E4991A RF Impedance/Material Analyzer Installation and Quick

E4991A RF Impedance/Material Analyzer Installation and Quick
Agilent E4991A RF Impedance/Material Analyzer
Installation and Quick Start Guide
Tenth Edition
Manufacturing No. E4991-90201
June 2012
Notices
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.
This document contains proprietary information that is protected by copyright. All rights
are reserved. No part of this document may be photocopied, reproduced, or translated to
another language without the prior written consent of Agilent Technologies.
Microsoft®,MS-DOS®,Windows®,Visual C++®,Visual Basic®,VBA® and Excel® are
registered
UNIX is a registered trademark in U.S. and other countries, licensed
exclusively through X/Open Company Limited.
Portions ©Copyright 2012, Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
© Copyright 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2012 Agilent Technologies
Manual Printing History
The manual’s printing date and part number indicate its current edition. The printing date
changes when a new edition is printed (minor corrections and updates that are incorporated
at reprint do not cause the date to change). The manual part number changes when
extensive technical changes are incorporated.
March 2001
Preliminary (part number: E4991-90001)
April 2001
First Edition (part number: E4991-90011)
July 2001
Second Edition (part number: E4991-90021)
September 2001
Third Edition (part number: E4991-90031)
February 2002
Fourth Edition (part number: E4991-90041)
March 2003
Fifth Edition (part number: E4991-90051)
May 2003
Sixth Edition (part number: E4991-90061)
August 2003
Seventh Edition (part number: E4991-90071)
December 2004
Eighth Edition (part number: E4991-90081)
July 2006
Ninth Edition (part number: E4991-90091)
June 2012
Tenth Edition (part number: E4991-90201)
2
Safety Summary
The following general safety precautions must be observed during all phases of operation,
service, and repair of this instrument. Failure to comply with these precautions or with
specific WARNINGS elsewhere in this manual may impair the protection provided by the
equipment. Such noncompliance would also violate safety standards of design,
manufacture, and intended use of the instrument. Agilent Technologies assumes no liability
for the customer’s failure to comply with these precautions.
NOTE
The E4991A complies with INSTALLATION CATEGORY II as well as POLLUTION
DEGREE 2 in IEC61010-1. The E4991A is an INDOOR USE product.
NOTE
The LEDs in the E4991A are Class 1 in accordance with IEC60825-1, CLASS 1 LED
PRODUCT.
•
Ground the Instrument
To avoid electric shock, the instrument chassis and cabinet must be grounded with the
supplied power cable’s grounding prong.
•
DO NOT Operate in an Explosive Atmosphere
Do not operate the instrument in the presence of inflammable gasses or fumes.
Operation of any electrical instrument in such an environment clearly constitutes a
safety hazard.
•
Keep Away from Live Circuits
Operators must not remove instrument covers. Component replacement and internal
adjustments must be made by qualified maintenance personnel. Do not replace
components with the power cable connected. Under certain conditions, dangerous
voltage levels may remain in the instrument even after the power cable is disconnected.
To avoid injuries, always disconnect the power and fully discharge circuits before
touching them.
•
DO NOT Service or Adjust the Instrument Alone
Do not attempt internal service or adjustment unless another person, capable of
rendering first aid and resuscitation, is present.
•
DO NOT Substitute Parts or Modify the Instrument
To avoid the danger of introducing additional hazards, do not install substitute parts or
perform unauthorized modifications to the instrument. Return the instrument to an
Agilent Technologies Sales and Service Office for service and repair to ensure that
safety features are maintained in operational condition.
•
Dangerous Procedure Warnings
Warnings, such as the example below, precede potentially dangerous procedures
throughout this manual. Instructions contained in the warnings must be followed.
WARNING
Dangerous voltage levels, capable of causing death, are present in this instrument.
Use extreme caution when handling, testing, and adjusting this instrument.
3
Safety Symbols
General definitions of safety symbols used on the instrument or in manuals are listed
below.
Instruction Manual symbol: parts of the product are marked with this symbol when it is
necessary for the user to refer to the instrument manual.
Alternating current.
Direct current.
On (Supply).
Off (Supply).
In-position of push-button switch.
Out-position of push-button switch.
A chassis terminal; a connection to the instrument’s chassis, which includes all exposed
metal structure.
Stand-by.
WARNING
This warning sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure, practice, or
condition that, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in injury or
death to personnel.
CAUTION
This Caution sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure, practice, or condition
that, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in damage to or destruction of
part or all of the instrument.
NOTE
This Note sign denotes important information. It calls attention to a procedure, practice, or
condition that is essential for the user to understand.
Documentation Warranty
The material contained in this document is provided "as is," and is subject to being
changed, without notice, in future editions. Further, to the maximum extent permitted by
applicable law, Agilent disclaims all warranties, either express or implied with regard to
this manual and any information contained herein, including but not limited to the implied
warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Agilent shall not be
liable for errors or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the
furnishing, use, or performance of this document or any information contained herein.
Should Agilent and the user have a separate written agreement with warranty terms
covering the material in this document that conflict with these terms, the warranty terms in
the separate agreement will control.
4
Typeface Conventions
sample (bold)
Boldface type is used for emphasis.
sample (Italic)
Italic type is used for emphasized phrases and
titles of manuals in English.
[sample]
Indicates the key on the front panel labeled
“sample”. It also may refer to the label on the
button.
sample
Indicates a menu, button, or box labeled
“sample” that can be clicked to carry out a setting
or chosen option.
Menu includes menu bars, pull-down menus, and
shortcut menus.
Button includes buttons in dialog boxes and setup
toolbars.
Box includes spin boxes, drop-down list boxes,
text boxes, and list boxes.
SAMPLE
Indicates a block or toolbar labeled “SAMPLE.”
Block indicates the key group on the front panel.
Toolbar indicates the setup toolbar (the group of
buttons and boxes on the setup screen displayed in
the right row).
s1 - s2 - s3 - s4
Indicates a series of operations using a menu or
key labeled “s1,” “s2” and a button or box in the
setup toolbar labeled “s3,” “s4.”
5
E4991A Documentation Map
The following manuals are available for the Agilent E4991A.
•
Operational Manual (Part Number E4991-900x0, attached to Option ABA)
This manual describes most of the basic information needed to use the E4991A. It
provides a function overview, detailed operation procedure for each function (from
preparation for measurement to analysis of measurement results), measurement
examples, specifications, and supplemental information. For programming guidance on
performing automatic measurement with the E4991A, please see the Programming
Manual.
•
Installation and Quick Start Guide (Part Number E4991-902x1, attached to Option
ABA)
This manual describes installation of the instrument after it is delivered and the basic
procedures for applications and analysis. Refer to this manual when you use the
E4991A for the first time.
•
Programming Manual (Part Number E4991-900x2, attached to Option ABA)
This manual describes programming information for performing automatic
measurement with the E4991A. It includes an outline of remote control, procedures for
detecting measurement start (trigger) and end (sweep end), application programming
examples, a command reference, and related information.
NOTE
The number position shown by “x” in the part numbers above indicates the edition number.
This convention is applied to each manual, CD-ROM (for manuals), and sample programs
disk issued. Here, “0” indicates the initial edition, and each time a revision is made this
number is incremented by 1. The latest edition allows the customer to specify Option ABJ
(Japanese) or Option ABA (English) of the product.
6
Contents
1. Introduction
How to Use This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Features of the Agilent E4991A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2. Installation Guide
Incoming Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
How to Install Front Handles/Rack Mounting Flanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
How to Install the Handle Kit (Option 1CN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
How to Install the Rack-mount Kit (Option 1CM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
How to Install the Rack-mount and Handle Kit (Option 1CP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Environmental Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Operation Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Ventilation Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Ensuring Adequate Free Space around Analyzer for Immediate Disconnection of Power Cable in Case of
Emergency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Connection to Rear Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Connecting Mouse and Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Connecting BNC Cable (Option 1D5 Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Connecting the Test Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Power Supply and Blown Fuses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Check the Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Verification and Connection of Power Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Blown Fuses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Turning the Power ON and OFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Turning the Power ON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Turning the Power OFF. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Disconnection from Supply Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Initial Registration of E4991A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Test Fixtures Available for E4991A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Instructions for Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3. Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
Impedance Measurement Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Flow for Impedance Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Name of Each Area on LCD Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
STEP 1. Preparation for Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Selection of DUT and Test Fixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Required Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Connecting Mouse, Keyboard and Test Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Turning the Power ON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
STEP 2. Setting Measurement Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Flow for Setting Measurement Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
(1) Frequency Characteristics of |Z|-Ls-Q. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Procedure for Using Mouse and Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Procedure for Using Front Panel Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
(2) Frequency Characteristics of |Z|-R-X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Presetting the E4991A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Setting the Measurement Parameters and Display Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7
Contents
Setting the Measurement Points, Sweep Parameter, and Sweep Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Source Mode and Oscillator Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Sweep Range (Frequency) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(3) Oscillator Level (Current) Characteristics of Ls-Q. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Presetting the E4991A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Measurement Parameters and Display Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Measurement Points, Sweep Parameter and Sweep Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Source Mode and CW Frequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Sweep Range (Oscillator Level). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(4) Dc Bias (Current) Characteristics of Ls-Q (Option 001) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Presetting the E4991A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Measurement Parameters and Display Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Measurement Points, Sweep Parameter and Sweep Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Source Mode, Oscillator Level and CW Frequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Sweep Range (dc Bias). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STEP 3. Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure for Using Mouse and Keyboard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing for Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring OPEN Calibration Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring SHORT Calibration Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring LOAD Calibration Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR Calibration Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Validating Calibration Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure for Using Front Panel Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing for Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring OPEN Calibration Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring SHORT Calibration Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring LOAD Calibration Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR Calibration data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Validating Calibration Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STEP 4. Connecting Test Fixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STEP 5. Setting Electrical Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure for Using Mouse and Keyboard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure for Using Front Panel Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STEP 6. Fixture Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure for Using Mouse and Keyboard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring OPEN Compensation Data (16197A). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring SHORT Compensation Data (16197A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Validating Fixture Compensation Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking SHORT Compensation Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure for Using Front Panel Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring OPEN Compensation Data (16197A). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring SHORT Compensation Data (16197A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Validating Fixture Compensation Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking SHORT Compensation Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STEP 7. Connecting DUT to Test Fixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STEP 8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applying dc Bias (Option 001). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Executing Auto scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Contents
Adjusting Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Performing Averaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Averaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Performing Point Averaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Performing Sweep Averaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Using Marker Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Reading Trace Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Detecting Maximum Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Displaying Marker List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Clearing Markers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Executing Equivalent Circuit Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Calculating Approximate Values of Equivalent Circuit Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Simulating Frequency Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Enlarging Trace (Zoom Function, Mouse Operation Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Displaying Traces on Individual Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Displaying Smith Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Displaying Five Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
STEP 9. Changing Sweep Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
STEP 10. Measuring Other DUTs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
4. Basic Operations for Dielectric Measurement
Dielectric Measurement Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Flow for Dielectric Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
STEP 1. Preparation for Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Selection of MUT and Test Fixture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Required Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Connecting Mouse, Keyboard, and Test Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Turning the Power ON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
STEP 2. Selecting Measurement Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
STEP 3. Setting Measurement Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Setting the Measurement Parameters and Display Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Setting the Measurement Points, Sweep Parameter, and Sweep Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Setting the Source Mode and Oscillator Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Setting the Sweep Range (Frequency) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
STEP 4. Connecting 16453A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
STEP 5. Entering Thickness of Load Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
STEP 6. Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
STEP 7. Entering Thickness of MUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
STEP 8. Connecting MUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
STEP 9. Measuring MUT and Analyzing Measurement Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
STEP 10. Changing Sweep Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
STEP 11. Measuring Other MUTs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
5. Basic Operations for Magnetic Measurement
Magnetic Measurement Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Flow for Magnetic Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
STEP 1. Preparation for Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Selection of MUT and Test Fixture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
9
Contents
Required Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting Mouse, Keyboard, and Test Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turning the Power ON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STEP 2. Selecting Measurement Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STEP 3. Setting Measurement Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Measurement Parameters and Display Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Measurement Points, Sweep Parameter and Sweep Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Source Mode and Oscillator Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Sweep Range (Frequency) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STEP 4. Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STEP 5. Connecting 16454A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STEP 6. Fixture Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STEP 7. Entering MUT Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STEP 8. Mounting MUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STEP 9. Measuring MUT and Analyzing Measurement Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STEP 10. Changing Sweep Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STEP 11. Measuring Other MUTs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
128
129
129
130
131
131
132
132
132
133
135
137
138
139
140
141
141
A. Manual Changes
Manual Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Miscellaneous Changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
10
1. Introduction
1
Introduction
This Chapter explains how to use this manual efficiently and describes the features of the
Agilent E4991A. Refer to this chapter first when you use the E4991A for the first time.
11
Introduction
How to Use This Manual
Contents of This
Chapter
o
How to Use This Manual page 12
The chapter configuration of this manual (Installation and Quick Start Guide)
and its use are explained.
o
Features of the Agilent E4991A page 14
The major features and functions of the E4991A are described.
How to Use This Manual
This Quick Start Guide has been prepared to quickly familiarize users with the E4991A
and to overview its basic functions and measurements. Figure 1-1 shows the organization
of the manual.
Figure 1-1
Organization of manual
12
Chapter 1
o
Chapter 1, “Introduction”
This Chapter explains how to use this manual efficiently and describes the
features of the Agilent E4991A. Refer to this chapter first when you use the
E4991A for the first time.
o
Chapter 2, “Installation Guide”
This chapter describes how to install and set up the Agilent E4991A after it is
delivered and explains daily maintenance procedures.
o
Chapter 3, “Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement”
This chapter explains the basic operations for taking impedance measurements
with the Agilent E4991A. New users can quickly become familiar with these
operations by performing procedures using chip-inductor measurements as
examples.
o
Chapter 4, “Basic Operations for Dielectric Measurement”
This chapter explains the basic operations for taking dielectric measurements
with the Agilent E4991A. To perform this type of measurement, the Option 002
(Material Measurement) software must be installed.
o
Chapter 5, “Basic Operations for Magnetic Measurement”
This chapter explains the basic operations for taking magnetic measurements
with the Agilent E4991A. To perform this type of measurement, the Option 002
(Material Measurement) software must be installed.
o
Appendix A, “Manual Changes,”
This appendix contains the information required to adapt this manual to versions
or configurations of the E4991A manufactured earlier than the current printing
date of this manual.
NOTE
For the concept and basic method of material measurement, refer to Appendix C “Theory
of Material Measurement” in the E4991A Operation Manual.
Chapter 1
13
1. Introduction
Introduction
How to Use This Manual
Introduction
Features of the Agilent E4991A
Features of the Agilent E4991A
As the replacement model of the Agilent 4291B, the E4991A (RF Impedance/Material
Analyzer) is the most appropriate evaluation tool for taking impedance, dielectric and
magnetic measurements of RF devices.
The E4991A is equipped with the following features to more efficiently develop and
evaluate RF devices and to improve quality control.
1. Achieves high measurement accuracy in the high-frequency range (1 MHz to 3 GHz)
needed to evaluate components for wireless equipment and EMI prevention.
2. Covers a wide impedance measurement range (0.2 Ω to 3 kΩ) with a single test head.
3. Dramatically improves repeatability with the improved test head.
4. Enables users to transfer and analyze measurement data efficiently with a
windows-style GUI (Graphical User Interface), better PC connectivity through a
LAN-based remote user interface, and the VBA programming environment.
5. Evaluates components with dc bias up to ±50 mA/±40 V if Option 001 (dc bias
function) is installed.
6. Allows users to analyze measurement data with its marker function and equivalent
circuit analysis function.
7. Enables users to measure surface mount devices (SMDs) of different sizes by using
various types of test fixtures (sold separately) for high-frequency use.
8. Offers a material measurement solution by supporting material measurement software
(Option 002) and material measurement fixtures (16453A and 16454A) that were also
used with the Agilent 4291B.
14
Chapter 1
2. Installation Guide
2
Installation Guide
This chapter describes how to install and set up the Agilent E4991A after it is delivered and
explains daily maintenance procedures.
15
Installation Guide
Contents of this
chapter
o
Incoming Inspection page 17
Inspection of the shipping container’s contents after delivery of the analyzer.
o
How to Install Front Handles/Rack Mounting Flanges page 22
Installation of the front handle used for carrying the E4991A and the flange used
for mounting the E4991A in a rack.
o
Environmental Requirements page 25
Environment requirements that must be met before using the E4991A.
o
Connection to Rear Panel page 27
Connecting the mouse, keyboard, and BNC cable to the rear panel.
o
Connecting the Test Head page 28
Connecting the test head to the E4991A.
o
Power Supply and Blown Fuses page 29
Verification and connection of the power cable; turning the power on/off; how to
handle blown fuses.
o
Test Fixtures Available for E4991A page 36
Test fixtures available for the E4991A.
o
Instructions for Cleaning page 37
Cleaning the exterior of the E4991A.
16
Chapter 2
Installation Guide
Incoming Inspection
Incoming Inspection
WARNING
To avoid dangerous electrical shock, do not turn the power on if any part of the
instrument’s exterior (top cover, bottom cover, side covers, front panel, rear panel,
LCD display, connectors or line switch) appears to have been damaged during
shipment.
Figure 2-1
2. Installation Guide
Inspect the equipment by following these steps while unpacking the contents of the
shipping container.
Flow for incoming inspection
Step 1. Confirm that the shipping container or cushioning material is not damaged.
Step 2. Confirm that all of the contents of the shipment are included in the package.
Step 3. Confirm that there exists no mechanical or electrical defect.
Step 4. Confirm that the E4991A operates normally both mechanically and electrically.
For a list of the package’s contents, refer to Table 2-1. Figure 2-2 shows the contents of the
standard package that comes with the E4991A.
NOTE
If any of the contents of the package is missing or found to have mechanical damage or
defects, or if any failure is found during verification of equipment operation, inform the
nearest Agilent Technologies office. If the box is damaged or the cushioning materials
show signs of unusual stress, inform the transport company in addition to the Agilent
Technologies office. Keep the box, cushioning materials, and contents of the package as
you found them; these materials will need to be examined in their delivered condition
during the incoming inspection.
Chapter 2
17
Installation Guide
Incoming Inspection
Table 2-1
Contents of E4991A package
Name of item
Agilent product/
part No.
Quantity
Standard Accessories
o
Main unit of E4991A
E4991A
1
o
Test Head
E4991-60011
1
o
CD-ROM (for installing E4991A VBA software)*1
E4991-1610x
1
o
7-mm Calibration Kit*2
16195-60021
1
o
Torque Wrench
8710-1766
1
o
CD-ROM (for manuals)*3
E4991-905xx
1
o
Power Cable*4
-
1
o
GPIB Adapter*5
E2078-62101
1
o
E4991A Recovery Disk
E4991-16100
1
Options
o
Keyboard (Option 810)
-
1
o
Mouse (Option 820)
-
1
o
High-Stability Frequency Reference (Option 1D5)
8120-1838
1
• Operation Manual
E4991-900x0
1
• Quick Start Guide
E4991-902x1
1
• Programming Manual
E4991-900x2
1
• Sample Programs Disk (3.5 inch floppy disk)
E4991-180x0
1
-
1
• N(m) to SMA(f) Adapters
1250-2879
3
• 3.5-mm to 7-mm Adapter
1250-1747
1
• Screws
0515-1551
4
• Washers
3050-0891
4
-
1
• BNC cable
o
o
Manuals (Option
ABA)*6
Probe Station Connection Kit (Option 010)
• Option 010 Test Head (with an extension cable)
o
Temperature Characteristic Test Kit (Option 007)
• Measurement Cable
E4991-60005
1
Kit*7
E4991-60006
1
• 7-mm OPEN Standard
E4991-60032
1
• 7-mm SHORT Standard
E4991-60031
1
• Extension Cable
04287-61651
1
1250-1250
3
• Test Fixture Stand
• Test Head Stand
• N(m) to SMA(f) Adapters
• N(f) to SMA(f) Adapters
• Pad (for the test fixture stand)
• Mount Cable Tie (for fixing the extension cable)
• Sample Program Disk (for VBA program, 3.5 inch floppy
disk)
18
1250-1404
3
04291-09001
1
1400-0584
1
E4991-18002
1
Chapter 2
Installation Guide
Incoming Inspection
Table 2-1
Contents of E4991A package
Agilent product/
part No.
Quantity
Handle Kit (Option 1CN)
5063-9229
1
Rack Mount Kit (Option 1CM)
5063-9216
1
Rack Mount / Handle Kit (Option 1CP)
5188-4430
1
Name of item
Figure 2-2
2. Installation Guide
*1.Used when installing VBA on an external PC. "x" in the part number indicates firmware
revision, with “0” for revision 1.00 and then increments of one for each subsequent revision. The latest revision is supplied with the product.
*2.Includes a 0 S (OPEN), 0 Ω (SHORT), and 50 Ω (LOAD) standard and a low-loss
capacitor. Carrying case is not shown in Figure 2-2.
*3.Contains the contents of the Operation Manual, Quick Start Guide, Programming Manual, and Sample Programs. "x" in the part numbers of CD-ROM indicates revision numbers, with “0” for the initial edition and then increments of one for each subsequent
edition. The latest editions are supplied with the product.
*4.This accessory is not shown in Figure 2-2. For the part number, refer to Figure 2-12 on
page 30.
*5.Use this adapter when a GPIB cable is connected to the rear panel GPIB connector.
*6. "x" in the part numbers of manuals, and Sample Programs disk indicates edition or
revision numbers, with “0” for the initial edition and then increments of one for each
subsequent edition. The latest editions are supplied with the product.
*7.Includes a stand, a holder kit (two items), and four screws.
Standard contents of package
Chapter 2
19
Installation Guide
Incoming Inspection
Figure 2-3
Option 810 content
Figure 2-4
Option 820 content
Figure 2-5
Option ABA contents
20
Chapter 2
Installation Guide
Incoming Inspection
Option 010 contents
Figure 2-7
Option 007 contents
2. Installation Guide
Figure 2-6
Chapter 2
21
Installation Guide
How to Install Front Handles/Rack Mounting Flanges
How to Install Front Handles/Rack Mounting Flanges
The E4991A can be made more convenient for use with two key options (Table 2-2):
handles mounted on each side of the front for easy transport and flanges to attach the
instrument to a rack as part of a multi-component measurement system.
Table 2-2
Agilent E4991A handles/rack mounting options
Option
Table 2-3
Name
Agilent Part Number
1CN
Handle Kit
5063-9229
1CM
Rack-mount Kit
5063-9216
1CP
Rack-mount and Handle Kit
5188-4430
Contents of each option
Option
1CN
1CM
1CP
22
Contents
Quantity
Front Handles
2
Screws
6
Trim Strips
2
Rack-mounting flanges (locking side plate)
2
Screws
6
Rack-mounting flanges (locking side plate)
2
Front Handles
2
Screws
8
Chapter 2
Installation Guide
How to Install Front Handles/Rack Mounting Flanges
Figure 2-8
Installing front handle/rack-mount kits
2. Installation Guide
How to Install the Handle Kit (Option 1CN)
The handle kit is used for transport and relocation of the E4991A. While referring to Figure
2-8, install the handle kit by following these steps.
Step 1. Remove the adhesive-backed trim strip (1) from each side of the outer frame of the
E4991A front panel.
Step 2. Use the provided screws to mount the front handles (2) on each side of the E4991A front
panel frame.
Step 3. Attach the provided modified trim strip (3) to each front handle in order to cover the front
panel locking screws.
WARNING
If the installed front handle becomes damaged, replace it with a new one immediately.
A damaged handle can break while moving or lifting the instrument and cause
personal injury or damage to the instrument.
Chapter 2
23
Installation Guide
How to Install Front Handles/Rack Mounting Flanges
How to Install the Rack-mount Kit (Option 1CM)
The rack-mount kit includes two flanges (locking side plates) for mounting the E4991A on
a rack (482.6 mm/19 inches) conforming to the EIA Standard. While referring to Figure
2-8, install the rack-mount kit by following these steps.
Step 1. Remove the adhesive-backed trim strip (1) from each side of the outer frame of the
E4991A front panel.
Step 2. Use the provided screws to mount a rack-mounting flange (4) on each side of the E4991A
front panel frame.
Step 3. Remove the four bottom feet of the E4991A (lift the bar marked TAB on the inner side of
the foot and slide the foot toward the bar).
Step 4. Mount the E4991A on the rack.
How to Install the Rack-mount and Handle Kit (Option 1CP)
The rack-mount and handle kit includes both the rack-mounting flanges (locking side
plates) and front handles. While referring to Figure 2-8, install the rack-mount kit by
following these steps.
Step 1. Remove the adhesive-backed trim strip (1) from each side of the outer frame of the
E4991A front panel.
Step 2. Use the provided screws to mount a front handle (2) and rack-mounting flange (4) on each
side of the E4991A front panel frame.
Step 3. Remove the four bottom feet of the E4991A (lift the bar marked TAB on the inner side of
the foot and slide the foot toward the bar).
Step 4. Mount the E4991A on the rack.
24
Chapter 2
Installation Guide
Environmental Requirements
Environmental Requirements
Ensure that the following environmental requirements are met before using the E4991A.
Operation Environment
Use the E4991A under the following environmental conditions.
5°C to 40°C
Relative humidity
(wet bulb temperature ≤ 29°C,
under non-condensation)
20% to 80%
(Built-in floppy disk drive operating condition)
Altitude
0 to 2,000 m (0 to 6,561 feet)
Vibration
0.5 G maximum, 5 Hz to 500 Hz
Warm-up Time
more than 30 minutes
2. Installation Guide
NOTE
Temperature
15% to 90%
(Built-in floppy disk drive non-operating condition)
The E4991A must be protected from temperature extremes that might cause condensation
within the instrument.
Chapter 2
25
Installation Guide
Environmental Requirements
Ventilation Space
To ensure the specifications and measurement accuracy of the product, you must keep
ambient temperature around the product within the specified range by providing
appropriate cooling clearance around the product or, for the rackmount type, by forcefully
air-cooling inside the rack housing. For information on ambient temperature to satisfy the
specifications and measurement accuracy of the product, refer to Specifications and
“Supplemental Performance Characteristics” in Operation Manual.
When the ambient temperature around the product is kept within the temperature range of
the operating environment specification (refer to“Operation Environment” on page 25), the
product conforms to the requirements of the safety standard. Furthermore, under that
temperature environment, it has been confirmed that the product still conforms to the
requirements of the safety standard when it is enclosed with cooling clearance as follows:
Figure 2-9
Back
≥ 180 mm
Sides
≥ 60 mm (both right and left)
Ventilation space at installation site
Ensuring Adequate Free Space around Analyzer for Immediate
Disconnection of Power Cable in Case of Emergency
As described in “Disconnection from Supply Source” on page 32, the power supply is
disconnected by removing the power cable’s connector plug from either the AC outlet or
the E4991A unit. When installing the E4991A, ensure that there is sufficient free space
around the unit to permit quick disconnection of the plug (from AC outlet or E4991A unit)
in case of emergency.
26
Chapter 2
Installation Guide
Connection to Rear Panel
Connection to Rear Panel
Figure 2-10
Connection to rear panel
2. Installation Guide
Connecting Mouse and Keyboard
Before turning the power ON, connect the supplied mouse and keyboard as shown in
Figure 2-10. The mouse allows efficient setting and operation by moving the cursor on the
LCD display of the E4991A. The keyboard allows efficient entry of numerals and character
strings.
Connecting BNC Cable (Option 1D5 Only)
When Option 1D5 (High-Stability Frequency Reference) is installed, connect the BNC
cable between output terminal REF OVEN and input terminal EXT REF on the rear panel
of the E4991A in accordance with Figure 2-10. The BNC cable is supplied with Option
1D5. Installation of Option 1D5 increases the instrument’s frequency accuracy and
stability.
Chapter 2
27
Installation Guide
Connecting the Test Head
Connecting the Test Head
When performing calibration with the 7-mm Calibration Kit or measuring DUTs with the
test fixture and 7-mm terminal, you must first connect the test head to the E4991A. The
procedure for making this connection is described below.
NOTE
Figure 2-11
When connecting the test head:
•
Do not remove the four feet on the bottom of the E4991A; doing this would make the
connection more difficult.
•
Turn the N-type connectors in the order given in the instructions below when
tightening them. The N-type connector for the RF OUT terminal is mounted with a
special design for flexible movement to provide easier connection or removal of the
test head.
Connecting test head to E4991A
Step 1. Attach the N-type connectors (test head side) to their corresponding terminals (RF OUT,
PORT 1 and PORT 2), which serve as the test head interface of the E4991A.
Step 2. Turn the N-type connectors for PORT 1 and PORT 2 at the same time to tighten them.
Step 3. Finally, turn the N-type connector for RF OUT to tighten it.
28
Chapter 2
Installation Guide
Power Supply and Blown Fuses
NOTE
When removing the test head, loosen and disconnect the N-type connector connected to the
RF OUT terminal first.
NOTE
The N-type connector for the RF OUT terminal is mounted with a special design for
flexible movement to provide easier connection or removal of the test head.
2. Installation Guide
Power Supply and Blown Fuses
Check the Power Supply
Confirm that the power supplied to the E4991A meets the following requirements:
Requirements
Voltage
90 to 132 VAC or 198 to 264 VAC *1
Frequency
47 to 63 Hz
Maximum power consumption
350 VA
*1. Switched automatically by the E4991A in conformity to the voltage used.
Verification and Connection of Power Cable
The three-wire power cable attached to the E4991A has one wire serving as a ground.
Using this power cable allows the E4991A to be grounded, thereby protecting you against
electrical shock from the power outlet.
Step 1. Confirm that the power cable is not damaged.
WARNING
NEVER use a power cable showing any sign of damage. Faulty cables can cause
electrical shock.
Step 2. Use the supplied cable to connect between the power terminal (Figure 2-10 on page 27) on
the rear panel of the E4991A and a three-wire power outlet with the grounding prong
firmly connected in the ground slot.
WARNING
Use the supplied power cable with grounding wire to securely ground the E4991A.
Figure 2-12 shows the power cable options.
Chapter 2
29
Installation Guide
Power Supply and Blown Fuses
Figure 2-12
Power cable options
Blown Fuses
If the fuse appears to have blown during operation, this equipment may be subject to
failure and must be repaired. Contact the Agilent Technologies sales office or the company
from which you purchased the equipment.
The E4991A uses the following fuse type: UL/CSA Type, Slo-Blo, 8 A/250 Vac
WARNING
Do NOT replace the fuse yourself; doing this may expose you to dangerous electrical
shock.
30
Chapter 2
Installation Guide
Power Supply and Blown Fuses
Turning the Power ON and OFF
Perform the following steps to turn the power ON or OFF.
Turning the Power ON
Step 1. If the standby switch (
(
) in the lower-left part of the front panel is in the depressed
) position, press it to put it in the popped up position (
2. Installation Guide
Step 2. Press the standby switch to put it in the depressed position (
).
).
This operation turns ON the power, and the E4991A starts the self-test.
Step 3. Confirm that the self-test indicates normal operation.
Normal operation is confirmed by the self-test if no error message appears.
Turning the Power OFF
Step 1. Use either of the following methods to turn the power OFF.
•
Press the standby switch (
pressed down (
•
) in the lower-left part of the front panel (now in the
) position) to put it in the popped up (
) position.
Send the shutdown command from an external controller.
These operations will start the E4991A shutdown process (required software and hardware
processes for turning the power off), and the power will turn OFF after a few seconds.
NOTE
Under normal circumstances, always press the standby switch ( ), or send the shutdown
command from an external controller, to execute the E4991A shutdown process. Never cut
off the power supply directly by disconnecting the power cable plug from the rear
panel of the unit.
If the power supply is cut off directly by disconnecting the power cable plug from the
instrument or the AC outlet, the shutdown process is not carried out and there is a risk of
damage to the E4991A’s software or hardware.
Chapter 2
31
Installation Guide
Power Supply and Blown Fuses
Disconnection from Supply Source
The power supply of the E4991A is cut off by disconnecting the plug of the power cable
(on either AC outlet side or E4991A side). When it is necessary to disconnect the power
supply in order to avoid shock hazards, etc., pull out the power cable plug from either the
AC outlet side or the E4991A side.
NOTE
To allow this operation to be performed smoothly, be sure to follow the guidelines in
“Ensuring Adequate Free Space around Analyzer for Immediate Disconnection of Power
Cable in Case of Emergency” on page 26.
When turning the power OFF under normal circumstances, always follow the methods
described in “Turning the Power OFF” on page 31.
32
Chapter 2
Installation Guide
Initial Registration of E4991A
Initial Registration of E4991A
When you start up the E4991A for the first time or after executing system recovery, you
need to perform the initial registration of the Windows 2000 operating system of the
E4991A.
You cannot use the front panel keys during the initial registration of the E4991A therefore
connect the mouse and the keyboard before turning on the power.
NOTE
If you perform the following procedure incorrectly, a message asking you whether to return
to the previous registration screen and perform the registration appears. In this case, follow
the instruction to return to the previous registration screen.
Step 1. Turns on the E4991A.
Step 2. The Windows 2000 Professional Setup wizard appears. Click the Next > button (Figure
2-13).
Figure 2-13
Windows 2000 Professional Setup wizard
Chapter 2
33
2. Installation Guide
NOTE
Installation Guide
Initial Registration of E4991A
Step 3. In the Windows 2000 Professional Setup dialog box, select the I accept this agreement
box and click the Next >button (Figure 2-14). Then, the Windows 2000 operating system is
restarted automatically.
Figure 2-14
Windows 2000 Professional Setup dialog box
Step 4. The Network Identification wizard appears. Click the Next > button (Figure 2-15).
Figure 2-15
Network Identification wizard
34
Chapter 2
Installation Guide
Initial Registration of E4991A
Step 5. In the Network Identification Wizard dialog box (1/2), select the Windows always
assumes the following user has logged on to this computer box and check that
agt_instr is in the User Name box. If not, type in agt_instr. Finally, click the Next> button
(Figure 2-16).
Figure 2-16
Network Identification Wizard dialog box (1/2)
2. Installation Guide
Step 6. In the Network Identification Wizard dialog box (2/2), click the Finish button to finish the
initial registration of the E4991A (Figure 2-17). Then, the measurement display of
theE4991A appears.
Figure 2-17
Network Identification Wizard dialog box (2/2)
Chapter 2
35
Installation Guide
Test Fixtures Available for E4991A
Test Fixtures Available for E4991A
Test fixtures are used to provide high stability and repeatability in measurements. The test
fixtures that can be used with the E4991A are listed in the following table. Select the
appropriate test fixture depending on the type and size of the DUT. For detailed
specifications of the test fixtures, refer to accessory catalogs or the operation manual of
each test fixture.
Figure 2-18
Type and sizes of DUTs
Table 2-4
Test fixtures for parallel electrode SMD
Size of DUT (SMD) (mm)
Test fixture
Frequency range
Length (L)
Width (W)
Height (H)
1.6
0.8
0.5 to 0.8
1.0
0.5
0.35 to 0.5
0.6
0.3
0.3
1.0 to 20.0
0.5 to 5.0
0.5 to 5.0
16196A
16196B
1 MHz to 3 GHz
16196C
16192A
Table 2-5
1 MHz to 2 GHz
Test fixtures for bottom electrode SMD
Size of DUT (SMD) (mm)
Test fixture
16197A*1
16193A
36
Frequency range
1 MHz to 3 GHz
1 MHz to 2 GHz
Length (L)
Width (W)
1.0
0.5
1.6
0.8
2.0
1.2
3.2
1.6 to 2.5
0.5 to 3.2
≤ 3.0
Height (H)
0.4 to 3.0
≤ 3.0
Chapter 2
Installation Guide
Instructions for Cleaning
Table 2-5
Test fixtures for bottom electrode SMD
Size of DUT (SMD) (mm)
Test fixture
16191A
Frequency range
1 MHz to 2 GHz
Length (L)
Width (W)
Height (H)
2.0 to 12.0
0.5 to 5.0
0.5 to 5.0
*1.When Option 001 is selected, SMD size of 0603 (mm) / 0201 (inch) is covered.
Test fixtures for dielectric materials
2. Installation Guide
Table 2-6
Size of DUT (dielectric materials) (mm)
Test fixture
16453A
Table 2-7
Frequency range
1 M to 1 GHz
Width / Diameter (d)
Thickness (t)
≥ φ15.0
0.3 to 3.0
Test fixtures for magnetic materials
Size of DUT (magnetic materials) (mm)
Test fixture
16454A
NOTE
Frequency range
1 M to 1 GHz
Inner
diameter (b)
Outer
diameter (c)
Height (h)
≥ φ3.1
≤ φ20.0
≤ 8.5
In addition to the above test fixtures, you can also use your own custom-made fixtures.
Instructions for Cleaning
To clean the exterior of the E4991A, gently wipe the surfaces with a clean dry cloth or a
clean cloth that has been soaked in water and wrung tightly. Do not attempt to clean the
internal parts of the E4991A.
WARNING
To prevent electrical shock, disconnect the E4991A's power cable from the AC outlet
before cleaning.
Chapter 2
37
Installation Guide
Instructions for Cleaning
38
Chapter 2
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
3
Basic Operations for RF Devices
Measurement
This chapter explains the basic operations for taking impedance measurements with the
Agilent E4991A. New users can quickly become familiar with these operations by
performing procedures using chip-inductor measurements as examples.
39
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
Contents of this
chapter
o
Impedance Measurement Overview page 41
Measurement examples and a basic flow for impedance measurement.
o
STEP 1. Preparation for Measurement page 43
How to prepare for measurement.
o
STEP 2. Setting Measurement Conditions page 45
How to set sweeping conditions and measurement parameters.
o
STEP 3. Calibration page 60
How to perform OPEN / SHORT / LOAD (/ LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR)
calibrations.
o
STEP 4. Connecting Test Fixture page 70
How to connect the test fixture (16197A) to the 7-mm terminal of the test head.
o
STEP 5. Setting Electrical Length page 71
How to set the electrical length for the test fixture.
o
STEP 6. Fixture Compensation page 73
How to perform OPEN/SHORT compensation. OPEN/SHORT compensation
for the 16197A is explained as an example.
o
STEP 7. Connecting DUT to Test Fixture page 81
How to connect a DUT to the test fixture (16197A).
o
STEP 8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement Results page 82
How to achieve the optimum setting of the vertical axis scale and analyze the
measurement results.
o
STEP 9. Changing Sweep Conditions page 103
How to change the sweep conditions.
o
STEP 10. Measuring Other DUTs page 103
How to measure other DUTs.
40
Chapter 3
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
Impedance Measurement Overview
Impedance Measurement Overview
The following four measurement examples can help you learn how to use the E4991A.
•
•
•
•
Frequency characteristics of impedance, inductance and Q
Frequency characteristics of impedance, resistance and reactance
Oscillator level (current) characteristics of inductance and Q
Dc bias (current) characteristics of inductance and Q
Flow for Impedance Measurement
The basic procedure for impedance measurement is shown in the flow chart in Figure 3-1.
Figure 3-1
Basic flow for impedance measurement
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Chapter 3
41
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
Impedance Measurement Overview
Name of Each Area on LCD Screen
The name of each area on the LCD screen is given in Figure 3-2 and Table 3-1.
Figure 3-2
LCD Screen
Table 3-1
Name of each area on LCD Screen
Number
Name
Number
Name
1
Title bar
2
Menu bar
3
Status bar
4
Setup toolbar
5
Stimulus value
6
Trace value
7
Trace 1
8
Marker
9
Scale reference line value
10
Trace 1 axis
11
Trace 2 axis
12*1
Source settings condition
13
Sweep start value
14
Sweep averaging counter
15
Sweep stop value
*1. Indicates CW: Source frequency, OSC: Oscillator level, and
BIAS: dc bias level [dc bias limit value]
NOTE
For each feature, refer to Chapter 2, “Function overview” in the E4991A Operation
Manual.
42
Chapter 3
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 1. Preparation for Measurement
STEP 1. Preparation for Measurement
Selection of DUT and Test Fixture
The test fixtures are used to provide measurements that have high stability and
repeatability. Agilent Technologies provides test fixtures for different sizes and types of
SMDs (surface mounted devices) such as chip inductors and chip capacitors. The
following test fixtures can be used with the E4991A.
NOTE
o
16191A
o
16192A
o
16193A
o
16196A/B/C
o
16197A
This chapter describes measurement examples using a chip inductor of 1608
mm/0603 inches in size as the DUT and the 16197A as the test fixture.
Required Equipment
The measurement examples in this chapter require the following equipment.
Agilent E4991A RF Impedance/Material Analyzer
o
E4991A (main unit)
o
Test head
o
Agilent 16195B calibration kit
o
Mouse
o
Keyboard
Agilent 16197A single-sided electrode SMD test fixture
o
16197A test fixture
o
Short device set
o
A pair of tweezers
Measurement DUT: Chip inductor [1608 mm/0603 inches]
Chapter 3
43
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Select the appropriate test fixture depending on the type and size of the DUT by referring
to “Test Fixtures Available for E4991A” on page 36.
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 1. Preparation for Measurement
Figure 3-3
Required equipment
Connecting Mouse, Keyboard and Test Head
Connect the mouse, keyboard and test head to the E4991A as shown in “Connection to
Rear Panel” on page 27 and “Connecting the Test Head” on page 28. Be sure not to remove
the four feet on the bottom of the E4991A when connecting the test head.
NOTE
Be sure to connect the mouse and keyboard before turning the power ON.
NOTE
Do not connect the test fixtures to the test head at this point because calibration is
performed on the DUT port (7-mm terminal) of the test head later.
Turning the Power ON
Perform the following steps to turn the power ON. The E4991A starts the self-test
automatically when the power is turned ON.
Step 1. If the standby switch (
(
) in the lower-left part of the front panel is in the depressed
) position, press the switch to put it in the popped up position (
Step 2. Press the standby switch to put it in the pressed down position (
NOTE
).
).
Special caution is required when turning the power ON or OFF. Refer to “Turning the
Power ON and OFF” on page 31.
44
Chapter 3
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 2. Setting Measurement Conditions
STEP 2. Setting Measurement Conditions
Before starting the measurement, you must set measurement parameters and sweep
conditions depending on your measurement requirements. This section describes the setup
procedure for the following four measurements.
(1) Frequency characteristics of |Z|-Ls-Q
(2) Frequency characteristics of |Z|-R-X
(3) Oscillator level (current) characteristics of Ls-Q
(4) Dc bias (current) characteristics of Ls-Q
The procedure for measurement example (1) is carried out by using the mouse and
keyboard as well as front panel keys. The procedures for measurement examples (2), (3)
and (4) are carried out by using the mouse and keyboard only.
NOTE
When measuring a capacitor, the OSC level (voltage) and dc bias (voltage) characteristics
are used.
Flow for Setting Measurement Conditions
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
The basic procedure for setting the measurement conditions is illustrated in Figure 3-4.
Figure 3-4
Basic flow for setting measurement conditions
Chapter 3
45
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 2. Setting Measurement Conditions
(1) Frequency Characteristics of |Z|-Ls-Q
You first have to change the measurement conditions from the initial state of the E4991A
as shown in Table 3-2.
Table 3-2
Setup example for this measurement
Parameter setting
Setup example
Initial state
Trace 1
|Z|
|Z|
Trace 2
Ls
θz
Trace 3
Q
Q
Trace 1
Log
Linear
Trace 2
Linear
Linear
Trace 3
Linear
Linear
Measurement points
201 points
201 points
Sweep parameter
Frequency
Frequency
Sweep type
Log
Linear
Source mode
Current
Voltage
Oscillator level
1 mA
100 mV (2 mA)
Sweep range (frequency)
1 MHz to 3 GHz
1 MHz to 3 GHz
Measurement
parameters
Display formats
Procedure for Using Mouse and Keyboard
Set up the E4991A by following the procedure given below.
Presetting the E4991A
Step 1. Click Preset on the System menu to set the initial state (Figure 3-5).
Figure 3-5
Presetting E4991A
46
Chapter 3
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 2. Setting Measurement Conditions
Setting the Measurement Parameters and Display Formats
Step 1. Click Display... on the Display menu (Figure 3-6).
Figure 3-6
Step 1
Step 2. Select 3 Scalar in the Num Of Traces box (Figure 3-7).
Step 2
Table 3-3
Num Of Traces box and Types of traces
Num Of Traces box
Type of trace
x Scalar*1
Scalar trace
x Complex*1
Complex trace
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Figure 3-7
*1.[x] represents the number of displayed traces.
Step 3. Click Meas/Format... on the Meas/Format menu (Figure 3-8).
Figure 3-8
Step 3
Step 4. Specify Trace 1 as the active trace by either of the following methods. When it is made
active, “*” appears immediately before Trace 1.
•
Click Scalar 1 on the Trace menu (Figure 3-9).
•
Move mouse pointer to 1: |Z| [Ω] or 2: θz [rad] (white framed area) on the display
screen, where the cursor changes to a finger icon (
[Ω].
Chapter 3
) (Figure 3-10). Then Click 1: |Z|
47
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 2. Setting Measurement Conditions
Figure 3-9
Step 4 (using Trace menu)
Figure 3-10
Step 4 (using the mouse)
Step 5. The Meas Parameter box is set to |Z| in the initial state.
Step 6. Select Log Y-Axis in the Format box (Figure 3-11).
Figure 3-11
Step 6
Step 7. Specify Trace 2 as the active trace (* mark) as shown in Figure 3-9 and Figure 3-10.
Step 8. Select Ls in the Meas Parameter box (Figure 3-12).
Figure 3-12
Step 8
Step 9. The Format box is set to Lin Y-Axis in the initial state.
Step 10. Specify Trace 3 as the active trace (* mark) as shown in Figure 3-9 and Figure 3-10.
48
Chapter 3
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 2. Setting Measurement Conditions
Step 11. The Meas Parameter box is set to Q in the initial state.
Step 12. The Format box is set to Lin Y-Axis in the initial state.
Setting the Measurement Points, Sweep Parameter, and Sweep Type
Step 1. Click Sweep Setup... on the Stimulus menu (Figure 3-13).
Figure 3-13
Step 1
Step 2. The Number Of Points box is set to 201 in the initial state (Figure 3-14).
Figure 3-14
Steps 2, 3, 4
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Step 3. The Sweep Parameter box is set to Frequency in the initial state (Figure 3-14).
Step 4. Select Log in the Sweep Type box (Figure 3-14)
Setting the Source Mode and Oscillator Level
Step 1. Click Source... on the Stimulus menu (Figure 3-15).
Figure 3-15
Step 1
Chapter 3
49
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 2. Setting Measurement Conditions
Step 2. Select Current in the Osc Unit box (Figure 3-16).
Figure 3-16
Step 2
Step 3. Select Osc Level box and type [1] [m] [Enter] with the keyboard (Figure 3-17).
Figure 3-17
Step 3
NOTE
When entering the unit of current with the keyboard, type [m] for mA.
Setting the Sweep Range (Frequency)
Step 1. Click Start/Stop... on the Stimulus menu (Figure 3-18).
Figure 3-18
Step 1
Step 2. The Start box is set to 1 M Hz in the initial state (Figure 3-19).
Figure 3-19
Steps 2, 3
Step 3. The Stop box is set to 3 G Hz in the initial state (Figure 3-19).
50
Chapter 3
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 2. Setting Measurement Conditions
Procedure for Using Front Panel Keys
Set up the E4991A as shown in the following procedure.
Presetting the E4991A
Step 1. Press the [Preset] key in the SYSTEM block to return to the initial state.
Setting the Measurement Parameters and Display Formats
Step 1. Press the [Display] key in the MEASUREMENT block.
Step 2. Press the
the
or
key to move the cursor to the Num Of Traces box, and then press
key to open the list. Next, press the
Scalar and press the
or
key to move the cursor to 3
key (Figure 3-7).
Step 3. Press the [Meas/Format] key in the SYSTEM block.
Step 5. The Meas Parameter box is set to |Z| in the initial state.
Step 6. Press the
or
key in the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block to move the cursor to
the Format box and then press the
key to open the list. Next, press the
key to move the cursor to Log Y-Axis and press the
or
key (Figure 3-11).
Step 7. Press the [Trace] key in the MEASUREMENT block to specify Trace 2 as the active
trace.
Step 8. Press the
the
or
key to move the cursor to the Meas Parameter box and then press
key to open the list. Next, press the
and press the
or
key to move the cursor to Ls
key (Figure 3-12).
Step 9. The Format box is set to Lin Y-Axis in the initial state.
Step 10. Press the [Trace] key in the MEASUREMENT block to specify Trace 3 as the active
trace.
Step 11. The Meas Parameter box is set to Q in the initial state.
Step 12. The Format box is set to Lin Y-Axis in the initial state.
Setting the Measurement Points, Sweep Parameter and Sweep Type
Step 1. Press the [Sweep] key in the STIMULUS block.
Step 2. The number Of Points box is set to 201 in the initial state (Figure 3-14).
Chapter 3
51
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Step 4. Press the [Trace] key in the MEASUREMENT block to specify Trace 1 as the active
trace. When the trace is made active, “*” appears before Trace 1.
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 2. Setting Measurement Conditions
Step 3. The Sweep Parameter box is set to Frequency in the initial state (Figure 3-14).
Step 4. Press the
or
key to move the cursor to the Sweep Type box and then press the
key to open the list. Next, press the
press the
or
key to move the cursor to Log and
key (Figure 3-14).
Setting the Source Mode and Oscillator Level
Step 1. Press the [Source] key in the STIMULUS block.
Step 2. Press the
or
key to move the cursor to the Osc Unit box and then press the
key to open the list. Next, press the
and press the
Step 3. Press the
,
or
key to move the cursor to Current
key (Figure 3-16).
or
key to move the cursor to the Osc Level box and then press the
keys in this order (Figure 3-17).
Setting the Sweep Range (Frequency)
Step 1. Press the [Start/Stop] key in the STIMULUS block.
Step 2. The Start box is set to 1 M Hz in the initial state (Figure 3-19).
Step 3. The Stop box is set to 3 G Hz in the initial state (Figure 3-19).
52
Chapter 3
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 2. Setting Measurement Conditions
(2) Frequency Characteristics of |Z|-R-X
You should first change the measurement conditions from the initial state of the E4991A as
shown in Table 3-4.
Table 3-4
Setup example for this measurement
Parameter setting
Initial state
Trace 1
|Z|
|Z|
Trace 2
R
θz
Trace 3
X
Q
Trace 1
Log
Linear
Trace 2
Log
Linear
Trace 3
Linear
Linear
Measurement points
201 points
201 points
Sweep parameter
Frequency
Frequency
Sweep type
Linear
Linear
Source mode
Current
Voltage
Oscillator level
1 mA
100 mV (2 mA)
Sweep range (frequency)
1.5 GHz to 2.5 GHz
1 MHz to 3 GHz
Measurement
parameters
Display formats
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Setup example
Presetting the E4991A
Preset the E4991A to the initial state by referring to the procedure described in “Presetting
the E4991A” on page 46.
Setting the Measurement Parameters and Display Formats
Step 1. Click Display... on the Display menu (Figure 3-6).
Step 2. Select 3 Scalar in the Num Of Traces box (Figure 3-7).
Step 3. Click Meas/Format... on the Meas/Format menu (Figure 3-8).
Step 4. Specify Trace 1 as the active trace (* mark) as shown in Figure 3-9 and Figure 3-10.
Step 5. Meas Parameter box is set to |Z| in the initial state.
Step 6. Select Log Y-Axis in the Format box (Figure 3-11).
Step 7. Specify Trace 2 as the active trace (* mark) has shown in Figure 3-9 and Figure 3-10.
Step 8. Select R in the Meas Parameter box as shown in Figure 3-12.
Chapter 3
53
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 2. Setting Measurement Conditions
Step 9. Select Log Y-Axis in the Format box (Figure 3-11).
Step 10. Specify Trace 3 as the active trace (* mark) as shown in Figure 3-9 and Figure 3-10.
Step 11. Select X in the Meas Parameter box as shown in Figure 3-12.
Step 12. Format box is set to Lin Y-Axis in the initial state.
Setting the Measurement Points, Sweep Parameter, and Sweep Type
Step 1. Click Sweep Setup... on the Stimulus menu (Figure 3-13).
Step 2. Number Of Points box is set to 201 in the initial state (Figure 3-14).
Step 3. Sweep Parameter box is set to Frequency in the initial state (Figure 3-14).
Step 4. Sweep Type box is set to Linear in the initial state.
Setting the Source Mode and Oscillator Level
Perform this setup in the same way as “Setting the Source Mode and Oscillator Level” on
page 49.
Setting the Sweep Range (Frequency)
Step 1. Click Start/Stop... on the Stimulus menu (Figure 3-18).
Step 2. Select Start box, and type [1] [.] [5] [G] [Enter] on the keyboard (Figure 3-20).
Step 3. Select Stop box, and type [2] [.] [5] [G] [Enter] on the keyboard (Figure 3-20).
Figure 3-20
Steps 2, 3
NOTE
When entering the frequency unit with the keyboard, type [M] for MHz and [G] for GHz.
54
Chapter 3
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STEP 2. Setting Measurement Conditions
(3) Oscillator Level (Current) Characteristics of Ls-Q
You should first change the measurement conditions from the initial state of the E4991A as
shown in Table 3-5.
Table 3-5
Setup example for this measurement
Parameter Setting
Initial state
Trace 1
Ls
|Z|
Trace 2
Q
θz
Trace 1
Linear
Linear
Trace 2
Linear
Linear
Measurement points
201 points
201 points
Sweep parameter
Oscillator level
Frequency
Sweep type
Linear
Linear
Source mode
Current
Voltage
CW frequency
100 MHz
1 MHz
Sweep range (frequency)
100 μA to 10 mA
4 mA to 8 mA
Measurement
parameters
Display formats
Presetting the E4991A
Preset the E4991A to the initial state by referring to the procedure described in “Presetting
the E4991A” on page 46.
Setting the Measurement Parameters and Display Formats
Step 1. Click Meas/Format... on the Meas/Format menu (Figure 3-8).
Step 2. Specify Trace 1 as the active trace (* mark) as shown in Figure 3-9 and Figure 3-10.
Step 3. Select Ls in the Meas Parameter box (Figure 3-12).
Step 4. Format box is set to Lin Y-Axis in the initial state.
Step 5. Specify Trace 2 as the active trace (* mark) as shown in Figure 3-9 and Figure 3-10.
Step 6. Select Q in the Meas Parameter box as shown in Figure 3-12.
Step 7. Format box is set to Lin Y-Axis in the initial state.
Chapter 3
55
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Setup example
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 2. Setting Measurement Conditions
Setting the Measurement Points, Sweep Parameter and Sweep Type
Step 1. Click Sweep Setup... on the Stimulus menu (Figure 3-13).
Step 2. Number Of Points box is set to 201 in the initial state.
Step 3. Select Power in the Sweep Parameter box (Figure 3-21).
Figure 3-21
Step 3
NOTE
Setting sweep parameter to Power automatically sets sweep type to Linear.
Setting the Source Mode and CW Frequency
Step 1. Click Source... on the Stimulus menu (Figure 3-15).
Step 2. Select Current in the Osc Unit box (Figure 3-16).
Step 3. Select CW Freq box and type [1] [0] [0] [M] [Enter] on the keyboard (Figure 3-22).
Figure 3-22
Step 3
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Chapter 3
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STEP 2. Setting Measurement Conditions
Setting the Sweep Range (Oscillator Level)
Step 1. Click Start/Stop... on the Stimulus menu (Figure 3-18).
Step 2. Select Start box and type [[1] [0] [0] [u] [Enter] on the keyboard (Figure 3-23).
Step 3. Select Stop box and type [1] [0] [m] [Enter] on the keyboard (Figure 3-23).
Figure 3-23
Steps 2, 3
NOTE
When entering the current unit with the keyboard, type [u] for μA and [m] for mA.
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Chapter 3
57
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 2. Setting Measurement Conditions
(4) Dc Bias (Current) Characteristics of Ls-Q (Option 001)
When Option 001 is installed in the E4991A, dc bias can be applied to the DUT. First
change the measurement conditions from the initial state of the E4991A as shown in Table
3-6.
NOTE
When measuring dc bias characteristics, you must set dc bias to ON after connecting
the DUT to the test fixture. For the setting procedure, refer to “Applying dc Bias
(Option 001)” on page 82.
Table 3-6
Setup example for this measurement
Parameter setting
Setup example
Initial state
Trace 1
Ls
|Z|
Trace 2
Q
θz
Trace 1
Linear
Linear
Trace 2
Linear
Linear
Measurement points
201 points
201 points
Sweep parameter
dc bias (current)
Frequency
Sweep type
Linear
Linear
Source mode
Current
Voltage
Oscillator level
1 mA
100 mV (2 mA)
CW frequency
100 MHz
1 MHz
Sweep range (frequency)
100 μA to 50 mA
100 μA to 100 μA
Measurement
parameters
Display formats
Presetting the E4991A
Preset the E4991A to the initial state by referring to the procedure described in “Presetting
the E4991A” on page 46.
Setting the Measurement Parameters and Display Formats
Perform setup in the same way as “Setting the Measurement Parameters and Display
Formats” on page 55.
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Chapter 3
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 2. Setting Measurement Conditions
Setting the Measurement Points, Sweep Parameter and Sweep Type
Step 1. Click Sweep Setup... on the Stimulus menu (Figure 3-13).
Step 2. Number Of Points box is set to 201 in the initial state.
Step 3. Select Bias Current in the Sweep Parameter box (Figure 3-24).
Figure 3-24
Step 3
NOTE
Setting sweep parameter to Bias Current (Voltage) automatically sets sweep type to
Linear.
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Setting the Source Mode, Oscillator Level and CW Frequency
Step 1. Click Source... on the Stimulus menu (Figure 3-15).
Step 2. Select Current in the Osc Unit box (Figure 3-16).
Step 3. Select Osc Level box and type [1] [m] [Enter] on the keyboard (Figure 3-17).
Step 4. Select CW Freq box and type [1] [0] [0] [M] [Enter] on the keyboard (Figure 3-22).
Setting the Sweep Range (dc Bias)
Step 1. Click Start/Stop... on the Stimulus menu (Figure 3-18).
Step 2. Start box is set to 1 0 0 u A in the initial state (Figure 3-25).
Step 3. Select Stop box and type [5] [0] [m] [Enter] on the keyboard (Figure 3-25).
Figure 3-25
Steps 2, 3
Chapter 3
59
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 3. Calibration
STEP 3. Calibration
After turning the power ON, be sure to connect the 0 S (OPEN), 0 Ω (SHORT), 50 Ω
(LOAD), and low-loss capacitor (optional) to the calibration reference plane and perform
calibration. The calibration reference plane of the E4991A is usually the 7-mm terminal of
the test head. This step is done to ensure that the calibration reference plane meets the
specified measurement accuracy.
Calibration and fixture compensation data are measured at either fixed frequency points
(initial setting) and user-defined points. When selecting fixed frequency point calibration,
the types of power points at which data are measured include fixed power points and
user-defined power points (Table 3-7). In this section, calibration is performed at fixed
frequency/fixed power points.
Table 3-7
Types of measurement points for calibration/fixture compensation data
Calibration/fixture compensation data
when sweep conditions are changed
Accuracy of
measurement
Time required
to measure
data
Fixed power points
Valid
Good
Long
User-defined power
points
Valid (except when the OSC level setting
is changed)
Good
↑
Invalid
Better
Short
Measurement points for
calibration/fixture compensation data
Fixed
frequency
points
User-defined frequency/user-defined
power points
NOTE
When performing oscillator level sweep and dc bias sweep, calibration and fixture
compensation at the fixed frequency/user-defined power points cannot be selected.
The basic procedure for the calibration is illustrated in Figure 3-26.
Figure 3-26
Basic flow for calibration
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Chapter 3
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 3. Calibration
Procedure for Using Mouse and Keyboard
Preparing for Calibration
Prepare for calibration by following these steps.
Step 1. Click Cal/Comp... on the Stimulus menu (Figure 3-27)
Figure 3-27
Step 1
Step 2. Click the Cal Menu button (Figure 3-28).
Figure 3-28
Step 2
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Step 3. Select Fixed Freq&Pwr in the Cal Type box (Figure 3-29).
Figure 3-29
Step 3
Table 3-8
Cal Type box settings and measurement points for calibration/fixture
compensation data
Cal Type box
Measurement points for calibration/fixture
compensation data (Table 3-7)
User Freq&Pwr
User-defined frequency/user-defined power points
Fixed Freq&Pwr
Fixed frequency/fixed power points
FixedFreq,UserPwr
Fixed frequency/user-defined power points
Chapter 3
61
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 3. Calibration
Step 4. As shown in Figure 3-30, turn the 7-mm connector nut of the test head clockwise until the
7-mm connector sleeve is fully extended.
Figure 3-30
Extending 7-mm connector sleeve
Measuring OPEN Calibration Data
Use the 0 S (OPEN) standard to perform OPEN calibration by following these steps.
Step 1. As shown in Figure 3-31, turn the 0 S (OPEN) standard clockwise with the provided torque
wrench to connect it securely to the 7-mm terminal.
Figure 3-31
Connecting 0 S (OPEN) standard
Step 2. Click the Meas Open button (Figure 3-32).
Figure 3-32
Step 2
Step 3. A √ mark appears on the left side of the Meas Open button upon completion of the OPEN
calibration data measurement.
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Chapter 3
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STEP 3. Calibration
Step 4. Turn the 0 S (OPEN) standard counterclockwise to remove it.
NOTE
Clicking the Abort Cal Meas button during measurement of OPEN, SHORT, LOAD, and
LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR (optional) calibration data stops the measurement.
Measuring SHORT Calibration Data
Use the 0 Ω (SHORT) standard to perform SHORT calibration by following these steps.
Step 1. As shown in Figure 3-33, turn the 0 Ω (SHORT) standard clockwise with the provided
torque wrench to connect it securely to the 7-mm terminal.
Figure 3-33
Connecting 0 Ω (SHORT) standard
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Step 2. Click the Meas Short button (Figure 3-34).
Figure 3-34
Step 2
Step 3. A √ mark appears on the left side of the Meas Short button upon completion of the
SHORT calibration data measurement.
Step 4. Turn the 0 Ω (SHORT) standard counterclockwise to remove it.
Chapter 3
63
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 3. Calibration
Measuring LOAD Calibration Data
Use the 50 Ω (LOAD) standard to perform LOAD calibration by following these steps.
Step 1. As shown in Figure 3-35, turn the outside connector nut of the 50 Ω (LOAD) standard
counterclockwise to fully retract the inside connector sleeve.
Figure 3-35
Retracting connector sleeve of 50 Ω (LOAD) standard
Step 2. As shown in Figure 3-36, turn the 50 Ω (LOAD) standard clockwise with the provided
torque wrench to connect it securely to the 7-mm terminal.
Figure 3-36
Connecting 50 Ω (LOAD) standard
Step 3. Click the Meas Load button (Figure 3-37).
Figure 3-37
Step 3
Step 4. A √ mark appears on the left side of the Meas Load button upon completion of the LOAD
calibration data measurement.
Step 5. Turn the 50 Ω (LOAD) standard counterclockwise to remove it.
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Chapter 3
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STEP 3. Calibration
Measuring LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR Calibration Data
The LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR calibration should be performed for high Q (or low D:
dissipation factor) measurements at high frequencies. The LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR
calibration allows high accuracy for phase measurements. This calibration can be skipped
if you do not need it for your purposes.
Step 1. As shown in Figure 3-38, turn the LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR clockwise with the provided
torque wrench to connect it securely to the 7-mm terminal.
CAUTION
Do not turn the nob of the LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR. Lightly hold the nob to prevent the
inner coaxial electrodes from moving when turning the outer connector nut of the
LOW-LOSS CAPATITOR.
Figure 3-38
Connecting LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Step 2. Click the Meas Low Loss C button (Figure 3-39).
Figure 3-39
Step 2
Step 3. A √ mark appears on the left side of the Meas Low Loss C button upon completion of the
LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR calibration data measurement.
Step 4. Turn the LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR counterclockwise to remove it.
Chapter 3
65
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 3. Calibration
Validating Calibration Data
After completing all calibration data measurement, you should use the E4991A to calculate
the calibration coefficient from the measured calibration data. The coefficient is
automatically saved to the internal memory.
Step 1. Confirm that all of the calibration data measurement is completed and then click the Done
button (Figure 3-40).
Figure 3-40
Step 1
NOTE
Clicking the Cal Reset button (Figure 3-40) resets the calibration data. Turning the power
OFF also resets the calibration data.
Step 2. Verify that the display below the Cal Menu button changes to [Fix] and the display of the
status bar on the bottom of the screen changes to “Cal Fix” (Figure 3-41).
Figure 3-41
Display of status bar when completing calibration
NOTE
Clicking the Recover Cal/Comp State button recovers the calibration data that became
invalid. For details, refer to Chapter 4, “Calibration and Compensation” in the E4991A
Operation Manual.
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Chapter 3
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 3. Calibration
Procedure for Using Front Panel Keys
Preparing for Calibration
Prepare for calibration by following these steps.
Step 1. Press the [Cal/Compen] key in the STIMULUS block.
Step 2. Press the
or
key in the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block to move the cursor to
the Cal Menu button and then press the
Step 3. Press the
or
key (Figure 3-28).
key to move the cursor to the Cal Type box and then press the
key to open the list. Next press the
Freq&Pwr and press the
or
key to move the cursor to Fixed
key (Figure 3-29).
Step 4. Turn the 7-mm connector nut of the test head clockwise until the connector sleeve is fully
extended (Figure 3-30).
Use the 0 S (OPEN) standard to perform OPEN calibration by following the procedure
described below.
Step 1. Turn the 0 S (OPEN) standard clockwise with the provided torque wrench to connect it
securely to the 7-mm terminal (Figure 3-31).
Step 2. Press the
or
key to move the cursor to the Meas Open button and then press the
key (Figure 3-32).
Step 3. A √ mark appears on the left side of the Meas Open button upon completion of the OPEN
calibration data measurement.
Step 4. Turn the 0 S (OPEN) standard counterclockwise to remove it.
NOTE
The measurement of OPEN, SHORT, LOAD, or LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR (optional)
calibration data can be stopped by pressing the
or
the Abort Cal Meas button and the pressing the
key during measurement.
Chapter 3
key to move the cursor to
67
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Measuring OPEN Calibration Data
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 3. Calibration
Measuring SHORT Calibration Data
Use the 0 Ω (SHORT) standard to perform SHORT calibration by following these steps.
Step 1. Turn the 0 Ω (SHORT) standard clockwise with the provided torque wrench to connect it
securely to the 7-mm terminal (Figure 3-33).
Step 2. Press the
the
or
key to move the cursor to the Meas Short button and then press
key (Figure 3-34).
Step 3. A √ mark appears on the left side of the Meas Short button upon completion of the
SHORT calibration data measurement.
Step 4. Turn the 0 Ω (SHORT) standard counterclockwise to remove it.
Measuring LOAD Calibration Data
Use the 50 Ω (LOAD) standard to perform LOAD calibration by following these steps.
Step 1. Turn the outside connector nut of the 50 Ω (LOAD) standard counterclockwise to fully
retract the inside connector sleeve (Figure 3-35).
Step 2. Turn the 50 Ω (LOAD) standard clockwise with the provided torque wrench to connect it
securely to the 7-mm terminal (Figure 3-36).
Step 3. Press the
the
or
key to move the cursor to the Meas Load button and then press
key (Figure 3-37).
Step 4. A √ mark appears on the left side of the Meas Load button upon completion of the LOAD
calibration data measurement.
Step 5. Turn the 50 Ω (LOAD) standard counterclockwise to remove it.
Measuring LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR Calibration data
The LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR calibration should be performed for high Q (or low D:
dissipation factor) measurements at high frequencies. The LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR
calibration allows high accuracy for phase measurements. This calibration can be skipped
if you do not need it for your purposes.
Step 1. Turn the LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR clockwise with the provided torque wrench to connect
it securely to the 7-mm terminal (Figure 3-38).
Step 2. Press the
press the
or
key to move the cursor to the Meas Low Loss C button and then
key (Figure 3-39).
Step 3. A √ mark appears on the left side of the Meas Low Loss C button upon completion of the
LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR calibration data measurement.
Step 4. Turn the LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR counterclockwise to remove it.
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Chapter 3
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 3. Calibration
Validating Calibration Data
After completing all calibration data measurement, you should use the E4991A to calculate
the calibration coefficient from the measured calibration data. The coefficient is
automatically saved to the internal memory.
Step 1. Confirm that all of the calibration data measurement is completed and then press the
or
NOTE
key to move the cursor to the Done button and press the
The calibration data can be reset by pressing the
the Cal Reset button and then pressing the
also resets the calibration data.
or
key (Figure 3-40).
key to move the cursor to
key (Figure 3-40). Turning the power OFF
Step 2. Verify that the display below the Cal Menu button changes to [Fix] and the display of the
status bar on the bottom of the screen changes to “Cal Fix” (Figure 3-41).
NOTE
The calibration data that became invalid are recovered by pressing the
or
key
Chapter 3
69
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
to move the cursor to the Recover Cal/Comp State button and then pressing the
key.
For details, refer to Chapter 4, “Calibration and Compensation” in the E4991A Operation
Manual.
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 4. Connecting Test Fixture
STEP 4. Connecting Test Fixture
Connect the test fixture to the 7-mm terminal of the test head by following these steps. In
this section, the method of connecting the 16197A test fixture is described as an example.
When using other test fixtures, refer to the Operation Manual of the test fixture.
Step 1. As shown in Figure 3-42, turn the 7-mm connector nut of the test head counterclockwise
until the connector sleeve is fully retracted.
Figure 3-42
Retracting 7-mm connector sleeve
Step 2. Set the two mount posts of the test head to the two holes of the test fixture and set the
7-mm terminal of the test head to 7-mm connector of the test fixture (Figure 3-43: 2).
Step 3. Turn the 7-mm connector nut of the test head counterclockwise to connect it securely
(Figure 3-43: 3). Use both hands to turn the connector nut because the space between the
test head and the test fixture is narrow.
Figure 3-43
Connecting test fixture (16197A)
70
Chapter 3
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 5. Setting Electrical Length
STEP 5. Setting Electrical Length
Phase shift produces measurement error in the test fixture’s transmission line because the
wavelength at RF frequency is very short relative to the transmission line’s physical length.
To remove this measurement error, you must set the electrical length of the test fixture
(electrical length from 7-mm terminal to DUT connection plane).
For the E4991A, electrical length values are individually registered for standard Agilent
test fixtures. By selecting the model number of a test fixture, the electrical length is set
automatically. When connecting test fixtures custom-made by the user, it is necessary to
input the electrical length values.
Procedure for Using Mouse and Keyboard
Step 1. Click Cal/Comp... on the Stimulus menu (Figure 3-27).
Step 2. Set the electrical length by either of the following methods.
o
Using a test fixture that is registered
Figure 3-44
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Select the model number of the test fixture in the Fixture Type box (Figure 3-44).
Selecting test fixture
o
Using a test fixture that is made by the user
Select User in the Fixture Type box. Then select the Fixture Length box and input the
electrical length with the keyboard. When inputting the electrical length of 14 mm, for example,
type [1] [4] [m] [Enter] (Figure 3-45).
Figure 3-45
Inputting electrical length
Chapter 3
71
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 5. Setting Electrical Length
Step 3. After setting the electrical length, confirm that “Del 14m” is shown in the status bar on the
bottom of the screen (Figure 3-46).
Figure 3-46
Display of status bar when setting electrical length
NOTE
“Del xx” indicates Delay xx mm. This is a status display showing that the electrical length
of xx mm is set.
Table 3-9
Electrical lengths of standard test fixtures
Model
16191A
16192A
16193A
16196A
16196B
16196C
16197A
Electrical
length
14.0 mm
11.0 mm
14.0 mm
26.2 mm
26.9 mm
27.1 mm
14.0 mm
Procedure for Using Front Panel Keys
Step 1. Press the [Cal/Compen] key in the STIMULUS block.
Step 2. Set the electrical length by either of the following methods.
o
Using the a fixture that is registered
Press the
or
key in the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block to move the cursor to the
Fixture Type box and then press the
key to open the list. Then press the
key to move the cursor to model number of test fixture to be used and press the
or
key (Figure
3-44).
o
Using a test fixture that is made by the user
Press the
the
or
key to move the cursor to the Fixture Type box and then press
key to open the list. Press the
and press the
key. Next, press the
or
key to move the cursor to User
or
key to move the cursor to the
Fixture Length box and input the electrical length with the numerical keys. When inputting
the electrical length of 14 mm, for example, press the
,
,
keys in this order
(Figure 3-45).
Step 3. After setting the electrical length, confirm that “Del 14m” is shown in the status bar on the
bottom of the screen (Figure 3-46).
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Chapter 3
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STEP 6. Fixture Compensation
STEP 6. Fixture Compensation
The E4991A has a specified measurement accuracy at the 7-mm terminal (calibration
reference plane) of a test head. However, in actual measurement, a measurement circuit
(test fixture) is placed between the DUT connection terminal and the 7-mm terminal, and
the influence of this circuit is included in the measurement result as a part of the DUT.
Therefore, fixture compensation must be performed to remove the parasitic error that exists
between the DUT connection terminal and the 7-mm terminal.
This section describes fixture compensation by using the 16197A as an example. When
using other test fixtures, follow the procedure described in the Operation Manual of the
test fixture.
Procedure for Using Mouse and Keyboard
Measuring OPEN Compensation Data (16197A)
Perform OPEN compensation to correct stray admittance due to the test fixture.
Figure 3-47
OPEN state (16197A)
Chapter 3
73
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Step 1. Set the DUT connection terminal of the test fixture to the OPEN state by following the
procedure illustrated in Figure 3-47. When using other test fixtures, follow the procedure
described in the Operation Manual of the test fixture.
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 6. Fixture Compensation
Step 2. Click Cal/Comp... on the Stimulus menu (Figure 3-27).
Step 3. Click the Comp Menu button (Figure 3-48)
Figure 3-48
Step 3
Step 4. Click the Meas Open button (Figure 3-49).
Figure 3-49
Step 4
Step 5. A √ mark appears on the left side of the Meas Open button upon completion of the OPEN
compensation data measurement.
NOTE
Clicking the Abort Comp Meas button during measurement of OPEN or SHORT
compensation data stops the measurement.
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Chapter 3
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 6. Fixture Compensation
Measuring SHORT Compensation Data (16197A)
Perform SHORT compensation to correct residual impedance due to the test fixture.
Step 1. Connect a short device to the test fixture. Follow the procedure given in Figure 3-50 to set
the DUT connection terminal of the test fixture to the SHORT state. When using other test
fixtures, follow the procedure described in the Operation Manual of the test fixture.
Figure 3-50
SHORT state (16197A)
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Chapter 3
75
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 6. Fixture Compensation
Step 2. Click the Meas Short button (Figure 3-51).
Figure 3-51
Step 2
Step 3. A √ mark appears on the left side of the Meas Short button upon completion of the
SHORT compensation data measurement.
Validating Fixture Compensation Data
After completing all fixture compensation data measurement, you should use the E4991A
to calculate the fixture compensation coefficient from the measured fixture compensation
data. The coefficient is automatically saved to the internal memory.
Step 1. Confirm that all of the fixture compensation data measurement is completed and then click
the Done button (Figure 3-52).
Figure 3-52
Step 1
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Chapter 3
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 6. Fixture Compensation
Step 2. Verify that the display below the Comp Menu button changes to [ON] and the display of
the status bar on the bottom of the screen changes to “Comp ON” (Figure 3-53).
Figure 3-53
Display of status bar when completing fixture compensation
After completing the fixture compensation, use the marker function to check that the
SHORT compensation data have been measured correctly.
Step 1. Specify the trace of the measurement parameter |Z| (in this example it is Trace 1) as the
active trace (* mark) as shown in Figure 3-9 and Figure 3-10. When the parameter |Z| does
not exist in the measurement parameter as in measurement conditions (3) and (4), perform
the check after converting the measurement parameter of Trace 1 to the parameter |Z|. After
the check, return it to the previous measurement parameter.
Step 2. Click Autoscale on the Scale menu (Figure 3-54).
Figure 3-54
Step 2
Chapter 3
77
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Checking SHORT Compensation Data
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 6. Fixture Compensation
Step 3. Click Marker... on the Marker menu (Figure 3-55).
Figure 3-55
Step 3
Step 4. Move the cursor with the mouse to the Stimulus box (Figure 3-56).
Figure 3-56
Step 4
Step 5. Turn the rotary knob (
) in the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block to check that trace
values of measurement parameter |Z| (Figure 3-56: 2) are equal to or less than 50 mΩ for
all stimulus values (Figure 3-56: 1). If not, place the short device on both electrodes again,
align the location of the test fixture’s pressure rod, and repeat the fixture compensation.
NOTE
When changing the location of the pressure rod after performing fixture compensation, you
must again obtain the fixture compensation data
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Chapter 3
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 6. Fixture Compensation
Procedure for Using Front Panel Keys
Measuring OPEN Compensation Data (16197A)
Perform OPEN compensation to correct stray admittance due to the test fixture.
Step 1. Set the DUT connection terminal of the test fixture to the OPEN state by following the
procedure described in Figure 3-47. When using other test fixtures, follow the procedure
described in the Operation Manual of the test fixtures.
Step 2. Press the [Cal/Compen] key in the STIMULUS block.
Step 3. Press the
or
key in the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block to move the cursor to
Comp Menu button and then press the
Step 4. Press the
or
key (Figure 3-48).
key to move the cursor to the Meas Open button and press the
key (Figure 3-49).
Step 5. A √ mark appears on the left side of the Meas Open button upon completion of the OPEN
compensation data measurement.
The measurement of OPEN and SHORT compensation data can be stopped by pressing the
or
the
key to move the cursor to the Abort Comp Meas button and then pressing
key during measurement.
Measuring SHORT Compensation Data (16197A)
Perform SHORT compensation to correct residual impedance due to the test fixture.
Step 1. Connect a short device to the test fixture. Follow the procedure illustrated in Figure 3-50 to
set the DUT connection terminal of the test fixture to the SHORT state. When using other
test fixtures, follow the procedure described in the Operation Manual of the test fixture.
Step 2. Press the
the
or
key to move the cursor to the Meas Short button and then press
key (Figure 3-51).
Step 3. A √ mark appears on the left side of the Meas Short button upon completion of the
SHORT compensation data measurement.
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NOTE
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 6. Fixture Compensation
Validating Fixture Compensation Data
Upon completion of all fixture compensation data, you should use the E4991A to calculate
the fixture compensation coefficient from the measured fixture compensation data. The
coefficient is automatically saved to the internal memory.
Step 1. Confirm that all compensation data measurement is completed and then press the
key to move the cursor to the Done button and press the
or
key (Figure 3-52).
Step 2. Verify that the display below the Comp Menu button changes to [ON] and the display of
the status bar on the bottom of the screen changes to “Comp ON” (Figure 3-53).
Checking SHORT Compensation Data
After completing the fixture compensation, use the marker function to check that the
SHORT compensation data has been measured correctly.
Step 1. Press the [Trace] key in the MEASUREMENT block to specify the trace of the
measurement parameter |Z| (in this example it is Trace 1) as the active trace (* marker).
When the parameter |Z| does not exist in the measurement parameter as in measurement
conditions (3) and (4), perform the check after converting the measurement parameter of
Trace 1 to the parameter |Z|. After the check, return it to the previous measurement
parameter.
Step 2. Press the [Scale] key in the MEASUREMENT block. Then press the
to move the cursor to the Autoscale button and press the
Figure 3-57
or
key
key (Figure 3-57).
Step 2
Step 3. Press the [Marker] key in the MEASUREMENT block.
Step 4. Press the
or
key to move the cursor to the Stimulus box and then press the
key (Figure 3-56).
Step 5. Turn the rotary knob (
) in the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block to check that trace
values of measurement parameter |Z| (Figure 3-56: 2) are equal to or less than 50 mΩ for
all stimulus values (Figure 3-56: 1). If not, place the short device on both electrodes again,
align the location of the test fixture’s pressure rod, and repeat the fixture compensation.
NOTE
When changing the location of the pressure rod after performing fixture compensation, you
must again obtain the fixture compensation data.
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STEP 7. Connecting DUT to Test Fixture
STEP 7. Connecting DUT to Test Fixture
The method of connecting the DUT (1608 (mm) / 0603 (inch) size) to the 16197A is
described as an example.
Step 1. Push the latch button while pressing the lever to set the DUT connection terminal of the
test fixture to the OPEN state.
Step 2. Remove the short device.
Step 3. Place the DUT in the same way as you placed the short device (Figure 3-50).
Step 4. Release the latch button while pressing the lever and then release the lever slowly.
3. Basic Operations for RF
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STEP 8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement Results
STEP 8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement
Results
After performing calibration and compensation, the measurement results are displayed on
the screen when the DUT is connected to the test fixture. If you obtain the correct trace,
you can analyze the measurement results by using the marker and the equivalent circuit
analysis function. This section describes the procedure by using only the mouse and
keyboard.
Applying dc Bias (Option 001)
When selecting “(4) Dc Bias (Current) Characteristics of Ls-Q (Option 001)” on page 58 in
“STEP 2. Setting Measurement Conditions”, follow these steps to apply dc bias. For
settings of the dc bias source level and dc bias limit, refer to Chapter 3, “Setting
Measurement Condition” in the E4991A Operation Manual.
WARNING
Never touch the DUT or the electrodes of the test fixture while dc bias is applied.
Step 1. Click Source... on the Stimulus menu (Figure 3-15).
Step 2. Click the Dc Bias button to change the button’s display to [On] (Figure 3-58). Making dc
bias ON places the measurement in the Hold Mode (mode that does not accept triggers).
Figure 3-58
Steps 2, 3
Step 3. Confirm that the display of the status bar on the bottom of the screen changes to “Bias ON”
and the trigger system is in the Hold Mode (Figure 3-58).
Step 4. Set the trigger to start the measurement.
o
Perform the single measurement.
1. Click Single on the Trigger menu.
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o
Repeat the measurement.
1. Click Continuous on the Trigger menu.
Executing Auto scale
Traces obtained after setting the sweep conditions and measurement parameters may
extend beyond the screen because they are too large or too small along the direction of the
vertical axis. In this case, the auto scale function can be used to set the appropriate scale.
Follow these steps to execute auto scale.
Step 1. Specify the trace (measurement parameter) for which you want to execute auto scale as the
active trace (Refer to Figure 3-9 and Figure 3-10).
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Step 2. Click Autoscale on the Scale menu to execute auto scale (Figure 3-54).
Step 3. When it is necessary to execute auto scale for other trace numbers (measurement
parameters), repeat the above Steps 1 and 2.
NOTE
Clicking Autoscale All on the Scale menu executes auto scale for all traces.
Step 4. Select Toolbar Off on the System menu (Figure 3-59) and hide the display of the setup
toolbar.
Figure 3-59
Step 4
NOTE
The display of the setup toolbar can also be hidden by pressing the [Cancel/Close] key in
the ENTRY/NAVIGATION block.
The measurement results, as shown in Figure 3-60, Figure 3-61, Figure 3-62 and Figure
3-63, can be obtained by executing auto scale for all traces by using the setup examples
described in “STEP 2. Setting Measurement Conditions” on page 45.
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STEP 8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement Results
Figure 3-60
(1) Frequency Characteristics of |Z|-Ls-Q
Figure 3-61
(2) Frequency Characteristics of |Z|-R-X
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STEP 8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement Results
(3) Oscillator Level (Current) Characteristics of Ls-Q
Figure 3-63
(4) Dc Bias (Current) Characteristics of Ls-Q (Option 001)
Chapter 3
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Figure 3-62
85
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STEP 8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement Results
Adjusting Scale
When a trace is formed flat, executing auto scale makes the scale value of the grid smaller
so that the overall trace can be monitored on the full screen (Figure 3-62 and Figure 3-63).
To change the scale to a desired value, adjust it by following these steps. In this section, the
scale is adjusted by using the setup example of Figure 3-62, “(3) Oscillator Level (Current)
Characteristics of Ls-Q,” on page 85 (when the display format is linear).
NOTE
Scaling parameters for the adjustment vary according to the display format. For details
about scaling parameters, refer to Chapter 5, “Display Setting” in the E4991A Operation
Manual.
Step 1. Click Scale... on the Scale menu.
Figure 3-64
Step 1
Step 2. Click the Scale Entry button and then select the button display of [Scale/Ref] or
[Top/Bottom].
Step 3. Adjust the scale by inputting the appropriate value in each scaling parameter box.
Table 3-10
Scaling parameters of Scale Entry button displays
Scale Entry button’s display
Scaling parameter
Full Scale, Ref Val or Ref Pos box
Top, Bottom or Ref Pos box
Figure 3-65
Scaling parameters for linear display format
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STEP 8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement Results
Figure 3-66
(3) Oscillator Level (Current) Characteristics of Ls-Q (after adjustment)
When the measured trace does not appear smooth on the display, a smooth trace may be
obtained by performing point averaging or sweep averaging. Especially for the high Q (low
D) measurement, you should perform averaging. This section describes the procedure for
averaging by using the setup example of Figure 3-61, “(2) Frequency Characteristics of
|Z|-R-X,” on page 84.
Averaging
Averaging includes point averaging and sweep averaging.
o
Point averaging
Point averaging smooths the trace by repeating the measurement on each measurement
point until the averaging count is reached (Figure 3-67).
o
Sweep averaging
Sweep averaging smooths the trace by repeating the sweep until the averaging count is
reached (Figure 3-67).
NOTE
Point averaging and sweep averaging can be performed at the same time.
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Performing Averaging
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement Results
Figure 3-67
Point averaging and sweep averaging
Performing Point Averaging
Step 1. Click Sweep Setup... on the Stimulus menu (Figure 3-13).
Step 2. Set the averaging count in the Point Average box (Figure 3-68).
Figure 3-68
Step 2
NOTE
Point averaging is started automatically when the averaging count is set to 2 or larger.
Step 3. Verify that the display of the status bar on the bottom of the screen changes to “Avg x,”
which indicates that the point averaging is performed x times (Figure 3-69).
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Performing Sweep Averaging
Step 1. Click Meas/Format... on the Meas/Format menu (Figure 3-8).
Step 2. Click the Sweep Average button to change the button’s display to [On] (Figure 3-69).
Figure 3-69
Step 2, 3, 4
Step 3. Set the averaging count in the Swp Avg Count box (Figure 3-69).
NOTE
If a smooth trace cannot be obtained by performing averaging, perform the measurement
after setting the point averaging count to larger values and then performing
calibration/fixture compensation at the user-defined frequency/user-defined power points
(Figure 3-70).
Figure 3-70
(2) Frequency Characteristics of |Z|-R-X
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3. Basic Operations for RF
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Step 4. Verify that the display of the status bar on the bottom of the screen changes to “SAvg x,”
which indicates that the sweep averaging is performed x times (Figure 3-69).
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement Results
Using Marker Function
The marker function allows you to read trace values and stimulus values at any point on the
active trace (Figure 3-56). The marker search function allows you to detect specific points
such as maximum values, minimum values, peak values and target values. This section
describes how to read trace values, detect maximum values, display a marker list, and clear
the markers.
Reading Trace Values
Step 1. Click Marker... on the Marker menu (Figure 3-55).
Step 2. Specify the trace (measurement parameter) to be read as the active (refer to Figure 3-9,
Figure 3-10).
Step 3. Move the marker by any of the following methods to read trace values and stimulus values
in the upper right area of the screen (Figure 3-56).
•
Move the cursor with the mouse to the marker point, where the cursor changes to a
finger icon (
NOTE
). Drag and drop to the point to be read (Figure 3-71).
“Drag and drop” means a series of operations including moving the cursor to a desired
point on the screen while pressing and holding the mouse button and then releasing the
button.
•
Move the cursor to the Stimulus box, and then turn the rotary knob (
) to move
the maker to the point to be read.
•
Figure 3-71
As shown in Figure 3-56, select the Stimulus box with the mouse and then enter the
stimulus value of the point to be read with the keyboard. For example, when reading
the trace value of a point with a stimulus value of 1 MHz, type [1] [M] [Enter].
Moving marker point by using mouse
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STEP 8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement Results
Step 4. Read the marker value displayed in the upper right area of the screen.
NOTE
When the Marker button’s display is changed to [Discrete] by clicking it after clicking the
More button, only the values of the measurement points on a trace can be read when using
the marker function. By changing the button’s display to [Continuous], the value of any
point on a trace can be read.
By clicking the Marker Couple button to change its display to [Off], markers of individual
traces can be controlled separately. That is, only the markers of the active trace can be
controlled. By changing the button’s display to [On], the markers of all traces can be
controlled together.
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Devices Measurement
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Detecting Maximum Value
This section describes how to search for the maximum value (self-resonance point) of the
measurement parameter |Z| by using the setup example of “(1) Frequency Characteristics
of |Z|-Ls-Q” on page 46.
Step 1. Specify the trace (measurement parameter) to be read as the active (refer to Figure 3-9,
Figure 3-10). In this case, make Trace 1 (the measurement parameter |Z|) active.
Step 2. Click Function... on the Marker menu (Figure 3-72).
Figure 3-72
Step 2
Step 3. Select Maximum in the Search Type box (Figure 3-73).
Figure 3-73
Step 3
Table 3-11
Search Type box settings and search points
Search Type box
Search point
Maximum
Point where the trace value on the active trace is maximum
Minimum
Point where the trace value on the active trace is minimum
Target
Point where the trace value on the active trace is set to a target
Positive Peak
Point where the trace value on the active trace is a positive
peak
Negative Peak
Point where the trace value on the active trace is a negative
peak
Step 4. Click the Search button (Figure 3-73).
Step 5. Active marker moves to the maximum value on the active trace (Figure 3-74).
Step 6. Read the marker value displayed in upper right area of the screen.
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STEP 8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement Results
Figure 3-74
Detecting maximum value
Up to eight markers can be displayed in a list. In this section, six markers are displayed in a
list for the measurement parameter Ls while using the setup example of “(1) Frequency
Characteristics of |Z|-Ls-Q” on page 46.
Step 1. Click Display... on the Display menu (Figure 3-6).
Step 2. Select 1 Scalar in the Num Of Traces box as shown in Figure 3-7.
Step 3. Click Meas/Format... on the Meas/Format menu (Figure 3-8).
Step 4. Select Ls in the Meas Parameter box (Figure 3-12).
Step 5. Check that the Format box is set to Lin Y-Axis.
Step 6. Click Autoscale on the Scale menu (Figure 3-54).
Step 7. Click Fctn More... on the Marker menu (Figure 3-75).
Figure 3-75
Step 7
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Displaying Marker List
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement Results
Step 8. Click the Marker List button to change the button’s display to [On] (Figure 3-76).
Figure 3-76
Step 8
Step 9. Click Marker... on the Marker menu (Figure 3-55).
Step 10. Move the active marker to the point to be read. Then place it on the point of frequency,
which is 1 MHz in this example.
Step 11. Select Marker 2 in the Select Marker box (Figure 3-77).
Figure 3-77
Step 11
Step 12. Move the active marker to the point to be read.
Step 13. In the same way, place Marker 3 through Marker 6 on the points to be read individually
(Figure 3-78).
NOTE
The marker point for the active marker is indicated by a large triangle (Δ).
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STEP 8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement Results
Figure 3-78
Displaying marker list
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Clearing Markers
Follow the procedure given below to clear active markers.
Step 1. Click Marker... on the Marker menu (Figure 3-55).
Step 2. Select the marker number to be cleared in the Select Marker box. (Figure 3-79).
Step 3. Click the Selected Marker button to change the button’s display to [Off] (Figure 3-79).
Figure 3-79
Step 3
Step 4. Active marker (Marker 1) is cleared.
NOTE
Click All Off on the Marker menu to clear all markers.
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STEP 8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement Results
Executing Equivalent Circuit Analysis
The E4991A is provided with five types of equivalent circuit models that can be used to
calculate approximate values of equivalent circuit parameters from measurement data. The
approximate values of equivalent circuit parameters obtained by calculation can be used to
simulate the frequency characteristics on the display screen.
NOTE
The equivalent circuit analysis function can be used only when the sweep parameter is
frequency.
Table 3-12
Selection of equivalent circuit model
Equivalent circuit model
DUT type
Inductors with high core
loss
Inductors and resistors
High-value resistors
Capacitors
Resonators
Calculating Approximate Values of Equivalent Circuit Parameters
In this section, a chip inductor is used to calculate the approximate value by using the setup
example of “(1) Frequency Characteristics of |Z|-Ls-Q” on page 46.
Step 1. Click Equivalent Circuit... on the Utility menu (Figure 3-80).
Figure 3-80
Step 1
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STEP 8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement Results
Step 2. Click Select Circuit button (Figure 3-81).
Figure 3-81
Step 2
Step 3. Select equivalent circuit model B to analyze the chip inductor (Table 3-12). Then click the
<< button to return to the Equivalent Circuit toolbar (Figure 3-82).
Figure 3-82
Step 3
Figure 3-83
Displaying approximate values and Simulating frequency characteristics
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97
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Step 4. Click the Calculate Parameters button to display the approximate values. (Figure 3-83).
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement Results
Simulating Frequency Characteristics
We can simulate the frequency characteristics of Trace 1 (|Z|) by using the approximate
value obtained by the above calculation based on the setup example of “(1) Frequency
Characteristics of |Z|-Ls-Q” on page 46.
NOTE
Simulation can also be done by inputting a desired value in the parameter box of an
individual equivalent circuit model.
Step 1. Click Equivalent Circuit... on the Utility menu (Figure 3-80).
Step 2. Specify Trace 1 (|Z|) as the active trace (* mark) as shown in Figure 3-9 and Figure 3-10.
Step 3. Click the Simulate F-Characteristics button to simulate the frequency characteristics of
Trace 1 (|Z|). The simulated data are traced on the display screen (Figure 3-83).
NOTE
Clicking the Simulate F-Characteristics to All Traces button in the Equivalent Circuit
toolbar simulates the frequency characteristics of all traces.
Enlarging Trace (Zoom Function, Mouse Operation Only)
The mouse can be used to select a range for enlarged display. This zoom function is
accomplished by the following steps. Here, the zoom function is performed by using the
example shown in Figure 3-61, “(2) Frequency Characteristics of |Z|-R-X,” on page 84.
Step 1. Select the range to be enlarged by dragging with the mouse (Figure 3-84).
NOTE
“Drag” means a series of operations including moving the mouse pointer while pressing
and holding the mouse button to select a desired range before releasing the button.
Step 2. The selected area on the display is enlarged (Figure 3-84).
Figure 3-84
Zoom screen
Step 3. Click the mouse on the screen to clear the zoomed image and return the display to the
previous standard size.
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Displaying Traces on Individual Windows
In scalar trace, there is a “split” function to divide a screen into windows for displaying
each trace individually. Since the traces do not overlap, this function can be used to focus
on the data you want to analyze. This section describes how to divide the screen using the
setup example of “(1) Frequency Characteristics of |Z|-Ls-Q” on page 46.
Step 1. Click Display... on the Display menu (Figure 3-6).
Step 2. Click the Display Scalar Trace button to change the button’s display to [Split] (Figure
3-85).
Step 3. The screen divides into three windows, and each scalar trace is displayed in an individual
window (Figure 3-85)
Figure 3-85
Divided display screen
3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
Step 4. To return to overlay screen and displays all traces in one screen, click the Display Scalar
Trace button to change the button’s display to [Overlay].
Displaying Smith Chart
In addition to scalar trace, you can also display a complex trace (complex plane format,
polar coordinate format, Smith chart, and admittance chart). In this section, a Smith chart is
displayed by using the setup example of “(1) Frequency Characteristics of |Z|-Ls-Q” on
page 46.
NOTE
The Smith chart and admittance chart are used only for measuring reflection coefficient
( Γ ).
Step 1. Click Display... on the Display menu (Figure 3-6).
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Step 2. Select 3 Sclr, 1 Cmplx in the Num Of Traces box as shown in Figure 3-7.
Step 3. The scalar traces of three measurement parameters are displayed at the top of the screen,
and the complex trace of measurement parameter (|Z|) is displayed at the bottom of the
screen.
Step 4. Specify Trace 4 (the polar display format) as the active trace (* mark) as shown in Figure
3-9 and Figure 3-10.
Step 5. Click Meas/Format... on the Meas/Format menu (Figure 3-8).
Step 6. Select the reflection coefficient ( Γ ) in the Meas Parameter box (Figure 3-86).
Figure 3-86
Step 6
Step 7. Select Smith in the Format box (Figure 3-87).
Figure 3-87
Step 7
Table 3-13
Format box settings and Complex traces
Format box
Complex trace
Complex
Complex plane format
Polar
Polar coordinate format
Smith
Smith chart
Admittance
Admittance chart
Step 8. The display screen as shown in Figure 3-88 is obtained.
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STEP 8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement Results
Figure 3-88
Smith chart screen
A maximum of five windows can be displayed at one time: up to three windows for scalar
trace and up to two windows for complex trace. In this section, five windows are displayed
by using the setup example of “(1) Frequency Characteristics of |Z|-Ls-Q” on page 46.
Step 1. Click Display... on the Display menu (Figure 3-6).
Step 2. Select 3 Sclr, 2 Cmplx in the Num Of Traces box as shown in Figure 3-7.
Step 3. Click Display Scalar Trace button to change the button’s display to [Split] (Figure 3-85).
Step 4. Five windows including three windows for scalar trace and two windows for complex
trance are displayed (Figure 3-89).
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Displaying Five Windows
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement Results
Figure 3-89
Five-window display
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STEP 9. Changing Sweep Conditions
STEP 9. Changing Sweep Conditions
When the measurement points for calibration are user-defined frequency/user-defined
power points, start measurement with “STEP 3. Calibration” on page 60 after changing the
measurement conditions. When the measurement points for calibration are fixed
frequency/fixed power points, start measurement with “STEP 8. Measuring DUT and
Analyzing Measurement Results” on page 82.
NOTE
When the measurement points for calibration are fixed frequency/user-defined power
points, start measurement with “STEP 3. Calibration” on page 60 after changing the
oscillator level. When you change other sweep conditions, start measurement with “STEP
8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement Results” on page 82.
STEP 10. Measuring Other DUTs
NOTE
When measuring a DUT in the initial state after turning the power ON, start measurement
with “STEP 2. Setting Measurement Conditions” on page 45.
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3. Basic Operations for RF
Devices Measurement
If you measure another DUT of the same type and size as the one used in the previous
measurement, start measurement with “STEP 7. Connecting DUT to Test Fixture” on
page 81. If you use the same test fixture to measure a DUT of a different type and size, start
measurement with “STEP 6. Fixture Compensation” on page 73. When using a different
test fixture, start measurement with “STEP 4. Connecting Test Fixture” on page 70.
Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement
STEP 10. Measuring Other DUTs
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4. Basic Operations for
Dielectric Measurement
4
Basic Operations for Dielectric
Measurement
This chapter explains the basic operations for taking dielectric measurements with the
Agilent E4991A. To perform this type of measurement, the Option 002 (Material
Measurement) software must be installed.
105
Basic Operations for Dielectric Measurement
Contents of this
chapter
o
Dielectric Measurement Overview page 107
Measurement example and a basic flow for dielectric measurement.
o
STEP 1. Preparation for Measurement page 108
How to prepare for measurement.
o
STEP 2. Selecting Measurement Mode page 110
How to set the E4991A measurement mode to dielectric measurement mode.
o
STEP 3. Setting Measurement Conditions page 111
How to set sweep conditions and measurement parameters.
o
STEP 4. Connecting 16453A page 113
How to connect the 16453A test fixture to the 7-mm terminal of the test head.
o
STEP 5. Entering Thickness of Load Standard page 114
How to enter the thickness of the provided load standard (made of PTFE).
o
STEP 6. Calibration page 115
How to perform OPEN, SHORT and LOAD calibrations on the MUT
connection terminal of the 16453A test fixture.
o
STEP 7. Entering Thickness of MUT page 120
How to enter the thickness of the MUT (dielectric material).
o
STEP 8. Connecting MUT page 121
How to connect the MUT (dielectric material) to the test fixture.
o
STEP 9. Measuring MUT and Analyzing Measurement Results page 122
How to achieve the optimum setting of the vertical axis scale and analyze the
measurement results.
o
STEP 10. Changing Sweep Conditions page 123
How to change sweep conditions.
o
STEP 11. Measuring Other MUTs page 123
How to measure other MUTs.
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Dielectric Measurement Overview
Dielectric Measurement Overview
When the E4991A has the option 002 installed, dielectric measurement is possible. This
chapter describes the basic operations done by using the mouse and keyboard to evaluate
the following characteristics:
•
Frequency characteristics of ε r' - ε r'' - tanδ
Flow for Dielectric Measurement
The basic procedure for dielectric measurement is given in the flow chart of Figure 4-1.
Figure 4-1
Basic procedure for dielectric measurement
4. Basic Operations for
Dielectric Measurement
Chapter 4
107
Basic Operations for Dielectric Measurement
STEP 1. Preparation for Measurement
STEP 1. Preparation for Measurement
Selection of MUT and Test Fixture
With the E4991A, the 16453A test fixture can be used to measure dielectric materials
(Table 4-1). The applicable dielectric materials are solid with a smooth surface, such as
ceramic, PTFE, and resin (Figure 4-2).
Figure 4-2
Applicable dielectric materials
Table 4-1
Features of 16453A test fixture
Frequency range
Maximum dc bias voltage
value
Dielectric material size
1 M to 1 GHz
± 40 V
d ≥ 15 mm
0.3 mm ≤ t ≤ 3 mm
Required Equipment
The following equipment is required to perform dielectric measurement.
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STEP 1. Preparation for Measurement
Figure 4-3
Required equipment
Connecting Mouse, Keyboard, and Test Head
Connect the mouse, keyboard and test head to the E4991A by referring to “Connection to
Rear Panel” on page 27 and “Connecting the Test Head” on page 28. Be sure not to remove
the four feet on the bottom of the E4991A when connecting the test head.
NOTE
Be sure to connect the mouse and keyboard before turning the power ON.
Perform the following steps to turn the power ON. The E4991A starts a self-test
automatically when the power is turned ON.
Step 1. If the standby switch (
) in the lower-left part of the front panel is in the position (
position, press it to put it in the popped up position (
Step 2. Press the standby switch to the depressed position (
NOTE
)
).
).
Special caution is required when turning the power ON or OFF. Refer to “Turning the
Power ON and OFF” on page 31.
Chapter 4
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4. Basic Operations for
Dielectric Measurement
Turning the Power ON
Basic Operations for Dielectric Measurement
STEP 2. Selecting Measurement Mode
STEP 2. Selecting Measurement Mode
You must set the E4991A measurement mode from the initial state to the dielectric
measurement mode.
Step 1. Click Preset on the System menu to set the initial state.
Step 2. Click Utility... on the Utility menu.
Step 3. Click the Material Option Menu button.
Step 4. Select Permittivity in the Material Type box.
NOTE
When you set the E4991A measurement mode to Dielectric Material, the 16453A is
automatically set as the texture fixture to be used.
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STEP 3. Setting Measurement Conditions
STEP 3. Setting Measurement Conditions
Before starting the measurement, you must set the measurement parameters and sweep
conditions according to your measurement requirements. This section describes the setup
procedure for the following measurement.
•
Frequency characteristics of ε r' - ε r'' - tanδ
First you should change the measurement conditions from the initial state of the E4991A as
shown in Table 4-2.
Table 4-2
Setup example for this measurement
Parameter setting
Initial state
Trace 1
ε r'
ε r'
Trace 2
ε r''
ε r''
Trace 3
tanδ
tanδ
Trace 1
linear
linear
Trace 2
linear
linear
Trace 3
linear
linear
Sweep parameter
Frequency
Frequency
Sweep type
Log
Linear
Source mode
Voltage
Voltage
Oscillator level
100 mV
100 mV
Sweep range (Frequency)
1 MHz to 1 GHz
1 MHz to 3 GHz
Measurement
parameters
Display formats
4. Basic Operations for
Dielectric Measurement
Setup example
Setting the Measurement Parameters and Display Formats
Step 1. Click Display... on the Display menu.
Step 2. Select 3 Scalar in the Num of Traces box.
Step 3. Click Meas/Format... on the Meas/Format menu.
Step 4. Specify Trace 1 as the active trace (* mark) and select εr` in the Meas Parameter box.
Step 5. Select Lin Y-Axis in the Format box.
Step 6. Specify Trace 2 as the active trace (* mark) and select εr" in the Meas Parameter box.
Step 7. Select Lin Y-Axis in the Format box.
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STEP 3. Setting Measurement Conditions
Step 8. Specify Trace 3 as the active trace (* mark) and select tanδ (ε) from the Meas Parameter
box.
Step 9. Select Lin Y-Axis in the Format box.
Setting the Measurement Points, Sweep Parameter, and Sweep Type
Step 1. Click Sweep Setup... on the Stimulus menu.
Step 2. In the Number Of Points box, enter the desired measurement points. For example, if you
want to enter 301, type [3] [0] [1] [Enter] with the keyboard.
Step 3. Select Frequency in the Sweep Parameter box.
Step 4. Select Log in the Sweep Type box.
Setting the Source Mode and Oscillator Level
Step 1. Click Source... on the Stimulus menu.
Step 2. Select Voltage in the Osc Unit box.
Step 3. In the Osc Level box, enter the oscillator level. For example, if you want to enter 100 mV,
type [1] [0] [0] [m] [Enter] with the keyboard.
Setting the Sweep Range (Frequency)
Step 1. Click Start/Stop... on the Stimulus menu.
Step 2. In the Start box, enter the start frequency. For example, if you want to enter 1 MHz, type
[1] [M] [Enter] with the keyboard.
Step 3. In the Stop box, enter the stop frequency. For example, if you want to enter 1 GHz, type [1]
[G] [Enter] with the keyboard.
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STEP 4. Connecting 16453A
STEP 4. Connecting 16453A
Connect the 16453A test fixture to the 7-mm terminal of the test head by following these
steps.
Step 1. As shown in Figure 3-42 on page 70, turn the 7-mm connector nut of the test head
counterclockwise until the connector sleeve is fully retracted.
Step 2. Tighten the two small screws of the fixture holder to secure the fixture holder to the test
fixture body (Figure 4-4, 2).
Step 3. Connect the 7-mm connector of the test fixture to the 7-mm terminal of the test head
(Figure 4-4, 3).
Step 4. Tighten the two large screws of the fixture holder to secure the test fixture to the test head
(Figure 4-4, 4).
Figure 4-4
Connecting the 16453A
4. Basic Operations for
Dielectric Measurement
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Basic Operations for Dielectric Measurement
STEP 5. Entering Thickness of Load Standard
STEP 5. Entering Thickness of Load Standard
Enter the thickness of the PTFE load standard supplied with the 16453A test fixture by
following these steps. The thickness is printed on the surface of the case. When you use a
user-defined load standard for measuring dielectric materials, enter its thickness.
NOTE
The thickness value written on the case is a typical value. If you need to enter a highly
accurate value, measure it with a micrometer or calipers.
Step 1. Click Cal/Comp... on the Stimulus menu.
Step 2. Click the Cal Kit Menu button.
Step 3. In the Thickness box, enter the thickness of the load standard. For example, if the load
standard is 0.75 mm in thickness, type [0] [.] [7] [5] [m] [Enter] with the keyboard.
NOTE
The load standard supplied with the 16453A test fixture is made of PTFE with a relative
permittivity of 2.1. Therefore, when the E4991A is in the initial state, the value in the εr
Real box in the Cal Kit toolbar is set to 2.1000 and the value in the εr Loss box is set to
0.0000. If you use a user-defined load standard, change these values accordingly. For more
on the calibration kit, refer to Chapter 4, “Calibration and Compensation” in the E4991A
Operation Manual.
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STEP 6. Calibration
STEP 6. Calibration
Calibration is performed by using the MUT connection plane of the 16453A test fixture as
the calibration reference plane (Figure 4-5). By performing calibration on the MUT
connection plane, you can eliminate errors due to the test fixture’s residuals and electric
length. Therefore, unlike impedance measurement, electric length or fixture compensation
is not required (see Table 4-3).
Figure 4-5
Error model of 16453A test fixture
Table 4-3
Differences in calibration and fixture compensation between impedance and
dielectric measurement
Impedance
measurement
Dielectric measurement
Calibration reference surface
7-mm terminal (usual)
MUT connection plane
Electric length setting
Required
Not required
Fixture compensation
Required
Not required
4. Basic Operations for
Dielectric Measurement
Correction
Perform calibration by following these steps.
Step 1. Click Cal/Comp... on the Stimulus menu.
Step 2. In the Fixture Type box, confirm that the test fixture is set to 16453. Otherwise, set the
measurement mode to dielectric measurement mode.
Step 3. Click the Cal Menu button.
Step 4. In the Cal Type box, select the desired type of measurement points for the calibration data.
For details on the measurement points of calibration data, refer to Table 3-7, “Types of
measurement points for calibration/fixture compensation data,” on page 60, and Table 3-8,
“Cal Type box settings and measurement points for calibration/fixture compensation data,”
on page 61.
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Basic Operations for Dielectric Measurement
STEP 6. Calibration
Step 5. Set the MUT connection plane of the test fixture to the SHORT state (Figure 4-6).
Figure 4-6
SHORT state (16453A)
Step 6. Click the Meas Short button to start measuring SHORT calibration data. Upon completion
of the SHORT calibration measurement, a √ mark appears on the left side of the Meas
Short button.
NOTE
During calibration data measurement, the message “Wait-Measuring Cal Standard”
appears at the left end of the status bar at the bottom of the screen.
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STEP 6. Calibration
Step 7. Set the MUT connection plane of the test fixture to the OPEN state (Figure 4-7).
Figure 4-7
OPEN state (16453A)
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4. Basic Operations for
Dielectric Measurement
Step 8. Click the Meas Open button to start measuring OPEN calibration data. Upon completion
of the OPEN calibration data measurement, a √ mark appears on the left side of the Meas
Open button.
Basic Operations for Dielectric Measurement
STEP 6. Calibration
Step 9. Connect the load standard supplied with the 16453A test fixture to the test fixture by
inserting it between the electrodes of the test fixture (Figure 4-8).
Figure 4-8
Connecting LOAD standard (16453A)
NOTE
When connecting a load standard or a MUT to the test fixture, make sure that it only comes
into contact with the test fixture’s electrodes. Also, be careful not to give the upper
electrode horizontal pressure by moving the load standard or the MUT while it is in
position between the electrodes.
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STEP 6. Calibration
Step 10. Click the Meas Load button to start measuring LOAD calibration data. Upon completion
of the LOAD calibration data measurement, a √ mark appears on the left side of the Meas
Load button.
Step 11. Click the Done button to instruct the E4991A to calculate the calibration coefficient from
the measured calibration data and save it to the internal memory.
Step 12. Depending on the measurement points of the calibration data specified in the Cal Type
box, the display below the Cal Menu button and on the status bar at the bottom of the
screen will change, as shown in the following table.
Table 4-4
Status display when calibration is completed
Cal Type box
Display below the Cal Menu button
Before
calibration
Status bar on the bottom of the screen
After
calibration
Before
calibration
After
calibration
User Freq&Pwr
[Uncal]
→
[User]
Uncal
→
Cal User
Fixed Freq&Pwr
[Uncal]
→
[Fix]
Uncal
→
Cal Fix
FixedFreq,UserPwr
[Uncal]
→
[FixR]
Uncal
→
Cal FixR
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Dielectric Measurement
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Basic Operations for Dielectric Measurement
STEP 7. Entering Thickness of MUT
STEP 7. Entering Thickness of MUT
You must enter the thickness of the MUT before you can perform measurement. Use a
micrometer or calipers to measure the thickness.
NOTE
The 16453A test fixture imposes restrictions on the thickness and diameter of the MUT
(see Table 4-1 on page 108).
Step 1. Click Utility... on the Utility menu.
Step 2. Click the Material Option Menu button.
Step 3. In the Thickness box, enter the thickness of the MUT. For example, if the MUT is 1 mm in
thickness, type [1] [m] [Enter] with the keyboard.
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STEP 8. Connecting MUT
STEP 8. Connecting MUT
As with the load standard (Figure 4-8), connect the MUT to the 16453A test fixture by
inserting it between the test fixture’s upper and lower electrodes.
NOTE
When connecting a load standard or a MUT to the test fixture, make sure that it only comes
into contact with the test fixture’s electrodes. Also, be careful not to give the upper
electrode horizontal pressure by moving the load standard or the MUT while it is in
position between the electrodes.
NOTE
If the pressure from the upper and lower electrodes is too weak, this may create a gap
between the MUT and the electrodes and thus cause measurement errors. It is
recommended that the pressure be maximized to the extent that it does not deform the
MUT. For best repeatability when measuring both a load standard and a MUT, connect
them to the test fixture with the same pressure.
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Dielectric Measurement
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Basic Operations for Dielectric Measurement
STEP 9. Measuring MUT and Analyzing Measurement Results
STEP 9. Measuring MUT and Analyzing Measurement
Results
After performing calibration, the measurement results are displayed on the screen when the
MUT is set on the test fixture. Analyze the measurement results using a marker function
while referencing to “STEP 8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement Results” on
page 82 in Chapter 3, “Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement.”
You will obtain the following measurement results by executing auto scale for individual
parameters while using the setup example of “STEP 3. Setting Measurement Conditions”
on page 111.
Figure 4-9
Frequency characteristics of ε r' - ε r'' -tanδ
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STEP 10. Changing Sweep Conditions
STEP 10. Changing Sweep Conditions
When the measurement points for calibration are user-defined frequency/user-defined
power points, start measurement with “STEP 6. Calibration” on page 115 after changing
the measurement conditions. When the measurement points for calibration are fixed
frequency/fixed power points, start measurement with “STEP 9. Measuring MUT and
Analyzing Measurement Results” on page 122 after changing the measurement conditions.
NOTE
When the measurement points for calibration are fixed frequency/user-defined power
points, start measurement with “STEP 6. Calibration” on page 115 after changing the
oscillator level. When you change other sweep conditions, start measurement with “STEP
9. Measuring MUT and Analyzing Measurement Results” on page 122.
STEP 11. Measuring Other MUTs
If you measure another MUT of the same thickness as the one in the previous
measurement, start measurement with “STEP 8. Connecting MUT” on page 121. If you
measure a MUT of a different thickness, start measurement with “STEP 7. Entering
Thickness of MUT” on page 120.
4. Basic Operations for
Dielectric Measurement
Chapter 4
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Basic Operations for Dielectric Measurement
STEP 11. Measuring Other MUTs
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5
Basic Operations for Magnetic
Measurement
125
5. Basic Operations for
Magnetic Measurement
This chapter explains the basic operations for taking magnetic measurements with the
Agilent E4991A. To perform this type of measurement, the Option 002 (Material
Measurement) software must be installed.
Basic Operations for Magnetic Measurement
Organization of
This Chapter
o
Magnetic Measurement Overview page 127
Measurement example and a basic flow for magnetic measurement.
o
STEP 1. Preparation for Measurement page 128
How to prepare for measurement.
o
STEP 2. Selecting Measurement Mode page 130
How to set the E4991A measurement mode to magnetic measurement mode.
o
STEP 3. Setting Measurement Conditions page 131
How to set sweep conditions and measurement parameters.
o
STEP 4. Calibration page 133
How to perform OPEN / SHORT / LOAD (/ LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR)
calibrations.
o
STEP 5. Connecting 16454A page 135
How to connect the 16454A test fixture to the 7-mm terminal of the test head.
o
STEP 6. Fixture Compensation page 137
How to perform SHORT compensation. Describes how to perform SHORT
compensation for the 16454A test fixture.
o
STEP 7. Entering MUT Dimensions page 138
How to enter MUT (magnetic material) sizes.
o
STEP 8. Mounting MUT page 139
How to mount a MUT (magnetic material) in the 16454A test fixture.
o
STEP 9. Measuring MUT and Analyzing Measurement Results page 140
How to achieve the optimum setting of the vertical axis scale and analyze the
measurement results.
o
STEP 10. Changing Sweep Conditions page 141
How to change sweep conditions.
o
STEP 11. Measuring Other MUTs page 141
How to measure other MUTs.
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Magnetic Measurement Overview
Magnetic Measurement Overview
When the E4991A has option 002 installed, magnetic measurement is possible. This
chapter describes the basic operations done by using the mouse and keyboard to evaluate
the following characteristics:
•
Frequency characteristics of μ r ′ - μ r ″ - tanδ
Flow for Magnetic Measurement
The basic procedure for magnetic measurement is given in the flow chart of Figure 5-1.
Figure 5-1
Basic procedure for magnetic measurement
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Basic Operations for Magnetic Measurement
STEP 1. Preparation for Measurement
STEP 1. Preparation for Measurement
Selection of MUT and Test Fixture
With the E4991A, the 16454A test fixture can be used to measure magnetic materials. The
applicable dielectric materials are toroidal cores with a donut shape, such as ferrite
magnets (Figure 5-2).
Figure 5-2
Applicable magnetic materials
Table 5-1
Features of 16454A test fixture
Frequency range
Maximum dc bias current
value
Magnetic material size
1 M to 1 GHz
± 50 mA
b ≥ φ 3.1 mm
c ≤ φ 20.0 mm
h ≤ 8.5 mm
Required Equipment
The following equipment is required to perform magnetic measurement.
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STEP 1. Preparation for Measurement
Figure 5-3
Required equipment
Connecting Mouse, Keyboard, and Test Head
Connect the mouse, keyboard, and test head to the E4991A by referring to “Connection to
Rear Panel” on page 27 and “Connecting the Test Head” on page 28. Be sure not to remove
the four feet on the bottom of the E4991A when connecting the test head.
NOTE
Be sure to connect the mouse and keyboard before turning the power ON.
NOTE
Do not connect the test fixtures to the test head at this point because a calibration is
performed on the DUT port (7-mm terminal) of the test head later.
Turning the Power ON
Perform the following steps to turn the power ON. The E4991A starts a self-test
automatically when the power is turned ON.
Step 1. If the standby switch (
(
) in the lower-left part of the front panel is in the depressed
) position, press it to put it in the popped up position (
NOTE
).
Special caution is required when turning the power ON or OFF. Refer to “Turning the
Power ON and OFF” on page 31.
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5. Basic Operations for
Magnetic Measurement
Step 2. Press the standby switch to the depressed position (
).
Basic Operations for Magnetic Measurement
STEP 2. Selecting Measurement Mode
STEP 2. Selecting Measurement Mode
You must set the E4991A measurement mode from the initial state to the magnetic
measurement mode.
Step 1. Click Preset on the System menu to set the initial state.
Step 2. Click Utility... on the Utility menu.
Step 3. Click the Material Option Menu button.
Step 4. Select Permeability in the Material Type box.
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STEP 3. Setting Measurement Conditions
STEP 3. Setting Measurement Conditions
Before starting the measurement, you must set the measurement parameters and sweep
conditions according to your measurement requirements. This section describes the setup
procedure for the following measurement.
•
Frequency characteristics of μ r ′ - μ r ″ - tanδ
First you should change the measurement conditions from the initial state of the E4991A as
shown in Table 5-2.
Table 5-2
Setup example for this measurement
Parameter setting
Setup example
Initial state
Trace 1
μr ′
μr ′
Trace 2
μr ″
μr ″
Trace 3
tanδ
tanδ
Trace 1
linear
linear
Trace 2
linear
linear
Trace 3
linear
linear
Sweep parameter
Frequency
Frequency
Sweep type
Log
Linear
Source mode
Current
Voltage
Oscillator level
2 mA
100 mV(2 mA)
Sweep range (Frequency)
1 MHz to 1 GHz
1 MHz to 3 GHz
Measurement
parameters
Display formats
Setting the Measurement Parameters and Display Formats
Step 1. Click Display... on the Display menu.
Step 2. Select 3 Scalar in the Num of Traces box.
Step 3. Click Meas/Format... on the Meas/Format menu.
Step 4. Specify Trace 1 as the active trace (* mark) and select μr` in the Meas Parameter box.
Step 6. Specify Trace 2 as the active trace (* mark) and select μr" in the Meas Parameter box.
Step 7. Select Lin Y-Axis in the Format box.
Step 8. Specify Trace 3 as the active trace (* mark) and select tanδ (μ) in the Meas Parameter box.
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Step 5. Select Lin Y-Axis in the Format box.
Basic Operations for Magnetic Measurement
STEP 3. Setting Measurement Conditions
Step 9. Select Lin Y-Axis in the Format box.
Setting the Measurement Points, Sweep Parameter and Sweep Type
Step 1. Click Sweep Setup... on the Stimulus menu.
Step 2. In the Number Of Points box, enter the desired measurement points. For example, if you
want to enter 300, type [3] [0] [0] [Enter] with the keyboard.
Step 3. Select Frequency in the Sweep Parameter box.
Step 4. Select Log in the Sweep Type box.
Setting the Source Mode and Oscillator Level
Step 1. Click Source... on the Stimulus menu.
Step 2. Select Current in the Osc Unit box.
Step 3. In the Osc Level box, enter the oscillator level. For example, if you want to enter 2 mA,
type [2] [m] [Enter] with the keyboard.
Setting the Sweep Range (Frequency)
Step 1. Click Start/Stop... on the Stimulus menu.
Step 2. In the Start box, enter the start frequency. For example, if you want to enter 1 MHz, type
[1] [M] [Enter] with the keyboard.
Step 3. In the Stop box, enter the stop frequency. For example, if you want to enter 1 GHz, type [1]
[G] [Enter] with the keyboard.
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STEP 4. Calibration
STEP 4. Calibration
Calibration is performed by using the 7-mm terminal of the test head as the calibration
reference plane (Figure 5-4). Unlike impedance measurement, fixture compensation after
calibration requires only SHORT compensation (see Table 5-3).
Figure 5-4
Error model of 16454A test fixture
Table 5-3
Differences in calibration and fixture compensation between impedance and
magnetic measurement
Correction
Impedance measurement
Magnetic measurement
Calibration reference surface
7-mm terminal (usual)
7-mm terminal
Electric length compensation
Required
Not required
Fixture compensation
OPEN/SHORT
compensation
SHORT compensation
only
Step 1. Click Cal/Comp... on the Stimulus menu.
Step 2. Click the Cal Menu button.
Step 3. In the Cal Type box, select the desired type of measurement points for the
calibration/fixture compensation data. For details on the measurement points of the
calibration data, refer to Table 3-7, “Types of measurement points for calibration/fixture
compensation data,” on page 60, and Table 3-8, “Cal Type box settings and measurement
points for calibration/fixture compensation data,” on page 61.
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Magnetic Measurement
Step 4. Connect the 0 S (OPEN) standard to the 7-mm terminal of the test head (see Figure 3-31 on
page 62).
Basic Operations for Magnetic Measurement
STEP 4. Calibration
Step 5. Click the Meas Open button to start measuring OPEN calibration data. Upon completion
of the OPEN calibration data measurement, a √ mark appears on the left side of the Meas
Open button.
NOTE
During calibration data measurement, the message “Wait-Measuring Cal Standard”
appears at the left end of the status bar at the bottom of the screen.
Step 6. Connect the 0 Ω(SHORT) standard to the 7-mm terminal of the test head (see Figure 3-33
on page 63).
Step 7. Click the Meas Short button to start measuring SHORT calibration data. Upon completion
of the SHORT calibration data measurement, a √ mark appears on the left side of the Meas
Short button.
Step 8. Connect the 50 Ω (LOAD) standard to the 7-mm terminal of the test head (see Figure 3-36
on page 64).
Step 9. Click the Meas Load button to start measuring LOAD calibration data. Upon completion
of the LOAD calibration data measurement, a √ mark appears on the left side of the Meas
Load button.
Step 10. Measure LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR calibration data, if necessary. Connect the
LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR to the 7-mm terminal of the test head (see Figure 3-38 on
page 65). Then click the Meas Low Loss C button to start measuring LOW-LOSS
CAPACITOR calibration data. Upon completion of the LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR
calibration data measurement, a √ mark appears on the left side of the Meas Low Loss C
button.
NOTE
When you measure a low loss magnetic material, measure LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR
calibration data. This allows high accuracy for high Q measurement at high frequencies.
Step 11. Click the Done button to instruct the E4991A to calculate the calibration coefficient from
the measured calibration data and save it to the internal memory.
Step 12. Depending on the measurement points of the calibration/fixture compensation data
specified in the Cal Type box, the display below the Cal Menu button and the status bar at
the bottom of the screen will change, as shown in Table 4-4 on page 119.
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STEP 5. Connecting 16454A
STEP 5. Connecting 16454A
The 16454A test fixture has two sizes: Small and Large. In addition, it has four MUT
holders. Select the size of the MUT holder that best suits your needs (see Table 5-4 and
Figure 5-5). This selection determines whether the 16454A (Small) or 16454A (Large) test
fixture is the appropriate test fixture, as shown in Figure 5-5.
Table 5-4
MUT size for test fixtures
Test fixture
16454A (Small)
16454A (Large)
MUT holder
A
B
C
D
MUT inner diameter
(mm): b
≥ φ 3.1 mm
≥ φ 3.1 mm
≥ φ 6.0 mm
≥ φ 5.0 mm
MUT outer diameter
(mm): c
≤ φ 8.0 mm
≤ φ 6.0 mm
≤ φ 20.0 mm
≤ φ 20.0 mm
MUT height (mm): h
≤ 3.0 mm
≤ 3.0 mm
≤ 8.5 mm
≤ 8.5 mm
Figure 5-5
MUT holder sizes
Connect the selected test fixture to the 7-mm terminal of the test head by following these
steps.
Step 1. As shown in Figure 3-42 on page 70, turn the 7-mm connector nut of the test head
counterclockwise until the connector sleeve is fully retracted.
Step 2. Tighten the two small screws of the fixture holder to secure the fixture holder to the test
fixture body (Figure 5-6: 2).
Step 4. Connect the 7-mm connector of the test fixture to the 7-mm terminal of the test head
(Figure 5-6, 4).
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5. Basic Operations for
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Step 3. Tighten the two large screws of the test holder to secure the test fixture to the test head
(Figure 5-6, 3).
Basic Operations for Magnetic Measurement
STEP 5. Connecting 16454A
Figure 5-6
Connecting the 16454A
Step 5. Click Cal/Compen... on the Stimulus menu.
Step 6. In the Fixture Type box, select 16454A (S) or 16454A (L).
Table 5-5
NOTE
Fixture Type box settings and test fixtures
Fixture Type box
Test fixture to be used
16454(S)
16454A (Small)
16454(L)
16454A (Large)
When you select the E4991A Magnetic Material measurement mode, you can use either
the 16454A (Small) or 16454A (Large) test fixture.
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STEP 6. Fixture Compensation
STEP 6. Fixture Compensation
With the 16454A test fixture, you perform only SHORT compensation to correct residual
impedance due to the test fixture. OPEN compensation is not performed because errors due
to stray admittance are so small that they can be neglected.
Step 1. Click Cal/Conpen... on the Stimulus menu.
Step 2. Click the Comp Menu button.
Step 3. Set the MUT connection plane of the test fixture to the SHORT state (Figure 5-7).
Figure 5-7
SHORT state (16454A)
Step 5. Click the Done button to instruct the E4991A to calculate the fixture compensation
coefficient from the measured fixture compensation data and save it to the internal
memory.
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5. Basic Operations for
Magnetic Measurement
Step 4. Click the Meas Short button to start measuring SHORT compensation data. Upon
completion of the SHORT compensation data measurement, a √ mark appears on the left
side of the Meas Short button.
Basic Operations for Magnetic Measurement
STEP 7. Entering MUT Dimensions
Step 6. Verify that the display below the Comp Menu button changes to [ON] and the status bar at
the bottom of the screen changes to “Comp ON”.
STEP 7. Entering MUT Dimensions
You must enter the MUT dimensions before you can perform measurement. Use a
micrometer or calipers to measure the outer (see c of Figure 5-2 on page 128) and inner
(see b of Figure 5-2 on page 128) diameters and height (see h of Figure 5-2 on page 128).
NOTE
The 16454A test fixture imposes restrictions on the outer and inner diameters and height of
the MUT (see Table 5-1 on page 128).
Step 1. Click Utility... on the Utility menu.
Step 2. Click the Material Option Menu button.
Step 3. In the Height box, enter the height of the MUT (see h in Figure 5-2). For example, if the
MUT is 3 mm in height, type [3] [m] [Enter] with the keyboard.
Step 4. In the Inner Diameter box, enter the inner diameter of the MUT (see b in Figure 5-2). For
example, if the inner diameter is 4.5 mm, type [4] [.] [5] [m] [Enter] with the keyboard.
Step 5. In the Outer Diameter box, enter the outer diameter of the MUT (see c in Figure 5-2). For
example, if the outer diameter is 7-mm, type [7] [m] [Enter] with the keyboard.
NOTE
The selection of a smaller test fixture imposes restrictions on the MUT dimensions that can
be entered.
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STEP 8. Mounting MUT
STEP 8. Mounting MUT
Mount a MUT (magnetic material) in the 16454A test fixture as shown in Figure 5-8.
Figure 5-8
Mounting MUT (magnetic material)
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Chapter 5
Basic Operations for Magnetic Measurement
STEP 9. Measuring MUT and Analyzing Measurement Results
STEP 9. Measuring MUT and Analyzing Measurement
Results
After performing calibration, the measurement results are displayed on the screen when the
MUT is set on the test fixture. Analyze the measurement results by using a marker function
while referring to “STEP 8. Measuring DUT and Analyzing Measurement Results” on
page 82 in Chapter 3, “Basic Operations for RF Devices Measurement.”
You will obtain the following measurement results by executing auto scale for individual
parameters while using the setup example of “STEP 3. Setting Measurement Conditions”
on page 131.
Figure 5-9
Frequency characteristics of μ r ′ - μ r ″ -tanδ
140
Chapter 5
Basic Operations for Magnetic Measurement
STEP 10. Changing Sweep Conditions
STEP 10. Changing Sweep Conditions
When the measurement points for calibration/fixture compensation are user-defined
frequency/user-defined power points, start measurement with “STEP 4. Calibration” on
page 133 after changing the sweep conditions. When the measurement points for
calibration/fixture compensation are fixed frequency/fixed power points, start
measurement with “STEP 9. Measuring MUT and Analyzing Measurement Results” on
page 140 after changing the sweep conditions.
NOTE
When the measurement points for calibration/fixture compensation are fixed
frequency/user-defined power points, start measurement with “STEP 4. Calibration” on
page 133 after changing the oscillator level. When you change other sweep conditions,
start measurement with “STEP 9. Measuring MUT and Analyzing Measurement Results”
on page 140.
STEP 11. Measuring Other MUTs
If you measure another MUT of the same size as the one used in the previous
measurement, start measurement with “STEP 8. Mounting MUT” on page 139. If you use
the same test fixture to measure a MUT of a different size, start with “STEP 7. Entering
MUT Dimensions” on page 138. When using a different test fixture, start with “STEP 5.
Connecting 16454A” on page 135.
141
5. Basic Operations for
Magnetic Measurement
Chapter 5
Basic Operations for Magnetic Measurement
STEP 11. Measuring Other MUTs
142
Chapter 5
A. Manual Changes
A
Manual Changes
This appendix contains the information required to adapt this manual to versions or
configurations of the E4991A manufactured earlier than the current printing date of this
manual.
143
Manual Changes
Manual Changes
Manual Changes
To adapt this manual to your E4991A, refer to Table A-1 and Table A-2.
Table A-1
Manual Changes by Serial Number
Serial Prefix or Number
Table A-2
Make Manual Changes
Manual Changes by Firmware Version
Version
Make Manual Changes
The ten-character serial number is stamped on the serial number plate (Figure A-1) on the
rear panel.
Figure A-1
Serial Number Plate
144
Appendix A
Miscellaneous Changes
The option system of the E4991A has changed since May 2003. Apply the following
changes.
New Option Number
Old Option Number
Remark
800 (Standard Frequency
Standard
*1
Reference, No DC Bias)
same as the right number
1D5 (High Stability Frequency
Reference)
810 (Mini DIN Keyboard)
-
-
1A2 (Delete Mini DIN Keyboard)
820 (Mouse)
-
-
1CS (Without Mouse)
same as the right number
001 (Add DC Bias)
same as the right number
002 (Material Measurement
Firmware)
same as the right number
007 (Temperature Characteristic
test kit)
same as the right number
010 (Probe Station Connection Kit)
same as the right number
1CN (Handle Kit)
same as the right number
1CM (Rack Mount Kit)
same as the right number
1CP (Rack Mount & Handle Kit)
ABA (Add Manual set (English))
-
-
ABA (Select Manual set (English))
ABJ (Add Manual set(Japanese))
-
-
ABJ (Select Manual set (Japanese))
same as the right number
0BW (Add Service Manual)
-
0B1 (Delete Manual Sets)
-
0B1 (Add Manual Sets)
*2
*3
*4
*4
*5
*1.In the previous system, an option for the frequency reference was available only for the
high stability frequency reference. In the new option system, it is available for the high
stability and standard references, requiring the customer to select either of them.
*2.In the previous option system, the keyboard comes as one of standard accessories. In the
new option system, it will be attached only when you choose option 810.
*3.In the previous option system, the mouse comes as one of standard accessories. In the
new option system, it will be attached only when you choose option 820.
Appendix A
145
A. Manual Changes
Manual Changes
Manual Changes
Manual Changes
Manual Changes
*4.In the previous system, the option number is used to choose the language of the manual
set (standard accessory). In the new option system, it is used to add an manual set
(optional accessory) of the language the customer desires.
*5.No selection of addition/deletion is required for the manual set because it is only available as an optional accessory in the new option system. When 2 or more sets are
required, specify option ABA,ABJ * (number of required sets).
146
Appendix A
Index
A
Abort Cal Meas button, 63
Abort Comp Meas button, 74
active trace
Making a trace active, 48
analysis
reading trace values, 90
auto scale
performing auto scale, 83
Autoscale All
performing auto trace for all traces, 83
averaging
concept of point averaging, 87
concept of sweep averaging, 87
setting point averaging, 88
setting sweep averaging, 89
B
block
Font rules in this manual, 5
BNC cable
connecting BNC cable, 27
bold
Font rules in this manual, 5
Bottom box
scaling parameter, 86
box
Font rules in this manual, 5
button
Font rules in this manual, 5
C
calibration
calibration for dielectric measurement, 115
calibration for impedance measurement, 60
calibration for magnetic measurement, 133
calibration reference plane, 60
calibration reference plane for dielectric measurement, 115
Index
calibration reference plane for magnetic measurement, 133
difference between calibration for impedance measurement
and dielectric measurement, 115
difference between calibration for impedance measurement
and magnetic measurement, 133
LOW-LOSS CAPACITOR calibration, 65
recover calibration data, 66
reset calibration data, 66
status display for validating calibration, 66, 119
stopping calibration data measurement, 63
types of calibration measurement data points, 60
Calibration Type box, 61
setting calibration data points, 60
cleaning
instructions for cleaning, 37
compensation
fixture compensation for impedance measurement, 73
connection to rear panel, 27
Contens
Option 007, 21
Option 010, 21
correction
calibration for dielectric measurement, 115
calibration for impedance measurement, 60
calibration for magnetic measurement, 133
fixture compensation for impedance measurement, 73
fixture compensation for magnetic measurement, 137
CW Freq box
Setting CW frequency, 56
CW frequency
continuous wave frequency, 56
D
dc bias
applying dc bias, 82
dc bias (current) characteristics of Ls-Q, 58
Option 001, 58
dielectric measurement
flow for dielectric measurement, 107
select dielectric measurement mode, 110
display
displaying 3 traces, 47
displaying five windows, 101
displaying list of marker values, 93
displaying smith chart, 99
displaying traces on individual windows, 99
enlarging trace, 98
hide setup toolbar, 83
names of each area on LDC screen, 42
drag & drop, 90
DUT
connecting DUT(inductor), 81
DUT port, 28
DUTs
types and sizes of DUTs and test fixture, 36
147
Index
Numerics
16197A
connecting test fixture, 70
method of OPEN compensation, 73
method of SHORT compensation, 75
16453A
connecting 16453A, 113
error model, 115
features of 16453A, 108
LOAD calibration, 118
OPEN calibration, 117
SHORT calibration, 116
16454A
connecting 16454A, 135
error model, 133
features of 16454A, 128
SHORT compensation, 137
Index
E
E4991A
features of E4991A, 14
electrical length
electrical length of test fixture, 72
inputting electrical length, 71
selecting test fixture, 71
environmental requirements
operation environment, 25
ventilation space, 26
equivalent circuit
performing equivalent circuit analysis, 96
F
features of E4991A, 14
Fixed Freq&Pwr, 61
FixedFreq&UserPwr, 61
fixture compensation
case of taking fixture compensation data again, 78
fixture compensation for magnetic measurement, 137
status display for validating fixture compensation, 77
stopping measurement of compensation data, 74
types of fixture compensation measurement data points, 60
fixtures
test fixture available for E4991A, 36
Font
Font rules in this manual, 5
Format box
setting display format, 48
frequency characteristics
simulating frequency characteristics, 98
front handles
how to install the handle kit, 23
Full Scale box
scaling parameter, 86
fuse
blown fuse, 30
fuse type of the E4991A, 30
H
handle and rack-mount kit
how to install the rack-mount and handle kit, 24
handle kit
how to install the handle kit, 23
Height box
enter sizes of magnetic material, 138
history,
manual printing, 2
Hold Mode, 82
I
impedance measurement
Dc bias (current) characteristics of Ls-Q, 58
flow for impedance measurement, 41
frequency characteristics of |Z|-Ls-Q, 46
frequency characteristics of |Z|-R-X, 53
148
oscillator level (current) characteristics of Ls-Q, 55
Initial registration, 33
Inner Diameter box
enter sizes of magnetic material, 138
inspection
incoming inspection, 17
Installation and Quick Start Guide, 6
Italic
Font rules in this manual, 5
K
key
Font rules in this manual, 5
keyboard
connecting keyboard, 27
L
load standard
enter thickness of load standard for dielectric measurement,
114
M
magnetic measurement
flow for magnetic measurement, 127
selecting magnetic measurement mode, 130
Manual
About the Manual Regarding this Device, 6
manual
how to use, 12
manual changes, 143
manual printing history, 2
marker
clearing all markers, 95
clearing marker, 95
controlling markers of individual traces separately, 91
detecting maximum value, 92
displaying list of marker values, 93
reading trace values, 90
using marker function, 90
using marker to read trace values in measurement points, 91
material
applicable dielectric material, 108
measurement conditions
Flow for setting measurement conditions, 45
measurement mode
select dielectric measurement mode, 110
selecting magnetic measurement mode, 130
measurement parameter
dielectric measurement, 111
magnetic measurement, 131
measurement parameters
setting measurement conditions, 45
menu
Font rules in this manual, 5
mouse
connecting mouse, 27
Index
Index
MUT
applicable dielectric material, 108
applicable magnetic material, 128
connecting MUT (dielectric material), 121
enter sizes magnetic material, 138
enter thickness for MUT, 120
mounting MUT(magnetic material), 139
O
Operational Manual, 6
Option 001
dc bias, 58
Option 007 contents, 21
Option 010 contents, 21
OSC Level
setting oscillator level, 50
OSC Unit box
setting source mode, 50
Outer Diameter box
enter sizes of magnetic material, 138
P
package
contents of package, 18
power
check the power supply, 29
disconnecting device, 32
disconnection from supply source, 32
power cable options, 30
shutdown, 31
turning the power ON and OFF, 31
verification and connection of power cable, 29
power supply
blown fuse, 30
preparation
preparation for dielectric measurement, 108
preparation for impedance measurement, 43
preparation for magnetic measurement, 128
preset
presetting the E4991A, 46
Professional Setup wizard, 33
Programming Manual, 6
Q
Quick Start Guide, 6
Index
R
rack-mount and handle kit
how to install the rack-mount and handle kit, 24
rack-mount kit
how to install the rack-mount kit, 24
Recover Cal/Comp State box, 66
Ref Pos box
scaling parameter, 86
Ref Val box
scaling parameter, 86
Registration, 33
Reset Calibration button, 66
Index
N
Network Identification Wizard, 33
noise
performing averaging, 87
NOP
setting measurement points, 49
Num Of Traces box
displaying 3 traces, 47
Number Of Points box
Setting measurement points, 49
how to use, 12
S
safety
symbols, 4
safety summary, 3
scale
adjusting scale, 86
performing auto scale, 83
scaling parameter, 86
screen
displaying traces on individual windows, 99
Serial number plate, 144
shutdown
turning the power OFF, 31
simulation
simulating frequency characteristics, 98
smith chart, 99
Softkey Off
Turning off setup toolbar screen, 83
Start box
setting sweep range, 50
Stop box
setting sweep range, 50
sweep
setting sweep range, 50
sweep conditions
setting measurement conditions, 45
Sweep Parameter box
setting sweep parameter, 49
Sweep Type box
setting sweep type, 49
T
test fixture
connecting 16453A, 113
connecting 16454A, 135
connecting test fixture (16197A), 70
error model of 16453A, 115
error model of 16454A, 133
features of 16453A, 108
features of 16454A, 128
LOAD calibration for 16453A, 118
149
Index
OPEN calibration for 16453A, 117
SHORT calibration for 16453A, 116
SHORT compensation for 16454A, 137
test fixtures available for E4991A, 36
test head
connecting test head, 28
N type connector, 28
thickness
enter thickness for MUT, 120
enter thickness of load standard for dielectric measurement,
114
Thickness box, 120
This Manual
Font Rules, 5
toolbar
Font rules in this manual, 5
Toolbar Off
hide setup toolbar, 83
Top box
scaling parameter, 86
trace
displaying 3 traces, 47
displaying traces on individual windows, 99
making a trace active, 48
smoothing a trace, 87
Trace menu
making a trace active, 48
trigger
activating continuous trigger, 83
activating single trigger, 82
U
User Freq&Pwr, 61
W
window
displaying five windows, 101
Windows 2000, 33
Z
zoom
enlarging trace, 98
150
Index
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