Implementation of Smart Public Transport System Using ARM7TDMI

Implementation of Smart Public Transport System Using ARM7TDMI
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Impact Factor (2012): 3.358
Implementation of Smart Public Transport System
Using ARM7TDMI-S Processor and GPS-GSM
Technologies
Asritha Garapati1, Peddi Anudeep2
1
Student, Department of ECE, MLRIT, Dundigal, India
2
Assistant Professor, Department of ECE, MLRIT, Dundigal, India
Abstract: Now-a-days buses are major source of travelling for everyone. In several bus stations many people are waiting for buses. Due
to traffic buses may not come to their destinations in time. It is the major problem for everyone. In this present scenario, we are
designing a GPS-GSM based system which identifies bus exactly at which location it has started recently. For this purpose here we are
using GSM-GPS connected to the bus. The project implements solution for enhancing public transportation management services based
on GPS and GSM .The system consists of IN-Bus module which is equipped with GSM, GPS modules and GSM module with the
persons who are waiting for the bus. The project is designed with ARM7TDMI processor. In this project we are using different modules
such as LPC2148, GSM, GPS, IR pair, 16*2 LCD. The project is implemented by using a mobile and In-Bus module. The In-Bus
module consists of IR pair to count the number of persons in the bus and to find out exact location of bus we are using GPS and the
information can be obtained as a message by using a GSM module.
Keywords: ARM7TDMI-S, GPS, GSM, Smart Public Transport
1. Introduction
With the increasing number of people in opportunistic cities
already existing problem of poor transportation services has
grown to an alarming extent. Due to non-availability of prior
information about the buses arrival schedule, people have to
wait longer on bus stops especially in morning when they
have to reach the offices in time. The buses are overloaded
for most of the times which often results in some kind of
fault occurrence in buses and people get late further. In
addition, rapid population growth and spatial expansion is
adversely affecting this ratio. Consequently the
dissatisfaction with the level and quality of public
transportation service has leaded those people who can
afford it to turn to private modes of transportation. Owing to
poor infrastructure of roads in country, the annual growth
rate of vehicles has created problems in controlling the
traffic flow resulting in traffic congestion on roads. Also
with the increased number of vehicles, the content of carbon
mono-oxide and particulates matter concentration is found to
be 10 times higher than World Health Organization (WHO)
in central parts of Lahore city thereby deteriorating the
environment and causing lung diseases. To reduce the
number of private vehicles and improve the public modes of
transportation, the idea of introducing Light Rail Transit
(LRT) is proposed. This will also help in reducing the
accidental. Although LRT seems to be a promising solution
for enhancing public modes of transportation, it is costly to
deploy. Another approach would be to introduce a
technology based transportation management system that
will help the passengers in getting informed about the exact
schedule of buses and send recommendation report after
performing rush statistical analysis on per stop basis for
regulating the transport services. In this paper, a
transportation management system is developed for
enhancing public transportation services based on
integration of GPS and GSM. GPS is used as a positioning
Paper ID: SEP14669
device while GSM is used as communication link between
different modules. These modules include BUS Station
Module, In-Bus Module, BASE Station Module and BUS
Stop Module. Bus Station Module contains a GSM engine
interfaced to PC and transmits the bus index and its license
plate number to BASE Station. At the same time, it turns on
GPS receiver installed in the bus. The bus then starts
transmitting its location to the BASE Station. The BASE
Station comprises of a GSM engine interfaced to a
microcontroller for processing user request of bus location
as well as a number of other GSM engines interfaced to
various PCs each reserved for a separate bus to update the
location information of that bus. The buses location data
from BASE Station is sent to each bus stop. BUS Stop
Module after receiving buses location data through GSM
engine displays it on dot matrix display installed at each bus
stop.
2. Specifications of Hardware
The following hardware components are used in building the
entire system:
a) GPS Receiver
In order to keep track record of bus, a Garmin
GPS35receiver, powered from the bus main battery, is
installed in each bus. The Garmin GPS35 is a complete GPS
receiver and embedded antenna designed for a broad
spectrum of OEM system applications. The GPS35 tracks up
to twelve satellites at a time while providing one-second
navigation updates and low power consumption. Its farreaching capability meets the sensitivity requirements of
land navigation as well as the dynamics requirements of
high performance aircraft. Internal memory backup allows
the GPS35to retain critical data such as satellite orbital
parameters, last position, date and time.
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International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Impact Factor (2012): 3.358
b) GSM Modem
A wireless link between the modules is provided with Nokia
12i GSM module. Nokia 12i offers advance GSM
connectivity and supports EDGE/GPRS and HSCSD with
automated GSM connection establishment It is equipped to
provide reliable remote connections and offers application
level watchdogs, inbuilt self check mechanisms and a
reliable Virtual Machine (VM) for JAVATM. Nokia 12i also
supports reliable inbuilt internet protocols: TCP/IP for
reliable data transfer, UDP/IP for audio and video streaming
and HTTP for accessing web pages. The module can also be
connected to an external GPS device that supports National
Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) standard. The
inbuilt NMEA parser can parse the location data from the
output that it receives from the GPS device. External
microcontroller can use AT commands to communicate with
Nokia 12i and simple remote I/O applications can easily be
controlled via text messages
c) Microcontroller
AT89C52 microcontroller is selected because it is a
powerful microcomputer which has low power consumption
and provides a highly flexible and cost-effective solution to
many embedded control applications. It has 8K bytes of in
system reprogrammable flash memory, 256 bytes of internal
RAM, 32 programmable I/O lines, three 16 bit
timers/counters, eight interrupt sources and a programmable
serial channel
d) Battery Backup
In-Bus Module is provided with an internal battery so that
whenever power from main battery is disconnected,
microcontroller continues to transmit the location to BASE
station. A message is also sent to BASE station to notify it
about the disconnection of main battery. When the power is
resumed, the internal battery begins to recharge.
e) Alarms
The microcontroller unit in In-BUS Module sends different
alarm signals for different events to BASE Station module
 On Backup Battery: When the main battery is switched
off, a notification is sent to BASE station.
 Stoppage: When the bus is stationary for more than a
specified time, BASE station is informed by a stoppage
alarm. In case of an accident or any other fault occurred in
bus, the driver can notify the BASE station by pressing a
button in bus.
 Getting Late: When the bus is not covering a certain
distance in a defined range of time, an alarm signal of
getting late is sent to BASE station.
 Route Deviation: When the bus deviates from the assigned
route by a given margin, BASE station is notified.
3. Operation of Modules
The entire system/network comprises of four modules: BUS
Station Module, In-BUS Module, BASE Station Module and
BUS Stop Module. The working and interconnection of
these modules is described in this section.
Paper ID: SEP14669
Figure 1: Block Diagram of Transportation Management
System
a. BUS Station Module
BUS Station Module is installed at bus terminals from where
the bus will depart. It contains a LASER and a GSM modem
connected to a PC. When the bus enters the terminal pad, it
is detected by the LASER sensor. The operator at the
terminal enters the license plate number in database. A count
number is then accordingly assigned to the bus e.g., bus
leaving the terminal first will be assigned a number 1. The
route number of bus along with the direction information,
assigned count number and license plate number is sent to
the BASE Station via GSM. An example of the transmitted
header is of the form “33U01AP07AK7240” where ‘33’ is
the bus route number, ‘U’ is upward direction of bus (‘D’
will be downward direction), ‘01’ is the count number
assigned to the bus and ‘AP07AK7240’ is license plate
number of bus. An ‘ON’ signal is also transmitted to the InBUS Module installed in the bus for initialization.
b. In-BUS Module
In-BUS Module is installed inside every bus and consists of
a GPS receiver, a GSM modem, a NV-RAM, infrared object
counting sensors, door opening/closing sensors and an
emergency button; all interfaced to AT89C52
microcontroller. After receiving the initialization signal form
BUS Station Module, this module starts transmitting bus
location to the BASE Station. At each stop, when the driver
opens the door, an interrupt is generated and microcontroller
starts counting the numbers of passengers entering and
leaving the bus with the help of infrared sensors. This count
value on per stop basis is transmitted to the BASE Station.
In case of an emergency situation (e.g., when fault occurs in
bus), driver can press the emergency button to inform BUS
and BASE Station units about the location of bus. The BUS
station operator can then adjust the schedule accordingly and
send an additional bus for facilitating the passengers.
Microcontroller present in this module continuously
calculates the difference in consecutive GPS locations. If the
difference remains near zero for more than a designated
time, then a getting late message is transmitted to the BUS
and BASE stations. In case of sparse GSM coverage,
location information is stored in non-volatile RAM. After
regaining the GSM network, previous locations are updated
to the BASE station. The block diagram for this module is
Volume 3 Issue 9, September 2014
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
2338
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Impact Factor (2012): 3.358
shown in Fig. 3 while flow chart of module software is
shown in Fig. 4.
Figure 2: Flow Chart of BUS Station Module
Figure 4: Flow Chart for In-BUS Module
Figure 3: Block Diagram of In-BUS Module
Paper ID: SEP14669
c. BASE Station Module
This module is the central part of the network. It accepts
location information of buses through respective GSM
modems and maps the information on Google Map for
visualization. It also receives the number of passengers
entering and leaving the bus on per stop basis from In-BUS
Module for statistical analysis. The message received is of
the form “20, 10, 2345.3522N, 09022.0288E”. The first two
strings denotes the number of passengers entering and
leaving the bus respectively and next two strings denotes the
location information; all separated by commas. Another
GSM modem is used to get the user request of location
information of a particular bus. An example of the query put
by the passenger is of the form “33U” or “33U10”. In first
instance i.e., “33U”, ‘33’ is the route number and ‘U’
designates the direction flag while in second instance i.e.,
“33U10”, additional digit ‘10’ denotes the bus stop number
where the passenger is standing. The microcontroller
attached with this GSM modem passes on the user request to
the PC dedicated for that route number. The PC after
processing the request data sends desired location
information in form of bus stop name to microcontroller.
The microcontroller then transmits this information back to
the user. The information that passenger will receive
contains the location of all buses out of terminal in desired
direction in former query while in case of later query, he will
get the location of those buses which are coming towards the
particular bus stop number in desired direction along with
time information. The time information is embedded in
message to account for any delay in processing the user
request. BASE station also monitors the emergency
situations transmitted from In-BUS Module. In addition to
this, the station keeps record of security issues and traffic
congestion conditions and directs the driver to change the
Volume 3 Issue 9, September 2014
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
2339
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Impact Factor (2012): 3.358
route if desired. The block diagram of the module is shown
in Fig. 5 while module software is shown in Fig. 6.
dot matrix display; all interfaced to 89C52 microcontroller.
Message contains information of those buses only which
will pass by the designated stop. First two digits of a substring denote the bus route number followed by the bus stop
name which is the current location of bus coming towards
the specified stop. Microcontroller after retrieving the stored
information displays it on a 3x15 dot matrix display. The
Microcontroller refreshes the information with a rate of 10
seconds. In case of an emergency situation, the location of
next incoming bus is displayed. The block diagram of this
module is shown in Fig. 7 and flow chart of module is
shown in Fig. 8.
Figure 7: Block Diagram of BUS Stop Module
4. Results/ Outputs
Figure 5: Block Diagram of BASE Station Module
Figure 8: IN-Bus module Hardware implementation
Figure 9: Hardware implementation of in bus module
Figure 6: Flow Chart for BASE Station Module
d. BUS Stop Module
This module is installed at every bus stop to let the
passenger know about the location of buses coming towards
that stop. It comprises of a GSM modem, a NV-RAM and
dot matrix display; all interfaced to 89C52 microcontroller.
This module is installed at every bus stop to let the
passenger know about the location of buses coming towards
that stop. It comprises of a GSM modem, a NV-RAM and
Paper ID: SEP14669
Figure 10: Initialization of the Module
Volume 3 Issue 9, September 2014
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Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
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International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Impact Factor (2012): 3.358
[3] www.garmin.com/products/gps35
[4] P & D Department Punjab and Dainichi Consultants
Inc., “Urban transport policy study for five cities of
Punjab Provinc,” Nov 2008.
[5] www.alldatasheet.com
Author Profile
Ashritha Garapati, Student pursuing M.Tech from
Marri Laxman Reddy Institute of Technology,
Laxman Reddy Avenue, Dundigal.
Figure 11: Message format in mobile
Peddi Anudeep, B.Tech (ECE), M.Tech (VLSI
Design), Assistant Professor, Department of ECE,
Marri Laxman Reddy Institute of Technology,
Laxman Reddy Avenue, Dundigal.
Figure 12: Number of persons in the bus count
5. Conclusion
A low cost transportation management system based on
integration of GPS and GSM data is designed. The systems
consist of various modules which are wirelessly linked with
GSM modems. Cost effective SMS service of GSM network
is used for the transfer of data between the modules. A new
service, to facilitate the people who use public transport for
travelling, is introduced inside the city. The service provides
the user with current location information of desired buses
based on which the user can adjust his schedule accordingly.
The service therefore reduces the waiting time at the bus
stop. This system provides a user friendly environment to
the people of a city to overcome the difficulty in finding bus
route as well as saving lot of time.
6. Future Work
The system can be made automatic by installing cameras at
bus terminals which can automatically read the license plate
number of buses thereby eliminating the operator. An
automatic route guider display can be installed in buses to
better update the alternative route in case of serious road
congestions. Fare collecting system can also be automated
by providing another mobile service to which all the
passengers using public transport are subscribed.
References
[1] Muhammad Imran and Nicholas Low, “Time to change
old paradigm: Promoting sustainable urban transport in
Lahore Pakistan,” International Journal of World
Transport Policy and Parctice, vol. 9, pp. 32-39, Nov
2003.
[2] Muhammad Imran and Nicholas Low, “Impact of global
institutions on urban transport in Pakistan cities,” Proc.
39th ISoCaRP Congress, 2003.
Paper ID: SEP14669
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