ROYER Labs - Recording Hacks
Model SF
Ribbon Velocity
Operation Instructions Manual
& Users Guide
Made in USA
Model SF Ribbon Microphone
Table of Contents
page 1
page 2
page 2
page 2
Users Guide: Using the SF-1
page 3
Amplification Considerations
page 4
The Sweet Spot
Finding & Working with the “Sweet Spot”
page 7
Other Types of Microphones
page 8
Proximity Effect & Working Distance
page 8
Microphone Technique
page 9
Stereophonic Microphone Technique
page 10
Care & Maintenance
page 13
A Little Bit of History
page 13
Features & Specifications
page 14
Electrical Specifications
page 15
Mechanical Specifications
page 15
Polar Pattern & Frequency Response
page 15
page 16
Congratulations on your purchase of a Royer Labs model SF-1 ribbon microphone. The
SF-1 is a handcrafted precision instrument capable of delivering superior sound quality
and overall high performance.
This operator’s manual describes the SF-1, its function and method of use. It also
describes the care and maintenance required to ensure proper operation and long service
life. The users guide section of this manual offers practical information that is designed to
maximize the performance capabilities of this microphone.
Royer Labs products are manufactured to the highest industrial standards using only the
finest materials obtainable. Your model SF-1 went though extensive quality control checks
before leaving the factory. Normal care, given to any quality instrument, is all that is
required to assure years of trouble-free service.
Please read the manual thoroughly in order to become familiar with all of the SF-1’s
capabilities. It will assist you in making the most of its superior acoustic properties. This
owner’s manual is a handy reference guide and we suggest you refer to it whenever
questions arise on the use and care of your SF-1 ribbon microphone.
The Royer Labs model SF-1 is an ultra compact bi-directional (figure-eight) velocity type
ribbon microphone designed for professional applications. The figure-eight pick-up
pattern allows the SF-1 to be addressed from either side with equal sensitivity. The inphase signal is achieved when the microphone is addressed from the front, indicated by
the “ROYER” logo.
The SF-1 is very tolerant to shock and vibration, and is unaffected by changes in
temperature or humidity. However, ribbon microphones are sensitive to direct blasts of
air and the SF-1 is no exception to this rule. Discretionary use of a windscreen or popfilter, such as the WS58, PS-100 or equivalent is highly recommended for situations such
as close miking, especially with vocalists or certain types of percussion and wind
It is important to note that Royer ribbon microphones are known to be tough and durable.
While all Royer’s are built to last a lifetime, the thicker ribbon element in our R-121
ribbon mic can take more abuse than the finer, somewhat more delicate ribbon element in
your SF-1. The SF-1 can handle over 130 dB SPL, while the R-121 can handle over 135
dB SPL. Please be aware of this as you use your SF-1. Handled with care, it will be
many years before you need to re-ribbon your microphone (ribbons can last indefinitely if
not abused.)
The Royer Labs model SF-1 is a versatile microphone and is ideally suited for many
critical recording applications. Its smooth frequency response characteristics and ability
to capture detail make it a fine choice for many instruments, as well as for general
broadcast applications. Its gentle low-frequency proximity effect makes it especially
useful for announcers and vocalists. Female vocalists often benefit from the SF-1’s ability
to capture high frequencies without distortion or edginess. Orchestral instruments are
captured in a very natural sounding way, free from microphone-induced “hype.” The SF1 has exceptionally smooth high frequency characteristics. Phase-related distortion and
irregular frequency peaks are conspicuously absent. Theater organs and electric guitar
amplifiers sound big and fat, without unnatural coloration, when reproduced with the SF1. These features make the SF-1 ribbon microphone an ideal choice for strings,
woodwinds, percussion and amplified instruments. Acoustic pianos can be captured
accurately without the comb-filtering effects associated with condenser microphones.
User’s Guide
Using The SF Ribbon Microphone
The SF-1 ribbon microphone is a versatile device capable of accurate sound reproduction.
There are a few important facts about ribbon microphones that are key in understanding
how to use them intelligently.
1. The SF-1 is a side address, bi-directional microphone and the rejection in the “dead”
areas is very strong. Due to this directionality, ribbon microphones should be placed at
1.3 times the distance normally used with omni-directional microphones, or about the
same distance used for cardioid microphones. This method is used to achieve the same
ratio of direct to reflected sound.
2. In the horizontal plane, ribbon microphones do not discriminate against the “highs”
off axis; nor do they boost them on axis. Therefore, several instruments or vocalists can
be placed in front of the microphone without favoring the performer in the center of the
Several performers can be grouped at both the front and back of the microphone, with one
proviso: Since the outputs are out of phase at the front and back of the microphone,
cancellation can result if two tenors are placed at opposite sides at equal distances and
they are singing in unison, so listen to the feed before committing to it.
2. When using a ribbon microphone with loud signal sources, placing the microphone
slightly off axis to the signal source is all that is required for efficient operation.
3. The Royer model SF-1 requires no power supply and is safe to use on consoles with
phantom microphone powering, provided that the cabling is properly wired. It should be
noted that not all ribbon microphones are compatible with phantom-powering systems,
so check the manufacturer’s recommendations before using other ribbon microphones. It
should also be noted that faulty or improperly wired cables could cause problems with
your SF-1.
5. Never attempt to “test” the SF-1 or any ribbon microphone with an ohmmeter. A
blown ribbon could result.
6. Always provide adequate protection for your SF-1, or any ribbon microphone.
7. If the microphone is to remain set-up on a stand when not in use, place a “mic sock”
over it until it is to be used. Do not carry the microphone around without placing a “mic
sock” over it.
Failure to follow this commonsense practice may yield a stretched ribbon and
compromised performance!
Amplification Considerations
The performance of a ribbon microphone is directly affected by the choice of microphone
preamplifier it is paired with. With so many mic preamps on the market, how do you
select one that gives the best possible performance with a ribbon microphone?
Additionally, what kind of performance can we expect from the preamplifiers built into
our mixing desks? While most preamplifiers will handle ribbon microphones well in most
recording situations, some preamps that work perfectly well with condenser or dynamic
mics may prove to be poor performers with ribbons.
To begin with, we must understand the fundamental differences between ribbon
microphones and other popular types, namely condenser and moving coil dynamics. A
ribbon microphone is actually a dynamic microphone that uses a flat, extremely low mass
ribbon element, rather than a coil/diaphragm assembly. For this writing, any mention of
“dynamic” microphones will relate to moving coil dynamics.
All condenser microphones have a built in preamplifier called a head amp and therefore
put out a hefty signal. Because the signal is buffered through the head amp, the output
impedance is rather low and less affected by the input impedance of the microphone
preamp. Most dynamic (moving coil) microphones generate a healthy enough electrical
current to work well with a variety of preamps, and their limited frequency response
characteristics make mic loading less of a concern.
Ribbon microphones generate a highly accurate signal, but the average ribbon mic
generates approximately 20 dB less gain than that of condenser microphones. Remember,
the ribbon transducer does not have the benefit of a condenser mic’s built in “head amp”,
so a ribbon microphone relies solely on the microphone preamp for all its gain!
The so called ideal preamplifier is the proverbial “straight wire with gain”. This may be
considered the technological ideal and does not include “coloration” as a desirable feature.
However, coloration is often desirable and has given rise to the popularity of certain
preamps and even preamp stages in mixing desks. Neve® preamps and the famous
Trident® A Range mixing console are highly praised for their classic sound.
So what should we use with our beloved ribbon microphones? The features that translate
into top performance for a ribbon microphone are the following:
1. Lots of gain! A ribbon microphone works best with preamplifiers that have at least 6070 dB of maximum gain.
2. Low noise is a must! With this much gain being required for efficient operation of a
ribbon microphone, the noise characteristics of the preamp play a pivotal role in overall
performance of the captured acoustic event.
3. Load characteristics: A suitable preamplifier should have input characteristics that
impose the least amount of loading to the ribbon element. In other words, the input
impedance should be high enough that its effect on the performance of the mic is
negligible. A good rule of thumb is to have a preamplifier with input impedance at least
five times the impedance of the microphone. For example: If the mic is rated at 300 Ohms
(as Royer’s are), the preamp should have an input-impedance of at least 1500 Ohms. If
the impedance of the preamp is too low, the microphone will lose low end and body.
4. Transparency: A good preamp should sound natural with no edginess. Tube preamps
sound warm, yet wonderfully transparent. Transformer coupled preamps sound punchy.
When recording with condenser or dynamic microphones engineers often choose mic pre’s
that help “warm up the mic”, but warming the signal up does not need to be a
consideration with ribbon mics because they are by nature warm and realistic sounding.
At this point personal taste should prevail over anything.
Stereo Microphones & Ground Loops
Some preamplifiers are prone to developing ground loops when used in conjunction with
stereo or multi channeled microphones, such as the SF-12. Ground loops can develop in
the preamplifier with any stereo microphone, regardless of the type (i.e. condenser,
dynamic, ribbon). A ground loop manifests itself as unwanted noise, buzz or hum
(usually 120HZ).
The condition is brought on when the left and right transducer elements are plugged into
two inputs of a stereo or multi-channel preamplifier. The pair of three-pin male XLR
connectors of the stereo microphone cable usually shares Pin-1 as ground, so they are
grounded to each other through the cable set. If the grounding scheme within the
preamplifier is poorly designed, or the distances to internal ground are too great, a ground
loop develops. The problem may be more apparent with ribbon microphones because of
the high gain required for proper operation.
You can perform a simple test to check for this condition (preferably done with a pair of
headphones to avoid feedback). Plug one side of the stereo microphone into either
preamplifier input. Listen to the output of the preamp. All should be quiet except for the
mic signal. Now plug the second side into the next preamplifier input. If a noise or buzz
develops, you have a ground loop. The ground loop may be very slight or more
pronounced, depending on the preamp. Battery powered preamps usually do not exhibit
this problem, and neither do well designed, line operated mic pre’s. The simple fix is to
disconnect one of the microphone’s two Pin-1 ground connections. A better method is to
make a small ground lifter out of a male-female XLR barrel adapter. Switchcraft makes a
very nice one and it takes less than five minutes to wire it up. Simply connect Pin-2 to
Pin-2, Pin-3 to Pin-3, and leave Pin-1 disconnected. Correcting the problem at the
preamplifier would be preferable, but is often more difficult and/or expensive.
In conclusion, try to find the best preamp you can afford that has good gain
characteristics and low noise. Coloration is optional.
Equalization and Ribbon Microphones
One of the great strengths of ribbon microphones is how well they take EQ. Even with
substantial amounts of equalization, ribbons retain their natural, “real” quality. For
example, where a lead vocal is being performed on a ribbon microphone, you can actually
boost the upper end frequencies to the point where the ribbon mic emulates the
performance curve of a condenser mic with excellent results. This is not to say that a
ribbon microphone can replace a quality condenser mic, but the EQ friendliness inherent
in ribbon microphones does allow for an enormous amount of flexibility.
The reason that ribbon mics take EQ so well is because of their inherent low self-noise
(less than 15 dB) and unusually smooth response characteristics. Dialing in high amounts
of equalization on condenser or dynamic microphones also means dialing in extra amounts
of the microphones distortion products and self noise; garbage that contributes to an
unnatural, unpleasant sound. Because distortion and self-noise are almost non-existent in
ribbon microphones, high levels of EQ can be used without adding harshness or excessive
Hum Noise & Mic Orientation
All dynamic microphones, including ribbons, utilize powerful magnets in their motor
assemblies and matching transformers, and are, to some degree, susceptible to picking up
stray alternating magnetic fields. Power transformers (such as those found in guitar
amplifiers) and alternating current motors are the most likely sources of radiated noise.
Building wiring and electrical utility transformers are other likely sources. A welldesigned microphone provides shielding to minimize the effects of stray magnetic
radiation. In some cases complete isolation is impossible and the result is usually hum or
buzz. Ribbon microphones can potentially manifest this condition to a greater degree
because of their higher gain requirements. With vintage ribbon microphones that employ
large bulky magnet structures, the problem can be worse.
Royer SF-1 and SF-12 microphones are designed to minimize the effects of unwanted
radiation by integrating the transducer barrel as part of the magnetic return circuit. With
this design, the barrel housing the transducer serves to complete the North-South
magnetic return and neutralizes the effects of outside magnetic radiation. The SF-1 mono
and SF-12 stereo ribbon microphones go one step further by incorporating toroid
impedance matching transformers, which have a natural ability to repel magnetic radiation.
Dynamic and ribbon microphones are passive devices, meaning they incorporate no
external or internal power supplies and have no head amplifier and therefore cannot
produce hum on their own. Unwanted noise (hum) can only come from an external source.
Fortunately, there is a simple procedure that can be used to identify the source of the
noise and eliminate it. Repositioning a dynamic and ribbon microphone is the number-one
way to get rid of unwanted noise. If hum is detected, it means that the microphone is in
the proximity of an alternating magnetic field. While listening (preferably with
headphones) to the mic, move it around. The mic will “find” the noise source quite easily.
If you are miking a guitar amplifier and suspect the amplifier’s power transformer may be
the source of unwanted noise, move the mic around the amp. You will probably find that
the noise is louder as you approach the amplifier’s power supply and quieter when you
move it away. Eliminating the noise can be fairly simple and requires finding the “null”
point of the noise. The “null” point is the position that places the microphone’s magnetic
components away from the lines of radiation. Simply rotating the microphone slightly is
many times all that is required to cancel out the noise. This is similar to the procedure
guitarists use to eliminate noise from single coil guitar pickups. There will be a “magic
position” where the noise disappears completely. Finding the exact position that also
provides acceptable acoustic placement of the mic requires a little practice, but the results
are well worth the time.
The Sweet Spot
Finding and Working with the Sweet Spot
Good engineers know the importance and benefits of finding and working with the “sweet
spot” of a given microphone. The sweet spot will be defined as the optimum placement
(working distance and angular position) of any microphone relative to the sound source.
Each microphone has its own sweet spot whether it is a ribbon, dynamic or condenser
type. The sweet spot will vary with the type of sound source and its volume intensity,
the polar pattern of the microphone and how consistent it is with frequency and the
acoustic environment.
This condition is called the sweet spot because the microphone and the sound source are
in a harmony of sorts; the acoustic information is exciting the microphone in such a
fashion that the resuling reproduction is very desirable, usually without the need for
additional equalization or electronic manipulation.
There are only general rules as to where the sweet spot may be found for any given
microphone, and usually experimentation reveals it. The sweet spot can be extremely
variable since it depends on the quirks of a given microphone and a given room. Once the
sweet spot is discovered, this placement can become a rule of thumb starting point for
future microphone placement with similar sound sources. Remember this: If it sounds
good, it’s probably right. If it doesn’t, move the microphone. It’s often more effective to
reposition the microphone than to start fiddling with knobs. Knob twisting can affect
headroom and phase coherency and add unwanted noise.
The following is a list of variables that contribute to “sweet spot” effect
1. Frequency response variations due to proximity effect.
2. Frequency response variation due to treble losses as a result of absorption and
narrowing of the pattern at high frequencies-causing weakening of highs as the
microphone is moved away from the sound source.
3. Rise in treble response on-axis due to diffraction.
4. Loss of treble response off-axis due to phase-loss effect.
5. Variation in ratio of direct to reverberant sound.
6. Tendency of a microphone to favor the nearest sound source due to a combination of
these items, plus the influence of inverse square law.
Other Types of Microphones
For the same ratio of direct to reverberant sound, omni-directional microphones must be
closer to the sound source than cardioid or bi-directional microphones. Microphones
should generally face the sound source head-on or else treble loss due to phase loss will
result. The exception here is for large condenser microphones, which often give the
flattest response at an angle of about 10-20 degrees (off axis), where phase loss and
diffraction effect offset each other somewhat.
Proximity Effect and Working Distance
The Sound That Is “More Real than Real”
Ribbon microphones have long been renowned for rich bass. This effect is largely due to
the fact that ribbon microphones generally have excellent bass response to begin with, and
at the same time exhibit an effect known as “proximity effect” or “bass tip-up.”
As illustrated in the following graph, a typical bi-directional ribbon microphone will have
a flat frequency response at a distance of about six feet from the microphone but at
shorter distances the bass response becomes boosted; the effect becomes increasingly
pronounced as the distance between the microphone and the sound source is reduced.
This bass-boosting characteristic can become quite intense and, if desired, can be corrected
by equalization. However, for a multiple microphone setup, the pronounced bass
boosting (due to proximity effect) can be turned to an advantage. If an instrument such as
a trumpet is extremely close miked and the bass is cut to restore flat response, unwanted
low-frequency sounds are cut back by upwards of 20 dB compared to an unequalized
microphone with a flat response; and this discrimination is independent of the
microphone’s polar response.
Typical relationship of microphone distance
to frequency response for ribbon-velocity bidirectional microphone.
Another area where proximity effect can
be turned to an advantage is in making
things sound “more real than real.” For
example, many voices and certain musical instruments produce fundamental frequencies
within the bass range (below 150HZ or so) but the fundamentals are weak. In a worst
case, if a microphone which has no proximity effect and a rising high frequency response
is used on an upright piano, or on a person with a thin, weak voice, the recorded sound is
likely to sound even thinner than it was in real life. In contrast, using a microphone with
strong proximity effect on such sound sources can result in a “better than real” sound
since the boosted bass response will compensate for the weak fundamentals in the sound
source. Since the fundamentals are present, but weak, boosting them by several dB will
sound “natural,” even though the sound has been “sweetened.”
Radio and television announcers have long relied on proximity effect to produce a full,
rich, authoritative quality to their voices. By knowing how to work with the proximity
effect, the engineer can get several useful effects without resorting to electronic
Microphone Technique
General Tips for Using Ribbon Microphones
Brass Instruments and ribbon microphones go together very well. Mic the instrument
from a distance of a couple of feet, and increase the working distance a little if several
instruments are being used.
Reed Instruments sound full and never edgy when captured with a ribbon microphone.
Normal working distances are about a foot or two from the instrument.
Strings sound very sweet and clean with ribbon microphones. Place the microphone
several feet from the instrument. For larger string sections, place the microphone slightly
above the instrumentalists and angled down; a distance of three or four feet will do the
trick nicely.
Pianos sound excellent with ribbon microphones and are free of phase-related comb
filtering. The bass is full and rich while the top remains clean with no clatter. Mic the
piano at a distance of one foot to several feet, depending on taste. A more direct up front
sound will be achieved when the microphone is placed closer to the soundboard.
For capturing a piano in stereo, place the microphones apart, one over the bass strings
and the other over the high strings. The farther the mics are from each other, the wider the
stereo spread. For a more direct stereo effect, the microphones may be placed in an “X”
pattern a couple of feet from the center of the soundboard.
It is often worthwhile to remove the piano lid and suspend the microphone(s) above the
soundboard for the most natural sound. When mics are placed inside a piano with a raised
lid, the sound reflecting off the lid may be undesirable.
Amplified Instruments should be miked from a distance of a foot or more. The smooth,
undistorted low-end response is very useful for electric guitars.
Since guitar amplifier speakers are often beamy, experiment with mic placement to find
just the right spot. Placing the mic at greater distances from the speaker cabinet adds more
room ambience to the mix. You will find that a ribbon microphone does not add
undesirable elements to the sound. Basically, what you hear is what you get.
Choirs and Orchestras can be picked up very well with two microphones. Place the
microphones at a distance of ten feet from the floor, and a few feet behind the conductor.
The microphones should be spaced apart approximately one foot and angled, one toward
the left and one toward the right.
Drums and Percussion instruments sound very natural when microphones are placed at
a distance of several feet. For a drum set, placing the microphone(s) at a distance of four
to six feet above the kit works very well without the cymbals sounding “splashy.” The
SF-1 is not recommended for use as a kick drum mic.
Stereophonic Microphone Technique
Classic Blumlein technique
For many years, several “coincident” microphone setups have been widely used for
picking up sounds in stereo as naturally as possible.
The “Blumlein” technique, named for A.D. Blumlein of England, involves the use of two
figure-eight microphones positioned as in the sketch (see Figure 1); so that one faces left
and the other, right, at an angle of 90º (i.e. each displaced 45º from center).
Each microphone ultimately feeds one speaker in a stereo system, and due to the
directionality of the microphones, the result is a very well defined stereo effect on
playback. For classical music, particularly, the reproduction can be very satisfying.
Figure 1
Classic Blumlein or “coincident miking
Mid-Side Technique:
In the early days of stereo radio broadcasting, there was a need for a mic setup that would
allow for simultaneous stereo and mono feeds from the same mic array and for electronic
fiddling with the severity of the stereo effect.
The result was what is known as the mid-side microphone technique. One mic faces
sideways, one faces forward as shown in Figure 2, and they are connected as shown in
Figure 3.
When the outputs of the pair of microphones are combined at the mixer, they will behave
like a pair of microphones, one facing left and one right, provided that the sensitivities of
the mics are equal and the mixer channel gains are equal.
Turning down the side mic all the way will give a mono pickup; as the side mic is turned
up, the stereo effect will gradually appear.
If the outputs of the mid and side microphones are recorded on separate tracks, the
electrical connections shown in Figure 3 could be made at the mixer outputs and the
adjustment of the stereo separation could be done during mixdown, rather than during the
actual recording - very useful for live recording.
Figure 2 – Typical M-S miking technique
Figure 3 – Typical M-S connection set-up
Care and Maintenance
The SF-1 is a well-built precision instrument. All that is required to ensure proper
operation of this microphone is to follow some commonsense rules.
1. Avoid transducer damage by not exposing the microphone to severe shock or vibration.
If the microphone is accidentally dropped, test it to see if damage has occurred before
returning it to service.
2. Do not expose the microphone to direct blasts of air. Use a windscreen or suitable blast
filter when close miking a vocalist or certain types of wind instruments. P-popping does
not necessarily damage the ribbon element but may produce unacceptable preamplifier
overload and could cause damage to speaker systems.
3. Do not expose microphone to liquids or caustic smoke.
4. Do not expose the microphone to strong alternating electromagnetic fields, i.e. the
power transformers in amps, or a hum may result.
5. Use a soft cloth to clean the microphone body. A small amount of denatured alcohol
can be used to remove fingerprints and other stains.
6. Keep metal filings away from the microphone at all times.
7. When not in use, store the microphone in its protective wooden case.
8. Leave disassembly of the microphone to a trained technician. There are no userserviceable parts inside.
Keep recorded tapes springwound watches and personal credit cards using
magnetic coding away from the microphone to prevent possible damage caused
by the transducer’s magnets
A L i t t le Bi t o f H i st o r y
The ribbon-velocity microphone design first gained popularity in the early 1930s and
remained the industry standard for many years. Their characteristic sound signature can
still be appreciated today in recordings of the 30s, 40s, 50s and early 60s.
Ribbon microphone development reached its pinnacle during this time. Though they were
popular with announcers, one of the disadvantages of ribbon microphones was their
immense size. Even though these devices were considered state-of-the-art, magnetic
structures of the time were bulky and inefficient. Transformers suffered a similar
deficiency. When television gained popularity in the late 1940s, it was obvious that their
size was intrusive and objectionable. They were difficult to maneuver and broadcasters
soon looked for a suitable replacement. Even though these microphones performed very
well, their days were numbered. Newer dynamic and condenser mics would soon replace
them. The new designs were compact, rugged and sensitive. It wasn’t long before the
television industry embraced these new designs. Radio followed the trend shortly
afterward. Further technological development of ribbon microphones was considered
unnecessary and the beloved ribbon soon faded into obscurity. It is a fate reminiscent of
that of the vacuum tube when transistors hit the scene.
Some of their unique characteristics, unmatched even by today’s modern condensers and
dynamics, are still revered by many professionals, as evidenced by the high prices that
vintage ribbons command in the marketplace.
Traditional-style ribbon microphones are still being manufactured in limited quantities
today by a few companies. These microphones are essentially similar to the designs of
the 1930s and limited to specialized applications.
Recent developments in magnetics, electronics and mechanical construction procedures
have made it possible to bring the ribbon microphone back to the forefront of the audio
field. This is similar to the resurgence vacuum tubes have made in recent years, now that
technology has enabled further development of the state of the art in numerous areas. A
renewed interest in these designs (both tube technology and ribbon microphones) is
driven by the unique characteristics these devices posses, which remain unmatched even
by some of today’s marvels.
Today’s ribbon microphones can be made smaller, and have sensitivity levels matching
those of modern dynamic microphones. Aside from the superlative audio qualities of
these microphones, their smooth frequency response and phase linearity make them
ideally suited for the new digital formats that dominate the industry today.
Features and Specifications
Very high overload characteristics – maximum SPL greater than 130 dB
No internal active electronics to overload or produce distortion up to maximum SPL
Extremely low residual noise
Ribbon element is unaffected by heat or humidity
Absence of high frequency phase distortion
Excellent phase linearity – even off axis
Equal sensitivity from front or back of element
Consistent frequency response regardless of distance
No power supply required
Compact size
Electrical Specifications
Acoustic Operating Principle:
Generating Element:
Polar Pattern:
Frequency Range:
Output Impedance:
Rated Load Impedance:
Maximum SPL:
Output Connector:
Electro-dynamic pressure gradient
1.8 micron aluminum ribbon
30 HZ – 15,000 HZ
-50 dBv Ref 1 Volt per Pascal (+ or -) 1dB
300 Ohms (nominal) balanced
> 1500 Ohms
> 130 dB SPL
Male XLR 3 pin (Pin 2 Hot)
Mechanical Specifications
High grade Neodymium magnet assembly 1.25” x .0625” x 1.8 micron ribbon assembly
Stainless steel internal baffle and dampener
264 grams (9.3 oz.)
142 mm x 25mm
Matte black chrome
Protective wood case, documentation,
complimentary mic clip
Optional Accessories:
Shock mount, windscreen
Unconditional (repair or replace at Royer’s option)
Polar Pattern
Frequency Response
Royer Labs warrants its products to be free from defects in materials or imperfect
workmanship. This warranty is offered to the original owner without time limit. Royer
Labs will repair or replace any product that fails to meet published specifications during
the warranty period. This warranty does not apply if the product has been damaged by
accident or misuse, or as a result of repair or modification by other than a Royer Labs
customer service facility authorized to service this product. To validate this warranty, the
registration card and a photocopy of the sales receipt from an authorized Royer Labs
dealer must be on file with Royer Labs. Should it ever become necessary to service your
Royer Labs product, please contact the factory. In our continuing effort to improve our
products, Royer Labs reserves the right to make improvements without notice or
obligation. Specifications and prices are subject to change without notice or obligation.
Serial Number__________________________
Date of Purchase________________________
2711 Empire Avenue
Burbank California 4
Telephone 818847.0121
Fax 8188470122
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