The Data Centre should ideally be built in a central location within

The Data Centre should ideally be built in a central location within
Annexure – 1
Best practices and Guidelines to Physical Security of the State Data Centre
The Data Centre should ideally be built in a central location within the building
complex. An approximate area of 4000 sq. ft. would be required for the Data
Centre. The flooring should be capable of handling full load of the equipments
hosted at the Data Centre. An ideal location for the Data Centre would be the
first floor. It should never be built in the basement or at the top floor. It would be
difficult to maintain the environmental & physical controls at the basement or
at the top floor. Lifting of heavy servers, SAN boxes, UPS, etc. to the top floor
will also be difficult. The proposed Data Centre space /floor should be free from
water leakages from the floors which are above and below it.
The Data Centre area should be logically divided in Zones based on the
level of security as described below:
Zone A: is the DC Server room area that has server racks, storage racks
and networking equipment. The area required for Zone A should approximately be
1500 sq. feet.
Zone B:
Call
comprises
Centre,
of
NOC
room,
reception
area,
Help
Desk
area,
Testing/Monitoring room. This zone requires approximately 1500
sq. feet.
Zone C: comprises of room for power panels, BMS Manager Room, AHU,
UPS, Telecom Room, etc. This zone requires approximately 1000 sq. ft.
The rack should be designed taking into consideration the maximum amount of
cooling for equipments / servers.
Modeling
techniques
such
as
Thermal
modeling should be used to arrive at the placement of racks in the DC server
room.
1.0 Design Parameters
1.0 Data Centre Floor Usage Allocation
The facilities could be divided into the following sections according to usage and
reliability requirements:
ZONE A
ZONE B
ZONE C
Server racks,
•
Networking racks,
(Network Operation
Supply room)
Structured cabling
Centre)
•
Telecom Room
racks,
Storage Area
•
•
UPS and battery room
Network
box, High
Management Systems
•
AHU
(BMS) monitoring room
•
Fire Suppression
•
Help-Desk Area
System
•
Testing / Lab
end Servers, etc
NOC Room
Centralized Building
•
Electrical Room (Power
Room
1.1 Air conditioning
Since Zone A is a critical area, a separate air conditioning system (precision
air conditioning) should be exclusively installed to maintain the temperature
requirements for Zone A. Zone B & C can have a common air conditioning
system. The general requirements for the two zones are as specified below:
Zone A: Zone A should be provided with precision air conditioning on a 24 x 7
operating basis at least meeting with Tier – I architecture requirements and
having enough provision to scale it to next level as may be required in a later
stage. The units should be able to switch the air conditioner on and off
automatically and alternately for effective usage. The units should be down-flow
fashion, air-cooled conditioning system.
Zone B/C: Zone B/C should be provided with split-type comfort air-cooled
system ( at least meeting with Tier – I architecture requirements). Help Desk &
NOC area should be provided with a separate air conditioning system, so
that the air conditioning units can be switched off whenever required.
General Description of Equipment
The equipment should be manufactured to ISO 9001 quality assurance
standard and should be factory tested prior to dispatch. These units should be
factory assembled which confirms to the following.
•
Air Filtration conforming to EU3 standards with 50mm thick disposable
pleated cell filters fitted on the return airside of the evaporator coil and having
a maximum efficiency of 30%.
•
Cabinet conforming to Class 1 BS 476 Part 6 & 7 standards.
•
Electric Re-heater should be operating at black heat temperature and
should be protected against airflow failure and overheat cutout.
•
Humidifier should be capable of having an adjustable capacity control
ranging from 40%-100%. The steam cylinder should be constructed from
high temperature and should be suitable for operation on mains water
without use of a break tank. The humidifier should be equipped with an
automatic water supply and flushing system.
•
Power Panel should be capable of operating at 420V, 3 phases, and
50Hz electrical supply and should be capable of withstanding voltage
variation of ±5%. A main isolator should be provided and sized accordingly
to meet the systems total power requirements.
Within the panel individual
power loads should be distributed equally across the three phases and
all individual wires should be color-coded and numbered to facilitate ease of
servicing.
Precision Air Conditioning systems specifically designed for stringent environmental
control
with automatic
monitoring
and
control
of
cooling,
heating,
humidification, dehumidification and air filtration function should be installed.
The server room should have an emergency panic latch door with automatic alarm
system. The vendor should provide a fireproof cabinet to store on-site backup
tapes taken daily, weekly, monthly and half-yearly. Walls for the Data Centre
should be Fire-Rated to prevent any further spread of fire.
1.2 Microprocessor controller Panel
The control panel makes it easy for the user to have all the data and factors
available in a precise, clear, and easy to understand manner at all times. The
display panel should be located on the front of the unit with LCD display for
monitoring and alarm indication of the followings.
•
Status indication
•
Cooling on
•
Electric heating on
•
Humidifier on
•
Dehumidifier on
•
Alarm Indication with Visual & Audible
•
Power failure
•
Fan overload
•
Humidifier power fault
•
Humidifier control fault
•
Heater fault
•
Airflow failure
•
Change filter
•
Control circuit trip
•
Return air temperature / RH out of range
•
Supply air temperature out of range
•
Return air humidity sensor alarm
•
Return air temp. Sensor alarm
•
Data Error
•
Service alarm
•
Electric heater alarm
•
Microprocessor fault
•
Humidifier flood
•
Water leakage alarm
•
Smoke alarm
The Control panel should provide comprehensive alarms & status indications,
having the following functions: •
Graphical display of temperature and humidity curves over the last 24-hour.
•
Self-diagnostic functionality.
•
Supply air fan surge to let fan continue on operation for a period of 180 second
before total shutdown.
•
An automatic changeover for duty / standby unit’s base on time interval setting
and any failure of duty unit.
•
An automatic restart function with sequence start program to prevent power
surge during start-up on multi-system installation.
•
A graphic display to review the return air temperature and humidity condition.
•
Comprehensive event storage system by date and time of occurrence.
•
Should be capable of connecting to tele-monitoring systems and other building
management systems by means of an open interface.
•
Simple user-friendly operating guidance.
1.3 Electrical System
1.3.1 Availability for distribution system:
The distribution system should meet with tier – I requirements and should have
enough provision to scale up if required in a later stage. It should have provision for
Dual Bus configuration in order
to
have
dual
power
supplies
to
each
rack, thus minimizing downtime during maintenance operations. Dual feeders
should also be provided for incoming feed from the main feeder.
1.3.2 Redundancy:
Power Supply for each rack should be from different power sources. The
concept is based on n + 1 redundancy, where n is the number of systems
or main items of equipment required to maintain the specified operational
requirements. That means, failure of a single such system or equipment item can
be tolerated.
1.3.3 Switchboard
All switchboards should be designed to support non-linear load with neutral
conductors at least 1.7 times or 2x phase/line conductors, this is as per IEEE11001999 specifications. Panel boards should be divided into two, one from UPS and
the other from generator. These panels should be installed separately in their
respective zones.
Incoming electrical lines should have primary and secondary Transient Voltage
Surge Suppressors (TVSS) installed, primary TVSS just after the Main LT
switchboard and secondary just before the UPS. The primary should take care
of very high transients (kilovolt range) caused by lightning strikes or HT surges and
the secondary should take care of what ever manages to pass through
(several hundred volts in range) the primary TVSS.
1.3.4 Lighting:
Adequate illumination (Lux) should be designed for the Data Centre. The
illumination can be divided into two zones; specific rooms & other areas. Power
source for lighting in these specific rooms should be from Emergency Panel for high
availability purpose.
10% of the power for lighting in other areas should be from emergency
panel and the rest from direct electricity board. Emergency panel should supply
lighting on Walkway and emergency exit path.
Lighting on rack area and cage area need to be adjusted in order to eliminate
lighting in un-proper areas such as over the top of the rack for the purpose of
energy saving and cost saving.
1.3.5 Grounding:
Design of grounding should be a single ground system with separated ground
window for power and data conforming to international standards.
1.3.6 UPS System:
UPS System design concept is based on redundancy and availability, with trueonline system. To support the dual bus system configuration, two units of UPS
should be installed. The Zone A
area should be having two parallel
redundant UPS and other areas like NOC and help desk should have
another UPS system. Dual redundant UPS systems will take care of following
needs •
Computers within the Data Center
•
NOC equipment/ Workstations
•
Emergency Lighting
•
Access Control / Fire Detection, suppression / surveillance system
The
solution
should
be
automatic
with
power
supply
from
the
transformer as the primary source and automatic switchover to DG set
as a secondary source for the data centre. Earthing should be provided
from the electrical room control panel to the Earthing pits.
1.3.7 Generator
The Data Centre should have generator set to take care of high availability.
The generator should have adequate capacity to supply to full load specifications.
1.3.8 Surge Protection System
Surge protection should be installed at switchboard to suppress surge and EMI
conforming to IEEE62.41 and UL1283.
1.3.9 AMF Panel
The Data Centre should have an AMF Panel connecting the DG, UPS such that
automatic switchover takes place during power failure.
1.4 Surveillance
1.4.1 Video Surveillance
Video Surveillance or CCTV System has to be provided mainly for security
purposes. Adequate units of cameras should be installed to cover all areas
of the Data Centre and premise surveillance. All these cameras should be
coupled with motion sensors so that cameras can start recording only when
they detect movement in the corresponding area. All the data should be
recorded in digital format onto hard disk/Tapes for future investigation. There
should be a central monitoring room to monitor the movement in the Data Centre &
premises.
1.4.2 Access Control
Proximity card reader
and
proximity
access
control system
should
be
installed with its software for monitoring the access of individual persons in the
Data
Centre. This should be installed inside as well as outside the Level 2
premises.
Biometric authentication should be deployed at the main access door of the
server room area (Level 3). This device should support fingerprint scanning and
numeric authentication.
1.5 Civil Work Specification
1.5.1 Raised floor and insulation
Cement fill raised floor panel with anti-static finish should be installed on boltedstringer system in order to maintain more rigidness and stability for the
concentrate load and rolling load. This type of system is better for frequent panel
movement.
Insulation
under
the
raised
floor
should
be
provided
to
prevent
the
condensation caused by down-flow conditioning within DC area and network
area. Perforate panels should be provided for at least 10% of total DC area and
network area.
Galvanized coating for materials such as ceiling grids, raised floor supports,
etc should be electroplated galvanized. This is to avoid zinc whiskers or metallic
contamination.
1.5.2 Water Leak Detection System
Sensing cable should be installed along room perimeter especially along the
glass windows, and wall area, toilet adjacency area, and under air condition units
in order to sense liquid leakage.
1.5.3 Fire Detection
Industry standard ionization and photoelectric detectors should be installed all over
the Data Center area. A separate fire alarm panel should be deployed for Data
Centre area. In case of fire detection, this panel should communicate the alarm
signal to the master fire panel that monitors the entire premise. It should also have
the capability to send audio/visual signal at security area.
The whole system should have fire detection and alarm panels along with manual
call stations. For added protection,
Very
Early
Smoke
Detection
System
(VESDA) should be installed for the server room area only. The technology is
based on lasers and very effective for detecting fire possibilities.
1.5.4 Fire Suppression
The entire Data Centre is divided into two major areas, critical and non-critical. The
critical area consists of server room (Zone A) and non-critical areas consist of other
areas (Zone B, C).
NFPA standard 2001 compliant fire suppression system should be installed
for Zone A. For other areas, hand-held fire fighting devices should be
installed at accessible locations; these are primarily CO2 gas based Fire
Extinguishers.
1.5.5 Pest Control & Rodent Repellent & System
Pest Control system should be provided for the entire Data Centre & Rodent
repellant
system
should
be provided mainly in areas where false flooring is
provided within the Data Centre. The electronic Repellent system
provided
space
in
such
a
manner
so
as
to
protect
the
entire
shall
be
volume
of
under consideration including above false ceiling, below false ceiling and
below false floor.
1.5.6 Architectural Work
Architectural design of the Data Centre should be done considering the following
key parameters areas:
•
Space Planning
•
Lighting
•
Redundancy
factors
•
Color Scheme
Idea of area zoning for the architecture is based
on the security purpose
and practical situation. Customer accessible area should be near to the
reception counter, an existing area. This is the first cut off area for visitors. NOC
room and monitoring rooms should be located just after the reception and
should have proximity card security. Ease of accessibility and scalability
should be taken into consideration for designing the rooms. Permanent lighting
fixtures should be installed to give lighting intensity of approximately 350-400 Lux.
A separate entrance is recommended for access to UPS/Power room, and
client room maintenance. The technician and engineers will frequent these areas.
Access to Data Centre can be from main entrance near NOC room, and
from monitoring room. For bringing in racks and systems, a dual door of at
least 6ft wide should be provided. In normal operation this door should be
closed and locked. Access control mechanism would not be required for this door
or this door can be used as emergency exit and emergency door opening system.
1.5.7 Monitoring System
The monitoring system for all the installed equipments should be installed in
one
centralized
panel
at NOC room, which can monitor the following
equipment(s):
•
Water leak Detection
•
On and Off of Air-conditioning system, and its alarm
•
Humidity and Temperature
All the systems proposed should be connected to a BMS system. Planning for the
BMS should accordingly be carried out.
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