+/- 2% - Electric Power Research Institute

+/- 2% - Electric Power Research Institute
SDG&E AMI/PEV Architecture
IWC
12‐7‐10
AMI Communications
Utility
Internet cloud
GSM/CDMA/Gridcomm
Cell Relay
OpenWay 900 mhz
PEV Architecture
Interne
t
Utility
um
ns
Co
pt
cont
rol
ee/w
if i
e
Be
Z ig
on
pt i
um
ns
Co
ZigB
Smart Transformer
PLC
EVSE
s
rence
Prefe
Internet
rol
cont
d
n an
ptio
Preferences
sum
Con
Application
Application
Cloud
Cloud
(e.g. (e.g. PowerMeter)
PowerMeter)
EMS
ee
ZigB
tion and I
Internet
Cons
ump
AM
l
ro
nt
co
d an
ion
Gridcomm
Transformer loading and temp
Pricing/
DR
AMI and PEV Integration
Southern Company
Bryan Coley
Research and Technology Management
•
Southern Company
(NYSE:
SO)
More than 42,000 MW of electric
generating capacity
• 287 generating units
• Core service area:
• 120,000 square miles in
four Southeastern U.S. states
• 4.3 Million customers
• One of the largest producers of
electricity in the U. S.
• Over 26,000 employees
Overview
• AMI Basics
• Meter/Technology used by SO
• Benefits (Why?)
• Deployment Schedule
• AMI Integration
• Architecture
• Where we are
• Energy Select
• Where we are going
AMI BASICS
What Can the Meter Do?
• Meter Reading
-
Meter Reading (down to 5 min. intervals)
Load Profile
Power Quality (voltage min/max/average)
99.9% Delivery of required meter reads within 1 day
Average response time not to exceed 45 seconds
Maximum response time not to exceed 60 seconds
• Communication
-
Two-way communication
Energy Management pricing signals
Radio, meter firmware updates
Meter reprogramming
Time synchronization
In-home communication (thermostat/switches)
The Sensus “Flexnet” System
A
B
1
C
Network
Interface
D
E
F
TGB
2
Initial AMI Benefits
• Reduction in customer service costs
• Meter reading costs
• Work order costs
• Improved theft protection capabilities
• Customer Service Improvements
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Remote outage detection
Restoration notification
Increased efficiency in load research information
Significant reduction in the number of estimated bills
• Environmental
• Reduction in vehicle emissions
• Reduction in number of truck-rolls for off-cycle reads
AMI INTEGRATION
EPRI - DR Connector Project
Architecture
© 2009 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
9
The Basic Concept – A Standard Interface
Decouple the
Appliance from the
Communications
and DR Logic
One Appliance Works with
any Communication Device
One Communication
Device Works with all
Appliances
Accelerates Availability of
DR-Ready Appliances for
both HAN and DLC
Programs
© 2009 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
10
Where we are…
• Southern Research
• EPRI DR Connector Project
• Testing Communication to End-Uses
• U-Snap Platform
• OpCos
• APC, GPC, MPC
• Pilot programs with Thermostats and Water Heaters
• GULF
• Energy Select
Energy Select
• Pricing/Load Management Program
• HVAC
• Water Heating
• One additional “Appliance”
• Current Technology
• PLC from Gateway to thermostat and control
devices
• Paging signal inbound for CPP
• Landline to “back-office” (out dial only)
• Meter communicates TOU pricing through
gateway
• 2011 Changes
• Zigbee will replace PLC
• AMI meter will integrate TOU rates and CPP
Gateway
Where we are going…
• Very Basic: Send a signal through AMI meter
• DR Signal (Load shed in % or kW)
• Pricing Signal (RTP or TOU)
• Agnostic to customer architecture
• Hub/Gateway
• U-Snap or DR Connector Result
• Home Energy Management System (Energy Select, etc.)
• Translation of signal is imminent
• Sensus “Flexnet” is not Zigbee or Homeplug 2.0
• Problems will arise (validation of “received” signal, security, etc.)
Contact Information
Bryan Coley
Research Engineer
Southern Company
205-257-5375
bccoley@southernco.com
IWC Discussion of Billing:
Next Steps
SM
http://www.plugmyride.org/
Watson Collins
Manager, Business Development
Northeast Utilities
0
How can we accommodate the wide variety of EVSE installations with
basically two types of EVSEs (Smart vs. Dumb)?
• Site sponsor Interest in billing for recharging varies widely
• Site sponsors interested in billing for recharging often want specialized transaction systems
• Utility deployments of AMI/Smartgrid vary widely
What modulus could be in an EVSE?
Transaction Systems
> Coin reader
> Bill reader
> Credit card interface
> Smart card interface
> RFID interface
> Bar code reader
> Magnetic stripe reader
> Cellular transaction
module
> Vehicle identified system
> Keypad
1
Telematics
> Wifi
> Cellular
> AMI interface / bridge
> Smartgrid nodal
interface
> HAN interface / bridge
> Ethernet interface
Others
> Display
> Printer
> Event recorder
> Charging session data
logger
> Electric meter
Machine level standards can play a role in meeting the market needs
for transactional processing
Standards exist/being developed for
the communication between an
electric vehicle and the utility grid.
RFID Module
Supplier A
>
No standards exist for
communications within the EVSE and
the modules within the EVSE.
Credit Card Module
Supplier B
>
With machine level standards the
vending machine industry has
developed a standard interface
(MDB) between vending machine
controllers and payment system
peripherals.
>
>
2
Machine level standards will help
operators, suppliers, innovators, and
other focus on what they do best.
EVSE
Supplier A
Smart Card Module
Supplier X
Data Logger
Supplier Y
Electric Meter
Supplier Z
EVSE
Supplier B
Feedback / Next Steps
IWC Meeting
Presentation
Team Deliverables
December 2010
Watson presenting concept
1)
2)
March 2011
Michael Kasavana
(Michigan State) - vending
machine standards (to be
confirmed)
1)
2 or 3 cashless system operators
(Transit agency, vending
machine operator, parking
operator)
1)
September 2011
Presentation from cashless
vendors (TBD)
1)
Deliverable TBD
December 2011
TBD
1)
IWC recommendation for standard?
June 2011
3
Feedback on concept
Solicit team
2)
2)
Problem definition for council feedback
Assessment of MDB usage in EVSEs
Concept of what needs to be included in
equipment level standard (connectors,
interface and message structure)
List of possible EVSE modules to be
included in equipment level standard
Resources / Contact Information
>
http://www.vending.org/technology/Vending_Data_Terminology.pdf
>
http://www.scribd.com/doc/27493229/White-Paper-Cashless-Vending
>
http://www.vending.org/technology/MDB_Version_4.pdf
Watson Collins
Northeast Utilities
collinw@nu.com
860.728.4843
ePort
4
MoneyClip
Smartcard
Reader
PayKey
Reader
Currenza Clip
Cliff Fietzek
BMW NA
12/08/2010
Electric Vehicle & Charging.
Charging Strategy and Communication.
EPRI
Infrastructure Working Council
7-8 Dec. 2010
Tempe, AZ, USA
Cliff Fietzek
BMW NA
12/08/2010
Seite 2
Charging Options for BMW cars in the US.
Overview next Years.
BMW strategy:
Keep on-board charger as small as possible, and focus on implementing
DC charging for higher current instead of high AC charging power.
Power
80KW
10KW
DC Charging
50KW
> 50KW after
2016
Experimental stage (in
development for
several cars)
Future EV
Up to 50KW DC,
135A/ ca.370V
active-E
Up to 31KW,
DC 370V/ 83A
7 KW
3,5 KW
AC Charging
11 KW
Future EV and PHEV
Up to 10KW DC charging for
home use
Mini-E
Up to 48A AC, 1ph.
230V
2010
2011
Future EV and PHEV
Optional 32A AC
active-E
Up to 32A AC
1ph. 230V
2012
Future EV and PHEV
Basis 16A AC
2013
2014
Years
Cliff Fietzek
BMW NA
12/08/2010
Seite 3
Charging modes.
In Europe.
approx. 50kW DC public
charging.
AC
Wallbox
DC
Wallbox
7kW AC and up to 10kW DC
home / workplace charging.
EVSE
3,5kW everyday charging.
Cliff Fietzek
BMW NA
12/08/2010
Seite 4
Charging modes.
In the US.
approx. 50kW DC public
charging.
AC
Wallbox
DC
Wallbox
EVSE
7kW AC and up to 10kW DC
home / workplace charging.
1,6kW occasional use charging.
Cliff Fietzek
BMW NA
12/08/2010
Seite 5
Charging communication.
Why do we need communication?
• Enable costumers to participate in different charging
plans.
• Enables charging according to available energy sources
(e.g. wind energy).
• Enables Load Leveling for higher charging power (fleet
management or utilities).
• Is necessary to control the DC off-board-charger.
Cliff Fietzek
BMW NA
12/08/2010
Seite 6
Agreed charging Communication.
Within the German OEM’s.
German OEM’s have agreed to use PLC as media for AC
and DC charging communication.
Therefore, broadband PLC communication (Home Plug
GreenPhy) should be used at the main AC charging circuits
to communicate to the utilities and for the control of the DC
off-board-charger.
Charging- & Communication- Architecture.
AC & DC charging.
Vehicle
Connector
Type1/2-
Combo
Type1/2
AC-1ph
Type2
DC-1ph
Pilot
Proxy
Control
Unit
(PLC)
N
L1PE N
+
-
L1PE N
+ -
L1
PE
ACcharger
L2/DC+
Battery
Cliff Fietzek
BMW NA
12/08/2010
Seite 7
L3/DC-
Connector-Box
Cliff Fietzek
BMW NA
12/08/2010
Seite 8
Communication Implementation.
OSI Layer structure.
OSI Layer
BMW / Daimler
Implementation
SEP 2.0
IEC/ISO
15118 draft
7 Application
XML-EXI (not strict)
XML-EXI
XML-EXI (not strict)
HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
4 Transport
TCP with TLS
TCP with TLS
TCP with TLS
3 Network
IPv6
IPv6
IPv6
2 Data Link
1 Physical
- Zigbee
or
- Homeplug Green Phy -Homeplug Green Phy
or
-Homeplug AV
-G3
or
-Homeplug Green Phy
Connection
L1 and N
- L1 and N
or
- Pilot wire
6 Presentation
5 Session
House wiring
Cliff Fietzek
BMW NA
12/08/2010
Seite 9
Pilot project - Load Leveling.
Wind-to-vehicle
Government supported Project of BMW and Vattenfall
addresses the potential to use the smart charge ability of
EV’s to use wind energy more efficiently and demonstrate
how load-leveling could be
implemented.
Internet
PLC
Comm.
with
HP GP
Cliff Fietzek
BMW NA
12/08/2010
Seite 10
Pilot project – Model region Munich.
DC charging.
Government supported Project of BMW, Siemens and SWM
(local utility in Munich, Germany) addresses the
implementation of Electro mobility and charging
infrastructure.
A part of the project is to implement DC charging
infrastructure.
PLC Comm.
with
HP GP
Cliff Fietzek
BMW NA
12/08/2010
Seite 11
Thank you.
EVSE UPDATE
John Halliwell
Senior Project Manager
IWC Meeting – Tempe, AZ
December 8, 2010
EVSE Maker List – 35 North American
Companies and Counting…
• ABB (DC fast charge)
• Addenergie Technologies (AC Level 1 & 2,
DC Level 2 & 3planned)
• Aerovironment (AC Level 2, DC Level 2 & 3)
• Akerwade (DC Level 2)
• Alpha Energy
• AVCON Corporation (AC Level 2 Legacy)
• BetterPlace (AC Level 2, Battery Swap)
• Clipper Creek (AC Level 1 & 2)
• Coulomb Technology (AC Level 1 & 2)
• Eaton Corporation (AC Level 2, DC Level 2)
• ECOtality (AC Level 2, DC Level 2)
• EV-Charge America
• Evatran, LLC (inductive)
• EVOASIS USA
• EVSE LLC (Control Module Ind.) (AC Level
1 & 2)
• EyeOnPower (DC Level 2 & 3)
• General Electric (AC Level 2)
• GoSmart Technologies (AC Level 2)
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Greenlight AC (AC Level 1 & 2)
GridBot, LLC (AC Level 1 & 2)
Ingeteam Inc. (AC Level 2)
Lear Corp. (AC Level 1 & 2)
Leviton (AC Level 1 & 2)
Liberty PlugIns Inc. (AC Level 2, Point of
Sale)
Optimization Technologies (AC Level 1 & 2)
Panasonic Electric Works Co. Ltd. (AC
Level 1)
ParkPod LLC (AC Level 1 & 2)
PEP Stations, LLC (AC Level 2)
SemaConnect (AC Level 1 & 2)
Schneider Electric (AC Level 2)
ShorePower (AC Level 1 & 2)
Siemens Energy Inc.
SPX, Inc (AC Level 2)
Volta (Level 2)
Yazaki North America, Inc. (AC Level 1)
9 Companies Now Have Some NRTL
2
Listed/Recognized
Products
Devices are Listed/Recognized by OHSA
Defined NRTLs
Nationally
Recognized Testing
Laboratorories
Just searching UL database may
not find all products that are listed
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
3
UL Listed EVSE Units (FFWA)
EVSE
w/AVCON
connector
EVSE –
Tesla
EVSE –
J1772
connector
Cord-set –
J1772
connector
New since last IWC
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
4
Intertek Listed EVSE Units
New since last IWC
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
5
UL Recognized EV Couplers (FFVI2)
AVCON
connector
Mini-E
J1772
DC
J1772
J1772
J1772, DC
New since last IWC
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
6
Intertek Listed EV Couplers
New since last IWC
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
7
How You Can Get This Data • http://database.ul.com/cgibin/XYV/template/LISEXT/1FRAME/index.html
• http://etlwhidirectory.etlsemko.com/WebClients/ITS/DLP/p
roducts.nsf/$$Search?OpenForm
• http://directories.csa-international.org/
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
8
EVSE in China
Photos and Slides Courtesy of Ted Bohn
(NOTE: He has provided a full presentation that we can
share with a more complete set of information)
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
9
Courtesy Ted Bohn, ANL
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
10
Courtesy Ted Bohn, ANL
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
11
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
12
Courtesy Ted Bohn, ANL
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
13
Photo Courtesy Ted Bohn, ANL
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
14
Courtesy Ted Bohn, ANL
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
15
Some of the companies:
Run Bang Electric Co.
Dostar
Yingtong Energy
ChargeDot
Ebusbar
Titans
Potevio
KGE
Cacti
Shangdong RealForce
Thundersky
Photo Courtesy Ted Bohn
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
16
Together…Shaping the Future of Electricity
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
17
recharge
re·charge noun \( )rē- chärj\
Definition of RECHARGE
: a replenishment of energy and vitality
: a coalition of organizations embarking on a
policy and media campaign to communicate
that electric vehicles powered by renewable
energy provide an incredible opportunity for
economic and environmental sustainability
: a road trip in the summer of 2011 to media
events in major US and Canadian cities
Road Trip Route
Calgary
Vancouver
Toronto
Winnipeg
Montreal
Detroit
Seattle
Chicago
Boston
New York
Portland
San Francisco
Washington DC
Columbus
Los Angeles
Richmond
Raleigh-Durham
San Diego
Houston
Phoenix
Ottawa
Austin
Atlanta
EV Entourage
A collection of 2011 commercially available plug-in vehicles,
representing each class of the car and light duty truck market
Consumer Vehicle Class
Compact*
Fleet Vehicle Class
Sedan
SUV*
Sports car
Special Interest
Taxi
Commercial Fleet Vehicle
*Current Automotive Partners:
Compact – Project EVE (Kestrel)
SUV – Rapid Electric Vehicles
Road Trip EVSE and RE
Travelling with the entourage will be a demonstration of electric
vehicle charging equipment and renewable energy (RE) solutions
SAE J1772
Solar PV
charging stations
Storage Batteries
Wind
RE Inverters
Utility Sponsorship
Host an event in your service territory to engage with the
media and the public by showcasing EV and RE technology.
• Ideal event locations are in large urban centers
• Can accommodate multiple events per utility
• Utility sponsor responsible for event planning
• Requires a participation fee
Benefits to Sponsorship
• Be recognized as a leader for working to ensure a successful
transition to electric mobility
• Collaborate with other leaders on policy change and smart
infrastructure
• Host high-profile events in your service territory that allow you
to interact with early adopters in your community
• Contribute to educating the public about renewable energy and
electric vehicles
• Tell your story through new and traditional media
We are seeking utility partners
to be part of the Recharge
story
If you are interested
or want more information,
please contact:
Katie Laufenberg
Policy Director
katiel@rechargetheroadtrip.com
604-874-8558 x229
www.rechargetheroadtrip.com
SGIP PEV Activities
EPRI IWC Meeting
Dec 8, 2010
SGIP PEV Activities
Report to EPRI IWC
Eric Simmon, NIST
Jerry Melcher, EnerNex
SGIP PEV Activities
EPRI IWC Meeting
Dec 8, 2010
SGIP Overview
SGIP Working Committees
PAPs – Priority Action Plans
PAP 11 – PEV Common Information Model
Status of PAP 11 Closure
Result of submission to SGIP Governing Board
PEV V2G DEWG
Creation of PAP XX – PEV Implementation Questions
Next Meeting
SGIP PEV Activities
EPRI IWC Meeting
Dec 8, 2010
SGIP Overview
Smart Grid Interoperability Program chartered
under joint government/industry collaborative
Directed by NIST under U.S. Energy
Independence and Security Act, 2007
23+ Stakeholder Groups, 200+ companies
http://collaborate.nist.gov/twikisggrid/bin/view/SmartGrid/SGIP
SGIP PEV Activities
EPRI IWC Meeting
Dec 8, 2010
SGIP PEV Activities
EPRI IWC Meeting
Dec 8, 2010
PAPs – Priority Action Plans
Address missing Smart Grid Interoperability
Standards and accelerate development and
implementation
17 PAPs spanning multiple Smart Grid domains
A PAP addresses either: •A gap where a standard or standard extension is needed: •An overlap where two complementary standards address some information that is in common but different for the same scope of an Application: SGIP PEV Activities
EPRI IWC Meeting
Dec 8, 2010
PAPs – Priority Action Plans
SGIP PEV Activities
EPRI IWC Meeting
Dec 8, 2010
PAP 11 – PEV Common Information Model
• Begun August 2009
• 6 original tasks, expanded to 9 total
• Tasks completed or redirected to new PAP XX, or back to V2G DEWG
SGIP PEV Activities
EPRI IWC Meeting
Dec 8, 2010
Status of PAP 11 Closure
Results of submission to SGIP Governing Board
•SAE J1772 TM Sent to GB for approval
•SAE J2836/1 Accepted with minor mods
•SAE J2847/1 Redirected to correct minor mods and remove cyber security language and SEP implementation description
SGIP PEV Activities
EPRI IWC Meeting
Dec 8, 2010
PEV V2G DEWG
SGIP PEV Activities
EPRI IWC Meeting
Dec 8, 2010
PEV V2G DEWG issues
1 Additional Use Cases/Requirements for
advanced PEV applications
SDO Collaboration
2 SEP
2A IEEE
2B IEC
2C SAE
2D ANSI
2E EVSE and PEV Interoperability Testing
3 PLC Development - Cross PAP 15
4 SGIP PEV Activities
EPRI IWC Meeting
Dec 8, 2010
PEV V2G DEWG issues ‐ cont
5 6 7 8 9 10 IEC 61850 models - Cross PAP 7
PEV Roaming
PEV supplies services to grid
PEV Industry profitability
Cybersecurity and privacy
Regulatory Impediments to PEV adoption
11 Utility and auto industry PEV roadmap
SGIP PEV Activities
EPRI IWC Meeting
Dec 8, 2010
Creation of PAP XX – PEV Implementation • PEV Use Cases conforming to SGIP Architecture Council Use Case Template
• PEV Advanced Applications
• Fast Charging Connector
SGIP PEV Activities
EPRI IWC Meeting
Dec 8, 2010
PEV Blue Sky Next Meeting
SGIP PEV Activities
EPRI IWC Meeting
Dec 8, 2010
Upcoming PEV Biweekly Meetings
¾Thurs, Dec 16, 2010
¾Thurs, Jan 6, 2011
¾EPRI IWC, March, San Diego, CA ¾ Face‐to‐Face Brainstorming Session
SGIP PEV Activities
EPRI IWC Meeting
Dec 8, 2010
??? Questions ???
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ClipperCreek, Inc.
Second level
Third level EVSE Installation
Fourth levelDecember 8, 2010
Fifth level
1
Product
Specifications
SAE – Specifications
• Click to edit Master text styles
•OEM
Second
level Specs
– Charger
• Third level
UL – Safety Requirements
• Fourth level
• Fifth level
NEC – Building Regulations
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SAE-J1772™
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• Developed to standardize
all electric vehicles
Click
to
edit
Master
text
styles
• Interchangeable
connectors/inlets
Second
level
•Third
EVSE
to vehicle
level
communications to set
Fourth
chargelevel
rate
level with public
•Fifth
Compatible
infrastructure
3
UL Listing
• UL 2594
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Electric Vehicle Supply
Equipment
to edit Master text styles
•Click
UL 2202
Standard for Electric Vehicle
Second
level
(EV) Charging
System
Equipment
level
•Third
UL 2231
Personnel Protection Systems
Fourth
level
for Electric
Vehicle (EV)
Supply Circuits
level
•Fifth
UL 2251
Plugs, Receptacles and
Couplers for Electric Vehicles
4
NEC 625
• Defines Installation
Requirements
to edit Master text styles
•Click
Permitting
•Second
Inspections
level
• Other
Third
level
Requirements:
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• Installation
• Fourth
level Height
• Hardwired
• Fifth level
installation
• Location
5
Installation
• CS Installation
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• Pedestal Installation
• 4 mounting bolts
• 4 mounting points
• Aesthetic cover
• Conduit
Click
to edit Master text styles
• Pedestal is raceway
• L1, L2 and Ground
Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
6
Installation
• CS Installation
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• Pedestal Installation
• 4 mounting bolts
• 4 mounting points
• Aesthetic cover
• Conduit
Click
to edit Master text styles
• Pedestal is raceway
• L1, L2 and Ground
Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
7
Installation
Relay 2
Relay 1
Hi/Off
Hi/Lo
VEHICLE
GROUND
TERMINAL
READY
ClipperCreek, Inc.
MODEL CS-40
CHARGE
Oct 21, 2008 PCB V1.3
BOM V1.3
SCHV1.3
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Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
Vehicle Side
3L2
1L1
CONTACTOR
2T1
4T2
Service Side
VEHICLE
SHIELD
TERMINAL
JMP2
JMP1
DIAGNOSTICS
LD MGMT DISABLE
GFCI TRIP
GND MSNG
CHARGE TEST
240VAC LINE 2
240VAC LINE 1
SERVICE GROUND
Service Entrance Conductors
Terminal
Torq in-lbs
Square D 8910DPA52
45
Service Ground Lug
40
USE > 75 C Wire
2 wire plug ground
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EVSE
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment
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L1
Installation Circuit
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to/ 240edit
Master
text styles
• 220 V
V Single
Phase
• 60 Hz
Second
level
• 20 Amps to
100 Amps
• Hard Wired
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
120V
NEUTRAL
(NOT USED)
240V
120V
L2
GND
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EVSE
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment
L3 (NOT USED)
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Installation Circuit
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• 60 Hz
• 20 Amps to
100 Amps
Second
level
• Hard Wired
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
•
L1
208 V – 3 Phase Wye Connected
120V
208V
NEUTRAL
(NOT USED)
120V
L2
GND
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EVSE
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment
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Installation Circuit
L3 (NOT USED)
• 240 V
3 Phase
Delta
Connection with
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to
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text styles
Center Tap
• 60 Hz
Second
level
• 20 Amps to 100 Amps
• Hard Wired
Third
level
Fourth level
Fifth level
L1
120V
NEUTRAL
(NOT USED)
240V
120V
L2
GND
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Public Infrastructure
Installations
Lessons Learned
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Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
Perimeter Mall – center of parking space three connectors
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Public Infrastructure
Installations
Lessons Learned
•
•
•
•
•
Click to edit Master text styles
Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
Lenox Square – between two parking spaces three connectors
13
Public Infrastructure
Installations
Lessons Learned
•
•
•
•
•
75text
kVA styles
Click to edit Master
“Power Pack”
amp
Second level 480 100
volt 3-phase
Third level
208 volt 1-phase
6 – 60 amp
Fourth level
6 – 40 amp
Fifth level
120 volt 1-phase
6 – 20 amp
High
Voltage
Low
Voltage
14
Public Infrastructure
Installations
Lessons Learned
•
•
•
•
•
Click to edit Master text styles
Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
Before
After
Arbor Place Mall – 75 kVa Installation
15
Public Infrastructure
Installations
Lessons Learned
•
•
•
•
•
Click to edit Master text styles
Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
Sonotube pedestal base
16
Public Infrastructure
Installations
Lessons Learned
•
•
•
•
•
Click to edit Master text styles
Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
6 dual pedestals – 100 amps each
17
Public Infrastructure
Installations
Lessons Learned
•
•
•
•
•
Click to edit Master text styles
Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
100 amp 3-phase power feed from existing electrical room
18
Public Infrastructure
Installations
Lessons Learned
•
•
•
•
•
Click to edit Master text styles
Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
Phipps Plaza Parking Deck
19
•
•
•
•
•
Thank You
Click to edit Master text styles
Second level
David Packard
Don Francis
Third
level
Auburn, CA 95603
Auburn, CA 95603
Dave@ClipperCreek.net
Don@ClipperCreek.net
Fourth
level
912-882-0702 O
404-906-0656 O
Fifth level
20
Electric
Electric Vehicle
Vehicle Impacts
Impacts to
to
Secondary
Secondary Distribution
Distribution System
System
December 8, 2010
© 2010 San Diego Gas & Electric Company. Trademarks are property of their respective owners. All rights reserved.
Some materials used under license with all rights reserved by the Licensor.
Background
•
Electric Vehicles (EV) are Becoming a New Element of
Residential Loading onto our Distribution System for the
Upcoming Future
•
Introduction of EV to our Distribution System adds another
Element to Consider during Distribution Planning Design
•
Furthermore, Proactive Measures to Account for the
Impact of EV to Existing Distribution System are Required
to Ensure System Stability
1
Focus of This Study
• To Observe Impacts on Secondary Distribution
System in SDG&E Service Territory
• Focus on the Residential Areas
•
Expected to Contain Greatest Source of EV Charging
• Complement the Separate EPRI-SDG&E Study of
Primary Distribution System Impacts from EV
Charging
2
Study Procedure Used
•
SDG&E Planners Utilize Distribution System Software “PM
Lite” to Model Residential Neighborhoods
•
Define Neighborhoods Typical for Different Vintage Styles of
SDG&E Service Territory
•
Characterize Secondary Distribution System Impact for
Residential Neighborhoods using N+1 Approach of Adding
EV Owners
• EV Charging Added as 100% Duty Cycle Load on Top of Customer
Base Loads for each Charge Rate Scenario
3
Simulating Parameters
•
•
•
•
•
•
4
Vintage Neighborhoods:
• 1970’s
• 1980’s
• 1990’s
Customer Loads
• Peak & Off-Peak
Assumed Electric Vehicle Charge Rates
• 4kW
• 8kW
Size of Underground Distribution Transformer
Size and Length of Secondary and Service Cables
Number of Customers per Transformer
PM Lite Model Example
5
Criteria & Expectations
•
Criteria for Residential Neighborhood Simulations
• Voltage Drop Levels at Customer Panel Exceeding 4.2%
• Transformer Load Exceeds 140% of Name Plate
•
Heavy EV Charging Impacts Always have Voltage Drop
Issues Precede Transformer Overloading Levels
• Additional EV Charging Transitions into Regions with Both Issues
6
Summary of Results
•
Summary of Simulations Tabulated with Voltage Drop Levels
• Green Cells = No Problems
• Yellow Cells = Voltage Drop Issues
• Red Cells = Both Voltage Drop & Transformer Overload Issues
•
First Row of Each Table Reflects All EV Charging @ Off-Peak
•
Diagonal of Each Table Reflects all EV Charging @ Peak Hours
7
1970’s Case (No Air Cond)
1970's Vintage (3kW Base Demand/ 4kW Demand)
4kW EV Charge Rate
EV Penetration % (Total # of EV)
# of EV Charges OnPeak
0% (0)
12% (1)
25% (2)
37% (3)
50% (4)
0
1
2
3
2.29%
N/A
N/A
N/A
3.31%
4.10%
N/A
N/A
4.50%
*
5.33%
N/A
4.69%
*
*
5.73%
5.21%
*
*
*
4
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
6.25%
8kW EV Charge Rate
EV Penetration % (Total # of EV)
# of EV Charges OnPeak
0% (0)
12% (1)
25% (2)
37% (3)
50% (4)
0
1
2
3
2.29%
N/A
N/A
N/A
4.44%
5.23%
N/A
N/A
6.51%
*
7.34%
N/A
7.31%
*
*
7.94%
8.14%
*
*
*
4
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
8.58%
Assumptions 1970’s URD System
1. Size 25kVA Transformer
2. 8 customers/transformer
3. Base Demand 3kW
4. Peak Demand 4kW
8
5. 3/0 Secondary Runs
6. #2 Service Runs
7. Base Load Diversity Factor (no AC)
8. No Cogeneration Available
1980’s Case (With Air Cond)
1980's Vintage - With A/C
4kW EV Charge Rate
EV Penetration % (Total # of EV)
# of EV Charges
On-Peak
0% (0)
12% (1)
25% (2)
37% (3)
50% (4)
0
3.06%
3.78%
4.67%
5.07%
5.44%
1
N/A
4.62%
*
*
*
2
N/A
N/A
5.33%
*
*
3
N/A
N/A
N/A
5.53%
*
4
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
5.71%
8kW EV Charge Rate
EV Penetration % (Total # of EV)
# of EV Charges
On-Peak
0% (0)
12% (1)
25% (2)
37% (3)
50% (4)
0
3.06%
4.60%
6.08%
6.23%
6.43%
1
N/A
5.24%
*
*
*
2
N/A
N/A
6.34%
*
*
3
N/A
N/A
N/A
6.50%
*
4
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
6.69%
Assumptions 1980’s URD System
1. Size 25kVA Transformer
2. 8 customers/transformer
3. Base Demand 4kW
4. Peak Demand 5kW
5. AC Motor Loads of 2HP, 1.5 Ton
Included in Base/Peak Demand Numbers
6. 350 Secondary Runs
7. 1/0 Service Runs
9
8. No Cogeneration Available
1990’s Case (1/0 Service Cable)
1990's Vintage - 1/0 Service Wire
# of EV Charges On-Peak
# of EV Charges On-Peak
10
0
1
2
3
4
0% (0)
3.79%
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0
1
2
3
4
0% (0)
3.79%
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Assumptions 1990’s URD System
1. Size 50kVA Transformer
2. 12 customers/transformer
3. Base Demand 6kW
4. Peak Demand 7kW
5. AC Motor Loads of 4.5HP, 3 Ton
Included in Base/Peak Demand Numbers
6. All Air Conditioned Homes
7. 350 Secondary Runs
8. 1/0 and 3/0 Service Runs
9. Single Family Detached Diversity Factor
10. No Cogeneration Available
4kW EV Charge Rate
EV Penetration % (Total # of EV)
8% (1)
16% (2)
25% (3)
4.08%
4.80%
5.17%
4.74%
*
*
N/A
5.46%
*
N/A
N/A
5.74%
N/A
N/A
N/A
8kW EV Charge Rate
EV Penetration % (Total # of EV)
8% (1)
16% (2)
25% (3)
4.68%
6.01%
6.56%
5.32%
*
*
N/A
6.47%
*
N/A
N/A
6.82%
N/A
N/A
N/A
33% (4)
5.55%
*
*
*
6.01%
33% (4)
6.91%
*
*
*
7.17%
1990’s Case (3/0 Service Cable)
1990's Vintage - 3/0 Service Wire
4kW EV Charge Rate
EV Penetration % (Total # of EV)
# of EV Charges On-Peak
0% (0)
8% (1)
16% (2)
25% (3)
33% (4)
0
3.67%
3.96%
4.60%
4.98%
5.35%
1
N/A
4.61%
*
*
*
2
N/A
N/A
5.25%
*
*
3
N/A
N/A
N/A
5.52%
*
4
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
5.80%
8kW EV Charge Rate
EV Penetration % (Total # of EV)
# of EV Charges On-Peak
0% (0)
8% (1)
16% (2)
25% (3)
33% (4)
0
3.67%
4.53%
5.73%
6.29%
6.64%
1
N/A
5.16%
*
*
*
2
N/A
N/A
6.18%
*
*
3
N/A
N/A
N/A
6.53%
*
4
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
6.88%
Assumptions 1990’s URD System
1. Size 50kVA Transformer
2. 12 customers/transformer
3. Base Demand 6kW
4. Peak Demand 7kW
5. AC Motor Loads of 4.5HP, 3 Ton
Included in Base/Peak Demand Numbers
6. All Air Conditioned Homes
7. 350 Secondary Runs
8. 1/0 and 3/0 Service Runs
9. Single Family Detached Diversity Factor
11 10. No Cogeneration Available
Observed Trends
•
Currently Secondary Distribution System is NOT Suited to
Accommodate Multiple EV Chargers Per Neighborhood
•
Generally Off-Peak EV Charging Allows for 1 Customer per
SDG&E Neighborhood w/out Voltage or Transformer Issues
• Cases for Any Charging During Peak Hours Mainly Encounter Voltage
AND Transformer Issues
•
System Upgrade Measures Mitigate Majority of Service Issues
• Increase Secondary and Service Conductors +1 or +2 Sizes
• Increase Underground Transformer +1/+2/+3 Sizes
12
Questions?
13
Power Quality Requirements
for Electric Vehicle Chargers
SAE J2894 Update
December 2010
Background
•
In April 2009 the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Hybrid Committee approved
the recommendation to create an SAE document to capture power quality and
charger efficiency requirements based on EPRI legacy recommendation.
•
SAE would lead the development of a document that could be referenced by either
state or federal governments as vehicle requirements
•
The new document created was SAE J2894 “Power Quality Requirements for Electric
Vehicle Chargers”
•
The “PQ” taskforce is being co-chaired by Gery Kissel (GM) and Jose Salazar (SCE)
•
SAE J2894 is composed of two documents
–
–
Charger PQ & Efficiency Parameters (Currently in Draft)
Testing Methods (Not started)
•
Part 1. of the document sets the value of the various parameters
•
Part 2. of the document are the testing means for verification of the parameters in
part 1.
SAE J2894 Status
• Currently on the 7th revision of the document
• The document was submitted to the SAE Hybrid Committee
for ballot in October 2010
• 75% Participation (22/29 Votes):
– 21 Approved
– 1 Waived
– 0 Disapproved
– 8 Comments
• Currently addressing comments and will submit responses
end of the week of Dec. 6th.
• Expect approved document by early 2011.
SAE J2894 Ballot Comments
• DC Charging: A couple of comments referred to removing any
reference to residential DC Charging (Off-Board Charging) for
both demand and “cold load pick-up”.
• Add service “mains” impedance requirements: In the US
“mains” impedance is usually referred to as a percent voltage
drop. (NEC requires 5% max. voltage drop from service panel to
load).
• Power conversion efficiency: One comment states that 90%
may be to difficult to achieve. CEC wants to make the number
higher and wants to add a energy conversion efficiency
requirements.
• Inrush Current: Feels that 120% maybe too low. Its important
to keep inrush to a minimum, may require more studies.
• Voltage Swell: 175% maybe too high to achieve.
Document Overview
• Charger PQ Parameters:
Parameter
SAE
EPRI
Power Factor
95%
95%
Power
Transfer Eff.
90%
85%
%ITHD
10%
20%
Inrush Current
120%
Nominal
Max.
Specific
Value
Document Overview
• AC Service Characteristics:
Parameter
SAE
EPRI
Voltage Range
90% -110% of
(Nominal)
90%-110%
(Nominal)
Voltage Swell
175% of
Nominal
180%* of
Nominal
Voltage Surge
6kV
6kV
Voltage Sag
80%
80%
Voltage Distortion
2% Max.
N/A
Momentary
Outage
0V for 12
Cycles
0V for
12Cycles
Frequency
Variation
+/- 2%
+/- 2%
*180% Vrms Exceeds 600VAC Equipment Maximum
Document Overview
Voltage (V)
• Cold Load Pick Graphic Depiction:
Time
Current (A)
OUTAGE
Ramp Rate
(1A / Sec.)
Time
2 Min.
Delay
(Minimum)
The Alphabet Soup of Standards
Brought to you from SAE, ISO & IEC
10/26/2010
S259 ‐ SAE ISO and IEC Standards Summary Rich Scholer
1
Safety Standards
Vehicle Safety
(Generic High Voltage)
PEV Connector and Equipment Safety
J2344
Electric, HEV &
Plug-In Vehicle
Safety
ISO 6469
EV Safety
J1766
Crash
Integrity
Testing
J2578
FCV Safety
10/26/2010
ISO 23273
FCV Safety
J1772™
PEV
Conductive
Charge
Coupler
Safety
Coupler
Supply Equipment
S259 ‐ SAE ISO and IEC Standards Summary Rich Scholer
IEC 61851
PEV
Conductive
Charging
System
IEC 62196
Industrial plugs
and socketoutlets
Safety
-1, 21, 22,
23 (DC), 24
(DC Com)
Coupler
Supply
Equipment
-1, 2 (AC &
DC L1), 3
(DC L1)
2
IEC 62196
Plugs, socket‐outlets, vehicle couplers and vehicle inlets ‐
Conductive charging of electric vehicles
• Part 1: Charging of electric vehicles up to 250 A a.c.
and 400 A d.c. (Committee Draft ‐ CD stage)
• General requirements
• Part 2: Dimensional interchangeability requirements for a.c. pin and contact‐tube accessories (CD stage)
• Type 1 connector (J1772™ single phase)
• Type 2 connector (three phase)
• Type 3 connector (shutters)
• Part 3: Dimensional interchangeability requirements for d.c. pin and contact‐tube vehicle couplers (New Work Item Proposal ‐ NWIP)
•
•
•
•
Type 1 (DC Level 1) Type 1 hybrid (DC Level 2)
Type 2 hybrid (DC Level 2)
TEPCO (DC Level 2)
10/26/2010
S259 ‐ SAE ISO and IEC Standards Summary Rich Scholer
3
IEC 61851
Electric Vehicle Conductive Charging System
• Part 1 – General Requirements
– FDIS stage (final prior to publish)
• Part 21 treats the specific requirements of the charger on the vehicle. (CD stage)
• Part 22 treats the specific requirements for the AC EVSE, including the in‐line control box (CD stage)
• Part 23 treats the specific requirements for DC charging (NWIP) DC EVSE (see 62196‐3 for DC connector)
• Part 24 treats the protocol for DC charging (NWIP) DC Communication
10/26/2010
S259 ‐ SAE ISO and IEC Standards Summary Rich Scholer
4
ISO/IEC JWG Communication Standards
ISO/IEC Road vehicles — Communication protocol between electric vehicle & grid ‐ document structure
Layer
7
Application
6
Presentation
5
Session
4
Transport
3
Network
2
Data Link
1
Physical
10/26/2010
ISO / IEC 15118‐1 Vehicle to grid communication interface Part 1: General information and use‐
case definition
ISO / IEC 15118‐2 Vehicle to grid communication interface
Part 2: Technical protocol description and Open Systems Interconnections (OSI) layer requirements
ISO / IEC 15118‐3 Vehicle to grid communication interface
Part 3: Wired physical and data link layer requirements
S259 ‐ SAE ISO and IEC Standards Summary Rich Scholer
5
ISO/IEC 15118 document set creation plan
Æ updated, unconfirmed
ISO/IEC
documents
1
3
4
5
8
9 10 11 12 1
1st CD ballot
(IEC delay)
2nd CD
ballot
2
3
2011
4 5 6
DIS ballot
DIS ballot
ISO 15118-3
Wired physical &
data link layer
requirements
CD
ballot
DIS ballot
NWIP
approved
Today
9
proof
CD
ballot
8
proof
ISO 15118-2
Protocol definition &
OSI-layer requirements
7
proof
ISO 15118-1
General information &
use-case definition
2
2010
6 7
IS published
01.09.2011
Voting & review phase
Evaluation & specification phase
10/26/2010
S259 ‐ SAE ISO and IEC Standards Summary Rich Scholer
6
Summation of SAE Communication Standards (14 + new documents)
J2836™ – General info (use cases)
J2847– Detailed info (messages)
Dash 1 – Utility programs *
Dash 1 – Utility programs *
Dash 2 – Off‐board charger communications **
Dash 2 – Off‐board charger communications **
Dash 3 – Reverse Energy Flow
Dash 3 – Reverse Energy Flow
Dash 4 – Diagnostics
Dash 4 – Diagnostics
Dash 5 – Customer and HAN
Dash 5 – Customer and HAN
J2931– Protocol (Requirements)
J2953– Interoperability
Dash 1 – General Requirements **
Dash 1 – General Requirements
Dash 2 – InBand Signaling (control Pilot) **
Dash 2 – Testing and Cert
Dash 3 – PLC over mains **
Dash 3 –
Dash 4 – Wireless ??
10/26/2010
•
* Two have initial versions published
•
** Five are expected to ballot 4Q 2010
S259 ‐ SAE ISO and IEC Standards Summary Rich Scholer
7
Published SAE Standards (AC)
• J1772™ ‐ SAE Electric Vehicle and Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler
– 2009 Update
– Connector focus on AC (L1 & 2) to match PHEV needs (smaller size) instead of only BEV.
– Increased AC Level 2 power levels (32A to 80)
– Added positive detection circuit (sourced and monitored by PEV)
– Added provision for PEV to lock the connector
• J2836/1™ ‐ Use Cases for Communication between Plug‐
In Vehicles and the Utility Grid
– Initial document published May, 2010
– Updates required and re‐ballot planned with J2847/1
• J2847/1 – Communication between Plug‐In Vehicles and the Utility Grid
– Initial document published June, 2010
– Coordinating with SEP2 Application spec and completing J2931 for
protocol and medium.
10/26/2010
S259 ‐ SAE ISO and IEC Standards Summary Rich Scholer
8
In Process SAE Standards (DC)
•
J1772™ ‐ Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler
– 2010 (current activity) – plan to ballot soon (Jan, 2011)
• Include interoperability to multiple suppliers (PEV & EVSE)
• Add DC (level 1 – up to 20 kW) back into document
–
–
Detection circuit monitored by EVSE and PEV
Require lock controlled by PEV
– 2011 (on‐going activity) – plan to re‐ballot late 2011
• Add DC (level 2 – up to 80 kW) connector
–
Add temp sensor and other safety items
• Potential to add Reverse energy flow
Communication documents planned for ballot (late) this year
• J2836/2™ ‐ DC Use cases and general info
• J2847/2 – DC Messages and detail info
– Messages and signals mature, finalizing sequence and state diagrams
•
J2931/1 ‐ Digital Communications for Plug‐in Electric Vehicles
– Communication requirements and protocol (AC & DC)
•
•
J2931/2 ‐ Inband Signaling Communication for Plug‐in Electric Vehicles
J2931/3 ‐ PLC Communication for Plug‐in Electric Vehicles
10/26/2010
S259 ‐ SAE ISO and IEC Standards Summary Rich Scholer
9
What’s next
•
Reverse Energy Flow (J2836/3™ & J2847/3)
– Lead is Sam Girimonte and kickoff was May, 2010 with effort on developing use cases and reviewing architecture for both on‐board and off‐board conversion. Bi‐weekly meetings continuing.
– J2836/3™ Use Cases for Communication between Plug‐in Vehicles and the Utility Grid for Reverse Power Flow
– J2847/3 Communication between Plug‐in Vehicles and the Utility Grid for Reverse Power Flow
•
Interoperability (J2953)
– Lead is Cliff Fietzek with kick‐off was October, 2010 with bi‐weekly meetings
– J2953/1 Plug‐In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Interoperability with Electric Vehicle
Supply Equipment (EVSE)
•
Diagnostics (J2836/4™ & J2847/4)
– Lead is Mike Muller and kick‐off is planned soon with perhaps bi‐monthly meetings
– Plans to build on effort presented to CARB plus vehicle diagonistics
•
Customer and HAN (J2836/5™ & J2847/5)
– No lead identified
– Plan is to build on customer messages pulled from J2847/1 plus OpenSG effort.
10/26/2010
S259 ‐ SAE ISO and IEC Standards Summary Rich Scholer
10
What to do with 20 kW
(more or less)
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
1
Charging Locations ‐ US Model
Why is a lot of the “DC” focus on public (& DC L2)???
Power Level Summary
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Widest range of equipment
Lowest usage?
Public (5‐10%)
Interstate travel, truck stops
AC L1 (1.4 kW)
AC L2
–
•
•
Comments
AC L1 (1.4 kW)
• Street parking, parking garages, business
AC L2 (7 kW)
• Open or covered parking lots, parking garages, businesses
DC L2 (50‐80 kW)
• Corner gas station model, between cities
DC L3 (140 + kW)
7 kW
Workplace
(15%) AC L1 (1.4 kW)
AC L2 –
–
7 kW – most
20 kW – allowed by J1772™
•
DC L1 (10, 15, 20 kW – 20 kW max)
•
No DC L2 Allowed (50 – 80 kW)!!!
12/8/2010
Residential (60‐80%)
(home, multifamily dwelling, street)
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
2
Home Energy Needs
(Summer Examples (TOU) – Complements of John Murach, BGE Maryland PSC meeting 10‐22‐10) – Residential and Large
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
3
Home Energy Needs
(Winter Examples (TOU) – Complements of John Murach, BGE Maryland PSC meeting 10‐22‐10) – Residential Large with Electric Heat
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
4
• AC Level 1
• AC Level 2
EVSE Options
– May also provide AC L1
• AC Level 3
• DC Level 1 (charge or discharge or both)
– US ‐ Very likely to also provide AC L2, perhaps not AC L1
– Europe – Also likely to provide AC L2 & 3
• DC Level 2 (charge or discharge or both)
– Corner gas station model – not expected in homes – Not likely to provide AC (possible exception in Europe)
• don’t want to tie up the station with slower charges
• DC Level 3 (charge or discharge or both)
– Truck stop and interstate model, used by BEV’s, not PHEVs
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
5
PEV Architectural Options
• 3.3 kW On‐board 1φ Charger
• 6.6 kW On‐board 1φ Charger
• Liquid cooling where 3.3 may have been air cooled, more weight & $$
• 15 kW On‐board 3φ Charger (Europe) – Tesla is 20 kW 1φ
• Not 3 times the size but significantly larger (cost and weight)
• Less efficient than a dedicated unit (combined with motor inverter)
• May not be galvanically isolated
• DC capable (charge or discharge or both)
•
•
•
•
•
Potentially a singular option or addition to on‐board choices above
DC L1 – easy (two contactors (in pack), minor wiring change + com)
DC L2 – harder (upgraded connector + larger circuits)
DC L3 – hardest (+ 2nd connector & really larger circuits – 2/0 to 4/0)
Benefits ‐ Puts the burden of the larger charger off‐board (part of EVSE)
Charger doesn’t get traded in with each PEV, installed once in home
If customer moves, unbolt it and take it with you
Is less expensive since it is not designed to automotive shock, vibration, thermal & packaging requirements
Doesn’t reduce PEV mileage from added weight (added weight requires more batteries that also adds more weight)
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
6
e.g. PEV with a 3.3 kW On‐board 1φ Charger
AC Level 1
1.4 kW
BEV = 17 hrs
PHEV = 7 hrs
Connect but can’t use DC
DC Level 1
with SAE J1772™ (Type 1) connector ‐ Not DC capable
3.3 kW
BEV = 7 hrs
PHEV = 3 hrs
(Most installations)
or
80A (19.2 kW)
(Max Allowed)
Can’t
3.3 kW
Can’t
BEV = 7 hrs
Can’t
DC Level 2
AC Level 2
30A (7.2 kW)
PHEV = 3 hrs
AC Level 3
Note: BEV starts @ 20% soc
AC L2 charge times the same with either equipment
Charge times are “ideal” no conditioning, balancing, etc.
12/8/2010
DC Level 3
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
7
Case 1: Charge the PEV
(Smart Charging, not just shifting TOU)
• Typical daily drive cycle (PHEV or BEV)
– Assumptions
• 15 miles to work.
• Usable pack capacity is 10 kWh on PHEV, 25 on BEV.
– Drive to work: Can travel 40 miles with 10 kW – therefore, we used 3.75 kW going to work (PHEV or BEV), SOC is now 62.5% on PHEV, 85% on BEV.
– Drive home: Same as trip to work, so charge at home is 3.75 kW (midnight to 5am = 0.75 kW/hour = 3.75 kW
– complete 1 ½ hours before departure ‐ @ 6:30 am)
– Note: Energy is ½ of AC Level 1 limit – same load as a hair dryer!
– Also in this case, the energy required is the same for the PHEV or BEV.
• Generally, the customer drive cycle is not effected by having either a BEV or PHEV
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
8
PHEV – Daily Drive and Charge Cycle
Where is the need for public charging – in normal daily trips?
16.000
100.00%
SOC
14.000
10.000
60.00%
Usable kW
8.000
6.000
4.000
6.25 to 10
40.00%
Charging at home
Charging at work
Max Usable is 10 kW
SOC
PEV at home ‐
arrive at 4 pm
10.00%
0.00%
0.5
1.5
2.5
3.5
4.5
5.5
6.5
7.5
8.5
9.5
10.5
11.5
12.5
13.5
14.5
15.5
16.5
17.5
18.5
19.5
20.5
21.5
22.5
23.5
0.000
PEV at home ‐
leave at 6:30
30.00%
20.00%
Usable kW
2.000
50.00%
SOC
Usable kW
62.5 to 80.00%
100%
Drive home (kW) 70.00%
Drive to work (kW)
12.000
90.00%
Time ‐ Hours
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
9
BEV – Daily Drive and Charge Cycle
Note: Same energy for BEV as PHEV (for clarity, chart only shows upper 50% SOC & Usable kW)
SOC
29.750
Drive to work (kW)
25.750
19.750
17.750
85.00%
Usable kW
21.25 to 25
75.00%
70.00%
Charging at home
Charging at work
Usable kW
PEV at home ‐
leave at 6:30
SOC
Max Usable is 25 kW
PEV at home ‐
arrive at 4 pm
65.00%
60.00%
55.00%
50.00%
0.5
1.5
2.5
3.5
4.5
5.5
6.5
7.5
8.5
9.5
10.5
11.5
12.5
13.5
14.5
15.5
16.5
17.5
18.5
19.5
20.5
21.5
22.5
23.5
15.750
90.00%
80.00%
23.750
21.750
95.00%
SOC
Usable kW
27.750
85 to 100%
Drive home (kW)
100.00%
Time ‐ Hours
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
10
Case 1 Summary
• Charge at home and work
• PHEV and BEV takes same energy (3.75 kW), charges at same rate (750 W)
• PHEV – SOC is 62.5% to 100%
– Usable kW is 62.5 to 10
• BEV – SOC is 85 to 100%
– Usable kW is 21.25 to 25
• Battery effect – partial charge and discharge cycle, twice a day
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
11
Case 2: PHEV with On‐board Charger and EVSE with Off‐board Discharger (EVSE discharges only) – HAN load leveling
• Home charging ‐ PHEV for 4 hours (1am to 5am)
– Charge rate is 2.5 kWh instead of 750 W.
– 4 hours used instead of 5 (2.5 kW x 4 hours = 10 kWh for PHEV)
• Home discharging at 1 kWh, 3.5 hours (4 pm to 7:30 pm)
• Objectives:
– Charge at work to maximize energy available when arriving at home
– Discharge when arriving home to shave peak (HAN) load
– Charge overnight to full charge (or partial)
• Partial charge at home is another option if more charging at work is better for overall load balancing.
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
12
PHEV – Daily Drive and Charge Cycle
Plus additional discharge at home
16
100.00%
Usable kW
12
10
8
6
4
2
RL
RL w/PHEV "Continued" disharge
1.25 kWh for 5 hours
RL w/PHEV charge
2.5 kWh for 4 hours
90.00%
80.00%
70.00%
60.00%
50.00%
SOC
Extra disharge
(slower rate than driving)
14
40.00%
30.00%
20.00%
10.00%
0.00%
0.5
1.5
2.5
3.5
4.5
5.5
6.5
7.5
8.5
9.5
10.5
11.5
12.5
13.5
14.5
15.5
16.5
17.5
18.5
19.5
20.5
21.5
22.5
23.5
0
Time ‐ Hours
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
13
Case 1, & 2 Summary
• Case 1 PHEV (On‐board charger is 3.3 kW)
– Charge rate no more than 750 W
– SOC from 62.5% to 100%
– Usable kW from 62.5 to 10
• Case 2 ‐ Adding HAN leveling (PHEV Only)
–
–
–
–
Charge rate increased to 2.5 kW (home), still 750 W @ work
Discharge rate of 1.25 kW @ home (vs. 750 W)
SOC of 0‐100% @ home, 62.5% to 100% @ work
Battery received 1 ⅓ daily discharge instead of two ⅓ discharges
• ⅓ discharge was driving to work, • full discharge was driving + stationary at home.
– HAN – Shaved 31.2% from peak and “leveled” it
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
14
Case 2’: BEV with On‐board Charger and EVSE with Off‐board Discharger NAN Load Leveling
• Same drive and charge cycle as PHEV (case 2)
• BEV has larger battery and more usable capacity that changes the results
• Difference with BEV (Case 2’) is we can move from HAN to NAN!
– Analysis of the transformer load that feeds 5 homes (for the Residential Large (RL) model) instead of the PHEV and single home
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
15
BEV – Daily Drive and Charge Cycle
Plus additional discharge at home (within transformer)
100.00%
35
90.00%
Usable kW
RL (times 5)
25
20
15
RL (*5) w/BEV Disharge
5.25 kWh for 4 hours
RL (*5) w/
BEV charge
6 kWh for 4 hours
70.00%
60.00%
50.00%
40.00%
30.00%
10
5
80.00%
SOC
30
Extra disharge
(similar rate to driving)
0
20.00%
10.00%
0.5
1.5
2.5
3.5
4.5
5.5
6.5
7.5
8.5
9.5
10.5
11.5
12.5
13.5
14.5
15.5
16.5
17.5
18.5
19.5
20.5
21.5
22.5
23.5
0.00%
Time ‐ Hours
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
16
Case 1, & 2’ Summary ‐ BEV
• Case 1 – BEV is same as PHEV – on‐board charger is 3.3 kW
– Charge rate no more than 750 W
– SOC is 85 to 100%
– Usable kW is 21.25 to 25
• Case 2 ‐ Adding NAN leveling – onboard charger –
–
–
–
Onboard charger increases to 6.6 kW, requires 6.6 kW off‐board discharger
Charge rate increased to 6 kW (home), still 750 W @ work
Discharge rate of 5.25 kW @ home (vs. 750 W)
Battery received 1 + 1/6 daily discharges instead of two, 1/6 level discharges
• 1/6 discharge was driving to work, • full discharge was driving home + stationary storage at home.
• NAN – Shaved 26% from peak and “leveled” it
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
17
Now 2’’
BEV only has a 3.3 kW on‐board charger
• Only partial charge at home is used
– RL for transformer is lower overnight
• Workplace charge is 2.75 kW instead of 750 W
– EVSE is capable of more
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
18
Case 2’’ BEV with 3.3 kW on‐board
35
25
20
Workplace charge is 2.75 kW instead of 750 W ‐ 5 hrs
90.00%
80.00%
70.00%
Partial charge
@ home
60.00%
50.00%
15
SOC
Usable kW
30
100.00%
40.00%
30.00%
10
20.00%
5
10.00%
0.00%
0.5
1.5
2.5
3.5
4.5
5.5
6.5
7.5
8.5
9.5
10.5
11.5
12.5
13.5
14.5
15.5
16.5
17.5
18.5
19.5
20.5
21.5
22.5
23.5
0
RL (*5) w/ BEV charge
3.3 kWh for 4 hours
Time ‐ Hours
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
19
Low lets apply this to public EVSEs
Size EVSE for average loads instead of max – same as home approach with multiple homes on one transformer
Screen3
Screen1
Enter estimated time for Charge or Discharge
Hours
Minutes
This allows energy management of the event by
estimating completion time
.
Energy
Delivered
Energy
Rate
Estimated
Estimated
Requested
Range
Cost( per
Power Level
City
Highway
hour)
Alternate Buttons
15 kWh
0. 15 kWh
High
$ 2.55
Fast
Max
Fastest
10 kWh
0. 10 kWh
Medium
$ 1.00
Medium
Medium
Cheapest
5 kWh
0. 05 kWh
Low
$ 0.25
Slow
Minimum Greenest
Customer selects charge rate for specific vehicle
, tied to Energy Rate based on demand
.
Low,
Medium or High is set by utility based on time of day Grid loading and Power level
requested.
Power level is specific to each vehicle
. High means17 kW for one hour selected
. Medium could
be 10 kW and Low related to5 kW.
EVSE Panel ‐ Customer choice selections: • Select priority (low, medium or high) and pay accordingly, if energy is delivered.
• Low ‐ could be “charge if free, discharge if $2/kWh (but don’t take more than 5 kW, so I can still get home)
• High could be “charge now at rate and time selected
Source J2836/1™ Appendix B, Use Case S2, Section 5
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
20
EVSE Activity ‐ Multiple Port Scenario Diagram
Public EVSE - Energy Resource Allocation for 4 Stalls
Energy flow
100A drop to EVSE (80A circuit)
70A
1st hour
Charger
PWM
10 kW
V3
20%
High
12A
Medium
16A
42A
V2
70%
Low
EVSE
V1
1.5
kW
26%
2 kW
Energy flow
next hour
80A
Charger
10 kW
V3
High
PWM
12A
10A
Low
8A
70A
High
EVSE
V1
1.5
kW
Medium
V2
12/8/2010
2 kW
17 kW
20%
5% + Com
14%
92%
V4
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
21
Public EVSE Summary
• Customer #3 selected “Low”
– Charged when only PEV #1 & 2 were also connected
– Discharged with PEV #4 arrived and selected “High”
• EVSE capability of 80A (19.2 kW) was not exceeded – DC L1
– Sizing 4 ports to all deliver 80A is not required, use average load instead
• Related example – DC L2
– TEPCO stations with dual ports deliver 60 kW “total”
– Assumption is one PEV is preparing while other is charging (10‐20 minutes)
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
22
Next Steps & Logical Sequence
1. Utility programs (AC Charge Capable)
– J2836/1™ & J2847/1 – initial publication complete and updates in process aligning with SEP2 Application Spec
2. DC Charging (DC Charge Capable)
– J2836/2™ & J2847/2 – J2847/2 in task force 14 day comment and review cycle, moves to ballot to Hybrid committee next.
– J1772™ ‐ DC L1 being added back into document and start of ballot planned January, 2011
– J2931/1, 2 & 3 – Protocol and requirements being completed for ballot to start January, 2011
3. Reverse Energy Flow (AC & DC Discharge Capable)
– J2836/3™ & J2847/3 – Use cases and architecture outlined
– Both Chrysler and US ARMY – TARDEC ‐ NAC programs to provide feedback into standards
4. Customer and HAN
– J2836/5™ & J2847/5 – Pull items 1‐3 into customer friendly apps!
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
23
Customer apps
1. Customer at work, uses computer or cell to identify when they expect to arrive home.
– PEV adds info as to SOC.
– Utility maps expected HAN/NAN loads.
– Customer “sees” options on how to use energy and cost benefits, then decides best choice.
2. Customer is on vacation (or at IWC meeting).
– How can the PEV at home garage be used?
3. Lots more . . .
This is how we make unpredictability, predictable!
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
24
Conclusion
• Charge or discharge
– Use on‐board charger
– Use off‐board discharger
• Everyday power needed
– 3.3 kW on‐board chargers PHEV and BEV
– 6.6 kW on‐board chargers (some BEVs)
– 6.6 kW off‐board dischargers (at home and some public EVSEs)
• who said we needed 20 kW at home?? ☺ ☺
• Objective
– Balance the grid (HAN, NAN, . . .)
– Minimize cost, weight, complexity (on‐board and off‐board)
– Make the PEV “DC L1 Capable” and quit focusing so much on DC L2!! • DC L1 is “Fast charging” too, lets focus on this!
– Make the PEV “Reverse Energy Flow” capable.
– Determine what else we can do (frequency regulation, etc.)
– Identify the business case to VMs and customers.
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
25
B
12/8/2010
A
C
K
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
U
P
26
DoE Projects to assist in standards development
• Chrysler project ‐ September 2009 to August 2013
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/merit_review_2010/veh_sys_sim/vss
arravt067_bazzi_2010_p.pdf
– Demonstrate 140 pickup trucks in diverse geographies and climates, spanning from North Dakota to Arizona & Hawaii to Massachusetts, and across a range of drive cycles and consumer usage patterns applicable to the entire NAFTA region
– Verify plug‐in charging mode performance based on charger and battery model
– Verify AC power generation mode
– Prove product viability in “real‐world” conditions
– Develop bi‐directional (communication and power) charger interface
– Quantify the benefits to customers and to the nation
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
27
Chrysler Project Locations
Sacramento Municipal
Utility District (SMUD)
State of
Colorado, DOT
State of N. Dakota,
DOT
California State
University,
Sacramento
State of Michigan
MSU
Univ. of North
Dakota
U of M
NextEnergy
NYSERDA
SUNY, Stony
Brook
City of San
Francisco
State of
Massachusetts
UMass.
Lowell, Dartmouth
Amherst
UC Davis
PHEV Research Ctr.
EPRI
City of Kansas City,
Missouri
ERCOT
State of
Hawaii
HNEI, U
of Hawaii
U.S. Military
City of Yuma
N. Arizona Univ, Yuma
Ariz Westrn College
Clark County , Automotive
Division (Las Vegas)
Nevada Energy
and UNLV
Austin Energy
Univ. of Texas,
Austin
Development Partner
Demo Regional Lead
Demo Regional Support
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
28
Tank‐Automotive Research, Development & Engineering Center, (TARDEC)
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
29
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
30
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
31
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
32
TARDEC Summary
AVPI:
• Accelerates Army adoption of advanced vehicles
• Supports National Energy Policies and Army Energy Strategy
• Addresses Army CONUS non‐tactical Fleet
• Two‐phased solution ‐ capable HEVs, BEVs & HHVs then PHEVs & FCEVs
•
Investment over the next 20 years yields predictable
– 2% per year petroleum reduction – meeting policy requirements
– 60% net reduction in petroleum use
– 60% reduction green‐house‐gas emissions
– Secures Army installations against utility grid failure
– Provides tested, proven game‐plan and tools for the nation to do the same
12/8/2010
Rich Scholer ‐ S262 What to do with 20 kW
33
Probable Impact of First
Generation PEV’s
on the Grid
IWC Meeting
December 8th,2010
EPRI Distribution Impact Study
Near-term Planning Horizon
20 Participating Utilities
Load only operation
Customer behavior driven
Market projections
Mainly residential charging
(45 total circuits)
Detailed Feeder Analysis
9 Circuit design
9 Operating practices
9 Market conditions
Evaluated Impacts
Feeder demand
Thermal overloads
Steady-state voltage
Losses
Imbalance
Power quality
Collaborative Results
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
2
Steady-State Voltages
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
3
Mapping House Loading to Transformers –
Service Drop Evaluation
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
4
Mapping House Loading to Transformers –
Service Drop Evalution
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
5
Service Voltage Drop
Source
1/0, 100ft
4/0, 100ft
350, 100ft
4/0, 150ft
350, 150ft
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
A3_load
120V PEV: (0.221V)
240V PEV: (1.108V)
E3_load
120V PEV: (0.110V)
240V PEV: (0.552V)
C3_load
120V PEV: (0.066V)
240V PEV: (0.334V)
• Voltage drop from Source to
bus is shown in ()
• PEV characteristics
– 120V, 12A, 1.44kW
– 240V, 30A, 7.2kW
• Conductor type
– 1/0 triplex
– 4/0 triplex
– 350 triplex
E2_sec
120V PEV: (0.166V)
240V PEV: (0.830V)
E2_load
1/0, 50ft
120V PEV: (0.276V)
240V PEV: (1.384V)
C2_sec
120V PEV: (0.100V)
240V PEV: (0.504V)
C2_load
1/0, 50ft
120V PEV: (0.211V)
240V PEV: (1.058V)
6
Service Voltage Drop
• Voltage drop on a ‘Used’ 120V service leg
– Assumes low side service transformer voltage is 120V
• Level 1 chargers are current limited
– Lower service voltage would not increase current demand at full
load.
– Voltage drop magnitude would remain the same.
240V PEV
120
Voltage (One 120V phase)
Voltage (One 120V phase)
120V PEV
119.8
119.6
119.4
350 Triplex
119.2
4/0 Triplex
120
119.8
119.6
119.4
350 Triplex
4/0 Triplex
119.2
1/0 Triplex
1/0 Triplex
119
119
0
25
50
75
100
0
Distance (ft)
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
25
50
Distance (ft)
7
75
100
Service Voltage Drop Evaluation by PG&E
• A total of 22 Secondary line samples taken from Three
separate feeders
• Voltage drop evaluation before and after EV
© 2010 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
8
Plug-in Electric Vehicle
Activities and AMI
December 8,2010
IWC
Hawk Asgeirsson, P.E.
Manager – Power Systems Technologies
DTE Energy
asgeirssonh@dteenergy.com
Agenda
• DTE Energy Background
• Demonstration Programs
– Saturn Vue conversion
– Escape hybrid
– Volt
• FreedomCar Initiatives
• Updated PEV Rate
• Future architecture
2
DTE Energy –
Electric & Gas Regulated Businesses
Detroit Edison (Electric)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Tenth largest US electric utility
7,600 square mile service territory
2.2 million customers
2.63 million meters
$4.9 billion in revenue
$13 billion in assets
Generating capacity: 11,080 MW
Annual Sales: 50,000 GWH
Michcon (Gas)
• Eleventh largest US natural gas utility
with 1.3 million customers
• 1.35 million meters
• 14,700 square mile service territory
throughout Michigan
• 679 bcf of gas sales
• Significant gas storage capacity benefits
customers (11% of total Midwest and
Northeast capacity)
• $1.8 billion in revenue
• $3.3 billion in assets
In 1914, Detroit was the first American city
to use electric taxi cabs
Detroit’s first electric taxi accumulated more
than 46,000 miles in its first two years of
operation.
Note the curb-side charging port and main
charging stations.
Detroit Edison’s patented vehicle charging
system called “Park & Charge”
In 1983 a “park &
charge” system,
operated by a credit
card, tracked energy
usage and parking time
for billing purposes.
DTE Saturn Vue Plug-in Hybrid
with Automatiks Smart Charging
6
PEV Saturn Vue Conversion
Demonstration Program (2009)
• GM Saturn Vue hybrid conversions
• Smart Grid integration from
DTE Collection Engine to Vehicle
– Use for Demand Response peak shaving
– Send updated time-of-day pricing info
• Communication test alternatives
DTE via Advanced Metering Infrastructure
(AMI) to Smart Meter at home/office
• Smart Meter to Vehicle via ZigBee Wireless
to Automatiks Telematics platform in car
Or DTE to Automatiks Gateway Server via
Internet
• Then Gateway server to Vehicle via wireless
GPRS/3G or Wifi
• Does not require Smart Meter deployment or AMI
integration
7
In-Vehicle Smart Charging
8
Remote Smartphone Access
9
Ford Escape Plug-in Program (EPRI)
• Smart meter demonstration
• ZigBee wireless communication
from Itron meter to vehicle
• Communication to vehicle is
dependent on external
interference
• In “quiet” environment
• In “noisy” environment
– Meter Engineering test lab
– Basement of Cobo Hall
DOE Volt Demonstration Program
• Smart
Charging and
control using
OnStar
• Communicatio
n using PLC
technology
FreedomCar Partnership
• Grid Interaction Tech Team
• Objective:
– Low cost EVSE with metrology
– Based on open standards
– Pre-competitive demonstration project
– Partners ANL, PNNL, UofM-D, Universal Gridworks,
Green Wave reality, DTE Energy
4 Basic Nodes and Communication Connections
(Utility, HAN, EVSE, PEV)- SAE J2953 Fixture
Host Dell Optiplex quad core PC Supervises
test fixture, 7” touch monitor for each node
Python based operating system- configurator
Utility Messages
900MHz to back-haul
2.4GHz Zigbee to HAN
(Itron or SilverSpring)
HomeGateway
EVSE with Compact Metrology Comm. Device Under Test Emulated PEV/Physical EV,Digi, Greenwave Reality and Vehicle-EVSE Router pass (DUT)Connected to J1772, or (BMS,
1)
PLC/Echelon
through
HAN- Zigbee/Ethernet
Pseudo Batt, Charger, CAN
2) Pilot/In-Band PSOC
HAN- Zigbee/Ethernet
network/converter- to DUT)
3) Wireless- SDR_UMAN
4) Ariane analog/PLC
13
DTE Energy Customer Outreach
• Web based customer education
www.dteenergy.com/PEV
• Web based PEV calculator
– Comparing annual fuel
savings
– CO2 annual emission
reduction
• PEV TOU & Flat Monthly Rates
– $2,500/customer installation
– $40/month flat rate
• Brochures
• Dedicated phone number
• Auto Dealer interface
DTE Energy Electric Vehicle Rate (D1.9)
• Experimental residential electric vehicle rate approved 08-10-10
• Separately metered single phase circuit at 208 or 240 volt
service
• Sole purpose for charging licensed electric vehicles
• Limited to 2,500 residential customers through 12/31/2012
• Two pricing options
• Time of Day–peak 9 am to 11 pm Mon – Fri, all other off peak
– Off-peak energy charge 3.5¢ + distribution charge of 4.195¢
= 7.695¢
– On-peak energy charge 14.0¢ + distribution charge of 4.195¢
= 18.195¢
– Service charge of $1.95 per month
• Fixed Rate – flat $40/month charge per vehicle – limited to 250
customers
• Metered service direct connection to EVSE (protected w/ fuse or
breaker)
15
DTE Smart Home Components
Plug-in Electric Vehicle
Public Network
/Internet
Consumption
and Price Signals
Interruptible
Device Network
or AMI
Information
Architecture
• Work is underway to define the
information architecture.
HEMS
AMI Network
Smart
Appliances
Functionality
• Customer can control settings and
program the station based on pricing .
• Customer can access information at home
and remotely.
• Vehicle could charge back onto the grid as
a stored energy resource.
Device Info
and Controls
PEV
Charging Station
Device
controls
Plug-in Electric Vehicle
Analysis
• Utility position will evolve based on
automotive industry standards.
• Utilities must understand impacts on the
grid from areas that have many PEVs.
• DTE needs to understand home energy
storage use cases – will customers charge
batteries and store them for use?
EVs – A Business Model Approach for Utilities
Grid Resident Communications Applied to Driving Safe and Reliable Vehicle Adoption
December 10
1
About Power Tagging
• Patent‐pending real time, on‐grid communication for high payback smart grid applications
– Conservation Voltage Regulation (CVR)
• 3‐6% Energy Conservation across the Grid
– Demand Side Management
• Peak Demand Offset with acknowledgement – Electric Vehicles
• Transformer Safety
• Remote Charging Across Service Territories
December 10
• Grid location awareness enables unique value propositions in distribution management
• Strategic investors Dominion and Lockheed‐
Martin
– Post NSF Phase I funding
• Rapid progress in first year of active R&D
• Strong interest from industry & government sectors
2
EV Adoption & Grid Integration Challenges
December 10
3
Distribution Grid Upgrades to maintain safe, reliable electric services
• EV clustering leads to: – Transformers overloaded – Phase imbalance • Possibility to lose voltage on a particular phase
• Residential panel sizes
– older homes with 50 amp service
• Meter sizes – older meters with 40‐60 amp service
• Voltage Management
– add voltage regulators with real time feedback controls
• Conductor Size at end of feeder
• Zoning & Code Restrictions
• Where and when?
December 10
4
EV
EVLoad
LoadImpact
ImpactIssues
Issues
Source: Nissan and PG&E
Source: Nissan and PG&E
December 10
5
What is Power Tagging?
Any Outlet
Substation
=
Bidirectional Communication
December 10
6
Right Place, Right Time
Transformers, Shunt Capacitors, Branches…
2060
2040
PTT
2020
2000
1980
1960
Ripple Control
“Morse Code”
Bits per Second
1940 Control Path Only Frequency PLC
Higher Speed
Early Internet / Homeplug Mbits/Sec
Control And Data Path
BPL
Highest Speed
Internet Land Rush
Mbits/Sec
EV Grid Resident Communications
VIM123, XFMR 2432, ΦA, Lat. A, Feeder 2, Sub 24
Feeder 2
Feeder 1
VIM456, XFMR 3944, ΦB, Lat. B, Feeder 3, Sub 24
Feeder 3
Substation
Feeder 4
Feeder 5
Lateral B
Lateral A
VIM456
VIM123
December 10
8
Link to EPRI IWC
• Embedded Intelligence – EVSE – EV
• Grid Location Aware™
– Flexibility
• Clustering
• Demand Management
• Roaming
– User behavior tracking, measuring and modeling
– Schematic mapping to manage peaks down to the transformer
December 10
9
Home Communications Required
Sub‐
Sub‐
Station
Sub‐
Station
Sub‐
Station
Station
f1 f2 f3
fn
Trans ‐
former
Consumption
DR
December 10
Charge State
EVSE
EV
Sys, Sub, Feeder
Transformer
Meter
EVSE
EV
Y
Y
Y
?
?
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y (M&V)
Y (M&V)
Y (M&V)
Y?
Y
Billing
Price Signaling
Meter
Y (DG)
Y (M&V)
Y(Forecast)
Y (DG)
10
Summary
• Grid Location Awareness must be maintained
– Vehicles, Transformers, Phases, Feeders, Substations
• Benefits driven approach
– All Stakeholders (Drivers, Utilities and Vehicle Manufacturers)
• Technology rollout must scale with adoption – Down to the transformer level
• Vehicle manufacturers must connect directly to Utilities – Efficient business models are enabled
• Roaming must be supported
– Timely and accelerated adoption of EVs with range extension
• System stability must be maintained down to the transformer level
December 10
11
Q & A
303‐385‐1700
www.powertagging.com
December 10
12
Observations on EVS-25 Shenzhen
Trade Show Vendors/Products
Presented by John Halliwell, EPRI
EPRI IWC Meeting, Tempe AZ
Dec 8, 2010
Theodore Bohn- ANL
China in the News Everyday- 2 and 4 Wheel Vehicles
 The market size of electric bicycles in China has expanded
more than 200 times within the past 10 years, from 100k
units to 22.5 million units.
 In China, there are 30 million passenger cars, of which
approximately 1.2 million are taxis. The daily fuel
consumption of taxis and buses is about 10 times and 30
times that of a family car, respectively.
Many folding electric bicycles at EVS25
Shenzhen China: 39,000 people in 1969
14 Million in 2010- 5th most dense city on planet
Lots of EV Charging stations already installed (dots of light)
Forecast to have 250,00 EVs by 2015
Lots of Pomp, Press and Fanfare; Opening Ceremonies
Ribbon cutting and confetti (in crisp air…)
4
Pre-Conference Workshop (300 people in 75 person
room/hallways)
ANL Interactive Smart Grid Demo
(Volt EVSE, 7 touch screen monitors
for sources/loads, ISO, iPad, etc)
5
Extremely Large Exhibit Hall- 220,000 sq. meters
Sponsors:
1:200 Scale Model of Hall
6
There is something vaguely familiar about
Chargedot EVSE products….. (http://www.chargedot.com)
Not to be confused with Coulomb ChargePoint
Volt/Lear,
Aerovironment
Lear/Volt
Coulomb 7
Chinese EV Connector Standards Power Levels
8
Overview of China DC Coupler/Aux Power/CAN
Contact point number/function
1-DC power supply positive terminal (DC+)
2-DC power supply negative terminal (DC-)
3-Protective earthing (, or PE)
4-Charging communication CAN-H (S+)
5-Charging communication CAN-L (S-)
6-Charging communication CAN shielding ()
7-Low-voltage auxiliary power supply positive terminal (A+)
8-Low-voltage auxiliary power supply negative terminal (A-)
Function definitions
Connect positive terminal of DC
power supply with positive pole of battery.
Connect negative terminal of DC power supply with
negative pole of battery.
Connect power supply equipment ground wire with
vehicle chassis ground wire, when connecting or
disconnecting charge coupler, the terminal should
complete connection first and complete disconnection
last in comparison with other terminals.
Connect off-board charger with communication line of
electric vehicle.
Connect off-board charger with communication line of
electric vehicle.
Connect shielding wire used for CAN communication.
Off-board charger provides low-voltage auxiliary power
supply positive terminal for electric vehicle.
Off-board charger provides low-voltage auxiliary power
supply negative terminal for electric vehicle.
9
Control Pilot in J1772/IEC is called
‘Control Guidance’ in Chinese Standards
10
SAE DC Hybrid, Chinese DC standard (Ebusbar)
450V/750VDC, 125A~400A, -40℃~90℃, ≥10000 cycles
Large DC conductors
3 phase AC conductors
11
Ebusbar- DC Fast Charger (7 parallel 30A power
supplies)

Direct current via three-phase four-wire system
Power supply voltage:380/220V(AC)
Frequency:50Hz±10%
Output voltage:300~400VDC
Output current:0~210A adjustable(can be configured
with maximum capacity of 7*30A )
Output current range:0~100%
Voltage and current regulation precision:≤0.2%
Output ripple factor:≤0.05%
Overall efficiency:95%
Power factor:≥95%
Leakage current:≤3.5mA
Protection Grade: IP54(outdoor) IP30(indoor)
Metering mode: Direct current metering
Grade of precision:1.0%
Working environment: Temperature -30℃~ 65℃;
humidity〈 95 %
12
Ebusar-
http://www.ebusbar.net/EN/products.asp?page=1&bid=2
13
Zhongxing Automotive “Intelligent charger”- no
communication port, Anderson open DC connector
http://www.zxauto.com.cn/en/index.asp
14
Many Many many… DC fast charge vendors
(bench power supplies in indoor racks.
400v/30A *4=120A
15
Many Many many… DC fast charge vendors
(bench power supplies in indoor racks.
100kVA=410v/30A *8=240A
16
ThunderSky not so good on labels/units (3 ft high oops)
1.6MW(hr) labeled correctly on right (100kW for 16 hrs)
17
ThunderSky Mega charge station- 750v/1000A
(rack full of power supplies behind kiosk)
20,000Ahr/3.2v module
18
BYD Gee-Whiz Display- invisible car, floating driver
19
Yintong Energy- batteries, charge stations, utility
20
Lots of Connector photos… Yintong Energy
21
Yintong Energy- AC Charge Station
22
Dostar- EVSE and Connectors http://www.dostar-ev.com/en/product.asp
(checking out SAE J1772-DC hybrid, their J1772)
23
Dostar EVSE
24
Connectors/EVSE: LS-Cable (JARI/other)
25
Connectors: ChargeDot, 3kW Halo IPT inductive charger
Power supply- Mat
26
EPRI/PG&E
Smart Charging Pilot
Dan Bowermaster
Manager
Clean Air Transportation
dsbb@pge.com
(415)973-6883
IWC Meeting, Tempe, AZ
December 8, 2010
EPRI – PG&E Smart Charging Pilot Overview
Partner: Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)
Vendors: Coulomb Technologies, Silver Springs Network (SSN)
Pilot Duration: June 2009 – August 2011
Funding: CPUC D.09-08-027, PG&E, EPRI; combined $1.61M pilot
Initial High-Level Objectives:
Demonstrate technical feasibility of controlling customer load (ie DLC) and establishing two-way
communication with EVSE over the AMI through the HAN gateway
Evaluate potential for PEV batteries to be integrate intermittent renewable energy resources
Evaluate whether PEV batteries can provide a range of ancillary services
Smart Charging Pilot Scope
Real Time Load
Management Software
AMI Architecture
Smart EVSE
(Communications)
On Board PEV
Telematics
Vision of Future: Customer Energy Management
From utility, through
meter into the home:
ƒ Time-of-use price
ƒ Near real-time electric
usage data
ƒ Appliance / energy
management control
signals
From meter to utility:
ƒ Customer electric use
ƒ Customer energy
generation (e.g. solar)
ƒ Appliance response to
energy management
control signals
SmartMeter™
Home Area Network
In-premise communication
SmartMeter™ communication
Potential Future End-to-End System
Smart
Thermostat
Smart
A/C
AMI / Smart Grid
EVSE
HAN
Smart Port
SSN UIQ
ZigBee
PLC – Homeplug
ZigBee
PLC – Homeplug
In Home
Display
Smart
Dryer
•
Key Features:
•
•
•
•
•
Single-home residential charging focus
Standards-based network architecture
EVSE manufacturer-agnostic open architecture
Leverages existing SmartMeter™ and AMI network
Secure and scalable solution
Utility
SCMS
PG&E/EPRI Smart Charging Pilot Timeline
2010
Mar Apr
Define
Business and
Technical
Requirements
2011
Jun Aug
Oct
Dec
Feb
May
Aug
Dec
CPUC
Approval
for Test
Scope
RFP and Vendor
Selection
Vendor
Kickoff
Develop
Test Plan
Phase 1:
Existing
SEP1.0
Development
Phase 2:
SEP1.0
COMPLETED
In Progress
To Be Completed
Analyze
Phase 2
Phase 3:
Field
CPUC
Report
Initial Insights
•EVSE and SCMS providers may not be the same
– Vendors are in different stages of their product development
– Many EVSP have evolving business models
– Need to determine EVSE vendors with mass-production
manufacturing experience and production capabilities
– Need to continually explore new EVSE functionalities and user
interface options to build vendor-agnostic system
– Many current SCMS vendors provide proprietary system making it
technically challenging and costly to integrate with IT back-end
•Many vendors are looking towards utility for direction and guidance on
product development
•Too early to tell market timing, customer needs, and market development
Potential Cooperative Areas
• Customer behavior study on interaction with EVSE
• Test requirements/protocols/results
• Commercial or residential aggregator charging
• Customer interface and incentive or program design
Back Up
Pacific Gas and Electric Company Overview
PG&E serves ~15 million customers in California
– ~1 in 20 people in the US
PG&E’s
Service Area
in California
Fortune 200 company located in San Francisco
– $14.8 billion market capitalization
~20,000 employees
Service territory facts
– Over 70,000 square miles
– 18,600 miles of electric transmission lines
– Largest privately owned hydroelectric
system
– 6,000+ miles of gas transmission
pipelines
Phase 1 and 2 Lab Architecture:
Electricity and Communications Flow Paths
Communications:
Electricity:
TIC
900MHz
Test Net
HAN
Test
Meter
Std. House
Meter
PG&E 900MHz
Mesh Net
ZigBee
2.4GHz
Dedicated
Standard
House
120V
Outlets
DSL
240V
Circuit
PLC
Technology
Innovation
Center
SCMS
SCMS
Smart EVSE
Cord
xEV
Phase 3 Simulated:
Network Architecture with PG&E Test Sites
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
IEC SG3
Smart Grid “Radar”
NET IWC
Dec 2010
Objectives
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Map Smart Grid Requirements to IEC Standards
Identifying gaps in existing standards
Uncovering Requirements for additional
standards
ƒ
Identifying Responsibilities of TCs, Mapping to
Technical Vision
ƒ
Develop sustainable process to complete above
requirements and ongoing requirements
Smart Grid System Mapping
ƒ
Take a Systems Engineering approach to standards
development
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Leverage work done within SG3 Smart Grid Roadmap
Requirements Driven
Broke Smart Grid down into Subsystems,
Components, and Data Interfaces
ƒ
Resolved complexity by taking a layered data base
approach
ƒ
Develop tool that connects needs, value,
architecture, and standards
Systems Mapping
Layered Approach
Top Level System Services
System Capabilities
Use Cases
SG#3
Architecture
Task Team
Reference Architecture
Associated Standards
IEC SG3 Smart Grid Roadmap
TC8/NIST
IEC SG3 : main process
Mission of hosting and maintaining
the consistency of worldwide
Smart Grid Use cases
Smart Grid
Services
Top-level
Smart Grid
Capabilities
Use’s cases
TC8
Use’s case
mapping
Smart Grid
Use cases
Gap
analysis
SG
Standards
Generic Ref architecture
Technical committees (TC)
IEC
Database Tool
ƒ
Linking standards to multiple Smart grid
layers became too complex for standard
tools such as MSExcel
ƒ
Using Enterprise Architect &“open source”
SQL database
ƒ
Use query tool to find linkages between
standards and:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Subsystems
Interface points
Smart Grid Use Cases
Capabilities
IEC Standard Relationships
Standards Attributes
IEC Standard Attributes Form
SDO
IEC
Standard Title
Telecontrol equipment and systems ‐ Part 5: TraParent Standard
Identification Number
IEC 60870‐5‐2
Document Type
IEC Standard
Techical Committee
TC 57‐Power systems management and associatWorking Group
WG3
Date of Initial Publication
1992‐04
2001‐04
Child Standard(s)
IEC 60870‐5 (all parts)
Date of Current Publication
Next Revision Date
Does the standard deal with the following attributes?
EMC
No
EMF
Dependability
No
No
Reliability
Availability
Cyber Security
Security
Safety
No
No
No
No
No
Data Profiles
No
Communication Network Management
Yes
Communication Physical Level
Network Performance
Configuration of data, protocols or network
Power Quality Service
Yes
No
No
No
Conformance Testing
No
If "yes", enter test name(s).
Communication Data Model
No
If "yes", enter model name(s).
Does the standard deal with any of the following communication layers? If so, what are the applicable standard(s)
Physical
Data Link
Network
Transport
Session
Presentation
Application
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
If "yes", enter applicable standard(s).
Itself?
IEC Standard Relationships
class UFO Data Flow
Meter Ping Data Flow
«system_appli...
Softw are::OMS
SCADA
«system_artifact» OMS LockOut
«system_artifact» Ping Order
«flow»
«flow»
«system_application»
Softw are::OMS
«flow»
Crew
+
+
+
Create Confirmed SCADA Outage() : void
Create Trouble Call() : void
Outage Prediction Trigger() : void
«system_artifact» EOL Data
{«system_artifact» EOL Data}
«system_application»
Softw are::DMS
(from Actors)
«flow»
1. Crew Dispatched to
Investigate Downed
Conductor
2. Crew Confirms
Downed Conductor
3. Crew Locks out and
opens devices to
isolate fault
4. Crew Completes
Repairs
«system_artifact» OMS T rouble Call
Clues {«system_artifact» OMS
Trouble Call Clues}
«flow»
«system_app_adaptor»
Softw are Adaptor::OMS Adaptor
«system_appli...
Softw are::SFDIR
«flow»
«system_artifact» EOL Data
{«system_artifact» EOL
Data}
«system_artifact» SFDIR Fault Indication
{«system_artifact» SFDIR Fault Indication} «flow»
«flow»
«system_artifact» DMS Identified Fault Section
{«system_artifact» DMS Identified Fault Section}
«system_artifact» SFDIR Fault Indication
{«system_artifact» SFDIR Fault Indication}
«system_application»
Softw are::IFDIR
Netw ork Operator
«flow»
+
+
+
+
«system_artifact» EOL Data
{«system_artifact» EOL «flow»
Data}
«system_artifact» DMS Identified Fault Section
{«system_artifact» DMS Identified Fault Section}
«system_artifact» EOL Data
{«system_artifact» EOL Data}
«flow»
«system_application»
Softw are::AMI Head End
«flow»
+
+
Forward Event Message() : void
Receive DRMS Event Message() : void
«system_artifact» EOL Data
{«system_artifact» EOL Data}
(from Actors)
Operator triggers
Simulation Restoration
«system_app_adaptor»
Softw are Adaptor::AMI Adaptor
«flow»
«system_artifact» OMS Trouble Call Clues
{«system_artifact» OMS Trouble Call Clues}
Create Restoration Plans() : void
Create Switch Plans() : void
Process Trouble Call() : void
Simulate Restoration Plans() : void
«flow»
«system_hardware_box»
Hardw are::AMI Meter
1. Network Operator
SImulates Restoration
and Approves Plan
2. Crew Performs NonSCADA switching for
restoration
+
+
«flow»
«system_artifact» DMS Identified Fault Section
{«system_artifact» DMS Identified Fault Section}
«flow»
«flow»
«system_app_adaptor»
Softw are Adaptor::IFDIR Adaptor
«flow»
«system_artifact» SFDIR Fault Indication
«system_application»
Softw are::SSI
«system_artifact» OMS Trouble Call Clues
{«system_artifact» OMS Trouble Call Clues}
Create Restoration Plan() : void
Generate Capbank Switch Plan() : void
Identify Faulted Section() : void
«system_app_adaptor»
Softw are Adaptor::DMS Adaptor
«system_artifact» OMS Trouble Call
Clues {«system_artifact» OMS
Trouble Call Clues}
«flow»
+
+
+
Receive Event Message() : void
Send Meter Alarm() : void
«flow»
«system_artifact» DMS Identified Fault Section
«flow» {«system_artifact» DMS Identified Fault Section}
SQL Query Example – Standards by Data
Flow
SQL Query Example – Standards by
Capability
GUI Interface
Benefits - What will IEC get out of this?
ƒ
ƒ
Action
ƒ Accelerate Problem Understanding
ƒ Accelerating Smart grid Progress
ƒ Stop Arguing, Start working (Focus)
ƒ Radar screen for TCs, focus priorities
ƒ Design Work Plans for TCs, IEC, Inter ISDO’s
Addressing TC Resource issues
ƒ Providing collective resource
ƒ Single, concrete set of common Use Cases
ƒ Leverage resources to work in TCs
ƒ Right time for industry to inject resources
Next Steps
1.
Complete User Friendly
Interface
2.
Complete Attributes
Spreadsheet for Smart Grid
Standards
3.
ƒ
Build out Use Cases
http://www.iec.ch/smartgrid/m
appingtool/
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