass signals, components or circuits must not cause excessive signal
distortion. This distortion can be:
Linear, where flat magnitude and linear phase shift versus frequency is not maintained over the bandwidth of
interest.
Nonlinear, such as AM-to-PM conversion.
It is important to measure how reflective a component or circuit is, to ensure that it transmits or absorbs energy
efficiently. Measuring the complex impedance of an antenna is a good example.
Using the Analyzer's Phase Format
The analyzer's phase format displays a phase-versus-frequency or phase-versus-power measurement. The
analyzer does not display more than ±180 degrees phase difference between the reference and test signals. As the
phase value varies between +180 degrees and -180 degrees, the analyzer display creates the sawtooth pattern as
shown in the following graphic.
The sawtooth pattern does not always reach +180 degrees and -180 degrees. This is because the measurement is
made at discrete frequencies, and the data point at +180 degrees and -180 degrees may not be measured for the
selected sweep.
Types of Phase Measurements
Complex impedance data is information such as resistance, reactance, phase, and magnitude that can be
688
determined from an S11 or S22 measurement. Complex impedance data can be viewed using either the Smith
Chart format or the Polar format.
AM-to-PM conversion is a measure of the amount of undesired phase deviation (PM) that is caused by amplitude
variations (AM) of the system. AM-to-PM conversion is usually defined as the change in output phase for a 1-dB
increment in the input power to an amplifier (i.e. at the 1 dB gain compression point). This is expressed in degreesper-dB (°/dB).
Deviation from linear phase is a measure of phase distortion caused by a device. Ideally, the phase shift through a
device is a linear function of frequency. The amount of variation from this theoretical phase shift is known as its
deviation from linear phase (also called phase linearity).
Group delay is another way to look at phase distortion caused by a device. Group delay is a measure of transit time
through a device at a particular frequency. The analyzer computes group delay from the derivative of the measured
phase response.
Deviation from Linear Phase Versus Group Delay
Although deviation from linear phase and group delay are similar measurements, they each have their purpose.
The following are the advantages of deviation from linear phase measurements:
Less noisy than group delay.
Able to characterize devices that pass phase modulated signals, and show units of phase rather than units of
seconds.
The following are the advantages of group delay measurements:
More easily interpreted indication of phase distortion than deviation from linear phase.
Able to most accurately characterize a device under test. This is because in determining group delay, the
analyzer calculates the slope of the phase ripple, which is dependent on the number of ripples which occur
per unit of frequency. Comparing two phase responses with equal peak-to-peak phase ripple, the response
with the larger phase slope results in:
More group delay variation.
More signal distortion.
See also Comparing the PNA Delay Functions.
689
Reverse Isolation
Reverse isolation is a measure of amplifier reverse transmission response- from output to input.
What is Reverse Isolation
Why Measure Reverse Isolation?
Accuracy Considerations
How to Measure Reverse Isolation
See other Tutorials
What is Reverse Isolation?
Reverse isolation is a measure of how well a signal applied to the device output is "isolated" from its input.
The measurement of reverse isolation is similar to that of forward gain, except:
The stimulus signal is applied to the amplifier's output port.
The response is measured at the amplifier's input port.
The equivalent S-parameter is S12.
Why Measure Reverse Isolation?
An ideal amplifier would have infinite reverse isolation-no signal would be transmitted from the output back to the
input. However, reflected signals can pass through the amplifier in the reverse direction. This unwanted reverse
transmission can cause the reflected signals to interfere with the desired fundamental signal flowing in the forward
direction. Therefore, reverse isolation is important to quantify.
Accuracy Considerations
Since amplifiers often exhibit high loss in the reverse direction, generally there is no need for any attenuation that
may have been used to protect the port 2 receiver during forward transmission measurements. Removing the
attenuation will:
Increase the dynamic range, resulting in improved measurement accuracy.
Require a new calibration for maximum accuracy.
The RF source power can be increased to provide more dynamic range and accuracy.
Note: With the attenuation removed and the RF source power increased, a forward sweep could damage the
analyzer's port 2 receiver. Do not perform a forward sweep or use 2-port calibration unless the forward power is set
low enough to avoid causing port 2 receiver compression or damage.
690
If the isolation of the amplifier under test is very large, the transmitted signal level may be near the noise floor or
crosstalk level of the receiver. To lower the noise floor:
Use or increase measurement averages.
Reduce the IF bandwidth of the analyzer.
Note: Reducing IF bandwidth or using averaging improves measurement dynamic range and accuracy, at the
expense of reduced measurement speed.
When crosstalk levels affect the measurement accuracy, reduce the crosstalk error term by performing a
response and isolation calibration. When performing the isolation part of the calibration it is important to use
the same average factor and IF bandwidth during the calibration and measurement.
The frequency response of the test setup is the dominant error in a reverse isolation measurement.
Performing a thru-response measurement calibration significantly reduces this error. This calibration can be
done as part of the response and isolation calibration.
The amplifier may respond very differently at various temperatures. The tests should be done when the
amplifier is at the desired operating temperature.
How to Measure Reverse Isolation
1. Connect the amplifier as shown in the following graphic.
2. Preset the analyzer.
3. Select an S12 measurement.
4. Select the settings for your amplifier under test.
5. Remove the amplifier and perform a thru-response calibration or a response and isolation calibration.
6. Scale the displayed measurement for optimum viewing and use a marker to measure the reverse isolation at
a desired frequency.
7. Print or save the data to a disk.
691
7.
692
Reflection Measurements
Reflection measurements are an important part of network analysis.
What are Reflection Measurements?
Why Make Reflection Measurements?
Expressing Reflected Waves
Return Loss
VSWR
Reflection Coefficient
Impedance
Summary of Expressions
See other Tutorials
What are Reflection Measurements?
To understand reflection measurements, it is helpful to think of traveling waves along a transmission line in terms of
a lightwave analogy. We can imagine incident light striking some optical component like a clear lens. Some of the
light is reflected off the surface of the lens, but most of the light continues on through the lens. If the lens had
mirrored surfaces, then most of the light would be reflected and little or none would be transmitted.
1. Incident
2. Reflected
3. Transmitted
With RF energy, reflections occur when the impedance of two mated devices are not the same. A reflection
measurement is the ratio of the reflected signal to the incident signal. Network analyzers measure the incident
wave with the R (for reference) channel and the reflected wave with the A channel. Therefore, reflection is often
shown as the ratio of A over R (A/R). We can completely quantify the reflection characteristics of our device under
test (DUT) with the amplitude and phase information available at both the A and R channel. In S-parameter
terminology, S11 is a reflection measurement of port1 of the device (the input port); S22 is a reflection
measurement of the port 2 (the output port)
693
Why Make Reflection Measurements?
One reason we make reflection measurements to assure efficient transfer of RF power. We do this because:
1. RF energy is not cheap. When energy is reflected, that means less energy is transmitted to where it is
intended to go.
2. If the reflected energy is large, it can damage components, like amplifiers.
For example, in the following graphic, the radio station on the left is not operating at peak efficiency. The amplifier
impedance is not the same as the transmission line, and the transmission line impedance is not the same as the
antenna. Both of these conditions cause high reflected power. This condition results in less transmitted power, and
the high reflected power could damage the amplifier.
The radio station on the right installed properly "matched" transmission line and antenna. Very little of the
transmitted signal is reflected, resulting in increased broadcast power, more listeners, more advertising revenue,
and more profit. The amplifier, transmission, and antenna all need to be measured to ensure that reflected power is
minimized.
Expressing Reflected Waves
After making a reflection measurement, the reflection data can be expressed in a number of ways, depending on
what you are trying to learn. The various expressions are all calculated by the analyzer from the same reflection
measurement data. Each method of expressing reflection data can be graphically displayed in one or more formats.
For more information, see display formats.
Return Loss
The easiest way to convey reflection data is return loss. Return loss is expressed in dB, and is a scalar (amplitude
only) quantity. Return loss can be thought of as the absolute value or dB that the reflected signal is below the
incident signal. Return loss varies between infinity for a perfect impedance match and 0 dB for an open or short
circuit, or a lossless reactance. For example, using the log magnitude format on the analyzer, the measured
reflection value on the screen may be -18dB. The minus sign is ignored when expressing return loss, so the
component is said to have 18dB of return loss.
VSWR
Two waves traveling in opposite directions on the same transmission line cause a "standing wave". This condition
can be measured in terms of the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR or SWR for short). VSWR is defined as the
maximum reflected voltage over the minimum reflected voltage at a given frequency. VSWR is a scalar (amplitude
only) quantity. VSWR varies between one for a perfect match, and infinity for an open or short circuit or lossless
reactance.
Reflection Coefficient
Another way of expressing reflection measurements is reflection coefficient gamma (G). Gamma includes both
694
magnitude and phase.
The magnitude portion of gamma is called rho (r). Reflection coefficient is the ratio of the reflected signal voltage to
the incident signal voltage. The range of possible values for r is between zero and one. A transmission line
terminated in its characteristic impedance will have all energy transferred to the load; zero energy will be reflected
and r = 0. When a transmission line terminated in a short or open circuit, all energy is reflected and r = 1. The
value of rho is unitless.
Now for the phase information. At high frequencies, where the wavelength of the signal is smaller than the length of
conductors, reflections are best thought of as waves moving in the opposite direction of the incident waves. The
incident and reflected waves combine to produce a single "standing" wave with voltage that varies with position
along the transmission line.
When a transmission line is terminated in its characteristic impedance (Zo) there is no reflected signal. All of the
incident signal is transferred to the load, as shown in the following graphic. There is energy flowing in one direction
along the transmission line.
Zo
Incident
Voltage
Reflected
Voltage = 0
(All the incident power is absorbed in the load)
When a transmission line is terminated in a short circuit termination, all of the energy is reflected back to the
source. The reflected wave is equal in magnitude to the incident wave (r = 1). The voltage across any short circuit
is zero volts. Therefore, the voltage of the reflected wave will be 180 degrees out of phase with the incident wave,
canceling the voltage at the load.
When a transmission line is terminated in an open circuit termination, all of the energy is reflected back to the
source. The reflected wave is equal in magnitude to the incident wave (r = 1). However, no current can flow in an
open circuit. Therefore, the voltage of the reflected wave will be in phase with the voltage of the incident wave.
695
When a transmission line is terminated in a 25 ohm resistor, some but not all of the incident energy will be
absorbed, and some will be reflected back towards the source. The reflected wave will have an amplitude 1/3 that
of the incident wave and the voltage of the two waves will be out of phase by 180 degrees at the load. The phase
relationship will change as a function of distance along the transmission line from the load. The valleys of the
standing wave pattern will no longer go to zero, and the peaks will be less than that of the open / short circuit.
For more information, see Phase Measurements.
Impedance
Impedance is another way of expressing reflection data. For more information on Impedance, see Smith Charts.
Summary of the Expressions of Reflection Measurements:
696
Reflected Waves Along a Transmission line
When a sine wave from an RF signal generator is placed on a transmission line, the signal propagates toward the
load. This signal, shown here in yellow, appears as a set of rotating vectors, one at each point on the transmission
line.
Maximize this window for optimum viewing. Click if the applet is not visible.
In our example, the transmission line has a characteristic impedance of 50 ohms. If we choose a load of 50 ohms,
then the amplitude of the signal will not vary with position along the line. Only the phase will vary along the line, as
shown by the rotating vectors in yellow.
If the load impedance does not perfectly match the characteristic impedance of the line, there will be a reflected
signal that propagates toward the source. At any point along the transmission line, that signal also appears to be a
constant voltage whose phase is dependent upon physical position along the line.
The voltage seen at one particular point on the line will be the vector sum of the transmitted and reflected
sinusoids. We can demonstrate this by looking at two examples.
Example 1: Perfect Match: 50 Ohms
Set the terminating resistor to 50 ohms by using the "down arrow" dialog box. Notice there is no reflection. We
have a perfect match. Each rotating vector has a normalized amplitude of 1. If we were to observe the waveform at
any point with a perfect measuring instrument, we would see equal sine wave amplitudes anywhere along the
transmission line. The signal amplitudes are indicated by the green line.
Example 2: Mismatched Load: 200 Ohms
Now let's intentionally create a mismatched load. Set the terminating resistor to 200 ohms by using the down arrow.
Hit the PLAY button and notice the change in the reflected waveform. If it were possible to measure just the
reflected wave, we would see that its amplitude does not vary with position along the line. The only difference
between the reflected (blue) signal, say at point z6 and point z4, is the phase.
But the amplitude of the resultant waveform, indicated by the standing wave (green), is not constant along the
entire line because the transmitted and reflected signals (yellow and blue) combine. Since the phase between the
transmitted and reflected signals varies with position along the line, the vector sums will be different, creating
what's called a "standing wave".
With the load impedance at 200 ohms, a measuring device placed at point z6 would show a sine wave of constant
amplitude. The sine wave at point z4 would also be of constant amplitude, but its amplitude would differ from that of
the signal at point z6. And the two would be out of phase with each other. Again, the difference is shown by the
green line, which indicates the amplitude at that point on the transmission line.
The impedance along the line also changes, as shown by the points labeled z1 through z7.
697
Programming Guide
Two ways to find programming commands:
1.
From a simulated PNA User Interface
New
Legacy
What is New vs Legacy UI?
GPIB / SCPI
COM
Command Tree
COM Object Model
Example Programs
Example Programs
Learning about GPIB
Learning about COM
2.
See
Also
Important: Potential for programs to BREAK after upgrading to 6.0
If you have a SCPI or COM program that does NOT work after you upgraded to 6.0, it could be for the following
reason. With 6.0 we implemented a change that defaults to saving completed calibrations to Cal Registers
instead of User Cal Sets. Learn how to revert to the old behavior.
New Programming Commands
New Remotely Specifying a Source Port
VEE Examples with runtime installed.
Using Macros
Code Translator App.
Superseded / Replacement Commands
Data Access Map
See more PNA programming information and examples at:http://na.tm.agilent.com/pna/programming/
698
PNA Object Model
Application
Channels
Measurements
Channel
Measurement
GainCompression
IMixer
NoiseFigure
EmbeddedLO
AuxiliaryTrigger
BalancedTopology
Calibrator
ELODiag
Balanced
Measurement
Equation
Fixturing
Gating
FOM
Marker
FOMRange
LimitTest
IFConfiguration
LimitSegment
PathConfiguration
Transform
PulseGenerator
Segments
Segment
NaWindows
NaWindow
PathElement
Traces
SignalProcessing
Trace
Capabilities
CalKit
CalStandard
CalManager
CalSets
CalSet
GuidedCalibration
SMCType
VMCType
NoiseCal
E5091ATestSets
E5091ATestSet
ENRFile
ExternalTestSets
TestSetControl
HWAUXIO
HWExternalTestSet
HWMaterialHandlerIO
GainCompressionCal
699
InterfaceControl
SourcePowerCal
PathConfigurationMgr
PowerLossSegments
PortExtension
PowerLossSegment
Preferences
PowerMeterInterfaces
PoweMeterInterface
SCPIStringParser
TriggerSetup
PowerSensors
PowerSensor
CalFactorSegs
PowerSensorCal
FactorSegment
Legend:
Object
Collection
Interface
Last Modified:
13-Nov-2007
Replaced image with text
Added NFA, ENRFile, and GCA
700
Application Object
Description
The Application object is the highest object in the PNA object model. This object presents methods and properties
that affect the entire analyzer, rather than a specific channel or measurement. For example, the application object
provides the GetIDString method. There's only one ID string for the instrument, unrelated to the channel or
parameter being measured. Likewise, the TriggerSignal Property is global to the instrument. You can elect to use
an internally generated (free run) trigger or a manual trigger. Either way, that type of trigger generation will be used
on all measurements, on all channels. Therefore, it is under the Application object.
Accessing the Application object
This object is unique in that you must create this object rather than just get a handle to it.
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Replace <analyzerName> with the full computer name of your PNA. For example, "My PNA". See Change
Computer Name.
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Getting a Handle to an Object.
Example Programs
Superseded commands
(Bold Methods or Properties provide access to a child object)
Methods
Interface
Description
See History
ActivateWindow
IApplication
Makes a window object the Active Window.
AllowAllEvents
IApplication
Monitors all events
AllowEventCategory
IApplication
Monitors an event category
AllowEventMessage
IApplication
Monitors an event
AllowEventSeverity
IApplication
Monitors an event severity level
BuildHybridKit
IApplication
Defines the user kit as port1kit + port2kit.
Channel
IApplication
Stimulus values like frequency, power, IF bandwidth, and number
of points.
701
Configure
IApplication9 Restarts as an "N-port" PNA using the specified multiport test set.
CreateCustomMeasurementEx IApplication3 Creates a new custom measurement with initialization.
CreateCustomMeasurement
IApplication
Superseded with CreateCustomMeasurementEx Method
CreateMeasurement
IApplication
Creates a new measurement.
CreateSParameter
IApplication
Superseded with Create SParameterEX Method
CreateSParameterEx
IApplication
Creates a new S-Parameter measurement with a 3-port load.
DeleteShortCut
IApplication
Removes a macro (shortcut) from the list of macros
DisallowAllEvents
IApplication
Monitors NO events
DoPrint
IApplication
Prints the screen to the active Printer.
ExecuteShortcut
IApplication
Executes a macro (shortcut) stored in the analyzer.
GetAuxIO
IApplication
Returns a handle to the AuxIO interface
GetCalManager
IApplication
Returns a handle to the CalManager interface
GetExternalTestSetIO
IApplication
Returns a handle to the ExternalTestSet IO interface
GetMaterialHandlerIO
IApplication
Returns a handle to the MaterialHandlerIO interface
GetShortcut
IApplication
Returns the title and path of the specified macro (shortcut).
LaunchCalWizard
IApplication
Launches the Cal Wizard
LaunchDialog
IApplication10 Launches the specified dialog box.
ManualTrigger
IApplication
Triggers the analyzer when TriggerSignal = naTriggerManual.
Preset
IApplication
Resets the analyzer to factory defined default settings.
PrintToFile
IApplication
Saves the screen data to bitmap (.bmp) file of the screen.
PutShortcut
IApplication
Puts a Macro (shortcut) file into the analyzer.
Quit
IApplication
Ends the Network Analyzer application.
Recall
IApplication
Recalls a measurement state, calibration state, or both from the
hard drive into the analyzer.
RecallKits
IApplication
Recalls the calibration kits definitions that were stored with the
SaveKits command.
Reset
IApplication
Removes all existing windows and measurements.
702
RestoreCalKitDefaults
IApplication
Restores the factory defaults for the specified kit.
RestoreCalKitDefaultsAll
IApplication
Restores the factory defaults for all kits.
Save
IApplication
Saves files to disk
SaveCitiDataData
IApplication5 Saves UNFORMATTED trace data to .cti file.
SaveCitiFormattedData
IApplication5 Saves FORMATTED trace data to .cti file.
SaveKits
IApplication
Saves all cal kits to disk.
SetFailOnOverRange
IApplication
Causes over range values to return an error code
ShowStatusBar
IApplication
Shows and Hides the Status Bar.
ShowStimulus
IApplication
Shows and Hides Stimulus information.
ShowTitleBars
IApplication
Shows and Hides the Title Bars.
ShowToolbar
IApplication
Shows and Hides the specified Toolbar.
UserPreset
IApplication7 Performs a User Preset.
UserPresetLoadFile
IApplication7 Loads an existing instrument state file (.sta or .cst) to be used for
User Preset.
UserPresetSaveState
IApplication7 Saves the current instrument settings as UserPreset.sta.
Properties
Description
ActiveCalKit
IApplication
Returns a pointer to the kit identified by kitNumber.
ActiveChannel
IApplication
Returns a handle to the Active Channel object.
ActiveMeasurement
IApplication
Returns a handle to the Active Measurement object.
ActiveNAWindow
IApplication
Returns a handle to the Active Window object.
ArrangeWindows
IApplication
Sets or returns the arrangement of all the windows.
AuxiliaryTriggerCount
IApplication11 Returns the number of Aux trigger input / output connector pairs
in the instrument.
CalKitType
IApplication
Sets or returns the calibration kit type for to be used for
calibration or for kit modification. Shared with the CalKit object.
Capabilities
IApplication4 Return capabilities of the remote PNA.
703
Channels
IApplication
Collection for iterating through the channels
CoupledMarkers
IApplication
Sets (or reads) coupled markers ON and OFF
DisplayAutomationErrors
IApplication2 Enables or disables automation error messages from being
displayed on the screen. U
DisplayGlobalPassFail
IApplication6 Shows or hides the dialog which displays global pass/fail results.
E5091Testsets
IApplication8 Collection to control the E5091A testset.
ENRFile
IApplication13 Manages Noise ENR files.
ExternalALC
IApplication
ExternalTestsets
IApplication9 Collection to control External Test sets.
GPIBAddress
IApplication8 Sets and returns the PNA GPIB address.
GPIBMode
IApplication
Makes the analyzer the system controller or a talker/listener.
IDString
IApplication
Returns the model, serial number and software revision of the
analyzer
InterfaceControl
IApplication8 Control the Interface control features.
LocalLockoutState
IApplication4 Prevents use of the mouse, keyboard, and front panel while your
program is running.
Measurement
IApplication
Create and manage measurements
Measurements
IApplication
Collection for iterating through the Application measurements.
MessageText
IApplication
Returns text for the specified eventID
NaWindows
IApplication
Collection for iterating through the Application windows.
NoiseSourceState
Sets or returns the source of the analyzer leveling control.
IApplication13 Sets and Reads the ON | OFF state of the noise source
NumberOfPorts
IApplication
Returns the number of hardware source ports on the PNA
Options
IApplication
Returns the options on the analyzer
PathConfigurationManager
IApplication11 Provides access to hardware configuration.
Port Extensions
IApplication
Superseded with Fixturing Object
Preferences
IApplication5 Preferences for saving citifiles.
704
Provides the ability to send a SCPI command from within the
COM command.
ScpiStringParser
IApplication
SecurityLevel
IApplication4 Turns ON or OFF the display of frequency information.
SICL
IApplication5 Allows control of the PNA via SICL
SICLAddress
IApplication8 Sets and returns the PNA SICL address
SourcePowerCalibrator
IApplication2
Allows capability for performing source power calibrations.
SourcePowerState
IApplication
Turns Source Power ON and OFF.
SystemImpedanceZ0
IApplication
Sets the analyzer impedance value.
SystemName
IApplication
Returns the full computer name of the PNA.
Touchscreen
IApplication12 Enables and disables touchscreen.
TriggerDelay
IApplication
Sets or returns the delay time for a trigger.
TriggerSetup
IApplication4 Controls triggering for the entire PNA application.
TriggerSignal
IApplication
Superseded with Source Property
TriggerType
IApplication
Superseded with Scope Property
UserPresetEnable
IApplication7 'Checks' and 'clears' the enable box on the User Preset dialog
box.
VelocityFactor
IApplication
Sets the velocity factor to be used with Electrical Delay, Port
Extensions, and Time Domain marker distance calculations.
Visible
IApplication
Makes the Network Analyzer application visible or not visible.
WindowState
IApplication
Sets or returns the window setting of Maximized, Minimized, or
Normal.
Shared with the NAWindow Object
Events
Interface
Description
OnCalEvent
IApplication
Triggered by a calibration event.
OnChannelEvent
IApplication
Triggered by a channel event.
OnDisplayEvent
IApplication
Triggered by a display event.
OnHardwareEvent
IApplication
Triggered by a hardware event.
705
OnMeasurementEvent
IApplication
Triggered by a measurement event.
OnSCPIEvent
IApplication
Triggered by a SCPI event.
OnSystemEvent
IApplication
Triggered by a system event.
OnUserEvent
IApplication
For future use
IApplication History
Interface
Introduced with PNA Rev:
IApplication
1.0
IApplication2
3.0
IApplication3
3.2
IApplication4
3.5
IApplication5
4.0
IApplication6
5.0
IApplication7
5.0
IApplication8
5.2
IApplication9
6.0
IApplication10
7.20
IApplication11
7.20
IApplication12
7.21
IApplication13
8.0
Last Modified:
17-Oct-2007
Updated IPathConfigMgr Prop
706
AuxiliaryTrigger Object
Description
These properties setup Auxiliary triggering on a channel.
Accessing the object
Use chan.AuxTrigger (n) to access the object.
where n= the connector pair to be used for Auxiliary Triggering.
N5242A models: Use 1 or 2
All other PNA models: Use 1
Use app.AuxiliaryTriggerCount to determine the number of auxiliary Trigger pairs on the back of a PNA.
Dim
Dim
Set
Dim
Set
app as AgilentPNA835x.Application
chan as Channel
chan = app.ActiveChannel
AuxTrig as AuxTrigger
AuxTrig = chan.AuxTrigger(2)
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Triggering in the PNA
Example Programs
Methods
Interface
Description
See History
(below)
None
Properties
Description
Delay
IAuxTrigger
Specifies the delay that should be applied by the PNA after the Aux
trigger input is received and before the acquisition is made
Enable
IAuxTrigger
Turns ON / OFF the trigger output.
707
HandshakeEnable IAuxTrigger
Turns handshake ON / OFF.
Number
IAuxTrigger
Reads the number of the Aux I/O pair being used.
TriggerInPolarity
IAuxTrigger
Specifies the polarity of the trigger IN signal to which the PNA will
respond.
TriggerInType
IAuxTrigger
Specifies the type of Aux trigger input being supplied to the PNA
TriggerOutDuration IAuxTrigger
Specifies the width of the pulse or the time that the Aux trigger output
will be asserted
TriggerOutInterval
IAuxTrigger
Specifies how often a trigger output signal is sent.
TriggerOutPolarity
IAuxTrigger
Specifies the polarity of the trigger output signal being supplied by the
PNA.
TriggerOutPosition IAuxTrigger
Specifies whether the Aux trigger out signal is sent Before or After the
acquisition.
IAuxTrigger History
Interface
IAuxTrigger
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
7.2
708
BalancedMeasurement Object
Description
These properties set the measurement type that is used with balanced topologies.
Use the BalancedTopology Object to set the topology and port mappings for the DUT,
Accessing the BalancedMeasurement object
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim balMeas As BalancedMeasurement
Set balMeas = app.ActiveMeasurement.BalancedMeasurement
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
About Balanced Measurements
Example Programs
(Bold Methods or Properties provide access to a child object)
Method
Description
None
Property
Interface
Description
See History
BalancedMode
IBalancedMeasurement Sets and returns whether the balanced transform is ON or OFF.
BalancedTopology IBalancedMeasurement Sets and returns the topology of a balanced DUT.
BBalMeasurement
IBalancedMeasurement Sets and returns the measurement for the Balanced - Balanced
topology.
SBalMeasurement
IBalancedMeasurement Sets and returns the measurement for the Single-Ended Balanced topology.
709
SSBMeasurement
IBalancedMeasurement Sets and returns the measurement for the Single-Ended - SingleEnded - Balanced topology
IBalancedMeasurement History
Interface
IBalancedMeasurement
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
5.0
710
BalancedTopology Object
Description
The DUTTopology property sets and returns the topology of a balanced DUT.
The following methods set the port mappings for the DUT.
The remaining properties return the port mappings for the DUT.
Use the BalancedMeasurement object to set the measurement type.
Accessing the BalancedTopology object
Dim app as AgilentPNA835x.Application
Dim chan as Channel
Set chan = app.ActiveChannel
Dim balTopology as BalancedTopology
Set balTopology = chan.BalancedTopology
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
About Balanced Measurements
Example Programs
Method
Interface
Description
See History
SetBBPorts
IBalancedTopology
Sets the physical port mappings for the Balanced - Balanced
DUT topology.
SetSBPorts
IBalancedTopology
Sets the physical port mappings for the Single-Ended - Balanced
DUT topology.
SetSSBPorts
IBalancedTopology
Sets the physical port mappings for the Single-Ended - SingleEnded - Balanced DUT topology.
Property
Interface
BB_BalPort1Negative IBalancedTopology
Description
Returns the PNA port number that is connected to the Negative
side of the DUT's logical Port 1 .
711
BB_BalPort1Positive
IBalancedTopology
Returns the first positive balanced port number in the Balanced Balanced topology
BB_BalPort2Negative IBalancedTopology
Returns the second negative balanced port number in the
Balanced - Balanced topology.
BB_BalPort2Positive
IBalancedTopology
Returns the second positive balanced port number in the
Balanced - Balanced topology.
DUTTopology
IBalancedTopology
Sets and returns the device topology setting.
SB_BalPortNegative
IBalancedTopology
Returns the negative balanced port number in the Single-Ended
- Balanced topology.
SB_BalPortPositive
IBalancedTopology
Returns the positive balanced port number in the Single-Ended Balanced topology.
SB_SEPort
IBalancedTopology
Returns the single ended port number in the Single-Ended Balanced topology.
SSB_BalPortNegative IBalancedTopology
Returns the negative balanced port number in the Single-Ended
- Single-Ended - Balanced topology.
SSB_BalPortPositive
IBalancedTopology
Returns the positive balanced port number in the Single-Ended Single-Ended - Balanced topology
SSB_SEPort1
IBalancedTopology
Returns the first single ended port in the Single-Ended - SingleEnded - Balanced topology.
SSB_SEPort2
IBalancedTopology
Returns the second single ended port in the Single-Ended Single-Ended - Balanced topology.
BalancedTopology History
Interface
IBalancedTopology
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
5.0
712
CalFactorSegments Collection
Description
A collection object that provides a mechanism for iterating through the segments of a power sensor cal factor table.
Accessing the CalFactorSegments collection
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim calFact As CalFactorSegments
Set calFact = app.SourcePowerCalibrator.PowerSensors(1).CalFactorSegments
See Also:
PowerSensorCalFactorSegment Object
Collections in the Analyzer
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
Description
Add
Adds a PowerSensorCalFactorSegment object to the collection
Item
Use to get a handle to a PowerSensorCalFactorSegment object
in the collection.
Remove
Removes an object from the collection.
Properties
Description
Count
Returns the number of objects in the collection.
Parent
Returns a handle to the Parent object (PowerSensor) of this
collection.
713
Calibrator Object
See Also
Example Programs
Calibrator Methods and Properties
ICalData Interface for putting and getting typed Calibration data.
Superseded commands
Description
The Calibrator object, a child of the channel, is used to perform an Unguided calibration.
Note: You can NOT perform a full 3 or 4-port using the Calibrator object; you must use the GuidedCalibration
object.
There must be a measurement present for the calibrator to use or you will receive a "no measurement found" error.
Therefore, to perform a 2-port cal, you must have any S-parameter measurement on the channel. For a 1-port
measurement, you must have the measurement (S11 or S22) on the channel. The same is true for a response
measurement.
There are a number of approaches to calibration with the calibrator object:
You can collect data yourself and download it to the ACQUISITION buffer. The acquisition buffer holds the
actual measured data for each standard. See the PNA data map.
1. Calibrator.SetCalInfo
2. Connect a standard
3. Trigger a sweep
4. Retrieve the data for the standard
5. Download the data - calibrator.putStandard
6. Repeat for each standard
7. Calibrator.CalculateErrorCoefficients
You can tell the calibrator to acquire a standard. In this case, the calibrator collects the data and places it in the
ACQUISITION buffer.
1. Calibrator.SetCalInfo
2. Connect a standard
3. Calibrator.AcquireCalStandard2
4. Repeat for each standard
5. Calibrator.CalcuateErrorCoefficients
714
4.
5.
You can put previously-retrieved error terms in the error correction buffer.
1. PutErrorTerm
2. Repeat for each term
3. Measurement.Caltype = pick one
You can also "piece together" a 2-port cal from two 1-port cals (S11 and S22) and four response (thru) cals. The
system will detect that all the standards needed for a 2-port cal have been acquired even though they may not
have gathered at the same time.
Accessing the Calibrator object
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim cal As ICalibrator
Set cal = app.ActiveChannel.Calibrator
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Learn about reading and writing Calibration data.
Methods
Interface
Description
See History
AcquireCalConfidenceCheckECAL
ICalibrator
Superseded with AcquireCalConfidenceCheckECALEx
AcquireCalConfidenceCheckECALEx ICalibrator4 Transfers ECAL confidence data into analyzer memory
AcquireCalStandard
ICalibrator
Superseded with AcquireCalStandard2
AcquireCalStandard2
ICalibrator
Causes the analyzer to measure a calibration standard. Also
provides for sliding load.
CalculateErrorCoeffecients
ICalibrator
Generates Error Terms from standard and actual data in the
error correction buffer.
DoECAL1Port
ICalibrator
Superseded with DoECAL1PortEx
DoECAL1PortEx
ICalibrator4 Completes a 1 port ECAL
DoECAL2Port
ICalibrator
Superseded with DoECAL2PortEx
715
DoECAL2PortEx
ICalibrator4 Completes a 2 port ECAL
DoneCalConfidenceCheckECAL
ICalibrator
DoReceiverPowerCal
ICalibrator5 Perform a receiver power cal.
GetECALModuleInfo
ICalibrator
Get ECALModuleInfoEx
ICalibrator4 Returns information about the attached module
getErrorTerm
ICalibrator
Superseded with GetErrorTermByString
getStandard
ICalibrator
Superseded with GetStandardByString
putErrorTerm
ICalibrator
Superseded with PutErrorTermByString
putStandard
ICalibrator
Superseded with PutStandardByString
SaveCalSets
ICalibrator
Superseded with CalSet.Save
setCalInfo
ICalibrator
Specifies the type of calibration and prepares the internal
state for the rest of the calibration.
Properties
Interface
Description
AcquisitionDirection
ICalibrator
Specifies the direction in a 2-Port cal using one set of
standards.
ECALCharacterization
ICalibrator2 Superseded with ECALCharacterizationEx
ECALCharacterizationEx
ICalibrator4 Specifies which set of characterization data within an ECal
module will be used for ECal operations with that module.
ECALCharacterizationIndexList
ICalibrator6 Returns a list of characterizations stored in the specified
ECal module.
ECAL Isolation
ICalibrator
ECALModuleNumberList
ICalibrator6 Returns a list of index numbers to be used for referring to the
ECal modules that are currently attached to the PNA.
ECALPortMap
ICalibrator3 Superseded with ECALPortMapEx
ECALPortMapEx
ICalibrator4 Specifies which ports of the ECal module are connected to
which ports of the PNA.
IsECALModuleFound
ICalibrator
Concludes an ECAL confidence check
Superseded with Get ECALModuleInfoEx
Specifies whether the acquisition of the ECal calibration
should include isolation or not.
Superseded with IsECALModuleFoundEx
716
IsECALModuleFoundEx
ICalibrator4 Superseded with ECALCharacterizationIndexList and
ECALModuleNumberList
IsolationAveragingIncrement
ICalibrator7 Value to increase the channel's averaging factor.
OrientECALModule
ICalibrator3 Specifies if the PNA should perform orientation of the ECal
module during calibration.
Simultaneous2PortAcquisition
ICalibrator
Allows the use of 2 sets of standards at the same time.
ICalibrator History
Interface
Introduced with PNA Rev:
ICalibrator
1.0
ICalibrator2
3.1
ICalibrator3
3.1
ICalibrator4
3.5
ICalibrator5
5.0
ICalibrator6
5.26
ICalibrator6
7.21
ICalData Interface
Description
Contains methods for putting Calibration data in and getting Calibration data out of the analyzer using typed data.
This interface transfers data more efficiently than variant data. However, this interfaces is only usable from VB6, C,
& C++. All other programming languages must use the ICalSet interface.
There is also an ICalData Interface on the CalSet Object
Learn about reading and writing Calibration data.
717
Methods
Description
getErrorTermComplex
Retrieves error term data
getStandardComplex
Retrieves calibration data from the acquisition data buffer (before error-terms are
applied).
putErrorTermComplex
Puts error term data
putStandardComplex
Puts calibration data into the acquisition data buffer (before error-terms are applied).
Properties
Description
None
ICalData History
Interface
ICalData
Introduced with PNA Rev:
1.0
718
CalKit Object
Description
The calkit object provides the properties and methods to access and modify a calibration kit. The calkitType
property can be set from two objects:
Application object - app.calKitType
CalKit object - calKit.calKitType
Both of these commands specify or read the calibration kit type. When specified, the cal kit also becomes the
Active cal kit.
Accessing a CalKit object
To get a handle to a cal kit, use app.ActiveCalKit.
The calKit object behaves differently from other objects in the system in that you can only have a handle to one cal
kit -- the active calkit. Therefore, when you change the calkitType from either the Application object or the CalKit
object, you may also be changing the object to which you may have other references.
For example, the following example specifies two calKit type objects and in turn, assigns them to two different
variables: ck1 and ck2.
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Dim ck1 As calKit
Dim ck2 As calKit
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
app.CalKitType = naCalKit_User1
Set ck1 = app.ActiveCalKit
ck1.Name = "My CalKit1"
app.CalKitType = naCalKit_User2
Set ck2 = app.ActiveCalKit
ck2.Name = "My CalKit2"
Print "ck1: " & ck1.Name
Print "ck2: " & ck2.Name
When the pointer to each of these kits is read (printed), they each have a pointer to the last kit to be assigned to
the Active cal kit:
ck1: My CalKit2
ck2: My CalKit2
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
719
Example Programs
(Bold Methods or Properties provide access to a child object)
Methods
Description
getCalStandard
Returns a handle to a calibration standard for modifying its definitions.
GetStandardsForClass
Returns the calibration standard numbers for a specified calibration class.
SetStandardsForClass
Sets the calibration standard numbers for a specified calibration class
Properties
Description
CalKitType
Sets or returns the calibration kit type for to be used for calibration or for kit
modification.
Shared with the Application object.
Name
Sets and returns the name of the cal kit
PortLabel
Labels the ports for the kit; only affects the cal wizard annotation.
StandardForClass
Superseded with Use GetStandardForClass and SetStandardForClass.
Maps a standard device to a cal class.
ICalKit History
Interface
ICalKit
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
1.0
720
CalManager Object
Description
Use this interface to list, save, and delete Cal Sets.
Accessing the CalManager object
Get a handle to a the CalManager with the app.GetCalManager Method.
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim mgr as ICalManager
Set mgr = app.GetCalManager
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Superseded commands
(Bold Methods or Properties provide access to a child object)
Methods
Interface
Description
See History
AllowChannelToSweepDuringCalAcquisition ICalManager5
Specifies the channel to sweep during a Calibration.
CreateCalSet
ICalManager
Creates a new Cal Set
CreateCustomCal
ICalManager2
Creates an FCA cal object.
CreateCustomCalEx
ICalManager5
Creates a custom cal object.
DeleteCalSet
ICalManager
Deletes a Cal Set
DisplayNAWindowDuringCalAcquisition
ICalManager5
Set the 'show' state of the window to be displayed during a calibra
DisplayOnlyCalWindowDuringCalAcquisition ICalManager5
Clears the flags for windows to be shown during calibrations.
EnumerateCalSets
ICalManager4
Returns an array of Cal Set names being stored on the PNA.
GetCalSetByGUID
ICalManager
Get a handle to a Cal Set
721
GetCalSetCatalog
ICalManager
Superseded with EnumerateCalSets
GetCalSetUsageInfo
ICalManager
Returns the Cal Set ID and Error Term ID currently in use
GetCalTypes
ICalManager2
Query for a list of available calibration types.
GetRequiredEtermNames
ICalManager2
Returns an array of strings specifying the error terms required by t
SaveCalSets
ICalManager
Superseded with CalSet.Save
SweepOnlyCalChannelDuringCalAcquisition ICalManager5
Clears ALL flags for channels to sweep during calibration.
Properties
Cal Sets
ICalManager
Collection for iterating through all the Cal Sets in the analyzer.
GuidedCalibration
ICalManager3
Used to perform a Guided Calibration.
ICalManager History
Interface
Introduced with PNA Rev:
ICalManager
2.0
CalManager2
3.1
CalManager3
3.5
CalManager4
5.0
ICalManager5
8.0
722
CalSet Object
See ICalData Interface for putting and getting typed Cal Set data.
Description
Use this interface to query and or change the contents of a Cal Set.
Accessing the CalSet object
Get a handle to a CalSet object by using the CalSets collection. This is done through the CalManager object with
the app.GetCalManager Method.
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim calst As ICalSet
Set calst = app.GetCalManager.CalSets.Item(1)
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Reading and Writing Calibration data
Example Programs
Superseded commands
Methods
Interface
Description
See History
CloseCalSet
ICalSet
Obsolete - No longer necessary.
ComputeErrorTerms
ICalSet
Computes error terms for the CalType specified by a preceding
OpenCal Set call.
Copy
ICalSet
Creates a new Cal Set and copies the current Cal Set data into it.
getErrorTerm
ICalSet
Superseded with getErrorTermByString
getErrorTermByString
getErrorTermList
getErrorTermList2
ICalSet2
ICalSet
ICalSet2
Returns variant error term data by specifying the string name of
the error term.
Superseded with getErrorTermList2
Returns a list of error term names found in a calset.
723
GetGUID
ICalSet
Returns the GUID identifying a Cal Set
getStandard
ICalSet
Superseded with getStandardByString
getStandardByString
ICalSet2
getStandardsList
ICalSet
getStandardList2
ICalSet2
Returns variant standard acquisition data by specifying the string
name of the standard.
Superseded with getStandardList2
Returns a list of standard names found in a Cal Set.
HasCalType
ICalSet
Verifies that the Cal Set object contains the error terms required to
apply the specified CalType to an appropriate measurement.
OpenCalSet
ICalSet
Obsolete - No longer necessary.
putErrorTerm
ICalSet
Superseded with putErrorTermByString
putErrorTermByString
putStandard
putStandardByString
ICalSet2
ICalSet
ICalSet2
Writes variant error term data by specifying the string name of the
error term.
Superseded with putStandardByString
Writes variant standard acquisition data by specifying the string
name of the standard.
Save
ICalSet
Saves the current Cal Set to disk.
StringToNACalClass
ICalSet
Converts string values from GetStandardsList into enumeration
data
StringToNAErrorTerm2
ICalSet
Converts string values from GetErrorTermList into enumeration
data
Properties
Description
AlternateSweep
ICalSet3
Reads sweep either alternate or chopped.
Attenuator
ICalSet3
Returns the value of the attenuator control for the specified port
number.
AttenuatorMode
ICalSet3
Returns the mode of operation (auto or manual) of the attenuator
control for the specified port number.
CouplePorts
ICalSet3
Returns state of couple ports (ON or OFF)
CWFrequency
ICalSet3
Returns CW Frequency
724
Description
ICalSet
Set or return the descriptive string assigned to the Cal Set
DwellTime
ICalSet3
Returns the dwell time for the channel.
FrequencyOffsetCWOverride
ICalSet3
Reads state of CW Override (ON or OFF)
FrequencyOffsetDivisor
ICalSet3
Reads Frequency Offset Divisor value
FrequencyOffsetFrequency
ICalSet3
Reads Offset Frequency
FrequencyOffsetMultiplier
ICalSet3
Reads Frequency Offset Multiplier value
FrequencyOffsetState
ICalSet3
Reads Frequency Offset state (ON or OFF)
IFBandwidth
ICalSet3
Reads IF Bandwidth of the channel
LastModified
ICalSet3
Reads the time stamp of when the file was last modified
Name
ICalSet4
Sets and returns the Cal Set name.
NumberOfPoints
ICalSet3
Returns the Number of Points of the channel.
PowerSlope
ICalSet3
Returns the Power Slope value.
ReceiverAttenuator
ICalSet3
Returns the value of the specified receiver attenuator control.
StartFrequency
ICalSet3
Returns the start frequency of the channel.
StartPower
ICalSet3
Returns the start power of the PNA when sweep type is set to
Power Sweep.
StimulusValues
ICalSet3
Returns x-axis values for stimulus or response frequencies
StopFrequency
ICalSet3
Returns the stop frequency of the channel.
StopPower
ICalSet3
Returns the stop power of the PNA when sweep type is set to
Power Sweep.
SweepGenerationMode
ICalSet3
Returns the method being used to generate a sweep: analog or
stepped.
SweepTime
ICalSet3
Returns the sweep time of the analyzer.
SweepType
ICalSet3
Returns the type of X-axis sweep that is performed on a channel.
TestPortPower
ICalSet3
Returns the RF power level for the channel.
ICalSet History
725
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
ICalSet
2.0
ICalSet2
3.0
ICalSet3
3.2
ICalSet4
6.0
ICalData Interface
Description
Use this interface as an alternative to the ICalSet Interface to avoid using variants when transmitting data to and
from the Cal Set
Learn about reading and writing Calibration data.
Methods
Interface
Description
See History
get ErrorTermComplex
ICalData2
Superseded with getErrorTermComplexByString
getErrorTermComplexByString
ICalData3
Returns typed error term data by specifying the string name of
the error term.
getStandardComplex
ICalData2
Superseded with getStandardComplexByString
getStandardComplexByString
ICalData3
Returns typed standard acquisition data by specifying the
string name of the standard.
putErrorTermComplex
ICalData2
Superseded with putErrorTermComplexByString
putErrorTermComplexByString
ICalData3
Writes typed error term data by specifying the string name of
the error term.
putStandardComplex
ICalData2
Superseded with putStandardComplexByString
putStandardComplexByString
ICalData3
Writes typed standard acquisition data by specifying the string
name of the standard.
Properties
Description
726
None
History
Interface
Introduced with PNA Rev:
The original ICalData Interface was introduced with
PNA 1.0 on the Calibrator Object.
ICalData2
2.0
ICalData3
3.1
Last modified:
Nov. 1, 2006
New start and stop freq commands added
727
Cal Sets Collection
Description
A collection object that provides a mechanism for iterating through all the Cal Sets in the analyzer. There is no
ordering to the items in the collection. Therefore make no assumptions about the formatting of the collection.
For the Item and Remove methods, you can specify either the Cal Set string name, or the integer item of the Cal
Set in the collection.
Accessing the CalSets collection
Get a handle to the CalSets collection through the CalManager object with the app.GetCalManager Method.
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim calsts As CalSets
Set calsts = app.GetCalManager.CalSets
See Also:
Cal Set Object
Collections in the Analyzer
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
Description
Item
Returns a handle to a Cal Set object in the collection.
Remove
Deletes the Cal Set residing at position index in the collection.
Properties
Description
Count
Returns the number of Cal Sets in the collection.
Last Modified:
30-Oct-2007
added item and remove note.
728
CalStandard Object
Description
Contains all of the settings that are required to modify a calibration standard.
Accessing the CalStandard object
Get a handle to a standard with the calkit.GetCalStandard Method.
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim std As ICalStandard
Set std = app.ActiveCalKit.GetCalStandard(1)
std.Delay = 0.00000003
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Reading and Writing Calibration data
Example Programs
Methods
None
Properties Interface
Description
See History
C0
ICalStandard
Sets and Returns the C0 (C-zero) value (the first capacitance value) for the
calibration standard, when the Type is set to "naOpen".
C1
ICalStandard
Sets and Returns the C1 value (the second capacitance value) for the calibration
standard, when the Type is set to "naOpen".
C2
ICalStandard
Sets and Returns the C2 value (the third capacitance value) for the calibration
standard, when the Type is set to "naOpen".
C3
ICalStandard
Sets and Returns the C3 value (the fourth capacitance value) for the calibration
standard, when the Type is set to "naOpen".
Delay
ICalStandard
Sets and Returns the electrical delay value for the calibration standard.
729
L0
ICalStandard
Sets and Returns the L0 (L-zero) value (the first inductance value) for the
calibration standard, when the Type is set to "naShort".
L1
ICalStandard
Sets and Returns the L1 value (the second inductance value) for the calibration
standard, when the Type is set to "naShort"..
L2
ICalStandard
Sets and Returns the L2 value (the third inductance value) for the calibration
standard, when the Type is set to "naShort"..
L3
ICalStandard
Sets and Returns the L3 value (the third inductance value) for the calibration
standard, when the Type is set to "naShort"..
Label
ICalStandard
Sets and Returns the label for the calibration standard.
loss
ICalStandard
Sets and Returns the insertion loss for the calibration standard.
Maximum ICalStandard
Frequency
Sets and Returns the maximum frequency for the calibration standard.
Medium
Sets and Returns the media type of the calibration standard.
ICalStandard
Minimum
ICalStandard
Frequency
Sets and Returns the minumum frequency for the calibration standard.
Type
ICalStandard
Sets and Returns the type of calibration standard. Selections are: naOpen,
naShort, naLoad, naThru, naArbitraryImpedance and naSliding.
TZReal
ICalStandard2
Sets and Returns the TZReal value (the Real Terminal Impedance value) for the
calibration standard, when the Type is set to "naArbitraryImpedance".
TZImag
ICalStandard2
Sets and Returns the TZImag value (the Imaginary Terminal Impedance value)
for the calibration standard, when the Type is set to "naArbitraryImpedance".
Z0
ICalStandard
Sets and Returns the characteristic impedance for the calibration standard.
ICalStandard History
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
CalStandard
1.0
CalStandard2
3.0
730
Capabilities Object
Description
These properties return capabilities of the remote PNA.
Accessing the Capabilities object
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim cap As Capabilities
Set cap = app.Capabilities
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
ICapabilities History
Example Programs
Methods
Interface
See History
GetPortNumber Method
ICapabilities4 Returns the port number for the specified string port
name.
Properties
Description
FirmwareMajorRevision
ICapabilities
Returns integer portion of firmware revision number.
FirmwareMinorRevision
ICapabilities
Return decimal portion of firmware revision number.
FirmwareSeries
ICapabilities
Returns the Alpha portion of the firmware revision
number.
GPIBPortCount
ICapabilities3 Returns the number of GPIB ports (1or 2)
InternalTestsetPortCount
ICapabilities
Returns the number of PNA test ports.
IsFrequencyOffsetPresent
ICapabilities
Returns the presence of Frequency Offset Option 080
(True or False).
IsReceiverStepAttenuatorPresent
ICapabilities
Returns the presence of receiver step attenuators (True
or False).
731
IsReferenceBypassSwitchPresent
ICapabilities
Returns the presence of the reference switch (True or
False).
MaximumFrequency
ICapabilities
Returns the maximum frequency of the PNA.
MaximumNumberOfChannels
ICapabilities2 Returns the maximum possible number of Channels
MaximumNumberOfPoints
ICapabilities
Returns the maximum possible number of data points.
MaximumNumberOfTracesPerWindow ICapabilities2 Returns the maximum possible number of traces per
window
MaximumNumberOfWindows
ICapabilities2 Returns the maximum possible number of windows
MaximumReceiverStepAttenuator
ICapabilities
Returns the maximum amount of receiver attenuation.
MaximumSourceALCPower
ICapabilities
Returns the maximum amount of source ALC power.
MaximumSourceStepAttenuator
ICapabilities
Returns the maximum amount of source attenuation.
MinimumFrequency
ICapabilities
Returns the minimum frequency of the PNA.
MinimumNumberOfPoints
ICapabilities
Returns the minimum possible number of data points.
MinimumReceiverStepAttenuator
ICapabilities
Returns the minimum amount of receiver attenuation.
MinimumSourceALCPower
ICapabilities
Returns the minimum amount of source ALC power.
ReceiverCount
ICapabilities
Returns the number of receivers in the PNA.
ReceiverStepAttenuatorStepSize
ICapabilities
Returns the step size of the attenuator.
SourceCount
ICapabilities
Returns the number of sources.
SourcePortCount
ICapabilities4 Returns the number of source ports.
SourcePortNames
ICapabilities4 Returns the string names of source ports.
ICapabilities History
I Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
ICapabilities
3.5
ICapabilities2
5.23
ICapabilities3
6.0
ICapabilities4
7.20
732
Channel Object
See SourcePowerCalData Interface for putting and getting typed source power calibration data.
Description
The channel object is like the engine that produces data. Channel settings consist of stimulus values like
frequency, power, IF bandwidth, and number of points.
Accessing the Channel object
You can get a handle to a channel in a number of ways. But first you have to make sure that the channel exists.
When you first startup the analyzer, there is one S11 measurement on channel 1. Thus there is only one channel in
existence. You can do the following:
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim chan As IChannel
Set chan = app.ActiveChannel
or
Set chan = app.Channels(2)
The first method returns the channel object that is driving the active measurement. If there is no measurement,
there may not be a channel. Once a channel is created, it does not go away. So if there once was a measurement
(hence a channel), the channel will still be available.
If there is no channel you can create one in a couple ways. You can do the following:
Pna.CreateMeasurement( ch1, "S11", port1, window2)
or
Pna.Channels.Add(2)
The latter will have no visible effect on the analyzer. It will simply create channel 2 if it does not already exist.
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Reading and Writing Calibration data.
Example Programs
Superseded commands
(Bold Methods or Properties provide access to a child object)
Methods
Interface
Description
See History
Abort
IChannel
Aborts the current measurement sweep on the channel.
733
ApplySourcePowerCorrectionTo IChannel11
Copies an existing Source Power Calibration to another channel.
AveragingRestart
IChannel
Clears and restarts averaging of the measurement data.
Continuous
IChannel
The channel continuously responds to trigger signals.
CopyToChannel
IChannel
Sets up another channel as a copy of this objects channel.
GetErrorCorrection
IChannel8
Returns the channel error correction state.
GetNumberOfGroups
IChannel3
Returns the number of groups a channel has yet to acquire.
getSourcePowerCalData
IChannel
Superseded with Get SourcePowerCalDataEx
getSourcePowerCalDataEx
IChannel4
Returns requested source power calibration data, if it exists.
GetSupportedALCModes
IChannel10
Returns a list of supported ALC modes
GetXAxisValues
IChannel
Returns the channel's X-axis values into a dimensioned Variant
array.
GetXAxisValues2
IChannel
Returns the channel's X-axis values into a dimensioned NONVariant array.
Hold
IChannel
Puts the Channel in Hold - not sweeping.
Next_IFBandwidth
IChannel
A function that returns the Next higher IF Bandwidth value.
NumberOfGroups
IChannel
Sets the Number of trigger signals the channel will receive.
Preset
IChannel
Resets the channel to factory defined settings.
PreviousIFBandwidth
IChannel
Returns the previous IF Bandwidth value.
putSourcePowerCalData
IChannel
Superseded with Put SourcePowerCalDataEx Method
putSourcePowerCalDataEx
IChannel4
Inputs source power calibration data to this channel for a specific
source port.
SelectCalSet
IChannel
Specifies the Cal Set to use for the Channel
Single
IChannel
Channel responds to one trigger signal from any source (internal,
external, or manual). Then channel switches to Hold.
Properties
Interface
Description
ALCLevelingMode
IChannel10
Set or return the ALC leveling mode.
AlternateSweep
IChannel
Sets sweeps to either alternate or chopped.
734
Attenuator
IChannel
Sets or returns the value of the attenuator control for the
specified port number.
AttenuatorMode
IChannel
Sets or returns the mode of operation of the attenuator control for
the specified port number.
AuxiliaryTrigger
IChannel10
Used to configure AuxiliaryTriggering
Averaging
IChannel
Turns trace averaging ON or OFF for all measurements on the
channel.
AveragingCount
IChannel
Returns the number of sweeps that have been averaged into the
measurements.
AveragingFactor
IChannel
Specifies the number of measurement sweeps to combine for an
average.
BalancedTopology
IChannel6
Sets and returns the topology of a balanced DUT.
Calibrator
IChannel4
Used to perform an Unguided calibration.
CalSet
IChannel
Change the contents of a Cal Set
centerFrequency
IChannel
Sets or returns the center frequency of the channel.
Shared with the Segment Object
channelNumber
IChannel
Returns the Channel number.
Shared with the Measurement Object
CoupleChannelParams
IChannel5
Turns ON and OFF Time Domain Trace Coupling.
CouplePorts
IChannel
Turns ON and OFF port power coupling.
CustomChannelConfiguration
IChannel12
Provides access to custom application objects, such as
NoiseFigure and GainCompression
CWFrequency
IChannel
Set the Continuous Wave (CW) frequency.
DwellTime
IChannel
Sets or returns the dwell time for the channel.
Shared with the Segment Object
ErrorCorrection
IChannel7
Attempts to sets error correction ON or OFF for all of the
measurements on the channel.
ExternalTriggerDelay
IChannel6
Sets or returns the external trigger delay value for the channel.
Fixturing
IChannel6
Port Ext, Embedding, and De-embedding functions.
FOM Collection
IChannel9
Configure Frequency Offset Measurements
735
FrequencyOffsetDivisor
IChannel2
FrequencyOffsetFrequency
IChannel2
FrequencyOffsetMultiplier
IChannel2
FrequencyOffsetCWOverride
IChannel2
FrequencyOffsetState
IChannel2
FrequencySpan
IChannel
Superseded with FOM and FOMRange
Sets or returns the frequency span of the channel.
Shared with the Segment Object.
IFBandwidth
IChannel
Sets or returns the IF Bandwidth of the channel.
Shared with the Segment Object.
IFConfiguration
IChannel4
Control the IF gain and source path settings for the H11 Option.
IsContinuous
IChannel3
Returns whether or not a channel is in continuous mode.
IsHold
IChannel3
Returns whether or not a channel is in hold mode.
NumberOfPoints
IChannel
Sets or returns the Number of Points of the channel.
Shared with the Segment Object.
Parent
IChannel
Returns a handle to the parent object of the channel.
PowerSlope
IChannel
Sets or returns the Power Slope value.
R1InputPath
IChannel2
Throws internal reference switch (option 081).
ReceiverAttenuator
IChannel
Sets or returns the value of the specified receiver attenuator
control.
ReduceIFBandwidth
IChannel5
Sets or returns the state of the Reduced IF Bandwidth at Low
Frequencies setting.
Segments
IChannel
Collection for iterating through the sweep segments of a channel.
SourcePortMode
IChannel9
Sets the state of the PNA sources. (AUTO | ON | OFF)
SourcePowerCalPowerOffset
IChannel4
Sets or returns a power level offset from the PNA test port power.
SourcePowerCorrection
IChannel
Turns source power correction ON or OFF for a specific source
port.
736
StartFrequency
IChannel
Sets or returns the start frequency of the channel.
Shared with the Segment Object
StartPower
IChannel
Sets the start power of the analyzer when sweep type is set to
Power Sweep.
StopFrequency
IChannel
Sets or returns the stop frequency of the channel.
Shared with the Segment Object
StopPower
IChannel
Sets the Stop Power of the analyzer when sweep type is set to
Power Sweep.
SweepGenerationMode
IChannel
Sets the method used to generate a sweep: continuous ramp
(analog) or discrete steps (stepped).
SweepTime
IChannel
Sets the Sweep time of the analyzer.
SweepType
IChannel
Sets the type of X-axis sweep that is performed on a channel.
TestPortPower
IChannel
Sets or returns the RF power level for the channel.
Shared with the Segment Object
TriggerMode
IChannel
Determines the measurement that occurs when a trigger signal is
sent to the channel.
UserRangeMax
IChannel
Sets the stimulus stop value for the specified User Range.
UserRangeMin
IChannel
Sets the stimulus start value for the specified User Range.
XAxisPointSpacing
IChannel
Sets X-Axis point spacing for the active channel.
IChannel History
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
IChannel
1.0
IChannel2
3.0
IChannel3
4.0
IChannel4
4.0
IChannel5
4.2
IChannel6
5.0
IChannel7
5.2
737
IChannel8
6.0
IChannel9
7.0
IChannel10
7.2
IChannel11
7.5
IChannel12
8.0
ISourcePowerCalData Interface
Description
Contains methods for putting source power calibration data in and getting source power calibration data out of the
analyzer using typed data. The methods in this interface transfer data more efficiently than methods that use
variant data. However, this interfaces is only usable from VB6, C, & C++. All other programming languages must
use the methods on the Channel Object.
Note: Interface ISourcePowerCalData is abbreviated as ISPCD in the following table.
Methods
Interface
Description
See History
getSourcePowerCalDataScalar
getSourcePowerCalDataScalarEx
putSourcePowerCalDataScalar
putSourcePowerCalDataScalarEx
Properties
ISPCD
Superseded with - use PutSourcePowerCalDataScalarEx
Method
ISPCD2
Returns requested source power calibration data, if it exists.
ISPCD
Superseded with - use PutSourcePowerCalDataEx Method
ISPCD2
Inputs source power calibration data to a channel, for a specific
source port.
Description
None
ISourcePowerCalData History
738
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
ISourcePowerCalData
2.0
ISourcePowerCalData2
4.0
739
Channels Collection
Description
A collection object that provides a mechanism for iterating through the channels
Collections are, by definition, unordered lists of like objects. You cannot assume that Channels.Item(1) is always
Channel 1.
Accessing the Channels collection
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim chans As Channels
Set chans = app.Channels
See Also:
Channel Object
Collections in the Analyzer
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
Interface
Description
Add
IChannels
An alternate way to create a measurement.
Hold
IChannels
Places all channels in Hold trigger mode.
Item
IChannels2
Use to get a handle on a channel in the collection.
Resume
IChannels2
Resumes the trigger mode of all channels that was in
effect before sending the channels.Hold method.
Properties
Description
Count
IChannels
Returns the number of channels in the analyzer.
Parent
IChannels
Returns a handle to the current Application.
UnusedChannelNumbers IChannels2
Returns an array of channel numbers that are NOT in use.
UsedChannelNumbers
Returns an array of channel numbers that are in use.
IChannels2
740
741
E5091Testsets Collection
Description
Two testsets can be connected and controlled by the PNA at any time.
The item number in the testsets collection is set by the DIP switches on the testset rear-panel. The valid item
numbers are 1 and 2. If the testset DIP switches are set to 1, then item number in the collection is 1, and so forth.
See your E5091A documentation for more information.
If the specified testset is not connected to USB or not ON, then setting Enabled = True will return an error. All other
properties can be set when the testset is not connected.
Accessing the E5091Testsets collection
Child of the Application Object. Get a handle to one of the E5091Testset objects by specifying an item of the
collection.
Dim
Set
Dim
Set
Dim
Set
pna
pna = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application")
testsets As E5091Testsets
testsets = pna.E5091Testsets
tset1 As E5091Testset
tset1 = testsets(1)
See Also:
E5091Testset Control COM Example
E5091Testset Object
Collections in the Analyzer
The PNA Object Model
Methods
Description
Item
Use to get a handle to a testset in the collection.
Properties
Description
Count
Returns the number of items in a collection of objects.
Parent
Returns a handle to the current naNetworkAnalyzer application.
E5091Testsets History
742
Interface
IE5091Testsets
Introduced with PNA Rev:
5.2
743
E5091Testset Object
Description
There can be two test sets connected and controlled by the PNA at any time.
The item number in the testsets collection is set by the DIP switches on the test set rear-panel. The valid item
numbers are 1 and 2. If the test set DIP switches are set to 1, then item number in the collection is 1, and so forth.
See your E5091A documentation for more information.
If the specified test set is not connected to USB or not ON, then setting Enabled = True will return an error. All
other properties can be set when the test set is not connected.
Accessing the E5091Testset object
Child of the Application Object. Get a handle to a E5091Testset object by specifying an item of the collection.
Dim
Set
Dim
Set
Dim
Set
pna
pna = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application")
testsets As E5091Testsets
testsets = pna.E5091Testsets
tset1 As E5091Testset
tset1 = testsets(1)
See Also:
E5091Testset Control COM Example
E5091 TestSet Control
E5091Testsets Collection
TestsetControl Object (for different test sets)
The PNA Object Model
Methods
Description
None
Properties
Description
ControlLines
Sets the control lines of the specified E5091A.
Enabled
Enables and disables (ON/OFF) the port mapping and control line output of the
specified testset.
ID
Returns the test set ID number.
NumberOfPorts
Reads the number of ports (7 or 9) that are on the specified E5091A test set.
744
OutputPort
Switches an input to one of the valid outputs on the specified E5091A.
ShowProperties
Turns ON and OFF the display of the test set control status bar.
E5091Testset History
Interface
IE5091Testset
Introduced with PNA Rev:
5.2
745
EmbeddedLO Object
Description
Provides access to the properties that allow measurement of mixers that contain an embedded LO.
Accessing the EmbeddedLO Interface
Access the Interface through the IMixer Object.
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application")
app.Preset
' FCA Measurements can't share the channel with standard measurements
' Because preset creates a single measurement in channel 1, we first delete the
standard measurement
Dim standardMeas As IMeasurement
Set standardMeas = app.ActiveMeasurement
standardMeas.Delete
' Create a Measurement object, in this case using the IMeasurement interface
Dim meas As IMeasurement
Set meas = app.CreateCustomMeasurementEx(1, "SMC_Forward.SMC_ForwardMeas", "SC21")
' See if this measurement object supports IMixer
Dim mixer As IMixer
Dim embeddedLO
Set embeddedLO = mixer.EmbeddedLO
See an example program that shows how to create and calibrate a standard SMC or VMC measurement or a fixed
output SMC measurement.
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Making Embedded LO Measurements
746
Methods
Interface
Description
See History
ResetLOFrequency
IEmbeddedLO Reset LO Delta frequency.
ResetTuningParameters
IEmbeddedLO Resets the tuning parameters to their defaults.
Properties
Description
BroadbandTuningSpan
IEmbeddedLO Set broadband sweep span.
EmbeddedLODiagnostic
IEmbeddedLO Provides access to the status of tuning sweeps.
IsOn
IEmbeddedLO Set and return Embedded LO ON | OFF.
LOFrequencyDelta
IEmbeddedLO Sets and returns LO delta frequency.
MaxPreciseTuningIterations IEmbeddedLO Sets and returns precise tuning iterations.
NormalizePoint
IEmbeddedLO Sets and returns tuning point.
PreciseTuningTolerance
IEmbeddedLO Sets and returns precise tuning tolerance.
TuningIFBW
IEmbeddedLO Sets and returns the IF Bandwidth for tuning sweeps.
TuningMode
IEmbeddedLO Sets and returns the method used to determine the embedded LO Frequency.
TuningSweepInterval
IEmbeddedLO Set how often a tuning sweep is performed.
IEmbeddedLO History
Interface
IEmbeddedLO
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
7.21
747
EmbeddedLODiagnostic Object
Description
Allows access to the properties that provide information about the broadband and precise tuning of an embedded
LO.
Accessing the EmbeddedLODiagnostic Interface
Access the Interface through the EmbeddedLO Object.
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application")
app.Preset
' FCA Measurements can't share the channel with standard measurements
' Because preset creates a single measurement in channel 1, we first delete the
standard measurement
Dim standardMeas As IMeasurement
Set standardMeas = app.ActiveMeasurement
standardMeas.Delete
' Create a Measurement object, in this case using the IMeasurement interface
Dim meas As IMeasurement
Set meas = app.CreateCustomMeasurementEx(1, "SMC_Forward.SMC_ForwardMeas", "SC21")
' See if this measurement object supports IMixer
Dim mixer As IMixer
Dim embeddedLO
Set embeddedLO = mixer.EmbeddedLO
Dim embeddedLODiagnostic
Set embeddedLODiagnostic = embeddedLO.EmbeddedLODiagnostic
See an example program that shows how to create and calibrate a standard SMC or VMC measurement or a fixed
output SMC measurement.
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Making Embedded LO Measurements
EmbeddedLO Object
748
Methods
Interface
Description
See History
Clear
IELODiag
Properties
Clear current diagnostic information.
Description
IsMarkerOn
IELODiag
Was a marker was used for a tuning sweep?
LODeltaFound
IELODiag
Returns the LO frequency delta from this tuning sweep.
NumberOfSweeps IELODiag
Get number of tuning sweeps.
MarkerAnnotation IELODiag
Get the marker annotation.
MarkerPosition
IELODiag
Get the marker X-axis position.
Parameter
IELODiag
Returns the tuning sweep parameter name.
StatusAsString
IELODiag
Get result of the last tuning sweeps.
StepData
IELODiag
Get a tuning sweep data.
StepTitle
IELODiag
Returns the tuning sweep title.
XAxisAnnotation
IELODiag
Get the tuning sweep X axis annotation.
XAxisStart
IELODiag
Get the Start sweep value.
XAxisStop
IELODiag
Get the Stop sweep value.
YAxisAnnotation
IELODiag
Get the tuning sweep Y axis annotation.
History
Interface
IEmbeddedLODiagnostic
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
7.21
749
ENRFile Object
Description
Provide commands for creating or editing an ENR file. This is rarely necessary as ENR files, which contain factory
calibrated data, are typically provided by the manufacturer of the noise source.
Learn more about Noise Figure Application
Accessing the ENRFile object
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim enr As ENRFile
Set enr = app.ENRFile
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Program
Methods
Interface
Description
See History
GetENRData
IENRFile
Read the ENR calibration data from PNA memory.
PutENRData
IENRFile
Write the ENR calibration data to PNA memory.
LoadENRFile
IENRFile
Recalls an ENR file from disk into PNA Memory.
SaveENRFile
IENRFile
Saves an ENR file from PNA memory to disk.
Properties
Interface
Description
See History
ENRID
IENRFile
Sets and returns ID of ENR table.
ENRSN
IENRFile
Sets and returns the serial number of the noise source.
IENRFile History
750
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
IENRFile
8.0
Last Modified:
2-Aug-2007
MX New topic
751
Equation Object
Description
Provide commands for creating an equation.
Learn more about Equation Editor
Accessing the Equation object
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim eq As Equation
Set eq = app.Equation
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Methods
Interface
Description
See History
None
Properties
Interface
Description
See History
Text
IEquation
Sets the Equation
State
IEquation
Sets the Equation enabled state
Valid
IEquation
Returns whether the equation is presently valid.
Example Program using these commands:
752
Dim na
Dim meas
Set na = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application")
Set meas = na.ActiveMeasurement
'Define the measurement
meas.Equation.Text = "mysillyequ=sqrt(AR1_1)"
'Check to see if the equation is valid
valid_e = meas.Equation.Valid
MsgBox valid_e
'Turn on the Equation Editor
meas.Equation.State = True
IEquation History
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
IEquation
6.03
Last Modified:
4-Dec-2007
Added example
753
ExternalTestsets Collection
Description
ExternalTestsets collection provides access to a TestsetControl object. Only one external testset can be controlled
by the PNA at any time.
Accessing the ExternalTestsets collection
The ExternalTestsets collection is a property of the main Application Object. You can obtain a handle to a testset
by specifying an item in the collection.
Visual Basic Example
Dim pna
Dim testsets As ExternalTestsets
Dim tset1 As TestsetControl
Set pna = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application")
Set testsets = pna.ExternalTestsets
Set tset1 = testsets(1)
' make COM calls on tset1 object
End Sub
See Also:
ExternalTestset Control COM Example
About External TestSet Control
TestsetControl Object
The PNA Object Model
Methods
Description
Add
Adds a testset to the collection and loads a test set configuration file.
Item
Use to get a handle to a testset in the collection.
TestsetCatalog
Returns a list of supported test sets.
Properties
Description
Count
Returns the number of items in a collection of objects.
Parent
Returns a handle to the current naNetworkAnalyzer application.
ExternalTestsets History
754
Interface
Introduced with PNA Rev:
IExternalTestsets
6.0
IExternalTestsets
6.2
755
Fixturing Object
Description
Contains the properties for Embedding and De-embedding test fixtures.
Accessing the Fixturing object
Dim
Dim
Set
Dim
Set
app as AgilentPNA835x.Application
chan as Channel
chan = app.ActiveChannel
fixt as Fixturing
fixt = chan.Fixturing
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
About Fixturing
Example Programs
Methods
Description
AutoPortExtMeasure
IFixturing2
Measures either an OPEN or SHORT standard.
AutoPortExtReset
IFixturing2
Clears old port extension delay and loss data.
Properties
Interface
Description
See History
AutoPortExtConfig
IFixturing2
Sets the frequency span that is used to calculate
Automatic Port Extension.
AutoPortExtDCOffset
IFixturing2
Specifies whether or not to include DC Offset as part of
Automatic port extension.
AutoPortExtLoss
IFixturing2
Specifies whether or not to include loss correction as part
of Automatic Port Extension.
AutoPortExtSearchStart
IFixturing2
Set the start frequency for custom user span.
AutoPortExtSearchStop
IFixturing2
Set the stop frequency for custom user span.
756
AutoPortExtState
IFixturing2
Enables and disables automatic port extensions on the
specified port.
CmnModeZConvPortImag
IFixturing2
Sets imaginary value for common port impedance
conversion.
CmnModeZConvPortReal
IFixturing2
Sets real value for common port impedance conversion.
CmnModeZConvState
IFixturing2
Turns ON/OFF common port impedance conversion.
CmnModeZConvPortZ0
IFixturing2
Sets impedance value for common port impedance
conversion.
DiffPortMatch_C
IFixturing2
Sets Capacitance value of the differential matching circuit.
DiffPortMatch_G
IFixturing2
Sets Conductance value of the differential matching circuit.
DiffPortMatch_L
IFixturing2
Sets Inductance value of the differential matching circuit.
DiffPortMatch_R
IFixturing2
Sets Resistance value of the differential matching circuit.
DiffPortMatchMode
IFixturing2
Sets type of circuit to embed.
DiffPortMatchUserFilename
IFixturing2
Specifies the 4-port touchstone file for user-defined
differential matching circuit.
DiffPortMatchState
IFixturing2
Turns ON/OFF differential matching circuit function.
DiffZConvPortImag
IFixturing2
Sets imaginary value for differential port impedance
conversion.
DiffZConvPortReal
IFixturing2
Sets real value for differential port impedance conversion.
DiffZConvPortZ0
IFixturing2
Sets impedance value for differential port impedance
conversion.
DiffZConvState
IFixturing2
Turns ON/OFF differential port impedance conversion.
Embed4PortA
IFixturing2
Returns PNA portA connections.
Embed4PortB
IFixturing2
Returns PNA portB connections.
Embed4PortC
IFixturing2
Returns PNA portC connections.
757
Embed4PortD
IFixturing2
Returns PNA portD connections.
Embed4PortList
IFixturing2
Specifies all PNA port connections.
Embed4PortNetworkFilename
IFixturing2
Specifies *.s4p filename.
Embed4PortNetworkMode
IFixturing2
Specify embed, de-embed, or none.
Embed4PortState
IFixturing2
Turns ON or OFF 4-port Network Embed/De-embed.
Embed4PortTopology
IFixturing2
Specifies the PNA / DUT topology.
FixturingState
IFixturing
Turns Fixturing ON and OFF on this channel.
Port2PdeembedCktModel
IFixturing
Sets and returns the 2 port De-embedding circuit model for
the specified port number.
Port2PdeembedState
IFixturing
Turns 2 port de-embedding ON and OFF on this channel.
PortArbzImag
IFixturing3
Sets and returns the imaginary impedance value for the
specified single-ended port number.
PortArbzReal
IFixturing3
Sets and returns the real impedance value for the specified
single-ended port number.
PortArbzState
IFixturing
Turns single-ended port impedance ON and OFF on the
specified channel.
PortArbzZ0
IFixturing3
Sets and returns the real and imaginary impedance value
for the specified single-ended port number.
PortDelay
IFixturing
Sets and returns the Port Delay value for the specified port
number.
PortExtState
IFixturing
Turns Port Extension ON and OFF on this channel.
PortExtUse1
IFixturing
Sets and returns the USE1 ON/OFF state for the Loss1
and Freq1 values for the specified port number.
PortExtUse2
IFixturing
Sets and returns the USE2 ON/OFF state for the Loss2
and Freq2 values for the specified port number.
PortFreq1
IFixturing
Sets and returns the 1st Port Frequency value for the
specified port number.
758
PortFreq2
IFixturing
Sets and returns the 2nd Port Frequency value for the
specified port number.
PortLoss1
IFixturing
Sets and returns the 1st Port Loss value for the specified
port number.
PortLoss2
IFixturing
Sets and returns the 2nd Port Loss value for the specified
port number.
PortLossDC
IFixturing
Sets and returns the Port Loss at DC value for the
specified port number.
PortMatching_C
IFixturing
Sets and returns the Capacitance, 'C' value for the
specified port number.
PortMatching_G
IFixturing
Sets and returns the Conductance, 'G' value for the
specified port number.
PortMatching_L
IFixturing
Sets and returns the Inductance, 'L' value for the specified
port number.
PortMatching_R
IFixturing
Sets and returns the Resistance, 'R' value for the specified
port number.
PortMatchingCktModel
IFixturing
Sets and returns the Port Matching circuit model for the
specified port number.
PortMatchingState
IFixturing
Turns Port Matching ON and OFF on this channel.
strPort2Pdeembed_S2PFile
IFixturing
Sets and returns the 2 port De-embedding 'S2P' file name
for the specified port number.
strPortMatch_S2PFile
IFixturing
Sets and returns the Port Matching 'S2P' file name for the
specified port number.
IFixturing History
759
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
IFixturing
5.0
IFixturing2
5.2
IFixturing3
5.25
760
FOM Collection
Description
The FOM collection provides access to the source and receiver range objects which are used for configuring
frequency offset measurements.
The FOM range items are typically numbered as follows:
1. Primary
2. Source
3. Receivers
4. Source2 (if present)
Accessing the FOM Collection and FOMRange objects
Dim app as AgilentPNA835x.Application
Dim chan as Channel
Set chan = app.ActiveChannel
Dim ifom as FOM
Set ifom = chan.FOM
ifom.item(2).Coupled = false
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
About FOM
Example Programs
761
Method
Interface
Description
See History
Item
IFOM
Property
Interface
Description
DisplayRange
IFOM
Sets the range to be displayed on the PNA x-axis.
FOMRange
IFOM
Object
RangeCount
IFOM
Returns the number of FOM ranges available on the PNA.
State
IFOM
Turns Frequency Offset ON and OFF.
FOM History
Interface
IFOM
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
7.10
Last Modified:
8-Mar-2007
Modified Access
762
FOMRange Object
Description
The FOM Range object provides access to the properties and methods for configuring a specific Range for
frequency offset measurements.
Accessing an FOMRange object
Get a handle to a FOM Range by specifying an item in the FOM collection.
The FOM range items are typically numbered as follows:
1. Primary
2. Source
3. Receivers
4. Source2 (if present)
Dim app as AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim ranges as FOM
Set ranges = app.ActiveChannel.FOM
ranges.item(2).Coupled = False
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
About FOM
Example Programs
763
Method
Interface
Description
See History
None
Property
Interface
Description
Coupled
IFOMRange
Sets and returns the state of coupling (ON or OFF) of this range
to the primary range.
CWFrequency
IFOMRange
Set the Continuous Wave (CW) frequency.
Divisor
IFOMRange
Sets and returns the Divisor value to be used when coupling this
range to the primary range.
Multiplier
IFOMRange
Sets and returns the Multiplier value to be used when coupling
this range to the primary range.
Name
IFOMRange
Returns the name of this FOM range object.
Offset
IFOMRange
Sets and returns the offset value to be used when coupling this
range to the primary range.
rangeNumber
IFOMRange
Returns the index number of the range within the FOM collection.
Segments
IFOMRange
Collection - Used to add segment sweep capability to a range.
StartFrequency
IFOMRange
Sets or returns the start frequency of this FOM Range.
StopFrequency
IFOMRange
Sets or returns the stop frequency of this FOM Range.
Sweep Type
IFOMRange
Sets the type of range sweep.
Note: Use the Start Power and Stop Power settings from the channel object.
FOM History
Interface
IFOM
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
7.10
Last Modified:
764
7-Jan-2008
Added Start/Stop power note
7-Mar-2007
Modified Receivers
765
Gain Compression Object
Description
Controls the Gain Compression Application settings.
Accessing the GainCompression object
Dim app as AgilentPNA835x.Application
app.CreateCustomMeasurementEx(1, "Gain Compression", "CompIn21", 1)
Dim GCA
Set GCA = app.ActiveChannel.CustomChannelConfiguration
See Also:
Example Program Create and Cal a Gain Compression Measurement
GainCompressionCal Object
About Gain Compression Application
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Note: Set the Start/Stop Frequency and Start/Stop Power Settings using the Channel Object.
Method
Interface
Description
See History
GetRaw2DData
IGainCompression
Reads Gain Compression data from specified
location.
GetDataIm
IGainCompression
Reads Imaginary part of specified frequency or power
points.
GetDataRe
IGainCompression
Reads REAL part of specified frequency or power
points.
SetPortMap
IGainCompression
Maps the PNA ports to the DUT ports
Property
Interface
Description
766
AcquisitionMode
IGainCompression
Set and read the method by which gain compression
data is acquired.
CompressionAlgorithm
IGainCompression
Set and read the algorithm method used to compute
gain compression.
CompressionBackoff
IGainCompression
Set and read value for the BackOff compression
algorithm.
CompressionDeltaX
IGainCompression
Set and read the 'X" value in the delta X/Y
compression algorithm.
CompressionDeltaY
IGainCompression
Set and read the 'Y" value in the delta X/Y
compression algorithm.
CompressionInterpolation
IGainCompression
Sets whether or not to interpolate the final power level
when the measured compression level deviates from
the specified level.
CompressionLevel
IGainCompression
Set and read the decrease in gain which indicates that
the amplifier is compressing.
DeviceInputPort
IGainCompression
Set and read the PNA port number which is connected
to the DUT input.
DeviceOutputPort
IGainCompression
Set and read the PNA port number which is connected
to the DUT Output.
EndOfSweepOperation
IGainCompression
Set and read the action which should be taken at the
end of the last frequency or power sweep in the
measurement.
InputLinearPowerLevel
IGainCompression
Set and read the input power level that should
produce linear gain.
MaximumNumberOfPoints
IGainCompression
Returns the maximum possible number of data points.
NumberOfFrequencyPoints
IGainCompression
Set and read the number of data points in each
frequency sweep.
NumberOfPowerPoints
IGainCompression
Set and read the number of data points in each power
sweep.
ReverseLinearPowerLevel
IGainCompression
Set and read the reverse power level to the DUT.
767
SafeSweepCoarsePowerAdjustment IGainCompression
Set and read the Safe Sweep COURSE power
adjustment.
SafeSweepEnable
IGainCompression
Set and read the (ON | OFF) state of Safe Sweep
mode.
SafeSweepFinePowerAdjustment
IGainCompression
Set and read the Safe Sweep FINE power adjustment.
SafeSweepFineThreshold
IGainCompression
Set and read the compression level in which Safe
Sweep changes from the COARSE power adjustment
to the FINE power adjustment.
SearchFailures
IGainCompression
Read number of points that did not achieve
compression.
SmartSweepMaximumIterations
IGainCompression
Set and read the maximum number of iterations to be
used to find the compression level in a SMART
sweep.
SmartSweepSettlingTime
IGainCompression
Set and read SMART sweep settling time.
SmartSweepShowIterations
IGainCompression
Set and read whether to show results for each
SMART sweep iteration.
SmartSweepTolerance
IGainCompression
Set and read the level of tolerance to be used to find
the compression level in a SMART sweep.
TotalNumberOfPoints
IGainCompression
Set and read the total number of data points.(Freq x
Power)
IGainCompression History
Interface
IGainCompression
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
8.0
Last Modified:
11-Sep-2007
MX New topic
768
Gain CompressionCal Object
Description
Sets properties that are unique to a Gain Compression Cal (opt 086).
The remaining commands to perform a GCA Cal use the Guided Calibration commands.
Accessing the GainCompressionCal object
Dim app as AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set GCAcal = pna.GetCalmanager.CreateCustomCalEx(channelNum)
Set GCACalExtension = GCAcal.CustomCalConfiguration
GCACalExtension.PowerLevel = 5
See Also:
Example Program Create and Cal a Gain Compression Measurement
GainCompression Object
About Gain Compression Application
The PNA Object Model
PNA Automation Interfaces
Method
Interface
Description
See History
None
Property
PowerLevel
Interface
IGainCompressionCal
Description
Set and read the power level of the source power cal.
IGainCompressionCal History
Interface
IGainCompressionCal
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
8.0
769
Last Modified:
27-Nov-2007
MX New topic
770
Gating Object
Description
Contains the methods and properties that control Time Domain Gating.
Accessing the Gating Object
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim gate As Gating
Set gate = app.ActiveMeasurement.Gating
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Time Domain Topics
Example Programs
Methods
None
Properties
Interface
Description
(see History)
Center
IGating
Sets or returns the Center time.
Shared with the Transform Object
CoupledParameters
IGating2
Select Gating parameters to couple
Shape
IGating
Specifies the shape of the gate filter.
Span
IGating
Sets or returns the Span time.
Shared with the Transform Object
Start
IGating
Sets or returns the Start time.
Shared with the Transform Object
State
IGating
Turns an Object ON and OFF.
771
Stop
IGating
Sets or returns the Stop time.
Shared with the Transform Object
Type
IGating
Specifies the type of gate filter used.
History
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
IGating
1.0
IGating2
4.2
772
GuidedCalibration Object
Description
Contains the methods and properties used to perform a Guided Calibration.
A Guided Calibration must be performed on the Active Channel. To activate a channel, activate any measurement
on that channel. Do this using meas.Activate, which requires you already have a handle to the measurement.
Note: ECal orientation is performed using the OrientECALModule_Property and ECALPortMapEx_Property on the
Calibrator Object.
Accessing the GuidedCalibration object
Dim
Dim
Set
Dim
Set
app as AgilentPNA835x.Application
CalMgr
CalMgr = App.GetCalManager
guidedCal
guidedCal = CalMgr.GuidedCalibration
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
AcquireStep
Description
IGuidedCalibration
Acquire data for a cal step.
ApplyDeltaMatchFromCalSet Method IGuidedCalibration2 Apply a cal as Delta Match Cal.
GenerateErrorTerms
IGuidedCalibration
Generates the error terms for the calibration.
GenerateGlobalDeltaMatchSequence IGuidedCalibration2 Initiates a global delta match calibration.
GenerateSteps
IGuidedCalibration
Request to generate a connection list and return the
number of steps required.
GetIsolationPaths
IGuidedCalibration3 Gets the list of port pairings for which isolation
standards will be measured during calibration.
GetStepDescription
IGuidedCalibration
Query description of a step.
773
Initialize
IGuidedCalibration
SetIsolationPaths
IGuidedCalibration3 Sets the list of port pairings for which isolation
standards will be measured during calibration.
SetupMeasurementsForStep
IGuidedCalibration4 Show the Cal Window, or custom Cal Window,
before acquiring a Cal standard.
Properties
Interface
Initial setup with channel context for the remote cal
object.
Description
See History
CalKitType
IGuidedCalibration
Sets the cal kit for the port.
CompatibleCalKits
IGuidedCalibration
Returns the list of cal kits for the port.
ConnectorType
IGuidedCalibration
Sets the connector type for the port.
IsolationAveragingIncrement
IGuidedCalibration3 Value by which to increment the channel's averaging
factor during measurement of isolation standards.
PathCalMethod
IGuidedCalibration3 Specifies the calibration method for each port pair.
PathThruMethod
IGuidedCalibration3 Specifies the calibration THRU method for each port
pair.
PortsNeedingDeltaMatch
IGuidedCalibration2 Returns port numbers that need delta match cal.
ThruCalMethod
IGuidedCalibration
Superseded with PathCalMethod and
PathThruMethod
ThruPortList
IGuidedCalibration
Sets the thru connection port pairs.
UseCalWindow
IGuidedCalibration
Turns Cal window ON or OFF
ValidConnectorTypes
IGuidedCalibration
Gets Valid Connector Types.
IGuidedCalibration History
774
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
IGuidedCalibration
5.0
IGuidedCalibration2
5.25
IGuidedCalibration3
7.11
IGuidedCalibration4
8.0
Last Modified:
9-Nov-2007
Added Setup command and Activate note
775
HWAuxIO Object
Description
Contains the methods and properties that control the rear panel Auxiliary Input / Output connector.
Note: PNA-X models do NOT have this connector. However, the get/put Input/Output voltage commands can be
used on the PNA-X to control ADC voltages on the Power I/O connector: Sending other Control:AUX commands to
a PNA-X may result in unusual behavior.
Accessing the HWAuxIO object
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim AuxIO As HWAuxIO
Set AuxIO = app.GetAuxIO
See Also:
Pinout of the Aux IO Connector
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
Interface
Description
See History
get_InputVoltage
IHWAuxIO
Superseded by get InputVoltageEX
get InputVoltageEX
IHWAuxIO5
Reads the ADC input voltage
get_OutputVoltage
IHWAuxIO
Reads ADC output voltages.
get_OutputVoltageMode
IHWAuxIO2
Reads mode setting for either DAC output.
get_PortCData
IHWAuxIO
Reads a 4-bit value from Port C
put_OutputVoltage
IHWAuxIO
Writes voltages to the DAC/Analog Output 1 and Output 2
put_OutputVoltageMode
IHWAuxIO2
Writes the mode setting for either DAC output.
put_PortCData
IHWAuxIO
Writes a 4-bit value to Port C
776
Properties
Description
FootSwitch
IHWAuxIO
Reads the Footswitch Input
FootswitchMode
IHWAuxIO3
Determines the action that occurs when the footswitch is
pressed.
PassFailLogic
IHWAuxIO
Sets and reads the logic of the PassFail line
Shared with the HWMaterialHandler Object
PassFailMode
IHWAuxIO
Sets and reads the mode of the PassFail line
Shared with the HWMaterialHandler Object
PassFailPolicy
IHWAuxIO4
Sets the policy used to determine how global pass/fail is
computed.
Shared with the HWMaterialHandler Object
PassFailScope
IHWAuxIO
Sets and reads the scope of the PassFail line
Shared with the HWMaterialHandler Object
PassFailStatus
IHWAuxIO4
Returns the most recent pass/fail status value.
Shared with the HWMaterialHandler Object
PortCLogic
HWAuxIO
Sets and reads the logic mode of Port C
PortCMode
HWAuxIO
Sets and reads the mode of Port C
SweepEndMode
HWAuxIO
Sets and reads the event that causes the Sweep End line to
go to a false state.
Shared with the HWMaterialHandler Object
IHWAuxIO History
777
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
IHWAuxIO
2.0
IHWAuxIO2
3.0
IHWAuxIO3
3.0
IHWAuxIO4
5.0
IHWAuxIO5
7.5
Last Modified:
10-Jul-2007
29-Jun-2007
Added new command
Updated for PNA-X ADC commands
778
HWExternalTestSetIO Object
Description
Contains the methods and properties that control the rear panel External Test Set Input / Output connector
Accessing the HWExternalTestSetIO object
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim ExtTS As HWExternalTestSetIO
Set ExtTS = app.GetExternalTestSetIO
See Also:
Pinout of the Aux IO Connector
Pinout for the External Test Set Connector
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
Description
ReadData
Reads data and generates the appropriate timing signals
ReadRaw
Reads data, but does NOT generate appropriate timing signals
WriteData
Writes data and generates the appropriate timing signals
WriteRaw
Writes data, but does NOT generate the appropriate timing signals
Properties
Description
Interrupt
Returns the state of the Interrupt line
SweepHoldOff
Returns the state of the Sweep Holdoff line
IHWExternalTestSetIO History
779
Interface
HWExternalTestSetIO
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
2.0
780
HWMaterialHandlerIO Object
Description
Contains the methods and properties that control the rear panel Material Handler Input / Output connector.
Accessing the HWMaterialHandlerIO object
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim MatHdlr As HWMaterialHandlerIO
Set MatHdlr = app.GetMaterialHandlerIO
See Also:
Pinout for the Material HandlerIO Connector
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
Interface
Description
get_Input1
HWMaterialHandlerIO
Reads a hardware latch that captures low to
high transition on Input1
get_Output
HWMaterialHandlerIO
Returns the last value written to the
selected output pin.
get_Port
HWMaterialHandlerIO
Returns the value from the specified
"readable" port.
put_Output
HWMaterialHandlerIO
Writes a TTL HI or TTL Low to output pins 3
or 4.
put_Port
HWMaterialHandlerIO
Writes a value to the specified port.
Properties
IndexState
Description
HWMaterialHandlerIO2
Determines the control of Material Handler
connector Pin 20
ReadyForTriggerState HWMaterialHandlerIO2
Determines the control of Material Handler
connector Pin 21
781
PassFailLogic
HWMaterialHandlerIO
Sets and reads the logic of the PassFail line
Shared with the HWAuxIO Object
PassFailMode
HWMaterialHandlerIO
Sets and reads the mode for the PassFail
line
Shared with the HWAuxIO Object
PassFailPolicy
Sets the policy used to determine how
global pass/fail is computed.
HWMaterialHandlerIO2
Shared with the HWAuxIO Object
PassFailScope
HWMaterialHandlerIO
Sets and reads the scope for the PassFail
line
Shared with the HWAuxIO Object
PassFailStatus
Returns the most recent pass/fail status
value.
HWMaterialHandlerIO2
Shared with the HWAuxIO Object
PortLogic
HWMaterialHandlerIO
Sets and returns the logic mode of data
ports A-H
PortMode
HWMaterialHandlerIO
Sets and returns whether Port C or Port D is
used for writing or reading data
SweepEndMode
HWMaterialHandlerIO
Sets and reads the event that cause the
Sweep End line to go to a low state.
Shared with the HWAuxIO Object
HWMaterialHandlerIO History
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
HWMaterialHandlerIO
2.0
HWMaterialHandlerIO2
5.0
782
IFConfiguration Object
Description
These properties control the IF gain and source path settings for the following:
E836x Opt H11 - all IFConfiguration and IFConfiguration2 commands
PNA-X - IFConfiguration3 commands ONLY
Accessing the IFConfiguration object
Dim
Dim
Set
Dim
Set
app as AgilentPNA835x.Application
chan as Channel
chan = app.ActiveChannel
cfg as IIFConfiguration
cfg = chan.IFConfiguration
See Also:
SignalProcessingModuleFour Object (PNA-X ONLY)
PulseGenerator Object (PNA-X ONLY)
IF Path Configuration (PNA-X ONLY)
IF Access User Interface Settings
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Pulsed Application
Pulsed Measurement Example
783
Methods
Description
None
Properties
Interface
Description
See History
IFFilterSampleCount
IFConfiguration2
Sets or returns the number of taps in the IF filter.
IFFilterSamplePeriod
IFConfiguration2
Sets or returns the IF filter sample period time.
IFFilterSamplePeriodList
IFConfiguration2
Returns the list of available IF filter sample periods for the
instrument.
IFFilterSamplePeriodMode
IFConfiguration2
Sets or returns the IF filter sample period mode.(Auto or
Manual).
IFFilterSource
IFConfiguration2
Sets or retrieves type of IF filter to be used.
IFFrequency
IFConfiguration3
Sets IF frequency in manual mode.
IFFrequencyMode
IFConfiguration3
Sets IF frequency mode to automatic or manual.
IFGainLevel
IFConfiguration
Sets the gain level for the specified receiver.
IFGainMode
IFConfiguration
Sets the gain state for ALL receivers.
IFGateEnable
IFConfiguration2
Sets or retrieves the state of the IF Gate.
IFSourcePath
IFConfiguration
Sets the source path of the specified receiver to Internal or
External.
MaximumIFFilterSampleCount IFConfiguration2
Returns the maximum allowed value for the
IFFilterSampleCount.
MinimumIFFilterSampleCount IFConfiguration2
Returns the minimum allowed value for the
IFFilterSampleCount.
MaximumIFFrequency
IFConfiguration3
Returns the maximum IF frequency setting
MinimumIFFrequency
IFConfiguration3
Returns the minimum IF frequency setting
784
IFConfiguration History
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
IIFConfiguration
4.0
IIFConfiguration2
4.0
IIFConfiguration3
7.2
785
IMixer Interface (Option 083 )
Description
Contains the methods and properties to setup FCA Mixer measurements. For performing calibrations, use either
the SMC Type Object or the VMC Type Object .
Accessing the IMixer Interface
Access the IMixer Interface through the Measurement Object. If the particular type of Measurement that was
created supports IMixer, then the program determines this at run time and can access the functionality exposed by
IMixer. Because the determination of IMixer support is not made until runtime, the program should handle the case
where IMixer is not supported on the object.
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", "analyzerName ")
app.Preset
' FCA Measurements can't share the channel with standard measurements
' Because preset creates a single measurement in channel 1, we first delete the
standard measurement
Dim standardMeas As IMeasurement
Set standardMeas = app.ActiveMeasurement
standardMeas.Delete
' Create a Measurement object, in this case using the IMeasurement interface
Dim meas As IMeasurement
Set meas = app.CreateCustomMeasurementEx(1, "SMC_Forward.SMC_ForwardMeas", "SC21")
' See if this measurement object supports IMixer
Dim mixer As IMixer
See an example program that shows how to create and calibrate a standard SMC or VMC measurement or a fixed
output SMC measurement.
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Methods
Interface
Description
See History
Apply
IMixer3
Applies mixer settings.
Calculate
IMixer
Automatically calculate Input and Output frequencies for mixer setup.
LoadFile
IMixer
Loads a previously-configured mixer attributes file (.mxr )
786
SaveFile
IMixer
Properties
ActiveXAxisRange
AvoidSpurs
Saves the settings for the mixer/converter test setup to a mixer attributes file.
Description
IMixer3
IMixer
Sets or returns the swept parameter to display on the X-axis.
Sets and returns the state of the avoid spurs feature.
Provides measurements of mixers with an embedded LO.
EmbeddedLO
IMixer7
IFDenominator
IMixer
Sets or returns the denominator value of the IF Fractional Multiplier.
IFNumerator
IMixer
Sets or returns the numerator value of the IF Fractional Multiplier.
IFSideband
IMixer
Sets or returns the value of the IF sideband.
IFStartFrequency
IMixer
Returns the start frequency of the mixer IF.
IFStopFrequency
IMixer
Returns the stop frequency of the mixer IF.
InputDenominator
IMixer
Sets or returns the denominator value of the Input Fractional Multiplier.
InputFixedFrequency
IMixer6
Sets or returns the mixer fixed Input frequency value.
InputNumerator
IMixer
Sets or returns the numerator value of the Input Fractional Multiplier.
InputPower
IMixer
Sets or returns the value of the Input Power.
InputRangeMode
IMixer6
Sets or returns the Input sweep mode.
InputStartFrequency
IMixer
Sets or returns the start frequency of the mixer input.
InputStopFrequency
IMixer
Sets or returns the stop frequency of the mixer input.
IsInputGreaterThanLO
IMixer2
Specifies whether to use the Input frequency that is greater than the LO or less than th
LODenominator
IMixer
Sets or returns the denominator value of the LO Fractional Multiplier.
LOFixedFrequency
IMixer
Sets or returns the fixed frequency of the specified LO.
LOName
IMixer
Sets or returns the LO name.
LONumerator
IMixer
Sets or returns the numerator value of the LO Fractional Multiplier.
LOPower
IMixer
Sets or returns the value of the LO Power.
LORangeMode
LOStage
IMixer3
IMixer
Sets or returns the LO sweep mode to fixed or swept.
Returns the number of stages.
787
LOStartFrequency
IMixer3
Sets or returns the start frequency of the specified LO.
LOStopFrequency
IMixer3
Sets or returns the start frequency of the specified LO.
NominalIncidentPowerState
IMixer4
Toggles Nominal Incident Power ON and OFF.
OutputFixedFrequency
IMixer3
Sets or returns the fixed frequency of the mixer output.
OutputRangeMode
IMixer6
Sets or returns the Output sweep mode.
OutputSideband
IMixer
Sets or returns the value of the output sideband.
OutputStartFrequency
IMixer
Sets or returns the start frequency of the mixer output.
OutputStopFrequency
IMixer
Sets or returns the stop frequency of the mixer output.
IMixer History
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
IMixer
1.0
IMixer2
3.5
IMixer3
4.0
IMixer4
4.8
IMixer5
6.04
IMixer6
6.20
IMixer7
7.21
788
InterfaceControl Object
Description
Contains the methods and properties that support Interface Control.
Accessing the InterfaceControl object
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim IntControl As InterfaceControl
Set IntControl = app.InterfaceControl
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Interface Control Feature
Example Programs
Methods
Interface
Description
ConfigurationFile InterfaceControl
Recalls an Interface Control file
Properties
Description
State
InterfaceControl
Turns Interface Control ON and OFF
InterfaceControl History
Interface
InterfaceControl
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
5.2
789
Limit Test Collection
Description
Child of the Measurement Object. A collection that provides a mechanism for iterating through the Measurement's
Limit Segment objects (Limit Lines). The collection has 100 limit lines by default.
Accessing the LimitTest collection
Get a handle to an individual limit segment by specifying an item of the LimitTest collection.
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim limSegs As LimitTest
Set limSegs = app.ActiveMeasurement.LimitTest
limSegs.Item(1).BeginResponse = 1000000000#
See Also:
LimitSegment Object
Collections in the Analyzer
The PNA Object Model
Limit Line Testing Example
Methods
Description
GetTestResult
Retrieves the Pass/Fail results of the Limit Test (State).
Item
Use to get a handle on a limit line in the collection.
Properties
Description
Count
Returns the number of limit lines used in the measurement.
LineDisplay
Displays the limit lines on the screen.
SoundOnFail
Enables a beep on Limit Test fails.
State
Turns ON and OFF limit testing.
LimitTest History
790
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
ILimitTest
1.0
791
LimitSegment Object
Description
The LimitSegment object is an individual limit line.
Accessing the LimitSegment object
Get a handle to an individual limit line by using the LimitTest collection.
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim limSegs As LimitTest
Set limSegs = app.ActiveMeasurement.LimitTest
limSegs(1).BeginResponse = 1000000000#
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
Description
None
Properties
Description
BeginResponse
Specifies the Y-axis value that corresponds with Begin Stimulus (X-axis) value.
BeginStimulus
Specifies the beginning X-axis value of the Limit Line.
EndResponse
Specifies the Y-axis value that corresponds with End Stimulus (X-axis) value.
EndStimulus
Specifies the End X-axis value of the Limit Line.
Type
Specifies the Limit Line type.
LimitSegment History
Interface
ILimitSegment
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
1.0
792
793
Marker Object
Description
Contains the methods and properties that control Markers. There are 10 markers available per measurement:
1 reference marker
9 markers for absolute data or data relative to the reference marker (delta markers).
There are two ways to control markers through COM.
1. The Measurement object has properties that apply to ALL of the markers for that measurement. For example,
meas.MarkerFormat = naLinMag applies formatting to all markers.
2. Marker object properties override the Measurement object properties. For example, you can then override
the format setting for an individual marker by specifying mark.Format = naLogMag on the marker object.
Note: SearchFilterBandwidth is available through the measurement object.
Accessing the Marker object
To turn ON a marker, get a handle to the marker through the measurement object. If not already activated, this
command will turn ON marker 1
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
app.ActiveMeasurement.marker(1).Format = naLinMag
You can also set the marker object to an object variable:
Dim m1 As Marker
Set m1 = app.ActiveMeasurement.Marker(1)
m1.Format = naMarkerFormat_LinMag
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
Interface
Activate
IMarker
Description
Makes an object the Active Object.
Shared with the Marker Object
SearchMax
IMarker
Searches the marker domain for the maximum value.
794
SearchMin
IMarker
Searches the marker domain for the minimum value.
SearchNextPeak
IMarker
Searches the marker's domain for the next largest peak value.
SearchPeakLeft
IMarker
Searches the marker's domain for the next VALID peak to the left of
the marker.
SearchPeakRight
IMarker
Searches the marker's domain for the next VALID peak to the right of
the marker.
SearchTarget
IMarker
Searches the marker's domain for the target value.
SearchTargetLeft
IMarker
Moving to the left of the marker position, searches the marker's
domain for the target value.
SearchTargetRight
IMarker
Moving to the right of the marker position, searches the marker's
domain for the target value.
SetCenter
IMarker
Changes the analyzer's center frequency to the X-axis position of the
marker.
SetCW
IMarker
Changes the analyzer to sweep type CW mode and makes the CW
frequency the marker's frequency.
SetElectricalDelay
IMarker
Changes the measurement's electrical delay to the marker's delay
value.
SetReferenceLevel
IMarker
Changes the measurement's reference level to the marker's Y-axis
value.
SetStart
IMarker
Changes the analyzer's start frequency to the X-axis position of the
marker.
SetStop
IMarker
Changes the analyzer's stop frequency to the X-axis position of the
marker.
Description
Properties
Bucket Number
IMarker
Marker data point number
DeltaMarker
IMarker
Makes a marker relative to the reference marker
Distance
IMarker2
Sets or returns distance value for time domain trace.
Format
IMarker
Linear, SWR, and so forth
Interpolated
IMarker
Turn marker interpolation ON and OFF
Number
IMarker
Read the number of the active marker
PeakExcursion
IMarker
Sets and reads the peak excursion value for the specified marker.
795
PeakThreshold
IMarker
Sets peak threshold for the specified marker.
SearchFunction
IMarker
Emulates the Tracking function in the marker search dialog box.
Stimulus
IMarker
Sets and reads the X-Axis value of the marker.
Target Value
IMarker
Sets the target value for the marker when doing Target Searches.
Tracking
IMarker
The tracking function finds the selected search function every sweep.
Type
IMarker
Sets and reads the marker type.
UserRange
IMarker
Assigns the marker to the specified User Range.
UserRangeMax
IMarker
Sets the stimulus stop value for the specified User Range.
UserRangeMin
IMarker
Sets the stimulus start value for the specified User Range.
Value
IMarker
Reads the Y-Axis value of the marker.
Marker History
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
IMarker
1.0
IMarker2
4.2
796
Measurement Object
See IArrayTransfer Interface for putting and getting typed data.
See IMixer Interface (used with Option 083)
Description
The Measurement object is probably the most used object in the PNA Object Model. A measurement object
represents the chain of data processing algorithms that take raw data from the channel and make it ready for
display, which then becomes the scope of the Trace object.
A Measurement object is defined by it's parameter (S11, S22, A/R1, B and so forth). The measurement object is
associated with a channel which drives the hardware that produces the data that feeds the measurement. The root
of a measurement is the raw data. This buffer of complex paired data then flows through a number of processing
blocks: error-correction, trace math, phase correction, time domain, gating, formatting. All of these are controlled
through the measurement object.
The ACTIVE measurement is the measurement that will be acted upon if you make a setting from the front panel. It
is the measurement whose "button" is pressed in the window with the red "active window" frame. If you create a
new measurement, that measurement becomes the active measurement.
Therefore, all automation methods with the word "Active" in them refer to the object associated with the Active
measurement, whether that object is a Channel, Window, Trace or Limit line.
Learn about the IMeasurement2 Interface for reading stimulus properties.
Accessing the Measurement object
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim meas As IMeasurement
Set meas = app.ActiveMeasurement
or
Set meas = app.Measurements(n)
You can access four other objects through the Measurement object: markers, limit test, transform, and gating. For
example, because each measurement has its own set of markers, you can set a marker by doing this:
Dim meas as measurement
Set meas = app.ActiveMeasurement
meas.marker(1).Stimulus = 900e6
IMeasurement2 Interface
Some of the properties and methods for the IMeasurement2 Interface return stimulus values that are set using the
channel object. The following is the reason these properties and methods are duplicated.
Every measurement carries with it a snapshot of the stimulus properties of the channel that were in effect when the
measurement last acquired data. Therefore, it is the measurement that provides the most accurate stimulus
description of its data. Any change made to the channel after the measurement was acquired renders the IChannel
interface unreliable in terms of describing the measurement.
See Also:
797
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Superseded commands
(Bold Methods or Properties provide access to a child object)
Methods
Interface
Description
Activate
IMeasurement Makes an object the Active Object.
Shared with the Marker Object
ActivateMarker
IMeasurement Makes a marker the Active Marker.
ChangeParameter
IMeasurement Changes the parameter of the measurement.
DataToDivisor
IMeasurement Superseded with DoReceiverPowerCal Method
DataToMemory
IMeasurement Stores the active measurement into memory.
Delete
IMeasurement Deletes the measurement object.
DeleteAllMarkers
IMeasurement Deletes all of the markers from the measurement.
DeleteMarker
IMeasurement Deletes a marker from the active measurement.
getData
IMeasurement Retrieves Complex data from analyzer memory
getDataByString
IMeasurement Retrieves variant data from the specified location in your
choice of formats.
GetFilterStatistics
IMeasurement Returns all four Filter Statistics
GetReferenceMarker
IMeasurement Returns a handle to the reference marker.
Get SnPData
IMeasurement3 Returns SnP data.
GetSnpDataWithSpecifiedPorts
IMeasurement7 Returns sNp data for the specified ports.
GetTraceStatistics
GetXAxisValues
IMeasurement Returns the Trace Statistics.
IMeasurement2 Returns the stimulus values for the measurement.
InterpolateMarkers
IMeasurement Turns All Marker Interpolation ON and OFF for the
measurement.
putDataComplex
IMeasurement Puts complex data into one of five data buffers.
putDataScalar
IMeasurement Puts formatted variant data into the measurement results
buffer.
798
SearchFilterBandwidth
WriteSnpFileWithSpecifiedPorts
Properties
IMeasurement Searches the domain with the current BW target.
IMeasurement7 Write sNp data for specified ports to a file.
Interface
Description
ActiveMarker
IMeasurement Returns a handle to the Active Marker object.
BalancedMeasurement
IMeasurement Sets the measurement type that is used with balanced
topologies.
BandwidthTarget
IMeasurement The insertion loss value at which the bandwidth of a filter
is measured.
BandwidthTracking
IMeasurement Turns Bandwidth Tracking function ON and OFF.
CalibrationName
CalibrationType
IMeasurement2 Returns the name of the cal type.
IMeasurement Superseded with CalibrationTypeID_property
CalibrationTypeID
IMeasurement2 Sets or returns the cal type for the current measurement.
Center
IMeasurement2 Returns the stimulus value of the center point for the
measurement.
channelNumber
IIMeasurement Returns the channel number.
Shared with the Channel Object
Domain
IMeasurement2 Returns the domain (frequency, time, power) for the
measurement.
ElectricalDelay
IMeasurement Sets electrical delay.
ElecDelayMedium
IMeasurement2 Sets or returns the characteristic of the electrical delay
medium.
Equation
IMeasurement6 Access Equation Editor
ErrorCorrection
IMeasurement Set or get the state of error correction for the
measurement.
FilterBW
IMeasurement Returns the results of the SearchBandwidth method.
FilterCF
IMeasurement Returns the Center Frequency result of the
SearchBandwidth method.
FilterLoss
IMeasurement Returns the Loss value of the SearchBandwidth method.
FilterQ
IMeasurement Returns the Q (quality factor) result of the
SearchBandwidth method.
799
Format
IMeasurement Sets display format.
Gating
IMeasurement Controls Time Domain Gating.
InterpolateCorrection
IMeasurement Turns ON and OFF the calculation of new error terms
when stimulus values change.
InterpolateNormalization
IMeasurement Superseded with DoReceiverPowerCal Method
IsSparameter
IMeasurement2 Returns true if measurement represents an S-Parameter.
LimitTest
IMeasurement Collection for iterating through the Limit Segment objects
(Limit Lines).
LimitTestFailed
IMeasurement Returns the results of limit testing
LoadPort
IMeasurement
LogMagnitudeOffset
IMeasurement Superseded with DoReceiverPowerCal Method
MagnitudeOffset
IMeasurment4
Offsets the magnitude of the entire data trace to a
specified value.
MagnitudeSlopeOffset
IMeasurment4
Offsets the magnitude of the data trace to a value that
changes linearly with frequency.
Marker
IMeasurement Contains the methods and properties that control
Markers.
MarkerFormat
IMeasurement Sets or returns the format of all the markers in the
measurement.
Marker State
Returns the load port number associated with an Sparameter reflection measurement.
IMeasurement3 Sets or returns the ON / OFF state of a marker.
Mean
IMeasurement Returns the mean value of the measurement.
Name
IMeasurement Sets or returns the name of the measurement.
NAWindow
IMeasurement Controls the part of the display that contains the
graticule, or what is written on the display.
Normalization
IMeasurement Superseded with DoReceiverPowerCal Method
Number
IMeasurement Returns the number of the measurement.
NumberOfPoints
Parameter
IMeasurement2 Returns the Number of Points of the measurement.
IMeasurement Returns the measurement Parameter.
800
PeakToPeak
IMeasurement Returns the Peak to Peak value of the measurement.
PhaseOffset
IMeasurement Sets the Phase Offset for the active channel.
ReceivePort
IMeasurement2 Returns the receiver port of the measurement.
ReferenceMarkerState
IMeasurement Turns the reference marker ON or OFF
ShowStatistics
IMeasurement Displays and hides the measurement statistics (peak-topeak, mean, standard deviation) on the screen.
Smoothing
IMeasurement Turns ON and OFF data smoothing.
SmoothingAperture
IMeasurement Specifies or returns the amount of smoothing as a ratio
of the number of data points in the measurement trace.
SourcePort
IMeasurement2 Returns the source port of the measurement.
Span
IMeasurement2 Returns the stimulus span (stop - start) for the
measurement.
StandardDeviation
Start
StatisticsRange
Stop
IMeasurement Returns the standard deviation of the measurement.
IMeasurement2 Returns the stimulus value of the first point for the
measurement.
IMeasurement Sets the User Range number for calculating
measurement statistics.
IMeasurement2 Returns the stimulus value of the last point for the
measurement.
Trace
IMeasurement Controls scale, reference position, and reference line.
TraceMath
IMeasurement Performs math operations on the measurement object
and the trace stored in memory.
TraceTitle
IMeasurement8 Writes and reads a trace title.
TraceTitleState
IMeasurement8 Turns trace title ON and OFF
Transform
IMeasurement Controls Time Domain transforms.
View
IMeasurement Sets (or returns) the type of trace displayed on the
screen
WGCutoffFreq
IMeasurement2 Sets or returns the value of the waveguide cut off
frequency
IMeasurement History
801
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
IMeasurement
1.0
IMeasurement2
3.0
IMeasurement3
4.0
IMeasurement4
4.2
IMeasurement5
5.0
IMeasurement7
6.2
IArrayTransfer Interface
Description
Contains methods for putting data in and getting data out of the analyzer using typed data. This interface transfers
data more efficiently than the IMeasurement Interface. However, this interfaces is only usable from VB6, C, & C++.
Methods
Description
getComplex
Retrieves real and imaginary data from the specified buffer.
getNAComplex
Retrieves typed NAComplex data from the specified buffer.
getPairedData
Retrieves magnitude and phase data pairs from the specified
buffer.
getScalar
Retrieves scalar data from the specified buffer.
putComplex
Puts real and imaginary data into the specified buffer.
putNAComplex
Puts typed NAComplex data into the specified buffer.
putScalar
Puts scalar data into the measurement result buffer.
Properties
Description
None
IArrayTransfer History
802
Interface
IArrayTransfer
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
1.0
803
Measurement Collection
Description
A collection object that provides a mechanism for iterating through the Application measurements.
Accessing the Measurements collection
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim measments As Measurements
Set measments = app.Measurements
See Also:
Measurement Object
Collections in the Analyzer
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
Description
Add
Adds a Measurement to the collection.
Item
Use to get a handle on a measurement in the collection.
Remove
Removes a measurement from the measurements collection.
Properties
Description
Count
Returns the number of measurements in the analyzer.
Parent
Returns a handle to the current Application.
804
NAWindow Object
Description
The NAWindow object controls the part of the display that contains the graticule, or what is written on the display.
Accessing the NaWindow object
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim window As NAWindow
Set window = app.NAWindows(1)
window.AutoScale
or
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", "analyzerName")
app.NAWindows(1).AutoScale
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
(Bold Methods or Properties provide access to a child object)
Methods
Description
Autoscale
Autoscales all measurements in the window.
Shared with the Trace Object
ShowMarkerReadout
Shows and Hides the Marker readout for the active marker in the upper-right
corner of the window object.
ShowTable
Shows or Hides the specified table for the active measurement in the lower
part of the window object.
Properties
Description
ActiveTrace
Sets a trace to the Active Trace.
MarkerReadout
Sets and reads the state of the Marker readout for the active marker in the
upper-right corner of the window object.
805
MarkerReadoutSize
Specifies the size of font used when displaying Marker readout in the selected
window.
OneMarkerReadoutPerTrace
Either show marker readout of only the active trace or all of the traces
simultaneously.
Title
Writes or reads a custom title for the window.
TitleState
Turns ON and OFF the window title.
Traces
Collection for getting a handle to a trace or iterating through the traces in a
window.
WindowNumber
Reads the number of the active window.
WindowState
Maximizes or minimizes a window.
Shared with the Application Object
INaWindow History
Interface
INaWindow
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
1.0
806
NAWindows Collection
Description
A collection object that provides a mechanism for iterating through the Application windows.
Accessing the NaWindows collection
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim windows As NAWindows
Set windows = app.NAWindows
See Also:
NAWindow Object
Collections in the Analyzer
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
Description
Add
Adds a window to the NAWindows collection.
Item
Use to get a handle to a window in the collection.
Remove
Removes a window from the NAWindows collection.
Properties
Description
Count
Returns the number of windows on the analyzer.
Parent
Returns a handle to the current Application.
807
NoiseCal Object
Description
Controls the noise figure calibration settings. These commands are extensions which supplement the standard
calibration commands on the GuidedCalibration Object.
Accessing the NoiseCal object
Dim app as AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set noisecal = pna.GetCalmanager.CreateCustomCalEx(channelNum)
Set noiseCalExtension = noisecal.CustomCalConfiguration
noiseCalExtension.NoiseSourceCold
= 300
See Also:
Example Create and Cal a Noise Figure Measurement
NoiseFigure Object
About Noise Figure Measurements
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Method
Interface
Description
See History
None
Property
Interface
Description
CalMethod
INoiseCal
Sets and returns the method for performing calibration on a
noise channel.
ENRFile
INoiseCal
Sets and returns the name of the ENR file associated with
the noise source.
NoiseSourceCalKitType
INoiseCal
Sets and reads the Cal Kit type used to perform a cal at the
adapter which is used to connect the noise source (if
required.)
808
NoiseSourceCold
INoiseCal
Sets and returns the current temperature at the noise
source.
NoiseSourceConnectorType
INoiseCal
Sets and reads the connector type of the noise source used
during the cal.
NoiseConfiguration History
Interface
INoiseCal
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
8.0
Last Modified:
30-May-2007
MX New topic
809
NoiseFigure Object
Description
Controls the Noise Figure application settings.
Accessing the NoiseFigure object
Dim app as AgilentPNA835x.Application
app.CreateCustomMeasurementEx(1, "NoiseFigure", "NF", 1)
Dim NoiseFig
Set NoiseFig = app.ActiveChannel.CustomChannelConfiguration
See Also:
Example program Create and Cal a NoiseFigure Measurment
About Noise Figure Measurements
Noise Figure Calibration Object
app.NoiseSourceState (ON and OFF)
ENRFile Object
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Method
Interface
Description
See History
None
Property
Interface
Description
AmbientTemperature INoiseFigure
Sets the air temperature at which the measurement is being
performed.
ImpedanceStates
Sets the number of impedance states to use during calibrated
measurements.
INoiseFigure
NoiseAverageFactor INoiseFigure
Set averaging of noise receiver.
810
NoiseAverageState
INoiseFigure
Turn noise averaging ON and OFF
NoiseBandwidth
INoiseFigure
Set bandwidth of noise receiver.
NoiseGain
INoiseFigure
Set gain state of noise receiver.
NoiseTuner
INoiseFigure
Sets and returns the noise tuner identifier,
NoiseTunerIn
INoiseFigure
Sets and returns the port identifier of the ECal noise tuner Input
NoiseTunerOut
INoiseFigure
Sets and returns the port identifier of the ECal noise tuner Output
NoiseFigure History
Interface
INoiseFigure
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
8.0
Last Modified:
29-May-2007
MN New topic
811
PathConfiguration Object
Description
Provides access to the path configuration currently active on the channel object.
To load, store, or delete a configuration, see ConfigurationManager Object.
Accessing the PathConfiguration object
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim chan as Channel
Set chan = app.ActiveChannel
Dim pathConfig As PathConfiguration
Set pathConfig = chan.PathConfiguration
Note:
To learn how to make configuration (element) settings, see this Path Configuration Example
Also see this list of configurable elements and settings.
See Also:
PathConfigurationManager Object
PathElement Object
Path Configurator UI
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Methods
Interface
Description
See History
Elements
IPathConfiguration Elements are the objects that can be configured (switches and so forth). See
the list of elements and settings.
Store
IPathConfiguration Saves the current configuration to the specified name.
Properties
Interface
Description
See History
DescriptiveText IPathConfiguration Write and read descriptive text associated with the configuration.
812
Element
IPathConfiguration Returns a handle to the IPathElement object.
Name
IPathConfiguration Returns the name of the current configuration.
Parent
IPathConfiguration Returns a pointer to the parent COM object (Channel).
IPathConfiguration History
Interface
IPathConfiguration
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
7.2
813
PathConfigurationManager Object
Description
These commands allow configurations to be stored, loaded, or deleted on the PNA.
To make path configuration settings, see PathConfiguration Object and the PathElement Object
Accessing the PathConfigurationManager object
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim pathConfig As PathConfigurationManager
Set pathConfig = app.PathConfigurationManager
Note:
To learn how to make configuration (element) settings, see this Path Configuration Example
Also see this list of configurable elements and settings.
See Also:
Path Configuration Example
Path Configurator
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
Interface
Description
See History
DeleteConfiguration IPathConfigurationManager Deletes the specified configuration from the PNA.
LoadConfiguration
IPathConfigurationManager Loads the named configuration.
StoreConfiguration
IPathConfigurationManager Saves the path configuration
Properties
Interface
Description
See History
Configurations
IPathConfigurationManager Returns a list of configuration names stored in the PNA.
814
Parent
IPathConfigurationManager Returns a handle to the Application object.
IPathConfigurationManager History
Interface
IPathConfigurationManager
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
7.2
815
PathElement Object
Description
Provides access to the settings for the PathElement object.
Accessing the PathElement object
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim chan as Channel
Set chan = app.ActiveChannel
Dim pathConfig As PathConfiguration
Set pathConfig = chan.PathConfiguration
Dim element as PathElement
Set element = pathConfig.PathElement("Src1")
Note:
To learn how to make configuration (element) settings, see this Path Configuration Example
Also see this list of configurable elements and settings.
See Also:
Path Configurator
PathConfigurationManager Object
PathConfiguration Object
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
816
Methods
Interface
Description
See History
None
Properties
Interface
Description
See History
Name
IPathElement
Returns the name of the element.
Parent
IPathElement
Returns a pointer to the Parent Object (PathConfiguration)
Value
IPathElement
Read / Write get the current setting for the element.
Values
IPathElement
Returns all valid settings for the element.
IPathElement History
Interface
IPathElement
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
7.2
817
PortExtension Object Superseded
ALL methods and properties on the PortExtension Object are Superseded with the Fixturing Object.
Description
Contains the methods and properties that control Port Extensions.
Accessing a PortExtension object
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim PortExt As PortExtension
Set PortExt = app.PortExtension
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Superseded commands
Methods
None
Property
Description
Input A
Sets the Input A extension value.
Input B
Sets the Input B extension value.
Input C
Sets the Input C extension value.
Port 1
Sets the Port 1 extension value.
Port 2
Sets the Port 2 extension value.
Port 3
Sets the Port 3 extension value.
State
Turns Port Extensions ON and OFF.
IPort Extension History
818
Interface
IPort Extension
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
1.0
819
PowerLossSegment Object
Description
Contains the properties describing a segment of the power loss table used in source power calibration.
You can get a handle to one of these segments through the segments.Item Method of the PowerLossSegments
collection.
Accessing the PowerLossSegment object
You can get a handle to one of these segments through PowerLossSegments.Item(n)
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim PwrLossSeg As PowerLossSegment
Set PwrLossSeg = app.SourcePowerCalibrator.PowerLossSegments(1)
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
None
Properties
Description
Frequency
The frequency (Hz) associated with this segment.
Shared with the PowerSensorCalFactorSegment Object
Loss
The loss value (dB) associated with this segment.
SegmentNumber
Returns the number of this segment
Shared with the PowerSensorCalFactorSegment Object
IPowerLossSegment History
820
Interface
IPowerLossSegment
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
2.0
821
PowerLossSegments Collection
Description
A collection object that provides a mechanism for iterating through the segments of the power loss table used in
source power calibration.
Accessing the PowerLossSegments collection
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim PwrLossSegs As PowerLossSegments
Set PwrLossSegs = app.SourcePowerCalibrator.PowerLossSegments
See Also:
PowerLossSegment Object
Collections in the Analyzer
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
Description
Add
Adds a PowerLossSegment object to the collection.
Item
Use to get a handle to a PowerLossSegment object in the collection.
Remove
Removes an object from the collection.
Properties
Description
Count
Returns the number of objects in the collection.
Parent
Returns a handle to the Parent object (SourcePowerCalibrator) of this collection.
822
PowerMeterInterface Object
Description
Contains the properties used to select a power meter and sensor to be used for a source power calibration.
Note: This object replaces the PowerMeterGPIBAddress Property.
Accessing the PowerMeterInterface object
Get a handle to a power meter object using the PowerMeterInterfaces collection.
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim pwrMtrInterfaces As PowerMeterInterfaces
Set pwrMtrInterfaces = app.SourcePowerCalibrator.PowerMeterInterfaces
If pwrMtrInterfaces.Count > 0 Then
Dim pwrMtrInterface As PowerMeterInterface
Set pwrMtrInterface = pwrMtrInterfaces(1)
pwrMtrInterface.Path = naUSB
pwrMtrInterface.Locator = ”Agilent Technologies,U2000A,MY12345678”
End If
See Also:
Source Power Calibration
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
None
Properties
Description
Path
Specifies the interface to use: GPIB, USB, LAN
Locator
Specifies the location (address) of the power meter/sensor.
823
IPowerMeterInterface History
Interface
IPowerMeterInterface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
7.50
Last Modified:
5-Jul-2007
MX New topic
824
PowerMeterInterfaces Collection
Description
A collection object that provides a mechanism for accessing the PowerMeterInterface objects.
The collection size is limited to one PowerMeterInterface object. By default, that PowerMeterInterface object refers
to GPIB, and to the GPIB address that is currently set for the power meter on that PNA.
The power meter is specified by using the Interface property.
Accessing the PowerMeterInterfaces collection
Get a handle to a power meter object using the PowerMeterInterfaces collection.
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim pwrMtrInterfaces As PowerMeterInterfaces
Set pwrMtrInterfaces = app.SourcePowerCalibrator.PowerMeterInterfaces
If pwrMtrInterfaces.Count > 0 Then
Dim pwrMtrInterface As PowerMeterInterface
Set pwrMtrInterface = pwrMtrInterfaces(1)
pwrMtrInterface.Path = naUSB
pwrMtrInterface.Locator = ”Agilent Technologies,U2000A,MY12345678”
End If
See Also:
Source Power Calibration
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
Item
Use to get a handle to a PowerMeterInterface object in the collection.
Properties
Description
Count
Returns the number of objects in the collection.
IPowerMeterInterfaces History
825
Interface
IPowerMeterInterfaces
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
7.50
Last Modified:
9-Jul-2007
MX New topic
826
PowerSensor Object
Description
Each power sensor connected to the power meter associated with Source Power Calibration will have a
PowerSensor object created to represent it. These PowerSensor objects reside in the PowerSensors collection
within the SourcePowerCalibrator object. You cannot directly create PowerSensor objects, but can only retrieve
existing ones from the PowerSensors collection.
The PowerSensorCalFactorSegment object is also accessed through the PowerSensor object. These are accessed
through the CalFactorSegments collection in the PowerSensor object.
Accessing a PowerSensor object
Dim pna As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set pna = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim powerCalibrator as SourcePowerCalibrator
Dim powerSensor as PowerSensor
Dim calFactorSegment as PowerSensorCalFactorSegment
Set powerCalibrator = pna.SourcePowerCalibrator
' Specify GPIB address of the power meter.
powerCalibrator.PowerMeterGPIBAddress = 13
' Each time the PowerSensors collection is accessed, the power meter is queried to
determine which channels have sensors attached. The collection is updated
accordingly.
If powerCalibrator.PowerSensors.Count > 0 Then
' If channel B of the meter has a sensor attached but channel A does not, then
element 1 of the
' collection is sensor B. Whenever channel A has a sensor, sensor A will be element
1.
Set powerSensor = powerCalibrator.PowerSensors(1)
' Insert one new PowerSensorCalFactorSegment at the beginning of the collection
(index 1).
powerSensor.CalFactorSegments.Add(1)
' Assign our variable to refer to that object.
Set calFactorSegment = powerSensor.CalFactorSegments(1)
' Set property values for that object.
calFactorSegment.Frequency = 300000
' frequency in Hz
calFactorSegment.CalFactor = 98
' cal factor in percent
End If
See Also:
827
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
(Bold Methods or Properties provide access to a child object)
Methods
Description
None
Properties
Description
CalFactorSegments
Collection for iterating through the segments of a power sensor cal factor table.
MinimumFrequency
Minimum usable frequency (Hz) specified for this power sensor.
MaximumFrequency
Maximum usable frequency (Hz) specified for this power sensor.
PowerMeterChannel
Identifies which power sensor this object corresponds to ( or which channel of the
power meter the sensor is connected to).
ReferenceCalFactor
Reference cal factor (%) associated with this power sensor.
IPowerSensor History
Interface
IPowerSensor
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
2.0
828
PowerSensorCalFactorSegment Object
Description
Contains the properties describing a segment of a power sensor cal factor table.
Accessing the PowerSensorCalFactorSegment object
You can get a handle to one of these segments through CalFactorSegments.Item(n)
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim calFactSeg As CalFactorSegments
Set calFactSeg = app.SourcePowerCalibrator.PowerSensors(1).CalFactorSegments(1)
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
None
Properties
Description
Frequency
The frequency (Hz) associated with this segment.
Shared with the PowerLossSegment Object
CalFactor
The cal factor (%) associated with this segment.
SegmentNumber
Returns the number of this segment.
Shared with the PowerLossSegment Object
IPowerSensorCalFactorSegment History
Interface
IPowerSensorCalFactorSegment
Introduced with
PNA Rev:
2.0
829
PowerSensors Collection
Description
A collection object that provides a mechanism for iterating through the PowerSensor objects which are connected
to the power meter. Each time this collection object is accessed, the power meter is queried to determine how
many sensors are connected to it. The collection size and order of objects is then adjusted accordingly before the
requested method or property operation is performed. The power meter is specified by using the
PowerMeterGPIBAddress property of the SourcePowerCalibrator object.
Accessing the PowerSensors Collection
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim PwrSensors As PowerSensors
Set PwrSensors = app.SourcePowerCalibrator.PowerSensors
See Also:
PowerSensor Object
Collections in the Analyzer
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
Description
Item
Use to get a handle to a PowerSensor object in the collection.
Properties
Description
Count
Returns the number of objects in the collection.
Parent
Returns a handle to the Parent object (SourcePowerCalibrator) of this collection.
830
Preferences Object
Description
Sets the preferences for the behavior of several properties.
Accessing the Preferences object
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim pref As Preferences
Set pref = app.Preferences
See Also:
Citifile Define Data Saves
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
None
Properties
Interface
Description
See History
AuxTriggerScopeIsGlobal
IPreferences5 Sets the External Trigger OUT behavior to have either
Global or Channel scope.
CitiContents
IPreferences Specifies the contents of subsequent citifile saves.
CitiFormat
IPreferences Specifies the format of subsequent citifile saves.
EnableSourceUnleveledEvents Property
IPreferences6 Specifies whether or not to report Source Unleveled
errors as system events.
OffsetReceiverAttenuator
IPreferences6 Mathematically offset the test port receiver.
OffsetSourceAttenuator
IPreferences6 Mathematically offset the reference receiver.
Port1NoiseTunerSwitchPresetsToExternal IPreferences8 Sets default setting for Noise Figure switch.
831
PowerOnDuringRetraceMode
IPreferences4 Specify whether to turn RF power ON or OFF during a
retrace for single-band frequency or segment sweeps
ONLY.
PowerSweepRetracePowerMode
IPreferences3 At the end of a power sweep, specifies whether to
maintain source power at the start or stop power level.
PreferInternalTriggerOnChannelSingle
IPreferences2 Sets the preference for chan.Single behavior.
PreferInternalTriggerOnUnguidedCal
IPreferences2 Set the preference for the trigger behavior when
performing an Unguided calibration.
RemoteCalStoragePreference
IPreferences7 Specifies the default manner in which calibrations
performed via SCPI or COM are to be stored.
SnPFormat
IPreferences Specifies the format of subsequent .S1P, .S2P, .S3P
file saves.
IPreferences History
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
IPreferences
4.0
IPreferences2
6.0
IPreferences3
7.2
IPreferences4
6.04
IPreferences5
7.10
IPreferences6
7.20
IPreferences7
7.21
IPreferences8
8.0
832
PulseGenerator Object
Description
Contains the properties for configuring the five internal pulse generators in the PNA-X.
Accessing the PulseGenerator object
Dim
Dim
Set
Dim
Set
app as AgilentPNA835x.Application
chan as Channel
chan = app.ActiveChannel
pulse as PulseGenerator
pulse = chan.PulseGenerator
Each pulse generator is specified in the Pulse Generator properties. See below.
Pulse Definitions
D = Delay; the time before each pulse begins
W = Width; the time the pulse is ON
P = Period; one complete pulse cycle
W/P = Duty Cycle; the ratio of pulse ON/OFF
Important: If D + W is greater than P, then undefined PNA behavior results. There is NO error message or
warning.
See Also:
IF Path Block Diagram.
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
About PNA-X Pulse Capabilities
Example Programs
833
Methods
Description
None
Properties
Interface
Description
See History
Delay
IPulsedGenerator
Sets the pulse delay.
DelayIncrement
IPulsedGenerator
Sets the pulse delay increment.
Period
IPulsedGenerator
Sets the pulse-period (1/PRF) for ALL PNA-X internal pulse
generators.
State
IPulsedGenerator
Turns the specified pulse generator ON and OFF.
Width
IPulsedGenerator
Sets the pulse width for the specified pulse generator.
IPulseGenerator History
Interface
IPulseGenerator
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
7.2
Last Modified:
1-Jan-2007
MX New topic
834
SCPIStringParser Object
Description
Provides the ability to send a SCPI command from within the COM command. The two commands differ in the
following ways:
Execute - will not return an error unless the Execute command itself fails, which is unlikely. Otherwise, you are
required to read the SCPI error queue for errors that were caused by the SCPI command. The Execute command
operates with minimal interference between you, the programmer, and the SCPI parser. It does not presume how
you want to handle errors: handle by ignore, handle by reading the status byte, etc. This command was defined
because automation engines like VB throw runtime errors when a COM method returns a failed HRESULT.
Parse - parses the input command, and then reads the SCPI error queue until the queue is empty. If the queue
contains errors, Parse returns a failed HRESULT (E_NA_BAD_SCPI_EXECUTE). It then creates an IErrorInfo
object and bundles the error numbers and descriptions into the error object. This object is available so that you
can detect the failed HRESULT and interrogate the errorInfo object for more details.
See an example of how to return error information when using the Parse method.
Accessing the ScpiStringParser object
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim SCPI As IScpiStringParser
Set SCPI = app.ScpiStringParser
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods Interface
Description
Parse
ISCPIStringParser
Provides the ability to send a SCPI command from within the COM command.
Execute
ISCPIStringParser2 Does not convert scpi errors. Use :SYST:ERR?
Properties
None
History
835
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
ISCPIStringParser
1.0
ISCPIStringParser2
3.0
836
Segment Object
Description
Contains the methods and properties that affect a sweep segment.
Note: All of these properties are shared with at least one of the following objects: Channel, Cal Set,
PowerSensorCalFactorSegment, or PowerLossSegment.
Accessing a Segment object
You can get a handle to a sweep segment through the segments collection.
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim segs As ISegments
Set segs = app.ActiveChannel.Segments
segs(2).NumberOfPoints = 30
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Segment Sweep
Example Programs
Methods
None
Properties
Interface
centerFrequency ISegment
Description
Sets or returns the center frequency of the segment.
Shared with the Channel Object
DwellTime
ISegment
Dwell time value.
Shared with the Channel Object
FrequencySpan
ISegment
Sets or returns the frequency span of the segment.
Shared with the Channel Object
IFBandwidth
ISegment
Sets or returns the IF Bandwidth of the segment.
Shared with the Channel Object and Cal Set object.
837
NumberOfPoints ISegment
Sets or returns the Number of Points of the segment.
Shared with the Channel Object
SegmentNumber ISegment
Returns the number of the current segment.
StartFrequency
Sets or returns the start frequency of the segment.
ISegment
Shared with the Channel Object
State
ISegment
Turns On or OFF a segment.
StopFrequency
ISegment
Sets or returns the stop frequency of the segment.
Shared with the Channel Object
SweepTime
ISegment2
Sets or returns the sweep time of the segment.
Shared with the Channel Object
TestPortPower
ISegment
Sets or returns the RF power level of the segment.
Shared with the Channel Object
ISegment History
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
ISegment
1.0
ISegment2
7.1
Last modified:
9/29/06
MQQ Added Sweep time
838
Segments Collection
Description
A collection object that provides a mechanism for iterating through the sweep segments of a channel. Sweep
segments are a potentially faster method of sweeping the analyzer through only the frequencies of interest. Learn
more about Segment Sweep.
Accessing the Segments collection
There are two paths to the Segments Collection:
1. From the Channel object
2. From the FOMRange object
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim segs As ISegments
Set segs = app.ActiveChannel.Segments
or
Set segs = app.ActiveChannel.FOM.FOMRange(1).Segments
See Also:
Segment Object
Collections in the Analyzer
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
Interface
See History
Description
Add
ISegments
Adds an item to either the Segments collection.
Item
ISegments
Use to get a handle to a segment in the collection..
Remove
ISegments
Removes an item from a collection of objects.
SetAllSegments
ISegments2
Uploads a segment table to the PNA.
Properties
Description
839
AllowArbitrarySegments ISegments3
Enables the setup of arbitrary segment sweep
Count
ISegments
Returns the number of items in a collection of objects.
IF Bandwidth Option
ISegments
Enables the IFBandwidth to be set on individual sweep segments.
Parent
ISegments
Returns a handle to the current naNetworkAnalyzer application..
Source Power Option
ISegments
Enables setting the Source Power for a segment.
SweepTimeOption
ISegments4
Enables the Sweep time or Dwell time to be set independently on sweep
segments.
ISegments History
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
ISegments
1.0
ISegments2
3.5
ISegments3
4.2
ISegments4
7.1
Last modified:
8-Mar-2007
9/29/06
Modified access via fom
Added ISegments4
840
SignalProcessingModuleFour Object
Description
Contains the properties for configuring the DSP (digital filters) in the PNA-X.
See the entire IF Path Block diagram.
Accessing the SignalProcessingModuleFour object
Dim
Dim
Set
Dim
Set
app as AgilentPNA835x.Application
chan as Channel
chan = app.ActiveChannel
digFilter as SignalProcessingModuleFour
digFilter = chan.SignalProcessingModuleFour
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
About PNA-X Pulse Capabilities
Example Programs
Methods
Description
None
Properties
Interface
Description
See History
ADCCaptureMode
ISPM4
Sets ADC capture mode: auto or manual
FilterErrors
ISPM4
Returns errors with manual digital filter settings
FilterMode
ISPM4
Sets digital filter mode:auto or manual
Stage1Coefficients
ISPM4
Sets Stage1Coefficients
841
Stage1Frequency
Stage1MaximumCoefficient
ISPM4
Sets Stage1 NCO frequency
ISPM4
Returns the maximum value of any single
stage1coefficient.
Stage1MaximumCoefficientCount
ISPM4
Returns the maximum number of Stage1
coefficients.
Stage1MaximumCoefficientSum
ISPM4
Returns the maximum sum of all Stage1
coefficients.
Stage1MinimumCoefficientCount
ISPM4
Returns the minimum number of Stage1
coefficients
Stage2Coefficients
ISPM4
Sets Stage2 Coefficients
Stage2MaximumCoefficient
ISPM4
Returns the maximum value of any single stage2
coefficient.
Stage2MaximumCoefficientCount
ISPM4
Returns the maximum number of Stage2
coefficients
Stage2MaximumCoefficientSum
ISPM4
Returns the maximum sum of all Stage2
coefficients.
Stage2MinimumCoefficientCount
ISPM4
Returns the minimum number of Stage2
coefficients
Stage3FilterType
ISPM4
Sets and returns stage3 filter type
Stage3FilterTypes
ISPM4
Returns the names of supported types of Stage3
filters.
Stage3Parameter
ISPM4
Stage3ParameterMaximum
ISPM4
Returns maximum parameter value for the current
filter type.
Stage3ParameterMinimum
ISPM4
Returns minimum parameter value for the current
filter type.
Stage3Parameters
ISPM4
Returns the names of parameters for the current
filter type.
Sets and returns the parameter value of the current
filter type.
842
ISignalProcessingModuleFour History
Interface
ISignalProcessingModuleFour
Introduced with
PNA Rev:
7.2
Last Modified:
5-Jan-2007
MX New topic
843
SMCType Object
Description
Contains the methods and properties to perform an Scalar Measurement Calibration for the Frequency Converter
Application (option 083).
Accessing the SMCType object
See an example which creates and calibrates an SMC measurement.
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
Interface
Description
See History
AcquireStep
ISMCType
Acquire the measurement data for the specified step in the calibration
process.
GenerateErrorTerms
ISMCType
Generates the error terms for the calibration.
GenerateSteps
ISMCType
Returns the number of steps required to complete the calibration.
GetStepDescription
ISMCType
Returns the description of the specified step calibration process.
Initialize
ISMCType
Begins a calibration.
Properties
Description
AutoOrient
ISMCType
Sets ECAL module automatic orientation ON or OFF.
CalibrationPort
ISMCType
Sets or returns the calibration source port for the calibration.
CalKitType
ISMCType
Sets and returns a calibration kit type for calibration.
CompatibleCalKits
ISMCType
Returns a list of cal kits that are compatible with the connector type for the
specified port.
844
ConnectorType
ISMCType
Sets or queries the connector type for the specified port.
Do2PortEcal
ISMCType
Specify ECAL or Mechanical calibration.
EcalCharacterization
ISMCType
Specifies the characterization data within an ECal module to be used for
the calibration.
EcalOrientation
ISMCType
Specifies which port of the ECal module is connected to which port of the
PNA when the AutoOrient property = False.
NetworkFilename
ISMCType2
Specifies the S2P filename to embed or de-embed on the input or output
of your mixer measurement.
NetworkMode
ISMCType2
Embed (add) or de-embed (remove) circuit network effects on the input
and output of your mixer measurement.
OmitIsolation
ISMCType
Sets and returns whether Isolation portion of the calibration will be
performed or not.
ThruCalMethod
ISMCType
Sets and returns the method for performing the thru portion of the
calibration.
ValidConnectorTypes
ISMCType
Returns a list of connector types for which there are calibration kits.
ISMCType History
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
ISMCType
3.5
ISMCType2
6.0
845
SourcePowerCalibrator Object
Description
This object is a child of the Application object and is a vehicle for performing source power calibrations.
Accessing the SourcePowerCalibrator Object
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim ispc As ISourcePowerCalibrator
Set ispc = app.SourcePowerCalibrator
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Note: Interface ISourcePowerCalibrator is abbreviated as ISPC in the following table.
(Bold Methods or Properties provide access to a child object)
Methods
Interface
Description
See History
AbortPowerAcquisition
ISPC
Aborts a source power cal acquisition sweep that is
currently in progress.
AcquirePowerReadings
ISPC
Superseded with AcquirePowerReadingsEx
AcquirePowerReadingsEx
ISPC4
Initiates a source power cal acquisition.
ApplyPowerCorrectionValues
ISPC
Superseded with ApplyPowerCorrectionValuesEx
ApplyPowerCorrectionValuesEx
ISPC5
Applies correction values after completing a source power
cal acquisition sweep. Optionally perform a calibration of
the reference receiver used in the source power cal.
CheckPower
ISPC2
Measures power at a specific frequency. Used to test
power level before and/or after applying a source power
calibration.
LaunchPowerMeterSettingsDialog
ISPC2
Launches the Power Meter Settings dialog on the PNA.
SetCalInfo
ISPC
Superseded with SetCalInfoEx Method
846
SetCalInfo2
ISPC3
Superseded with SetCalInfoEx Method
SetCalInfoEx Method
ISPC4
Specifies the channel and source port to be used for the
source power calibration.
SetPowerAcquisitionDevice
ISPC3
Sets the power sensor channel (A or B) to be used. This
method is ONLY necessary when performing an SMC
calibration.
Properties
Interface
Description
CalPower
ISPC
Specifies the power level that is expected at the desired
reference plane.
IterationsTolerance
ISPC3
Sets the maximum desired deviation from the sum of the
test port power and the offset value.
MaximumIterationsPerPoint
ISPC3
Specifies maximum number of readings to take at each
data point for iterating the source power.
PowerAcquisitionDevice
ISPC2
Specifies the power sensor channel (A or B) that is
currently selected for use at a specific frequency.
PowerLossSegments (collection)
ISPC2
Collection for iterating through the segments of the power
loss table used in source power calibration.
PowerMeterGPIBAddress
ISPC
Specifies the GPIB address of the power meter.
PowerMeterInterfaces
ISPC6
Collection for getting a handle to the available power
meters.
PowerSensors (collection)
ISPC2
Collection for iterating through the PowerSensor objects
which are connected to the power meter for a source
power cal.
ReadingsPerPoint
ISPC
Specifies the maximum power readings for power meter
settling.
ReadingsTolerance
ISPC3
Power meter settling tolerance value.
USBPowerMeterCatalog
ISPC6
Returns a list of USB power meters that are connected to
the PNA.
UsePowerLossSegments
ISPC
Specifies if subsequent calls to the
AcquirePowerReadings method will make use of the loss
table (PowerLossSegments).
847
UsePowerSensorFrequencyLimits
ISPC
Specifies if subsequent calls to the
AcquirePowerReadings method will make use of power
sensor frequency checking capability.
ISourcePowerCalibrator History
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
ISourcePowerCalibrator
2.0
ISourcePowerCalibrator2
3.5
ISourcePowerCalibrator3
4.0
ISourcePowerCalibrator4
6.2
ISourcePowerCalibrator5
7.2
ISourcePowerCalibrator6
7.5
848
TestsetControl Object
Description
A TestsetControl object is used to control one of the supported test sets. Only one external test set can be
controlled by the PNA at any time. The Testset Control object appears as an item in the ExternalTestsets
collection, which in turn is a property of the main application object.
If the specified test set is not connected to the PNA or is not ON, then setting Enabled = True will return an error.
All other properties can be set even if the test set is not connected.
Note: The ONLY way to load a test set configuration file is by sending the testsets.Add method. There is no
method to query the test set type. See an example program.
Accessing a TestsetControl object
The ExternalTestsets collection is a property of the main Application Object. You can obtain a handle to a testset
object by specifying an item in the collection.
Visual Basic Example
Dim pna
Dim testsets As ExternalTestsets
Dim tset1 As TestsetControl
Set pna = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application")
Set testsets = pna.ExternalTestsets
Set tset1 = testsets(1)
' make COM calls on tset1 object
End Sub
See Also:
E5091A Testset Object
About External Testset Control
ExternalTestset Control Example
ExternalTestsets Collection
The PNA Object Model
849
Methods
Interface
Description
(See history)
None
Properties
Description
ControlLines
IExternalTestset
Sets the control lines of the specified Test set.
Enabled
IExternalTestset
Enables and disables (ON/OFF) the port mapping and control line output of
the specified test set.
ID
IExternalTestset
Returns the test set ID number.
Label
IExternalTestset
Returns the label on a given channel for the specified test set.
NumberOfPorts IExternalTestset
Reads the number of ports that are on the specified test set.
OutputPorts
IExternalTestset
Sets or returns the port mappings for ALL ports.
PortCatalog
IExternalTestset
Returns the selections available for a given logical port.
SelectPort
IExternalTestset
Sets and returns the logical port value.
ShowProperties IExternalTestset
Turns status bar display of test set properties on or off.
Type
Returns the test set model.
IExternalTestset
ExternalTestset History
Interface
Introduced with PNA Rev:
IExternalTestset
6.0
IExternalTestset
6.0
850
Trace Object
Description
The Trace object controls how the measurement data is displayed. You can control scale, reference position, and
value from the Trace Object.
Accessing a Trace object
There are several ways to get a handle to a trace.
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim trace As Trace
Then you can do any of the following:
Set trace = app.NAWindows(1).traces(1)
set trace = app.NAWindows.item(1).ActiveTrace
set trace = app.ActiveNAWindow.traces.item(1)
set trace = app.ActiveNAWindow.ActiveTrace
Set trace = app.Measurements(1).trace
Set trace = app.ActiveMeasurement.trace
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Traces, Channels, and Windows on the PNA
Example Programs
851
Description
Methods
Autoscale
Autoscales the trace or all of the traces in the selected window.
Shared with the NAWindow Object
Description
Property
Name
Sets or returns the trace name
ReferencePosition
Sets or returns the Reference Position of the active trace.
ReferenceValue
Sets or returns the value of the Y-axis Reference Level of the active trace.
YScale
Sets or returns the Y-axis Per-Division value of the active trace.
ITrace History
Interface
ITrace
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
1.0
852
Traces Collection
Description
Child of the Application Object. A collection that provides a mechanism for getting a handle to a trace or iterating
through the traces in a window.
Accessing the Traces collection
Get a handle to the traces collection through the NaWindows collection. The following example sets the variable
trcs to the collection of traces in window 1 of the NaWindows collection.
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim trcs As traces
Set trcs = app.NAWindows(1).traces
See Also:
Trace Object
Collections in the Analyzer
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Description
Methods
Item
Use to get a handle to a trace
Properties
Description
Count
Returns the number of traces in the collection.
Parent
Returns a handle to the current Application.
853
Transform Object
Description
Contains the methods and properties that control Time Domain transforms.
Accessing the Transform Object
Dim app As AgilentPNA835x.Application
Set app = CreateObject("AgilentPNA835x.Application", <analyzerName>)
Dim trans As Transform
Set trans = app.ActiveMeasurement.Transform
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Time Domain Topics
Example Programs
Note: Sweep Type must be set to Linear before setting Time Domain Transform (state) ON.
Methods
Interface
Description
SetFrequencyLowPass ITransform
Sets low frequencies for low pass.
Properties
Description
Center
ITransform
Sets or returns the Center time.
Shared with the Gating Object
CoupledParameters
ITransform2
Select Transform parameters to couple
DistanceMarkerMode
ITransform2
Sets the measurement type in order to determine the correct marker
distance.
DistanceMarkerUnit
ITransform2
Sets the unit of measure for the display of marker distance values.
ImpulseWidth
ITransform
Sets or returns the Impulse Width of Time Domain transform
windows.
KaiserBeta
ITransform
Sets or returns the Kaiser Beta of Time Domain transform windows.
Mode
ITransform
Sets the type of transform.
854
Span
ITransform
Sets or returns the Span time.
Shared with the Gating Object
Start
ITransform
Sets or returns the Start time.
Shared with the Gating Object
State
ITransform
Turns an Object ON and OFF.
StepRiseTime
ITransform
Sets or returns the Rise time of the stimulus in Low Pass Step
Mode.
Stop
ITransform
Sets or returns the Stop time.
Shared with the Gating Object
ITransform History
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
ITransform
1.0
ITransform2
4.2
855
TriggerSetup Object
Description
These properties setup Global triggering that effects the entire PNA application.
Accessing the TriggerSetup object
Dim app as AgilentPNA835x.Application
Dim trigSetup as ITriggerSetup
Set trigSetup = app.TriggerSetup
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Triggering in the PNA
Example Programs
Methods
Interface
Description
See History
(below)
None
Properties
AcceptTriggerBeforeArmed
Description
ITriggerSetup2 Allows a trigger signal to be remembered and then used
when the PNA becomes armed (ready to be triggered).
ExternalTriggerConnectionBehavior ITriggerSetup
Configures the external triggering signal for the PNA
Scope
ITriggerSetup
Determines whether a trigger signal affects a single
channel or all channels in the PNA.
Source
ITriggerSetup
Sets or returns the source of triggering in the PNA.
TriggerOutputEnabled
ITriggerSetup2 Enables the PNA to send trigger signals out the rear-panel
TRIGGER OUT connector.
856
ITriggerSetup History
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
ITriggerSetup
4.0
ITriggerSetup2
4.2
857
VMC Type Object
Description
Contains the methods and properties to perform a Vector Measurement Calibration for the Frequency Converter
Application (option 083).
Accessing the VMCType object
See an example which creates and calibrates a VMC measurement.
See Also:
PNA Automation Interfaces
The PNA Object Model
Example Programs
Methods
Interface
Description
See History
AcquireStep
IVMCType
Acquire the measurement data for the specified step in the calibration
process.
GenerateErrorTerms
IVMCType
Generates the error terms for the calibration.
GenerateSteps
IVMCType
Returns the number of steps required to complete the calibration.
GetStepDescription
IVMCType
Returns the description of the specified step in the calibration process.
Initialize
IVMCType
Begins a calibration.
Properties
Description
AutoOrient
IVMCType
Sets ECAL module automatic orientation ON or OFF.
CalKitType
IVMCType
Sets and returns a calibration kit type for calibration.
CharacterizeMixerOnly
IVMCType
Sets and returns whether to perform a mixer characterization ONLY or
full 2-port calibration.
CharFileName
IVMCType
Specifies the .S2P mixer characterization file name.
858
CharMixerReverse
IVMCType2
Specifies the direction in which to characterize the calibration mixer.
CompatibleCalKits
IVMCType
Returns a list of cal kits that are compatible with the connector type for
the specified port.
ConnectorType
IVMCType
Sets or queries the connector type for the specified port.
Do1PortEcal
IVMCType
Specify ECAL or Mechanical calibration for the mixer characterization
portion of a VMC calibration.
Do2PortEcal
IVMCType
Specify ECAL or Mechanical calibration for the 2-port calibration portion
of a VMC calibration.
EcalCharacterization
IVMCType
Specifies the characterization data within an ECal module to be used
for the calibration.
EcalOrientation1Port
IVMCType
For Mixer Characterization ONLY - Specifies which port of the ECal
module is connected to which port of the PNA
EcalOrientation2Port
IVMCType
For full 2-port VMC cal - Specifies which port of the ECal module is
connected to which port of the PNA
LoadCharFromFile
IVMCType
Specifies and loads a mixer characterization (S2P) file.
NetworkFilename
IVMCType3
Specifies the S2P filename to embed or de-embed on the input or
output of your mixer measurement.
NetworkMode
IVMCType3
Embed (add) or de-embed (remove) circuit network effects on the input
and output of your mixer measurement.
OmitIsolation
IVMCType
Sets and returns whether Isolation portion of the calibration will be
performed or not.
ThruCalMethod
IVMCType
Sets and returns the method for performing the thru portion of the
calibration.
ValidConnectorTypes
IVMCType
Returns a list of connector types for which there are calibration kits.
IVMCType History
859
Interface
Introduced with PNA
Rev:
IVMCType
3.5
IVMCType2
3.53
IVMCType3
6.0
860
Write/Read.
About Trigger
AcceptTriggerBeforeArmed Property
Description
VB Syntax
Variable
trigsetup
boolean
Determines what happens to an EDGE trigger signal if it occurs before the PNA is ready to be
triggered. (LEVEL trigger signals are always ignored.) For more information, see External
triggering.
trigsetup.AcceptTriggerBeforeArmed = boolean
(Type) - Description
A TriggerSetup2 (object)
Choose from:
False - A trigger signal is ignored if it occurs before the PNA is ready to be triggered.
True - A trigger signal is remembered and then used when the PNA becomes armed (ready to be
triggered). The PNA remembers only one trigger signal.
Return
Type
Boolean
Default
False
Examples
trigsetup.AcceptTriggerBeforeArmed = True 'Write
atba = trigsetup.AcceptTriggerBeforeArmed 'Read
C++ Syntax
HRESULT get_AcceptTriggerBeforeArmed( BOOL *pVal);
HRESULT put_AcceptTriggerBeforeArmed( BOOL newVal);
Interface
ITriggerSetup2
861
Read / Write
About Performing a Calibration
AcquisitionDirection Property
Description
VB Syntax
Variable
cal
value
Specifies the direction of each part of a 2-port
calibration.
cal.AcquisitionDirection = value
(Type) - Description
A Calibrator (object)
(enum NADirection) - Choose from:
0 - naForward - measures the forward direction
1 - naReverse - measures the reverse direction
Return Type
Default
Examples
C++ Syntax
Interface
Long Integer
naForward
cal.AcquisitionDirection = naForward
HRESULT AcquisitionDirection(tagNADirection dir);
ICalibrator
862
Write/Read
About Compression Mode
AcquisitionMode Property
Description
VB Syntax
Variable
gca
value
Set and read the method by which gain compression data is acquired.
gca.AcquisitionMode = value
(Type) - Description
A GainCompression (object)
(NAGCAAcquisitionMode) Choose from:
naSmartSweep (0) Iterate quickly to find compression point
naSweepPowerAtEachFreq2D (1) Sweep power at each frequency
naSweepFreqAtEachPower2D (2) Sweep frequency at each power level
Return Type
Default
Examples
Enum
naSmartSweep
gca.AcquisitionMode = naSmartSweep 'Write
acqMode = gca.AcquisitionMode 'Read
C++ Syntax
HRESULT get_AcquisitionMode(tagNAGCAAcquisitionMode* mode)
HRESULT put_AcquisitionMode(tagNAGCAAcquisitionMode mode)
Interface
IGainCompression
Last Modified:
11-Sep-2007
MX New topic
863
Read-only
About Calibration Kits
ActiveCalKit Property
Description
VB Syntax
Variable
app
<setting>
cKit
Return Type
Default
Examples
C++ Syntax
Interface
Returns a handle to the Active CalKit object. You can either (1) use the handle directly
to access CalKit properties and methods, or (2) set a variable to the CalKit object. The
variable retains a handle to the original object if another CalKit becomes active.
1) app.ActiveCalKit.<setting>
or
2) Set cKit = app.ActiveCalKit
(Type) - Description
An Application (object)
A CalKit property (or method) and arguments
(object) - A CalKit object
CalKit object
None
Public cKit as calKit
Set cKit = app.ActiveCalKit 'read
HRESULT get_ActiveCalKit (ICalkit * kit)
IApplication
864
Read-only
About Channels
ActiveChannel Property
Description
VB Syntax
Returns a handle to the Active Channel object. You can either (1) use the handle directly
to access channel properties and methods, or (2) set a variable to the channel object.
The variable retains a handle to the original channel if another channel becomes active.
(1) app.ActiveChannel.<setting>
or
(2) Set chan = app.ActiveChannel
Variable
(Type) - Description
chan
A Channel (object)
app
<setting>
An Application (object)
A channel property (or method) and arguments
Return Type
Channel object
Default
Not applicable
Examples
C++ Syntax
Interface
1) app.ActiveChannel.Averaging = 1
2) Public chan as Channel
Set chan = app.ActiveChannel
HRESULT get_ActiveChannel( IChannel* *pVal)
IApplication
865
Read-only
About Markers
ActiveMarker Property
Description
VB Syntax
Variable
meas
<setting>
mark
Return Type
Default
Examples
C++ Syntax
Interface
Returns a handle to the Active Marker object. You can either (1) use the handle directly
to access Marker properties and methods, or (2) set a variable to the Marker object. The
variable retains a handle to the original object if another Marker becomes active.
1) meas.ActiveMarker.<setting>
or
2) Set mark = meas.ActiveMarker
(Type) - Description
(object) - An Measurement object
A marker property (or method) and arguments
(object) - A marker object
marker object
None
Public mark as marker
Set mark = meas.ActiveMarker
HRESULT get_ActiveMarker(IMarker** marker)
IMeasurement
866
Read-only
ActiveMeasurement Property
Description
VB Syntax
Variable
meas
app
<setting>
Return Type
Default
Examples
C++ Syntax
Interface
Returns a handle to the Active Measurement object. You can either (1) use the handle
directly to access measurement properties and methods, or (2) set a variable to the
measurement object. The variable retains a handle to the original measurement.
1) app.ActiveMeasurement.<setting>
or
2) Set meas = app.ActiveMeasurement
(Type) - Description
A Measurement (object)
An Application (object)
A measurement property (or method) and arguments
Measurement object
None
1) app.ActiveMeasurement.Averaging = 1
2) Public meas as Measurement
Set meas = app.ActiveMeasurement
HRESULT get_ActiveMeasurement(IMeasurement **ppMeas)
IApplication
867
Read-only
About Windows
ActiveNAWindow Property
Description
VB Syntax
Variable
Returns a handle to the Active Window object. You can either (1) use the handle directly
to access window properties and methods, or (2) set a variable to the window object.
The variable retains a handle to the original window if another window becomes active.
1) app.ActiveNAWindow.<setting>
or
2) Set win = app.ActiveNAWindow
(Type) - Description
win
A NAWindow (object)
app
An Application (object)
<setting> A NAWindow property (or method) and arguments
Return Type
Default
Examples
C++ Syntax
Interface
A NAWindow object
Not applicable
Public win as NAWindow
Set win = app.ActiveWindow
HRESULT get_ActiveNAWindow(INAWindow **ppWindow)
IApplication
868
Write/Read
About X-axis display
ActiveXAxisRange Property
Description
VB Syntax
Variable
Sets or returns the swept parameter to display on the X-axis for the selected FCA
measurement.
mixer.ActiveXAxisRange = value
(Type) - Description
mixer
A Mixer (object)
value
(Enum as MixerStimulusRange) - Parameter to display on the X-axis. Choose from:
0 - mixINPUT - Input frequency span
1 - mixOUTPUT - Output frequency span
2 - mixLO_1 - First LO frequency span
3 - mixLO_2 - Second LO frequency span
Return Type
Default
Examples
Enum
OUTPUT
mixer.ActiveXAxisRange = 1 'Write
variable = mixer.ActiveXAxisRange
C++ Syntax
'Read
HRESULT get_ActiveXAxisRange(tagMixerStimulusRange *Val)
HRESULT put_ActiveXAxisRange(tagMixerStimulusRange newVal)
Interface
IMixer3
869
Write/Read
About PNA-X Pulsed Capabilities
ADCCaptureMode Property
Description
VB Syntax
Variable
Sets and returns the ADC capture mode modeled as a 2-pole switch in the diagram on the
SignalProcessingModuleFour page. The switch either bypasses or routes the IF through the 3stage digital filter.
spm4.ADCCaptureMode = value
(Type) - Description
spm4
A SignalProcessingModuleFour (object)
value
(Enum as NAStates) Capture mode.
naOFF (0) - The digital filters are used to process IF information. The filters can be configured
automatically or manually using FilterMode Property.
naON (1) - The digital filters are bypassed and the raw ADC readings are taken directly. A
maximum of 4096 data points per sweep can be acquired.
Return
Type
Enum
Default
OFF
Examples
spm4.ADCCaptureMode = 0 'Write
mode = spm4.ADCCaptureMode 'Read
C++ Syntax
HRESULT get_ADCCaptureMode(tagNAStates* pCaptureMode);
HRESULT put_ADCCaptureMode(tagNAStates pCaptureMode);
Interface
ISignalProcessingModuleFour
Last Modified:
18-Jun-2007
MX New topic
870
Write / Read
About Source Ports
ALCLevelingMode Property
Description
Sets and returns the ALC mode for the specified channel and port. Use
GetSupportedALCModes to return a list of valid ALC modes for the PNA.
Learn more about ALC mode.
VB Syntax
Variable
chan
sourcePort
chan.ALCLevelingMode (sourcePort) = value
(Type) - Description
(object) - A Channel object
(long integer) - The source port for which to make this setting. If ports are remapped,
specify the logical port number.
Use GetPortNumber to return the port number of a source that only has a string name,
such as an External Source.
value
(enum as naALCLevelingMode) - Choose from:
0 naALCInternal
1 naALCExternal (E835x Only)
2 naALCOpenLoop (PNA-X only)
3 naALCIF (For future use)
Return Type
Default
Examples
C++ Syntax
Enum
naALCInternal
chan.ALCLevelingMode(1) = 'Write
state = chan.ALCLevelingMode(4) 'Read
HRESULT get_ALCLevelingMode(long port, tagNAALCLevelingMode* pVal);
HRESULT put_ALCLevelingMode(long port,tagNAALCLevelingMode newVal);
Interface
IChannel9
Last modified:
30-Apr-2007
10/18/06
Edited for src strings
MX New topic
871
Read-only
About Traces
ActiveTrace Property
Description
VB Syntax
Variable
Returns a handle to the Active Trace object. You can either (1) use the handle directly to
access trace properties and methods, or (2) set a variable to the trace object. The
variable retains a handle to the original trace if another trace becomes active.
1) win.ActiveTrace.<setting>
or
2) Set trce = win.ActiveTrace
(Type) - Description
trce
A Trace (object)
win
An NAWindow (object)
<setting>
Return Type
Default
Examples
C++ Syntax
Interface
A trace property (or method) and arguments
An NAWindow object
None
1) win.ActiveTrace.Autoscale
2) Public trce as Trace
Set trce = Application.ActiveNAWindow.ActiveTrace
HRESULT get_ActiveTrace(ITrace* *pVal)
INAWindow
872
Write/Read
About Segment Sweep
AllowArbitrarySegments Property
Description
VB Syntax
Variable
Enables you to setup a segment sweep with arbitrary frequencies. The start and stop frequencies
of each segment can overlap other segments. Also, each segment can have a start frequency that
is greater than its stop frequency which causes a reverse sweep over that segment. Learn more
about Arbitrary Segment Sweep.
segs.AllowArbitrarySegments = value
(Type) - Description
segs
A Segments collection (object)
value
(boolean)
True - Allows the setup of arbitrary segment sweep.
False - Prevents the setup of arbitrary segment sweep.
Return
Type
Boolean
Default
False
Examples
segs.AllowArbitrarySegments = True 'Write
AllowArbSegs = AllowArbitrarySegments 'Read
C++ Syntax
HRESULT get_AllowArbitrarySegments(VARIANT_BOOL *pVal)
HRESULT put_AllowArbitrarySegments(VARIANT_BOOL newVal)
Interface
ISegments3
873
Write/Read
About Sweeping
AlternateSweep Property
Description
VB Syntax
Variable
object
Sets sweeps to either alternate or chopped.
object.AlternateSweep = value
(Type) - Description
Channel (object)
or
CalSet (object) - Read-only property
value
(boolean) - Choose either:
False - Sweep mode set to Chopped - reflection and transmission are measured on the same
sweep.
True - Sweep mode set to Alternate - reflection and transmission measured on separate sweeps.
Improves Mixer bounce and Isolation measurements. Increases cycle time.
Return
Type
boolean
Default
False (0)
Examples
chan.AlternateSweep = True 'Write
altSwp = chan.AlternateSweep 'Read
C++ Syntax
HRESULT AlternateSweep(VARIANT_BOOL *pVal)
HRESULT AlternateSweep(VARIANT_BOOL newVal)
Interface IChannel
ICalSet3
874
Write/Read
About Noise Figure
AmbientTemperature Property
Description
VB Syntax
Sets and returns the temperature at which the current noise measurement is occurring. Learn
more.
noiseCal.AmbientTemperature = value
Variable
(Type) - Description
noiseCal
A NoiseCal (object)
value
Return Type
Default
Examples
(double) Ambient temperature in Kelvin.
Double
295
noise.AmbientTemperature = 289'Write
temp = noise.AmbientTemperature 'Read
C++ Syntax
HRESULT get_AmbientTemperature(Double* pValue)
HRESULT put_AmbientTemperature(Double pNewValue)
Interface
INoiseCal
Last Modified:
6-Sep-2007
MX New topic
875
Read-only
Application Property
Description
VB Syntax
Returns the name of the Analyzer making measurements on the
channel.
chan.Application
Variable
(Type) - Description
chan
A Channel (object)
Return Type
Default
Examples
C++ Syntax
Interface
object
None
rfna = chan.Application 'returns the Analyzer name
HRESULT get_Application(IApplication** Application)
IChannel
876
Write-only
About Arrange Windows
ArrangeWindows Property
Description
Sets the arrangement of all the windows. Overlay, Stack2, Split3 and Quad4 will create
windows.
To control the state of one window, use app.WindowState.
VB Syntax
Variable
ap