BohrmannDeckblatt 22-08 - E-LIB Bremen
aus dem Fachbereich Geowissenschaften
der Universität Bremen
No. 261
Bohrmann, G., T. Pape, and cruise participants
REPORT AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF R/V METEOR CRUISE M72/3,
ISTANBUL – TRABZON – ISTANBUL, 17 MARCH – 23 APRIL, 2007.
MARINE GAS HYDRATES OF THE EASTERN BLACK SEA.
Berichte, Fachbereich Geowissenschaften, Universität Bremen, No. 261, 176 pages,
Bremen 2007
ISSN 0931-0800
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Citation:
Bohrmann, G., T. Pape, and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of R/V METEOR Cruise M72/3, Istanbul – Trabzon – Istanbul,
17 March – 23 April, 2007. Marine gas hydrates of the Eastern Black Sea.
Berichte, Fachbereich Geowissenschaften, Universität Bremen, No. 261, 176 pages. Bremen, 2007.
ISSN 0931-0800
R/V METEOR
Cruise Report M72/3
Marine gas hydrates of the Eastern Black Sea
M72, Leg 3a
Istanbul – Trabzon, 17 March – 3 April, 2007
M72, Leg 3b
Trabzon – Istanbul, 3 – 23 April, 2007
Cruise within the framework of the BMBF/DFG
special programme GEOTECHNOLOGIEN:
“METRO – Methane and methane hydrates within the Black Sea: Structural
analyses, quantification and impact of a dynamic methane reservoir”
Edited by
Gerhard Bohrmann and Thomas Pape
with contributions of cruise participants
The cruise was performed by
the Research Center Ocean Margins, University of Bremen, Germany
R/V METEOR Cruise Report M72/3
Table of contents
Preface
Personel aboard R/V METEOR M72/3
1
3
1
7
7
9
Introduction and geological background……………………………………………..
1.1
1.2
2
Objectives
Black Sea overview
Cruise narrative and weather……….………………………………………………...
2.1
2.2
3
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
5
Cruise track chart overview
Weather
Multibeam swathmapping……………………………………………………………..
21
Subbottom profiling and plume imaging……………………………………………..
25
25
25
31
Introduction
Methods
Flare imaging during M72/3b
Sidescan sonar operations……………………………………………………………..
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3
6
Objectives
Methods
Deployments
Preliminiary results
Gudauta Ridge
Batumi Seeps
Dvurechenskii Mud Volcano
Seismic investigations …………………………………………………………………
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
6.3.4
6.3.5
7
Objectives
Multichannel seismic equipment
Preliminary results
Gudauta Seep Area
Batumi Seep Area
Andrusov Ridge
Dvurechenskii Mud Volcano
Kerch Strait
Remotely operated vehicle……………………………………………………………..
7.1
7.2
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.2.3
7.2.4
7.2.5
7.2.6
7.2.7
7.2.8
7.2.9
12
12
18
Technical performance
Dive observations and protocols
Dive 155 (Colkheti Seep)
Dive 156 (Batumi Seep)
Dive 157 (Batumi Seep)
Dive 158 (‘Egorov Flare’ Site)
Dive 159 (Dvurechenskii Mud Volcano)
Dive 160 (Dvurechenskii Mud Volcano)
Dive 161 (Vodyanitskii Mud Volcano)
Dive 162 (Batumi Seep)
Dive 163 (Batumi Seep)
33
33
33
35
36
36
36
38
40
40
40
45
45
47
51
52
54
57
57
60
62
64
67
69
72
75
77
80
82
8
In situ sediment and bottom water temperature measurements……………………
8.1
8.2
8.2.1
8.2.2
8.2.3
8.3
8.3.1
8.3.2
8.3.3
9
Introduction
Materials and methods
Long-term temperature observation using a gravity corer equipped with thermistor strings
ROV-operated temperature lance
Autonomous bottom water temperature loggers mounted on ROV "QUEST4000m"
Preliminary results
In situ sediment temperature measurements
Bottom water temperature
First results from the long-term observation at Dvurechenskii Mud Volcano
Autoclave tools……………………………………….…………………………………
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.3.1
9.3.2
9.3.3
10
10.1
10.2
10.2.1
10.2.2
10.2.3
10.2.4
10.2.5
10.2.6
10.2.7
10.3
10.4
10.4.1
10.4.2
10.4.3
10.4.4
11
11.1
11.2
11.2.1
11.2.2
12
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.4.1
12.4.2
12.5
13
13.1
13.2
14
Introduction
Materials and methods
Preliminary results
DAPC I deployments
DAPC II deployments
GBS deployments
Geological sampling and sedimentology……………………………………………...
Geological sampling equipment
Sedimentological core descriptions
Batumi Seep Area
Iberia Mound
Pechori Mound
Colkheti Seep
Gudauta High
Sorokin Trough
Kerch Strait
Computerised tomography of gas-hydrate-bearing cores
Visualization, sampling, and on-board analyses of gas hydrates
Gas hydrate distribution and fabrics analysed by computerised tomographic imaging
Sampling strategy of gas hydrate specimen
Gas chemical compositions
Theoretical stability of gas hydrates at the working areas
Pore water geochemistry………………………………………………………………
Introduction
Results and discussion
Dvurechenskii Mud Volcano
Batumi Seep Area
Gas chemical compositions…………………………………………………………….
Introduction
Samples
Gas analyses
Preliminary results
Seep areas offshore Georgia
Mud volcanoes in the Sorokin Trough
Conclusions
Distribution and carbon isotopic composition of lipid biomarkers…………………
Introduction
Samples and methods
References
85
85
85
85
85
86
87
87
99
90
91
91
91
94
94
94
94
95
95
97
99
101
101
102
102
102
104
105
108
108
109
110
111
114
114
115
115
118
119
119
119
121
121
121
124
125
126
126
126
128
Appendix
A1
A 2.1
A 2.2
A 2.3
A 2.4
A3
A4
A5
Station list
Positions of Gudauta seeps detected during M72/3b
Positions of Pechori seeps detected during M72/3b
Positions of Kerch Strait seeps during M72/3a and b
Positions of Dvurechenskii seeps detected during M72/3b
MTU seismic survey profile list
List of gravity corer (GC), Dynamic Autoclave Piston Corer (DAPC, I + II), multicorer (MUC),
and minicorer (MIC) stations performed during cruise M72/3a and 3b
Sedimentological core descriptions
A 11
A 10
A 10
A 11
A 16
A 17
A 20
A 22
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Preface
PREFACE
Starting the journey from Istanbul, Turkey on 17 March, R/V METEOR was scheduled for interdisciplinary work on gas hydrates in the Black Sea. During the first leg, the ship operated in two areas named
the Sorokin Trough in Ukraine and the Gurian Trough in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Georgia.
After a mid-leg stop in the harbour of Trabzon, Turkey on 3/4 April, the research vessel started the second
leg again in Georgian waters (Fig. 1). Research work was performed in the southwestern part of Gudauta
Ridge southwest of Suchumi followed by activities on Kobuleti Ridge in the Gurian Trough area (Fig. 1)
west of Batumi and Poti. On the way to the Sorokin Trough, seep exploration was conducted on the deeper
part of Andrusov Ridge in Turkish waters. Final research activities in Ukrainian waters were focused on
Dvurechenskii mud volcano and the southwestern continental margin of the Kerch Strait (Fig. 1). The research cruise ended on 23 April in the harbour of Istanbul.
Fig. 1: Cruise track of R/V METEOR cruise M72/3.
The overarching goal of the research activities during Legs M72/3a and 3b was a better understanding of
the distribution and dynamics of methane and gas hydrates in sediments of the Black Sea, as well as the
origin of methane and its fluxes from the sediment to the water column. The main focus was laid on the
gas hydrate transition zone, i.e. in water depths of about 750 m and deeper, where the boundary of the
methane hydrate stability field and the sea floor overlap. However, the results of pre-examinations demonstrated that gas hydrates might even develop in sediments of mud volcanoes in the deep Black Sea very
close to the gas hydrate stability curve, since elevated heat fluxes and the presence of relatively saline
waters lead to a shift of the gas hydrate stability field.
The main program that had been set up was the BMBF joint project METRO, “Methane and methane
hydrates within the Black Sea: Structural analyses, quantification and impact of a dynamic methane
reservoir”, funded in the framework of the special programme ‘Geotechnologies’ within the subject area
1
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Preface
‘Methane in the geo-/biosystem’. The project METRO is also embedded in the German-Russian agreement on ‘Co-operations on the realm of marine and polar research’. The activities of MARGASCH II are
based on former expeditions with R/V POSEIDON P317/4 and R/V PROFESSOR LOGACHEV TTR-15
in 2004 and 2005, respectively, and represent the terminal phase of data acquisition.
Fig. 2: Research vessel METEOR. View from outside (left) and view from the bridge to the working deck (right).
R/V METEOR cruise M72/3 was a highly interdisciplinary approach which brought together an international group of scientists from institutions within Germany and countries around the Black Sea (Turkey,
Ukraine, Georgia, Russia). The cruise and research programme were planned, coordinated, and carried out
by the Earth Sciences Department and the DFG-Research Center Ocean Margins at University of Bremen.
Detailed knowledge on local distribution and behaviour of the seeps was contributed by Prof. Michael K.
Ivanov and his group from Moscow State University. The German embassies in Tbilisi, Ankara and Kiev
and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Berlin helped in obtaining the permissions necessary to work in
Georgian, Turkish and Ukrainian waters of the Black Sea. Thanks to all of them.
Fig. 3: Images taken during R/V METEOR cruise M72/3 in the Black Sea: ROV "QUEST4000m" on the
working deck during a pre-dive check before deployment (left), CT-laboratory (right).
The cruise was financed in Germany by the German Federal Ministery of Education and Science (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, BMBF; grant 03G0604A)) and by the German Research
Foundation (DFG). The shipping operator (Reederei F. Laeisz GmbH, Bremerhaven) provided technical
support on the vessel in order to accommodate the large variety of technical challenges required for the
complex sea-going operations. We would like to especially acknowledge both masters of the vessel,
2
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Preface
Niels Jakobi and Uwe Pahl, and her crew for their continued contribution to a pleasant and professional
atmosphere aboard R/V METEOR.
Fig. 3, continuation: Positioning of the multichannel seismic streamer (left); maintenance of the Dynamic
Autoclave Piston Corers (right).
Personel aboard R/V METEOR M72/3
Table 1: Scientific crew.
Name
Working group
Affiliation
Participation
Friedrich Abegg
Sarah Althoff
Yuriy G. Artemov
Marlene Bausch
André Bahr
Gerhard Bohrmann
Anke Bleyer
Markus Brüning
Baris Bozkaya
Steven Bucklew
Klaus Dehning
Bettina Domeyer
Noemi Fekete
Phillip Franke
Sascha Fricke
Phillip Forte
Kornelia Gräf
Hasan Güney
Savas Gürcay
Gregor von Halem
Hans-Jürgen Hohnberg
Daniel Hüttich
Bettina Domeyer
Deniz Karaca
Stephan A. Klapp
Autoclave team
Hydroacoustic team
Hydroacoustic team
Geochemical team
Geology team
Chief scientist
Geochemistry team
Hydroacoustic team
Geochemistry team
ROV team
Autoclave team
Geochemistry team
Seismic team
ROV team
Seismic team
ROV team
Autoclave team
Seismic team
Hydroacoustic team
Autoclave team
Autoclave team
ROV team
Geochemistry team
Geochemistry team
Geology team
RCOM, Bremen
RCOM, Bremen
IBSS, Sevastopol
RCOM, Bremen
NIOZ, Texel
RCOM, Bremen
IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel
RCOM, Bremen
TPAO, Ankara
CSSF, Sidney,
MARUM, Bremen
IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel
RCOM, Bremen
MARUM, Bremen
RCOM, Bremen
WHOI, USA
RCOM, Bremen
TPAO, Ankara, Turkey
TPAO, Ankara
RCOM, Bremen
RCOM, Bremen
MARUM, Bremen
IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel
IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel
RCOM, Bremen
Leg 3b
Leg 3a & b
Leg 3a & b
Leg 3b
Leg 3b
Leg 3a & b
Leg 3b
Leg 3a & b
Leg 3a
Leg 3a
Leg 3b
Leg 3b
Leg 3b
Leg 3a
Leg 3b
Leg 3a
Leg 3b
Leg 3b
Leg 3b
Leg 3a & b
Leg 3a & b
Leg 3a
Leg 3b
Leg 3a
Leg 3a & b
3
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Preface
Table 1, continuation: Scientific crew.
Name
Working group
Affiliation
Participation
Hanno Keil
Ingo Klaucke
Elena Kozlova
Stephanie Kusch
Anh Hoang Mai
Vasileios Mavromatis
Aneta Nikolovska
Thomas Pape
Benedikt Preu
Janet Rethemeyer
Michael Reuter
Heiko Sahling
F. Schmidt-Schierhorn
Thorsten Schott
Florian Scholz
Shouye Yang
Christian Seiter
Volkhard Spiess
Regina Surberg
Klaus Wallmann
Marcel Zarrouk
Anna Zotova
Beka Zebedashvilli
Seismic team
Sidescan sonar team
Sedimentology team
Geochemistry team
Autoclave team
Geochemistry team
Hydroacoustic team
Geochemistry team
Seismic team
Geochemistry team
ROV team
ROV mapping
Geology team
Sidescan sonar team
Geochemistry team
Hydroacoustic team
ROV team
Seismic team
Geochemistry team
Geochemistry team
ROV team
Hydroacoustic team
Hydroacoustic team
RCOM, Bremen
IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel
MSU, Moscow
AWI, Bremerhaven
MARUM, Bremen
IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel
RCOM, Bremen
RCOM, Bremen
RCOM, Bremen
AWI, Bremerhaven
MARUM, Bremen
RCOM, Bremen
RCOM, Bremen
OKTOPUS
IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel
TJU, Shanghai
MARUM, Bremen
RCOM, Bremen
IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel
IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel
MARUM, Bremen
MSU, Moscow
TSU, Tbilisi, Georgia
Leg 3b
Leg 3b
Leg 3a
Leg 3b
Leg 3a
Leg 3a
Leg 3a
Leg 3a & b
Leg 3b
Leg 3a
Leg 3a
Leg 3a
Leg 3a
Leg 3b
Leg 3a
Leg 3b
Leg 3a
Leg 3b
Leg 3b
Leg 3a
Leg 3a
Leg 3b
Leg 3b
Fig. 4: Groups of scientists and technicians sailed during Legs M72/3a (left) and M72/3b (right).
Participating institutions
AWI
CSSF
DEU
4
Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung, 27570
Bremerhaven, Germany
Canadian Scientific Submersible Facility, Sidney, Canada
Dokuz Eylul University, Depart. of Geophysics and Institute of Marine
Sciences and Technology, Baku Bulvari No. 32, 35340 Izmir, Turkey
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
DWD
Preface
Deutscher Wetterdienst, Geschäftsfeld Seeschiffahrt, Bernhard-Nocht-Straße
76, 20359 Hamburg, Germany
A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, Ukrainian
Academy of Scienes, 2 Nakhimov Av., 99011 Sevastopol, Ukraine
Leibniz-Institut für Meeresforschung an der Christian-Albrechts-Universität,
Wischhofstr. 1-3, 24148 Kiel, Germany
Geology and geochemistry of fuel minerals, Geological faculty
Moscow State University, Vorobjevy Crory, Moscow, Russia
Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research P.O.Box 59, 1790 AB Den
Burg, Texel, The Netherlands
Oktopus GmbH, Kieler Str. 51, 24594 Hohenweststedt, Germany
Tongji University, State key laboratory of marine geology. Shanghai 200092,
China
Turkish Petroleum Company, Exploration Group, Mustafa Kemal Mah. 2.cad.
No: 86, 06520 Ankera, Turkey
Faculty of Geography, Seismometrical Laboratory, Tbilisi State University,
Chavchavadeze str. 1, Tbilisi, Georgia
MARUM / DFG-Forschungszentrum Ozeanränder University of Bremen,
Postfach 30440, 28334 Bremen, Germany
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institutions, Woods Hole, MA 02543-1050, USA
IBSS
IFM-GEOMAR
MSU
NIOZ
OKTOPUS
TJU
TPAO
TSU
RCOM/MARUM
WHOI
Table 2: Crew members onboard R/V METEOR.
Name
Work onboard
Name
Work onboard
Niels Jakobi
Uwe-Klaus Klimeck
Thomas Wunderlich
Stefan Räbisch
Jörg Walter
Olaf Willms
Katja Pfeiffer
Alexander Ruhtke
Uwe Pahl
Eugen Müller
Thorsten Truscheit
Peter Hadamek
Kai Rabenhorst
Bernd Neitzsch
Matthias Pomplun
Björn Pauli
Günther Stänger
Günther Ventz
Jonathan Gröhnke
Master
Officer
Officer
Officer
Chief Electronics
Electronics
System operator
Surgeon
Master
Meteorologist
Weather technician
Boatswain
Seaman
Seaman
Seaman
Seaman
Seaman
Seaman
Trainee
Volker Hartig
Uwe Schade
Ralf Heitzer
Rudolf Freitag
Joachim Stenzler
Carsten Heitmann
Frank Sebastian
Uwe Szych
Michael Both
Rainer Götze
Jan Hoppe
Peter Eller
Franz Grün
Willy Braatz
Seng-Choon Ong
Robin Fischer
Hartmut Guse
Wolf-Thilo Ochsenhirt
Alexander Reuss
Chief Engineer
Engineer
Engineer
Electrician
Fitter
Motorman
Motorman
Motorman
Chief steward
Steward
Steward
Steward
Chief cook
Cook
Launderer
Trainee
Seaman
Weather technician
Trainee
Participating companies
Reederei F. Laeisz GmbH
"Haus der Schiffahrt", Lange Straße 1a, D-18055 Rostock, Germany
FIELAX
Gesellschaft für wissenschaftliche Datenverarbeitung mbH, Schifferstrasse
10 – 14, 27568 Bremerhaven, Germany
5
6
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
1
1 Introduction
Introduction and geological background
(G. Bohrmann)
1.1
Objectives
Methane is twenty times more effective as a greenhouse gas than CO2, however, its concentration within
the atmosphere is much smaller. In contrast, methane generated by microbial decay and thermogenic
breakdown of organic matter seems to be a large pool in geological reservoirs. Numerous features such as
shallow gas accumulations, pockmarks, seeps, and mud volcanoes are present in a wide variety of oceanographic and geological environments (Judd, 2003). Release and uptake of methane by such sources may
provide positive and negative feedback to global warming and/or cooling and are therefore focal points of
current research (Kvenvolden, 1998).
Studying methane emission sites will elucidate how stable these reservoirs are and how the pathways to
the atmosphere are working. Because of their high methane density, gas hydrates are of special interest,
when they occur close to the seafloor. Previous investigations have shown that hydrates generate extremely high and variable fluxes of methane to the overlying water column due to their exposed position close
to the sediment/water interface. Not only do they influence their immediate environment, but they may
also contribute substantially to the transfer of methane to the atmosphere.
Shallow gas hydrates, potentially associated with free gas, are known from sediments in several areas and
are of specific interest in the Black Sea where a large number of active methane emission sites exist. New
investigations on mud volcanoes have shown that even deep at the stability field in 2,000 m depth hydrates
are very close to their stability limit and may serve as emission sites (Bohrmann et al., 2003). Most of the
few studies dealing with this phenomenon were made without using appropriate pressurized sampling
techniques and are therefore of limited value. Because of the sensitivity of gas hydrate stability and the
connection of methane to environmental change, pressurized autoclave sampling technology and investigations and experiments under in situ conditions are essential for constraining the potential of environmental hazards from methane in sediments. The technical application of the autoclave tools was performed to better understand the dynamics of gas and gas hydrates within the Black Sea. Furthering our
understanding using the autoclave technology was the focus of this cruise and this aided several subprojects in accomplishing their specific research objectives.
The focus of the METRO program is to investigate near-surface methane and methane hydrates in the
Black Sea in order to understand their origin, structure, and behavior as well as their interaction with the
sedimentary and oceanic environment. This is critical for evaluating and quantifying their importance in
the global carbon cycle. Research activities of METRO are concentrated in the Black Sea for various
reasons. It is the largest anoxic basin with much higher methane concentrations than in any other marginal
sea. Sediments of 10-19 km thickness reveal a large potential reservoir for methane generation and
hundreds of methane emission sites are known from water column investigations performed by our
Russian and Ukrainian colleagues. In addition, fluid venting, active mud volcanoes pockmarks, and gasbearing sediments have been discovered and reported in the literature (Ivanov et al., 1998; Bouriak and
Akhmezjanov, 1998). It was in the Black Sea and Caspian Sea that samples of gas hydrates were first
recovered from marine sediments (Yefremova and Zhizchenko, 1974). Based on the stability field of
methane hydrate, areas deeper than 750 m water depth are of particular interest.
7
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
1 Introduction
Fig. 5: Black Sea map with track lines of former gas hydrate cruises R/V METEOR M52/1,
R/V POSEIDON cruise P317/4 and R/V PROFESSOR LOGACHEV cruise TTR-15.
R/V METEOR cruise M72/3 followed several other research cruises (Fig. 5) to the Black Sea conducted
over the course of the last couple of years and it was the last cruise within the BMBF initiatives OMEGA
and METRO. Using different techniques of seafloor mapping (multibeam bathymetry, deep-towed
sidescan sonar, and video observation), the aim of the METRO project was to identify and map various
facies and environments that are related to near-surface gas hydrates and methane seeps off the coast of
Georgia, Ukraine, Russia, and Turkey. Besides the need for quantification of the total amount of methane
bound in gas hydrates, it is important to determine the portion of gas hydrates and free gas that are
reactive. Hydrates occur in the subseafloor from several tens of meters below the sediment surface down
to the base of the methane hydrate stability field, which is reached around 500 m sediment depth in the
deep Black Sea area (Bohrmann et al.; 2003). Gas released from the seafloor or hydrate outcrops are
known from a few locations, where they may interact with the ocean or even reach the atmosphere in the
form of gas bubbles. The determination of the extent of these 'reactive' locations and understanding their
formation is crucial in assessing the potential impact of gas hydrates and their dissociation on the isotopic
chemistry of the ocean and on climate.
Previously, mud volcanoes in the central part of the Black Sea and the Sorokin Trough were investigated
during R/V METEOR cruise M52/1 (MARGASCH I, January 2002). In addition, other seeps, like gas and
oil seeps in various geological settings, were investigated in the Gurian Trough area (Sahling et al., 2004,
Klaucke et al., 2005; Akhmetzhanov et al., 2007). During METRO-cruises we used pressurized sampling
techniques and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). Since gas hydrates react rapidly to changes in pressure
and temperature, pressurized autoclave sampling technology, and investigations and experiments under
in situ conditions are essential. Beside the Ocean Drilling Program, the technical development of these capabilities were first shown by the former project OMEGA and the applications of the autoclave technology greatly improved the understanding of gas hydrate dynamics (Abegg et al., 2003).
8
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
1 Introduction
Because the Black Sea water is anoxic at ~ 100 m below sea level, seep sites below that water depth show
no colonization by chemosynthetic clams or tube worms because of the lack of oxygen, which these organisms need for their symbiotic metabolism with bacteria. Other seep manifestations that help to identify
active venting are bacterial mats and carbonate buildups (Fig. 6, right), which form at seep sites because of
increased rates of anaerobic methane oxidation (Michaelis et al., 2002).
Fig. 6: Acoustic image from a gas bubble stream located in the Black Sea abyssal plain (left); depth
locations of gas flares detected and methane hydrate stability field in the Black Sea (middle; from
Egorov et al., 2003); metre-sized carbonate tower grown on a gas bubble site in the GHOSTABSfield (right; from Reitner et al., 2005).
During the last few years, gas bubble emanating from the seafloor were increasingly observed predominately in shallow water areas like the GHOSTABS-field in the Dneper paleo-delta (Artemov et al.,
2007). Free-gas releasing seeps were typically identified by hydroacoustic plumes in the water column
that show strong backscatter signals with flare-like shapes detected by single-beam echosounders (Fig. 6,
left). Those flares are often rooted at the seafloor where the gas seeps from the sediment deposits (Artemov et al., 2007).
1.2
Black Sea overview
The Black Sea is located north of Turkey and south of Ukraine and Russia. To the west it is bordered by
Romania and Bulgaria and to the east by Georgia. It is a marginal ocean with a water depth of 2-2.2 km.
The Black Sea is surrounded by Cenozoic mountain belts like the Great Caucasus, the Pontides, and the
Balkanides (Fig. 8; Robinson, 1997). Two deep basins, the western and eastern Black Sea basins, are
underlain by oceanic or thinned continental crust with a sediment cover of 10-19 km thickness (Tugolesov
et al., 1985).
The basins are separated by the Andrusov Ridge which is formed from continental crust and overlain by
only 5-6 km of sediment. The origin of the Black Sea is interpreted as a back-arc basin evolved during late
Cretaceous times (Nikishin et al., 2003).
9
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
1 Introduction
Fig. 7: Simplified tectonic map of the Arabia/Eurasia collision zone (from Rangin et al., 2002). The Eastern
Black Sea Basin is located directly north of the tectonic escape of Anatolia.
Fig. 8: Simplified tectonic map showing the major tectonic elements of the Black Sea (from Çifçi et al., 2003).
The area changed to a compressional regime during the Eocene and the tectonic evolution of the basin is
characterized by a subsidence history that resulted in the separation of the two basins (Nikishin et al.,
2003). Modern stress field observations from structural data, earthquake foci, stress field measurements
onshore in the Crimean and Caucasus regions, and GPS data show that the Black Sea region is still in a
dominantly compressional environment (Reilinger et al., 1997; Nikishin et al., 2003). The general source
of compression is the collision between the Arabian, Anatolian, and the Eurasian plates (Fig. 7).
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R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
1 Introduction
Fig. 9: Cross-sections through the West and East Black Sea basins, location map and stratigraphic columnar
sections for both basins from Nikishin et al., 2003).
Fig. 10: Crustal section through the Western Caucasus to the Eastern Black Sea. The profile is marked by
letter A in the map (from Ershov et al., 2003).
The Sorokin Trough is a foredeep basin of the Crimean Mountains belonging to the eastern basin of the
Black Sea. It forms a large depression, which is 150 km in length and 50 km in width southeast of the
Crimean Peninsula (Tugolesov et al., 1985). A large number of its mud volcanoes evolved from diapiric
zones in a compressional regime between the Cretaceous to Eocene blocks of the Tetyaev Rise and the
Shatskiy Ridge (Tugolesov et al., 1985). The sediments extruded in the mud volcanoes are clay-rich deposits from the Maikopian Formation that forms an Oligocene-Lower Miocene sequence of 4-5 km in thickness. The Maikopian Formation is overlain by at least 2-3 km thick Pliocene to Quaternary sediments
(Fig. 9). A second foredeep basin specially filled with thick Maikopian sediments forms the Tuapse
Trough which strikes parallel to the northeast coast of the Black Sea. Similar to the Sorokin Trough, the
basin was compressed between the Shatsky Ridge and the Greater Caucasus (Nikishin et al., 2003).
Sediments from the Caucasus fold belt are overthrusting deposits of the Tuapse basin to the west (Fig. 10).
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2
2.1
2 Cruise narrative
Cruise narrative and weather
Cruise narrative
(G. Bohrmann)
R/V METEOR sailed from the pier in Ambarli / Istanbul, Turkey at 8 a.m. local time on March 17, one
day later than planned. Before leaving Istanbul, R/V METEOR stayed 4 days in the port of Ambarli where
scientists and scientific equipment were exchanged. Scientists from Germany (from IFM-GEOMAR,
AWI, and the University of Bremen), USA, Canada, Turkey, Ukraine, and Russia embarked during March
14 and 15, and the time before the ship left port was used to install all the new equipment in the
laboratories of the vessel. Unfortunately, two containers had been delayed for two days, which postponed
the start of the cruise for at least one day. On Saturday, March 17, everything happened very quickly.
After we passed the Bosporus Strait, we had a two-day transit along the northern Turkish Coast to the
easternmost area of the Black Sea. We started station and mapping work on Monday, March 19, at the
continental margin of Georgia (station list in the Appendix). After collecting new multibeam bathymetry
data during the night, we started our first dive with the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) on Tuesday,
March 20, at Colkheti seep in 1100 m water depth (Fig. 11). During the past few days many repairs on
ROV "QUEST4000m" had been carried out by the ROV team.
Fig. 11: Map of Kobuleti Ridge showing locations of sampling (ROV sampling stations are not
included).
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The first ROV dive on Colkheti Seeps was successful and two further dives were run during the following
two days at locations in the area of Batumi seeps in 850 m water depth (Fig. 12). After finishing the diving
program with ROV "QUEST4000m" and the geological work at the Georgian continental margin, R/V
METEOR sailed north on a 28-hour-long transit to Ukrainian waters. We took advantage of the transit to
overcome a period of bad weather. We reached our area in Ukrainian waters on Friday, March 23, and
started with a survey south of Kerch Strait. Kerch Strait connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Azov
between the Kerch (Ukraine) and Taman (Russian) peninsulas. Free methane forms methane hydrate in
water depths greater than 750 m (i.e. within the gas hydrate stability field) or the gas escapes into the
water column in areas shallower than 750 m. Therefore, many sites where gas escapes from the seafloor,
like in the Batumi area, have been detected by the 18 kHz signal of the Parasound system.
Fig. 12: Map of Batumi seep area on Kobuleti Ridge showing locations of sampling (without ROV
sampling). The flares detected by the Kongsberg EM 710 multibeam echosounder are shown
by small circles. Flare clusters are defined by larger circles and a number.
The dive on Sunday, March 25 was on Dvurechenskii mud volcano (DMV) in the central Sorokin Trough
(Fig. 13). This program included a long-term experiment with a mooring on the seafloor in order to
measure temperature changes (Fig. 14). The mooring was deployed during the previous cruise M72/2 on
March 7, and during our re-visit three weeks later we recovered one of the temperature data loggers. The
second data logger is planned to measure temperature changes of the mud volcano over 3-4 years, in order
to understand long-term variations in the mud flow activities of the DMV. The temperature data measured
during the three week period already revealed temperature changes at the mud volcano and let us forecast
interesting results on temperature variations at the mud volcano for the future.
Besides the recovery of the date logger, push cores and temperature measurements with the T-stick were
taken along transects over the mud volcano. In order to establish a geological map, we performed video
documentation continuously and searched for gas emission sites, which have not been found. In addition
to the ROV work, the sediments of the mud volcano were sampled by the autoclave piston corer. This tool
takes a sediment core of up to 2.5 m length and keeps the gas and gas hydrate inside the sediments under
in situ pressure conditions. The autoclave tool also allows for a controlled degassing of the cores, which
enables us to quantify the amounts of gas and gas hydrate in the sediments. A gravity corer on the
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Vodyanitskii mud volcano (VMV), which is located close to DMV (Fig. 13), recovered the first gas
hydrate specimen, and so we decided to perform a one-day dive program on this structure on Wednesday
March 28. This dive was exciting in many aspects. One accomplishment of the dive was that we could
capture the first images of gas bubble release in 2000 m water depth in the Black Sea.
Fig. 13: Map of Sorokin Trough southeast of the Crimean Peninsula showing sampling stations of cruise
M72/3.
After one day of sailing from the Ukrainian Sorokin Trough to the Georgian continental margin offshore
Batumi we reached the area of Batumi seeps. In particular the EM710 multibeam system was used during
the first week at this location to detect gas bubble emanations over the entire 2-km wide swath. By using
this method, 150-250 individual gas seeps, which were clustered at 10 locations, were identified in an area
of 1.2 x 0.9 km at the Batumi seeps (Fig. 12). For the purpose of using the same names for locations, we
used numbers to identify these clusters (# 1 to # 10). During the dives in the Batumi seeps area, all ten
clusters were inspected and at each of them temporal changes in seepage activity were identified.
Besides regional mapping of bubble streams using all the systems of the ROV and the hull-mounted
echosounder systems on the ship, quantification of the gas emission amount from single bubble streams
was only possible by using the ROV "QUEST4000m". We therefore used various sizes of plastic bags
with known volumes to quantify gas release from a site. The bags were put on the bubble stream with the
aperture facing down, so that the upward moving gas was collected in the bag. After the ninth dive of the
ROV, the diving program of Leg M72/3a was concluded with a total bottom time of 80 hours. This
successful diving program included many highlights and gave us essential new insights into the fluid and
gas circulation on the sea bed of the Black Sea. The last two days of Leg 3a were dedicated to sample
sediment core collection from specific sites of interest.
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Fig. 14: Sample locations taken during R/V METEOR cruise M72/3 on Dvurechenskii mud volcano. Two
flare locations were detected at the end of the cruise.
At the end of Leg M72/3a R/V METEOR came to the port of Trabzon, Turkey on Tuesday, April 3, 2007
at 8:00 a.m. local time. Eighteen scientists, technicians, engineers, and ROV pilots disembarked in
Trabzon, and four containers including ROV "QUEST4000m" and its equipment were unloaded. Among
the equipment we took on board was a 13-m-long, 4-m-high and 22-ton heavy trailer, which contained two
completely installed labs for running medical computer-tomography (CT) scans. The CT-scanner was
used for imaging small-scale structures of gas-hydrate samples within the autoclave chambers. The work
in the port of Trabzon was finished by the end of the day and R/V METEOR started sailing with a new
scientific party at the end of that same day.
On Thursday, 5 April, mapping of sediments and bathymetry by Parasound and the EM120 started along
the Georgian continental margin, followed by a multichannel seismic survey over the Gudauta Ridge.
Acoustic anomalies (flares) had been detected in the water column during Leg M72/3a when bathymetric
profiling was carried out in this area. Further mapping revealed numerous flares on the summit and partly
along the flanks of the ridge. Flare locations and the bathymetric map of the area were used to establish a
plan for seismic profiling. Beside the seismic equipment, the deep-towed sidescan sonar from Kiel (DTS1) was used and showed seafloor anomalies at the flare locations. We also recovered a sediment core
highly saturated with gas from 690 m water depth, which based on temperature and pressure is not deep
enough to form gas hydrate (Fig. 15). Since all the flares that had been found occur above the stability
conditions of gas hydrates, we left Gudauta Ridge area on Friday evening and started to record an
overview multichannel seismic profile on the way to the Batumi seeps.
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Fig. 15: Profiles (Seismic and Sidescan Sonar) and sample locations during R/V METEOR cruise
M72/3 on Gudauta Ridge.
The gravity corer and both autoclave piston corers were used to sample gas hydrates at distinct locations
of flare clusters mapped during Leg M72/3b. Gravity coring during the afternoon on the Iberia mound was
successful (Fig. 11). During the night, high resolution sidescan sonar mapping using the 410 kHz and 75
kHz frequencies were carried out in the Batumi seep area. On Easter Sunday , April 08, we sampled a
further seep area, which is known as Pechori mound. Pechori mound is a pronounced seafloor elevation
with a diameter of about 3 km and stands approximately 50 m above the seafloor in 1100 m water depth.
Gravity coring successfully retrieved seep sediments from Pechori mound in which dispersed gas hydrates
were present (Fig. 11). In contrast to pure white hydrate the staining of oil leads to a more yellowish
colour of the Pechori hydrates. Sediment sampling in areas rich in gas hydrates was performed daily
during the day time, while seismic and sidescan sonar work was conducted during the night. A detailed,
high-resolution seismic survey with profiles only 25 m apart was started for 30 hours until Easter Monday,
April 09. This seismic data will be an important base for a future drilling campaign in the Batumi seep
area using the portable mobile drilling device MeBo developed at Bremen University.
On Friday, April 13, a last comprehensive sampling program along the Georgian continental margin was
run at Pechori mound, and at Colkheti and Batumi seeps (Fig. 11). The second part of the leg was planned
to investigate areas in Turkish and Georgian waters of the Black Sea. On Sunday afternoon we reached the
Sorokin Trough, where we first planned to combine a sidescan sonar survey together with a multichannel
seismic measurement over DMV. Since there was an increase in wind speed up to Beaufort 6 within a
short time of only 2 hours, we had to cancel the sidescan sonar deployment and run the seismic lines
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2 Cruise narrative
alone. In contrast to previous seismic profiles, these seismic records document very interesting details of
the inner structure of the mud volcano.
The following day was again dedicated to an extensive sediment sampling program on top of two mud
volcanoes (Fig. 13). After this working program was successfully finished we moved to the eastern
Sorokin Trough south of the Kerch Peninsula. To date there is no information on the presence of gas
hydrates in this area. A first survey using the hull-mounted sonar systems of R/V METEOR and seismic
profiling found evidence for gas expulsion. Gas flares were found in varying numbers and densities along
the entire continental slope above 750 m water depth. A maximum amount of flare activity occurred in the
western part. In order to tackle our gas hydrate questions we were mainly interested in finding flares along
the deeper parts of the slope below 750 m water depth. In the night from Wednesday, April 18 to
Thursday, April 19 a flare of more than 400 m height above the sea floor was found in 900 m water depth.
This location, which we called Kerch Flare, lies certainly within the gas hydrate stability field, meaning
that methane hydrates can form in the sediments. A first attempt in sampling gas hydrates using the
gravity corer was not successful, which can be explained by a non-homogenous distribution of gas
hydrates at the seep site. On Friday, April 20 and the following Saturday we had a very busy program,
because some scientific goals had not yet been reached, but needed to be reached before the return transit
to Istanbul. Unfortunately, gas hydrate sampling failed at the Kerch Flare site, and so, because of the short
remaining time, we decided to sample hydrates on VMV and DMV.
At these locations, we were immediately successful in sampling gas hydrates. Besides gravity core
sampling of gas hydrate specimen, which will be analyzed later in the lab, both dynamic autoclave piston
corers (DAPC I and DAPC II; Fig. 14) were used. These coring systems keep the samples under in situ
pressure conditions and so no gas is lost and no gas hydrates decompose on their way up through the water
column. Besides DAPC-I, which has been already successfully used in the past as well as during the
current cruise, the DAPC-II was a new development which allows us to subsample the 2.30-m-long
sediment core into several segments while maintaining the pressure. The advantage of subsampling the
core is that the subsamples allow quantifying the gas and gas hydrates for segments of the core. We were
able to cut the core under pressure for the first time, which represents a valuable achievement of project
METRO during the cruise. In addition the subsamples could be analyzed under pressure within the CTlab. The CT scanner which we loaded in the port of Trabzon was used intensively during the cruise. More
than 10,000 scans of gas hydrate samples were made.
Major goals for the CT-lab analyses were to inspect the internal fabric and the distribution of gas hydrates
within natural marine sediments. In the past it was believed that gas hydrates are distributed more or less
homogenously. Though in recent times there are more and more indications for different fabrics within
hydrates, which are not yet well documented. R/V METEOR cruise M72/3 obtained many new results in
this field. Among other things we could show vertical gas hydrate alignments over longer depth levels.
These alignments probably formed by the rise of free gas vertical to the bedding planes. The gas hydrates
filling the pathway of the gas ascent appear as long plates cutting through the sediments.
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Furthermore, in the night between Friday and Saturday we could use the sidescan sonar again, which had
problems with one of its transducers after the first three deployments and was then in repair during the last
couple of days. Thanks to the effort and experience of our sidescan sonar technician the instrument could
be used again and we were able to map the DMV. Surprisingly, two flares have been detected by sidescan
sonar on DMV in areas that showed no gas flares a day before on Parasound recordings. A new Parasound
profile run after the sidescan sonar survey confirmed the presence of two active flares. The flare on the
centre of DMV reached a height of 1100 m above the seafloor (Fig. 14). The flares have not been active
within the last 8 weeks, when R/V METEOR visited the mud volcano several times, but a major change in
activity apparently happened just a day before. This new finding provoked many discussions among the
cruise participants about the activity of the mud volcano, such as the intensity of mud flows, the frequency
of gas expulsions, and many other questions.
Since we had to start our way back to Istanbul around midnight there was no more chance to extend our
investigations of DMV. On Monday we left the Black Sea around 13:00 when we entered the Bosporus
Strait under nice, sunny skies. We passed along the old city of Istanbul and entered the Sea of Marmara
and the port of Ambarli.
2.2
Weather
M72/3a (17 March – 03 April, 2007)
(E. Müller)
The R/V METEOR Leg M72/3a was characterized by rather windy conditions, especially during the first
eleven days. From 17 March to 27 April at least temporary strong winds (e.g. wind speed of Bft 6-7) could
be observed on every day. During one day (23 March) the wind speed exceeded Bft 8. In comparison to
the climatology it was unusually windy. From 28 March to 03 April the winds were weaker, mostly
between Bft 3-4 with a few exceptions due to the local nocturnal east wind (Bft 5-6) off the coast of
Georgia.
On 17 March, when R/V METEOR left Instanbul, a weakening high pressure ridge over the Atlantic
provided sunshine and weak southwesterly winds of Bft 3-4, so good conditions for passing the Bosporus
Strait. But on the next day the weather changed significantly. A cold front passed the Black Sea from west
to east. It caused strong northwesterly winds up to Bft 7 and maximum waves of 3.5 m, which of course
supported the eastward travel of R/V METEOR. On 19 March, when the first working area, the Batumi
seep area, was reached, a new high pressure system built up over the Black Sea and caused a rapid drying
and stabilizing of the troposphere. The weak southwesterly wind shifted to a moderate easterly wind until
the evening. On the following days the anticyclone became stationary and was transformed in a so called
“omega-situation”, which blocked the frontal systems coming from the west. With the strong subsidence
the air temperature rose to 15 ºC. At the same time upstream of R/V METEOR, the coastal stations of
Georgia measured 20 ºC. With the easterly winds the air cooled down when it flowed over the relatively
cold sea surface (8.6 ºC). Simultaneously with the strengthening anticyclone over West Russia, a strong
pressure gradient developed along the east coast of the Black Sea that persisted till 22 March. During the
night, a strong easterly wind of Bft 6-7 blew and waves developed up to 3 m for a short time.
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In the morning the wind decreased to Bft 3-4 and in the following night it increased again. This interesting
phenomenon could be observed every night in the Batumi seep area. The strong pressure gradient forced
an ageostrophic wind down the valley from the Georgian capital Tiflis to the coast. Probably an additional
katabatic effect was also involved. On 23 March R/V METEOR left the Batumi seep area for transit to the
“Sorokin Trough” area southeast of the Crimean Peninsula. A fast, deepening low pressure system moved
from Greece to the Balkans against the blocking high over West Russia (Fig. 16). Therefore the pressure
gradient over the Black Sea increased significantly and the easterly winds grew rapidly up to Bft 8 in the
evening. On the following night, a wind speed of Bft 9 was measured for a short time and waves of 4 m
height were observed.
Fig. 16: Surface analysis (extract) of 24
March 2007, 00:00 UTC (DWD
Hamburg).
Fig. 17: Satellite image of NOAA-18, 27 March
2007, 10:18 UTC.
On the 24 March, the storm decreased rapidly down to Bft 4 in the morning. A swell of 2.5 m was left.
Very similar to the weather situation on 05 March during M72/2 a small secondary cyclone developed
near the Crimea peninsula on 25 March. The southwesterly wind Bft 5 shifted to northwest when the
centre of the low crossed the R/V METEOR position in the evening. On 26 March, the cyclone moved
further eastward and R/V METEOR came on the backside of the low. The wind turned to northeast and
increased up to Bft 7 inducing waves of 3 m height. With the colder continental air from Russia the
temperature dropped down to 4.5 ºC. On 27 March, the cyclone with its closed circulation was over the
eastern Black Sea. Therefore, the northeasterly winds persisted, but weakened to Bft 5. The cloud vortice
could be well recognized on the satellite picture (Fig. 17).
On 28 March, the small cyclone over the Black Sea moved slowly westwards along the southern edge of
the Russian high pressure system and filled up. As a consequence the strong northeasterly wind of Bft 7 in
the early morning decreased rapidly. At midday it was only Bft 4 and in the late evening Bft 2. On the 29th
of March, the day of transit to the Batumi working area off the coast of Georgia, the stationary anticyclone
over West Russia dominated the weather of the Black Sea, but with weak pressure gradients. Therefore
only weak westerly winds of Bft 2-3 could be observed. This weather situation did not change
significantly on 30 March. It resulted in a sunny day with very weak northwesterly winds and a sea almost
as smooth as glass. The water temperature in the Batumi area was 9.5 ºC. On 31 March, the West Russian
high lost its influence on the Black Sea and a low pressure system over south Italy extended to Turkey.
Therefore, the cloudiness increased successively and the temperature rose up to 16 ºC. On the following
three days, until the end of M72/3a in Trabzon (01 - 03 April 2007), a secondary low, which developed
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2 Cruise narrative
over the relatively warm eastern Black Sea, dominated the weather in the working area off Georgia. It was
mostly cloudy and rained from time to time. The prevailing wind direction was southwest with a wind
speed around Bft 4. The temperature decreased from 10 ºC to 8 ºC.
M72/3b (04 - 23 April, 2007)
(W.-T. Ochsenhirt)
R/V METEOR left the port of Trabzon in the evening of 04April heading for the eastern Black Sea. The
synoptic situation was characterized by a high over eastern Turkey with a ridge over southeastern Ukraine,
causing southeasterly winds about 3 Bft.
A low pressure system coming from southern Italy moved eastwards north of the working area of
R/V METEOR. The associated weather conditions encountered were some hours of rain and southeasterly
winds of 3 or 4 Bft veering westerly.
During the following days, under high pressure influence, the weather in the area of investigation off
Georgia was mainly calm and sunny with variable winds between 1 and 3 Bft and an extraordinary calm
sea. On 12 April, a coldfront crossed R/V METEOR causing rain for a longer period first, then showers,
but the wind speed did not exceed Bft 4. The same happened from 13 to 14 April with the passage of a
frontal trough of a low over Northwest Russia. R/V METEOR left this area heading for another area north
of Samsun. During the same day, the cruise was continued to the north where R/V METEOR arrived in
the evening. Shortly before arrival, a thick band of clouds brought heavy rainshowers for about 2 hours
and a northerly wind of 6 to 7 Bft. When the shower belt had moved away, the wind decreased to 2-3 Bft.
R/V METEOR remained in the area off the Crimean peninsula under high pressure influence with very
low wind speeds and a calm sea. The cloudiness was variable, sometimes short precipitation was
observed. On 19 April, the situation changed once more for a short time. A secondary depression over
Romania crossed our area and moved to the Caucasus. The northerly wind increased to 5 Bft associated
with showersqualls. On 21 April, the wind decreased again slowly and a new high pressure situation
became established. Thus the cruise to Istanbul was effected during calm weather. The voyage ended on
23 April.
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3
3 Multibeam swathmapping
Multibeam swathmapping
(M. Brüning, S. Althoff, Y.G. Artemov, A. Nikolovska)
The Kongsberg Simrad EM120 and EM710 multibeam echosounders installed on R/V METEOR were
used to survey the working areas in Georgia, Ukraine, and Turkey. Nighttime breaks in the sampling and
dive program during Leg M72/3a were used for surveys, and during Leg M72/3b the sonars ran parallel to
seismics and sidescan sonar profiles. The main parts of the working area in Georgia (Figs. 18 and 19), and
parts of the Ukrainian (Fig. 20) and Turkish (Fig. 21) areas are covered now by these new maps.
Fig. 18: Bathymetry of the Georgian working area. EM120 data of Cruise M72/3a and 3b processed with
IFREMER Caraibes software.
The ship speed during the large scale surveys was 8 kns. The opening-angle of the EM120 (12 kHz) multibeam echo sounder was usually 140°. The system allows a setting in which the coverage is limited whether by angle or the swath-width on the seafloor. This setting gave better results than the angle control
mode alone. Especially in deep water, the backscatter strength of the sediments was too weak to give exact
depth discriminations for wide angle returns. The limitation to a certain value in metres allowed excluding
those inaccurate returns in deep water, while a large angle allowed for a good coverage of the seafloor in
shallow water. This is because the swath-width is narrower due to the smaller distance between the ship
and the seafloor. Coverage limits were chosen based on the backscatter quality and varied between 3 and
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3 Multibeam swathmapping
10 km. The 191 beams available were distributed to yield an equidistant spacing on the seafloor. Simrad
provides a yaw correction, which directs the beams according to the mean heading. This decreases the actual beam number slightly for the optimization of full coverage along and across the track. On transits with
speeds up to 12 kns the EM120 was running, but gave rather bad results, especially for the outer beams.
The wider the angle of the beams, the larger was the shift downwards.
Fig. 19: Detailed bathymetry based on EM120 data of the working area offshore southern Georgia.
The EM710 (70 – 100 kHz) sonar ran down to a water depth of about 1200 m parallel to the EM120 profiling. The maximum coverage was 4000 m or 150 degrees with 256 beams. As the EM710 is optimized for
shallower water, the coverage does not overlie the working areas.
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3 Multibeam swathmapping
Fig. 20: Bathymetry of the Ukrainian working area based on EM120
measurements.
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3 Multibeam swathmapping
Data processing
The IFREMER Caraibes software served as the processing tool for the Simrad data. The DGPS navigation
data were manually edited and then interpolated. Early bathymetric data were recalculated with the ROV’s
CTD’s sound velocity profile until the Simrad computers included those sound profiles. Raw bathymetry
data was cut by depth-thresholds adjusted to the surveyed area. A very rough manual editing, sometimes
followed by a filter, removed the few spikes out of the generally good data set. The filter used a referencegrid, calculated with relatively large grid-spacing, to eliminate spikes in the soundings. Two runs of the
filter were performed. The sensitivity in recognition of spikes was increased in the second run. Data-points
of the outer beams, especially recorded during high speed transits and of obviously too deep depths, were
erased rigorously. Soundings were gridded with 60 m grid-resolution and merged with available data (e.g.
R/V POSEIDON cruise 317/4, R/V METEOR cruise 52/1, provided by W. Weinrebe, or Gebco). The
EM710 data were much noisier than the EM120 data, and were only partly or not processed onboard. The
maps shown were generated with the Generic Mapping Tool (GMT, Wessel and Smith, 1998).
Fig. 21: Bathymetry of the Turkish working area. EM120 data.
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4
4 Hydroacoustic survey
Subbottom profiling and plume imaging
(A. Nikolovska, Y.G. Artemov, H. Sahling, M. Brüning, S. Althoff)
4.1
Introduction
During the R/V METEOR cruise M72/3 integrated hydroacoustic techniques were used in order to detect,
localize and quantify methane fluxes as well as the subbottom composition in the working areas.
4.2
Methods
The following acoustic systems were used:
- Parasound, deep sea single beam echosounder, operating at primary high frequency (PHF) of 18 kHz,
and secondary low frequency (SLF) of 4 kHz, this system is ship mounted,
- Kongsberg EM710, mapping multibeam echosounder, operating at 75 kHz (ship mounted),
- Kongsberg digital telemetry, multibeam obstacle avoidance horizontally looking sonar, operating at 675
kHz, mounted on the ROV "QUEST4000m",
- Benthos, sidescan sonar, operating at 325 kHz (mounted on the ROV "QUEST4000m"),
Due to the difference in the operating frequencies and the range capabilities, these acoustic systems were
used for investigation of different seep parameters (in the water column and in the subbottom). In the
following sections details of the operation are illustrated of the first three systems. The multibeam echosounder EM120 was used only for the bathymetry mapping. During the plume imaging in the Batumi area,
the seep flares were visible on the backscatter of EM120 and were displayed as clouds of ‘noise’ above the
seafloor. This was also a case with the Benthos sidescan sonar, i.e. the seeps were evident in the water
column, and also in a form of high intensity backscatter patches on the seafloor backscatter. More details
of the operation of these two systems are given in Chap. 3.
PARASOUND
A schema of the operation of Parasound is illustrated in Fig. 22.
The sound beam of this system has an opening angle of α = 2°, and
the pinging rate is controlled by the depth of the water column
where it is operating. The Hydrocontrol of Parasound was set to
the following effective settings. In the sounder environment the
system depth was either manually set to a value measured with the
EM120, or it was automatically calculated on the basis of the
water depth detected with the PHF. The C-Mean was manually set
to 1500.00 m/s, and the C-Keel was also manually set to 1570.00
m/s. The depth search mode was set to variable min./max. depth
limit with minimum depth of between 200 and 600 m and maximum depth set between 1500 and 2000 m (these values were determined by the expected minimum and maximum depth of the
survey areas).
Fig. 22: Example echograph recorded
in the water column in the
Batumi seep area.
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4 Hydroacoustic survey
Transmission sequence during the plume surveys was set to single pulse. In the Batumi seep area,
assessment of the performance of the pulse train mode for water column visualization was obtained (the
time interval between the pulses was set 1000 ms, this is equivalent to the pulse two way travel time in
860 m water depth). It was observed that the pulse train mode allowed better control on the pinging
interval, and also displayed better visualization through the water column, but the horizontal resolution
was reduced. However, during the plume surveys, the water depth varies significantly causing interference
(or delays) between subsequent pulse trains, thus producing a second seafloor multiple that interfered with
the data from the water column. The system source level was fixed to 146.0 V, i.e. 241.86 dB. The
transmitted pulse is 'Continuous Wave' with rectangular shape and length of 5.00 ms (2 periods per pulse).
The receiver band width for the PHF and the SLF was manually selected; for the PHF the output sample
rate was set to 12.2 kHz with 66 % output sample rate, the same settings were also applied to the SLF. The
receiver amplification for the PHF was ‘manually’ set to 30 dB (manual gain, for deep areas under 800 m)
or 15 dB (for the shallower areas above 800 m), and to 12 dB for the SLF. The water column imaging and
the subbottom profiling was conducted simultaneously. Examples of these surveys are given in Fig. 23
and Fig. 24.
Fig. 23: Example echograph recorded in
the water column in the Batumi
seep area.
Fig. 24: Example subbottom echograph recorded at
the same time as in Fig. 23, Batumi seep
area.
The echosounder profiles were registered at ship speeds of ~7 and ~10 kns when mapping the area, and at
~0.5 to ~1.5 kns when surveying plume areas. At high ship speeds, the detection of seep flares was very
difficult. The data quality was affected by high noise from the ship’s thrusters, which made it impossible
to visualize weak scattering produced by bubbles in the water column. The combination of low ship
speeds and the above mentioned echosounder settings allowed a very clear visualization of bubble plumes
passed during the survey. This enabled an acquisition of reliable information about the distribution and
location of bubble plumes within the areas where their existence has not been detected before. In the subbottom profiles there is a clear indication of the acoustic blanking effect at seep sites, due to the suspended
gas/gas hydrate in the sediment.
A subbottom example from the Batumi seep site is illustrated in Fig. 24. This effect was observed on all
sites where the gas seepage was detected in the water column. Nonetheless, the acoustic blanking was
observed in areas where there was no evident gas escape.
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4 Hydroacoustic survey
Fig. 25: Image aquired during M72/3 during survey in the Vodyanitskii mud volcano area (track on the
seafloor is shown in Fig. 26).
The Parasound system was also used for localizing the gas flares once they were detected during the
mapping surveys. This powerful system was particularly useful while operating in the deep sea environment (up to 2100 m). An example case from the Vodyanitskii mud volcano (VMV) area is illustrated in
Figs. 25 and 26.
Fig. 26: Ship track during plume localization survey (see Fig. 25).
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During the localization survey, the ship was set in a drifting mode. The ship track for the case illustrated in Fig. 25
is plotted in Fig. 26; the thick lines indicate the position of
the track when a plume backscatter was occurring on the
echograph. Based on the concentration of these lines, the
area on the seafloor where the plume appeared was determined. The exact pinpointing of the plume centre is difficult to be obtained, mainly due to the fact that in deep
water the beam footprint is very large. For example, in the
VMV area at a depth of 2030 m the beam footprint is
roughly 140 m in a diameter, thus the position of the plume
centre can appear anywhere in this footprint. Nonetheless,
when the coverage is obtained through different directions
this uncertainty is much lower.
4 Hydroacoustic survey
Fig. 27: Schematic drawing of the operation
of Kongsberg EM710.
Kongsberg EM710
The multibeam echosounder EM710 is intended for shallow water bathymetry mapping (up to 800 m
water depth). The beam spread angle is β = 75° and γ = 1°, as illustrated in Fig. 27. The seafloor coverage
depends on the water depth and for the investigated area is in the range of 1800 m up to 2000 m (across).
This coverage was obtained with simultaneous pinging of 240 to 260 beams.
Fig. 28: EM710 water column display while localizing gas plumes, Batumi seep area.
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The ping rate was set to a manual setting of 0.5 Hz, thus allowing sufficient time for analysing the on-line
screen records. One of the additional features of echosounder is its ability to display the backscatter
through the whole water column. The ‘water column’ display shows a graphical representation of the
beam formed data for the entire water column for each ping. The display can be useful for debugging and
for habitat monitoring. This feature was successfully used for detecting and localizing the gas plumes. An
example of these records is given in Fig. 28. These measurements allowed for very good localization of
the gas escaping point on the seafloor. The main parameters that were used for the localization purpose
are: the ship position, the position of the transducer, the heading of the ship, the beam spread angle, and
the centre point of the detected plumes (i.e. their location at the sea floor line).
These records were postprocessed and plotted on the bathymetry maps, thus allowing clear statistical
concentration of the gas escape points. A summary of one survey at the Batumi seep area is illustrated in
Fig. 29. The black dots indicate the centre of the flares as observed on a sequence of images (as the one in
Fig. 28).
Fig. 29: Concentration of the seep flares detected during the EM710 plume localization survey in
the Batumi seep area. The ship track during flare localization survey is indicated.
Kongsberg Digital Telemetry
High frequency (675 kHz) sonar was also used in the ‘close up’ investigation of the gas plumes. The
perspective of this sonar is in a horizontal plane (through the seep flares) and it was proven to have the
capability for differentiating single gas outlets on the seafloor. A drawing of the operation of this sonar is
given in Fig. 30. The vertical opening angle of the sonar is fixed to δ = 90° and the horizontal beam angle
is 1.4°. The transmitted sound pulse is in an interval between 23 μs and 35 μs, depending on the selected
maximum range. When close to the seafloor (20 m to 30 m) the range of the sonar is limited to 20 m to
30 m; above these values the backscatter from the seafloor is too strong and the recognition of the gas
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4 Hydroacoustic survey
seeps becomes difficult. Thus, when surveying larger areas, the scanning was conducted at roughly 30 m
ROV altitude, allowing 50 m scanning range. The positioning of the sites detected with this sonar was
obtained through the navigation system, Posidonia, and the heading of the ROV "QUEST4000m". An
example of the close range scan (~15 m) during the Batumi seep survey is illustrated in Fig. 31. It was
visually noted that the plumes were tilted due to the influence of the water currents, thus, causing an
elliptical-shaped backscatter. The centre of the plume had stronger backscatter that weekend in the direction of the current.
Fig. 30: Example schema of the operation of Kongsberg MS1000.
Fig. 31: Example scan from Kongsberg MS1000, fine resolution
plume backscatter in a range of 20 m.
With Kongsberg DT sonar there are four operational scanning modes:
- Extra low resolution (high scanning speed mode), which was used for locating and tracking the seeps
sites while the ROV is in motion.
- Low resolution (moderate speed mode), used while approaching a detected site, and/or while moving
from one seep cluster to another.
- Fine resolution (slow scanning speed), used while scanning area for quantification purpose.
- High resolution (extra slow speed), used also while scanning area for quantification purpose and also for
exact pin-pointing and resolving single densely packed bubble outlets.
The sonar measurements will be incorporated into a numerical model for determining the effective gas
volume flux. Additional work is planned for integrating the existing sonar systems for the purpose of estimating the total volume gas fluxes in the areas where the high resolution sonar scanning is not available.
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4.3
4 Hydroacoustic survey
Flare imaging during M72/3b
During the R/V METEOR Leg M72/3b, the flare imaging survey using Parasound acoustic system was
continued. In contrast to Leg M72/3a, the duration of transmitted sound pulse was decreased by the factor
of 20, down to 0.250 ms (1 period per pulse). This improved the spatial resolution of flare imaging and
subbottom profiling observations, so that even single gas bubble tracks in the water column as well as thin
sediment layers could be steadily detected in PHF and SLF echograms, respectively.
Acoustic data, collected by the ATLAS PARASTORE V2.12b acquisition software into PS3 data files,
were routinely post-processed with the use of WaveLens software (Artemov, 2006), aiming to provide the
detailed analysis of echo returns from gas flares at 18 kHz. As the PS3 data format has been slightly
changed since the Parasound system onboard R/V METEOR was upgraded to the new DS-3 version in
February 2006, some corrections were made to the WaveLens – PS3 format interface, initially developed
during cruise M52/1 (MARGASH) in 2002. When applied for processing Parasound data, WaveLens ran
raw samples through the bandpass filter, performed the Hilbert transform, decreased sample rate,
introduced the TVG correction, and converted PS3 data into the internal PARADOX database table. This
was appropriate for the full set of WaveLens tools, except for split-beam operations (Artemov, 2006).
Shown in Fig. 32, acoustic images (echograms) of Pechori, Kerch, and Dvurechenskii seeps illustrate the
full sampling range echo signals processed by the WaveLens software.
Fig. 32: Echograms of flares detected at Pechori mound (left), in the Kerch Strait area (middle), and at the
Dvurechenskii mud volcano (right) during M72/3.
Based on Parasound PS3 data files and WaveLens data processing techniques, positions and heights of
observed seepage flares were determined in targeted areas, including Georgian Pechori and Gudauta seep
sites, Kerch Strait, and Sorokin Trough. The summary of obtained data is presented in Tabs. A.2.1 to
A.2.4 in the Appendix. The mapped seeps in Kerch Strait area are shown in Fig. 33.
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R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Fig. 33: Map illustrating positions of seeps (as dots) in the Kerch Strait area.
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4 Hydroacoustic survey
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
5
5 Sidescan sonar
Sidescan sonar operations
(I. Klaucke, M. Brüning, A. Zotova, T. Schott, G. von Halem, and watchkeepers)
5.1
Objectives
Deployments of the DTS-1 sidescan sonar were targeted at two different objectives. First, standard 75 kHz
profiles were run in order to image yet unknown portions of the continental margin off Georgia, as well as
the continental slope off Kerch Strait and the Sorokin Trough on the Ukrainian margin. In addition, highresolution 410 kHz profiles were run at sites already imaged during previous cruises in order to obtain
very detailed images of gas seeps in the Black Sea.
5.2
Methods
Detailed geoacoustic mapping of mud volcanism and related fluid-escape structures have been targeted
using the DTS-1 sidescan sonar system (Fig. 34) operated by IfM-GEOMAR, Kiel. The DTS-1 sidescan
sonar is a dual-frequency, chirp sidescan sonar (EdgeTech Full-Spectrum) system employing both 75 and
410 kHz centre frequencies. The 410 kHz sidescan sonar emits a pulse of 40 kHz bandwidth with a
duration of 2.4 ms (giving a range resolution of 1.8 cm), while the 75 kHz sidescan sonar provides a
choice between two pulses of 7.5 and 2 kHz bandwidth with a pulse length of 14 and 50 ms, respectively.
They provide a maximum across-track resolution of 10 cm. With typical towing speeds of 2.5 to 3.0 kns
and a range of 750 m for the 75 kHz sidescan sonar, maximum along-track resolution is on the order of
1.3 m. In addition to the sidescan sonar sensors, the DTS-1 contains a 2-16 kHz chirp subbottom profiler,
which provides a choice of three different pulses of 20 ms pulse length each. The 2-10 kHz, 2-12 kHz, or
2-15 kHz pulses each gives a nominal vertical resolution between 6 and 10 cm. The sidescan sonar and the
subbottom profiler can be run with either, internal, external, coupled or gated trigger modes. Coupled and
gated trigger modes also allow specifying trigger delays. The sonar electronics provide four serial ports
(RS232) to attach up to four additional sensors. One of these ports is used for a Honeywell attitude sensor
providing information on heading, roll, and pitch. A second port is used for a Sea&Sun pressure sensor.
Finally, there is the possibility of recording data directly in the underwater unit through a mass-storage
option with a total storage capacity of 30 GByte (plus 30 Gbyte emergency backup).
Fig. 34: Picture of the DTS-1 sidescan sonar towfish. The forward-looking sonar is no longer mounted.
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5 Sidescan sonar
The sonar electronic are housed in a titanium pressure vessel mounted on a towfish of 2.8 m x 0.8 m x
0.9 m in dimension (Fig. 34). The towfish houses a second titanium pressure vessel containing the underwater part of the telemetry system (SEND DSC-Link). In addition, a releaser capable of working with the
USBL positioning system POSIDONIA (IXSEA-OCEANO) with a separate receiver head and an emergency flash and radio beacon (NOVATECH) are included in the towfish. The towfish is also equipped with a
deflector at the rear in order to reduce the negative pitch caused by the weight of the depressor and
buoyancy of the towfish.
The towfish is connected to the sea cable, via the depressor, through a 45-m long umbilical cable (Fig. 35).
The umbilical cable is tied to a buoyant rope that takes up the actual towing forces. An additional rope has
been taped to the buoyant rope and serves to pull in the instrument during recovery.
The main operations of the DTS-1 sidescan sonar are run using HydroStar Online, the multibeam
bathymetry software developed by ELAC Nautik GmbH and adapted to the acquisition of EdgeTech
sidescan sonar data. This software package allows onscreen presentation of the data, including the tow
fish’s attitude and the tow fish’s navigation when connected to the POSIDONIA USBL positioning system. It also allows to set the main parameters of the sonar electronics, such as pulse, range, power output,
gain, ping rate, and range of registered data. HydroStar Online also allows activating data storage either in
XSE-format on the HydroStar Online PC or in JSF-format on the full-spectrum deep-water unit FS-DW.
Simultaneous storage in both XSE and JSF-formats is also possible. Accessing the underwater electronics
directly via the surface full-spectrum interface-unit FS-IU and modifying the sonar.ini file of the FS-DW
allows changing additional settings such as trigger mode. The FS-IU also runs JStar, a diagnostic software
tool that allows running some basic data acquisition and data display functions. HydroStar Online creates
a new XSE-file when a file size of 20 MB is reached, while a new JSF-file is created every 40 MB. How
fast this file size is accumulated depends on the amount of data generated, which hinges on the use of the
high-frequency (410 kHz) sidescan sonar. The amount of data generated is also a function of the sidescan
sonar, subbottom pulses, and the data window that is specified in the initialisation file (sonar.ini) on the
FS-DW. The data window specifies the range over which data are sampled.
Fig. 35: The DTS-1 towing configuration.
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5.3
5 Sidescan sonar
Deployments
Three deployments of the DTS-1 were run in Georgian and Ukrainian waters. The first deployment,
occuring on April 5, 16:00 to 22:30 UTC was designed to image several newly discovered gas flares on
Gudauta Ridge. The second and third deployments were targeted at high-resolution surveys of the Batumi
seep area. During the first survey, the 75 kHz profile obtained during the R/V Poseidon cruise 317/4 in
November 2004 was repeated in order to detect possible changes in seafloor backscatter intensities during
the last 2 and a half years and to better locate the sidescan sonar imagery by taking advantage of the
Posidonia USBL system onboard R/V METEOR. The second survey had become necessary in order to fill
gaps in the original analysis due to strong bottom currents, which caused the towfish to drift sideways
away from the designed ship-track (Fig. 36). Navigation of the towfish with a precision of 100 m proved
quite difficult. Unfortunately, the Posidonia USBL system does not work beyond 4000 m in range, which
limits its use to water depths of less than 2000 m during towed sonar operations.
Fig. 36:
Cruise tracks of
high-resolution sidescan sonar deployments over Batumi
seeps. The thick line
shows the track of a
75 kHz track designed to repeat data
from R/V POSEIDON cruise P317/4.
In the area of Kerch Strait, one survey had to be cancelled just after deployment of the instrument because
of faulty cable connections conjunctly with current leakage in the port-side transducer resulting in loss of
backscatter data on this channel.
Although repairs of the transducer are not possible, attempts to reduce the current leakage by further isolating the transducer from contact with seawater finally improved data from the port side channel. The 410
kHz option, however, remained unusable. A final deployment of the DTS-1 was run on April 21 from
00:45 to 10:05 UTC, over Vodyanitskii and Dvurechenskii Mud Volcanoes. A planned parallel track had
to be called off because of strong winds and currents that would not allow proper navigation of the ship at
towing speeds as low as 2.5 kns.
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5.4
5 Sidescan sonar
Preliminary results
The sidescan sonar data were processed onboard using the Caraibes software developed by IFREMER.
This software package together with Posidonia navigation data allows quick and reliable georeferencing of
the sidescan sonar images for subsequent sampling or first analysis onboard.
5.4.1
Gudauta Ridge
The deployment over Gudauta Ridge imaged several new cold seep sites. Some were already known from
the Parasound and EM710 mapping of the area during Leg M72/3a, but some locations with similar high
backscatter intensity, could be detected on the sidescan sonar images even though they lacked a gas flare
in the water column (Fig. 37). The sites are too shallow to contain gas hydrates near the seafloor, but they
will subsequently allow a good comparison of the backscatter facies of cold seeps with and without gas
hydrate presence.
Fig. 37:
Mosaic of 75 kHz sidescan sonar
profiles over Gudauta Ridge (Georgia) showing several seep sites characterised by high backscatter intensities (dark tones on the image).
5.4.2
Batumi Seeps
The standard 75 kHz profile over the Batumi and Kobuleti seeps showed an expected strong similarity
between the image obtained during the R/V POSEIDON cruise P317/4 in 2004 (Klaucke et al., 2006) and
the image obtained during the present cruise. Direct comparison is not yet possible since both images were
processed with different software packages, but it is already evident that several high backscatter patches,
north of Kobuleti seep, are no longer visible. The original idea that the alignment of high backscatter
patches in the 2004 image could be the result of pulsating gas flares can be supported by these findings.
The subsequent high-resolution sidescan survey underlined important differences between the 75 kHz
sidescan image and the 410 kHz sidescan image of the same area. The 410 kHz signal does not penetrate
into the seafloor and mostly images very small scale relieves such as the faults of the Batumi seeps area
(Fig. 38). The 75 kHz signal does penetrate the seafloor to a certain degree (a few tens of centimetres
probably) and allows imaging of near-surface gas hydrates and gas bubbles.
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R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
5 Sidescan sonar
Fig. 38:
Two adjoining 410 kHz sidescan
sonar profiles of the centre of Poti
seep showing several faults, but
generally lacking the high backscatter intensities visible on 75 kHz
sidescan images from the same area
(high backscatter is dark).
Surprisingly, the 410 kHz raw sidescan sonar images also show gas flares within the water column. Due to
the high frequency of the sound signal, these gas bubbles must be extremely small. This might be an
alternative explanation why the 410 kHz sidescan images do not reproduce the high-backscatter signatures
of the 75 kHz sidescan images. The gas bubbles contained in the uppermost sediments might be too large
to become resonant with a 410 kHz signal (Greinert and Nützel, 2004). On the other hand, the 410 kHz
images allow detection of small-scale relief in great detail (Fig. 39), which can be subsequently compared
with the results from dives with the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and video observations. Concurrently with the 410 kHz signal, the 75 kHz sidescan transducers were also operating. While a towing altitude
of 15-20 m is too low for correct imaging of the seafloor and interferences with the 410 kHz signal alter
the images, the very lateral angle of incidence of the 75 kHz signal nicely allows imaging of gas plumes
(Fig. 40) and a reliable correlation of the flares with specific backscatter facies on the seafloor.
Fig. 39:
High-resolution (410 kHz) sidescan
sonar profile over Batumi seep showing many overlapping, concentric
rings that indicate strong morphological alteration of the seafloor.
These zones correspond to an area of
very high backscatter intensity on 75
kHz images (Klaucke et al., 2006)
and could result from the decomposition of gas hydrate or the floatingup of slabs of hydrates leaving these
craters behind.
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R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
5 Sidescan sonar
Fig. 40:
75 kHz sidescan sonar
image of Batumi seep
obtained during the highresolution survey when
the instrument was towed
very closely to the seafloor. The lateral incidence nicely shows the
location of gas flares on
the seafloor. Interference
patterns visible on the
image result from the
concurrent use of 75 kHz
and 410 kHz sensors.
High backscatter is dark.
5.4.3
Dvurechenskii Mud Volcano
The profile run across Dvurechenskii Mud Volcano (DMV) crossed at least five different mud volcanoes
that show quite a diverse range of characteristics from mud pies to cone-shaped, rounded structures. Although processing of the data is only possible using a layback method that takes into account cable length
and towing speed, correlation of the image with bathymetry will ultimately allow proper positioning of the
images. One important result was the detection of three flares in the raw sonar data (one on Vodyanitskii
MV) that was imaged during the previous leg and two on DMV that had not been seen, neither during the
ROV dives of Leg M72/3a nor during flare imaging while coring on Leg M72/3b; Fig. 41). Subsequent
flare imaging using the Parasound system confirmed the presence of the flare.
Fig. 41:
Raw sidescan sonar image
showing the presence of
two flares on Dvurechenskii mud volcano. One flare
is located close to the temperature maximum on the
mud volcano; the other is
present at the rim.
The processed 75 kHz sidescan sonar data over DMV shows the flat-topped structure with creep folds
visible near the rim (Fig. 42). Whether these creep folds are only present at the outer rim, or whether these
structures only become visible at lateral incidence is not yet clear. There is a small backscatter anomaly
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R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
5 Sidescan sonar
with elevated backscatter near the thermal maximum area of the mud volcano. In addition, a recent mud
flow showing high backscatter intensity is visible at the southern flank of the mud volcano. To the northwest of DMV, another mud volcano structure is located with a rougher surface than the former. Here
again, elongated zones of high backscatter intensity to the south of the structure point towards recent mud
flow activity.
Fig. 42:
75 kHz sidescan profile crossing Dvurechenskii mud volcano. High backscatter intensity is dark.
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R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
6
6 Seismic investigations
Seismic investigations
(V. Spiess, N. Fekete, S. Fricke, S. Gürcay, H. Keil, B. Preu, A. Zotova)
6.1
Objectives
High resolution multichannel seismic data, acquired during the cruise, were collected to investigate the
shallow and deeper subsurface structures in the vicinity of seep locations. As the migration of hydrocarbons is associated with signal attenuation by gas as well as by gas accumulations with higher reflectivity,
the detailed imaging of seismic amplitudes will reveal the distribution of gas and the associated migration
pathways. In particular, the widespread presence of gas flares in the Black Sea may be associated with an
efficient and continuous supply of free gas, which is temporarily trapped at very shallow depth within the
gas hydrate stability zone and below.
Seismic surveying during the cruise shall reveal the distribution of free gas and gas hydrate in the upper 10
to 50 m of the sea floor. This information will be related to the surface investigations carried out with
other geophysical methods (sidescan sonar, sediment echosounder), and the results from coring, video,
and observations with the remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Surveys in the Gudauta Ridge area, the Andrusov Ridge, and the Kerch Strait were of reconnaissance type, while the wider Batumi seep area and the
Dvurechenskii mud volcano (DMV) had been subject to previous seismic studies (R/V METEOR M52/1
and R/V PROFESSOR LOGACHEV TTR15). Because of this, a refinement of existing data sets was
intended.
6.2
Multichannel seismic equipment
With the GeoB high-resolution multichannel seismic equipment (Fig. 43), small-scale subsurface structures, usually unresolveable with conventional seismic systems, are imaged on a meter to sub-meter scale.
Fig. 43: System setup during Leg M72/3b.
Seismic sources
Three seismic sources were used in various combinations during R/V METEOR cruise M72/3b. One
Sodera Generator-Injector (GI) airgun with extended chamber volume (4.1 L generator and 1.7 L injector,
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R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
6 Seismic investigations
frequency range ca. 30-300 Hz) was towed 7 m below the water surface on the starboard side of the ship.
Another GI-gun with reduced chamber volumes (0.4 l both, frequencies between 100 - 800 Hz signal frequency) was towed on the port side in 1.5 m water depth. Both GI guns were operated in harmonic mode
(injector volume does not exceed generator volume). At specially selected sites, namely at the Batumi
seeps offshore Georgia and the DMV near the Crimean Peninsula (profiles GeoB07-023-095 and GeoB07104-124), a 0.16 l chamber watergun (Sodera S-15; 0.16 L, 200-1600 Hz) was towed at 0.5 m depth and
operated simultaneously with the smaller GI-gun. In these two areas, two simultaneous seismic data sets
were acquired, which are characterized by greater depth penetration (GI gun source) and by higher vertical
resolution (watergun). During the above profiles, one shot from each of the two sources at a time
difference of 0.7 s or 1.5 s in the respective research areas was recorded in one common seismogram. An
exception was made during profiles GeoB07-104 to GeoB07-106, where one seismogram contained 3
consecutive watergun shots and a GI gun shot with 800 ms separation inbetween. Shot rates varied from
4 s to 9.5 s, which achieved an approximate shot distance of 10 to 25 m at the usual profiling speed of
5 kns. Profiling simultaneously with the sidescan sonar at an average speed of 2.5 kns (Gudauta Ridge
area, profiles GeoB07-002b to GeoB07-005, as well as profiles GeoB07-135 and GeoB07-136 near the
Kerch Strait), the shot distance was approximately 8 m. The sources were shot at an air pressure of
approximately 150 bar provided by the compressor container. For detailed information about the operation
schedule of the sources, see the profile list (Tab. A.3) in the appendix.
Fig. 44a:
Deck setting and towing geometry during profiling
without sidescan sonar.
Fig. 44b:
Deck setting and towing geometry during simultaneous profiling with sidescan sonar (profiles
GeoB07-002b to GeoB07-005 and GeoB07-135
to GeoB07-136).
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6 Seismic investigations
The horizontal towing geometry of the seismic sources was unchanged during the cruise and is shown in
Figs. 44a and 44b. The large GI gun was towed with the help of a crane on the starboard side approximately 5 m to the side and 12 m behind the ship. The watergun was deployed on the same side from the
side wall of the ship and towed 8 m behind the stern. The small GI gun was operated from the port side
crane and was approximately 10 m behind the port side wall. The lateral separation between the two latter
guns was approximately 13 m, depending on the ship’s course and the directions of wind and current. The
towing depth of each source was controlled by a buoy tied to the towing cable. Two additional small
buoys were fixed to the tail end of the large GI and served to stabilize it within the water column.
Multichannel surface streamer
The multichannel seismic streamer (SYNTRON), used during R/V METEOR cruise M72/3b, included a
lead-in, 44 m of which was let out to connect the active streamer sections to the streamer winch, and ten
active sections of 50 m length. A 30 m long Meteor rope with a buoy at the end was connected to the tail
swivel, resulting in a total tow length of 574 m. A 30 m long deck cable connected the streamer to the
recording system.
The streamer’s active sections each contained 8 hydrophone groups (Fig. 45). Each of the 6.25 m long
hydrophone groups was subdivided into 5 subgroups of different length. One was a single high-resolution
hydrophone with a pre-amplifier. A programming module distributed the subgroups of 4 hydrophone
groups, i.e. a total of 20 groups, to 5 channels. Every second 6.25 m hydrophone subgroup was completely
used with all 13 hydrophones, whereas the two additional channels were reduced in length to 2.2 m and
3.3 m, respectively. All 80 channels were connected to the MaMuCS recording system, independent from
the hydrophone group length. Single hydrophones were not recorded. Irrespective of the location within
the 25 m units, programming modules were hardwired with the two long groups as first and second
channel, at 12.5 m spacing, and the shorter groups as third and fourth channel. Accordingly, channels
needed to be rearranged for proper offset assignment, i.e. in every group of 4 channels, the central two
needed to be swapped before data processing.
Fig. 45: Streamer setup during Leg M72/3b; streamer reference depth with birds was
3 m, with buoys, 1 m.
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During investigations carried out only with the seismic equipment, the streamer was kept at 3 m depth
below the surface with the help of 5 Digi birds and was towed midship. Fig. 45 summarizes bird locations
relative to the streamer winch. During measurements combined with backscatter profiling (profiles Geo
B07-002b to GeoB07-005 and GeoB07-135 to GeoB07-136), a set of 21 buoys took over the task of the
birds, keeping the streamer at a depth of 1.5 m, and a specially manufactured pulley was used to lead the
streamer to the starboard side. The length of lead-in was adjusted such that only the crosstrack position of
the hydrophone groups changed. The along-track distance of the streamer sections behind the point of
reference stayed the same as in the case of midship tow.
Because of hardware failure, several changes had to be undertaken during the cruise. The sections #2 and
#4 were refilled with isopar oil after profile GeoB07-005, which resulted in an increased signal quality
from channels 9 - 16 and 25 - 32. Section #7 had to be moved to the end position due to cable damage at
the farther end, which caused deteriorating data quality from behind channel 64 in profiles after GeoB07006. However, changing the streamer section sequence after profile GeoB07-095 seemed to solve this
problem.
Bird Controller
In most profiles, streamer position was controlled and monitored through so-called birds. The system consisted of a controller computer and several Remote Units (RU). Each RU included a depth and a heading
sensor as well as adjustable wings. Controller and RUs communicate via communication coils nested
within the streamer. A twisted pair wire within the deck cable connected controller and coils.
Five DigiBird RUs (numbers 5, 11, 12, 13, and 14) were available and could be configured using the bird
controlling unit. Birds were distributed along the streamer such that the control of streamer attitude was
maximized (Fig. 45).
Each trigger signal started the bird’s scan of water depth, wing angle, and heading data. The momentary
location of the streamer could be displayed as a depth profile on a screen. Bird parameters including date
and time were digitally stored on the trigger PC through a hyperterminal.
Before the streamer was deployed, each RU was programmed in the seismic lab to keep an operating
depth of 3 m. The RUs thus forced the streamer to the chosen depth by adjusting the wing angles
accordingly. Possible depth variations of the streamer could be checked later during preliminary data
processing. Depth control appeared to be successful upon further review.
Data acquisition system
For data recording, the custom-designed and PC-based 96-channel seismograph MArine MUltiChannel
Seismics (MaMuCS) was used. It is based on a Pentium IV PC (3 GHz, 1 GB RAM) with Windows XP
operating system and was operated at a highest sampling rate of 0.125 ms at 16 bit resolution. It is
equipped with three 32-channel multiplexers (NI 1102C) and three analogue-to-digital convertors (NI
6052E). The seismograph provides online data display of shot gathers as well as a brute stack section of
the range of channels of the user's choice. It stores data in SEG-Y format on the internal hard disk drive.
Back-up copies were created during intervals of no seismic activity on an external disk.
Data were recorded at a sampling frequency of 4 kHz (without watergun) or 8 kHz (with watergun) over
time intervals of 3 to 7.5 s, resulting in up to 80 x 60000 samples at 4 byte per sample. Anti-aliasing was
fixed to 10 kHz on the AD converter. Gain for each channel was set to 100 (measurement range 0.1 V). A
filter of 55 to 400 Hz was applied to the displayed data during acquisition with the 4.1 L GI gun and one
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of 200 - 1600 Hz was used to visualize watergun shots. However, this did not influence the raw seismic
recordings. A connection failure between one of the multiplexers and the recording PC forced recording to
be restricted to 56 channels in the profile interval of GeoB07-027 to GeoB07-077. However, the connection was successfully repaired during the next maintenance break.
Radio clock
A crucial part of the seismic data acquisition was that all components ran on exactly the same time, within
an error of milliseconds. For this purpose, GPS time was used, which was directly acquired from the
satellites through a Hopf GPS-DCF77 radio clock apparatus. The apparatus consisted of a GPS aerial, a
radio clock (Hopf modul 6870), a multi-aerial amplifier (modul 4446), and a radio clock PC card (modul
6039). This last item was built into the trigger PC (see Section "Trigger unit"), making it the time server of
the seismic acquisition system. GPS time was then distributed via LAN, and all other PCs were
synchronized through the NTP (network time protocol) service. Larger time offsets were adjusted
"smoothly" within a few minutes rather than in steps, but subsequently clocks were set every second.
Trigger unit
The custom trigger unit used during R/V METEOR Leg M72/3b controls seismic sources, seismographs,
and bird controller. The unit was set up on an IBM compatible PC with a Windows NT 4.0 operating
system and included a real-time controller interface card (SORCUS) with 16 I/O channels, synchronized
by an internal clock. The unit was connected to an amplifier unit and a gun amplifier unit. The PC ran a
custom software, which allowed it to define arbitrary combinations of trigger signals. This data was used
to optimize the available recording time for two seismic sources and to minimize shot distance.
Trigger times could be changed at any time during the survey. Through this feature, the recording delay
could be adjusted to water depth without interruption of data acquisition. The amplifier unit converted the
controller output to positive or negative TTL levels. The gun amplifier unit, which generated a 60V / 8A
trigger level, controlled the magnetic valves of the individual seismic sources. This was placed in the
pulser station close to the gun pressure controls, wich enabled an emergency shutdown of gun operation.
Since the specific working areas did not include large water depth variations, the trigger scheme could be
kept relatively simple throughout the whole cruise. Individual survey segments were acquired with a
constant time delay between shots and the start of recording, mostly 0 s. The delay was set to 2 s above the
Andrusov Ridge (profiles GeoB07-102 and GeoB07-103) and during part of the measurements above the
DMV (profiles GeoB07-104 - GeoB07-124). It was increased to 2.4 s in profiles GeoB07-104 through
GeoB07-106 until a watergun failure. The trigger scheme for the single operation of 4.1 L GI gun consisted of 6 s cycles, the first 5.5 s were recorded in seismic traces and the remaining time was assigned for
the communication between bird RU’s and the bird controller PC (profiles GeoB07-007 to GeoB07-014,
GeoB07-016 to GeoB07-022, GeoB07-096 to GeoB07-101, most of profile GeoB07-102, and profile
GeoB07-103: Batumi overview lines, Pechori area, Iberia mound and Colkheti area). Data at the Kerch
Strait (starting with profile GeoB07-125) were acquired in 4 s cycles with 3 s (up to profile GeoB07-143)
or 3.5 s of recording time (starting at profile GeoB07-144).
Seismic lines acquired only with the 0.4 L GI source were triggered every 4 s with 3.5 s (Gudauta area,
profiles GeoB07-001 to GeoB07-006; Colkheti seep, profile GeoB07-015) or 3 s of recording (simultaneous sidescan profiles in the Kerch Strait area GeoB07-135 and GeoB07-136).
The combined operation of the small GI gun with the watergun was feasible in 4.5 s cycles with
recordings of 1 shot from each gun. Within one seismogram over 3.7 s the watergun was shot 0.7 s after
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the GI gun (Batumi area, profiles GeoB07-023 to GeoB07-095). Also, 5-s-cycles with recordings of the
last 3 s in each cycle were employed, during which the watergun shot 1.5 s after the small GI gun (DMV,
profiles GeoB07-107 to GeoB07-124).
Several test profiles provide an exception to the above described trigger schemes. During profile GeoB07007, the two GI guns were shot alternatingly every 6 s, with a recorded length of 5.5 s (one shot per
seismogram). The same was repeated during profile GeoB07-102 with first a 9.5 s shot rate, then a 7.5 s
shot rate, and a delay of 2 s before the start of recording. These tests served the assessment of best shot
strategy concerning resolution and penetration of the different gun volumes. During profiles GeoB07-104
to GeoB07-106, three watergun shots followed by a GI shot were recorded in one 5-s-long seismogram.
The delay between shots was 0.8 s and the time between the first shot and the start of recording was 24 s.
This was done in order to achieve a high lateral resolution in the watergun data while still being able to
fully repressurize the GI gun in each cycle (too high of shot rates have a negative influence on the signal
strength). This strategy was abandoned when the watergun failed. Apart from its main task, the trigger PC
was also used to record navigation data, bird status reports, and act as time server.
Data quality and statistics
Altogether, a set of 157 multichannel seismic profiles were acquired during Leg M72/3b, six of them
simultaneously with sidescan sonar measurements. Apart from overview profiles, one complete 3D box of
data was recorded at the Batumi seeps offshore Georgia with a line separation of 25 m. A high-density
grid was shot above the DMV with a line separation of 40 m. Each seismic source shot over 50 000 times,
creating approximately 700 GB of raw data. The sources functioned very reliably. Despite some problems
with the streamer and the recording apparatus, data quality was good to very good, and due to the high
shot rates, high lateral resolution has been achieved.
Onboard Seismic Data Processing
Onboard processing of seismic data was carried out with the commercial software package VISTA for
Windows (Seismic Image Software Ltd.). A large portion of data underwent preliminary processing during the cruise. Brute stack profiles were recorded in real-time during data acquisition (stacked channels
were 5-20) and were filtered and debiassed subsequently in order to help select an optimal profiling strategy. This enabled evaluation of data quality and gave a first impression of the subsurface geology. Raw
data were processed at important locations within each study area. Acquisition geometry was set up based
on estimations.
6.3
Preliminary results
6.3.1 Gudauta Seep Area
Seismic profiling of Leg M72/3b began on the Gudauta Ridge (Fig. 46), where Parasound surveying had
revealed active gas flares in the water column and promising seep sites were expected. A short multichannel seismic program started just 24 hours after departure from the port of Trabzon. Four of the seven
profiles (GeoB07-002b through -005) were shot concurrently with the sidescan sonar system DTS-1 at an
average speed of 2.5 knots, while normal survey speed on the other lines was chosen to be 5 knots. A
small GI Gun was used with 2 x 0.4 L chamber volumes.
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Fig. 46: Track chart of seismic survey on Gudauta Ridge. Major flare locations are indicated by circles. Lines GeoB07-003 through -005 were acquired parallel with the DTS-1 sidescan sonar
system at approx. 2.5 knots survey speed.
Fig. 47: Multichannel seismic Line GeoB07-002 across Gudauta Ridge. Two distinct zones of columnar blanking are located beneath gas flares in the water column, which were documented with
the Parasound 18 kHz signal.
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The first long Line GeoB07-002 (Fig. 47) confirmed the presence of flares in the water column. Seismic
images also revealed distinct blanking zones, which might indicate massive gas accumulations just a few
meters subbottom depth. The flare positions are shallower than the predicted depth of the gas hydrate
stability field within the sediments, and so a sealing by gas hydrate bearing sediments can not be expected.
The blanking zone was oriented approximately coast-parallel (NW-SE) and perpendicular to the ridge,
which would be surprising for a structure that might have originated from diapiric uplift. In the vicinity,
sediment structures reveal uniform deposition at depth, but near-surface sediments are more disturbed and
show erosional truncation and slumping.
While the first lines suffered in data quality from technical problems in streamer connectors, it improved
during the parallel towing of sidescan sonar and MCS when noise was reduced due to lower speed. Furthermore, short shot distances (4 seconds equivalent to 5.1 m) improved stacking results, and seismic
images showed finer details of the shallow gas accumulations.
6.3.2 Batumi Seep Area
The Batumi seep area remained one of the focus areas of Leg M72/3b for more than a week, with an alternating sampling program during the daytime and geophysical surveying with MCS and sidescan sonar at
night. A mixed seismic program with overview profiles, few lines across known seep sites as Pechori,
Colkheti, and Iberia, as well as a three dimensional seismic survey around the Batumi seep were carried
out (Fig. 48).
Seismic lines across the Pechori, Colkheti, and Iberia seeps revealed a complex to chaotic reflection
pattern, and pronounced blanking zones beneath the top of the elevated seep locations (Fig. 49). Onboard
processing showed that even after migration, the top of the seep area remained chaotic with numerous
small scale and small offset faults. In addition, higher amplitudes may hint to shallow gas accumulations
and/or gas hydrates. The origin of the seepage at depth could not be imaged due to the limited energy and
the high frequency optimization of the streamer system (not recording frequencies below 40 Hz).
The main objective of the Batumi seep survey was the detailed investigation of the small scale structure of
the seep. Also, the gas and gas hydrate distribution at the surface and identification of migration pathways
and feeder channels were examined. Furthermore, potential future drilling with MeBo will require a sufficiently accurate subsurface imaging, which can only be provided by multichannel seismics due to the limited penetration of the Parasound sediment echosounder signal in the very gassy sediments.
Therefore, we carried out a 3D seismic survey with 25 m line spacing, which covered 1.5 days with 72
seismic lines an area of 1.7 nm in length across the 1.0 nm wide seepage area of Batumi, Kobuleti, and
Poti seep (Fig. 50). A course of 27° was chosen to basically measure perpendicular to the main fractures
observed at the surface in sidescan sonar data. A 0.4 L GI gun and a 0.15 L watergun, shooting both at a
rate of 4.5 seconds with a delay of 0.7 sec, were combined to optimize surface resolution and gain deeper
penetration through the shallow gas.
Figs. 51 and 52 show parts of Line GeoB07-008, which crosses both the Batumi and Kobuleti seep in
NW-SE direction. Clearly a bottom simulating reflector (BSR) can be identified, where higher amplitude
gas accumulations are trapped approx. 200 ms beneath the sea floor by gas hydrates. This gas pocket is
restricted to the vicinity of Batumi seep and very likely feeds the observed gas flares at the sea floor.
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Fig. 48: Track chart of seismic surveys in the wider area of the Batumi seep on
Kobuleti Ridge. To study the vicinity of Pechori, Colkheti, and Iberia seeps,
between two and four parallel lines were shot with a 4.1 L GI Gun.
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Fig. 49: Multichannel seismic Line GeoB07-012 across Pechori (left) and Colkheti seep (right). On
the top of both mounds, high reflection and scatter amplitudes were observed, which might
be derived from both shallow gas and gas hydrate accumulation. The surface sediment in
the vicinity appeared heavily deformed. Shot distance is approx. 15 m.
Fig. 50: Track chart of seismic surveys in the vicinity of the Batumi seep. Regional lines were shot
with 4.1 L volume (GeoB07-008 and -010), while the 3D survey was carried out with a
0.15 L watergun and a 2 x 0.4 L GI Gun.
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Fig. 51: Multichannel seismic Line GeoB07-008 across Batumi and Kobuleti seeps. A BSR is seen approx.
200 ms beneath the sea floor. Shot distance is approx. 15 m.
A closer look (Fig. 52) also reveals the fine structure beneath the sea floor. High amplitude reflections
appear approx. 10-40 ms beneath the sea floor, indicating either a shallow gas reservoir or massive gas hydrate accumulations. The columnar blanking zone is less pronounced than at Gudauta Ridge, probably due
to a limited gas supply within the GHSZ.
Fig. 52: Close-up of multichannel seismic Line GeoB07-008 across Batumi (left) and Kobuleti seeps
(right) with blanking zones beneath and high amplitude patches in the shallow subseafloor. Shot
distance is approx. 15 m.
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6.3.3 Andrusov Ridge
The Andrusov Ridge is completely covered with a thick sediment package with mostly turbiditic sedimentation occurring in recent times. Accordingly, sediment structures were very uniform across the investigated area. Based on information from the Turkish Petroleum Company (TPAO), several locations had been
proposed for further surveying to find indications of seepage. A short bathymetric and seismic survey was
carried out, as shown in Fig. 53. And although a few faults had been identified, no further indications of
sea floor seepage could be identified.
Fig. 53: Track chart of the seismic surveys on Andrusov Ridge, carried out with
a 4.1 L GI Gun.
The seismic Line GeoB07-102 (Fig. 54) could not resolve in detail that the track was partially following a
few meters deep channel, which was seen in swath mapping data and caused the near-surface diffractions.
Also, bright spots and two major faults were found, but the complete absence of shallow gas reservoirs or
mud volcano type of structures led to the decision to abandon operation before the deployment of the sidescan sonar.
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Fig. 54: Multichannel seismic Line GeoB07-102 on Andrusov Ridge. Shot distance is approx. 15 m.
6.3.4 Dvurechenskii Mud Volcano
The Dvurechenskii mud volcano (DMV) had been a focus area during Leg M72/3a for ROV investigations, and during Leg M72/3b, further work was planned for sampling and surveying. As there had
already been regional seismic lines collected during R/V METEOR cruise M52/1, we concentrated on the
imaging of the internal structure of DMV in particular near the sea floor (Fig. 55).
DMV is one of the few known seeps in the deep sea which produced a significant gas flare. Also, its shape
is distinctive from other, conical mud volcanoes in the region. It has revealed a significant temperature
anomaly, which confirms its ongoing activity with respect to mud and heat transport. Accordingly, both
shallow gas and gas hydrates can be expected. Since high frequency systems such as the Parasound sediment echosounder cannot penetrate the seafloor, only seismic work is suitable to image the surface of its
gas-charged flat top.
Altogether 20 lines have been shot in a dense grid, 15 of them across DMV itself, to map the shallow
subsurface reflectors, which may be related to the gas flare activity or the temperature anomaly. Fig. 56
shows a seismic example from the center of DMV. Shallow reflectors of both positive and negative
polarity are seen, but difficult to interpret from just a stack section. Diffractions at depth may be related to
a transport pathway, accumulations of mud clasts, or gas hydrate, but only the spatial image may confirm
the meaning of different features. In other lines, clear indications for shallow faults are seen as well as a
strong positive amplitude anomaly, which may be explained by a widespread gas hydrate layer.
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Fig. 55: Track chart of a detailed seismic survey in the vicinity of Dvurechenskii mud volcano,
carried out with a 0.4 L GI Gun and a 0.15 L watergun. Line spacing was between
0.05 and 0.075 nm.
Fig. 56: Multichannel seismic Line GeoB07-108 across Dvurechenskii mud volcano. Several
reflectors diffractions are observed in shallow depth beneath the flat top, which may
indicate shallow gas or hydrate accumulations. Shot distance is approx. 12.5 m.
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6.3.5 Kerch Strait
The combined seismic, bathymetric, and sediment echosounder investigations on the southwestern margin
of the Kerch Strait had exploratory character. So far, the only available sources of information were flare
investigations carried out by our Ukrainian and Russian colleagues and during Leg M72/3a.
Accordingly, the profiles were located to serve the need for an improved mapping of gas flares, a complete bathymetric coverage, and a first look at subsurface structures with Parasound and multichannel
seismics. Altogether 43 seismic lines were shot both perpendicular and parallel to the margin to search for
the origin of the intense flare activity in the region and to gain an overview about the tectonic and sedimentary regime.
Fig. 57 shows a track chart from the surveys carried out between station works. Since the sampling work
was restricted because of two ammunition dumping sites, surveys concentrate on the northern and the
southeastern part of the working area.
Fig. 57: Track chart of Kerch Strait area, carried out with a 4.1 L GI Gun.
Fig. 58 illustrates the depositional style, which is characterized by uniformly and distinctly layered sediment packages in the upper 300 to 700 ms. Beneath, more chaotic deposits appear, but structural elements
are difficult to identify. Probably, a higher energy environment, as within a river-dominated slope fan, has
shaped the region. Within the lower unit, numerous high amplitude anomalies can be identified, but clear
indications for gas release to the sea floor, at least in water depths greater than 750 m, the upper boundary
of the gas hydrate stability field in the Black Sea, were not found. In shallower water, gas flares could be
documented by Parasound investigations, and seismic data shows numerous bright spots.
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Fig. 58: Multichannel seismic Line GeoB07-133 across the slope of the Kerch Strait
area in the southeastern corner of the working area. Here, thick hemipelagic
deposits dominate the surface sediments. Shot distance is approx. 10 m.
As a consequence of these observations, we decided to continue our survey in the northern part of the area,
where gas flare activity was much more intense. Fig. 59 shows a zoom into the track chart of this survey
centered around a deep flare position in 890 m water depth, which we encountered during multichannel
seismic Line GeoB07-139 (Fig. 60).
Fig. 59: Track chart of the northern part of the Kerch Strait area, carried out with a 4.1 L GI Gun.
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Fig. 60: Multichannel seismic Line GeoB07-139 across the northern slope of the Kerch Strait area. Here, a
deep flare was encountered in 890 m water depth. Shot distance is approx. 10 m.
This line also shows a hemipelagic sediment cover, but thinner than in the Southeast. Underneath, chaotic
units with amplitude anomalies occur, probably a result of the charge of free gas. In the vicinity of the
flare, the deeper high amplitude unit is absent, but anomalies appear at shallower depth and also near the
flare position.
Also in this region, traces of a BSR were found in depths shallower than 1000 meters, which motivated us
to run a more detailed survey in the water depth interval between 700 and 1000 meters to learn more about
the role of a thin GHSZ and its function in sealing the gas exchange with the sea water. Upslope of
approx. 750 m water depth, flares appear frequently, and so the absence of flares must be related to shallow gas hydrate seals. Shore based work will reveal details of the collected data, since careful processing
and improved resolution are required.
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7
Remotely operated vehicle (ROV)
7.1
Technical performance
7 Remotely operated vehicle
(C. Seiter, S. Bucklew, P. Forte, P. Franke, D. Hüttich, M. Reuter, M. Zarrouk)
During Leg M72/3a, the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) "QUEST4000m" (Fig. 61) was used aboard
R/V METEOR on its 15th scientific mission. ROV "QUEST4000m" is operated by and housed at
MARUM - Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at the University of Bremen, Germany. Designed
and built by Schilling Robotics, Davis, USA, ROV "QUEST4000m" is the fifth model of Schilling
Robotics’ electrical work class ROV QUEST series, which is specially adapted to operational use in water
depths down to 4000 m for MARUM.
Besides the "QUEST4000m" vehicle, the system includes a full control and handling periphery consisting
of 20' control van, 20' workshop van, MacArtney Cormac electrical driven storage winch with 5000 m of
17.6 mm NSW umbilical, and two specially designed transportation vans for the 16 t winch and the 3.3 t
vehicle. With an overall weight of 45 t, the Marum QUEST system is well adapted for use on
R/V METEOR. During cruising time, the ROV was situated on the aft deck of R/V METEOR. From here
launch and recovery of the vehicle was performed with a custom built launch and recovery system
(LARS) installed on the A-frame of R/V METEOR.
The free-flying ROV "QUEST4000m" is standardly equipped with an RDI 1200 Hz Doppler
Velocity Log (DVL), which in conjunction with
both the 75 kW maximum electrical propulsion
power from the seven electric ring thrusters in
the latest Schilling Robotics design and the auto
control functions (i.e. “Stationkeep”, “Autoheading”) provides a relative positioning accuracy for the vehicle within decimeters. In further
performance with the ship’s stationary mounted
IXSEA Posidonia USBL positioning system,
an absolute GPS positioning accuracy of
~1 m could be obtained during Leg M72/3a at
water depths of 800 m, and around 2 m at water
depths of 2000 m. The analogue software tool,
DVLNav with display of vehicle, ship, and bathymetry map underlay, allows highly efficient
cooperation between ROV pilots and the ship’s
bridge staff concerning safe vehicle-umbilicalship-system handling. All relative and absolute
vehicle positioning data as well as heading and
relative motion data are time coded and stored in
Fig. 61: MARUM ROV “QUEST4000m” deployed
from the A-frame mounted custom built launch
a real-time database system (DAVIS-ROV).
and recovery system (LARS) behind the stern
of R/V METEOR.
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During Leg M72/3a, the ROV "QUEST4000m" telemetry and power supply system SeaNet with its
vehicle installed two HUBs provided 8 video/ RS-232, 40 RS-232, and 12 RS-485 data channels. Video/
data transfer and communication, control data to the vehicle as well as sensor, diagnostics, and video data
from the vehicle, was done via three single mode optical fibers and can be observed and controlled during
operation. SeaNet telemetry also provides a convenient implementation and quick handling of third party
equipment on the vehicle. The topside control system allows transparent access to all RS-232 and video
channels. Via the TCP/IP from the control van net work/database to the ship’s net work real-time data
distribution to nearly all laboratories on the ship is possible. Sensor data interpretation and processing is
possible during dive operation, regardless of the original raw-data format and hardware interface.
The basic "QUEST4000m" vehicle set up includes on the port side a 5-function hydraulic manipulator
(“Rigmaster”) and on the starboard side a 7-function master arm controlled hydraulic slave manipulator
(“Orion”) for the handling and performance of operation tasks requiring sampling tools and devices (Fig.
62). Two hydraulically driven, toolskid mounted drawers with boxes and/or custom built mounting frames
for cameras and equipment provide the accessibility and storage of these tools and devices as well as of
samples.
During Leg M72/3a, the vehicle’s front upper porch installed light suite included two Schilling Robotics
10 W HID lights, two DSP&L SA 400 W HMI lights, two DSP&L DML 150 W dimmable lights, two
DSP&L DML 500 W lights, and one DSP&L SSA5500 150 W flood light. This light suite illuminated the
area in front of the vehicle up to a range of about 10 m depending on the water turbidity. Within this
range, detailed high resolution imaging and camera filming was possible with the vehicle’s upper pan&tilt
mounted color zoom video camera, InsitePacific planar optic PEGASUS. The lower pan&tilt mounted
color zoom video camera, InsitePacific dome port PEGASUS, and the 3.34 megapixel digital still camera,
Insite Pacific SCORPIO, with two upper front porch installed strobes, and also the near-bottom on drawer
mounted InsitePacific ATLAS, has a broadcast quality 870 TVL 3CCD video camera. During Dives 155
and 156, the HD-TV camera InsitePacific ZEUSPLUS, was used on the starboard side toolskid drawer on
scientific demand, then it was replaced by the InsitePacific ATLAS due to technical malfunctions. In
addition, the overall camera set up contained three InsitePacific AURORAs, which are wide-angle fixfocus color cameras for tool and device handling observation tasks. All camera signals are standardly
distributed in the control van for digital video time coded recording, for IFREMER ADELIE software
frame grabbing, to the pilot’s head up display for navigating, to the ship’s bridge supporting the ship’s
navigators, and also to a ship’s laboratory for the most efficient cooperation between pilots, observers, and
scientists in the laboratory. Pan&tilt data of both, upper and lower units, are time-coded stored in the realtime database.
Further equipment standardly installed on the vehicle front includes two 532 nm, 5 mW lasers for dimension measuring, a Sea&Sun CTD with additional turbidity sensor, a Sonardyne ROV HOMER acoustic
beacon finder for site marking and/or positioning, and a Kongsberg 625 Hz forward looking scanning sonar for mapping and safety reasons in steep and dangerous environments. CTD sensor data are time coded
stored in the real-time database.
The stationary toolskid mounted, Benthos model 7381-06, two frequency (123 and 382 kHz) sidescan
sonar system was used for online microbathymetry mapping during several dives on Leg M72/3a.
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Post-cruise data archives will be hosted by the information system PANGAEA at the World Data Center
for Marine Environmental Sciences (WDC-MARE), which is long-term operated by MARUM and the
Foundation Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), Bremerhaven.
Fig. 62, left: ROV “QUEST4000m” front view (from top to bottom): upper porch with lights, strobes, sonar, beacon
finder, InsitePacific AURORA cameras, and USBL transducers; upper pan&tilt with light, InsitePacific
planar optic PEGASUS, and lasers; lower pan&tilt with InsitePacific dome port PEGASUS and SCORPIO
still camera, and light; Orion manipulator on left, Rigmaster manipulator on right; two forward lateral
thrusters (FS, FP) on behind; on toolskid from left to right suction/flush hose (for rotary sampler, not used
during M72/3a), KIPS fluid sampling nozzle and high temperature sensor (not used during M72/3a),
InsitePacific ATLAS, tool/sample box with three Niskin bottles; lower porch with grating
right: ROV “QUEST4000m” aft view (from top to bottom): syntactic foam block with aft guard; thruster
vertical aft (VA) frequently in suction pump function with suction hose adapter (not used during M72/3a);
two aft lateral thrusters (AS, AP) with 4 kW high power lights transformer and two compensators; toolskid
with rotary sampler (not used during M72/3a) in the middle and KIPS pump and valve pack to the right
(not used during M72/3a)
During cruise M72/3a, ROV “QUEST4000m” performed 9 dives. All dives were planned in cooperation
with the science team, using underlay maps produced and processed by the team from the DFG-Research
Center Ocean Margins (RCOM) at Bremen University, Germany. A total dive time of 99 hrs 08 min including 79 hrs 35 min bottom time was achieved with a highly efficient operational quality.
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7 Remotely operated vehicle
Dive observations and protocols
(G. Bohrmann, H. Sahling, G. von Halem, M. Brüning, S.A. Klapp, S. Althoff, Y.G. Artemov,
B. Bozkaya, E. Kozlova, A. Nikolovska, V. Mavromatis, T. Pape, J. Rethemeyer, F. SchmidtSchierhorn, K. Wallmann)
We performed 9 ROV dives during R/V METEOR cruise M72/3a in Ukrainian (4 dives) and Georgian
waters (5 dives). Details of the dives are listed in Tab. 3. For each dive we developed a detailed dive plan
based on the scientific objectives. The following tools were primarily handled and/or released with the 7function “Orion” slave manipulator, and if necessary supported by the 5-function “Rigmaster”
manipulator: (1) gas bubble sampler (GBS) for in situ high pressure gas samples, (2) gas bubble catcher
(GBC) for estimating gas quantifications at flare sites, (3) T-probe for in situ T measurements, (4)
autonomous T-logger, stationarily mounted to ROV frame and toolskid, and (5) push cores for sediment
sampling. Additionally, the Kongsberg 625 Hz forward looking scanning sonar was used to provide high
resolution sonar recordings and screen shots with bitmap-export for gas flare identification and quantification. “QUEST4000m” was also used for inspection of a gravity core mooring, deployed during the
previous cruise M72/2, and for recovering an autonomous long term T-logger from there. During M72/3a,
ADELIE-GIS (Geographic Information System) from Ifremer was used to post process the ROV "QUEST
4000m" navigation data. Adelie GIS offers the possibility of filtering and smoothing the navigation. First
the “raw” navigation data are filtered by the criteria’s depth and speed, so that descend and ascend as well
as navigation points which have an unrealistic speed are filtered (Fig. 63). Finally the navigation curve
was smoothed out using Gaussian smoothing and the smoothed data table was exported as an Excel file
and merged with the dive protocol file (Fig. 63).
Fig. 63: Four plots showing the post dive navigation processing; (upper left) raw data, (upper right)
depth and speed filtered, (lower left) smoothed and finally (lower right) converted to a line.
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Table 3: Overview about ROV dives performed during M72/3 including major meta data
and dive characteristics.
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7.2.1 Dive 155 (GeoB 11902)
Area:
Responsible scientist:
Date:
Start at Bottom (UTC):
End at Bottom (UTC):
Total bottom time:
Colkheti seep, western Kobuleti Ridge, Georgia
Gerhard Bohrmann
Tuesday, 20 March 2007
07:52
17:05
9 hours and 13 minutes
Start at the bottom:
Start ascend:
41°57.945’N
41°58.071’N
Scientist schedule:
07:53 – 10:00
10:00 – 12:00
12:00 – 14:00
14:00 – 17:05
Markus Brüning / Gerhard Bohrmann
Elena Kozlova / Heiko Sahling
Aneta Nikolovska / Heiko Sahling
Stephan A. Klapp / Gerhard Bohrmann
41°06.197’E
41°06.197’E
1093 m water depth
1112 m water depth
Table 4: Instruments/tools during Dive 155.
GeoB
Tool/instrument
Start
End
Lat. [°N]
Long. [°E]
11902-1
gas bubble sampler -1
10:20
10:52
41:96.785
41:10.329
11902-2
temperature stick-1
11:28
11:40
41:96.785
41:10.328
11902-3
temperature stick-2
11:42
11:53
41:96.786
41:10.328
11902-4
sediment sample-1
16:37
16:40
41:96.786
41:10.329
Waypoints:
Start:
WP 1:
WP 2:
WP 3:
41°57.95’N
41°58.07’N
41°58.20’N
41°58,40’N
41°06.20’E
41°06.19’E (TTR-15 cruise)
41°06.00’E
41°06.20’E
Description of the dive
Colkheti seep is morphologically less evident than Pechori mound which lies about 2 km southwest of
Pechori mound on the southwestern flank of Kobuleti Ridge. The structure forms a nose of 500 to 700 m
in diameter with a highly structured surface at the flank of the ridge. It is oriented to the north. Oil slicks
had been observed in satellite data and by visual observation during R/V PROFESSOR LOGACHEV in
2005 (TTR-15 cruise). During the cruise, a TV-grab was successfully deployed after several hours of seafloor observations directly over a site where bubble release on the seafloor was observed in the video
camera. The TV-grab contained huge amounts of yellow to brown methane hydrates closely associated
with oil.
Based on this sampling, the site was chosen for seafloor observation in order to inspect the bubble release
and to sample sediment and gas. In principle, a south to north transect was planned to cover the TV-grab
site (WP1 in Fig. 64). The ROV reached the bottom approximately 220 m south of WP1 (Fig 64). After a
short time inspecting the seafloor at the start point location, the ROV moved up to a survey depth about 25
m above the seafloor. While heading north, the forward looking sonar of the vehicle was used to detect
bubble streams in the water column by anomalies in the sonar images. This goal was reached at WP1,
where a single bubble stream was found after an acoustic anomaly had been observed and the ROV moved
into a bubble stream in the water column. Bubbles were recorded by HDCAM and ROV "QUEST4000m"
dived down to the bubble release spot on the seafloor. When the vehicle placed on the seabed, drops
of oil have been observed. The gas bubble sampler was used (Fig. 65, left) and collected bubbles over
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25 minutes. A clear hydrate formation around the bubbles was observed, although it was not clear how
much free gas and gas hydrate existed in the funnel (Fig. 65, right). After enough free gas had been
caught, the mixture of gas and gas hydrate was sucked into the pressure chamber by opening and closing
the valve again. After we recognized that push core sampling was not possible (tools were incomplete),
two T-stick measurements were taken, first 10 and then 20 cm away from the bubble site.
After this sampling program, a further sonar survey 25 m above the seabed to the north (heading
to WP3) failed in finding more bubble sites and it
was decided by the scientists to dive back to
WP 1 during which seafloor observations were
performed. 150 m north of WP1, another bubble
inspection by sonar was started after the information from the bridge came about an acoustic
anomaly observed by the multibeam system from
the ship. The anomaly was first found in the forward looking sonar, however, the signal became
weak after a while and the sonar signal of bubble
stream from WP1 appeared again by heading to
the southeast. A second inspection of the same
site showed a clear additional bubble stream on
the seafloor very close by the two other streams
observed during the first time. After an oil-rich
Fig. 64: Survey track over Colkheti seep during ROV
sediment sample was taken by a hand net, we
Dive 155.
poked in the sediment using a knife in the manipulator arm. Yellow to brownish hydrate pieces (oil-rich
hydrates) floated immediately upwards from the site, where the manipulator arm of the ROV had poked.
This was a clear indication that shallow gas hydrate was present. Ascent of the ROV started after 8 hours
and 57 minutes of diving.
Fig. 65: Left: Gas bubble sampler used during ROV Dive 155. The uppermost part of the funnel is filled with a
mixture of gas hydrate and probably free gas, before the valve of the pressure chamber was opened. The
pressure chamber has atmospheric pressure, which sucked the gas hydrate/free gas into the chamber, after
it was opened. Right: Detail of the funnel showing the bubble fabric of the hydrate, which developed
during the procedure of collecting the bubbles.
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7.2.2 Dive 156 (GeoB 11904)
Area:
Responsible scientist:
Date:
Start at Bottom (UTC):
End at Bottom (UTC):
Total bottom time:
Batumi seep, Georgia
Heiko Sahling
Wednesday, 21 March 2007
08:20
18:15
9 hours and 55 minutes
Start at the bottom:
Start ascend:
41°57.945’N
41°57.565’N
Scientist schedule:
08:15 – 09:45
09:45 – 12:00
12:00 – 14:00
14:00 – 16:00
16:00 – 18:00
18:00 – 18:10
Heiko Sahling / Aneta Nikolovska
Markus Brüning / Aneta Nikolovska
Heiko Sahling / Markus Brüning
Heiko Sahling / Gregor von Halem
Aneta Nikolovska / Gregor von Halem
Aneta Nikolovska / Gregor von Halem
41°17.108’E
41°17.507’E
812 m water depth
824 m water depth
Table 5: Instruments/tools during Dive 156.
GeoB
Tool/instrument
Start
Lat. [°N]
Long. [°E]
Water
Depth [m]
Flare Cluster 3
11904-1
bubble catcher small
12:17
41:57.529
41:17.272
835
11904-2
bubble catcher small
12:47
41:57.529
41:17.272
835
11904-3
bubble catcher small
12:50
41:57.530
41:17.271
835
11904-4
bubble catcher small
12:52
41:57.530
41:17.273
835
11904-5
bubble catcher small
12:56
41:57.529
41:17.272
835
11904-6
bubble catcher small
13:01
41:57.529
41:17.271
835
11904-7
gas bubble sampler II
13:17
41:57.529
41:17.272
835
11904-8
bubble catcher large
13:43
41:57.529
41:17.272
835
11904-9
bubble catcher large
13:54
41:57.529
41:17.273
835
11904-10
temperature Stick
14:15
41:57.529
41:17.271
835
11904-11
temperature Stick
14:27
41:57.528
41:17.270
835
11904-12
temperature Stick
14.35
41:57.529
41:17.271
835
11904-13
push core 47
15:02
41:57.529
41:17.270
835
11904-14
marker 1
15:16
41:57.528
41:17.271
835
Flare Cluster 5
11904-15
push core 46
16:49
41:57.540
41:17.414
833
11904-16
gas bubble sampler I
17:33
41:57.541
41:17.413
833
Waypoints:
Start: 41°57.52’N
WP 1: 41°57.55’N
WP 2: 41°57.45’N
41°17.10’E
41°17.60’E
41°17.43’E
Description of the dive
Using the horizontal-looking sonar on the ROV we looked and found Flare Cluster No. 1 (Fig. 66). A few
bubble streams were escaping through the “perforated but smooth” surface. Good images were captured
with HD camera ZEUS, but shortly after that the camera failed and did not work again until the end of the
cruise. The bubble streams were too small to cause a significant backscatter signal in the sonar, therefore,
no scans were made and we did not try to quantify the bubble escape by use of the bubble catcher.
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The next target was Flare Cluster No. 2, where sonar scans were used for quantification as we approached
it. A short look around at seafloor showed that the bubbles were more vigorous compared to Flare Cluster
No. 1, with several bubble streams. The seafloor was “Perforated and structured” with irregular surface
and some chimney-like structures were found. We conducted no quantification by tools.
Fig. 66: Track of ROV Dive 156 (GeoB 11904) at Batumi seep and sampling stations.
Crosses mark the exact positions, at which bubbles have been observed at the
seafloor during the ROV dive.
Search for bubbles at Flare Cluster No. 3 with sonar revealed a very strong signal in the water column.
Recordings with sonar were performed and bubbles were already seen in the water column. The seafloor
was strongly “perforated-and-structured” and chimney-like structures occurred. Bubbles escaped vigorously from one central outlet. The ROV was set down and we spent the next hours observing and measuring bubble escape rates with the 5.5 l small bubble catcher, the gas bubble sampler, T-stick, and push
corer. To our surprise, no gas hydrates formed from the collected gas in the gas bubble catcher. Later analyses of the gas (Chap. 12) revealed that a specific gas composition existed differing from that of the gas
hydrates in the sediments. This gas composition is such that the expected gas hydrates are not stable at the
water depth of around 860 m (Chap. 10.4). The repeated measurements of bubble flow with the gas bubble
catcher revealed that more than 3.5 l of gas was released per minute.
The T-Stick was held in the bubble stream and subsequently placed inside the gushing hole. The ROV
could only push the T-stick 30 cm down to the fourth temperature sensor. The recorded temperature
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increased almost linearly and did not reach an asymptotical value after 8 min when we terminated the
measurements too early, as was revealed later when reading the data. The probe registered a 0.1 °C
gradient within the ~30 cm of penetration. During a second try to penetrate with the T-Stick just half a
meter away from the gusher site, we encountered the same obstacle at depth that prevented penetration for
more than 30 cm. As final action at this site, Marker 1 was placed.
Fig. 67: Sampling at the gusher site, which actively released bubbles. It is the centre of Flare Cluster No. 3. Top
left: Bubbles collected by the large bubble catcher do not form gas hydrates. Top right: Gas sample
taken by the gas bubble sampler. Middle left: The two chimney-like structures shortly before scooped by
the large bubble catcher. Middle right: The T-Stick deployed in the gusher. Bottom left: Pushcore taken
20 cm away from the gusher site. Bottom right: The site after sampling and deployment of Marker No. 1
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At Flare Cluster No. 4, a strong flare was recorded in order to quantify the gas released. Following this,
the ROV moved to Flare Cluster No. 5 and the sonar recorded a considerably high backscatter. The seafloor in this area is “perforated but smooth”. In addition to those fields of holes encountered earlier, some
holes and the sediments in their vicinity looked blackish, and may indicate a more recent bubble activity.
However, the actual escape sites have been the “regular” holes without these blackish rims. At least five
holes or a group of holes emitted bubbles along a line. Even more escape sites are probably present in the
background, but were not well imaged by the ROV camera system. A push core was taken at the bubble
sites and the gas bubble sampler was held over the outlet. Unfortunately, the gas bubble sampler was not
tightly closed, thus, no gas analyses could be performed.
7.2.3 Dive 157 (GeoB 11907)
Area:
Responsible scientist:
Date:
Start at Bottom (UTC):
End at Bottom (UTC):
Total bottom time:
Batumi seep, Georgia
Markus Brüning
Thursday, 22 March 2007
11:42
20:27
8 hours and 45 minutes
Start at the bottom:
Start asciend:
41°57.520’N
41°57.542’N
Scientist schedule:
11:00 – 13:00
13:00 – 15:00
15:00 – 17:00
17:00 – 19:00
19:00 – 20:30
Markus Brüning / Gregor von Halem
Gerhard Bohrmann / Yuriy G. Artemov
Gerhard Bohrmann / Baris Bozkaya
Markus Brüning / Aneta Nikolovska
Markus Brüning / Klaus Wallmann
41°17.100’E
41°17.412’E
812 m water depth
824 m water depth
Table 6: Instruments/tools during Dive 157.
Tool/instrument
Start
Lat. [°N]
Long. [°E]
Water
Depth [m]
11907-1
bubble catcher, small
15:53
41.57.542
41.17.529
834
11907-2
gas bubble sampler
16:30
41.57.543
41.17.529
834
T-stick
16:51
41.57.543
41.17.529
834
11907-4
bubble catcher, small
18:21
41.57.546
41.17.473
835
11907-5
gas bubble sampler
18:33
41.57.544
41.17.472
835
marker 2
18:59
41.57.544
41.17.472
835
GeoB
Flare Cluster 7
11907-3
Flare Cluster 6
11907-6
Flare Cluster 5
11907-7
push core 38
19:52
41.57.542
41.17.413
833
11907-8
push core 46
19:58
41.57.543
41.17.413
833
11907-9
push core 67
20:03
41.57.545
41.17.413
833
11907-10
push core 68
20.13
41.57.542
41.17.413
833
11907-11
marker 3
20:16
41.57.542
41.17.413
833
Waypoints:
Start:
WP 1:
WP 2:
41°57.52’N
41°57.55’N
41°57.45’N
41°17.10’E
41°17.60’E
41°17.43’E
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Description of the dive
The key objective of the first part of the dive was to map the seafloor from west to east using the ROVmounted sidescan sonar (Fig. 68). This operation worked very well and the ~550 m long transect was
completed in one hour. During this profile the doppler log was constantly reset to the Posidonia position in
order to achieve high quality DVL Nav location output. However, on the online screen this caused considerable jumps in the sidescan sonar images.
The second objective of this dive was to find and observe bubble emission sites at flare clusters that we
have not surveyed before. Flare Cluster 8 was immediately found by scanning sonar and a scan record was
saved for the purpose of quantification. At the seafloor two individual bubble streams were detected from
a “perforated but smooth” seafloor. A bubble catcher was placed over the streams, but within a few minutes the amount of escaping bubbles decreased, therefore, the objective of quantification was abandoned.
In order to find more vigorous bubble outflows the ROV headed towards the position of Flare Cluster 7.
After scan recordings, the small bubble catcher revealed that 1 l of bubbles are released in 10 min. A sample with the gas bubble sampler was caught, and the T-stick deployed in the bubble hole. When pulling
out, whitish material was dragged out of the hole, too. These were probably layers of white coccolith ooze
laminae.
Fig. 68: Track plot of ROV Dive 157 (GeoB 11907) and the location of the sidescan
sonar track at the seafloor. Crosses mark the exact positions at which
bubbles have been observed at the seafloor with the ROV.
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Fig. 68 continuation: Sampling sites at the seafloor during ROV Dive 157 (GeoB 11907). Crosses mark the
exact positions at which bubbles have been observed at the seafloor with the ROV.
Meanwhile, the procedure of finding the flares with scanning sonar became a routine and Flare Cluster 6
was quickly found. The holes in the “perforated-but-smooth” seafloor slowly emit bubbles, which were
collected by the small bubble catcher. It took ~12 min to catch one litre of gas. Gas was collected at this
site with the gas bubble sampler. Following, there were some disturbances of the seafloor by the ROV
operations in the course of which bubbles were released from the seafloor. As a last action, Marker 2 was
deployed.
A push corer transect was taken at Flare Cluster 5. This cluster has been observed and sampled during the
previous ROV Dive 156. Four push cores were taken at different distances to the bubble sites. Marker 3
was placed.
7.2.4 Dive 158 (GeoB 11908)
Area:
Responsible scientist:
Date:
Start at Bottom (UTC):
End at Bottom (UTC):
Total bottom time:
‘Egorov Flare’ Site, Sorokin Trough, Ukraine
Thomas Pape
Saturday, 24 March 2007
14:50
18:54
4 hours and 4 minutes
Start at the bottom:
Start ascend:
44°23.548’N
44.23°749’N
35°15.499’E
35°15.964’E
1781 m water depth
1750 m water depth
Scientist schedule:
14:45 – 17:00
17:00 – 19:00
Thomas Pape / Gerhard Bohrmann
Thomas Pape / Janet Rethemeyer
Waypoints:
Start:
WP 1:
WP 2:
WP 3:
44°23.55’N
44°23.617’N
44°23.65’N
44°24.00’N
35°15.50’E
35°15.609’E (‘Egorov Flare’ position)
35°16.0’E
35°15.70’E
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Description of the dive
A very strong plume feature was imaged by Ukrainian scientists from the Institute of Biology of the
Southern Seas (IBSS, Sebastopol) during R/V PROFESSOR VODYANITSKII cruise in 2002 and the
flare image was published by Egorov et al. (2003). The seep was probably crossed by the seismic Line
GeoB-012, which was measured during MARGASCH I cruise (M52/1) in 2002.
The ‚Egorov Flare’ Site is located on the southern flank of a local depression encircled by a ridge from the
northwest to northeast and elevated structures in the west to southwest. An area was found to be elevated
about 40 m above its surrounding and located about 0.8 nm northeast of the ‘Egorov Flare’ position.
With respect to the initial results, a shorttimed survey with ROV "QUEST 4000m"
in this area was dedicated for exploration of
potential gas seeps at the seafloor as well as
bubble streams in the water column. The
activities were predominantly carried out
by the forward looking sonar mounted on
the ROV and were completed by the R/V
METEOR based Parasound system. In order to avoid significant sonar signals
caused by rough seafloor morphology, the
ROV primarily moved about 25 m above
ground.
To explore a large area around the flare
position, a transect covering three waypoints (WP) was planned during the ROV
survey (Fig. 69). The seafloor was reached
Fig. 70: Track of ROV "QUEST4000m" Dive 158,
‘Egorov Flare’ Site.
approx. 0.1 nm southwest of the ‘Egorov
Flare’ site (WP1) in about 1781 m water depth. For detecting gas bubbles, the ROV was moved with 0.2
kns and a heading of 52° at about 25 m above the seabed, and the forward looking sonar was used. Since
the altitude did not allow for seafloor observations through the water column beneath the vehicle, the
video recording was interrupted during that time. WP 1 (‘Egorov Flare’ position) was reached about 30
min from the start of the transect. Since obvious gas bubble-related anomalies were not recognized in the
sonar during that time, the ROV was directly moved towards a next target point, without any stopover and
seafloor inspections at WP1. This target point, located approx. 0.2 nm WSW of WP2, was spontaneously
defined during the dive. The heading was adjusted to 58° and the speed over ground was raised to about
0.3 kns. No sonar signals were observed during the subsequent flight and after 25 min it was decided to
descend the vehicle for seafloor observations, and possibly for further investigations and samplings. At
44°23.65’N, 35°15.70’E a crater-like structure, characterized by a rough morphology, was found. Steep
flanks, sharp crests, soft sediment boulders, several dm-deep incisions, and edges suggest that these
morphological features were recently formed and only slightly subjected to erosion processes (Fig. 70).
Thus, it seemed plausible to assume that the crater-like structure at this site was related to the ‘Egorov
Flare’ located in 2002 somewhat to the SW. However, during the current dive gas bubbles were not
visualized at this site.
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Fig. 71: Impressions from a crater-like structure located at about 44° 23.65’N, 35°15.70’E. Top left: Edges at
the crater like structure. Top right: Seafloor elevation of soft sediment. Bottom left: Sediment penetrated with the ROV’s manipulator arm. Bottom right: Sediment upon treatment with the manipulator.
Note the absence of gas bubbles during this experiment.
The most impressive morphological features at the crater-like structure were studied comprehensively by
ground observations and video-recording. Further, the sediment consistency was checked by sticking in
the ROV’s manipulator. Unexpectedly, no gas bubbles were released during penetration of the sediment.
In order to proceed with the flare survey in the area, it was decided not to deploy further instruments at the
crater-like structure. Based on putative gas streams in the water column imaged by the ship-based Parasound system at that time, ROV "QUEST4000m" was lifted to about 25 m above ground and moved to the
NW (heading 305°). At a distance of about 0.07 nm NW of the crater-like structure, the forward looking
sonar gave some slight signals in a southward direction. However, while moving the ROV to the south, the
signals randomly came up and disappeared again. Although that site was exhaustively explored for the
next 30 min, there were no clear indications of bubble streams in that area. Further, signals were also lost
in the Parasound system and, thus, it was decided to investigate a relatively wide basin-like structure to the
N (heading 355°). In that area – at about 44°23.71’N, 35°15.63’E – bubble flares were not observed and a
W-E orientated transect was followed. Bubble streams were neither detected during that transect, nor during a short subsequent passage to the SW. Also no bubble streams were detected during a transect to the
NE at the final stage of the dive. The dive was completed at about 18:54 and ROV "QUEST4000m" was
lifted from 44°23.75’N, 35°15.96’E.
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7.2.5 Dive 159 (GeoB 11910)
Area:
Responsible scientist:
Date:
Start at Bottom (UTC):
End at Bottom (UTC):
Total bottom time:
Dvurechenskii mud volcano, Sorokin Trough, Ukraine
Stephan A. Klapp
Sunday, 25 March 2007
08:05
17:58
9 hours 53 minutes
Start at the bottom:
Start ascend:
44°16.901’N
44°16.946’N
34°59.292’E
34°58.850’E
2045 m water depth
2042 m water depth
Scientist schedule:
2h
2h
2h
2h
2h
2h
ca. 08:00 – 10:00
ca. 10:00 – 12:00
ca. 12:00 – 14:00
ca. 14:00 – 15:45
ca. 15:45 – 17:00
ca. 17:00 – 18:00
Heiko Sahling / Stephan A. Klapp
Heiko Sahling / Friederike Schmidt-Schierhorn
Markus Brüning / Elena Kozlova
Stephan A. Klapp / Gregor von Halem
Stephan A. Klapp / Friederike Schmidt-Schierhorn
Gerhard Bohrmann / Gregor von Halem
Table 7: Instruments/tools during Dive 159.
GeoB
Tool/instrument
Start
Lat. [°N]
Long. [°E]
11910-1
T-stick-1
08:30
44:16.900
34:59.293
11910-2
T-stick-2
09:18
44:16.929
34:59.233
11910-3
push core 16
09:21
44:16.929
34:59.232
11910-4
T-stick-3
09:54
44:16.946
34:59.175
11910-5
T-stick-4
10:45
44:16.977
34:59.085
11910-6
push core 60
10:48
44:16.976
34:59.084
11910-7
T-stick-5
11:36
44:17.006
34:58.974
11910-8
push core 47
11:41
44:17.006
34:58.974
11910-9
T-stick-6
12:27
44:17.019
34:58.929
11910-10
T-stick-7
13:14
44:17.029
34:58.880
11910-11
push core 46
13:25
44:17.029
34:58.880
11910-12
T-string recovery
16:55
44:16.972
34:58.910
11910-13
T-stick 8
17:39
44:16.947
34:58.850
Waypoints:
Start:
P1:
P2:
P3:
P4:
P5:
44°16,9’N
44°16,92’N
44°16.97’N
44°17.00’N
44°17.03’N
44°16.970’N
34°59.30’E
34°59.24’E (first push core)
34°59.07’E (second push core)
34°58.97’E (third push core)
34°58.88’E (fourth push core)
34°58.91’E (GC mooring)
Description of the dive
The Dvurechenskii mud volcano (DMV), located in the Sorokin Trough southeast of the Crimean Peninsula, has been target of several expeditions. On the previous leg of the ongoing M72 expedition (Leg
M72/2), temperature anomalies of up to 14 °C were recorded in the central part of the pie-type mud
volcano. Even 16 °C were reported during the M52/1 expedition in 2002 in the same area of the volcano.
A mud flow on the southwestern flank was observed during TTR-6 by sidescan sonar imaging. Also, gas
expulsion was observed during R/V PROFESSOR VODYANITSKII cruises by gas flares in the water
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column. A gravity corer mooring containing two thermistor temperature strings were deployed during
M72/2 and the recovery of one of them was an objective of ROV Dive 159 (GeoB 11910).
The major objective of the dive was to gain an overview of the mud volcano by running a transect from
the eastern rim to the center where major temperature anomalies were reported and then further on to the
southwestern mud flow. During this transect, 8 temperature measurements and 4 push cores were taken.
Temperatures were recorded by a temperature stick comprising 8 sensors. The dive track (Fig. /!) ran from
the southeastern rim of the mud volcano to the northern central part (where temperature anomalies were
recorded earlier) along four waypoints and from there towards the mooring station south of Waypoint 4.
The ROV went down east of Waypoint 1 on the rim of the mud volcano; temperatures there are about the
same as normal Black Sea water. The track was continued via Waypoints 2 and 3 towards WP 4. At each
waypoint, a push core was taken and temperatures were measured next to the push core and in addition
between waypoints.
Fig. 72: Track of ROV Dive 159.
During the temperature and push core taking at Waypoint 4, a few bubbles were released. This was the
only bubble site on this survey. It is not a seep site where bubble continuously stream out of the seafloor,
but only upon sediment treatment by the tool. High temperature anomalies and bubbles indicate an active
area of the mud volcano. Hence, from Waypoint 4 a short survey was conducted attempting to find bubbles by forward looking sonar, but no bubbles were found by sonar.
The sonar survey started at 40 m above the seafloor with a 50 m range and maximum gain. A 360° look
was taken above Waypoint 4. The ROV then moved towards a spot between WP 4 and 3 because an anomaly appeared in the sonar. The anomaly vanished and no bubbles were discovered. The survey continued
towards the mooring station, where the thermistor temperature string was recovered (Fig. 72, right). The
state of the mooring station had neither changed nor had it been sucked into the sediment (Fig.72, left).
One last temperature measurement was done in the vicinity of the mooring station.
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Fig. 73: Left: Mooring station upon a gravity core. Right: T-string recovery from the floating part of the mooring
station.
The morphology of the structure employs two types of features, which can, in a first approximation, be
assigned to the rim and to the central part. The rim appears rough and comprises many furrows, which interchange with little elevations. The furrows do not reach deeper than one meter, although this is difficult
to say from video observation. Some of the furrows are covered by thin sediment layers and others have
fairly fresh edges (Fig. 73). Furrows and hills look chaotic at some locations, but at others they appear to
be oriented in a somewhat parallel fashion (44°16.916’ N, 34°59.263’ E, near Waypoint 1). The central
part of the DMV is not flat, although the morphology looks in general much smoother. The rough rim
structures change continuously over a broader distance to the gentler and smoother central part of the mud
volcano. This is indicated by decreasing hill diameters and heights along with shallow furrows with soft
edges. Every now and then during the survey, darker patches occurred on the sediment surface looking
like a track. The origin of these sediment compounds is unclear, but it might be a shadow effect when light
from the vehicles’ spotlight shines on cracks in the mud volcano’s sediment cover. The inspection of the
DMV was not completed by this dive. In particular, the western parts of the mud volcano need to be
further explored, since on the TTR-6 cruise a mud flow was detected over the southwestern flank.
Fig. 74: Left: Sediment-covered furrow. Right: Furrow with more or less fresh edges.
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7.2.6 Dive 160 (GeoB 11915)
Area:
Responsible scientist:
Date:
Start at bottom (UTC):
End at bottom (UTC):
Total bottom time:
Dvurechenskii mud volcano, Sorokin Trough, Ukraine
Gerhard Bohrmann
Monday, 26 March 2007
08:08
16:45
8 hours and 37 minutes
Start at the bottom:
Start ascend:
44°16.803’N
44°17.089’N
Scientist schedule:
08:07 – 10:00
10:00 – 12:00
12:00 – 14:00
14:00 – 17:00
17:00 – 19:00
Gerhard Bohrmann / Gregor von Halem
Gerhard Bohrmann / Thomas Pape
Gregor von Halem / Klaus Wallmann
Markus Brüning / Klaus Wallmann
Heiko Sahling / Sarah Althoff
34°58.606’E
34°58.968’E
2060 m water depth
2041 m water depth
Table 8: Instruments/tools during Dive 160.
GeoB
Tool/instrument
11915-1
11915-2
11915-3
11915-4
11915-5
11915-6
11915-7
11915-8
11915-9
11915-10
11915-11
11915-12
11915-13
11915-14
11915-15
11915-16
11915-17
11915-18
11915-19
11915-20
11915-21
11915-22
T-stick-1
T-stick-2
T-stick-3
T-stick-4
T-stick-5
T-stick-6
T-stick-7
push core-11
gas catcher-1,
T-stick-8
push core-12
push core-13
T-stick-9
push core-14
push core-15
T-stick-10
push core-16
push core-17
push core-18
T-stick-11
push core-9
push core-19
Waypoints:
Time
(UTC)
08:31
09:04
09:37
10:04
10:39
11:14
11:49
11:57
12:12
12:52
12:59
13:06
14:21
14:26
14:31
15:12
15:14
15:16
15:21
15:45
15:48
15.51
Start:
WP1:
WP2:
WP3:
WP4:
WP5:
WP6:
WP7:
WP8:
Lat [°N]
44°16.802
44°16.838
44°16.893
44°16.954
44°17.002
44°16.995
44°17.024
44°17.023
44°17.021
44°17.093
44°17.090
44°17.092
44°17.054
44°17.061
44°17.062
44°17.005
44°17.007
44°17.008
44°17.008
44°17.052
44°17.051
44°17.052
44°16.80’N
44°16,92’N
44°16.97’N
44°17.00’N
44°17.03’N
44°16.97’N
44°16.84’N
44°17.01’N
44°17.04’N
Long [°E] Water Depth
(m)
34°58.596 2052
34°58.596 2043
34°58.709 2043
34°58.784 2041
34°58.889 2040
34°58.736 2042
34°58.612 2042
34°58.610 2042
34°58.613 2042
34°58.673 2043
34°58.674 2043
34°58.676 2043
34°58.759 2042
34°58.760 2042
34°58.759 2042
34°58.896 2040
34°58.896 2040
34°58.891 2040
34°58.895 2040
34°58.842 2041
34°58.836 2041
34°58.845 2041
34°58.60’E
34°59.24’E
34°59.07’E
34°58.97’E
34°58.88’E
34°58.91’E (GC mooring)
34°58.65’E
34°58.90’E
34°58.83’E
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Waypoints, continuation:
WP9: 44°17.06’N
WP10: 44°17.09’N
WP11: 44°17.00’N
7 Remotely operated vehicle
34°58.76’E
34°58.68’E
34°58.58’E
Description of the dive
Following ROV Dive 159 on Dvurechenskii mud volcano (DVM), ROV Dive 160 was planned to explore
the western part of the flat top mud volcano and to extent the push core sampling and temperature
measurement program. The dive started at the southwestern flank of the mud volcano, where a mud flow
in the sidescan sonar pattern was seen during TTR-6 cruise (Woodside et al., 1997). After we reached the
seafloor, ROV "QUEST4000m" moved upwards to the rim in a northeastern direction. The first T-stick
temperature measurement was performed on the rim of the DMV. Exploring the seafloor structure towards
the center close to the T-mooring station and from there to the western rim of DMV (Fig. 74), we performed 7 temperature measurements using the T-stick (for results see Chap. 8). The westernmost location
was visited because a white patch was recognized on a TV-sled deployment during R/V METEOR cruise
M52/1 (Bohrmann et al. 2003), which could not be sampled during that cruise. Beside the T-stick
measurement, we took a push core and sampled the white material by using the gas catcher tool. After that
work was finished, the ROV moved along the rim of the DMV and then from a northwestern position
again back to the centre of the mud volcano. Two push cores at each site were taken at four sites and
temperature measurements were performed (Fig. 74). During the dive, we checked the water column
several times for gas bubbles by using the ROV forward looking sonar. However, no bubbles were observed. We recognised a slight depth change of about 2-4 m from the rim to the centre of the mud volcano,
which seems to be the highest area. Other observations included cracks or parallel furrows on the sea
floor, which probably are related to mud flows in the past (Fig. 75). Fresh mud flows have not been
recognised.
Fig. 75: Seafloor track of Dive 160 on Dvurechenskii mud volcano showing sites of sampling and T-Stick measurements (Dive 159 track is also shown). Contour lines on
the map have slight offset in depth to the ROV depths.
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Fig. 76: Seafloor images from Dvurechenskii mud volcano taken during ROV Dive 160. The left image shows a
white patch in a depression, where a sediment sample was taken using a gas catcher (GeoB 11915-9). The
right picture illustrates the pattern of parallel cracks or furrows which are typically found in the western part
of the mud volcano.
7.2.7 Dive 161 (GeoB 11917)
Area:
Responsible scientist:
Date:
Start at Bottom (UTC):
End at Bottom (UTC):
Total bottom time:
Vodyanitskii mud volcano, Sorokin Trough, Ukraine
Heiko Sahling
Wednesday, 28 March 2007
12:30
22:30
9 hours
Start at the bottom:
Start ascend:
41°57.520’N
41°57.542’N
15:20 – 17:00
17:00 – 19:00
19:00 – 21:00
21:00 – 23:00
23:00 – 00:30
Aneta Nikolowvska / Heiko Sahling
Sarah Althoff / Heiko Sahling
Yuri G. Artemov / Markus Brüning
Gerhard Bohrmann / Thomas Pape
Gregor von Halem / Heiko Sahling
41°17.100’E
41°17.412’E
812 m water depth
824 m water depth
Table 9: Instruments/tools during Dive 161.
Start
Lat. [°N]
Long. [°E]
gas bubble sampler-5
16:35
44:17.657
34:01.992
Water
Depth [m]
2032
T-stick-1
18:02
44:17.657
35:01.992
2032
push core-11
18:12
44:17.657
35:01.992
2032
GeoB
Tool/instrument
11917-1
11917-2
11917-3
Waypoints:
Start WP 1: 44°17.621’N
WP 2:
44°17.650’N
WP 3:
44°17.720’N
44°17.650’N
WP 4:
35°01.946’E, 2060 m (GC 11913)
35°02.050’E
35°01.950’E
35°01.830’E
Description of the dive
The dive started at the deployment position of gravity corer GeoB 11913 (Fig. 76). The waypoints mark
the extent of the footprint of flares recorded in Parasound during a survey conducted on the night from 25
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to 26 March. Earlier cruises have shown with ship-based echosounder that gas flares are present at
Vodyanitskii mud volcano (35°01.975’E, 44°17.687’N; Y.G. Artemov, pers. comm.).
Fig. 77: Track of ROV Dive 161 at Vodyanitskii mud volcano.
A sonar survey heading NE in the water column about 20 m above ground revealed high backscatter
anomalies that we misinterpreted for a while as gas flares. It turned out that we imaged the rising flank of
the mud volcano, which showed in places high backscatter due to stronger bottom topography. At the northernmost part of this transect, the ROV moved to the seafloor and flew back to its start position. A second
transect 20 m above ground was conducted west of the first one. At the northern end, a survey to the east
revealed the first evidence for bubbles. At least two plumes were seen in the horizontal-looking sonar and
recorded. At the bottom, two 0.5 m depressions connected to each other were observed. They had sharp
edges exposing whitish layered sediments. The bottom of the hole looked like liquid mud filled. These
were not the sites with bubble escapes. We continued to look around, but found no bubbles, maybe due to
the stirring up of flocculent material by the ROV. After a second scan with the horizontal-looking sonar,
two bubble sites were detected and located visually at the seafloor.
The spot with bubble release was about a 2 m large feature of disturbed sediments at 44°17.657’N,
34°01.992’E (Fig. 77, top left). It looked like a small sediment slide or a collapse structure. The sediments
were disturbed with hard-looking cm to dm sized consolidated sediments lying around that resembled
carbonates. Touching with the manipulator of the ROV revealed that these were soft and broke into pieces
when grabbed. The bubbles escaped irregularly from an area of several decimetres around a central bubble
stream. ROV movements induced additional bubble releases. Bubble sizes were small, maybe 0.5 cm or
less. Bubbles were collected with the gas bubble sampler and hydrate formation was observed (Fig. 77,
bottom left). Only a small portion of the bubble/hydrate mixture in the funnel was sucked into the sampler.
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A T-stick was deployed and meanwhile a push corer was taken (Fig. 77, top right). The sediments close to
the bubble outlet fell out, thus, a push corer about 1 m to the left of the stream was taken. After leaving
this site, a sonar scan was recorded in order to allow quantification by acoustic means.
A lengthy survey in the water column started in order to find additional bubble sites with the horizontally
looking sonar system, but this was unsuccessful. Thus, the known two bubble escape locations were revisited. With the horizontally-looking sonar, the presence of two bubble escape sites was confirmed. Following the bubbles to the seafloor, we re-discovered the “Flare I” location and proceeded to the second
site. This was documented by video at the position: 44°17.666’N, 35°01.993E (Fig. 74, bottom right).
Samples could not been taken due to a failure of the Orion 7-function arm. Video documentation as well
as high-resolution sonar scan were conducted while the ROV-team tried to fix the problem. Unfortunately,
a shut down of the entire deck unit led to a “dead vehicle”. During ascent, the power supply was re-established and the vehicle was brought on deck successfully.
Fig. 78: Top left: Emission of small bubbles at Flare I, those are difficult to image on still photos. The outlet is
the dark area in the centre of the image. Top right: Sediment sampling by push corer while T-stick
measurements are conducted in the bubble site. Bottom left: Hydrate formation in the Gas Bubble
Sampler. Bottom right: The seafloor at site Flare II. The bubbles escape from darkish area at the right
hand side.
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7.2.8 Dive 162 (GeoB 11919)
Area:
Responsible scientist:
Date:
Start at Bottom (UTC):
End at Bottom (UTC):
Total bottom time:
Batumi seep, Georgia
Gregor von Halem
Friday, 30 March 2007
12:35
19:05
7 hours
Start at the bottom:
Start ascend:
41°57.531’N
41°57.401’N
41°17.342’E
41°17.273’E
814 m water depth
847 m water depth
Scientist schedule:
2h
2h
2h
ca. 14:00 – 16:00
ca. 16:00 – 18:00
ca. 18:00 – 20:00
Gregor von Halem / Markus Brüning
Deniz Karaça / Gregor von Halem
Sarah Althoff / Markus Brüning
Table 10: Instruments/tools during Dive 162.
GeoB
Flare Cluster 4
11919-1
Flare Cluster 3
11919-2
Waypoints:
Tool/instrument
Start
Lat. [°N]
Long. [°E]
Water
Depth [m]
bubble catcher small
15:12
41:57.544
41:17.337
833
gas bubble sampler
18:03
41:57.534
41:17.4266
835
Start: 41°57.531’N
WP 1: 41°57.529’N
WP 2: 41°57.401’N
41°17.342’E
41°17.271’E
41°17.273’E
Description of the dive
Due to non-function of the ORION arm the tools used were limited to the small bubble catcher and one
gas bubble sampler.
By using the horizontally-looking sonar on the ROV, we searched the area and found bubbles in the water
column at Flare Cluster No. 4 (Fig. 78). A curtain of bubbles escaped along a linear trend with 8 individual bubble streams. The streams caused a significant backscatter signal on the sonar, therefore a sonar
Fig. 78: ROV 162 Dive Track (GeoB 11919) at Batumi seep.
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screenshot was taken. The next objective was a flight over Flare Cluster 4 at low altitude (Fig. 79). The
seafloor looked “perforated and structured” around the bubble streams and linear depressions were present
in the N, “not perforated and smooth” surface, without bubble escape sites, in the east, and a chimneyfield SW of the bubble stream. Finally, the bubble stream was quantified with the bubble catcher.
The next target was Flare Cluster no. 3, Marker no. 1 (set during Dive 156) where we found the former
very active “gusher” site inactive. Strong backscatter signals on the sonar in the close vicinity to Marker 1
guided us to another active bubble escape site where bubbles were emitted along a linear trend giving the
impression of a fracture along which more than 10 individual bubble streams occurred. The next objective
was a flight over Flare Cluster 3 at low altitude, before we sampled the newly discovered bubble escape
site with the gas bubble sampler. Finally, heading south another active gas escape site was found at the
“perforated and smooth” type Flare Cluster 10 before ascent.
Fig. 79: Sampling and surveying at Flare Cluster 4, 3, and 10. Top left: “Perforated and structured” surface around
the bubble escape site at Flare Cluster 4. Top right: “Dead” bubble escape site next to Marker 1 at Flare Cluster 3.
Bottom left: “Curtain” of bubbles at Flare Cluster 3. Bottom right: “Perforated but smooth” type seafloor at Flare
Cluster 10 and three bubble escape sites.
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7.2.9 Dive 163 (GeoB 11921)
Area:
Responsible scientist:
Date:
Start at Bottom (UTC):
End at Bottom (UTC):
Total bottom time:
Batumi seep, Kobuleti Ridge, Georgia
Markus Brüning
Saturday, 31 March 2007
05:47
19:25
13 hours and 36 minutes
Start at the bottom:
Start ascend:
41°57.400’N
41°57.542’N
41°17.267’E
41°17.840’E
844 m water depth
833 m water depth
Scientist schedule
09:00 – 11:00
11:00 – 13:00
13:00 – 15:00
15:00 – 17:00
17:00 – 19:00
19:00 – 21:00
Markus Brüning / Heiko Sahling
Markus Brüning / Vasileios Mavromatis
Gregor von Halem / Elena Kozlova
Gregor von Halem / Gerhard Bohrmann
Heiko Sahling / Aneta Nikolovska
Thomas Pape / Markus Brüning
Table 11: Instruments/tools during Dive 163.
GeoB
Tool/instrument
11921-1
Waypoints:
Start
gas bubble sampler -1
Start:
WP 1:
41°57.40’N
41°57.45’N
End
18:07
18:33
Lat. [°N]
41:57.530
Long. [°E]
41:17.266
41°17.28’E (Flare cluster 10)
41°17.43’E (Flare cluster 9)
Description of the dive
Dive 163 started at 05:47 at the southern rim of the Batumi seep as it is expressed in the 75 kHz DTS
sidescan sonar image. The first target we explored was the Flare Cluster no. 10 of the Simrad EM710 flare
imaging survey (Fig. 80). The bubble site observed during the dive before was found quickly. Several
Fig. 80: Seafloor track of Dive 163 at the Batumi seep area.
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scans with the forward-looking sonar were recorded at 25 m altitude. On the seafloor, bubble escaping was
documented on video and with still images (Fig. 81). The site is very flat with many holes in the ground,
of which some were actively bubbling. Escapes were lined up in an E-W trending direction of 3 m length.
The larger number of escapes (6 to 8) was grouped at the eastern end, with some other weaker bubble
streams located 5 to 7 m to the west. Two wooden sticks pinched out of the seafloor to a height of 50 cm.
The flow rates of three of the bubble streams were quantified by collection of gas in the gas catcher. The
sampled streams represent the strongest to weak streams. A second sonar scan was conducted at an
altitude of 1.5 m resolving the different streams. The seafloor was finally mapped with the DSPL camera
flying the ROV in 0.6 m altitude to create a mosaic from the videos. The five E-W trending 35 m long
lines have a distance of 1.5 m. The sidescan sonar data were recorded during the mosaicing. An anomaly,
15 m north of the bubble escape site of Cluster 10, was passed when heading to Cluster 9, but did not
show any expression on the seafloor.
Fig. 81: Top left: Holes of bubble escapes at cluster 10. Top right: Bubble escape at cluster 9. Bottom left: Nonactive bubble escape at cluster 3. Bottom right: Elongated dune proposed to cause linear features on
side scan sonar images.
The flight close to the seafloor to Cluster 9 showed only plain sediments without signs of venting. Arriving at Cluster 9, the vehicle was lifted to 25 m altitude and the forward-looking sonar was deployed to
find bubble streams in the water column. One strong and another weaker stream 25 m apart were discovered. Sounding was conducted to other directions, but no other flares were detected. High resolution
sonar scans from four directions were made at 4.5 m altitude to separate single streams in the backscat-
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tered signals. Close to the seafloor, escape flow rates were quantified with the gas bubble catcher. The
about eight bubble streams are a few metres apart from each other. During the observation, the flow rate
increased significantly. The seafloor around the escapes looks rough, with clasts, which are partly layered.
Over the observed escape site, a block of 30 cm size has a white skin, a layering of 5 mm separation
shined through.
Topographic undulations in the vicinity have a height up to one metre. Exploring the surrounding of Cluster 9, N-S trending grabens of about three to four metre depth and 10 m width were discovered. One sidewall housed a two metre deep hole with 40 cm diameter.
The transit to cluster 3 showed a hilly seafloor. At cluster 3, the objective was to take pictures of the
gusher site next to marker 1, which was found inactive the day before. When turning the vehicle to match
the angle of the Dive 156 image, bubble escape started again, first episodically, then continuous as it was
observed the other day.
The next task was to collect one of the chimneys around marker 1 with the bubble catcher bag, but this
failed in spite of many tries due to limited abilities of the Rigmaster arm holding the bubble catcher at the
appropriate angle. The gas bubble sampler was filled on this spot successfully. Finished at Cluster 3, the
ROV headed northeast to find a linear feature seen on all sidescan sonar images from that area. After
flying along the line indicated on the 75 kHz sidescan-dive-map, heading south and then east again to find
the structure by crossing the indicated location. The ROV’s sidescan indicated the searched feature southwest of the dive maps position. Arriving on the spot, a kind of elongated dune was found. As the time for
dive work was over, it was not possible to explore the feature anymore.
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8
8 Temperature measurements
In situ sediment and bottom water temperature measurements
(F. Schmidt-Schierhorn, T. Feseker)
8.1
Introduction
The ascent of warm fluids and mud at cold seeps creates temperature anomalies close to the seafloor and
in the bottom water. Detecting and quantifying these anomalies provides information on the nature and
strength of fluid seepage. During Leg M72/3a, in situ temperature measurements were conducted over the
course of the ROV dives at shallow sediment depths and in the bottom water in order to identify areas
with active seepage. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the activity of Dvurechenskii mud
volcano (DMV), a gravity corer equipped with thermistor strings had been deployed in the course of the
previous cruise M72/2. The first temperature record was obtained during M72/3a, 18 days after the deployment. The sum of these measurements will be used to estimate flow rates and the depth of the gas
hydrate stability zone.
8.2
Materials and methods
8.2.1 Long-term temperature observation using a gravity corer equipped with thermistor
strings
A temperature lance equipped with thermistor chains was deployed at the geometrical centre of the DMV
during M72/2. This lance consists of a regular gravity corer with a weight set of 200 kg and a 5.75 m long
barrel. Two RBR thermistor chains were attached to the corer along the barrel. Each thermistor chain consists of eight sensor nodes distributed evenly over a length of 4.9 m. The thermistor chains are connected
to two independent data loggers attached to a buoy floating approximately 3 m above the seafloor and may
be recovered using the ROV while the lance remains in the sediment.
8.2.2 ROV-operated temperature lance
A novel temperature lance manufactured by RBR Ltd. (Fig. 82, left) was used during the ROV dives to
obtain in situ sediment temperature measurements from up to 0.6 m below the seafloor. The lance consists
of eight temperature sensors distributed over a length of 0.5 cm. During an entire dive, a reading from
each sensor is stored in a central logging unit every ten seconds. The precision of the measurements is
0.002 °C. Using the manipulator arm of the ROV, the lance is lowered into the sediment (Fig. 82, right) to
the maximum penetration depth of 0.6 m and left in place for at least ten minutes to allow the sensors to
adjust to the sediment temperature. The real temperature value may be estimated by extrapolation from the
Fig. 82: Temperature lance. Left: on deck of R/V METEOR. Right: during its deployment at the seafloor
(source: University of Bremen, MARUM)
85
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
8 Temperature measurements
recorded equilibration curve. During the cruise, first rough estimates of the equilibrium temperatures were
obtained from visual analyses of the recorded curves.
8.2.3 Autonomous bottom water temperature loggers mounted on ROV “QUEST4000m”
For the measurements in the water column, two autonomous MTLs (miniaturized temperature data
loggers) from ANTARES Datensysteme GmbH were attached to the frame of the ROV “Quest4000m”
(Fig. 83). The MTLs were programmed to record one temperature reading every second during the entire
dive. The resolution of the MTL sensors is 0.6 mK, allowing for highly accurate relative temperature
measurements. However, the absolute precision amounts to ±1/10K, as the sensors were not calibrated
with a high precision reference.
Fig. 83: Positions of the different devices on the ROV. Left bottom: Temperature Stick (XR-420).
Left top: MTL (1854008A). Right: MTL (1854007A).
A list showing positions of areas investigated and measurement characteristics is given in Tab. 12.
Table 12: Overview of temperature measurements performed during M72/3a at Colkheti seep (CS), at the Batumi
seep area (BS), at Dvurechenskii mud volcano (DMV), and Vodyanitskii mud volcano (VMV).
GeoB no.
11902-2
11902-3
11904-10
11904-11
11904-12
11907-3
11910-1
11910-2
11910-4
11910-5
11910-7
11910-9
11910-10
86
ROV dive
no.
Area
Lat [°]N
Long [°]E
Water
depth [m]
Duration of
deployment [min]
Penetration
depth [cm]
155
155
156
156
156
157
159
159
159
159
159
159
159
CS
CS
BS
BS
BS
BS
DMV
DMV
DMV
DMV
DMV
DMV
DMV
41:96.785
41:96.786
41:57.529
41:57.528
41:57.529
41:57.543
44:16.900
44:16.929
44:16.946
44:16.977
44:17.006
44:17.019
44:17.029
41:10.328
41:10.328
41:17.271
41:17.270
41:17.271
41:17.529
34:59.293
34:59.233
34:59.175
34:59.085
34:58.974
34:58.929
34:58.880
1113
1113
835
835
835
834
2046
2045
2044
2042
2042
2041
2040
00:12
00:11
00:09
00:07
00:10
00:15
00:12
00:16
00:17
00:15
00:16
00:18
00:28
50
56
16,5
20
61
62
62
62
62
62
55
63
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
8 Temperature measurements
Table 12, continuation: Overview of temperature measurements
GeoB no.
11910-12
11910-13
11915-1
11915-2
11915-3
11915-4
11915-5
11915-6
11915-7
11915-10
11915-13
11915-16
11915-20
11917-2
ROV dive no.
Area
Lat [°]N
Long [°]E
Water
depth [m]
Duration of
deployment [min]
Penetration
depth [cm]
159
159
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
161
DMV
DMV
DMV
DMV
DMV
DMV
DMV
DMV
DMV
DMV
DMV
DMV
DMV
VMV
44:16.972
44:16.947
44:16.802
44:16.838
44:16.893
44:16.954
44:17.002
44:16.995
44:17.024
44:17.093
44:17.054
44:17.005
44:17.052
44:17.657
34:58.910
34:58.850
34:58.596
34:59.596
34:58.709
34:58.784
34:58.889
34:58.736
34:58.612
34:58.673
34:58.759
34:58.896
34:58.842
35:01.995
2036
2042
2052
2043
2043
2041
2040
2042
2042
2043
2042
2040
2041
2032
*)
00:11
00:14
00:11
00:12
00:17
00:12
00:12
00:13
00:23
00:26
00:12
00:18
00:28
*)
60
58
58
60
66
61
62
64
53
53
51
53
54
*) Picking up thermistor from long-term temperature observation station at DMV.
8.3
Preliminary results
8.3.1 In situ sediment temperature measurements
Batumi Seep Area
In the course of two reconnaissance dives at the Batumi seeps site, four temperature measurements were
obtained using the ROV temperature lance. The temperature values ranged between 8.94 and 9.17 °C.
Compared to a bottom water temperature of approximately 9.1 °C, this suggests a relatively low temperature anomaly. Strongly irregular profiles with more than one relative minima and maxima (e.g. Fig. 84)
may be related to gas ebullition associated with bottom water infiltration and circulation.
Fig. 84: Temperature measurement at ROV Dive 156, station 4 at the Batumi seep area.
Upper graph: Different symbols represent the temperatures recorded by the eight
individual sensors (1-8). Lower graph: The profile reveals a temperature decrease
from sensor six to five, where it reaches a local minimum. From this point downward, the values increase again rapidly, reaching a maximum of about 8.966 °C at
sensor 1.
87
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
8 Temperature measurements
Dvurechenskii Mud Volcano
Continuing the survey of sediment temperatures from the previous cruise leg, M72/2, 20 in situ temperature measurements were obtained during two dives at Dvurechenskii mud volcano (DMV; Tab. 12).
Measurements were obtained at sites of push core sampling and along previously defined transects from
the edges of the plateau towards the most active area NW of the geometrical center of the mud volcano
(Fig. 85).
Measured sediment temperatures ranged
between the bottom water temperature of
9.1 to more than 15 °C. The highest value
of 15.7 °C was at approximately 0.6 m
below the seabed during ROV Dive 159
at station 5 (position: 44°17.029’ N,
34°58,88’ E) This appears to be the active
center of the mud volcano. The preliminary evaluation of the measured data
suggests that all stations show a linear
temperature increase with depth.
As an example, Fig. 86 shows the result
Fig. 85: Overview of the temperature measurements at
of a measurement from ROV Dive 159
Dvurechenskii mud volcano.
(25 March 2007, station 7) from DMV. In
the upper graph, the lines of different colors represent the measurements obtained from the eight
individual sensors. The lower figure presents the derived temperature profile over the length of the ROV
temperature lance.
Fig. 86: Temperature measurement obtained during ROV Dive 159, station 7 at
Dvurechenskii mud volcano.
88
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
8 Temperature measurements
Vodyanitskii Mud Volcano
At Vodyanitskii mud volcano only one measurement was obtained (Tab. 12). The corresponding profile
reveals a linear temperature increase with depth, reaching a maximum of 10.09 °C at the deepest sensor.
Colkheti seep
Colkheti seep is a site situated near the Batumi seeps, where oil has been found at the seafloor. Using the
ROV temperature lance, two measurements were obtained during one dive (Tab. 12). The measured
values range from 9.00 to 9.24 °C, suggesting a relatively low temperature anomaly at this site.
At the first station (GeoB 11902-2), the measured profile is strongly nonlinear with a distinct temperature
maximum at the second sensor (Fig. 87). In contrast, the profile obtained from the second station shows a
linear temperature increase with depth (not shown here).
Fig. 87: Temperature measurement at ROV Dive 155, station 1 at Colkheti seep.
8.3.2 Bottom water temperature
Fig. 88 shows the comparison of data from the two MTLs and from the CTD recorded during ROV Dive
159 at DMV on 25.3.07. The relative measurements were very sensible and show a similar pattern, but the
offset between the individual curves is obvious. Moreover, the time series recorded by MTL 2 shows large
variability. As this logger was mounted at the top of the porch of the ROV, it may be suggested that this
phenomenon is related to the temporal heating of the seawater by the lamps of the ROV. All loggers
recorded the highest bottom water temperature when the highest subsurface temperature value was measured with the ROV lance. The corresponding time interval from 13:14 to 13:44 o’clock is marked by a
black rectangle.
89
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
8 Temperature measurements
Fig. 88: Temperature measurement with MTLs in comparison to data from the
CTD at ROV Dive 159 at Dvurechenskii mud volcano. Black rectangle: time interval while measuring maximum temperatures near the
centre of DMV.
8.3.3 First results from the long-term temperature observation at Dvurechenskii Mud Volcano
One of the two data loggers from the long-term temperature lance was recovered 18 days after the
deployment of the lance during the previous cruise Leg M72/2. The thermistor chain recorded one reading
from each of the eight temperature sensors every 15 minutes. The corresponding time series are shown in
Fig. 89. The largest temperature changes occurred during the first few days of the observation, suggesting
that the temperature distribution in the sediment column was altered by the presence of the lance. At all
sensors temperature decreased with time, but the first three sensors and the last one (sensor 8) showed less
decline than the others.
Fig 89: Results from the long-term temperature observation. Different symbols represent the different sensors.
90
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
9
9 Autoclave work
Autoclave work
(H.-J. Hohnberg, F. Abegg, T. Pape, S.A. Klapp, K. Dehning, A.H. Mai)
9.1
Introduction
During M72/3, three autoclave tools for sampling-gas hydrate-bearing sediments and bubble-forming gas
were used:
The Dynamic Autoclave Piston Corer I (DAPC I) has been designed and built to recover, preserve, and
analyze sediment cores under the in situ conditions of the deep sea. Its main use is to quantify gas and gas
hydrate contents preserved in the cores. During incremental degassing of the cores, subsamples of the
released gas can be taken for analyses of their chemical compositions (Chap. 12). DAPC I has been successfully deployed and continuously improved during several previous cruises (SO 174; TTR-15; M70/3)
since 2003.
The Dynamic Autoclave Piston Corer II (DAPC II) consists of a tool system, which includes an autoclave corer similar to the DAPC I and a set of individual pressure chambers and associated manipulators.
It is an advancement of DAPC I with the aim of recovering and cutting sediment cores and transferring the
core segments into smaller, manageable pressure chambers while still under pressure. In contrast to the
pressure chamber of DAPC I, these pressure chambers allow for visualization and determination of gas,
gas hydrate and sediment amounts by computer tomography (CT, Chap. 10.3), prior to incremental
degassing. The whole system is a new development
within the project METRO and made its first deployments
during this cruise.
The ROV-based Gas Bubble Sampler (GBS) was
primarily developed to collect free gas escaping from the
seafloor, but it allows for the sampling of gas hydrates
generated in the water column from ascending gas bubbles or of pure seawater, as well. Further, the GBS allows
for estimations of gas flux rates by visual observations
during ROV dives and by quantitative degassing upon its
recovery on deck. Due to its handling with the ROV,
samples can be taken very close to the seabottom, e.g.
above discrete gas outlets. The GBS first launch was
during cruise M70/3 and it has been routinely used during
M72/3a.
9.2
Materials and methods
The DAPC I (Fig. 90) is a sediment pressure-core sampling device of 7.2 m total length and 500 kg total weight.
It was designed to cut sediment cores from the seafloor
surface to a maximum length of 2.5 m and to preserve
them at in situ pressure. The certified pressure is 140 bar
corresponding to water depths of down to 1400 m. Nevertheless, the DAPC I is equipped with a pressure control
valve, which allows the deployment down to 5000 m
Fig. 90: Deployment of DAPC I from on
board R/V METEOR. The pressure
chamber (top) and the core cutting
barrel (bottom) are shown.
91
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
9 Autoclave work
water depth. An in situ pressure up to 200 bar can be preserved, and higher pressures up to 500 bar will be
released down to 200 bar. The core cutting barrel, which is relatively short (2.7 m) hits the seafloor with
strong impact. Therefore, it is especially suitable for sampling layered gas hydrate-bearing sediment. The
device allows various analytical approaches such as quantitative analyses of gases and subsampling for
chemical investigations. The pressure chamber consists of glass-fiber reinforced plastic (GRP), aluminum
alloys, seawater resistant steel, and aluminum bronze. The pressure chamber is 2.6 m long and weighs
about 230 kg. All parts of the pressure chamber exposed to seawater are suitable for long-term storage of
cores under pressure for several weeks. The DAPC I is to be deployed from a research vessel on the deep
sea cable. It can be released from variable heights (1-5 m) due to the resistance of the seafloor and
penetrates in free fall. The pressure chamber was checked and approved by the Berlin TÜV (Technischer
Überwachungsverein, technical inspection authority of Germany).
The DAPC II in detail is a tool
system consisting of the pressure
core sampling device, a set of pressure chambers and two manipulators (Fig. 91). The pressure core
sampling device is in its physical
dimensions similar to the DAPC I,
but the total length is 7.6 m and the
certified pressure is 200 bar. The
process of tool preparation, deployment, and recovery is the same as
Fig. 91: The DAPC II: A = pressure coring tool, B = pressure chamber,
for DAPC I. Upon recovery, many
C = manipulator.
single steps have to be done consecutively such as disconnection of the core catcher, transfer of core material, connection and disconnection
of pressure chambers. All these processes are actually very complicated and need great accuracy for
success and security. When successfully transferred, the pressurized core segments can be analyzed using
CT-technique, degassing (Chap. 12), and geochemical investigations (Chap. 11).
Deployments of DAPC I and -II from R/V METEOR were similar to those of conventional piston corers,
but without a core depositing frame. Both penetrate the seafloor in a free-fall mode using the release
mechanism developed by Kullenberg (1947).
The GBS (Fig. 92) is a ROV-operated in situ pressure sampling device, which in principle consists of a
steel tube with valves on each end. The valve on one end is connected to a funnel and is operated by the
ROV manipulator via a handle. The other valve is used to release gas kept in the GBS upon its recovery
on deck. Before deployment, both valves are closed preserving atmospheric pressure. While at the seafloor
the content of the funnel (water, gas or gas hydrate) is sucked into the steel tube when the valve is opened
due to the pressure difference. The valve is only shortly opened for sample collection. At maximum, two
GBS were deployed during a single ROV dive.
92
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
9 Autoclave work
Fig. 92:
Picture showing the gas bubble
sampler with funnel, ball valve
handle and pressure-resistant
steel tube.
During cruise M72/3, 23 DAPC and 8 deployments of the GBS were carried out (Tabs. 13 and 14).
Table 13: Deployment statistics of the dynamic autoclave piston corer I (DAPC I) and the dynamic autoclave
piston corer II (DAPC II). USBL = Ultra-short base line (Posidonia Unterwater positioning system).
GeoB
Instrument
Instrument No.
Area
Lat.
[°N]
Long.
[°E]
41:17.344
41:17.266
Water
Depth
[m]
851
850
Pressure
[bar]
68
72
Gas
released
[mL]
231.200
46.280
11901
11903
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC-01
DAPC-02
BS
BS
41:57.410
41:57.472
11906
11920
11937
11958
11963
11922
11909
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC-03
DAPC-09
DAPC-12
DAPC-15
DAPC-16
DAPC-10
DAPC-04
BS
BS
BS
BS
BS
CS
DMV
41:57.465
41:57.454
41:57.489
41:57.448
41:57.410
41:58.071
44:16.906
41:17.270
41:17.545
41:17.462
41:17.446
41:17.278
41:06.214
34:59.066
843
844
842
845
853
1126
2056
64
81
52
87
27
125
n.d.
40.700
100.550
8.000
137.450
30.700
69.500
0
11911
DAPC I
DAPC-05
DMV
44:16.972
34:59.215
2058
1
n.d.
11914
11916
11999
11981
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC-06
DAPC-07
DAPC-23
DAPC-19
DMV
DMV
DMV
VMV
44:16.987
44:16.896
44:16.892
44:17.650
34:59.097
34:58.789
34:58.902
35:01.979
2058
2057
2049
2037
185
185
185
192
108.550
100.850
130.550
3.950
11991
11992
11918
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC II
DAPC-20
DAPC-21
DAPC-08
VMV
VMV
BS
44:17.625
44:17.630
41:57.547
35:01.949
35:01.932
41:17.427
2052
2055
840
n.d.
10
88
n.d.
39.750
253.200
11935
DAPC II
DAPC-11
BS
41:57.549
41:17.425
843
n.d.
0
11944
DAPC II
DAPC-13
BS
41:57.554
41:17.654
841
n.d.
0
11951
11972
DAPC II
DAPC II
DAPC-14
DAPC-17
BS
BS
41:57.546
41:57.541
41:17.431
41:17.428
840
841
79
n.d.
103.250
0
11973
11994
DAPC II
DAPC II
DAPC-18
DAPC-22
BS
DMV
41:57.544
44:16.995
41:17.430
34:59.096
840
1994
n.r.*)
n.r.*)
n.a.
n.a.
Core recovery, remarks
USBL; recovery 260 cm
USBL; degassing stopped due
to clogging of system. 260 cm
core, 100 cm recovery
USBL; recovery 83 cm
USBL; recovery 259 cm
recovery 41 cm
recovery 146 cm
recovery 169 cm
n.a.
USBL; device did not release,
no recovery
USBL; Autoclave did not close;
251 cm recovery
USBL; recovery 256 cm
USBL; recovery 253 cm
USBL; recovery 256 cm
recovery 78 cm
no recovery
USBL; recovery 177 cm
first deployment of DAPC II;
recovery 233 cm
device lost pressure; no
recovery
device lost pressure, no
recovery
recovery 137 cm
device did not release, no
recovery
device maintained pressure
recovery 250 cm
core-transfer under pressure
Pressure = pressure upon recovery. BS = Batumi seep, DMV = Dvurechenskii mud volcano, CS = Colkheti seep,
VMV = Vodyanitskii mud volcano. n.d. = not detected; n.a. = not analysed.; n.r.*) material dedicated for core
transfer, visual observations of pressure but no precise recording
Table 14: Deployment statistics of the gas bubble sampler (GBS).
GeoB
11902-1
11904-7
11904-16
11907-2
11907-5
11917-1
11919-2
11921-1
Instrument
No.
GBS-1
GBS-2
GBS-3
GBS-4
GBS-5
GBS-6
GBS-7
GBS-8
Area
CS
BS
BS
BS
BS
VMV
BS
BS
Lat.
[°N]
41:58.071
41:57.529
41:57.541
41:57.543
41:57.544
44:17.656
41:57.533
41:57.530
Long.
[°E]
41:06.197
41:17.272
41:17.413
41:17.529
41:17.472
34:01.992
41:17.268
41:17.266
Water
Depth [m]
1112
835
833
834
835
2032
833
844
Pressure upon
recovery [bar]
105
n.d.
78
74
1
175
75
75
Gas released
[mL]
48.330,0
0,0
24.690,0
28.450,0
50,0
69.150,0
32.850,0
33.300,0
CS = Colkheti seep, BS = Batumi seep, VMV = Vodyanitskii mud volcano. n.d. = not detected.
93
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
9.3
9 Autoclave work
Preliminary results
9.3.1 DAPC I deployments
In total 16 deployments of DAPC I were conducted during M72/3. At 12 stations, the pressure inside the
tool was sufficient to preserve the sampling material within the gas hydrate stability field. Immediately
upon recovery, those cores were incrementally degassed in order to determine the total amounts of gas
preserved and to take gas subsamples for further analyses (Chap. 12). Sediment cores were subjected to
sedimentological descriptions (Chap. 10.2) and pore water sampling (Chap. 11). At two stations, DAPC I
did not release and no sediments were recovered.
The DAPC I again has proven to be completely functional. The device has been deployed to a maximum
pressure level of 200 bar without any technical concern or failure. Minor problems occurred with a sealing
ring in the bottom ball valve due to cold temperatures. A pressure accumulator system balanced the pressure loss in most cases.
9.3.2 DAPC II deployments
The newly developed DAPC II pressure coring system including the pressure chambers and the
manipulators was deployed for the first time during M72/3 (GeoB 11918, DAPC-08). In total 7 deployments of the DAPC II were conducted during the cruise. After the first deployments and necessary advancements, the system proved its full function within the pressure range of up to 200 bars. At two
stations (GeoB 11918, DAPC-08; GeoB 11951, DAPC-14), it has been used for simply degassing similar
to DAPC I.
A challenging task was the core transfer. After some problems concerning the sealing system and more
precisely the interaction of the core liner and the pressure chamber, the core transfer was executed by a
modification of the sealing system which was newly developed for this process. Two core segments
(GeoB 11994-1 and -2) of 50 cm length each were cut and transferred under pressure. Subsequently, computer tomography scans were performed on these segments (Chap. 10.3).
The DAPC II is completely applicable for recovering pressurized cores similar to DAPC I. Nevertheless,
some improvements have to be done: the bearings of the pressure chamber ball valves have to be
enhanced for reducing the force which is necessary to operate the ball under pressure, the handling of the
core transfer must be simplified, and a concerted and fixed tool carrying system has to be developed.
9.3.3 GBS deployments
For sampling of near-bottom gas escaping the seafloor within the gas hydrate stability field, two ROVbased GBS were operated 8 times during six dives over the course of M72/3a. Pressurized gas was
recovered successfully from six sites while at one station the gas was completely lost due to leakage from
the system. At one station, a partial loss of pressure due to handling problems during sampling occurred.
However, since some pressure was preserved, the gas could be subsampled for chemical analysis.
The GBS are completely functional within the pressure range of 250 bars and are ready for further deployments.
94
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
10
10.1
10 Geological sampling
Geological sampling and sedimentology
Geological sampling equipment
(S.A. Klapp, F. Abegg, A. Bahr, H.-J. Hohnberg, B. Domeyer, G. von Halem, A.H. Mai,
K. Dehning)
Recovering geological samples was a major objective during R/V METEOR cruise M72/3. Several goals
needed to be accomplished, for which different tools were suitable: For recovering cores of up to 6 meters
length, gravity coring was conducted, while relatively short cores with undisturbed sediment-water interface were taken by use of multicorer or minicorer (Tabs. 15 and 16). For recovery of pressurized sediment
cores the Dynamic Autoclave Piston Corers I and II were deployed (Chap. 9).
Gravity cores (GC) were either taken with a 6-m-core barrel or with a 3.5-m-core barrel. The outer diameter of the barrel is 14 cm and the inner diameter is 13.2 cm. The coring was conducted either with a
PVC liner or with a soft plastic hose inside. The soft plastic hose allows for fast access to the sampled
material and was commonly used for sampling gas hydrate-bearing sediments. Besides sedimentological
and geochemical analyses, standard PVC liner were also used for cores which were intended to be scanned
by computer-tomography (CT) in a frozen state (Chap. 10.3). For this purpose, the liners were pre-cut into
segments of 55 cm and later to 50 cm due to the CT scanner’s capabilities. Before deployment of the GC,
the segments were carefully taped together. Upon recovery, the connecting tapes were cut off and the
segments were closed with caps and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. This process has proved to be
very fast, which is a necessity in order to avoid extended dissociation of gas hydrate.
On R/V METEOR, winch W11 was used for the deployment of the gravity corer. The winch speed was
commonly set to 1.0 m/s to slack or heave the GC in the water column. For coring, the speed was sometimes set to 1.5 m/s. During the cruise, the gravity corer was used with reduced weight due to extended
overpenetration during M72/2. The head was equipped with approx. 800 kg of lead.
The multicorer (MUC) was used to sample undisturbed top sediment layers. The tool was equipped with
a head for the deployment of 8 liners with a diameter of 10 cm and 4 liners with diameters of 6 cm, all of
them with a length of 50 cm. For the deployment again R/V METEOR’s winch W11 was used.
The slacking was set to 0.8 m/s and lifting speed was set to 1.0 m/s; depending on the sediment the coring
speed varied from 0.3 m/s to 0.7 m/s. The multicorer did not work properly: the lock of the liners only
partially released. Several attempts to improve the coring results did not avail, and the problem could not
be fixed onboard. For this reason, we switched to the minicorer (MIC), a small version of the MUC,
during Leg M72/3b. The MIC comes with four liners of 6 cm diameter and 60 cm length. For the
deployment onboard R/V METEOR, winch W2 or W3 was used with a slacking speed of 0.5 m/s until a
depth of 700 m is reached, further downwards the speed was set to 0.7 m/s. The low speed down to 700 m
is necessary to avoid an overhauling of the MIC by the down-moving deep-sea cable, because the MIC is
a very light sampling tool that without any attached weights only weighs about 30 kg. The coring speed
was set to 0.3 m/s, the device is heaved with 1.0 m/s.
All GC, MUC, and MIC stations were run with POSIDONIA (USBL) underwater navigation if available.
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Table 15: Overview of gravity corer (GC) and multicorer (MUC) stations.
GeoB
GC-No.
Area
Lat
[°N]
Long
[°]E
11913
11923
11924
11925
11926
11927
11933
GC-1
GC-2
GC-3
GC-4
GC-5
GC-6
GC-7
Vodyanitskiy MV
Colkheti seep
Colkheti seep
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Gudauta High
44:17.621
41:58.120
41:58.068
41.57.431
41:57.416
41:57.410
42:40.262
35:01.946
41:06.250
41:06.195
41:17.347
41:17.345
41:17.324
40:22.631
Water
Depth
[m]
2048
1088
1056
844
849
856
690
11936
GC-8
Batumi seep
41:57.563
41:17.430
844
11938
11941
11942
11945
GC-9
GC-10
GC-11
GC-12
Iberia mound
Pechori mound
Pechori mound
Batumi seep
41:52.340
41:58.962
41:59.008
41:57.345
41:10.036
41:02.404
41:07.400
41:17.456
982
1014
1024
848
11946
GC-13
Batumi seep
41:57.532
41:17.582
842
11949
11952
GC-14
GC-15
Batumi seep
Pechori mound
41:57.550
41:58.955
41:17.175
41:07.539
842
1019
11953
GC-16
Pechori mound
41:58.958
41:07.543
1015
11955
GC-17
Pechori mound
41:58.963
41:07.540
1012
11956
GC-18
Batumi seep
41:57.450
14:17.436
843
11957
GC-19
background
Batumi seep
41:57.803
41:18.001
844
11967
GC-20
Batumi seep
41:57.530
41:17.268
843
11971
GC-21
Colkheti seep
41:58.069
41:06.199
1124
11974
GC-22
Reference Station
41:57.428
41:16.803
884
11975
GC-23
Batumi seep
41:57.528
41:17.588
844
11980
GC-24
Vodyanitskiy MV
44:17.659
35:01.965
2039
11987
11988
11989
11990
11998
11905-1
11905-2
11912
11928
11929
11930
11931
11934
11939
11943
11947
11948
11950
GC-25
GC-26
GC-27
GC-28
GC-29
MUC-1
MUC-2
MUC-3
MUC-4
MUC-5
MUC-6
MUC-7
MUC-8
MUC-9
MUC-10
MUC-11
MUC-12
MUC-13
Kerch Strait
Kerch Strait
Kerch Strait
Vodyanitskiy MV
Dvurechenskii MV
near Batumi seep
near Batumi seep
Dvurechenskii MV
Shallow Ridge
Shallow Ridge
Shallow Ridge
Batumi seep
Gudauta High
Iberia mound
Pechori mound
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
44:37.138
44:37.207
44:37.203
44:17.623
44:16.998
41:57.249
41:57.432
44:17.015
41:42.332
41:42.374
41:42.386
41:47.838
42:40.260
41:52.739
41:58.659
41:57.531
41:57.531
41:57.542
35:42.249
35:42.291
35:42.260
35:01.946
34:59.090
41:16.716
41:16.798
34:58.885
41:28.174
41:28.059
41:27.938
41:16.842
40:22.678
41:10.025
41:07.428
41:17.585
41:17.578
41:17.424
894
889
888
2061
2052
895
877
2053
379
367
382
839
701
989
1014
841
843
840
Comment
USBL; recovery 138 cm
USBL; 6 m; plastic bag
USBL; 6 m; plastic bag; recovery 698 cm
USBL; 6 m; plastic bag; recovery 215 cm
USBL; 6 m; plastic bag
USBL; 6 m; plastic bag; recovery 413 cm
USBL; recovery 380 cm
USBL; PVC-liner Segments for CT analysis
(6 m); recovery 193 cm
USBL; recovery 134 cm
USBL; recovery 83 cm
USBL; no recovery
USBL; no recovery
USBL; PVC-liner Segments; recovery 302
cm
USBL
USBL; plastic hose (6 m), no recovery
USBL; PVC liner segments for CT analysis
(3 m); recovery 335 cm
USBL; PVC-liner (3 m); recovery 144 cm
USBL; PVC-liner Segments for CT analysis
(3 m); recovery 110 cm
USBL; PCV liner Segments (1 m) for home
analysis (6 m total)
USBL; no recovery; some carbonate pieces
in core catcher
USBL; PVC-liner (3 m); recovery 151 cm
USBL; PVC-liner (6 m), recovery 697 cm;
reference station near Batumi Seep
USBL; plastic hose (3 m); recovery 304 cm
USBL; PVC-liner Segments; recovery 131
cm
USBL; recovery 157 cm
USBL; recovery 293 cm
USBL; recovery 289 cm
USBL; recovery 153 cm
USBL
device did not release
recovery 60 cm
recovery 60 cm
device did not release
device did not release
device did not release
8 MUC-liners completely filled
USBL; recovery 57 cm
USBL; recovery 60 cm
USBL, no recovery
USBL; device did not release
USBL; device did not release
USBL; device did not release
USBL = Ultra-short base line (Posidonia underwater positioning system); recovery = core recovery
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Table 16: Overview of minicorer (MIC) stations.
Lat
[°N]
Long
[°]E
Pechori mound
Batumi seep
Offshore Kobuleti
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
41:58.964
41:57.533
42:00.351
41:57.548
41:57.414
41:57.447
41:57.614
41:07.541
41:17.568
41:27.997
41:17.435
41:17.360
41:17.437
41:17.512
Water
Depth
[m]
1024
840
523
838
847
843
847
MIC-8
Pechori mound
41:58.961
41:07.543
1022
11969
11970
MIC-9
MIC-10
Pechori mound
Colkheti seep
41:58.962
41:58.069
41:07.541
41:06.191
1118
11976
MIC-11
Dvurechenskii MV
44.16.807
34:58.906
2052
11977
MIC-12
Dvurechenskii MV
44:16.885
34:58.906
2052
11978
MIC-13
Dvurechenskii MV
44.16.944
34:58.902
2050
11979
MIC-14
Dvurechenskii MV
44.17.025
34:58.879
2048
11983
11984
11985
11986
11993
11995
11997
MIC-15
MIC-16
MIC-17
MIC-18
MIC-19
MIC-20
MIC-21
Kerch Strait
Kerch Strait
Kerch Strait
Kerch Strait
Vodyanitskiy MV
Dvurechenskii MV
Dvurechenskii MV
44:39.607
44:29.999
44:45.008
44:46.007
44:17.627
44:17.034
44:17.060
35:42.519
35:49.998
36:09.995
36:01.998
35:01.948
34:58.951
34:59.036
747
1341
95
173
2067
1977
2050
GeoBNo.
Device/
No.
11954
11959
11960
11962
11964
11965
11966
MIC-1
MIC-2
MIC-3
MIC-4
MIC-5
MIC-6
MIC-7
11968
Area
Comment
USBL; recovery 57 cm
USBL; recovery 58 cm
USBL; recovery 59 cm
USBL; 1 liner filled
USBL failed; 51 cm recovery
USBL failed; 27cm recovery
No USBL; 4 liners recovery
USBL; device did not release; recovery 43
cm
USBL; recovery 41 cm
USBL; 3 liners full; recovery 34 cm
No USBL; ship position; target ca. 12 meter
sw'; recovery 46 cm
No USBL; ship position; target ca. 12 meter
sw'; recovery 52 cm
No USBL; ship position; target ca. 12 meter
sw'; recovery 56 cm
No USBL; ship position; target ca. 12 meter
sw'; recovery 40 cm
USBL; liner full
USBL; liner full
USBL; liner full
USBL; liner full
USBL; liner full
USBL; liner full
USBL; liner full
USBL = Ultra-short base line (Posidonia underwater positioning system); recovery = core recovery
10.2
Sedimentological core descriptions
(A. Bahr, E. Kozlova)
During the R/V METEOR 72/3 cruise, three main areas (the Batumi seep area on the Georgian continental
margin, the Sorokin Trough on the Ukrainian continental margin, and an area south of the Kerch Strait)
were sampled by autoclave piston corers (DAPC I and II), multicorer (MUC), minicorer (MiC), gravity
corer (GC), and pushcorer during the ROV dives (Tab. A 4 and Plate A 1 in the Appendix). Cores were
mostly taken in places characterized by gas seepage or mud volcanic activity and were therefore
dominated by gas-saturated sediments. According to the specific conditions, the sediments can be divided
into those of hemipelagic or mud volcanic origin.
The reference station GeoB 11974, near the Batumi seep area, represents the late Pleistocene to Holocene
hemipelagic sedimentation in the Black Sea (Figs. 93 and 94): At the top finely (sub-mm scale) laminated
coccolith ooze (Unit 1 after Ross and Degens, 1974) overlays a finely (< mm) laminated sapropel (Unit 2
after Ross and Degens, 1974) with a series of aragonite laminae at the base of the otherwise dark sapropel
(Fig. 95).
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Legend
Fig. 93: Black Sea sedimentary units after Ross and
Degens (1974) and legend for core description.
Both, Unit 1 and 2, are of marine origin and were deposited
when the present anoxic conditions developed in the Black
Sea basin some time after the inflow of marine water from
the Mediterranean Sea started ca. 9.4 kyrs calBP (Major et
al., 2006). The base of Unit 2 has an age of 8.0 kyrs calBP
(Lamy et al., 2006), while the first coccolith layers of Unit 1
were deposited around 2.7 kyrs calBP (Jones and Gagnon,
1994). Below the sapropel, GeoB 11974 entirely consists of
clayey mud belonging to Unit 3 after Ross and Degens
(1974). These sediments were deposited in the lacustrine
Black Sea during the last glacial to early Holocene. A characteristic feature of Unit 3 is a distinct black interval (in 301
to 364 cm core depth in GeoB 11974), which is rich in amorphous Fe-sulfides (Neretin et al., 2004), often termed „hydrotroilite“ (Limonov et al., 1994), that were precipitated as
a result of the migration of a sulfidization front. The black
color is lost within a few hours if the core is opened, since
these Fe-sulfides are unstable and oxidate rapidly.
Mud volcanic deposits consist of matrix supported, gas-saturated mud breccia with rock clasts up to a few cm in diaFig. 94: Background sedimentation in the
meter. On the basis of the matrix consistency and the matrix/
Batumi seep area (reference station
GeoB 11974).
clasts ratio, the retrieved mud breccia was subdivided into
two subgroups: the mousse-like mud breccia (very soupy
and moussy mud with stiff pebbles of lithified clay) and the typical mud breccia (matrix supported, gassaturated with numerous rock clasts). Sediments retrieved at Pechori and Colkheti seeps were also derived
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from expelled mud with higher sand content
than the common hemipelagic sediments, but
lack gravel or rock-sized components.
In the Sorokin Trough and Batumi seep area,
direct (visual) or indirect (sediment structure,
gas content, CT-imaging) evidence for gas hydrates have been found. The dissociation of
clathrates leaves characteristic sediment textures called „soupy“ (sediment with very high
water content and completely destroyed primary structure) and „moussy“ (many small
degassing vesicles, stiffer than the soupy sediments, primary structures are also almost totally destroyed). Especially in sediment cores
with soupy sediment textures, the exact determinations of stratigraphic boundaries are difficult and might have an uncertainty of ±5 cm.
In the following sections, a more detailed description of the sediments found at the various
research areas will be given.
Fig. 95: Transition limnic (Unit 3, grey sediments) –
marine (Unit 2, finely laminated sapropel) in
GeoB 11974. The light laminae are aragonite
layers typically found at the base of the sapropel.
10.2.1 Batumi Seep Area
The cores retrieved at the Batumi seep area (gravity cores: GeoB 11925, 11927, 11936, 11946, 11956,
11975; DAPCs: GeoB 11901, 11903, 11906, 11920, 11951, 11958, 11963; MUCs: GeoB 11905; MiCs:
GeoB 11959, 11960, 11964, 11965) entirely consist of hemipelagic sediments without mudvolcanic
deposits. The cores recovered show some variability regarding the thickness of the stratigraphic units and
the occurrence of carbonates and gas hydrates (Fig. 96 shows a selection of some of the retrieved cores).
The thickness of the marine Units 1 and 2 varies from ca. 75 (GeoB 11951) to more than 170 cm (GeoB
11963) or even 250 cm (GeoB 11920) indicating a variable sedimentation regime depending on the environmental conditions (morphology, local current regime, seep activity) of the respective location.
Gas hydrates were present in cores GeoB 11920, 11925, 11927, 11936, 11937, 11946, 11951, 11951,
11956, 11963 and 11975 from direct (visual observation) or indirect evidence (CT scanning, sediment
texture). While in GeoB 11925, 11927, 11965, and 11975 gas hydrates are confined to Unit 3 and start to
occur directly beneath the base of the sapropel. This distinction is not as obvious in the other hydratebearing cores. In GeoB 11936 they were detected by means of CT-scanning in the lacustrine deposits and
lowermost sapropel, however a moussy texture was observed througout the entire core. The same holds
true for GeoB 11936, 11963, and 11951, where the latter seems to have incorporated more hydrate within
Unit 3 than in Unit 1 and 2 based on the soupy texture found in the lacustrine deposits. It seems therefore
that the sediment in Unit 3 is more prone to the formation of massive clathrates than Unit 1 and 2, which
maybe depends on the available pore space.
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Fig. 96: Overview of some cores retrieved in the Batumi seep area. See Fig. 93 for legend.
Carbonates were retrieved in the upper sections (i.e. in the coccolith ooze layers) of GeoB cores 11901,
11920, 11925, 11927, 11936, 11937, 11958, and 11965. They consist of lithified plates of coccolith ooze
laminae (Fig. 97), and were formed as a by-product of the anaerobic oxidation of methane, which increases alkalinity in the pore waters. Thicker and more rigid carbonate precipitates were only retrieved in
the core catcher at the failed gravity core station GeoB 11967.
Fig. 97: Cemented plates of coccolith ooze laminae (Unit 1) found
in GeoB 11938. Photo on the left: View on the upper or
lower side of the carbonate precipitate. Upper photo: view
on the preserved lamination (thickness of piece: 1 cm).
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10.2.2 Iberia Mound
In the Iberia mound area, two cores (gravity core GeoB 11938 and MUC GeoB 11939) were successfully
retrieved (Fig. 98). Both contained the common hemipelagic sediments expected in this area, coccolith
ooze and sapropel (only in the longer gravity core). Thicknesses of Unit 1 and 2 are in the range of those
observed in the Batumi seep area, indicating similar sedimentation rates in both areas. Carbonates were
found in both cores as tabular, calcified layers of coccolith ooze within Unit 1 and more irregular tabular
or nodular concretions in the sapropel. The gravity core sediments below 60 cm were oil-stained. Gas hydrates leaving a soupy texture were observed in core GeoB 11938 in the lower part of the coccolith ooze.
Fig. 98: Overview of cores retrieved at Iberia mound, Colkheti seep and on the Gudauta High. See Fig. 93 for
legend. Oil-staining is shown by black drops.
10.2.3 Pechori Mound
The sediments retrieved from the Pechori mound (Fig. 98) are mostly different to those from Iberia
mound. The dominant sediments are slightly sandy muds, which seem to be originated from expelled mud
flows (mud breccia). With the exception of gravity core GeoB 11941, which consists of oil-stained Unit 1
and 2 with some carbonates in the sapropel, these mud breccia deposits occur at the other stations (gravity
cores GeoB 11953, 11955; MiCs GeoB 11954, 11968, 11969). Badly preserved, laminated intervals of
coccolith ooze or sapropel are found in GeoB 11953 and cover the tops of cores GeoB 11954 and 11969.
They represent episodes where the mud-extrusion was not reaching the core position. All cores are oilstained (Fig. 99), usually more oil is present in the more porous mud breccia deposits than in the less
permeable laminated intervals.
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In three cores, evidence for the presence of gas hydrates
could be found (sampled throughout GeoB 11953 and the
lower part of GeoB 11955, moussy texture in GeoB 11954).
Carbonates were not retrieved in those cores dominated by
mud breccia.
10.2.4 Colkheti Seep
At the Colkheti seep, sediment was successfully recovered Fig. 99: Oil-stained sediment in a MiC
(GeoB 11954) from Pechori mound.
for three stations: a MiC (GeoB 11970) and two gravity cores
(GeoB 11924, 11971) (Fig. 98). A thin coccolith ooze cover is present in GeoB 11970 and 11971. At
station GeoB 11971, Unit 1 is underlain by homogeneous clay, which might represent the lacustrine Unit
3. Since this interval has been extremely disturbed due to decomposing hydrates (moussy texture) and
extensive sampling, a secure assignement whether this section represents Unit 2 or 3 will be done with
microfossil analyses onshore.
All cores were oil-stained and contained lithified coccolith ooze layers and slightly calcified irregular
clayey concretions in Unit 1 (GeoB 11970, 11971) and further downcore (GeoB 11924, 11971). Fairly big
gas hydrates were retrieved from the lower part of GeoB 11971, and between 130-344 cm in GeoB 11924,
but soupy and moussy textures indicate that (finely dispersed) hydrates might have been present in a
greater depth interval.
10.2.5 Gudauta High
Two cores, a MUC (GeoB 11934) and a gravity core (GeoB 11933), were retrieved from this newly discovered seepsite (Fig. 98). In both cores, the uppermost part is composed of coccolith ooze, which in GeoB
11934 is underlain by ca. 10 cm of sapropel, but, the dominating part is homogenous lacustrine clay. The
thin or absent sapropel indicates that during or after the period of sapropel deposition an erosive regime
prevailed, and sedimentation resumed only during the latest Holocene. Hydrates were potentially present
in 280-290 cm core depth in GeoB 11933, where bubbling from dissociating clathrates was detectable
after opening the core. In GeoB 11934, small plates of lithified coccolith ooze laminae have been found in
Unit 1.
10.2.6 Sorokin Trough
The cores GeoB 11911, 11914, 11916, 11996 (DAPC), 11912 (MUC), 11976-11979, and 11995 (MiC)
were sampled from the Dvurechenskii mud volcano in the Sorokin Trough (3 of these 8 cores are shown in
Fig. 100). All cores are quite similar, they contain soupy or moussy mud breccia, in some cases covered
by a thin veneer of coccolith ooze, and in others without any pelagic cover. This indicates a recent mud
expulsion activity.
Rock clasts vary in size and shape (irregular as e.g. in GeoB 11911 or well-rounded as in the MiCs GeoB
11976 to 11979) up to 3 cm and are represented by dark grey clay (35%), brown clay (25%), grey silty
clay (30%), light brown marlstone (9%), and coarse-grained sandstone (1 %), which is possibly Maikopian in age (Oligocene-Lower Miocene) (Fig. 101). Based on the moussy to soupy sediment, hydrates
must have been present in the mud breccia deposits, but not in the coccolith ooze cover. However,
hydrates have only been recovered from GeoB 11995 (MiC).
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Five cores (GeoB 11913,
11980, 11981, 11990, 11992)
have been taken from the
Vodyanitskii mud volcano.
Typical
examples
for
sediments from this mud
volcano are those recovered
by GeoB 11913, mousse-like
mud breccia overlain by a
thin layer of recent soupy
sediment. The upper part of
the soupy grey clay contains
big clasts of sapropel and
plenty
of
carbonaceous
material from very soft,
white patches of recent
carbonate to flat hard
carbonate crusts up to 9 cm
in size (Fig. 102). The core
catcher
contained
gas Fig. 100: Overview of cores sampled at the Dvurechenskii and Vodyanitskii
mud volcanos in the Sorokin Trough. See Fig. 93 for legend.
hydrates, which were flat and
triangular in shape, up to 3 cm in diameter. A similar carbonate-rich sediment layer at the core top was
found in GeoB 11980 and 11981, consisting entirely of fine-grained mud breccia. In contrast GeoB 11990
and 11992 did not retrieve mud breccia, but solely homogenous clay (Unit 3?). The extent of soupy or
moussy textures suggest that
hydrates were present in high
amounts mostly below ca. 3040 cm core depth. In GeoB
11913 and 11990 clathrates
were directly observed as
relatively small chunks in the
core
catcher
and/
or
lowermost section of the
respective cores.
Fig. 101: Three types of clasts found in a DAPC (GeoB 11911) from the
Dvurechenskii mud volcano, probably derived from the
Maikopian formation (Oligocene-Lower Miocene).
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Fig. 102: Different types of carbonates recovered from the upper part of the gravity core GeoB
11913 from Vodyanitskii mud volcano.
10.2.7 Kerch Strait
East of the Crimean Peninsula, a total of 7 stations were sampled (Fig. 103). While GeoB
11983 - 11986 were taken for further analysis of
terrigenous matter at non-seep sites along a transect over the outer shelf and slope, GeoB 1198711989 were cored at a newly detected flare in ca.
900 m water depth. The deepest station of the
slope transect, GeoB 11984 from 1341 m water
depth, included coccolith ooze and lacustrine
clay (Unit 3), but no sapropel. Since the coccolith
ooze cover is relatively thin (17 cm), some erosion might have been taken place at this site.
GeoB 11983 (747 m water depth) consists of undisturbed Unit 1 sediments. GeoB 11986 from
173 m, near the oxic/anoxic boundary, is also
dominated by coccolith ooze, but here a gradual
trend from (sub)oxic to the present fully anoxic
conditions might be interpreted from the shift of
relatively light colors at the base to the blackish
Fig. 103: Cores retrieved south of the Kerch Strait. See
coccolith ooze at the top. The MiC from 95 m
Fig. 93 for legend.
water depth (GeoB 11985) is the only core
retrieved during this cruise that has been taken in oxic waters. Here the clayey sediment is full of shells
(disarticulated, but not fragmented) of juvenile Dreissena spez. (D. polymorpha or bugensis?) in a clayey
matrix.
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The three cores from the suspected flare site in 900 m water depth exhibit the common hemipelagic
succession with some small gas-extension voids below 50 to 65 cm core depth, but no signs for the presence of gas hydrates. The lack of Unit 1 and 2 in GeoB 11987 is due to core-loss. An interesting aspect is
the presence of two very thin layers at 118 and 120 cm core depth in GeoB 11988 covered with fragments
of fragile mollusc shells smaller than 3 mm, ca. 3 cm above the base of the sapropel. These shell layers are
missing in the well-preserved core GeoB 11989 taken virtually at the same position. Thus the sedimentary
environment seems to be spatially very variable, as also indicated by the varying thickness of the sapropel.
10.3
Computerised tomography (CT) of gas-hydrate-bearing cores
(F. Abegg, K. Graef)
One of the tasks in gas hydrate research is the determination of its occurrences with depth and analyses of
the gas hydrate fabric. Computerised Tomographic Imaging (CT) on board the research vessel, using Xray beams to distinguish material of different densities, has three advantages fulfilling this task. Firstly, the
cores can be investigated immediately upon recovery, no long storage or transportation is necessary. Secondly, the CT investigation of the cores allows a direct control of the core quality and content and makes
an immediate decision about further investigations reasonable. And lastly, this method is non destructive
and allows other investigations such as degassing, geochemical analyses, and sedimentological descriptions. Additionally, when using pressurised cores, the pressure vessels may be re-used after the analysis.
Gas hydrate is only stable at high pressure and low temperature. Standard coring devices such as gravity
corers or multiple corers do not preserve either pressure or temperature during core recovery. For this
reason, decomposition of gas hydrate begins when the sample leaves its stability field during recovery.
The depth of this boundary depends on parameters such as gas composition, pore water salinity, and
temperature. For the recovery of gas hydrate samples, autoclave sampling tools have been developed and
applied (Chap. 9). Especially, the DAPC II has been designed to allow subsampling of the core while
maintaining the pressure chain. The design of the pressure chambers allows computerised tomographic
imaging of the materials inside. Primarily based on density contrasts between the materials, free gas, gas
hydrate, sediment, and carbonate, the distribution and fabric of the constituents inside the core liner can be
visualised. Besides investigations of cores for gas hydrate, they may also be investigated for sedimentary
structures.
To avoid periodic port calls for using a CT in a local hospital we used a mobile CT unit. The CT scanner,
a General Electric (GE) Pro Speed SX Power, was mounted in a double axial trailer of 13 m length. The
trailer was 4 m high, 2.5 m wide and has a weight of 22 tons. The trailer was sent from Germany to
Trabzon by truck and then craned on the strengthened deck of R/V METEOR (Figs. 104 and 105). The GE
scanner was a single slice system with a hard disk capacity of approx. 3500 slices. Because the expected
number of slices for the cruise exceeded this limit, a network was installed to externally save the data. The
power requirement of the scanner was 400V, 125 Amp, and 50 Hz which could be served by the ship. The
scanner was able to scan slices with 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 mm thickness. We mostly used 1 mm slices with a
512 x 512 data matrix to achieve a very high resolution. The table load was limited to 180 kg.
105
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10 Geological sampling
Fig. 105: Lab-transfer-chamber inside the CT scanner.
Fig. 104: CT-Trailer on deck of R/V METEOR.
Sampling of gas hydrates has been done mostly using the gravity corer with pre-cut and taped PVC-liner.
Upon recovery, the liner segments were closed with caps and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. The
time from leaving the gas hydrate stability field during core recovery until placing all core segments in
liquid nitrogen was measured to be less then 25 minutes. The second type of sampling tool was the newly
developed DAPC II. For an extended description of the tool see Chap. 9. Additionally, some subsamples
from gravity cores used with plastic hoses and a background core were investigated. All scanned samples
are listed in Table 17.
Table 17: List of scanned samples. Abbreviations: GC = gravity corer, DAPC = dynamic autoclave piston corer.
GeoB
Instrument
Area
Subsample
No.
No. of
slices
Slice
thickness
Description
11918
DAPC-8 (II)
Batumi seep
-
5
1 mm
Test
11925
GC-4
Batumi seep
increment
83
1 mm
11927
GC-6
Batumi seep
increment
157
1 mm
frozen, GH
11936-1
11936-2
11936-3
11936-4
11936-5
GC-8
Batumi seep
no. 1
no. 2
no. 3
no. 4
no. 5
188
520
539
529
192
1 mm
1 mm
1 mm
1 mm
1 mm
frozen segm., GH
frozen segm., GH
frozen segm.
frozen segm.
frozen segm.
11936-1-A
GC-8
Batumi seep
increment
100
1 mm
frozen, GH
11944
DAPC-13 (II)
Batumi seep
transfer test
55
1 mm
non pressurized
11946-1
11946-2
11946-3
11946-4
11946-5
11946-6
GC-13
Batumi seep
no. 1
no. 2
no. 3
no. 4
no. 5
no. 6
420
495
495
481
492
500
1 mm
1 mm
1 mm
1 mm
1 mm
1 mm
frozen segm., GH
frozen segm., GH
frozen segm., GH
frozen segm., GH
frozen segm.
frozen segm.
106
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10 Geological sampling
Table 17, continuation: List of scanned samples. Abbreviations: GC = gravity corer, DAPC = dynamic autoclave
piston Corer.
GeoB
Instrument
Area
Subsample No.
No. of
slices
Slice
thickness
Description
11949-A
11949-B
11949-C
11949-D
11949-E
GC-14
Batumi seep
increment 1
increment 2
increment 3
increment 4
increment 5
127
128
73
71
66
1 mm
1 mm
1 mm
1 mm
1 mm
frozen, GH
frozen, GH
frozen, GH
frozen, GH
frozen, GH
11953-1
11953-2
11953-3
11953-4
11953-5
11953-6
11953-7
GC-16
Pechori mound
no. 1
no. 2
no. 3
no. 4
no. 5
no. 6
no. 7
172
222
125
250
249
244
91
2 mm
2 mm
2 mm
2 mm
2 mm
2 mm
2 mm
frozen segm., GH
frozen segm., GH
frozen segm., GH
frozen segm., GH
frozen segm., GH
frozen segm., GH
frozen segm., GH
11956-1
11956-2
11956-3
11956-1
GC-18
Batumi seep
no. 1
no. 2
no. 3
no.1
199
181
56
106
2 mm
2 mm
2+3 mm
frozen segm., GH
frozen segm.
frozen segm.
test scanns
11957
GC-19
Batumi, background
12 subsamples
overviews
various
scanned for
sedimentology
11971
GC-21
Colkheti mound
increment
147
1 mm
frozen, GH
11973
DAPC-18 (II)
Batumi seep
4
1 mm
test
11975-1
11975-1B
GC-23
Batumi seep
increment 1
increment 2
83
210
1 mm
1 mm
frozen, GH
frozen, GH
11980-1
11980-2
11980-3
GC-24
Vodyanitskiy MV
no. 1
no. 2
no. 3
469
519
268
1 mm
1 mm
1 mm
frozen segm.
frozen segm.
frozen segm.
11994-1
11994-2
DAPC-22 (II)
Dvurechenskii MV
no. 1
no. 2
596
200
1 mm
2 mm
pressurized, gas
pressurized, gas
The mobile CT unit proved to work reliably within certain limits. Due to the age of the scanning system
and limitations set by the software, we could only scan segments of up to 50 cm length. When the cores
exceeded this length they had to be replaced. The second limit was the sensitivity of the scanning system
to vibrations caused by the ships propulsion system. When the ships speed exceeded 6 knots, the scanner
stopped. Wave driven failures have not been noticed due to the very calm conditions during the cruise.
Maximum wind was measured to be 8 m/s with wave heights up to 1.5 m, which did not constrict
scanning. The last limitation we noticed during the cruise was the heating of the X-ray tube. Due to the
large amount of slices, many breaks had to be included. which resulted in approx. 3 hours of time needed
for scanning one 50 cm core segments in 1 mm slices.
First results of the gas hydrate-bearing cores are discussed in Chap. 10.4.1. Here we show first results of
the pressurized DAPC II sub-cores of GeoB 11994 taken at the Dvurechenskii mud volcano. The first
section (GeoB 11994-1) contains the lowermost part of the core taken with the DAPC II. The left image in
Fig. 106 represents the place where the core catcher was removed. The core section appears disturbed for
a length of 6 cm. Above this, the sediment looks quite undisturbed although it still does not completely fill
the liner. Interestingly, the sediment contains a lot of gas bubbles of various sizes (right image in
Fig. 106).
107
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10 Geological sampling
Fig. 106: Left: Thick white ring outside: pressure barrel, dark grey = water, light grey ring with interruptions
= PVC liner, thin white ring inside = piston holding the liner, medium grey = slumped sediment.
Right: black dots and lines = free gas inside the sediment.
10.4
Visualization, sampling, and on-board analyses of gas hydrates – Preliminary results
(F. Abegg, S.A. Klapp, T. Pape)
During M72/3, numerous gas hydrate bearing samples and gas hydrate pieces were taken from gravity
cores for computer tomography scanning and gas chemical analyses on board (see below), and for shorebased examinations.
10.4.1 Gas hydrate distribution and fabrics analysed by computerised tomographic imaging
Due to the dissociation of gas hydrate at atmospheric temperature and pressure, the cores which were
taken for the investigation of the distribution and structure of gas hydrate have been frozen upon recovery
as described in Chap. 10.1. Most of those cores and most of
the subsampled increments of gas hydrates taken during the
cruise originate from the Batumi seep site (Tab. 17; Chap.
10.3). The detailed scanning of the frozen core segments
gives a first impression of the core quality and reveals the
gas hydrate content and fabric within the sediment.
The first core taken for CT-investigation at the Batumi seep
site was core GeoB11936. The core had a length of 196 cm
with gas hydrates detected deeper than 125 cm below seafloor (cm bsf). They seem to form irregular coatings of gas
filled fractures and also contain free gas themselves
(Fig. 107). The bottom most part of the core was disturbed
and contained chunks of gas hydrate. Presumably, the graFig. 107: Slice from core GeoB 11936.
Black: air/gas, dark grey: gas
vity corer stopped penetration here due to massive gas hyhydrate, light grey: sediment.
drates.
108
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10 Geological sampling
The second core from the Batumi seep site was
GeoB 11946 (Fig. 108). This is the longest core
with a length of 289 cm. Gas hydrates were
found in this core deeper than116 cm bsf. The
gas hydrate extends from that depth downwards
with a layer of 12 cm thickness. Below this layer,
it contains an extended network of veinlets and
veins. The massive gas hydrate encloses many
gas filled fractures and an uncounted number of
smaller bubbles. Above the massive hydrate,
many gas filled fractures appear in the sediment.
Fig. 108: Left: overview of core GeoB 11946. The
location of the massive gas hydrate layer is
indicated on the left side. Right: single
slice from the massive hydrate showing
fractures and bubbles inside.
The core GeoB 11956 only recovered a core
length of 87 cm (Fig. 109). We found gas hydrate
in the lowermost part of the deepest section,
below 79 cm bsf. At the top of the gas hydrate
layer, a piece of wood was found. Above, we noticed a large
amount of gas-filled fractures. Due to the fact that this core was
not pressurized, it is not quite clear whether these fractures are
generated by dissociation of gas hydrate. We could not detect
such large fractures in other cores and dissociation mostly starts
at the outer margin of the cores and is identified by the
generation of many small bubbles. These large fractures may
also be caused by free gas, which under in situ conditions only
claims very small open space and due to the pressure reduction
it appears in the scans with this large size.
Further cores have been taken at the Pechori mound and at the
Vodyanitskii mud volcano (VMV). The core from the Pechori
mound overpenetrated so that the surface was lost. The
recovered length was 270 cm with gas hydrate distributed over
the whole core. The main hydrate fabrics found in this core are
again networks of veins and veinlets. The core from the VMV
does not contain any gas hydrate, but only shows small fractures
caused by degassing.
Fig. 109:
Cross section of
core GeoB 11956.
At the bottom the
gas hydrate is visible by lower density. Above the network of gas filled
fractures in black
begins and spans
until the top of the
core segment.
10.4.2 Sampling strategy of gas hydrate specimen
Most gas hydrates were sampled from plastic hose liners, which are easily opened. In addition, a few gas
hydrate specimen were also subsampled from PVC liners. For on-board gas chemical investigations, most
samples were taken from the core catchers. Table 18 lists the gas hydrate samples taken on Leg M72/3.
For on-shore analyses much attention was paid to adequate long-term storage, since gas hydrates rapidly
decompose when brought outside the gas hydrate stability field. Therefore, the samples were immediately
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10 Geological sampling
transferred into liquid nitrogen dewars, Table 18: Gas hydrate samples for shore based analyses.
which assures long-term preservation of
Water
GeoB
Area
Lat [°N]
Long [°E] depth
CT
the samples due to deepNo.
[m]
freezing. Further, only relatively large 11913
Vodyanitskii MV
44:17.621
35:01.946
2048
Colkheti seep
41:58.120
41:06.250
1088
pieces of several centimetres in dia- 11923
11924
Colkheti seep
41:58.068
41:06.195
1056
meter were taken, since the risk of gas
11971
Colkheti seep
41:58.069
41:06.199
1124
+
hydrate destabilization during recovery 11925
Batumi seep
41.57.431
41:17.347
844
+
Batumi seep
41:57.410
41:17.324
856
+
and transfer into liquid nitrogen increa- 11927
11936
Batumi seep
41:57.563
41:17.430
844
+
ses with decreasing size. In addition, 11946
Batumi seep
41:57.532
41:17.582
842
+
Batumi seep
41:57.550
41:17.175
842
+
some comparatively large gas hydrate 11949
11956
Batumi seep
41:57.450
41:17.436
843
+
samples of several centimetres size 11975
Batumi seep
41:57.528
41:17.588
844
+
were recovered from PVC liner seg- 11938
Iberia mound
41:52.340
41:10.036
982
Pechori mound
41:58.958
41:07.543
1015
+
ments after they were visualized by 11953
11953
Pechori mound
41:58.958
41:07.543
1015
+
computerized X-ray tomography (CT; 11955
Pechori mound
41:58.963
41:07.540
1012
Chap. 10.3; Table 17). The respective CT = Computerized tomography (+ = analysed; - = not analysed).
liner segments were opened in a cold MV = Mud volcano
temperature laboratory (4 °C – dry air)
and the gas hydrate pieces were transferred into liquid nitrogen for long-term storage. All stored gas
hydrate samples were transported to the University of Bremen. Further investigations include phase
analyses, several experiments on synchrotron beam lines, and controlled destabilization for gas chemical
analysis as well as stable isotope (13C/12C, D/H) investigations.
10.4.3 Gas chemical compositions
13 gas hydrate pieces sampled by conventional gravity coring at gas and oil seep sites offshore Georgia as
well as at the Vodyanitskii mud volcano (VMV) were analysed for the chemical composition of hydratebound volatiles. Immediately upon recovery, the pieces were thoroughly cleaned with purified ice-cooled
water, filled into gas tight syringes, and stored at room temperature for dissolution. The released gases
were transferred into glass vials and subsamples were taken from head space for compositional analyses.
For all samples, methane was found to be the prevailing gas hydrate-bound low-molecular-weight hydrocarbon (LMWHC, C1 through C6), constituting between 97.01 to 99.97 mol-% (Fig. 110). However, considerable differences in the total amounts of C2+-components were observed for the samples from different
sites. For example, ethane and propane, which were present in all samples, strongly varied in their relative
abundances. While non-oil seep associated gas hydrates (e.g. Batumi seep area, VMV) were characterized
by a clear ethane over propane preference (C2/C3 ratio = 13 to 31), much higher relative abundances of
propane were found for the oil-associated samples (C2/C3 ratio = 1.6 to 4.6). For one sample from the
Colkheti seep (GeoB 11923-1), propane was even more abundant than ethane (C2/C3 ratio = 0.6). Furthermore, small amounts of i-butane and n-butane were found in gas hydrates associated with the oil-seeps
(Iberia mound, Colkheti seep, Pechori mound) and the VMV, but were absent in samples from the Batumi
seep area. Interestingly, for all samples carbon dioxide was found in higher proportions than ethane.
Onshore, comprehensive chemical analysis of gases released from gas hydrate pieces will be carried out
subsequent to investigations on the hydrate crystal structures (see also Chap. 10.4.4) in order to clarify the
relationships between crystallographic properties and encaged volatiles in gas hydrates from the Black
Sea.
110
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10 Geological sampling
Fig. 110: Relative abundances of C1 to C4 hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide (Σ C1 to
C4 and CO2) in gas hydrate pieces sampled and dissociated on board during
M72/3. Note the logarithmic scale. Numbers refer to cruise station (GeoB)
numbers.
10.4.4 Theoretical stability of gas hydrates at the working areas
Due to thermodynamic prerequisites, gas hydrates demand cold temperatures and high pressures to form
and be stable. Also, high salinity in hydrate-forming water negatively affects hydrate formation. Commonly, the bottom water temperature in the Black Sea is about 9 °C and the salinity is about 2.0-2.1 % of
dissolved NaCl. Because of these specific geochemical parameters in the Black Sea, gas hydrates are
generally not observed at depths shallower than 720 m water depth, which is equivalent to about 72 bars.
In the sediment, methane (CH4) has been identified as the major hydrate forming gas (Chap. 10.4.3).
However, local differences in the hydrate formation conditions and in gas composition are significant and
thus affect gas hydrate stability. Based on the local geochemical parameters, hypothetic stabilities of different gas hydrate crystallographic structures can be calculated (Fig. 111) by using commercially available
software packages. For instance, at the Dvurechenskii mud volcano (DMV), high salinar fluids (Chap. 11)
in shallow sediment depths shift the threshold of hydrate formation to much lower temperatures.
Another important factor for gas hydrate stabilities is their crystallographic structure (e.g. Sloan, 1998).
Gas hydrate structure I is the dominant structure at pressures and temperatures in question for the M72/3
working areas, as revealed from structure analysis of gas hydrate samples retrieved offshore Georgia
during TTR-15 (unpublished results). Methane is the most frequent gas (Chap. 12) and also is the major
structure I former. However, if hydrocarbons of higher molecular weight (C2+) are available and incorporated in the hydrate cages, gas hydrates of the structure type II are more stable and form gas hydrates.
111
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10 Geological sampling
At oil seeps offshore Georgia, pore water salinity is much lower than at the DMV (roughly 350 mmol;
Chap.11). Although CH4 concentrations are generally higher than 99 mol-% (of C1 to C6 hydrocarbons),
C2+ hydrocarbons are more abundant than e.g. at the DMV and are incorporated in the gas hydrates (Chap.
10.4.3). Propane (C3H8), i- and n-butane (C4H10) are not incorporated in structure-I-gas hydrates, but instead, induce the formation of gas hydrate structure type II. Due to low concentrations of such gases in the
hydrates, pure structure-II-gas hydrates are very unlikely, and instead mixed hydrate structures are more
probable.
Fig. 111 depicts the stability curves (calculated on basis of P/T conditions, salinities, and gas hydrate gas
chemical compositions measured during M72/3) for gas hydrate samples from the Colkheti oil seep, the
Batumi seep area, and the DMV. Intersections of the water column temperature curves with the stability
curves yielded for the different working areas point to the upper limit of gas hydrate stability at a given
site. For example, the stability curve calculated for structure II gas hydrates at the Colkheti oil seep (about
1120 m water depth) based on their gas chemical composition demonstrates that at this site pure structure
II gas hydrate might be stable in water depths below about 570 m (corresponding to about 57 bars). At the
Batumi seep area (about 840 m water depths), structure-II hydrate could hardly occur at the P/T conditions
prevailing, since the hydrostatic pressure is too low for the formation of structure II gas hydrates as
sourced by the specific gas composition (Chap. 10.4.3). Instead, structure-I gas hydrate is the more stable
hydrate structure.
Fig. 111:
Calculated gas hydrate stability curves at different methane-enriched sites in the Black Sea. Gas compositions of
the hydrate forming gases were determined for a DAPC-core (DAPC-7, GeoB 11916; Dvurechenskii MV) and gas
bubble sampler (Colkheti seep, GeoB 11902-1; Batumi seep, GeoB 11904-16). Pressure and temperature were
taken from CTD recording during ROV Dive 160 (GeoB 11915) and salinities were calculated from push core
sampling during Dive 159 (GeoB 11910) and Dive 160 (GeoB 11915). The data were modelled using the HeriotWatt-Hydrate (HWHYD) software and suggest for example a dissociation pressure of ca. 100 bar (1000 m water
depth) at the Dvurechenskii mud volcano.
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10 Geological sampling
At the Batumi seep area (about 840 m water depths), structure-II hydrate could hardly occur at the P/T
conditions prevailing, since the hydrostatic pressure is too low for the formation of structure II gas hydrates as sourced by the specific gas composition (Chap. 10.4.3). Instead, structure-I gas hydrate is the more
stable hydrate structure.
At the DMV, structure I gas hydrate is only stable below 1000 m water depth. Hence, gas hydrates occurred at the locations visited during the M72/3 cruise in the Black Sea under diverse stability conditions.
This implies that gas hydrates cannot be expected at the same water depths at any location in the Black
Sea. Since the stability of gas hydrates is affected by the gas hydrate structure or structure mixtures, which
in turn are the results of the site-specific environmental parameters, shore-based phase analyses of recovered gas hydrates will reveal the proportions of co-occurring gas hydrate structures.
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11
11 Pore water geochemistry
Pore water geochemistry
(K. Wallmann, A. Bleyer, D. Karaca, V. Mavromatis, B. Domeyer, R. Surberg, M. Bausch,
F. Scholz)
11.1
Introduction
Pore water was separated from sediments by squeezing at 2-4 bars and 4-6°C. The pressure was applied
from an argon gas bottle and the pore water was passed through 0.2 µm membrane filters. Additional
sediment subsamples were taken for the determination of methane concentrations and physical properties.
The pore water was analyzed for dissolved nutrients (ammonia, silicate, phosphate) and total dissolved
sulfide applying standard photometric procedures. Dissolved chloride and total alkalinity were determined
via titration using AgNO3 and HCl solutions. A detailed description of the applied methods can be found
at the IFM-GEOMAR homepage.
Sediments were retrieved via push coring (PC) during ROV dives and by the Dynamic Autoclave Piston
Corers (DAPC), the multicorer (MUC), the minicorer (MIC), and the gravity corer (GC) at stations listed
in Tab.19.
Table 19: Sediment cores taken for pore water analysis. BS = Batumi seep area, DMV = Dvurechenskii mud volcano, VMV = Vodyanitskii mud volcano, CS = Colkheti seep, GH = Gudauta High, IM = Iberia
mound, PM = Pechori mound, KS = Kerch Strait
GeoB
St. No.
Area
Date
Lat. [°N]
Long. [°E]
Water
Depth [m]
11901
11903
11904
11904-13
DAPC-1
DAPC-2
ROV-2
PC
BS
BS
BS
19.3.07
21.3.07
21.3.07
41:57.410
41:57.472
41:17.344
41:17.266
851
850
14 samples
5 samples
41:57.529
41:17.270
835
No. 47, 20 cm from large bubble
hole, 8 samples
11904-15
PC
41:57.541
41:17.413
833
No. 46, 2 cm from small bubble
hole, 13 samples
11905-2
MUC-2
Ref. station
next to BS
22.3.07
41:57.432
41:16.798
877
24 samples, no bottom water
11906
11907
11907-7
DAPC-3
ROV-3
PC
BS
BS
22.3.07
22.3.07
41:57.465
41:17.270
843
5 samples
41:57.542
41:17.413
833
No. 38, 2 cm from small bubble
hole, 13 samples
11907-8
PC
41:57.543
41:17.413
833
No. 46, 20 cm from small bubble
hole, 13 samples
11907-9
PC
41:57.545
41:17.413
833
No. 67, 60 cm from small bubble
hole, 8 samples
11907-10
PC
41:57.542
41:17.413
833
No. 68, 100 cm from small bubble
hole, 11 samples
11910
11910-3
11910-6
11910-8
11910-11
ROV-5
PC
PC
PC
PC
DMV
44:16.929
44:16.976
44:17.006
44:17.029
34:59.232
34:59.084
34:58.974
34:58.880
11911
11912
11913
11914
11915
11915-8
11915-12
11915-15
11915-16
11915-23
DAPC-5
MUC-3
GC-1
DAPC-6
ROV-6
PC
PC
PC
PC
PC
DMV
DMV
VMV
DMV
DMV
44:16.972
44:17.015
44:17.621
44:16.987
34:59.215
34:58.885
35:01.946
34:59.097
44:17.023
44:17.092
44:17.061
44:17.007
44:17.051
34:58.610
34:58.676
34:58.760
34:58.896
34:58.836
114
25.3.07
26.3.07
26.3.07
26.3.07
27.3.07
27.3.07
Recovery/
Remark
~2050
2058
2053
2048
2058
~2050
No. 16, rim of DMV, 12 samples
No. 50/60, 9 samples
No. 47, 9 samples
No. 48, center of DMV,
core lost during retrieval
14 samples
Center of DMV, 15 samples
Center of VMV, 7 samples
14 samples
No. 47, bacterial mat, 9 samples
No. 67, rim of DMV, 10 samples
No. 46, 11 samples
No. 54, center of DMV, 9 samples
No. 26, 10 samples
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
11 Pore water geochemistry
Table 19, continuation: Sediment cores taken for pore water analysis.
GeoB
11916
11917
11917-3
11918
11920
11924
11933
11934
11937
11938
11939
11941
11951
11954
11955
11958
11959
11962
11963
11964
11965
11966
11969
11970
11971
11974
11976
11977
11978
11979
11981
11988
11990
11992
11993
11994
11995
11997
11999
11.2
St. No.
Area
Date
Lat. [°N]
Long. [°E]
Water
Depth [m]
DAPC-7
ROV-7
PC
DAPC-8
DAPC-9
GC-3
GC-7
MUC-8
DAPC-12
GC-9
MUC-9
GC-10
DAPC-14
MIC-1
GC-17
DAPC-15
MIC-2
MIC-4
DAPC-16
MIC-5
MIC-6
MIC-7
MIC-9
MIC-10
GC-21
GC-22
MIC-11
MIC-12
MIC-13
MIC-14
DAPC-19
GC-26
GC-28
DAPC-21
MIC-19
DAPC-22
MIC-20
MIC-21
DAPC-23
DMV
28.3.07
28.3.07
44:16.896
34:58.789
2057
12 samples
44:17.658
41:57.547
41:57.454
41:58.068
42:40.262
42:40.260
41:57.489
41:52.340
41:52.739
41:58.962
41:57.546
41:58.964
41:58.963
41:57.448
41:57.533
41:57.548
41:57.410
41:57.414
41:57.447
41:57.614
41:58.962
41:58.069
41:58.069
41:57.428
44:16.807
44:16.885
44:16.944
44:17.025
44 :17.650
44:37.207
44 :17.623
44 :17.630
44 :17.627
44:16.995
44 :17.034
44:17.060
44:16.892
35:01.992
41:17.427
41:17.545
41:06.195
40:22.631
40:22.678
41:17.462
41:10.036
41:10.025
41:02.404
41:17.431
41:07.541
41:07.540
41:17.446
41:17.568
41:17.435
41:17.278
41:17.360
41:17.437
41:17.512
41:07.541
41:06.191
41:06.199
41:16.803
34:58.906
34:58.906
34:58.902
34:58.879
35 :01.979
35:42.291
35 :01.946
35 :01932
35 :01.948
34:59.096
34 :58.951
34:59.036
34:58.902
2032
840
844
1056
690
701
842
982
989
1014
840
1024
1012
845
840
838
853
847
843
847
1011
1118
1124
884
2052
2052
2050
2048
2037
889
2061
2055
2067
1994
1977
2050
2049
No. 38, next to bubble site, 8
l
12 samples
13 samples
Oil-bearing sediments, 12 samples
14 samples
28 samples, no bottomwater
3 samples
10 samples, gashydrates
23 samples
7 samples
11 samples
18 samples, no bottomwater
9 samples
13 samples
19 samples, TTR-15 (AP 351)
16 samples, DAPC-8
14 samples
19 samples
14 samples
17 samples
18 samples, no bottomwater
12 samples
13 samples
18 samples, near BS
17 samples
17 samples
17 samples
14 samples
7 samples
13 samples
11 samples
12 samples
9 samples
7 samples
15 sampls
17 samples
14 samples
VMV
BS
BS
CS
GH
GH
BS
IM
IM
PM
BS
PM
PM
BS
BS
BS
BS
BS
BS
BS
PM
CS
CS
Ref.-Station
DMV
DMV
DMV
DMV
VMV
KS
VMV
VMV
VMV
DMV
DMV
DMV
DMV
30.3.07
31.3.07
01.4.07
06.4.07
06.4.07
07.4.07
07.4.07
07.4.07
08.4.07
09.4.07
11.4.07
11.4.07
11.4.07
11.4.07
12.4.07
12.4.07
12.4.07
12.4.07
12.4.07
13.4.07
13.4.07
13.4.07
13.4.07
16.4.07
16.4.07
16.4.07
16.4.07
16.4.07
19.4.07
20.4.07
20.4.07
20.4.07
20.4.07
20.4.07
21.4.07
21.4.07
Recovery/
Remark
Results and discussion
In the following, we present and discuss initial results obtained at the Dvurechinskii mud volcano (DMV)
and in the Batumi seep area.
11.2.1 Dvurechenskii Mud Volcano
During ROV Dive 160 (GeoB 11915), 4 push cores were taken in a transect across the DMV (Figs. 112
and 113). The first core (GeoB 11915-12, PC 67), taken at the northwestern rim, showed a gentile and
almost linear increase in dissolved chloride and ammonia with depth, which is caused by the slow ascent
of deep brines strongly enriched in ammonia. The steep gradients in total dissolved sulfide (TH2S) and
total alkalinity (TA) are caused by the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Steep dissolved silica
(SiO2) gradients indicate the rapid dissolution of biogenic opal in surface sediments. The next core taken
within the DMV (GeoB 11915-15, PC 46) showed steeper gradients in dissolved chloride and ammonia
indicating elevated rates of upward fluid flow. TH2S, TA, and SiO2 gradients were, however, diminished.
This observation might indicate slower rates of AOM and opal dissolution. The following core taken
115
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
11 Pore water geochemistry
towards the center of the DMV (GeoB 11915-23, PC 26) had even steeper chloride and ammonia gradients. The highest dissolved chloride and ammonia values were, however, found in core GeoB 11915-16,
PC 54 taken directly in the center of the DMV. The regular increase in dissolved chloride and ammonia
towards the center of the DMV clearly indicates that the center is the most active part of the DMV in
terms of fluid flow and dissolved methane release. A preliminary evaluation of the chloride data indicates
that the velocity of upward fluid flow is only 2 cm/yr at the rim and increases to 50 cm/yr in the center of
the DMV.
Fig. 112: Push cores taken at the rim of the DMV.
Fig. 113: Push cores taken at the center of the DMV.
TH2S and TA values showed a reverse trend with low values in the center and high concentrations at the
rim. This observation suggests that AOM rates are diminished in the center. Since dissolved sulfate from
ambient bottom waters serves as terminal electron acceptor in the anaerobic oxidation of methane, the
AOM decrease towards the center could be related to the flushing of surface sediments by ascending
brines. AOM rates may, thus, be diminished by the decrease in dissolved sulfate concentrations in surface
sediments caused by the ascent of sulfate-free fluids. An additional push core was taken at a location
within the DMV where the seafloor was covered with whitish to grayish material (GeoB 11915-8, PC 47).
Visual inspection of the recovered core indicated that the surface sediments contained large amounts of
authigenic carbonates and microbial biomass. The dissolved chloride gradient points towards a moderately
116
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
11 Pore water geochemistry
high rate of upward fluid flow (25 cm yr-1), while
intense AOM is suggested by the very high TA
and TH2S values (Fig. 114). The material retrieved
at this station will be further evaluated to better
understand the unusual accumulation of microbial
biomass and carbonates at this specific location.
Sediments retrieved with the DAPC were first degassed to quantify the amount of hydrate enclosed
in the autoclave. Subsequently, the core was removed from the autoclave and processed for pore
water analysis. The dissolved chloride concentrations in the three DAPC cores taken within the
DMV showed constant chloride values between 50
and 150 cm sediment depths (Fig. 112). Below
that depth, dissolved chloride was diluted by the
melting of gas hydrates during the degassing procedure. The decrease in dissolved chloride can be
taken as a measure for the original hydrate content.
Thus, the hydrate content can be estimated from
both the total gas volumes and the chloride values.
Dissolved salts, that are enriched in pore fluids during hydrate formation, may either remain within
the sediments (closed system) or may be flushed
from the sediments by ascending fluids (open sysFig. 114: Push core taken within the DMV at a bacterial tem). In an open system the two independent
site.
methods should yield the same results while the
chloride method would underestimate the hydrate contents for closed
systems. The chloride values shown in Fig. 115 may thus be used to
determine the amount of salt that was retained within the sediments
after hydrate formation if the hydrate contents, independently derived
from the gas volume data, were significantly larger than the chloridebased estimates.
Fig. 115: Dissolved chloride concentrations in DAPC
cores taken at the DMV.
Sediments from the Vodyanitskiy mud volcano located in the
immediate vicinity of the DMV were sampled by push coring and
with the gravity corer. The pore fluids retrieved from these sediments
showed the same composition as the DMV fluids with elevated
concentrations of dissolved chloride and ammonia. These two
adjacent mud volcanoes are apparently linked to the same deep source
region, which may extend over a larger area than previously assumed.
117
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
11 Pore water geochemistry
11.2.2 Batumi Seep Area
Several push cores were taken close to bubble vent
sites within the Batumi seep area. Two of these
cores (GeoB 11904-15 PC46, GeoB 11907-07
PC38) showed much higher concentrations of total
alkalinity and dissolved sulfide than a multicorer
taken at a reference station (GeoB 11912, MUC3).
The dissolved nutrient concentrations were, however, much higher at the reference site (Fig. 116).
This pattern may be explained by the bubble tube
that contains not only elevated concentrations of
gaseous and dissolved methane, but also bottom
water which is mixed into the bubble tube by
eddy-diffusive processes induced by the gas bubble stream. Methane and possibly also dissolved
sulfate enters the adjacent sediments via lateral
diffusion, while nutrients are lost to the bubble
tube by the same diffusive exchange process. The
AOM rates are probably extremely high because
dissolved sulfate from the overlying bottom water
enters the methane-charged surface sediments both
by vertical and lateral diffusion.
Fig. 116: Push cores taken close to bubble vent sites in
the Batumi seep area and a multicorer taken at
an adjacent reference station.
DAPC cores taken at the Batumi seep area show strong
chloride depletions below 50 cm sediment depth. Only core
GeoB 11918 was depleted at a shallower depth (Fig. 117). A
gradual decrease in dissolved chloride is also seen at reference stations were no hydrates occur. It is caused by old
formation fluids from a more lacustrine phase of the Black
Sea. This non-linear background has to be considered in the
quantification of hydrate contents. The Batumi hydrates are
found at shallower sediment depths than the DMV hydrates.
It thus seems that the vigorous gas seepage in the Batumi
seep area favors hydrate formation at shallow depths,
whereas the slow fluid seepage at the DMV induces hydrate
formation at greater sediment depths.
118
Fig. 117: Dissolved chloride concentrations
in DAPC cores taken at the Batumi
seep area.
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
12
12 Gas chemical compositions
Gas chemical compositions
(T. Pape, J. Rethemeyer, S. Kusch, H.-J. Hohnberg)
12.1
Introduction
The deeper, anoxic part of the Black Sea water column is characterized by extremely high concentrations
of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons (LMWHCs, C1 through C6) predominantly brought along by seep
structures at the seafloor, like cold seeps (Kessler et al., 2006) and mud volcanoes (Bohrmann et al., 2003;
Greinert et al., 2006). Provided that the seeping sites are located within the gas hydrate stability field,
near-surface buried gas hydrates can generally form in associated deposits (Chap. 10.4). The chemical
composition of the source gas, in general, affects the crystal structure of the gas hydrates generated. However, gas hydrate formation and decomposition, and thus, the amount of hydrate-bound hydrocarbons, is
strongly controlled by the dynamic advective transport of gases and heat from greater depth. Further, preferential incorporation of specific LMWHCs into the gas hydrate cages leads to compound fractionation
processes of the ascending gas. When discharged into the water column, LMWHCs are either dissolved in
the water or form bubbles of free uprising gas as controlled by their compound-specific solubility.
The major objectives of the onboard gas analytical works during M72/3 were to determine the spatial
variability of LMWHC concentrations in gas- and hydrate-rich sediments at the Eastern Black Sea. For the
quantification of in situ gas abundances, autoclave technology was applied, which, unlike conventional
sampling tools, enables us to maintain the ambient pressure and, thus, prevents degassing of the sampled
material (Chap. 9; Abegg et al., subm.). The chemical composition of the gases contained in near-surface
gas hydrates, interstitial waters, and bubbles of free gas in the water column was followed in order to
determine the source type(s) and to characterize compound fractionations during advective transport in the
sediment and gas hydrate formation.
Primary sites of gas chemical investigations during Legs M72/3a and 3b were cold seep structures and a
mud volcano area. The seep area offshore Georgia comprises several individual gas seeps, which in some
cases are characterized by additional oil seeps. Near-surface gas hydrates, high concentrations of
LMWHCs in interstitial waters as well as gas flares in the water column are known from several sites of
this area (Heeschen et al., 2006; Klaucke et al., 2006; Wagner-Friedrichs, 2007). At several mud volcanoes east off the Krimean Peninsula, the presence of gas hydrates and high concentrations of LMWHCs
were proven during previous cruises (MARGASCH I, Bohrmann et al., 2003; Blinova et al., 2003;
TTR-11, Stadnitskaia et al., 2005).
12.2
Samples
In order to determine the in situ amounts of LMWHCs present in gas-laden sediments and to elucidate
stripping effects during upward migration and gas hydrate generation, the first leg’s work was focussed on
the quantitative degassing and subsampling of sediment cores retrieved with the dynamic autoclave piston
corer (DAPC I). During Leg M72/3b, core GeoB 11994 was recovered with the DAPC II and smaller core
segments were prepared under pressure (Chap. 9). Selected core segments were subject to incremental
degassing immediately upon scanning by computerized tomography (CT, Chap. 10.3).
Gases were retrieved from 16 DAPC stations and a total of 242 gas subsamples were obtained by incremental degassing during Legs M72/3a and 3b. The sample set was completed by I) gas bubble samples
retrieved with the GBS, II) by gas released by controlled dissociation of gas hydrate pieces recovered with
gravity cores, and III) by gases obtained from sediments sampled with gravity and push cores (Tab. 20).
119
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
12 Gas chemical compositions
Table 20: List of samples taken for gas chemical measurements during Legs M72/3a and 3b. DAPC:
dynamic autoclave piston corer; GBS: gas bubble sampler (ROV-based); GC: gravity corer;
Note: DAPC I was used for incremental degassing of pressurized sediment cores, while the DAPC II
system was primarily applied for preparations of core segments.
GeoB
Tool
No.
Batumi seep area
11901
11903
11906
11918
11920
11937
11951
11958
11963
11904-16
11907-2
11907-5
11919-2
11921-1
11925
11927
11936
11946
11949
11956
11975
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC II
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC II
DAPC I
DAPC I
GBS
GBS
GBS
GBS
GBS
GC
GC
GC
GC
GC
GC
GC
Lat. [°N]
Long. [°E]
Water
depth [m]
Type of sample
No. of
samples
41:57.410
41:57.472
41:57.465
41:57.547
41:57.454
41:57.489
41:57.546
41:57.448
41:57.410
41:57.541
41.57.543
41.57.544
41:57.533
41:57.530
41.57.431
41:57.410
41:57.563
41:57.532
41:57.550
41:57.450
41:57.528
41:17.344
41:17.266
41:17.270
41:17.427
41:17.545
41:17.462
41:17.431
41:17.446
41:17.278
41:17.413
41.17.529
41.17.472
41:17.268
41:17.266
41:17.347
41:17.324
41:17.430
41:17.582
41:17.175
41:17.436
41:17.588
851
850
843
840
844
842
840
847
853
833
834
835
833
844
844
856
844
842
842
843
844
gas released
gas released
gas released
gas released
gas released
gas released
gas released
gas released
gas released
gas released
gas released
gas released
gas released
gas released
gas hydrate
gas hydrate
gas hydrate
gas hydrate
gas hydrate
gas hydrate
gas hydrate
40
7
9
32
19
6
17
17
7
5
5
1
6
2
1
3
3
3
3
1
2
41:58.071
41:58.071
41:58.120
41:58.120
41:58.069
41:58.071
41:58.068
41:06.214
41:06.197
41:06.250
41:06.250
41:06.199
41:06.197
41:06.195
1126
1112
1088
1088
1124
1112
1056
gas released
gas released
gas hydrate
gas hydrate
gas hydrate
sediment
sediment, gas
14
5
1
1
3
1
3
41:58.958
41:58.963
41:07.543
41:07.540
1015
1012
gas hydrate
gas hydrate
1
4
41:52.340
41:10.036
982
gas hydrate
3
42:40.262
40:22.631
690
sediment
3
44:16.972
44:16.987
44:16.896
44:16.995
44:16.995
44:16.892
34:59.215
34:59.097
34:58.789
34:59.096
34:59.096
34:58.902
2058
2058
2057
1994
1994
2049
gas released
gas released
gas released
gas released
gas released
gas released
7
24
21
5
7
12
44:17.650
44:17.630
44:17.656
44:17.621
44:17.623
35:01.979
35:01.932
34:01.992
35:01.946
35:01.946
2037
2055
2032
2048
2061
gas released
gas released
gas released
gas hydrate
gas hydrate
3
7
9
1
2
Colkheti seep area
11922
11902-1
11923-1
11923-2
11971
11902-4
11924
DAPC I
GBS
GC
GC
GC
GC
GC
Pechori mound
11953
11955
GC
GC
Iberia mound
11938
GC
Gudauta High
11933
GC
Dvurechenskii mud volcano
11911
11914
11916
11994-1*)
11994-3*)
11999
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC II
DAPC II
DAPC I
Vodyanitskii mud volcano
11981
11992
11917-1
11913
11990
DAPC I
DAPC I
GBS
GC
GC
Total
330
*) gas released from core sections no. GeoB 11994-1 (lowermost section, degassing subsequent to
computerized tomography scanning) and no. GeoB 11994-3 (top section) prepared from a sediment
core retrieved with DAPC II.
The overall gas volumes preserved in DAPC cores and core segements were specified by incremental
degassing (Heeschen et al., in press). During the procedure, the pressure preserved inside the DAPC was
monitored and subsamples were taken at selected time points and transferred into 20 mL glass vials prefilled with concentrated NaCl solution I) for immediate analyses of the gas chemical composition on board
and II) for storage and further measurements on shore.
120
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
12 Gas chemical compositions
Gas bubbles discharged from the seafloor were caught during 6 ROV dives in the Batumi seep area, at the
Colkheti oil seep, and at the Vodyanitskii mud volcano with the GBS (Chaps. 7 and 9). The GBS was
degassed quantitatively upon recovery using the same technique as for DAPC cores.
12.3
Gas analyses
For onboard measurements of gas chemical compositions, the samples were analyzed with a two-channel
6890N (Agilent Technologies) gas chromatograph (GC). Low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons (C1 to C6)
were separated, detected, and quantified with a capillary column (OPTIMA-5; 5 μM film thickness; 0.32
mm ID, 50 m length, carrier gas: N2) connected to a Flame Ionisation Detector (FID), while permanent
gases (O2, N2, CO2) as well as C1 and C2 hydrocarbons were determined using a packed (Molecular sieve,
carrier gas: He) stainless steel column coupled to a Thermal Conductivity Detector (TCD). The GC oven
temperature program was: initial 45°C held for 4 min; heating with a rate of 15°C min-1 up to 155°C
(constant for 2 min), 25°C min-1 up to 240°C (7 min). A PC-operated integration system (GC Chemstation, Agilent Technologies) was used for recording and calculation of the data. Calibrations and performance checks of the analytical system were conducted daily using commercial pure gas standards and gas
mixtures (AIR LIQUIDE). The coefficient of variation determined for the analytical procedure was lower
than 2 %.
For onshore determination of stable isotope ratios (1H/D, 12C/13C) of volatile hydrocarbons by GC-IsotopeRatio-Mass-Spectrometry (GC-IRMS), gas samples were stored in sealed glass vials filled with NaClsaturated water.
12.4
Preliminary results
A total of 330 gas samples recovered by DAPC coring and by the GBS, as well as gas samples retrieved
by dissolution of gas hydrate pieces, were analyzed on board for their gas compositions (Tab. 20). Using
GC-FID analyses about 10 individual hydrocarbons were detected in the C1 to C6 range. Structural identifications of unidentified hydrocarbons are subject to experiments in the home lab.
Significant trends in the hydrocarbon compositions of gases during release from the DAPC were found.
For an overview, only compositions of a selected subsample retrieved during intermediate stages of degassing are presented. Average contributions of air (sum of N2, O2 and Ar) were found to be less than
2.5 mol-% for all gas samples retrieved with the DAPC and the GBS.
12.4.1 Seep areas offshore Georgia
Batumi Seep Area
The Batumi seep area was intensively studied for gas contents and composition during Legs M72/3a and
3b. Samples of pressurized sediment cores, gas and gas hydrates were retrieved at 7 DAPC I stations, 2
DAPC II stations, 6 applications of the GBS, and at 6 gravity core stations. The gas volumes retrieved by
incremental degassing of DAPC ranged between 3.3 and 20.3 L per L sediment (Tab. 21).
121
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12 Gas chemical compositions
Table 21: Accumulated gas volumes and calculated gas-sediment ratios of gas samples retrieved
by the DAPC systems in the Batumi seep area.
GeoB
No.
11901
11903
11906
11918
11920
11937
11951
11958
11963
Device
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC II
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC II
DAPC I
DAPC I
Core volume
[mL]
13,892
5,343 *
4,435
12,449
13,892
2,458
7,320
7,801
9,030
Gas volumes
released [mL]
231,200
46,280 *
40,700
253,200
100,550
8,000
103,250
137,450
30,700
Gas volume / volume wet
sediment [mL / mL]
16.6
8.7 *
9.2
20.3
7.2
3.3
14.1
17.6
3.4
*) Degassing experiment was aborted due to clogging of the DAPC gas openings. Since the
upper sediment core was partially lost during abrupt pressure release, the core recovery was
estimated for calculations.
Gas subsamples obtained with the DAPC were strongly dominated by methane (99.946 to 99.976 mol-%
of LMWHCs, Fig. 118), followed by ethane (0.023 to 0.052 mol-%) and propane (0.0006 to
0.0012 mol-%). When present, C3+ hydrocarbons (i-C4, n-C4, and C5- and C6-derivatives) were found in
smaller amounts. In the course of degassing, CH4/CO2 ratios varied considerably between about 300 and
11.500.
Fig. 118: C1 to C3 hydrocarbon composition of gases retrieved by the DAPC, the GBS, and
by decomposition of gas hydrates from the Batumi seep area. Numbers of samples
refer to GeoB station numbers. As an overview concentrations are only shown in
the 0.0001 to 0.1 mol-% range. Based on different C1/C2+ ratios, gases of two
distinct compositions (cluster I + II) were recognized for DAPC samples. Note: For
comparison only values for subsamples retrieved during intermediate stages of the
DAPC degassing experiments are shown.
122
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
12 Gas chemical compositions
For preliminary characterizations of gas compositions, molar ratios between methane and higher homologues (commonly expressed as R = C1 / (C2 + C3); Bernard et al., 1978) were calculated. Remarkably,
R of subsamples from pressurized sediments taken with the DAPC in the Batumi seep area clustered in
two distinct groups ranging from I) 1,665 to 2,515 (cluster I) and II) from 2,603 to 5,413 (cluster II). In
general, a predominance of biogenic LMWHCs can be inferred from these values (Bernard et al., 1978).
However, it was found that DAPC cores releasing cluster I gas, mainly consisted of the stratigraphic units
1 and 2, while cluster II gas was derived from cores additionally containing significant amounts of unit 3
material (Chap. 10.2).
Except for one sample, gases released from decomposing gas hydrates (n = 6) were similar in LMWHC
compositions to those of cluster II gases obtained from the DAPC, exhibiting the molar ratio, R, ranging
from 2,318 to 4,091. Bubble forming gases obtained with the ROV-based GBS were slightly depleted in
ethane, but enriched in propane (R = 3,250 to 5,383). These yielded the lowest ethane to propane ratios
(3.3 to 7.8) observed for the Batumi samples.
Based on the chemical similarities between gas hydrate-bound gases and DAPC cluster II gases, a preferential occurrence of gas hydrates below the stratigraphic units 1 and 2 (predominantly below about 50 80 cm bsf; Chap. 10.2) might be assumed for the Batumi seep area. Further support for this assumption
comes from the fact that highest gas amounts were released from cores of relatively high core recovery, by
the prevalence of gas hydrates predominantly in deeper GC core sections, and by steep gradients of
dissolved chloride in specific depths of DAPC and GC cores (Chap. 11).
Colkheti Seep, Pechori Mound, and Iberia Mound
Three gas- and oil-seep areas, the Colkheti seep, the Pechori mound, and the Iberia mound offshore Georgia, were sampled for LMWHC containing material. While the DAPC and GBS were only deployed at the
Colkheti seep area, gas hydrates embedded in partially oil-contaminated sediments were retrieved at six
GC stations covering all oil-seep sites (Chap. 10.2).
Generally, more complex LMWHC distribution patterns were found for the oil-seep samples compared to
samples from the Batumi seep area. Altough methane dominated by far the fraction of all samples obtained from the three oil seeps, further individual LMWHCs and considerably higher portions of C2+compounds in general were found. Further, most oil seep gas samples were characterized by relatively
high CO2 portions.
At Colkheti seep, the only DAPC station carried out at an oil seep site (GeoB 11922), yielded about 70 L
of gas. The sampled material consisted of small amounts of sediment suspended in a huge volume of
water. This mixture was strongly contaminated with oil slicks. LMWHCs released by the degassing
procedure consisted of about 99.366 mol-% CH4, 0.546 mol-% C2H6 and small amounts of C3H8 (0.00349
mol-%), i-C4, n-C4, and C5- and C6-derivatives. C1/C2+ ratios of < 200 were found for gases retrieved with
the DAPC and for gas bubbles, which indicate the prevalence of thermogenic gases (Bernard et al., 1978)
sourcing the Colkheti seep. CH4/CO2 values varied between 9.9 and 374. Remarkably, gas kept with the
GBS showed a C3-over-C2 predominance.
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12 Gas chemical compositions
12.4.2 Mud volcanoes in the Sorokin Trough
Dvurechenskii Mud Volcano
For collecting pressurized sediment cores from the Dvurechenskii mud volcano (DMV), five DAPC
stations were carried out at the outer rim of the DMV (Table 22). Gas flares in the water column as well as
gas escaping from the seafloor were not observed during Leg M72/3a, and thus, gas bubbles could not be
collected in the DMV area.
For one station (GeoB 11994) sampled with the DAPC II, we succeeded to quantitatively degas a pressurized segment of the lowermost part of a sediment core (GeoB 11994-1) subsequent to the non-destructive,
high-resolution computerized tomography scanning (Chaps. 9.3.2 and 10.3). Thus, during Leg M72/3b a
three-dimensional imaging of the gas hydrate fabric in a pressurized sediment core and its in situ gas
inventory could be correlated for the first time. Further, the preservation of this core segment for degassing proved the complete applicability of the DAPC II system.
However, for the intermediate section of the core (GeoB 11994-2), which also was successfully cut and
transferred into a smaller pressure chamber, the degassing experiment had to be aborted due to severe
clogging of its gas openings. The core top section (GeoB 11994-3) was left in the DAPC II pressure chamber and degassed quantitatively without preceding CT imaging.
Table 22: Gas volumes and calculated gas-sediment ratios of samples retrieved by use of the DAPC at
the Dvurechenskii mud volcano.
GeoB No.
11911
11914
11916
11994-1
11994-3
11999
Instrument
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC II
DAPC II
DAPC I
Core volume
[mL]
Gas volumes
released [mL]
13,892
13,678
13,518
3,259
3,633
13,678
n.d.
108,550
100,850
21,350
24,050
130,550
Gas volume /
wet sediment volume
[mL / mL]
n.d.
7.9
7.5
6.6
6.6
9.5
From DAPC I cores, 108.6 L of gas corresponding to 7.9 L gas per L wet sediment were retrieved at maximum at a station ENE from the center (GeoB 11914). CH4 (99.933 to 99.967 mol-% of LMWHCs) was
the prevailing constituent of the LMWHCs, followed by C2H6 (0.031 to 0.066 mol-%) and C3H8 (≤ 0.001
mol-%). During degassing, C1/C2+ ratios varied between 1,487 and 3,010 pointing to the prevalence of volatiles from biogenic sources. Traces of i-C4H10 (< 0.001 mol-%) were only found in samples of station
GeoB11916 and higher homologues were below detection limit. Also during degassing, CH4/CO2 values
varied between 17.0 and 8,245.
Vodyanitskii Mud Volcano
In contrast to observations from the DMV area, active gas escape into the water column was recognized at
the Vodyanitskii mud volcano (VMV) during M72/3. At VMV, two DAPC station were performed, and
gas hydrate bearing sediments and ascending gas bubbles were collected using gravity corers and the
GBS.
For DAPC core GeoB 11981, about 0.9 L gas per L sediment was determined, while for DAPC core GeoB
11992 no accurate data are available (min. 4.2 L gas per L sediment) since pressure was partially lost during recovery of the core. However, CH4 contributed 99.945 to 99.961 mol-% of LMWHC, and C2H6
(0.038 to 0.054 mol-%) and C3H8 (≤ 0.001 mol-%) were less abundant. C1/C2+ ratios ranged between
1,360 and 2,607 and CH4/CO2 values varied between 138 and 1,626. For near-seafloor gas bubbles a slight
124
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12 Gas chemical compositions
enrichment of C2H6 (0.058 mol-%) and C3H8 compared to gases retrieved from pressurized sediments was
observed.
12.5
Conclusions
During M72/3a and 3b, a comprehensive set of gaseous samples was retrieved from sediments and waters
of gas-enriched settings in the Black Sea by use of conventional and novel deep-sea sampling tools. Onboard, gas chemical analyses of selected samples showed a strong predominance of volatile hydrocarbons
in the gases.
Considerable variations in the hydrocarbon distribution patterns were observed for the sample set. These
variations point to molecular differentiation processes during fluid migration through the sediment, gas
hydrate crystallization, and preferential gas release from specific hydrocarbon reservoirs during increental
degassing of autoclave sediment cores.
Future onshore work combining methodological approaches (computer tomography scanning, cryo-scaning electron microscopy, isotope-ratio-monitoring mass spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry) will help to
clarify the type(s) of the source gas(es), as well as the internal dynamics during accumulation in and disharge from gas- and gas hydrate bearing sediments. Gas hydrate structure(s) will be determined in order to
characterize the source gas – hydrate interrelationships prevailing at cold seeps and mud volcanoes in the
Black Sea.
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13
13 Lipid biomarkers
Distribution and carbon isotopic composition of lipid biomarkers
(J. Rethemeyer, S. Kusch)
13.1
Introduction
Paleoenvironmental studies are often based on the analysis of source-specific organic compounds, socalled biomarkers, e.g. the reconstruction of sea surface temperatures (SST) via long-chain, unsaturated
alkenones (UK’37) derived from marine coccolithophorids. A prerequisite for such studies is the identical
age of all compounds deposited within the same sediment layer. Postdepositional processes as well as the
contribution of terrigenous organic matter however, can significantly affect the reliability of the sediment
record. There is strong evidence for the selective degradation of organic compounds in marine sediments
that seems mainly dependent on biomarker exposure to oxygen. The Black Sea, being the world’s largest
basin with both well-oxygenated and permanently oxygen-deficient conditions, provides ideal conditions
for investigating the effect of the selective degradation of different lipid biomarkers as well as the contribution of terrestrial organic matter to Black Sea surface sediments delivered from nearby rivers.
The objective of our research is to study the degradation/preservation of different organic compounds by
comparing their abundance and radiocarbon concentration in surface sediments from oxygen-replete and
oxygen-depleted sites in the Black Sea taken on a slope transect. Compound-specific 14C analysis will also
be used to differentiate between recently produced marine and pre-aged terrestrial organic compounds and
to estimate the timescales of organic carbon transport from the continent to the ocean. In addition, we will
use the new branched versus isoprenoid tetraether lipid (BIT) index as an indicator for the relative fluvial
contribution of terrigenous organic matter to marine sediments (Hopmans et al., 2004). A further goal is to
evaluate the applicability of the UK’37 SST proxy, which was found to give unrealistically low results
with strong spatial and down-core variations questioning the applicability of UK’37 in the Black Sea (e.g.
Freemann and Wakeham, 1992). Alkenone derived SSTs will be compared with temperature estimates
determined with the new TEX86 proxy that is based on the distribution of glycerol dialkyl glycerol
tetraethers (GDGTs) from marine Crenarchaeota (Schouten et al., 2002).The radiocarbon concentrations
of di- and tri-alkenones and GDGTs will give us information on their degradation/preservation under oxic
and anoxic conditions.
13.2
Samples and methods
During cruise M72/3a and 3b, near-surface sediments from eight different sites were sampled with a
multicorer or a minicorer (Tab. 23). The multicorer (MUC) was equipped with 8 large tubes (9.9 cm outer
diameter, 9.5 cm inner diameter) and the minicorer (MIC) with 4 tubes (6.3cm outer diameter, 5.7 cm inner diameter) each being 60 cm long. GeoB 11905-2 was recovered from 877 m water depth near the
Batumi seep area. One MUC core was taken at the temperature maximum of the Dvurechenskii mud
volcano and will serve us as reference material for lipid extraction and radiocarbon analysis. For the study
of terrigenous organic matter input and preservation of organic biomarkers at slopes and depocenters, a
transect consisting of three MUC/MIC stations was run near Batumi at 41°47.838’N, 41°16.842’E,
42°40.260’N, 40°22.618’E, and 42°00.351’N, 41°27.997’E from 838.7 m to 523m water depth. Selective
degradation of biomarkers will also be studied in a transect S/E of the Crimean peninsula consisting of
four MIC stations. The stations were located (i) in the oxygenated zone at 95 m water depth, (ii) in the
transition zone of oxic/anoxic conditions at 173 m water depth, and in the anoxic part (iii) at 747 m and
(iv) 1341 m water depth.
126
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13 Lipid biomarkers
At each station one core was used for the sedimentological description and one or two cores were immediately sampled. Sediment cores were pushed carefully out of the tubes using a piston. The upper 2 to 6
cm consisting of unconsolidated, fluffy material was sampled with a spoon. If possible, sediment cores
were cut into 1 cm segments throughout the entire core length for high resolution analysis. Because of the
high water content of the upper sediment section, most cores were cut into 2 cm segments within the first
15 cm core length and the remaining 15 to about 50 cm were sampled in 5 cm intervals. All samples were
filled into pre-combusted glass jars. Until further processing in the laboratory, samples were kept frozen at
–18°C and shipped frozen by air cargo to Bremen.
Table 20: Samples taken for lipid analysis. MUC = multicorer, MIC = minicorer.
GeoB No.
Tool
Lat. [°N]
Long. [°E]
11905-2a
11905-2b
11912
11934
11960-1
11960-2
11983
11984
11985
11986
MUC
MUC
MUC
MUC
MIC
MIC
MIC
MIC
MIC
MIC
41:57.432
41:57.432
44:17.015
42:40.260
42:00.351
42:00.351
44:39.607
44:29.999
44:45.008
44:46.007
41:16.798
41:16.798
34:58.885
40:22.618
41:27.997
41:27.997
35:42.519
35:49.998
36:09.995
36:01.998
Water depth
[m]
877
877
2053
701
523
523
747
1341
95
173
Sampled core
length [cm]
49
46
20
57
52
53
45
24
26
50
No. of subsamples
14
14
4
39
37
28
26
14
14
26
In Bremen, all sediment samples will be freeze-dried in the laboratory. Aliquots of samples will be taken
for analysis of bulk parameters such as total organic carbon content, water content, etc. Sediment samples
will then be extracted with organic solvents using a soxhlet extractor to recover total extractable lipids.
Total lipids will be separated into different compound classes such as alkanes, ketones, fatty acids, and
alcohols using standard methods (Fig 119). Individual compounds will subsequently be isolated by
capillary gas-chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC). Suitable compounds (e.g., long-chain n-fatty acids) that occur in sufficient quantities for radiocarbon analysis
(>100 µg C of each individual compound), will be isolated using preparative GC and HPLC and purified
for radiocarbon analyses using accelerator mass spectrometry.
Total lipids
Saponification
Neutral lipids
Fatty acid
Methylation
Fatty acid
methyl esters
GC/FID
Silica gel chromatography
Alkanes
GC/FID
Ketones
GC/FID
Alcohols
GC, HPLC/MS
Fig. 119: Lipid extraction scheme. GC = capillary gas chromatography, FID = flame ionization detector,
HPLC/MS = high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.
127
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14
14 References
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Appendix 1
Table A 1: Station list
A1
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Table A 1, continuation: Station list
A2
Appendix 1
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Appendix 1
Table A 1, continuation: Station list
A3
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Table A 1, continuation: Station list
A4
Appendix 1
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Appendix 1
Table A 1, continuation: Station list
A5
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Table A 1, continuation: Station list
A6
Appendix 1
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Appendix 1
Table A 1, continuation: Station list
A7
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Table A 1, continuation: Station list
A8
Appendix 1
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Appendix 1
Table A 1, continuation: Station list
A9
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 2
Table A 2.1: Positions of Gudauta seeps detected during M72/3b.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
Date
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
Time
09:41:10
09:43:31
09:44:51
09:45:13
09:46:22
09:47:19
09:48:05
09:49:35
09:50:43
09:52:35
09:53:36
09:54:47
11:01:24
11:02:41
11:03:13
18:42:20
19:01:55
19:03:40
19:04:07
19:04:52
19:06:14
19:06:44
19:07:21
19:07:53
19:09:10
19:10:01
19:11:01
19:11:47
19:13:18
19:14:36
19:15:37
19:15:56
19:17:33
Lat. [°N]
42:40.500
42:40.465
42:40.443
42:40.438
42:40.418
42:40.403
42:40.390
42:40.365
42:40.345
42:40.312
42:40.293
42:40.273
42:39.073
42:39.108
42:39.123
42:41.035
42:40.593
42:40.555
42:40.545
42:40.530
42:40.498
42:40.490
42:40.477
42:40.465
42:40.437
42:40.417
42:40.397
42:40.380
42:40.350
42:40.323
42:40.303
42:40.298
42:40.267
Lon. [°N]
40:22.518
40:22.498
40:22.485
40:22.480
40:22.468
40:22.457
40:22.448
40:22.428
40:22.413
40:22.387
40:22.370
40:22.350
40:19.542
40:19.452
40:19.413
40:21.148
40:21.993
40:22.070
40:22.090
40:22.125
40:22.187
40:22.210
40:22.238
40:22.263
40:22.320
40:22.358
40:22.405
40:22.440
40:22.512
40:22.573
40:22.622
40:22.638
40:22.718
Water Depth [m]
676.95
671.77
666.58
667.88
669.17
666.58
666.58
665.28
661.39
660.10
663.99
669.17
693.81
684.74
682.14
579.69
630.27
638.05
639.35
640.64
647.13
648.42
651.02
652.31
662.69
660.10
670.47
666.58
666.58
676.95
678.25
676.95
684.74
Height [m]
299.57
175.07
299.57
405.91
508.36
408.51
504.47
404.62
377.38
448.71
403.32
523.93
232.14
287.90
182.86
152.09
143.95
475.94
442.23
437.04
462.98
429.26
402.02
343.66
351.45
440.93
508.36
418.88
482.43
521.33
386.46
387.76
198.42
Table A 2.2: Positions of Pechori seeps detected during M72/3b.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
A 10
Date
08.04.2007
08.04.2007
08.04.2007
08.04.2007
08.04.2007
08.04.2007
08.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
Time
23:18:15
23:18:54
23:20:11
23:21:15
23:35:01
23:35:56
23:37:19
00:24:45
02:26:42
02:27:54
02:29:00
02:41:21
02:41:54
02:43:03
02:43:55
03:58:05
03:58:27
03:59:08
03:59:47
04:00:45
05:49:31
06:40:10
06:41:05
06:41:44
Lat. [°N]
41:59.017
41:58.988
41:58.933
41:58.887
41:58.282
41:58.242
41:58.182
41:57.968
41:58.163
41:58.223
41:58.278
41:58.870
41:58.897
41:58.950
41:58.992
41:59.022
41:58.995
41:58.943
41:58.897
41:58.825
41:58.970
41:58.910
41:58.973
41:59.017
Lon. [°N]
41:07.690
41:07.633
41:07.517
41:07.420
41:06.210
41:06.132
41:06.015
41:06.242
41:05.985
41:06.097
41:06.202
41:07.423
41:07.477
41:07.590
41:07.675
41:07.377
41:07.398
41:07.438
41:07.477
41:07.533
41:07.092
41:07.780
41:07.732
41:07.697
Water Depth [m]
1012.31
1004.74
1014.20
1008.52
1114.48
1116.38
1118.27
1097.45
1122.05
1112.59
1112.59
1008.52
1014.20
999.06
1012.31
1002.85
1004.74
1008.52
1010.42
1008.52
1072.86
1023.66
1017.98
1014.20
Height [m]
577.11
692.53
686.86
626.31
565.76
571.43
497.64
427.63
543.05
412.49
633.87
544.94
618.74
569.54
437.09
537.38
618.74
459.80
696.32
728.48
410.60
372.76
596.03
357.62
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 2
Table A 2.3: Positions of Kerch Strait seeps during M72/3a and 3b.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
Date
23.03.2007
23.03.2007
23.03.2007
23.03.2007
23.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
24.03.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
Time
23:31:01
23:32:00
23:35:00
23:51:01
23:57:01
00:26:00
01:23:01
01:27:00
01:35:00
01:42:00
01:46:00
01:48:00
01:49:00
01:51:00
01:53:00
01:53:00
02:11:00
02:13:00
02:15:00
03:01:00
03:06:00
03:07:00
03:07:00
03:08:00
03:09:00
03:11:00
03:14:00
03:22:00
03:48:00
03:50:00
03:52:00
03:56:00
03:56:00
04:02:00
04:03:01
04:16:01
04:27:00
04:36:00
04:42:01
04:47:00
04:47:00
04:48:00
05:10:00
05:11:00
05:14:00
05:15:00
05:16:00
05:16:00
05:25:00
05:37:00
05:38:00
05:45:00
05:50:00
03:04:59
03:08:07
03:17:24
03:17:41
03:30:42
Lat. [°N]
44:33.477
44:33.573
44:33.910
44:36.158
44:36.967
44:40.673
44:39.903
44:39.710
44:39.398
44:39.060
44:38.895
44:38.817
44:38.747
44:38.627
44:38.562
44:38.535
44:37.693
44:37.602
44:37.528
44:41.158
44:41.887
44:41.967
44:42.038
44:42.190
44:42.283
44:42.542
44:42.960
44:43.902
44:45.477
44:45.363
44:45.245
44:45.037
44:45.002
44:44.717
44:44.645
44:43.902
44:43.338
44:42.872
44:42.523
44:42.310
44:42.285
44:42.253
44:41.028
44:40.953
44:40.828
44:40.753
44:40.723
44:40.698
44:40.227
44:39.547
44:39.512
44:39.158
44:38.868
44:39.307
44:39.423
44:39.782
44:39.792
44:40.330
Lon. [°N]
36:22.467
36:22.443
36:22.365
36:21.827
36:21.630
36:20.785
36:11.900
36:11.160
36:09.828
36:08.468
36:07.670
36:07.365
36:07.117
36:06.718
36:06.448
36:06.327
36:02.967
36:02.582
36:02.277
36:00.008
36:00.003
35:59.997
35:59.993
35:59.990
35:59.987
35:59.975
35:59.970
35:59.975
35:58.160
35:57.700
35:57.317
35:56.705
35:56.600
35:55.578
35:55.288
35:52.990
35:51.070
35:49.542
35:48.392
35:47.647
35:47.562
35:47.463
35:43.398
35:43.155
35:42.730
35:42.477
35:42.378
35:42.292
35:40.708
35:38.435
35:38.313
35:37.118
35:36.155
35:28.093
35:28.653
35:30.325
35:30.373
35:32.738
Water Depth [m]
362.5
362.5
349.8
247.5
166.6
107.2
297.2
414.1
491.1
560.3
573.9
571.0
587.6
628.5
649.0
655.8
735.7
737.6
731.8
686.0
653.8
626.6
614.9
582.7
555.4
493.1
407.3
297.2
229.0
263.1
273.8
244.6
238.7
331.3
353.7
544.7
551.5
539.8
611.9
592.5
602.2
612.9
541.8
567.1
566.1
565.2
570.0
567.1
614.9
551.5
581.7
661.6
668.5
664.4
647.5
603.5
603.5
659.0
Height [m]
158.8
266.0
50.7
83.8
41.9
52.6
115.0
106.2
40.0
98.4
249.5
170.5
110.1
248.5
213.4
217.3
178.3
137.4
52.6
139.3
196.8
228.0
199.8
154.0
170.5
194.9
249.5
78.0
83.8
70.2
116.0
64.3
97.4
32.2
174.4
53.6
298.2
299.2
143.2
251.4
397.6
116.9
53.6
375.2
154.9
193.9
297.2
305.0
86.7
230.0
222.2
175.4
102.3
370.0
301.8
245.1
122.6
191.9
A 11
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 2
Table A 2.3, continuation: Positions of Kerch Strait seeps during M72/3a and 3b.
No.
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
A 12
Date
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
Time
03:32:22
03:32:41
03:33:04
03:34:15
03:37:59
03:46:01
03:49:27
03:50:06
03:50:21
03:51:09
03:52:26
03:53:03
03:53:21
03:54:04
03:54:15
03:55:23
03:55:35
03:55:52
03:58:22
03:58:30
04:00:01
04:00:19
04:00:33
04:00:47
04:01:24
04:01:48
04:01:57
04:02:18
04:06:07
04:06:41
04:07:29
04:07:59
04:08:30
04:10:19
04:12:09
04:12:32
04:13:38
04:14:08
04:14:41
04:14:51
04:15:06
04:16:56
04:17:02
04:17:34
04:18:11
04:18:32
04:19:19
04:20:17
04:20:47
04:21:41
04:22:14
04:28:49
04:35:20
04:38:52
04:41:51
04:45:49
04:46:45
04:46:56
04:47:15
Lat. [°N]
44:40.400
44:40.412
44:40.428
44:40.477
44:40.630
44:40.960
44:41.152
44:41.192
44:41.207
44:41.255
44:41.330
44:41.363
44:41.380
44:41.418
44:41.428
44:41.488
44:41.498
44:41.512
44:41.635
44:41.642
44:41.717
44:41.732
44:41.742
44:41.755
44:41.783
44:41.803
44:41.812
44:41.828
44:42.022
44:42.050
44:42.092
44:42.117
44:42.143
44:42.237
44:42.330
44:42.350
44:42.407
44:42.432
44:42.462
44:42.468
44:42.482
44:42.577
44:42.582
44:42.608
44:42.640
44:42.658
44:42.698
44:42.747
44:42.773
44:42.818
44:42.847
44:43.190
44:43.533
44:43.712
44:43.845
44:44.013
44:44.055
44:44.063
44:44.078
Lon. [°N]
35:33.043
35:33.100
35:33.170
35:33.388
35:34.072
35:35.522
35:36.157
35:36.278
35:36.328
35:36.478
35:36.718
35:36.833
35:36.892
35:37.025
35:37.058
35:37.275
35:37.313
35:37.365
35:37.838
35:37.862
35:38.148
35:38.205
35:38.247
35:38.293
35:38.407
35:38.480
35:38.512
35:38.577
35:39.280
35:39.383
35:39.528
35:39.620
35:39.718
35:40.050
35:40.387
35:40.455
35:40.658
35:40.750
35:40.853
35:40.883
35:40.930
35:41.268
35:41.288
35:41.387
35:41.500
35:41.565
35:41.708
35:41.887
35:41.978
35:42.145
35:42.245
35:43.450
35:44.620
35:45.242
35:45.773
35:46.487
35:46.653
35:46.687
35:46.740
Water Depth [m]
583.9
568.9
553.8
548.0
653.3
491.3
395.7
367.9
346.3
313.5
280.6
285.7
288.8
279.5
272.3
272.3
285.2
293.7
309.1
314.5
308.3
303.7
309.1
316.8
337.6
350.7
357.7
373.1
325.1
334.7
359.7
380.9
405.4
416.9
364.9
350.1
324.4
317.3
300.6
301.3
309.6
296.0
296.0
310.6
339.9
342.2
363.1
371.5
376.9
409.3
432.4
474.8
497.3
564.8
481.1
397.5
368.7
362.4
356.1
Height [m]
163.0
227.8
113.3
175.7
167.7
240.5
131.6
135.7
30.8
126.4
136.7
84.3
95.6
68.9
119.2
67.8
53.2
61.7
86.3
129.5
94.8
67.8
80.9
99.4
53.2
47.0
212.0
82.5
55.9
136.2
86.1
52.7
82.9
59.7
119.5
114.4
75.8
107.9
118.2
157.4
123.3
161.1
124.1
108.7
171.9
205.0
124.9
111.0
145.7
105.6
90.2
46.3
162.8
118.7
105.2
246.4
113.3
102.5
168.2
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 2
Table A 2.3, continuation: Positions of Kerch Strait seeps during M72/3a and 3b.
No.
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
Date
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
Time
04:47:35
04:50:27
04:51:03
04:51:30
04:56:56
04:57:15
04:58:31
04:58:50
04:59:32
05:01:05
05:01:29
05:02:19
05:07:15
05:09:29
05:10:48
05:11:35
05:13:13
05:19:37
05:19:47
05:20:00
05:20:19
05:20:31
05:20:45
05:20:59
05:23:18
05:23:37
05:25:07
05:26:20
05:26:31
05:28:01
07:13:30
07:43:55
08:05:10
08:05:19
08:05:28
08:05:38
08:05:49
08:06:18
08:06:30
08:06:44
08:13:13
08:13:29
08:13:47
08:13:53
08:14:57
08:15:37
08:15:47
08:16:47
08:17:28
08:17:43
08:19:23
08:19:39
08:20:13
08:22:13
08:22:45
08:24:14
08:26:50
08:29:10
10:25:40
Lat. [°N]
44:44.093
44:44.240
44:44.272
44:44.297
44:44.562
44:44.577
44:44.638
44:44.655
44:44.688
44:44.768
44:44.790
44:44.832
44:45.078
44:45.185
44:45.252
44:45.292
44:45.372
44:45.687
44:45.695
44:45.705
44:45.720
44:45.730
44:45.742
44:45.753
44:45.867
44:45.882
44:45.958
44:46.020
44:46.030
44:46.105
44:48.778
44:46.772
44:45.473
44:45.465
44:45.457
44:45.447
44:45.435
44:45.405
44:45.393
44:45.378
44:44.983
44:44.967
44:44.950
44:44.943
44:44.878
44:44.838
44:44.828
44:44.767
44:44.725
44:44.712
44:44.610
44:44.593
44:44.558
44:44.438
44:44.405
44:44.317
44:44.158
44:44.017
44:42.747
Lon. [°N]
35:46.800
35:47.307
35:47.412
35:47.490
35:48.462
35:48.518
35:48.747
35:48.803
35:48.925
35:49.198
35:49.272
35:49.418
35:50.287
35:50.683
35:50.915
35:51.053
35:51.340
35:52.465
35:52.492
35:52.530
35:52.587
35:52.623
35:52.663
35:52.705
35:53.113
35:53.170
35:53.433
35:53.647
35:53.682
35:53.945
36:03.680
36:01.488
35:59.750
35:59.737
35:59.725
35:59.712
35:59.697
35:59.657
35:59.643
35:59.623
35:59.097
35:59.075
35:59.052
35:59.042
35:58.955
35:58.902
35:58.888
35:58.805
35:58.750
35:58.732
35:58.597
35:58.577
35:58.530
35:58.368
35:58.323
35:58.203
35:57.997
35:57.810
35:59.645
Water Depth [m]
350.7
355.2
378.6
394.8
359.7
348.0
323.8
322.0
320.2
305.8
302.2
310.3
394.8
396.6
420.0
426.3
411.0
364.2
357.0
351.6
360.6
363.3
365.1
371.4
358.8
358.8
326.4
292.3
300.4
319.3
87.1
100.2
150.7
152.2
151.1
152.2
150.3
156.9
157.6
157.6
180.4
180.4
179.6
180.4
196.6
223.5
225.9
246.7
255.9
261.0
278.5
281.6
297.0
330.9
341.2
366.9
395.7
439.4
442.4
Height [m]
142.1
153.8
75.5
227.5
165.5
180.8
160.1
98.0
116.0
140.3
55.8
153.8
151.1
125.9
98.0
98.0
177.2
151.1
150.2
80.9
103.4
75.5
40.5
214.0
84.5
80.0
54.9
135.8
123.2
62.1
64.0
85.6
22.4
80.9
79.0
80.6
91.7
100.2
90.2
17.0
54.7
34.7
63.2
45.5
49.3
71.7
62.4
46.3
96.6
115.1
131.6
96.6
126.4
110.0
79.1
25.7
150.1
217.4
168.0
A 13
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 2
Table A 2.3, continuation: Positions of Kerch Strait seeps during M72/3a and 3b.
No.
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
A 14
Date
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
18.04.2007
Time
10:26:04
10:27:01
12:39:45
13:02:22
13:03:23
13:03:56
13:04:40
13:05:18
13:05:29
13:05:42
13:06:23
13:16:00
13:16:26
13:16:37
13:22:08
13:39:10
13:40:37
13:41:08
13:42:17
13:43:02
13:43:08
13:43:41
13:43:48
13:43:59
13:44:04
13:44:14
13:44:33
13:44:43
13:45:39
13:46:02
13:48:00
13:49:50
13:52:01
13:57:08
13:57:58
13:58:26
13:58:42
14:00:19
14:00:41
14:00:48
14:00:55
14:01:06
14:02:32
14:03:10
14:12:24
14:14:13
14:15:10
14:15:41
14:15:47
14:15:57
14:16:11
14:16:56
14:51:17
14:53:30
15:45:34
15:45:58
15:46:21
15:47:03
02:08:37
Lat. [°N]
44:42.763
44:42.805
44:42.217
44:40.978
44:40.920
44:40.890
44:40.848
44:40.812
44:40.802
44:40.790
44:40.750
44:40.208
44:40.183
44:40.173
44:39.847
44:39.242
44:39.202
44:39.185
44:39.142
44:39.108
44:39.103
44:39.078
44:39.073
44:39.063
44:39.060
44:39.052
44:39.038
44:39.030
44:38.992
44:38.977
44:38.908
44:38.853
44:38.778
44:38.597
44:38.570
44:38.553
44:38.545
44:38.490
44:38.477
44:38.472
44:38.468
44:38.462
44:38.410
44:38.385
44:38.052
44:37.992
44:37.958
44:37.940
44:37.937
44:37.930
44:37.922
44:37.893
44:35.530
44:35.338
44:30.708
44:30.675
44:30.643
44:30.583
44:35.278
Lon. [°N]
35:59.683
35:59.772
36:12.000
36:13.923
36:14.013
36:14.060
36:14.125
36:14.180
36:14.198
36:14.217
36:14.278
36:15.147
36:15.187
36:15.200
36:15.692
36:17.558
36:17.728
36:17.788
36:17.915
36:17.992
36:18.003
36:18.060
36:18.072
36:18.090
36:18.098
36:18.117
36:18.150
36:18.167
36:18.267
36:18.308
36:18.528
36:18.735
36:18.980
36:19.570
36:19.667
36:19.722
36:19.755
36:19.943
36:19.987
36:20.000
36:20.013
36:20.035
36:20.200
36:20.273
36:21.348
36:21.568
36:21.682
36:21.743
36:21.755
36:21.775
36:21.802
36:21.890
36:23.963
36:24.033
36:25.622
36:25.635
36:25.648
36:25.673
36:19.793
Water Depth [m]
436.3
419.3
115.9
120.7
120.7
121.3
121.5
121.5
121.8
122.1
122.1
126.0
126.3
126.5
132.6
125.7
123.1
123.4
122.6
122.6
121.8
122.6
122.1
122.1
122.1
122.1
122.6
122.3
121.8
121.5
122.3
122.6
122.3
122.8
121.8
122.3
122.3
121.5
121.8
122.8
122.3
122.6
122.6
122.6
129.9
130.7
130.2
131.2
130.7
131.0
131.0
130.7
313.5
322.0
535.5
533.2
534.0
532.4
262.2
Height [m]
112.5
177.3
34.0
108.9
84.3
63.5
53.3
75.9
19.7
14.2
52.2
80.1
76.6
114.7
110.8
91.6
99.2
92.1
63.5
13.7
30.5
102.4
102.6
101.1
45.1
82.2
54.6
93.2
91.3
57.0
45.1
90.0
72.4
92.4
44.9
26.0
22.3
70.6
81.4
79.8
52.2
61.7
34.7
76.6
105.3
58.0
113.4
23.1
31.5
24.4
100.0
71.9
150.0
50.4
103.8
133.9
238.5
237.7
58.7
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 2
Table A 2.3, continuation: Positions of Kerch Strait seeps during M72/3a and 3b.
No.
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
Date
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
Time
02:16:42
02:21:46
02:40:52
02:41:49
03:05:26
03:07:06
03:13:13
03:13:43
16:30:40
16:32:16
16:32:58
16:33:20
16:34:23
16:35:25
16:35:58
16:36:34
16:37:37
16:39:53
16:41:54
16:47:29
16:48:23
16:51:15
16:52:41
16:55:32
16:56:39
16:57:39
17:00:11
17:02:21
17:02:53
17:03:26
17:06:11
17:08:16
17:09:45
17:11:13
17:12:21
17:12:50
17:13:16
17:14:00
17:15:55
17:16:45
17:18:28
17:18:47
17:22:01
17:22:12
17:22:26
17:22:51
17:23:20
17:24:26
18:29:42
18:34:30
18:42:55
18:43:20
18:43:47
18:44:12
18:47:07
18:47:27
18:48:19
18:49:43
18:50:13
Lat. [°N]
44:35.905
44:36.290
44:37.578
44:37.547
44:35.690
44:35.558
44:35.063
44:35.022
44:39.897
44:40.013
44:40.063
44:40.090
44:40.167
44:40.242
44:40.282
44:40.327
44:40.402
44:40.565
44:40.710
44:41.118
44:41.187
44:41.402
44:41.507
44:41.723
44:41.808
44:41.885
44:42.075
44:42.233
44:42.270
44:42.310
44:42.510
44:42.657
44:42.762
44:42.863
44:42.943
44:42.977
44:43.005
44:43.055
44:43.187
44:43.242
44:43.357
44:43.378
44:43.595
44:43.607
44:43.622
44:43.648
44:43.680
44:43.755
44:42.072
44:41.733
44:41.145
44:41.117
44:41.085
44:41.057
44:40.857
44:40.832
44:40.770
44:40.670
44:40.633
Lon. [°N]
36:20.177
36:20.432
36:21.505
36:21.595
36:20.758
36:20.703
36:20.570
36:20.560
35:43.893
35:43.798
35:43.757
35:43.735
35:43.673
35:43.613
35:43.580
35:43.545
35:43.482
35:43.343
35:43.215
35:42.865
35:42.810
35:42.640
35:42.557
35:42.375
35:42.305
35:42.242
35:42.085
35:41.950
35:41.918
35:41.885
35:41.722
35:41.600
35:41.512
35:41.427
35:41.362
35:41.333
35:41.308
35:41.268
35:41.158
35:41.112
35:41.017
35:40.998
35:40.815
35:40.805
35:40.792
35:40.765
35:40.738
35:40.673
35:37.013
35:37.382
35:38.022
35:38.053
35:38.087
35:38.118
35:38.340
35:38.368
35:38.433
35:38.537
35:38.575
Water Depth [m]
227.1
209.0
136.0
136.4
255.7
261.3
286.7
289.9
672.3
654.3
642.3
635.3
629.3
620.3
614.3
607.3
604.3
601.3
594.3
539.4
527.4
486.5
472.5
482.5
477.5
469.5
442.5
420.5
410.5
402.6
372.6
343.6
306.7
288.7
285.7
288.7
284.7
292.7
293.7
278.7
252.1
250.4
231.4
225.1
215.8
204.8
200.4
189.5
222.1
293.0
376.3
381.6
386.9
392.2
423.5
424.9
436.9
446.8
450.2
Height [m]
61.5
31.9
22.9
17.3
90.2
53.6
46.7
105.0
343.6
428.5
215.8
116.9
48.0
153.8
30.0
72.9
89.9
272.7
196.8
172.8
196.8
178.8
92.9
250.7
128.9
64.9
17.0
64.9
75.9
125.9
91.9
160.8
45.0
86.9
86.9
103.9
112.9
111.9
45.0
56.9
53.3
47.6
55.3
48.6
46.6
49.6
59.3
77.3
15.7
105.7
67.3
127.2
134.5
79.9
251.1
129.2
50.6
147.2
221.8
A 15
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 2
Table A 2.3, continuation: Positions of Kerch Strait seeps during M72/3a and 3b.
No.
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
Date
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
19.04.2007
19.04.2007
19.04.2007
19.04.2007
19.04.2007
19.04.2007
20.04.2007
20.04.2007
20.04.2007
20.04.2007
20.04.2007
20.04.2007
20.04.2007
20.04.2007
20.04.2007
20.04.2007
20.04.2007
20.04.2007
20.04.2007
20.04.2007
20.04.2007
20.04.2007
19.04.2007
19.04.2007
19.04.2007
Time
18:52:09
18:52:36
18:55:10
18:56:02
18:56:19
18:56:38
18:57:25
18:57:55
18:59:35
22:47:21
22:47:51
23:44:03
23:44:34
23:44:59
23:47:08
00:11:32
00:15:56
00:17:28
00:18:03
00:19:29
00:19:46
00:20:24
00:21:55
01:23:56
01:25:02
01:26:13
01:27:14
01:29:57
02:39:13
02:44:22
02:46:43
01:11:45
01:17:20
01:17:58
Lat. [°N]
44:40.495
44:40.462
44:40.282
44:40.218
44:40.198
44:40.175
44:40.120
44:40.083
44:39.967
44:39.472
44:39.490
44:40.202
44:40.183
44:40.167
44:40.088
44:39.177
44:39.022
44:38.963
44:38.940
44:38.875
44:38.857
44:38.818
44:38.708
44:39.682
44:39.760
44:39.842
44:39.915
44:40.098
44:39.748
44:40.145
44:40.250
44:37.440
44:37.242
44:37.217
Lon. [°N]
35:38.718
35:38.753
35:38.950
35:39.022
35:39.045
35:39.070
35:39.132
35:39.172
35:39.302
35:43.843
35:43.900
35:43.823
35:43.758
35:43.708
35:43.450
35:40.468
35:39.942
35:39.758
35:39.687
35:39.525
35:39.497
35:39.443
35:39.362
35:40.885
35:40.812
35:40.730
35:40.673
35:40.707
35:43.340
35:43.058
35:42.842
35:42.928
35:42.313
35:42.245
Water Depth [m]
Height [m]
462.8
460.2
478.8
486.8
489.5
494.1
502.1
508.1
532.1
701.3
707.1
640.1
634.3
629.7
642.4
674.7
663.2
668.9
666.6
671.3
672.4
679.3
703.6
677.0
671.3
664.3
657.4
610.0
679.3
663.2
629.6
927.4
884.6
881.8
90.6
195.8
149.8
91.2
124.5
120.5
16.7
178.5
140.5
167.5
202.2
439.0
321.2
73.9
234.5
78.6
176.8
425.2
82.0
219.5
162.9
161.8
311.9
84.3
147.9
164.1
295.8
223.0
239.2
26.6
298.1
149.6
323.4
518.5
Table A 2.4: Positions of Dvurechenskii seeps detected during M72/3b.
No.
1
2
A 16
Date
21.04.2007
21.04.2007
Time
18:51:27
19:31:40
Lat. [°N]
44:16.947
44:17.042
Lon. [°N]
34:58.472
34:58.848
Water Depth [m]
2023.13
2025.99
Height [m]
955.76
1156.07
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 3
Table A 3: MTU seismic survey profile list.
Profile No.*
Start
Time
End
Time**
Start Lat.
(N)
End Lat.
(N)
Start Lon.
(E)
End Lon.
(E)
GI 4.1 GI 0.4 WG
Profile
length (km)
Gudauta area, Georgia
05.04.2007
GeoB07-001
GeoB07-002A 05.04.2007
GeoB07-002B* 05.04.2007
GeoB07-003*
05.04.2007
05.04.2007
GeoB07-004*
GeoB07-005*
06.04.2007
GeoB07-006
06.04.2007
16:01
16:32
21:12
21:40
22:56
02:15
06:37
16:32
19:57
21:40
22:46
01:27 +
05:11
07:39
42°48,00
42°46,10
42°37,90
42°38,29
42°41,26
42°37,97
42°42,40
42°46,10
42°39,30
42°38,29
42°41,03
42°38,49
42°43,10
42°38,40
40°09,00
40°10,10
40°27,90
40°28,98
40°26,01
40°18,00
40°23,40
40°10,10
40°24,90
40°28,98
40°26,59
40°17,05
40°22,90
40°20,00
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
3,823
23,753
1,639
6,029
13,237
11,609
8,736
Batumi
GeoB07-007
GeoB07-008
GeoB07-009
GeoB07-010
06.04.2007
07.04.2007
07.04.2007
07.04.2007
23:38
00:20
03:38
04:53
00:20 +
03:38
04:53
05:27
42°06,54
42°04,53
41°52,77
41°56,77
42°04,53
41°52,77
41°56,77
41°59,30
41°04,33
41°08,34
41°22,77
41°17,09
41°08,34
41°22,77
41°17,09
41°18,26
x
x
x
x
x
6,650
29,480
10,778
4,955
08.04.2007
08.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
22:27
23:08
00:03
01:02
02:09
02:56
03:25
03:37
04:28
05:27
06:20
07:18
23:08
00:03 +
01:02
02:06
02:56
03:25
03:37
04:28
05:19
06:13
07:10
07:45
41°58,57
41°59,35
41°57,21
41°59,78
41°57,50
41°59,61
42°00,97
42°00,46
41°57,81
42°00,68
41°57,63
42°04,02
41°59,35
41°57,21
41°59,78
41°57,80
41°59,61
42°00,97
42°00,46
41°57,81
42°01,05
41°57,29
42°00,89
41°59,34
41°12,48
41°08,16
41°04,28
41°09,78
41°04,48
41°08,61
41°06,96
41°06,21
41°09,02
41°05,92
41°08,86
41°05,74
41°08,16
41°04,28
41°09,78
41°04,60
41°08,61
41°06,96
41°06,21
41°09,02
41°06,31
41°08,60
41°06,01
41°03,39
x
x
x
x
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
09.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
22:32
22:54
23:40
00:12
00:52
01:53
02:30
03:04
03:37
04:12
04:48
05:22
05:55
06:23
07:01
07:35
08:09
08:43
09:14
09:46
10:18
10:53
11:25
11:59
12:32
13:06
13:37
14:11
14:43
15:15
15:46
16:17
16:48
17:20
17:51
18:21
18:53
19:22
19:53
22:49
23:26
00:01 +
00:49
01:39
02:19
02:50
03:25
03:59
04:36
05:10
05:42
06:16
06:50
07:24
07:57
08:30
09:03
09:36
10:07
10:39
11:13
11:46
12:20
12:54
13:27
14:00
14:31
15:06
15:36
16:07
16:38
17:09
17:46
18:12
18:42
19:13
19:43
20:14
41°56,12
41°55,90
41°58,51
41°56,77
41°59,62
41°56,83
41°58,59
41°56,89
41°58,68
41°56,99
41°58,75
41°57,07
41°58,73
41°56,75
41°58,77
41°57,06
41°58,87
41°57,03
41°58,63
41°56,99
41°58,64
41°57,03
41°58,64
41°57,05
41°58,61
41°56,93
41°58,57
41°56,92
41°58,65
41°57,02
41°58,66
41°57,06
41°58,68
41°56,99
41°58,71
41°57,04
41°58,72
41°57,05
41°58,79
41°55,62
41°58,21
41°56,97
41°59,47
41°56,78
41°58,62
41°57,07
41°58,57
41°57,00
41°58,65
41°56,99
41°58,66
41°57,14
41°58,62
41°57,03
41°58,63
41°57,19
41°58,52
41°57,11
41°58,23
41°57,10
41°58,49
41°57,13
41°58,48
41°57,09
41°58,77
41°56,90
41°58,49
41°57,01
41°58,66
41°57,15
41°58,70
41°57,11
41°58,63
41°57,21
41°58,61
41°57,21
41°58,64
41°57,24
41°15,82
41°17,74
41°18,38
41°18,03
41°19,78
41°17,90
41°18,06
41°17,73
41°17,81
41°17,65
41°17,76
41°17,70
41°17,54
41°16,74
41°17,64
41°17,28
41°17,81
41°17,47
41°17,97
41°17,49
41°18,01
41°17,57
41°18,04
41°17,65
41°18,11
41°17,68
41°18,17
41°17,71
41°17,94
41°17,46
41°17,87
41°17,40
41°17,84
41°17,29
41°17,76
41°17,24
41°17,72
41°17,17
41°17,70
41°17,34
41°19,34
41°17,34
41°19,86
41°16,89
41°19,04
41°16,99
41°18,86
41°16,76
41°18,79
41°16,64
41°18,66
41°16,45
41°18,31
41°16,47
41°18,39
41°16,75
41°18,53
41°16,89
41°18,57
41°16,90
41°18,59
41°17,00
41°18,65
41°17,05
41°18,77
41°17,00
41°18,80
41°16,81
41°18,57
41°16,81
41°18,49
41°16,74
41°18,43
41°16,71
41°18,33
41°16,65
41°18,29
41°16,63
Pechori
GeoB07-011
GeoB07-012
GeoB07-013
GeoB07-014
GeoB07-015
GeoB07-016
GeoB07-017
GeoB07-018
GeoB07-019
GeoB07-020
GeoB07-021
GeoB07-022
Batumi 3D
GeoB07-023
GeoB07-024
GeoB07-025
GeoB07-026
GeoB07-027
GeoB07-028
GeoB07-029
GeoB07-030
GeoB07-031
GeoB07-032
GeoB07-033
GeoB07-034
GeoB07-035
GeoB07-036
GeoB07-037
GeoB07-038
GeoB07-039
GeoB07-040
GeoB07-041
GeoB07-042
GeoB07-043
GeoB07-044
GeoB07-045
GeoB07-046
GeoB07-047
GeoB07-048
GeoB07-049
GeoB07-050
GeoB07-051
GeoB07-052
GeoB07-053
GeoB07-054
GeoB07-055
GeoB07-056
GeoB07-057
GeoB07-058
GeoB07-059
GeoB07-060
GeoB07-061
Start Date
6,120
6,652
8,944
8,019
6,900
3,391
1,399
6,249
7,065
7,282
7,200
9,251
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
2,290
4,812
3,191
5,599
6,595
3,668
3,177
3,479
3,431
3,452
3,606
3,228
3,305
4,083
3,603
3,285
3,437
3,122
3,184
2,736
3,236
3,047
3,142
2,985
3,171
3,724
3,487
3,272
3,413
3,400
3,155
3,388
3,279
3,419
3,132
3,272
3,161
3,324
3,227
A 17
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 3
Table A 3 continuation: MTU seismic survey profile list.
Profile No.*
Start Date
Start
Time
End
Time**
Start Lat.
(N)
41°57,17
41°58,78
41°57,13
41°58,78
41°57,11
41°58,79
41°57,10
41°58,76
41°57,13
41°58,76
41°57,12
41°58,74
41°57,07
41°58,73
41°57,06
41°58,68
41°57,04
41°58,71
41°57,00
41°58,70
41°57,00
41°58,67
41°57,00
41°58,64
41°56,99
41°58,59
41°56,98
41°58,66
41°56,97
41°58,64
End Lat.
(N)
41°58,67
41°57,29'
41°58,63
41°57,28
41°58,63
41°57,26
41°58,63
41°57,26
41°58,23
41°57,21
41°58,65
41°57,21
41°58,63
41°57,20
41°58,59
41°57,18
41°58,56
41°57,19
41°58,54
41°57,16
41°58,52
41°57,16
41°58,51
41°57,14
41°58,58
41°57,13
41°58,51
41°57,10
41°58,54
41°57,09
Start Lon.
(E)
41°17,11
41°17,62
41°17,14
41°17,61
41°17,16
41°17,67
41^17,18
41°17,66
41°17,25
41°17,70
41°17,29
41°17,71
41°17,30
41°17,76
41°17,33
41°17,75
41°17,36
41°17,82
41°17,37
41°17,86
41°17,41
41°17,90
41°17,44
41°17,91
41°17,48
41°17,90
41°17,53
41°18,01
41°17,57
41°18,03
End Lon.
(E)
41°18,15
41°16,58'
41°18,16
41°16,55
41°18,31
41°16,59
41°18,25
41°16,63
41°18,02
41°16,63
41°18,34
41°16,67
41°18,37
41°16,69
41°18,40
41°16,74
41°18,40
41°16,78
41°18,42
41°16,81
41°18,45
41°16,84
41°18,49
41°16,86
41°18,58
41°16,89
41°18,59
41°16,91
41°18,65
41°16,97
GI 4.1 GI 0.4 WG
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Profile
length (km)
3,125
3,109
3,113
3,138
3,230
3,200
3,194
3,119
2,297
3,227
3,181
3,175
3,243
3,194
3,194
3,107
3,158
3,158
3,198
3,198
3,158
3,155
3,148
3,132
3,311
3,041
3,187
3,262
3,266
3,220
GeoB07-062
GeoB07-063
GeoB07-064
GeoB07-065
GeoB07-066
GeoB07-067
GeoB07-068
GeoB07-069
GeoB07-070
GeoB07-071
GeoB07-072
GeoB07-073
GeoB07-074
GeoB07-075
GeoB07-076
GeoB07-077
GeoB07-078
GeoB07-079
GeoB07-080
GeoB07-081
GeoB07-082
GeoB07-083
GeoB07-084
GeoB07-085
GeoB07-086
GeoB07-087
GeoB07-088
GeoB07-089
GeoB07-090
GeoB07-091
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
10.04.2007
11.04.2007
11.04.2007
11.04.2007
11.04.2007
11.04.2007
11.04.2007
11.04.2007
11.04.2007
11.04.2007
12.04.2007
12.04.2007
12.04.2007
12.04.2007
12.04.2007
12.04.2007
12.04.2007
13.04.2007
13.04.2007
13.04.2007
13.04.2007
13.04.2007
13.04.2007
13.04.2007
20:26
20:54
21:27
21:58
22:33
23:07
23:41
00:14
00:49
01:20
01:53
02:26
02:58
03:29
04:01
04:33
20:29
20:59
21.33
22:03
22:36
23:09
23:41
00:14
00:47
01:21
01:51
02:24
02:57
03:30
20:44
21:15
21:46
22:20
22:54
23:29
00:02 +
00:36
01:09
01:41
02:13
02:46
03:18
03:49
04:21
04:54
20:49
21:21
21:52
22:24
22:56
23:29
00:02 +
00:35
01:08
01:40
02:11
02:46
03:18
03:50
GeoB07-092
GeoB07-093
GeoB07-094
GeoB07-095
Iberia, Colkheti
GeoB07-096
GeoB07-097
GeoB07-098
GeoB07-099
GeoB07-100
GeoB07-101
13.04.2007
04:01
04:21
13.04.2007
13.04.2007
13.04.2007
04:35
05:03
05:36
41°56,94
41°58,61
41°57,28
41°58,63
41°58,50
41°57,08
41°58,78
41°57,04
41°17,57
41°18,06
41°16,80
41°18,16
41°18,64
41°16,99
41°17,85
41°17,08
x
x
3,243
04:56
05:23
05:57
x
x
x
x
x
x
3,194
3,132
3,299
13.04.2007
13.04.2007
13.04.2007
13.04.2007
13.04.2007
13.04.2007
06:14
07:41
08:04
08:37
09:23
11:24
07:37
07:53
08:28
09:04
11:03
11:53
41°56,46
41°51,8
41°51,69
41°53,21
41°51,57
41°59,27
41°52,15
41°51,57
41°53,42
41°51,22
41°59,41
41°56,88
41°16,56
41°09,05
41°10,99
41°09,35
41°10,74
41°05,19
41°09,08
41°10,39
41°09,65
41°10,74
41°05,26
41°06,86
x
x
x
x
x
x
13,039
1,897
3,699
4,154
16,366
4,988
Andrusov Ridge
GeoB07-102
15.04.2007
GeoB07-103
15.04.2007
00:24
05:29
05:14
06:16
42°27,85
42°46,29
42°46,99
42°42,71
36°48,85
36°30,67
36°29,77
36°28,49
x
x
43,961
7,263
Dvurechenskii MV
GeoB07-104
15.04.2007
GeoB07-105
15.04.2007
GeoB07-106
15.04.2007
GeoB07-107
15.04.2007
GeoB07-108
15.04.2007
GeoB07-109
15.04.2007
GeoB07-110
15.04.2007
GeoB07-111
15.04.2007
GeoB07-112
15.04.2007
GeoB07-113
16.04.2007
GeoB07-114
16.04.2007
GeoB07-115
16.04.2007
GeoB07-116
16.04.2007
GeoB07-117
16.04.2007
GeoB07-118
16.04.2007
GeoB07-119
16.04.2007
GeoB07-120
16.04.2007
GeoB07-121
16.04.2007
GeoB07-122
16.04.2007
GeoB07-123
16.04.2007
GeoB07-124
16.04.2007
18:07
18:36
19:34
20:24
21:01
21:41
22:25
23:05
23:46
00:23
01:04
01:45
02:25
03:06
03:46
04:27
05:07
05:46
06:20
06:57
07:33
18:36
19:20
20:04
20:48
21:26
22:06
22:49
23:31
00:11 +
00:48
01:30
02:10
02:50
03:33
04:15
04:53
05:34
06:11
06:46
07:23
07:58
44°13,49
44°15,04
44°18,44
44°16
44°17,97
44°16,00
44°17,98
44°16,01
44°17,98
44°16,00
44°17,86
44°16,12
44°18,00
44°16,00
44°17,96
44°15,99
44°17,98
44°16,15
44°17,96
44°16,06
44°17,98
44°15,04
44°18,70
44°15,95
44°18,00
44°15,98
44°17,99
44°15,97
44°18,02
44°15,96
44°18,00
44°15,77
44°18,25
44°15,76
44°18,25
44°15,77
44°18,21
44°15,90
44°18,19
44°15,79
44°18,20
44°15,67
35°01,40
34°59,00
34°59,95
34°58,24
34^58,67
34°59,23
34°58,05
34°59,12
34°58,62
34°59,04
34°58,38
34°58,97
34°58,12
34°58,85
34°58,43
34°58,92
34°58,56
34°59,18
34°58,68
34°59,30
34°58,79
34°59,00
34°59,01
35°00,00
34°58,24
34°58,75
34°59,25
34°58,48
34°59,11
34°58,61
34°59,04
34°58,36
34°58,96
34°58,11
34°58,85
34°58,45
34°58,91
34°58,57
34°59,18
34°58,692
34°59,29
34°58,79
A 18
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
4,287
6,778
4,612
3,704
3,687
3,686
3,766
3,723
3,741
3,704
3,871
3,945
4,149
4,167
4,056
4,111
3,852
3,778
4,019
3,963
4,278
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 3
Table A 3 continuation: MTU seismic survey profile list.
Profile No.*
Start Date
Start
Time
End
Time**
Start Lat.
(N)
End Lat.
(N)
Start Lon.
(E)
End Lon.
(E)
Kerch-Strait
GeoB07-125
GeoB07-126
GeoB07-127
GeoB07-128
GeoB07-129
GeoB07-130
GeoB07-132
GeoB07-133
GeoB07-134
GeoB07-135*
GeoB07-136*
GeoB07-137
GeoB07-138
GeoB07-139
GeoB07-140
GeoB07-141
GeoB07-142
GeoB07-143
GeoB07-144
GeoB07-145
GeoB07-146
GeoB07-147
GeoB07-148
GeoB07-149
GeoB07-150
GeoB07-151
GeoB07-152
GeoB07-153
GeoB07-154
GeoB07-155
GeoB07-156
GeoB07-157
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
17.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
18.04.2007
19.04.2007
19.04.2007
19.04.2007
19.04.2007
19.04.2007
19.04.2007
19.04.2007
19.04.2007
19.04.2007
20.04.2007
20.04.2007
20.04.2007
20.04.2007
20.04.2007
20.04.2007
20.04.2007
07:23
09:36
11:35
13:24
14:29
17:18
20:36
22:38
02:45
07:27
07:49
15:07
17:41
18:13
20:20
21:52
00:22
02:01
17:11
17:30
19:05
20:17
20:55
21:33
23:26
00:26
00:46
00:59
01:38
02:10
02:23
02:55
09:17
11:31
13:24
14:29
17:18
20:30
22:35
02:36 +
04:43
07:49
10:30
17:32
18:10
20:14
21.46
00:01 +
01:31
02:10
17:26
18:58
20:13
20:50
21:30
23:15
00:19 +
00:42
00:56
01:26
02:08
02:20
02:43
03:22
44°48,04
44°40,63
44°45,71
44°39,75
44°37,40
44°23,01
44°28,61
44°19,59
44°37,31
44°27,52
44°28,25
44°34,55
44°44,25
44°43,12
44°34,71
44°36,22
44°39,12
44°37,40
44°38,42
44°38,14
44°31,70
44°33,90
44°36,66
44°37,17
44°40,86
44°38,47
44°37,49
44°38,03
44°40,19
44°37,91
44°38,50
44°39,75
44°41,10
44°45,72
44°39,75
44°37,40
44°23,01
44°28,82
44°19,46
44°37,42
44°27,50
44°28,25
44°25,23
44°44,29
44°43,73
44°34,99
44°36,07
44°40,40
44°36,77
44°38,06
44°38,32
44°31,94
44°33,64
44°36,49
44°37,12
44°40,48
44°38,86
44°37,49
44°37,85
44°39,87
44°37,90
44°38,29
44°40,05
44°38,01
36°03,16
35°55,06
36°06,55
36°15,95
36°23,33
36°28,27
36°07,02
36°10,28
36°21,64
36°20,09
36°21,01
35°48,26
35°39,08
35°35,75
35°44,49
35°35,06
35^48,15
35°42,30
35°42,25
35°43,92
35°47,72
35°40,08
35°40,18
35°36,51
35°45,96
35°39,59
35°41,19
35°42,39
35°41,63
35°43,68
35°44,18
35°42,82
35°53,90
36°06,10
36°15,95
36°23,33
36°28,27
36°07,41
36°10,14
36°21,13
36°18,46
36°21,01
36°29,06
35°40,23
35°35,91
35°44,71
35°35,21
35°48,63
35°40,78
35°42,67
35°43,63
35°48,25
35°40,18
35°40,60
35°36,30
35°46,82
35°39,48
35°40,82
35°42,20
35°40,70
35°43,50
35°44,32
35°43,12
35°44,01
GI 4.1 GI 0.4 WG
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Profile
length (km)
17,708
17,318
16,580
10,654
27,437
29,611
17,441
36,000
18,647
1,818
12,024
20,912
4,280
19,133
12,496
19,486
10,644
1,316
1,828
12,824
10,581
4,845
5,186
14,904
9,305
2,433
1,489
4,071
4,905
1,098
3,192
3,584
*: Profiles were recorded at a cruising speed of approx. 5 kn. Profiles marked * were acquired at 3 kn.
**: + behind end time denotes day change during profile
GI 4.1 - starboardside GI source, 4.1L
GI 0.4 - portside GI source, 0.4L
WG - portside watergun source, 0.16L
A 19
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 4
Table A 4: List of gravity corer (GC), Dynamic Autoclave Piston Corer (DAPC, I + II), multi corer
(MUC), and mini corer (MiC) stations performed during cruise M72/3a+b.
Date
GeoB
No.
Station-Nr.
Instrument
Location
Latitude
[°N]
Longitude Water
[°E]
Depth
[m}
Core recovery
M73/3a
18.03.07 11901 DAPC-1
20.03.07 11903 DAPC-2
21.03.07 11905-1 MUC-1
21.03.07 11905-2 MUC-2
21.03.07 11906 DAPC-3
24.03.07 11909 DAPC-4
25.03.07 11911 DAPC-5
25.03.07 11912 MUC-3
25.03.07 11913 GC-1
26.03.07 11914 DAPC-6
27.03.07 11916 DAPC-7
29.03.07 11918 DAPC-8
30.03.07 11920 DAPC-9
31.03.07 11922 DAPC-10
31.03.07 11923 GC-2
31.03.07 11924 GC-3
31.03.07 11925 GC-4
31.03.07 11926 GC-5
31.03.07 11927 GC-6
01.04.07 11928 MUC-4
01.04.07 11929 MUC-5
01.04.07 11930 MUC-6
01.04.07 11931 MUC-7
DAPC I
DAPC I
MUC
MUC
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC I
MUC
GC
DAPC I
DAPC I
DAPC II
DAPC I
DAPC I
GC
GC
GC
GC
GC
MUC
MUC
MUC
MUC
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
near Batumi seep
near Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Dvurechenskii MV
Dvurechenskii MV
Dvurechenskii MV
Vodyanitskii MV
Dvurechenskii MV
Dvurechenskii MV
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Colkheti seep
Colkheti seep
Colkheti seep
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Shallow ridge
Shallow ridge
Shallow ridge
Batumi seep
41:57.410
41:57.472
41:57.249
41:57.432
41:57.465
44:16.906
44:16.972
44:17.015
44:17.621
44:16.987
44:16.896
41:57.547
41:57.454
41:58.071
41:58.120
41:58.068
41.57.431
41:57.416
41:57.410
41:42.332
41:42.374
41:42.386
41:47.838
41:17.344
41:17.266
41:16.716
41:16.798
41:17.270
34:59.066
34:59.215
34:58.885
35:01.946
34:59.097
34:58.789
41:17.427
41:17.545
41:06.214
41:06.250
41:06.195
41:17.347
41:17.345
41:17.324
41:28.174
41:28.059
41:27.938
41:16.842
851
850
895
877
843
2056
2058
2053
2048
2058
2057
840
844
1126
1088
1056
844
849
856
379
367
382
839
260 cm
260 cm core, 100 cm
60 cm
83 cm
60 cm
60 cm
138 cm
256 cm
253 cm
233 cm
259 cm
698 cm
215 cm
413 cm
60 cm
GC
MUC
DAPC II
GC
DAPC I
DAPC I
GC
MUC
GC
GC
MUC
DAPC II
GC
GC
MUC
MUC
GC
MUC
DAPC II
GC
GC
MIC
GC
GC
GC
DAPC I
MIC
MIC
MIC
DAPC I
MIC
Gudauta High
Gudauta High
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Iberia mound
Iberia mound
Pechori mound
Pechori mound
Pechori mound
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Pechori mound
Pechori mound
Pechori mound
Pechori mound
Batumi seep
Reference Batumi
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Offshore Kobuleti
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
42:40.262
42 :40.260
41:57.549
41:57.563
41:57.489
41:57.489
41:52.340
41:52.739
41:58.962
41:59.008
41:58.659
41:57.554
41:57.345
41:57.532
41:57.531
41:57.531
41:57.550
41:57.542
41:57.546
41:58.955
41:58.958
41:58.964
41:58.963
41:57.450
41:57.803
41:57.448
41:57.533
42:00.351
41:57.548
41:57.410
41:57.414
40:22.631
40 :22.678
41:17.425
41:17.430
41:17.462
41:17.462
41:10.036
41:10.025
41:02.404
41:07.400
41:07.428
41:17.654
41:17.456
41:17.582
41:17.585
41:17.578
41:17.175
41:17.424
41:17.431
41:07.539
41:07.543
41:07.541
41:07.540
14:17.436
41:18.001
41:17.446
41:17.568
41:27.997
41:17.435
41:17.278
41:17.360
690
701
843
844
842
842
982
989
1014
1024
1014
841
848
842
841
843
842
840
840
1019
1015
1024
1012
843
844
845
840
523
838
853
847
380 cm
57 cm
193 cm
41 cm
41 cm
134 cm
60 cm
83 cm
252 cm
137 cm
335 cm
57 cm
144 cm
110 cm
to be opened
146 cm
58 cm
59 cm
for pore water
169 cm
51 cm
M73/3b
06.04.07
06.04.07
07.04.07
07.04.07
07.04.07
07.04.07
07.04.07
07.04.07
08.04.07
08.04.07
08.04.07
08.04.07
08.04.07
09.04.07
09.04.07
09.04.07
09.04.07
09.04.07
09.04.07
09.04.07
09.04.07
11.04.07
11.04.07
11.04.07
11.04.07
11.04.07
11.04.07
11.04.07
12.04.07
12.04.07
12.04.07
A 20
11933
11934
11935
11936
11937
11937
11938
11939
11941
11942
11943
11944
11945
11946
11947
11948
11949
11950
11951
11952
11953
11954
11955
11956
11957
11958
11959
11960
11962
11963
11964
GC-7
MUC-8
DAPC-11
GC-8
DAPC-12
DAPC-12
GC-9
MUC-9
GC-10
GC-11
MUC-10
DAPC-13
GC-12
GC-13
MUC-11
MUC-12
GC-14
MUC-13
DAPC-14
GC-15
GC-16
MIC-1
GC-17
GC-18
GC-19
DAPC-15
MIC-2
MIC-3
MIC-4
DAPC-16
MIC-5
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 4
Table A 4, continuation: List of gravity corer (GC), Dynamic Autoclave Piston Corer (DAPC, I + II),
multi corer (MUC), and mini corer (MiC) stations performed during cruise M72/3a+b.
Date
GeoB
No.
Station-Nr.
Instrument
Location
Latitude
[°N]
Longitude Water
[°E]
Depth
[m}
Core recovery
12.04.07
11965 MIC-6
MIC
Batumi seep
41:57.447
41:17.437
843
27cm
12.04.07
12.04.07
13.04.07
13.04.07
13.04.07
13.04.07
13.04.07
13.04.07
13.04.07
14.04.07
16.04.07
16.04.07
16.04.07
16.04.07
16.04.07
16.04.07
19.04.07
19.04.07
19.04.07
19.04.07
19.04.07
19.04.07
20.04.07
20.04.07
20.04.07
20.04.07
20.04.07
20.04.07
20.04.07
21.04.07
21.04.07
21.04.07
11966
11967
11968
11969
11970
11971
11972
11973
11974
11975
11976
11977
11978
11979
11980
11981
11983
11984
11985
11986
11987
11988
11989
11990
11991
11992
11993
11994
11995
11997
11998
11999
MIC
GC
MIC
MIC
MIC
GC
DAPC II
DAPC II
GC
GC
MIC
MIC
MIC
MIC
GC
DAPC I
MIC
MIC
MIC
MIC
GC
GC
GC
GC
DAPC I
DAPC I
MIC
DAPC II
MIC
MIC
GC
DAPC I
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Pechori mound
Pechori mound
Colkheti seep
Colkheti seep
Batumi seep
Batumi seep
Reference Batumi
Batumi seep
Dvurechenskii MV
Dvurechenskii MV
Dvurechenskii MV
Dvurechenskii MV
Vodyanitskiy MV
Vodyanitskiy MV
Kerch strait
Kerch strait
Kerch strait
Kerch strait
Kerch strait
Kerch strait
Kerch strait
Vodyanitskiy MV
Vodyanitskiy MV
Vodyanitskiy MV
Vodyanitskiy MV
Dvurechenskii MV
Dvurechenskii MV
Dvurechenskii MV
Dvurechenskii MV
Dvurechenskii MV
41:57.614
41:57.530
41:58.961
41:58.962
41:58.069
41:58.069
41:57.541
41:57.544
41:57.428
41:57.528
44.16.807
44:16.885
44.16.944
44.17.025
44:17.659
44:17.650
44:39.607
44:29.999
44:45.008
44:46.007
44:37.138
44:37.207
44:37.203
44:17.623
44:17.625
44:17.630
44:17.627
44:16.995
44:17.034
44:17.060
44:16.998
44:16.892
41:17.512
41:17.268
41:07.543
41:07.541
41:06.191
41:06.199
41:17.428
41:17.430
41:16.803
41:17.588
34:58.906
34:58.906
34:58.902
34:58.879
35:01.965
35:01.979
35:42.519
35:49.998
36:09.995
36:01.998
35:42.249
35:42.291
35:42.260
35:01.946
35:01.949
35:01.932
35:01.948
34:59.096
34:58.951
34:59.036
34:59.090
34:58.902
847
843
1022
43 cm
41 cm
34 cm
151 cm
697 cm
304 cm
46 cm
52 cm
56 cm
40 cm
132 cm
78 cm
45 cm
24 cm
30 cm
37 cm
157 cm
293 cm
289 cm
153 cm
177 cm
pore water
USBL;
40 cm
29 cm
to be opened
ca. 300 cm (core loss)
MIC-7
GC-20
MIC-8
MIC-9
MIC-10
GC-21
DAPC-17
DAPC-18
GC-22
GC-23
MIC-11
MIC-12
MIC-13
MIC-14
GC-24
DAPC-19
MIC-15
MIC-16
MIC-17
MIC-18
GC-25
GC-26
GC-27
GC-28
DAPC-20
DAPC-21
MIC-19
DAPC-22
MIC-20
MIC-21
GC-29
DAPC-23
1118
1124
841
840
884
844
2052
2052
2050
2048
2039
2037
747
1341
95
173
894
889
888
2061
2052
2055
2067
1994
1977
2050
2052
2049
A 21
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Plate A 5: Sedimentological core descriptions
A 22
Appendix 5
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 5
Plate A 5, continuation: Sedimentological core descriptions
A 23
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Plate A 5, continuation: Sedimentological core descriptions
A 24
Appendix 5
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 5
Plate A 5, continuation: Sedimentological core descriptions
A 25
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Plate A 5, continuation: Sedimentological core descriptions
A 26
Appendix 5
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 5
Plate A 5, continuation: Sedimentological core descriptions
A 27
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Plate A 5, continuation: Sedimentological core descriptions
A 28
Appendix 5
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 5
Plate A 5, continuation: Sedimentological core descriptions
A 29
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Plate A 5, continuation: Sedimentological core descriptions
A 30
Appendix 5
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 5
Plate A 5, continuation: Sedimentological core descriptions
A 31
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Plate A 5, continuation: Sedimentological core descriptions
A 32
Appendix 5
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 5
Plate A 5, continuation: Sedimentological core descriptions
A 33
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Plate A 5, continuation: Sedimentological core descriptions
A 34
Appendix 5
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 5
Plate A 5, continuation: Sedimentological core descriptions
A 35
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Plate A 5, continuation: Sedimentological core descriptions
A 36
Appendix 5
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 5
Plate A 5, continuation: Sedimentological core descriptions
A 37
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Plate A 5, continuation: Sedimentological core descriptions
A 38
Appendix 5
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 5
Plate A 5, continuation: Sedimentological core descriptions
A 39
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Plate A 5, continuation: Sedimentological core descriptions
A 40
Appendix 5
R/V METEOR cruise report M72/3
Appendix 5
Plate A 5, continuation: Sedimentological core descriptions
A 41
Publications of this series:
No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
No. 4
No. 5
No. 6
No. 7
No. 8
No. 9
No. 10
No. 11
No. 12
No. 13
No. 14
No. 15
No. 16
No. 17
No. 18
No. 19
Wefer, G., E. Suess and cruise participants
Bericht über die POLARSTERN-Fahrt ANT IV/2, Rio de Janeiro - Punta Arenas, 6.11. - 1.12.1985.
60 pages, Bremen, 1986.
Hoffmann, G.
Holozänstratigraphie und Küstenlinienverlagerung an der andalusischen Mittelmeerküste.
173 pages, Bremen, 1988. (out of print)
Wefer, G. and cruise participants
Bericht über die METEOR-Fahrt M 6/6, Libreville - Las Palmas, 18.2. - 23.3.1988.
97 pages, Bremen, 1988.
Wefer, G., G.F. Lutze, T.J. Müller, O. Pfannkuche, W. Schenke, G. Siedler, W. Zenk
Kurzbericht über die METEOR-Expedition No. 6, Hamburg - Hamburg, 28.10.1987 - 19.5.1988.
29 pages, Bremen, 1988. (out of print)
Fischer, G.
Stabile Kohlenstoff-Isotope in partikulärer organischer Substanz aus dem Südpolarmeer
(Atlantischer Sektor). 161 pages, Bremen, 1989.
Berger, W.H. and G. Wefer
Partikelfluß und Kohlenstoffkreislauf im Ozean.
Bericht und Kurzfassungen über den Workshop vom 3.-4. Juli 1989 in Bremen.
57 pages, Bremen, 1989.
Wefer, G. and cruise participants
Bericht über die METEOR - Fahrt M 9/4, Dakar - Santa Cruz, 19.2. - 16.3.1989.
103 pages, Bremen, 1989.
Kölling, M.
Modellierung geochemischer Prozesse im Sickerwasser und Grundwasser.
135 pages, Bremen, 1990.
Heinze, P.-M.
Das Auftriebsgeschehen vor Peru im Spätquartär. 204 pages, Bremen, 1990. (out of print)
Willems, H., G. Wefer, M. Rinski, B. Donner, H.-J. Bellmann, L. Eißmann, A. Müller,
B.W. Flemming, H.-C. Höfle, J. Merkt, H. Streif, G. Hertweck, H. Kuntze, J. Schwaar,
W. Schäfer, M.-G. Schulz, F. Grube, B. Menke
Beiträge zur Geologie und Paläontologie Norddeutschlands: Exkursionsführer.
202 pages, Bremen, 1990.
Wefer, G. and cruise participants
Bericht über die METEOR-Fahrt M 12/1, Kapstadt - Funchal, 13.3.1990 - 14.4.1990.
66 pages, Bremen, 1990.
Dahmke, A., H.D. Schulz, A. Kölling, F. Kracht, A. Lücke
Schwermetallspuren und geochemische Gleichgewichte zwischen Porenlösung und Sediment
im Wesermündungsgebiet. BMFT-Projekt MFU 0562, Abschlußbericht. 121 pages, Bremen, 1991.
Rostek, F.
Physikalische Strukturen von Tiefseesedimenten des Südatlantiks und ihre Erfassung in
Echolotregistrierungen. 209 pages, Bremen, 1991.
Baumann, M.
Die Ablagerung von Tschernobyl-Radiocäsium in der Norwegischen See und in der Nordsee.
133 pages, Bremen, 1991. (out of print)
Kölling, A.
Frühdiagenetische Prozesse und Stoff-Flüsse in marinen und ästuarinen Sedimenten.
140 pages, Bremen, 1991.
SFB 261 (ed.)
1. Kolloquium des Sonderforschungsbereichs 261 der Universität Bremen (14.Juni 1991):
Der Südatlantik im Spätquartär: Rekonstruktion von Stoffhaushalt und Stromsystemen.
Kurzfassungen der Vorträge und Poster. 66 pages, Bremen, 1991.
Pätzold, J. and cruise participants
Bericht und erste Ergebnisse über die METEOR-Fahrt M 15/2, Rio de Janeiro - Vitoria,
18.1. - 7.2.1991. 46 pages, Bremen, 1993.
Wefer, G. and cruise participants
Bericht und erste Ergebnisse über die METEOR-Fahrt M 16/1, Pointe Noire - Recife,
27.3. - 25.4.1991. 120 pages, Bremen, 1991.
Schulz, H.D. and cruise participants
Bericht und erste Ergebnisse über die METEOR-Fahrt M 16/2, Recife - Belem, 28.4. - 20.5.1991.
149 pages, Bremen, 1991.
No. 20
No. 21
No. 22
No. 23
No. 24
No. 25
No. 26
No. 27
No. 28
No. 29
No. 30
No. 31
No. 32
No. 33
No. 34
No. 35
No. 36
No. 37
No. 38
No. 39
No. 40
Berner, H.
Mechanismen der Sedimentbildung in der Fram-Straße, im Arktischen Ozean und in der
Norwegischen See. 167 pages, Bremen, 1991.
Schneider, R.
Spätquartäre Produktivitätsänderungen im östlichen Angola-Becken: Reaktion auf Variationen
im Passat-Monsun-Windsystem und in der Advektion des Benguela-Küstenstroms.
198 pages, Bremen, 1991. (out of print)
Hebbeln, D.
Spätquartäre Stratigraphie und Paläozeanographie in der Fram-Straße. 174 pages, Bremen, 1991.
Lücke, A.
Umsetzungsprozesse organischer Substanz während der Frühdiagenese in ästuarinen Sedimenten.
137 pages, Bremen, 1991.
Wefer, G. and cruise participants
Bericht und erste Ergebnisse der METEOR-Fahrt M 20/1, Bremen - Abidjan, 18.11.- 22.12.1991.
74 pages, Bremen, 1992.
Schulz, H.D. and cruise participants
Bericht und erste Ergebnisse der METEOR-Fahrt M 20/2, Abidjan - Dakar, 27.12.1991 - 3.2.1992.
173 pages, Bremen, 1992.
Gingele, F.
Zur klimaabhängigen Bildung biogener und terrigener Sedimente und ihrer Veränderung durch die
Frühdiagenese im zentralen und östlichen Südatlantik. 202 pages, Bremen, 1992.
Bickert, T.
Rekonstruktion der spätquartären Bodenwasserzirkulation im östlichen Südatlantik über stabile
Isotope benthischer Foraminiferen. 205 pages, Bremen, 1992. (out of print)
Schmidt, H.
Der Benguela-Strom im Bereich des Walfisch-Rückens im Spätquartär. 172 pages, Bremen, 1992.
Meinecke, G.
Spätquartäre Oberflächenwassertemperaturen im östlichen äquatorialen Atlantik.
181 pages, Bremen, 1992.
Bathmann, U., U. Bleil, A. Dahmke, P. Müller, A. Nehrkorn, E.-M. Nöthig, M. Olesch,
J. Pätzold, H.D. Schulz, V. Smetacek, V. Spieß, G. Wefer, H. Willems
Bericht des Graduierten Kollegs. Stoff-Flüsse in marinen Geosystemen.
Berichtszeitraum Oktober 1990 - Dezember 1992. 396 pages, Bremen, 1992.
Damm, E.
Frühdiagenetische Verteilung von Schwermetallen in Schlicksedimenten der westlichen Ostsee.
115 pages, Bremen, 1992.
Antia, E.E.
Sedimentology, Morphodynamics and Facies Association of a mesotidal Barrier Island
Shoreface (Spiekeroog, Southern North Sea). 370 pages, Bremen, 1993.
Duinker, J. and G. Wefer (ed.)
Bericht über den 1. JGOFS-Workshop. 1./2. Dezember 1992 in Bremen. 83 pages, Bremen, 1993.
Kasten, S.
Die Verteilung von Schwermetallen in den Sedimenten eines stadtbremischen Hafenbeckens.
103 pages, Bremen, 1993.
Spieß, V.
Digitale Sedimentographie. Neue Wege zu einer hochauflösenden Akustostratigraphie.
199 pages, Bremen, 1993.
Schinzel, U.
Laborversuche zu frühdiagenetischen Reaktionen von Eisen (III) - Oxidhydraten in
marinen Sedimenten.189 pages, Bremen, 1993.
Sieger, R.
CoTAM - ein Modell zur Modellierung des Schwermetalltransports in Grundwasserleitern.
56 pages, Bremen, 1993. (out of print)
Willems, H. (ed.)
Geoscientific Investigations in the Tethyan Himalayas. 183 pages, Bremen, 1993.
Hamer, K.
Entwicklung von Laborversuchen als Grundlage für die Modellierung des Transportverhaltens
von Arsenat, Blei, Cadmium und Kupfer in wassergesättigten Säulen. 147 pages, Bremen, 1993.
Sieger, R.
Modellierung des Stofftransports in porösen Medien unter Ankopplung kinetisch gesteuerter
Sorptions- und Redoxprozesse sowie thermischer Gleichgewichte. 158 pages, Bremen, 1993.
No. 41
No. 42
No. 43
No. 44
No. 45
No. 46
No. 47
No. 48
No. 49
No. 50
No. 51
No. 52
No. 53
No. 54
No. 55
No. 56
No. 57
No. 58
No. 59
No. 60
Thießen, W.
Magnetische Eigenschaften von Sedimenten des östlichen Südatlantiks und ihre
paläozeanographische Relevanz. 170 pages, Bremen, 1993.
Spieß, V. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR-Cruise M 23/1, Kapstadt - Rio de Janeiro, 4.-25.2.1993.
139 pages, Bremen, 1994.
Bleil, U. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR-Cruise M 23/2, Rio de Janeiro - Recife, 27.2.-19.3.1993
133 pages, Bremen, 1994.
Wefer, G. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR-Cruise M 23/3, Recife - Las Palmas, 21.3. - 12.4.1993
71 pages, Bremen, 1994.
Giese, M. and G. Wefer (ed.)
Bericht über den 2. JGOFS-Workshop. 18../19. November 1993 in Bremen.
93 pages, Bremen, 1994.
Balzer, W. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR-Cruise M 22/1, Hamburg - Recife, 22.9. - 21.10.1992.
24 pages, Bremen, 1994.
Stax, R.
Zyklische Sedimentation von organischem Kohlenstoff in der Japan See: Anzeiger für
Änderungen von Paläoozeanographie und Paläoklima im Spätkänozoikum.
150 pages, Bremen, 1994.
Skowronek, F.
Frühdiagenetische Stoff-Flüsse gelöster Schwermetalle an der Oberfläche von Sedimenten
des Weser Ästuares. 107 pages, Bremen, 1994.
Dersch-Hansmann, M.
Zur Klimaentwicklung in Ostasien während der letzten 5 Millionen Jahre:
Terrigener Sedimenteintrag in die Japan See (ODP Ausfahrt 128). 149 pages, Bremen, 1994.
Zabel, M.
Frühdiagenetische Stoff-Flüsse in Oberflächen-Sedimenten des äquatorialen und
östlichen Südatlantik. 129 pages, Bremen, 1994.
Bleil, U. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of SONNE-Cruise SO 86, Buenos Aires - Capetown, 22.4. - 31.5.93
116 pages, Bremen, 1994.
Symposium: The South Atlantic: Present and Past Circulation.
Bremen, Germany, 15 - 19 August 1994. Abstracts. 167 pages, Bremen, 1994.
Kretzmann, U.B.
57
Fe-Mössbauer-Spektroskopie an Sedimenten - Möglichkeiten und Grenzen.
183 pages, Bremen, 1994.
Bachmann, M.
Die Karbonatrampe von Organyà im oberen Oberapt und unteren Unteralb (NE-Spanien,
Prov. Lerida): Fazies, Zyklo- und Sequenzstratigraphie. 147 pages, Bremen, 1994. (out of print)
Kemle-von Mücke, S.
Oberflächenwasserstruktur und -zirkulation des Südostatlantiks im Spätquartär.
151 pages, Bremen, 1994.
Petermann, H.
Magnetotaktische Bakterien und ihre Magnetosome in Oberflächensedimenten des Südatlantiks.
134 pages, Bremen, 1994.
Mulitza, S.
Spätquartäre Variationen der oberflächennahen Hydrographie im westlichen äquatorialen Atlantik.
97 pages, Bremen, 1994.
Segl, M. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR-Cruise M 29/1, Buenos-Aires - Montevideo,
17.6. - 13.7.1994
94 pages, Bremen, 1994.
Bleil, U. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR-Cruise M 29/2, Montevideo - Rio de Janiero
15.7. - 8.8.1994. 153 pages, Bremen, 1994.
Henrich, R. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR-Cruise M 29/3, Rio de Janeiro - Las Palmas
11.8. - 5.9.1994. Bremen, 1994. (out of print)
No. 61
No. 62
No. 63
No. 64
No. 65
No. 66
No. 67
No. 68
No. 69
No. 70
No. 71
No. 72
No. 73
No. 74
No. 75
No. 76
No. 77
No. 78
No. 79
Sagemann, J.
Saisonale Variationen von Porenwasserprofilen, Nährstoff-Flüssen und Reaktionen
in intertidalen Sedimenten des Weser-Ästuars. 110 pages, Bremen, 1994. (out of print)
Giese, M. and G. Wefer
Bericht über den 3. JGOFS-Workshop. 5./6. Dezember 1994 in Bremen.
84 pages, Bremen, 1995.
Mann, U.
Genese kretazischer Schwarzschiefer in Kolumbien: Globale vs. regionale/lokale Prozesse.
153 pages, Bremen, 1995. (out of print)
Willems, H., Wan X., Yin J., Dongdui L., Liu G., S. Dürr, K.-U. Gräfe
The Mesozoic development of the N-Indian passive margin and of the Xigaze Forearc Basin in
southern Tibet, China. – Excursion Guide to IGCP 362 Working-Group Meeting
"Integrated Stratigraphy". 113 pages, Bremen, 1995. (out of print)
Hünken, U.
Liefergebiets - Charakterisierung proterozoischer Goldseifen in Ghana anhand von
Fluideinschluß - Untersuchungen. 270 pages, Bremen, 1995.
Nyandwi, N.
The Nature of the Sediment Distribution Patterns in ther Spiekeroog Backbarrier Area,
the East Frisian Islands. 162 pages, Bremen, 1995.
Isenbeck-Schröter, M.
Transportverhalten von Schwermetallkationen und Oxoanionen in wassergesättigten Sanden.
- Laborversuche in Säulen und ihre Modellierung -. 182 pages, Bremen, 1995.
Hebbeln, D. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of SONNE-Cruise SO 102, Valparaiso - Valparaiso, 95.
134 pages, Bremen, 1995.
Willems, H. (Sprecher), U.Bathmann, U. Bleil, T. v. Dobeneck, K. Herterich, B.B. Jorgensen,
E.-M. Nöthig, M. Olesch, J. Pätzold, H.D. Schulz, V. Smetacek, V. Speiß. G. Wefer
Bericht des Graduierten-Kollegs Stoff-Flüsse in marine Geosystemen.
Berichtszeitraum Januar 1993 - Dezember 1995.
45 & 468 pages, Bremen, 1995.
Giese, M. and G. Wefer
Bericht über den 4. JGOFS-Workshop. 20./21. November 1995 in Bremen. 60 pages, Bremen, 1996.
(out of print)
Meggers, H.
Pliozän-quartäre Karbonatsedimentation und Paläozeanographie des Nordatlantiks und
des Europäischen Nordmeeres - Hinweise aus planktischen Foraminiferengemeinschaften.
143 pages, Bremen, 1996. (out of print)
Teske, A.
Phylogenetische und ökologische Untersuchungen an Bakterien des oxidativen und reduktiven
marinen Schwefelkreislaufs mittels ribosomaler RNA. 220 pages, Bremen, 1996. (out of print)
Andersen, N.
Biogeochemische Charakterisierung von Sinkstoffen und Sedimenten aus ostatlantischen
Produktions-Systemen mit Hilfe von Biomarkern. 215 pages, Bremen, 1996.
Treppke, U.
Saisonalität im Diatomeen- und Silikoflagellatenfluß im östlichen tropischen und subtropischen
Atlantik. 200 pages, Bremen, 1996.
Schüring, J.
Die Verwendung von Steinkohlebergematerialien im Deponiebau im Hinblick auf die
Pyritverwitterung und die Eignung als geochemische Barriere. 110 pages, Bremen, 1996.
Pätzold, J. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of VICTOR HENSEN cruise JOPS II, Leg 6,
Fortaleza - Recife, 10.3. - 26.3. 1995 and Leg 8, Vítoria - Vítoria, 10.4. - 23.4.1995.
87 pages, Bremen, 1996.
Bleil, U. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR-Cruise M 34/1, Cape Town - Walvis Bay, 3.-26.1.1996.
129 pages, Bremen, 1996.
Schulz, H.D. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR-Cruise M 34/2, Walvis Bay - Walvis Bay, 29.1.-18.2.96
133 pages, Bremen, 1996.
Wefer, G. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR-Cruise M 34/3, Walvis Bay - Recife, 21.2.-17.3.1996.
168 pages, Bremen, 1996.
No. 80
No. 81
No. 82
No. 83
No. 84
No. 85
No. 86
No. 87
No. 88
No. 89
No. 90
No. 91
No. 92
No. 93
No. 94
No. 95
No. 96
No. 97
No. 98
No. 99
Fischer, G. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR-Cruise M 34/4, Recife - Bridgetown, 19.3.-15.4.1996.
105 pages, Bremen, 1996.
Kulbrok, F.
Biostratigraphie, Fazies und Sequenzstratigraphie einer Karbonatrampe in den Schichten der
Oberkreide und des Alttertiärs Nordost-Ägyptens (Eastern Desert, N’Golf von Suez, Sinai).
153 pages, Bremen, 1996.
Kasten, S.
Early Diagenetic Metal Enrichments in Marine Sediments as Documents of Nonsteady-State
Depositional Conditions. Bremen, 1996.
Holmes, M.E.
Reconstruction of Surface Ocean Nitrate Utilization in the Southeast Atlantic Ocean Based
on Stable Nitrogen Isotopes. 113 pages, Bremen, 1996.
Rühlemann, C.
Akkumulation von Carbonat und organischem Kohlenstoff im tropischen Atlantik:
Spätquartäre Produktivitäts-Variationen und ihre Steuerungsmechanismen.
139 pages, Bremen, 1996.
Ratmeyer, V.
Untersuchungen zum Eintrag und Transport lithogener und organischer partikulärer Substanz
im östlichen subtropischen Nordatlantik. 154 pages, Bremen, 1996.
Cepek, M.
Zeitliche und räumliche Variationen von Coccolithophoriden-Gemeinschaften im subtropischen
Ost-Atlantik: Untersuchungen an Plankton, Sinkstoffen und Sedimenten.
156 pages, Bremen, 1996.
Otto, S.
Die Bedeutung von gelöstem organischen Kohlenstoff (DOC) für den Kohlenstofffluß im Ozean.
150 pages, Bremen, 1996.
Hensen, C.
Frühdiagenetische Prozesse und Quantifizierung benthischer Stoff-Flüsse in Oberflächensedimenten
des Südatlantiks.
132 pages, Bremen, 1996.
Giese, M. and G. Wefer
Bericht über den 5. JGOFS-Workshop. 27./28. November 1996 in Bremen. 73 pages, Bremen, 1997.
Wefer, G. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR-Cruise M 37/1, Lisbon - Las Palmas, 4.-23.12.1996.
79 pages, Bremen, 1997.
Isenbeck-Schröter, M., E. Bedbur, M. Kofod, B. König, T. Schramm & G. Mattheß
Occurrence of Pesticide Residues in Water - Assessment of the Current Situation in Selected
EU Countries. 65 pages, Bremen 1997.
Kühn, M.
Geochemische Folgereaktionen bei der hydrogeothermalen Energiegewinnung.
129 pages, Bremen 1997.
Determann, S. & K. Herterich
JGOFS-A6 “Daten und Modelle”: Sammlung JGOFS-relevanter Modelle in Deutschland.
26 pages, Bremen, 1997.
Fischer, G. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR-Cruise M 38/1, Las Palmas - Recife, 25.1.-1.3.1997,
with Appendix: Core Descriptions from METEOR Cruise M 37/1. Bremen, 1997.
Bleil, U. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR-Cruise M 38/2, Recife - Las Palmas, 4.3.-14.4.1997.
126 pages, Bremen, 1997.
Neuer, S. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of VICTOR HENSEN-Cruise 96/1. Bremen, 1997.
Villinger, H. and cruise participants
Fahrtbericht SO 111, 20.8. - 16.9.1996. 115 pages, Bremen, 1997.
Lüning, S.
Late Cretaceous - Early Tertiary sequence stratigraphy, paleoecology and geodynamics
of Eastern Sinai, Egypt. 218 pages, Bremen, 1997.
Haese, R.R.
Beschreibung und Quantifizierung frühdiagenetischer Reaktionen des Eisens in Sedimenten
des Südatlantiks. 118 pages, Bremen, 1997.
No. 100
No. 101
No. 102
No. 103
No. 104
No. 105
No. 106
No. 107
No. 108
No. 109
No. 110
No. 111
No. 112
No. 113
No. 114
No. 115
No. 116
No. 117
No. 118
No. 119
Lührte, R. von
Verwertung von Bremer Baggergut als Material zur Oberflächenabdichtung von Deponien Geochemisches Langzeitverhalten und Schwermetall-Mobilität (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn). Bremen, 1997.
Ebert, M.
Der Einfluß des Redoxmilieus auf die Mobilität von Chrom im durchströmten Aquifer.
135 pages, Bremen, 1997.
Krögel, F.
Einfluß von Viskosität und Dichte des Seewassers auf Transport und Ablagerung von
Wattsedimenten (Langeooger Rückseitenwatt, südliche Nordsee).
168 pages, Bremen, 1997.
Kerntopf, B.
Dinoflagellate Distribution Patterns and Preservation in the Equatorial Atlantic and
Offshore North-West Africa. 137 pages, Bremen, 1997.
Breitzke, M.
Elastische Wellenausbreitung in marinen Sedimenten - Neue Entwicklungen der Ultraschall
Sedimentphysik und Sedimentechographie. 298 pages, Bremen, 1997.
Marchant, M.
Rezente und spätquartäre Sedimentation planktischer Foraminiferen im Peru-Chile Strom.
115 pages, Bremen, 1997.
Habicht, K.S.
Sulfur isotope fractionation in marine sediments and bacterial cultures.
125 pages, Bremen, 1997.
Hamer, K., R.v. Lührte, G. Becker, T. Felis, S. Keffel, B. Strotmann, C. Waschkowitz,
M. Kölling, M. Isenbeck-Schröter, H.D. Schulz
Endbericht zum Forschungsvorhaben 060 des Landes Bremen: Baggergut der Hafengruppe
Bremen-Stadt: Modelluntersuchungen zur Schwermetallmobilität und Möglichkeiten der
Verwertung von Hafenschlick aus Bremischen Häfen. 98 pages, Bremen, 1997.
Greeff, O.W.
Entwicklung und Erprobung eines benthischen Landersystemes zur in situ-Bestimmung von
Sulfatreduktionsraten mariner Sedimente. 121 pages, Bremen, 1997.
Pätzold, M. und G. Wefer
Bericht über den 6. JGOFS-Workshop am 4./5.12.1997 in Bremen. Im Anhang:
Publikationen zum deutschen Beitrag zur Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), Stand 1/1998.
122 pages, Bremen, 1998.
Landenberger, H.
CoTReM, ein Multi-Komponenten Transport- und Reaktions-Modell. 142 pages, Bremen, 1998.
Villinger, H. und Fahrtteilnehmer
Fahrtbericht SO 124, 4.10. - 16.10.199. 90 pages, Bremen, 1997.
Gietl, R.
Biostratigraphie und Sedimentationsmuster einer nordostägyptischen Karbonatrampe unter
Berücksichtigung der Alveolinen-Faunen. 142 pages, Bremen, 1998.
Ziebis, W.
The Impact of the Thalassinidean Shrimp Callianassa truncata on the Geochemistry of permeable,
coastal Sediments. 158 pages, Bremen 1998.
Schulz, H.D. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR-Cruise M 41/1, Málaga - Libreville, 13.2.-15.3.1998.
Bremen, 1998.
Völker, D.J.
Untersuchungen an strömungsbeeinflußten Sedimentationsmustern im Südozean. Interpretation
sedimentechographischer Daten und numerische Modellierung. 152 pages, Bremen, 1998.
Schlünz, B.
Riverine Organic Carbon Input into the Ocean in Relation to Late Quaternary Climate Change.
136 pages, Bremen, 1998.
Kuhnert, H.
Aufzeichnug des Klimas vor Westaustralien in stabilen Isotopen in Korallenskeletten.
109 pages, Bremen, 1998.
Kirst, G.
Rekonstruktion von Oberflächenwassertemperaturen im östlichen Südatlantik anhand von
Alkenonen. 130 pages, Bremen, 1998.
Dürkoop, A.
Der Brasil-Strom im Spätquartär: Rekonstruktion der oberflächennahen Hydrographie
während der letzten 400 000 Jahre. 121 pages, Bremen, 1998.
No. 120
No. 121
No. 122
No. 123
No. 124
No. 125
No. 126
No. 127
No. 128
No. 129
No. 130
No. 131
No. 132
No. 133
No. 134
No. 135
No. 136
No. 137
No. 138
No. 139
Lamy, F.
Spätquartäre Variationen des terrigenen Sedimenteintrags entlang des chilenischen Kontinentalhangs als Abbild von Klimavariabilität im Milanković- und Sub-Milanković-Zeitbereich.
141 pages, Bremen, 1998.
Neuer, S. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of POSEIDON-Cruise Pos 237/2, Vigo – Las Palmas,
18.3.-31.3.1998. 39 pages, Bremen, 1998
Romero, O.E.
Marine planktonic diatoms from the tropical and equatorial Atlantic: temporal flux patterns and the
sediment record. 205 pages, Bremen, 1998.
Spiess, V. und Fahrtteilnehmer
Report and preliminary results of RV SONNE Cruise 125, Cochin – Chittagong,
17.10.-17.11.1997. 128 pages, Bremen, 1998.
Arz, H.W.
Dokumentation von kurzfristigen Klimaschwankungen des Spätquartärs in Sedimenten des
westlichen äquatorialen Atlantiks. 96 pages, Bremen, 1998.
Wolff, T.
Mixed layer characteristics in the equatorial Atlantic during the late Quaternary as deduced from
planktonic foraminifera. 132 pages, Bremen, 1998.
Dittert, N.
Late Quaternary Planktic Foraminifera Assemblages in the South Atlantic Ocean:
Quantitative Determination and Preservational Aspects. 165 pages, Bremen, 1998.
Höll, C.
Kalkige und organisch-wandige Dinoflagellaten-Zysten in Spätquartären Sedimenten des
tropischen Atlantiks und ihre palökologische Auswertbarkeit. 121 pages, Bremen, 1998.
Hencke, J.
Redoxreaktionen im Grundwasser: Etablierung und Verlagerung von Reaktionsfronten und ihre
Bedeutung für die Spurenelement-Mobilität. 122 pages, Bremen 1998.
Pätzold, J. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR-Cruise M 41/3, Vítoria, Brasil – Salvador de Bahia,
Brasil, 18.4. - 15.5.1998. Bremen, 1999.
Fischer, G. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR-Cruise M 41/4, Salvador de Bahia, Brasil –
Las Palmas, Spain, 18.5. – 13.6.1998. Bremen, 1999.
Schlünz, B. und G. Wefer
Bericht über den 7. JGOFS-Workshop am 3. und 4.12.1998 in Bremen. Im Anhang:
Publikationen zum deutschen Beitrag zur Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), Stand 1/ 1999.
100 pages, Bremen, 1999.
Wefer, G. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR-Cruise M 42/4, Las Palmas - Las Palmas - Viena do Castelo;
26.09.1998 - 26.10.1998. 104 pages, Bremen, 1999.
Felis, T.
Climate and ocean variability reconstructed from stable isotope records of modern subtropical corals
(Northern Red Sea). 111 pages, Bremen, 1999.
Draschba , S.
North Atlantic climate variability recorded in reef corals from Bermuda. 108 pages, Bremen, 1999.
Schmieder, F.
Magnetic Cyclostratigraphy of South Atlantic Sediments. 82 pages, Bremen, 1999.
Rieß, W.
In situ measurements of respiration and mineralisation processes – Interaction between fauna and
geochemical fluxes at active interfaces. 68 pages, Bremen, 1999.
Devey, C.W. and cruise participants
Report and shipboard results from METEOR-cruise M 41/2, Libreville – Vitoria, 18.3. – 15.4.98.
59 pages, Bremen, 1999.
Wenzhöfer, F.
Biogeochemical processes at the sediment water interface and quantification of metabolically driven calcite
dissolution in deep sea sediments. 103 pages, Bremen, 1999.
Klump, J.
Biogenic barite as a proxy of paleoproductivity variations in the Southern Peru-Chile Current.
107 pages, Bremen, 1999.
No. 140
No. 141
No. 142
No. 143
No. 144
No. 145
No. 146
No. 147
No. 148
No. 149
No. 150
No. 151
No. 152
No. 153
No. 154
No. 155
No. 156
No. 157
No. 158
No. 159
No. 160
Huber, R.
Carbonate sedimentation in the northern Northatlantic since the late pliocene. 103 pages, Bremen, 1999.
Schulz, H.
Nitrate-storing sulfur bacteria in sediments of coastal upwelling. 94 pages, Bremen, 1999.
Mai, S.
Die Sedimentverteilung im Wattenmeer: ein Simulationsmodell. 114 pages, Bremen, 1999.
Neuer, S. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of Poseidon Cruise 248, Las Palmas - Las Palmas, 15.2.-26.2.1999.
45 pages, Bremen, 1999.
Weber, A.
Schwefelkreislauf in marinen Sedimenten und Messung von in situ Sulfatreduktionsraten.
122 pages, Bremen, 1999.
Hadeler, A.
Sorptionsreaktionen im Grundwasser: Unterschiedliche Aspekte bei der Modellierung des
Transportverhaltens von Zink. 122 pages, 1999.
Dierßen, H.
Zum Kreislauf ausgewählter Spurenmetalle im Südatlantik: Vertikaltransport und Wechselwirkung
zwischen Partikeln und Lösung. 167 pages, Bremen, 1999.
Zühlsdorff, L.
High resolution multi-frequency seismic surveys at the Eastern Juan de Fuca Ridge Flank and the
Cascadia Margin – Evidence for thermally and tectonically driven fluid upflow in marine
sediments. 118 pages, Bremen 1999.
Kinkel, H.
Living and late Quaternary Coccolithophores in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean: response of distribution
and productivity patterns to changing surface water circulation. 183 pages, Bremen, 2000.
Pätzold, J. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR Cruise M 44/3, Aqaba (Jordan) - Safaga (Egypt) – Dubá
(Saudi Arabia) – Suez (Egypt) - Haifa (Israel), 12.3.-26.3.-2.4.-4.4.1999. 135 pages, Bremen, 2000.
Schlünz, B. and G. Wefer
Bericht über den 8. JGOFS-Workshop am 2. und 3.12.1999 in Bremen. Im Anhang:
Publikationen zum deutschen Beitrag zur Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), Stand 1/ 2000.
95 pages, Bremen, 2000.
Schnack, K.
Biostratigraphie und fazielle Entwicklung in der Oberkreide und im Alttertiär im Bereich der
Kharga Schwelle, Westliche Wüste, SW-Ägypten. 142 pages, Bremen, 2000.
Karwath, B.
Ecological studies on living and fossil calcareous dinoflagellates of the equatorial and tropical Atlantic
Ocean. 175 pages, Bremen, 2000.
Moustafa, Y.
Paleoclimatic reconstructions of the Northern Red Sea during the Holocene inferred from stable isotope
records of modern and fossil corals and molluscs. 102 pages, Bremen, 2000.
Villinger, H. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of SONNE-cruise 145-1 Balboa – Talcahuana, 21.12.1999 – 28.01.2000.
147 pages, Bremen, 2000.
Rusch, A.
Dynamik der Feinfraktion im Oberflächenhorizont permeabler Schelfsedimente. 102 pages, Bremen, 2000.
Moos, C.
Reconstruction of upwelling intensity and paleo-nutrient gradients in the northwest Arabian Sea derived
from stable carbon and oxygen isotopes of planktic foraminifera. 103 pages, Bremen, 2000.
Xu, W.
Mass physical sediment properties and trends in a Wadden Sea tidal basin. 127 pages, Bremen, 2000.
Meinecke, G. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR Cruise M 45/1, Malaga (Spain) - Lissabon (Portugal),
19.05. - 08.06.1999. 39 pages, Bremen, 2000.
Vink, A.
Reconstruction of recent and late Quaternary surface water masses of the western subtropical
Atlantic Ocean based on calcareous and organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts. 160 pages, Bremen, 2000.
Willems, H. (Sprecher), U. Bleil, R. Henrich, K. Herterich, B.B. Jørgensen, H.-J. Kuß,
M. Olesch, H.D. Schulz,V. Spieß, G. Wefer
Abschlußbericht des Graduierten-Kollegs Stoff-Flüsse in marine Geosystemen.
Zusammenfassung und Berichtszeitraum Januar 1996 - Dezember 2000. 340 pages, Bremen, 2000.
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No. 176
No. 177
No. 178
No. 179
No. 180
Sprengel, C.
Untersuchungen zur Sedimentation und Ökologie von Coccolithophoriden im Bereich der Kanarischen
Inseln: Saisonale Flussmuster und Karbonatexport. 165 pages, Bremen, 2000.
Donner, B. and G. Wefer
Bericht über den JGOFS-Workshop am 18.-21.9.2000 in Bremen:
Biogeochemical Cycles: German Contributions to the International Joint Global Ocean Flux Study.
87 pages, Bremen, 2000.
Neuer, S. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of Meteor Cruise M 45/5, Bremen – Las Palmas, October 1 – November 3,
1999. 93 pages, Bremen, 2000.
Devey, C. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of Sonne Cruise SO 145/2, Talcahuano (Chile) - Arica (Chile),
February 4 – February 29, 2000. 63 pages, Bremen, 2000.
Freudenthal, T.
Reconstruction of productivity gradients in the Canary Islands region off Morocco by means of sinking
particles and sediments. 147 pages, Bremen, 2000.
Adler, M.
Modeling of one-dimensional transport in porous media with respect to simultaneous geochemical reactions
in CoTReM. 147 pages, Bremen, 2000.
Santamarina Cuneo, P.
Fluxes of suspended particulate matter through a tidal inlet of the East Frisian Wadden Sea
(southern North Sea). 91 pages, Bremen, 2000.
Benthien, A.
Effects of CO2 and nutrient concentration on the stable carbon isotope composition of C37:2 alkenones in
sediments of the South Atlantic Ocean. 104 pages, Bremen, 2001.
Lavik, G.
Nitrogen isotopes of sinking matter and sediments in the South Atlantic. 140 pages, Bremen, 2001.
Budziak, D.
Late Quaternary monsoonal climate and related variations in paleoproductivity and alkenone-derived
sea-surface temperatures in the western Arabian Sea. 114 pages, Bremen, 2001.
Gerhardt, S.
Late Quaternary water mass variability derived from the pteropod preservation state in sediments of the
western South Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. 109 pages, Bremen, 2001.
Bleil, U. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of Meteor Cruise M 46/3, Montevideo (Uruguay) – Mar del Plata
(Argentina), January 4 – February 7, 2000. Bremen, 2001.
Wefer, G. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of Meteor Cruise M 46/4, Mar del Plata (Argentina) – Salvador da Bahia
(Brazil), February 10 – March 13, 2000. With partial results of METEOR cruise M 46/2. 136 pages,
Bremen, 2001.
Schulz, H.D. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of Meteor Cruise M 46/2, Recife (Brazil) – Montevideo
(Uruguay), December 2 – December 29, 1999. 107 pages, Bremen, 2001.
Schmidt, A.
Magnetic mineral fluxes in the Quaternary South Atlantic: Implications for the paleoenvironment.
97 pages, Bremen, 2001.
Bruhns, P.
Crystal chemical characterization of heavy metal incorporation in brick burning processes.
93 pages, Bremen, 2001.
Karius, V.
Baggergut der Hafengruppe Bremen-Stadt in der Ziegelherstellung. 131 pages, Bremen, 2001.
Adegbie, A. T.
Reconstruction of paleoenvironmental conditions in Equatorial Atlantic and the Gulf of Guinea Basins for
the last 245,000 years. 113 pages, Bremen, 2001.
Spieß, V. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of R/V Sonne Cruise SO 149, Victoria - Victoria, 16.8. - 16.9.2000.
100 pages, Bremen, 2001.
Kim, J.-H.
Reconstruction of past sea-surface temperatures in the eastern South Atlantic and the eastern South Pacific
across Termination I based on the Alkenone Method. 114 pages, Bremen, 2001.
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No. 200
von Lom-Keil, H.
Sedimentary waves on the Namibian continental margin and in the Argentine Basin – Bottom flow
reconstructions based on high resolution echosounder data. 126 pages, Bremen, 2001.
Hebbeln, D. and cruise participants
PUCK: Report and preliminary results of R/V Sonne Cruise SO 156, Valparaiso (Chile) - Talcahuano
(Chile), March 29 - May 14, 2001. 195 pages, Bremen, 2001.
Wendler, J.
Reconstruction of astronomically-forced cyclic and abrupt paleoecological changes in the Upper
Cretaceous Boreal Realm based on calcareous dinoflagellate cysts. 149 pages, Bremen, 2001.
Volbers, A.
Planktic foraminifera as paleoceanographic indicators: production, preservation, and reconstruction of
upwelling intensity. Implications from late Quaternary South Atlantic sediments. 122 pages, Bremen, 2001.
Bleil, U. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of R/V METEOR Cruise M 49/3, Montevideo (Uruguay) - Salvador
(Brasil), March 9 - April 1, 2001. 99 pages, Bremen, 2001.
Scheibner, C.
Architecture of a carbonate platform-to-basin transition on a structural high (Campanian-early Eocene,
Eastern Desert, Egypt) – classical and modelling approaches combined. 173 pages, Bremen, 2001.
Schneider, S.
Quartäre Schwankungen in Strömungsintensität und Produktivität als Abbild der WassermassenVariabilität im äquatorialen Atlantik (ODP Sites 959 und 663): Ergebnisse aus Siltkorn-Analysen.
134 pages, Bremen, 2001.
Uliana, E.
Late Quaternary biogenic opal sedimentation in diatom assemblages in Kongo Fan sediments. 96 pages,
Bremen, 2002.
Esper, O.
Reconstruction of Recent and Late Quaternary oceanographic conditions in the eastern South Atlantic
Ocean based on calcareous- and organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts. 130 pages, Bremen, 2001.
Wendler, I.
Production and preservation of calcareous dinoflagellate cysts in the modern Arabian Sea. 117 pages,
Bremen, 2002.
Bauer, J.
Late Cenomanian – Santonian carbonate platform evolution of Sinai (Egypt): stratigraphy, facies, and
sequence architecture. 178 pages, Bremen, 2002.
Hildebrand-Habel, T.
Die Entwicklung kalkiger Dinoflagellaten im Südatlantik seit der höheren Oberkreide. 152 pages,
Bremen, 2002.
Hecht, H.
Sauerstoff-Optopoden zur Quantifizierung von Pyritverwitterungsprozessen im Labor- und Langzeit-in-situEinsatz. Entwicklung - Anwendung – Modellierung. 130 pages, Bremen, 2002.
Fischer, G. and cruise participants
Report and Preliminary Results of RV METEOR-Cruise M49/4, Salvador da Bahia – Halifax,
4.4.-5.5.2001. 84 pages, Bremen, 2002.
Gröger, M.
Deep-water circulation in the western equatorial Atlantic: inferences from carbonate preservation studies
and silt grain-size analysis. 95 pages, Bremen, 2002.
Meinecke,G. and cruise participants
Report of RV POSEIDON Cruise POS 271, Las Palmas - Las Palmas, 19.3.-29.3.2001. 19 pages,
Bremen, 2002.
Meggers, H. and cruise participants
Report of RV POSEIDON Cruise POS 272, Las Palmas - Las Palmas, 1.4.-14.4.2001. 19 pages,
Bremen, 2002.
Gräfe, K.-U.
Stratigraphische Korrelation und Steuerungsfaktoren Sedimentärer Zyklen in ausgewählten Borealen und
Tethyalen Becken des Cenoman/Turon (Oberkreide) Europas und Nordwestafrikas. 197 pages,
Bremen, 2002.
Jahn, B.
Mid to Late Pleistocene Variations of Marine Productivity in and Terrigenous Input to the Southeast
Atlantic. 97 pages, Bremen, 2002.
Al-Rousan, S.
Ocean and climate history recorded in stable isotopes of coral and foraminifers from the northern Gulf of
Aqaba. 116 pages, Bremen, 2002.
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No. 221
No. 222
Azouzi, B.
Regionalisierung hydraulischer und hydrogeochemischer Daten mit geostatistischen Methoden.
108 pages, Bremen, 2002.
Spieß, V. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR Cruise M 47/3, Libreville (Gabun) - Walvis Bay (Namibia),
01.06 - 03.07.2000. 70 pages, Bremen 2002.
Spieß, V. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR Cruise M 49/2, Montevideo (Uruguay) - Montevideo,
13.02 - 07.03.2001. 84 pages, Bremen 2002.
Mollenhauer, G.
Organic carbon accumulation in the South Atlantic Ocean: Sedimentary processes and glacial/interglacial
Budgets. 139 pages, Bremen 2002.
Spieß, V. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR Cruise M49/1, Cape Town (South Africa) - Montevideo
(Uruguay), 04.01.2001 - 10.02.2001. 57 pages, Bremen, 2003.
Meier, K.J.S.
Calcareous dinoflagellates from the Mediterranean Sea: taxonomy, ecology and palaeoenvironmental
application. 126 pages, Bremen, 2003.
Rakic, S.
Untersuchungen zur Polymorphie und Kristallchemie von Silikaten der Zusammensetzung Me2Si2O5
(Me:Na, K). 139 pages, Bremen, 2003.
Pfeifer, K.
Auswirkungen frühdiagenetischer Prozesse auf Calcit- und Barytgehalte in marinen Oberflächensedimenten. 110 pages, Bremen, 2003.
Heuer, V.
Spurenelemente in Sedimenten des Südatlantik. Primärer Eintrag und frühdiagenetische Überprägung.
136 pages, Bremen, 2003.
Streng, M.
Phylogenetic Aspects and Taxonomy of Calcareous Dinoflagellates. 157 pages, Bremen 2003.
Boeckel, B.
Present and past coccolith assemblages in the South Atlantic: implications for species ecology, carbonate
contribution and palaeoceanographic applicability. 157 pages, Bremen, 2003.
Precht, E.
Advective interfacial exchange in permeable sediments driven by surface gravity waves and its ecological
consequences. 131 pages, Bremen, 2003.
Frenz, M.
Grain-size composition of Quaternary South Atlantic sediments and its paleoceanographic significance.
123 pages, Bremen, 2003.
Meggers, H. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR Cruise M 53/1, Limassol - Las Palmas – Mindelo,
30.03.2002 - 03.05.2002. 81 pages, Bremen, 2003.
Schulz, H.D. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR Cruise M 58/1, Dakar – Las Palmas, 15.04..2003 - 12.05.2003.
Bremen, 2003.
Schneider, R. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR Cruise M 57/1, Cape Town – Walvis Bay, 20.01. – 08.02.2003.
123 pages, Bremen, 2003.
Kallmeyer, J.
Sulfate reduction in the deep Biosphere. 157 pages, Bremen, 2003.
Røy, H.
Dynamic Structure and Function of the Diffusive Boundary Layer at the Seafloor. 149 pages, Bremen, 2003.
Pätzold, J., C. Hübscher and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR Cruise M 52/2&3, Istanbul – Limassol – Limassol,
04.02. – 27.03.2002. Bremen, 2003.
Zabel, M. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR Cruise M 57/2, Walvis Bay – Walvis Bay, 11.02. – 12.03.2003.
136 pages, Bremen 2003.
Salem, M.
Geophysical investigations of submarine prolongations of alluvial fans on the western side of the Gulf of
Aqaba-Red Sea. 100 pages, Bremen, 2003.
Tilch, E.
Oszillation von Wattflächen und deren fossiles Erhaltungspotential (Spiekerooger Rückseitenwatt, südliche
Nordsee). 137 pages, Bremen, 2003.
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No. 239
No. 240
No. 241
No. 242
No. 243
Frisch, U. and F. Kockel
Der Bremen-Knoten im Strukturnetz Nordwest-Deutschlands. Stratigraphie, Paläogeographie,
Strukturgeologie. 379 pages, Bremen, 2004.
Kolonic, S.
Mechanisms and biogeochemical implications of Cenomanian/Turonian black shale formation in North
Africa: An integrated geochemical, millennial-scale study from the Tarfaya-LaAyoune Basin in SW
Morocco. 174 pages, Bremen, 2004. Report online available only.
Panteleit, B.
Geochemische Prozesse in der Salz- Süßwasser Übergangszone. 106 pages, Bremen, 2004.
Seiter, K.
Regionalisierung und Quantifizierung benthischer Mineralisationsprozesse. 135 pages, Bremen, 2004.
Bleil, U. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR Cruise M 58/2, Las Palmas – Las Palmas (Canary Islands,
Spain), 15.05. – 08.06.2003. 123 pages, Bremen, 2004.
Kopf, A. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of SONNE Cruise SO175, Miami - Bremerhaven, 12.11 - 30.12.2003.
218 pages, Bremen, 2004.
Fabian, M.
Near Surface Tilt and Pore Pressure Changes Induced by Pumping in Multi-Layered Poroelastic
Half-Spaces. 121 pages, Bremen, 2004.
Segl, M. , and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of POSEIDON cruise 304 Galway – Lisbon, 5. – 22. Oct. 2004. 27 pages,
Bremen 2004
Meinecke, G. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of POSEIDON Cruise 296, Las Palmas – Las Palmas, 04.04 - 14.04.2003.
42 pages, Bremen 2005.
Meinecke, G. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of POSEIDON Cruise 310, Las Palmas – Las Palmas, 12.04 - 26.04.2004.
49 pages, Bremen 2005.
Meinecke, G. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR Cruise 58/3, Las Palmas - Ponta Delgada, 11.06 - 24.06.2003.
50 pages, Bremen 2005.
Feseker, T.
Numerical Studies on Groundwater Flow in Coastal Aquifers. 219 pages. Bremen 2004.
Sahling, H. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of R/V POSEIDON Cruise P317/4, Istanbul-Istanbul ,
16 October - 4 November 2004. 92 pages, Bremen 2004.
Meinecke, G. und Fahrtteilnehmer
Report and preliminary results of POSEIDON Cruise 305, Las Palmas (Spain) - Lisbon (Portugal),
October 28th – November 6th, 2004. 43 pages, Bremen 2005.
Ruhland, G. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of POSEIDON Cruise 319, Las Palmas (Spain) - Las Palmas (Spain),
December 6th – December 17th, 2004. 50 pages, Bremen 2005.
Chang, T.S.
Dynamics of fine-grained sediments and stratigraphic evolution of a back-barrier tidal basin of the
German Wadden Sea (southern North Sea). 102 pages, Bremen 2005.
Lager, T.
Predicting the source strength of recycling materials within the scope of a seepage water prognosis by means
of standardized laboratory methods. 141 pages, Bremen 2005.
Meinecke, G.
DOLAN - Operationelle Datenübertragung im Ozean und Laterales Akustisches Netzwerk in der Tiefsee.
Abschlußbericht. 42 pages, Bremen 2005.
Guasti, E.
Early Paleogene environmental turnover in the southern Tethys as recorded by foraminiferal and organicwalled dinoflagellate cysts assemblages. 203 pages, Bremen 2005.
Riedinger, N.
Preservation and diagenetic overprint of geochemical and geophysical signals in ocean margin sediments
related to depositional dynamics. 91 pages, Bremen 2005.
Ruhland, G. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of POSEIDON cruise 320, Las Palmas (Spain) - Las Palmas (Spain),
March 08th - March 18th, 2005. 57 pages, Bremen 2005.
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No. 259
No. 260
No. 261
Inthorn, M.
Lateral particle transport in nepheloid layers – a key factor for organic matter distribution and quality in the
Benguela high-productivity area. 127 pages, Bremen, 2006.
Aspetsberger, F.
Benthic carbon turnover in continental slope and deep sea sediments: importance of organic matter quality at
different time scales. 136 pages, Bremen, 2006.
Hebbeln, D. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of RV SONNE Cruise SO-184, PABESIA, Durban (South Africa) – Cilacap
(Indonesia) – Darwin (Australia), July 08th - September 13th, 2005. 142 pages, Bremen 2006.
Ratmeyer, V. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of RV METEOR Cruise M61/3. Development of Carbonate Mounds
on the Celtic Continental Margin, Northeast Atlantic. Cork (Ireland) – Ponta Delgada (Portugal), 04.06. –
21.06.2004. 64 pages, Bremen 2006.
Wien, K.
Element Stratigraphy and Age Models for Pelagites and Gravity Mass Flow Deposits based on Shipboard
XRF Analysis. 100 pages, Bremen 2006.
Krastel, S. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of RV METEOR Cruise M65/2, Dakar - Las Palmas, 04.07. - 26.07.2005.
185 pages, Bremen 2006.
Heil, G.M.N.
Abrupt Climate Shifts in the Western Tropical to Subtropical Atlantic Region during the Last Glacial.
121 pages, Bremen 2006.
Ruhland, G. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of POSEIDON Cruise 330, Las Palmas – Las Palmas, November 21th –
December 03rd, 2005. 48 pages, Bremen 2006.
Mulitza , S. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of METEOR Cruise M65/1, Dakar – Dakar, 11.06.- 1.07.2005.
149 pages, Bremen 2006.
Kopf, A. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of POSEIDON Cruise P336, Heraklion - Heraklion, 28.04. –
17.05.2006. 127 pages, Bremen, 2006.
Wefer, G. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of R/V METEOR Cruise M65/3, Las Palmas - Las Palmas (Spain),
July 31st - August 10th, 2005. 24 pages, Bremen 2006.
Hanebuth, T.J.J. and cruise participants
Report and first results of the POSEIDON Cruise P342 GALIOMAR, Vigo – Lisboa (Portugal), August 19th
– September 06th, 2006. Distribution Pattern, Residence Times and Export of Sediments on the
Pleistocene/Holocene Galician Shelf (NW Iberian Peninsula). 203 pages, Bremen, 2007.
Ahke, A.
Composition of molecular organic matter pools, pigments and proteins, in Benguela upwelling and Arctic
Sediments. 192 pages, Bremen 2007.
Becker, V.
Seeper - Ein Modell für die Praxis der Sickerwasserprognose. 170 pages, Bremen 2007.
Ruhland, G. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of Poseidon cruise 333, Las Palmas (Spain) – Las Palmas (Spain),
March 1st – March 10th, 2006. 32 pages, Bremen 2007.
Fischer, G., G. Ruhland and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of Poseidon cruise 344, leg 1 and leg 2,
Las Palmas (Spain) – Las Palmas (Spain), Oct. 20th –Nov 2nd & Nov. 4th – Nov 13th, 2006. 46 pages,
Bremen 2007.
Westphal, H. and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of Poseidon cruise 346, MACUMA.
Las Palmas (Spain) – Las Palmas (Spain), 28.12.2006 – 15.1.2007. 49 pages, Bremen 2007.
Bohrmann, G., T. Pape, and cruise participants
Report and preliminary results of R/V METEOR Cruise M72/3, Istanbul – Trabzon – Istanbul,
17 March – 23 April, 2007. Marine gas hydrates of the Eastern Black Sea. 130 pages, Bremen 2007.
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