Research Presentation Day
University of Strathclyde Faculty of Engineering
Research Presentation Day
RPD 2016
Research Presentation Day
Contents
How to use this e-booklet ................................................................................................................................... 3
Dean’s Welcome ................................................................................................................................................ 4
Faculty Departments .......................................................................................................................................... 5
Event Timetable .................................................................................................................................................. 7
Venue Diagram ................................................................................................................................................... 7
Printable Timetable - RPD 2016 ......................................................................................................................... 8
Presentation Schedule ....................................................................................................................................... 9
Built Environment and Structures................................................................................................................... 9
Communication and Signal Processing ......................................................................................................... 9
Manufacturing and Process Development ..................................................................................................... 9
Design ..........................................................................................................................................................10
Energy ..........................................................................................................................................................10
Environmental and Sustainability .................................................................................................................11
Fluid Dynamics .............................................................................................................................................12
Materials .......................................................................................................................................................12
Management ................................................................................................................................................13
Modelling and Monitoring .............................................................................................................................13
Medical Applications ....................................................................................................................................14
Poster competition scheme ..............................................................................................................................15
Information for Students: ..................................................................................................................................15
Information for Judges: .....................................................................................................................................15
Poster Schedule ...............................................................................................................................................16
Built Environment and Structures
..................................................................................................16
Communication and Signal Processing
.......................................................................................16
Design
..................................................................................................................................................17
Energy
..................................................................................................................................................18
Environmental and Sustainability
Fluid Dynamics
Management
..................................................................................................20
....................................................................................................................................20
........................................................................................................................................21
Manufacturing and Process Development
Materials
..................................................................................22
..............................................................................................................................................23
Medical Applications
Modelling and Monitoring
..........................................................................................................................24
.................................................................................................................25
Oral Presentation - Abstracts ...........................................................................................................................27
Built Environment and Structures.................................................................................................................27
Communication and Signal Processing .......................................................................................................27
Manufacturing and Process Development ...................................................................................................30
Design ..........................................................................................................................................................33
Energy ..........................................................................................................................................................39
Environmental and Sustainability .................................................................................................................44
Fluid Dynamics .............................................................................................................................................49
1
Materials .......................................................................................................................................................53
Management ................................................................................................................................................59
Modelling and Monitoring .............................................................................................................................61
Medical Applications ....................................................................................................................................67
Poster Presentation - Abstracts ........................................................................................................................74
Built Environment and Structures.................................................................................................................74
Communication and Signal Processing .......................................................................................................79
Design ..........................................................................................................................................................87
Energy ..........................................................................................................................................................99
Environmental and Sustainability ...............................................................................................................117
Fluid Dynamics ...........................................................................................................................................124
Management ..............................................................................................................................................133
Manufacturing and Process Development .................................................................................................136
Materials .....................................................................................................................................................148
Medical Applications ..................................................................................................................................161
Modelling and Monitoring ...........................................................................................................................175
Thank You ......................................................................................................................................................191
2
How to use this e-booklet
This e-booklet provides information for the Faculty of Engineering’s Research Presentation Day 2016, taking
place on the 22nd June at the University of Strathclyde. With 119 oral presentations and 305 posters at this
event, and to ensure you do not miss anything, a detailed programme and abstracts for all the students is
included in this document.
Oral and poster presentations have been organised by research category, a division in broad subjects that
allows for people from different departments working on similar research areas to be brought together. This
booklet includes the location and timings for all the oral presentations.
All poster presentations will take place in Architecture building Level 3 Studio space. The index, group name
and location of all posters is mentioned in this e-booklet and will also be displayed at the venue. Please also
familiarise yourself with the poster competition, newly introduced this year, the rules for which are provided on
page 15.
This e-booklet will hopefully provide all of the necessary details for you to make the best of the Research
Presentation Day 2016!
- The RPD 2016 Organising Committee
3
Dean’s Welcome
I am very pleased to welcome you to the 2016 Faculty of Engineering Research Presentation Day.
The Faculty of Engineering is one of the UK’s leading centres for engineering education, research and
knowledge exchange and undertakes research across a wide range of engineering disciplines. There are over
740 postgraduate research students and 260 research assistants/fellows working with the academic staff
across the Faculty’s eight departments.
The purpose of this annual research event is to showcase the exciting work being undertaken by our research
students and the event is organised and managed by volunteer postgraduate research students from within
the Faculty of Engineering. As well as being a research highlight of the year, the event also provides an
excellent opportunity for students to present and showcase their research work to invited industrialists,
collaborators, academics and fellow students. Steered by our Research Strategy that is allied towards
addressing industrial and societal needs, the Faculty of Engineering has University wide research opportunities
and strengths in:
- Health Technology
- Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Aerospace and Marine Technologies
- Advanced Materials and Manufacture
These cross-disciplinary themes are underpinned by world-class research and development activity in key
discipline technology areas.
I hope that this booklet will provide you with information on the range and quality of the research being
undertaken within the Faculty of Engineering and for the potential impact that this research will have on both
society and industry.
Finally, I would like to take this opportunity to thank this year’s organising committee for their hard work in
making this event possible.
Professor Dimitris Drikakis
Executive Dean, Faculty of Engineering
4
Faculty Departments
Architecture
The Department of Architecture has an international reputation for excellence in research training and is a
leading centre for built environment and urban design inquiry. With one of the largest postgraduate populations
in the UK, this Department cultivates an environment of intellectual and critical inquiry so that almost any
developed interest - be it material, spatial, theoretical, environmental, social, can inform a student’s design.
Diversity of approaches to sustainable design, construction and community engagement is also encouraged.
The Department supports a wide range of innovative multi-disciplinary research projects focused on the built
environment, aligned with industry and government agencies and engaged with local and global communities.
Biomedical Engineering
The Department of Biomedical Engineering provides students with unrivalled undergraduate and postgraduate
opportunities for learning, research and knowledge exchange in a broad range of biomedical engineering
disciplines. We offer access to supporting research and specialist facilities in a wide range of biomedical
engineering areas including; medical device development, medical diagnostics, cell and tissue engineering,
medical robotics, prosthetics and orthotics and human biomechanics for the investigation of orthopaedics and
neurological conditions. The Department’s expertise, networks and track record in the development of new
devices and techniques supports their transfer into the clinical setting across the specialties. The Department
has ranked in the first three for the teaching of Medical Technologies as a ‘subject’ in the Complete University
Guide UK subject league table for three years running.
Chemical & Process Engineering
As one of the largest chemical engineering departments in the UK, the Department offers innovative courses
delivered with a dynamic, progressive approach and experience in areas such as advanced chemical
processes, process design, safety and environmental protection. The Department is industry-orientated with
strong links worldwide to major chemical engineering employers, particularly those involved in our unique
Chemical Engineering experience by distance learning programmes. It stands at the forefront of chemical
engineering research, stretching across the boundaries of science and engineering: from controlled assembly
of nanostructured materials to design of advanced reactors; from combating global warming with novel energy
storage technology to understanding protein aggregation in degenerative diseases. The Department has stateof-the-art research laboratories housing a comprehensive suite of experimental facilities ranging from light
scattering to spectroscopy to adsorption measurements to high-pressure viscometry. The Department
specialises in advanced computational modelling; looking at materials and processes on all scales from the
atomic to the macroscopic.
Civil & Environmental Engineering
The Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow has over
125 years of international reputation in multidisciplinary education and research. A unique feature is the strong
link to industry and public bodies, which is integral to the approach to research, education and knowledge
exchange. Our research crosses over many subjects and combines the expertise of civil and environmental
engineers with geoscientists, chemists, physicists, mathematicians and social scientists. Our world-class
research portfolio includes leadership of international multi-institutional research consortia in close
collaboration with end-users from industry and government. The latest Research Excellence Framework (REF
2014) showed that our research was placed at 8th in the UK and 1st in Scotland. We work closely on research
projects with leaders from industry and government on the following three key themes; Engineering
geosciences & geomechanics, Environment and Infrastructure.
Our research environment combines engineering expertise in areas including: civil, environmental, chemical,
mechanical, electrical. We also cover geosciences, material science, physics, chemistry and microbiology. We
have a vibrant postgraduate research community with around 70 research students. We offer research training
in a diverse, international setting.
5
Faculty Departments
Design, Manufacture & Engineering Management
The Department of Design, Manufacture and Engineering Management (DMEM) is an internationally leading
department delivering multi-disciplinary learning which is both innovative and industry-focused. The
Department’s unique focus is on ‘Delivering Total Engineering’ through research excellence, effective industrial
collaboration and creative engineering education. Research and industrial engagement activities are carried
out through our Advanced Design and Manufacturing Hub, which hosts the Advanced Forming Research
Centre (AFRC) in collaboration with industry partners such as Rolls Royce, Boeing and Barnes Aerospace;
the Centre for Precision Manufacturing; the Design Research Group; the Mechatronics and Automation Group;
the Engineering Management Group; and the Remanufacturing Group. Within these, the department hosts the
following world leading centres; the Scottish Institute for Remanufacturing, the Space Mechatronic System
Technology (SMeSTEch) Laboratory with the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT), and the
Strathclyde Institute for Operations Management (SIOM).
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
The Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering combines research excellence, with global industry
engagement and first-class teaching to deliver an outstanding student experience. Internationally-renowned
for our expertise in power, energy, digital technology, signals, sensors and communications, we are Scotland’s
No. 1 research department for our discipline (2014 REF). Our activities address global challenges ranging from
future low carbon smart grids for clean energy, and next generation wireless communications, to electrotechnologies to combat hospital-borne infections. We host a number of world-leading facilities including
Europe’s first test centre for the development and deployment of smart-grid technologies and the UK’s only
research laboratory for non-destructive testing and evaluation.
We have a track record of enterprise, entrepreneurship and commercialisation, having created over 20 spinout companies and start-ups. These have developed and integrated novel cutting edge technologies and
systems across many key sectors in national and global economies. Company successes include Diagnostic
Monitoring Systems (DMS) now part of Qualitrol LLC, Steepest Ascent acquired by MathWorks, Smarter Grid
Solutions, Alba Ultrasound and Bellrock Technology Ltd. Extensive links with industry ensure our
professionally accredited courses are constantly evolving, embracing new technologies and the latest research
developments. This guarantees their relevance for today’s job market, and in the future. These links also
enable our students to access one of the UK’s largest departmental scholarship programmes. Industry
sponsors include BP, Rolls-Royce and the IET Power Academy, of which we are the only participating member
in Scotland.
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
As the birthplace of modern engineering instruction, the departmental mission is to advance knowledge and
commerce in mechanical and aerospace engineering, and apply this knowledge to address the challenges
faced by industry and society. The Department is a place of useful learning, nurturing excellence within a
collegial environment that broadens the horizons and raises the aspirations of our graduates and staff to meet
the challenges of leadership. Research within this Department is divided into three world-leading centres:
Aerospace Centre of Excellence, Energy Centre and Mechanics & Materials Centre.
Naval Architecture, Ocean & Marine Engineering
The Department of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Marine Engineering is a highly research-active department,
with world leading expertise in a number of research areas. Main research interests lie in: Marine Design,
Operation and safety, Ocean Engineering (including oil and gas and offshore renewable energy), Marine
Hydrodynamics and Marine Structures. Department staff participate in a wide range of research projects and
networks funded by EPSRC, EU, and the UK government. The Department attracts researchers and visiting
academics from a wide range of prestigious institutions worldwide. Strong collaborative research links with UK
and overseas Universities provide the basis for continuous interchange between research staff and students.
6
Event Timetable
Time
Event Description
Location
08:30 – 09:30
Registration
JA Level 3 Foyer, JA 326 & JA 327
09:30 – 09:50
10:00 – 11:00
Opening Ceremony &
Keynote
Oral Presentation
Session 1
Poster Competition –
Group 1
JA 314, JA 317, JA 412, JA 502, JA 504, JA 505, JA 506
Architecture Studio Space {Level 3}
11:00 - 11:30
Tea/Coffee
JA Level 3 Foyer & Architecture Studio Space {Level 3}
11:30 – 12:30
Oral Presentation
Session 2
Poster Competition –
Group 2
JA 314, JA 317, JA 326, JA 412, JA 502, JA 504, JA 505, JA
506
12:00 – 14:00
Lunch
Assembly Hall {RC 471}
14:00 – 15:00
14:00 – 16:00
16:20 – 17:00
Poster Competition –
Group 3
Oral Presentation
Session 3 & 4
Awards Reception
Venue Diagram
7
JA 325
Architecture Studio Space {Level 3}
Architecture Studio Space {Level 3}
JA 317, JA 326, JA 327, JA 412, JA 502, JA 504, JA 505, JA
506, JA 811
Assembly Hall {RC 471}
Printable Timetable - RPD 2016
Time
Event Description
Room
08:30 – 09:30
Registration
JA – Level 3 Foyer, JA 326 &
JA 327
09:30 – 09:50
Opening Ceremony
JA 325
Tea/Coffee
JA – Level 3 Foyer &
Architecture Studio - Level 3
Lunch
RC 471
Awards Reception
RC 471
10:00
10:15
10:30
10:45
11:00 – 11:30
11:30
11:45
12:00
12:15
12:00 – 14:00
12:30
14:00
14:15
14:30
14:45
15:00
15:15
15:30
15:45
16:20
Notes:
8
Presentation Schedule
Built Environment and Structures
Schedule
15:15
JA 327
Sunday UkweNya Yakubu
Architecture
Determinants Of Non-Compliance With Structural Building Code
Standards And Regulations In Multi-Storey Residential Development
Projects: The Case Of Nigeria.
Communication and Signal Processing
Schedule
Waveform Design And High Performance Signal Processing For Mimo
Distributed Radar Sensor Networks
Spacecraft-On-A-Chip Concepts With Application To Earth Remote
Sensing
Fractional Cosine Transform (Frct)-Turbo Based Ofdm For Underwater
Acoustic Communication
Advanced Signal Processing Methods For Automatic Target Recognition
And Radar Tracking
10:00
JA 412
Christos Ilioudis
EEE
10:15
JA 412
Jianlin Cao
MAE
10:30
JA 412
Yixin Chen
EEE
10:45
JA 412
Domenico
Gaglione
EEE
11:00
JA L3
Foyer
TEA / COFFEE BREAK
11:30
JA 412
Douglas Allan
EEE
11:45
JA 412
Radhika Menon
EEE
12:00
JA 412
Darshana Thomas
EEE
Power Analysis Of Iot Device
12:15
JA 412
Yijun Yan
EEE
Salient Object Detection Based On Superpixel And Gestalt Principles
12:30
RC 471
LUNCH
Cyclostationary Detection Of Ofdm Signals Using Field Programmable
Gate Arrays (Fpgas)
Quantitative Assessment Of Vocal Cord Function For Diagnosis Of
Laryngeal Disorders
Manufacturing and Process Development
Schedule
9
Ultrasonically Assisted Severe Plastic Deformation For Grain Refinement In
Metals
Robust Multivariable Pid Controller Design Methods For Dual Composition
Control Of Binary Distillation Column
An Automotive Parts Inspection Blueprint And Improvement Model For Tools
And Techniques Utilised In Remanufacturing
Process Advancements In Single Point Incremental Forming (Spif) Of Metal
Sheets
14:00
JA 412
Bo Chen
DMEM
14:15
JA 412
Emmanuel Edet
EEE
14:30
JA 412
Ross Stephen
Harris
DMEM
14:45
JA 412
Spyridon Kotsis
DMEM
15:00
JA 412
BREAK
15:15
JA 412
Taufik Mohamed
Supri
DMEM
Reconfigurable Tooling For High-Precision Sheet-Metal Forming Applications
15:30
JA 412
Wenbin Zhong
DMEM
A Tool Path And Feedrate Optimization Scheme For Ultra-Precision Machining
15:45
JA 412
Muhammad
Zulkipli
DMEM
Electrical-Field Activated Forming And Sintering Of Micro-Components With
Titanium And Titanium Alloy
Design
Schedule
Safety Culture Assessment And Implementation Framework To Enhance
Maritime Safety
Research And Design Of Versatile And Adaptable Mechatronic Technology
For Use In Space
10:00
JA 504
Volkan Arslan
NAOME
10:15
JA 504
Scott Brady
DMEM
10:30
JA 504
Ruaridh Clark
MAE
Engineering A Swarm: Leading A Network To Fast Consensus
10:45
JA 504
Tong Cui
NAOME
Introduction Of A Simple Grids System In Ship Weather Routing Model
11:00
JA 502
TEA / COFFEE BREAK
11:30
JA 504
Alessandra
Feliciotti
Architecture
Masterplanning For Change: Investigating Masterplanning Practices
Towards A New Approach For Resilient Urban Design
11:45
JA 504
Yue Gu
NAOME
Study On Damaged Ship’S Survivability With Cfd Method
12:00
JA 504
Arash
Hemmati
Topkanloo
NAOME
Structural Reliability Of Substructures Of Offshore Wind Turbines
12:15
JA 504
Ismail Kurt
NAOME
Energy Efficiency And Operational Feasibility Analysis Of The Venice
Offshore Container Port Project
12:30
RC 471
LUNCH
14:00
JA 504
Craig Melville
DMEM
Tiv-Model: A Design Methodology For The Complex And Spacecraft
Systems Industry
14:15
JA 504
Alan Paterson
EEE
Mems-Tunable Solid-State Lasers
14:30
JA 504
Anna Serafini
Architecture
Building Skills For Conserving 17Th And 18Th Century Scottish Built
Heritage: Timber Roof Structures
14:45
JA 504
BREAK
15:00
JA 504
Nicky Wilson
DMEM
Using The Sports Design Process To Improve Inclusive Design Practice
15:15
JA 504
Hao Wu
DMEM
Internet Crowdsourcing For Generative Design
15:30
JA 504
Bryan Young
DMEM
Optimising Product Interaction
Energy
Schedule
Michael
Argent
Andreas
Avras
Nurul Azim
Bhuiyan
10:00
JA 314
EEE
10:15
JA 314
10:30
JA 314
10:45
JA 314
Graeme Flett
11:00
JA L3
Foyer
TEA / COFFEE BREAK
11:30
JA 314
Gao Gao
EEE
11:45
JA 314
David
Hamilton
EEE
12:00
JA 314
Nao Hu
NAOME
12:15
JA 314
Godwin
Jimmy
EEE
12:30
RC 471
LUNCH
EEE
EEE
MAE
Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Torque Control Strategies For Loss Reduction
Real-Time, Multi-Rate, Co-Simulation Of Power Networks With Large
Converter Penetration
Modelling, Optimisation And Comparison Of Generators With Different
Magnet Materials For A 6Mw Offshore Direct Drive Wind Turbine
Analysis And Modelling Of The Impact On Energy Demand Prediction For
Small-Scale Energy Systems Of Individual Household Behaviours
Arima Models To Predict Next-Day Electricity Prices
Possible Market Incentives For "Gaming" The Imbalance System By
Intermittent Generation.
Multi-Objective Optimization Of The Match Of Injecor And Combustion
Chamber For A Marine Medium-Speed Diesel Engine
Availability Potential Of Parallel Powertrain For Offshore Wind Turbines
10
Energy
Schedule
Yuchang
Kang
Theodoros
Kostakis
Shona
Pennock
Md
Habibur
Rahman
14:00
JA 811
14:15
JA 811
14:30
JA 811
14:45
JA 811
15:00
JA 811
BREAK
15:15
JA 811
Su Wang
15:30
JA 811
15:45
JA 811
Zhao
Wang
Jiawei
Zhao
EEE
Virtual Power Plant And Its Application In Electricity Market
EEE
Impedance Solutions For More-Electric Aircraft Interconnected Architectures
EEE
The Impact On The Economics And Operation Of Wind Power In Scotland Of A
Single European Energy Market
EEE
Dc Fault Protection Strategy Considering Dc Network Partition
EEE
Caculating The Reserve Capacity Of Energy Storage System With Wind Power
Integration
EEE
Game Theory Application For The Analysis Of Electricity Power Market
EEE
Variously Worldwide Types Of Deregulated Electricity Markets And Their Respective
Transmission Congestion Management Schemes
Environmental and Sustainability
Schedule
10:00
JA 317
Aisha Abubakar
Architecture
Regenerating Slums: Re-Assessing City Prosperity As A Drive For
Dynamic Urban Management Frameworks
10:15
JA 317
Jie Bao
EEE
Lidar-Assisted Wind Turbine Control For Load Reduction
10:30
JA 317
Eliani Ezani
CEE
Assessment Of Personal Exposure To Black Carbon And Nitrogen
Dioxide In Contrasting Urban And Industrial Settings
10:45
JA 317
Ruiqi Li
EEE
Protection Challenges In Future Converter Dominated Power Systems
11:00
JA L3
Foyer
TEA / COFFEE BREAK
11:30
JA 317
Philip Mellor
CEE
11:45
JA 317
Peter Mills
EEE
12:00
JA 317
Paulo Murinelli
Pesoti
EEE
Power System Restorations Assisted By Wind Power
12:15
JA 317
Xinwen Ni
EEE
Reliability Evaluation Of Wind Energy Based On Monte Carlo
Simulation Method
12:30
RC 471
LUNCH
14:00
JA 325
Arianna Gea
Pagano
CEE
14:15
JA 325
William Ross
EEE
14:30
JA 325
Zhonglei Shao
EEE
14:45
JA 325
Ying Sun
EEE
15:00
JA 325
Christopher
Wong
CEE
11
Assessing The Potential Of Scottish Non-Agricultural Land For
Sustainable Bioenergy Production
Wind And Wave Directional Transit Time Model For Offshore Wind
O&M
Experimental Investigation Of The Independent Effect Of Suction And
Degree Of Saturation On Very Small-Strain Stiffness Of Unsaturated
Sand
Providing Ancillary Services From Large Hvdc-Connected Offshore
Wind Farm Using Low Cost Hybrid Converter
Optimization Of Wind-Solar Energy Systems Used In Rural Areas
Optimisation Of Acoustic Emission From Transit Plasma Discharges In
Water
In-Situ Hydraulic Barriers Formed From Colloidal Silica For Nuclear
Decommissioning Sites
Fluid Dynamics
Schedule
Vincent
Casseau
Alexander
Cassola
Daniel
Espinoza
11:30
JA 326
MAE
Open-Source Hypersonic Simulations For Earth And Mars Entries
11:45
JA 326
MAE
Wind Lidars For Wind Turbine Wakes Detection, Quantification And
Qualification
12:00
JA 326
MAE
Development Of A Cfd-Dsmc Hybrid For Spacecraft Re-Entry
12:15
JA 326
Javier Herrera
MAE
Shock Structure Estimation For Supersonic And Hypersonic Vehicles
12:30
RC 471
LUNCH
14:00
JA 326
Vincenzo
Infante
CPE
14:15
JA 326
Ruoxin Li
NAOME
14:30
JA 326
Kurt Mizzi
NAOME
14:45
JA 326
BREAK
15:00
JA 326
Andreia Silva
MAE
15:15
JA 326
Xiaoxi Xiao
NAOME
15:30
JA 326
Xue Xu
NAOME
Microswimmers In Microfluidics: Enhancing The Engineering Of Nano And
Micro-Scale Driven Transport Applications.
Numerical Simulation Of Exploring Fish Motion By A Series Of Linked Rigid
Bodies
Development Of Intelligent Hull Forms Of Large Ships For Energy Efficient
Transportation
Numerical Simulation Of Vitreous Humour Biofluid During Saccadic Eye
Movements
Numerical Study On Wave Run-Up Height And Depression Depth Around A
Vertical Circular Cylinder At Various Froude Numbers
Analysis Of Offshore Floating Wind Turbines
Materials
Schedule
10:00
JA 507
Athanasios
Anagnostakis
MAE
10:15
JA 507
Ross Beesley
MAE
10:30
JA 507
Alexandros
Boukis
MAE
10:45
JA 507
Alessia Centi
CPE
11:00
JA 502
TEA / COFFEE BREAK
11:30
JA 507
11:45
JA 507
12:00
JA 507
Martin Dunn
MAE
12:15
JA 507
Stuart Hannah
EEE
12:30
RC 471
LUNCH
14:00
JA 507
Yi Jing
14:15
JA 507
14:30
JA 507
14:45
JA 507
BREAK
15:00
JA 507
Craig Mcanally
CPE
15:15
JA 507
Tom Peat
MAE
15:30
JA 507
Hanlin Wang
NAOME
Saeed Zare
Chavoshi
Eden May
Dela Pena
Ubaedullah
Khaliq
Hamish
Macdonald
DMEM
CPE
Corrosion Fatigue And Structural Integrity Of Metals Used In Positive
Displacement Pumps And Components.
The Use Of The Linear Matching Method For Damage Prediction And Low Cycle
Fatigue Analysis
Experimental Testing And Finite Element Modeling Of Nitinol Wires In Various
Loading Modes
Unravelling The Synthesis Of Bioinspired Mesoporous Silica Materials By
Molecular Simulations
An Investigation On The Mechanics Of Nanometric Cutting Of Hard-Brittle
Materials At Elevated Temperatures
Pulse Current Deposition Of Copper Using An Additive-Bearing Enface
Electrolyte
Computational And Experimental Analysis Of The Size Effects Displayed In
Beams With A Lattice Microstructure
Force Sensing Enabled By P(Vdf-Trfe) Sensor Coupled With Organic Thin-Film
Transistor
EEE
Insulating Liquids: Lightning Impulse Stress Properties
DMEM
Superplasticity In Hexagonal Based Alloys
EEE
The Influence Of Hail On Wind Turbine Blade Leading Edge Erosion And
Damage
Adsorption Studies Of Metal-Organic Frameworks For Use In Carbon Capture
Technologies
The Development Of A Novel Surface Engineering Process For Metal Matrix
Composite Coatings
Fatigue Analysis Of Marine Lithium-Ion Batteries By Using Peridynamics
12
Management
Schedule
14:00
JA 327
Khalid Alkuaik
DMEM
A Study Of The Influence Of Network Structural Embeddedness On
Organization Innovativeness
14:15
JA 327
Tiffany Imron
DMEM
Socio-Technical Architectural Model For Collaborative Engineering Design
14:30
JA 327
Pam Marshall
DMEM
High Value Meetings: A New Framework For Business Meeting Performance
14:45
JA 327
Arie Restu
Wardhani
DMEM
The Role Of Intellectual Capital And Innovation Capability In Ict-Smes
Modelling and Monitoring
Schedule
10:00
JA 506
Chiara Tardioli
MAE
Asteroid Impact Risk Assessment Under Epistemic Uncertainty
10:15
JA 506
Daniele Barbera
MAE
Investigate And Develop Robust And Accurate Numerical Method For
The Evaluation Of High Temperature Creep Response Of Structures.
10:30
JA 506
Dennj De Meo
NAOME
Peridynamic Modelling Of Localized Corrosion
10:45
JA 506
Marilena Di
Carlo
MAE
Multi-Population Adaptive Inflationary Differential Evolution Algorithm
With Adaptive Local Restart For Space Trajectory Optimisation
11:00
JA 502
TEA / COFFEE BREAK
11:30
JA 506
Fulin Fan
EEE
Enhanced Weather Modelling For Dynamic Line Rating
11:45
JA 506
Jonathan
Jamieson
MAE
Minimum-Time Reference Trajectories For Drone Racing
12:00
JA 506
Adnan Kefal
NAOME
Structural Health Monitoring Of Marine Structures By Using Inverse
Finite Element Method
12:15
JA 506
Velissarios
Kourkoulis
EEE
Wind Farm Control To Meet Grid And O&M Requirements
12:30
RC 471
LUNCH
14:00
JA 506
Nicola Masey
CEE
Using Short ‘Spot’ Measurements Of Air Pollution To Estimate Longer
Term Concentrations
14:15
JA 506
Architecture
A Passive Cooling System For Warm Humid Climates.
14:30
JA 506
MAE
Autonomous Collaborative On-Orbit Servicing
14:45
JA 506
Omar Badokhon
NAOME
Finding The Maritime Resilient Measurement Through Calculating The
Declining Of Resilience Resource Reduction Factor (Rf)
15:00
JA 506
BREAK
15:15
JA 506
Nicolas Thiry
MAE
15:30
JA 506
Jiaying Zhang
MAE
15:45
JA 506
Pengfei Zhang
NAOME
13
Iheanyichukwu
Onyeabo
Ogbonnaya
Juan Manuel
Romero Martin
Mission And System Design For The Deflection Of Potentially
Hazardous Objects With Space-Borne Lasers
Reconfiguring Smart Structures Using Approximate Heteroclinic
Connections
Visual Induced Motion Sickness Onboard
Medical Applications
Schedule
10:00
JA 505
Alexander
Stephen
Barbour
BME
Examining Speech Perception In Parkinson's Disease
10:15
JA 505
Heather Black
BME
Investigation Into The Biomechanics Surrounding Bruise Formation
10:30
JA 505
Justin Caselton
BME
Development Of A Robotic System For Next Generation Scarless Surgery
10:45
JA 505
Alan Davidson
EEE
Very Low Frequency Piezo Pressure Sensor For E-Health Applications
11:00
JA 502
TEA / COFFEE BREAK
11:30
JA 505
Tom Gerards
BME
Tele-Rehabilitation Platform
11:45
JA 505
Jonathan
Gillespie
EEE
Investigation Of The Use Of Pulsed 405-Nm Leds For Antimicrobial
Applications
12:00
JA 505
Moutaz Hamdan
BME
Development Of Electro Active Polymer Vad For Children
12:15
JA 505
Olivia Kemp
BME
Using Mechanical Measurements To Detect Early Apoptosis In A Hepatocyte
Cell Line By Use Of Afm
12:30
RC 471
LUNCH
14:00
JA 505
Onorio Mancini
CPE
Understanding Nucleation And Growth Of Amyloid Fibrils
14:15
JA 505
Lindsay Millar
BME
Visual Feedback In Lower Limb Rehabilitation
14:30
JA 505
Sarah Morgan
BME
Development And Characterisation Of Novel Polypyrrole Coatings For
Coronary Stents
14:45
JA 505
BREAK
15:00
JA 505
Shiny
Puthenkalam
BME
Improvements To Iontophoresis Devices For Transdermal Diagnostics
15:15
JA 505
Stefania Sansoni
DMEM
Aesthetic Design Of Prosthetic Devices
15:30
JA 505
Manunchaya
Samala
BME
Advanced Tuning Of Below Knee Prosthesis Using The Motek Caren System
Medical Applications
Schedule
14:00
JA 317
14:15
JA 317
14:30
JA 317
14:45
JA 317
Ivan
Shorokhov
Rachael M
Tomb
Lijo
Varughese
Chacko
Hannah
Wells
EEE
EEE
Quantification And 3D Visualisation Of Viable Tissues In Left Ventricle After Heart
Attack Based On Cine Cmr, T2 And Lge Images
Investigating The Potential For Staphylococcus To Develop Tolerance To
Antimicrobial 405 Nm Light
BME
Design Of Powered Upper-Limb Exoskeleton For Stroke Rehabilitation
BME
The Effect Of Surface Roughness On Bone Cement Adhesion
14
Poster competition scheme
On the 22nd June, every student presenting a poster is required to participate in the poster competition, which
will be hosted at the Architecture Building – Level 3 Studio space. The 11 student research categories have
been divided into 3 sessions for the competitions, running at the following times:
Time
Sessions
10:00 am – 11:00 am – Poster Competition
12:45 pm – 01:15 pm – Winner Selection by Judges
Built Environment & Structures
Materials
Medical Applications
Communication & Signal Processing
11:30 am – 12:30 pm – Poster Competition
12:45 pm – 01:15 pm – Winner Selection by Judges
Design
Fluid Dynamics
Modelling & Monitoring
Management
02:00 pm – 03:00 pm – Poster Competition
03:15 pm – 03:45 pm – Winner Selection by Judges
Energy
Manufacturing & Process Development
Environmental & Sustainability
Information for Students:
Each student belongs to a specific research category. In each category the student has been assigned to a
Presenting Group (A, B, C or D). Poster Competition rules are as follows:
 The students will present their poster in front of their specific research category and their allocated
group.
 Each student will have maximum of 2 MINUTES to talk about their poster. The remaining time will be
spent listening to your fellow colleagues within the research category and allocated group.
 At the end of the session, each student should write down ONE student name of their favourite poster
within the group.
 The finalists will then be assessed by a judging panel at the allocated times mentioned above.
 All finalists will have to stand in front of their poster during this time, in order to select the overall winner
for that research category.
Information for Judges:
 After the Poster Competitions, our Committee will draw up a list of finalists from each group within
each of the 11 research categories.
 The finalists will then be asked to present their poster, at the Winner Selection times (see above).
 At this point the judges will select 1 winner per research category*.
Please Note: The posters will also be on display through the event for all the event attendees to look at.
* For the research categories; Built Environment & Structures and Management, there will only be 1 winner,
owing to the smaller student sizes in both the categories.
15
Poster Schedule
Built Environment and Structures
- Architecture Studio Space
Poster Index
1
Valentina
Bonetti
Group A
MAE
Second-Law Dynamic Simulation For The Built Environment
2
Yan Gao
Group A
NAOME
Peridynamic Modeling Of Fire Damage In Marine Composites
Group A
Architecture
Building Skills For Conserving 17Th And 18Th Century Scottish Built Heritage:
Materials And Techniques
Group A
Architecture
Group A
Architecture
Group A
Architecture
Group A
EEE
Group A
Architecture
Group A
MAE
A Dynamic Human Thermal Model Toward Better Energy Building Simulation
Group A
Architecture
Landscapes Of Exclusion: Youth In An African City.
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Clara
Gonzlez
Manich
Selma
Harrington
Maddalena
Iovene
Ainslie
Kennedy
Jack
Mcalorum
Bowen Qiu
Mohamad
Rida
Kristijn Van
Riel
The Modernist Heritage And The Historical Museum Of Bosnia- Herzegovina:
Towards A Sustainable Reuse
Towards Informal Morphology: Investigating The Internal Structure Of
Spontaneous Settlements
Evaluating Scotland'S Approach Participatory Planning
Structural Health Monitoring Of Wind Turbine Foundations Using Surface
Mounted Fibre Bragg Grating Optical Sensors
The Application Of Image Processing To The Survey, Assessment And
Monitoring Of Historic Buildings
11
Abdur Yasin
Group A
Architecture
12
William
Jackson
Urban Governance And Sustainable Development- Urban Governance For
Sustainable Urban Development Process In Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Group A
EEE
Novel Remotely Deployed NDE for In-Service Industrial Inspection
Communication and Signal Processing
- Architecture Studio Space
Poster Index
1
2
Mohamed S. Kh
Abuhelala
Abdullah
Alshammary
Group A
EEE
Group A
EEE
Numerical Simulation Of Chromatic Dispersion In A Single-Mode 2D Incoherent
Ocdma Wh/Ts Optical Fibre System
Low-Cost And Accurate Broadband Beamforming Based On Narrowband SubArrays
3
Ahmed Alzin
Group A
EEE
Broadband Beamforming Using Polynomial Matrix Techniques
4
Dale Atkinson
Group A
EEE
Future Internet Of Things Device Connectivity Using Software Defined Radio
5
Kenny Barlee
Group A
EEE
Rapid Development Of Software Defined Radio Systems
6
Fraser Kenneth
Coutts
Group A
EEE
Extension Of Key Signal Processing Techniques To The Processing Of
Broadband Multi-Sensor Data
7
Barnali Das
Group A
EEE
Reliable Navigation Techniques For Telepresence Robot
8
Mohammad
Gommosani
Group A
NAOME
Enhancing Navigational Safety Through Increased Situational Awareness And
Teamwork On The Bridge
9
Jose Guerreiro
Group A
EEE
Simple Ears Inspire Clever Sensor Systems
10
Kanghang He
Group A
EEE
11
Elike Hodo
Group A
EEE
12
Alessio Izzo
Group B
EEE
13
Sarunas Kalade
Group B
EEE
14
Elizabeth Klenschi
Group B
EEE
15
Kristofer Law
Group B
EEE
16
Mohsin Masood
Group B
EEE
Optimization Of Routing Protocol In Gmpls Networks
17
Amr Nagy
Group B
EEE
Performance Of Spatial Diversity In Multi-Antenna Wireless Communication
Systems
Pattern Analysis On Electroencephalography Signals For Application-Specific
Interpretation
Threat Analysis Of Iot Networks Using Artificial Neural Network Intrusion
Detection System
Acoustic Mimo Array Echo Cancellation Algorithms And Radar Technology
Based Audio Speakers Characterization
Machine Learning In Cognitive Radio Applications
3-D Investigation Of Non-Linear Mechanics In The Locust Ear: The Role Of InPlane Motion In Active Hearing.
3D Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Reconstruction Using Structure
From Motion
16
Communication and Signal Processing
- Architecture Studio Space
Poster Index
18
David Northcote
Group B
EEE
An Embedded System-On-Chip Implementation Of The Line Hough Transform
19
Adriano Rosario
Persico
Group B
EEE
Radar Signal Processing For Defence Against Airborne Threats And Space Situation
Awareness
20
Brian Saltin
Group B
EEE
How Do Midges Hear And Why Should We Care?
21
Yinyong Zhang
Group B
EEE
Fatigue Monitoring Using Hrv
22
Baixiang Zhao
Group B
EEE
Automatic 3D Segmentation, Quantification And Visualization Of Head And Neck
Tumours From Mri Dataset.
Design
- Architecture Studio Space
Poster Index
1
Hesham
Abdushkour
Group A
NAOME
2
Haider Al-Saaidy
Group A
Architecture
3
Vasilis
Apostolakeas
Group A
Architecture
Outlines For The Development Of A Modular Self-Reconfigurable System
4
Ross Brisco
Group A
DMEM
Computer Supported Collaborative Design: A Social Network Approach
Group A
EEE
Comparison Of Control Methods For Ncs
Group A
Architecture
Group A
MAE
5
6
7
Mercedes
Chacon
Vasquez
Amira
Elsemellawy
Alessandro
Falchi
Human Oriented Design: Automatic Collision Avoidance By Better ManMachine Interaction And Information Flow
The Effect Of Behaviour On The Formation Of Space Assessment Of
Behaviour And Activity Patterns And Its Role In Influencing The Reshaping Of
Urban Space In The Old Urban Fabric
Alexandria A Port City: The Transformation Of The Historical Urban Public
Space On The Eastern Harbor
Multidisciplinary Design For Demise Approaches And Methods To Reduce The
On-Ground Casualty Risk
8
Haoyu Fang
Group A
EEE
Fractal Designs For Ultrasonic Transducers And Array
9
Alexander
Holliman
Group A
DMEM
A Design Of Experiments Based Method As A Forecasting Tool In Research,
Development & Design Project Planning
10
Marcus Ingram
Group A
EEE
Optimising Ultrasonic Techniques For Use In Industrial Process Analysis
11
Mutian Li
Group A
DMEM
Haptic Technology In Robot Precise Control And Virtual Tele-Operation
12
Mingxin Li
Group A
NAOME
Group A
MAE
Group A
DMEM
Design Of Lightweight Robotic Arms
Group B
DMEM
The Cognitive Basis Of Design Synthesis
Group B
NAOME
Stability And Safety: Preliminary Design Of A Zero/Minimum Ballast Lng
Carrier Using A Decision Support System
Group B
MAE
Investigation Of Residual Stress Influence On Corrosion Fatigue Life
Group B
MAE
Multi-Criteria Worst-Case Design Optimisation Of Space Systems
Group B
DMEM
Modularity Throughout Mega Project Development Life
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Giulio
Maddalena
Thomas
Mcmaster
Chris Mcteague
Chigozie
Odumodu
Volodymyr
Okorokov
Carlos Ortega
Absil
Giota
Paparistodimou
Longitudinal Strength Of Container Ship Induced By Regular Or Irregular
Wave
Uncertainty Based Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation Of Space
Transportation Systems – Optimisation Of Launcher Integration Processes
20
Bob Prazak
Group B
DMEM
Prolonging Tool Life In The Manufacture Of Cocr-Alloy Orthopaedic Implants
21
Alexandros
Priftis
Group B
NAOME
Parametric Design And Holistic Optimisation Of Container Ships
22
Lewis Urquhart
Group B
DMEM
Advancing Conceptions Of Form And User Experience In Design Through
Advanced Manufacturing Processes
23
Georgios
Vavourakis
Group B
NAOME
Cruise Ship Survivability
24
Bozo Vazic
Group B
NAOME
Multi-Scale Modelling Of Ice-Structure Interactions
17
Design
- Architecture Studio Space
Poster Index
25
Tijana Vuletic
Group B
DMEM
Gesture Recognition In Conceptual Cad
26
Lionel Wamba
Group B
NAOME
Operability Of Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (Flng) Unit
27
Xinyu Yang
Group B
DMEM
Synthesis Reasoning Support And Spine Design Process For Early Stage CyberPhysical System Design
28
Dayi Zhang
Group B
EEE
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle With Ultrasonic Inspection
29
Botong Zhu
Group B
EEE
Bio-Inspired Air-Coupled Transducer
Energy
- Architecture Studio Space
Poster Index
Modular Modelling Of Interline Dynamic Voltage Restorer In Dynamic Phasor
Domain
Performance Evaluation And Thermal Performance Enhancement Of Pcm Heat
Storage Using Lattice Boltzmann Method For Novel Pcm Heat Exchanger/Storage
System
Numerical Study Of Double Diffusive-Convection And Stability In Salinity Gradient
Solar Ponds
Ancillary Services Procurement In Microgrid With High Penetration Of Converter
Connected Renewable Energy Sources
1
Khaled Abojlala
Group A
EEE
2
Olubunmi
Andrew
Agbanigo
Group A
MAE
3
Sirajadien Alzin
Group A
CPE
4
Celestine
Anioke
Group A
EEE
5
Austin Asuquo
Group A
NAOME
Optimization Of Thermoelectric Generator For Non-Umbilical Subsea Production
6
Onder Canbulat
Group A
NAOME
Integrated Energy Efficiency Of Shipping
7
Yin Chen
Group A
EEE
Integrating Vsc To Weak Grid Ac System
8
Lloyd Clayburn
Group A
EEE
Expanding Measurement Limits Of Hybrid Photonic Current Sensors
9
Rafael Dawid
Group A
EEE
Development Of An Offshore Wind Farm Maintenance Decision Support Tool
10
Feng Du
Group A
EEE
Modelling The Impact Of Social Network On Energy Savings
Group A
EEE
Novel Decentralised And Distributed Control Techniques For Lv Network Storage
Group A
EEE
Fault Management Strategies For Turbo-Electric Distributed Propulsion (Tedp)
Electrical Systems
11
12
Anthony
Florida-James
Marie-Claire
Flynn
13
Song Fu
Group B
MAE
Evaluating Passive Structural Control Of Tidal Turbines
14
Deyang Guo
Group B
EEE
Efficient Modeling Of Modular Multilevel Hvdc Converters (Mmc)
15
Edward Hart
Group B
EEE
Gaussian Process Machine Learning For Improved Wind Turbine Control
16
Azmi Hashim
Group B
EEE
Transient Stability Of Grid Connected Wind Turbine
17
Xiaozuo Huang
Group B
EEE
Control Of Ac Microgrid
18
Linus Orokpo
Idoko
Group B
EEE
Solar And Wind Energy Potential In Gusau, Nigeria.
19
Yiran Jing
Group B
EEE
Modular Multilevel Converter Based Hvdc Systems For Offshore Wind Farm
Integration
20
Spyridon
Karamitsos
Group B
EEE
Low Frequency Ac System For Offshore Wind Farm Integration
21
Smith Kyle
Group B
EEE
22
Chunpeng Li
Group B
EEE
23
Jiajia Liu
Group B
EEE
Stability Assessment Of Low Inertia, Low Reactive Power Novel Islanded
Networks
Optimise Dc Current Measurement For Electrical Protection Applications In Future
Dc Networks
Partial Discharge Online Diagnostics In Hvdc Cables
18
Energy
- Architecture Studio Space
Poster Index
24
Tianxiang Luan
Group B
EEE
25
Andrew Lyden
Group C
MAE
26
Alice Malvaldi
Group C
EEE
Group C
NAOME
A Holistic Approach To The Energy Management Of Ships Operation
Group C
EEE
Modelling The Impact Of Demand-Side Management On Distribution System
Operation
Process Safety Management In The Nigeria Oil And Gas Industries.
27
28
Panagiotis
Mizythras
Lesiba
Mokgonyana
Effect Of Carbon Price Floor On Coal-Fired Power Plant
Design And Optimistation Of Thermal Networks By Modelling And Using Findhorn
Ecovillage As A Case Study
Spatio-Temporal Prediction Of Wind Based On Wind Velocity And Related
Parameters
29
Uzoma Nnadi
Group C
CPE
30
Steven Nolan
Group C
EEE
31
Refik Ozyurt
Group C
NAOME
32
Saad Panni
Group C
EEE
Propagation Of Power Quality Within Distribution And Transmission Networks.
33
Chandra Pun
Group C
EEE
Reduction In Cost Of Direct Drive Generator Through Active Control Of The Airgap.
34
Haijie Qi
Group C
EEE
Group C
MAE
Group C
EEE
Group C
MAE
Analysis And Monitoring Loads On A Tidal Turbine And Its Structural Effects.
35
36
37
Alberto
Rabaneda
Luis Reguera
Castillo
Jos Manuel
Rivera
Camacho
Failure Modes Of Superconducting Turbo-Electric Distributed Propulsion Systems
For All Electric Aircraft
Investigation Of Alternative Fuels And Emission-Reduction Technologies To
Enhance Sustainability Of Shipping And Marine Operations
Optimal Operation Of Combined Heat And Power Systems Under Demand
Response
Development Of A Tool For Offshore Wind Resource Assessment By Satellites For
Wind Industry
Real-Time Laboratory Demonstration Of The Provision Of Inertia From Offshore
Wind Turbines Via Hvdc Links
38
Tim Rubert
Group D
EEE
Life Extension For Wind Turbine Structures And Foundations
39
Silvia Sosio De
Rosa
Group D
CEE
Predicting Fault Permeability At Depth: Data Pooling From Multiple Field Sites
40
Nicolas Torino
Group D
DMEM
Gas Furnace: Main Tool Of Heat Treatment Process
41
Eleni Tsioumpri
Group D
EEE
Fault Anticipation In Distribution Networks
42
Yachao Wang
Group D
EEE
Solar Energy Integration Into Future Smart Grid
43
Dong Wang
Group D
EEE
Protection And Control Of Smart Dc Distribution Power Systems
44
John Warnock
Group D
EEE
45
Renyou Yang
Group D
NAOME
46
Lujie Yu
Group D
EEE
Control Of Wind Turbine Converters Connected With Diode-Rectifier Based Hvdc
47
Fangzhu Yu
Group D
EEE
Backup Protection Requirements In Future Low-Inertia Power Systems
48
Jia Yu
Group D
EEE
High-Power Dc–Dc Converters For Hvdc Transmission Systems
49
Banghao Zhou
Group D
EEE
Curtailment Of Wind Power Output Range
50
Ding Zhou
Group D
EEE
Load Sharing And Frequency Support Strategies Using Vsc-Hvdc Systems
51
Giorgio Zorzi
Group D
EEE
Improved Yield From Wind Turbines Through Online Anomaly Detection And
Compensation
19
Factors Affecting The Electrical Performance Of Offshore Windfarm Transmission
Cables
The Cfd Development Of Non-Premixed Dual Fuel Combustion Diesel Engine
Injected By High-Pressure Gas In The Cylinder Chamber
Environmental and Sustainability
- Architecture Studio Space
Poster Index
1
Georgi Aleksiev
Group A
DMEM
Sustainability Assessment Framework For The Continuous Flow Processes In The
Pharmaceutical Sector
2
Andre Brunier
Group A
CEE
Anticancer Drugs In Groundwater: Is There Any Risk To Humans?
3
Marco Vinicio
Chavez Baez
Group A
EEE
4
Kevin Connolly
Group A
EEE
5
Byongug Jeong
Group A
NAOME
6
Marianna Kinali
Group A
CEE
7
Rebecca
Laidlaw
Group A
CEE
8
Charles Mbama
Group A
CEE
9
Raheal Mcghee
Group A
MAE
10
Lauren Mcnally
Group A
CEE
Group B
CEE
Do Blue-Green Algae Respond To Chemical Disinfection?
Group B
CPE
Competitive Adsorption For Clean Air Applications
11
12
Patomporn
Pulsawad
Paul Alexander
Rapp
Harmonics Propagation Reduction In Large Multi-Technology Offshore Wind
Power Clusters Using A Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm
Examining The Potential Economic Impact Of Scottish Offshore Wind
Development
Quantitative Risk Assessment For Lng Fuelled Ships
Investigating The Dynamic Response Of Rocks To Changes In Surface Water
Reservoir Load Using Observations Of Micro-Seismicity At Depth
Qualitative Analysis Of Health Education Need And Mhealth Feasibility In
Chikwawa, Malawi
Exploiring Municipal Solid Waste: Potential For Energy Development And Contol
Of Environmental Pollution In Developing Countries
Strategic Resource Assessment For Deploying Low-Carbon Renewable Energy
Systems In An Urban Environment
Biological Nutrient Cycling: Characterising The Ecological Impact Of Microbial
Exposure To Hydraulic Fracturing Wastewater
13
Aamir Rasheed
Group B
DMEM
Sustainability Assessment In Metal Forming Processess
14
Robert Roy
Group B
CPE
Laser Diagnostic Imaging Of High Temperature Reacting Flows
15
Phatchani
Srikhumsuk
Group B
CEE
16
Yanyi Sun
Group B
EEE
17
Nikoletta L.
Trivyza
Group B
DMEM
18
Andrea Tuni
Group B
DMEM
19
Andrew Ross
Wilson
Group B
MAE
Fluid Dynamics
Efficacy Of Plants To Phytoremediate Metals From Hydraulic Fracturing
Wastewaters.
Charging And Discharging Control For Electric Vehicle And Residential Energy
Storage Systems
Supporting Decisions On More Sustainable Vessel Systems Integration
Developing An Innovative Methodology To Facilitate Lifecycle Supply Chain
Sustainability Assessment
Assessing Environmental Impacts Of Artificial Satellites Through Life Cycle
Assessment And Cost Analysis
- Architecture Studio Space
Poster Index
1
Thomas Burel
Group A
MAE
Lattice Boltzmann Method In Porous Media
2
Paolo Capobianchi
Group A
MAE
Numerical And Experimental Investigation Of Multiphase Flow At Microscale.
3
Rafael Castelo
Branco Goulart
Group A
NAOME
Shallow Water Effects In Multi-Hull Craft Operating In Super-Critical Regime
4
Sotirios Chouliaras
Group A
NAOME
5
Ferdin Sagai Don
Bosco
Group A
MAE
6
Naz Gorener
Group A
NAOME
The Effect Of Cavitation In Propeller – Rudder – Hull Interaction
7
Qingqing Gu
Group A
MAE
A Platform For Enabling Highly Automated And Integrated Microdroplet
Technologies
8
James Guthrie
Group A
MAE
Supercritical Diesel Combustion In Automotive Engines
9
Jimmy-John Hoste
Group A
MAE
Advanced Air-Breathing Propulsion Systems For Hypersonic Flight
10
Liang Li
Group A
NAOME
Hybrid Offshore Floating Renewable Energy System
11
Matthias Maasch
Group A
NAOME
Analysis Of Ships Operating In Extreme Trim
Isogeometric Analysis For Analysing The Effects Of Shape Modifications In
Maritime Applications
Feasibility Of Lv-Dsmc-Bgk Based Solver For Study Of Shale Gas Flows In
Micro-Scale Porous Structures
20
Fluid Dynamics
- Architecture Studio Space
Poster Index
12
Christopher
Mackerron
Group B
EEE
A Novel Microfluidic Drug Discovery Platform For Studying Communication Between
Independent Neural Networks
13
Teresa Marti
Group B
CPE
Biomass Pyrolysis Simulation
Group B
MAE
Elastic Instabilties For Emulsification In Torsional Flow At Very Low Reynolds
Numbers
Group B
NAOME
Time-Domain Simulations Of Ships Manoeuvring In Waves
Group B
CPE
Surfactant Transport Mechanisms During Foam Fractionation
Group B
NAOME
Trim Optimisation For Minimum Power In Waves
Group B
EEE
The Stability Of Surface Waves On Sheared Currents
Group B
NAOME
Modelling Of Biofouling Roughness For Selection Of Best Antifouling Coating For
Any Considering Ship
Group B
CPE
Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Of Jamming In Thermostatted Shear Flows
Group B
NAOME
Group B
NAOME
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
Liam
Moynihan
Christos
Pollalis
Rosario
Ruben
Emil
Shivachev
James Steer
Dogancan
Uzun
Calum
Williams
Yansheng
Zhang
Zhenkai
Zhao
Research Of Drag Reduction Mechanism Of Riblet Structure By Using
Computational Fluid Dynamics (Cfd)
Self-Propelled Multi-Body Model Analysis Using Openfoam With External Coupled
Simbody Toolkit
Management
- Architecture Studio Space
Poster Index
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
21
Mohammed
Alghaseb
Santiago DenizSantana
Daniel
Mckendry
Siska
Noviaristanti
Abdul Wadood
Sharif
Chayaruk
Tikakul
Mehmet Ali
Yurtseven
Gang Zhang
Group A
Architecture
Maximising Client Value Through Optimisation Of Standardisation And PreAssembly: The Case Of Saudi Arabia
Group A
CEE
Short-Term Prediction Of Road Network Incidents
Group A
DMEM
Group A
DMEM
Group A
CPE
Group A
DMEM
Group A
NAOME
Group A
DMEM
A Procedural Framework For Delivering Product Lifecycle Management For
Engineer-To-Order Products
Knowledge Transfer And Thr Role Of Innocation Intermediary In Innocation
Network
Crossroads: A Longitudinal Study Into The Development Of Chemical
Engineering Students From Pre- To Post-Graduation
Knowledge Management In Smes In Manufacturing Sector: A Comparison Of
Case Studies In Uk And Thailand
Finding Best Tetris Strategy In High Seas: Optimizing Combinational Container
Ports Loading While Keeping Vessel Afloat
Research On Assessment Method For Advancement Degree Of Difficulty And
Case Study Of Software Testing Capability Improvement Based On Numerical
Integration
Manufacturing and Process Development
- Architecture Studio Space
Poster Index
1
Bilal Ahmad
Group A
MAE
Design And Numerical Simulation Of Tool For Friction Stir Welding Of Steel
2
Heba Al-Fnaish
Group A
CPE
Modelling The Solubility Of H2S And Co2 In Ionic Liquids Using Pc-Saft Equation
Of State.
3
Afra Al-Ruzaiqi
Group A
EEE
Response Of P-Channel Organic Field-Effect Transistor To Ac Waveforms
4
Andrew Appleby
Group A
DMEM
Acoustic Monitoring Of Flow Forming
5
Fei Ding
Group A
DMEM
Near Zero-Defect Manufacturing Of Cocr Orthopaedic Implants
Group A
CPE
Providing Quantitative Particle Size And Shape Information From Multi-Sensor
Measurements For Continuous Monitoring Of Crystallisation Processes
Group A
DMEM
Shear Forming Process For Nickel-Based Aerospace Structures
Group A
NAOME
Influencing Ship Recycling Yard Design Through Developing Models To Estimate
Economical And Hse Performance
Group A
DMEM
Forming Micro Ceramic Components Using Micro-Fast Technology
Group A
DMEM
Autonomous Gripper For Harsh Environments.
6
7
8
9
10
Carla Sofia
Ferreira
Marine Anais
Guillot
Sefer Anil
Gunbeyaz
Hasan Hamza
Hijji
Hanna Lilja
Jonasdottir
Die Manufacture For Future And Current Manufacturing Processes (A Total
Engineering Approach To Forging Die Design)
Innovative Framework For Application Of Near Net Shape Manufacturing
Technology And Forging Processes
11
James Marashi
Group A
DMEM
12
Daniele Marini
Group A
DMEM
13
Ainsley Miller
Group A
EEE
Uncertainty Quantification In Large Volume Metrology
14
Layla Mir Bruce
Group A
CPE
The Impact Of Solvent Systems, Process Conditions And Structurally Related
Impurities On The Growth Rate And Morphologies Of Paracetamol Crystals.
15
Pimentel Misael
Group A
MAE
Minimum Shielding Gas Flow Rate Analysis In Gmaw Process
16
Cong Niu
Group B
DMEM
Intelligent Mobile Robot Control
17
Sara Ottoboni
Group B
CPE
Evaluation Of A New Continuous Filtration Unit: A Case Study Using Paracetamol
18
Grant Payne
Group B
DMEM
Investigating The Commercial Feasibility Of Die Remanufacturing In The Uk High
Value Manufacturing Sector
19
Andreas Reimer
Group B
DMEM
Machining Strategy Improvement For Forming Dies
20
Jonathan Riise
Group B
EEE
Metrology Considerations For Automated Ndt Applications
21
Nicola Stefani
Group B
DMEM
Microstructure Modelling In Nickel Alloys
22
Daria
Stoliarskaia
Group B
CPE
Modelling Of Particle Size And Shape Distribution In Pharmaceutical Suspensions
And The Effects On Visible/Near Infrared Spectra
23
Vaclav Svoboda
Group B
CPE
Continuous Antisolvent Co-Crystallisation Of Benzoic Acid And Isonicotinamide
24
Philipp Tallafuss
Group B
DMEM
Non-Destructive Testing Of Alsn Alloy/Steel Bimetal Strips Using Guided Wave
Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (Emats)
25
Subha Tamang
Group B
DMEM
Characterisation And Development Of Rotary Forging Process- Process Modelling
Group B
DMEM
Business Process Modelling Of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing System With
Continuous Flow Production Processes
Group B
DMEM
Autonomic Mechatronic Systems For Space Applications
Group B
CPE
26
27
28
Leda TodorovaAleksieva
Alessandro
Tringali
Priscila Valverde
Armas
29
Michael Wilson
Group B
DMEM
30
Song Yang
Group B
DMEM
Effect Of Water In Metal Electrodeposition Processes From Deep Eutectic
Solvents
Investigating Relationships Between Laser Metal Deposition Deployment
Conditions And Material Microstructural Evolution
Prediction Of Failures Of Tools With Multi-Layered Coatings With Parametric Finite
Element Method And Peridynamic Theory
22
Materials
- Architecture Studio Space
Poster Index
1
Mohammed G.
M. Abduljalil
Group A
CPE
2
Livia Adinolfi
Group A
CEE
3
Sairah Bashir
Group A
MAE
4
Colin Bell
Group A
MAE
Manufacturing Gas Turbine Engine Components Using Hydroforming
5
Andrew
Campbell
Group A
DMEM
Image Processing For Analysis Of Materials
6
Nak-Kyun Cho
Group A
MAE
On The Behaviour Of Components In Elevated Temperature Service
Group A
CPE
Rheological Profile Of Pvc Quaternary Solutions For Hollow Fibre Membrane
Production
Group A
BME
‘Smart’ Shunt Catheter Materials For The Treatment Of Hydrocephalus
7
8
Alexandra
Costa
Davide
Erbogasto
Rf Xerogels For Insulation Purposes: Monitoring The Thermal Conductivity Through
Synthesis Route
Mechanisms Of Erosion-Triggered Breach Of Clay Flood Embankments And Erosion
Remedial Measures
A Cost-Effective Chemical Approach To Regenerating The Strength Of Thermally
Recycled Glass Fibre
9
Mathieu Fabris
Group A
DMEM
Microstructural Evolution In Titanium Alloy Under Complex Deformation Paths
10
Dario Giugliano
Group A
MAE
Modelling The Fatigue And Creep Of Metal Matrix Composites.
Group A
CPE
Understanding Colloidal Interactions At Oil/Rock Interfaces Via Combination Of
Direct Measurements And Large-Scale Molecular Simulations
Group A
MAE
Vibration Of Heterogeneous Beam
Group B
MAE
11
12
13
Maryam
Hajiarab
Derkani
Bahman
Hassanati
Graeme
Jackson
Development Of The Linear Matching Method And Associated Abaqus Interface For
Modelling Creep
Optimization Of Aircraft Wing Performance Via Aeroelastic Tailoring The Local
Anisotropy Of Composite
14
Shangkun Li
Group B
MAE
15
Sara Mancigotti
Group B
CEE
Salt Crystallisation In Pores: The Effect Of Crystal Growth Rate On Damage
16
Lisa Millar
Group B
CEE
Faults In Dirt: A Comparison Of Deformation Bands In Sand And Sandstone.
Group B
MAE
The Role Of The Stoichiometry And Temperature In Composite Interfacial Strength
Group B
MAE
Predictive Modelling Of The Effect Of Mean Stress On Corrosion Fatigue Life
Group B
DMEM
The Identification Of The Effect Of High Rate Deformation On The Microstructure
And Properties Of Titanium Alloys
Group B
EEE
A Novel Smart Material For Acoustic Devices
Group B
CPE
Multiscale Modelling Of Hybrid Ferroelectric Polymers
17
18
19
20
21
Ross Forbes
Minty
Marta
Morgantini
Michail Ntovas
Oluwaseun
Omoniyi
Francesco
Pelizza
22
Ivan Principe
Group B
CPE
Development Of Nitrogen Doped Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Gels For Carbon
Capture.
23
Martin
Prostredny
Group B
CPE
Modelling The Gelation Of Porous Nanomaterials
24
Viola Renato
Group B
MAE
Computational Characterisation And Simulation Of Ablative Materials
25
Luca Rizzo
Group C
CEE
Nanocharacterization Of Cement Based Material Surfaces Through Atomic Force
Microscopy.
26
Amy Romaniuk
Group C
CEE
Nanoscale Toughening Mechanisms Of Cementitious Materials
27
Craig Siddons
Group C
MAE
An Experimental Approach To Analysing Rain Droplet Impingement On Wind
Turbine Blade Materials
Group C
CPE
Novel Materials For Treatment Of Produced Water
Group C
MAE
Numerical Investigation Of Size Effect In Fracture Of Cellular Materials
28
29
Andrea Luca
Tasca
Dimitra
Touliatou
30
Evripidis
Tsergas
Group C
MAE
Investigation Of Coatings And Cathodic Protection Systems And Development Of
Design Rules For Enhanced Corrosion Fatigue Life In Positive Displacement Pumps
Through Their Use
31
Paul Turner
Group C
EEE
Simulation And Impulse Breakdown Of Nanocomposite Materials
32
Andrew Webley
Group C
MAE
Simulation Of The Heat Transfer Through Stochastic Fibrous Networks.
33
Jing Yang
Group C
MAE
On The Evaluation Of High Temperature Responses Of Mechanical Structures
23
Materials
- Architecture Studio Space
Poster Index
34
Martin Yoon
Group C
MAE
Effects Of Salinity On Erosion-Corrosion Behaviour Of Ss316 And 4340
35
Iasonas Zekos
Group C
MAE
Erosion-Corrosion Mapping Of Steel In Crude Oil
Medical Applications
- Architecture Studio Space
Poster Index
1
Ibrahim Alanazi
Group A
BME
Cytotoxicity Of Mephedrone On Human Neuronal Cells
2
Joanne Allan
Group A
BME
The Development Of A Mobile Application For The Assessment Of Diabetic Foot
Deformities
3
Attard Andre
Group A
BME
4D Knee Kinematics
4
Laura Beattie
Group A
BME
Manipulating The Biological Stability, And Mechanical Properties, Of Collagen
5
Sara Cameron
Group A
BME
Shoulder Monitoring And Visualisation Using Inertial Sensors In Smartphones
6
Massimo Capoccia
Group A
BME
Towards Patient-Specific Modelling Of The Interactions Between Left Ventricular
Assist Devices And The Cardiovascular System Using Computational Fluid
Dynamics
7
Theresa Christ
Group A
EEE
Drug Dose Responses Of 3D Cancer Spheroids In Microfluidics
8
Myndert Petrus
Claasen
Group A
BME
9
John Corbett
Group A
BME
10
Abiy Desta
Group A
BME
Conceptual Analysis Of Nebuliser Design Towards Nano Encapsulation Delivery
11
Lauren Forsyth
Group A
BME
Functional Assessment Of Ankle Osteoarthritis
12
Caleb Papa Kofi
Gambrah
Group A
BME
Development Of A Prosthetic Heart Valve With Embedded Sensing Technology
13
Cheral Govind
Group B
BME
14
Siu Ho
Group B
BME
15
Tolulope Ijitona
Group B
EEE
16
Kirsty Jordan
Group B
BME
Portable Slit Lamp Concept Device For Smartphone Applications
17
Sukhraj Kaloya
Group B
BME
Inhibition Of Mitochondrial Fission As A Potential Therapeutic Target For Vascular
Disease?
18
Jonas Kusch
Group B
EEE
Using Photoacoustic Elasticity Imaging For Cancer Screening
19
Faidon Kyriakou
Group B
MAE
Development Of Fea Methods For Patient Specific Stent Graft Devices
20
Sarunya
Laovitthayanggoon
Group B
BME
Investigating Cobalt Toxicity In The Context Of Joint Replacement Patients – Cobalt
Uptake In Primary Cardiac Fibroblasts And In 3T3 Cells
21
Fahd Mahmood
Group B
BME
The Biomechanical Role Of The Human Meniscus
22
Jacob Melnyk
Group B
BME
Combining Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy With A Magnetophoretic,
Microfluidic Device For The Detection Of Clinically Relevant Antigens In Cancer
Cells.
23
Matteo Menolotto
Group B
BME
Portable Autorefractor For Population Screening In Low-Income Countries
24
Carl Muscat
Group B
BME
Micro-Polar Properties Of Cancellous Bone
25
Joshua Paulinus
Group C
BME
Development Of An Intelligent Colorectal Pouch
26
Mohamed Rabie
Group C
BME
Design Smart Actuators For Colonoscope Navigation
Designing A Microfluidic Based “Liver-On-A-Chip” For High Throughput Pre-Clinical
Drug Toxicity Screening.
Investigation Of Non-Invasive Transdermal Sensors To Replace Blood Sampling In
Newborn Infants
Clinical Investigation Of The Functional Outcomes Of High Congruency Versus Low
Congruency Knee Bearings.
The Development Of A Diagnostic Platform For The Functional Evaluation Of The
Sit-To-Stand Movement
Advanced Speech Processing Technologies For Speech Disorders Diagnosis And
Treatment In Adults
24
Medical Applications
- Architecture Studio Space
Poster Index
27
Pretheepan
Radhakrishnan
Group C
BME
Inertial Focussing: Simple Model For The Separation Of Plasma From Whole Blood
28
Fraser Robinson
Group C
BME
Hardware Accelerated Registration Of Ct And Cbct
29
Eunice Ibala
Group C
BME
Group C
BME
Group C
BME
30
31
Benjawan
Saengwichian
James
Skivington
Self-Paced Treadmills As A Rehabilitation Tool For Recovering Functional Gait
In People With Neurological Conditions
Analysis Of Lubrication And Wear Phenomena On The Micro- And Nano-Scale In
Orthopaedic Devices
Co-Production Of Orthopaedic Surgical Technology To Assist With Intra Operative
Long Bone Deterioration For Single Event Multi Level Surgery
The Development And Application Of A Portable Balance Training Platform For Older
Adults At Risk Of Falling Using Virtual Reality
32
Georgia Tarfali
Group C
BME
33
Gwenllian Fflur
Tawy
Group C
BME
Development Of A Hospital-Appropriate Human Movement Laboratory
34
Gabor Varkonyi
Group C
BME
Wireless Optogenetic Neural Interfaces
Modelling and Monitoring
- Architecture Studio Space
Poster Index
1
Jafar Yahya Saleh
Al-Jawad
Group A
CEE
2
Ali Ahmed Anwar
Group A
MAE
3
Emmanuel Anye
Group A
NAOME
4
Callum Arnot
Group A
MAE
Low Thrust Augmented Spacecraft Formation-Flying
5
Andrew Bell
Group A
CPE
Multi-Scale Chemistry Modelling For Spacecraft Atmospheric Re-Entry
6
Craig Berry
Group A
EEE
Incremental Learning Applications For Fuel Grab Load Trace Data
Group A
CEE
Urban Transport Network Resilience
Group A
MAE
Group A
CPE
7
8
9
Konstantina
Bimpou
Maria BocanegraYanez
Christopher
Campbell
Integrated Water Resources Management At The Level Of River Basin
Deformed Gap Space Using Macro-Micro Fea Model Transferred Into A Cfd
Model
Development Of A One-Dimensional Model For A High Speed Four-Stroke Dual
Fuel Engine
Assessment Of Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of Overheating And Iaq In
Low Energy Houses
A Study Of Transferable Molecular Models To Predict Adsorption In Metal
Organic Frameworks With Open Metal Sites
10
Xuhui Duan
Group A
EEE
Partial Discharges Detection And Location In Hvdc Cables
11
Cristobal Garcia
Group A
MAE
Nano-Enriched Self-Assessing Structures
12
Robert Garner
Group B
MAE
The Environmental Impact Of Hypersonic Vehicles
13
Saleh Mohammed
S Ghonaim
Group B
NAOME
Enhancing Shipping Safety By Managing Human Errors
14
Christos Gkerekos
Group B
NAOME
Modelling And Optimisation Of Ship System Condition Monitoring
15
Rohaida Hussain
Group B
EEE
Control Of Aeroelastic Tailoring Blades For Wind Turbines
16
Hrvojka Krcelic
Group B
CPE
17
Mario Krstovic
Group B
NAOME
18
Xiaotong Li
Group B
EEE
Ergonomic Transcranial Ultrasonic Array For Diagnostic Medical Applications
19
Thomas Lilley
Group B
MAE
Modelling And Transition Optimisation Of Muli-Mode Aero-Engine Concepts.
20
Euan Macmahon
Group B
EEE
Control System Design Of A Multi Rotor System
21
Khalifa Mansour
Group B
CPE
Modelling The Distribution Of Mercury In Oil And Gas Processing
25
Modelling Nanostructure Growth On A One-Dimensional Substrate: Sslands,
Gaps And Statistics
Optimal Ship Systems, Energy Management For Fuel Saving And Gaseous
Emissions Reduction
Modelling and Monitoring
- Architecture Studio Space
Poster Index
22
Mohamed
Masoud
Group B
CPE
Modelling Superformal Electrodeposition In Low Concentration Ion Solutions
23
Ciara Mcgrath
Group C
MAE
An Analytical, Low-Cost Deployment Strategy For Satellite Constellations
24
Anna Lito
Michala
Group C
NAOME
Development Of A Ship Machinery Maintenance Control Application Through An
Advanced Condition Monitoring Approach
25
Andrew Milne
Group C
CPE
Computational Modelling And Rational Design Of Nanopororous Silica Materials
26
Aimable
Ntaganda
Group C
DMEM
An Investigation On The Effects Of Tool/Workpice Temperature And Lubrication
Parameters On The Rate Of Heat Transfer Under Non-Isothermal Forging
Conditions
Group C
NAOME
Co2 Pipeline Flow Assurance: A Thermal Model For Co2 Pipeline Transport
Group C
NAOME
Enhancing Ship Availability And Reliability Through The Development Of A
Maintenance Optimisation Strategy
Group C
MAE
Global Solution Of Multi-Objective Optimal Control Problems In Space Systems
27
28
29
Babafemi
Olugunwa
Yiannis
Raptodimos
Lorenzo A.
Ricciardi
30
Bolin Song
Group C
EEE
Transient Thermal Effects In Biological Cells Stressed With High Field Impulses
31
Mark Stillings
Group C
CEE
Can Groundwater Chemistry Changes During Lake Drainage Predict Future
Glacial Effects On Underground Repositories?
32
Bryan Tester
Group C
MAE
Programmable Matter
33
Kelly Thomson
Group D
CPE
Simulation Of Diffuse Reflectance For Characterisation Of Particle Suspensions
34
Francesco
Torre
Group D
MAE
Navigation Of Spacecraft In Proximity Of Binary Asteroids Systems.
35
Federico Toso
Group D
MAE
Design, Modelling And Optimisation For Future Space Access Vehicles
36
Carolina Volpini
Group D
CEE
Improving Seismic Site Response Analyses By Correctly Accounting For
Uncertainties And Variability
37
Xinning Wang
Group D
NAOME
Integration Of Cad With Cfd For Ships
38
Su Xiaoke
Group D
EEE
Optimal Control For Smart Electric Vehicle Car Parks
39
Qingjiang Xue
Group D
EEE
The Charging And Dynamic Mechanisms In Emulsion Under High Voltage
Impulses
40
Panagiotis
Zacharis
Group D
EEE
Intelligent Decision Support For Candu Reactor Condition Monitoring
41
Huan Zhao
Group D
EEE
Application Of Ultrasonic Phased Array Techniques For Inspection Of Nuclear
Components
42
Yihui Zhao
Group D
DMEM
Inspection Of Tools And Products
26
Oral Presentation - Abstracts
Built Environment and Structures
Determinants Of Non-Compliance With Structural Building Code Standards And Regulations In
Multi-Storey Residential Development Projects: The Case Of Nigeria.
Student
Sunday Ukwe-Nya Yakubu
sunday.yakubu@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Andrew Agapiou
andrew.agapiou@strath.ac.uk
Department
Architecture
Keywords
Compliance, Regulation, BuildingCode
Multi-storey residential development projects in Nigeria have been characterised by non-compliance with
structural building code standards and regulations. This paper is a cross-sectional study which uses
descriptive research methods to examine the determinants of non-compliance with structural building code
standard and regulations. The study targets all stakeholders in building development projects in Nigeria.
Data is collected using stratified sampling and by administering a total of 600 paper-based questionnaire
survey to building industry professionals and other relevant stakeholders. A total of 378 questionnaires were
returned valid for analysis, representing a response rate of 63 per cent. Using the SPSS software package,
correlation and regression analysis were employed to analyse and investigate the data. This study found
that indicators of administrative corruption within the building approval process and development, and to
lesser extent professional vested interests were strongly correlated with non-compliance to structural
building Code Standards and Regulations within Multi-Storey Residential construction within Nigeria. In view
of these findings, this study highlights the need to develop a comprehensive strategic plan aimed at
improving regulatory compliance in multi-storey residential development projects in Nigeria. Any such
strategy should encompass the monitoring and continually review to generate feedback regarding the level
of compliance.
Communication and Signal Processing
Waveform Design And High Performance Signal Processing For Mimo Distributed Radar Sensor
Networks
Student
Christos Ilioudis
c.ilioudis@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
John J Soraghan
j.soraghan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Radar, Waveform, Design
Driven by the beneficial implementation of multiple-input and multiple-output systems in communications,
MIMO technology has also attracted attention in RADAR applications where they have been shown to allow
dramatic increase in detection, tracking and classification performance. As a fairly new subject optimum
DSP techniques for Distributed MIMO Radar Systems (DMRS) remains an open problem. This PhD
research will be held as part of the Dstl University Defence Research Collaboration (UDRC) Phase 2 project
and will focus on providing the analysis of waveform designs specialised for DMRS. Research related to
novel waveform design approaches such as the Fractional Fourier Transform (FrFT) and Fractional Cosine
Transform (FCT) based orthogonal chirp division multiplexing and sparse signal representations using
Linear Canonical Transform (LCT) based waveforms will be described. Novel techniques will be evaluated
for their performance improvement and requirements regarding bandwidth, processing and memory storage.
The applicability of the research outcomes for certain challenges of our industrial partner Selex ES will be
also described.
27
Spacecraft-On-A-Chip Concepts With Application To Earth Remote Sensing
Student
Jianlin Cao
jianlin.cao@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
John Soraghan
j.soraghan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
FemtosatelliteRadar
The progress of satellite technology is tremendous in the last few decades, with the development of CMOS
and MEMS. The concept of femtosatellites has emerged in recent years, with masses between 10g and
100g. This new generation of satellite features low-cost build and launch because of the size and volume.
The size and weight of femtosatellite enables a series of application under a low budget. Especially
distributed satellite systems. It has been divided to two parts: constellation and cluster. For instance,
femtosatellite could be used in LEO to monitoring the space weather. Due to the properties of femtosatellites,
complex applications are being investigated. And it introduces unique challenges to femtosatellite designs.
More investigation about survivability and payload capacity is ongoing. Distributed devices for Earth
observation and communications, autonomous on-orbit self-assembly, diagnostic or environmental
detection in the proximity of a large spacecraft are among prospective missions that could be realised.
Fractional Cosine Transform (Frct)-Turbo Based Ofdm For Underwater Acoustic Communication
Student
Yixin Chen
yixin.chen@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
John Soraghan
j.soraghan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Frct, Uwa, Turbo
In this paper, a hybrid Discrete Fractional Cosine Transform (DFrCT) with Tikhonov regularization based
turbo Minimum mean square error (MMSE) equalization (DFrCT-Turbo) is presented to suppress intercarrier interference (ICI) over underwater acoustic channels (UWA). The scheme is based on Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM) scenario. In addition, an optimal order selecting method for DFrCT is
developed by maximizing carrier to interference ratio (CIR) to UWA channel character. Simulation results
show that BER improvement of up to 5dBs over traditional orthogonal based methods with lower complexity.
Advanced Signal Processing Methods For Automatic Target Recognition And Radar Tracking
Student
Domenico Gaglione
domenico.gaglione@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
John Soraghan
j.soraghan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Radar, Communication, System
The Dstl University Defence Research Collaboration (UDRC) Phase 2 initiative is researching ‘Signal
Processing Solutions in a Networked Battlespace’. One aspect of this is our UDRC PhD program that is
investigating and exploring new advanced signal processing methods and algorithms for Automatic Target
Recognition (ATR) and tracking from radar, in Distributed MIMO Radar Systems (DMRSs) and Synthetic
Aperture Radar (SAR) systems. The main challenge is to develop a framework that exploits anti-clutter and
anti-jamming potentials and high-resolution imaging capabilities offered by the DMRSs and the SAR
systems, respectively, with the objective of enhancing the identification, classification and tracking of targets
in hostile environments. In order to achieve this, a novel concept of radar is developed, which embeds
information in the transmitted pulses such that radar and communication tasks can be performed in the
same time. In this way, information can be shared between different sensors in agreement with the lowSWaP (Size, Weight and Power consumption) requirements. The developed concept is tested and validated
using simulations and our in-house radar experimental laboratory.
28
Cyclostationary Detection Of Ofdm Signals Using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (Fpgas)
Student
Douglas Allan
d.allan@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Louise Crockett
louise.crockett@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Cyclostationary, Ofdm, Fpga
In modern mobile communications, it is well known that licensed spectrum is severely underutilised much
of the time. Cognitive Radio (CR) is a potential solution to this problem and is designed to opportunistically
access the licensed spectrum when it is determined that it is no longer in use. Spectrum sensing is a key
enabling technology for cognitive radio, using Digital Signal Processing (DSP) techniques to accurately
detect the presence of a licensed user of the spectrum even in very challenging transmission environments.
Many modern day licensed systems, such as 4G Long Term Evolution (LTE) and IEEE 802.11 (WiFi), use
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) at the physical layer. Therefore, it is has become
increasingly important to address the problem of accurately detecting and classifying OFDM signals for
cognitive radio systems. One solution is to exploit the inherent cyclostationarity of the OFDM signals. This
research investigates cyclostationary detection using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology.
One key area of contribution is the development of a receiver able to detect multiple licensed systems in
parallel that could be deployed as part of a CR system.
Quantitative Assessment Of Vocal Cord Function For Diagnosis Of Laryngeal Disorders
Student
Radhika Menon
radhika.menon@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Lykourgos Petropoulakis
l.petropoulakis@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Endoscopy, VideoProcessing, Manifolds
Manifold learning is proposed as a means for quantitative assessment of laryngeal function to develop an
enhanced diagnostic tool for laryngeal disorders. The larynx, an organ located in the throat, contains a pair
of vocal cords that facilitate voice production. Clinicians diagnose voice disorders by subjectively evaluating
vocal cord motion using endoscopy. Since the motion is too fast for the human eye, a technique called
stroboscopy is used to periodically capture instances of vocal cord movement. Subjectivity renders variability
in diagnosis and stroboscopy merely provides an optical illusion of viewing slow motion. Hence, a solution
to eliminate these drawbacks lies in quantitative assessment of vocal cord motion using endoscopy videos
captured with high speed cameras (>1000fps). The proposed technique involves retrospective shadow
correction of video frames, followed by segmentation into corresponding left and right vocal cord images.
Subsequently, each image is embedded as a point on a 1D ISOMAP, which results in the formation of two
curves representing the motion of left and right sides. The distance between the curves depicts left-right
movement symmetry, which is a quantitative measure of laryngeal function. Furthermore, ISOMAP provides
a powerful tool to tackle the large data set produced in high speed imaging.
Power Analysis Of Iot Device
Student
Darshana Thomas
darshana.thomas@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr. James Irvine
j.m.irivne@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Power, Wifi, Iot
Internet of Things (IoT) is touting everywhere these days. These small devices would be the next big
innovation driving thousands of applications within different domains. Technological aspects of these
devices such as the energy consumption and other issues like the security aspects and the deployment of
these to the network are still to be resolved by both the industry and the researchers to make complete use
29
of these new driving small devices. Power consumption aspect is often an unresolved issue and tend to be
avoided by researchers. Research carried out by researchers mainly focusses on the connection aspect of
these devices. Most smart home devices uses protocols such as 433 to avoid the problem of higher power
consumption. Therefore the aim of this research is to find a suitable method to reduce the power
consumption with the implementation of WiFi to the devices rather than the most commonly used protocol
433.
Salient Object Detection Based On Superpixel And Gestalt Principles
Student
Yijun Yan
yijun.yan@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Jinchang Ren
jinchang.ren@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Saliency, Segmentation, Gestalt
Salient object detection has drawn wide attention in recent years. Although various computational models have
been proposed, existing approaches suffer from cases of low colour contrast. In this study, a novel saliency
model using subpixel based segmentation and gestalt principles enabled post-processing has been proposed.
Super pixel is employed to cluster the image pixels into hundreds of regions according to their visual similarity.
Then, the saliency map is generated using regional colour and spatial contrast, background prior as guided by
using the gestalt principles and fusion of multiple visual features. In addition, the smoothing procedure based
on gestalt laws of similarity and proximity is proposed to uniformly highlight the salient object. Experiment
results have demonstrated that the proposed method consistently outperforms 10 existing state-of-the-art
approaches in terms of higher precision and recall rates and AUC (area under curve) values.
Manufacturing and Process Development
Ultrasonically Assisted Severe Plastic Deformation For Grain Refinement In Metals
Student
Bo Chen
b.chen@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Andrzej Rosochowski
a.rosochowski@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design Manufacture & Engineering Management
Keywords
Spd, Ultrasonicvibration, Ufg
Severe plastic deformation (SPD) is a promising approach to achieve ultra-fine grained (UFG) structures
and improving properties of metallic materials. Despite laboratory successes, SPD processes have not been
extensively adopted by the industrial world due to the high forming/feeding force required during continuous
SPD. This research proposes the introduction of ultrasonic vibration during SPD processes to reduce the
forming force required. The ultrasonic excitation of the forming tool could have the effect of reducing friction
force and deformation stress by introducing temporary material unloading. Background research was carried
out in relevant topics, followed by a draft of literature review. A few design proposals were created for the
experimental setup, including new die and ultrasound fixture; parameters such as vibration frequency and
amplitude, location of the excitation, as well as the geometry and material of the specimen are also being
determined. The design process will be finalized soon, followed by the manufacture of machine components,
and the experimental validation of design. This new technique has the potential of increasing productivity of
SPD processes and drawing the attention of industrial world; the possible applications are in the transport,
energy and medical devices sectors.
Robust Multivariable Pid Controller Design Methods For Dual Composition Control Of Binary
Distillation Column
Student
Emmanuel Edet
emmanuel.edet@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Reza Katebi
m.r.katebi@strath.ac.uk
30
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Multivariable, Robust, Distillation
Multivariable Proportional-plus-Integral-plus derivative (PID) controller is investigated for dual composition
control of a binary distillation column. It is widely known that tight composition control of products with 99%
level of purity is not achievable with current distillation systems (with simple inventory control) due to
sensitivity of the distillation process to feed variability and other disturbances. In this work, a multi-input
multi-output (MIMO) controller is designed to facilitate a stable production of distilled fractions with 99%
purity level in the face of disturbances. Matlab is used to model and simulate a typical distillation column
and to implement a multivariable-PI controller for the column. Thereafter, several MIMO PID design and
tuning methods are investigated in order to establish their suitability for design of robust controllers for a
multivariable system like distillation column. Consequently, nominal performance, robust stability and robust
performance of these different control techniques are compared and recommendations made. With 10%
variation in feed characteristics, a 99% purity of distillate and bottoms is expected to be achieved by the
controller.
An Automotive Parts Inspection Blueprint And Improvement Model For Tools And Techniques
Utilised In Remanufacturing
Student
Ross Stephen Harris
ross.harris@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Winifred Ijomah
w.l.ijomah@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design Manufacture & Engineering Management
Keywords
Remanufacturing, Inspection, Automotive
Remanufacturing is on the rise; due to diminishing natural resources and the increasing cost of traditional
manufacturing methods alternative more sustainable options have begun to gain increased attention.
Remanufacturing - the act of returning a used or EoL product to a 'like new' condition with assisted warranty
- is one of those options. A vital aspect of the typical remanufacturing process is the "inspection" stage,
which occurs throughout the process and is essential to the success and quality of the output. A lack of
coherently standardised models or guidelines in this area has led to inspection becoming a highly variable
process, in how it is conducted, from company to company. This research examines the literature pertaining
to this stage of remanufacturing and then details extensive 3-tier case studies collecting and comparing realworld conditions. This data has then been utilised to build an "Inspection" blueprint with emphasis on "Parts
Inspection" that details the stage-by-stage information needed to conduct this operation successfully
(depending on factors such as available technology, resources etc.) and the routes for improvement and
expansion in this area.
Process Advancements In Single Point Incremental Forming (Spif) Of Metal Sheets
Student
Spyridon Kotsis
spyridon.kotsis@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Design Manufacture & Engineering Management
Keywords
Sheetforming, Fea, Process
Finite Element Analysis of Single Point Incremental Forming of Metal Sheets The demand for sheet
components has been growing as automotive and aerospace industries use evermore lighter materials for
the production of environmentally friendly products. Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) is a highly
innovative approach to manufacturing sheet components. It has many advantages over traditional sheet
forming processes, such as the absence of a die and the reduced (per piece) costs that reveal its great
31
potential. However, currently SPIF is not widely used in industrial production, which creates the need to
understand further the process’ technical and scientific principles, to guarantee its viability and to increase
its applicability. Challenges, such as the minimisation of thinning or dimensional inaccuracies of the formed
parts are the main obstacles to wider application. In order to reduce pre-production trials and the
improvement of the forming performance (i.e. the minimisation of the above problems) reliable
computational simulating methods are needed. Computational modelling and analysis of SPIF, however,
reveals an increased complexity due to several nonlinearities inherent in the process. For the efficient use
of available software systems advanced simulation methods and methodologies are required.
Reconfigurable Tooling For High-Precision Sheet-Metal Forming Applications
Student
Taufik Mohamed Supri
taufik-bin-mohamedsupri@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Design Manufacture & Engineering Management
Keywords
Sheet, Metal, Tooling
The competitiveness in the automotive sector has been continuously influencing manufacturing strategies
of sheet metal components. As noticed, the development of sheet-metal forming tool is a labour and
material-intensive industrial activity with very high cost. A dedicated tooling is often expensive to fabricate.
The combination of a multiplicity geometries contributes extended fabrication time and high usage of the
material. The latter is also costing as the tools may have to be disposed of after use. The research is focusing
on a theoretical analysis of the mechanism of die-less multi-point stamping for practical applications in order
to meet the manufacturing demands of automotive, aerospace and civil-structural components.
Development of this kind of technology will increase the tool flexibility and utilisation, reduce tooling
development's costs and reduce the tooling storage required. The main aim of this research is to explore
the fundamentals of the adjustable multi-point tooling technology for sheet-forming and to develop a
prototype, digitally adjustable multi-point tooling system comprising punch matrices to replace solid dies.
The main topics concerned include: (1). Material selection; (2). Tooling design; (3). Tooling mechanism and
programmes; and (4). Part inspection technique. Forming experiment, FE-modelling and advanced
geometry-measurement is used in this research.
A Tool Path And Feedrate Optimization Scheme For Ultra-Precision Machining
Student
Wenbin Zhong
wenbin.zhong@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Xichun Luo
xichun.luo@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design Manufacture & Engineering Management
Keywords
Ultraprecision, ToolPath, Feedrate
Ultra-precision machining is the key technology for machining freeform surfaces such as moulds and knee
implants. It is increasingly challenged by the demanding accuracy requirement. Velocity discontinuity
between tool path segments usually leads to jerks and feedrate fluctuations, which reduces the surface
finish. Tools used in ultra-precision machining are highly sensitive to the cutting force, owing to the extremely
small size. To reduce the tool wear, a conservative feedrate is usually chosen, which results in longer
machining time. This research aims to develop a global tool path smoothening methodology to reduce jerks
and feedrate fluctuations. And to implement feedrate scheduling with consideration of chord error and drive
constraints to improve machining efficiency. Finally to achieve constant cutting force control to increase the
machining capacity.
32
Electrical-Field Activated Forming And Sintering Of Micro-Components With Titanium And Titanium
Alloy
muhammad-binStudent
Muhammad Zulkipli
zulkipli@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Professor Yi Qin
qin.yi@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design Manufacture & Engineering Management
Keywords
Electrical, Sintering, Micro
As demand on miniature products increase significantly, the rapid process and production system for high
throughput, highly flexible and cost efficient volume production of miniaturised components made of wide
range of materials are needed. The aim of this project is to develop a new process configuration for the
manufacture of micro-components and corresponding die tools for machine setup enabling the forming parts
from powder materials. The concept of this project involves the combination of forming and sintering plus
with electrical-field activated process. A comprehensive literature review on the micro-manufacturing
processes, titanium powder metallurgy - process mechanism, technology that has been used and titanium
consolidation by electrical-field activated sintering has been conducted. Development of the micro-tools for
this process have been made, followed by a series of experiment using a Gleeble 3800 thermal simulator
and Stronghold Projection Welder machine. Finite element simulations are being conducted to study heating
during sintering of pure Ti and a 90Ti10Sn powder material. Based on the data collected, iteration of die set
design and processing parameters optimisation, such as that for maximum temperature, heating rate,
holding time and forming pressure, are being conducted, in order to optimise process efficiency and to
produce parts with high quality.
Design
Safety Culture Assessment And Implementation Framework To Enhance Maritime Safety
Student
Volkan Arslan
volkan.arslan@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Osman Turan
o.turan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Maritime, Safety, Culture
This paper presents a novel safety culture assessment and improvement framework to enhance the
maritime safety and introduces preliminary results of the safety climate assessment within a company. The
proposed framework will collect seafarer’s attitudes, leading/lagging indicators and key performance
indicators to analyze a company’s current safety culture level and address the weakest areas to enhance
the level of safety accordingly. New strategies and action plans will be proposed to improve these vulnerable
areas. The selection of safety indicators will be adjustable according to a company’s specific needs and the
available data types. Safety indicators have a crucial importance in gaining an insight into a company’s
safety performance. The safety culture improvement framework will provide a guided way for companies to
perform gap identification on their safety level. A management tool will also be developed for shipping
companies to analyze and observe their current safety culture level continuously. In the next stages of the
study, interviews and observations will be performed to validate the results of the questionnaire. More
structured means of statistical analysis will be conducted to identify correlations between safety performance
data and safety metrics
Research And Design Of Versatile And Adaptable Mechatronic Technology For Use In Space
Student
Scott Brady
scott.brady@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Xiu Yan
x.yan@strath.ac.uk
33
Department
Design Manufacture
Management
&
Keywords
Robotics, Smestech, Space
Engineering
Over the past year research has taken place covering robotic systems and their use in terms of proliferation
in space, but also in terms of their benefits terrestrially. Review of research has covered all key facets of
what makes up a robotic system, aiming to find a knowledge gap which would benefit terrestrial and extraterrestrial operations. The outcome of this work has identified several possible knowledge gaps, most
notably in terms of safety of robot-human interaction and room for improvement in actuation methods of
continuous form robotic systems. At this stage, preliminary work has been done to address these gaps;
however, hypotheses will be discussed as far as what should be attempted when continuing to address
these gaps relative to the requirements of fulfilling Ph.D. study. A side project is also ongoing which involves
the mechanical design and development of a robotic arm. This work will allow hands-on experience, and it
is anticipated that it will open up many avenues as far as experimental research work connected to the Ph.D.
thesis, particularly associated with actuation development. This work is relevant to continuous form robots
covered extensively in literature review.
Engineering A Swarm: Leading A Network To Fast Consensus
Student
Ruaridh Clark
ruaridh.clark@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Malcolm Macdonald
malcolm.macdonald.102@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Networks, Consensus, Swarms
The design of a mobile engineered swarm, even with defined connection rules, will have to cope with a vast
selection of possible topological configurations. Such a system will still be required to be robust and
controllable with the added demands of responsiveness and quick leader identification. Near-optimal
convergence speed to consensus can be achieved by selecting leaders using semi-analytical methods that
rely on the spectral properties, in particular the eigenvectors, of the communication graph. The methods are
also highly efficient compared with a conventional numerical optimiser, especially for large networks where
the latter is not feasible due to the computational complexity.
Introduction Of A Simple Grids System In Ship Weather Routing Model
Student
Tong Cui
tong.cui@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Osman Turan
o.turan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
WeatherRouting,
LandAvoidance
GridsSystem,
With the development of marine transport and people's enhancing awareness of energy conservation, the
selection of ship routes is getting more and more attention in shipping industry world widely. In view of this
purpose, a new ship weather routing system is developed towards enhancing energy efficiency during
author’s PhD study period. In this system, two modules: grids system design and land avoidance are
emphatically introduced in the presentation. Grids system should be designed in advance for leading the
ship travel. But it should be adjustable according to complexity of local area. Based on the grids system and
ship navigation strategy, a simple land avoidance function is also presented. This function is developed
based on GSHHS (A Global Self-consistent, Hierarchical, High-resolution Shorelines Geography Database)
coastline data and combined with some concept transformations. Finally, some case studies are taken to
verify that this grids system works well in the whole ship weather routing model.
34
Masterplanning For Change: Investigating Masterplanning Practices Towards A New Approach For
Resilient Urban Design
Student
Alessandra Feliciotti
a.feliciotti@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Ombretta Romice
ombretta.r.romice@strath.ac.uk
Department
Architecture
Keywords
Masterplans, Resilience, Gorbals
Over the last 150 years, particularly after WWII, comprehensive spatial masterplans, aimed at increasing
amenity and value of degraded urban neighbourhoods, were implemented across Europe and North
America. However, contrary to the implicit assumption of their creators that stable lasting outcomes could
be predicted and achieved with a degree of certainty, often resulting places failed to demonstrate the
resilience necessary to deal with the changes cities constantly face throughout their existence, ending up
worsening the problems they set out to solve. Masterplans were hence object of criticism and only recently,
guided by new sustainability principles, they started to be revaluated. Yet, are contemporary masterplans
any better equipped to shape places able to respond to current patterns of urban change? How can
masterplans help create places which are responsive to change over time? To answer these questions, the
concept of resilience is analysed across three different development phases of the Gorbals, Glasgow (its
pre-Industrial, post-WWII and contemporary form) over a 150-years period and three major redevelopments,
each emblematic of a different approach to place-design. Five resilience proxies, diversity, redundancy,
modularity, connectivity and efficiency, are used to compare plans and their outcomes.
Study On Damaged Ship’S Survivability With Cfd Method
Student
Yue Gu
yue.gu@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Sandy Day
sandy.day@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Flooding, Survivability, Cfd
In this subject damaged passenger vessels’ survivability is assessed from the fundamental point of view by
establish the model of damaged ship to predict the accuracy of ship performance in two phases, including
flooding process to the damaged ship, water sloshing and ship motions with CFD method compared to
experimental method. A numerical Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation is utilized, on one hand to build
up a fundamental model for the damaged ship, on the other hand to simulate the corresponding ship motions
during the flooding process. Therefore the combination of both would give a comprehensive simulation to
predict realistic damaged situation as the damaged ship experiences the seawater flooding and performs
the motions. Moreover, to test the accuracy of the model, an experimental fluid dynamics method is essential
to make as a comparison to the numerical method. Practical test in the water tank is benefit for the
effectiveness of the CFD model, and it also has a significant influence on the modelling. In conclusion, a
fundamental damaged ship model is more reliable and solvable for analysing flooding and damaged ship
dynamics. Further work would be engaged in 3-dimensional model with different opening positions and
compartments.
Structural Reliability Of Substructures Of Offshore Wind Turbines
Student
Arash Hemmati Topkanloo
arash.hemmati-topkanloo@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Mahdi Khorasanchi
mahdi.khorasanchi@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Wind, Structures, Reliability
This study is conducted on offshore wind turbine substructures with focus on the structural reliability. A
comparison study of reliability based design versus conventional design is being done for two most common
35
types of substructures in intermediate water depth. A sensitivity analysis will be done to investigate the
effects of various structural, geotechnical, and environmental parameters will be performed.
Energy Efficiency And Operational Feasibility Analysis Of The Venice Offshore Container Port
Project
Student
Ismail Kurt
ismail.kurt@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Evangelos Boulougouris
evangelos.boulougouris@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Offshore, Container, Port
It is expected that the offshore port concept will offer operational flexibility, more economic and energy
efficient shipping network. The aim of this research is to investigate European container shipping trade
deeply and this investigation will be performed in the light of new offshore container port system which is
thought as an alternative solution to handle ULCVs and to create more energy efficient and economic
shipping industry. In this research, the impact of the Venice Offshore Port Project on the main container
shipping routes, multimodal transport network, and inland and short sea corridors will be analysed in terms
of sustainability, economy and energy efficiency of container transport operations. The research will be
carried out based on to develop better container shipping strategies for major European shipping routes.
The main container terminals in Europe will be compared with Venice Offshore Project to seek more
economic and energy efficient operation solutions with the support of numerical calculations. As a result, it
is expected from this research which to show the impact of the offshore container port concept by creating
more economic and energy efficient solution on exist container shipping strategies.
Tiv-Model: A Design Methodology For The Complex And Spacecraft Systems Industry
Student
Craig Melville
craig.melville@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Xiu T. Yan
x.yan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design Manufacture
Management
Keywords
Design, Methodology, Systems
&
Engineering
Complex system design is a subcategory of system design that focuses on large-scale or complicated
mechatronic design, such as warships, robots and spacecraft. Within this niche there are specific design
problems that designers would typically not encounter in other conventional design projects, for example
the large amounts of uncertainty and risk that comes with design decisions. The nature of this industry
causes a knock on effect; the reluctance of the management and companies in adopting novice design
engineers and academic methods and models. Having fresh engineers and methods could benefit the
industry as a whole by cheapening their design process and making it more efficient. Tiv-Model is a design
methodology created for use within the complex systems industry that aims at tackling these specific issues
and more. Tiv-Model was created with the designers and planners in mind; allowing even novice designers
to contribute to complex system design tasks and planners to maintain project transparency. The research
behind Tiv-Model is also a step-by-step plan for robust methodology validation, an important prerequisite
for industry adoption.
Mems-Tunable Solid-State Lasers
Student
Alan Paterson
alan.paterson@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Deepak Uttamchandani
d.uttamchandani@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Mems, Lasers, Tunable
36
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) provide compact, low-power alternatives to bulk optical
components in laser systems. This research focuses on the development of MEMS in solid-state lasers to
reduce size, cost and energy demand whilst maintaining laser efficiency and performing additional functions.
Specific functions include pulsed laser output, in the form of Q-switching with variable timing, and control
over the laser output wavelength. Scanning MEMS micromirrors with different actuation techniques are used
in this work to actively control the laser output properties. Two scanning micromirrors in a single Nd:YAG
laser cavity enable laser Q-switching with variable pulse length and pulse-on-demand control. A wavelength
dispersing prism and a scanning micromirror allow controllable wavelength of an Yb:KGW laser. These
investigations provide the initial steps towards combining the different tuning capabilities into a single
compact, multi-purpose solid-state laser system. Such a laser system would have a number of applications
from biomedical to defence.
Building Skills For Conserving 17Th And 18Th Century Scottish Built Heritage: Timber Roof
Structures
Student
Anna Serafini
anna.serafini@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Cristina Gonzalez Longo
Department
Architecture
Keywords
Heritage, Conservation, Timber
17th and 18th century Scottish built heritage has not been sufficiently researched, despite its importance in
both quality and quantity – 1550 buildings of value have been identified so far. Most scholars tend to
investigate the external architectural composition of these buildings rather than their overall constructional
configuration. This results in a lack of knowledge on the extent and nature of Scottish structures and
construction techniques, whose value is thus not fully appreciated. Timber roof structures, in particular, have
been very rarely considered, even though the integrity of the overall building depends largely on them. This
lack of knowledge hinders good conservation practice. The PhD thesis investigates the construction history
and development of these structures, along with their pathologies and causes of decay. The aim is to
increase awareness about the extent, value and nature of historic timber roofs in Scotland and help
understand what their needs are, so to encourage and motivate their conservation. A methodology for their
initial assessment is being developed in order to contribute in improving conservation practice.
Using The Sports Design Process To Improve Inclusive Design Practice
Student
Nicky Wilson
nicky.wilson.2013@uni.strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Avril Thomson
avril.thomson@strath.ac.uk
Department
Keywords
Design Manufacture
Management
DesignProcess,
InclusiveDesign
&
Engineering
SportsDesign,
The aim of my research is to develop the first sports design process model, and use this model to improve
the uptake of inclusive design in industry. It is hypothesized that lessons can be learnt from sports design
practice, therefore will have a high impact on inclusive design as both are highly user-focused disciplines.
A series of interviews were undertaken with sports and product designers to establish what differentiates
sports design from product design. An iterative cycle of interviews and workshops with sports designers
resulted in the development and validation of the first sports design process model. The output is descriptive
process model, representative of sports design practice in industry. The sports design process model was
presented to product designers in industry to identify a means of using this model to improve inclusive design
uptake. Interviews highlighted that barriers from the client (in terms of time and funding) resulted in a lack
of user consideration throughout the design process. Following recommendations from designers, the model
has been developed into a framework that will be used to aid designer communication with the client in
terms of the importance on user involvement and testing throughout the design process.
37
Internet Crowdsourcing For Generative Design
Student
Hao Wu
h.wu@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Jonathan R Corney
jonathan.corney@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design Manufacture
Management
Keywords
DesignMethodology, Crowdsourcing
&
Engineering
The focus of this study is the investigation of how Internet Crowdsourcing technology can be employed for
the creativity design of new products. Via the worldwide Internet, people in search of solutions could post
their problems as tasks on crowdsourcing platforms. This gives the opportunity for ordinary people to
propose solutions for problems and be rewarded if requesters accept their work. Based on the previous
research results, a novel crowdsourced design (cDesign) framework was built systematically. The cDesign
model contains 4 main stages: cDesign Task Specification, Validation, Design Execution and Evaluation.
Following each stage of the framework, the output of the final design results could be improved.
Experimental results show that both in 2D and 3D cDesign tasks on the online public crowdsourcing site
(i.e., Amazon’s Mechanical Turk), the final design was increased by applied the cDesign framework. The
next step is to validate and optimize the model, as well as the writing-up work of the Ph.D. thesis.
Optimising Product Interaction
Student
Bryan Young
bryan.young@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Design Manufacture
Management
&
Keywords
Hci, Cognitive, Psychology
Engineering
With the advance in technology automation is now an integral aspect of contemporary products. While there
are unquestionable benefits to automation, automation may also have a detrimental effect on product
interaction and may be, under certain circumstances, potentially dangerous in complex products.
Automation is understood to reduce user engagement as it cuts the user out of the interaction loop, however,
reassessing automation from a cognitive perspective reveals deeper issues. Automation reduces intrinsic
cognitive load (the cognitive load associated with learning a task). As the brain learns to interact with
products the cognitive load applied to learning has a direct impact on an individual's ability to learn,
consequently, the reduction of intrinsic cognitive load (automation) reduces product understanding and
situational awareness. This reduced understanding is hazardous in high risk products such as commercial
aircraft or complex medical systems. The aim of this research is to determine the impact of automation the
cognitive processes and investigate if a task centred approach to automation can be utilized in order to
retain a sufficient level of cognitive load while retaining the benefits of automation.
38
Energy
Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Torque Control Strategies For Loss Reduction
Student
Michael Argent
michael.argent@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Alasdair Mcdonald
alasdair.mcdonald@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Vawts, Drivetrain, Losses
This research is focused on the drivetrain for commercial offshore Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs).
The generator is simulated using a combination of Finite Element Analysis and equivalent circuit models to
calculate the power output as well as the losses experienced by the generator. One of the inherent
disadvantages of VAWTs compared to conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines is the cyclic torque
loading caused by the varying angle of attack of the rotor blades during each revolution. The behaviour of
the generator is governed by the Swing Equation which states that an imbalance between the mechanical
and electrical torques results in an angular acceleration, thus a changing rotational speed. This work
investigates the effect of controlling the electrical torque loading, by varying the stator current, on the copper
and iron losses of the generator. This is characterised by the torque factor q which is the ratio of the electrical
torque variation to the mechanical torque variation. Keeping the electric torque constant corresponds to q=0
while matching the electric torque to the mechanical torque (fixed speed) corresponds to q=1. The results
will show which q strategy minimises losses for the whole range of wind speeds.
Real-Time, Multi-Rate, Co-Simulation Of Power Networks With Large Converter Penetration
Student
Andreas Avras
Supervisor
Andrew Roscoe
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Rt, Hil, Chil
andreas.avras@strath.ac.uk
The interconnected converters and converter controlled devices used in electrical networks have complex
high-bandwidth responses at timescales right down to the switching frequency of power electronics. The
consequence is that traditional steady state and pseudo steady state simulations of power systems are no
longer adequate. This research investigates and pushes the boundaries of real-time simulation. It focuses
on coupling prototyping controllers to power system simulation tools as well as exploring the scalability and
limits of such schemes with C-code auto generated algorithms from MATLAB Simulink i.e. how many
converters can be simulated on Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS)? How many controllers can be
implemented on a prototyping platform (rtX) using modern microprocessors? Additionally it explores CHIL
and PHIL testing and examines synthetic inertia and distributed frequency control from converter connected
devices.
Modelling, Optimisation And Comparison Of Generators With Different Magnet Materials For A 6Mw
Offshore Direct Drive Wind Turbine
Student
Nurul Azim Bhuiyan
nurul-azim-bhuiyan@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Alasdair Mcdonald
alasdair.mcdonald@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Wind, Turbine, Generators
In the past few years interest in the use of low speed permanent magnet generators for direct-drive wind
turbine generator applications has increased significantly. The significant fluctuations in NdFeB magnet
prices has encouraged designers to optimise magnet utilisation and to look at alternative magnet materials
for wind turbine electrical generators. In this paper an analytical design model is developed for 6 MW
39
offshore direct-drive wind turbine generators using different magnet materials (one with surface mounted
NdFeB and another with flux concentrating ferrite magnet). Finite element method models are used to check
key dependent variables calculated by the analytical models. The generator designs are optimised using a
hybrid optimisation method incorporating a Genetic Algorithm and Pattern Search approaches. This is
applied for four different objective functions, the first two which concentrate on maximising rated torque per
unit magnet mass or unit of generator active material cost. A third objective function which seeks to minimise
the sum of the generator active material cost and the costs of lost revenue over a finite number of operational
years. This gives similar results to a fourth objective function which is an explicit turbine cost of energy
calculation.
Analysis And Modelling Of The Impact On Energy Demand Prediction For Small-Scale Energy
Systems Of Individual Household Behaviours
Student
Graeme Flett
graeme.flett@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Energy, Modelling, Behaviour
Low-carbon energy schemes are increasingly being incorporated in small communities. Their demand
characteristics are poorly understood, leading to incorrect design assumptions, mismatching of supply and
demand, and poor technical and economic performance. Analysis of existing data shows that the specific
socio-economic characteristics of the community can result in a significant differences in demand, and the
potential for further significant variation due to the random distribution of individual household behaviours.
Using a higher-order Markov-chain-based occupancy model, calibrated for different occupant and
household types, an occupancy driven electricity and hot water demand model has been developed from
high resolution measured data to realistically distribute demand cycles for individual households at the
appliance level. The model incorporates a novel method for linking occupancy, household-type and
individual behavioural factors, and the time-of-day probability of appliance cycles relative to occupancy using
an event-based approach, which improves on accuracy and computational efficiency compared to existing
models. The integrated model is used to assess the impact of different community compositions and sizes
on critical energy system design factors and probability of deviation from the mean predicted value.
Arima Models To Predict Next-Day Electricity Prices
Student
Gao Gao
gao.gao@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Kwok Lo
k.lo@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Arima, ElectricityMarkets, Forecasting
In recent years the electricity market reading mechanism in some countries has undergone big changes and
some of these changes have created additional challenges to system operation and financial risk for market
participants. Price forecasting is becoming increasingly relevant to producers and consumers in the new
competitive electric power markets. Both for spot markets and long-term contracts, price forecasts are
necessary to develop bidding strategies or negotiation skills in order to maximize benefit. This presentation
provides a method to predict next-day electricity prices based on the ARIMA methodology. ARIMA
techniques are used to analyse time series and, in the past, have been mainly used for load forecasting,
due to their accuracy and mathematical soundness.
Possible Market Incentives For "Gaming" The Imbalance System By Intermittent Generation.
Student
David Hamilton
david.hamilton@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
David Mcmillan
d.mcmillan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
40
Keywords
ElectricityMarket, Gaming
Intermittent generation, like Wind Power Producers (WPP), are not held to the same stringent conditions as
other generation types when delivering electricity to the Transmission System Operator (TSO); they are
allowed to deviate from their contracted volume due to their intermittency. This coupled with an imbalance
System that rewards any imbalance that offsets the overall imbalance of the System creates an incentive
for WPP to employ strategies that could be considered "gaming" where they deviate from the best estimate
of production. This research describes some profitable strategies that could be considered gaming and
discusses the implications of employing these strategies for a single WPP, all WPP, and the TSO.
Multi-Objective Optimization Of The Match Of Injecor And Combustion Chamber For A Marine
Medium-Speed Diesel Engine
Student
Nao Hu
nao.hu@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Peilin Zhou
peilin.zhou@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
DieselEngine, Optimization, Nlpql
The match optimization of four injection related parameters with combustion chamber of a marine medium
speed diesel engine was carried out to find an optimum design, these injection related parameters include
start of injection, spray angle, injector protrusion length and swirl ratio. The influences on NOx, Soot and
BSFC were first studied by independent parameter analysis on four typical engine loads, 25% (L25), 50%
(L50), 75% (L75) and 100% (L100) load. Then, Latin hypercube design and NLPQL (Non-Linear
Programming by Quadratic Lagrangian) method were introduced to find an optimum design on each engine
load.
Availability Potential Of Parallel Powertrain For Offshore Wind Turbines
Student
Godwin Jimmy
godwin.jimmy@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Alasdair Mcdonald
alasdair. mcdonald@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Availability, Powertrain, Parallel
Current wind turbine powertrains are designed with the single-input-single-output topology (one gearbox
coupled to a generator with a power converter). An innovative technology having single-input-multiple-output
system, an arrangement with parallel generators connected to the output of the gearbox is the focus of this
research. A new availability enhancement strategy was explored in the analysis using Markov state space
model to determine the equivalent availability of the proposed parallel powertrain. A baseline powertrain
(generator and power converter) was modelled and then the availability of the proposed strategy evaluated
using failure and repair rate data. Our investigation reveals that the proposed design has the potential of
increasing availability of the wind turbine powertrain by using N parallel components; a scenario where the
wind turbine remains operational (albeit at (N-1)/N capacity) when failure occurs in one element of the
powertrain. The result shows that increase in N parallel systems with constant failure and repair rate does
not spontaneously offer a higher availability except when a change in failure and repair rate is introduced
using scaling down approach.
Virtual Power Plant And Its Application In Electricity Market
Student
Yuchang Kang
yuchang.kang@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Kwoklun Lo
k.lo@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
41
Keywords
Electricity,
Distributedgeneration
Powerplant,
In the beginning of 21st century, the structure of electrical power system is changing gradually from
centralized system into decentralized system, which caused by increasing numbers of Distributed
Generation (DG) applied on the grid. With assist of advanced information communication technologies,
several DG units combined with energy storage systems and flexible loads can be aggregated and work as
a traditional power plant, in order to provide added value to the electrical power system. This new concept
is called Virtual Power Plant (VPP). The VPP provides an opportunity for individual DG to participate in
Electricity Market, which optimizes revenue from contracting DG and demand portfolio output and offering
services. However, the Distributed Energy Resources (DER) behaves inefficiently from market, and
Increasing DER share requires improved communication among DER owners, system operators and
customers, for a reason of economic and security. This Project is to evaluate the influence of the Virtual
Power Plant in Electricity Market, and optimize economic performance of the VPP.
Impedance Solutions For More-Electric Aircraft Interconnected Architectures
Student
Theodoros Kostakis
theodoros.kostakis@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Stuart Galloway
stuart.galloway@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
InterconnectedGeneration,
AircraftElectricalArchitectures, ImpedanceSolutions
The aviation industry has witnessed a technological shift towards the More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) concept.
This shift has been driven by a number of perceived benefits including performance optimization and
reduced life-cycle costs. Increased electrification within MEA has made aircraft electrical networks larger
and more complex and this necessitates an increased electrical power offtake from the engine. With this
comes the need to better optimize the efficiency of engine electrical power extraction. The paralleling of
multiple generation sources across the aircraft is one potential design approach which could help improve
engine operability and fuel efficiency. This presentation will first present the historical background of
paralleled generation in civil aircraft and will discuss features of potential DC-interconnecting solutions
required for compliance with MIL-STD-704F power quality standards. Using modelling and simulation, the
response of a paralleled DC bus architecture under transient operating conditions (e.g. short-circuit faults)
will be analysed. Simulation studies will highlight that MIL-STD-704F normal voltage transient envelopes
can be breached for closely coupled generation systems. To ensure independence of generator operation,
impedance-solution options will be analysed to minimize the propagation of these voltage disturbances, with
particular focus on the effect of architectural changes and varying protection system operation.
The Impact On The Economics And Operation Of Wind Power In Scotland Of A Single European
Energy Market
Student
Shona Pennock
shona.pennock@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Keith Bell
keith.bell@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
EnergyMarkets, ZonalPricing
Considerable progress towards a European internal energy market has been made in recent years, with the
establishment of day-ahead market coupling of many European power markets in 2014 and the approval of
the Capacity Allocation and Congestion Management (CACM) regulation in 2015. CACM includes the use
of zonal pricing for congestion management. Meanwhile, Electricity Market Reform (EMR) in Britain has led
to new incentives for low carbon generation projects, including the introduction of Feed-in Tariffs with
Contracts for Difference (CfDs). This project explores the concept of Scotland existing as a separate price
zone and the impacts on Scottish renewable energy generation, specifically wind power, due to zonal
pricing. Impacts to be evaluated are the wholesale prices and CfD payments that might be gained in the
shorter term, the effect on investment in the longer term and the consequential impact on the meeting of
carbon reduction targets in Scotland and the UK as a whole.
42
Dc Fault Protection Strategy Considering Dc Network Partition
Student
Md Habibur Rahman
habibur.rahman@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Lie Xu
lie.xu@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
DcFault, DcNetworkPartition, HvdcSystem
Many of the UK’s proposed large offshore wind farms are located long distance away from the onshore
connection points and HVDC system becomes the preferred choice for their network integration. The
connection of all-encompassing networks would inevitably lead to the creation of a vast multi-terminal HVDC
(MTDC) grid through which all energy could be shared. At present research has been going on concerning
DC protection in MTDC system. One of the main barriers for development of MTDC system is DC fault
protection, fault location and isolation. An effective protection method needs to implement that can detect
the fault and its location and isolate the faulted line in a selective manner allowing fast restoration of normal
system operation following a DC fault. This paper investigates DC network partition and alternative DC fault
protection strategy for Multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) system. Fast acting DC Circuit Breakers (DCCBs) or
fault blocking DC-DC converters can be configured at strategic locations to allow the entire MTDC system
to be operated interconnected but partitioned into islanded DC network zones following faults. The validity
of the proposed protection strategy is confirmed using MATLAB/SIMULINK simulations.
Caculating The Reserve Capacity Of Energy Storage System With Wind Power Integration
Student
Su Wang
s.wang.100@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Capacity, Value, Calculation
The penetration of integration of wind power generation into grid networks is increasing promptly around the
world. Wind power generation is taken as energy resource instead of capacity resource because that wind
sources is unpredictable and fickle. Capacity resource is a kind of resources which could be made useful
for generating the power to meet the load demand. This presentation is aimed to describe a method which
has been used to calculated the capacity value of Energy Storage System (ESS) integrated with wind
generation. ESS has been widely used to minimize the incongruity between generation and load need, when
it is increased that the penetration of variable wind power in connected grid networks. The charging and
discharging period will been taken into consideration to estimate the reliability of wind power generation with
EES. This method will focus on the influence of outage of EES, especially the outage at the charging cycle.
Game Theory Application For The Analysis Of Electricity Power Market
Student
Zhao Wang
zhao.wang@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof K L Lo
k.lo@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
RenewableEnergy, GameTheory
The ever-increasing penetration of variable renewable energy generation are challenging the electricity
power market paradigms of today. Due to the inherent viability, limited predictability level and zero marginal
cost of the renewable energy, the changes in electricity power market design and operation is required. The
objective of this project is to 1) uncover the impact of renewable energy on electricity power market and 2)
propose game theory to accommodate substantial shares of renewable energy in electricity power market.
43
Variously Worldwide Types Of Deregulated Electricity Markets And Their Respective Transmission
Congestion Management Schemes
Student
Jiawei Zhao
jiawei.zhao@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Since the 1980s the United Kingdom as one of the leader who took lead in reforming electric power utility
structure, the tread has been spread to all around the world. In different national deregulated electric power
structures, generation and transmission have typically been split up into several small units. However, the
transmission network has natural characteristics so that it remained a monopoly industry. Transmission
network must be open so that every market participants enable to access to the transmission line capacity.
Due to transmission capacity limitation, as a consequence, transmission congestion will be inescapable.
Various congestion management schemes have been discovered for many years in order to relieve various
transmission congestion problems in various types of deregulated electricity markets. Different nations
utilize different congestion management schemes according to their respectively national conditions. In this
paper, categories of current electricity markets will be briefly explained mainly at pool market, bilateral
market and hybrid market. The most important key content is the classification of congestion management
schemes such as uniform marginal price, locational marginal price and zonal price. Each of them will be
illustrated very carefully with words, formulas and graphs.
Environmental and Sustainability
Regenerating Slums: Re-Assessing City Prosperity As A Drive For Dynamic Urban Management
Frameworks
Student
Aisha Abubakar
aisha.abubakar@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Ombretta R. Romice
ombretta.r.romice@strath.ac.uk
Department
Architecture
Keywords
Slum, City, Prosperity
Slum settlement in Developing Region cities remain highly diffused and complex, and there is still no
standard definition for it. This is a major challenge towards proper intervention. Furthermore, slums are
generally not regarded as mainstream contributors to cities’ development and prosperity. Prosperity is a
complex but vital measure of wellbeing and success of cities, its definitions, however, are varied and
relative. I have developed a theoretical framework towards a better understanding of slums and assessing
how they could contribute positively to prosperity. This builds from theories on human motivation to fulfil
basic needs; space use; and resilience. It is specifically articulated towards studying socio-spatial
associations in slums relative to basic needs; in addition to aspects inherent to slums that are pivotal to
prosperity. Then analysing these to identify relevant patterns and capacities for prosperity. Ultimately, I
propose a model for slum intervention that could provide a dynamic and robust solution towards their
management.
Lidar-Assisted Wind Turbine Control For Load Reduction
Student
Jie Bao
jie.bao@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Control, WindTurbine, Lidar
44
Wind speed plays a role of disturbance in wind turbine control system. Conventional feedback control
scheme for wind turbines can only compensate such disturbance by responding to the turbine dynamics
that caused by the wind speed, which leads to a delay and undesired loads on the turbine. Employing Light
Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) technology in the turbine control system can lead to improvements on this
aspect. LIDAR can provide measurements to the incoming wind field over a spatial distribution and thereby
enables options for turbine control design to compensate the wind disturbance before it affects the
turbine. In this work, a LIDAR-assisted wind turbine control scheme is designed, where the preview wind
information is employed in the controller. Improvements on rotor and tower loads reduction performance
are demonstrated in the simulation results.
Assessment Of Personal Exposure To Black Carbon And Nitrogen Dioxide In Contrasting Urban And
Industrial Settings
Student
Eliani Ezani
nor-eliani-binti-ezani@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Iain Beverland
iain.beverland@strath.ac.uk
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
Air, Pollution, Monitoring
Pedestrian exposures to traffic-related air pollution in central Glasgow were compared to occupational
exposures to diesel exhaust at an experimental hydraulic fracturing (HF) test site in Poland. Mobile
measurements at varying distances from sources in both of the above locations were made using portable
BC and NO2 monitors. Duplicate BC measurements were compared with NO2 observations. Average BC
concentrations measured at the HF test site were approximately five times higher than average
concentrations observed in central Glasgow (max 1-min BC averages of 51.2 µg/m³ and 10.0 µg/m³ at the
HF test site and Glasgow respectively). Similarly NO2 concentrations measured at the HF test site exceeded
observations in Glasgow (max 1-min NO2 averages of 292.3 µg/m³ and 108.1 µg/m³). Duplicate BC
instruments provided very similar real-time measurements, which were highly correlated with NO2
observations at 1-minute temporal resolution. Marked elevations of BC and NO2 concentrations were
observed in proximity to sources. Exposure to diesel engine exhaust emissions from fracking equipment
may present a significant risk to people working on HF sites over extended time periods.
Protection Challenges In Future Converter Dominated Power Systems
Student
Ruiqi Li
ruiqi.li@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Campbell.D.Booth
campbell.d.booth@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Converters, Relay, Testing
Converter interfaces, used to connect renewable energy sources, HVDC links and infeeds to the power
system, may bring significant changes to the behaviour of protection systems in the future. A converter
model, capable of providing adjustable fault responses, is used to investigate the response of power
system protection to a range of fault conditions. Different scenarios have been simulated by applying
different types of faults at different location of the transmission system with a variety of different
converter response types. A dynamic, verified, relay model and a hardware relay device have been injected
with the simulated results to ascertain network protection performance. A summary of results will be
presented and it is shown that, when the system is dominated by converter-interfaced sources (especially
where the sources are modeled as being unable to provide “fast” and “high” fault currents), the responses
of traditional protection systems could be delayed, lose discrimination.The outcomes of the project should
act as a guide for on-going investigations and assist in informing the specification of national grid codes
and related work.
45
Assessing The Potential Of Scottish Non-Agricultural Land For Sustainable Bioenergy Production
Student
Philip Mellor
Supervisor
Dr. Richard Lord
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
Gis, Bioenergy, Brownfield
philipjmellor@gmail.com
In the context of the food fuel water security nexus and recent concerns surrounding land use change,
both direct and indirect as a result of bioenergy production on agricultural land, it is increasingly necessary
to gain a better understanding of the non-agricultural land resources that exist. The aim of the renewables
landbank project is to investigate the area and spatial distribution of non-agricultural land available for
bioenergy provision in Scotland. A GIS-based methodology was utilised to ascertain the theoretical,
technical and realistic non-agricultural landbank. A spatial database containing brownfield land, licensed
and historic landfill sites has been compiled, enabling a better understanding of the national distribution
of non-agricultural areas. A multi-criteria evaluation was undertaken, applying a number of ecological,
agrotechnical and topographic constraints, in order to identify the technical potential of this landbank.
Ultimately it is hoped this research will identify a more realistically implementable landbank for bioenergy
production, and future work will aim to compare the landbank with other spatial indicators such as heat
demand.
Wind And Wave Directional Transit Time Model For Offshore Wind O&M
Student
Peter Mills
peter.mills@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Iraklis Lazakis
iraklis.lazakis@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Access, Weather, Vessels
Failure to adequately account for marine conditions can incur uncertainty in operation and maintenance
costs for offshore renewable installations. Winter months with high potential for electricity generation
coincide with the conditions where access for maintenance is most challenging. Advancing towards a
demonstration of a strategic maintenance approach will assist in both reducing direct costs and associated
initial project finance, while informing this with a better understanding of the impact of marine conditions
could improve crew transfer vessel logistics and planning. This paper presents historical weather data close
to East Anglia One Wind Farm for use in the development of vessel access models. The research focuses
on the directional dependence of marine conditions as these can impact on the speed and fuel usage of
vessels. An improved understanding of such conditions will increase vessel availability and operation and
maintenance operator’s business capacity.
Power System Restorations Assisted By Wind Power
Student
Paulo Murinelli Pesoti
paulo.murinelli-pesoti@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Kwok L. Lo
k.lo@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
PSR, PSS, WindPower
The usage of wind power has increased along the years, however, it is not largely used in restorative
systems. On the other hand, Wind Farms (WFs) are able to assist power systems main sources during
46
restoration by providing extra power. This project presents a probabilistic analysis for the load margin
enlargement caused by the usage of wind power during restoration procedures. Test systems are used to
show the proposed methodology, where restoration cases are created. Due to the stochastic nature of
wind power, Monte Carlo Simulation technique is used and, the methodology outcome is a large spectrum
of load flow solutions and load margin data. The restoration cases are compared to the base case according
to the active and reactive load margin enlargement. Load margin tendency is also used to trace a parallel
between the Power System Restoration cases that consider WFs, and show the importance of reactive
power control.
Reliability Evaluation Of Wind Energy Based On Monte Carlo Simulation Method
Student
Xinwen Ni
Supervisor
K.L Lo
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Wind, Power, Integration
xinwen.ni@strath.ac.uk
The primary function of the power system is to provide electrical power to its customers as economically
as possible with an acceptable degree of quality. Keeping a reliable supply of electricity to consumers is
one of the most important features of power quality. The main purpose of this research is to describe
methods that used to analysis the performance of power system integrated with wind power and how to
improve it. Monte Carlo simulation method is introduced due to its advantages to simulate complex
systems and conditions with relatively easy means. MCS is not a formula that derive exact accurate
answers but more like an approach help to search for approximation that close to the real one. It relates
frequency to probability to simplify complicated problems while maintain an acceptable level of accuracy.
Providing Ancillary Services From Large Hvdc-Connected Offshore Wind Farm Using Low Cost Hybrid
Converter
Student
William Ross
william.g.ross@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Olimpo AnayaLara
olimpo.anayalara@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Hvdc, Windfarm, Ancillary
Due to growing size and number of wind power plants and their impact on the power networks they are
connected to, strict grid codes are now in place to minimise their negative impacts as well as provide
ancillary services to the network. Remote location of best wind resources means the average distance to
shore for new installations is continuing to increase which makes HVDC a more viable method for
transmission to shore when compared to HVAC, with lower losses possible from distances as little as
100km. Voltage Source Converter based HVDC in particular, allows rapid independent control of reactive
and active power but can be very costly. A case study is presented showing a low cost design for a point to
point HVDC link may be used for integration of large offshore wind farms while still complying with existing
grid codes and performance is compared with that of a detailed benchmark model. Lower cost is achieved
by use of diode rectifiers to reduce required rating of offshore VSC, made of more expensive IGBT switches.
Two scenarios are investigated: rapid change in power export from wind farm (wind gusts) & Low Voltage
Ride Through during fault on onshore AC grid.
47
Optimization Of Wind-Solar Energy Systems Used In Rural Areas
Student
Zhonglei Shao
zhonglei.shao@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
StandAlonesystem, SolarWind, Optimization
Due to increasing pollution out of fossil-fuel power stations, more concern for the global environment has
emerged from public. As a result, more and more research effort has been focused on the development of
renewable energy sources in a placement of fossil-fuel sources. And a new dimension of problems for
power system operation is created through a direct connection between these renewable resources and
the whole power network. It is known that wind power and solar power are the most common types of
renewable sources. Generation characteristic of wind power is intermittent and mostly count on wind
speed while solar power is affected by cloud cover which is more stable. In this project, computer
stimulation will be used to investigate the power supply risk to the consumers in power network including
renewable energy like wind and solar. This project will include different level of penetration of renewables
in power system network and their economic benefits and deficits.
Experimental Investigation Of The Independent Effect Of Suction And Degree Of Saturation On Very
Small-Strain Stiffness Of Unsaturated Sand
Student
Arianna Gea Pagano
arianna.pagano@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Alessandro Tarantino
alessandro.tarantino@strath.ac.uk
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
WavePropagation, Unsaturated, Stiffness
The presentation describes an experimental investigation of very small strain stiffness of unsaturated sand.
A triaxial test apparatus was equipped with bender elements and compression discs in order to assess the
stiffness at very small strains by measuring the velocity of propagation of shear and compression waves
through an unsaturated sample. The negative water column method was adopted to apply suction at the
base of the sample. The experiments were designed to investigate the independent effect of suction and
degree of saturation on the wave propagation velocities. This was achieved by testing the sand sample on
both the drying and wetting path.
Optimisation Of Acoustic Emission From Transit Plasma Discharges In Water
Student
Ying Sun
ying.sun@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Igor Timoshkin
igor.timoshkin@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
AcousticEmission, Plasma
Underwater spark discharges are used in multiple practical applications including plasma closing switches,
water treatment, plasma channel drilling and mineral processing, waste recycling, treatment of metals and
medical lithotripsy. Spark discharges in water have been studied for several decades, however, despite
significant research efforts and progress in this area, further investigation into the efficiency of plasmaacoustic sources and their optimisation is required in order to expand their practical applications. The
breakdown mechanisms used in this project include free discharge, wire-guided discharge and free
discharge with bubble pump. This project aimed at investigation of the electrical and hydrodynamic
parameters of underwater plasma-generated cavities, including plasma resistance, energy delivered into
48
the cavity, period of cavity oscillations and characteristics of pressure impulses for all cases. Different
energy levels, breakdown voltages and gap distances were used in the study to allow systematic analysis
of these electrical and hydrodynamic parameters. Empirical scaling laws which link the maximum acoustic
pressure and the period of cavity oscillations with the energisation parameters and the plasma resistance
have been obtained. These empirical functions can be used for optimisation of the plasma-acoustic sources
and for tailoring their parameters for specific practical applications.
In-Situ Hydraulic Barriers Formed From Colloidal Silica For Nuclear Decommissioning Sites
Student
Christopher Wong
christopher.wong@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
Grouting, ColloidalSilica, GroundBarrier
Over the last three decades, colloidal silica has been investigated and more recently adopted as a low
viscosity grouting technology (e.g. for grouting rock fractures within geological disposal facilities nuclear
waste). The potential of colloidal silica as a favourable grouting material exists due to: its initial low
viscosity; its low hydraulic conductivity after gelling (of the order of 10-7 cm/s); the very low injection
pressures required; its controllable set/gel times (from minutes to several days); the fact it is
environmentally inert; its small particle size (less than hundreds of nanometres) and its cost-effectiveness.
Colloidal silica can be destabilised by the addition of a salt accelerator compound and a change to pH,
resulting in a rapid increase in viscosity (i.e. gelation) and formation of a rigid solid gel. This behaviour
allows for low injection pressures to be used during the grouting process due to the initial low viscosity;
with the resulting gel forming the contaminant ground barrier.
Fluid Dynamics
Open-Source Hypersonic Simulations For Earth And Mars Entries
Student
Vincent Casseau
vincent.casseau@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Tom J. Scanlon
tom.scanlon@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Hypersonics, Spacecraft, Simulations
The study of high speed vehicles reentering the Earth's atmosphere is of current interest judging by the
ongoing tests on the Orion capsule that predates expeditions beyond the Earth's proximity. The access to
space was, is and will still be a key challenge with significant economic and scientific implications in the near
future for the leading countries. Mastering the art of the very high speed regime is not solely limited to space
missions though and new prospects emerge concerning hypersonic civilian transportation. This future vision
of airspace transportation is embodied by vehicles, such as the cFASTT_1 designed at Strathclyde
University, flying at cruise altitudes around ten times higher than current aircraft. However, many hurdles
are yet to be cleared for turning this future into a reality. The technological challenges remain considerable
from an engineering, environmental, and societal standpoint. The accurate prediction of aerodynamic and
thermal loads are a vital prerequisite to any program. This work addresses the development of a
computational fluid dynamics solver, named hy2Foam, within the opensource software suite OpenFOAM.
The ultimate objective that shapes this undertaking is the accurate and time-efficient computation of
hypersonic reacting flows for Earth and Mars entries.
49
Wind Lidars For Wind Turbine Wakes Detection, Quantification And Qualification
Student
Alexander Cassola
alexander.cassola@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Matthew Stickland
matt.stickland@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Wind, Wakes, Lidars
Wind turbine wakes have been of great interest to the wind energy community and researched for several
decades. Studies of a wake's fluid nature have been approached in various ways: using mathematical
models, small scale experiments, and full scale tests. The latter of these is the most technically challenging;
developments in light detection and ranging (LiDAR) devices have made full scale wake measurements
more achievable. Two LiDAR types (nacelle mounted and long range scanning) were used to measure wind
over an entire offshore wind farm with the purpose of detecting wakes. Wind data for one year were
processed and analysed to extract turbine wake characteristics and information for various wind conditions.
Single and multiple wake regions were investigated. CFD simulations of standalone turbine wakes were
carried out using a number of different setup approaches. Wakes for various inflow wind conditions were
simulated. Empirical results from both LiDAR types were compared and contrasted. These full scale results
were compared against outcomes from the CFD simulation work. A clear relationship between inflow wind
approaching a turbine and downstream wind is seen in terms of both wind speed and turbulence. Other
details on the measured wakes are noted and discussed.
Development Of A Cfd-Dsmc Hybrid For Spacecraft Re-Entry
Student
Daniel Espinoza
daniel.espinoza@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Tom Scanlon
tom.scanlon@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Cfd, Dsmc
During re-entry, spacecraft travel through different flow regimes. High in the atmosphere, the flow is rarefied,
while at sea level the flow can be considered a continuum. Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method
and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are the numerical tools most commonly used for rarefied and
continuum flows respectively. During descent, the spacecraft will pass through altitudes for which the flow
structure presents both rarefied and continuum regions. For these flows, CFD cannot be used for the whole
domain, and using DSMC for the whole domain will be extremely computationally demanding. A hybrid that
can distinguish between regimes and allocate each to its respective solver can lead to a significant reduction
on computational time. For this reason, a state-based hybrid solver has been developed within the open
source software OpenFOAM. This solver merges the CFD solver rhoCentralFoam and the DSMC solver
dsmcFoam. The code employs a user-defined breakdown parameter to distinguish between continuum and
rarefied regions. The code has been validated using a heat transfer problem. Whereas results from pure
CFD simulations deviate from pure DSMC results, results from the hybrid are in good agreement with the
latter.
Shock Structure Estimation For Supersonic And Hypersonic Vehicles
Student
Javier Herrera
javier.herrera@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Professor Richard E Brown
richard.brown@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Hypersonic, Aerodynamics, Shock
While approximate methods for shock structure estimation were an active research topic in the early days
of supersonic aerodynamics, they have fallen in popularity in favour of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD).
50
Although CFD software offers accurate results with reasonably little effort, its computational cost is still
prohibitively high for certain engineering applications. It is for their application in these areas where
approximate methods are still of significant utility. For example, surface-inclination based panel codes are
often used to provide fast estimation of the different potential configurations for a hypersonic vehicle during
conceptual design. By their very nature, though, these codes lack any inherent ability to provide information
about the shock structure that the vehicle might produce in flight. Effects like shock impingement or radiative
heat transfer from the shock are thus left unmodelled. In many cases the influence of these unmodelled
effects can have a large impact on the accuracy with which the aero-thermodynamics of the vehicle can be
characterised. My project aims to develop a method for shock structure estimation. This method will be
coupled with a panel-based code to improve its predictions when the phenomena previously described are
present.
Microswimmers In Microfluidics: Enhancing The Engineering Of Nano And Micro-Scale Driven
Transport Applications.
Student
Vincenzo Infante
vincenzo.infante@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Mark Haw
mark.haw@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Algae, Microfluidics, Rheology.
The word alga is a very vague term that encompasses a wide range of chlorophyll containing organisms.
The majority of the algae are unicellular and some of them can propel themselves, belonging to a particular
variety of microorganisms, defined as microswimmers, which have unique characteristics compared to
lifeless particles (i.e. motility and sensing). In this research project, we have been concerned with the fluid
dynamic behaviour of Dunaliella Salina (DS) (a green micro-alga) in microfluidic devices, for varying flow
conditions, in order to control its motility and enhance the efficiency of its engineering applications (e.g.
biodiesel production, waste treatment). We have been considering microfluidic abrupt contraction-expansion
geometries with different contraction ratios (CR = 2, 4 and 8) to quantify the algae motility. We have been
able to distinguish three behaviours: the absence of flow where DS cells swim randomly; relative low flow
rates, where the algae can still partially withstand the flow; and the flow advection where algae trajectories
tend to the fluid streamlines. We have also been examining the behaviour of dead algae, both experimentally
and numerically, in order to better understand the effect of swimming.
Numerical Simulation Of Exploring Fish Motion By A Series Of Linked Rigid Bodies
Student
Ruoxin Li
ruoxin.li@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Propulsion and manoeuvring ability are parts of the most common and complicated mechanisms in nature,
such as fish swimming in the water and birds flying in the sky. In order to get a deep understanding of these
problems, a comprehensive and completed replication of fish movements is carried out in this project. By
combining with multi-body dynamic theory, the fish can be composed by a few serial elements as main body
and two symmetric elements as pectoral fins, one for each side. All the elements are connected by hinges.
Commercial software FLUENT is used to solve flow field. For propulsion part, swimming tests are performed
under two different conditions by varying the frequency and amplitude of the angular motion at the hinges.
In terms of manoeuvring ability, 3D cases will be carried out. The motion of pectoral fins is prescribed in
order to simulate the up and down motion of fish in the water. Modelling results will be presented with
detailed analysis on the hydrodynamic forces, vortex structure near fish body/fins and the related fish
propulsion and manoeuvre performance.
51
Development Of Intelligent Hull Forms Of Large Ships For Energy Efficient Transportation
Student
Kurt Mizzi
kurt.mizzi@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Osman Turan
o.turan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Cfd, Optimisation, Design.
The introduction of regulatory requirements in the marine industry to limit ship emissions has been a major
concern in recent years. The industry has thus driven research to focus on improving energy efficiency. The
need for reducing carbon emissions are expected to have a strong influence on the design and operation of
merchant ships. A ship’s energy consumption highly depends on the hydrodynamic performance of a vessel.
It is thus very important to optimally design hulls according to their profile requirements. Many ships were
designed for certain conditions that are rarely similar to their operational profile. Therefore, there is a
significant knowledge gap in the development of intelligent hull forms that perform efficiently in various
operational conditions. The objective of this study is to understand and optimise the hydrodynamic system
of a ship with the aim of improving its energy efficiency. The analyses will consider and focus on hull design
and hull-propeller interaction. By coupling an optimisation tool with a CFD solver and developing a design
optimisation procedure, a design approach will be carried out on a case study bulk-carrier seeking an optimal
hull configuration that suits the different conditions the vessel operates in.
Numerical Simulation Of Vitreous Humour Biofluid During Saccadic Eye Movements
Student
Andreia Silva
andreia.silva@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Monica S. N. Oliveira
monica.oliveira@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
FluidDynamics, Biofluids, Rheology
Saccadic movements are rapid movements of the eye, which allow the eye to rapidly refixate from one
object to another under voluntary control. These movements are considered the most important in inducing
fluid motion in the eye. The fluid that occupies most of the eyeball is called vitreous humour (VH) and is a
complex, gel-like viscoelastic fluid. It is known that VH is only produced during the embryonic stage and
becomes progressively liquefied with age, and as a consequence its rheological properties change. The
numerical study of the dynamic response of VH during saccadic movements was investigated in this work
using the opensource software OpenFOAM. Different ranges of saccadic movements were studied
considering both Newtonian and viscoelastic fluid models, the parameters of which were obtained by fitting
the model to rheological data measured experimentally. The numerical results show differences in the VH
flow behaviour as a result of (a) different degrees of saccadic movements, which produce distinct maximum
angular velocities, (b) changes in the viscosity that affects the diffusive time scale of the VH in the vitreous
cavity and (c) the elastic behaviour of the fluid that also affects the velocity field and the stresses acting in
the walls.
Numerical Study On Wave Run-Up Height And Depression Depth Around A Vertical Circular Cylinder
At Various Froude Numbers
Student
Xiaoxi Xiao
xiaoxi.xiao@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Atilla Incecik
atilla.incecik@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Cfd
The turbulent flow past a circular cylinder has been studied extensively by previous researchers due to its
importance in many engineering applications. In particular, the wave run-up is one of the most significant
design factors when offshore structures are operated. In my project, the wave run-up height and depression
52
depth around a vertical circular cylinder were numerically investigated. The commercial CFD solver “STARCCM+” has been used for the numerical simulations. The models of k-epsilon turbulence and volume of fluid
(VOF) are utilised to solve the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) and continuity
equations, respectively. Various Froude numbers and Reynolds numbers are utilised to observe the wave
run up height on the front of the cylinder and the depth of depression at the back. The results were compared
with previous experimental data and theoretical values and were found to be in good agreement with other
studies.
Analysis Of Offshore Floating Wind Turbines
Student
Xue Xu
xue.xu@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Sandy Day
sandy.day@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Platform, Mooring, RenewableEnergy
Offshore floating wind turbines (OFWT) are supported by the flexible mooring systems subjected to
nonlinear hydrodynamic wave and current forces. Thus, the mooring responses can have a significant
impact on the overall dynamic performance of OFWT. To evaluate the dynamic responses of OFWT, both
quasi-static and dynamic mooring models have been used in the simulations by using the well-known FAST
software and the FAST-OrcaFlex package, respectively. This study will investigate and compare the
dynamic responses of the platform, the mooring tensions and also the hub motions using dynamic vs quasistatic mooring models, based on the OC3-Hywind Spar Platform supporting the 5MW wind turbines
developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Preliminary numerical studies will be set in
several load cases and especially in extreme sea state to reveal the system dynamic responses, which is
quite important in the application of real industry.
Materials
Corrosion Fatigue And Structural Integrity Of Metals Used In Positive Displacement Pumps And
Components.
Student
Athanasios Anagnostakis
athanasios.anagnostakis@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Tugrul Comlekci
tugrul.comlekci@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Fatigue, Corrosion, Metals
As fatigue and especially corrosion fatigue (CF) being one of the most significant reasons of catastrophic
failures in components and pumps, hence it is a crucial subject for investigation. Low amplitude (lower
than YS or UTS) cyclic stresses can lead to early fracture unexpectedly. Corrosive fluids can accelerate
the fatigue mechanisms significantly. The lack of fully representative CF data of fluid end materials is the
main reason for this project. Moreover, the investigation will focus on obtaining CF S-N curves and fatigue
life assessment procedures for pump design and structural integrity. Fatigue specimens are cyclically
loaded in axial (tension-compression), rotating-bending (R.R. Moore method) and pure bending CF tests.
Environmental chambers have been also designed and manufactured in order to achieve the most
representative method for CF experiments. The understanding of crack initiation and propagation
mechanisms are shown to be ambiguous. Metallographic analysis has also been conducted to investigate
the microstructure of failed specimens. Analysing the microstructure, will assist to explain and examine;
the effect of non-metallic inclusions of the material, corrosion features (pits), the initiation and growth of
fatigue cracks.
53
The Use Of The Linear Matching Method For Damage Prediction And Low Cycle Fatigue Analysis
Student
Ross Beesley
ross.beesley@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Haofeng Chen
haofeng.chen@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Fatigue, CrackInitiation, Damage
An engineering component subject to a repeated loading pattern can experience a number of different
damage mechanisms, depending on the magnitude of the load. Each of these mechanisms exhibit
different stress-strain responses and failure characteristics. When designing engineering components, it is
vitally important to gain a thorough understanding of theses mechanisms so that catastrophic failure can
be avoided. This can be achieved by accurately calculating the limit boundaries of each of these
mechanisms, i.e. the precise loads at which each occurs. The Linear Matching Method is a highly efficient
technique that allows the calculation of these limits. In order to demonstrate this, an investigation is
performed to analyse a bespoke and highly complex industrial test specimen. The limit boundaries are
calculated and the results verified through the inspection of the strain history data of a series of step by
step analyses. Once verified, a further analysis is then performed to calculate the number of cycles that
the structure can withstand before crack initiation occurs, known as the low cycle fatigue life. This
investigation demonstrates the key advantages of the Linear Matching Method for calculating the damage
responses and low cycle fatigue life of highly complex, industrial components.
Experimental Testing And Finite Element Modeling Of Nitinol Wires In Various Loading Modes
Student
Alexandros Boukis
alexandros.boukis@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Marcus Wheel
marcus.wheel@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Nitinol, Characterization, Fea
Nickel-titanium (Nitinol) is an alloy which possesses unique shape memory and superelastic properties.
Due to these properties, along with the material’s biocompatibility, Nitinol has been used in numerous
medical applications. Mechanical characterization of the material is often required in order to provide a
qualitative demonstration of its behavioral characteristics and enable the quantitative derivation of its
constitutive properties. Determination of these properties is necessary for the development of constitutive
models that can be employed in numerical formulations in order to create a useable tool for the analysis
and design of medical devices. Constitutive material models are often calibrated using uniaxial tensile test
results. However, these are often insufficient to predict the complex material behavior and data from other
comparable studies exploring the behavior of Nitinol wires in other loading modes are scarce. In the
present work the mechanical behavior of Nitinol wires has been investigated in a variety of loading modes
including tension, compression, bending and torsion. A comparison between these loading modes was
made and experimental data were used to assess the Auricchio constitutive model available in the
commercial finite element package Abaqus. The most important experimental and numerical results will be
presented.
Unravelling The Synthesis Of Bioinspired Mesoporous Silica Materials By Molecular Simulations
Student
Alessia Centi
alessia.centi@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Miguel Jorge
miguel.jorge@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Biosilicification, Templates, Atomistic
Bioinsipered materials combine the structural characteristics of traditional silica materials with milder
synthetic conditions typical of biosilicification. However, the complexity of the system, with many different
54
processes occurring at the same time, makes it difficult to obtain a complete description of it solely from
experimental observations. Such knowledge is essential to obtain better control of material properties. In
this work, we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of diamine surfactants in water and in the
presence of silica monomers to study the early stages of synthesis of one of the first example of
bioinspired materials, called MSU-V. Simulations at different amine concentrations and pH were
performed, allowing us to study the influence of the charge state of the system on the self-assembly
process. Our results reveal that stable lamellar structures are formed at the equilibrium for intermediate pH
values. Furthermore, when silica is added to the system, we show that silicates strongly adsorb at the
interface, in the same range of pH, while causing a change in the curvature of the layer. These structures
are in qualitative agreement with the multilamellar vesicles observed experimentally and reminiscent of the
pattern arrangements observed in Nature during biosilicification.
An Investigation On The Mechanics Of Nanometric Cutting Of Hard-Brittle Materials At Elevated
Temperatures
Student
Saeed Zare Chavoshi
s.zare@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Xichun Luo
Design Manufacture & Engineering
Management
Keywords
HotNanometricCutting, MolecularDynamics, HardBrittleMaterials
Nanometric cutting as a sub-set of ultra-high precision manufacturing is a promising process which can be
employed for scalable manufacturing of silicon and silicon carbide for producing 3D components requiring
submicron form accuracy and nanometric smooth finish. However, such hard-brittle materials have poor
machinability at room temperature due to their relatively low fracture toughness and high hardness. A
common understanding is that high temperature reduces the yield strength and hardness of these
nominally brittle materials, and improves the fracture toughness which in turn improves their plastic
deformation and machinability. This study aims at adopting molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with
different types of interatomic potential functions accompanied by experimental trials to elucidate
mechanisms involved in nanometric cutting of hard-brittle materials i.e. silicon and silicon carbide on the
three principal crystal orientations at various cutting temperatures. Material flow behaviour, cutting chip
characteristics, cutting forces and specific cutting energy, yielding stresses, stress and temperature on the
cutting edge of the diamond tool, tool wear, defect-mediated plasticity and amorphization processes were
the indicators used to quantify the differences in the cutting behaviour. Furthermore, the experimental
studies of the pressure-induced silicon polymorphs in nanometric cutting at elevated temperatures are
performed.
Pulse Current Deposition Of Copper Using An Additive-Bearing Enface Electrolyte
Student
Eden May Dela Pena
eden.dela-pena@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Sudipta Roy
sudipta.roy@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
PulseDeposition, EnfaceTechnology,
Copper
Keywords
A process called EnFACE allows mask-less pattern transfers onto a metallic substrate. EnFACE uses a
novel acid-free, additive-free plating bath containing low concentrations of metal salts as the process
requires electroplating under conditions of fast kinetics and low electrolyte conductivity. However, the
possibility of improving copper deposits through the combined action of additives and pulsed current has
not been studied. The current work reports on the influence of commercials additives, namely, Copper
Gleam series (Dow chemicals) and chloride ions (Cl-), on the properties of copper electroplated using the
EnFACE electrolyte in pulsed current mode. Copper films were electroplated on stainless steel coupons
from electrolytes containing different concentrations of additives. The deposit was characterised using
electron backscattered diffraction(EBSD), tensile test machine (UTM) and the four point probe. EBSD
images indicated that the additive caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the grain size of the
deposit. This grain refinement resulted in improvements in yield and tensile strength, but reduced the
ductility and resistivity of deposits. The use of pulsed current reduced the required additive amount by
67% to create copper films that meet industry quality standards.
55
Computational And Experimental Analysis Of The Size Effects Displayed In Beams With A Lattice
Microstructure
Student
Martin Dunn
martin.dunn@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Marcus Wheel
marcus.wheel@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Micropolar, Heterogeneous, Materials
The mechanical behaviour of heterogeneous materials cannot be fully described by classical elasticity
theories alone. Higher order theories such as Micropolar elasticity have been developed to capture the
effects which are not observed in classical elasticity. While the theory of micropolar elasticity has been
extensively discussed in the literature, very few experimental investigations have been undertaken which
can accurately capture the constitutive parameters needed to fully define a micropolar material. The focus
of this body of research is to provide a computational and experimental evaluation of customised
micropolar materials manufactured by additive manufacturing processes with the aim of capturing
micropolar constitutive parameters with rigorous experimental procedures. Computational results have
indicated that samples loaded in flexure are influenced by the density of the material. Very low density
materials in particular are subjected to localised loading effects which can mask the expected size scaling
effects. Moreover, it has been observed that such materials can exhibit size scale effects not predicted by
micropolar elasticity. Initial experimental results indicate a good correlation with the computational
simulations of a cubic lattice beam, but more work is needed to fully understand discrepancies which are
observed in a closed cell composite.
Force Sensing Enabled By P(Vdf-Trfe) Sensor Coupled With Organic Thin-Film Transistor
Student
Stuart Hannah
stuart.hannah@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Helena Gleskova
helena.gleskova@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Organics, Force, Sensing
The ability to accurately monitor applied force has gained increasing momentum in recent years,
particularly for the development of large-area robotic and/or electronic skin. The combination of flexible
pressure sensors with organic circuitry can address low cost, large-area, flexible, rollable, and stretchable
sensor circuits. The pressure sensor presented here utilises ferroelectric copolymer polyvinylidene
fluoride-trifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) which can be exploited for capacitive and piezoelectric sensing to
detect static and/or dynamic forces. The parallel plate sensor consists of a 2.5 µm thick P(VDF-TrFE) layer
sandwiched between Al and Au electrodes with an active sensing area of 25 mm2. The sensor was
connected to the gate electrode of a low-voltage p channel organic transistor based on DNTT with channel
length of 30 µm and channel width of 1 mm. Normal compressive force was applied to the sensor. The
applied force changes the sensor’s capacitance that is coupled to the gate of the organic transistor,
resulting in a change in the transistor drain current. Various input voltages (VIN) were chosen to study the
response of the sensor circuit to static force.
Insulating Liquids: Lightning Impulse Stress Properties
Student
Yi Jing
y.jing@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Igor. V. Timoshkin
scott. j. macgregro
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
LightingImpulse, Nanoparticles, Insulating
56
Dielectric liquids are widely used as electrical insulation in power equipment including high-voltage and
medium-voltage transformers. The insulating liquids typically employed in power systems are naphthenic
mineral oils. However, stringent environmental protection regulations encourage operators and
manufacturers of high-voltage equipment to use more environmentally friendly, bio-degradable insulating
liquids with low toxicity. There is also a strong demand for the reduction in the footprint of modern highvoltage and pulsed-power equipment; resulting in a higher demand for insulating liquids with advanced
dielectric properties. In response to this demand, manufacturers of dielectric liquids are actively investing
in the development of new products, such as natural and synthetic esters, for applications in the power
and pulsed-power industries. Natural, organic oils and synthetic esters are considered as potential
substitutes for traditional naphthenic mineral oils due to their higher flash temperature and lower toxicity.
However, the dielectric properties of ester fluids are not yet fully known, especially in strongly divergent
electric field conditions, including pulsed electric fields, restricting the potential industrial applications of
these liquids. This report presents the results of an experimental investigation into impulsive breakdown
voltages and pre-breakdown times of mineral oil, synthetic and natural ester fluids with titanium dioxide
(TiO2) nanoparticles.
Superplasticity In Hexagonal Based Alloys
Student
Ubaedullah Khaliq
ubaedullah.khaliq@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
paul.blackwell@strath.ac.uk
Department
Prof. Paul Blackwell
Design Manufacture & Engineering
Management
Keywords
Superplastic, Forming, Titanium
EngD (AFRC): Superplasticity in Hexagonal based Materials This project is directly related to the
understanding and manufacture of HCP metal alloy with highly potential applications within the Aerospace
industry. This project employs hot forming and superplastic forming processes for the under researched
Titanium 54M alloy. In this project an understanding of material properties of this HCP alloy are being
developed, at the macro and micro level, for whilst the material is under forming operations under given
Super Plastic Forming (SPF) conditions. Further to this, through the use of research, engineering software
and the aid of 3D imaging, stress and strain rate data will be developed for this Titanium metal alloy,
during its manufacturing conditions. From this the analytical description of alpha & beta morphologies and
its evolution during deformation will be defined. The work involved is done in conjunction and liaison
across Strathclyde University and AFRC for their laboratories and design engineering functions. I will
provide useful and practical information for this titanium alloy analysed under differing SPF conditions.
This data is expected to inform process modelling work and direct manufacture to allow improvements and
increased efficiencies to current applications/processes utilised within the Aerospace industry.
The Influence Of Hail On Wind Turbine Blade Leading Edge Erosion And Damage
Student
Hamish Macdonald
hamish.m.macdonald@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Margaret M. Stack
margaret.stack@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Hail, Damage, Blade
Wind turbines are subject to a wide range of environmental conditions during a lifespan that can
conceivably extend beyond 20 years. Hailstone impact is thought to be a key factor in the leading edge
erosion and damage of wind turbine blades. In addition to the various maintenance concerns , a
worsening in blade condition can lead to a significant reduction in annual energy production. Hazards to
the material integrity of the blade are of on-going concern to the industry; however there is a considerable
lack of literature within this area of research to understand and quantify this risk. Meteorological data will
be utilised to describe a likely impact portfolio and through both numerical modelling and experimental
work, will address the precise mechanisms and cumulative damage associated with hail impact on wind
turbine blades.
57
Adsorption Studies Of Metal-Organic Frameworks For Use In Carbon Capture Technologies
Student
Craig Mcanally
craig.mcanally@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Ashleigh Fletcher
ashleigh.fletcher@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Carboncapture, Adsorption,
MetalOrganicframeworks
Keywords
Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are hybrid structures containing organic bridging ligands and inorganic
metal centres, forming porous networks that offer a range of properties, from tunable pore sizes, high
surface areas and flexibility to functionality, making them potential candidates for Carbon Capture and
Storage (CCS) technologies, as well as many other applications. Research into new adsorbents with
selectivity towards CO2 over other gases is still in the initial stages, with many studies focussing on
obtaining materials with high surface areas. The addition of flexibility or functionality can also improve
adsorption capacity and provide interesting properties in the adsorption profile. Newly synthesised MOFs,
which incorporate fluorine or nitrogen containing functional groups, were studied for their CO2 capture
capabilities. Thermodynamic and kinetic properties from adsorption data were analysed to describe the
barriers to adsorption which are experienced by the frameworks, due in part to activate diffusion effects.
This provides better understanding of the adsorption processes and helps form the basis for development
of similarly tailored sorbents for use in future industrial scale carbon capture solutions.
The Development Of A Novel Surface Engineering Process For Metal Matrix Composite Coatings
Student
Tom Peat
tom.peat@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Alex Galloway
alex.galloway@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Erosion, Cermet, Fsp
The study focuses on the development of a new surface engineering technology titled SprayStir. SprayStir
combines two existing surface modification processes; cold gas dynamic spraying (cold spray) and friction
stir processing (FSP). Metal matrix composite coatings will be co-deposited onto a substrate using cold
spray. The FSP tool will then traverse across the coated region, stirring the metal matrix composite
material into the substrate whilst simultaneously homogenising the distribution of deposited powder
particles. Coatings will be examined in the as deposited condition (no FSP) and in the SprayStirred
condition. This work concentrates on the evaluation of coatings under solid liquid impingement testing
using a recirculating saline solution containing sand particles. Moreover, isolation of the contributing
factors of erosion, corrosion and synergy under these conditions will be established through applied
cathodic protection and anodic polarization sweeps. Micro hardness, light optical and scanning electron
microscopy provide characterisation of the as deposited and SprayStirred coatings with wear scar analysis
of the impinged region facilitating investigation of mechanisms contributing to material removal. The aim of
the study is to provide comprehensive data on the erosion performance of three cermet coatings in
conditions representing a flowing environment.
Fatigue Analysis Of Marine Lithium-Ion Batteries By Using Peridynamics
Student
Hanlin Wang
hanlin.wang@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Erkan Oterkus
erkan.oterkus@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
The shortage of fossil fuel and high fuel prices with more strict pollution criteria have become important
factors for searching new energy sources in marine industry. Marine lithium-ion battery is a promising
energy storage equipment which has various applications in vessels. Comparing with traditional batteries,
58
lithium-ion battery has revealed excellent performance in energy to weight ratio, recharging time and life
cycles. The performance of lithium ion batteries mainly depends on the material properties of battery
electrodes and electrolyte. For example, LiCoO2 has high energy density and high capacities, but low
thermal stability. On the other hand, LiFePO4 has excellent thermal stability, but low electric conductivity.
Fracture may occur after many cycles during charging and discharging processes since the
electrochemical reaction is accompanied by significant volume change in battery electrode. This can lead
to imbalanced distribution of stress, pressure and temperature which may cause crack emergence and
propagation. As a result, unstable voltage, low capacity, high temperature and battery failure might
eventually occur. In this study, the failure analysis of marine lithium-ion batteries is investigated by using a
new computational technique called peridynamics.
Management
A Study Of The Influence Of Network Structural Embeddedness On Organization Innovativeness
Student
Khalid Alkuaik
khalid.alkuaik@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Nuran Acur Bakir
nuran.acur@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
Network, Embeddedness, Innovativeness
&
Engineering
This paper explores the impact of network structural embeddedness of an organization on its
innovativeness. Based on a survey of 104 organizations in the medium and high technology sectors in Saudi
Arabia, we explored the relationships between different network characteristics (i.e. network density,
centrality) and organization’s type and degree of innovativeness. Using a logistic regression analysis, the
study finds that there is a positive and significant relationship between organization’s network density and
centrality with both product innovation and process innovation. Additionally, the study investigated the
influence of network characteristics on the degree of novelty of innovation (i.e. radical innovation). The
findings reveal that having a central network position in terms of betweenness and degree centrality have a
positive and significant relationship with novel innovation. However, the study results show insignificant
relationship between network density and novel innovation.
Socio-Technical Architectural Model For Collaborative Engineering Design
Student
Tiffany Imron
tiffany-sophiana-imron@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Professor Alex Duffy
alex.duffy@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
CollaborativeDesign, Sociotechnical
&
Engineering
Collaborative engineering design may be considered as being socio-technical. However, pertinent research
has tended to focus upon technical elements with relatively little addressing the inter-related social elements.
As such, despite the considerable research on collaborative engineering design, our initial literature
exploration and industrial investigation results suggest that organisations are still facing challenges in
conducting the collaboration activity. A unified model of socio-technical elements of collaborative
engineering design and their inter-relationships could help improve the process. A triangulation approach
was carried out through literature exploration, semi-structured interviews with multi-disciplinary design
actors, workshops with practitioners and academics, and an interview with a social psychology expert. From
this, three social aspects (i.e. human actors, organisation, and communication), three technical aspects (i.e.
design process, design outcome, and tools) and their inter-relationships were derived. The model has two
levels of details: elements and feature. Further research is under way to evaluate the model through
pertinent case studies.
59
High Value Meetings: A New Framework For Business Meeting Performance
Student
Pam Marshall
pamela.marshall@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Ian Whitfiled
ian.whitfield@strath.ac.uk
Department
Keywords
Design
Manufacture
&
Engineering
Management
HighValueMeetings, OrganisationalResources,
BusinessModelling
The aim of the research is to holistically manage the co-ordination and operational management of High
Value Meetings (HVMs). To achieve this, a new framework has been created, based on the Total Value
Model developed by the research, to address the fundamental elements required for a HVM. In order to be
of high value, business meetings must have clearly defined purposes a priori, which are fulfilled whilst
coordinating the appropriate resources in a timely and effective manner. The work has focused on
scheduling and a case study has been undertaken within a large Scottish utility company to establish the
‘as is’ position. A scheduling tool, which identifies options whilst considering value and cost, has been
developed to assist meeting schedulers. As meetings are commonplace the complexity of this research may
be underestimated, however the solution addresses a constrained and uncertain situation and relies on
diverse information whilst taking into account cultural issues. Whilst the project aims to satisfy the
requirements of the case study organisation, it is expected that the solution will be generic and applicable
to any medium or large organisation to improve meeting performance.
The Role Of Intellectual Capital And Innovation Capability In Ict-Smes
Student
Arie Restu Wardhani
arie-restu-wardhani@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Keywords
Design
Manufacture
Management
Intellectualcapital,
Businessperformance
&
Engineering
Innovationcapability,
In the dot-com bubble era recently, the growths of ICT companies are mushrooming. It forces the manager
in this sector to focus on innovation capability to prevail the competition. It is essential but not easy to
manage innovation capability. It needs the willingness to learn something new, improve and develop the
new skills, and catch the opportunity of innovativeness. Therefore, the top manager has an important role
in supporting innovation capability, particularly in ICT-SMEs. The issues emerge in SMEs pertaining
innovation i.e. the limited resources, the lack of technological competencies, the prerogative of the owner in
decision making, and dependence on limited consumers and suppliers. To solve the problems, ICT-SMEs
require the integration of their innovation capability and the resource to stimulate the innovation outcome
and business performance. In identifying resources, many scholars propose tangible resource such as
machine, tools and financial as the driver of innovation capability. There are limited studies in intangible
aspect, especially in the intellectual capital, namely human capital and social capital. Therefore, this
research aims to fill this gap and built the model of the relationship between human capital, social capital
and innovation capability to enhance business performance.
60
Modelling and Monitoring
Finding The Maritime Resilient Measurement Through Calculating The Declining Of Resilience
Resource Reduction Factor (Rf)
Student
Omar Badokhon
omar.badokhon@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
This research is aimed to presents a conceptual maritime resilience model. It able to reduce the impact of
the instability risks by developing monitoring and mitigation techniques that increase the system flexibility.
The method focuses on the utilisation of the system resources as an important factor to develop operation
flexibility. It has the capacity to define and measure the resilience components of the maritime system. The
methodology relies on dividing the maritime operation system to functions: Human, Procedures and
Technology, and allocates the required resources to each function. Four major resilience stages will develop
including their resources, which are anticipation, withstanding, adaptation and restoration. The approach
requires each single resource to receive Resilience Resource Reduction Factor (RF) value through
developing assessment and weighting framework. The resilience concept so far is new approach in the
industry, and not finds its way to the maritime sector. The results of this research may encourage more
investigation in the future to discover new application from this field. The implementation of this model has
some challenges. The organisation personnel who are planning to apply it must have suitable maritime
experience.
Investigate And Develop Robust And Accurate Numerical Method For The Evaluation Of High
Temperature Creep Response Of Structures.
Student
Daniele Barbera
daniele.barbera@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Haofeng Chen
haofeng.chen@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Creep, Fatigue, Assessment
In order to meet criteria for clean and sustainable energy production, it is essential for power generation to
increase efficiency while simultaneously decreasing levels of chemical emissions and pollutants. Higher
operating temperatures will allow better efficiency reducing fuel consumption and harmful emissions.
Moreover, in order to extend the life of existing power plants, improvement of the performance of power
plant component under high temperature creep condition is crucial for UK to meet its long-term energy and
environmental targets. The research work has been developed through different aspects of high temperature
assessment. The most important is the creep fatigue interaction, which has been recently identified as a
crucial research topic by the EPSRC. The Linear Matching Method for extended Direct Steady Cycle
Analysis has been further tested and developed. A pipe intersection with dissimilar material joint, subjected
to high cycling temperature and constant pressure steam, is presented as a practical case of study. The
impact of the material mismatch, transitional thermal load, and creep dwell on the failure mechanism and
location within the intersection is investigated. The final part of the research work will consist in an accurate
implementation of different creep damage models within the numerical procedure.
Peridynamic Modelling Of Localized Corrosion
Student
Dennj De Meo
dennj.demeo@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Erkan Oterkus
erkan.oterkus@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Corrosion, Fracture, Materials
61
Peridynamic (PD) is a generalization of classical continuum mechanics (CCM), introduced by Silling in 2000
in USA. CCM is the theory behind well-known FEM commercial software such as ANSYS and Abaqus,
which are quite efficient and robust for the stress and deformation analysis of structures. Unfortunately, their
limitations become clear when dealing with problems such as material inhomogeneities and materials
failure. This is mainly due to the fact that CCM is based on the assumption that the body remains continuous
while it deforms; in other words, if a crack occurs during the deformation process, the mathematical
formulation of CCM breaks down. Some other limitations of CCM are: the need to assume a pre-existing
crack, the need for an external crack growth criterion, the lack of length scale parameter, the need of auxiliary
equations for material interfaces and the difficulty in modelling complex phenomena such as multiple cracks
coalition, crack arresting and crack branching. Several studies available in the literature show that PD can
overcome these limitations and, for the first time ever, PD will be employed for the modeling of complex
corrosion phenomena such as stress corrosion cracking.
Multi-Population Adaptive Inflationary Differential Evolution Algorithm With Adaptive Local Restart
For Space Trajectory Optimisation
Student
Marilena Di Carlo
marilena.di-carlo@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Massimiliano Vasile
massimiliano.vasile@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
TrajectoryOptimisation, GlobalOptimisation,
AdaptiveAlgorithm
Differential Evolution is a population-based stochastic algorithm for solving optimisation problems. Although
it has proved to be a very efficient global optimiser, its performances are strongly influenced by the settings
of its parameters. Moreover, stagnation of Differential Evolution due to collapse of the population to a fixed
point or to a level set has been theoretically demonstrated. In this paper a Multi-Population Inflationary
Differential Evolution Algorithm with Adaptive Local Restart is presented. The algorithm combines a multipopulation adaptive Differential Evolution with local search and local and global restart procedures. The
proposed algorithm implements a simple but effective mechanism to avoid multiple detections of the same
local minima. The novel mechanism allows the algorithm to decide whether to start or not a local search.
The local restart of the population, which follows the local search, is, therefore, automatically adapted. The
algorithm has been extensively tested over more than fifty test functions from the Competitions of the
Congress on Evolutionary Computation and comparisons with other algorithms participating in the
competitions have been performed. Results obtained applying the algorithm to space trajectory optimisation
problems are presented.
Enhanced Weather Modelling For Dynamic Line Rating
Student
Fulin Fan
fulin.fan@foxmail.com
Supervisor
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Rating, Probabilistic Forecasting.
The real-time thermal rating (RTTR) of an overhead line (OHL) is the maximum permissible level of power
flow at which an OHL can be operated safely and reliably at the time in question. An OHL is conventionally
operated below a static line rating which is estimated under a conservative set of weather conditions for a
particular season. This project aims to develope a weahter-based RTTR forecasting technique, estimating
the line's actual ampacity in the form of percentiles at a given future moment. Based on the weather data
observed at weather stations, the project uses the conditionally heteroscedastic auto-regresive models
combined with a technique of minimum continuous ranked probability score estimation to estimate predictive
distributions of weather conditions. The possible weather conditions along the OHL are inferred from
numerous weather inputs randomly sampled from each independent marginal distribution. Then RTTR
forecasts are calculated based on numerous weather inputs and their percentiles are smoothed and
estimated by kernel density estimation.
62
Minimum-Time Reference Trajectories For Drone Racing
Student
Jonathan Jamieson
jonathan.jamieson@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Malcolm Macdonald
malcolm.macdonald.102@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Uavs, TrajectoryPlanning
This presentation develops a method for generating feasible, minimum-time reference trajectories for drone
racing. Also known as FPV racing, drone racing involves enthusiasts flying quadrotors through gates around
a course whilst avoiding collisions with obstacles. The winner is the competitor whose drone crosses the
finish first. Each UAV has a camera streaming live footage to its owner enabling a first person view (FPV).
Our reference trajectories provide a benchmark performance that pilots can target. We formulate the
problem using polynomials in the virtual domain that minimise the geometrical path length before mapping
them into the real time domain. The resulting trajectory is continuously smooth, passes through desired
waypoints and satisfies any conditions placed on the boundary derivatives. Feasibility is checked using an
inverse dynamics formulation. By combining our method for finding minimum-time trajectories with sampling
based planning algorithms such as RRT (Rapidly Exploring Random-Trees) we can find trajectories in
complex environments containing obstacles.
Structural Health Monitoring Of Marine Structures By Using Inverse Finite Element Method
Student
Adnan Kefal
Supervisor
Erkan Oterkus
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
StructuralHealthMonitoring,
MarineStructures,
InverseFiniteElementMethod
adnan.kefal@strath.ac.uk
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is an important discipline in areas of civil, aerospace, marine, automotive
engineering. Utilization of SHM in the marine industry allows us to increase both human and environmental
safety in conjunction with reduction in maintenance costs. Real-time construction of structural deformations
is a key component of SHM by utilizing the strain data obtained from sensors at various locations of a
structure. An algorithm that can be used to obtain structural deformations in real-time was recently
introduced and named as inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM). iFEM formulation involves the entire
structural geometry that is discretized by using suitable inverse finite elements in which the measured strain
data are adapted to the element strains in a least-square sense. This results in a system of linear algebraic
equations and can be solved to determine the unknown displacements which provide the deformed
structural shape at any real-time. Evaluated real-time displacement data can be used to determine strains
and stresses in the structure which will allow damage detection by utilizing a failure criterion. Hence, in this
PhD project, SHM of marine structures will be performed by using iFEM.
Wind Farm Control To Meet Grid And O&M Requirements
Student
Velissarios Kourkoulis
velissarios.kourkoulis@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
William Leithead
w.leithead@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Wind, Farm, Modelling
This research aims to design a wind farm controller to trade-off the grid requirements against the operators
need to for optimal utilisation of their assets, by using the Power Adjusting Controller (PAC). The PAC allows
the wind farm operator to manipulate the power outcome of each individual wind turbine, and consequently
alter the power output of the wind farm. The PAC can be used to either reduce or increase the power output
63
of a wind turbine, whilst safe guards keep operation within a safe operational region. At present,wind farms
simply output all the power that can be extracted from the wind at any given time. However, future scenarios
for UK power generation envisage a substantial penetration of offshore wind energy. It will no longer be
appropriate to operate wind farms in this simple manner. All the information available for the wind farm,
including SCADA data, wind speed data, repair and servicing data, would need to be exploited to ensure
that each wind turbine is operated with the appropriate trade-off between loading and power production. To
achieve the design of the wind farm controller a suitable wind farm model is going to be developed.
Using Short ‘Spot’ Measurements Of Air Pollution To Estimate Longer Term Concentrations
Student
Nicola Masey
nicola.masey@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Iain Beverland
iain.beverland@strath.ac.uk
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
AirPollution, Monitoring
Air pollution has been consistently associated with adverse effects on human health. Epidemiology studies
examine the associations between health outcomes and exposure to pollutant concentrations and frequently
require pollution measurements to be made to estimate individual exposures in the study areas. Passive
samplers used in these studies typically measure weekly average exposures at the chosen site locations,
resulting in relatively low temporal resolution. Real-time instruments have been developed to allow
concentrations of pollutants to be measured at sites continuously; however these are more expensive and
consequently can only be deployed at fewer sites. In this work several real-time instruments measuring
different pollutants were used to make short 5 minute measurements at sites around the University of
Strathclyde. At each of these sites, weekly measurements were also made simultaneously using passive
samplers. The aim of the research was to determine if short-term measurements could be used to estimate
longer-term pollution concentrations. The relationships between different pollutants measured by real-time
instruments were also determined to evaluate if it is possible to estimate concentrations of several pollution
metrics using a single measurement device.
A Passive Cooling System For Warm Humid Climates.
Student
Iheanyichukwu Onyeabo Ogbonnaya
iheanyichukwu.ogbonnaya@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Stirling Howieson
s.howieson@strath.ac.uk
Department
Architecture
Keywords
Passivecooling, Radiantcooling, Heatsinks
Indoor comfort is a difficult task to achieve without mechanical means in warm humid regions of south
Eastern Nigeria. An innovative passive cooling system is developed to demonstrate the potentials of
combined passive cooling strategies for buildings to achieve indoor comfort. The system uses the
atmosphere and the earth'a crust as heat sinks. The sky has average cooling potentials of 68W/m2 on a
black body surface and temperature as low as -7deg C under clear sky conditions in study area and
temperature drops of 10- 15deg C below ambient on exposed surfaces. The temperature underneath the
earth crust 3m deep is found to be between 18 and 20 deg C. Integration of the heat sinks with the building
envelope through design is the aim of the passive cooling system introduced in the study. Expected drop in
energy usage for air conditioning is between 30 to 80%, with a payback period of less than 5 years.
Autonomous Collaborative On-Orbit Servicing
Student
Juan Manuel Romero Martin
juan.romero-martin@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Massimiliano Vasile
massimiliano.vasile@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
OnOrbitServicing
64
This paper presents a novel autonomy framework developed for autonomous collaborative On-Orbit
Servicing (OOS) capable of planning and scheduling the execution of elementary pre-defined actions to
fulfill complex on-orbit servicing missions. The two main components of the framework are: i) a novel bioinspired discrete decision-making algorithm, and ii) a distributed Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC)
architecture. The framework generates a collaborative plan and schedule of docking and undocking
operations for a swarm of servicing satellites, executed with a distributed navigation and control system.
The autonomy framework implements a cascade flow procedure architecture to plan first (Decision Layer)
and to execute later (Executive Layer). The framework can generate optimal plan and schedule for servicing
tasks and also perform autonomous close proximity operations, rendezvous, and docking (RVD) with
cooperative and non-cooperative targets. The autonomy framework allows cooperation, tasks sharing,
navigation and control with other servicing spacecraft to attain the mission goals while it ensures safety
throughout all over the operational plan by providing collision avoidance constraints with the target
spacecraft and the other servicing spacecraft.
Asteroid Impact Risk Assessment Under Epistemic Uncertainty
Student
Chiara Tardioli
chiara.tardioli@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Massimiliano Vasile
massimiliano.vasile@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Uncertainty, Dynamics, Asteroid
The talk will propose an approach to assess the impact risk of an hypothetical near-Earth asteroid at a given
impact epoch. The analysis accounts for the uncertainty on both the orbital parameters and the dynamical
model. The orbit uncertainty comes from the observation errors, which are considered to follow a Gaussian
distribution. The error in the model is mainly due to the Yarkovsky effect and is the more difficult to capture
because of the lack of knowledge on the physical parameters of the asteroid. Therefore, the uncertainty in
the model is considered to be epistemic in nature. The impact probability is then computed using the theory
of upper and lower expectation. The talk will also include an analysis of the post deflection impact risk
assuming that also the deflection action is affected by some degree of epistemic uncertainty.
Mission And System Design For The Deflection Of Potentially Hazardous Objects With Space-Borne
Lasers
Student
Nicolas Thiry
nicolas.thiry@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Massimiliano Vasile
massimiliano.vasile@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Mitigation, Asteroid, SpaceDebris
We review the ability of space-borne laser systems to deflect the trajectory of an asteroid on a potential
collision course with the Earth or to de-orbit a man-made piece of orbital debris. By comparison with other
proposed methods requiring the use of propellant, with laser ablation, the ablated material is used to push
the target itself allowing for an appreciable reduction in the mass requirement for a space mission. We
developed a model to predict the amount of thrust continuously generated by the ablation process as a
function of the characteristics (Power and focusing optics) of the laser system. This model is then coupled
with an orbital propagator to simulate the ability of a laser-based deflection mission to move a small (56m 100m Diameter) asteroid or an 8-ton defunct satellite presently orbiting in SSO. Key requirements on the
laser system are then derived from the results these translate on general requirements for the spacecraft.
In the last part of the paper, we show that a moderate size spacecraft or a swarm of such spacecraft could
ensure a successful deflection outcome for an asteroid redirect mission.
65
Reconfiguring Smart Structures Using Approximate Heteroclinic Connections
Student
Jiaying Zhang
jiaying.zhang@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
The application of flexible smart structures in industry is of growing importance across the Aerospace,
Energy and Marine sectors. While these structures have low damping and stiffness, and so are vulnerable
to external disturbances, they offer new modes of operation through active reconfiguration of their shape. In
this research project, the exploitation of instability is linked to the powerful concept of phase space
connections from modern dynamical systems theory. Firstly, a set of equilibrium configurations will be
identified in a simple model of a reconfigurable smart structure. A reconfigurable smart structure is defined
here as a mechanical system which has the ability to change its kinematic configuration between a finite set
of equilibria (stable or unstable). It will be assumed that the reconfigurable structure used possesses
embedded sensors and actuators which will allow the structure to be actively controlled. In particular, it will
be assumed that the structure can be stabilised at naturally unstable equilibria through the use of active
control. It will then be shown that a subset of unstable, equal energy configurations can be connected
through hetero clinic connections in the phase space of the problem, allowing highly efficient reconfiguration
of the entire structure.
Visual Induced Motion Sickness Onboard
Student
Pengfei Zhang
p.zhang@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Osman Turan
o.turan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
MotionSickness, SubjectiveVertical
With development of sensory conflict theory and the heuristic model, Bles et al. (1998) proposed the
subjective vertical (SV-conflict) theory of motion sickness. Sensed vertical is Earth’s gravity as perceived by
the human’s sense modalities, while subjective vertical is also Earth’s gravity but in accordance with the
‘expectations’ of central nervous system based on past interactions with spatial environment. This theory
radically simplifies the original sensory conflict theory and gives the heuristic model a pragmatic approach.
The motion sickness models developed under the SV-conflict theory have successfully been used by Bos
& Bles, Verveniotis & Turan, Bos et al. and Dallinga et al. to predict seasickness incidences aboard high
speed passenger ferries. Inclusion of additional motion sense modalities, in particular the visual, within the
orientation estimation part of the model. In this regard, it would be interesting to investigate ameliorating as
well as exacerbating combinations of the visual sense for motion sickness. Resultantly, a visual display
system may be developed to provide Earth-fixed reference of the visual vertical. Thereby, improving the
comfort levels aboard passenger ships, leading to improved ferry economics.
66
Medical Applications
Examining Speech Perception In Parkinson'S Disease
Student
Alexander Stephen Barbour
alexander.s.barbour@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Heba Lakany
heba.lakany@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Speechperception, Parkinson'sDisease, Eeg
Prosody is the modulation of the acoustic properties of speech; these properties include fundamental
frequency (F0), voice quality, loudness, speech rate and rhythm. This modulation conveys much of the
speaker’s intended meaning making it essential to the conveyance and interpretation of spoken
communications. An inability to correctly perceive or convey prosody (called dysprosody) therefore
significantly impedes an individual’s ability to communicate with those around them, significantly disrupting
their quality of life. People with Parkinson’s disease are often unable to perceive or produce appropriate
prosody which can result in comorbidities or exacerbates existing ones. Dysprosody does not respond well
to traditional treatments and in spite of the difficulties it causes the patient, the mechanisms underlying
dysprosody are not well understood and its prevalence not well documented. This project uses
electroencephalogram (EEG) to better understand the mechanisms underlying inhibited prosodic perception
in Parkinson’s disease. The EEG response of people with Parkinson’s disease to prosodic features in
speech is recorded and compared to the EEG response of healthy controls with the aim of establishing if
inhibited prosodic perception in Parkinson’s disease is a result of deficits in either: I) early and automatic
speech processing II) later, cognitive processing or a combination of both.
Investigation Into The Biomechanics Surrounding Bruise Formation
Student
Heather Black
heather.black@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Philip Riches
philip.riches@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Bruise, Impact, Biomechanics
Contusions, or bruises, are injuries commonly observed within cases of assault. However, their
interpretation is currently subjective, with the mechanics of their formation and how this affects their
appearance over time, not completely understood. Research in this area is limited, with the primary aim
being to reduce the subjectivity of visual interpretation. Second to this, documentation methods are
commonly investigated, such as colour or infrared photography, all with varying success. However, studies
specifically investigating the mechanics of bruise formation are limited. This research aims to tackle this
problem and thus far, pilot work has shown that tissue response varies significantly between two individuals,
whilst also influencing the severity of bruising observed. A more extensive study is required to determine
which factors, including age and BMI, influence the impact characteristics (e.g. impacting force), and
resultant bruising. Following ethical approval, blunt impacts are delivered to the thigh of volunteers under
controlled conditions. A paintball marker will be used to generate the blunt impacts, while a high speed
camera will record impacts and allow for impact force estimation. Colour, cross-polarised and IR
photography will be used to document and identify contusions.
Development Of A Robotic System For Next Generation Scarless Surgery
Student
Justin Caselton
justin.caselton@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr. Wei Yao
w.yao@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Robotic, Surgery, Laparoscopy
Laparoscopic surgery has become common place in a variety of surgical fields and has emerged as a gold
standard for a variety of abdominal surgical procedures. In an effort to further reduce invasiveness,
laparoscopic techniques and equipment have evolved to allow for surgical intervention to be performed
through a single incision, known as single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS). Whilst single incision surgery
offers many benefits including better cosmesis, reduced post-operative pain, there has been debate as to
whether these benefits are realised in practice. Whilst comparative studies have concluded that in the case
of colorectal surgery and cholecystectomy SILS has indeed been shown to produce better results compared
to conventional laparoscopy, there are a multitude of technical and procedural requirements that make
single port surgery extremely challenging. The design and production of a novel robotic platform that meets
67
these requirements is the goal of this research. By utilising a unique, hybrid parallel – serial structure it is
believed that clinical requirements regarding triangulation, visualisation, potential for tissue dissection and
retraction, the addition of more instruments and the provision of a stable platform for instruments to operate
from will be realised. An initial prototype has been produced and has successfully demonstrated the
kinematic feasibility and potential of the design. A second generation prototype is currently in production.
Very Low Frequency Piezo Pressure Sensor For E-Health Applications
Student
Alan Davidson
alan.davidson@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Ivan Glesk
ivan.glesk@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Sensors, Prosthetics
The occurrence of pressure ulcers in the residual limb of prostheses wearers presents a challenge to health
authorities worldwide. Pressure ulcers are debilitating, adversely affect the quality of life of patients and can
be life threatening if allowed to progress. They are caused by sustained normal and shear pressures
especially over bony prominences. In addition, treatment is both expensive and time consuming and, in
some developing countries may not be available. Knowledge of skin/liner interface normal and shear
pressure provides a health indicator of tissue viability that can be used by healthcare professionals to avoid
pressure ulcers altogether in addition to help assess the fit of a prosthetic socket. Such a system must be
wearable to provide continuous in-situ monitoring, must be reliable in both operation and transmission of
data in areas where quality of service in data transmission (QoS) may be inadequate, and must be
inexpensive to allow roll-out in developing countries. A piezo based pressure sensor system with the
sensitivity, dynamic range and low frequency response required to record real time pressure information is
presented that allows non-invasive continuous monitoring of skin/liner pressure signals within prosthetic
devices.
Tele-Rehabilitation Platform
Student
Tom Gerards
tom.gerards@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Professor Philip Rowe
dr. andrew kerr
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
TrTechnology, Rehab
Right now the NHS is in trouble. Looking to the future, things are expected to become even worse due to
population ageing. Clearly there is a need to keep the cost of care under control in the future. Improving the
efficiency of care delivery and preventing disease in old age will become increasingly important to achieve
this. To do this, we would need to enable the rehabilitation services to do a lot more work, with the same
resources. They need to become a lot more efficient. This could be done by using Tele-Rehab, the use of
ICT to deliver rehabilitation by distance. Unfortunately up till now, there is no TR technology available that
meets all the requirements for being used in practice. The aim of this PhD therefore was to develop this
technology, that was made to be low cost and very easy to use. A prototype is being tested for total knee
replacement rehabilitation, where relevant outcomes are measured and used as an input for games,
biofeedback, and keeping track of progress. This helps patients with their motivation to do exercises and
enables a drastic increase in rehab without increasing cost; it makes rehab more efficient.
Investigation Of The Use Of Pulsed 405-Nm Leds For Antimicrobial Applications
Student
Jonathan Gillespie
jonathan.gillespie@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Michelle Maclean
michelle.maclean@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Decontamination, 405Nm, Leds
With the growing problem of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, the drive for alternative methods of
disinfection is increasing. Optical disinfection is currently a topic of interest, with recent studies
demonstrating the antimicrobial properties of 405nm light and its application for continuous environmental
decontamination. This study investigates using pulsed 405nm LEDs, in conjunction with pulsed red, yellow
and green LEDs, to create a blended white light with antimicrobial properties. Despite 405nm light being
effective in terms of microbial inactivation; 405nm light alone, would be uncomfortable to work under.
Therefore, if a blended white light could be produced, including 405nm light, it would be more comfortable
to work under, and could possibly lead to standard white lighting which also provides environmental
68
decontamination. To do this, PWM was employed to control the apparent intensities of the 4 LED colours,
in order to create a blended light. The output of the prototype was then captured and the blending assessed
using a spectrometer. Finally, the prototype underwent antimicrobial testing using the bacterium
Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of hospital-acquired infection. These results demonstrate the
potential to create a blended, pulsed-light system with antimicrobial properties, which could have practical
decontamination applications.
Development Of Electro Active Polymer Vad For Children
Student
Moutaz Hamdan
mhd.hamdan@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Terry Gourlay
terry.gourlay@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Heart, ElectroactivePolymers
Heart disease, in all of its various clinical manifestations is now the primary cause of premature death
throughout the world. In children born with cardiac lesions treatment is complex and challenging. In the most
extreme cases these children would benefit from circulatory support to augment the output from the diseased
heart. Circulatory assist in the form of implantable or paracorporeal Ventricular Assist Devices (VAD) is now
fairly common in adult cardiothoracic practice, but in children this is less common. The deployment of VAD
technology in children is complicated by three major challenges: the small size of the heart, the heart is
growing, and the device should preferably be self-powered. To overcome these patient cohort specific
challenges, the present research aims to develop a VAD technology for pediatrics in which the physical
scale and power of the VAD is matched to the paediatric domain. The objective is to develop a device that
is totally implantable and powered via physiological mechanisms, but critically has the potential to
compensate for the haemodynamic demands of growth. The VAD will utilize cutting edge power harvesting
technology which will eliminate the need for external power cables which carry with them a significant
infection risk.
Using Mechanical Measurements To Detect Early Apoptosis In A Hepatocyte Cell Line By Use Of
Afm
Student
Olivia Kemp
olivia.kemp@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof Helen Grant
m.h.grant@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Toxicity, Apoptosis, Drugs
Liver has been recognised for a long time to be a key organ for drug metabolism and elimination. The liver
also plays an important role in drug absorption due to the distinctive placement between the systemic and
portal circulation. There are different types of cells in the liver each having their different roles. To gain an
understanding if a toxic effect occurs when drugs are applied, the activities within the cell need to be defined.
Liposomes are used to improve the bioavailability of drugs and can reduce the toxic effect. AFM (Atomic
Force Microscope) can be used to analyse morphology and mechanical changes in the cell. However, the
complexity of this technique can prove to be more challenging to achieve relative Young’s Modulus and
ensuring no artefacts affect the image quality.
Understanding Nucleation And Growth Of Amyloid Fibrils
Student
Onorio Mancini
onorio.mancini@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Paul Mulheran
paul.mulheran@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Simulation, Amyloid, Alzheimers
This multidisciplinary project involving expertise from both Chemical & Process Engineering and Physics
aims to understand how and why amyloid fibril structures nucleate and grow. The project combines theory
and simulations, as well as experimental probes of controlled samples. Beta-amyloid is a protein associated
with Alzheimers disease, some forms of Lewy body dementia, and many more diseases. It is a widely
accepted theory that these proteins misfold and start to aggregate, disrupting cell membranes. The
degeneration of brain cells then leads to the development of the amyloidosis disease. However, questions
remain about the mechanisms behind this misfolding/aggregation process due to the limitations of
experimental techniques. This is where molecular modelling and simulations could enable a deeper
understanding of the process. Preliminary data created from Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamic
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simulations has shown novel insight into how the fibrils grow which is complemented by an emerging
theoretical framework. The present aim of the project is to robustly develop these new ideas via Molecular
Dynamics and Monte Carlo Simulations and to supplement these theoretical models with experimental data.
Ultimately we wish to understand how we may halt the aggregation pathways of the protein associated with
the amyloidosis disease progression.
Visual Feedback In Lower Limb Rehabilitation
Student
Lindsay Millar
l.clarke@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Philip Rowe
philip.rowe@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Biomechanics, Visualisation, Feedback
Current rehabilitation for lower limb pathology often focuses on repetitive and uninteresting exercises.
Further, there is limited feedback on quality of movement, progress and outcome. Instrumented motion
analysis can provide accurate and reliable movement data which can provide this type of feedback.
However, current systems are too time consuming and complex to operate for routine clinical use. Therefore,
the aims of this project were to develop a bespoke biomechanical model suited for routine clinical use and
use the model to develop a tool which could provide visual feedback during lower limb rehabilitation. A
bespoke cluster based model (SCM) was developed which is quick and easy to apply and has a comparable
kinematic output to the clinical benchmark (Plug in Gait; Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK). An avatar was
created using the SCM which was used to give patients feedback on the quality of their movement. A number
of feedback visualisations were developed for specific exercises, including sit to stand, step ups and weight
transfer. A clinical trial is currently in progress to determine the effectiveness of the use of visual feedback
in rehabilitation for patients who have undergone total knee arthroplasty surgery.
Development And Characterisation Of Novel Polypyrrole Coatings For Coronary Stents
Student
Sarah Morgan
sarah.morgan@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Richard Black
richard.black@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Stent, Surface, Polymer
Advanced Coronary Heart Disease is commonly treated by insertion of a Drug-eluting stent (DES) into a
previously blocked coronary artery, helping restore blood flow to the heart. Research efforts are now focused
on the development of stents, which encourage rapid endothelial cell re-growth. Surface topography has
been shown to influence cell adhesion, proliferation and migration. Conducting polymers such as polypyrrole
are emerging as potential DES coatings, although there has been little detailed investigation of their surface
topography in this context. We have previously characterised the surface topography and drug release
profiles of polypyrrole coatings produced through potentiostatic electropolymerisation. The roughness of
these coatings was found to be in line with that of currently used coronary stents. However, drug release
from these coatings was not sustained beyond 6 hours, in contrast to the sustained release profiles that are
most likely required for therapeutic effect. Our objective in this study was to investigate methods that would
increase the drug release period from the coatings. We found that galvanostatic electropolymerisation leads
to sustained drug release over a 24 hour period. Furthermore, we found the surface topography to be
unaffected by drug release. These findings indicate the potential of polypyrrole coatings for use in DES and
future biocompatibility studies are therefore warranted.
Improvements To Iontophoresis Devices For Transdermal Diagnostics
Student
Shiny Puthenkalam
shiny.puthenkalam@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Patricia Connolly
patricia.connolly@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Reverse Iontophoresis, Glucose
Reverse iontophoresis (RI) has been proposed as a means of non-invasive, transdermal diagnostics for the
monitoring of small circulating molecules and ions in blood. Thereby, electric current is applied across the
skin to extract a substance of interest. Devices based on RI have the potential to monitor blood glucose
levels as part of diabetes care. RI has not yet gained long term acceptance amongst healthcare systems,
due to complexities in calibration and other effects,such as the poorly controlled concentration of glucose
once it leaves the skin. The Medical Diagnostics and Wearables Group at Strathcyde has patent pending
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methods to improve this. In the current project activated carbon (AC) has been suggested as means for
better controlled and improved glucose flux in iontophoresis devices due to its ability to bind organic
compounds. To test this concept, AC was integrated in the electrode and then using an in-vitro RI setup the
glucose flux was measured across the artificial membrane. The extracted glucose molecules were collected
into an electrode-gel reservoir and quantified using a glucose assay kit. The initial studies have indicated
that there was enhanced glucose flux when using the AC-integrated electrodes. The next step is to integrate
the glucose sensing unit and the biosensor into a single system.
Aesthetic Design Of Prosthetic Devices
Student
Stefania Sansoni
stefania.sansoni@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Andrew Wodehouse
andrew.wodehouse@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design Manufacture & Engineering Management
Keywords
Prostheses, Design, Aesthetic
Our investigation explores the topic of ‘aesthetic of prosthetic devices’ and aims to propose a different
understanding of medical devices’ form. Our investigation has a multidisciplinary approach and cover
subjects including emotional design, product design and psychology. Specifically, the study focuses in to
the visual of the prostheses, or rather on the look of the devices. This field includes non-pragmatic aspects
for the improvement of the emotional impact of prosthetic users. By considering that the large majority of
prosthetic users have access only to basic designs with no appealing aesthetic, we identify the restricted
range of aesthetic options offered to users in public health system as an issue. The current research on
prostheses focuses predominantly on the technical and medical aspects by excluding a proper design plan
for the aesthetic, and therefore omits the emotional impact factor. We believe that this design system often
unfits with the real needs of the users. Our thesis aims to respond this issue by proposing a revised vision
of prostheses to be conceived as creative designs (rather than merely supporting medical products) and
proposes a new prosthetic design approach.
Advanced Tuning Of Below Knee Prosthesis Using The Motek Caren System
Student
Manunchaya Samala
manunchaya.samala@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof. Philip Rowe
philip.rowe@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
TPA, RTF, Motion-Analysis
A transtibial prosthetic alignment is described as a spatial three dimensions with six degrees of freedom of
interrelationship between socket and foot. Moreover, dynamic alignment,a crucial step in aligning prosthesis,
aims to achieve the most suitable limb position to achieve desire function and comfort. Misalignment may
result in walking difficulty, skin abrasion and uneven forces acting on the residual limb within the socket,
which could lead to wound, and even more serious skin and joint trauma. However, the optimal alignment
in traditional practice can take one day to several weeks from the starting to finalizing in dynamic alignment,
depends on prosthetist’s skill and experience. The alignment optimization,a very time- consuming process,
is accomplished by subjective judgment of the prosthetist based on visual observation of gait and feedback
from the patient. Furthermore, a prosthesis aligned in the traditional subjective practice seems to be lacked
of any scientific biomechanical systematics. The purpose of this study is to develop the instrument using
with CAREN system that allows quickly and qualitatively aligning the device based on a patient’s biomedical
point of view and enabling the prosthetist to align prosthesis objectively.
Quantification And 3D Visualisation Of Viable Tissues In Left Ventricle After Heart Attack Based On
Cine Cmr, T2 And Lge Images
Student
Ivan Shorokhov
ivan.shorokhov@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof. Jj Soraghan
j.soraghan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Infarction, Mri, Algorithm
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart atack is one of the major causes of death in modern
society. It has been suggested that T2-hyperintense regions with myocardial edema after acute MI represent
areas at risk and correlate well with the extent of acute hypokinesis. The spatial extent of regions with
increased T2 signal intensity is larger than the extent of irreversible injury by late gadolinium enhanced
(LGE) imaging. The difference between the area at risk and LGE area is the amount of salvageable
71
myocardium, in other words, the T2-hyperintense regions without LGE represent dysfunctional but viable
myocardium. Assessment of area at risk compared to area of irreversible injury can help to differentiate
between patients who have completed their infarct and patients with potentially salvageable myocardium at
risk who would benefit from revascularization (Kramer et al, 2010). But automatic segmentation of the left
ventricle cardiac MR images is difficult due to the intensity heterogeneity arising from accumulation of
contrast agent in infarcted myocardium. This research focused on development of comprehensive
framework for automatic 3D visualisation of cardiac viable tissues in left ventricle.
Investigating The Potential For Staphylococcus To Develop Tolerance To Antimicrobial 405 Nm
Light
Student
Rachael M Tomb
rachael.tomb@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Michelle Maclean
michelle.maclean@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
405Nmlight, BacterialResistance, Decontamination
The rise in antibiotic resistant pathogens has driven the need for novel decontamination technologies. One
such technology for continuous environmental decontamination utilises 405nm light for microbial
inactivation. Although bactericidal efficacy is established, it is unknown if bacteria can become tolerant to
405nm light. This study investigated if the nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus could develop such
a tolerance. S.aureus was exposed to 405nm light (60mW/cm2) after growth in fluorescent laboratory
lighting, complete darkness or low-irradiance 405nm light. Additionally, methicillin sensitive and methicillin
resistant S. aureus (MSSA & MRSA) were repeatedly sub-lethally exposed to a dose of 108J/cm2. The
inactivation kinetics and antibiotic susceptibility of isolates before and after sub-lethal exposure were also
investigated. Results indicated a 5-log10 reduction of MSSA following a dose of 216J/cm2 when cultivated
in light and darkness, however when grown in 1mW/cm2 405nm light, there was a significantly lower 3-log10
inactivation. When MSSA and MRSA were repeatedly exposed to sub-lethal levels of 405nm light there was
no evidence of tolerance with 90% and 93% inactivation after 15 exposures respectively, similar to initial
92% and 90% inactivation. Inactivation kinetics and antibiotic susceptibility testing also demonstrated no
significant differences between un-exposed isolates and those which underwent 15 sub-lethal exposures.
Design Of Powered Upper-Limb Exoskeleton For Stroke Rehabilitation
Student
Lijo Varughese Chacko
lijo.varughese-chacko@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Heba Lakany
prof bernard conway
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Exoskeleton, Rehabilitation, Stroke
Stroke patients experience paresis which degrades their quality of life by impeding them from performing
activities of daily living. Physical therapy is the mainstay of providing rehabilitation to stroke survivors. Stroke
rehabilitation is a long process, and patients need to visit clinic more often thus increasing costs of the
treatment. Robotic devices such as exoskeletons can be used to provide intensive and repetitive physical
therapy for a longer period. Currently available exoskeleton devices are heavy and laboratory oriented thus
impeding its use at home. The primary objective of this project was to design an upper-limb exoskeleton
device which must be light enough to carry around and be used as a home-based medical device. This
study developed an upper-limb exoskeleton for patients with paresis. The device has 5 degrees of freedom
(DOF); one for elbow and four for the shoulder joint. Natural movements of the shoulder were achieved by
designing four passive joints. Elbow joint of the device has a brushless DC motor combined with a harmonic
gear drive to assist the motion of the elbow. The current design has met the requirements and could be
used as a home-based rehabilitation platform.
The Effect Of Surface Roughness On Bone Cement Adhesion
Student
Hannah Wells
hannah.wells@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Philip E Riches
philip.riches@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Pmma, Implants, Burr
The investigation covered different conditions the surface roughness could affect the cement's performance.
Cement is affixed to two epoxy surfaces: two rough, two smooth, or one rough and smooth. These were
then put under different conditions, to record the displacement and loading to workout mechanical
72
properties. With the mixed group the cement came into contact with one surface both the other surface, this
was recorded as well as the side it stay stuck to after the tests. Since the epoxy only represents bone in
mechanical properties, it doesn't match the physical properties, such as porosity. Surface roughness
showed a significant effect on the cement under pull-off conditions, where the smooth surface had greater
pull-off mechanical properties than the mixed and rough. Under shear conditions the surface roughness
didn't have a significant effect between the rough and shear group but having a two different surfaces halved
the shear modulus but the other properties were unaffected. Under pull-off conditions the time different
between affixing the cement has a significant effect whereas the shear conditions it is the surface roughness
that has a significant effect on the cement's preference.
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Poster Presentation - Abstracts
Built Environment and Structures
Second-Law Dynamic Simulation For The Built Environment
Student
Valentina Bonetti
valentina.bonetti@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Joseph Andrew Clarke
joe@esru.strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Exergy, Entropy, Simulation
Buildings can effectively be considered as ecosystems: living and inanimate organisms interacting together,
linked by energy and matter transfers -as happening in natural ecosystems. A central role in nature is played
by the Second Law of Thermodynamics: while energy is simply conserved (First Law), entropy, which is not,
dictates direction and modality of processes. The entropy production expresses the grade of irreversible
dissipation occurring in a particular ecosystem -how far it deviates from an ideal behaviour. Even if
minimisation of irreversibilities has often represented a major technical concern, because we are focused
on saving precious resources, considering irreversibilities as merely negative can overlook crucial
opportunities. Non-equilibrium chaotic states can spontaneously develop into complex systems, and the
overall entropy increase constitutes a driving force of evolution. In other words, nature evolves by irreversible
mechanisms using entropy as a pump. Thus, something worth exploring also in buildings, if we really intend
to enhance their interactions with the surrounding environment. This research aims to review existing
applications of second-law analysis for the built environment, propose new approaches including
quantifications of natural resources and integrate them in a dynamic simulator within the software ESP-r.
Peridynamic Modeling Of Fire Damage In Marine Composites
Student
Yan Gao
yan.gao@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Mahdi Khorasanchi
mahdi.khorasanchi@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Peridynamic, Fire, Composite
Composite materials are increasingly used in marine industry for their advantages over other traditional
metallic materials. However, their biggest disadvantage is their poor fire performance. In the proposed work,
peridynamics will be used to model the fire damage prediction in marine composites. Then, the developed
computational tool will be used to design an optimum fire-resistant fibre-reinforced composites material for
marine environment by considering different materials which are proposed to have effective fire-resistant
properties.
Building Skills For Conserving 17Th And 18Th Century Scottish Built Heritage: Materials And
Techniques
Student
Clara Gonzlez Manich
clara.gonzalez-manich@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Cristina GonzlezLongo
c.gonzalezlongo@strath.ac.uk
Department
Architecture
Keywords
Conservation Materials Techniques
Scotland has an extensive built heritage, and there is great social consciousness of its historical,
architectural, cultural, and economical value. The 17th and 18th centuries were a key period in the evolution
of construction in Scotland. There is the need to preserve this heritage, but no systematic research exists.
The PhD arises in this context as a collaborative project between the University of Strathclyde and the
74
Historic Environment Scotland. The research objective is to analyse and characterise masonry constructions
built during 17th and 18th centuries in Scotland identifying the types, unique features and adequate
conservation processes regarding materials, techniques and skills. It will combine onsite work with the
identification of a theoretical framework, encompassing a mixed-method, multidisciplinary approach and
identifying local values. The research will include 4 main stages. The first stage will build the work framework
identifying the context. The second stage will provide a general understanding of types and unique features
through on-site survey works. The third stage will focus on representative study cases from the point of view
of intervention, using the latest technologies, and analysing materials, techniques and skills. The last stage
will provide final conclusions underlining further research paths.
The Modernist Heritage And The Historical Museum Of Bosnia- Herzegovina: Towards A
Sustainable Reuse
Student
Selma Harrington
Supervisor
Branka Dimitrijevic
Department
Architecture
Keywords
Modernism, Heritage, Sustainable
selma.harrington@strath.ac.uk
My Thesis seeks to understand the situation of the Historical Museum of Bosnia-Herzegovina as a recently
protected built heritage structure and an example of an indigenous Modernist expression in Socialist
Yugoslavia from 1960s, with the aim to position it into the wider Central European Modernist discourse.
What was once the embodiment of avant-garde is now a deteriorating building, which exhibits the fractured
artefacts of life during the siege of Sarajevo in 1990s. I examine the architectural narrative of the building
intertwined with its public history function in a span of hundred years of pre- and post-independence period
in the region, situating it in the Central and Eastern European critical heritage discourse. By critical appraisal
of the architecture of the Museum, its function, collections, exhibitions and projects, taking the integral view
of sustainability as an environmental and social imperative, I intend to develop new maintenance and
refurbishment methods for improving the environmental and social impact of continued use of the building,
based on current best practices and community engagement in protecting the built heritage.
Towards Informal Morphology: Investigating The Internal Structure Of Spontaneous Settlements
Student
Maddalena Iovene
maddalena.iovene@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof Sergio Porta
sergio.porta@strath.ac.uk
Department
Architecture
Keywords
Informal, Settlements, Morphology
To date, there is still the need for a theoretical model that is both comprehensive and inclusive, which is able
to grasp the complexity and the powerful dynamics of the city-making process and the urban fabric (Ludeña,
2006) of cities. For this reason and faithful to our goal to address both the process and the product alike,
preliminary to the setting up of a conceptual framework is a proper investigation of the urban environment’s
components. Consequently, drawing on previous studies, our model to examine and describe the urban
environment identifies three main factors that give form and body to the urban entity: i) the product; ii) the
agents; and iii) the institutions. Once the nature of the built environment has been acknowledged and
specified, this will be investigated through a period of fieldwork that will take place in Lima, Peru; an
interesting demographic context, for it is representative of Latin American fast-growing predominantly urban
areas. Ludeña, W. (2006). Ciudad y patrones de asentamiento: Estructura urbana y tipologización para el
caso de Lima. EURE (Santiago), 32(95), 37-59.
Evaluating Scotland'S Approach Participatory Planning
Student
Ainslie Kennedy
a.kennedy@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Sergio Porta
sergio.porta@strath.ac.uk
Department
Architecture
75
Keywords
Participation, Evaluation, Process
This research aims to address the lack of evaluation of Scotland’s innovative practices in participatory
planning. In 2006 Scotland’s planning system was reformed based on two primary drivers; increased
efficiency and increased stakeholder engagement. However, many speculate whether these goals are
complimentary, and concern for the efficacy of participation in practice is mounting. Therefore, the purpose
of this study is to identify and evaluate participatory processes adopted in planning initiatives, which will help
to better understand how progressive processes are, whether they are effective at goal-attainment and to
what extent they engage in and reflect a multiplicity of views in planning outcomes. To gather data the
researcher intends to first devise a matrix to help categorize case-studies against their level of complexity,
scale and other factors. Participatory tools will be mapped against this matrix to better understand why and
in what context they are most commonly used. Next, an evaluative framework derived from communicative
and democratic theory will serve as a moral gauge to a) understand whether participatory practices in
Scotland are consistent with core theoretical principles, and b) the extent to which Scotland is realising one
of its primary drivers.
Structural Health Monitoring Of Wind Turbine Foundations Using Surface Mounted Fibre Bragg
Grating Optical Sensors
Student
Jack Mcalorum
Supervisor
Pawel Niewczas
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Fbg, Foundation, Health
jack.mcalorum@strath.ac.uk
With renewable energy becoming more prevalent in the world and with wind power at the helm, ensuring
long life of turbines is of the utmost importance. Foundations have to undertake huge loads and thus cracks
have emerged on a number of foundation types. This PhD will focus on monitoring and analysing the
propagation/strain of cracks appearing on turbine foundations using Fibre Bragg Gratings. FBGs are optical
fibre sensors that can be used to measure strain and temperature. This data is very useful in understanding
the behaviour of the turbine during function. It can also help to define the lifetime as well as the imminent
need for repair using a number of data analysis techniques. One example is “Tipping Point Analysis”, which
uses strain noise to attempt to predict critical points in the near future. Preliminary sensor designs in the
field have already shown excellent potential, with a trend apparent when comparing strain measurements
to wind speeds.
The Application Of Image Processing To The Survey, Assessment And Monitoring Of Historic
Buildings
Student
Bowen Qiu
bowen.qiu@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Cristina GonzalezLongo
c.gonzalezlongo@strath.ac.uk
Department
Architecture
Keywords
Heritage, Conservation, Image-Processing
This research is being implemented in collaboration between Departments of Architecture and Electronic
and Electrical Engineer. It aims to develop new methodologies, systems and instruments, based on existing
image processing technologies, to implement initial survey, assessment and monitoring of historic buildings.
Getting knowledge about current image processing techniques, either RGB, hyperspectral or thermal image
is considered as possible source of data. While carrying out literature review, it became apparent that
applications of image processing and recognition in various fields are also references for this research. By
comparing different type of images, suitable methodologies will be identified, which should meet the
requirements of accuracy, feasibility and convenience. A database would also be created to verify the
accuracy of automate analysis to provide satisfying results of image processing in the context of architectural
conservation. The first trial of applying image processing to the survey of stone masonry has been conducted
using Glasgow Cathedral as case study. By analysing RGB and hyperspectral images, stone bond texture
and areas of decay has been detected automatically on the images. This method is being improved and a
76
more effective, productive, cheap and accurate way to survey, assess and monitor historic buildings is
expected to be developed.
A Dynamic Human Thermal Model Toward Better Energy Building Simulation
Student
Mohamad Rida
mohamad.rida@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Nicolas Kelly
nick@esru.strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Building, Occupant, Load
Building simulation tools generally use fixed heat flux to represent occupant thermal load. However, this
representation is not accurate due to its transient nature, whereas higher occupant density leads to
significant inaccurate results. Moreover, as buildings become better insulated a poor prediction of gains
brings risk of overheating. To this end there is a need to have a dynamic representation of occupant heat
load. This work presents a two-node human thermal model that is capable of predicting both latent and
sensible loads dissipated from building occupants that are a function of the surrounding environmental
conditions. The model includes sweating rate, shivering, respiration and skin blood flow. The model has
been implemented in the ESP-r building simulation tool. The main objective is to calculate, at every time
step of a simulation, updated occupant thermal loads in order to have a better prediction of energy building
performance. The dynamic model detects the variation in the occupant surrounding environmental condition
(zone temperature and relative humidity) and occupant activity rate and clothing level. The model showed
agreement with published experimental and other simulation model data. Further, the improvement due to
implementing the dynamic two-node model in ESP-r has been demonstrated in a case study.
Landscapes Of Exclusion: Youth In An African City.
Student
Kristijn Van Riel
kristijn.van-riel@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof. Ashraf M. Salama
ashraf.salama@strath.ac.uk
Department
Architecture
Keywords
Exclusion, Youth, Africa
This thesis empirically examines how the urban landscape of Accra, Ghana, produces exclusion and
inclusion in the lived experience of young people. Marginalising effects of globalisation are often amplified
in the Global South as governments struggle with the unrelenting pace of urbanisation and migration. The
region of Sub Saharan Africa, which has largely been overlooked in contemporary urban studies, is expected
to face the most difficult developmental challenges and additionally struggles with an overrepresentation of
young people in its demographic composition, coupled with high rates of underemployment. Young Africans
are excluded from spaces of power, labour, education and leisure and resort to the production of social
space that often explicitly demonstrates their difference, situated on the margins of society. The theoretical
framework builds on Lefebvrian dialectics of space, focusing on how notions of place, mobility and identity
affect the mode of lived space. A mixed methods approach is used to study the lived space of young people
in different public spaces of Accra. The thesis contributes to the necessary theorisation of African cities,
develops a methodology that facilitates further study of exclusion in urban contexts and offers cautious
recommendations to urban policy makers and planners aimed at more equitable urbanism.
Urban Governance And Sustainable Development- Urban Governance For Sustainable Urban
Development Process In Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Student
Abdur Yasin
Supervisor
Professor Ashraf Salama
Department
Architecture
Keywords
Urban-Governance, Sustainability, Dhaka
77
abdur.yasin@strath.ac.uk
Environmental degradation and social problems are caused by rapidly developing urbanisation, increase in
population and economic growth around the world. At present 54% of the world population live in urban
areas and expected to be increased to 66% by 2050 what is 2.5 billion more. Dhaka, the capital of
Bangladesh is one of the most densely cities in the world with 44,400 inhabitants in per km² and attracting
4, 00,000 new inhabitants per year. It’s creating pressure on the capacity of local governance, urban
infrastructure and the urban planning process, environmental and social issues. Dhaka ranked in 2nd as the
least liveable cities in the world on The Economist Intelligence Unit Ltd index (2015). Lack of coordination
and cooperation among the urban governance authorities such as Municipal Governments, Special
Government Bodies, decision making, reporting system as the administration changes are blamed for such
inefficiencies. Tokyo, Seoul and Singapore have been practicing diverse governance models to improve
and resilience the urban development process to enhance the quality of life for their local communities. This
research will aim identify a suitable and more efficient urban governance model for Dhaka through
investigating different urban governance models and their practices and impacts on different cities.
Novel Remotely Deployed NDE for In-Service Industrial Inspection
Student
William Jackson
william.jackson@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Gordon Dobie
gordon.dobie@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Industrial non-destructive evaluation of assets in the energy industry is critical in terms of safety and
economic motivations. Typically, the costs of routine inspection are offset by the benefits from potential life
extension as well as the opportunity for planned maintenance oppose to reactive maintenance at failure.
This Engineering Doctorate will focus on robust remote methods of inspection for in-service assets. An
example asset requiring inspection are caissons, which are large steel pipes found on offshore installations
to extract seawater from or to expel liquids into the sea. To fully inspect such assets, in challenging
environments, multiple sensing technologies are required to be deployed via robotic delivery mechanisms.
Initial work has investigated utilising a pan and tilt motor mounted on a centralising mechanism, allowing
ease of exchange of sensor modality. Initial experiments from this platform have produced three
dimensional thickness maps from an ultrasonic probe. Work has also been completed in the inspection of
weld caps, using structured light to capture the 3D geometry from multiple single 2D projections. The
resulting 3D model is useful for sizing gaps and cracks as well as future work investigating using the weld
cap to guide and position the delivery mechanism for improved defect localisation accuracy.
78
Communication and Signal Processing
Numerical Simulation Of Chromatic Dispersion In A Single-Mode 2D Incoherent Ocdma Wh/Ts
Optical Fibre System
Student
Mohamed S. Kh Abuhelala
mohamed.abuhelala@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof. Ivan Glesk
ivan.glesk@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Ocdma, Incoherent, Picoseconds
Numerical results of the effects of chromatic dispersion in single mode fibre (SMF-28) were obtained. These
results are obtained for solely two-dimensional wavelength hopping/time spreading incoherent optical code
division multiple access (OCDMA) codes, which were based on picosecond multi-wavelength pulses. For
the Encoder / Decoder, One Coincidence Code (OCC) sequence is used. Additionally, a comparison was
conducted between different encoding codes in order to optimise the system performance based on the
BER. This system then has been studied under the effect of variations in environmental temperature.
Low-Cost And Accurate Broadband Beamforming Based On Narrowband Sub-Arrays
Student
Abdullah Alshammary
abdullah.alshammary@strath.ac.uk
stephan@eee.strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Broadband, Beamforming, Subarray
Simplified broadband beamformers can be constructed by sharing a single tapped-delay-line within a
narrowband subarray. This paper discusses the use of fractional delay filters to a steering in the digital
domain. For the narrowband subarrays, an optimisation approaches proposed to maintain an off-broadside
look direction constraint as best as possible across a given frequency range. We demonstrate the advantage
that this approach has for generating beamformers with accurate off-broadside look direction compared to
a benchmark.
Broadband Beamforming Using Polynomial Matrix Techniques
Student
Ahmed Alzin
ahmed.alzin@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Stephan Weiss
stephan.weiss@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Broadband, Beamforming, Polynomial
Beamforming is a technique widely used in applications such as radar, sonar, microphone array, radio
astronomy, seismology, medical diagnosis, and wireless communication. By which, the gain of a signal that
impinging on the array of sensors from a specified angle of arrival is enhanced, whereas interferer signals
from other directions are suppressed. Since some applications require a wide frequency band, this has led
for the need to design a broadband beamformer which performer efficiently and accurately through the entire
band. Broadband beamformers designs are often implemented in either frequency or time domain. However,
the design in frequency domain suffers from some limitations that make its time domain counterpart is more
preferable. Consequently, an approach of using polynomial matrix technique to design different methods of
broadband beamformering in time domain is the target of this study. The minimum variance distortionless
response (MVDR) using generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) for off-look direction broadband beamformer,
with a uniform linear and an arbitrary sensor structures, has been achieved using the proposed technique.
The design permits a simple implementation of constraints, and the result shows a high accuracy at chosen
frequency band and lower computational cost comparing with standard time domain broadband
beamformer.
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Future Internet Of Things Device Connectivity Using Software Defined Radio
Student
Dale Atkinson
dale.atkinson@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Louise Crockett
louise.crockett@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Iot, Sdr, Spectrum
In recent years, Software Defined Radio (SDR) has been investigated heavily for its potential to provide
solutions to the problems we face with our modern communications. SDR is a general term that is used to
describe communication systems that are designed with architectures that perform many of the processing
tasks in software. These systems afford multiple benefits over conventional system designs, such as
reduced hardware cost, easier reconfiguration and the ability to change to prevailing environmental
conditions. With the ever-increasing societal requirement for connectivity — such as the growing number of
devices being categorised by the Internet of Things (IoT) — our future communication systems will
undoubtedly have to utilise SDRs to meet these demands. One predominant issue for IoT and other future
communications devices, is the wireless spectrum shortage that we are beginning to encounter. As more
wireless devices become part of our everyday lives, we will undeniably struggle to achieve the high data
rates and interference free connectivity we have become accustomed to. The focus of this research is
therefore to evaluate an architecture that aims to contend with this spectrum shortage by implementing
dynamic spectrum access principles.
Rapid Development Of Software Defined Radio Systems
Student
Kenny Barlee
kenneth.barlee@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof Robert Stewart
r.stewart@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Fpga, Sdr, Dsp
The ethos of Software Defined Radio (SDR) is different to that of traditional radio systems. SDR aims for
more flexibility by shifting as much of the radio architecture as possible from physical analogue circuitry to
the digital domain, permitting the radio’s characteristics to be changed on the fly. While the digital processing
could be carried out solely using a General Purpose Processor (GPP), the latest development tools provide
the facility to partition designs and target Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) hardware using Hardware
Definition Language (HDL) too. FPGAs are inherently suited to the kinds of operations required in SDR
transmitters and receivers; such as mod/demodulation, filtering and synchronisation. Combining
programmable hardware with software permits complex radio systems to be rapidly prototyped and
deployed from the desktop environment that are capable of operating in real time using the latest
communications standards. This poster presents the development of an SDR based FMCW Radar, which
is capable of estimating the distance between objects and its antennas, using a Zynq ZC706 and an
FMCOMMs 3 radio front end.
Extension Of Key Signal Processing Techniques To The Processing Of Broadband Multi-Sensor
Data
Student
Fraser Kenneth Coutts
fraser.coutts@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Stephan Weiss
stephan.weiss@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Sensors, Signals, Algorithms
Eigen- and singular value decompositions (EVD and SVD) are mathematical tools that form the core of
many information technology systems, and are well-established optimal narrowband analytical techniques.
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This project aims to extend these algorithms to the broadband case, where data acquired by multiple
sensors may span frequencies across several octaves. The theoretical component of this project will extend
the EVD and SVD to so-called polynomial matrices, which can describe and formulate broadband problems
elegantly. This theoretical research will design a novel set of algorithms for such polynomial matrices,
enabling a transformative way in which broadband problems can be described. This project will provide an
innovative processing technique to hyperspectral imaging, where a wealth of information is hidden in a wide
frequency range. A further application will be sonar signal processing, where the proposed techniques will
provide a tool to extract the information acquired by many sensors.
Reliable Navigation Techniques For Telepresence Robot
Student
Barnali Das
barnali.das@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Gordon Dobie
gordon.dobie@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Robotics, Telepresence, Vision.
Teleoperation makes possible the execution of tasks that cannot be carried out directly by humans, e.g.,
inability to reach to the working area due to dangerous environmental conditions. Telepresence means
human operator controls telepresence robot in unknown environments through communication channels
between them. Latency and bandwidth constraints in the channel present challenges for precise robotic
control. We proposed an idea to solve some of the challenges to assure smooth control. The idea represents
a paradigm shift in robot control from direct drive, to a more sophisticated MAP based approach. Through
the development of SLAM algorithms, the outputs from multiple on-board sensors including RGB-D cameras
and laser scanners will be fused to dynamically construct a 3D model of the operating environment. When
the inputs a control signal they will receive instant predicted feedback using the 3D model. In parallel the
remote robot will perform the manoeuvre while using its sensors to constantly update the 3D model
presented to the operator. This presents two potential advantages: 1. Operator receives instant feedback 2.
Since only model changes are transmitted, the bandwidth requirements should be reduced. My research
will investigate and characterise the effectiveness of this novel approach to robotic control.
Enhancing Navigational Safety Through Increased Situational Awareness And Teamwork On The
Bridge
mohammad.gommosani@strath.ac.u
Student
Mohammad Gommosani
k
Supervisor
Prof. Osman Turan
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Navigation, SituationalAwareness, Teamwork
o.turan@strath.ac.uk
Within the past years, the marine environment had suffered serious damage due to collision, sinking, and/or
grounding vessels. Billions of dollars were spent on cleaning seas and environment, insurers’ claims, and
penalties. Based on many accidents databases, the human element was a major factor influencing ship
accidents of which the main two components are situation awareness and assessment (SA) and teamwork.
The misunderstanding of the situation, lack of knowledge of the navigational equipment capabilities, and the
misuse of it raised the risk of accidents. In addition, poor application of bridge team management (BTM)
increased this risk to a higher level. Good communication between bridge team members without fear or
hesitation is a pivotal part in BTM. My research will be about enhancing the navigational safety through
increasing the situation awareness, implementation of no-blame culture, and application of good teamwork
in the bridge. This will be achieved by analysing the marine accident reports focusing on what was
happening before the accident, how did the bridge team act, and did they establish good communication.
Thorough investigation of each situation will be made to figure out the causes of the accident and the
existence of preventable wrong actions.
81
Simple Ears Inspire Clever Sensor Systems
Student
Jose Guerreiro
jose.guerreiro@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
James Fc Windmill
james.windmill@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Bioacoustics, Sensors, Processing.
Moths are considered to have one of the simplest ears in nature. However, their auditory system responses
can be related to the intensity of incident acoustic waves. This hearing system thus shows a frequency
tuning up response with the purpose of anticipating the calls of high frequency used by bats to localise prey.
The literature reports this tuning mechanism to be associated to changes in the mechanical stiffness of the
tympanic membrane when sound is present. Additionally, once the system is tuned at higher frequencies it
may return to its natural resonant frequency in the absence of acoustic energy. This automatic mechanism
of tuning (resonant frequency shifting) might be associated to neuronal feedback responses between the
auditory system and their counterpart cells responsible to the membrane stretching, which then change the
mechanical response and consequently the resonant frequency of the system. Furthermore,
electromechanical properties within the auditory receptor cells may also play an important role within this
behaviour. Taking this active tuning mechanism as an inspiration, a bio-inspired model of the moth auditory
system is addressed using Digital Signal Processing techniques.
Pattern Analysis On Electroencephalography Signals For Application-Specific Interpretation
Student
Kanghang He
kanghang.he@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Vladimir Stankovic
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Electroencephalography,
SignalProcessing
EyeTracker,
Physiological measurements such as electroencephalography (EEG) have been used extensively in neural
science, cognitive science and medical research to understand subject response to particular stimuli.
Amplitude and latency of Event-related potentials (ERP) can indicate the brain reaction towards given
stimulus and the different band of frequencies gives information of attention level and fatigues. We are
particularly interested in extracting meaningful information from the various channels of EEG data in
response to different stimuli through various signal processing tools for pattern analysis. The central goal is
to extract spatiotemporal–spectral patterns of brain activity and functional connectivity from the large and
complex time-series EEG data. The problem has traditionally been approached in a probabilistic modeling
setting, through for example, Bayesian machine learning including sparse Bayesian learning and
nonparametric Bayesian for classifying EEG data and extracting its common features. We attempt to
approach the problem from a Graph signal processing approach, where the EEG signal is indexed by nodes
of a graph and nodes are linked through their correlation with each other. The features of EEG data such
as (ERP) and time-frequency transforms may be implemented in specific applications.
Threat Analysis Of Iot Networks Using Artificial Neural Network Intrusion Detection System
Student
Elike Hodo
elike.hodo@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Robert Atkinson
robert.atkinson@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Iot, Ann, Dos
The Internet of things (IoT) network is still in its infancy and has attracted much interest in many industrial
sectors including medical fields, logistics tracking, smart cities and automobiles. However as a paradigm, it
is susceptible to a range of significant intrusion threats. This paper presents a threat analysis of the IoT and
uses an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to combat these threats. A multi-level perceptron, a type of
82
supervised ANN, is trained using an IoT Data set, then is assessed on its ability to thwart Distributed Denial
of Service (DDoS/DoS) attacks. This paper focuses on the classification of normal and threat patterns on
an IoT Network. The ANN procedure is validated against a simulated IoT network. The experimental results
demonstrate 99.4% accuracy and can successfully detect various DDoS/DoS attacks.
Acoustic Mimo Array Echo Cancellation Algorithms And Radar Technology Based Audio Speakers
Characterization
Student
Alessio Izzo
alessio.izzo@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
John J. Soraghan
j.soraghan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Audio Signal Processing
The intelligibility of sound can be significantly affected by the characteristics of typical acoustic
environments. The sound is partially reflected by the physical boundaries of the environment leading to
reverberation and echo problems. The Sensor Signal Processing and Security (SP&S) laboratories and
Tannoy Ltd have identified specific challenges and applications of array processing and radar technologies
in acoustics that may be utilised to enhance products performance and manufacturing. In this project
algorithms will be developed that aimed to improve the quality of sound through Acoustic Feedback Control
(AFC) and Acoustic Echo Cancellation (AEC). Another aspect of my research is to investigate the ability to
monitor acoustic speakers through the use of low cost radar technologies in order to infer the structural
failures or abnormalities for improved beam design. On that basis, the main goals of my research project
are: 1) to develop novel algorithms for adaptive echo-cancellation in single acoustic MIMO array and to
investigate possible extension of the algorithms to the distributed systems; 2) To conduct algorithms testing
and validation using the real time experimental facilities that exist in Tannoy Ltd, Coatbridge; 3) To develop
a novel radar technology based novel sensor to aid loudspeaker manufacturing and condition monitoring.
Machine Learning In Cognitive Radio Applications
Student
Sarunas Kalade
sarunas.kalade@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Robert Stewart
r.stewart@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Sdr, Ml, Cognitive
Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology is paving the way toward universal, multi-purpose radio
hardware. Rather than having Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) with hard-wired
synchronization, (de)modulation and (de)coding circuits, SDRs can run most of that functionality on a
general-purpose processor, which allows much more flexibility and long-term operation with firmware
updates. One of the technologies that has emerged from SDR is Cognitive Radio (CR) – an idea of an
intelligent radio system, having Artificial Intelligence (AI) capabilities of adapting to different environmental
influences and changing its parameters on the go. Machine Learning (ML) plays an important role in CR
and ML classification algorithms are often used for detection and identification of various wireless signals.
This research focuses on producing ML models capable of running with SDR hardware to identify different
types of transmitted wireless signals automatically. Several Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classifiers
were developed for classifying and demodulating different analogue and digital signals.
3-D Investigation Of Non-Linear Mechanics In The Locust Ear: The Role Of In-Plane Motion In Active
Hearing.
Student
Elizabeth Klenschi
elizabeth.klenschi@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
James Windmill
james.windmill@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Dpoaes, Bioacoustics, Biomechanics
83
Insect tympanal ears are often considered to be among the simplest in the animal kingdom, and yet they
have been shown to be capable of fine frequency analysis and signal amplification. Studies have
demonstrated that this system is capable of generating distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs),
which are known to be characteristic of non-linear mechanical systems and are linked to active acoustic
amplification in vertebrates. This study aimed to characterise and investigate the presence of DPOAEs in
the ear of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria and provided hypotheses explaining the source of these
emissions and their function. Nanoscale 3-D measurements of membrane displacement confirmed that
DPOAEs are present in this species, that their localisation is characteristic of the known tonotopy of this
system, and that the direction of membrane displacement is amplitude-dependent, with low amplitudes
leading to out-of-plane displacement and higher amplitudes causing a partial shift to in-plane motion. We
suggest that this phenomenon is related to the generation of DPOAEs, and is a product of intrinsic
mechanical properties of the tympanum combined to metabolically-dependent active processes. These
results shed more light on the mechanical components responsible for signal detection and amplification in
insect tympanal ears.
3D Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Reconstruction Using Structure From Motion
Student
Kristofer Law
kristofer.law@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Graeme West
graeme.west@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Image, Processing, Sfm
Remote Visual Inspection (RVI) is carried out during planned statutory reactor outages to evaluate the
condition of the fuel channels which deteriorate during reactor operation. Using footage obtained by RVI,
the aim of the project is construct a 3D model of the entire fuel channel using an image processing technique
called “Structure-from-Motion” (SfM). SfM operates on the principle of estimating 3D structural geometry
from multi-projective correspondences within 2D image sequences; akin to the logical inversion of a camera
taking a picture of a 3D scene. The project poses many challenges due to the constrained acquisition
process within a feature-poor environment which prevents the direct deployment of existing SfM frameworks
presented within academic literature. The development of a bespoke SfM framework is therefore required
to address the challenges of deploying such techniques in feature-poor environments. Techniques will be
developed and benchmarked using experimental rigs which simulate aspects of the reactor fuel channels
before being deployed using actual footage obtained from real reactor inspection videos.
Optimization Of Routing Protocol In Gmpls Networks
Student
Mohsin Masood
mohsin.masood@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof. Ivan Glesk
ivan.glesk@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Ospf, Dijkstra Algorithm
The modernization of telecommunication technology catches the public attention by introducing various
communication applications which are fast, reliable and thus satisfy the standards for quality of service. But
this increase usage of telecom technology produces different challenges to this industry. Telecom service
providers are facing different issues, mostly regarding to networking side. In 1990s, MPLS (Multi-Protocol
Label Switched) network was introduced which is based on multiple networking protocols. MPLS technology
had emerged as a connection-oriented networks for Internet protocol (IP) networks. With the success of
MPLS, an extended version of GMPLS (Generalized MPLS) has introduced. GMPLS extends the MPLS
protocols along with traffic-engineering attributes. GMPLS uses MPLS label technique, so that a label can
be encoded as time slot, a wavelength, a fibre, or a packet. GMPLS can also be used for optical
communication networks. GMPLS uses extended versions of MPLS routing protocols such as OSPF (Open
Shortest Path First). OSPF routing protocol uses algorithms to compute the shortest path from the current
node towards destination. Different challenges are related to these routing algorithm which are targeted and
are the main focus of the research.
84
Performance Of Spatial Diversity In Multi-Antenna Wireless Communication Systems
Student
Amr Nagy
amr.a.nagy@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr. Stephan Weiss
stephan.weiss@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Mimo, Fbmc/Oqam, Ofdm
While the demands on data throughput in wireless communication applications continue to increase, the
transmission medium remains limited by transmission bandwidth and signal power. Therefore, research
focusses on improvements of accommodate these needs. Different techniques are utilized to deal with these
restrictions such as multi-antenna architecture and multi-carrier modulation. Multiple-input multiple-output
(MIMO) architectures promise to increase the data rate or decrease the bit error rate by different multiplexing
or diversity techniques respectively. Filter bank multicarrier based on OQAM (FBMC/OQAM) technology
competes with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM; the de facto modulation mode in most
current communications standards) in broadband communications. FBMC does not need any cyclic prefix
or precise synchronizations like OFDM providing an advantage for FBMC especially in the case of the
frequency selective fading channel. The main target of this research is to investigate the benefits of
exploiting FBMC/OQAM technology combined with multi-antenna architectures to improve the link
robustness as well as the spectral efficiency of wireless communication systems.
An Embedded System-On-Chip Implementation Of The Line Hough Transform
Student
David Northcote
david.northcote@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Louise Crockett
louise.crockett@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Video, Fpga, Hough
The ability to accurately and quickly detect lines within an embedded video pipeline is of great importance
to applications in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, ADAS. The Line Hough Transform (LHT) is a very
robust and accurate line detection algorithm, however it is highly computational and resource intensive. The
algorithm performance can be increased through the use of the edge gradient orientation to reduce
processing time, yet further design considerations must be investigated to reduce the total resources used
by the algorithm. This paper presents a resource efficient, real-time implementation of the LHT. This was
carried out using a new device known as The Zynq All Programmable SoC developed by Xilinx. The device
contains both an ARM Cortex-A9 Processor and FPGA Programmable Logic. The components are
partitioned to achieve an efficient implementation of the LHT. The Programmable Logic was used to
accelerate the computational processing whilst the A9-Processor maintained control over the entirety of the
system. The LHT was fully designed using the Xilinx System Generator package and synthesised and
implemented using the Vivado Design Suite. The overall system is capable of successfully applying the LHT
to a video stream of 800 x 600 pixels at 60 fps.
Radar Signal Processing For Defence Against Airborne Threats And Space Situation Awareness
Student
Adriano Rosario Persico
adriano.persico@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
John Soraghan
j.soraghan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Radar,
BallisticMissileClassification,
SpaceSituationAwareness
The principal aspect of this PhD research program is the investigation of new advanced signal processing
methods and algorithms for space situation awareness and defence against airborne threats such as ballistic
missiles. The main challenge is to develop novel classification algorithms that are able to differentiate
85
between targets of interest and interference factors, such as decoys and chaffs in an accurate and robust
fashion. Research is particularly focussed on micro-Doppler signature extraction, sparse signal
representation and Compressive Sensing (CS) techniques. In particular, the application of micro-Doppler
techniques is of interest for the specific challenge of Ballistic Missiles (BMs) classification, where an accurate
analysis of characterizing motion of BMs themselves has the potential to lead to higher levels of defence,
together with more accurate discrimination and BM functional assessment. In addition, the capabilities of
predicting the exact orientation of a warhead at the instant of hit will allow more accurate weapon targeting.
The developed algorithms will be tested using simulations and our in-house radar experimental laboratory.
How Do Midges Hear And Why Should We Care? Brian D. Saltin, James Fc Windmill, And Joseph C
Jackson Centre For Ultrasonic Engineering, Electronic & Electrical Engineering Department,
University Of Strathclyde, Glasgow. Brian.Saltin@Strath.Ac.Uk
Student
Brian Saltin
Supervisor
Joseph C. Jackson
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Bioacoustics Biomechanics Entomology
brian.saltin@strath.ac.uk
Acoustic sensors in nature, shaped by millions of years of evolution for their task, can be highly acute and
sensitive. Sometimes outperforming sophisticated technical solutions in terms of signal-to-noise ratio,
miniaturization and effectiveness. The key factor for some ears, including the mammalian ear and some
insect ears, is the use of active feedback mechanisms to condition an incoming signal. One of those small
and efficient acoustic sensors is the antenna of the Scottish midge: Chrionomus plumosus. Even weak
sound stimuli, that cause only a nanometre-scale deflection of the antenna can be detected by the midge.
This feat is even more impressive as the whole sensor and signal processing unit is around 3 mm in size.
The aim is, building upon works on the ears of both the mosquito’s and Drosophila, to characterize the
function and parameters of midge antennal hearing through behavioural studies and 3D-Laser Doppler
Vibrometry experiments and µCT based morphology investigations. Through research on the auditory
capability of the midge we aim to get a better understanding on how animals and humans detect sound, as
well as inspiration that might lead to novel types of engineered acoustic sensors.
Fatigue Monitoring Using Hrv
Student
Yinyong Zhang
yinyong.zhang@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Professor John Soraghan
j.soraghan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Ecg, Hrv, Fatigue
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness which normally occurs due to excessive physical activity, disease,
excessive mental stress or insufficient sleep. For people who experience fatigue when driving or working, it
may cause danger, damage or even fatal accidents. An effective and accurate method for measuring fatigue
is highly desirable. The aim of this work is to develop advanced sensor signal processing algorithms and
data fusion methods that will allow fatigue to be monitored in a quantitative and effective fashion. The initial
work aims to combine facial feature and ECG signal variability. Both of these have been shown to have
direct association with the degree of fatigue. Last year this work analysis the time and frequency domain
indexes under different situation. The current work focusses on comparing the heartbeat accuracy of radar
sensor with ECG sensor, the later work as well as including combining facial diagnosis technic to improve
the accuracy. Once these works are finished, real simulation on driver will be tested to help correct the
errors.
86
Automatic 3D Segmentation, Quantification And Visualization Of Head And Neck Tumours From Mri
Dataset.
Student
Baixiang Zhao
Supervisor
John Soraghan
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Biomedical, Image, Processing
baixiang.zhao@strath.ac.uk
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide an effective approach of non-invasively mapping the anatomy
of a subject. MRI is now becoming the imaging mode of choice for imaging tumours as part of the radiation
treatment planning (RTP) process. Effective RTP requires good delineation of the Gross Tumour Volume
from a sequence of MRI slices. Unfortunately this process suffers significantly from both inter and intra
variability when extracted manually. Computer-aided medical image analysis not only speeds up the
delineation process, but also can decrease the inter and intra error from clinicians. The research involves
“Automatic 3D segmentation, visualization and quantification of Cancerous Tumours from MRI Data Slices
for the Head and Neck”. Fuzzy c-means and 3-D level set methods will be used on MRI datasets, in order
to automatically delineate tumours and to construct 3-D models for tumour visualisation and quantification.
In the current stage, 3D methodology for oropharynx and larynx tumours is under development. Lymph
nodes are studied in order to determine Clinical Tumour Volume, assisting for the diagnosis of cancer
metastases. This project is conducted in collaboration with Beatson Oncology Unit, and Gartnavel Hospital,
Glasgow.
Design
Human Oriented Design: Automatic Collision Avoidance By Better Man-Machine Interaction And
Information Flow
Student
Hesham Abdushkour
hesham.abdushkour@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof. Osman Turan
o.turan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Automatic, Collision, Avoidance
The need of automatic collision avoidance system started since the 1950s, parallel with the beginning of
implementing radars in commercial ships. Particularly with the increases of waterborne trade and traffic
movement, which lead to higher the number of marine accidents, especially in coastal areas. Consequently,
the navigational equipment, automation systems and ship’s speed have been improved dramatically in the
last two decades; and as a result shipping companies reduced manning on board ships to save money. At
this point the importance of having automatic collision avoidance system arises to support the Officer of the
Watch OOW to take a correct action in the right time. Moreover, to make the decisions more objective
depending on the Rules of the Roads (COLREGS), traffics and weather condition, rather than subjective
decisions which could be affected by lack of capabilities of the OOW in avoiding collision situations. The aim
of this PhD is to develop a trustworthy automatic system that provides the optimum trajectory to avoid
collision situations, with respect to the rules. That will enhance the maritime safety by increasing the
situational awareness in the bridge and assuring all the OOW are supporting their decisions by a reliable
system.
Potential Research Title The Effect Of Behaviour On The Formation Of Space Assessment Of
Behaviour And Activity Patterns And Its Role In Influencing The Reshaping Of Urban Space In The
Old Urban Fabric
Student
Haider Al-Saaidy
haider.al-saaidy@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof. Sergio Porta
sergio.porta@strath.ac.uk
Department
Architecture
Keywords
Old, Urban, Fabric
87
The old fabric of our cities is predominantly located in their inner urban cores. Such historical centers exhibit
a high diversity of functional, social, and cultural features. Nowadays, we realize the value of our inherited
environment, as well as what has been lost through the destruction of buildings, landscapes, and
communities, which is important for Baghdad as this capital city offers a very rich historical fabric and hosts
remarkable historical sites. In the past decades the city did not care much of its heritage, in spite of the
numerous academic and consultant studies implemented in the last 100 years. Social and political unrest
and wars have always prevented preservation projects to be implemented with the necessary continuity in
time; as a result, Baghdad lost a significant part of its rich and valuable historical fabric. This research
focuses on different aspects of the relationship between the old and the modern parts of the city in modern
Arabic countries and in particular in Baghdad and its Iraqi context. This relationship is addressed across
various levels, including in particular urban form and behavior/activity patterns.
Outlines For The Development Of A Modular Self-Reconfigurable System
Student
Vasilis Apostolakeas
vasileios.apostolakeas@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Andrew Agapiou
andrew.agapiou@strath.ac.uk
Department
Architecture
Keywords
SelfAssembly, Automation, OpenSource
The project examines current trends in modular self-reconfigurable robotic systems, explores the application
of such systems in architecture and evaluates them according to the degree of interaction between the user
and the system and user’s participation in the process. On the one hand, the project aims to highlight the
limitations and challenges that current approaches face. On the other hand, it uses these results as
guidelines for the development of an experimental modular self-reconfigurable system. The goal of the
proposed system is to be accessible to as many users as possible, so the design is not initially based on hitech mechanisms and electronic parts. Using alternative technologies and through DIY techniques, the
prototype that will be designed and manufactured will be a low-cost, simple to manufacture and assemble,
module.
Computer Supported Collaborative Design: A Social Network Approach
Student
Ross Brisco
ross.brisco@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr. Robert Ian Whitfield
ian.whitfield@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design Manufacture & Engineering Management
Keywords
Collaborative, Design, Teams
Social network sites have become common place for personal and professional communication. Students
will become the next generation of engineer designers and they have developed advanced natural social
network skills. In order to be able to utilise these skills fully in future academia and in industry it is important
to understand what these skills are. This research is attempting to understand and categorise these skills
by observing how university students are utilising social network sites to conduct design activities as part of
their project based work. Through links with global universities, this research is able to examine the cultural
and behavioural differences of student's skills in social networks to give a widespread view of the situation.
Establishing this research in the field of Computer Supported Collaborative Design (CSCD) will include preestablished understandings of engineering design knowledge which could have applications in the
development of engineering design related university courses and managing distributed industrial
engineering design teamwork.
88
Comparison Of Control Methods For Ncs
Student
Mercedes Chacon Vasquez
mercedes.chaconvasquez@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Reza Katebi
m.r.katebi@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
NetworkedControlSystems
Networked Control Systems (NCS) are control systems where components such as controllers, sensors and
transmitters are distributed across a shared communication network with the objective of manipulating the
behaviour of a process to achieve the desired performance. Applications such as industrial automation,
monitoring and transportation systems can be developed with this technology. Despite the significant
benefits that NCS can offer an important concern arises: the transmission can be exposed to time-delays
and loss of information due to constraints such as bandwidth and limit capacity. These problems greatly
influence the system performance. Motivated by this situation, we designed and implemented predictive and
optimal control by means of the Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control structure to secure the
reliability of the system. Seven control methods for high dropouts and long varying time-delays were studied.
The performance of the controllers was evaluated through some simulations using Matlab TrueTime toolbox.
The results showed that the proposed controllers are robust to the time-delays and loss of information. The
proposed optimal, robust and immune PID controllers and Smith predictor presented strong robustness and
performance and its structure is simple and flexible.
Alexandria A Port City: The Transformation Of The Historical Urban Public Space On The Eastern
Harbor
amira-nagy-mahmoudStudent
Amira Elsemellawy
elsemellawy@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Ashraf Salma
Department
Architecture
Keywords
Regeneration, Transformation, PublicSquares
ashraf.salama@strath.ac.uk
During history, there were a relationship between the city and its Urban Public Spaces (UPS) that reflected
the complexities of the city’s cultural, social and economics contexts over the span of urban life.
Consequently El-Mansheya Square has been considered a critical part of the city of Alexandria since its
existence 1830s. The continuity process is the main concern of the research, and it will not be achieved
without taking the urban transformation, as well as studying their effects on the historical city centre, where
the interest in the process of continuity will come to its peak. Urban Transformation is not a new
phenomenon. But in the context of History, people continuously reshape environments based on their
current demands. After the Egyptian revolution 2011, the UPS is used illegally by users adding irrelevant
features due the situation. The research will explain how the UPS of El- Mansheya transformed by
introducing the idea of urban morphology through an examination of more than a century of transformations
in downtown to reach the conclusions of city future, to have a clear vision of the coming future of the historical
city centre and how to preserve its heritage.
Multidisciplinary Design For Demise Approaches And Methods To Reduce The On-Ground Casualty
Risk
Student
Alessandro Falchi
alessandro.falchi@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Edmondo Minisci
edmondo.minisci@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
DesignForDemise
Multidisciplinary Design for Demise approaches and methods to reduce the on-ground Casualty Risk Design
for demise methodologies and approaches have the aim to design low Earth orbit spacecraft that have to
ablate when re-entering the Earth atmosphere. In this project a multidisciplinary approach is developed and
89
employed, to investigate the most significant factors influencing the demise and then reducing or eliminating
the on ground casualty risk associated with the re-entry. During the re-entry, a satellite goes through different
flow regimes, from the Free Molecular at the orbiting altitude to the transitional regime at ~100km and
possibly reaching the continuum regime. In order to study the heat transfer, aerodynamic forces, chemical
reactions, and transitional flow evolution, which affect the structural integrity of the objects, different
numerical methods should be used to analyse their aero-thermal characteristics. In the first part of the work
the critical transitional regime is investigated using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo computational method,
which is based on a statistical simulation of the rarefied particles flow. Different satellites shapes are
considered, to correlate the shape of the objects with their demisability properties.
Fractal Designs For Ultrasonic Transducers And Array
Student
Haoyu Fang
haoyu.fang@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof Anthony Gachagan
a.gachagan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Fractal, Ultrasound, Broadband
The resonance frequency of an active element in a piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer is dependent on its
length scale. It has been reported that by having elements with varying length scales in the piezoelectric
transducer design, that the device may possess a wider operational bandwidth and a higher sensitivity
compared to a conventional device performance. In this project, the possibility of extending the operational
bandwidth of a 1-3 piezoelectric composite device composed of a fractal geometry will be investigated. A
Finite Element model for a fractal geometry called the Sierpinski Gasket (SG) was developed using PZFlex
(Weidlinger Associates, CA), where the active phase of this composite is composed of triangular ceramic
pillars with different length scales. This allowed the behaviour of this fractal ultrasound composite
configuration, particularly the vibrational mode analysis, to be investigated. In addition, the Q-factor of the
SG fractal device was compared to that of a conventional 1-3 composite configuration. It was found that by
using the SG fractal geometry, additional thickness modes can be introduced and hence an effective wider
operational bandwidth can be achieved compared to the conventional 1-3 composite design.
A Design Of Experiments Based Method As A Forecasting Tool In Research, Development & Design
Project Planning
Student
Alexander Holliman
alexander.holliman@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Avril Thomson
avril.thomson@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design Manufacture & Engineering Management
Keywords
Statistical, Forecasting, Design
Advancing research into a project resource forecasting methodology for New Product Development,
developed within DMEM by Dr Abigail Hird. This methodology, based on Robert Fisher’s Design of
Experiments, uses a systematic, statistical-based forecasting and modelling methodology, in conjunction
with expert knowledge, to forecast the demands of project factors/variables, identifying the relationships
between said factors and determine their impact on a project. The research will follow a case-study based
approach, working within the Advanced Forming Research Centre (AFRC), to investigate the suitability of
this methodology within research and design space environments. The refinement and application of this
methodology may lead to practicing companies saving time, money and resources.
Optimising Ultrasonic Techniques For Use In Industrial Process Analysis
Student
Marcus Ingram
m.ingram@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Tony Gachagan
a.gachagan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Ultrasound, Array, Design
90
The determination of the quality of a process stream is fundamental to process analysis. Quality control can
be achieved by the determination of the particle size distribution (PSD) of the process stream, for example.
Through image processing algorithms, the PSD can be determined for heterogeneous systems. Ultrasound
is a well-established technology that provides a non-destructive and non-invasive imaging tool for industrial
applications. A key advantage of ultrasound over optical techniques is the ability to image into optically
opaque materials. To date, non-invasive ultrasonic imaging has not been achieved in an industrial process
environment. This is largely due to the nature of the ultrasonic system being significantly more complex
when considered as a single, non-invasive tool. Consequently, there is a need to calibrate the ultrasonic
system to operate through metal pipe walls, especially as information about the system of interest is
obscured via reverberations within the pipe itself. Here, finite element analysis will be conducted to evaluate
the extent of reverberation within the pipe structures and introduce mitigation techniques to reduce their
influence. The overall objective is to enhance the imaging performance associated with the implementation
of an ultrasonic system within an industrial process stream.
Haptic Technology In Robot Precise Control And Virtual Tele-Operation
Student
Mutian Li
mutian.li@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Xiutian Yan
x.yan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design Manufacture & Engineering Management
Keywords
Haptic, Teleoperation, Robotics
This project investigates new technology and associated software modules for designing a new interface for
robotic systems to be more precisely controlled by an operator in very harsh environment. A teleoperator
system with haptic interface is developed to work in a remote environment. A robotic chain is typically located
in the place that expected in manipulation, and an operator controls the mechanical structure and receives
visual information from a computer screen. An algorithm that apply constrains to achieve real-time
manipulation of robotic system with a haptic device was studied. Path planning of manipulator using methods
like potential field approach was studied and applied into the system. Also, in this project, a graphic interface
for the maintenance of orbiting objects was designed and it has been enhanced through the use of a
PHANTOM haptic device. As a result, this virtual robotic system can be precisely controlled by an operator
remotely with visual and tactile feedback.
Longitudinal Strength Of Container Ship Induced By Regular Or Irregular Wave
Student
Mingxin Li
mingxin.li@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Evangelos Boulougouris
evangelos.boulougouris@strath.ac
.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Strength, Wave, Ship
The primary aim is to study investigate the longitudinal strength of the hull girder of the 4200 TEU container
ship subjected to extreme wave load. First step, a hull form is formed by the software of Maxsurf for the
hydrodynamic analyses using ANSYS-Aqwa. Then according to the “mid-section” structure diagram and
load manual, midship cargo holds established to estimate the performance in wave-induced response by
static analysis software of ANSYS workbench. At last, the stress and deformation in each design vertical
bending moment based on the Finite element model of the cargo holds are calculated. The detailed
deformation of the topside line is obtained which is associated with the curvature of the longitudinal ship.
91
Uncertainty Based Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation Of Space Transportation Systems –
Optimisation Of Launcher Integration Processes
Student
Giulio Maddalena
giulio.maddalena@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Edmondo Minisci
edmondo.minisci@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Des, Optimisation, Launchers
The current research aims to develop some proper techniques and methodologies to improve the design of
Space Transportation Systems (STSs). Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation (MDO) methods suit this task,
but so far uncertainties in the design process and operational conditions have not been properly taken into
account. Therefore, this research aims to integrate suitable uncertainty quantification and propagation
techniques, and new disciplines, such as manufacturing technologies, maintenance and ground operations,
in the preliminary stages of the design. Petri nets have been recognised as a powerful tool to model discrete
event systems under uncertainty, thus potentially combining both main aspects in the multidisciplinary
environment. In the literature there are not many works devoted to Petri Nets based optimisation techniques,
although recently such methodologies are gaining interest. The current stage of my research is about
developing an optimisation framework able to find best strategies within stochastic discrete event systems.
Some efforts are being made in the process to model parameter-dependent launcher integration processes
and optimise them by means of evolutionary algorithms.
Design Of Lightweight Robotic Arms
Student
Thomas Mcmaster
thomas.mcmaster@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Xiu T. Yan
x.yan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Keywords
Design Manufacture
Management
Leightweighting,
AdditiveManufacture
&
Engineering
Optimisation,
Robotic arms first became commonplace in 1961. Originally, arms were cumbersome and structurally-over
redundant to ensure accuracy and repeatability within their work envelope (the entire space the arm can
reach between its minimum and maximum range) as a result of control algorithms that were slow and
relatively imprecise. Since then, the design of arms has been evolving, expanding the possibilities and
applications in which they are used and reducing structural redundancy. However, modern day arms can
still be refined, further reducing structural over compensation while maintaining load bearing capabilities.
Historically constrained by repeatability, accuracy and rigidity, robotic arms are now constrained by torque,
inertia and speed. Lighter arms are therefore advantageous. Design of a lightweight robotic arm can be
broken into four interlinked areas: form, structure, material and manufacturing technique. Form comprises
arm design and dynamic considerations. Structure includes topology optimisation, core structures,
functionally-graded materials and nano structures. Material encompasses polymers, metals, ceramics and
multi material designs. Manufacturing technique covers additive manufacture and hybrid manufacture.
Incorporating these four areas, lightweight robotic arms for future applications can be created.
The Cognitive Basis Of Design Synthesis
Student
Chris Mcteague
christopher.mcteague@strath.ac.u
k
Supervisor
Alex Duffy
alex.duffy@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design Manufacture
Management
Keywords
Design, Cognition, Synthesis
&
Engineering
This research aims to investigate the cognitive basis of design synthesis. In a general sense, synthesis can
be described as the process of combining or mixing of ideas to create new ideas and outputs. Design
synthesis can typically be viewed in two ways: either as a phase of the design process which follows
92
analysis, or as part of a recurring problem solving cycle that occurs at all phases of the design process.
Through contribution to a systematic review of protocol studies, evidence has been gathered which supports
the latter description of synthesis. The review identified the cognitive processes involved in conceptual
design, and by extension many of those involved in design synthesis. A subsequent and ongoing review of
cognitive models of design shows that design synthesis is currently represented in a limited fashion. Such
models do not account for the multitude of cognitive synthesis processes which have been identified from
the literature. The limitations of existing models are due in part to the limitations of the protocol analysis
method used to create them. An appropriate experimental methodology will be developed to move beyond
these limitations and add to our understanding of design synthesis.
Stability And Safety: Preliminary Design Of A Zero/Minimum Ballast Lng Carrier Using A Decision
Support System
Student
Chigozie Odumodu
chigozie.odumodu@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof Peilin Zhou
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Safety, Stability, Ballast
The increased demand for a cleaner source of energy has made natural gas a desired alternative for energy
supply. The transportation of natural gas is strongly dependent on shipping and this has also led to
increasing concerns about the threat to biodiversity caused by the use of ballast water in conventional LNG
ships. This threat of biodiversity has also seen the development of alternatives to ballast water management
where the near possible future of LNG ships would see new hull forms with increased economies of scale
and reduction or elimination of ballast water in its operation. The study aims to develop model which would
integrate stability and safety (sloshing) in the preliminary design of a zero/minimum ballast LNG carrier using
a decision support system. Therefore the study would entail defining the principal dimension for the hull of
the zero/minimum ballast ship concept, stability and sloshing assessments with predicted ship motions in
different sea states. Finally the study would detail the development of a model which would integrate stability
and sloshing assessment in the preliminary design of a zero/minimum ballast LNG carrier.
Investigation Of Residual Stress Influence On Corrosion Fatigue Life
Student
Volodymyr Okorokov
volodymyr.okorokov@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Tugrul Comlekci
tugrul.comlekci@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Autofrettage,
CorrosionFatigue
ResidualStress,
Such method of inducing residual stresses as autofrettage can reduce mean stress level in high pressure
components under cyclic loading and thereby significantly prolong high-cycle fatigue lifetime in both air and
corrosion environment. Autofrettage procedure is based on phenomenon of plastic deformation under cyclic
loading. Therefore, a precise prediction of residual stresses induced by this procedure requires using
plasticity theories which are able to take into account such phenomena as the Bauschinger effect which is
observed as a reduction of yield stress after reverse loading. In order to describe cyclic stress-strain curve
accurately an advanced plasticity model, which is based on Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening model,
is developed. The effect of residual stresses on corrosion fatigue life of high pressure components is
investigated numerically by means of finite element method with usage of ANSYS Workbench. In order to
assess influence of residual stresses on corrosion fatigue life after autofrettage different multiaxial criteria
for determination of equivalent alternating stress and mean stress correction theories are used. An
advanced plasticity model together with fatigue equations are incorporated into ANSYS Workbench by
means of User Programmable Features, where user is able to insert his own equations and solving
algorithms.
93
Multi-Criteria Worst-Case Design Optimisation Of Space Systems
Student
Carlos Ortega Absil
carlos.ortega@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Massimiliano Vasile
massimiliano.vasile@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Optimisation, Space, Uncertainty
Worst-case scenario optimisation provides the best possible solution in the worst possible condition. In the
context of model-based space systems engineering, worst-case scenario optimisation can be used to
account for both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty and derive an optimal design margin. Mathematically,
this can be formulated as min-max optimisation over the design space and the uncertain space. When
multiple conflicting but statistically uncorrelated criteria need to be satisfied, the maxima representing each
worst case are simultaneously optimised in the Pareto sense over the design space. This approach, despite
avoiding the exponential complexity intrinsic in the treatment of epistemic uncertainty, still requires
computationally expensive processes. This paper presents MACSnu-S, an extension of the Multi-Agent
Collaborative Search paradigm to solve multi-criteria min-max problems. MACS is a memetic multi-objective
optimiser based on Pareto ranking and Tchebycheff scalarisation. For the maximisation, MACSnu uses
Inflationary Differential Evolution (IDEA). MACSnu-S implements efficient schemes to avoid multiple nested
optimisations and a cost-reduction technique based on selective update of a surrogate model approximating
the entire maximisation subproblem. This allows for IDEA to run only when deemed necessary, using the
surrogate otherwise. The poster will present some standard benchmark cases and application to the
preliminary design of small spacecraft.
Modularity Throughout Mega Project Development Life
Student
Giota Paparistodimou
giota.paparistodimou@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Alex Duffy
Department
Design Manufacture & Engineering Management
Keywords
Modular, Design, Shipbuilding
Increasing complexity of engineering and business problems in different industries brings challenges in all
respects of execution of the projects. Shipbuilding is one example of industry that the relationships and
dependences between designs, production, supply chain and organisational management in an excessive
number of players produces a complex problem through project development life. Modularity argues to be
a solution to growing complexity. Modularity is a strategy for organising complex products and processes
efficiently. A modular system is composed of modules that are independent but still function as an integrated
whole. The literature suggests that modularity is not only a way to manage complexity, but also offers
positive gains for the environment as recycling and reuse possibilities, reinforces innovation, accelerates
rapid product development, efficient upgrading and improves product variance. However, holistic modularity
optimisation and practical application in mega project development life is deficient and the full benefits of
modularity lacking. The research aim is to investigate modularity in mega project development life phases
as an engineering and business tool, and contribute to the methods and framework for applying modularity
in project development life.
Prolonging Tool Life In The Manufacture Of Cocr-Alloy Orthopaedic Implants
Student
Bob Prazak
bob.prazak@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Xichun Luo
xichun.luo@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design Manufacture & Engineering Management
Keywords
Machining, Implant, Improvement
94
It is estimated that the medical devices market reaches more than $100 billion before 2020. The major
portion is held by the joint replacement implants. Tens of millions of arthroplasty procedures are conducted
every year and this number is increasing mainly due to increase in the aging population. The aim of this
project is the achievement of a decrease in consumable costs by prolonging tool life. It is expected that by
understanding of tool wear mechanism I will be able to optimise the machining variables which are reflected
in tool life and the workpiece surface integrity. The project is industrially based having several stages. During
the literature review period is the emphasis put on understanding of selected machining process and tool
wear mechanism. At the moment, I have selected equipment, tools and metalworking fluids required. A
number of machining trials will be conducted on an ultra-precision machine designed by Prof. Luo. The
designed set-up makes it possible to conduct the machining trials under controlled conditions allowing the
monitoring of cutting forces using a dynamometer. The tools and machined surface will be inspected using
interferometer and atomic force microscope. The evaluation of grinding performance parameters will allow
to design a process model thus optimize the operation conditions and prolong the tool life.
Parametric Design And Holistic Optimisation Of Container Ships
Student
Alexandros Priftis
Supervisor
Evangelos Boulougouris
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Holistic, Design, Optimisation
alexandros.priftis@strath.ac.uk
The introduction of new international regulations, along with the continuous endeavour of the shipping
industry for economic growth and profits has led the shipbuilding industry to explore new and cost-efficient
designs for various types of merchant ships. In this respect, proper use of modern CAD/CAE systems
extends the design space, while generating competitive designs with innovative features in short lead time.
The present PhD project deals with the parametric design and optimisation of container ships. The
developing methodology, which is based on the NAPA software system, includes the conceptual design and
holistic optimisation of a mid-sized container ship. The methodology incorporates a complete parametric
model of ship’s external and internal geometry along with the development and coding of all models
necessary for the determination of the design constraints and the design efficiency indicators, which will be
used for the evaluation of parametrically generated designs. The set-up optimisation problem will be solved
by use of genetic algorithms (MOGA).
Advancing The Design And Optimisation Of Winter Maintenance Products
Student
Jamie Steele
Supervisor
Prof. David Nash
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
jamie.steele@strath.ac.uk
Keywords
Winter maintenance products, namely gritters and snow ploughs, are often designed based on simple
approaches normally reliant on past experience. An opportunity exists to advance the designs of such
products through the application of modern computational approaches to allow quantitative and qualitative
measurement of each part of the products and provide design insight into optimisation options. Optimisation
of products can be based around a number of functions such as Design for Weight, Design for Strength,
Design for Manufacture and Design for Reliability (fatigue life). This work focusses around the introduction
and application of a modern 3D computer based design and finite element analysis system to an SME and
will identify options and solutions for an optimised product.
Advancing Conceptions Of Form And User Experience In Design Through Advanced Manufacturing
Processes
Student
Lewis Urquhart
lewis.urquhart@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Andrew Wodehouse
andrew.wodehouse@strath.ac.uk
95
Department
Design Manufacture & Engineering Management
Keywords
Design, Engineering, Manufacturing
Currently there is a rift between two key areas of design research, namely; advanced manufacturing
technology and product-user experience. New advanced manufacturing technology is allowing designers to
push the boundaries of form and functionality but little is understood about this narrative. This research
seeks to close the gap by attempting to unify fundamental manufacturing principles with measurable end
user experiences with respect to formed metal parts. Additionally it hopes to advance the studies of “material
computation” and the application of shape grammar theory in a metal forming context, expanding the lexicon
of engineering capability and opening new modes for form finding in design. Many companies such as Apple
Inc. and Nexus have pioneered use of advanced CNC metal machining technology for products used at the
commercial level, smart-phones and laptop computers for example. With respect to this, there is a need for
understanding the potential of applying advanced metal forming technology to understanding in userinteraction and at the level of human emotions and experience. This could potentially deliver a new suite of
understanding for industrial designers, engineers and researchers in design and manufacturing engineering.
Cruise Ship Survivability
Student
Georgios Vavourakis
georgios.vavourakis@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Evangelos Boulougouris
evangelos.boulougouris@strath.ac
.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
DamageStability, CruiseShip
In 2014 more than 21.57 million passengers were carried by a fleet of 295 cruise ships worldwide with a
prospect to exceed 24 million by 2018. On the other hand, a number of serious accidents had a result to
arise passenger ship industry concerns about the level of safety and the prospects of increasing the Potential
Loss of Life now that larger capacities ships are in operation. The new probabilistic damaged stability
regulations for dry cargo and passenger ships (SOLAS 2009), are a significant development compared to
former rules. In contrast, the methodology to calculate the survival probability for large cruise vessels fails
to provide good agreement with numerical estimates for the time to capsize. This is justified by the
compartmentation of a cruise vessel where has more labyrinthine sections compared to a Ro-Pax. Time
domain simulation is a very useful tool for the examination of the dynamic response of a damaged vessel.
In this research in order to capture the characteristic of progressive flooding in a random seaway, an
advanced prediction numerical tool, is going to be developed, based on previously developed in NAOME
know-how and incorporating beyond-the-state-of-the-art capabilities.
Multi-Scale Modelling Of Ice-Structure Interactions
Student
Bozo Vazic
bozo.vazic@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Erkan Oterkus
erkan.oterkus@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Peridynamics, Ice, Hpc
Due to the global warming the Arctic is considered as the Middle East of the future, but utilization of the
Arctic region for maritime exploitation brings new challenges due to its harsh environment. Therefore,
maritime structures (e.g. ships) must be designed to withstand ice loads. Although experimental studies can
give invaluable information about ship-ice interactions, full scale tests are very costly to perform. Therefore,
computer simulations can be a good alternative, where peridynamics will be used for the first time in the
literature to analyse ship-ice interactions. Peridynamics is a new continuum mechanics formulation which is
very suitable for failure analysis of structures due to its mathematical structure. The main aim of this study
is to bring a new dimension contrary to the existing analytical and numerical modelling tools used for icestructure interaction modelling.
96
Gesture Recognition In Conceptual Cad
Student
Tijana Vuletic
tijana.vuletic@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Alex Duffy
alex.duffy@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design Manufacture
Management
Keywords
Cad, Conceptual ,Gestures
&
Engineering
Conceptual design is currently not typically performed using CAD software. The lack of suitable conceptual
CAD solutions means that the ideation stage of the design process is disconnected from the rest of the
design process, requiring rework in order to record the conceptual design in CAD, once the conceptual
design had reached required level of definition. Even when CAD is used for conceptual design the designers
need to change the way they would naturally work in order to adapt to the requirements of the computer
software. This PhD explores the possibility of using gestures, gesture caption and recognition as an input
mechanism during conceptual design. Replacing, or augmenting, the mouse and keyboard with gestures
could reduce the difficulties associated with CAD system interaction would in turn allow the designer to focus
more fully on creativity and idea development. It would also allow them to design without altering or
interrupting their design process. Work to identify a common set of hand movements used to manipulate
virtual 3D models by designers is currently planned, with the ultimate goal of developing a prototype gesture
recognition interface for use with CAD in conceptual engineering design.
Operability Of Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (Flng) Unit
Student
Lionel Wamba
lionel.lemougouwamba@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr. Philip Sayer
p.g.sayer@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Flng, Motions, Operability
Liquefied natural gas is increasingly becoming important and the efficient development of natural gas fields
which are remote from onshore infrastructure or existing offshore pipeline is needed. These remote offshore
reserves prompted the development of a unique technological solution i.e. a Floating Liquefied Natural Gas
(FLNG) unit. An important peculiarity of a FLNG unit, affecting its operability, is its response to wave induced
motions and their effects on the following three focus operations: gas pre-treatment and liquefaction
processes (compromised performance and operating efficiency), the storage containment system (sloshing
due to partially filled tanks), LNG offloading from the FLNG unit to LNG carrier (cargo transfer in open seas).
In a bid to enhance operability, knowledge of the operational limitations of FLNG equipment will be used to
determine design motion criteria in different sea states for a range of hull configurations, taking into account
equipment and weight distribution as well as hull dimensions and form. The potential outcome of this
research will be the provision of a method that calls for meeting specific metocean conditions from initial hull
sizing as an effective way of minimizing the probability of extreme vessel motions, leading to increased
operability and reduced sloshing in the equipment on-board.
Synthesis Reasoning Support And Spine Design Process For Early Stage Cyber-Physical System
Design
Student
Xinyu Yang
xinyu.yang@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Xiutian Yan
x.yan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design Manufacture & Engineering Management
Keywords
Engineeringdesign, Designprocess, CyberPhysicalsystem
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are complex systems integrating computation, control, communication, and
physical world. The demands in market of developing advanced smart systems drive academia and industry
investigating systematic design process to pave the way to those systems. Currently, the design process
for complex system is focusing on two separated domains, software development and mechanical system
97
development. However, there is lacking a view to systematically deal with CPS domain where software and
physical systems are highly intertwined. This research developed a synthesis reasoning scheme for CPS
design, adopting concepts from cognitive psychology and combine with software design and physical
system development. Then, a design process, named as Spine Design Process (SDP), is presented.
Derived from the reasoning scheme, the process proposed a staged based design focusing on cyber,
physical, sensing, and actuating domains.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle With Ultrasonic Inspection
Student
Dayi Zhang
Supervisor
Gordon Dobie
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Uav, Ultrasonic, Ndt
dayi.zhang@strath.ac.uk
This project investigates the design and implementation of mechanical, electronic and control approaches
to stabilize an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) so that it can for ultrasonic structural inspection applications.
Large scale assets, such as wind turbine blades are hard to approach and some areas, such as power
station roofs, are hazardous and often-illegal for the human inspectors to access. Hence, for the safety,
convenience and legal requirements, a UAV offers significant potential benefits. Unlike ground crawler
vehicles, UAVs can undertake true 3D inspection and can undertake many challenging access problems.
Traditionally, current aerial inspections rely on high resolution cameras and for safety reasons the UAV
requires to be flown over 100 meters away from the surface. Therefore, it is highly challenging for the
operator/inspector to perform a detailed examination. Surface contacting Ultrasonic transducers offer the
potential for internal inspection of an asset or component, providing true integrity information. However, due
to air dynamic issues, the UAV cannot typically approach or maintain contact with the surface. Thus, this
project will investigate novel mechanical, electronic and control methods to allow the UAV to approach the
asset surface and perform meaningful ultrasonic inspection.
Bio-Inspired Air-Coupled Transducer
Student
Botong Zhu
botong.zhu@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
James Windmill
james.windmill@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Nde, Biomimetics, Ultrasonic
This PhD project seeks to use biological inspiration as a mechanism for improving ultrasonic air-coupled
transducers. Compared with liquid-coupled transducers, air-coupled transducers do not require contact to
test an object. This property is very beneficial in detecting defects in non-waterproof materials like aerospace
laminates and foam filled materials. However, air-coupled transducers have not been widely used mainly
because of high acoustic lost (low efficiency). The project will concentrate on insect models for inspiration,
and primarily aims to investigate routes to improve the efficiency of single element transducers. Firstly, the
work will focus on the three dimensional structural design, and the associated materials used, in insect
hearing and vocal systems that have high sensitivity and/or dynamic range. Secondly, it will utilize 3D
printing technology to build artificial air-coupled transducers with high efficiency and large bandwidth. Finally,
it will conduct experiments using a robotic delivery system to improve the inspection of composite materials,
and feedback the results to industry. The design, manufacture, and testing progress will be iterative until
reaching the ultimate goal of developing new ultrasonic transducers with enhanced efficiency and dynamic
range.
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Energy
Modular Modelling Of Interline Dynamic Voltage Restorer In Dynamic Phasor Domain
Student
Khaled Abojlala
khaled.abojlala@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Interline, Dvr, Phasor
A method for building a dynamic phasor model of Interline Dynamic Voltage Restorer (IDVR) in ABC and
DQ domain is presented and tested. The mathematical analysis is carried out for each individual component
of the IDVR as modular models. For the purpose of this paper the dynamic response of IDVR is presented
only; thus the analysis is performed for the fundamental frequency. The dynamic phasor models of IDVR
are validated by comparison with detailed IDVR model. The proposed technique has the advantage of
simplifying the modelling of power system devices compared to other modelling techniques introduced in
the literature.
Performance Evaluation And Thermal Performance Enhancement Of Pcm Heat Storage Using Lattice
Boltzmann Method For Novel Pcm Heat Exchanger/Storage System
Student
Olubunmi Andrew Agbanigo
olubunmi.agbanigo@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Nicholas J. Kelly
nick@esru.strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Pcm, HeatExchanger
Improving heat exchange between PCMs and heat source and sink due to their low thermal conductivvities
is a major research subject that has been approached by different methods. A relatively new numerical
method, the Lattis Boltzmann method, has great acceptance but has been limited to porous media matrices
as PCM thermal properties enhancers. This research proposes the development of a model based on the
Lattice Boltzmann method for investigating thermal property enhancement of phase change materials with
finned PCM heat exchanger/storage as thermal property enhancement, which is to be applied to a novel
PCM heat exchanger/storage system. This system comprises a shell with a number of heat transfer tubes
each having both internal and external longitudinal fins. The external fins are linked (joined or connected) to
form a grid-like matrix structure within the shell of the PCM heat exchanger/storage system. The study
proposes to examine different tube arrangements (hexagonal and square) and different numbers of tubes
to assess system performance with heat transfer fluid flowing inside the tubes and in the shell side of the
heat exchanger (PCM in tubes).
Numerical Study Of Double Diffusive-Convection And Stability In Salinity Gradient Solar Ponds
Student
Sirajadien Alzin
sirajadien.alzin@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Leo Lue
leo.lue@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Solarthermal, Desalination, Modelling
Salinity gradient solar ponds (SGSPs) collect solar radiation and store it in the form of heat in the pond body,
raising its water temperature. This heat remains in the lower zone of the pond (LCZ) due to its higher density
(high salt content) and subsequently can be utilized as useful heat for various applications, such as power
generation or desalination. The Non-Convective Zone (NCZ) of SGSP is a typical double diffusive system
of salinity and temperature, and it is subjected to in-stable effects. In this work a two-dimensional, numerical
study that evaluates, the effects of double-diffusive convection in the thermal performance and stability of a
salt-gradient solar pond will be presented. The space discretization of the governing equations of continuity,
99
momentum, thermal energy and mass transfer is based on the respective weak formulations and the
discretization employs finite elements with a pressure correction method used to decouple velocity and
pressure. Integration in time is accomplished by a backward differentiation method. The computer code was
developed employing Fenics project finite element library.
Ancillary Services Procurement In Microgrid With High Penetration Of Converter Connected
Renewable Energy Sources
Student
Celestine Anioke
celestine.anioke@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Olimpo AnayaLara
olimpo.anayalara@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Microgrids,
Microgridagents
AncillaryServices,
The Wind and solar energy distributed renewable generations introduced significant challenges in
microgrids. The uncertainty of the network required to be controlled by the system operators by applying
operational changes and procurement of several support services to guarantee a continuous balance
between the generation of electricity and consumers. The energy service providers and end-customers has
analysed Microgrid as a source provider of reliable, economic and environmental friendly power supply and
it was achieved using the combination of distributed renewable energy sources with energy storage systems
and controllable load management. Based on this, it can be used as black start power or to support and
strengthen the grid during periods of heavy demand by providing ancillary services. The idea is to improve
the stability and reliability of electricity supply in the power network system using the ancillary services
provision from the microgrids and multi-microgrids connected using the application of high voltage direct
current transmission network. The optimization of the microgrid system control process is achieved through
the application of the microgrid agents (Microgrid Central Controller, Micro source Controller and load
Controller) and this have enable it to participate effectively in the ancillary services electricity markets.
Optimization Of Thermoelectric Generator For Non-Umbilical Subsea Production
Student
Austin Asuquo
austin.asuquo@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
David Clelland
d.clelland@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Subsea,
RenewableEnergy
ThermoGenerator,
As global demand for energy increases marine production from deepwater wells also increases with distance
and production cost from platforms/floating production structures. Remote wells located hundreds of
kilometres from floating structure are expensive to developed, costs of umbilical links to these wells are
high, and their presence on seabed leaves them prone to damages and unexpected risks. During exploration
and production of oil and gas reservoirs large amount of waste heat is generated. Recovering of this waste
heat into usable electricity could save significant amount of money. This research finds efficient energy
conversion technologies that utilises renewable energy source, achievable with Subsea Thermoelectric
Generator on production flowline. Thermo-generator uses temperature difference across thermo devices
and seawater to convert heat into electricity. Thermohydraulic modelling and simulation of the device on
production line associated with pump will be carried out, providing representative operating conditions,
materials and energy balance thus addressing production , flow assurance problems. Design data will be
used to construct and test prototype generator. Outcome of this will add to knowledge in developing
integrated subsea power and control system which is self-contained, safe, reliable, environmentally friendly,
eliminating complex, expensive umbilicals thereby reducing production cost whilst contributing towards
world energy need.
100
Integrated Energy Efficiency Of Shipping
Student
Onder Canbulat
onder.canbulat@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof. Osman Turan
o.turan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Energy, Efficient, Shipping
Shipping goods with well-organized transportation system is vital for any specific industry and countries
economy. Not only shipping business has continuously been developed to become more sophisticated,
ennergy efficient and effective but also it has been active in the centre of the globalisation of manufacture
and consumption (Cullinane, 2014). Energy efficiency, also known as efficient energy utilisation, is the aim
of managing the amount of energy consumption to provide goods and services in a sustainable manner.
Delivering more services with the same energy input or the same services with the less energy input create
a more energy efficient system (Irrek, et al., 2008). The research study looks into the integrated energy
efficient shipping in a holistic way by focusing on ship-port interface and interoperability to increase energy
efficiency. The objectives of this study are to develop useful solutions and framework to increase energy
efficiency as a whole by achieving a better interoperability of ship and port services. The project will collect
cargo transport andship operation data including surveys and face to face questionnaires while addressing
dependability challenges by deploying various techniques such as Bayesian Belief Network.
Integrating Vsc To Weak Grid Ac System
Student
Yin Chen
yin.chen@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Lie Xu
lie.xu@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Vsc, WeakGrid
For high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) transmission, the strength of the ac system is important for normal
operation. An ac system can be considered as weak because its impedance is high. A typical highimpedance system is when an HVDC link is terminated at a weak point of a large ac system where the shortcircuit capacity of the ac system is low. In my research the modelling and control issues for VSC-HVDC links
connected to weak ac systems are investigated. For modelling, a frequency-domain ac system model is
proposed. It is easier to analyze dynamics of the overall ac system. For controlling, to obtain current and
voltage components in a synchronously-rotating reference-frame, a phase-locked loop (PLL) is required.
However, the PLL dynamics, during transients, adversely affects overall system stability especially in weak
grids. To overcome the problem, a compensation angel is added to the PLL when the ac system is under
transient. Matlab simulations are present to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed model and the
performance of as system as adding the compensation angel.
Expanding Measurement Limits Of Hybrid Photonic Current Sensors
Student
Lloyd Clayburn
lloyd.clayburn@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Pawel Niewczas
p.niewczas@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Sensors, Alt, Creep
In order to effectively manage power grids with increasing adoption of renewable energy, a transition to
smart power grids with greater penetration of sensing elements is predicted. Strathclyde spin-out company
Synaptec has developed a novel fiber optics based current sensor for the power grid. Advantages of fiber
optics based current sensors over conventional sensors include smaller size, ease of long distance serial
multiplexing, resistance to electromagnetic interference and the possibility of simultaneous temperature
measurement. Conventional current sensors are however highly resistant to degradation and can last
decades in the field. In order to demonstrate competitiveness in this regard, Strathclyde is working with
Synaptec to quantify, then reduce sensor degradation in order to prove compliance with stringent BSI and
101
IEC accuracy standards. This PhD is concerned with accelerated lifetime testing and subsequent design
revision of these current sensors. This will involve among other things, simulating long-term degradation of
a piezoelectric component through application of high AC frequencies and long-term prediction of adhesive
creep through increased temperature testing.
Development Of An Offshore Wind Farm Maintenance Decision Support Tool
Student
Rafael Dawid
rafael.dawid@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
David Mcmillan
d.mcmillan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Offshore, Maintenance, WindTurbine
I am currently developing a maintenance decision support tool for offshore wind farms. The model optimises
short-medium term maintenance scheduling and decision making, including the effects of weather and
logistical costs. The model develops policies which would make it simpler for the decision makers by doing
some by: - Identifying the optimal time to take an action or inspection - Identifying the most cost effective
action for a given alarm - Suggesting the vessel to be used for a given repair
Modelling The Impact Of Social Network On Energy Savings
Student
Feng Du
feng.du@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Jiangfeng Zhang
jiangfeng.zhang@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Energy, Interaction, InformationDiffurion
In this paper a mathematical model of human behavioural dynamic interactions on a social network is
derived to calculate energy savings. This model consists of a weighted directed network with time evolving
information on each node. Energy savings from the whole network is expressed as mathematical
expectation from probability theory. This expected energy savings model includes both direct and indirect
energy savings of individuals in the network. The savings model is obtained by network weights and modified
by the decay of information. The variables in the model are calculated using survey data. Expected energy
savings are calculated for cases where individuals in the social network are treated as a single information
source or multiple sources.
Novel Decentralised And Distributed Control Techniques For Lv Network Storage
Student
Anthony Florida-James
anthony.florida-james@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Graeme Burt
graeme.burt@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Distributed, Storage, Control
The increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG) has already caused operational challenges for
electricity networks in recent years. This situation is expected to become more problematic in the future.
One network solution to help mitigate these operational challenges is distributed storage. Distributed storage
has seen network trials in the UK, in other parts of the world, as well as in microgrid experiments and
demonstration projects. Demonstrated advantages of distributed storage are: provide peak load shaving,
improved power quality, facilitation of DG, phase balancing and voltage regulation. Storage is also seen as
a crucial element of microgrids and the smart grid paradigm. However, approaches to managing storage
and DG have thus far predominantly utilised centralised control approaches, especially for live network
demonstrations. The requirement for communications adds to the expense of storage solutions.
Decentralised control approaches have shown to reduce the overall cost of real-world utilisation of storage
and provide a level of autonomy in grid support. Both of these are key factors in the transition towards the
102
smart grid paradigm. Outlined is the key research currently being undertaken by the academic and industrial
communities into novel control techniques for LV network storage.
Fault Management Strategies For Turbo-Electric Distributed Propulsion (Tedp) Electrical Systems
Student
Marie-Claire Flynn
marie.flynn@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Stuart Galloway
stuart.galloway@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Protection, Tedp, Fault
TeDP aircraft present a means to reduce aircraft emissions despite ever increasing air traffic. However,
much of the benefit of this concept hinges on the reliable transfer of power from the wing-tip generators to
the rear mounted propulsors – an aspect of TeDP which requires development. Protection and fault
management of the electrical transmission and distribution network is crucial to ensure flight safety and to
maintain the integrity of the electrical components on board. In order to fulfil these aims, a robust fault
management strategy is required. In particular, the fault management strategy must be efficient, of minimal
weight and capable of a quick response to off-nominal conditions. Approaching the electrical architecture
design with a view to achieving optimal fault management allows the highest level of system reliability and
fault survivability to be achieved.
Evaluating Passive Structural Control Of Tidal Turbines
Student
Song Fu
song.fu@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Cameron Johnstone
joe clarke
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
TidalTurbine,
LoadsReduction
StructuralControl,
The research focus of this project is to design a tidal turbine station keeping system with a tuned mass
damper in order to reduce fatigue and peak structural loading experienced by the turbine. The methodology
is based on dynamic analysis of a tower-monopile support structure from a case study. The effect of added
mass and viscous damping is considered to correct the mass matrix and damping matrix and A tuned mass
damper (TMD) is implemented in nacelle in fore-aft direction. Both frequency domain and time domain
analysis are done for the structure to compare the TMD effect in different conditions. The result shows the
influence of TMD when the structure suffers in a dramatic impact and under unsteady continuous wavecurrent coupled forces.
Efficient Modeling Of Modular Multilevel Hvdc Converters (Mmc)
Student
Deyang Guo
deyang.guo@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Lie Xu
lie.xu@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Modeling, Mmc, Simulation
Modular multilevel converters (MMC) are an effective option for the continuously growing demands of
voltage-sourced converter-based high-voltage direct-current (VSC-HVDC) transmission. In MMC–HVDC
system the number of submodules (SMs) per arm is high to reduce the voltage rating per SM. However,
containing a large numbers of SMs means MMC has numerous semiconductor switches in it, which creates
a significant challenge for simulation. This study introduces simplified model of MMC for efficient and
accurate representation of a detailed MMC–HVDC system. By calculating each SM’s capacitor voltage
separately, this model not only has essentially the same dynamic behaviour with detailed model in nonfaulted situations but also has a good performance in simulations of fault cases. This research presents
103
comparison of previous simplified models, each of which can suit particular operating aspects of the MMC.
This research also presents control algorithms and other modelling aspects. The efficacy of the proposed
method is demonstrated by simulating a MMC-HVDC system in PSCAD/EMTDC programme.
Gaussian Process Machine Learning For Improved Wind Turbine Control
Student
Edward Hart
edward.hart@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
William Leithead
w.leithead@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Control, Energy, Turbines
In this PhD project Gaussian Process machine learning (GPML) algorithms will be applied to wind turbine
dynamics and control. The project is broken into two parts. Part 1 will involve the application of GPML to
wind turbine dynamics identification in both above and below rated operation. Data available to a wind
turbine control system will be used to identify the wind turbine dynamic equations in an online sense which
will adapt to new information as the dynamics change over time. Part 2 will focus on how best to exploit
these extracted dynamics for improved wind turbine control techniques; ultimately we seek to develop
controllers that make full use of available control data in order to automatically improve, adapt and update.
Transient Stability Of Grid Connected Wind Turbine
Student
Azmi Hashim
azmi-bin-hashim@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof Kwok Lo
k.lo@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Wind
As wind energy penetration to the electrical power grid increases, it causes unintended stability problem to
the power networks. This study will investigate the effect of this problem to the stress experience by the
synchronous generator due to the difficulties in predicting power produced by the wind energy system.
Control Of Ac Microgrid
Student
Xiaozuo Huang
xiaozuo.huang@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Lie Xu
lie.xu@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
This poster proposes a control strategy of AC microgrid aiming to integrate renewable Distributed Energy
Resources (DER) in AC connection. In AC microgrid, the loads are usually interfaced by the voltage sources
converter with Distribute generators (DG) while the islanding conditions. For this poster, the main challenge
is sharing the power supplement to the load among the inverters in parallel connection. The approach to
solving this problem is implementing the master-slave control strategy coordinating with the droop control
principle. Moreover, the control strategies of traditional microgrid are layout into three level. The primary
control and secondary control are defined as the self-control of the islanding operation condition. However,
the tertiary control strategy requires the grid-connection. So that, the dynamic of the first two levels will be
analysed by building a model of the power-sharing system in Matlab. The simulation result will also be shown
in the poster.
104
Solar And Wind Energy Potential In Gusau, Nigeria.
Student
Linus Orokpo Idoko
linus.idoko@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr. Olimpo AnayaLara
olimpo.anayalara@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Hybrid, Energy, Generation
The demand for power is on a steady increase and the desire of any developing nation is to cut down on
the use of fossil fuel for energy generation and make ample use of natural energy sources such as wind and
sunlight to generate power. Gusau, a city in Zamfara state is blessed with the abundance of solar energy
and wind energy resources yet those resources are underutilized as hardly you can find any wind generator
installed in Gusau and besides, there is the presence of few solar energy systems. This work focuses on
the potentials of renewable energy sources in the location such as solar energy system and Wind energy
system. It showcases the hourly solar radiation and wind speed, monthly solar radiations and wind speed
etc, and other essential parameters of interest. Wind speed data and solar radiations data in any location
are very useful for the development of solar energy when used as a single system and also as a Hybrid
PV/wind energy system. Simulations were carried out using two different software in order to ascertain their
potentials. The result showed that Gusau has potential for both PV energy generation and Hybrid PV/Wind
energy generation.
Modular Multilevel Converter Based Hvdc Systems For Offshore Wind Farm Integration
Student
Yiran Jing
Supervisor
Lie Xu
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Mmc, Hvdc, OffshoreWindfarm
yiran.jing@strath.ac.uk
Due to the rapidly expansion in offshore wind farms, the connection and transmission system between wind
farms and terrestrial power system has become one of the main challenges. For connecting large offshore
wind farm over distances exceeding 80-100 km, HVDC is superior to HVAC due to its flexible control and
transmission distance not affected by cable charging current. There are two main HVDC schemes, i.e. line
commuted converter based HVDC (LCC-HVDC) using thyristors and voltage source converter based HVDC
(VSC-HVDC) using IGBTs. VSC-HVDC systems are able to independently control the active and reactive
powers, and require no external AC source for commutation and thus are for wind power applications. The
research work will focus on the use of modular multilevel converters for VSC-HVDC systems connecting
large offshore wind farms. Coordinated control of the wind farms and HVDC converters to ensure adequate
system stability and dynamic response will be investigated. Transient behavior during AC and DC network
faults will be studied and novel converter configuration and system control will be studied to ensure postfault fast system recovery.
Low Frequency Ac System For Offshore Wind Farm Integration
Student
Spyridon Karamitsos
spyridon.karamitsos@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Lie Xu
lie.xu@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Offshore, Transmissionsystem, Lfac
Low Frequency AC (LFAC) technology can provide an effective solution for transmission of bulk amount of
power generated by large and remote Offshore Wind Power Plants (OWPPs). It is a combined AC and DC
system using HVAC submarine cables, overcoming the constraint of DC grid formation. The LFAC is created
by an onshore Back-to-Back HVDC station converting the grid frequency to a low frequency, thus no offshore
HVDC platform is needed and the cable transmission length is competitive to HVDC. Both components of
105
the converter are at the same location providing easy access for maintenance and operation. Moreover, the
availability of AC breakers and proven protection systems allow fast detection and clearance of faults which
guarantee the security of supply. Thus, OWPPs originally planned and installed as separate projects could
be interconnected to an offshore grid, similar to the commonly used practice in onshore grids, and LFAC
cables can connect one or more offshore platforms, where the internal grid voltage is transformed
accordingly for long distance transmission. Generally, a meshed LFAC offshore grid, compared to DC grid,
can be a less challenging and more realistic solution, mainly realized by using existing equipment.
Stability Assessment Of Low Inertia, Low Reactive Power Novel Islanded Networks
Student
Smith Kyle
kyle.smith@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Stuart Galloway
stuart.galloway@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Dc, Distribution, Microgrids
To investigate stability of low inertia generation, low reactive power novel networks when operating in island
mode. To establish and recommend methods to access different potential architecture solutions given a mix
of loads and generating sources with many different operating cycles. Islanded architectures to be
considered are based on dc distribution. Three different component solutions are to be considered viz.
conventional dc, fault tolerant and superconducting. To confirm the effectiveness of stability assessments
for the different architecture solutions for steady-state, dynamic and transient performance. To identify
techniques to improve stability tolerance of the architectures and identify and confirm through simulation the
most tolerant architecture assuming implementation of the design rules.
Optimise Dc Current Measurement For Electrical Protection Applications In Future Dc Networks
Student
Chunpeng Li
chunpeng.li@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Patrick Norman
patrick.norman@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Dc, Measurement, Protection
This project aims to determine the optimal instrumentation techniques for high-fidelity measurement and
data transmission of current flow in modern DC power distribution architectures, addressing the unique
features and requirements of a number of application types utilising a wide range of voltage levels. The
transmission of measurement data also requires to be closely synchronised between different parts of the
electrical network and highly EMI resistant. The project will conduct a comprehensive review of existing
available measurement systems and consider the opportunities and challenges introduced by new
technologies within these sectors (e.g. the use of built-in measurements in converters and solid state
switching devices).
Partial Discharge Online Diagnostics In Hvdc Cables
Student
Jiajia Liu
jiajia.liu@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Wah Hoon Siew
wh.siew@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Pd, OnlineMonitoring
To date, the major and most effective tool to improve the reliability of HV cable systems is the measurement
and analysis of partial discharges (PD). PD in cable insulation is a phenomenon that results from localized
electrical breakdown, or discharge, occurring at defects or damage within cable insulation systems when
electric stress is applied. Over time, sustained PD activities can degrade the insulation level of cables and
lead to eventual failure. Therefore, the occurrence of PDs in electrical insulation is an indicator that if the
106
integrity of an insulating system is compromised or degraded. Recently, high voltage dc (HVDC) cable
systems have experienced a remarkable development due to the ever-increasing need for the transmission
of large bulks of power over very and very long distances with the purpose of optimising the energy sources
available worldwide. It is necessary to maintain the reliability of these cable systems when integrated into
current energy networks. However, on-line PD measurement for HVDC cables is rarely proposed due to the
occurrence of PD under dc with lower repetition rate. Therefore, this paper will propose a new method for
on-line PD diagnostics in HVDC cables.
Effect Of Carbon Price Floor On Coal-Fired Power Plant
Student
Tianxiang Luan
tianxiang.luan@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Kwok Lo
k.lo@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
UK government launched carbon price floor (CPF) police which consist of the price of European emission
trading system and carbon price support levy, to combat climate change, and aim to reduce the UK’s
greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80% (from the 1990 baseline) by 2050. The CPF provide a long-term
incentive to invest in low carbon power generation by putting a minimum price on emission on electricity
generation. In term of carbon based generation, CPF will influence the capital and operation cost of power
station. This research addressed levelized cost of energy approach for the CPF effects on carbon cost of
coal-fired generation. The results obtained in this research include the carbon cost of coal-fired generation
with different carbon storage and capture (CCS) technologies, and the comparison of electricity generation
costs. These results will help government designing a fair carbon tax on carbon based generation in the
future. Key words: carbon price floor, coal-fired generation, carbon storage and capture technology.
Design And Optimistation Of Thermal Networks By Modelling And Using Findhorn Ecovillage As A
Case Study
Student
Andrew Lyden
andrew.lyden@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Paul Tuohy
paul.tuohy@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Thermal, Modelling, Decarbonisation
Thermal networks are capable of providing heating and cooling to multiple homes using low-carbon forms
of heat. It is vital for the decarbonisation of the heating sector if required reductions in CO2 emissions are
to be met. Heat pumps, biomass, industrial excess, CHP and heat from waste are examples of low-carbon
heating technologies which can be integrated into energy systems via thermal networks. Design of thermal
networks is limited to network analysis software such as TERMIS and thermal supply/demand matching
software such as HOMER and energyPLAN. Research is required to provide a holistic approach to the
design and optimisation of these networks. Findhorn is an ecovillage which consists of a wind farm, solar
PV and two district heating networks using biomass. By using extensive monitored data from the ORIGIN
project the current state of the ecovillage is modelled in HOMER and energyPLAN, and then alternatives
and improvements are investigated while testing the modelling software’s limitations. Once these limitations
in the state of the art of modelling are highlighted, further study into modelling design and optimisation of
thermal networks can be performed.
Spatio-Temporal Prediction Of Wind Based On Wind Velocity And Related Parameters
Student
Alice Malvaldi
Supervisor
Department
Keywords
107
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
alice.malvaldi@strath.ac.uk
The growth of wind power requires improvements in short-term wind forecast at wind energy sites.
Consequently, the accuracy of the wind farms’power output has to be improved as it is of fundamental
importance for reliable power system operation, trading on the energy market, and wind integration. This
project involves spatio-temporal predictions of wind speed and direction by means of linear complex valued
prediction filters. The aim is to investigate several aspects of the algorithm in order to accurately predict the
wind speed. At the present, it is being investigated how the accuracy of temporal prediction can be enhanced
by considering additional spatial measurements. Furthermore, the diurnal variation of the wind speed is
taken into account and methods arebeing developed to consider this fluctuation and therefore reduce the
prediction error.
A Holistic Approach To The Energy Management Of Ships Operation
Student
Panagiotis Mizythras
panayiotis.mizythras@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Evangelos Boulougouris
evangelos.boulougouris@strath.ac.u
k
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Marine, Systems, Energy
Green shipping is one of the main goals of marine industry. New technologies and innovative methods are
constantly implementing during marine design in order to improve the energy efficiency. Usually, the savings
from each system are mentioned individually, without to estimate the overall contribution to the total fuel
consumption. Following a holistic approach, the total efficiency of ship can be increased by improving the
energy management of machinery systems on board. For this reason, tools should be developed for the
estimation of energy demand, both for the propulsion as for the operation of the ship, in various cases.
These tools can be used at the early stage of the design for the selection of the suitable number and size of
systems that will be installed, according to the ship requirements. Moreover, the operational profile of the
ship can be estimated and optimized. As a result, the overall energy flow will be identified, revealing possible
losses during the design. With this method, useful data for the contribution of each system to the general
energy profile of the ship will be produced, assessing the life-cycle cost of the ship at the earliest steps of
marine design.
Modelling The Impact Of Demand-Side Management On Distribution System Operation
Student
Lesiba Mokgonyana
lesiba.mokgonyana@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Jiangfeng Zhang
jiangfeng.zhang@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
DemandSidemanagement,
Distributionsystem, Operation
Active demand side management (DSM) has emerged as one of the key solutions in efforts to achieve low
carbon systems. Specifically, there is growing interest in modelling and analysis of DSM in the context of
distribution system operation. This study presents a comprehensive load control strategy for three-phase
unbalanced distribution systems. With the proliferation of variable distributed generation in distribution
systems, voltage and current constraints are becoming difficult to manage without resorting to expensive
and time-consuming system reinforcements. A modelling framework for DSM programmes is introduced,
whereby participating consumers are capable of responding to electricity price adjustments and control
signals from a distribution company. The proposed formulation is responsive to the temporal constraints
imposed in actual DSM schemes and incorporates basic shiftable and interruptible loads. Observations are
that electricity cost savings can be realised and constraint violations removed, using the proposed load
control strategy.
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Process Safety Management In The Nigeria Oil And Gas Industries
Student
Uzoma Nnadi
uzoma.nnadi@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Esther VenturaMedina
esther.venturamedina@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
ProcessSafety Management, Petroleum
Process Safety Management (PSM) is the application of management and engineering skills to prevent
major accidents and release of hazardous substances. Effective PSM helps organisations maintain a
proactive approach towards prevention of major accidents, comply with regulations and best engineering
practices. PSM also has a clear link with business efficiency. It improves productivity, profit, less operating
costs, and promotes organisational corporate image. PSM have proved to be a big challenge to the
petroleum industries because of complex processes which are associated with hazardous procedures.
Accidents have repeatedly occurred in Nigeria petroleum industries because organisations don’t take
process safety as over-riding priority. An estimation of over 3000 people has lost their lives, including loss
of aquatic life, infrastructures, farmlands, and pollution of ground water which serves as a means of drinking
water. The operation to clean up the oil pollution from the leaks of the ruptured Bodo-Bonny oil pipeline in
Ogoniland of Nigeria could cost USD$1 billion and can take up to 30 years, which could be the longest and
wide-ranging ever seen. The need to improve process safety management in Nigeria petroleum industries
with an integrated PSM framework is critically important.
Failure Modes Of Superconducting Turbo-Electric Distributed Propulsion Systems For All Electric
Aircraft
Student
Steven Nolan
steven.nolan@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Stuart Galloway
stuart.galloway@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Superconducting, Aircraft, Fault
Turbo-electric distributed propulsion(TeDP) has been proposed as a concept to enable future aircraft to
meet future environmental performance targets. A key challenge in the development of TeDP aircraft, is the
design of a suitable electrical power system, which not only maintains the benefits of the TeDP concept, but
has an appropriate protection and redundancy approach to ensure reliable operation throughout the
aircraft's lifespan. To ensure the electrical system is able to deliver on weight and volume restrictions, it has
been proposed that superconductors will be used for generation, distribution, and propulsion technologies.
Whilst superconducting technologies are considered an enabling technology for many future network
devices such as fault current limitation, their impact on system stability and component failure modes is still
poorly understood. Given the unique properties of these materials, research must be done to determine how
electrical faults will impact system performance and eventual failure of network components. To this end,
this poster presents a cable model that aims to characterize the fault behaviour of superconducting
distribution cable. Through this and future modelling it is hoped that the impact of electrical faults on transient
stability and long term reliability can be assessed.
Investigation Of Alternative Fuels And Emission-Reduction Technologies To Enhance Sustainability
Of Shipping And Marine Operations
Student
Refik Ozyurt
refik.ozyurt@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Gerasimos Theotokatos
gerasimos.theotokatos@strath.ac.u
k
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
CarbonEmission, Shipping, Hydrogen
The shipping industry makes a significant contribution to air pollution, especially in terms of Oxides of
Nitrogen (NOX) and Sulphur (SOX) as well as particulate matter. Air pollution from shipping is generated by
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diesel engines that burn high sulphur content fuel oil, producing sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and
particulate, in addition to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrocarbons. These contents are known
as causing serious chronic fatal health problems for humans. Therefore sustainability, which includes
concepts such as the ability to endure, remain productive over time, and maintain its well‐being, becomes
more of an issue. As using higher rated ships can deliver significantly lower CO₂ emissions across the
voyage length, preventing pollution and continuing efforts to minimize the negative effects of shipping on
the environment can be achieved in many ways. Hydrogen can be used as an alternative fuel contributing
a zero greenhouse gas emission promising in particular when it is produced with renewable energies,
although most of the hydrogen is produced by non-renewable technologies. To achieve this, alternative fuels
in particular hydrogen based fuels and emission reduction technologies will be investigated to enhance
sustainability of shipping and marine operations.
Propagation Of Power Quality Within Distribution And Transmission Networks.
Student
Saad Panni
saad.a.panni@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Andrew Roscoe
andrew.j.roscoe@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Electricity, Network, Quality
The best electricity supply is of constant magnitude and frequency sinusoidal waveform. However, in reality
the non-zero impedance of the network system contributes to the unwanted transients, power harmonics
and voltage unbalances. These unwanted characteristics of power supply directly impact the efficiency and
performance of electric equipment. If not detected, these could cause serious damage to the supply network,
generators, control equipment or other loads. Determining the source of these disturbances is therefore
essential. To remain competitive in global market, the need for an affordable, reliable and high quality power
must be achieved. The increasing role of power quality is further accelerated by the inclusion of non-linear
loads such as switched power supplies, which are found in most electronic equipment nowadays. This
research study focuses on determining the location of significant sources of power quality disturbances in
electricity distribution network. This will be done by simulating power harmonics across the gird and
developing a practical triangulation method to locate harmonic sources. The developed technique will then
be implemented on a network using data with installed PMUs.
Reduction In Cost Of Direct Drive Generator Through Active Control Of The Airgap.
Student
Chandra Pun
Supervisor
Alasdair Mcdonald
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Air, Gap, Control
chandra.pun@strath.ac.uk
Maintaining uniform air gap in a large scale permanent magnet direct drive generator with minimum weight
and cost is a challenge. Failure to achieve it can cause the physical contact of rotor and stator, which in turn
lead to structural damage of the generator.
Optimal Operation Of Combined Heat And Power Systems Under Demand Response
Student
Haijie Qi
h.qi@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Jiangfeng Zhang
jiangfeng.zhang@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
OptimalChp
110
Demand response is widely accepted as the key solution to improve the distribution network efficiency. To
minimize the total cost of buildings and keep indoor temperature at an acceptable comfortable level, it is
necessary to minimize the energy system operational cost from the demand response perspective.
Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system produces heat and power at different efficiencies and costs within
its operating region. In case of that the CHP is not enough to provide the heat or electricity demand, a gas
boiler or the main grid will be able to connect automatically to meet the energy need. Since mostly the HVAC
system and gas boiler are the main objects of electricity and heat demand respectively, these two are chosen
as the main targets of demand response in many studies. However, a study on the operational control of
CHP along with HVAC and gas boiler under demand response is still lacking. Therefore, in this paper, an
optimal control model to operate the CHP, HVAC and gas boiler under demand response is proposed. The
minimal cost of CHP is affected by the feed in tariff. A case study will be presented to illustrate the
effectiveness of the model.
Development Of A Tool For Offshore Wind Resource Assessment By Satellites For Wind Industry
Student
Alberto Rabaneda
alberto.rabaneda@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Matthew Stickland
matt.stickland@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Wind, Satellite, Offshore.
In 1987, the first satellite with an on board microwave sensor was launched to deliver a continuous ocean
wind speed time series. Since then many different satellites have been measuring wind vector over the seas
using different instruments with different characteristics. Many researchers have worked on the validation
of satellite data by comparing measurements with in-situ devices and have found a problem relating to data
density. In a few studies researchers joined several satellite’s data thereby trying to increase the number of
measurements, which used to be too low for a confident wind resource assessment. The goal of this study
is to finally develop operational software to create wind atlases and perform wind resource assessment by
satellites for potential offshore wind farm developments. Furthermore, a database has been built in order to
solve the problem of data shortage; the database also allows undertaking offshore wind assessments in any
place around the world. In this paper, output and results from the software are shown for a test area located
north of the Firth of Ems (Germany).
Real-Time Laboratory Demonstration Of The Provision Of Inertia From Offshore Wind Turbines Via
Hvdc Links
Student
Luis Reguera Castillo
luis.reguera@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr. Andrew Roscoe
andrew.j.roscoe@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
PowerElectronics, Wind
As the proportion of wind generation gradually increases in the EU, the retained capacity of synchronous
generation has decreased losing the capability to maintain the stability as it has done in the past.
Consequently, the Transmission System Operators (TSO’s) now are beginning to demand to the wind
energy generators to contribute to the grid stability as traditional plant have done easily. Wind farms cannot,
as default, execute some ancillary functions that traditional fossil-fuelled plants do such as, contribution to
the Rate-Of-Change-Of-Frequency (ROCOF) or provision of grid inertia. However, with a new scenario of a
high level of penetration of renewable energies into the electric mix, several new strategies (explained further
below) have been theorized and simulated proving a good performance in these conditions. Nonetheless,
None of them have been tested in a real environment. The main objective of the project will be to evaluate
the performance of these new strategies establishing a comparison between them.
Analysis And Monitoring Loads On A Tidal Turbine And Its Structural Effects.
Student
Jos Manuel Rivera Camacho
jose.rivera-camacho@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Cameron Johnstone
cameron.johnstone@strath.ac.uk
111
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Tidal, Turbine, Monitoring
The project aim is to study the dynamic loads applied to a tidal turbine, monitoring their interactions with the
rotor, blades and also their effects on them. The main objective behind this is to know how the forces acting
on the turbine can reduce its lifespan, compromise its structural elements and lead to an early failure at
some of its mechanical parts. The monitoring also is expected to show useful relationships between different
cases of dangerous loads and its possible outcomes, this helping us to develop a system to detect early
stages of damage. A theoretical analysis of how vibration responses act at the turbine will be made, also a
review of past experiments and research will be done on what kinds of sensors and which parts are more
susceptible to place our sensors. Later on an experimental phase will take place were sensors will be placed
at strategically parts of our turbine. Data obtained through it will be analysed to search correlation between
this and the model under several cases of loads and possible damage cases.
Life Extension For Wind Turbine Structures And Foundations
Student
Tim Rubert
tim.rubert@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr P. Niewczas
p.niewczas@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
LifeExtension, WindTurbine, Foundations
Provide a technical, as well as economic analysis into fatigue damage monitoring, by application of fibre
Bragg gratings embedded in wind turbine foundations.
Predicting Fault Permeability At Depth: Data Pooling From Multiple Field Sites
Student
Silvia Sosio De Rosa
silvia.sosio-de-rosa@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Zoe Shipton
zoe.shipton@strath.ac.uk
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
Fault, Permeability, Structure
Currently, large uncertainties exist with respect to the amount of damage/sealing that can be expected from
a given fault at depth. These uncertainties carry over to uncertainties in reservoir compartmentalisation and
along-fault flow. The Fault and Fluid Flow research group, led by Professors Shipton and Lunn, has built up
a dataset of fault zone architectures from fieldwork. The object of this PhD project is to supplement the field
fault database with observations from some exceptionally well-exposed normal faults developed in a
reservoir formation from which oil is currently being produced just offshore NW Borneo. In November 2015
I conducted a field study in Miri (Malaysia) that involved the detailed mapping of 3D exposures of faults in a
poorly lithified deltaic sandstone-shale sequence of the Upper Miri Formation. The lab analysis (thin
sections, SEM, X-CT) of the samples collected in Miri hold valuable information on the permeability and
deformation mechanisms of soft sediments. The field and lab observations will be incorporated in the
existing dataset of the Fault and Fluid Flow research group. Data from multiple sites will be combined for
statistical analysis to derive the underpinning flow controls on faults at depth, which will then be validated
against industry data.
Gas Furnace: Main Tool Of Heat Treatment Process
Student
Nicolas Torino
nicolas.torino@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Design Manufacture
Management
&
Engineering
112
Keywords
Energy, HeatTransfer, IndustryProcess
The heat treatment of an engineering component plays a fundamental role in establishing the mechanical
properties and the functionality of the component. Continuous product improvement can be achieved
through enhanced mechanical properties. Even though knowledge of material science is well established,
questions still remain on the effect and control of heat treatment processes at the industrial scale. Nowadays,
a lot of the industrial furnaces are carrying out heat treatment using guide-lines based on empirical
knowledge. Therefore there is a knowledge gap associated with these empirical guide-lines. This PhD
project will carry out experimental and numerical investigations of the semi-industrial size gas furnace
implanted at the Advanced Forming Research Centre and aims to understand the heat transfer during heat
treatment processes.
Fault Anticipation In Distribution Networks
Student
Eleni Tsioumpri
eleni.tsioumpri@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Stephen Mcarthur
s.mcarthur@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
FaultAnticipation,
DataAnalytics
DistributionNetworks,
The amount of monitoring equipment that is increasingly being installed in distribution networks results in
many streams of data being available for processing. However, large amounts of data remain underutilised,
as current practices focus on trying to accelerate the fault restoration process and use only certain data for
specific purposes, e.g. fault location. Post fault analysis of data has shown that it may be possible to predict
and prevent future faults by identifying and interpreting unusual pre-fault activity. Real-time processing of
distribution network data will improve the system’s visibility and allow Distribution Network Operators to
identify incipient faults and intervene prior to a system failure. This will increase network reliability by
reducing Customer Interruptions and Customer Minutes Lost. I am analysing the types of monitoring data
available now and in the future and its use for fault anticipation and developing analytics to detect and
interpret signals within the data that predict future behaviour of the network, particularly with respect to fault
anticipation. In the future, it is also expected that we will identify currently unknown information within the
data and present a holistic view of the network based on analysis of online data.
Solar Energy Integration Into Future Smart Grid
Student
Yachao Wang
yachao.wang@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Derrick Holliday
derrick.holliday@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Being encouraged by a series of policies and support from government, the solar energy harvesting system
has achieved fast development along with the penetration of renewable energy into the electric power
system. This project is try to establish a new solar system with high reliability and reduced cost. The
modelling and the parameter analysis are included.
Protection And Control Of Smart Dc Distribution Power Systems
Student
Dong Wang
d.wang@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Graeme Burt
graeme.burt@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Lvdc, Protection, FaultCharacteristics
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Low Voltage DC (LVDC) distribution systems are new promising technologies which can potentially be
considered as an area of interest for the development of future distribution power systems. LVDC systems
are more efficient for directly supplying the majority of electronic loads, and connecting distributed energy
resources such as solar photovoltaics (PVs), energy storage, fuel cells, micro-wind and etc. In addition,
LVDC with advanced power electronics and controls, and intelligent ICT have the potential to provide
enhanced controllability and more flexibility, which are the two fundamental features required for smart
management of local energy, and better stimulation of consumers participation in electricity market.
However, LVDC systems introduce new mix of AC and DC components with hierarchical converter based
paradigm which can make distribution networks more complex than traditional. Such changes will enforce
the LV distribution system to behave different during different operating conditions. Therefore, this poster
presents the characterisation of an LVDC distribution network with high penetrations of local PVs and energy
storages under different short circuit faulted conditions and outlines DC protection challenges for such a
system.
Factors Affecting The Electrical Performance Of Offshore Windfarm Transmission Cables
Student
John Warnock
john.warnock@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
David Mcmillan
d.mcmillan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Offshore, Wind, Cable
This research attempts to develop a tool which will be used in conjunction with cable types and their specific
layouts in order to determine the thermal and electrical characteristics of the cable after installation. This will
be achieved through examining a number of factors such as how and where a cable is installed as well as
the type of cable used and its rating. This analysis could be instrumental to the reduction of cable costs in
large scale offshore projects. Once this tool has been developed it will be used in research regarding the
best placement of cables and the number of cables that should be used to connect large offshore windfarms.
The Cfd Development Of Non-Premixed Dual Fuel Combustion Diesel Engine Injected By HighPressure Gas In The Cylinder Chamber
Student
Renyou Yang
renyou.yang@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Gerasimos Theotokatos
gerasimos.theotokatos@strath.ac.u
k
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Cfd, Dualfuel, Engine
High-pressure gas injection and non-premixed combustion of gaseous and liquid fuels in marine engine
operating on the dual fuel mode is a quite new technology that can be effectively used for reducing the
pollutant emissions from ships. Currently, there is no published theoretical method to represent the involved
processes and NOx formation mechanisms of dual fuel engines. In this respect, the non-premixed dual fuel
combustion model will be investigated with focus on the development of the two independent mixture
fractions using the probability density function to decouple the turbulence and chemistry interaction. By
comparing the engine cylinder pressure history and combustion characteristics obtained from the engine
shop tests and literature, the developed method will be verified and proposed as a feasible solution of the
complicated diffusive combustion processes occurring in marine engines operating on the dual fuel mode.
Control Of Wind Turbine Converters Connected With Diode-Rectifier Based Hvdc
Student
Lujie Yu
lujie.yu@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Lie Xu
lie.xu@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
114
Keywords
Diode, Hvdc, Wind
The main objective of this research is to propose a distributed wind-turbine converter control method when
the offshore wind farm is connected with diode-rectifier based high-voltage-direct-current. In this study, the
mathematical relationship among offshore AC grid frequency, reactive power, active power and voltage is
analyzed. A distributed synchronization control, which is based on phase lock loop technique, is proposed.
A proposed reactive power sharing control strategy makes it possible to share the reactive power output
desirably according to each inverter’s capacity. Simulation results in PSCAD show a good behavior of the
proposed control strategy under normal mode of operation.
Backup Protection Requirements In Future Low-Inertia Power Systems
Student
Fangzhu Yu
fangzhu.yu@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Backup, Communications, Protection
In the future, the power transmission system in Great Britain (GB) may be much “weaker” than it is at present,
and the project will investigate the potential impact that this could have on protection systems, and in
particular upon backup protection system operation. The potential for future problems with generators 'and
converter-interfaced infeeds' inability to “ride through” during slow/backup protection operations, and the
consequent risk of complete system collapse, will also be outlined. Possible solutions to the problem,
ranging from the use of enhanced voltage support mechanisms (for example fast injection of reactive power
from converters when required), more rigorous and exacting grid code requirements, the use of synchronous
compensators, and faster backup protection (and possibly main protection at sub-transmission and
distribution voltages), enabled by emerging wide-area communications systems and distributed
measurements, will also be included in the paper.
High-Power Dc–Dc Converters For Hvdc Transmission Systems
Student
Jia Yu
jia.yu@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Derrick Holliday
derrick.holliday@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Hvdc, DcDc
Transfer of electrical energy using high-voltage DC (HVDC) can offer significant advantages when
compared to conventional AC transmission techniques, and this has prompted significant research into
power electronic converter topologies that can be used to realise HVDC systems. Many challenges exist,
including converter operation at voltages that significantly exceed the ratings of individual power
semiconductor switching devices, reliability and fault-tolerance. This project will focus on development of
modular converter topologies, where each module is deigned based on the capability of individual
semiconductor devices, but which can be interconnected to achieve the high voltages required in an HVDC
network. The modular approach further facilitates redundancy and the development of control strategies
that offer fault tolerance and ride-through capability. In many applications, minimal converter footprint is of
key importance. Increasing switching frequency enables converter magnetic component volume to be
reduced, at the expense of increased device switching losses. The project will consider this design tradeoff. Following an extensive literature review, MATLAB simulation will be used to develop candidate modular
topologies, which will be verified experimentally using laboratory-level scalable hardware demonstrators.
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Curtailment Of Wind Power Output Range
Student
Banghao Zhou
banghao.zhou@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Lo Kwok
k.lo@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Windpower, Curtailment, Market
The increasing concern for environmental pollution by using fossil fuel for electrical power generation has
created a tremendous push for alternative generation. The use of wind power generation is particularly
successful as different governments around the world use different incentives to encourage wind power
installation. However in actual system operation the curtailment of wind power output ranges from about
10% to over 40% due either to network constraints or operational inflexibility of other plants to cater for
intermittent wind power output. The objective of the project is to investigate methods either operational or
planning ones to reduce the curtailment. The investigation should also take the carbon tax market into
consideration.
Load Sharing And Frequency Support Strategies Using Vsc-Hvdc Systems
Student
Ding Zhou
ding.zhou@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Lie Xu
lie.xu@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
VscHvdc,
PowerDispatch
FrequencySupport,
As one of the most important feature of power system operation and stability, system frequency is always
required to maintain in an acceptable safety range. Sudden change of load or generation can cause system
frequency fluctuation and potentially makes the system unstable. Furthermore, facing the global energy
crisis, the increased green energy generation connections to the power grid reduces system inertia and
increases the risk of system frequency problems. Besides the frequency regulating capacity of the gird itself,
VSC-HVDC system can be controlled to provide frequency support. In this project, a three-terminal power
grid interconnected by VSC-HVDC system is simulated using MATLAB. A power grid frequency support
strategy by VSC-HVDC control is designed and discussed. The proposed strategy aims to control all three
terminals to share the unbalanced load dynamically and optimally to improve the overall system frequency
performance when load change happens. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the
frequency support strategies. The control strategy enhances the frequency regulation ability of system
especially when the load change is beyond the regulation ability of local generator.
Improved Yield From Wind Turbines Through Online Anomaly Detection And Compensation
Student
Giorgio Zorzi
Supervisor
William Leithead
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
giorgio.zorzi@strath.ac.uk
Keywords
In order to move beyond the current performance of control systems on individual wind turbines we need to
look at sources of data on individual turbines or small groups of turbine and assess how this data can best
be used. Using the information gathered from a wind turbine and its nearest neighbours on a wind farm, it
should be possible to detect anomalies in the readings which will help indicate how a controller/wind turbine
is operating non-optimally and by using this information the operation can be improved and the yield
increased. The aim of the work is the development of various detection and compensation techniques to
make best use of the data already available to a wind turbine control system. A group of researchers from
Strathclyde is already working on the implementation of a system that, starting from readings of root bending
moments, can gather other information, as for example wind shear, blade imbalances etc. This system starts
116
from the model of the wind field that is able to produce an effective wind speed with the same characteristics
of the 3D wind field. After that, an extended Kalman filter is applied to gather the aforementioned information.
Environmental and Sustainability
Sustainability Assessment Framework For The Continuous Flow Processes In The Pharmaceutical
Sector
Student
Georgi Aleksiev
georgi.aleksiev@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Athanasios Rentizelas
athanasios.rentizelas@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design Manufacture & Engineering Management
Keywords
Sustainability, Pharmaceuticals, Continuous
Pharmaceutical sector plays an important role in society’s wellbeing as it provides life-saving medications,
employment and promotes economic growth. This sector has been identified as a large contributor to
resource depletion and climate change as well as associated with socio-economic issues such as no access
to medications in poor countries and affordability. Reasons why pharmaceuticals are interested in
continuous manufacturing are that continuous flow processes improve yield, quality and flexibility while
reducing costs and time-to-market. The challenges that the industry has been facing such as drugs runningout-of-patent, generic manufacturers and new customers’ needs have made them more eager to adopt the
new continuous processes and achieve better manufacturing capabilities. Several studies have focused on
assessing the environmental impacts of the continuous flow processes in pharmaceuticals, while the social
and economic aspects of sustainability are often ignored but are equally important for promoting sustainable
development. This thesis presents a sustainability assessment framework capable of addressing the
environmental, economic and social issues of the continuous flow processes in the pharmaceutical supply
chain, using a life cycle approach in order to contribute towards an improved understanding of the impact of
continuous flow processes to the sustainability of the industry and its supply chain.
Anticancer Drugs In Groundwater: Is There Any Risk To Humans?
Student
Andre Brunier
andre.brunier@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Robert Kalin
robert.kalin@strath.ac.uk
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
AnticancerDrugs, Groundwater, RiskAssessment
Anticancer Drugs are receiving increasing interest due to improved analytical methodologies allowing for
concentration detection on the order of ng/l in environmental samples. The mode of action of these
compounds is consequently raising concerns about potential risks posed to sensible receptors for long-term
effects low-concentration exposures. Risk Assessment (RA) is defined as a procedure in which site and
contaminant specific parameters are used to evaluate risks posed by known hazards to selected receptors.
With extant knowledge is not possible undertake a reliable RA for Anticancer Drugs using well-established
procedures because some fundamental data, like in example toxicity and carcinogenicity thresholds, are not
been studied in deep neither for human nor for bio-receptors. Few papers have been recently published
about long-term effects of environmental exposures on selected macro-organisms finding measurable and
not negligible impacts, but data on human are still missing. Even environmental fate and transport processes
are not well known thus models are based on estimations and assumptions. Moreover methodologies used
so far to evaluate risk posed by Anticancer Drugs are based on questionable assumptions and call for a
dedicate approach to evaluate such pharmaceuticals.
Harmonics Propagation Reduction In Large Multi-Technology Offshore Wind Power Clusters Using
A Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm
Student
Marco Vinicio Chavez Baez
marco.chavez-baez@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Olimpo Anaya Lara
olimpo.anayalara@strath.ac.uk
117
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Harmonics, Offshore, Genetic
There are several types of researches looking for new optimization methods to optimize the electrical
network to reduce power losses. As the issue is a combinational problem, complexity is high in large
electrical systems. Reasons why this issue is still an unsolved problem. The major cases of study of
harmonics in the offshore wind farms are focused on the importance of harmonic analysis in order to obtain
a better performance on the design of the components. The interactions between the system components
affect the harmonic performance. Hence, it is very important to reduce negative effects, and it is in this
context where the algorithm sits. This research pays attention to harmonics minimization and even a
combination with the power losses minimization, to be applied to offshore wind electricity networks with
multiple technologies. The aim of this research is to develop an algorithm to suggest the best configuration
in large multi-technology offshore wind power clusters to maintain harmonics at levels that let the clusters
work without problems of operation by harmonics. The objective functions were developed using a harmonic
power flow method and was implemented to develop a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to minimize
the harmonic propagation.
Examining The Potential Economic Impact Of Scottish Offshore Wind Development
Student
Kevin Connolly
k.connolly@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Grant Allan
grant.j.allan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Economics, Wind, Scotland
Scotland has ambitious targets for renewable electricity developments, which form an important element of
the Scottish government’s plan for Scotland to transition to a low carbon economy. This has led to significant
developments from offshore wind projects. Ongoing government support is predicated on ongoing public
support for the development of these technologies. This has led to a growing interest in the economic
impacts of these developments, and an associated desire to use “local” resources and obtain a significant
economic benefit for Scotland. Quantifying the economic impact of renewable energy developments is
difficult and not without controversy. Producing reliable estimates of the impact on GDP, incomes and
employment requires significant effort, skill and resources. Some work has been done in this area, but to
date, little work has been done on assessing the economic impacts of planned offshore renewable energy
technologies. While developers are required to lodge supply chain statements with DECC, these are unlikely
to capture the wider economic impacts. This PhD will explore the mechanisms through which the
development of offshore wind in Scotland are expected to impact on the Scottish economy, and quantify
these impacts
Quantitative Risk Assessment For Lng Fuelled Ships
Student
Byongug Jeong
byongug.jeong@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Peilin Zhou
peilin.zhou@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Lng-Fuelled, Ship
With increasing interests in using LNG as a future marine fuel, safety issues for LNG bunkering has aroused
global discussion on establishing a safety zone around LNG bunkering areas. As to determining an
appropriate distance to ensure safe LNG bunkering, however, international consensus has yet to be
achieved. The purpose of this study is to identify potential risks of LNG bunkering and to present a
methodology for regulating the safety zone around LNG bunkering station of LNG fuelled ships by means
of a newly-developed integrated quantitative risk assessment (IQRA) software. This study basically adopts
a probabilistic approach to determine the safety zone targeting at two case ships, a 300,000 DWT Vary
Large Ore Carrier (VLOC) and a 32,000 DWT bulk carrier. The results are, then, compared with those of a
deterministic approach and the gaps approaches are discussed. The study findings from the probabilistic
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approach reveal that frequent bunkering significantly contributes to extending the safety zone, suggesting
25m of the safety zone for the 300,000 DWT VLOC and 50 m for the 32,000 DWT bulk carrier.
Investigating The Dynamic Response Of Rocks To Changes In Surface Water Reservoir Load Using
Observations Of Micro-Seismicity At Depth
Student
Marianna Kinali
marianna.kinali@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Stella Pytharouli
stella.pytharouli@strath.ac.uk
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
Granite, Microseismic, Monitoring
The drainage and refilling of a surface water reservoir adjacent to the Grimsel Test Site, an underground
rock laboratory in Switzerland, provides a unique opportunity to study hydro-mechanical interactions during
significant load changes. By detecting micro seismic events, emitted as fractures slip in response to changes
in the reservoir load, we can develop a conceptual model of temporal hydro-mechanical evolution of rocks
over time. The ultimate goal is to inform the design, construction and long-term safety case development for
radioactive waste disposal in facilities at depth. In November 2014, we deployed 11 seismometers, recording
at a sampling frequency of 250 Hz. The seismometers continuously record, capturing two periods of
reservoir drainage and subsequent refilling to-date. Micro seismic events generated by fracture slip are
extremely small and cannot be detected using traditional signal processing techniques, which usually focus
on signal identification at specific frequencies, and are not effective at detecting subtle spectral amplitude
changes over a wide range of frequencies. The developed approach involves statistical characterisation of
the background noise in the frequency domain. This will enable discrimination of the micro seismic events
associated with the load change, within a poor signal-to-noise ratio environment.
Qualitative Analysis Of Health Education Need And Mhealth Feasibility In Chikwawa, Malawi
Student
Rebecca Laidlaw
rebecca.laidlaw@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Tara K Beattie
t.k.beattie@strath.ac.uk
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
Mhealth, HealthEducation
Early marriage and teenage pregnancy are significant issues in Malawi. Preventative health education of
these issues is the responsibility of overburdened and under staffed village health centres, consequently
reproductive health knowledge is poor. The introduction of a culturally tailored mhealth health education
programme, addressing the needs of youth, could help to increase contraceptive knowledge and behaviour
change. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of implementing a mhealth messaging service in Malawi,
and to engage local participants’ in its design, development and implementation. 75 participants were
recruited from two villages, Chimoto and Sikenala, for 8 focus group discussions. Focus groups were
conducted in Chichewa, transcribed verbatim and translated into English. Thematic analysis was used to
analyse the data. Five themes emerged from the data, reflecting the opinions and beliefs of the participants;
Recognised Need for Health Education, Practical Implementation, Barriers to Phone Access, Trust and
Sustainability. Participants indicated they would engage with the service and provided examples of health
information they require, however expressed concern over accessibility in terms of mobile phone ownership,
user ability and financial limitations. Moving forward, priorities include overcoming accessibility barriers in
the area and applying the results to the implementation of the mhealth intervention pilot.
Exploiring Municipal Solid Waste: Potential For Energy Development And Contol Of Environmental
Pollution In Developing Countries
Student
Charles Mbama
charles.mbama@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Tara K. Beattie
t.k.beattie@strath.ac.uk
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
Msw, Pollution, Risk
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Solid waste generation is on the rise as a result of the increase in population and the resultant increase in
urbanization this brings, in addition to people’s desire for consumable goods. Improper solid waste disposal
and poor landfill management, both of which are particularly prevalent in developing countries, are sources
of risk to human health and the environment. Landfill sites produce emissions that could pose deleterious
effects on public health. Health issues caused by some of these emissions, for example cancer, birth
defects, respiratory irritation etc., have been reported in the literature, especially in people with close
proximity to landfill sites e.g. residential or occupational exposure. The aim of this work is to assess and
manage risks to human health from waste disposal through effective technological treatment options in
developing countries, which will enable handling of waste in a more efficient manner to safe guard public
health.
Strategic Resource Assessment For Deploying Low-Carbon Renewable Energy Systems In An
Urban Environment
Student
Raheal Mcghee
raheal.mcghee@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Joseph Clarke
joe@esru.strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Renewable, Resource, Environment
An opportunity mapping tool, RenMap, was developed which examined the deployment of renewable
technologies on a city-wide scale. Working with Glasgow City Council (GCC) as a test bed, RenMap was
used to support informed decisions about siting community scale renewable energy systems. The tool was
developed for freestanding solar photovoltaic (PV) farms in the city’s Vacant and Derelict Land (VDL) but
can be applied for other energy systems in other geographies. Different scoring methods were generated
allowing users to populate RenMap with geographical/technical data and obtain results of the size of
opportunity available. The stringent method - which applies the worst score for any individual layer as the
combined score - shows 15.7% of the VDL area as technically favourable; the lenient method - which adds
up individual factor scores - shows 42.9%. In terms of political issues, the stringent combination shows 7.8%
as possible; the lenient method shows 46.8%. Another technology investigated are heat pumps where, after
determining mine water locations, the same methodology will be applied to develop opportunity maps for
this renewable technology.
Biological Nutrient Cycling: Characterising The Ecological Impact Of Microbial Exposure To
Hydraulic Fracturing Wastewater
Student
Lauren Mcnally
Supervisor
Charles Knapp
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
Ecology, Toxicology, Fracking
lauren.mcnally@strath.ac.uk
All living organisms require a source of nitrogen, a constituent of key biological building blocks. Despite an
abundance of inorganic nitrogen in the environment, continuous nutrient cycling is required to maximize
biological availability. Most primary producers preferentially utilize nitrate; a form of nitrogen made available
by communities of nitrifying bacteria. Nitrification is a two stage process carried out by two distinct groups:
the ammonia oxidising bacteria (AOB) and the nitrite oxidising bacteria (NOB). A fragile dynamic connects
these two associative communities, leaving the nitrification process vulnerable to ecological disturbance.
The extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing has the potential to generate substantial volumes of
wastewater. Due to variations in geological properties across fracturing sites, the composition of this
wastewater has proven difficult to characterise, and as such the exposure risks have not been explored. We
postulate the exposure of communities of nitrifying bacteria to various wastewater components will alter the
fragile relationship governing nitrification, with the potential to trigger wider ecological disruption.
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Do Blue-Green Algae Respond To Chemical Disinfection?
Student
Patomporn Pulsawad
patomporn.pulsawad@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr. Charles Knapp
charles.knapp@strath.ac.uk
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
Cyanobacteria, ChlorineDioxide, BioToxins
Blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) are capable of producing harmful toxins that have serious effects on
human health and the environment. If intake water in water treatment plants is impacted by cyanobacteria,
the first treatment step is to apply a high dose of disinfection chemical. Sometimes, the addition of a
disinfectant can trigger the release of more toxins. This research focuses on the use of strong oxidizing
disinfecting chemicals to treat cyanobacteria and the fate of toxins released during treatment. In particular,
chlorine dioxide (ClO2) was investigated to determine the conditions for effective treatment and likelihood
for toxin release. Its properties as a strong oxidizing agent and relative safety, in terms of not producing
carcinogenic by-products, in water make it an attractive disinfectant. The response of cyanobacteria after
contact with ClO2 was studied across a range of concentrations relevant to potable water treatment. After
a contact time of 30 minutes or more, significant decreases of chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen, and pH were
observed. The results show that ClO2 has significant effects on cyanobacteria viability. In the next series of
experiments, the impact of ClO2 on the production and release of bio-toxins will be investigated.
Competitive Adsorption For Clean Air Applications
Student
Paul Alexander Rapp
paul.rapp@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Karen Johnston
karen.johnston@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Environment, Pollution, Sustainability
Environmental and health concerns from pollution are significant social economic drivers, which push
legislation towards pollution prevention and sustainability. Therefore, it is essential to develop and test
environmentally friendly materials that are highly optimized to remove specific pollutant species. Activated
carbons are well-known affordable carbon dioxide and pollutant adsorbers. However, there are many types
of activated carbons and these adsorb some species more effectively than others. To tailor activated
carbons for different pollutant species, it is necessary to understand or control their chemical and structural
composition. This project aims to identify which characteristics of activated carbon are optimal for removal
of pollutants, such as carbon dioxide. As a starting point we take graphite as a model system and study the
adsorption of carbon dioxide using a combined computer simulation and experimental approach. Quantum
calculations found that carbon dioxide adsorbs weakly on the graphite surface via physisorption (van der
Waals interactions) with almost negligible preference for a specific adsorption site. Experimental results
found that the heats of adsorption verified theoretical predictions. Future work is aimed towards competitive
adsorption of several pollutant species on graphite and adsorption on modified graphite to determine the
most effective activated carbons.
Sustainability Assessment In Metal Forming Processess
Student
Aamir Rasheed
Supervisor
Dr. Athanasios Rentizelas
Department
Design Manufacture & Engineering Management
Keywords
Sustainability, Assessment Model
aamir.rasheed@strath.ac.uk
Sustainable manufacturing is on the top agenda in the manufacturing sector. With increasing consumer
awareness and government policies to address environment changes putting pressure on manufacturing
sector to adopt sustainable manufacturing. Sustainable manufacturing is to develop business models and
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manufacturing practices with competitive returns on investment, minimum negative impact on the
environment and positive additions in societies. Demand for sustainable manufacturing comes from many
changes on earth and environmental warnings. The first step in improving the sustainability of processes is
to understand and identify, then monitoring it. The final stage will be how to improve the sustainability of
manufacturing by controlling the sustainability indicators. This is a complex task in itself and various
methodologies have been proposed to assess sustainability over the last decades. Most of these
methodologies are either incomplete, focus on only one aspect of sustainability, or are too complex for most
organisations to implement. Selection of applicable indicators is a critical task with their contribution towards
overall sustainability. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) has the extensive set of
sustainable manufacturing indicators repository with the conjunction of LCSP (Lowell Centre for Sustainable
Production) approach towards the selection of applicable and relevant indicators and then assessing their
contribution and effects of each indicator in overall sustainability assessment.
Laser Diagnostic Imaging Of High Temperature Reacting Flows
Student
Robert Roy
robert.roy@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Iain Burns
iain.burns@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Combustion, Laser, Diagnostics
There has been an increase in desire for sustainable energy generation and reduction in pollution caused
by combustion. Using planar laser imaging diagnostic techniques such as 2-Dimensional Laser Induced
Incandescence (LII) and Fluorescence(LIF), this project aims to research a variety of novel investigations,
mainly the characterisation of pollutant formation in different types of flames and conditions that have rarely
been investigated, such as biofuel diffusion flames. Biofuels have a different composition to regular
hydrocarbon fuel, so the combustion characteristics and pollutant formation will be different; therefore it is
important to investigate these effects to see if biofuels really do cause partial mitigation of pollutant emission
when compared with standard hydrocarbon fuels since they're becoming more common to use. Other novel
investigations include the effects that heat transfer has on soot formation within a flame and OH fluorescence
within a Direct Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Flame. Using imaging in laser diagnostics allows for spatial resolution
of pollutant formation within the flame. Using these techniques to investigate flames that have rarely been
investigated will allow for a deeper understanding of combustion and pollution formation leading to improved
combustion technology needed to reduce pollution output.
Efficacy Of Plants To Phytoremediate Metals From Hydraulic Fracturing Wastewaters.
Student
Phatchani Srikhumsuk
phatchani.srikhumsuk@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr. Charles Knapp
charles.knapp@strath.ac.uk
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
HeavyMetal,
Phytoremediation
HydraulicFracturing,
Many people have concerns regarding hydraulic fracturing technology and its potential environmental impact
on soil and water. The main problems include toxic chemicals in flowback waters, and this can potentially
pollute the environment as runoff and spills during transport. Phytoremediation technology has picked up as
a use for cleaning up the presence of the heavy metal from the environment. It is both economic and
effective, and it may be useful in this situation. The first aim of this research project focuses on the
toxicological properties of strontium exposure on native species, Festuca rubra L. (red fescue), which has
been selected for initial exposure study. Other studies will include the exposure effects of strontium to plant
species associated with many treatment wetlands (e.g., Phragmites spp. or common reeds), and the ability
of these plants to remove earth metals from the environment will also be examined.
122
Charging And Discharging Control For Electric Vehicle And Residential Energy Storage Systems
Student
Yanyi Sun
yanyi.sun@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Jiangfeng Zhang
jiangfeng.zhang@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
ElectricVehicle
Abstract--Electric Vehicle is an effective tool to fight with pollution from transport system. With the low cost
of recharging EVs, more and more households prefer EV or Hybrid Electric Vehicle when they choose a
new vehicle. In addition, new technologies, vehicle to grid and vehicle to home, can also be applied in to
relieve grid load when the network is under severe supply pressure. Therefore, this special bi-directional
load need to be considered in the energy management of homes. In this paper, an optimisation model is
built to minimise the cost of residential users, where the EV is controlled together with an additional battery
storage system. The degradation of battery is considered in the model. To make the model more realistic,
probabilities of vehicle daily usage and renewable energy generation are included, and all of the uncertain
usage data are collected from questionnaires. Finally, the best charge/discharge strategies for users are
obtained by solving the model under different scenarios.
Supporting Decisions On More Sustainable Vessel Systems Integration
Student
Nikoletta L. Trivyza
nikoletta.trivyza@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Athanasios Rentizelas
athanasios.rentizelas@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design Manufacture & Engineering Management
Keywords
Sustainability, MarineEnergy, Systems
In recent years a necessity to increase techno-economic and environmental efficiency of shipping operations
has emerged; this originated from the imposed environmental legislation about efficiency and emissions,
the uncertainty on fuel prices and the society’s need for more responsible practises in maritime industry. In
this respect, various researchers have mainly focused on optimising the routing of the vessel or the sailing
speed to attain lower fuel consumption and emissions. However, optimising the system design prior to
making irreversible decisions is an area that has been gaining research interest. The design phase is critical
for influencing the vessel’s environmental and energy efficiency performance throughout its lifetime. The
design optimisation of a vessel’s energy system is usually based on criteria about efficiency or cost; on the
other hand, models to evaluate alternative configurations, with respect to wider consideration of aspects of
sustainability, have not been developed. The aim of this research is to improve environmental, energy and
cost efficiency of ship’s energy systems by developing a decision support system. The proposed DSS will
integrally evaluate the life-cycle performance of alternative configurations of the vessel’s energy system
modules with respect to technical limitations and criteria set from stakeholders, regulations and market
uncertainties.
Developing An Innovative Methodology To Facilitate Lifecycle Supply Chain Sustainability
Assessment
Student
Andrea Tuni
andrea.tuni@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Athanasios Rentizelas
athanasios.rentizelas@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design Manufacture & Engineering Management
Keywords
SupplyChain, Environment, Performance
Companies are facing increasing pressure from stakeholders about their environmental performance,
including stricter regulations and an increased green awareness of customers. However, it has been shown
that more than 80% of the environmental impacts in the supply chain can arise far from the focal firm. Thus,
metrics and performance measurement systems addressing the environmental performance of a single tier
of the network are inadequate and a holistic approach is needed. However, existing methods are still limited
123
in scope and do not provide an assessment of the environmental impact of the entire supply chain. The aim
of this research is therefore to introduce an innovative method to assess the environmental performance of
an extended supply chain, adopting a lifecycle perspective. The proposed model will feature among its
characteristics the easiness of applicability for SMEs and an enhanced benchmarking potential. The output
of the model will ultimately be an indicator, which will inform customers about the environmental performance
of a product. The proposed method will expand the scope of existing assessment methods in the area of
sustainability performance measurement for supply chains and will provide a reference for practitioners to
effectively assess and benchmark the environmental performance of the extended supply chain.
Assessing Environmental Impacts Of Artificial Satellites Through Life Cycle Assessment And Cost
Analysis
Student
Andrew Ross Wilson
andrew.r.wilson@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof Massimiliano Vasile
massimiliano.vasile@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Satellites, Lca, Environment
With 195 member states of the United Nations successfully adopting the Paris Agreement and Sustainable
Development Goals in 2015, there is now a coordinated global approach towards achieving environmental
sustainability. However, to be fully realised, this vision must run through every sector of society and the
space industry is no exception. In the context of renewed global awareness on environmental sustainability,
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important environmental management technique that is increasingly
being applied within the space industry to assess the environmental impacts of products over their lifecycles.
The use of this tool is the crucial first step for the space industry to achieve sustainability by using cuttingedge technological solutions that have both the capability and practical application to mitigate the overall
environmental impacts of space programmes and activities. Through a combined approach of environmental
management and aerospace engineering, this research aims to impartially assess the full extent of
environmental impacts that three different types of artificial satellites have throughout their lifecycles using
LCA. It will also incorporate life cycle cost analysis in order to inform decision-makers of potential
implementable options for reducing the environmental footprint of different types of satellites over their
lifecycles.
Fluid Dynamics
Lattice Boltzmann Method In Porous Media
Student
Thomas Burel
thomas.burel@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Yonghao Zhang
yonghao.zhang@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Lattice, Boltzmann, Method
Single-phase and multiphase flows in complex geometries are common in many industrial processes such
as oil/gas extraction, and CO2 injection and storage. Therefore, efficient computational tools to analyse
these flows behaviour are essential to understand and improve these processes. Utilising binary images of
porous media, direct simulations can reduce the pre-treatment of complex geometries. With high
performance computing techniques, the lattice Boltzmann method offers a numerically efficient approach to
simulating these flows. The lattice Boltzmann method is a mesoscopic method that is particularly suited to
treat the walls as particle methods and to resolve multiphase flows due to the interface capturing technique.
Moreover, direct simulation from digital images does not need to construct a complicated mesh for a complex
geometry that can lead to a significant reduction of time. However, there are research challenges in terms
of the computational efficiency (e.g. scalability, memory consumption), the numerical methods (e.g. diffuse
interface, instability) and the multi-physical phenomena (e.g. surface wetting, droplet coalescence, interface
instability) in porous media, which are the focus of the present work.
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Numerical And Experimental Investigation Of Multiphase Flow At Microscale.
Student
Paolo Capobianchi
paolo.capobianchi@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Monica Sn Oliveira
monica.oliveira@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Multiphase,
Thermocapillary
Viscoelastic,
The study of thermocapillary flows and related effects has extensive engineering applications in variety of
different fields, such as crystal growth and metal welding. It also has important implications in the study of
microdroplet migration and coalescence phenomena. In non-isothermal systems, surface tension gradients
may occur as a consequence of a non uniform temperature distribution along a free liquid-liquid or liquidgas interface. Such flows, which do not require gravity, pressure gradients or other body forces, are also
referred to as Marangoni convection. Our goal is to develop a modular and flexible framework capable of
reproducing the physics involved in the above mentioned flows within the environment provided by the open
source toolbox OpenFOAM. To date, our solver has been successfully tested for thermally driven stratified
flows. Marangoni droplet migration in a 2-D configuration is currently being considered in the case of
Newtonian fluids. Next, we aim to extend the capability of the solver to more complex flow configurations
and to consider the effect fluid elasticity under non-isothermal conditions.
Shallow Water Effects In Multi-Hull Craft Operating In Super-Critical Regime
Student
Rafael Castelo Branco Goulart
rafael.castelo-branco-goulart@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Sandy Day
sandy.day@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval
Architecture
Engineering
Keywords
Npl, Cfd, Resistance
&
Marine
The objective is to analyze the hydrodynamics of high-speed multi-hull vessels advancing both in deep and
shallow waters. The first part comprises the numerical campaign, in which by means of a benchmark
geometry, the NPL catamaran, will be implemented several computations of resistance in calm water using
both Computational Fluid Dynamics and Thin-Ship Theory. Comparison of computations between both
methods might provide useful conclusions regarding the components of wave resistance, friction and form
factors of catamarans. Henceforth, the values obtained will be verified against the experimental data from
the literature, mainly the Ship Science Reports from Southampton University. Finally, after generating all
these numerical results, model basin tests also will be conducted in Kelvin Lab, since there are no
benchmark data regarding catamarans in shallow water. Nonetheless, the research addresses several
challenges such as the transom stern immersion in low-speed regime, the correct tuning of the mesh for the
high-speed regime, the correct identification of the wave components of multi-hull vessels and so on.
Ultimately, the goal is to provide a better and useful understanding of the hydrodynamics of high-speed
vessels in terms of design recommendations.
Isogeometric Analysis For Analysing The Effects Of Shape Modifications In Maritime Applications
Student
Sotirios Chouliaras
sotirios.chouliaras@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Panagiotis Kaklis
panagiotis.kaklis@strath.ac.uk
Department
Keywords
Naval
Architecture
Engineering
IsogeometricAnalysis,
PropellerBem
&
Marine
TSplines,
Engineering systems are becoming increasingly complex due to various requirements set by the
stakeholders. According to studies, almost 80% of the overall model and analysis time is devoted to the
creation of analysis-suitable geometry and meshing. Decreasing this percentage is vital for developing
optimisation frameworks that can provide robust results in reasonable time scale. The aim of this PhD is to
enhance a commercial CAD-CAE tool with iso-geometric (IGA) functionality that will allow low-cost
125
construction of geometrically accurate and locally refinable meshes suitable for iso-geometric BEM/FEM
solvers. The new functionality will be exploited for improving the meshes used by conventional BEM/FEM
solvers through improving their geometric accuracy and reducing their spatial redundancy. The IGAenhanced tool will deal with two challenging problems: a) Modelling and analysing the effects of shape
modifications on the performance of the ship-hull-propeller through the development of novel T-spline IGABEM solvers. b) Automatic construction of geometrically accurate and locally refinable T-/LR-spline based
volumetric meshing of complex computational domains such as the stern of the ship, her propeller and their
appendages.
Feasibility Of Lv-Dsmc-Bgk Based Solver For Study Of Shale Gas Flows In Micro-Scale Porous
Structures
Student
Ferdin Sagai Don Bosco
ferdin.don-bosco@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Yonghao Zhang
yonghao.zhang@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Porous Media, Lvdsmcbgk
Scientific enquiry has aligned itself to the understanding of the flow physics encountered in the micro/nanoscales whose prominence is due to its application in the field of MEMS and porous media. The current
research is aimed at understanding and simulation of the shale gas behaviour in subterranean micro-porous
networks. These flows are classified as rarefied flows since the passage width is comparable to the mean
free path of the gas. Treating these flows as continuum leads to inaccurate and unreliable results. The Direct
Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method proves to be prohibitively expensive since the molecule's thermal
speed exceeds the bulk speed in these structures. The crux of my research is to study the applicability and
feasibility of a DSMC derivative method termed as (Low-Variance) LVDSMC which focusses on simulating
the deviation from equilibrium. At present, the solver has been validated for micro Couette and Poiseuille
flows. The solver's capability extends to near-equilibrium flows around simple geometries such as a 2D
block/cylinder. In the future, the solver envisions the simulation of flows through a network of micro scale
passages in porous media.
The Effect Of Cavitation In Propeller – Rudder – Hull Interaction
Student
Naz Gorener
naz.gorener@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Madhi Khorasanchi
mahdi.khorasanchi@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval
Architecture
Engineering
Keywords
Cavitation, Propeller, Rudder
&
Marine
The main purpose of this study is to develop a new method for investigation of cavitation in terms of propeller
rudder and hull interaction. The cavitation which is influenced by the interaction will be examined using
computational fluid dynamic methods. First, whole system including propeller rudder and hull will be divided
into small parts to simulate step by step. These steps include open water simulations for the propeller,
analyses of the propeller in the cavitating conditions, cavitation analyses which is including propeller and
rudder will be realised respectively in model scale as the validation studies. Next, the whole system will be
analysed in model scale and full scale to predict cavitation patterns on propeller and on rudder. Especially,
simulating the influence of operating propeller on rudder will be the most important and novel part of this
study. During the analyses, different solving models i.e. RANS, DES and LES will be used for the
comparison with each other. As a result, a method will be proposed to simulate and predict the cavitation
on rudder placed in the wake of an operating propeller.
A Platform For Enabling Highly Automated And Integrated Microdroplet Technologies
Student
Qingqing Gu
qingqing.gu@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Yonghao Zhang
yonghao.zhang@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
126
Keywords
Microfluidics, Lbm, Droplets
Microfluidics is a highly interdisciplinary research field, incorporating flow physics and chemistry at the
microscale, biological and chemical applications, materials science, electronics, photonics, and engineering
design. Single-phase microfluidic systems suffer from cross-contamination between successive samples,
absorption at the surfaces, and diffusional dilution of samples which can be avoided if materials and
reactants are confined and transported in immiscible droplets. A highly integrated and automated system
with all the required components including pre-processing and post-processing on a single device with
minimal user input suitable for non-expert use is still rare. A virtual Design and Experiment Platform(VDEP)
is to be designed that will enable systematic design simulations and virtual experiments for future microfluidic
technologies. To provide the key multiphysics and multiscale flow solver for VDEP, a model of the dynamical
role of surfactants in droplet generation, transportation and coalescence within microfluidic channels is to
be developed. The key objectives are to develop a novel multiphase lattice Boltzmann model for
thermocapillary flows that for the first time incorporates the surfactant dynamical effect on interfacial
properties and to model droplet-solid interactions considering the non-equilibrium adsorption kinetics of
surfactants.
Supercritical Diesel Combustion In Automotive Engines
Student
James Guthrie
james.guthrie@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Ian Taylor
ian.taylor@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Engines, Supercritical, Fuels
Modern turbo-diesel car engine designs have a thermal efficiency that is still typically less than 50%.
Through the use of supercritical fuels designers can eliminate some of the issues which cause this
inefficiency, such as combustion lag, and incomplete combustion. Extensive validation of state-of-the-art
computational fluid dynamics software has been conducted, that now enables accurate predictions the
thermophysical and transport properties of fluids in the supercritical state. This CFD software, implemented
within OpenFOAM, includes a volume-translated cubic equation of state which accurately determines the
compressible fluid properties, and also includes mathematical models to predict viscosity, thermal
conductivity, and caloric properties. The final outcome of this project has the potential to improve thermal
efficiency in a range of engines, with applications in internal combustion engines; and liquid rocket engines,
in both military and industrial fields. The second and third years of this project will involve further validation
in subcritical and supercritical combustion cases, and extensive supercritical diesel engine experiments on
a dynamometer where recommendations will be made on an implementation strategy for supercritical fuel
technology in cars.
Advanced Air-Breathing Propulsion Systems For Hypersonic Flight
Student
Jimmy-John Hoste
jimmyjohn.hoste@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Ian Taylor
ian.taylor@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Ssto, Cfd, Airbreathing
The recent retirement of the Space Shuttle has focussed attention on the technological hurdles that must
be overcome to sustain future access to space, with the key goal being a single-stage to orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle. Realisation of this relies on new advanced air-breathing propulsion systems that can
operate across the whole flight envelope. This concept has gained considerable interest in the last two
decades, especially since advances in computational tools allow more complex simulations and analysis of
their related flow and structural properties. A major challenge for propulsion systems operating at high
speeds and altitudes is ensuring stable and consistent combustion. The first step in my research has been
the selection of an adequate compressible computational fluid dynamics solver for studies of ramjet and
scramjet flows. To this end the solvers rhoCentralFOAM and Eilmer3 have been compared with test cases
127
representative for parts of the non-reacting flow field inside such engines. A better predictive capability was
observed with Eilmer3 which will be relied on for improving our low-fidelity model HyPro with as ultimate
goal to investigate transitions between ramjet and scramjet operation.
Hybrid Offshore Floating Renewable Energy System
Student
Liang Li
liang.li@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Sandy Day
sandy.day@strath.ac.uk
Department
Keywords
Naval
Architecture
&
Engineering
OffshoreRenewableEnergy,
WindTurbine, WaveEnergy
Marine
It is widely recognized that effective conversion of the renewable resources of wind, waves and tidal streams
to electricity is expected to provide a substantial contribution to UK electricity demand (wind 20%, waves 510%, tidal streams 12%). The exploitation of offshore energy resource is obviously dependent on the
employment of floating moored structures, used to support wind or tidal stream turbines and electricity
generating devices. The project seeks to propose concept for a hybrid renewable energy system, which
utilizes the advantages of floating wind turbine and wave energy convector system, as well as establish
numerical modelling. Theories going to be employed include 3-D potential flow theory, BEM method and
multi-body dynamics, etc. Moreover, scaled model test is on the schedule to validate the proposed concept
and developed numerical modelling.
Analysis Of Ships Operating In Extreme Trim
Student
Matthias Maasch
matthias.maasch@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Osman Turan
turan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval
Architecture
Engineering
Keywords
Trim, Hydrodynamic, Design
&
Marine
This research deals with developing a ship design procedure suitable for designing ships operating in
extreme trim conditions. Ship model tests showed that a typical Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier (LNGC) hull
can be operated in extreme trim conditions in calm water and in moderate sea states resulting in a reduction
of total resistance of 10% to 20% compared to level trim conditions. The present study addresses certain
gaps of previous research by carrying out a systematic investigation of the impact of extreme trim on the
intact and damage stability, the impact on the ship’s behaviour in calm water as well as in waves
(seakeeping) and the impact on the hull integrity. This will allow developing an adapted ship design resulting
in substantial savings in fuel consumption, thus reducing operational costs and the environmental impact.
Performing additional model tests and considering full scale trial data ensures that the numerical results
gained in this study can be validated. The new developed ship design procedure, tailored for the special
demands for designing a ship operating in extreme trim conditions, will fulfil the future requirements of
efficiency and safety given by the IMO.
A Novel Microfluidic Drug Discovery Platform For Studying Communication Between Independent
Neural Networks
christopher.mackerron.2013@uni.strath.ac.
Student
Christopher Mackerron
uk
Supervisor
Dr Michele Zagnoni
michele.zagnoni@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Microfluidics,
Pharmacology
Neuroscience,
Many in-vitro systems used during pre-clinical trials fail to recreate the biological complexity of the in-vivo
neural microenvironment. Taking advantage of recent advances in microfluidic technology, we seek to
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develop a perfusion based drug discovery platform that is capable of high-throughput pharmacological
profiling. This in turn will allow us to better understand how drugs influence the communication between
functionally connected neural networks. Mixed primary hippocampal networks were grown in microfluidic
devices with environmentally separated chambers that allow synaptic connections to be formed with each
other via an array of microchannels. The perfusion of multiple compounds in one chamber was achieved
using computer controlled fluid actuation connected to the inlets/outlets of the microfluidic device.
Responses to perfusates from directly stimulated neurons and those synaptically connected, were recorded
using calcium imaging. The proposed microfluidic system is able to reliably produce pharmacological profiles
for drugs in a neurological setting. The ability to not only determine the properties of a new drug, but how
the drug influences communication between neural networks makes this model a novel drug discovery
platform.
Biomass Pyrolysis Simulation
Student
Teresa Marti
Supervisor
Jun Li
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
ThermalConversion, Pyrolysis
teresa.marti@strath.ac.uk
The pyrolysis of biomass is a thermal conversion technology where organic matter is subjected to high
temperatures in the absence of oxygen in order to obtain liquid, gas and solid products with a higher heating
value. Biofuels obtained, unlike fossil fuels, are carbon neutral and thus neither reduce nor contribute to the
amount of carbon in the atmosphere. Most of the studies that have been done on biomass pyrolysis involve
specific conditions and specific types of biomass. A general model able to reach and simulate a wide range
of biomass, operating conditions and reactor characteristics is necessary to solve practical matters when
setting a bioenergy exploitation system. The aim of this project is to develop a simple computational model
to predict pyrolysis kinetics and biofuel properties, which will allow the optimization of the process operating
conditions. As a result, a more supported choice of feedstock depending on the products desired can be
made. As well as take the most advantage from a specific feedstock and make a useful evaluation of the
different potential products.
Elastic Instabilties For Emulsification In Torsional Flow At Very Low Reynolds Numbers
Student
Liam Moynihan
liam.moynihan@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Monica S N Oliveira
monica.oliveira@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Emulsification, ElasticInstabilities
In micrometer-scale fluid flow the range of achievable Reynolds number is restricted and results in highly
laminar flow. This greatly limits the mixing ability of fluids in such environments, as efficient mixing ordinarily
relies on chaotic advection as seen at relatively high Reynolds numbers. It has been shown that viscoelastic
fluids can develop instabilities at very low Reynolds number. These instabilities develop due elastic effects,
and at sufficiently high Weissenberg numbers, the flow properties are similar to those found in classical
inertial turbulence. This purely elastic turbulence can be utilised to mix fluids. The modes of these elastic
instabilities are still poorly understood and under researched despite practical applications across a number
of industries. The present research explores the use of these elasticity mechanisms for emulsification of an
immiscible dispersed oil phase throughout a viscoelastic continuous phase. Using a rotational rheometer
initial experimentation has shown effective oil droplet breakup/emulsification in elastic fluids at Reynolds
numbers as low as 0.001. In comparison, no emulsification is observed in Newtonian fluids up to Reynolds
numbers 4 orders of magnitude greater. Flow visualisation setup has been developed and implemented to
capture video of oil droplet breakup patterns to aid understanding of underlying mechanisms.
129
Time-Domain Simulations Of Ships Manoeuvring In Waves
Student
Christos Pollalis
christos.pollalis@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Evangelos Boulougouris
evangelos.boulougouris@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval
Architecture
Engineering
Keywords
Seakeeping, Manoeuvring
&
Marine
In 2012 guidelines for the calculation of the EEDI for new ships have been introduced by the IMO
(MEPC.212(63)) in an attempt to include energy efficiency in the design and operational criteria. However,
concerns were raised concerning safety issues related to manoeuvrability of a ship in adverse weather
conditions. The EU funded RTD project SHOPERA tries to give answer to these concerns by an in depth
research and analysis of various aspects of a ship while manoeuvring in waves. In this particular research
a time-domain simulation tool is being developed using C++ programming language which incorporates all
6 Degrees of Freedom taking into account the nonlinear coupling among them. The considered external
forces include the Froude-Krylov and the restoring components, as well as the hull (manoeuvring), the
propeller and the rudder forces. Nonlinearity is also incorporated into the system of equations by calculating
the instantaneous wetted surface of the hull. All motions are expressed using the well-known Horizontal
Body System which allows the derivation of large amplitudes and combines seakeeping and manoeuvring
approaches. Time integration of ship motions is conducted using a Runge-Kutta 4th order scheme.
Surfactant Transport Mechanisms During Foam Fractionation
Student
Rosario Ruben
ruben.rosario@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Paul Grassia
paul.grassia@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
FoamFractionation, Flow, Lamella
Foam fractionation is a separation process, using adsorption onto foam to extract surface active compounds,
surfactants, from solution. Gas is injected into the solution creating bubbles that rise through a vertical
column to form a foam, carrying the desired surfactant(s) out by overflow of the surfactant-enriched foam
films. The process can be operated via reflux or stripping mode, where surfactant-rich Plateau borders
contact surfactant-lean lamellae, leading to mass transfer between these two regions. For insoluble
surfactants the mass transfer occurs exclusively along the surface. For slightly soluble surfactants, some of
the mass transfer occurs also in the bulk underneath the surface. In this latter case, a number of additional
mechanisms for surfactant transport become relevant: from the Plateau border surface to the film surface,
driven by Marangoni flows; from the film surface to the film bulk, driven by solubility; from the film bulk to the
Plateau border bulk, driven by liquid drainage. This study will look at the interplay between these
mechanisms, identifying which particular mechanism(s) will dominate in various parameter regimes.
Trim Optimisation For Minimum Power In Waves
Student
Emil Shivachev
emil.shivachev@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Mahdi Khorasanchi
mahdi.khorasanchi@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval
Architecture
Engineering
Keywords
TrimOptimisation, Cfd
&
Marine
The aim of the proposed study is to gain improved understanding of the impact of trim on the powering of
vessels. Research from various studies has found that by sailing under optimal trim conditions, it is possible
to reduce fuel consumption by between 2-5%, with a corresponding reduction in GHG emissions. Impact of
trim on calm water and added resistance will be investigated at both model and full scale through CFD
computations. Predictions will be validated against towing tank experiments and available published data
130
from previous studies. Potential flow calculations will be employed to indicate its capability against CFD
within a set range of ship speed, trim and wave conditions. The study will then be extended to include a
rational model of the propeller to understand the importance of inclusion of self-propulsion in the assessment
of optimal trim conditions. The use of CFD rather than linearised potential flow codes will allow the study of
non-linear ship-wave interaction, the study of wave effect on viscous drag components, and the challenges
of modelling a self-propelled ship in waves.
The Stability Of Surface Waves On Sheared Currents
Student
James Steer
james.steer@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Ton Van Den Bremer
ton.vandenbremer@ed.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Surface, Wave, Stability
Unstable free surface gravity wave trains are known to disintegrate producing waves with amplitudes many
times larger than their surrounding waves. This instability is known as the Benjamin-Feir instability (BFI).
These waves can appear to come out of nowhere – growing to three times their original height in a matter
of seconds and disappearing just as quickly. The conditions for producing these types of waves is known to
depend on the underlying current as well as a number of other environmental factors (Thomas et. al. (2012)).
Therefore, the first half of this project will focus on experimentally and theoretically exploring the stability of
these wave trains on vertically sheared currents. Wave stability on horizontally sheared current will then be
investigated in the FloWave combined wave and current facility. Throughout the project a specific focus will
be maintained on how the findings can best be applied to the appropriate placement of wave energy devices.
R. Thomas, C. Kharif, and M. Manna, ‘A nonlinear Schrödinger equation for water waves on finite depth with
constant vorticity’ Phys. of Fluids 24, (2012)
Modelling Of Biofouling Roughness For Selection Of Best Antifouling Coating For Any Considering
Ship
Student
Dogancan Uzun
dogancan.uzun@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Osman Turan
o.turan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Keywords
Naval
Architecture
&
Marine
Engineering
Antifouling,
ShipPerformance,
SelectionOfCoating
The main aim of this PhD research is to develop a novel decision support process to select the best hull
coating for any given ship considering the operational profiles of various ship types operating in different
geographical locations. Dry docking reports will be collected for creating a comprehensive fouling database
which will give insight to the antifouling performance of coatings on various types of ships that working on
different geographical location. Statistical analyses will be done to investigate the fouling severity and
distribution on different hull location and results will be correlated with resistance causes. Trying to
understand effects of vessel operational profile such as speed, route and time in port and biological factors
of a location like dominant species type their severity and extent on antifouling coating efficacy will help to
make a correct decision. A code will be written with covering all data and it will provide financial results for
different coating selection cases. Finally, as the one of the output of the code is life cycle performance
analyses, it will be done for different coating selection cases and it will show the which coating selection will
be best for considering ship.
Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Of Jamming In Thermostatted Shear Flows
Student
Calum Williams
calum.williams@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Mark Haw
mark.haw@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Colloids, Jamming, Thermostats
131
Jamming is a physical phenomenon that occurs in many different systems on a multitude of length scales.
Jamming is a striking example of how ‘microrheology’— microscopic particle interactions and configurations
— can generate surprising macroscopic response. However, the underlying nature of jamming, and the
mechanisms which lead to its onset, remain a topic of intense debate. We perform non-equilibrium molecular
dynamics simulations of sheared colloidal suspensions where different definitions of the system temperature
(e.g. kinetic or configurational temperature) are thermostatted [1,2]. The thermostat modifies the equation
of motion of the particles, mimicking the influence of the interstitial fluid. We examine the influence of the
choice of the definition of temperature on the jamming behaviour in the system. The aim of this work is to
create a thermostat which adequately reproduces the hydrodynamic interactions and the jamming response
in a densely packed colloidal suspension. We study statistics from the simulation such as fluctuations and
correlations in the pressure, viscosity and particle velocities while using different temperature definitions.
Research Of Drag Reduction Mechanism Of Riblet Structure By Using Computational Fluid
Dynamics (Cfd)
Student
Yansheng Zhang
yansheng.zhang.100@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
O. Turan
o.turan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval
Architecture
Engineering
Keywords
Riblet, Drag, Turbulent
&
Marine
My PhD topic focuses on the ship resistance reduction technology, which is studied by using both
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and experimental tests. CFD, as a powerful and economic tool, could
be a perfect tool to study the effects of riblet structure on the near wall turbulent boundary layer structure,
where many statistics are difficult to measure restricted by the measuring facilities. Currently, I have
successfully used Star-CCM+ (a commercial CFD software) to obtain a maximum of 2% drag reduction of
a typical triangular riblet structure, with rib height of almost 1.0E-4 meter. From the post-process of the
simulation data, we get relative shear stress distribution, velocity profile and other evidence which gives
good explanation of the drag reduction mechanism.
Self-Propelled Multi-Body Model Analysis Using Openfoam With External Coupled Simbody Toolkit
Student
Zhenkai Zhao
z.zhao@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Naval
Architecture
Engineering
&
Keywords
Openfoam, Simbody, Multibody
Marine
During the past few years, increasing the efficiency of bio-inspired autonomous underwater vehicles has
attracted great interest. The analysis of fluid-structure interactions corresponding to multi-body model is
important. To deal with the FSI multi-body case, OpenFOAM is used to couple with an External program
called Simbody to process fluid forces effects and solid body motion separately. Validation for the passive
lateral and rotational motion of one section has been displayed for the feasibility for the customized code.
Thrust efficiency for the self-propelled 3 sections are going to be calculated to compare with available data.
Enlightened by the different locomotion patterns of multibody fish and joints characteristics, actuators can
be designed and installed at different parts of biological fish for specific emulation of complex motions such
as fast acceleration, steady turning, etc.
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Management
Maximising Client Value Through Optimisation Of Standardisation And Pre-Assembly: The Case Of
Saudi Arabia
Student
Mohammed Alghaseb
xeb15181@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr. Andrew Agapiou
andrew.agapiou@strath.ac.uk
Department
Architecture
Keywords
LeanConstruction,
Preassembly
Standardization,
Originally adopted from manufacturing, the lean approach to construction has become an established theme
within the architectural, engineering and construction industries. An important implication of applying the
lean philosophy to construction is the understanding of waste and value. Although the promotion of lean
construction principles has been visible in countries, there is little sign of their general use in the Saudi
Arabian construction industries. The reason may be because of cultural barriers to change and other
fundamental reasons. Construction is essentially a project based industry operating within an environment
of considerable complexity and uncertainty, due to the fragmented structure of the supply chain, short term
trading relationships, poor information flows and a high degree of dependency between task and activities
– a key distinction between construction and other industries. The careful planning and effectively supply
chains can be seen to be necessary factors for success. A clear message from the previous studies is that
standardisation and pre-assembly can offer significant advantages if used “appropriately in terms of time
and application”. The novel issue addressed in this PhD research, is the integration of client values with the
design process to provide a means of measuring and optimising the design decisions against client values.
Short-Term Prediction Of Road Network Incidents
Student
Santiago Deniz-Santana
santiago.deniz-santana@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Neil Ferguson
n.s.ferguson@strath.ac.uk
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
Incidents, Traffic, Prediction
Traffic management is a discipline that responds to different road transportation problems. In this context, it
is crucial managing incidents such as broken down vehicles, congestions, adverse weather conditions,
accidents and so forth. An efficient traffic response can minimize or avoid the incident impact. It is known,
traffic incidents are complex and multi-causal phenomena. Normally, there are many factor involved in traffic
incidents and some of them are correlated. Therefore, it is needed a methodology can assess the causeseffect relations and for this purpose Bayesian Network is quite appropriate. This project shows another
relevant novelty, it will merge data from different sources. Traffic studies, up until now, are focused on
technical data sets (generally provided by sensors). This problem set out to do a more comprehensive
analysis where there will be historical data, data from emerging technologies and real time traffic data. The
main aim of project will be the development of a method capable to predict incident in a short time frame,
consequently getting a more efficient use of non-urban roads. Furthermore, an earlier prediction will lead to
improve safety and journey time.
A Procedural Framework For Delivering Product Lifecycle Management For Engineer-To-Order
Products
Student
Daniel Mckendry
daniel.mckendry@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Ian Whitfield
ian.whitfield@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
Plm, Eto
133
&
Engineering
To achieve effective through-life product management, the relevant information has to be identified at key
points throughout the products life-cycle. It then has to be presented in a way which is useful, configured,
controlled and reusable. Product Life Cycle Management (PLM) is the means for complex design
programmes to ensure the robustness of its information. Critical to the success of PLM are the relationships
between the Business Architecture (vision, strategy, process, etc.) and the Information Management
Technology Architecture. The research will describe specific challenges of ETO products relating to product
management and why specific mechanisms must be used when implementing PLM, the output will be the
creation of a procedural framework.
Knowledge Transfer And The Role Of Innovation Intermediary In Innovation Network
Student
Siska Noviaristanti
siska-noviaristanti@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr. Nuran Acur
nuran.acur@strath.ac.uk
Department
Keywords
Design
Manufacture
&
Engineering
Management
InnovationIntermediary,
SocialNetworkAnalysis, InnovationNetwork
The role of innovation intermediaries has received increased attention from the academic and practitioner
community as a result of more collaborative approaches to innovation together with rapid advances in the
application of internet technologies in support of innovation activities. Based on the literature review's result,
it is found that innovation intermediary plays different roles depending on the level of analysis and the
innovation process it involves. It also knew that the source of firms’ innovation has shifted from internal
initiatives to dyadic external collaboration, and now into network–centric innovation. Moreover, lack of
research understands the knowledge transfer process in the innovation network and how does the role of
innovation intermediary enable it. Therefore, the aim of this research is to understand the role of innovation
intermediary focusing on knowledge transfer in innovation network. The research focuses are in inter-firm
network and in ideation phase of the innovation process. This research will use social network analysis
approach and quantitative analysis to accomplish the research aim. The data collection process will use
interview and questionnaire as the primary data and complement by data from firms’ website and reports.
Crossroads: A Longitudinal Study Into The Development Of Chemical Engineering Students From
Pre- To Post-Graduation
Student
Abdul Wadood Sharif
abdul.sharif@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Mark Haw
mark.haw@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Education, Graduate Employability
Employers have long been placing emphasis on graduate transferable skills (such as communication,
teamwork, decision making) to ensure that graduates are ready for employment. This longitudinal, mixedmethods study sets out to explore the experiences of chemical engineering students that add to their
transferable skill set. How these skills, which are largely embedded into the curriculum, develop and how
these abilities are actualized in a post-university setting will be researched. The aspects of the
undergraduate degree which will be investigated include group design projects and individual projects as
well as the first year of post-university experiences. Currently, six teams of 4th year undergraduate students
are under observation during supervisor meetings as they undertake group design projects. Observation will
be followed by focus groups which will be conducted to further explore students’ experiences. Thereafter
surveys and textual analyses of various documents and artifacts will provide generalisability and
transferability. It is anticipated, following considerations and analysis of this transformative experience, that
pedagogical recommendations can be suggested on how to facilitate smoother transitions into the
workplace.
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Knowledge Management In Smes In Manufacturing Sector: A Comparison Of Case Studies In Uk
And Thailand
Student
Chayaruk Tikakul
chayaruk.tikakul@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr. Avril Thomson
avril.thomson@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
Knowledge Management, Smes
&
Engineering
Successful Knowledge Management (KM) will benefit organisations through improving decision-making,
quality of product and service (s) and reducing the process lead-time, and operational costs which contribute
to market competitiveness. Despite, the large number of studies on KM only few studies focus on SMEs and
especially in international context. The current stage of this study is aim to understand the current KM
practice in Thai SMEs in Manufacturing sector to draw comparisons and share best practice between
Thailand and UK. Survey questionnaires were developed and distributed to SMEs in manufacturing sector
in Thailand. The questionnaire was sent out to 20 manufacturing SMEs via online survey software (Qualtrics)
and paper based version. The total respondents are 311 within across business sectors. The results show
that there are implementations of KM approach in Thai SMEs and majority of employees consider that KM
to be the beneficial tool for their job with the potential to solve problems at work. However, there are still
some barriers during KM processes; for instance lack of clear guidelines on the KM approach in capturing
knowledge process, lack of time in storing knowledge. Further study will focus on UK Manufacturing SMEs.
Finding Best Tetris Strategy In High Seas: Optimizing Combinational Container Ports Loading While
Keeping Vessel Afloat
Student
Mehmet Ali Yurtseven
mehmet.yurtseven@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Evangelos Boulougouris
evangelos.boulougouris@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Massive ocean-going container vessels, visiting many ports for loading and unloading goods at their one
sail, face more loss of time at ports than at sea. Generally, many regarding factors can be shown such as
port, vessel activities in connection with people and mechanical tools, however in terms of time wasted and
cost accrued, the stowage plan in container vessel operations plays a significant role. Specifically,
unexpected loading cargo weight changes and container rehandling at last minute result in the loss of
operational efficiency in vessels and combinational container ports activities. Moreover, these situations
endanger vessel stability. This study is aimed at finding ways to enhance efficiency of stowage plans and
container loading onto vessels while considering ship stability in combinational container ports and in high
seas. The main objective of this study is to develop a new method in order to discover a more efficient and
long-term solution for ports performance of mother vessels. We will conduct a case study based on our
method using data from a liner shipping company.
Research On Assessment Method For Advancement Degree Of Difficulty And Case Study Of
Software Testing Capability Improvement Based On Numerical Integration
Student
Gang Zhang
gang.zhang@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Xiu Tian Yan
x.yan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
Advancement, DegreeOfDifficulty
&
Engineering
Advancement Degree of Difficulty (AD2) of technology plays a key factor for insuring success of technologycritical project. In order to avoid the subjectivity and limitation of AD2 assessment based on expert checklists,
a visualizing method which applies the visualization technology in AD2 computing process is proposed. This
method takes the improved technology readiness level (TRL) assessing result as the input to visualization
the readiness status of the Critical Technology Elements (CTE) to a two-dimension coordinate graph. The
135
area which denotes the AD2 of the technology developing from one readiness level to a higher readiness
level is shown in the coordinate graph. A computing formula is established and also given prove of the
formula of numerical integration process. In the integral equation, the weight factors of CTE and the
parameters of the state density function of technology maturity are the two key parameters, which could be
determined by the genetic algorithm and the basic properties of the CTE correspondingly. The case study
of software testing capability assessment shows that the proposed numerical integration method can get
the AD2 assessment from original readiness level to target level objectively and accurately.
Manufacturing and Process Development
Design And Numerical Simulation Of Tool For Friction Stir Welding Of Steel
Student
Bilal Ahmad
bilal.ahmad@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Alexander Galloway
alex.galloway@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Fsw, Simulation, Tool
The development of advanced joining processes such as Friction Stir Welding FSW are necessary to
maintain manufacturing competitiveness in any industrial nation. Substantial research has been carried out
on FSW of aluminium and magnesium alloys and this has led to a greater interest in FSW of steel. However,
research on the FSW tool for steel is a complex matter given the extreme operating conditions that the tool
is expected to tolerate when steels and other high strength alloys are joined by this method. From a
modelling perspective, it is important to capture the temperature gradient, residual stresses and material
flow in the workpiece. Simulation techniques in the literature mainly assume that the FSW tool is a moving
heating source or that the solid workpiece is a fluid body. Various coupled features affecting the whole
process are overlooked by these conducts. The focus of this research is to develop a fully validated FSW
platform that has the ability to consider the effects of assisted auxiliary heating and accelerated cooling so
the residual stresses in the work piece are minimised. At a later stage, different tool geometries and
materials will be considered as compared to the conventional geometries and materials in practice.
Modelling The Solubility Of H2S And Co2 In Ionic Liquids Using Pc-Saft Equation Of State.
Student
Heba Al-Fnaish
heba.al-fnaish@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Modelling, Pcsaft, Solubility.
Alkanolamine based absorption is the most commercially used process for acid gas removal (AGR) from
natural gas, due to its versatility, efficiency and low cost; however, alkanolamines are volatile, corrosive,
and their regeneration is highly energy intensive. Recently, ionic liquids (ILs) have emerged as a promising
alternative to alkanolamines. ILs are organic salts characterised by their negligible volatility, high thermal
stability, high ionic conductivity and structural tunability. They are liquids over a wide range of temperatures.
ILs show promise for use in AGR processes, however, accurate models for the solubility of acid gases in
ILs are required for their selection and design. The Perturbed Chain Statistical Association Fluid Theory
(PCSAFT) was used to investigate the solubility of acid gases in several methylimidazolium bis
trifluoromethylsulfonyl imide ILs. Two strategies were examined to describe gas solubility. In the first
strategy, only hard chain and dispersion contributions to Helmholtz free energy were considered. For the
second, the association contribution with different association schemes was also considered. Results
indicated that, solubility of acid gases in the studied ILs can be accurately represented using PCSAFT
without the need for binary interaction parameters if the proper association scheme was chosen.
136
Response Of P-Channel Organic Field-Effect Transistor To Ac Waveforms
Student
Afra Al-Ruzaiqi
afra.al-ruzaiqi@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr. Helena Gleskova
helena.gleskova@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
OrganicTransistor, Ac
Organic electronics is a rapidly growing research field due to low temperature fabrication, extent of available
device materials and substrates, and inherent compatibility with non-planar surfaces and biological species.
Organic electronics spans from organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and
solar cells (OSCs) to sensors/actuators and novel devices. OFETs are needed for flexible information
displays and conformal sensor circuits. Previously, various DC measurements and experiments were
executed to investigate organic thin-film transistor performance. Such measurements are: transfer
characteristics, output characteristics and bias stress effect. As more real life applications prefer AC supply,
the need to preform AC measurements and frequency response analysis is important. It is vital to study the
OFET behaviour under AC conditions and to determine its operating frequency range because this will be
useful in many applications such as design of complex integrated circuits, pressure and temperature sensing
for robotics and wearable electronics, ultrasonic applications, etc.
Acoustic Monitoring Of Flow Forming
Student
Andrew Appleby
andrew.appleby@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Bill Ion
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
Acoustic, Monitoring, Flowforming
&
Engineering
Active research and commercial solutions are using live monitoring to control a variety of manufacturing
processes and predict failures. This is part of a broader move towards autonomous manufacturing, a major
research theme for the University of Strathclyde. Flow forming is a powerful technology for high-precision
cold forming. The process is non-deterministic with many variables contributing to defects. A new monitoring
approach to flow forming could provide valuable insight into the process and lead towards an autonomous
flow-forming process. The aims of this project are: A) to use acoustic sensors to monitor the flow forming
process; B) to integrate the data from acoustics, force and displacement sensors; C) to identify and
ultimately predict manufacturing defects in flow formed parts using live sensing; and D) to build towards fully
integrated sensing for a fully controlled flow forming process. The key challenges for this research will be
understanding the data outputs and using these to identify the critical variables for defect-free manufacture.
The advantages of this are potential advances in the understanding, control and comprehension of flow
forming.
Near Zero-Defect Manufacturing Of Cocr Orthopaedic Implants
Student
Fei Ding
fei.ding@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Xichun Luo
xichun.luo@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
Implant, Grinding, Dynamics
&
Engineering
Artificial orthopaedic implants represent major portions of medical device market which is predicted to reach
$115.8 billion in 2020. A world leading orthopaedic implant manufacturer has set up an ambitious target to
achieve zero-defect artificial orthopaedic implants in machining operation. However, the current rejection
rate in factory is still too high to afford. The main reason for part rejection is due to surface defects and
dimension deviations as they determine material wear rate of the implants after implanted into human body.
137
This project focuses on improving the form accuracy and surface finish of CoCr orthopaedic implants, via
the study of machine dynamics during grinding. Also, different static and dynamic error compensation
approaches will be proposed and verified. Improvement of attainable form accuracy and surface finish after
grinding will reduce the need for post process polishing and increase productivity.
Providing Quantitative Particle Size And Shape Information From Multi-Sensor Measurements For
Continuous Monitoring Of Crystallisation Processes
Student
Carla Sofia Ferreira
carla.ferreira@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
YiChieh Chen
yichieh.chen@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Shape, Fbrm, Sardr
Particle sizes of active ingredients are critical to achieve uniformity, dissolution and good absorption rates,
making the particle size measurement a valuable indicator of quality and performance of most importance
to pharmaceutical industry. However, real-time monitoring remains a great challenge since non-spherical
particles are ubiquitous. Various optical-based measurements which utilises different physical principles are
proposed to be promising but often shows limited performance when applied to practice. We aim to establish
a physical model-based approach which fuses multiple optical measurements for monitoring particle
size/shape in crystallisation process. In this study, measurements are taken by Focused Beam Reflectance
measurement (FBRM), and Spatially and Angularly Resolved Diffuse Reflectance (SARDR) measurement.
Suspensions of polystyrene particles of sizes similar to pharmaceutical crystals are used to establish limits
of the methodology. The spherical shape of the particles makes them an appropriate model system for
mathematical models verification and validation. While FBRM measures laser light reflected by particles
passing the probe front window to obtain a chord length distribution (CLD), SARDR uses a multi-wavelength
(UV-visible-Near Infrared) beam to measure chemical composition, concentration and particle size. A
benchmark performance is established on the size/shape information and light scattering properties inverted
using the underlying physics of the measurements.
Shear Forming Process For Nickel-Based Aerospace Structures
Student
Marine Anais Guillot
marine.guillot@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Paul Blackwell
paul.blackwell@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
ShearForming, Material
&
Engineering
Shear forming is an incremental cold forming process. It is typically used to manufacture conical parts using
plate material as a starting pre-form. Rollers shear the pre-form onto a conical mandrel, resulting in a
reduction of the starting wall thickness. The benefits of the process include material cost savings, enhanced
product characteristics, good surface finish, geometric accuracy, and reduced production and energy costs.
Currently, the process has a limited use within the aerospace sector. However, its potential application is in
a wide range of conical geometries across structures, which are at this time manufactured from solid. The
impact of key processing parameters on the formability of 304L stainless steel and Inconel 718 during shear
forming was explored using an industrial shear forming machine. A Design of Experiments approach has
been used to study the impact and interactions of the key process variables on the component geometry,
surface finish, microstructure and hardness. The microstructure was observed via Scanning Electron
Microscopy and Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction to enable understanding of the material behaviour during
the shear forming process and especially its mechanism of deformation. The current strand is looking at
shear forming thick components up to 20 mm thickness.
Influencing Ship Recycling Yard Design Through Developing Models To Estimate Economical And
Hse Performance
Student
Sefer Anil Gunbeyaz
sefer.gunbeyaz@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Osman Turan
o.turan@strath.ac.uk
138
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
ShipRecycling, ProcessModelling
Ship recycling is an important step of ship’s life cycle which all valuable materials are recovered,
reconditioned, reused or recycled. Despite the fact that ship recycling is the most environmentally friendly
option for ships, it remains a contentious issue. Majority of the ship recycling capacity is now located in thirdworld countries where the labour is cheap and HSE legislations are loose. Recycling practices in these
countries are heavily criticized for being hazardous to workers, environment and local community. The
negative images forced international regulators to develop international regulations and standards. The Ship
Recycling Industry is going through a transitional phase where scientific support and technical approaches
are needed more than ever before. Currently, there is a big debate on “which recycling method is better?”
and in the literature there is no scientific answer yet given to such questions. The main aim of this research
is to conduct a comparison between different ship recycling methodologies for their economical,
occupational and environmental safety performance. Each ship recycling method will be modeled using
discrete event simulation to identify most feasible option economically. Also, these methods will be evaluated
using risk assessment techniques to find the best practice.
Forming Micro Ceramic Components Using Micro-Fast Technology
Student
Hasan Hamza Hijji
hasan.hijji@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Yi Qin
qin.yi@strath.ac
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
Micromanufacturing, Microfast, Microforming
&
Engineering
Recent research work has been undertaken to examine and investigate the feasibility of forming microcomponents by combining the microforming and Electrical-field activated sintering (Micro-FAST). The FAST
process uses low voltage and high current, pressure-assisted sintering and synthesis technique. This
method used to densify materials and synthesize compounds, and it is similar to hot pressing, but the heating
and powder densification mechanism are different. The technology scales down conventional FAST process
for small-length scale manufacturing which involves a different sintering mechanism and tooling technique,
such as size-effect, micro/nano-interfacial fusion bonding, tool-damage. The formed components were used
for the experiments and the sintering and forming was recognized by using thermal- mechanical simulator.
Several types of powders of ceramics with variable particle sizes have been formed successfully. The
parameters, such as pressure, temperature and heating rate, were studied and the results from the
experiment showed that the quality of component depends on them. Compared to other sintering methods,
Micro-FAST makes a good contribution to highly efficient particulate sintering for micro-manufacturing due
to the relatively short forming-cycle time.
Autonomous Gripper For Harsh Environments.
Student
Hanna Lilja Jonasdottir
hanna.jonasdottir@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Xiu T. Yan
x.yan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
Gripper, HarshEnvironment
&
Engineering
While technological advancements in robotics have come great lengths over the past few decades there is
a lack of flexibility for robots which must operate in harsh environments outside the general working
conditions of standard electronics. This project is specifically geared towards developing robotic solutions
for handling parts in furnaces operating in excess of 1000°C. Automation of this nature is important because
robots are more consistent than manual operators, which leads to a more reliable and uniform process. This
research is being done in collaboration with the Advanced Forming Research Centre (AFRC) which has
many high temperature operations that could be enhanced by implementing automated solutions. The
overall aim is to design an autonomous gripper for applications in harsh environments such as hot forging
139
where the gripper has to fetch billets from a furnace or cake manufacturing where hygiene is crucial. This
poster illustrates the advantages of robotic automation and highlights the difficulties and problems yet to be
solved with high temperature robotic applications.
Die Manufacture For Future And Current Manufacturing Processes (A Total Engineering Approach
To Forging Die Design)
Student
James Marashi
Supervisor
Prof Paul Xirouchakis
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
james.marashi@strath.ac.uk
&
Engineering
Keywords
Die failure modes in hot forging are categorised as wear, deformation, thermal and mechanical fatigue,
erosion, thermal cracking. These failure modes are caused by many factors including thermal softening,
excessive load and sliding, excessive friction, non-uniform lubrication during the process, wrong die and
process design and using the wrong parameters on forging press. According to the worldwide research in
this field, die wear, which is defined as a surface damage or removal of material from one or both of two
solid surfaces in a sliding, rolling, or impact motion relative to one another, is considered the main cause of
tool failure. It is a source of unacceptably high costs in the forging industries. The aim of this project is to
determine an optimal die manufacturing process beginning at the design stage by using modified Archard
equation, DEFORM 3D simulation and practical test. One of the crucial stages in this project is to establish
an accurate method of measuring tool defects which makes comparison of different process parameters,
different surface treatments and introducing new die material instead of common H13 possible.
Innovative Framework For Application Of Near Net Shape Manufacturing Technology And Forging
Processes
Student
Daniele Marini
daniele.marini@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Jonathan Corney
jonathan.corney@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
NearNetShape, Manufacturing
&
Engineering
The NNS approaches aim to develop semi-finished products that are as close as possible to the desired
final geometry and technological characteristics. Thus the objective of NNS is the elimination, or reduction,
of finishing steps (e.g. machining operations, heat treatments etc) and the minimization of raw material
usage (e.g. reductions in scrap and wastage). Reduction of machining steps, or the grouping of many
components into a single piece, can lead to both a shorter process chains and lower variability with
increased quality. Reductions in fabrication and assembly operations reduce the opportunity for errors and
result in lower scrappage. Aim of the project is to deliver an operative framework, which can direct the
engineer from potential opportunity screening (i.e. applying innovative or different processes to existent
productions) to evaluate technologically and economically new processes applications as well as consider
an economic product redesign towards near net shape. The framework targets an industrial environment
and can support: redesign of components for improved product functionality and/or alternative
manufacturing methods; propose and evaluate alternative manufacturing processes; improve quality or
reduce cost and propose improvements to the existing manufacturing processes.
Uncertainty Quantification In Large Volume Metrology
Student
Ainsley Miller
ainsley.miller@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof. Gareth Pierce
s.g.pierce@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Uncertainty, Metrology, Refraction
140
Modern manufacturing increasingly utilises automated systems for component positioning and assembly.
Industries are interested in autonomous manufacturing as it reduces costs and increases productivity. A
vital aspect of autonomous precision manufacturing is large volume metrology. High accuracy can be
obtained in small scale laboratory experiments using optical based co-ordinate metrology systems such as
photogrammetry and laser trackers. However, in order to reduce the uncertainty that arises when
considering large industrial settings, light refraction due to temperature fluctuations has to be addressed. In
this paper a computer simulation of a laser-tracker metrology system will be described. This simulation tool
can be used to investigate the effects that temperature gradients in a large volume have on the accuracy of
this metrology modality. Results from these simulations will be presented
The Impact Of Solvent Systems, Process Conditions And Structurally Related Impurities On The
Growth Rate And Morphologies Of Paracetamol Crystals.
Student
Layla Mir Bruce
layla.mir-bruce@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Chris Price
chris.price@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Crystallization, Paracetamol, Singlecrystal
Single crystal growth (S.C.G) experiments were conducted to investigate face specific growth rates of
paracetamol (acetaminophen) crystals. There are a few examples in literature where S.C.G of paracetamol
crystals and different process conditions are analysed but no examples of the addition of structurally related
impurities (Metacetamol and Acetanilide) can be found. Carefully selected conditions of supersaturation and
temperature were also analysed. The resulting growth rates were then determined in two solvents, ethanol
and 3-Methyl-1-butanol. The impact of the structurally related impurities on the solubility of paracetamol was
determined in each of solvents investigated. The relative growth rates of pairs of faces and the associated
habit change of monoclinic paracetamol was observed using in-situ optical microscopy. The respective
growth rates increased with an increase of supersaturation and temperature, as the impurity concentration
increased the relative growth rate of the faces decreased.
Minimum Shielding Gas Flow Rate Analysis In Gmaw Process
Student
Pimentel Misael
misael.pimentel@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Alexander M. Galloway
alex.galloway@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Gmaw, Minimisation, Asg
The present study focuses on minimising the amount of shielding gas required during the gas metal arc
welding (GMAW) process by studying combinations of variables such as torch velocity, nozzle diameter,
wire feed speed and types of gases, also making use of a novel process known as alternating shielding
gases (ASG). The shielding gas flow rate (SGFR) is typically set based on the operator’s experience due to
recurrent lack of information regarding its optimum value. Consequently, there is a tendency for gas
wastage. Previous studies state that the SGFR can be reduced to 6 L/min and 10 L/min in draft-free and
worst draft environments, respectively. For the presented rates however, no usage of ASG in its minimum
rate is demonstrated and there is considerable scope to evaluate this extreme. Primarily, the minimum for
a constant gas flow rate is identified followed by the use of the ASG process. Both computational analysis
and experimental trials are employed, compared and examined using experimental and numerical methods
such as transverse tensile testing, bend testing, microstructural characterisation, hardness measurements
and computational fluid dynamics. In addition, methods such as Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Schlieren
visualisation assist in understanding the ASG behaviour.
141
Intelligent Mobile Robot Control
Student
Cong Niu
Supervisor
Xiu Yan
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
Intelligent, Mobile, Robot
cong.niu@strath.ac.uk
&
Engineering
Industrial robots give a great impetus to the development of modern productivity. Industrial robots can
achieve large-scale unmanned factory assembly line work, greatly reduce the human cost, and can greatly
decrease the labor intensity of workers. Modern industrial robots have been able to effectuate a series of
technological process such as transit, assembly, welding and so on. Among automobile, heavy machinery,
semiconductor, electronics, and other industrial sectors, industrial robots have become the indispensable
production equipment. With the progress of technological level, the requirement of industrial robots is getting
increasingly high. As the rapid development of network technology in recent years, people pay more and
more attention to the complex control problem of agents which forms the key components of a control system
and are based on the integration of wireless network media and friendly human-interactive mobile robots.
Evaluation Of A New Continuous Filtration Unit: A Case Study Using Paracetamol
Student
Sara Ottoboni
sara.ottoboni@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Chris Price
chris.price@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
ContinuousFiltration, Washing, Drying
Aim of this project was to investigate the Alconbury Weston Ltd (AWL) unit functionality with respect to API
filtration, to washing and drying to understand how the chemical and physical properties of the API slurry
interact with the process parameters as a basis for designing and improving API isolation processes. The
AWL Continuous Filter Drier (CFD) is a versatile vacuum filtration unit capable of producing 1kg of filtered,
washed and dried solids per hour. The flexibility of the unit allows investigation of the process of separation
in a fully automated semi-continuous manner. The flexibility of operation of the unit allows optimisation of
operation parameters to be evaluated efficiently. The effect of crystal size distribution, solids loading and
suspension properties and the choice of primary solvent and wash solvent were investigated. The API
selected for this investigation was paracetamol (acetaminophen) and ethanol was used as slurry solvent
(widely used as crystallization solvent). Food dye was selected as impurity that allows the washing process
to be visualised. Different wash solvents were selected in accordance to the chemical character and to their
capability to dissolve paracetamol and impurity: e.g. ethanol as polar solvent and n-heptane as a non-polar
solvent.
Investigating The Commercial Feasibility Of Die Remanufacturing In The Uk High Value
Manufacturing Sector
Student
Grant Payne
grant.payne@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
W. J. Jon
w.j.ion@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
Additive, Manufacturing, Forging
&
Engineering
The Forging sector is a key component in Britain’s Manufacturing industry, accounting for £XXX per annum
which equates to xx% of Gross Domestic Output (Manufacturing). Wear and cracking in die sets can result
in loss of revenue and machine downtime. At present dies are either repaired (not to OEM warranty/quality
levels) or a new die set is manufactured, thus incurring a loss in quality or prolonged machine down time,
respectively. Exploitation of Additive Manufacturing (AM) in the ReManufacture of industrial components
such as moulds and dies has become an emerging research area due to the expected reduction of
142
replacement cost and the promise of better mechanical/wear resistance properties – moreover, the use of
ReManufacturing standards ensures a greater than or equal to warranty. My research seeks to evaluate the
quality characteristics and economics of various AM techniques to ReManufacture Forging Die sets. Case
studies, experimentation and economic analysis, supported by a thorough literature review will inform my
research and findings.
Machining Strategy Improvement For Forming Dies
Student
Andreas Reimer
Supervisor
Prof. Xichun Luo
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
Hsm, Fem
andreas.reimer@strath.ac.uk
&
Engineering
The overall aim of the project is to improve the machining strategy throughout experiments and FEMSimulations to increase and predict the forming die performance of a defined material. At the current stage
the project was split into three major parts: prediction, machining experiments and forming experiments. The
prediction, includes numerical as well as empirical predictions. The FE-Model will be supported by
subroutines to improve the material behaviour during the simulation. As a part of the machining experiments
an optimisation method will be used to identify an improved machining strategy for a better surface integrity.
The FE-Model will support this empirical investigation with a full factorial approach and the validation of the
simulation will be fulfilled by experiments. The outlook of this project is, that the simulation will support the
understanding of the process additional to the machining experiments which will be used to develop
prediction formulas. Furthermore, it will enhance productivity of forming industries due to changing
machining strategies.
Metrology Considerations For Automated Ndt Applications
Student
Jonathan Riise
jonathan.riise@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Stephen Gareth Pierce
s.g.pierce@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Ndt, Robotics, Metrology
Automating the Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) process of manufacturing chains is becoming a key
objective for several industries to avoid bottlenecks in production. Off-the-shelf industrial robots allow faster
and more flexible approaches to automated NDE compared to traditional gantry-type setups. Several
challenges are present in the integration of industrial robots with NDE hardware: encoding NDE data
accurately and at sufficiently high speeds, designing optimal inspection paths and providing a human-tomachine interface for the operator. This continuing EngD project investigates methods of combining
metrology systems with an existing automated inspection cell at TWI Technology Centre (Wales). The aim
is to use a multisystem approach to automatically recognise objects to be inspected, assess them for CAD
conformity and monitor the robots to provide real time path corrections. Research has been undertaken into
different metrology systems and automated object recognition approaches. Though providing limited
accuracy at present, high speed photogrammetry systems have the potential to address inherent latency
issues in the robot’s kinematic control. Tracking robots using such photogrammetry systems would allow
paths to be dynamically corrected to compensate for unexpected surface variations and robot inaccuracy.
Microstructure Modelling In Nickel Alloys
Student
Nicola Stefani
Supervisor
Dr. Paul Blackwell
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
Inc718, Microstructure, Modelling
143
nicola.stefani@strath.ac.uk
&
Engineering
Discs for gas turbine engines are required to operate at high temperatures and stresses, and face challenges
in terms of both strength and creep performance. Nickel alloys are mostly used for this application in the
aerospace sector due to their mechanical properties. There is a direct correlation between microstructure
and final properties in forged components. Given this, it is important that robust process models are
developed that are able to offer a capability for predicting key microstructural features e.g. grain size, grain
structure and precipitate morphologies. Modern FE packages offer the capability to simulate microstructural
development, but often the models supplied commercially are not tailored for specific alloys such as Nickel
ones. Much improved results are possible when customised models, tailored for specific applications and
implemented through user-subroutines, are used. Inconel718 alloy was chosen as the first representative
of this nickel based class of alloys for FE microstructure modelling due to amount of data and analysis
available in the literature for this type of nickel super alloy. Forging trials were performed and a comparison
between standard FE analysis results and the actual microstructure were obtained.
Modelling Of Particle Size And Shape Distribution In Pharmaceutical Suspensions And The Effects
On Visible/Near Infrared Spectra
Student
Daria Stoliarskaia
daria.stoliarskaia@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
YiChieh Chen
yichieh.chen@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Nir, Particle, SizeDistribution
Many product qualities of pharmaceutical suspensions, such as stability and dissolution, are directly
influenced by physical characteristics of particulate substances. Effects such as particle size and shape
distribution are often underlooked as the chemical characteristics (composition/concentration) are of primary
concern. Optical measurement is a relatively simple and effective way to identify variations in the size and
shape information of particulates as changes in light scattering property are resultants of such variation.
This study aims to develop a methodology which provides particle size and shape distribution using the
scattering properties extracted from a novel spatially and angularly-resolved diffuse reflectance (SARDR)
measurement. The methodology relies on development of an integrated calculation which combines Mie
calculation and particle size distribution functions in order to invert the decoupled scattering properties. The
Mie calculation describes the scattering coefficient of a single particle. Using the bulk scattering properties
extracted from the SARDR spectra, the inversion from the integrated calculation will provide the proportional
contribution of scattering effect for each particle population group. The results will be used to build a
classification model on percentage population of the particle in a specific size range as well as full size
distribution.
Continuous Antisolvent Co-Crystallisation Of Benzoic Acid And Isonicotinamide
Student
Vaclav Svoboda
vaclav.svoboda@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof. Jan Sefcik
jan.sefcik@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Continuous, Crystallisation, Cocrystals
Continuous antisolvent crystallisation was used to produce 1:1 and 1:2 co-crystals of benzoic acid and
isonicotinamide. This study demonstrates that for multicomponent systems the co-formers do not need to
originate from the same solution, giving more options for solvent system selection. Design of Experiments
driven screening was successfully implemented to map a phase diagram with minimum experiments.
Regions where pure co-crystal phases are obtained at suitable conditions for continuous processing were
identified using this method. The continuous process developed selectively produced the two stoichiometric
ratios of the chosen model co-crystal system, demonstrating control over solid phase formation. A range of
conditions were tested in a continuous crystallization platform and assessed for robustness.
144
Non-Destructive Testing Of Alsn Alloy/Steel Bimetal Strips Using Guided Wave Electromagnetic
Acoustic Transducers (Emats)
Student
Philipp Tallafuss
philipp.tallafuss@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr. Andrzej Rosochowski
a.rosochowski@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
Bimetal, Ndt, Emat
&
Engineering
Evaluating of bond strength when creating a metallurgical bond between two dissimilar metals in a
production environment is an ongoing issue. Current industry practice uses destructive testing, which is not
ideal from a manufacturer’s perspective. Aim is to develop a viable in-line system for 100% AlSn alloy/steel
bimetal strip delamination inspection. The Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) technology has
been shown to be a promising technology for this purpose. The major advantage of ultrasonic testing (UT)
using Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT), compared to piezoelectric UT, is that EMAT is a noncontact technique, i.e. no couplant is required to generate the ultrasonic wave in the material. Instead it uses
an electromagnetic coupling mechanism. Material inspection with Guided Waves has the advantage to fill
up the entire volume of the material and therefore does not require scanning in the beam direction. Ultrasonic
excitation occurs in the part, by striking upper and lower bounding surfaces.
Characterisation And Development Of Rotary Forging Process- Process Modelling
Student
Subha Tamang
subha.tamang@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr. Xichun Luo
xichun.luo@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
RotaryForging, FeAnalysis
&
Engineering
The unique ability of rotary processes that allows to form alloys that are difficult to deform at room
temperature and usually formed at higher temperatures is of great research interest. However, the process
windows are very narrow, this creates difficulty in the process design. Therefore, there is a need for a robust
methodology for process design. Fracture is one of the main limiting factor in any metal forming process.
Predicting when and where the fracture occurs during metal forming operation is an important factor to be
considered during the process design. Due to the complex nature of the process, evaluating damage
evolution in non-monotonic processes like rotary forging are still quite challenging. Over the years many
fracture criterion's has been developed and are available in many commercial codes. Existing fracture
criteria are assessed and implemented for rotary forging process using QForm and comparison are made
on their accuracy in predicting the damage formation.
Business Process Modelling Of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing System With Continuous Flow
Production Processes
Student
Leda Todorova-Aleksieva
leda.todorova@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof Alex Duffy
alex.duffy@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
ContinuousManufacturing, Pharmaceuticals
&
Engineering
Recently, R&D pharmaceutical companies are facing increasing cost pressures, aggressive competition by
generic companies, shorter product life cycles, and increased customer expectations. The challenging
operating environment have forced pharmaceutical industry to investigate innovative manufacturing
technologies that will allow more efficient production processes and enable more effective business models.
There is a growing interest in the research of the opportunities that continuous manufacturing can offer for
the industry in comparison to the traditional batch-wise processing. However, despite the significant amount
of research done in development and optimisation of continuous processes, there is still lack of evidence
for the success of continuous manufacturing and understanding how companies will function after the
145
implementation of continuous flow processes. This raises a number of questions: - What is the feasibility of
adoption of continuous manufacturing in pharmaceutical industry? - What is the impact of continuous
manufacturing on business processes? - How continuous manufacturing will affect the performance in
pharmaceutical manufacturing? This research attempts to address these questions. The objective of the
research is to use business process modelling approach to demonstrate how continuous flow processes will
transform pharmaceutical production system and evaluate the outcomes from their adoption.
Autonomic Mechatronic Systems For Space Applications
Student
Alessandro Tringali
alessandro.tringali@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Xiu Yan
x.yan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
Artificial, Intelligence, Space
&
Engineering
Mechatronic systems are vital for space exploration and exploitation, since most of missions are unmanned,
and even manned ones heavily rely on them to augment their capabilities. Robotics control in such a harsh
environment is however not an easy task, and human control is not always available to make decisions. In
the research hereby presented, a literature review about state-of-the-art in autonomous control in harsh
environments is presented, related to smart sensing, data fusion, and subsequent decision making. The
task has been carried out from a distributed systems point of view: that is, considering groups of
heterogeneous robots and related concepts which are currently under study. This is especially relevant
since space missions are shifting to a distributed paradigm, and so are many ground applications, yet
efficient control strategies are in most cases to be refined. Main topics explored include autonomous
navigation, mutual location, and related data fusion issues, while ground based harsh environment
applications which have been considered include manufacturing environments where robots are exposed
to extreme conditions for a prolonged period of time (e.g. forging cells).
Effect Of Water In Metal Electrodeposition Processes From Deep Eutectic Solvents
Student
Priscila Estefania Valverde Armas
priscila.valverde-armas@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Sudipta Roy
sudipta.roy@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Electrodeposition, MetalSpeciation, Water
Although the plating industry currently uses mostly aqueous electrolytes, due to certain disadvantages Deep
Eutectic Solvents (DESs) have been suggested as alternatives. These liquids have shown the potential to
eventually replace aqueous electrolytes because of their innovative properties. Our group has reported
electrochemical co-reduction of the DES, which could be avoided by the presence of water. Until now, most
researchers have focused on using water free DES, and therefore, there is no substantial information on
water content on the electrodeposition. This study examines how water might affect the metal speciation,
electrochemical parameters and microstructure properties of the deposits. Experimental results have
demonstrated that the absorption band at 405 nm, characteristic of tetrachlorocuprate complex [CuCl4]2from which Cu is deposited, exhibited a diminution when 15 wt% of water was added to the solvent. A further
increase in the amount of moisture (>30 wt%) triggered both the appearance of a new band at 270 nm and
a strong reduction of the absorbance at 405 nm (Figure 1), showing that higher amounts of water might
cause significant variations in the metal speciation. Hence, the content of water should be constantly
monitored during a long-term electrodeposition process, which is the plan for future work.
146
Investigating Relationships Between Laser Metal Deposition Deployment Conditions And Material
Microstructural Evolution
Student
Michael Wilson
m.wilson@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Paul Xirouchakis
paul.xirouchakis@strath.ac.uk
Department
Keywords
Design
Manufacture
&
Engineering
Management
AdditiveManufacturing,
LaserMetalDeposition, Remanufacturing
Additive Manufacturing (AM) can be utilised for the repair and remanufacture of metallic components with
reduced replacement costs and the potential for better mechanical and wear resistance properties ensuring
remanufactured components better than or equal to originals. Variable Laser Metal Deposition (LMD)
deployment conditions such as the topology and geometry of the scanning path and scanning speed are
compared with the material microstructural evolution using artificially worn specimens of H13 steel.
Benchmark studies are reported, comparing LMD deployment conditions and material microstructural
evolution. The specimens are subjected to accelerated pressure and temperature loading simulating the
loading cycles during mold use. A study is completed investigating variable LMD deployment strategies and
the microstructural evolution of the material.
Prediction Of Failures Of Tools With Multi-Layered Coatings With Parametric Finite Element Method
And Peridynamic Theory
Student
Song Yang
song.yang@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Yi Qin
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
Coatings, Fem, Peridynamic
qin.yi@strath.ac.uk
&
Engineering
Cold/warm forging is a process in which temperature is under the recrystallization temperature of the working
material. It can achieve great geometrical precisions, high production rates, as well as low manufacturing
cost. However, short tool-life is often a main concern. Peridynamic Theory is an advanced finite element
analysis method which is based on continuum mechanics formulation. The integral governing equations
perform superiority in modelling crack initiation, propagation and interaction, instead of partial differential
equations, which makes the method unique for the prediction of crack developments. The aim of the project
is the analysis of forming tools by combining newly developed FE modelling techniques and Peridynamic
Theory. Developing a parameterised crack prediction framework, combining with Peridynamic theory, for
the analysis of multi-layered coated surfaces, will be a main work aimed at future practical applications. The
research outcomes should help to enhance design and manufacturing efficiency of surface coatings for
forming tools. To achieve good results, the following work has been planned: continue building FE coating
models using Abaqus; continue developing Peridynamic subroutines with Fortran; developing an
experimental procedure for validating the numerical models; and testing the optimised numerical models on
coating design for forging tool life extension.
147
Materials
Rf Xerogels For Insulation Purposes: Monitoring The Thermal Conductivity Through Synthesis
Route
Student
Mohammed G. M. Abduljalil
mohammed.abduljalil@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Ashleigh Fletcher
ashleigh.fletcher@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Rf, Xerogel, ThermalConductivity
Porous materials exhibit high thermal resistance abilities. Tailoring density and structural properties can
effectively influence the thermal properties of nanoporous materials. Organic and inorganic aerogels are
highly porous materials; thermal conductivity as low as 0.012 W/m K was recorded in air at 300 K for RF
aerogel with density 157 kg/m. The aim of this work was to determine the thermal conductivity of RF xerogel
prepared with various synthesis conditions. RF organic xerogels were synthesized by sol gel
polycondensation of resorcinol (R) and formaldehyde (F) in aqueous solution (deionised water, W) in the
presence of sodium carbonate as a basic catalyst (C). The wet gels were subjected to a solvent exchange
process, and then dried at vacuum pressure, and elevated temperature. The thermal diffusivities (a) were
derived by the Laser Flash Analysis (LFA) in Argon, and heat capacities (Cp) were measured using
Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) in nitrogen. For disc-shaped samples at constant R/C molar ratio
of 400, the obtained results showed that the thermal conductivities of the gels with solids content 40 % is
slightly lower than in the sample with 30% solids content. The lowest value of λ at room temperature was
0.018 W/m K for RF xerogel prepared with 40 % solid content at R/C 400. However, in granulate form with
higher R/C ratio of 1000; thermal conductivity tends to decrease as the solids content decreases with the
minimum value of 0.015 W/m K recorded at room temperature for solids content 30%.
Mechanisms Of Erosion-Triggered Breach Of Clay Flood Embankments And Erosion Remedial
Measures
Student
Livia Adinolfi
livia.adinolfi@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Alessandro Tarantino
alessandro.tarantino@strath.ac.uk
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
Erosion, Clay, Test
A laboratory test for erosion in cohesive soils Livia Adinolfi, Alessandro Tarantino Department of Civil &
Environmental Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, livia.adinolfi@strath.ac.uk Department of
Civil & Environmental Engineering, Glasgow. The study of the erosion properties of soils is important in
many engineering problems. The research has mainly focused on coarse-grained geomaterials and their
erosion behaviour is fairly understood. On the other hand the erosion behaviour of fine-grained geomaterials
has not been investigated in the same depth. The interaction between the clay particles and the flowing fluid
is much more complex and involves the physical, chemical and biological aspects. Different equipments
have been developed. We have considered the “flume test” type where a soil sample is placed at the bottom
of a channel with water flowing, producing hydraulic shear stresses responsible for the detachment of the
soil particles. To underpin the design of the experimental equipment, a basic laboratory device has been
developed to test saturated kaolin clay. The aim of this experimental programme is to collect a first series
of data and to identify critical experimental problems to be addressed in the design of the final equipment.
A Cost-Effective Chemical Approach To Regenerating The Strength Of Thermally Recycled Glass
Fibre
Student
Sairah Bashir
sairah.bashir@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Liu Yang
l.yang@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
GlassFibre, Recycling, ChemicalEtching
148
A common approach to recycling of glass fibre reinforced composite (GFRC) waste is through subjecting
the material to elevated temperatures. This leads to degradation of the polymer matrix and subsequent
extraction of fibres. Unfortunately, due to the harsh thermal conditions employed, the glass fibres suffer from
a severe loss in strength, and are therefore unsatisfactory for reuse in industrial applications. We recently
discovered that the treatment of thermally weakened glass fibres in alkaline solutions can significantly
restore mechanical strength by etching away defects on the surface. The efficiency of strength recovery is
strongly dependent on treatment conditions such as nature of alkali, concentration, temperature and time.
In this research study, various alkaline treatments are applied to thermally damaged glass fibres with the
aim of restoring mechanical strength. Factors such as concentration and immersion time are investigated
and optimised in order to develop a treatment that is both effective and economical. This chemical approach
to strength regeneration of thermally damaged glass fibres means closed-loop recycling of GFRC waste can
be achieved. This will have a positive impact on the environment, as a reduced volume of end-of-life
composite material will be destined for landfill.
Manufacturing Gas Turbine Engine Components Using Hydroforming
Student
Colin Bell
colin.bell@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Jonathan Corney
jonathan.corney@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Hydroforming, Manufacturing, Engineering
Hydroforming is a relatively new metal forming process which utilizes hydraulic pressure to form metallic
components from blanks into near net shape components. It is a process that could offer many potential
advantages in terms of cost, mechanical properties and weight reduction over traditional production methods
and this poster explores some of the potential benefits of the adoption of hydroforming technology into the
aerospace industry. By enhancing the formability of materials through the use of hydraulic pressure during
a forming operation, individual components can be formed to a more complicated geometry which in turn
lessens the number of nuts, bolts and welds that are required reducing both weight and manufacturing
operations. Also by switching to a cold forming process from either a hot forming process or machining
method, the materials gain enhanced mechanical properties though strain hardening. These benefits are
potentially extremely beneficial and this poster describes the processes and benefits as well as highlights
potential examples of hydroforming technology.
Image Processing For Analysis Of Materials
Student
Andrew Campbell
andrew.j.campbell@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
&
Engineering
Keywords
Microstructure, Segmentation, Analysis
The aim of the project is to develop image processing algorithms to segment and measure the grains within
an electron microscopy image of Ti6Al4v. The size of the grains within a microstructure of an alloy is used
to determine various properties of the material. However, producing these measurements is currently a
manual process, with the user being required to click on multiple points on the boundary of each grain to
measure the grain length. This is a tedious and time consuming process due to the number of grains in the
image. The noise present within the image and ambiguous nature of grain boundaries mean existing image
processing software is not able to automatically identify the grains. New image segmentation algorithms are
investigated with an aim of proposing a new method for producing an accurate, automated segmentation of
the microstructural image. This algorithm is then implemented within a software interface that will incorporate
tools to automatically measure and analyse these grains. The software is also evaluated to prove that it
offers superior accuracy when compared with other segmentation algorithms.
149
On The Behaviour Of Components In Elevated Temperature Service
Student
Nak-Kyun Cho
nakkyun.cho@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Haofeng Chen
haofeng.chen@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
CreepFatigue,
LinearMatchingMethod
StructureIntegrity,
With a growing worldwide energy demand, there is additional concern about rising levels in environmental
pollution. As a clean energy source, nuclear energy is commonly used to produce electricity. The reactor
efficiency is highly dependent on the operating temperature, with increased efficiency at higher
temperatures. Future high temperature fast reactors will have outlet temperatures of up to 950°C, such high
temperatures can result in critical aging issues due to creep failures, with critical hazardous consequences.
The aim of the project is to develop novel computational tools for high temperature creep structural
assessment based on the Linear Matching Method (LMM), which is a core methodology that allows the
creation of creep-fatigue limit curves, capable of simulating creep and fatigue interaction with a complex
loading history. This work investigates the background theory of material behaviour under creep and fatigue
conditions and applies the developed method to practical structures. It will have further application of this
new method to predefined residual stress models as well as to components being used in different
industries, such as oil and gas. In addition, in future works, this numerical method will be further extended
to allow the estimation of crack propagation fatigue life.
Rheological Profile Of Pvc Quaternary Solutions For Hollow Fibre Membrane Production
Student
Alexandra Costa
alexandra.costa@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Simon Shilton
simon.shilton@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Pvc, Spinning, Membranes
The ozone production is an expensive process due to the large amounts of oxygen wastage during the
process. A way to improve the economics of the process is the separation of the non-reacted oxygen from
the generated ozone and its recycle back to the reactor. The use of membranes for gas separation has
grown in the last decades, especially in the past 30 years. In membrane production the first step is the
preparation of a multicomponent polymer solution. To produce hollow fibre membranes a polymer solution
is extruded through a spinneret being the solution subjected to a high shear stress. The shear stress is
strongly dependent on the rheology of the polymeric solution and influences the morphology of the produced
hollow fibres. In this work, a set of polyvinylchloride (PVC) solutions with different compositions were
prepared and, since the rheological properties are highly related with temperature, a set of rheological
experiments were performed in order to study its behaviour. In the future, a relation between the rheological
data and the hollow fibres structure should be achieved in order to optimize the spinning solution
composition. The final aim is to obtain PVC hollow fibre membranes suitable for oxygen/ozone gas
separation.
‘Smart’ Shunt Catheter Materials For The Treatment Of Hydrocephalus
Student
Davide Erbogasto
davide.erbogasto@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Richard Black
richard.black@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Biomaterials, Electrospinning, Composite
Ventricular shunt catheters for the treatment of hydrocephalus are commonly made from
polydimethylsiloxane, the walls of which are perforated with holes for cerebrospinal fluid, to pass through.
Although considerable improvements in design have been made since their introduction, shunts in use today
have a high incidence of failure, with infection and shunt obstruction being the most serious. It has been
150
shown that an increase in the hydrophilic character of the surface would confer it antifouling and
bacteriostatic properties. Zinc oxide, ZnO, and titanium dioxide, TiO2, are renowned for their photocatalytic
properties, which gives rise to greater hydrophilicity and production of free radicals upon exposure to UV
light. Such characteristics make them appealing for an application as biomaterials. Therefore, a novel
electrospun hybrid material, made of a blend of polyurethane of medical grade and TiO2 or ZnO, is
proposed. Thermal analysis and atomic force microscopy suggest that the addition of inorganic component
into the matrix change the polymeric microstructure and the surface properties of the polymer. Cell cultures
with astroglioma cells show an effective decrease in viability if compared to positive controls. Further
systematic investigation of the impact of individual factors on cell adhesion and proliferation will be
conducted.
Microstructural Evolution In Titanium Alloy Under Complex Deformation Paths
Student
Mathieu Fabris
mathieu.fabris@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
&
Engineering
Keywords
Thanks to their good mechanical properties as well as their low density, titanium alloys are quite attractive
for some applications in aeronautics such as landing gear; allowing an important weight saving compared
to conventional steel alloys. In such titanium alloys, the deformation route followed during processing has a
large impact on the properties of the created part. This project is designed to evaluate the effect of the
forging parameters on the mechanical properties and the microstructure of Ti-64 alloy, an alpha-beta
titanium alloy widely used in the aerospace industry. This work is of importance to the forging industry;
indeed developing knowledge and understanding of the effect of forging parameters on quality of the forged
part will allow industries to optimize the process. The flow stress data generated under industrial forging
parameters will prove a very useful input to the finite element simulations of the forging process. This study
will focus on investigating the effects of the process route (strain path, strain, temperature) on the flow stress
and the final microstructure. The impact of the heat treatment following the hot compression on the final
alloy microstructure will also be examined.
Modelling The Fatigue And Creep Of Metal Matrix Composites.
Student
Dario Giugliano
dario.giugliano@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Haofeng Chen
haofeng.chen@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Shakedown, Ratchetting, Mmcs.
To improve the efficiency of automotive and aerospace engines, it is necessary to increase either the powerto-weight ratio or operating temperature. The former can be increased by decreasing the weight of
components using composites. Two approaches are used for modelling such materials. The
phenomenological approach relies on experimental observations to obtain constitutive equations for the
volume element through homogenisation and averaging rules, therefore it is unable to account for
microscopic interactions between the fibre and matrix. Conversely, in the multilevel finite element (FE)
approach, the behaviour of each volume element results from a FE computation of the microscopic fibre
matrix structure. The Linear Matching Method (LMM) has been successfully tested for composite materials
but currently does not integrate a multilevel FEM approach since it can only address the cyclic plastic
behaviour of such materials in the microscopic scale. Practical case studies with regard to the effect of both
different material reinforcement and cross section geometries on the cyclic plastic behaviour of metal matrix
composites (MMCs) have been examined. Future works will consider the crucial aspect of extending the
LMM to the general category of multiscale models and also more complex material response such as creepfatigue interaction will be investigated.
151
Understanding Colloidal Interactions At Oil/Rock Interfaces Via Combination Of Direct
Measurements And Large-Scale Molecular Simulations
Student
Maryam Hajiarab Derkani
maryam.derkani@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Ashleigh Fletcher
ashleigh.fletcher@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
EnhancedOilRecovery,
LowSalinityWaterflooding, CarbonateReservoir
Maximising the amount of oil extracted from the existing oil reservoirs is vital for the oil and gas industry in
order to increase its profitability and sustainability. Over the last few decades, several advanced oil recovery
methods have been used to enhance hydrocarbon recovery. Low salinity water flooding is a relatively new
technique including Injection of brine with optimised salinity and ionic composition to the oil reservoir. Low
salinity water injection has been demonstrated to be a promising approach to improve the oil recovery factor.
However, the principal mechanism involved in this method is still under debate, especially the optimal salinity
and ionic composition of the injection water. The main aim of this study is to understand the wettability
mechanisms by directly measuring the colloidal interactions at rock/oil interfaces and to develop a
computational model which suitably represents real reservoir conditions. During this project in collaboration
with Schlumberger, atomic force microscope based force spectroscopy will be used to quantify colloidal
interactions at oil/rock interfaces. Additionally, zeta potential and contact angle experiments will be
performed to compliment force spectroscopy results. In the last stage of this project, a molecular dynamic
computational model for reservoir fluid and interfacial systems will be established.
Vibration Of Heterogeneous Beam
Student
Bahman Hassanati
bahman.hassanati@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Marcus Wheel
marcus.wheel@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Vibration, Heterogeneous, FiniteElement
The research presented in this poster investigated the modal frequencies and deformation of heterogeneous
beam samples comprised of a periodic array of circular voids within a solid elastic matrix. Two sample
configurations were considered: firstly samples with smooth, continuous upper and lower surfaces and then
samples in which these surfaces bisected the void array. For both cases, four sample sizes were
investigated and for each size frequencies were identified for void radii from 0.1 to 0.3 mm using ANSYS
APDL with solid 8 node 183 element type. The smallest sample was 9 unit cells in length and 1 unit cell in
depth. Larger samples were modelled by increasing the number of unit cells in both directions while keeping
the overall beam aspect ratio constant at 10.4:1. Both flexural and tensile modal frequencies were extracted
in order to compare the FE results with analytical Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko theories for free-free
vibration of homogeneous, classically elastic beams. The influence of heterogeneity when the overall beam
size and the wavelength are comparable to the microstructural scale has been explicitly identified.
Development Of The Linear Matching Method And Associated Abaqus Interface For Modelling Creep
Student
Graeme Jackson
graeme.jackson@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Haofeng Chen
haofeng.chen@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Lmm, Creep, Fatigue
Higher operating temperatures and the need to extend the life of existing power plants mean that the
improvement of power plant components’ performance under high temperature creep-fatigue condition is
crucial for the UK to meet long-term energy and environmental targets. The project aims to develop the
Linear Matching Method (LMM) plugin for ABAQUS to incorporate robust user subroutines for evaluation of
steady state cycles with creep-fatigue interaction. These will be fully integrated into the ABAQUS CAE
152
package in order to provide a suitable interface for anyone wishing to utilise the LMM plugin. A variety of
cyclic plasticity and creep material laws for practical engineering problems will be considered. Currently the
project is incorporating an existing user subroutine for performing a creep-fatigue assessment into the
existing ABAQUS LMM plugin framework. This includes expanding the previously developed Graphical User
Interface (GUI) using the Python scripting language such that the additional parameters required for the
analysis can be input. In order to demonstrate that this tool can be used to solve practical engineering
problems, a pipe bend with a crack will be considered for a parametric study.
Optimization Of Aircraft Wing Performance Via Aeroelastic Tailoring The Local Anisotropy Of
Composite
Student
Shangkun Li
shangkun.li@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Zhangming Wu
z.wu@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Aeroelastic, Tailoring, Composite
Anisotropic composite material has been widely applied into aeroelastic tailoring to improve the overall
performance of aircraft structure such as weight reduction, drug reduction, gust response and forward-swept
wing designs in the increase of divergence airspeed. This project aims to gain a deep understanding of the
aerodynamics of variable stiffness composite laminates in airflow and explore a semi-analytical Fluid-Solid
Interaction (FSI) modelling and optimization methodologies to efficiently perform the aeroelastic tailoring of
tow-steering composite structures. A novel semi-analytical model to analyse both linear and nonlinear
structural aerodynamic behavior of tow-steering composite panels submersed in air flow will be applied. In
addition, the adaptability of wings will be investigated and designed through taking advantages of the local
anisotropy of lightweight composite materials. A Rayleigh-Ritz Method will be used to model the aeroelastic
behavior of an anisotropic composite wing. The numerical model will be built in MATLAB and verified by a
Finite Element Model (FEM).
Salt Crystallisation In Pores: The Effect Of Crystal Growth Rate On Damage
Student
Sara Mancigotti
sara.mancigotti@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Andrea Hamilton
andrea.hamilton@strath.ac.uk
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
Crystallisation, Porosity, Strain
Salt crystallization is an important deterioration mechanism in building materials (Goudie et al. 1997).
Damage is caused by crystallisation pressure which develops within pores when a thin film of supersaturated
solution is trapped between the growing crystal and the pore wall (Hamilton et al. 2008). Sodium sulfate is
considered the most damaging salt because of its unusual solubility and significant labile zone (Hamilton et
al. 2010). It has two hydrated phases at ambient conditions. The metastable heptahydrate and the stable
decahydrate called mirabilite (Hamilton et al. 2008). It is the crystallization of mirabilite which is particularly
damaging. We investigate the relationship between strain on the porous host and mirabilite crystal growth
rate using a specially designed thermostatted chamber. We measure sample strain with an LVDT transducer
and measure crystal growth rate using thermocouples inserted along the sample. Mirabilite crystallisation is
exothermic and we relate the heat produced to the quantitiy of crystals formed (Hamilton et al. 2011). The
mirabilite-ice eutectic point occurs at -3.11 oC and results in complete solidification of the remaining liquid
phase and further damage. The stress produced and the relationship with crystal growth rate at the icemirabilite eutectic point has never been investigated before.
Faults In Dirt: A Comparison Of Deformation Bands In Sand And Sandstone.
Student
Lisa Millar
lisa.millar@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Andrea Hamilton
andrea.hamilton@strath.ac.uk
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
153
Keywords
Faults, Fractures, Sandstone
Deformation bands are mm-cm scale tabular zones of localized strain mostly found in high porosity
sand(stones). Deformation bands have been identified and widely studied in sandstone field outcrops and
boreholes across the world. More recently there has been an increasing number of studies on the formation
of deformation bands in poorly consolidated and unconsolidated sands. In particular the identification of
cataclastic deformation bands formed in <500 m of the Earth’s surface is of interest as previously cataclastic
bands were perceived as forming deeper in the Earth. Primarily deformation bands have been studied due
to their impact as baffles and barriers on fluid flow in reservoir rock. However, it is also important to
understand their formation in the shallow subsurface as their identification may also impact burial history
estimates. Furthermore, their identification could be a useful tool in paleoseismology research. Here we
present a review of recent literature on deformation bands found in poorly consolidated and unconsolidated
sandstones, and compare the features of these deformation bands with deformation bands in sandstone.
We characterise each of the bands by their deformation mechanism and kinematic features, depositional
environment, burial depth and whether they are identified as single, zone or anastamosing at outcrop scale.
The Role Of The Stoichiometry And Temperature In Composite Interfacial Strength
Student
Ross Forbes Minty
ross.minty@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
James Thomason
james.thomason@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Interface, Composite, GlassFibre
With the world’s growing interest in renewable energy, the designers of wind turbine blades are under more
pressure than ever to produce larger, stronger wind turbine blades. As such the demand to produce glass
fibre-reinforced composites which possess superior mechanical properties has never been higher, with a
great level of investment having been placed into research to broaden our understanding of how to maximise
mechanical performance. It has been well documented that the properties of a fibre reinforced polymer
composite are derived from a combination of both the fibre and matrix properties as well as the ability to
transfer large stresses across the fibre-matrix interface. This work focuses on an investigation into the role
of the epoxy resin system stoichiometry, testing temperature and curing agent purity on the interfacial shear
strength of glass fibre reinforced composites by using a microbond technique developed to work in the
temperature controlled environment of a thermo-mechanical analyser. The temperature will be varied
incrementally from 20°C to 120°C, with the epoxy system stoichiometry being varied from 3% to 30%. The
effect of these variables will be discussed in greater detail in the poster presented.
Predictive Modelling Of The Effect Of Mean Stress On Corrosion Fatigue Life
Student
Marta Morgantini
marta.morgantini@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Donald Mackenzie
d.mackenzie@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Fatigue, Corrosion, Prediction
The effect of mean stress on corrosion fatigue life is an open problem that affects several industries.
Understanding how the fatigue life of a material varies under different conditions of mean stress is
challenging, as several different processes occur and interact in the process. Investigation becomes more
difficult when very high cycle fatigue life in corrosive environment is studied, as the required experimental
programme is long and expensive. Consequently, very little experimental data is available in the literature
for corrosion fatigue under non-zero mean stress. The aim of this thesis is define a predictive model that
characterizes the interaction between mean and alternating stress in corrosion fatigue of a specific carbon
steel. Using this model it will be possible to define master fatigue curves (Haigh diagrams) over the full
stress range experienced in a pressure pump application, for up to〖10〗^9 cycles. Once the master curves
are defined, application of these to benchmark and real experiments will be conducted. The predictive model
is based on experimental studies, numerical modelling and analytical modelling. After collecting data from
154
experimental investigation, numerical and statistical modelling will be applied and trends in the behaviour of
the material defined.
The Identification Of The Effect Of High Rate Deformation On The Microstructure And Properties Of
Titanium Alloys
Student
Michail Ntovas
michail.ntovas@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Paul Blackwell
paul.blackwell@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
Titanium, Deformation, AdiabaticZones
&
Engineering
Titanium alloys are extensively used in aerospace applications due to high strength-to-weight ratio, fatigue
and corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. During high speed forging of components such as
aerofoil shapes and gas turbine engines strain rates are encountered from 10-200/s. Technically this is a
difficult range of strain rates in which to measure flow stress data. Furthermore, Titanium alloys have a
relatively low thermal conductivity and hence are prone to the formation of adiabatic shear zones which
localise metal flow. This produces a deleterious non- uniform deformation pattern across a forging that that
can produce poor properties in the final components. Titanium alloys are also prone to the formation of
strong crystallographic textures which can further complicate deformation behaviour. The project aims to
identify the effects of stress, strain and temperature at high strain rate deformation on the microstructure
and examine the limiting effects of adiabatic shear zones and strong crystallographic texture formation.
A Novel Smart Material For Acoustic Devices
Student
Oluwaseun Omoniyi
oluwaseun.omoniyi@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr James Fc Windmill
james.windmill@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Acoustics, SmartMaterial, Sensors
The desire for smart systems which are highly reliable, efficient, cost effective and environmental friendly
with the ability to withstand extreme and unconventional conditions has driven the need to create novel
technologies and applications such as new sensing and actuating materials and devices as well as new
control techniques and devices. Smart materials are materials with capabilities which enable them respond
to an internal or externally generated stimuli or environmental change, and perform some specific functions
based on the effects. A material is smart or intelligent to the degree that it’s able to recognize, discriminate
and react to a stimuli or change. The benefit of smart materials in acoustic applications cannot be over
emphasized. This is evidenced in the use of microphones (acoustic sensors) and loudspeakers (acoustic
actuators) for active noise control applications. This work focusses on developing a smart material, a sensor,
actuator material for acoustic devices which are highly sensitive, cheap, durable and degradable. The new
material is a type of ferroelectric composite. It consists of a ferroelectric ceramic material and a polymer, a
plastic with pseudo-piezoelectric characteristics. The process of manufacturing the material is studied with
the material characterization.
Multiscale Modelling Of Hybrid Ferroelectric Polymers
Student
Francesco Pelizza
Supervisor
Karen Johnston
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Pvdf, Ferroelectric, Memory
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francesco.pelizza@strath.ac.uk
Poly(vinyldiene fluoride) (PVDF) is a ferroelectric polymer that is important in many electronic applications.
PVDF has five known crystal structures, only some of which have the desired ferroelectric properties. This
study uses density functional calculations to investigate the properties of different phases of PVDF,
copolymers of PVDF and the related polymers polyethylene (PE) and poly(vinylidene chloride (PVDC).
Several exchange and correlation functionals were used and it was found that inclusion of vdW forces is
necessary to obtain accurate crystal structures. In addition, we found three alternative PVDF crystal
structures that have not been previously reported. The structure of these new phases is presented and
vibrational spectra for all PVDF crystal structures have been calculated to aid future experimental
verification.
Development Of Nitrogen Doped Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Gels For Carbon Capture.
Student
Ivan Principe
ivan.principe@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Ashleigh J. Fletcher
ashleigh.fletcher@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Co2, Adsorption, Xerogels
Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) xerogels are organic materials that have been widely studied due to their
industrially relevant characteristics, such as high surface areas, pore size and volume, which have significant
potential to be tailored to specific applications, including catalysis, thermal insulation, energy storage, gas
treatment, especially CO2 capture. This research focuses on controlling the chemical and physical
properties on both the macroscopic and microscopic scale, with an investigation into the effect these
changes have on application as carbon capture materials. Xerogel properties will be tailored, within this
study, by altering the synthesis procedure, solution pH, monomer concentration and catalyst to monomer
ratio. Nitrogen will be incorporated into the gel structure in order to enhance the favourable interaction with
CO2. Hence, the first stage of this research focuses on developing a consistent method for the production,
with particular reference to repeatability and understanding the effect of each parameter on the structure
and properties of the final xerogel. The RF gels produced will be subsequently characterized using
volumetric and gravimetric analysis to determine the porous structure and quantify the CO2 capture
capacities and kinetics. Regeneration of the RF gels will also be studied, using thermal and pressure process
parameters.
Modelling The Gelation Of Porous Nanomaterials
Student
Martin Prostredny
martin.prostredny@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Paul Mulheran
paul.mulheran@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Resorcinol, Formaldehyde, Xerogel
Resorcinol/formaldehyde (RF) gels have been studied extensively, subsequently finding many uses.
However, despite significant researcher efforts, there is still no model describing the formation of these
structures. This work combines experiments alongside simulations in order to better understand the process
of creating and growing clusters during RF gel formation. The investigated areas include the influence of
gelation temperature and the concentration and type of catalyst used. The catalyst studied is sodium
carbonate, along with other sources of sodium ions, exploring the effect of sodium in these processes. In
order to obtain textural properties of the dried gels, nitrogen adsorption was analysed with
Brunauer/Emmett/Teller theory for surface area analysis and Barrett/Joyner/Halenda theory for pore size
and volume analysis. The acquired data suggest that with increasing resorcinol/catalyst (R/C) ratio the
surface area decreases while the average pore width increases. This is most likely caused by the formation
of larger number of smaller clusters for lower R/C values and fewer larger clusters for higher R/C ratios. This
will form the basis of a model for the growth of RF clusters and their gelation to develop predictive capability
for future work.
156
Computational Characterisation And Simulation Of Ablative Materials
Student
Viola Renato
viola.renato@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Richard Brown
richard.brown@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Tps, Ablative, Simulation
Ablative thermal protection systems (TPS) are used to protect space vehicles from the high temperatures
that they experience during re-entry into the atmosphere. There are two major challenges in designing a
good ablative TPS. The first is accurate characterisation of the material thermal, physical and chemical
properties and the second is creating predictive tools that are able to realistically simulate the materials
behaviour. Material characterisation is usually performed through elaborate tests which are expensive both
in terms of cost and time. If these tests are replaced by simulation tools, significant reductions can be made
in the cost and time involved while still obtaining the same information. One of the essential characteristics
of ablative materials is the permeability. A simulation to numerically predict the permeability values in
different conditions was successfully used to gain new knowledge about the ablative materials behaviour.
The next step is the implementation of a code able to predict the materials behaviour; in particular their
response to the external environment such as the material recession rate and the subsequent change of
shape, internal temperatures and insulation properties.
Nanocharacterization Of Cement Based Material Surfaces Through Atomic Force Microscopy.
Student
Luca Rizzo
luca.rizzo@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Andrea Hamilton
andrea.hamilton@strath.ac.uk
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
Calciumsilicatehydrates, Crystallization, Ettringite
Calcium Silicate Hydrates, one of the main components of concrete and pure mineral phases such as,
Ettringite and Portlandite, will be characterized studying crystals growth and dissolution processes on flat
substrates (MICA and Calcite), to investigate crystallization development and kinetic at nano-scale,
exploring pH and solvent effects. Crystallization and crystals dissolution will be monitored in situ, through
Atomic Force Microscopy imaging and force distance curves; quantitative/qualitative data about mechanical
properties, surface charge densities,porosity and surface cell parameters will be collected through different
AFM modes (KFPM,AFMF, Nano-indentation, Contact/Tapping modes). Moreover the same techniques will
be used to gain informations about cement pastes, Geopolymers and OPC samples.
Nanoscale Toughening Mechanisms Of Cementitious Materials
Student
Amy Romaniuk
amy.romaniuk@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Shangtong Yang
shangtong.yang@strath.ac.uk
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
Cement, Fracture, Modelling
Cement is one of the most abundant materials used in today’s construction industry due to its load bearing
capacity. One drawback of cement is that it is prone to fracture. Molecular Dynamics (MD) can provide a
unique insight into the behaviour of the main and most important component of cement paste in terms of
strength and toughness. This component, known as Calcium Silicate Hydrate, is made up of a porous
network of calcium silicate chains, allowing the penetration of water throughout. The structure of Calcium
Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) at the nanoscale is considered to have a great influence over the mechanical
properties of cements; however the exact structure has yet to be defined. The current models of C-S-H will
be presented and their mechanical properties will be discussed.
157
An Experimental Approach To Analysing Rain Droplet Impingement On Wind Turbine Blade
Materials
Student
Craig Siddons
craig.siddons@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Margaret Stack
margaret.stack@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Renewables, WindEnergy
Leading edge erosion of wind turbine blades is a major issue within the industry primarily because of the
substantial impact erosion has on the annual energy output of generators [1]. This forces operators to make
blade repair a necessity, adding to the overall operation and maintenance costs of a project. A wind turbine's
tip speed can, in some cases, have an upper limit based on the erosion exhibited on the leading edge. For
these experiments the variables of rainfall rate and impact velocity of the impinging droplets were explored
in an attempt to understand the recovery time of the tri‐axial composite material used. It is shown that an
increase in impact velocity results in a higher mass loss than an increase in the rainflow rate. Analysis using
a scanning electron microscope reveals that pin holes in the laminate surface are exploited by the droplets,
acting as initiation point for erosion of the composite. Overall the results suggest that the chosen tip speed
of the wind turbine blade could be of greater importance when compared to the relevant rainfall conditions
where a wind turbine would be situated.
Novel Materials For Treatment Of Produced Water
Student
Andrea Luca Tasca
Supervisor
Ashleigh Fletcher
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Silica, Water, Organics
andrea.tasca@strath.ac.uk
Produced water is a by-product of oil and gas processing. Water is held within reservoirs where, due to the
differences in density, it exists under a layer of hydrocarbons; transference between phases may occur insitu, or mixing can occur during processing. Produced water also results from water flooding, where water
is injected into the reservoirs to improve oil recovery. In offshore facilities, produced water is discharged into
the sea or injected back into the reservoirs, after removal of organics and suspended solids. The project
focuses on materials development for deployment in an on-board adsorption water remediation unit, as a
tertiary treatment for water pre-processed by hydro cyclones and flotation units. The developed technology
will be tested in terms of adsorption capacity for different single organic compounds, as well as the entire
spectrum of pollutants within real produced waters from North Sea platforms, allowing identification of new
adsorbents and the improvement of existing technologies. The sorbents synthetized and tested are silica
aerogels and adsorption performance are verified on benzene and toluene, representative of the main
dissolved hydrocarbons in produced water. The sorbents developed will be tested also for the uptake of
endocrine disruptors in water.
Numerical Investigation Of Size Effect In Fracture Of Cellular Materials
Student
Dimitra Touliatou
dimitra.touliatou@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Marcus Wheel
marcus.wheel@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Heterogeneous, Fracture, Fea
Cellular materials are used in a variety of sectors like aerospace, automotive and biomedical due to their
specific properties and inherent unique capabilities. Recent advances in additive manufacturing
technologies have led to increased interest in such materials due to the emerging potential of creating
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biomimetic structures with tailored performance. However, fracture behaviour of cellular materials is not yet
fully predictable, since micromechanical models only account for limited cases and there is a lack of
standardised experimental procedures to validate them. In this work, as a first step, we attempt to quantify
the effect of the heterogeneity on the macroscopic fracture behaviour of cellular materials in relation to
possible size effects. Discrete FEA models of idealised porous materials with varying relative densities have
been created and their response in mode I and mixed mode loading has been numerically evaluated for
different crack initiation conditions. Initial results indicate that the energy release rate of porous materials
depends on a much more complicated relationship between applied loading and sample size than existing
fracture theories would indicate. Such findings can potentially be extended to materials where heterogeneity
can be attributed to impurities or discontinuities due to manufacturing conditions (e.g. composites or
additively manufactured materials).
Investigation Of Coatings And Cathodic Protection Systems And Development Of Design Rules For
Enhanced Corrosion Fatigue Life In Positive Displacement Pumps Through Their Use
Student
Evripidis Tsergas
evripidis.tsergas@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Alex Galloway
alex.galloway@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Corrosion, Fatigue, Protection
It is common knowledge that corrosion decreases the service life of pumps, having a great impact on the
industrial production and maintenance costs. Considerable effort is being made to investigate the effect of
corrosion on the fatigue behavior of metallic materials used for the manufacturing of pump components. It
has been proved that corrosion decreases dramatically the fatigue strength of such materials. The main
focus is currently on the application of Cathodic Protection methods, in order to extend the fatigue life of the
materials already in use and consequently the service life of the pumping systems. The Cathodic Protection
systems that will be tested include Impressed Currents CP, Sacrificial Anodes and Sacrificial Coatings.
These methods are applied using specially designed experimental set ups in order to simulate the real
working conditions of the components. Furthermore, tests are going to be carried out directly into the
pumping systems to assess the efficiency of these methods in real conditions service. Finally, model design
rules for CP/Coatings systems are going to be developed, based on the experimental results, in order to
optimize the performance for varying applications, potentially covering size, location, component geometry
and fluid pH levels.
Simulation And Impulse Breakdown Of Nanocomposite Materials
Student
Paul Turner
paul.turner@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Mark Wilson
mark.p.wilson@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Nanocomposite, Simulation, Breakdown
Nanocomposites are forms of electrical insulation created by mixing a polymer “base” with nanometric “filler”
particles. These nanoparticles interact with the polymer chains at a molecular level to form interface regions
that exhibit new characteristics not seen in the original materials individually. In a high quality
nanocomposite, these characteristics become dominant across the nanocomposite, producing a new and
improved insulator. A nanocomposite sample has been simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics, a materials
modelling environment. When an electric field is placed across the sample, the presence of the high
permittivity nanoparticles produces localised peaks in the field. The data obtained from these simulations
shows that changing the dimensions and permittivity of the interfaces has a significant effect on the local
field enhancement and, with the right characteristics, the interfaces can reduce this enhancement effect,
electrically strengthening the nanocomposite. Research into nanocomposites will continue with impulse
breakdown experiments in the HVT laboratories. The nanocomposite samples will use an epoxy resin base,
with silicon dioxide or zinc oxide fillers mixed in at different ratios. Some samples will be electrically
prestressed with DC voltage to observe how the presence of space charge affects the impulse breakdown
strength of the material.
159
Simulation Of The Heat Transfer Through Stochastic Fibrous Networks.
Student
Andrew Webley
andrew.webley@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr. Liu Yang
l.yang@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Fibre, HeatTransfer, Simulation
The aim of the project is to investigate the use of aerogel and fibre composites as flexible thermal insulators.
Aerogel is a highly porous material, where the large number of very small pores acts to reduce the thermal
conductivity of the material and make it a very good thermal insulator. However, the material tends to be
weak and brittle so fibres can be added if better mechanical properties are required. A computer model for
the fibres in the overall composite has been created, so that their mechanical and thermal performance can
be evaluated. A fibre geometry is randomly generated based on a range of fibre parameters, to allow the
random nature of the fibres to be taken into account in the simulation. However, this means that multiple
geometries need to be generated so that an average result can be obtained. The attached image shows the
heat transfer through a fibrous network, with the air (hidden for clarity) being modelled as a solid around the
fibres).
On The Evaluation Of High Temperature Responses Of Mechanical Structures
Student
Jing Yang
jing.yang@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Haofeng Chen
haofeng.chen@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Failures of materials and components in elevated temperature service can be catastrophic and costly, where
fatigue and creep damages become the main failure of the component. Initial creep-fatigue work suggests
a more dominant role of environment with increasing temperature and hold times evidenced through
changes in creep-fatigue crack growth mechanisms and failure life. Continuous cycle fatigue specimens
exhibited transgranular cracking. Intergranular cracking was observed in the creep-fatigue specimens and
the addition of a hold time at peak tensile strain degraded the cycle life. The aims of this project are to
investigate and develop advanced computational tools for the evaluation of high temperature responses of
structures. These include the assessment of shakedown and ratchet limits, the creep and fatigue interaction
and damage, the remaining life of the high temperature components. In particular the cyclically enhanced
creep, the creep enhanced plasticity and the elastic-follow up will be investigated, and the creep-fatigue limit
curves will be created, using the Linear Matching Method (LMM) to simulate the damage modes. The
developed numerical methods will be applied to a wide range of practical structures, associated with energy
technologies, such as steam and gas turbines, heat exchangers, and fuel-efficient vehicles.
Effects Of Salinity On Erosion-Corrosion Behaviour Of Ss316 And 4340
Student
Martin Yoon
martin.yoon@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Trevor Hodgkiess
trevor.hodgkiess@glasgow.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
The erosion-corrosion behaviour of two steels, 4340 alloy steel and stainless steel 316 (SS316) were
examined in various NaCl concentrations of up to 3.50 wt. % which is the approximate and reasonable
simulation of NaCl concentration in seawater. This was done by measuring the mass losses under slurry
impingement and the corrosion rate (current density) by impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) at
different NaCl concentrations. SS316 exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in all NaCl concentrations that
were tested, whereas the 4340 suffered severe mass losses due to erosion-corrosion at higher NaCl
160
concentrations which is attributed by the high ion concentration and conductivity that enhanced the
anodic/corrosion reaction.
Erosion-Corrosion Mapping Of Steel In Crude Oil
Student
Iasonas Zekos
iasonas.zekos@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Margaret Stack
margaret.stack@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Corrosion, Erosion, Mapping
Corrosion can be described as an area of paramount technological significance, associated with immense
costs in the oil and gas production industry. In an environment such as the aforementioned, there are several
contributing factors and it is important to identify each factor’s effect on the degradation of materials. In this
project, tests will be conducted on a jet impinging rig using crude oil – seawater slurries, at a range of
velocities, angles and applied potentials. Results from the tests will be utilised to create erosion – corrosion
maps which offer an effective understanding of the conditions under which erosion – corrosion regimes and
wastage rates change. Identifying parameters causing synergistic, additive or antagonistic effects could aid
in the material degradation prevention, reducing costs and mitigating risks in the distressed sector of oil and
gas production.
Medical Applications
Cytotoxicity Of Mephedrone On Human Neuronal Cells
Student
Ibrahim Alanazi
ibrahim.alanazi@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof. Helen Grant
m.h.grant@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Mephedrone, Cytotoxicity, NeuronalCells
Introduction: Mephedrone is the synthetic ring-substituted cathiNone, 4-methylmethcathiNone. It is
structurally similar to the phenethylamine family, with only difference being the presence of the keto
functional group at the beta carbon. Mephedrone was classified an illegal drug under the UK Misuse of
Drugs Act, 1971. However, little is known about the mechanism of cytotoxicity of mephedrone on human
cells. Method: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) and neutral red (NR)
colorimetric assay along with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release measurement were used to assess
mephedrone effect, at a range from 0-1000 μM, on metabolism and viability of a neuroblastoma cell line
(SH-SY5Y). Results: NR and LDH release assays have shown that mephedrone has no cytotoxic effect on
the neuroblastoma cells at a range from 0-1000 μM. However, the MTT assay has shown a significant
increase in the metabolism of neuroblastoma cells or the cell number of about 20% compared withthe
relevant control when treated with 100 μM of mephedrone. All other concentrations have shown no
significant effect on metabolism. Conclusion: The results have shown that parent mephedrone is not toxic
to neuroblastoma cells. Key words: Neuroblastoma, mephedrone, metabolism, viability.
The Development Of A Mobile Application For The Assessment Of Diabetic Foot Deformities
Student
Joanne Allan
j.allan@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Elaine Figgins
e.figgins@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
MobileApplication, Diabetes, FootDeformities
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Approximately 45-60% of diabetic foot ulcerations are purely of neuropathic origin and are considered to be
largely preventable. Foot deformities have been recognized as part of the causal pathway of neuropathic
ulceration as a result of the increased plantar pressures they produce. The risk of neuropathic ulceration
rises from 1.7 times with sensory neuropathy to 12 times when both sensory neuropathy and foot deformities
occur in conjunction. Due to the high prevalence of neuropathic ulcers and the significant role foot
deformities play in their development, assessment and management of foot deformities is an essential part
of diabetic foot care. Currently there is no globally recognised definition of foot deformities or standardised
foot assessment designed specifically for patients with diabetes. Therefore there is large variability in foot
assessments and the results that are recorded which results in varied care. The aim was to design and
develop a mobile application that would guide healthcare and non-healthcare professionals or carers
through the assessment of foot deformities that result in areas of high pressure in the diabetic population.
The mobile application has been designed to allow accurate, time-efficient, repeatable assessments that
require no specialised training or equipment.
4D Knee Kinematics
Student
Attard Andre
andre.attard@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Philip Riches
philip.riches@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Knee, Kinematics, Orthopaedic
Osteoarthritis results in painful limitation of knee movement, and alteration of the shape and alignment of
the knee joint. Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) is performed to restore the functional anatomy of the knee,
including soft tissue balancing, alignment and restoration of the joint line. However, limited range of motion
and instability still hinder normal knee function, even amongst patients who have a well-functioning TKA
(Noble et al., 2005). Since stability and range of motion are directly correlated with the kinematics of the
knee, a better understanding of how to optimise these kinematics will improve patient satisfaction. This
project aims to use 4D-CT imaging techniques to observe the patient-specific articulation of the knee. A
bespoke software will process the captured data using a series of algorithms to quantify the kinematics of
the knee pre and post TKA. 4D-CT will allow dynamic measurements of the articulation of the knee rather
than the conventional static analysis. Subsequently, this method is expected to give insight on how the
kinematics of the knee vary with implant design and/or position to ultimately provide knowledge on optimising
TKA post-operative outcome.
Manipulating The Biological Stability, And Mechanical Properties, Of Collagen
Student
Laura Beattie
laura.beattie@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
M. Helen Grant
m.h.grant@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Collagen, TissueEngineering, CellScaffolds
Collagen is the most prevalent protein in the human body. It plays an important mechanical and structural
role in almost every tissue. It has been used as a cell scaffold for medical research for a number of years.
This project aims to improve the biological stability and mechanical properties of such scaffolds. Some
preliminary studies have been carried out: The ability of fibroblasts to contract free-floating collagen gels
was measured, these 3T3 cells were found to be capable of contracting the gels by over 60%. Mechanical
tests were carried out to measure the stiffness and permeability of hydrogels containing differing
concentrations of collagen. The tests were carried out using a Bose mechanical testing machine then
analysed by fitting the results to a biphasic model. These tests were accurate enough to differentiate
between hydrogels containing collagen concentrations which differed by only 0.1%. Experiments, which
included various pharmaceuticals in the hydrogels, were carried out to establish if these had an effect on
the hydrogels mechanical properties.
162
Shoulder Monitoring And Visualisation Using Inertial Sensors In Smartphones
Student
Sara Cameron
sara.cameron@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Mario Giardini
mario.giardini@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Smartphone, Shoulder, Kinematics
In patients with shoulder movement impairment, assessing and monitoring shoulder kinematics during daily
life is beneficial for determining the useful operational range for assistive devices, the severity of impairments
due to disease or injury, and for evaluating the effects of interventions. The aim of this study is to develop a
smartphone-based application to accurately monitor and analyse real-time shoulder kinematics in a remote
home environment. Phones are attached to different body segments, and their orientation, measured by
their inertial sensors, is transmitted over a wireless or cellular network to custom analysis software.
Information on the orientation and velocity of the body segment it is attached to can therefore be analysed.
Following an evaluation of the accuracy of the phones inbuilt inertial sensors in both static and dynamic
conditions, the system will be validated with a reference optical motion analysis system. The application will
then be implemented in a clinical trial with the aim of profiling the functional shoulder range of motion used
in activities of daily living during daily life. This information will be useful for clinicians and researchers when
making treatment decisions, developing assistive devices and rehabilitation programmes and assessing the
outcomes of these interventions.
Towards Patient-Specific Modelling Of The Interactions Between Left Ventricular Assist Devices And
The Cardiovascular System Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Student
Massimo Capoccia
capoccia@doctors.org.uk
Supervisor
Terence Gourlay
terence.gourlay@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Lvad, Cfd, Modelling
The impact of ventricular assist devices for the treatment of advanced heart failure has played a significant
role as a bridge to transplant and more recently as a long-term solution for non-eligible candidates.
Continuous flow rotary blood pumps are currently the most popular devices in view of their features. The
trend towards their use is increasing. Although very successful and technologically advanced, thrombus
formation remains a feared complication that can affect clinical outcome. The development of a preoperative
strategy aimed at the reduction of complications and patient-device suitability may be appropriate. Patientspecific modelling based on 3D reconstruction from CT-scan combined with computational fluid dynamic
studies is an attractive solution in order to identify potential areas of stagnation or challenging anatomy that
could be addressed to achieve the desired outcome. The HeartMate II (axial) and the HeartWare HVAD
(centrifugal) rotary blood pumps have been now used worldwide with proven outcome. There are enough
pumps on the market: it is now time to focus on the complications in order to achieve the full potential and
selling-point of this type of technology for the treatment of the increasing heart failure patient population.
Drug Dose Responses Of 3D Cancer Spheroids In Microfluidics
Student
Theresa Christ
theresa.christ@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Michele Zagnoni
michele.zagnoni@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Cancer, Spheroid, Microfluidics
A major drawback in the development of new cancer therapeutics is the use of two-dimensional (2D)
monolayer cultures as models for solid tumours. A solution lies in the use of three-dimensional (3D)
multicellular aggregate models, known as spheroids. These mimic the interactions between cells within a
tumour, the morphology and the microenvironment of tumours, representing a more physiologically relevant
163
in vitro system for drug screening than 2D bioassays. In this study, we developed a novel microfluidic
platform that allows the formation and long-term culture of hundreds of cancer spheroids, while retaining
control over the number and the size of spheroids grown and the ability to deliver drugs in a concentration
gradient format. A human brain tumour cell line (UVW) was used to create spheroids, which were exposed
to a microfluidic concentration gradient of cisplatin. Results showed that the growth of 3D glioma spheroids
after treatment is reduced in a concentration-dependent manner and that a dose response curve can be
obtained from a single device. These findings demonstrate the suitability of the system for high-throughput
drug screening, combination therapeutics and the use with biopsy samples.
Designing A Microfluidic Based “Liver-On-A-Chip” For High Throughput Pre-Clinical Drug Toxicity
Screening.
Student
Myndert Petrus Claasen
myndert.claasen@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Michele Zagnoni
michele.zagnoni@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Microfluidic, Hepg2, LabOnChip
Drug development is very costly and a long process, with many drugs failing at later stages in the testing
phase. Current methods, such as using primary liver slices or animal models, produce valuable information,
but are limited by their availability, cross-species translation of the model data and low throughput. Due to
this a lot of interest recently has been focusing on using microfluidic devices and alternative cell sources to
address these problems. Microfluidic devices offer the benefits of being able to accurately control the
environment that the cells are cultured in, allows perfusion for nutrient/waste exchange/sample collection
and has the potential for high throughput experiments. Emulsion based fluidics offer the additional
advantage of providing adequate conditions for rapid spheroid formation. The future direction of this
research will be aimed at using multiple liver related cells (hepatocytes, stellate cells, macrophages and
endothelial cells) which will provide a more in-vivo like structure of the liver, resulting in more accurate data
from toxicity tests. This device will allow the testing of drugs at the pre-clinical stage on a multitude of
miniature “liver spheroids” for a “fail early-fail cheaply” detection system and analysis of the samples
collected will be carried out using mass spectrometry.
Investigation Of Non-Invasive Transdermal Sensors To Replace Blood Sampling In Newborn Infants
Student
John Corbett
john.a.corbett@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Patricia Connolly
patricia.connolly@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Neonatal, Transdermal, NonInvasive
Invasive blood sampling for analysis is an essential component of neonatal intensive care, but it is painful,
a major cause of anaemia and transfusion, and a significant infection risk. Novel transdermal gel sensors
developed at the University of Strathclyde may allow non-invasive assessment of plasma analytes removing
the burden of blood sampling. Existing studies in adults have demonstrated that small ions up to 500 MW
easily pass through the skin under the application of very low levels of current (iontophoresis) or even by
natural diffusion from skin to gel. Glucose, lactate, sodium and potassium have all been detected
transdermally and a glucose monitoring system for diabetics has been developed using this technology. The
aim of this study is to develop transdermal sensors for non-invasive assessment of blood glucose, lactate,
electrolytes and vitamins in newborn infants. A series of studies are proposed to comprehensively assess
transdermal sensor technology in a population of infants receiving neonatal intensive care including
assessing the feasibility and safety of transdermal sensor for measurement of plasma analytes (glucose,
lactate, potassium, vitamin D); the use of ultra-low current to assess skin impedance for calibration of
transdermal sensor and investigating the agreement between transdermal sensor and routine clinical blood
analysis.
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Conceptual Analysis Of Nebuliser Design Towards Nano Encapsulation Delivery
Student
Abiy Desta
abiy.desta@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Alexander Mullen
a.mullen@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
BiomedicalEngineering,
Aerosols
DrugDelivery,
Nano based formulations which encapsulate drugs (nano encapsulations) can be used to provide
economical and effective delivery of existing and novel drugs. When administered via the pulmonary route
they can enhance therapeutic outcomes whilst reducing adverse side effects, particularly with cytotoxic
drugs. They can be used for local or systemic delivery, broadening the types of conditions that can be treated
by inhalation. We believe that atomising nano encapsulations developed as a simple colloidal suspension
fluid rather than dry powder format may offer clinical advantages. However existing devices have a number
of limitations with respect to delivery of these systems. We will highlight the aspects of present nebuliser
devices that negatively impact and/or reduce post nebulised nano encapsulation when delivered as a fluid
based suspension. And these drawbacks have been addressed in our on going work to develop a novel
nebuliser. Ease of use and portability are important aspects for effective delivery but also treatment
adherence, especially as we have an aging population. In addition we present new data surveying nebulisers
in current clinical use, based on anonymised adverse incident reports obtained from the UK’s Medicines &
Healthcare product Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Functional Assessment Of Ankle Osteoarthritis
Student
Lauren Forsyth
lauren.forsyth@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Philip Rowe
philip.rowe@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Biomechanics,
Osteoarthritis
AnkleFootorthotics,
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial process affecting 8.75 million people in the UK, causing severe activity
limitations and declining quality of life. End stage OA can be as debilitating as end stage kidney disease, or
congestive heart failure, and is fast becoming a more prevalent problem with a more obese and aging
population. Around 75% of ankle OA cases are post-traumatic, affecting a younger population and making
treatment more difficult due to high physical demands and increased life span. Despite being a leading
cause of pain in most countries worldwide, little is understood regarding treating OA. Serious risks and
economic burdens are associated with surgical treatments so conservative treatments need investigated.
Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFOs) are prescribed clinically but evidence is limited whether these relieve pain,
delay degradation and ultimately avoid need for surgical treatment. Using biomechanical visualisation the
current study aims to assess the gait of ankle OA patients while quantifying the effects of AFOs. This will be
done by applying the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis–a potential clinical measure to highlight instability
during gait, investigating cycle-to-cycle variability of joint kinematics in relation to centre of mass while
walking.
Development Of A Prosthetic Heart Valve With Embedded Sensing Technology
Student
Caleb Papa Kofi Gambrah
caleb.gambrah@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof Terry Gourlay
terry.gourlay@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Cardiovascular, Devices, Sensors
Since the introduction of prosthetic heart valves in the 1960s, many models of heart valves have been
developed. Although there has been a lot of progress in terms of their durability and haemodynamic
165
capabilities, prosthetic valves are still susceptible to failure after implanting. Gold standard techniques of
detecting prosthetic valve malfunction include imaging modalities such as echocardiography. Major
drawbacks of these techniques are that, due to motion artefact of underlining tissues and low resolution, a
large change in prosthetic valve function is required for detection to be achieved. Other detection methods
currently used, tends to be extremely invasive. This work focuses on the development of a prosthetic heart
valve instrumented with sensing technology to aid early and non- invasive detection of valve malfunction.
This will involve the manufacture and testing of polymeric heart valves. These valves will then be
instrumented with nano- pressure sensors to measure the transvalvular pressure gradient. In vitro simulation
of valve obstruction will be performed and the corresponding changes in valvular pressures will be recorded.
Sensor output will be validated against traditional pressure sensing methods. Ex vivo and possibly in vivo
testing of these ‘smart valves’ will then be performed.
Clinical Investigation Of The Functional Outcomes Of High Congruency Versus Low Congruency
Knee Bearings.
Student
Cheral Govind
cheral.govind@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Philip Riches
philip.riches@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Tkr, Bearing, Analysis
Total knee replacement (TKR) surgeries relieve joint pain and disability in those with degenerative knee
conditions. Due to the aging population the number of sufferers will increase, creating a demand for implants
that better mimic the natural knee joint. Implants used in TKR have 3 main components, one which replaces
the distal femur (thigh bone) and one which replaces the proximal tibia (shin bone). A polyethylene insert is
also added to provide a bearing surface between the prostheses. This may be a fixed bearing, where the
insert is attached to the tibial prosthesis, or mobile bearing where the insert is not attached to either
component. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare these knee prostheses to the performance
of healthy participants across a range of activities. These activities are level, curved, and incline walking
and stair ascent/descent. The sessions will take place preoperatively, 4-8 weeks postoperatively and 1 year
postoperatively. By using 3-dimensional motion analysis and established biomechanical models, kinetic and
kinematic data will be recorded. This allows any differences between the implants to be quantitive and the
knee implant which produces results similar to control group will determined to have higher functional
advantages.
The Development Of A Diagnostic Platform For The Functional Evaluation Of The Sit-To-Stand
Movement
Student
Siu Ho
siu.ho@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Andy Kerr
a.kerr@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Rehabilitation, Balance, Stroke
Regaining the sit-to-stand (STS) movement is critical in stroke rehabilitation. Providing diagnostic feedback
on motor performance is an essential aspect of physical therapy. The aim of this investigation was to
automate the evaluation of STS performance and facilitate its utilisation by stroke survivors and healthcare
professionals. By using a sensor fusion algorithm, real-time STS biomechanical data were captured using
an inertial sensor and balance plate. The information then fetched to a fuzzy logic system for performance
evaluation and detection of anomalies like postural sway, weight symmetry loading, inadequate strength
etc. Therapeutic feedback was generated based on the 3D movement and body coordination parameters.
Functional scores and recommendations of motor improvement were incorporated into the responses. The
acceptability of the system was evaluated. All evaluators answered positively and considered that the
system was suitable for formulating treatment plan in clinical therapy, self-management and post-stroke
education. The implemented STS diagnostic platform can provide functional evaluation and diagnostic
information of the movement without the need for therapists. Feedback and reactions from stakeholders
indicate that the system has widespread potential.
166
Advanced Speech Processing Technologies For Speech Disorders Diagnosis And Treatment In
Adults
Student
Tolulope Ijitona
tolulope.ijitona@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr. Hong Yue
hong.yue@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Dysarthria, Speech, Classification
The aim of this research is to identify certain features that characterize neuro-muscular speech disorders
and how these features can be used in development of a treatment tool for patients. These motor speech
disorders, called Dysarthria, are mainly caused by paralysis, weakness, sensory deficiency, irregular reflex
patterns and abnormalities in speech muscles. The initial stage of the research involves a robust speech
classification by extracting the prosodic, voice quality and articulatory features of the speech samples. These
features include duration, rhythm, intonation, stress, formants, phoneme production, coordination and
speech intensity (loudness). The classification involves the Short-Time Fourier analysis of the speech
samples and application of advanced speech processing tools such as wavelets, neural networks and the
Hidden Markov Model. After the classification, a treatment tool is to be developed to assist patients, through
tailored exercises, to improve their articulatory ability, intelligibility, intonation and voice quality. This tool will
also assist speech therapists in tracking the progress of patients over time. Some of the potential
applications of these technologies include treatment of cognitive speech impairments, management of
speech disturbances in children and other advanced speech and language applications
Portable Slit Lamp Concept Device For Smartphone Applications
Student
Kirsty Jordan
kirsty.jordan@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Mario Giardini
mario.giardini@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Slitlamp, Ophthalmology, Portable
Clinical ocular assessment relies on the slit lamp in order to examine the anterior segment of the eye. During
an examination, important features such as the iris, cornea and lens are observed to look for pathologies.
This is achieved by magnification optics providing a highly detailed view of these anatomical features, and
by a light source that projects a slit of light on the eye. Existing desktop and portable slit lamps are large
and expensive. A portable slit lamp has been developed to work in combination with a smartphone. The use
of a smartphone as the imaging system allows pictures and videos to be recorded, and enables the
examination to be performed with minimal training. The portable slit lamp uses a compact projection system.
The slit beam is produced by focusing the light through cylindrical optics. A holder, compatible with the
majority of current smartphones, aligns the optics and projection system in the same working plane. This
device promises to be an easy to use, inexpensive instrument, with sufficient image clarity as to be able to
detect cells in the anterior chamber, suitable for in-field ophthalmology screening, such as required among
hard-to-reach communities.
Inhibition Of Mitochondrial Fission As A Potential Therapeutic Target For Vascular Disease?
Student
Sukhraj Kaloya
s.kaloya@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Chris Mccormick
christopher.mccormick@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Stents, HeartDisease
Stents are small metal scaffold tubes, implanted into blocked coronary arteries in order to restore blood flow
in patients with coronary heart disease. 1 The most advanced stents are drug-eluting stents (DES, which
address the issue of vessel re-narrowing (restenosis) by inhibition of smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation.
DES have limitations, most significantly occlusion of the vessel due to late stent thrombosis. 2 This partly
167
arises due to inhibitory effects of the drugs on endothelial cells (EC), delaying recovery of the endothelium.
3 Recent research has identified Mdivi-1 (mitochondrial division inhibitor-1) as a potential drug candidate for
preventing restenosis and other vascular diseases.4,5 This is due to Mdivi-1’s inhibitory effects on
mitochondrial fission, preventing SMC proliferation. This study sought to characterise the effects of Mdivi-1
on EC function. Determinations of proliferation, migration and toxicity were carried out. Mitochondrial
morphology assessment was undertaken using fluroesence microscopy. Results demonstrate a significant
potential role for Mdivi-1 in the modulation of EC survival, proliferation and migration. This has important
implications on Mdivi-1’s suitability as a substance within DES and as a treatment of vascular disease.
Using Photoacoustic Elasticity Imaging For Cancer Screening
Student
Jonas Kusch
jonas.kusch@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Gordon Flockhart
gordon.flockhart@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Photoacoustic, Elasticity, Cancer
In 2011 more than a quarter of all UK deaths were caused by cancer ("Cancer mortality statistics", Cancer
Research UK, 2015). In the future, the number of cancer deaths could be partially reduced by earlier
detection. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging, with its absorber specific targeting and potential for increased
resolution compared to ultrasound, facilitates earlier detection by mapping changes related to cancer
growth. These changes include angiogenesis and fibrosis, among others. Another way to map cancer is to
use nanoparticles which interact with the cancer cells and increase the generated PA signal. The aim of this
work is to build a PA imaging system and applying it to determine local tissue elasticity, which can help
identifying potential cancer sites.
Development Of Fea Methods For Patient Specific Stent Graft Devices
Student
Faidon Kyriakou
faidon.kyriakou@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
William Dempster
william.dempster@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Fea, Aaa, Stent
Endovascular aneurysm repair is a medical technology in which the mechanical advances in stent design
has allowed the treatment of aortic aneurysms minimally invasively. The present work focuses on the
simulation of the AnacondaTM stent graft (Vascutek, Terumo), an endovascular device constructed from
superelastic nitinol rings and PET fabric, into patient specific arterial geometries to mitigate mechanical
failures due to fatigue and leakage. Currently, the nitinol scaffolding of the device has been modeled and
validated against experimental results. It is worth noting that the manufacturing process that induces pre
strains into the rings has been taken into account. Furthermore, the compaction of the stent into the delivery
catheter as well as the deployment into straight vessels of various cross sectional shapes has been
investigated. The creation of a constitutive model for the artery vessel that imitates the response of a real
artery during pressurization has also been accomplished. The resulting response has been validated against
experimental results from human abdominal aortas and hence, is readily applicable. All these contributions
lead towards the final goal of simulating a full stent graft device which will take into account stent/artery
interactions and produce tailor made answers regarding fatigue and failure.
Investigating Cobalt Toxicity In The Context Of Joint Replacement Patients – Cobalt Uptake In
Primary Cardiac Fibroblasts And In 3T3 Cells
sarunya.laovitthayanggoon@strath.a
Student
Sarunya Laovitthayanggoon
c.uk
Supervisor
M. Helen Grant
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
CobaltUptake, CardiacFibroblast
m.h.grant@strath.ac.uk
168
Cobalt leaches out from cobalt/chromium metal-on-metal hip implants into patient blood, and its effects are
thought to be toxic with a 5% estimated incidence in joint implant patients over the last 40 years. In our
previous studies CoCl2 induced toxicity in both the 3T3 standardized cell line (3T3s) and in primary cardiac
fibroblasts (CFs) in a time- and dose- dependent manner. Interestingly, in terms of proliferation, the 3T3s
were slightly more tolerant of CoCl2 than CFs. This present study investigated the uptake of CoCl2 into the
3T3s and CFs by measuring intracellular metal content using ICP-MS. Cells were cultured and exposed to
various concentrations of CoCl2 (0-72 ppm) and different exposure times (24, 48 and 72 h). Analysis of
cobalt content of cells revealed that with increasing medium concentration of CoCl2 intracellular Co
concentration on both 3T3s and CFs increased, to a range of range between 0-50 ppb and 0-120 ppb,
respectively. Uptake into CFs was greater than into the 3T3 cells, and this at least partly explains the
difference in toxicity between the two cell types. Mechanisms of Co uptake have yet to be established.
The Biomechanical Role Of The Human Meniscus
Student
Fahd Mahmood
fahd.mahmood@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Phil Riches
philip.riches@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Meniscus, Stability, Medical
The human menisci are paired bilateral structures located within the knee joint. The menisci are loaded with
up to eight times body weight during activities such as squatting or stair descending. They are important in
roles such as load transmission, congruity and stability of the knee joint. Historical medical practice was to
remove the meniscus if injured, but this was subsequently shown to lead to early osteoarthritis. Traditionally
the meniscus has been understood to perform a secondary stabilising role in the knee, with the ligaments
having a more significant role. There is limited work exploring the role of isolated meniscal injury with regard
to knee stability. Progressive posterior medial meniscal injury has been shown to lead to increased
anteroposterior translation of the medial femoral condyle. Medial meniscal root tears cause increased lateral
translation and external rotation of the tibia. However, numerous injury states have not been explored. This
work aims to determine whether isolated meniscal injuries lead to instability of the cadaveric knee. Using a
custom jig, load will be applied to the knee using an Instron machine whilst injury states are created
arthroscopically. A Vicon camera system will be used to identify any changes in kinematic behaviour.
Combining Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy With A Magnetophoretic, Microfluidic Device
For The Detection Of Clinically Relevant Antigens In Cancer Cells.
Student
Jacob Melnyk
jacob.melnyk@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Duncan Graham
duncan.graham@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Microfluidics, Cancer, Spectroscopy
A magnetophoretic, microfluidic device will be used to isolate cancerous cells from a suspension, where
they will be imaged using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) mapping. The device consists of
two parallel streams, one containing a cell suspension, flowing in a single channel. The cell suspension is
pre-treated with silver-coated maghemite (Fe2O3) nanoparticles with adsorbed antibodies specific to the
cancer cells. Cells containing these nanoparticles are then pulled into the second stream by a permanent
magnet and sent to a cell trap array downstream. SERS mapping is chosen as an imaging technique due
to its superior multiplexing capabilities compared to other techniques such as fluorescence. Furthermore,
the nanoparticles used for the magnetic extraction of cancerous cells provide an ideal substrate for Raman
reporter dyes. It is aimed that the presence of multiple protein biomarkers related to disease progression
and drug resistance may be simultaneously and quantitatively measured using the device, showing its
potential as a useful diagnostic tool when used with biopsy or circulating tumour cell samples.
169
Portable Autorefractor For Population Screening In Low-Income Countries
Student
Matteo Menolotto
matteo.menolotto@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Mario Ettore Giardini
mario.giardini@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Autorefractor Ophthalmology PortableDevice
A compact and easy to use device for the automatic detection of the refractive error of the eye is presented.
The major causes for visual impairment worldwide are uncorrected refractive errors (42%), cataract (33%),
and glaucoma (2%). The majority of these occur in low-income countries, where low number of practicing
ophthalmologists mandates the necessity to screen for eye disease in the community by minimally trained
operators. In this context, the development of an inexpensive and portable instrument for the assessment
of refractive error is described. This instrument enables the visual refractive error to be assessed rapidly,
objectively and without specific training for the operator. The compact hardware design, based on the bestfocus autorefractor architecture, and the low computational requirements for the image analysis software,
allow the defocus and astigmatism measurement. The level of resolution achieved by the image processing
algorithm (<0.15 D) and the small dimensions show promise for the screening and follow-up treatment of
hard-to-reach populations globally.
Micro-Polar Properties Of Cancellous Bone
Student
Carl Muscat
carl.muscat@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Philip Riches
philip.riches@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Micropolar, Bone, Trabecular
Cancellous bone has been modelled using various material models. Some of these models include the
homogeneous isotropic elastic model, the visco-elastic model and the poro-elastic model amongst others.
All of these models however are derived from the classical theory of elasticity, where mathematically, the
material is considered a continuum. This means that the effects that the microstructure may have on the
overall deformation of the material are neglected. Such theories are still relatively accurate for materials
whose microstructure is very small, and thus will have minimal effects on the overall deformation. On the
other hand, micro polar theory takes into account the effect that the microstructure might have on the overall
deformation of material. This is particularly useful in the case of cancellous bone, where relatively large
trabeculae form the microstructure. This might mean that the microstructure in such a case might have a
significant effect on the overall deformation of such a material. The aims of this study are to investigate
whether micro polar theory can be used to model cancellous bone and to create a finite element model using
such a theory without the need of modelling the microstructure of trabecular bone.
Development Of An Intelligent Colorectal Pouch
Student
Joshua Paulinus
joshua.paulinus@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Colorectal, Sensors, Implant
Colorectal cancer is a prevalent disease globally with approximately 40,000 new cases annually in the UK
alone. One course of action that can be utilised is the surgical resection of the diseased part of the colon.
Once removed, the remaining ends of the colon can be reattached using sutures or staples to form what is
known as an anastomosis. However, there is a possibility that this anastomosis can come apart releasing
the contents of the colon into the peritoneal cavity. If left untreated, patients experience numerous adverse
symptoms which can eventually become fatal. Anastomotic leakage can affect up to 25% of patients
170
undergoing the procedure and can have a mortality rate of up to 50%. It is therefore imperative to treat this
complication as soon as possible as studies show that delays in treatment increase the likelihood of mortality
significantly. However, currently there is no widely accepted method to diagnose this condition with
symptoms having to present before anastomotic leakage can be considered. Therefore, we propose the
development of an implantable medical device to detect anastomotic leakage as soon as possible allowing
appropriate medical intervention to occur early to minimise any adverse effects.
Design Smart Actuators For Colonoscope Navigation
Student
Mohamed Rabie
mohamed.rabie@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Terence Gourlay
terence.gourlay@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Colonoscopy, Electromagnetic, Actuators
In recent years, much has been studied on the colonoscope because it is a very important tool for diagnosing
colon cancer, which is the second leading cause of cancer in the developed countries. Colonoscope is one
of the most technically demanding endoscopic examinations in the modern health service. This procedure
is painful for the patient and complex for the surgeon. The conventional process involves manual insertion
and manoeuvring of the colonoscope by the surgeon, which may lead to some problems like intestine
perforation. Therefore, it is important to redesign conventional colonoscope devices to facilitate their safe
insertion and navigation into the bowel. This activity is concerned with the development of electromagnetic
actuators, which can produce uniformly distributed magnetic field capable of generating high magnetic
forces. Different actuators have been investigated for the colonoscope navigation through difficult corners
of the colon, which improve its penetration problems and reduce the perforation problems. ANSYS, FEA,
software has been utilized to design the electromagnetic circuits of the actuators which incorporate magnetic
and non-magnetic materials that could generate the magnetic force required for the navigation of the
colonoscopy. The mechanical design of these actuators was then carried out using Solidworks CAD
software.
Inertial Focussing: Simple Model For The Separation Of Plasma From Whole Blood
Student
Pretheepan Radhakrishnan
pretheepan.radhakrishnan@strath.a
c.uk
Supervisor
Matthew Baker
matthew.baker@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Microfluidics, Blood, Modelling
Blood is the most common fluid taken for diagnostic testing but the preparation of samples is a manually
intensive process. Microfluidics provides a simpler more portable sample preparation process. This is
essential for new point of care diagnostic devices. One method of separating plasma from whole blood is
inertial focussing. Particles travelling in a fluid experience two significant forces; the inertial lift force; Fshear,
and the wall effect force; Fwall. The balance of which determines the equilibrium position. For rectangular
channels with significantly larger width than depth, particles focus in two locations; figure 1. There are 3D
models that simulate the effect but have large computational loads. We propose a 2D phenomenological
model for rectangular channels with fixed depth, the migration of a particle is determined by a single force,
Fmig; F_mig=C_mig×du/dy Where Cmig is a coefficient governed by particle properties and du/dy is the
shear gradient of the fluid flow. The benefit of this model;figure 2, is its low computational load making it a
more appropriate tool for designers of microfluidic channels. To experimentally validate the model straight
channels with rigid particles will be tested to determine Cmig for the inertial focussing model.
171
Hardware Accelerated Registration Of Ct And Cbct
Student
Fraser Robinson
fraser.robinson@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Louise Crockett
louise.crockett@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Medical, Image, Processing
The aim of radiotherapy is to kill cancer cells by exposing them to radiation. The treatment must be
accurately targeted to avoid causing damage to healthy tissue around the tumour. Treatments are planned
based on computed tomography (CT) scans acquired prior to treatment. Organ deformation and movement
between the planning CT and treatment can introduce errors. Adaptive radiotherapy utilises image data
captured at the time of treatment to adapt the treatment plan in order to deliver the treatment more
accurately. The image processing algorithms required to adapt the treatment cannot currently be carried out
fast enough to make the technique clinically viable. Implementing these algorithms using hardware
specifically optimised to perform them has the potential to allow them to be executed in a clinically
acceptable timeframe. A hardware accelerated 3D-3D rigid registration between the planning CT and conebeam CT (CBCT) data captured at the time of treatment for bladder cancer patients is presented here. The
algorithm is implemented using an array of reconfigurable logic known as a field programmable gate array.
The performance of the hardware accelerated implementation is compared against the execution time of
the same algorithm using a CPU.
Self-Paced Treadmills As A Rehabilitation Tool For Recovering Functional Gait In People With
Neurological Conditions
Student
Eunice Ibala
eunice.ibala@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Sylvie Coupaud
sylvie.coupaud@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Rehabilitation, Selfpaced-Treadmill
This work will focus on the gait rehabilitation of people recovering from stroke and spinal cord injuries.
Stroke, 3rd cause of death in the UK, leads to serious disabilities affecting cognition, memory, speech and
movement. Treadmills are useful devices used to help people with different medical conditions recover the
ability to walk, they are used by stroke survivors and people with spinal cord injury, usually at fixed-pace.
However, self-paced treadmills, which adapt their speed to the users' may be a better match for normal over
ground walking. Both treadmill walking mode will be compared. Rehabilitation training encourages
effectively neuroplasticity which helps the patient to regain more mobility. When muscles are paralysed,
mobility can be regained by relying on muscle compensation behaviour. When comparing muscle activity
between healthy individuals and the neurologically impaired patient, similar compensatory EMG patterns
are expected. To record and analyse the kinematic data of walk over ground, a motion analysis system
(Vicon) will be used as well as a virtual reality rehabilitation environment (Motek CAREN) which will be used
for the treadmill walking. Electromyogram (EMG) electrodes will record muscle activity from different lowerlimb muscle groups.
Analysis Of Lubrication And Wear Phenomena On The Micro- And Nano-Scale In Orthopaedic
Devices
benjawan.saengwichian@strath.ac.u
Student
Benjawan Saengwichian
k
Supervisor
Richard A Black
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Wear, Lubrication, Orthopaedic
richard.black@strsth.ac.uk
Despite the wide range bearing couples available, such as metal-on-polyethylene (MOP), ceramic-onceramic (COC), and metal-on-metal (MOM), in particular, many patients with total knee or hip prostheses
172
are subject to revision surgery as a consequence of inflammation and subsequent osteolysis and loosening
of the implant. Apart from economic considerations, the unacceptably high levels of wear and debris
generated at the bearing surfaces is painful, and puts patients at risk of metal-ion toxicity. While various
innovative approaches have been developed with the aim of increasing the longevity of the implant, for
example, novel bulk materials, surface coatings, surface modifications and cushion bearings, None are well
suited to younger and more physically active patients. The research will explore the wear mechanisms of
orthopaedic implant materials at the articulating surfaces as a function of tribology variables such as the
applied load and relative motion of the articulating surfaces, and the rheological properties and composition
of the lubricating fluid film. The interfacial phenomena will be explored on the micro- and nano-scales by
means of electrochemical and friction-force measurements made using atomic force microscopy and
surface analysis techniques available through the University’s Advanced Materials Research Laboratories.
The experimental data and techniques developed during the course of this work will inform the development
of new material combinations and surface treatments leading to improved wear performance.
Co-Production Of Orthopaedic Surgical Technology To Assist With Intra Operative Long Bone
Deterioration For Single Event Multi Level Surgery
Student
James Skivington
james.skivington@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Professor Philip Rowe
philip.rowe@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
SurgeryAccuracy
Cerebral Palsy may be considered the most common physically disabling condition seen and managed by
child health professionals affecting up to 4 live births per 1000, with over 30% of them having limited or no
walking ability. In order to continue to walk children may require multi-level surgery, which can include as
many as four long bone derotations, the angle of which is determined via use of gait analysis, x-rays and
physical examinations. In the operating theatre the surgeon has little to assist the surgery other than set
squares of pre-set angles, which has led to significant over or under correction being recorded in up to 59%
of limbs. In other fields, such as joint replacement, more precise surgery has been achieved using
mechanical and motion capture techniques. This project seeks to develop technology which can ensure the
surgeon is able to deliver the planed surgery accurately and precisely, firstly by designing and building a
mechanical jig and secondly by developing a motion capture technique. Both methods will allow the surgeon
to accurately measure angles in all three planes of rotation and be capable of being used on any long bone
derotation.
The Development And Application Of A Portable Balance Training Platform For Older Adults At Risk
Of Falling Using Virtual Reality
Student
Georgia Tarfali
georgia.tarfali@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Philip Rowe
philip.rowe@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Falls, Balance, VirtualReality
Falls in elderly are the leading cause of injury. Over thirty percent of people of 65 years or older fall at least
once a year. A fall can result in serious injuries, such as fracture or dislocation, leading to loss of
independence, hospitalization, increased medical costs, and a greater economic burden. Falls preventions
classes based on the Otago program involve predominantly MSK exercises and they have been widely
adopted due to their cost efficacy and evidence of effectiveness. However, a recent Cochrane review
revealed the lack of strong evidence of benefit for these techniques on improving balance ability. Also, the
effectiveness of these interventions is limited due to lack adherence to the classes. With the development
of the virtual reality technology, rehabilitation became more attractive and entertaining for people. Virtual
reality technology contributes to impaired motor control recovery and it is safe for elderly people. Training
combines MSK and motor control exercises is pivotal for the people at risk of falling to prevent them from
falling further. The aim of this research is the development of a new intervention for balance training of the
people at risk of falling, using virtual reality environment which will motivate and engage the user.
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Development Of A Hospital-Appropriate Human Movement Laboratory
Student
Gwenllian Fflur Tawy
gwenllian.tawy@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Philip Rowe
philip.rowe@strath.ac.uk
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Orthopaedics, Biomechanics, Gait
Three of the main functional outcomes of interest following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are range of motion
(ROM), strength, and stability. Current outcome measures used to test these variables however, have been
found to be unreliable and inaccurate. According to recent research, three-dimensional motion analysis is
the most effective tool for detecting changes in the function of the knee joint pre- and post-operatively.
Nevertheless, clinical use of this technology is currently practically and economically infeasible. The first aim
of this project was therefore to design a small-scale and clinic-appropriate motion capture system. The
second aim was to create a simple software package which could be used with the system to test knee
ROM, strength and stability of TKA patients. In recent months, this software package has been validated
against clinical standard tools. Statistical analyses showed similarities between the standard tools and
bespoke software (p > 0.05), suggesting that the results obtained through these alternative methods were
clinically acceptable. Over the coming months we will use our bespoke motion-capture set-up and software
in a clinical environment to report the functional outcome of TKA patients. This will enable us to determine
the feasibility of using motion capture in a hospital environment.
Wireless Optogenetic Neural Interfaces
Student
Gabor Varkonyi
Supervisor
Dr. Keith Mathieson
Department
Biomedical Engineering
Keywords
Optogenetics, Vlc, Leds
gabor.varkonyi@strath.ac.uk
The desire to further the understanding of the brain has led to the emergence of fields such as optogenetics,
which have allowed increasingly precise activation and suppression of genetically modified light sensitive
nerve cells. For the efficient study of live animals, minimally invasive small, low weight wireless recording
and stimulating solutions are required to reduce the effect it may have on the subject’s behaviour.
Furthermore, as manufacturing techniques advance, and the number of recording electrodes on these
devices grow exponentially, a solution capable of transmitting the increased amount of data is needed. A
system is proposed where wireless transmission of detected neural signals is sent using visible light
communication (VLC). Initial tests will use a 61 channel in vitro fixed setup, after which the device will
interface with an optogenetic neural probe on a PCB for in vivo experiments. The recorded nerve signals
will be relayed to an amplifier chip, which will have a low power high efficiency LED connected to its
multiplexed digital output. The LED will modulate in accordance with the output of the amplifier chip, and
transmit the neural information to a photodetector.
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Modelling and Monitoring
Integrated Water Resources Management At The Level Of River Basin
Student
Jafar Yahya Saleh Al-Jawad
jafar.al-jawad@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Tiku Tanyimboh
tiku.tanyimboh@strath.ac.uk
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
Multipurpose, Dam, Management
Especially in the arid and semi-arid regions, there is a deficiency in the water resources. On the other hand,
the water consumption demands increase according to the population growth and developing process.
Therefore, these regions need a good policy for management to prevent the exhaustion of these resources.
Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is a recent method for water resources management
through which a sustainable use of available water resources will be consider to fulfil all the demands. The
aim of the research is to improve the potential benefits of the river basin including: hydropower generation,
river quality and quantity, flood protection, crop production and groundwater contribution. Because of the
complexity of water resources system, its management needs a powerful approach to achieve control
strategies between the resources and the demands. An optimization tool will be adopted and modified to
find optimum solutions for multipurpose dam operation and management with conjunctive use of
groundwater in the basin. The outcome of the research will be very significant for the project managers and
decision makers to build better policies for management to increase the economic benefits of the river basin.
Deformed Gap Space Using Macro-Micro Fea Model Transferred Into A Cfd Model
Student
Ali Ahmed Anwar
ali.anwar@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
William Dempster
william.dempster@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Fea, Cfd, Modelling
Using a cylindrical nozzle and seat of a Pressure Relief Valve (PRV) the surface form and waviness is
modelled using actual metrological data, Average Surface form (Max/Min), Sa, Wa in a ¼ symmetry manner.
To model the surface waviness the technique used is based on the summing technique created by Tsukizoe
and Hisakado [1] for micro contact analysis. Due to the actual surface form measurements being in the
micro meter range, the model is required to incorporate micro and macro meter dimensions. The material in
question is stainless steel. The deformed model is then transferred into a CAD geometry allowing the void
space to be meshed and solved using computational fluid dynamics. 1. O'callaghan, P. and Probert, S.
(1987). Prediction and measurement of true areas of contact between solids. Wear, 120(1), pp.29--49.
Development Of A One-Dimensional Model For A High Speed Four-Stroke Dual Fuel Engine
Student
Emmanuel Anye
emmanuel.anye-ngang@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof. Peilin Zhou
peilin.zhou@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
1Dmodel, Dualfuel, Highspeedengine
In the last couple of years attention has been placed on reducing emissions from engines. This is not
surprising considering the spate of public attention about the health impacts of atmospheric pollution and
the enforcement of stricter requirements to limit emissions from engines. Consequently, engine developers,
end users and scientists, are revisiting the idea of dual fuel engines. In this research, a 1-dimensional model
of a high speed diesel engine is built using AVL BOOST. This model is then calibrated, refined and updated
to dual-fuel operation for the same engine. Using this model, in-cylinder combustion of a high speed dual
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fuel engine is analyzed in order to reveal how best the gas/fuel ratio can be optimized for improved engine
operation and performance. The potential identified in natural gas as an alternative fuel is very promising
and further technological advances will only go a long way to make dual fuel engines more efficient, cost
effective and reliable.
Low Thrust Augmented Spacecraft Formation-Flying
Student
Callum Arnot
callum.arnot@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Prof Colin Mcinnes
colin.mcinnes@glasgow.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Spacecraft, Thrust, Formations
Although the concept of on-orbit inspection has been explored in the past, modern low thrust propulsion
enhances the capabilities of inspection spacecraft and provides access to rich new families of augmented
formation flying trajectories. With low thrust, a spacecraft’s relative motion can be actively forced to enable
operationally advantageous new classes of non-Keplerian orbits. Using linearised relative dynamics, new
forced relative orbits are designed. It is first demonstrated that thrust can modify the period of the out-ofplane motion independently of the in-plane motion. A method is developed for patching families of Keplerian
and displaced non-Keplerian orbits in the rotating frame. Trajectories are also developed for a Sun-vector
tracking formation, to provide a constant Sun aspect angle in the rotating frame. Finally, forced relative orbits
are considered for a range of propulsion technologies including impulsive and electrostatic, and it is found
that propellant requirements for a small inspection spacecraft are well within the capabilities of existing
propulsion technology, for geostationary earth orbit applications.
Multi-Scale Chemistry Modelling For Spacecraft Atmospheric Re-Entry
Student
Andrew Bell
a.bell@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Paul Mulheran
paul.mulheran@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
MolecularDynamics,
SurfaceGrowth,
SurfaceErosion
Keywords
We aim to develop a model capable of simulating the surface chemistry and material erosion of thermal
barrier coatings that occurs when a space re-entry vehicle descends through the atmosphere. We have
been simulating the surface growth of simple metals using Molecular Dynamics, using conditions relevant
for the magnetic sputtering of thin films. Since low-cost thermal barriers are often carbon-based materials,
we have also started to simulate hydrocarbon films bombarded with energetic oxygen atoms. Using the
statistical properties observed in the simulations, we plan to scale up towards Direct Monte Carlo Simulation
approaches for the gas dynamics above the surface.
Incremental Learning Applications For Fuel Grab Load Trace Data
Student
Craig Berry
craig.berry@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Stephen Mcarthur
s.mcarthur@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Incremental, Machine, Learning
An incremental machine learning algorithm is an algorithm which learns from training data over time. This
can be beneficial when the initial training data is only a partial representation of the feature space of the
problem or if new classifications of data are introduced after the initial training that are required to be included
and learned. During refuelling events of advanced gas cooled reactors monitoring data called the fuel grab
load trace (FGLT) is produced. The FGLT is a measure of the perceived weight of the fuel stringer as it is
176
being inserted and removed from the core and can be used to understand the health of the graphite core
which is a major life limiting factor of the reactor. The idea is to incrementally learn the characteristics of
defects in the graphite core such as different types of cracks. This allows new types of defects and more
information about previous defects to be included in the classifier. This will benefit operators as the classifier
can include the most recent learned information and the previously learned information without the time
consuming and wasteful task of retraining the algorithm on the entire historical dataset which is the current
alternative.
Urban Transport Network Resilience
Student
Konstantina Bimpou
konstantina.bimpou@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Neil Ferguson
n.s.ferguson@strath.ac.uk
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
Resilience, Vulnerability, Network
It is a fact that the transfer of people and goods depends on the transport system. On the other hand,
disruptions to this system cause delays, route changes and/ or trip cancellations. According to Wang J.
(2015) disruptions to a transportation system can fall into three categories: disasters (e.g. earthquakes,
tsunamis), day-to-day variations to demand or capacity (e.g. traffic accidents, road works) and ongoing longterm changes (e.g. climate change). To overcome these disturbances and the impact of those, the transport
system must become more robust and resilient by preventing/ anticipating disruptive events and/ or
recovering from these events. The concept of transport network resilience consists of different aspects, one
of which is the transport network vulnerability. This project aims to investigate the susceptibility of network
components to failure and the consequences of disruptions, as well as to find ways in order to reduce the
impact of disturbance.
Assessment Of Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of Overheating And Iaq In Low Energy Houses
Student
Maria Del Carmen Bocanegra-Yanez
maria.bocanegra-yanez@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Paul Strachan
paul@esru.strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Modelling, ThermalComfort, Iaq
Policies to reduce building energy consumption and carbon emissions have been developed worldwide
during the last decades. As a consequence Building Regulations and Standards require more insulated and
air tight buildings which may lead to indoor environment issues when not designed appropriately. Detailed
building modelling and simulation can be used to predict the risk of overheating or poor indoor air quality
(IAQ) at different locations in the building at different times. However, simulation tools do not still address
the effects of temperature and relative humidity on pollutants behaviour and therefore cannot estimate
indoor concentrations accurately. The impact that different pollutant models, occupancy profiles and
ventilation strategies has on the distribution of thermal comfort levels and IAQ in low energy houses has
been assessed using the detailed thermal simulation program, ESP-r. First, information of the case study
was gathered leading to the construction of a model. After the model got validated against monitored data,
review of current literature on indoor pollutants was carried and applied to the model. Then, different
scenarios were defined and a comparison between them was done based on indoor environment quality
(thermal comfort and IAQ) drawing the final conclusions of the study
A Study Of Transferable Molecular Models To Predict Adsorption In Metal Organic Frameworks With
Open Metal Sites
Student
Christopher Campbell
c.campbell@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Miguel Jorge
miguel.jorge@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
177
Keywords
Mofs, Dft, Modelling
This project focuses on developing accurate computational models to predict adsorption in Metal-Organic
Frameworks (MOFs) with open metal sites (OMS). The presence of OMS in certain MOFs open up
opportunity for tackling challenging gas separations as they have demonstrated a strong affinity for
unsaturated adsorbates. Modelling of these systems is key due to the wide variety of different MOF
structures that can be synthesised. The challenge of accurate predictions of adsorption in MOFs by
computer simulation is the requirement of developing realistic molecular models, which is especially difficult
for MOFs that contain OMS. In this work, we aim to improve upon existing proposed approaches which
combine quantum mechanical (QM) calculations with classical Monte Carlo simulations.
Partial Discharges Detection And Location In Hvdc Cables
Student
Xuhui Duan
xuhui.duan@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Wh Siew
wh.siew@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Pd, Hvdc, Cable
This project describes a new novel approach to conduct on-line partial discharges detection and location for
High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) cables. Compared with High Voltage Alternate Current (HVAC), HVDC
is a better choice for long distance transmission with less power loss. However, most key problems raised
in HVAC cables remain existing in HVDC cables. One of the most important challenges is Partial Discharge
(PD). The diagnoses and location method are investigated to avoid unnecessary failures within whole grid.
Both temperature and electric stress would have significant influence on PDs. And it could occur in gases,
liquids and solid dielectric materials. The detection methods such as partial discharge analyser and chaotic
analysis cannot be used under DC. But with this technology widely applied in overhead and submarine
transmission line, studies of how to identify different PD types and how to measure the characteristic
parameters like PD magnitude have been hot in recent years. This paper will focus on the fundamental
physical background of PD at DC voltage, new PD plotting methods and the field of DC partial discharge at
the surface of cables. Further, the new approach to locate the PD happening point will be discussed.
Nano-Enriched Self-Assessing Structures
Student
Cristobal Garcia
cristobal.garcia@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Irina Trendafilova
irina.trendafilova@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Electrospinning, StructuralDamageDetection,
DynamicResponse
Keywords
The objective of this work is the investigation and characterization of PVDF-TrFe nanofibers manufactured
by electrospinning technique. The main idea is to insert these PVDF-TrFe nanofibers between two
electrodes and embed it in a matrix in order to design a new Smart Composite Material usable for sensing
applications Electrospinning is a simple, versatile and cost-effective technology, in which fibers are
mechanically stretched and polarized by high voltages applied. Moreover, this let an increase of crystalline
β-phase in the copolymer and greater piezoelectric properties in the material. Experimental campaign is
developed as follow. The first is related to the fabrication of the composites with PVDF-TrFe nanofibers, the
second is focused on the characterization of these composites. Composite materials manufactured are
constituted by Plexiglas (PMMA), Glass Fibre reinforced Polymer (GFRP) and Carbon Fibre reinforced
Polymer (CFRP). Smart Composites Materials were tested by low velocity Impacts (LVI) in a Drop-weight
Machine and it is observed a good trend between the Impact Force (kN) and voltage (V). The higher is the
Impact Force, the more is the voltage measured in these composites. It is observed that Nanofibers lead to
significant improvements of macro mechanical properties of the composite including its stiffness, damping
and strength.
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The Environmental Impact Of Hypersonic Vehicles
Student
Robert Garner
robert.garner@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Christie Maddock
christie.maddock@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Hypersonic, Vehicles, Environment
Advances in aviation have increased the feasibility high-speed, high-altitude vehicles. There are numerous
concepts now in active development. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of these vehicles, such
as reduced transit times (<4 hours London to Sydney) are known. However there are many, such as their
environmental impact, fuel usage and operating paradigm that are not well understood. More stringent
environmental regulation has increased the pressure on aircraft designers to consider vehicle emissions
during the design process. The tool being developed here will identify these advantages and disadvantages
for concept vehicles by using a full atmospheric point-to-point trajectory model, which has the ability to find
optimal trajectories. This will be integrated with a propulsion model developed at Strathclyde, which is
capable of modelling a number of promising propulsion systems, including rockets, ramjets and combinedcycle engines. This has been extended to calculate the chemical species of the emissions from an engine,
along with its performance characteristics.
Enhancing Shipping Safety By Managing Human Errors
Student
Saleh Mohammed S Ghonaim
saleh.ghonaim@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Osman Turan
o.turan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Maritime industry has improved dramatically in term of safety since the biggest sea disaster in 1912 the
Titanic. Hence, advanced technological devices have been innovated, related safety regulations have been
implemented and automation systems also have been created. The main purpose of all of these efforts was
aiming to improve and enhance marine safety. However, the percentage of maritime accidents is still
increasing, especially, the accidents which were happened directly or indirectly due to human error.
Therefore, human error or operator error can be minimized through improving seafarers’ applications of
safety culture and maintain a good wellbeing. This PhD topic is aiming to enhance shipping safety through
managing human errors. Achieving this aim requires a deep study and investigation on the root causes of
maritime accident to prove that human factor is the crucial element in accident causation. Consequently, a
safety culture framework which will be directed to seafarers will be designed accordingly. Hence, the officer
of the watch OOW will not face any threat to safety of navigation by performing the assigned duties with full
capability in all situations including the critical one.
Modelling And Optimisation Of Ship System Condition Monitoring
Student
Christos Gkerekos
christos.gkerekos@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Iraklis Lazakis
iraklis.lazakis@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Maintenance, Monitoring, Vibration
Ships are a vital part of the marine transportation system and are crucial assets of the supply chain.
Maintaining the ship and its systems in an excellent condition can majorly affect overall availability and
reliability by both minimizing downtime, reducing operating costs but most importantly by increasing the
ship’s operational window; thus its earning and profitability. Although ship system maintenance has so far
been treated as a procedure that could be accomplished in a random day-by-day fashion, nowadays
maintenance is considered a strategic asset causing a significant increase in relevant R&D activities. This
PhD aims to develop an integrated maintenance management system to optimise the efficiency while
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minimising the maintenance cost of ship machinery. This will be achieved by combining performance and
vibration data feeds, processing them through a hybrid neuro/fuzzy algorithm in order to derive useful
condition information. The output of the algorithm will then be used as input in a Decision Support System
seeking to propose the most effective inspection and maintenance scheduling. The above will lead to
minimisation of ship downtime and increase of the ship’s operability and income through operational
enhancement.
Control Of Aeroelastic Tailoring Blades For Wind Turbines
Student
Rohaida Hussain
rohaida-binti-hussain@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Hong Yue
hong.yue@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
ControlControl,
AeroelasticTailoring,
WindTurbine
Keywords
Aeroelastic tailoring blade (ATB) is a new design in wind turbine systems that offers higher power production
and load reduction. Generally, ATB is designed with pre-twist distribution along the blade and the blade is
able to deform and change the angle of attack during the deformation when wind speed varies. Passive
control is considered for ATB wind turbine systems, however, new control strategies need to be developed
to achieve better performance for machines with adaptive blade characteristics. Background study of ATB
wind turbine control systems is conducted and discussions are made on future development of control
systems.
Modelling Nanostructure Growth On A One-Dimensional Substrate: Islands, Gaps And Statistics
Student
Hrvojka Krcelic
hrvojka.krcelic@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr. Paul Mulheran
paul.mulheran@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Nanostructure, MonteCarloSimulation
We study the nucleation and growth of islands during ultrathin film deposition. Using kinetic Monte Carlo
simulation, monomers are randomly deposited onto a substrate, and then diffuse and aggregate into islands
that subsequently grow through the capture of further monomers. Statistical information about the number
of islands and the distribution of their sizes is important for understanding how to control the evolution of
nanostructures, and it reflects the nucleation mechanisms at play (e.g. critical island size for nucleation).
Here we focus on one-dimensional substrates where the nucleation process translates to the fragmentation
of a line into gaps. We can describe this process using Distributional Fixed Point Equations, leading to
Fredholm integral equations of the first kind. To extract maximum information on the nucleation mechanisms,
we attempt to solve the inverse problem posed by this formalism using regularisation and simulated
annealing techniques.
Optimal Ship Systems, Energy Management For Fuel Saving And Gaseous Emissions Reduction
Student
Mario Krstovic
mario.krstovic@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Gerasimos Theotokatos
gerasimos.theotokatos@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Energy, Fuel, Costs
The demand in reduction of fuel consumption and gasses emissions has risen substantially in last few years.
Previously mentioned reductions and increased energy efficiency is main goal of this PhD and only possible
solution. First phase of PhD is consisted of modelling and analysing part of all major fuel and energy
consumers individually and combined. Energy and exergy flows (quantitative and qualitative) analysis will
180
give detail picture of the sensitivity of the ship systems related to the change of ambient and other operating
parameters. Also the weakest points of the system with highest optimisation potential will be analysed and
the necessary information related to the over working of particular systems will be obtained. In the second
step the multi objective techniques and algorithms will establish physical laws for correction and set up of
important parameters of the systems and improve the mutual interaction between energy systems in a way
of reducing overall fuel consumption. The real time control energy management unit will be developed
suitable for particular new and already in use ships afterwards. The result of the research will be reduction
of fuel consumption of cargo ships which will also lower the exploitation costs and exhaust gas emissions.
Ergonomic Transcranial Ultrasonic Array For Diagnostic Medical Applications
Student
Xiaotong Li
xiaotong.li@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Anthony Gachagan
a.gachagan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Tcd, Ultrasound, Imaging
Strokes are one of the leading causes of death around the world. As a portable and non-invasive technique,
transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) has been used as both a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for analysing
and treating stroke patients. Diagnostic information related to the blood flow is contained in the received
ultrasonic echoes. However, current diagnostic TCD devices are highly operator-dependent. To overcome
this shortcoming, this project aims to develop an operator-independent device. The proposed solution is to
design a new 2D ultrasonic transducer array capable of detecting intracranial vessels and generate 3D
images to enable diagnosis of symptoms associated with the onset of stroke. Importantly, the array will be
fabricated using piezoelectric fibres to produce a flexible device which will be comfortable to wear. The
transducer will be tested using a medical phantom. The associated signal and image processing will be
developed to automatically detect emboli within the blood stream which will be classified to provide
information on the patient stroke risk. The initial PhD work involves the use of finite element modelling
techniques to simulate the array structure, with the objective to have an array specification by the end of
year 1.
Modelling And Transition Optimisation Of Muli-Mode Aero-Engine Concepts.
Student
Thomas Lilley
thomas.lilley@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Ian Taylor
ian.taylor@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Propulsion, Optimisation, Turbine
Hybrid propulsion vehicles which can operate from subsonic, through to hypersonic regimes could
significantly ease global travel and access to space, however, the propulsion requirements differ significantly
across the flight envelope. Multi-mode aero-engines are proposed as a viable solution to this problem. To
fully illustrate the viability of this concept, trajectory simulations should be completed, and intelligent
transition points between each of the engine configurations need to be found. This work aims to find optimal
transition points between the subsonic and supersonic configurations for such an aero-engine. To complete
this work, the parametric and modular Hybrid Propulsion Optimisation code (HyPro, Centre for Future AirSpace Transportation Technology) was extended. This poster summarises the extension of the HyPro code
base to include subsonic rotating components, as well as the first steps in allowing the model to intelligently
select the best configuration for a given flight regime. The inclusion of the subsonic components was
validated against the industrial and academic standard software GasTurb. The ultimate goal of this research
is to produce a low fidelity model which intelligently selects the optimum aero-engine configuration over the
course of an entire trajectory.
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Control System Design Of A Multi Rotor System
Student
Euan Macmahon
euan.macmahon@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Bill Leithead
w.leithead@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Control, MultiRotor
The Multi Rotor System (MRS), designed as part of the European InnWind project to provide a low cost
solution for an offshore 20MW turbine, is modelled in sufficient detail for control purposes. To further reduce
costs the design contains no yawing actuator. Instead a novel yawing technique is used where the yaw
moment is created through adjusting the thrust force of individual rotors. The control system is designed for
the yawing of the MRS where the yaw error is minimised across the operational wind speed of the turbine.
Modelling The Distribution Of Mercury In Oil And Gas Processing
Student
Khalifa Mansour
khalifa.manssor@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Leo Lue
leo.lue@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Mercury, Oil, Gas
Mercury is not only considered as a toxic pollutant element in the environment but also as a corrosive
element in oil and gas industry. The presence of mercury in oil and gas can increase the exposure risk to
the field operators and can cause serious corrosion problems and equipment degradation damage, catalyst
poising, etc. This might lead to an unplanned shutdown for a long period of time which is neither operationally
nor financially desirable. Understanding mercury pathways in the ecosystem and process facilities requires
a predictive model that is able to predict the thermodynamic behavior of mercury/water/hydrocarbon
mixtures. A competitive model should be computationally inexpensive to evaluate and require minimal
parameterization The main objective of this research is to investigate the thermodynamic behavior of
mercury in oil and gas process facilities using widely used Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state in
combination with a group contribution method in order to reduce mercury risks and corrosion.
Modelling Superformal Electrodeposition In Low Concentration Ion Solutions
Student
Mohamed Masoud
Supervisor
Dr. L. Leo
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Superformal, Deposition, PhaseFieldModel
mohamed.masoud@strath.ac.uk
There is tremendous demand for the development and manufacture of inexpensive electronic devices in a
wide range of areas, including consumer microelectronics, sensors, and energy harvesting. A key step of
this process is the deposition of a metal in microscopic features previously etched into a substrate in order
to form conductive interconnects or other electronic elements. The goal is to ensure void-free filling of
features, such as preformed channels. One recently developed technique to overcome this issue is
superconformal electrodeposition, where additives which inhibit or accelerate chemical reactions are used
to control the local deposition rate. Currently, this process is typically performed with solutions containing
high concentrations of metal ions. We proposed to use low concentration solutions, which would lead to a
more economic and environmentally friendly process. In order to make this method practical, however, an
accurate mathematical model is required to understand the effect of metal ion concentration, different
additives and their concentrations, solution conditions, substrate geometry,etc. on the electrodeposition to
enable the rational design of a practical process. The main aim of the PhD work will be to construct a
numerical model to simulate superconformal electrodeposition
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An Analytical, Low-Cost Deployment Strategy For Satellite Constellations
Student
Ciara Mcgrath
ciara.mcgrath@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Malcolm Macdonald
malcolm.macdonald.102@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Satellite, Constellation, Manoeuvre
This work proposes a novel method for the deployment of a constellation of nano-satellites into Low Earth
Orbit by using carrier vehicles to deliver them into their required positions. Traditionally, the deployment of
satellite constellations requires numerous launches, at least one per orbital plane, which can be costly.
Launching as a secondary payload is an alternative option which may offer significant cost reductions, but
this comes at the price of decreased control over the launch schedule and final orbit parameters. Low cost
deployment can be achieved by changing the relative altitude of the satellites, creating a difference in the
J2 effect experienced by each satellite relative to the others. The analytical method developed allows for
the optimal positioning of the orbit planes to be determined and the minimum time for deployment to be
calculated as a function of the manoeuvre ΔV. A case study considering three constellation designs is
performed which compares the cost of deployment using traditional launch methods with that of deploying
the constellation using carrier vehicles. The results of this study show a significant reduction in cost when
using the carrier vehicles on a dedicated launch, compared with launching the satellites individually.
Development Of A Ship Machinery Maintenance Control Application Through An Advanced
Condition Monitoring Approach
Student
Anna Lito Michala
anna.michala@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Iraklis Lazakis
iraklis.lazakis@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Maintenance, ConditionMonitoring, Wireless
The purpose of this project is to identify a method for collecting and processing data onboard ship from a
variety of sources such as sensors for condition monitoring to assist decision making onboard or from a
central point onshore. Use of wireless transmission methods for data will also reduce installation costs and
minimize equipment used. Wireless condition monitoring has been used in other industries (e.g nuclear
industry, manufacturing, aviation) but this technology has not yet been fully exploited onboard ships. This
will be implemented through selection of appropriate hardware and development of relevant software.
Information will be collected at different frequencies some as often as once every minute and others less
often. This information will be filtered and processed accordingly at collection point so that the data reported
back to land is minimised. Minimising the transmitted data provides cost reduction, ease of maintenance,
optimisation of transmission methods, increasing robustness of the method and minimising error factors.
Further processing the information collected centrally, the final system will be able to demonstrate areas
where maintenance action is needed as well as general information for the status of each ship at any given
moment in order to assist dynamic decision support
Computational Modelling And Rational Design Of Nanopororous Silica Materials
Student
Andrew Milne
andrew.milne.100@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr. Miguel Jorge
miguel.jorge@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
Simulation, Silica, Nanomaterials
Periodic mesoporous silicas (PMS) are an important class of nanoporous materials which have a wide range
of potential applications, including: catalysis; carbon capture; and separation processes. Furthermore, as
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the role of nanomaterials continues to impact many different industries, their importance will continue to
grow. The synthesis conditions allow the properties of PMS to be tuned; it is this relationship that will be
probed in this work, with the eventual goal of designing targeted PMS materials completely in silico. We are
currently attempting to produce a generic united-atom (UA) model for liquid-phase organosilicon compounds
using the molecular dynamics package GROMACS. This new model will be used in order to better
understand the initial stages of polymerisation, which strongly determine the structure of the produced PMS
material. It is necessary to do this computationally since the monomer, silicic acid, polymerises even at very
low concentrations and hence cannot be probed experimentally. Going forward Reactive Ensemble Monte
Carlo (REMC) simulations will be used to produce models which allow experimental observations of the
polymerisation of silicic acid to be reproduced computationally under both alkaline and acidic conditions.
An Investigation On The Effects Of Tool/Workpice Temperature And Lubrication Parameters On The
Rate Of Heat Transfer Under Non-Isothermal Forging Conditions
Student
Aimable Ntaganda
aimable.ntaganda@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Andrzej Rosochowski
a.rosochowski@strath.ac.uk
Department
Design Manufacture & Engineering Management
Keywords
The heat transfer coefficient is a ratio of heat and temperature drop. The rate of heat transfer between two
elements in a system which have dissimilar temperatures is controlled by the heat transfer coefficient (HTC).
The measurement of the heat transfer coefficient provides an important boundary parameter for the Finite
Element modelling of hot forging or any other hot working process in which the workpiece and tool materials
may have widely dissimilar temperatures. As such, it is important that the HTC can be accurately measured
and represented in process models due to the fact that most processes operate under conditions of transient
heating/cooling. Complexity is added to the situation due to the factors such as adiabatic heating, frictional
effects and the fact that in real forging operation the interface layer will continually change in thickness. The
methodology that could be used to give a meaningful HTC data for FE models of hot forging process will be
developed.
Co2 Pipeline Flow Assurance: A Thermal Model For Co2 Pipeline Transport
Student
Babafemi Olugunwa
babafemi.olugunwa@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr. Qing Xiao
qing.xiao@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Thermal, Hydraulics, Pressure
Transportation of CO2 via Pipeline for Carbon Capture and Storage applications has long been identified
as the best method for various reasons that include but not limited to economics, volume and safety. This
poster presents a thermal hydraulic case model for supercritical dense phase CO2 that takes into
consideration thermal variations such as temperature gradient and profile along the length of the pipeline,
burial depth, thermal properties such as thermal conductivity, overall heat transfer coefficient of soil, pipe,
insulation. This is achieved and simulated with computer software program with result presented.
Enhancing Ship Availability And Reliability Through The Development Of A Maintenance
Optimisation Strategy
Student
Yiannis Raptodimos
yiannis.raptodimos@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr. Iraklis Lazakis
iraklis.lazakis@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Maintenance, Monitoring, Ann
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Ships are a vital part of the marine transportation system and are crucial assets of the supply chain.
Maintaining the ship and its systems in an excellent condition can majorly affect overall availability and
reliability by both minimizing downtime, reducing operating costs but most importantly by increasing the ship
operational window; thus its earning and profitability. Maintenance was treated as a procedure that could be
accomplished in a random day-to-day operation. However, the maritime industry's attitude towards
maintenance has started evolving as maintenance is regarded as a strategic issue within the industry,
incorporating strategies that combine existing and new tools, such as condition monitoring and reliability
and criticality centred analysis. The project will develop a maintenance optimisation strategy based on
methodologies and tools such as condition monitoring, fault tree analysis and artificial neural networks. The
outcomes will lead to the identification of the reliability performance of the main systems and the entire ship
overall as well as its most critical components. The above results will be also linked to minimizing ship
downtime while operational enhancement will lead to increased ship operability and income.
Global Solution Of Multi-Objective Optimal Control Problems In Space Systems
Student
Lorenzo A. Ricciardi
lorenzo.ricciardi@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Massimiliano Vasile
massimiliano.vasile@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Optimisation, Control, Space
This research topic addresses the globally optimal solution of optimal control problems with multiple
objective functions. When the objective functions are conflicting there is no single solution which is optimal
with respect to all objectives, but there may exist many trade off solutions which can be discovered
simultaneously with a genuinely multiobjective approach. This approach allows designers to automatically
explore the design space and obtain many different compromise solutions, giving them the capability of
making more informed decisions. The solution strategy adopted is based on the integration of the Direct
Finite Elements in Time (DFET) transcription into the Multi Agent Collaborative Search (MACS)
multiobjective optimisation framework. MACS is a memetic algorithm in which a population of agents
performs a set of individual and social actions globally looking for the best compromise solutions, forming
the so called Pareto front. DFET transcribes an optimal control problem into a constrained Nonlinear
Programming Problem (NLP) by collocating states and controls on spectral bases. The applicability of this
strategy is shown in the solution of the multiobjective extensions of two well-known space related optimal
control problems: the Goddard Rocket problem, and the maximum energy orbit rise problem.
Transient Thermal Effects In Biological Cells Stressed With High Field Impulses
Student
Bolin Song
bolin.song@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Igor Timoshkin
igor.timoshkin@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Membrane, Ions, Electroporation
The biological cell membrane protects the interior of biological cell from external environment, the cell
membrane is involved in the process of controlling the movement of ions and molecules in and out of the
biological cells. When bio-cells are introduced in an electromagnetic environment, the electric field will lead
to appearance of the electromechanical stresses and can result in electroporation. The effect of
electroporation is well known and is used in electric field decontamination processes. However, movement
of ions and dielectric polarization in the case of fast electric field will also result in transient thermal stresses
in the bio-membrane. These thermal effects are not well understood and require further investigation. The
project is focused on the analysis of the transient thermal effect in biological cells stressed with ms and subms electric field impulses. As a result of this project it is planned to develop a model of local heating in
biological cells and to optimize pulsed electric field regimes of treatment for practical applications. These
applications include decontamination of liquids with pulsed E-field, pulsed E-filed lysis and electroporation.
Experimental work will be undertaken to confirm theoretical findings.
185
Can Groundwater Chemistry Changes During Lake Drainage Predict Future Glacial Effects On
Underground Repositories?
Student
Mark Stillings
mark.stillings@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Richard Lord
richard.lord@strath.ac.uk
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
Groundwater, Geochemistry Hydrogeology
Repeated draining and refilling of a surface water reservoir located above the granite tunnels of the Grimsel
Test Site, Switzerland, provides a unique opportunity to examine the response of a groundwater system to
large stress changes at the surface. This response to stress is potentially analogous to loading and
unloading during glacial advance or retreat. This is relevant to a UK geological disposal facility, since future
glaciations could occur before radionuclides from high-level radioactive waste have decayed to safe levels.
Changes in stress could alter flow-paths within the granite, result in shear failure, tensile opening and closing
of fractures, changing the rock permeability. Groundwater chemistry might then change over time due to
mixing of different water sources, pressure changes, dissolution and precipitation of compounds as a result
of newly exposed fracture surfaces. Weekly monitoring of geochemical parameters has been carried out for
a network of boreholes, during the draining and refilling of the reservoir. Results so far indicate that changes
in stress can result in detectable changes in pH, oxidization potential, and dissolved ion concentrations in
the groundwater. Geochemical changes correlate with geological structures in the rock mass, with different
geochemical responses depending on their orientation.
Programmable Matter
Student
Bryan Tester
bryan.tester@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Massimiliano Vasile
massimiliano.vasile@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Control, SwarmRobotics
Programmable matter is, in simple terms, matter which responds to external stimuli in a manner chosen by
the user. There are many types explored by past research, from self-folding origami to mimicking the
behaviour of proteins. In our work we study a large number of simple cells with very limited information on
their surroundings, basic logic control capabilities and the ability to attract, bond to or repel neighbouring
cells. The dream goal of the research is to effectively replicate the behaviour of biological cells such as those
in a human body, whereby the microscopic co-operation between cells can allow for greatly complex
behaviour on a macroscopic scale. Whilst this goal is evidently a long way off, we aim to study the basic
theory behind it, primarily considering the possible methods for interaction between cells and the control
algorithms determining their behaviour.
Simulation Of Diffuse Reflectance For Characterisation Of Particle Suspensions
Student
Kelly Thomson
kelly.thomson@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Dr Leo Lue
leo.lue@strath.ac.uk
Department
Chemical & Process Engineering
Keywords
LightScattering, RteEquation
Spectroscopy is commonly used to obtain the composition of a substance; however, for samples with more
than 1 wt% solid, this method is no longer effective, because at these solid concentrations scattering as well
as absorption makes a contribution to the measured spectrum, methods are required to disentangle these
two contributions. Current approaches for dealing with this issue are time consuming and cannot provide a
real time analysis of the sample. One solution is to use computational modelling to include the multiple
scattering light behaviour and the particle particle interactions. In this work this is achieved by using various
methods to solve the radiative transfer equation and comparing the predictions with diffuse reflectance
186
measurements from polystyrene particle suspensions. These methods include analytically solving the
radiative transport equation within the diffuse approximation and using the discrete ordinate method to solve
the equation numerically.
Navigation Of Spacecraft In Proximity Of Binary Asteroids Systems.
Student
Francesco Torre
francesco.torre@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Massimiliano Vasile
massimiliano.vasile@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Formation, Navigation, Asteroids
This research work will focus on investigating the performances of existing techniques for navigate
spacecraft in proximity on binary asteroids systems. New techniques, technologies and algorithms will also
be developed and tested. A dedicated environment is currently under development to provide the capability
of simulating complex realistic systems with multiple asteroids and spacecraft. The irregular asteroids'
gravitational field has been modelled by a suitable set of constrained point masses. Together with
independent spacecraft navigation, features such as inter-spacecraft communication, data loss and delay
and malfunctioning will be included to stress the performances of the navigation techniques.
Design, Modelling And Optimisation For Future Space Access Vehicles
Student
Federico Toso
federico.toso@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Christie Maddock
christie.maddock@strath.ac.uk
Department
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Keywords
Space, Ssto, Modelling
One popular option for space access has been, and still is a reusable single stage lifting body vehicle
capable of horizontal take-off and landing. Significant process has been recently made on overcoming the
technological barriers for the development of hypersonic vehicles, such as novel propulsion and thermal
protection systems. Capitalising on advances in computing power, work is being done in the area of multidisciplinary design optimisation to model the vehicle and environment to optimise the vehicle design based
on performance and operational objectives during the preliminary design stage to better assess design
choices. Using both genetic and gradient based multiple shooting and multi-phase optimisation method to
combine the different segments of the flight, it’s possible to maximise the payload mass constrained by the
need of the return to the launch site, the available fuel mass, the acceleration limits of the cargo and the
thermal ones of the spacecraft. The analysis is performed on a generic SSTO reusable lifting body vehicle,
using a point-mass dynamic model with controls for the angle of attack and bank angle. The thrust is an
additional control variable for the ascent case.
Improving Seismic Site Response Analyses By Correctly Accounting For Uncertainties And
Variability
Student
Carolina Volpini
carolina.volpini@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
John Douglas
john.douglas@strath.ac.uk
Department
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Keywords
Earthquake, Uncertainties, Variabilities
Design of infrastructure against earthquakes requires estimates of the level of ground shaking that could
occur during its lifetime. Earthquake is assessed, firstly, as the expected earthquake shaking at bedrock
and, subsequently, by conducting a site response analysis to account for the effect of superficial soil layers,
which may behave nonlinearly under strong shaking. These superficial layers can lead to large amplification
of the bedrock motions despite comprising only a small (perhaps less than 1%) fraction of the travel path of
187
the seismic waves from the source to the surface. This project aims to improve site response analyses by
improving the consideration of the uncertainty and variability in the geotechnical input parameters and
geometrical aspects. Recent work has clearly demonstrated that even over a small area ground conditions
can vary greatly. For example, the common assumption of homogeneous horizontal soil layers does not
appear to be valid for this site. Simple methods to relax this assumption are currently being developed in
this thesis.
Integration Of Cad With Cfd For Ships
Student
Xinning Wang
xinning.wang@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Panagiotis Kaklis
panagiotis.kaklis@strath.ac.uk
Department
Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering
Keywords
Cfd, Cad, Integration
The need for constructing energy-saving and operational-efficient means of transportation triggers the need
for robust and high-quality DTA(Design Through Analysis). In Maritime Engineering, this need supports the
application of new methodologies, e.g., Isogeometric Analysis (IGA)[1], for seamless coupling between
computer-aided ship design and hydrodynamic and/or structural analysis and its use for shape optimisation.
Wave resistance can provide a challenging paradigm of practical for testing new methodologies. The specific
objectives of this thesis can be summarised as below: 1) Literature review of the various resistance
prediction methods. 2) Use of a commercial RANSE-based CFD package for predicting the wave-resistance
part of a ship geometry, for which pertinent literature provides sufficient basis of experimental and numerical
data, e.g., the KCS containership. 3) Comparison of the output of Step 2 with the wave resistance prediction
obtained by using an in-house developed IGA-BEM solver. 4) Develop a T-spline parametric modeller on
the basis of the parent hull chosen in Step 2 and use it for feeding two different optimisation setting: a) an
optimisation setting that is based on the IGA-BEM solver b) the commercial CAESES® optimisation setting
based on the CFD package used in Step 2. Comparison and analysis of the outputs of processes 4a) and
4b) for a variety of optimisation criteria and constraints. key words: IGA-BEM solver,parametric
model,NURBS, T-spine.
Optimal Control For Smart Electric Vehicle Car Parks
Student
Su Xiaoke
xiaoke.su@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Zhang Jiangfeng
jiangfeng.zhang@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Electric vehicle technology has been developed during the past decade, which makes the replacement of
gasoline-power car by electric vehicle possible. In this poster, an optimization model is introduced to control
the vehicle charging and discharging status at a car park so as to find out a most economical charging mode
of each vehicle and a triggering condition of vehicle-to-grid. For EV car park optimization, the charging and
discharging are controllable. However, the smart park also cannot not do V2G to the grid cause the financial
reason. The solution is to increase FIT in a suitable level and encourage the EV users to supply energy to
grid with profits. On the other hand, the EV battery technique needs a revolution which can reduce the
battery degradation cost. Moreover, the policy such as rebates is another solution.
The Charging And Dynamic Mechanisms In Emulsion Under High Voltage Impulses
Student
Qingjiang Xue
qingjiang.xue@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
HighVoltageSeparation, Electrocoalescence, Simulation
188
The understanding of the emulsion’s behaviour under high voltage impulses is important for many practical
applications. For example, high voltage impulses can be used to separate water droplets from crude oil.
This process has multiple advantages to the other methods: good separation performance, no chemical
pollution, high energy efficiency. The high voltage impulses can also be used for the treatment of water for
reduction of bio-water pollution. This project is divided into two parts: computer simulation and experiment.
The simulation part is focused on the charging and dynamic mechanisms of water droplets in the dielectric
solution stressed with different types of high voltage impulses and DC/AC HV energy. Also the impact of
mixing of nanoparticles into the water droplets will be investigated. The results from the simulation can be
verified in experiments, the dynamics of water droplet and nanoparticles will be monitored using high speed
optical camera. Based on the obtained results, further investigation into biological and environmental
applications such as water cleaning operations, decontamination and sterilisation will be conducted.
Intelligent Decision Support For Candu Reactor Condition Monitoring
Student
Panagiotis Zacharis
panagiotis.zacharis@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Graeme West
graeme.west@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Monitoring, Candu, MachineLearning
The security-sensitive nature of the nuclear power industry requires thorough testing and understanding of
the underlying reasoning process before adopting new automated condition monitoring techniques. The aim
of this research is to develop a framework that will allow a more holistic monitoring approach of nuclear
power plants through the fusion of data of several independent and specialised condition monitoring
systems. This will be based on the integration of data-driven and knowledge-based procedures, aiming to
provide a two-way validation approach: On one hand, the knowledge base is validated with respect to the
data. On the other hand, the results obtained from the machine learning techniques are justified by the
knowledge base. This will be explored through datasets consisting of ultrasonic surface inspection data of
CANDU pressure tubes generated by a diverse set of inspection tools. The proposed algorithms utilise
expertise in ultrasonic inspection systems, along with machine learning techniques, to automatically detect
and size defects on the surface of the pressure tubes. The next stage will investigate the aggregation of the
separate analyses methods in order to identify and understand any potential individual weaknesses, leading
to a more robust ensemble of models.
Application Of Ultrasonic Phased Array Techniques For Inspection Of Nuclear Components
Student
Huan Zhao
huan.zhao@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Anthony Gachagan
a.gachagan@strath.ac.uk
Department
Electronic & Electrical Engineering
Keywords
Nde, Ultrasonics, Modelling
This project is using ultrasound to inspect metallic tubes utilised within a nuclear reactor. An ultrasonic
inspection of the tubes can prevent reactors from serious failure, but can be expensive in terms of time and
money. To reduce this cost, improving the accuracy of the ultrasonic inspection is critical. This PhD will
employ a combination of complex signal processing algorithms and a redesign of the ultrasonic sensor head
to achieve the desired overall improvement in system accuracy. In the first phase of the project, a 10MHz
phased array transducer was used to inspect a metallic plate and advanced signal processing, through Total
Focusing Method, was applied to process the Full Matrix Capture signals. Different combinations of array
elements were activated to acquire echo signals, with a 16 element sub-aperture achieving the best SNR.
Importantly, the array also outperforms the conventional system approach using a 25MHz single element
transducer. In the current phase of the project, a hybrid model has been developed, built based around the
finite element modelling package PZFlex, to simulate different sensor head designs. This work will initially
replicate the existing sensor head configuration and subsequently, replace the conventional single element
approach with an ultrasonic array based design.
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Inspection Of Tools And Products
Student
Yihui Zhao
yihui.zhao@strath.ac.uk
Supervisor
Department
Yi Qin
Design
Manufacture
Management
Keywords
Inspection, Triangulation, Cavity
&
Engineering
The damage and wear of tools will affect greatly the output product during manufacture process. Including
an inspection module can detect such flaw in early stage and improve the overall factory productivity and
product quality. My research is inspired by this real-world need and carried on with focus on cheap
realization of triangulation for convex objects and endoscope-based approaches to cavity inspection.
Currently a prototype for low cost laser triangulation device has been made and satisfactory results were
obtained. While in-cavity inspection remains a challenging problem, a modified shape-from-shading (SFS)
approach has been under conduction and the research will be carried on in the following years. The outcome
of the research could provide much cheaper solution to replace the existing industry products and greatly
reduce the size of machines.
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Thank You
The organisation of the Faculty of Engineering Research Presentation Day 2016 has been a combined effort
of the committee and a rewarding experience for all.
We greatly appreciate the help and advice given to us by all departments throughout the preparation of this
event and we would like to take this opportunity to say thank you to everyone involved.
This event would not have been possible without the work presented by the students of the Faculty of
Engineering. We would like to acknowledge all of those who have participated in this event and presented their
research. Without their hard work and dedication throughout the year, we would not be able to host such an
exciting and unique event.
Finally, we would like to thank everyone for attending this event and we hope that you enjoy the day. Your
feedback is greatly appreciated.
Kind regards,
RPD Team 2016
191
We would like to say a special thank you to Metrohm UK Ltd, who are kindly
sponsoring the event.
The place of useful learning
The University of Strathclyde is a charitable body, registered in Scotland, number SC015263
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