2015 TDR Buyer`s Guide.indd
Buyer’s
Guide
Turbo Diesel
Volume 1
This Buyer’s Guide was last updated 2/2015
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
A Publication of the Turbo Diesel Register
1
table of Contents
A Word ABout this
Buyer’s Guide
Recently my wife and I spent much time looking for a
“new” used car. I fired up my computer, studied comments
and users’ experiences in forum-based websites, and
downloaded archived articles from Car and Driver and
Edmunds.com. There was a lot of miscellaneous and
helpful information, free and for the taking. I figure
this sort of web search is pretty typical for prospective
vehicle purchasers today. As it turned out, we didn’t
make a purchase, but my experience in searching for
a suitable used car made me more aware of issues of
value and economy in owning a Turbo Diesel today.
As a writer it is tempting to tell the long story of
“information being worth the price that you paid for it.”
I will refrain. Many thought-provoking articles on the
state of the publishing business versus the free-for-all
of the interweb (pun intended) have been written and
my opinion is not likely to change anyone’s point of view.
Back to the subject at hand—you are a prospective or
new owner. You want more information. You want it now.
You want it at no charge.
Since the late 90s we have compiled information on
the Dodge/Cummins Turbo Diesel truck. Each year
we update the book. We call the data the Turbo Diesel
Buyers Guide, which you have successfully downloaded.
The price of this book has been discussed many times
over. It is offered to you at no charge. Our hope is that
its value will lead you to purchase a subscription to
the Turbo Diesel Register magazine. Thanks for your
consideration.
Robert Patton
TDR Editor
P.S. As I have pulled relevant data from old TDR
magazines I’ve sometimes not been able to transfer
the photograph(s). Yes, I could postpone the book until
it was 100% complete, but, rather, it is published with
omissions. Remember the quote “information being
worth what you paid for it.”? Good reading to ya!
2
Why a Diesel? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Looking at the Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Evolution of the Cummins Engine,
1989-Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Performance Enhancements, 1989-Current . . . . . . . 50
Performance, Warranty and You. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Fuel Injection System ’89-’02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
The Eight P’s of Diesel Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Why Didn’t They Think of That –
Exhaust Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
So You Want Fuel Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Part One – The Basics of Volumetric Efficiency . . . . . 96
Part Two – All Year Models and Updates . . . . . . . . . 102
Part Three – How to Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Your Truck and the Boost Treadmill . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Buying a Used Truck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
What Does Every Turbo Diesel Owner
Need to Know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
The Driving Force Behind the Changes to the Cummins
Engine/Meaningful Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Dodge Technical Service Bulletins . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
TSBs Issued During ‘95 and Prior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
TSBs Issued During ‘96 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
TSBs Issued During ‘97 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
TSBs Issued During ‘98 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
TSBs Issued During ‘99 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
TSBs Issued During ‘00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
TSBs Issued During ‘01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
TSBs Issued During ‘02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
TSBs Issued During ‘03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
TSBs Issued During ‘03-’09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
TSBs Issued During ‘10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
TSBs Issued During ‘11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
TSBs Issued During ‘12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Recall Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Most Common Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Favorite Fumbles—Fabulous Fixes. . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
12-Valve Dowel Pin Common-Sensical Solution . . . 242
12-Valve No-Start Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Vintage ’94-’04 Lock/Unlock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Mystery Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Block 53 and Class Action Settlement . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Steering Woes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Fuel Transfer Pumps Revisited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Fool Transfer Pump – ’03 to Newer Trucks . . . . . . . 285
Low Pressure Fuel System Problems . . . . . . . . . . . 291
All About Exhaust Brakes – ’89-’07 Trucks. . . . . . . . 295
DTCs and You . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Problems Solved by the TDR’s Writers,
TDR Members, and TDR Vendors. . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Mechanics Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
New Owner’s Corner... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Part Number Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Why Ask Why—Liquids in Your Truck . . . . . . . . . . 324
Memorable Articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
This Buyer’s Guide was last updated 2/2015
A Word ABout the
turBo dieseL reGister
How did the Turbo Diesel Register get its start? First off, I’m an automotive enthusiast. An automotive
enthusiast that was in search of a tow vehicle for my admittedly small collection of automobiles. As you
can imagine, the search for the right tow vehicle took me in the direction of the Ram Cummins Turbo
Diesel. My search was aided by the fact that my previous job was in the diesel engine profession as a
Cummins distributor product support representative. Do I have a good knowledge of the Turbo Diesel
engine? Well, maybe. I’ll let you be the judge.
Back to the “story.” As an automotive enthusiast, I am a member of a handful of car club/register type
publications. In addition, I subscribe to just about every car and truck monthly publication in hopes
that I can learn something more about my vehicles. The only vehicle I owned that didn’t have its own
club was the Turbo Diesel. The light goes on. Why not start a Turbo Diesel club? The light flickers.
I know the immediate answer: not enough time, no money, and who would write the articles? Needless
to say, the idea got put on the back burner. Another great idea, but…
Looking back, that was many long years ago. Prior to our first magazine (Fall ’93) I took time to talk to
other Turbo Diesel owners who wanted to know more about their truck and specifically the Cummins
engine. At the time I knew the Turbo Diesel Register would work. I also knew it would be a lot of hard
work with an up-front monetary investment and the commitment to publish the magazine.
Positive discussions with other club/register publishers and an unofficial “good luck” or two from the
manufacturers, and well, I was still hesitant. Back to the all-important concerns: time, money and
writing skills. Time? In the initial two-career-days it was nothing to stay up until 2:00 a.m. Money?
What the heck, we took out a second mortgage. And writing skills? You’ve heard the saying, “if it is to
be, it is up to me.” Thus, we started the TDR way back in the summer of 1993.
Robert Patton
TDR Editor
PS. We hope you’ll learn something from the following collection of tips and Dodge technical data.
Please realize this booklet is just the “tip of the iceberg.” The TDR and its members provide a
wealth of information. How to join? Please fill-out and mail the order form or register on-line at www.
turbodieselregister.com.
Join Us Today!
An annual subscription to the
Turbo DIesel Register is $35.00
U.S. and $45 Canadian/International.
Please complete this subscription
form and enclose it in an envelope
along with your check or money
order payable to:
TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
1150 Samples Industrial Drive
Cumming, Georgia 30041
(770) 886-8877
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Name _______________________________________________________
Address ______________________________________________________
City ______________________________State _________ Zip _________
Phone:
Home
(
) ________________________________________
Work
(
) ________________________________________
Truck Year _______________ Model _____________
 Payment Enclosed
 Bill my Mastercard/VISA
#______________________________________ Exp. Date _____________
3
Why A dieseL?
by Robert Patton
As the editor of a club news magazine (the Turbo Diesel
Register for Dodge/Cummins owners), I am frequently
asked, “Why is a diesel engine more fuel efficient than
a gasoline engine of comparable displacement and
horsepower?”
Let’s see if I can provide a simple, no-nonsense answer.
At the close of this article we’ll do a quick diesel-payback
example. Armed with a better understanding of why diesel
provides a better payback on fuel consumption, you will be
equipped to wring the most mileage from your tankful of
diesel fuel.
How would you respond to, “Why is a diesel more fuel
efficient?”
You may respond with one of the common clichés, such as,
“It’s the design of the diesel, it’s built to be more efficient.”
How about, “The compression ratio is higher, there is more
power?” Or, maybe a little more helpful, “The Btu content of
diesel fuel is greater;” or perhaps, “It’s in the injection system.”
All of the above are correct, but the answers are pretty
intuitively obvious.
When working with diesel powered generators, I
encountered similar queries and responded with the same
partial answers. I’ve seen the same “you didn’t answer my
question” body language from interested parties. It took
being embarrassed in front of a large crowd before I vowed
to get the complete answer.
Let’s see if I can tie it all together and give you an answer
you’ll be able to use with your acquaintances. We will
examine the diesel’s design, compression ratios, fuel
Btu’s, and the fuel injection system to lead us to a concise
answer, one that’s easy to recall.
ThE DIESEL’S DESIgN
“It’s the design of the diesel; it’s built
to be more efficient.”
The diesel engine was designed and patented in 1892
in Europe by Rudolf Diesel.1 In the early part of the last
century, Mr. Clessie Cummins, founder of Cummins Engine
Company, refined the diesel design and developed engines
to be used on-highway in the USA. Clessie’s son, Clessie
Lyle Cummins Jr., is a diesel historian. A passage from his
book Diesel’s Engine provides an historical perspective on
Rudolf Diesel’s early struggle to perfect his revolutionary
engine and bring it to market. 2
After a ten-year search Rudolf Diesel was
convinced he had found the way to design an
engine with the highest thermal efficiency. He
believed the most difficult days were over and
transforming ideas into reality should prove a
simpler task: License a qualified manufacturer to
develop and build the engine under his guidance
4
and then await the forthcoming royalty check. One
company finally agreed to evaluate a test engine
built to his design, but gave him no financial
support. Because of this limited commitment he
continued to promote his theories through the
book based on his studies. Gift copies went to
influential professors and companies deemed
possible licensees. A few favorable academic
endorsements resulted, but no new firms showed
any interest. Meanwhile, when Diesel came to
realize that his patented combustion process was
unsuitable for a real engine he quietly substituted
another. The path of his endeavors still failed to
follow his optimistic, short range plan.
Diesel continued to seek the “highest thermal efficiency,”
or what he called a “heat engine,” until his suicide in 1913.
But the design principle is remarkably simple. From Mr.
Clessie Cummins’ book My Days With the Diesel,3 I’ll let
the senior Mr. Cummins explain.
As the term “heat engine” implies, the diesel
differs in principle from the gasoline engine, in
that [diesel] combustion is obtained by the heat
created by compression of air in the cylinder. The
diesel needs no electrical (spark) ignition system.
Furthermore, it burns low-grade oil rather than the
highly refined, more expensive fuels required by
the gasoline engine.
Adjudged practical only for heavy-duty, stationary,
or marine power applications, diesels, when I
first encountered them, weighed as much as 400
pounds per horsepower and ran at very slow
speeds. Entering the industry some eight years
after introduction of the diesel in this country,
I undertook a personal campaign, with the
crudest of experimental facilities, to reduce this
pound-per-horsepower ratio, despite all textbook
rules to the contrary. These efforts culminated
in the invention of the high-speed, light-weight
automotive diesel.
For two decades, while struggling with the engine
developments, I battled equally big odds to build
a highly specialized business. Cummins Engine
Company was incorporated in 1919, but it took the
better part of eighteen years for our bookkeeper
to need any black ink. Then success arrived with
a rush, after the initially skeptical long distance
truckers finally accepted our new engine.
Today Cummins Inc., of Columbus, Indiana,
is the world’s largest independent producer of
automotive diesel engines. It provides jobs for
ten thousand persons, with sales of more than
$250 million annually (the publish date of Clessie
Cummins’ book was 1967).
Note: 2005 sales were 9.92 billion.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Considering the level of technology in machined parts in
the late 19th century, it is no wonder that Rudolf Diesel was
unable to build his heat engine and prove its practicality.
But in time, technology would catch up with the simplicity
of Diesel’s informing concept; and so the seemingly
offhand answer that the design of the diesel is built to be
more efficient is a true statement. Let’s look further at the
components that make the diesel different.
The Diesel Engine
Remember, the diesel is a “heat engine” using heat energy
developed from the compression of air. High compression
ratios (ratios range from 14:1 to 20:1) are possible since air
only is compressed. The hot compressed air is sufficient
to ignite the diesel fuel when it is finally injected near the
top of the compression stroke. A high compression ratio
equals a greater expansion of the gases following ignition
and a higher percent of the fuel’s energy is converted into
power! The diesel compression ratio is higher, there is
more power! However, I’ve provided yet another incomplete
answer that is a true statement, but not the complete story.
Thus far we’ve covered the principle of diesel operation
and the high compression ratios needed to make the heat
for diesel engine combustion. The high compression ratio
requires the designers to test and manufacture the block,
heads, head bolts, crankshaft, connecting rods, rod bolts,
pistons, piston pins, etc., with greater structural capacity.
Diesel engines are heavy in comparison to their gasoline
brothers. Take, for example, the B-Series engine used in
the Dodge pickup. It is 970 pounds for the 359 cubic inch
Turbo Diesel engine versus 540 pounds for the 360 cubic
inch Dodge Magnum V-8 gasoline engine. With the greater
structure and a diesel’s need for air, the turbocharger
(introduced in the 1950s) was a natural fit for diesel engines.
Looking back, the first engine designed by Clessie
Cummins in the 1920s was a monster at 400 pounds
per horsepower produced. The year model 2005, 325
horsepower Cummins Turbo Diesel pickup truck engine is
3 pounds per unit of horsepower. I’d say diesels have made
some progress in 85 years.
Diesel’s first engine at the start of an 1893 test
(photo courtesy of C. Lyle Cummins).
hIghER COMPRESSION RATIO
“The compression ratio is higher,
there is more power.”
Technically speaking, the compression ratio of an engine
is the comparison of the total volume of the cylinder at the
bottom of the piston’s stroke divided by the volume of the
cylinder remaining at the top of the piston’s stroke. Since
we are familiar with gasoline engines, let’s quickly discuss
their compression ratios and a condition that spells disaster
in a gasoline engine, detonation, or pinging.
The Cummins engine used in today’s Dodge pickup.
The gasoline Engine
FUEL BTU’S
“The BTU value of diesel is greater.”
Serious damage to a gasoline engine can result if you
attempt to run a high compression ratio with low octane fuel.
Detonation or pinging is the ignition of the fuel due to the
high temperature caused by a high compression ratio/high
pressure developed by a given design. Premature ignition
of the fuel, i.e., coming before the spark of the spark plug,
results in rapid uncontrolled burning. When timed properly,
the approximate maximum compression ratio for a gasoline
engine in race trim is 14:1. Most non-racing low octane
compression ratios used in automobiles and trucks are less
than 9:1.
Quite true, the BTU, or British Thermal Unit, for diesel fuel
is 130,000 per gallon, with a weight of 7.0 lbs./gallon. The
value for gasoline is 117,000 BTUs at a weight of 6.3 lbs./
gallon. If we go back to our basic physics rules for energy,
you’ll note the fuel in the tank has potential for work if it
is injected into the cylinders and, when combined with
the compressed heated air, ignited. The piston is forced
downward, the crankshaft rotates, and the wheels turn. True
as all this is, the BTU value is not the major contributing
factor to the diesel’s miles-per-gallon superiority. So, what
is the key answer?
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
5
ThE INjECTION SYSTEM
“It’s in the injection system.”
Rudolf Diesel designed the heat engine to use the injection
of fuel at the last moment to ignite the compressed air.
Understanding the heart of the diesel, the fuel pump, is the
key to answering the fuel efficiency question.
The gasoline Engine
A gasoline engine is what engineers call “stochiometric.”
Stochiometric describes the quantitative relationship
between two or more substances, especially in processes
involving physical or chemical change. With a gasoline
engine there is a stochiometric equation of 14 parts of air to
one part of fuel. Remember, always 14:1. Whether at idle or
full throttle, the fuel and air are mixed outside the cylinders
in a carburetor or injection manifold, and the mixture is
introduced to the combustion chamber via the intake valve,
14:1, always.
The Diesel Engine
Fuel and air in the diesel design are not premixed outside
the cylinder. Air is taken into the cylinder through the intake
valve and compressed to make heat. Diesel fuel is injected
near the top of the piston’s stroke in an amount or ratio
corresponding to the load on the engine. At idle the air-tofuel ratio can be as high as 85:1 or 100:1. At full load the
diesel still boasts a miserly 25:1 or 30:1 ratio! It is in the
injection system where we find the key to the diesel’s fuel
mileage superiority.
6
C. Lyle Cummins jr. poses in front of a
’02 Dodge/Cummins Turbo Diesel pickup.
FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS
Further exhaust emission legislation in 1998 and again
in 2002 has forced the diesel engine manufacturers to
introduce electronic fuel injection controls. Key legislation
dates were 1988, 1994, 1998, and 2002. Thus the
progression from simple mechanical (vintage 19881993) to more complex mechanical (vintage 1994-1997)
followed by simple electronics (vintage 1998-2001) and
now advanced electronics (2002 and newer) has been
the norm that the diesel industry has followed. Stay tuned
as the 2007 emissions legislation has brought another
dramatic decrease in exhaust emissions for diesel engines
in pickups and big-rigs.
The Fuel Pump is the Key
1. We capitalize “Wankel” when referring to a rotary engine.
When did we stop capitalizing the “D” in diesel?
The fuel pump used on early ‘90s vintage diesel pickup
trucks typically was a rotary style fuel pump. Think of this
pump as a mini automobile-spark-distributor. A rotary head
sends fuel pulses through the high-pressure fuel lines to
the injectors. The pressure opens the injector valve, and
fuel is injected.
2. I found Lyle Cummins’ Diesel’s Engine to be a complete
history of Rudolf Diesel’s engineering efforts. For
information on how to order this book, please see this
story’s source table. I’ll bet that if you request it, Mr.
Cummins will autograph your copy! A must for your
automotive library.
As exhaust emissions standards tightened in 1994, there
was a need for higher fuel injection pressures and more
timely delivery of fuel into the combustion chamber. Pickup
truck leader, Ford, used an injection system developed
by Caterpillar called HEUI (hydraulically-actuated,
electronically controlled, unit injection). The Dodge/
Cummins engine used a Bosch P7100 in-line fuel pump.
Think of it as a mini in-line six cylinder engine, and it’s
easy to understand its principle of operation. Six plunger
pumps actuated by the pump camshaft send fuel pulses
through six high pressure fuel lines to the injectors. The
pressure opens the injector valve, allowing fuel to pass into
the combustion chamber. With the Bosch P7100 fuel pump
the metering of the fuel (at idle, 85:1; or at full load, 25:1) is
controlled by a fuel rack and gears that rotate a metering
helix to allow fuel into the six plunger pumps.
3. The senior Cummins’ book, My Days with the Diesel is
no longer in print (publication date, 1967). Lyle Cummins
remembers his father in his recent book, The Diesel
Odyssey of Clessie Cummins. Copies of the latter book
are available. Again, please see the source table for
complete information.
Sources:
Diesel’s Engine (760 pages, $55) and The Diesel Odyssey
of Clessie Cummins (400 pages, $37) are books written
by diesel historian Clessie Lyle Cummins Jr. Published by
Carnot Press. The books can be ordered at (503) 694-5353.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
DIESEL VERSUS gASOLINE
DO ThE MATh
My own experience has been with a 2002 Dodge 1500 with
its 360 cubic inch (5.9 liter) gasoline engine and a 2003
Dodge 2500 with the 359 cubic inch (5.9 liter) Cummins
diesel engine. Overall numbers in around-town driving
equated to 13.5 mpg gasoline, 18.5 diesel.
In our example, let’s figure that I travel 20,000 miles per
year.
Gasoline usage: 20,000 = 1,481 gallons used
13.5
Diesel usage:
20,000 = 1,081 gallons used
18.5
It used to be that the price of diesel fuel was less than that
of regular gasoline. Lately in my area that has not been
the case. However, for comparison sake, let’s assume the
numbers are equal at $3 a gallon.
Gasoline expense: $3 × 1,481 = $4,443
Diesel expense: $3 × 1,081 = $3,243
Diesel net yearly fuel savings = $1200
Estimated sticker price for the optional diesel engine – $7,000
Years (assuming 20K per year) and miles to payback – 5.8
years or 116,000 miles
If you subscribe to the adage, “Figures don’t lie, but liars
figure,” you can easily make the previous example work for
a shorter or longer payback period. In this short, down-ndirty comparison we’re not going to consider maintenance
or resale values. And don’t lose track of the obvious: as the
diesel engine option in pickup trucks continues to pricecreep upward, the payback is longer; however, as fuel
prices rise, the payback is quicker.
To close the do-the-math example, remember that “your
mileage may vary based on driving conditions.” Don’t ya
love the clichés of automotive doubletalk?
Robert Patton
TDR Staff
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
7
LookinG At the ChAnGes
A turBo dieseL Buyer’s Guide
by Jim Anderson
Aside from the quarterly column and articles that I write
for the TDR, I also serve as the “e-mail and call-back” guy.
Yep, that means I get lots of correspondence from those
interested in the TDR as well as those interested in the
purchase of a truck. With the ever-changing ownership of
vehicles, the idea of a Turbo Diesel Buyer’s Guide makes
perfect sense. To that end, the editor asked me to do a
study of changes by model year to Dodge/Cummins trucks.
Since its 1994 introduction, the current body style Dodge Ram
pickup has undergone many changes and modifications.
To properly compile such a list, changes for each model
year seem to build on each preceding model year, and
therefore you may want to read from the start (1994) to
see total changes and cumulative modifications for the
particular model year you wish to research.
Each model year after 1994 contains changes in the form
of additions and deletions to the previous model(s). Only
major changes and major new options are covered. As
you know, each year contains changes to paint colors and
schemes, and interior upholstery colors and materials.
These are not outlined in our research. Likewise, many
minor technical adjustments and changes such as a
change in tailgate hinge pin diameter are not listed, as they
don’t really affect the overall performance of a given model.
Changes and modifications covered will only be for those
truck models (2500 and 3500 pickup and cab/chassis
models) which were offered with the Cummins Turbo
Diesel engine option package.
Sharp-eyed owners may pick up discrepancies and/or
errors of omission. These errors are solely the responsibility
of your columnist who was assigned this daunting task. I
went with the information provided by Dodge’s data books,
which are written at the beginning of a model year and do
not reflect later “running” production changes.
Problem Areas: Please keep in mind that there is no such
thing as the perfect truck or car. All vehicles will contain
certain designs, systems, or parts that are more prone to
failure than might normally be expected. Looking at these
negatives, the image of the vehicle can be tarnished.
However, to look on the positive side, the owner is aware
of the problems and can take corrective action and make
informed decisions. With these thoughts in mind, the
following are common problem areas on the subject trucks.
Common Problem areas 1994-1998.5: Included failed
engine start/run solenoids; frayed throttle cables; hard start
due to degradation of the rubber fuel return line; automatic
transmissions problems that were often caused by fluid loss
at transmission line-to-cooler, line-to-transmission, quick
couple plastic fittings; poor fuel filter access; loss of fifth
gear in five-speed transmissions; failed front end parts on
4x4 models; poor front brake pad life in certain applications;
poor paint adhesion of certain colors; failure of throttle
position sensors on automatic trucks; and faulty fuel level
sending units.
Common Problem areas 1998.5 to 2002: Included failed
fuel transfer pumps and fuel injection pumps; weak clutch
on six-speed trucks; poor front brake pad life in certain
applications; and poor front suspension bushing life on 4x4
models.
FROM ThE DATA BOOKS
The following information was compiled using
DaimlerChrysler data books. Actual production may be
slightly different, especially if a particular truck was produced
near the beginning or end of a particular model year run.
We will start with the 1994 model, which is the first year of
the current body style. For each model year we will note
what’s new, models available, engine ratings, transmissions,
maximum tow ratings, cab/chassis models, and comments.
overview
Warranty began in 1994 with a basic one year 12,000
mile warranty on the entire truck, and 5 year/ 70,000
mile powertrain warranty. The separate truck/powertrain
warranties were consolidated and currently the package
is 3 years/36,000 miles on the entire truck, including
powertrain. Engine warranty has stayed constant at 5
years/100,000 miles.
Tow Ratings have changed considerably from year to
year and from option model to option model, and even
within option models, so read carefully if you are interested
in or seeking such information. Some models were/are
rated to tow much less weight than others. Watch out for
“lightweights”!
8
This interesting photo is an early ‘94 model truck
that was modified to run at Bonneville. It successfully
set a class record at the 1997 Bonneville Speed Weeks
of 141.256 mph. (TDR Issue 15, page 44).
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
second Generation
1994 Turbo Diesel
What is New: Introduction of the current truck platform.
Everything is new.
Models offered: 2500 and 3500, two-wheel drive, fourwheel drive, standard cab, long bed only.
Cab: Rather revolutionary styling, which has since been
emulated by other truck manufacturers. Styling changes
included protruding grille and hood. Grille is attached to
hood and raises with hood for improved underhood access.
Cab has aerodynamically correct shape.
Offered only as a standard cab, long bed truck, and as a
cab-chassis model. Two trim levels; ST in vinyl and SLT
in cloth. Cab features include redesigned dash with full
gauges featuring numbered graduations. All major cab
controls designed to be operated by a gloved hand. An
optional bench seat with a 40-20-40 center console split
is offered with the center console capable of containing
a laptop computer and cellular phone. Cab is attached to
frame using resilient rubber donut cushions. Large sloped
tinted windshield with parallel wipers, driver side air bag,
open storage nook in right side of dash for future addition of
passenger side air bag, cruise control buttons on steering
wheel, and reclining driver seat.
Transmissions:
Five-speed manual NV4500HD, 5th overdrive. 450 ft-lbs
input torque capacity.
Four-speed automatic 47RH, 4th overdrive with locking
converter. 380 ft-lbs torque capacity.
Looking Back: Being an all-new model, this truck had a
number of teething problems which resulted in both federal
safety recalls and factory TSB fixes. Chief among recalls
was a fix for keys sticking in the backside of the steering
wheel, causing the wheel to jam; recalls for various covers
to be installed on steering shaft linkages, and headlight
switches burning out.
Major owner gripes centered around poor fuel filter and oil
filter access, moisture intrusion and retention into cab and
cab doors, vision obstruction by the A-pillars, poor adhesion
of certain colors of paint, failure of the OEM Goodyear tires
to maintain their balance, loss of fifth gear in the manual
transmissions, fraying of the unsheathed throttle cable.
Conclusions: These trucks have proven to be very
durable, though not particularly good looking after several
years of use. Owners have reported driving them in excess
of one million miles without any major internal engine work.
1995 Turbo Diesel
Chassis: All new frames with combinations of boxed
and “C” channeled sections for greater rigidity. Front
suspension consists of independent coil springs with 4500
pound capacity front axles on 16” tires. Rear suspension is
60” long semi-elliptic leaf springs on a rigid axle of varying
capacity ratings by model for improved ride quality. Two
axle ratios are offered: 3.54 and 4.10:1. Three rear axles
are offered: Dana 70 for 2500 automatics, hybrid Dana
80 for 2500 manual, and Dana 80 for 3500 trucks and
cab-chassis trucks. The long tapered rear springs offer a
smoother, less choppy ride over rough roads. The truck
bed is rigidly mounted to the frame, and is only offered
as a sweptside design 8 foot box. The bed also features
indents in the bed to allow building a framework to carry
multi-tiered loads. Bed tiedown mounts are standard front
and rear. The tailgate is detachable.
Engine Ratings: The Cummins B 5.9 diesel was offered
in two horsepower/torque ratings: 175HP/420 ft-lbs torque
for manual transmissions, and 160/400 for automatic
transmissions. New is an inline Bosch fuel injection
pump (designated P7100). Intake air plumbing has been
re-designed for greater airflow. The turbocharger is a
wastegated design.
Effective 1/1/94 the truck’s were equipped with a catalytic
converter to try and address the particulate matter that is
associated with diesel exhaust. The catalytic converter
would be used on these trucks until the introduction of the
24-valve engine, effective 1/1/98.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
What is New:
Extended cab.
Revised paint schemes and colors.
Models Available:
2500HD as standard cab, extended cab, long bed,
4x2 and 4x4.
3500: same as above.
Engine Ratings:
Same sas 1994 model year.
175 HP and 420 ft-lbs for manual transmission.
160 HP and 400 ft-lbs for automatic transmission.
Transmissions:
No changes from 1994.
Five-speed manual 4500HD 5th overdrive.
Four-speed automatic 47RH 4th overdrive with locking
converter.
Maximum Tow Ratings:
2500 and 3500:
3.54 Axle, maximum GCWR is 14,100 pounds.
4.10 Axle, maximum GCWR is 16,000 pounds.
Cab/Chassis Models:
None.
Comments:
The 1995 model is largely a carryover from the 1994 model
year with the exception of the introduction of the extended cab.
9
1996 Turbo Diesel
1997 Turbo Diesel
What is New:
Deleted tailgate top protector.
Deleted SLT tape stripe.
Added optional Camper suspension package.
Revised optional radio.
Revised alternator rating to 136 amps.
Revised “RE” electronic control of automatic transmission.
What is New:
Hydraulic power brake booster powered from power
steering pump.
Increased weight capacity to 11,000 GVW on club cab 3500
models.
Remote keyless/ illuminated entry option.
New AM/FM/Cassette/CD player option.
Leather interior group option.
Models Available:
2500HD as standard cab, extended cab, long bed, cab
chassis, 4x2, and 4x4.
3500: same as above. No short bed models available.
Engine Ratings:
Increased for 1996
215 HP and 440 ft-lbs for manual transmission.
180 HP and 420 ft-lbs for automatic transmission.
California engines were rated lower at 1995 specs. At midyear 1996 California engines were required to have exhaust
gas recirculation (EGR).
Transmissions:
Five-speed manual NV4500 5th overdrive.
Four-speed automatic 47RE 4th overdrive with locking
converter. This is a new electronically controlled
transmission.
Maximum Tow Ratings:
2500 regular cab, manual or automatic, 3.54 axle: 10,500
pounds; 16,000 GCWR.
2500 regular cab, manual or automatic, 4.10 axle: 12,300
pounds; 18,000 GCWR.
Derate trailer weight for 4x4: 3.54 axle -500 pounds; 4.10
axle -400 pounds.
Derate trailer weight for extended cab: -0
3500 regular cab, manual or automatic, 3.54 axle: 10,500
pounds, 16,000 GCWR.
3500 regular cab, manual or automatic, 4.10 axle: 11,900
pounds, 18,000 GCWR.
Derate trailer weight for 4x4: 3.54 axle ratio - 800 pounds;
4.10 axle -400 pounds.
Derate trailer weight for extended cab: 3.54 ratio -800; 4.10
ratio -400 pounds.
Cab/Chassis models:
Available in regular cab only. 2500 is 8,800 GVWR, 56” C/A
(cab rear to rear axle centerline) dimension. 3500 is 11,000
GVWR and available in 60” and 84” C/A dimensions.
Comments:
Trailer tow ratings begin to get confusing. Performance
complaints stem from computer programming of new
electronically controlled automatic transmission. Exhaust
Gas Recirculation added to California trucks (1/1/96) to
meet CARB emissions standards. Owners begin to find out
how easy and inexpensive it is to “turn up the power.”
10
Models Available:
2500HD as standard cab, extended cab, long bed, cab
chassis, 4x2 and 4x4. Combo of short box extended cab
diesel not offered.
3500: Same as above. No short bed models available.
Engine Ratings:
Same as 1996 model year.
215 HP and 440 ft-lbs for manual transmission.
180 HP and 420 ft-lbs for automatic transmission.
California engines continue with EGR but are offered with
180 HP and 420 ft-lbs of torque in both automatic and
manual transmission applications.
Transmissions:
No changes from 1996.
Five-speed manual NV4500HD, 5th overdrive.
Four-speed automatic 47RE 4th overdrive with locking
converter.
Maximum Tow Ratings:
2500 manual 4x2 regular and extended cabs: 20,000
GCWR. 2500 automatic 4x2 regular and extended cab:
3.54 axle, 16,000 GCWR; 4.10 axle, 18,000 GCWR.
2500 manual and automatic 4x4 regular and club cabs:
3.54 axle 16,000 GCWR; 4.10 axle 18,000 GCWR.
3500 manual 4x2 regular and extended cabs: 20,000
GCWR. 3500 automatic 4x2 regular and extended cab:
3.54 axle 16,000 GCWR; 4.10 axle 18,000 GCWR.
3500 manual 4x4 regular and extended cabs: 3.54 axle
16,000 GCWR, 4.10 axle 18,000 GCWR.
3500 automatic 4x4 regular and extended cabs: Regular
cab, same as above. Extended cab, 4.10 axle only,
18,000 GCWR. 3.54 ratio not available with extended
cab automatic option.
Cab/Chassis models:
Available in regular cab only. 2500 is 8,800 GVWR, 56”
C/A (cab to axle) dimension. 3500 is 11,000 GVWR and
available in 60” and 84” C/A dimensions. New options
include rear helper spring and stabilizer bar group, 9.24
section modulus frame, snowplow prep group with some
engine/transmission combos.
Comments: California trucks have exhaust gas recirculation
and net horsepower is lower. Last full year of the 12-valve
engine production.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
1998 Turbo Diesel
What is New:
Quad cab option featuring doors on each side of extended
cab with no “B” pillar.
Front seat belts integrated into seats on all extended cab
and quad cab trucks.
New interior with redesigned dash. Dash is electronic on
98.5 models.
2500 short box extended cab and quad cab model with
diesel is available.
Passenger side airbag with disable switch is standard.
Next generation airbags.
Heated power mirrors.
Illuminated door lock and power window switches.
Optional security alarm system.
Revised fifth gear nut on five-speed manual transmission.
1998.5 Update:
24-valve electronic controlled injection diesel offered as a
’98.5 model.
Models Available:
2500HD: as standard cab, extended cab, quad cab, short
bed, long bed, cab chassis, 4x2 and 4x4.
3500: Same as above. No short bed models available.
Engine Ratings:
12-valve head, mechanical injection pump.
215 HP and 440 ft-lbs for manual transmission except
California.
180 HP and 420 ft-lbs for automatic transmission and
California manual transmission. California engines
continue with EGR.
Note: A ’98.5 engine was introduced (1/1/98) to meet more
stringent emissions standards. Known by the Turbo Diesel
audience as the 24-valve. It included electronic control
of fuel injection and a 24-valve cylinder head. Rated at
235HP and 460 ft-lbs of torque for manual applications and
215/420 for automatic transmissions. No rating difference
for California, as the 98.5 engine was 50-state certified
without EGR and without a catalytic converter.
Transmissions:
No changes from 1996.
Five-speed manual NV4500HD 5th overdrive.
Four-speed automatic 47RE 4th overdrive with locking
converter.
Maximum Tow Ratings:
2500 regular cab, extended cab, quad cab, manual, 4x2,
3.54 or 4.10 axle 20,000 GCWR. Except 12-valve
California trucks, 3.54 axle is 16,000, 4.10 axle is 18,000
GCWR.
2500 regular cab, extended cab, quad cab, automatic 4x2
and all 4x4 models; 3.54 axle 16,000 GVWR, 4.10 axle
18,000 GVWR.
3500 regular cab, manual, 4x2, 3.54 or 4.10 axle is 20,000
GVWR.
3500 extended cab, quad cab, manual, 4x2 and 4x4; 3.54
axle 16,000 GCWR, 4.10 axle 18,000 GCWR.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
3500 extended cab, quad cab, automatic, 4x2 and 4x4,
3.54 axle 16,000 GCWR, 4.10 axle 18,000 GCWR.
Cab/Chassis models:
Available in regular cab only. 2500 is 8,800 GVWR, 56”
C/A (cab to axle) dimension. 3500 is 11,000 GVWR and
available in 60” and 84” C/A dimensions.
2500 and 3500 manual have 20,000 pound tow rating with
either axle in 4x2 and 4x4.
2500 and 3500 automatic 4x2 and 4x4 have 16,000 GCWR
with 3.54 axle and 18,000 GCWR with 4.10 axle.
Comments:
Watch tow ratings carefully! Mid year introduction of the
24-valve engine for cleaner emissions. Early problems with
failed fuel lift pumps and locked up injection pumps. Owners
find out that a 4.10:1 axle ratio is better for towing with the
24-valve engine, since the power band has been moved
higher in the RPM range. 24-valve engine governed RPM
is raised to 3,200. Electronically controlled fuel injection
produces a flat torque curve from 1700-2700 RPM. In
November of ’98, Dodge issues a bulletin to all dealers
informing them that exhaust brakes are not approved for
use with automatic transmission-equipped trucks (Issue 24,
page 38).
1999 Turbo Diesel
What is New:
Deleted extended cab option in middle of model year.
Deleted side body trim from aft of rear wheels.
Electronic dash with all gauges run by computers.
Models Available:
2500HD as standard cab, extended cab, quad cab, short
bed, long bed, cab chassis, 4x2 and 4x4.
3500 same as above, except no short beds.
Engine Ratings:
Same as ‘98.5 model year.
24 valve electronic injection control 235HP 460 ft-lbs torque
for manual transmissions.
24 valve electronic injection control 215HP 420 ft-lbs torque
for automatic transmission.
Peak torque available from 1700-2700 RPM.
Transmissions:
Five-speed manual NV4500HD 5th overdrive.
Four-speed automatic 47RE 4th overdrive with locking
converter.
Six-speed manual NV5600 6th overdrive – late availability
and soon withdrawn from sale.
11
Maximum Tow Ratings:
All configurations and axle ratios of manual transmission
trucks: 20,000 GCWR.
All configurations of automatic transmission trucks: 3.54
axle 16,000 GCWR, 4.10 axle 18,000 GCWR.
Note: Maximum permissible trailer weight will vary by model
and options. For example, 4x4 models are rated for lower
maximum trailer weights than 4x2 models, and extended/
quad cab models are rated for lower maximum trailer
weights than standard cab models. Highest trailer weight
rating is for a 2500 regular cab 4x2 manual transmission
long bed = 14,150 pounds trailer.
Lowest trailer weight rating is for a 3500 quad cab 4x4
automatic transmission 3.54 axle = 9,050 pounds trailer.
Cab/Chassis Models:
Available in regular cab only. 2500 is 8,800 GVWR, 56” C/A
dimension. 3500 is 11,000 GVWR and available in 60” and
84” C/A dimensions. Tow ratings are same as above.
Comments:
Six-speed transmission removed from sale due to quality
control issues.
Users find the 4.10 axle ratio is best for towing with the
24-valve engine.
2000 Turbo Diesel
What is New:
Optional fold away towing mirrors.
Optional automatic dimming rear view mirror.
Revised front disc brakes with two piston calipers.
4 wheel anti lock brakes standard on 3500 series trucks.
Added radio with CD changer controls. Changer is a dealer
installed Mopar accessory.
Deleted body side moldings from entire bed sides.
Deleted extended cab option, leaving only the quad cab
option.
Anti-spin rear axle only available in 4.10 ratio.
Optional 265/75R/16E Michelins on 7.5 x 16” cast aluminum
wheels for all 2500 models.
3500 series standard tires are now LT235/85R/16E using
steel wheels of greater offset.
Models Available:
2500HD as standard cab, quad cab, short bed, long bed,
cab chassis, 4x2 and 4x4.
3500: Same as above. No short bed models available.
Maximum Tow Ratings:
2500 regular cab and quad cab, 4x2, both manual
transmissions, both axle ratios 20,000 GCWR.
2500 regular cab and quad cab, 4x4, both manual
transmissions, both axle ratios 20,000 GCWR with the
exception of the quad cab 4x4 short bed 3.54 axle=16,000
GCWR; 4.10 axle=18,000 GCWR.
2500 regular cab and quad cab, 4x2 and 4x4, automatic;
3.54 axle=16,000 GCWR, 4.10 axle= 18,000 GCWR.
3500 regular cab and quad cab, 4x2 and 4x4, long bed, both
manual transmissions, both axle ratios, 20,000 GCWR.
All 3500 automatics: 3.54 axle=16,000 GCWR, 4.10
axle=18,000 GCWR.
Cab/Chassis Models:
Available in regular cab only. 2500 is 8,800 GVWR, 56”
C/A (cab to axle) dimension. 3500 is 11,000 GVWR and
available in 60” and 84” C/A dimensions. GCWR is same as
tow ratings above.
Comments:
The 2000 model year Dodge truck was a production
run of only three months. Effective on 1-1-2000, Dodge
introduced their trucks as 2001 models. Coinciding with
the 2001 pickups, Dodge introduced the 2001 PT Cruiser.
For corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) criteria, the
PT Cruiser is classified as a truck. We speculate the long
model run of 2001 truck goes hand in hand with the higher
mileage PT Cruiser, thus giving Dodge an edge in the
CAFE numbers.
The six speed manual transmission remained on back
order all year due to high demand.
Kelly Reed
Engine Ratings:
Same as ‘98.5/’99 model years.
235HP 460 ft-lbs torque for manual transmissions.
215 HP 420 ft-lbs torque for automatic transmissions.
Transmissions:
Five-speed manual NV4500HD 5th overdrive.
Six-speed manual NV5600 6th overdrive.
Four-speed automatic 47RE 4th overdrive with locking
converter.
The six-speed manual transmission has the same first and
overdrive ratios as the five-speed, with an additional ratio
interposed between second and fourth gears. Fifth gear
is direct.
12
Phil Putnam
Examples of ‘94 - ‘02 Second generation trucks.
( TDR Member Archives)
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
2001 Turbo Diesel
also 2001.5 models
What is New:
New “sport” and “off road” badges.
Added child seat top tether anchors on quad cab rear seat.
Four-wheel disc brakes are standard with vented rotors in
rear, integral drum parking brake as a 2001.5 model.
Four-wheel ABS standard, with new dynamic rear
proportioning braking system as a 2001.5 model.
Servoless speed control for manual transmission diesels.
Forged aluminum wheel option on 2500 trucks.
One touch drivers side power window down feature on SLT
and + packages.
New engine ratings of 235 HP/460 ft-lbs for both five-speed
and automatic transmissions.
New optional engine rating of 245HP/505 ft-lbs for the sixspeed transmission.
Models Available:
2500HD as standard cab, quad cab, short bed, long bed,
cab chassis, 4x2 and 4x4.
3500 same as above except no short beds.
Engine Ratings:
235 HP 460 ft-lbs torque for five-speed manual and
automatic transmissions.
245 HP 505 ft-lbs torque (HO engine) for six-speed manual
transmission only.
Transmissions:
Five-speed manual NV4500HD 5th overdrive.
Six-speed manual NV5600 6th overdrive, available only
with the HO engine.
Four-speed automatic 47RE 4th overdrive with locking
converter.
Maximum Tow Ratings:
2500 regular cab and quad cab, 4x2 and 4x4, both manual
transmissions, both axle ratios, 20,000 GCWR.
3500 regular cab and quad cab, 4x2 and 4x4, both
manual transmissions, both axle ratios, 20,000 GCWR.
Exception: 3500 4x2 and 4x4 six-speed manual with 4.10
axle is rated at 21,500 GCWR.
2500 and 3500 regular cab and quad cab, 4x2 and 4x4
with automatic transmissions are rated 3.54 axle=16,000
GCWR, 4.10= 18,000 GCWR.
Note: Maximum permissible trailer weight will vary by model
and options. Highest trailer weight rating is for a 3500
regular cab 4x2 six-speed 4.10 axle= 15,150 pounds.
Lowest trailer weight rating is for a 3500 quad cab 4x4
automatic 3.54 axle= 9,000 pounds.
Cab/Chassis Models:
Available in regular cab only. 2500 is 8,800 GVWR, 56” C/A
dimension. 3500 is 11,000 GVWR and is available in 60”
and 84”C/A dimensions. Tow ratings are same as above
with maximum for 3500 six-speed 4.10 axle of 21,500
GCWR.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Comments:
The six-speed transmission remains on back order due to
high demand.
New disc brake rear axle and standard 4 wheel ABS greatly
enhances stopping ability on ’01.5 trucks.
All truck functions are increasingly controlled by computer
electronics.
2002 Turbo Diesel
What is New:
Although the gas engine 1500 models received a whole new
body and interior, the Turbo Diesel 2500 and 3500 model
trucks experienced minor trim changes for this model year.
Models Available:
2500HD as standard cab, quad cab, short bed, long bed,
4x2 and 4x4 models.
3500HD as standard cab, quad cab, long bed, 4x2 and 4x4
models.
The 3500 cab/chassis line is discontinued.
Engine Ratings:
235 HP and 460 ft-lbs torque for five-speed manual and
47RE automatic transmissions
245 HP and 505 ft-lbs torque (HO engine) for six-speed
manual transmission only.
Transmissions:
Five-speed manual NV4500HD 5th overdrive.
Six-speed manual NV5600HD 6th overdrive.
Four-speed automatic 47RE 4th overdrive with locking converter.
Maximum Tow Ratings:
2500 regular cab and quad cab, 4x2 and 4x4, both manual
transmissions and both axle ratios, 20,000 GCWR.
3500 regular cab and quad cab, 4x2 and 4x4, both manual
transmissions and both axle ratios, 20,000 GCWR.
2500 and 3500 regular cab and quad cab, 4x2 and 4x4 with
automatic transmissions are rated: 3.54 axle = 16,000
GCWR, 4.10 = 18,000 GCWR.
Note: Maximum permissible trailer weight will vary by model and options. Highest trailer weight ratings is for a 3500
regular cab, 4x2, six-speed manual, 4.10 axle = 15,150
pounds. Lowest trailer weight rating is for a 3500 quad
cab 4x4, automatic 3.54 axle = 9,000 pounds.
Cab Chassis Models:
Discontinued. However commercial owners could order a
“box delete” option.
Comments:
This is the first full model year of production of rear disc
brakes with standard four-wheel antilock brakes.
13
third Generation
2003 Turbo Diesel
What is New:
All new body and cab interior layouts. It is called “Third
Generation” by Turbo Diesel enthusiast.
New full four-door cab option with forward hinged rear
doors is still called the Quad Cab.
New hydro-formed boxed frame for greater rigidity.
New High Pressure, Common Rail diesel engine fuel injection system eliminates distributor-type fuel injection
pump. New engine meets tighter emission control standards while offering more power.
Driving axles are now supplied by American Axle in ratios of
3.73 and 4.10 to 1.
The 4x2 models get new rack and pinion steering system,
while 4x4 models retain recirculating ball system of previous models.
All models use 17-inch wheels and tires.
The 3500 model is available with either single or dual rear
wheels.
Models Available:
2500HD as standard cab, quad cab (full size rear doors)
short bed, long bed, 4x2 and 4x4.
3500HD is available in single rear wheel and dual rear
wheel versions. Dual wheel version has higher weight
and towing capacities. Dual wheel version is not offered
with a short box.
Engine Ratings:
235 HP and 460 ft-lbs torque for 47RE automatic. The
states of CA, ME, MA are only offered the 235 HP/460
ft.-lbs. engine.
250 HP and 460 ft-lbs torque for the 48RE automatic (introduced mid-year as an 03.5) and five-speed manual
transmission.
305 HP and 555 ft-lbs torque high output (HO) engine with
six-speed manual only.
Transmissions:
Five-speed manual NV4500HD 5th overdrive only with
standard engine.
Six-speed manual NV5600HD 6th overdrive only with HO
engine.
In the first half of the 2003 model year the four-speed automatic 47RE 4th overdrive with locking converter only with
standard engine.
In January of 2003 Dodge released the 48RE automatic
transmission 4th overdrive with locking converter
Maximum Tow Ratings:
2500 regular cab and quad cab, 4x2 and 4x4, five-speed,
250 hp engine:
▪ 3.73 differential – 19,000 GCWR/18,000 GCWR for the
states of CA, ME, MA.
▪ 4.10 differential – 20,000 GCWR.
2500 regular cab and quad cab, 4x2 and 4x4, 47RE automatic transmission, 235 hp engine:
▪ 3.73 differential – 18,000 GCWR/17,000 GCWR for the
states of CA, ME, MA.
▪ 4.10 differential – 20,000 GCWR/19,000 GCWR for the
states of CA, ME, MA.
2500 regular cab and quad cab, 4x2 and 4x4, six-speed or
48RE automatic transmission. 3.73 or 4.10 differential,
High Output/305 hp engine – 20,000 GCWR.
3500 regular cab and quad cab, 4x2 and 4x4, five-speed,
250 hp engine, single or dual rear wheels:
▪ 3.73 differential – 19,000 GCWR/18,000 GCWR for the
states of CA, ME, MA.
▪ 4.10 differential – 21,000 GCWR/20,000 GCwr for the
states of CA, ME, MA.
3500 single or dual wheels, regular cab and quad cab, 4x2
and 4x4, 47RE automatic transmission, 235 hp engine:
▪ 3.73 differential – 18,000 GCWR/17,000 GCWR for the
states of CA, ME, MA.
▪ 4.10 differential – 20,000 GCWR/19,000 GCWR for the
states of CA, ME, MA.
3500 regular cab and quad cab, 4x2 and 4x4, six-speed or
48RE transmission, High Output/ 305 hp engine:
▪ 3.73 differential – 21,000 GCWR.
▪ 4.10 differential – 23,000 GCWR.
Summary: Varies with model and options. Maximum tow
rating is a 3500 series with standard cab, long bed, manual
transmission, 4x2, 4.10 axle ratio = 23,000 GCWR.
Cab/Chassis Models:
Not ofered by the factory. However, commercial owners
could order a “box delete” option.
Comments:
This all-new body and cab interior layout also features options not previously offered. American rear axle features a
larger ring and pinion set for greater strength and durability.
New body gets new exterior paint colors and new interior
upholstery colors and options. Cummins badging is moved
form front doors to front fender edges near bumper.
At mid-year the 47RE automatic transmission was discontinued. The 305 hp High Output engine was matched to a
NV5600 six-speed manual transmission and a new 48RE
automatic transmission.
Dawna Eickhoff
A ‘03-newer Third generation truck.
( TDR Member Archives)
14
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
2004 Turbo Diesel
(also 2004.5 models)
What is New:
See 2003 model for description of new body and frame.
Minor trim and color changes.
2004 model engine ratings and transmission choices are
different for California, Maine, Massachusetts, New York
and Vermont. These states were given the 235 HP/460
ft-lbs engine only.
At mid-year the 2004.5 engine with 325 HP and 600 ft-lbs
torque is released. With it mid-year introduction this engine is now the only engine offered (50-state certified).
Five-speed manual transmission is not offered in 2004.5
models with 325/600 engine.
2004.5 model is offered with uprated 48RE automatic
transmission.
3500 Quad Cab, short bed now offered.
7/70 powertrain warranty, 7/100,000 Cummins engine warranty.
Models Available:
2500HD as standard cab, quad cab, short bed, long bed,
4x2 and 4x4.
3500HD same as above. The dual wheel 3500 is not offered with a short box.
Engine Ratings:
The 2004 engine is 305 HP and 505 ft-lbs and is available
with six-speed manual and 48RE automatic. The states
of CA, ME, MA, NY, VT are only offered the 235 HP/460
ft-lbs engine for the first half of the year.
The 2004.5 engine is 325 HP and 600 ft-lbs torque as standard with no optional engine. Offered only with six-speed
manual or 48RE automatic. This 50 state engine was/is
equipped with a catalytic converter.
Transmissions:
Early 2004 models for California, Maine, Massachusetts,New
York and Vermont: five-speed manual, NV4500HD 5th
overdrive.
All other states: six-speed manual, NV5600HD 6th overdrive.Four-speed automatic 48RE 4th overdrive with revised torque converter lockup clutch programming.
Differential Ratios Offered:
3.73 and 4.10 to 1
Maximum Tow Ratings:
2500 rugular cab and quad cab, 4x2 and 4x4, 235 HP/460
ft-lbs torque engine in the states of California, Maine,
Massachusetts, New York and Vermont:
▪ five-speed, 3.73 differential – 18,000 GCWR
▪ five-speed, 4.10 differential – 20,000 GCWR
▪ 48RE automatic, 3.73 differential – 17,0000 GCWR
▪ 48RE automatic, 4.10 differential – 19,000 GCWR
All other states with the 305 HP/505 ft-lbs engine or the
2004.5 325 HP/600 ft-lbs engine (all states approved)
were shown to have a 20,000 GCWR regardless of transmission or axle ratio.
3500 single or dual wheels, regular cab and quad cab, 4x2
and 4x4, 235 HP/460 ft-lbs torque engine in the states of
California, Maine, Massachusetts, New York and Vermont:
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
▪ five-speed, 3.73 differential – 18,000 GCWR
▪ five-speed, 4.10 differential – 20,000 GCWR
▪ 48RE automatic, 3.73 differential – 17,000 GCWR
▪ 48RE automatic, 4.10 differential – 19,000 GCWR
All other states with the 305 HP/505 ft-lbs engine or the
2004.5 325HP/600 ft-lbs engine (all-states approved),
with either an automatic transmission or six-speed:
▪ 3.73 differential – 21,000 GCWR
▪ 4.10 differential – 23,000 GCWR
Summary: Varies by model and options. Maximum is quad
cab or standard cab 4x2, six-speed manual, 4.10 axle ratio,
4x2 = 23,000 GCWR.
Cab Chassis Models:
Not offered by the factory. Howeve,r commercial owners
could order a “box delete” option.
Comments:
The 2004 model year was an exciting one for Dodge/Cummins fans. At year end, the bragging rights to the most powerful diesel engine belonged to Ram owners with an engine
certification of 325 HP/610 ft-lbs torque. It is interesting to
watch as the horsepower race continues.
2005 Turbo Diesel
What is New:
Polished aluminum wheel replaces the painted aluminum
sheel on 2500/3500 SRW models.
Optional on the Quad Cab are a power sunroof and satellite radio.
The Cummins 325/600 engine was voted one of the “10
Best Engines” by Ward’s
Models Available:
2500HD as standard cab, quad cab, short bed, long bed,
4x2 and 4x4.
3500HD same as above. The dual wheel 3500 is not offered with a short box.
Engine Ratings:
For 2005 the only rating offered is 325 HP and 610 ft-lbs
torque. The engine is 50-state approved.
Transmissions:
Throughout the 2005 model year the New Venture NV5600,
six-speed manual was replaced by a Mercedes Benz designed G56 six-speed manual transmission. The reason
for the change: New Venture Gear was a joint venture
company between DaimlerChrysler and GM. In December of 2002 the partnership was disolved and New Venture was/is wholly owned by GM.
The ratios of the NV5600 versus the G56 are shown below:
1
2
3
4
5
6
R
G56
6.29 3.48 2.10 1.38 1.0 .79 5.74
NV5600 5.63 3.38 2.04 1.39 1.0 .73 5.63
The automatic transmission remained the 48RE.
Differential Ratios Offered:
3.73 and 4.10 to 1
15
Maximum Tow Ratings:
In the 2005 Ram Truck brochure the factory simply lists
payload and towing weights. With the previous GCWR
numbers we’ve used, the reader knows that the maximum
trailer weight plus weight of the truck equals the GCWR.
Effectively, the heavier the truck is, the less the trailer can
weigh to not exceed the GCWR.
The 2005 brochure does not list truck weight or the TDR
would do-the-math inorder to present consistant data to
you. The data we have is presented below:
This 6.7 liter engine will be used in the pickup trucks in 2007
as it was designed to meet the tighter 2007 emissions regulations.
Models Available:
2500HD as standard cab, quad cab, short bed, long bed,
4x2 and 4x4.
3500HD same as above. The dual wheel 3500 is not offered with a short box.
The Mega Cab is offered only with a short box. With the
dual rear wheel/3500 Mega Cab, Dodge had to introduce
a short box option.
2005 Payload and Towing Maximums
Payload
Trailer Weight
2500
Regular Cab 4x2
Regular Cab 4x4
Quad Cab 4x2
Quad Cab 4x4
2740
2340
2520
2230
13,600
13,200
13,350
13,100
3500
Regular Cab 4x2
Regular Cab 4x4
Quad Cab 4x2
Quad Cab 4x4
4910
5200
4550
4840
16,250
15,850
16,300
15,950
Cab Chassis Models:
Not offered by the factory. However, commercial owners
could order a “box delete” option.
2006 Turbo Diesel
What is New:
In the fall of 2005, Dodge introduces the Mega Cab as a
2006 model. Although it has four doors, the current Quad
Cab has always been seen by Dodge as an extended cab
model.
As its entry into the crew cab marketplace, the Dodge Mega
Cab boastfully features the following largest/best-in-class
attributes:
▪ Largest, longest cab – 143.2 cubic feet, 111.1 inches long
▪ Largest interior cargo valume – 72.2 cubic feet
▪ Largest cargo volumne behind rear seat – 7.7 cubic feet
▪ Largest flat floor load area – 16.8 square feet
▪ Largest second-row leg room – 44.2 inches
▪ Largest rear-door opening – 34.5 inches wide, 35.5 inches tall
▪ Largest rear-door open angle – 85 degrees
▪ First-ever reclining rear seats – 22 to 37-degree seatback angle
Going hand-in-hand with the Mega Cab introduction, Dodge
redesigned the interior dash and seats. A minor facelift to
the truck’s headlights, bumper and grill were a part of the
2006 introduction.
In the spring of 2006 dodge introduced the Chassis Cab
truck for commercial markets. The truck started production
in the summer months and was officially known as a 2007
model. The engine for the Chassis Cab was a new 6.7-liter
Cummins Turbo Diesel.
16
Chassis Cab Models:
Introduced in March of 2006 the Commercial Chassis Cab
trucks are initially available as a 3500 series truck. The 3500
series truck is available in single or dual rear wheels (SRW/
DRW). The truck is available in both regular cab and Quad
Cab configurations. The regular cab can be purchased with
a 60-inch cab-to-rear axle length or a 84-inch cab-to-axle.
The Quad Cab can only be purchased with a 60-inch cabto-rear axle length.
Engine Ratings:
Again, for 2006 the only engine offered is the 50-state approved, 325 HP and 610 ft-lbs torque Cummins Turbo
Diesel.
The Chassis Cab gets the 6.7 liter Cummins engine rated at
305 HP and 610 ft-lbs torque.
Transmissions:
Consumer pickup models 2500 and 3500 – no changes
from 2005
Commercial Cab and Chassis 3500 – G56, six-speed
manual transmission (same as consumer pickup), Aisin
AS68RC, six-speed automatic transmission
The Aisin internal gear ratios are as follow:
Aisin AS68RC
1
2
3
4
5
3.74 2.00
1.34
1.00
.77
6
.63
Differential Ratios Offered:
3.73 and 4.10 to 1
Both the 3.73 and 4.10 are offered in consumer pickup
models 2500 and 3500.
In the Chassis Cab model 3500 both the 3.73 and 4.10 are
available with the G56 manual transmission. The 4.10 is
the only axle ratio offered with the Aisin AS68RC automatic
transmission.
Maximum Towing Capacities:
With the single power offering of 325 HP/610 ft-lbs torque
the GCWR towing capacities are simplified. The numbers
below are for regular, Quad and Mega Cab trucks.
2500 Manual or Automatic transmission with a 3.73 differential – 20,000
2500 Automatic transmission, 4.10 differential – 20,000
3500 Automatic transmission, 3.73 differential – 21,000
3500 Automatic transmission, 4.10 differential – 23,000
3500 Manual transmission, 3.73 differential – 23,000
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
2007 Turbo Diesel
What is New:
Mid-year introduction (2007.5) of Cummins 6.7 liter engine
in consumer pickup models 2500 and 3500. Mid-year introduction of a Chrysler-supplied 68RE, six-speed automatic transmission.
Mid-year introduction (February 2007) of commercial Chassis Cab models 4500 and 5500. These trucks would officially be labeled as 2008 model year vehicles.
Models Available:
Same as 2006.
2500HD as standard cab, quad cab, short bed, long bed,
4x2 and 4x4.
3500HD same as above. The dual wheel 3500 is not offered with a short box.
The Mega Cab is available in the 2500 or 3500 single rear
wheels, or 3500 dual rear wheels. It is only offered with a
short cargo box.
Chassis Cab Models:
The Commercial Chassis Cab trucks are initially available
as a 3500 series truck. The 3500 series truck is available in
single or dual rear wheels (SRW/DRW). The truck is available in both regular cab and Quad Cab configurations. The
regular cab can be purchased with a 60-inch cab-to-rear
axle length or a 84-inch cab-to-axle. The Quad Cab can
only be purchased with a 60-inch cab-to-rear axle length.
Engine Ratings:
For early ‘07 models, 325 HP and 610 ft-lbs for consumer
pickup models 2500 and 3500. This is a carry-over of the
Cummins 5.9 liter engine.
The 2007.5 consumer pickup models 2500 and 3500 received the Cummins 6.7 liter engine rated at 350 HP and
650 ft-lbs torque with the automatic transmission, 350HP
and 610 ft-lbs torque with the manual transmission.
The engine was introduced in January 2007 to meet a more
stringent set of diesel exhaust emissions standards. The
engine and its exhaust aftertreatment components were
praised by the press as the engine not only met the 2007
standards, it also met the upcomming 2010 emissions
standards. The fact that no further changes would be
necessary for 2010 gave Dodge and Cummins an advantage over competitive engines that would go through
two sets of hardware changes.
The 6.7-liter’s introduction was not without its own set of
problems. Multiple software calibrations were implemented to solve problems with soot. This engine, with its
electronic controls, NOx filter, and particulate filter, does
not lend itself to “hot rodding” as did the previous 5.9-liter
engine.
305 HP and 610 ft-lbs for commercial Chassis Cab 3500
models using the Cummins 6.7 liter engine. The 4500
and 5500 trucks are introduced with the same engine and
engine ratings as the 3500 Chassis Cab.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Transmissions:
For early 2007 the consumer pickup models 2500 and 3500
used the existing G56, six-speed manual transmission
and 48RE, four-speed manual transmission.
With the mid-year (2007.5) introduction of the 6.7 liter engine the automatic transmission was revised to a Chrysler-supplied 68RFE, six-speed unit.
48 RE Versus 68RFE gear Ratio Comparison
1
48RE 2.45
‘03.5-‘07
‘07.5-newer 68RFE 3.23
2
1.45
1.84
3
1.0
1.41
4
.69
1.00
5
6
.82
.63
With the mid-year (2007.5) introduction of the 6.7 liter engine the manual transmission (the Mercedes Benz designed G56 six-speed unit) was revised. In order to raise
the overall gear ratios in the manual transmission the redesign dropped a tooth on the input shaft. The resulting
gear ratios are as follow.
g56 Versus g56R gear Ratio Comparison
g56
‘05-‘07
‘07.5-newer g56R
1
6.26
5.94
2
3.48
3.28
3
2.10
1.98
4
5
1.38 1.00
1.31 1.00
6
.79
.74
Commercial Cab Chassis – no changes from 2006: G56R,
six-speed manual transmission and Aisin AS68RC, sixspeed automatic transmission.
Differential Ratios Offered (Consumer 2500/3500 trucks):
With the mid-year (known as ’07.5) change to the Cummins
6.7-liter engine there was also a change in the differentials
that were offered by Dodge. Starting mid-year:
3.43 and 3.73 with the G56R manual transmission
3.43, 3.73 and 4.10 with the 68RFE automatic transmission.
Differential Ratios Offered (Chassis Cab 3500):
In the Chassis Cab model 3500 both the 3.73 and 4.10 are
available with the G56 manual transmission. The 4.10 is
the only axle ratio offered with the Aisin AS68RC automatic
transmission
Maximum Towing Capacities:
Again in 2007, with the single power offering of 325 HP/610
ft-lbs torque the GCWR towing capacities are simplified.
The numbers below are for regular, Quad and Mega Cab
trucks.
2500 Manual or Automatic transmission with a 3.73 differential – 20,000
2500 Automatic transmission, 4.10 differential – 20,000
3500 Automatic transmission, 3.73 differential – 21,000
3500 Automatic transmission, 4.10 differential – 23,000
3500 Manual transmission, 3.73 differential – 23,000
17
2008 Turbo Diesel
What is New:
Introduced to the public in February 2007 at the Chicago
Auto Show, the Chassis Cab models 4500 and 5500 were
officially known as 2008 model trucks. These Chassis Cab
trucks share the same powertrain as the 3500 truck that
was introduced in March of 2006. For the 4500 and 5500
trucks the differentials are larger. The front axle is made by
Magna, the rear axle is made by Dana.
Available gearing for the existing 3500 Chassis Cab:
3.73 and 4.10 with the manual transmission
4.10 with the automatic transmission
Available gearing for the 4500 Chassis Cab:
4.10 and 4.44 to 1 for the manual transmission
4.44 and 4.88 to 1 for the automatic transmission
Available gearing for the 5500 Chassis Cab:
4.44 and 4.88 to 1 for the manual transmission
4.88 to 1 for the automatic transmission
Models Available:
Same as 2006 and 2007
2500 HD as standard cab, quad cab, with short bed or long
bed in 4x2 and 4x4 configurations.
3500 HD same as above, although the dual wheel 3500 is
not offered wiith a short box.
The Mega Cab is available in the 2500 or 3500 single rear
wheels, or 3500 dual rear whels. It is only offered with a
short cargo box.
Chassis Cab Models:
The 3500 is available in single or dual rear wheels
The 4500 and 5500 are dual rear wheels.
All three Chassis Cabs are available with a regular cab or
Quad Cab configuration.
With the 3500, the regular cab can be purchased with a
60-inch cab-to-rear axle length or a 84-inch cab-to-axle
length with single or dual rear whels (SRW/DRW). The
3500 Quad Cab can only be purchased with the 60-inch
cab-to-rear axle lenth with SRW or DRW.
The 4500 and 5500 trucks are only offered with dual rear
wheels. These trucks allow regular cab or Quad Cab
cabins to be used with the 60-inch or 84-inch cab-to-axle
length.
Engine Ratings:
Same as 2007.5
For 2008 the engine ratings for the Cummins 6.7-liter
engine in consumer pickup models 2500 and 3500 remained the same as they were when the 6.7-liter engine
was introduced in January of 2007: 350 HP and 650 ft-lbs
of torque with the automatic transmission and 350 HP
and 610 ft-lbs of torque with the manual transmission.
The engine ratings for the Cummins 6.7-liter engine in the
Chassis Cab models 3500, 4500 and 5500 remained the
same as they were when the engine was introduced in
the first Chassis Cab 3500 model in March of 2006: 305
HP and 610 ft-lbs or torque.
18
Transmissions:
Same as 2007.5
In the consumer pickup models 2500 and 3500 the automatic and manual transmission are the same as those
used in the ‘07.5 introduction of the Cummins 6.7-liter
engine in January of 2007. The nomenclature for the automatic transmission is the 68RFE; the nomenclature for
the manual transmission is G56R. The gear ratio comparison chart is found in the “2007 Turbo Diesel” write-up.
Commercial Chasis Cab models 3500, 4500, 5500 get the
revised G56R manual transmission. The Aisin AS68RC
six-speed automatic transmission is the same as the initial offering of the first Chassis Cab 3500 model in March
of 2006.
Differential Ratios Offered (Consumer 2500/3500 trucks):
Same as 2007.5.
3.43 and 3.73 with the G56R manual transmission
3.43, 3.73 and 4.10 with the 68RFE automatic
transmission.
Differential Ratios Offered (Chassis Cab 3500/4500/5500):
In the Chassis Cab models both the 3.73 and 4.10 are available with the G56 manual transmission. The 4.10 is the
only axle ratio offered with the Aisin AS68RC automatic
transmission
Maximum Towing Capacities:
In the 2008 Ram Truck brochure the factory has gone back
to the rating guidelines that they used in 2005 whereby
they simply list the payload and towing weights. With
previous GCWR numbers the reader knows the maximum trailer weight plus the weight of the truck equals the
GCWR. Effectively, the heavier the truck is, the less the
trailer can weigh in order to not exceed the GCWR.
The 2008 brochure does not list the truck weight or the TDR
would do-the-math in order to present consistant data to
you. The data we have from the 2008 brochure is presented below:
2500
Regular Cab 4x2
Regular Cab 4x4
Quad Cab 4x2
Quad Cab 4x4
Mega Cab 4x2
Mega Cab 4x4
Payload
Trailer Weight
2,680
2,270
2,520
2,070
2,050
1,520
13,550
13,100
13,350
12,900
12,850
12,350
3500 (DRW equipped/4.10 axle)
Regular Cab 4x2
4,790
Regular Cab 4x4
5,120
Quad Cab 4x2
4,480
Quad Cab 4x4
4,780
Mega Cab 4x2
3,200
Mega Cab 4x4
2,770
16,150
16,750
16,150
16,750
15,550
16,100
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
2009 Turbo Diesel
What is New:
Although the Dodge Ram 1500 model received a new body
and interior, the Turbo Diesel 2500 and 3500 consumer
pickups and 3500, 4500, 5500 Chassis Cab trucks saw
only minor trim revisions in this carryover/transitional model
year.
Models Available:
Same as 2006, 2007, and 2008
2500 HD as standard cab, quad cab, with short bed or long
bed in 4x2 and 4x4 configurations.
3500 HD same as above, although the dual wheel 3500 is
not offered with a short box.
The Mega Cab is available in the 2500 or 3500 single rear
wheels, or 3500 dual rear wheels. It is only offered with a
short cargo box.
Chassis Cab Models:
Same as 2008.
The 3500 is available in single or dual rear wheels
The 4500 and 5500 are dual rear wheels.
All three Chassis Cabs are available with a regular cab or
Quad Cab configuration.
With the 3500, the regular cab can be purchased with a
60-inch cab-to-rear axle length or a 84-inch cab-to-axle
length with single or dual rear wheels (SRW/DRW). The
3500 Quad Cab can only be purchased with the 60-inch
cab-to-rear axle length with SRW or DRW.
The 4500 and 5500 trucks are only offered with dual rear
wheels. These trucks allow regular cab or Quad Cab
cabins to be used with the 60-inch or 84-inch cab-to-axle
length.
• Revised fuel filter assembly that features a dual filter with
greater filter area to strip away water as well as a secondary fuel filter with a smaller 5-micron rating. (The current
fuel filter is 7-micron). The new fuel filter was released
for production in January and the part can be retrofitted
to the ’07.5 to early ’09 engines. Service parts for these
engines were released in July 2009.
• Revised water inlet housing.
Transmissions:
In the consumer pickup models 2500 and 3500 the automatic and manual transmission are the same as those
used in the ‘07.5 and ‘08. The nomenclature for the automatic transmission is the 68RFE; the nomenclature for
the manual transmission is G56R. The gear ratio comparison chart is found in the “2007 Turbo Diesel” write-up.
Commercial Chassis Cab models 3500, 4500, 5500 use the
same G56R manual transmission and Aisin AS68RC sixspeed automatic transmission.
Differential Ratios Offered (Consumer 2500/3500 trucks):
Same as 2007.5 and 2008.
3.43 and 3.73 with the G56R manual transmission
3.43, 3.73 and 4.10 with the 68RFE automatic
transmission.
Differential Ratios Offered (Chassis Cab 3500/4500/5500):
In the Chassis Cab models both the 3.73 and 4.10 are available with the G56 manual transmission. The 4.10 is the
only axle ratio offered with the Aisin AS68RC automatic
transmission
Maximum Towing Capacities:
No changes from the listing chart for 2008.
Engine Ratings:
Same as 2007.5 and 2008.
In consumer pickup models 2500 and 3500: 350 HP and
650 ft-lbs of torque with the automatic transmission and
350 HP and 610 ft-lbs of torque with the manual transmission.
The engine ratings for the Cummins 6.7-liter engine in the
Chassis Cab models 3500, 4500 and 5500 remained the
same when the engine was introduced in 2006: 305 HP
and 610 ft-lbs or torque.
Engine Changes for 2009:
Starting in ’02, the heavy duty trucks’ introduction has followed the Dodge Ram 1500 by one year. The model year
2009 heavy duty trucks are no exception, they continue
with the same cab and chassis design. As you can expect
there are only a few subtle changes to the engine. These
changes are:
• Access port on the turbocharger’s exhaust housing that
allows for exhaust turbine cleaning as needed.
• Revised stamped steel alternator bracket.
• Revised coolant hoses and O-ring fittings for the plumbing that goes to cool the exhaust gas recirculation heat
exchanger.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
19
Fourth Generation
2010 Turbo Diesel
What is New:
All new body and cab interior layouts. The 2010 trucks are
called “Fourth Generation” by Turbo Diesel enthusiast.
For 2010, the introduction of the heavy duty pickups (2500
and 3500 series) was one year after the introduction of
Dodge’s 1500 series truck. This one-year-later protocol
mirrors the introduction of the Third Generation truck:
Dodge introduced the 1500 trucks in 2002, the heavy
duty 2500 and 3500 trucks were introduced in 2003. So,
although some may look back and try to correlate the oneyear difference due to Chrysler’s financial woes of 2009,
such is not the case with the heavy duty 2500 and 3500
consumer pickup trucks.
The same cannot be said for the 3500/4500/5500
commercial Chassis Cab trucks. They were scheduled for
2010 introduction, but were delayed until mid-year 2010 and
Dodge chose to call the trucks 2011 model year vehicles.
Therefore, our focus on “What is New” for this section of the
Buyer’s Guide will pertain to the 2500 and 3500 consumer
pickup trucks only. The commercial Chassis Cabs are a
carryover from 2009.
If you look backward to the year 2003 and the introduction
of the Third Generation truck you’ll see that there were
sweeping changes to the truck’s frame and chassis. And,
if you followed Dodge’s introduction of the 1500 pickup
truck as a 2009 model, you would also note big changes to
the truck’s frame, chassis and rear suspension as Dodge
introduced rear suspension coil springs in lieu of the
traditional leaf springs. This gave the 1500 truck a more
compliant ride with only a small sacrifice in load capacity.
For 2010 two of the frames for the 2500 and 3500
consumer pickup trucks were brought over from the
previous generation trucks with the 140.5 wheelbase and
the 160.5 wheelbase. New for 2010 are the 149.5 and 169.5
wheelbase platforms.
Models Available:
What, no Quad Cab? In a departure from the Third
Generation truck where wheelbase dimensions and interior
configurations were shared with the smaller 1500 series
truck, the 2010 Ram 2500 and 3500 trucks do not offer the
interior configuration known as a Quad Cab. A quick look
at the wheelbase options for the 1500 truck reveals that it
is offered with a 120 and 140 inch wheelbase. On the 1500
truck’s 120” wheelbase Dodge offers a regular cab with a
6’4” bed. On their 140” wheelbase you could order:
Regular Cab, 8’ bed
Quad Cab, 6’4” bed
Crew Cab, 5’7” bed
20
Focus on heavy Duty Trucks
As mentioned, the 2500 and 3500 trucks start the product
offering with a 140.5 wheelbase and the Quad Cab interior
is not available with the bigger trucks.
In the previous Third Generation truck there were two
wheelbases that were used, a 140.5 platform (regular
cab/8’ bed and Quad Cab/6’ bed), and the 160.5 platform
(Quad Cab/8’ bed and Mega Cab/6’ bed).
It is our understanding that many of the underpinnings for
2010 Heavy Duty are carried over from the proven Third
Generation chasses. However, the tale-of-the-tape shows,
as mentioned, two that were carried over and two new
wheelbases and the various truck configurations for 2010:
140.5 platform
2500
3500 SRW
regular cab/8’ box
regular cab/8’ box
149.5 platform (new platform)
2500
Crew Cab/6’4” box
3500 SRW Crew Cab/6’4” box
160.5 platform (new platform)
2500
Mega Cab/6’4” box
3500 SRW Mega Cab/6’4” box
3500 DRW Mega Cab/6’3” box
169.5 platform (new platform)
2500
Crew Cab/8’ box
3500 SRW Crew Cab/8’ box
3500 DRW Crew Cab/8’ box
(effectively a Third Generation truck)*
Chassis Cab Models:
As noted in the introduction, the 2010 Chassis Cab was
carried over from 2009, thus this truck is the same as 2006,
2007 and 2008.*
The 3500 is available in single or dual rear wheels.
The 4500 and 5500 are dual rear wheels.
All three Chassis Cabs are available with a regular cab or
Quad Cab configuration.
With the 3500, the regular cab can be purchased with a
60-inch cab-to-rear axle length or a 84-inch cab-to-axle
length with single or dual rear wheels (SRW/DRW). The
3500 Quad Cab can only be purchased with the 60-inch
cab-to-rear axle length with SRW or DRW.
The 4500 and 5500 trucks are only offered with dual rear
wheels. These trucks allow regular cab or Quad Cab
cabins to be used with the 60-inch or 84-inch cab-to-axle
length.
* Economically for Chrysler, 2010 was a difficult year.
Although press release notes and literature show that the
2010 Chassis Cab was scheduled to receive the Fourth
Generation cabin, my notes show that the Chassis Cab
did not show up at the dealer showroom with the new
cabin until 2011.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Engine Ratings:
If you look back to the write-up on the “2007 Turbo Diesel—
Engine Ratings” you will find that the mid-year (2007.5)
introduction of the 6.7-liter engine was done to meet more
stringent emissions standards. The write-up also explains
that this engine was also designed to meet the 2010
emissions standards.
Long story, short version: for 2010 the engine ratings for
the Cummins 6.7-liter engine in consumer pickup models
2500 and 3500 remained the same as they were when the
engine was introduced in January of 2007 with a 2007.5
model year designation: 350 HP and 650 ft-lbs of torque
with the automatic transmission and 350 HP and 610 ft-lbs
of torque with the manual transmission.
The engine ratings for the Cummins 6.7-liter engine in the
Chassis Cab models 3500, 4500 and 5500 remained the
same when the engine was introduced in the first Chassis
Cab 3500 model in March of 2006: 305 HP and 610 ft-lbs
of torque.
Engine Changes for 2010:
Turbo Diesel owners know that the powertrain for the 2010
Heavy Duty truck is, for the most part, a carry over from the
previous Third Generation truck. Therefore you will not find
any change to the air filter, oil filter or transmission filters.
However, the fuel filter, belts and hoses have been changed
for 2010.
Mopar
Fleetguard
Carryover Parts
Air Filter
53034051
Oil Filter
5083285 LF3972/LF16035
Aisin Automatic (4x4 and 4x2) 68019688
68RFE Automatic 4x4
5013470
68RFE Automatic 4x2
5179267
68RFE Automatic Screw-on 68019688
(4x4 and 4x2)
New Parts
Fuel Filter and Cartridge
Fuel Filter only
68065609
68065608 FS43255
Further Information:
New Powertrain Control Module - The engine-mounted
control module is new for MY2010. For pickups with the
68RFE transmission, the new CM2200 integrates engine
and transmission control functions into one controller in
place of the separate engine and transmission control
modules used on prior trucks.
New Fuel Filter - 2010 brings a new fuel filter assembly with
improved access for easier and cleaner maintenance. The
new fuel filter is serviced from above similar to 5.9’s, and
the fuel filter drain design has also been updated for easier
access. The drain is now utilizes a 1/4-turn valve that can
also be easily accessed from above. There is also a new
fuel system priming procedure that will be discussed in
detail in the next issue.
trucks. It is important to note that the earlier lower temperature
thermostat should not be used in newer trucks, as it will cause
oil change monitor inaccuracy and other issues. Similarly,
the later 200° thermostat should not be used in earlier trucks.
Maintenance - All of the maintenance intervals remain the
same for the new 2010 pickups, with the exception of the
removal of the EGR valve cleaning at 67,500 miles. The
Closed Crankcase Ventilation filter and EGR cooler
maintenance are still required at this interval.
Transmissions:
In the consumer pickup models 2500 and 3500 the automatic
and manual transmission are the same as those used
in the ‘07.5 introduction of the Cummins 6.7-liter engine
in January of 2007. The nomenclature for the automatic
transmission is the 68RFE; the nomenclature for the
manual transmission is G56R. The gear ratio comparison
chart is found below.
Commercial Chassis Cab models 3500, 4500, 5500 offer
the G56R manual transmission. The Aisin AS68RC sixspeed automatic transmission is the same as the initial
offering of the first Chassis Cab 3500 model in March of
2006.
Driveline Notes:
Engine: Carry-over from Third Generation trucks.
Cummins 6.7-Liter
408 cubic inches
Bore: 4.21 (107mm)
Stroke: 4.88 (124mm)
Power: 350hp @ 3000rpm
Torque: 650 lb-ft @ 1500rpm
Transmission: Both the automatic (68RFE) and manual
(G56) transmissions are carried over from the Third
Generation trucks.
68RFE Automatic (2500 and 3500 trucks)
1
3.231
2
1.837
3
1.41
4
1
5
.816
6
.625
Reverse 4.44
Overall top gear: 2.13 with the 3.42 axle; 2.33 with 3.73
axle; 2.56 with 4.10 axle
G56 Manual
1
5.94
2
3.28
3
1.98
4
1.31
5
1
6
.74
Reverse
5.42
Overall top gear: 2.13 with the 3.42 axle; 2.76 with 3.73
axle; 3.03 with 4.10 axle
New Thermostat - The new engines have a 200° thermostat,
which is higher than previous Cummins engines. The
temperature gauge will read slightly higher than the earlier
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
21
Differential Ratios Offered (Consumer 2500/3500 trucks):
Same as 2007.5 and 2008.
3.43 and 3.73 with the G56R manual transmission
3.43, 3.73 and 4.10 with the 68RFE automatic
transmission.
Transfer Cases:
Carryover from Third Generation trucks.
NV 271 (manual) – Standard on base trucks
NV 273 (electric) – Optional on SLT trim trucks
Standard on Laramie trim trucks
Low range ratio: 2.72
Towing Charts:
For 2010 the available factory specifications are far
more detailed than the last data that we had in 2008. For
comparison I brought over the data from 2008. Yes, there is
quite a bit more data to consider.
Ratings from 2008
Payload
Trailer Weight
2500
Regular Cab 4x2
Regular Cab 4x4
Quad Cab 4x2
Quad Cab 4x4
Mega Cab 4x2
Mega Cab 4x4
2,680
2,270
2,520
2,070
2,050
1,520
3500 (DRW equipped/4.10 axle)
Regular Cab 4x2
4,790
Regular Cab 4x4
5,120
Quad Cab 4x2
4,480
Quad Cab 4x4
4,780
Mega Cab 4x2
3,200
Mega Cab 4x4
2,770
Payload Ratings for 2010
Automatic
Manual
13,550
13,100
13,350
12,900
12,850
12,350
2500
Regular Cab 4x2
Regular Cab 4x4
*Crew Cab 4x2
*Crew Cab 4x4
Mega Cab 4x2
Mega Cab 4x4
2,590
2,250
2,290
2,450
1,980
2,140
2,490
2,140
2,190
2,370
1,910
2,070
16,150
16,750
16,150
16,750
15,550
16,100
3500 (DRW)
Regular Cab 4x2
Regular Cab 4x4
*Crew Cab 4x2
*Crew Cab 4x4
Mega Cab 4x2
Mega Cab 4x4
4,750
5,130
4,280
4,760
3,130
2,720
4,650
5,050
4,190
4,680
3,060
2,640
*The Crew Cab numbers in this chart represent the weight
value average of the long box and short box configurations.
3.42
Maximum Trailer Ratings for 2010
Automatic
Manual
3.73
4.10
3.42
3.73
2500
Regular Cab 4x2
Regular Cab 4x4
*Crew Cab 4x2
*Crew Cab 4x4
Mega Cab 4x2
Mega Cab 4x4
10,450
10,100
10,150
9,700
9,850
9,400
13,450
13,100
13,150
12,700
12,850
12,400
13,450
13,100
13,150
12,700
12,850
12,400
12,350
12,000
12,075
11,600
11,750
11,300
13,350
13,000
13,075
12,600
12,750
12,300
3500 (DRW)
Regular Cab 4x2
Regular Cab 4x4
*Crew Cab 4x2
*Crew Cab 4x4
Mega Cab 4x2
Mega Cab 4x4
10,100
9,800
10,150
9,850
9,800
9,400
14,100
13,800
14,100
13,850
13,800
13,400
17,600
17,300
17,150
16,850
16,800
16,400
12,000
11,700
12,000
11,750
11,700
13,700
14,000
13,700
14,000
13,750
11,350
13,350
*The Crew Cab numbers in this chart represent the weight value average of the long box and short box configurations.
22
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
2011 Turbo Diesel
What is New:
As mentioned in the introduction to the Fourth Generation
truck for 2010, the 2010 commercial Chassis Cab trucks were
a Third Generation carry over. Finally, in 2011 ,the Chassis
Cab trucks received the new body styling. (Remember the
styling and the cabin were previewed to the press in 1500
series trim at the North American International Auto Show in
December of 2007. (I can only imagine that it took 4 years
for the cabin to migrate to Chassis Cab vehicles because of
the difficult economic recession of 2008-2012.)
Models Available:
The 2500 and 3500 consumer trucks are offered in the
same configurations and platforms as the 2010 model year.
140.5 platform
2500
regular cab/8’ box
3500 SRW regular cab/8’ box
149.5 platform
2500
Crew Cab/6’4” box
3500 SRW Crew Cab/6’4” box
160.5 platform
2500
Mega Cab/6’4” box
3500 SRW Mega Cab/6’4” box
3500 DRW Mega Cab/6’3” box
169.5 platform
2500
Crew Cab/8’ box
3500 SRW Crew Cab/8’ box
3500 DRW Crew Cab/8’ box
Not to be outdone, in February 2011 Dodge/Cummins
announced a new “High Output” (HO) rating for the Turbo
Diesel engine, still 350 horsepower, but with 800 ft/lb of
torque. Actual production of this High Output engine started
in April, so effectively the engine was only offered for the
last quarter of the 2011 model year.
Hand-in-hand with the engine’s higher torque rating, Dodge
offered a special “Max Tow” package so that they could
boast the highest gross combined weight rating (GCWR);
a 30,000 pound number with a segment-leading 22,700
pound maximum trailer tow rating. As you might correctly
conclude, “Max Tow” is a specific truck, a 3500 dually with
a 4.10 axle ratio.
Engine Ratings (Chassis Cab 3500/4500/5500):
The engine ratings for the Cummins 6.7-liter engine in the
Chassis Cab models 3500, 4500 and 5500 remained the
same when the engine was introduced in 2006: 305hp and
610 ft-lbs of torque.
However, effective January 1, 2010, there was diesel
exhaust emission legislation that forced Dodge and
Cummins to add hardware to the truck to address the NOx
(oxides of nitrogen) exhaust emission. The technology they
used is called selective catalyst reduction or SCR. The
hardware needed for the SCR aftertreatment: hot diesel
exhaust; a catalytic converter; diesel exhaust fluid (also
known as DEF or urea); holding tank and injector for the
DEF; and computer control of the DEF injection.
Chassis Cab Models:
(See “Notes” at the end of the 2011 article.)
The 3500 is available in single or dual rear wheels.
The 4500 and 5500 are dual rear wheels.
Transmission:
Same as 2010 with both the consumer 2500/3500 trucks
and the commercial cab chassis models 3500/4500/5500
trucks.
All three Chassis Cabs are available with a regular cab or
Crew Cab configuration.
The 3500 truck is offered in three different wheelbase
configurations: 143.5; 167.5; and 172.4.
The 4500/5500 trucks are offered in six different wheelbase
configurations: 144.5; 168.5; 192.5; 204.5; 173.4; 197.4.
Towing Charts:
For the consumer 2500/3500 trucks there was only one
significant change to the towing chard that was listed for
2010—a change to higher numbers for a 2500 series truck
with an automatic transmission and 4:10 differential.
The revision to the chart:
Engine Ratings (Consumer 2500/3500 trucks):
Consumer pickup models 2500 and 3500 the ratings offered
at the 2011 model year introduction were a carryover from
the 2010 model year; 350/650 for the automatic; 350/610
for the manual transmission. Please note that the emissions
aftertreatment on the consumer 2500/3500 truck is different
than the system used on the commercial chassis cab trucks.
The consumer trucks have a NOx catalyst to address NOx
emissions. The chassis cab trucks use selective catalyst
reduction (SCR) to lower NOx.
Engine ratings for the consumer market are often influenced
by marketing. The “who has the most power” competition
between Dodge, Ford, and GM was raised higher in 2010
with Ford and GM offering new engines to meet the 2010
emissions legislation (remember the Dodge/Cummins
engine was 2010 certified when it was introduced in 2007.5)
as well as higher horsepower ratings. The numbers:
Ford: 390hp/735 torque, then in August 2010 400/800.
GM: 397hp/765 torque.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Maximum Trailer Ratings 2011 (revised from 2010)
Automatic
4.10 ratio
2500
Regular Cab 4x2
Regular Cab 4x4
*Crew Cab 4x2 Short box
*Crew Cab 4x2 Long box
*Crew Cab 4x4 Short box
*Crew Cab 4x4 Long box
Mega Cab 4x2
Mega Cab 4x4
15,450
15,050
15,200
15,050
14,700
14,650
14,800
14,300
*Unlike the averaging that was done in the 2010 table
summary, the Crew Cab numbers in this chart show
exactly the numbers in the Ram literature.
23
The balance of the towing chart for the other consumer
2500 and 3500 trucks is the same as the 2010 chart. I do
not have an explanation for the higher numbers that were
released for the 2500.
Finally, as was mentioned in the Engine Ratings Section
for the 2500/3500 consumer trucks, there was a late 2011
release of the 6.7-liter engine with a revised torque rating
of 800 ft-lbs. With this engine there was a release of a
“Max Tow” package for a 3500 dually with an automatic
transmission and 4.10 differential. This data is not included
in the 2011 Towing Chart(s) above.
Notes About 2011:
If you look further in this buyer’s guide you’ll notice that
Dodge uses model codes to spell-out the change to a new
vehicle design. Their chart (printed below) clearly shows
that the Chassis Cab trucks finally changed to the Fourth
Generation body in 2011.
Series
2500 Pickup
3500 Pickup
3500 C/C
4500 C/C
5500 C/C
’08
DH
D1
DC
DM
DM
’09
DH
D1
DC
DM
DM
’10
DJ
D2
DC
DM
DM
’11
DJ
D2
DD
DP
DP
’12
DJ
D2
DD
DP
DP
2012 Turbo Diesel
What is New:
The world-wide economic recession equates to no real
changes to the Ram 2500/3500 consumer trucks or the Ram
3500/4500/5500 chassis cab trucks. Looking back, there
were already big plans for the model year 2013 2500/3500
consumer trucks as Ford, GM and Ram continue to battle it
out for the title of “Who can tow/haul the most/who has the
most power.”
So, in a nutshell, the 2012 Turbo Diesel data is the same
as that found in the 2011 summary on the preceding pages.
24
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
your notes:
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
25
evolution of the Cummins engine, 1989-Current
Covering 1989-2004
DIESEL EXhAUST EMISISONS:
WhAT DOES IT MEAN TO ME?
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)
• One of the primary regulated pollutants from diesel engines.
To bring you an understanding of the evolution of the
Cummins engine in the Dodge pickup truck requires a
basic knowledge of diesel exhaust emissions and emission
legislation dates. As TDR subscribers know, emission
legislation dates are the driving force in the changes to
the Cummins engine hardware. To make a boring story
(emissions legislation) into a relevant topic, the subject
matter has to address “what does it mean to me?” The
best way to accomplish this goal is to crank-up the wayback machine and look at the cause and effect relationship
between exhaust emissions and engine hardware. Let’s
take a trip back to the Fall of ’97 to learn about our trucks.
After the review of the immediate “what does it mean to me?”
material, I’ll attempt to tie the big picture together with a look
at the changes that have happened over these many years.
• Reacts with hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight to
form ozone.
• Formed by reaction between nitrogen and oxygen in the
combustion chamber.
• NOx formation increases with higher combustion
temperature/efficiency/cylinder pressures.
• Methods of reduction include lower intake manifold
temperature, lower in-cylinder temperature, lower water
temperature, retarded fuel injection and combustion
optimization.
• Potential impacts can be higher fuel consumption and
requirement of a more complex cooling system.
Particulate Matter (PM)
• Often visible as black smoke.
BORINg STUFF?
While it might be tempting to skip through this subtitle, I’ll ask
for your concentrated efforts as we simplify (oversimplify?)
the two emissions components that concern the diesel
engineer: oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter
(PM). The following is a definition of these components.
• Formed when insufficient air or low combustion temperature
prohibits complete combustion of the free carbon.
• Primarily partially burned fuel and lube oil.
• Methods of control include oil consumption reduction,
catalytic converters, combustion system development,
higher fuel injection pressures, higher power output and
lower engine speeds.
Did you note the sharp, ten-fold drop in emissions from year 2004 to 2007? Wow! I recall one of the
first TDR magazines stated that emissions were the driving force behind changes to the diesel engine.
The 2007 emissions targets nail-home that statement. Certainly ultra-low sulfur fuel will help, but the engineering
it will take to meet the targets is difficult to imagine. Note our BITW articles on page 94 and 95 for further insight.
2007 TARgET:
.20
26
2007 TARgET:
.01
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
To oversimplify, think back to last winter and the many
fireside evenings you enjoyed. As you built the fire, there
was inefficient combustion, characterized by black smoke
and not much heat generation. Thirty minutes into the
exercise you were sitting back in the easy chair, with a
raging fire, no more black smoke, a beautiful yellow and
blue flame, and lots of heat.
Now, refer back to the NOx and PM bullet statements and
the following realization: the design engineers could control
particulates (PM) by raising the combustion efficiency
(temperatures and pressures). But, raising temperatures
and pressures causes the formation of oxides of nitrogen
(NOx) to go out of the emissions “box.” Likewise, efficiency
and heat of combustion can be sacrificed to meet the NOx
legislation, but the particulates go out of the emissions
“box.” How does the engineer get the teeter-totter level?
As an interesting sidenote, NOx not only is formed in internal
combustion engines, it is the result of elevating air—made
up of 79% Nitrogen and 21% Oxygen—to a sufficiently
high temperature for the reaction to occur. One of the most
significant sources of NOx formation in nature is lightning.
The reaction that forms NOx is also time related; the longer
the temperature remains elevated, the greater the level of
NOx formation.
In the diesel engine, NOx formation can be correlated to
engine performance; the higher the rate of formation, the
more efficient the engine. As most are aware, the impact
of reducing NOx emissions is increased fuel consumption,
which is the result of reduced efficiency.
For a good demonstration of the principle, consider that
in-cylinder temperatures are much higher on two-stroke
engines due to fuel being provided on every stroke. Also,
consider the lack of oil control that contributes to too many
particulate emissions. These factors made it impossible for
two-stroke engines to meet emission targets and maintain
fuel consumption and other performance targets. The
1988 on-highway emissions regulations were the final
blow to the two-stroke diesel in trucking applications. Twostroke diesels are now only produced for off-highway and
generator set markets.
The method of attack in reducing NOx formation in the
diesel engine is basically twofold: a) reduce the in-cylinder
temperature and/or, b) reduce the time for the reaction to
occur. The in-cylinder temperature control is handled in part
by reduced intake manifold temperature (an intercooler/
charge air cooler). Reduced reaction time is controlled
largely by retardation of the injector timing. Also note the
new-for-2003 Turbo Diesel engine with its common-rail
fuel injection system gives a pilot shot of fuel prior to the
larger injection event. This pilot shot of fuel helps control
the diesel’s combustion event and reduces NOx formation.
Pilot injection also has greatly reduced the noise level that
is a part of diesel combustion.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
BORINg TO RELEVANT
As you review the NOx and PM bullets, you can understand
the balancing act the engineer has to accomplish. Now, add to
the emissions teeter-totter the need for the engine to maintain
or show an increase in fuel economy. Further, competition
dictates higher performance from the engine. Quite a job for
the engineering community. With the background lesson on
emissions out of the way, let’s review some of the changes in
hardware to the B 5.9 liter engines that have been used in the
Turbo Diesel pickup over its 14 years of production.
’91 - ’93 TRUCKS
1991-1993 horsepower Ratings
Horsepower ratings for both the automatic and fivespeed trucks stayed the same from the date of the truck’s
introduction in 1989—160 horsepower/400 torque.
Owners Take Note
The most significant changes to the engines have occurred
over the last ten years. In that time frame, there have been
four legislation hurdles to overcome. The first hurdle was in
1991. From the graph you can see that NOx was lowered
the previous year from 10.7 to 6. Particulates were lowered
from .60 to .25. The following changes were made to the
engine effective 1/1/1991:
Changes To Control PM 1/1/1991
Recall that the PM is predominately made up of unburned
fuel and lube oil that gets past the rings. Much of the
combustion technology swirl pattern/piston crown design
that was previously discussed in relationship to NOx is also
critical in the reduction of PM. Combustion technology is
simply making sure all the fuel and air that goes into the
cylinder gets completely burned.
To understand oil control/ring to cylinder-bore technology,
you’ve got to understand that the 1988 PM level of .6 g/
bhp/hr is a dry engine. How “dry?” Here is an example:
As a part of oil control testing, 1988 engines were directly
coupled to electric motors and cycled through the rpm
range. Fuel was not being injected into the engine, yet they
could not meet the “futuristic” 1994 standard because of
oil getting past the rings. Hey guys, we’re not talking big
clouds of blue smoke here; we’re talking minute particles.
The point: 1988 engines are “dry,” 1991 “dryer.”
P.S. Dry engines place heavy demands on the detergents
and dispersants in your motor oil. The oil’s detergent and
dispersants must keep oil and soot that used to go out the
exhaust in suspension until the appropriate oil change
interval. Is your oil up to the task? See your Cummins
distributor for Cummins’ own Premium Blue and Premium
Blue 2000 oils specifically designed for your engine.
27
Cylinder Block. As oil control is so critical for ’91, you
can see the need for cylinder bore to be concentric. Let’s
truly add a twist to our concentric definition. As you add
all the components to the block and then put the engine
in service, the block actually does twist. What you thought
was a concentric cylinder bore is no longer concentric. The
answer: an expensive honing method called “torque plate
honing.” A torque plate is fastened to the block to simulate
the twisting movement of the engine. As the stress is being
simulated, the final honing process takes place. Get your
local machine shop to duplicate that type of finish! Strict
concentricity from the bottom of the bore to the top of the
bore is also maintained with torque plate honing.
Piston Rings. The top compression ring was changed to
a lapped surface. The finish is analogous to the lapping
of a valve to a cylinder head. Again, this process is done
to control particulate matter by improving oil control (i.e.
reducing oil consumption).
Changes To Control NOx 1/1/1991
Charge Air Cooling. Also known as an intercooler, the air
intake system was changed model mid-year ’91 to coincide
with the 1/1/91 emission legislation. Compressed air from
the turbocharger is hot. Typical intake temperatures from
a non intercooled—read from the turbocharger directly to
the engine—are in the range of 300° F. Effective 1/1/91
the turbocharged air was routed through a cooling element
(known as an intercooler), attached in front of the radiator,
that uses forced or “charged” air as the vehicle is moving
to cool the turbo air. Air intake temperature after charge air
cooling is in the 120° range. As mentioned before, cooler
in-cylinder temperatures help reduce NOx formation.
head Casting. To aid in complete combustion-/fuel
atomization, the cylinder head intake ports were changed.
The air intake swirl is controlled by the contour of the intake
ports. The higher the swirl factors, the faster it spirals into
the combustion chamber.
Piston/Piston Bowl. New piston bowl geometry was
implemented to complement intake swirl change.
P.S. Understanding that the engines have to conform to the
emissions standards as of January 1 of a given year, you
can see why the early truck model ’91 engines in Dodge
pickups did not have the turbocharger intercooler as a part
of the equipment build.
’94 - ’98 TRUCKS
In the world of ever tightening exhaust
emissions, long gone is this 12-valve engine
with its mechanical P-7100 fuel pump.
1994-1997 And Early 1998 horsepower Ratings
For model years 1994-95 the horsepower for the five-speed
equipped trucks was 175 horsepower/420 torque. During
these two years the rating for the automatic equipped
trucks was 160/400. In model years ’96 through ’98 the
horsepower rating for the five-speed equipped trucks was
increased to 215 horsepower/440 torque. During these
years the rating for the automatic equipped trucks was
increased to 180/420. In ’96 California engines were kept
at the previous ’94 and ’95 specifications. Also in ‘96,
exhaust gas recirculation was required for California. In ’97
and ’98 California engines were bumped to 180/420 in fivespeed and automatic trim. All trucks in the ’94 through ’98
years had catalytic converters.
Owners Take Note
In 1994 the NOx level was lowered from 6 to 5; Particulates
were lowered from .25 to .10. The following changes were
made to the engine:
Changes To Control PM 1/1/1994
Catalytic Converter. Effective 1/1/94 Turbo Diesels had
to be equipped with a catalytic converter. The diesel cat
is different from an automotive cat. By definition catalysis
is a “modification to increase the rate of a chemical
reaction induced by a material unchanged chemically at
the end of the reaction.” In an automobile the reaction in
the catalytic converter is aimed at reducing hydrocarbons,
carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen into harmless
carbon dioxide and water vapor. A diesel cat is designed to
address the particulate component of diesel exhaust.
Low Sulfur Fuel. Remember this controversial topic?
It is controversial only because the change to low sulfur
fuel was greatly misunderstood. Let’s revisit Issue 32 for
a look at the low sulfur-myth as well as how important the
1/1/2007 lower sulfur fuel will be.
28
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Starting 1/1/94 a lower standard of 500 parts per million
(PPM) was adopted. The change down to 500 PPM was
from a previous standard that was set at 5000 PPM
(although the pre ‘94 average was 3000 PPM). The
reduction in ’94 to what has been named “low sulfur fuel”
caused quite a controversy in the world of diesel engines.
Many diesel fuel pumps developed seal leakage (our
Turbo Diesel trucks were not affected to any degree), and
the leakage led to many “Low sulfur fuel doesn’t have any
lubricity,” and “When they took out the sulfur they took out
the good stuff, curse the EPA,” type stories. If an incorrect
story gets repeated often enough it starts to sound like the
truth. The following is the real story on low sulfur fuel.
Coinciding with the introduction of low sulfur fuel, a new
set of diesel exhaust emission standards was legislated
in 1994. One of the regulated exhaust items is particulate
matter. Typically, particulates are unburned fuel and lube
oil that escapes past the piston rings. Sulfur (sulfates) are a
problem as they attach themselves to soot and hydrocarbon
particles resulting from incomplete combustion and
dramatically increase the total weight of the particulates
emissions. Because the production of sulfates is directly
proportional to the sulfur content of the fuel, the use of
low sulfur fuels in cleaner burning engines helped the
manufacturers meet the ’94 emissions standards.
Diesel Particulate Emissions Makeup
engine manufacturers supported the legislation, and ultra
low sulfur fuel will be phased-in starting in June of ’06.
Changes To Control NOx 1/1/1994
Fuel Injection Pump. Prior to ’94 only the 190 hp and up
B engines utilized the Bosch P7100 injection fuel pump.
Now the P7100 fuel pump is used on all on-highway
applications. The P7100 pump is an in-line piston type fuel
pump that replaced the Bosch VE rotary pump.
Why the change to the P7100? Higher pressure and more
precise timing of fuel to the cylinder was necessary for
’94. Remember the P7100 was already in use on the high
horsepower engines. But for ’94 the P7100 was actually
redesigned again to increase the injection pressure up
from the ’91 levels.
Fuel Injection Timing. The Bosch P7100 fuel pump is
capable of more precise fuel timing. A demonstrated use
is to retard the fuel injection to later in the piston’s travel
to top dead center. Introducing the fuel later in the cycle
keeps the in-cylinder temperature lower, resulting in lower
NOx production.
’98.5 – 2002 TRUCKS
In 1998, the NOx level changed from 5 to 4; Particulates
stayed the same at .10.
Understanding that the changes to the B engine are driven
by the need to meet a lower NOx standard for 1998, let’s
take a look at the 98.5 24-valve engine or ISB engine.
As you can see from the graph, low sulfur fuel
was a necessity for 1994. Without low sulfur fuel,
the diesel particulate output of 0.1 gram/hp/hr
would result from fuel sulfur alone, allowing for
no design variance or engine-emitted particulates.
We’ve established the need to remove the sulfur. Now
let’s address the incorrect truck stop myth about the value
of sulfur as a lubricating element. The sulfur is removed
by a process called hydrotreating. The high temperature
hydrotreating process reduced the lubricity of the fuel! As
an element, sulfur did not add to fuel lubricity.
I guess it’s easy to see how sulfur was incorrectly linked to
lubricity. Fact is, the fuel suppliers added a “lubricity package”
to their fuels to compensate for the effects of hydrotreating.
Finally, when you hear the story that “sulfur is good”
presented as factual data, you may want to excuse yourself
from the conversation. Chances are the informant believes
that Ford owns Cummins too.
With the background information out of the way, the
petroleum industry has opposed the upcoming 1/1/07
legislative reduction to 15 PPM. By and large, the diesel
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
The ISB nomenclature is an acronym for Interact System,
B-series engine. With an electronic fuel system, the
Interact System gave the engine customer a wide range of
information to aid in managing the operation of the vehicle.
ISB engines were available in standard ratings from 175
to 230 hp with limited 250 and 275 hp figures for some
RV and fire equipment markets. The Dodge ratings ended
up at 235/460 for manual transmission trucks, 215/420 for
automatic transmission trucks for ’98. Later in year 2001 a
high output rating of 245/505 was released and available
only with the six-speed, NV5600 manual transmission.
Also in the 2001 model year the rating was increased to
235/460 for the automatic transmission trucks and the fivespeed trucks.
The Cummins 24-Valve—The Changes
Changes to the engine were well documented in the May
’97 Issue of Diesel Progress magazine. To quote from
Diesel Progress: “While many things remain—the bore
and stroke, 5.9 liter displacement and overall engine
dimensions are unchanged – there have been some rather
significant changes, particularly in the upper structure of
the engine. Among the changes are a new 24-valve head,
new electronic fuel injection system, no-adjust overhead
valve configuration.”
29
Let’s focus our attention on an explanation of the electronic
fuel system and the new 24-valve cylinder head. Again
from Diesel Progress:
“Perhaps the most significant change of all is the addition
of the electronic control system. For the most part, engine
electronic controls have primarily been a technology
associated with larger engines.
“The electronic system directly controls the operation of
the Bosch VP44 fuel pump, which has its own electronic
module. The pump is a radial piston, distributor-style
unit that is used to deliver fuel at high pressure to the six
Bosch pencil-type injectors. Maximum injection pressure is
approximately 20,000 psi.
“The injectors are vertically positioned at the center of the
combustion chamber, a design made possible by the new
24-valve cylinder head. The new head design provides
each cylinder with two intake and two exhaust ports and
is engineered to provide a 10 percent improvement in
airflow, resulting in better low end torque and response,
higher power density and improved fuel consumption and
emissions performance.
“The centered injector configuration has also led to changes
in the piston design. The ISB engines still utilize singlepiece aluminum pistons, but the bowl has been centered
and the bowl geometry has been changed to accommodate
centralized injection. ‘As we center the bowl, it allows us to do
some new things in terms of piston cooling,’ said Cummins
and Jim Trueblood, technical leader for the midrange
program. ‘We’re also getting improved combustion through
better air/fuel mixing. The ring temperatures are more
uniform and we’ve found that to be very beneficial in terms
of lowering lube oil consumption.
“ ‘Lower oil consumption is a key piece to reducing the lube
SOF (soluble organic fraction), which is vital to reducing
particulates. We’ve cut the lube SOF to half of the current
product, which is a big part of the recipe that allows us
to meet the emissions standards without a catalyst,’ said
Trueblood.
“The new head also allowed for the design of a no-adjust
overhead assembly to drive valve actuation. ‘No-adjust’
is made possible by a pressure fed valve train assembly
versus the previous engine’s ‘splash’ design. Additionally,
a nominal range for valve lash has been adapted for
serviceability. The assembly uses the ‘elephant’s foot’
design in the rocker and cross-head area, which is similar
to what’s used on some much larger engines. With the
incorporation of stiffer valve springs, the system is fully
compatible with exhaust brakes.
“Other features include larger water and oil pumps, which,
along with more streamlined oil and water passages,
provide for better cooling flow; a new two-piece exhaust
manifold; a wastegated Holset HX35 turbocharger; an
integral grid heater to improve cold starting; and a new top
load fuel filter system designed by Cummins in cooperation
with its subsidiary Fleetguard.”
30
Other Changes
“A number of other structural changes have been made
to the engine, several targeting noise reduction. The cast
iron block has been redesigned and stiffened, while valve
covers and oil pans have been isolated to reduce vibration.
Double-skin front covers have been added, along with
sound-attenuating side shields, pan covers and tappet
covers as options.”
Timing Is Everything
How often have we discussed the importance of fuel pump
to engine timing, and thus the injection of fuel into the
cylinder? To eliminate confusion, I’ll not make reference
to previous issues of the TDR. Let’s simply look at timing
references in this article. Under the “Changes to Control
NOx 1/1/91,” note we talked about a change to retard the
timing of the fuel pump to engine. Again in “Changes to
Control NOx 1/1/94,” there was the change to the Bosch
P7100 pump to provide “higher pressure and more precise
timing of fuel to the cylinder.” Also note a change in timing
for the ‘94 model trucks “to keep the in-cylinder temperature
lower resulting in lower NOx production.” Whether it be a
discussion on the subject of emission control or a review of
engine performance, “timing is everything.”
The electronic control of the Bosch VP44 fuel pump is
the key to the 24-valve’s ability to meet the ‘98 emission
standards. The VP44 electronic module/black box brings
computer control to the engine. The computer control
allows for infinitely variable timing.
Yes, timing is everything. The engine’s fuel system uses inputs
from the crankshaft speed, the position of the camshaft, the
incremental angle of a timing sensor on the fuel pump, water
temperature, intake manifold temperature, vehicle speed
and load requirements to “manage” fuel injection timing and
fuel rates—thus, performance and emissions.
ThE NEW 2003-2004 hPCR CUMMINS ENgINE
First things first, the emission numbers: For 2004 the
Federal NOx will change from 4 to 2.4. The 2.4 number
is actually a combination of NOx and non-methyl
hydrocarbons. California pulled up the NOx standard
and implemented a 3.0 number effective in late 2002.
The California number parallels the Federal NOx of 2.4
that forced on the six Consent Decree manufacturers
(Cat, Mack, Detroit Diesel, Volvo, Navistar and Cummins)
as they were required to meet the 2004 standard early.
Their effective implementation date was 10/2002. The
Dodge pickup engine was exempt from the 10/2002 early
implementation (Issue 32, page 85). The particulate
number of 1.0 stays the same for 2004.
Just as we have in reviewing the previous engines and
their evolution, let’s start with the all-important horsepower
and torque ratings for the new high pressure, common
rail (HPCR) engine. As you may have noted, power has
been steadily increased over the years beginning with
160 horsepower and 400 lb-ft of torque in 1989 to the 305
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
horsepower and 555 lb-ft of torque with the new high output
engine. The HO engine is available as an option and is
matched up to the NV5600, six-speed manual transmission
or the newly introduced (January 2003 introduction) 48RE
automatic transmission.
The standard engine is rated at 250 horsepower and 460
torque. This engine is matched to the NV4500, five-speed
manual transmission or the 47 RE automatic transmission.
Trucks sold in California will get a 235 hp/460 torque (CARB)
version of the engine. This lower rating was necessary
because of a tighter nitrous oxide standard (three grams
per brake horsepower hour) and was achieved through
the use of an oxidation catalyst (similar to the one used on
all 12-valve engines from ’94 to early ’98), engine control
module programming, and smaller injectors.
hORSEPOWER ChANgES
D Truck
BR Truck
TORQUE ChANgES
D Truck
TRANSMISSION
235 hp @ 2,700
460 lb-ft @ 1,400
48RE
(late availability)
DR
Truck
Federal (EPA)
250 hp @ 2,900
460 lb-ft @ 1,400
305 hp @ 2,900
555 lb-ft @ 1,400
NV5600
47RE
BR Truck
HORSEPOWER AND TORQUE RATINGS
California (CARB)
NV4500
DR
Truck
235 hp @ 2,700
460 lb-ft @ 1,400
250 hp @ 2,900
460 lb-ft @ 1,400
235 hp @ 2,700
460 lb-ft @ 1,400
250 hp @ 2,900
460 lb-ft @ 1,400
‘03 Standard Output Versus
24-Valve Standard Output Rating
305 hp @ 2,900
555 lb-ft @ 1,400
As an aside, often we receive the phone call, “My new ’98
truck (or 2001, or 2003—pick your model year) just doesn’t
get the same fuel economy as my old, trusty ’91 truck.
What gives?” There are legitimate complaints that need
mechanical attention, but the obvious answer to the smaller
discrepancies lies in the progression of power. The new HO
engine is rated 145 horsepower greater than the initial ’89
through ’93 engines. Torque on the HO engine is 155 lb-ft
greater. The ’98 24-valve engine boasted 55 horsepower
and 20 lb-ft torque (automatic) or a 75 horsepower and 60
lb-ft torque (five-speed) increases. If you use the additional
power, should the fuel economy stay the same?
Back to the subject at hand, the new HPCR engine. The
Cummins HPCR engine is another evolutionary step in
the 5.9 liter, B-series platform that was introduced back in
1983. However, two-thirds of the HPCR engine is new or
redesigned. The lion’s share of the new hardware has to
do with the fuel injection system. The engine uses a HPCR
fuel system from Bosch. Although new to us here in the
United States, Cummins has used the HPCR fuel system
in Europe for the past two years. This track history should
eliminate product concerns that owners might have.
‘03 high Output Versus
24-Valve high Output Rating
Parts Carryovers
Let’s start the analysis by listing the carryover parts from
the previous 5.9 liter engine. Purists will be pleased that the
engine’s bottom-end hardware; the crankshaft, connecting
rod and bearing assemblies, are the same as the previous,
proven, 24-valve engine. Other carry over parts include:
• Head bolts
• Water pump
• Oil pump
• Camshaft
• Valve train
• Critical fasteners (head, rod and flywheel bolts)
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
31
New Designs
As mentioned, the biggest change to the engine is the
use of the Bosch HPCR fuel system. The system has
rail pressure of 23,200 psi (1600 bar) on the high output
engine. The change in the fuel system netted a reduction
of 8-10 db of noise. Additionally, the ability to better control
injection timing and pilot injection provides an extended
rpm peak torque band over previous engines (200 rpm
lower and higher). The lift/supply pump is located on the
side of the motor right next to the fuel filter and is an allnew design supplied by Federal-Mogul.
Instead of an injection pump (previous VP44 electronic or
P7100 and VE mechanical pumps) that sequences highpressure fuel to injectors at the proper time, the new fuel
pump supplies a common rail with high-pressure fuel,
which is, in turn, fed to the individual injectors. The injectors
deliver the pressurized fuel to the cylinders as the result of
a signal from the engine control module, not as a result of
a pulse of high pressure from the pump.
HO engines use a new system that includes a component
called a “J-jet” for each piston. The J-jet nozzle is bolted to
the block and directs a stream of oil to the underside of the
piston. HO pistons have a passageway to direct the flow
of oil through the piston head to cool it. HO engines also
have an exhaust manifold that is capable of higher exhaust
temperatures.
Cummins has taken a measure to reduce the amount of
dead space in the combustion chamber. The head gasket
is now measured and matched (graded) based on block
height and cylinder head thickness. During assembly a
machine measures piston protrusion and, based on the
measurement, a thick or thin headgasket is chosen for
assembly. Get the picture that meeting emissions standards
is serious business?
All in all, the HPCR fuel system brings the following attributes
to the engine:
• Gear-driven fuel pump delivers high pressure fuel
supply to a common rail
• Fuel delivery through electronically controlled unit
injectors
• Multiple injection events (pilot, main, post injection)
• Higher injection pressures—up to 1600 Bar
• Timing, pressure and quantity less dependent on
engine speed
As a result the owner can expect:
Underside of the hO piston. Note the passageway
for oil to flow through the piston.
• Cleaner combustion
• Improved power and engine response
• Improved cold start capability
• B
ase fuel system to enable next emission step in
January 2004
• Lower noise
• Lower vibration and harshness
Of course, the new fuel system drives changes throughout
the engine. The cylinder head maintains a four-valve per
cylinder design. However, the new cylinder head has
induction hardened valve seats, on both intake and exhaust,
to handle the higher temperatures and pressures.
The change to the HPCR fuel system drove several
changes to the engine block. The block now incorporates
sculpted side walls to stiffen the block. This change was
necessary as the stiffer block is needed to help withstand
the higher peak cylinder pressures needed for emissions
control and power requirements. Additionally, it aids in
noise reduction by absorbing noise. An engine’s bedplate
was also designed and added to the engine for less noise
and greater durability.
Standard-output engines continue to use saddle jets
located in the upper main bearing saddles to spray the
connecting rods and the pistons.
32
Underside of the standard piston.
Further, the HPCR fuel system necessitated changes to
the engine’s front gear train. New high contact-ratio spur
gears result in quieter operation.
The turbo on all versions of the engine is an HY35 with
a 9cm2 exhaust housing. This turbo has been redesigned
from previous HY35’s. Exhaust exits the turbo at 3.5”
and flows to a 3.5” muffler inlet. The exhaust is now a full
4” system from the muffler to the tail as opposed to the
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
previous 3” system. The turbo has an intake silencer to
eliminate high frequency, blade pass noise. There is closer
tolerance control of the turbo’s critical components.
Specifications for turbocharger boost pressure are
numbers that TDR members carefully watch. An engine
that achieves its specified number is an engine that will
deliver its advertised horsepower numbers. The wide open
throttle boost specifications: standard engine, 22-24 psi;
HO engine 25-26 psi.
Oil Change Interval
With concern I noted that the “Schedule A” oil change
interval for the Turbo Diesel engine has been doubled,
from the previous 7,500 miles to a 15,000 mile interval.
This is new information that deserves further technical
discussion.
Recall from Issue 35 that there will be a new specification
for diesel engine oil, CI-4. This oil was introduced in late
2002. Excerpts from Issue 35’s article on this oil follows:
OThER ChANgES
External to the engine let’s take a look at some of the other
hardware changes.
In the area of accessory drive components, you will also
notice that the power steering pump is now driven by the
accessory drive belt instead of by a gear. The vacuum
pump, which was previously combined with the power
steering pump, is no longer used; however, it is available
as a Mopar Accessory for trucks using an exhaust brake.
The radiator cooling fan used with the Cummins HPCR
engine is quite a bit different than the fan used with previous
engines. The fan still uses a viscous drive; now, however,
the drive is actuated electronically by the engine control
module. The controller looks at inputs from coolant, air
intake, and transmission temperature sensors and the A/C
status and then sends a pulse width modulated signal to the
solenoid in the fan drive. The solenoid controls the viscous
fluid to match fan speed to vehicle operating conditions.
The crankcase vent system has been a point of contention
for many Turbo Diesel owners. To virtually eliminate the
driveway-drip problem Cummins and Fleetguard have
redesigned the crankcase vent system. Thankfully the
crankcase vent (read: low pressure vaporized oil) is not
routed to the engine’s air intake system [like the new 6.0
liter Power Stroke (Issue 39, page 96) or the Volkswagen
automotive diesel (Issue 38, page 28)]. I can tell you from
firsthand experience with crankcase vent oil and exhaust
gas recirculation with a Volkswagen passenger car that it
is messy. The vent on the Cummins engine goes from the
engine to an oil separator box on top of the valve cover
then is vented to atmosphere.
The 2003 crankcase vent system. The white arrow shows
the inlet from the crankcase to the filter assembly. The red
arrow points to the outlet hose that vents to atmosphere.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
“NOx can be cut further by reducing combustion
temperatures, and most engine builders have decided
that cooled EGR is the most effective way. Small amounts
of exhaust gas will be piped to the chambers to displace
oxygen; less oxygen means cooler combustion. Before
going to the cylinders, some of the exhaust gas’s heat
will be absorbed by the engine’s coolant. Thus the term
‘cooled EGR.’
“You will see diesels with cooled EGR by late next year,
and by early 2004 most truck diesels will have it. These
engines will run hotter and produce more soot than today’s
models. They’ll also produce more acids that can attack
internal parts. The new motor oil products will be formulated
to take the greater loads and protect both new and existing
diesels, according to petroleum engineers.
“Heat seems to be the biggest threat because it breaks
down oil.
“‘There’ll be a much greater heat load on oil,’ says Michael
Ragomo, technical advisor at ExxonMobil Lubricants &
Petroleum Specialties Co., because heat from exhaust gas
will be transferred to engine coolant, ‘and when coolant
gets hotter, oil gets hotter.’
“Soot levels in crankcase oil will rise to as much as 10
percent by volume.”
Okay, the oil has to perform a more difficult task, yet the
allowable oil change interval has been doubled? Time to
consult with Cummins.
First, let’s set the stage for oil discussion. For many
readers the topic of lubricants is like discussing religion—
no amount of logical or emotional appeal will change the
mind of the individual or audience that you are talking to.
Does that mean you are not open-minded to go to a 15K
oil change? Certainly to change the oil more often would
be on the safe side, so you’re to be commended for diligent
maintenance. Still, the Owner’s Manual “Schedule A”
(which is a light-duty cycle) and Cummins are saying that
15K is okay. What do you do?
The technical reason that allows owners of the new HPCR
engine to go to a 15K interval is three-fold. Cummins
confirms that the engine is very clean in its combustion
event. The flow and swirl of the cylinder head, the unique
piston bowl design, and the HPCR fuel system share
equally in achieving the goal.
33
Don’t think that Cummins released the 15,000 mile oil
change interval without thoroughly researching the
situation. In the past, soot analysis had to be done the old
fashioned way via lube oil analysis. Now in the engine lab
Cummins can check oil quality using a “soot cart.” Oil is
channeled outside the engine for optical evaluation of how
dark the oil is based on the test time interval, test load factor
and test fuel consumption. Within minutes the engineer
knows how much soot was picked up by the oil. This data
is the key to releasing the “Schedule A” oil change interval
of 15,000 miles.
Second, the CI-4 lube oils are formulated to protect both
new and existing diesels. We noted that there is anticipated
higher heat load (oil oxidation) and higher soot levels.
New lube oil formulas will include additional antioxidants
to compensate for the higher temperatures and additional
dispersants to hold the soot in suspension.
Third, consider Cummins’ track record with oil changes in
their big-rig engines. While it can be argued that the 15K
oil change interval is marketing hype to be better than the
competition, it is this writer’s opinion that a marketing-only
recommendation would be dangerous. Looking at the
bigger picture, Cummins has allowed oil change intervals
of 10,000 on their C8.3 liter engines, 15,000 on their M11
engines, and 15,000 on their N14 or ISX engines. Cummins
obviously feels confident in the 15K light-duty, “Schedule
A” oil change recommendation, or it would not be released.
We’re now full circle, “What do you do?” Is the preceding
nothing more than a discussion about religion? The 15K
light-duty “schedule A” oil change recommendation has
been endorsed and you now have additional information
to consider.
Summary
Wow, that was a long lesson in the evolution of the
B-series engine in the Dodge pickup application. Or,
more appropriately, I should say that it was a long lesson
in emission legislation numbers and their effect on diesel
engine hardware. It is going to be interesting to follow the
engine’s development path as the year 2007 is not too far
away.
I’m excited for Dodge and Cummins, as the new HPCR
engine is proving to be their smoothest product introduction
to date. In my one month of ownership, the power output
and lack of diesel clatter, and fuel mileage are impressive.
I look forward to bringing you more HPCR updates.
Robert Patton
TDR Staff
34
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
35
RATINgS: PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE
Publishing the past and present ratings for your Turbo Diesel
is as easy as making a chart. The horsepower and torque
numbers make good copy, but you’ll note from the chart that
there are two additional columns, “CPL and Comments.”
The comments column is self explanatory.
CPL is a Cummins abbreviation that stands for “control
parts list.” The CPL provides a comprehensive breakdown
of performance hardware, i.e. pistons, turbo, camshaft,
injectors, and fuel pump that were used in the engine build.
The CPL number along with the Cummins engine serial
number will help your Cummins parts professional should
you need engine hardware.
Model Year
hP@RPM
Torque @RPM
CPL
Transmission
Comments
’89-’91
160@2500
400@1600
804
Auto and
Manual
One CPL for both transmissions
over a three-year production run
160@2500
400@1600
1351
Auto and
Manual
21mm turbo housing
1579
1815
Auto
No Catalyst CPL (pre 1/1/94)
Non-Intercooled
’91.5-’93
Intercooled
’94-’95
160@2500
400@1600
1549
DOC
1959
DOC
1968
175@2500
420@1600
1816
DOC
Manual
1550
’96-’98
180@2500
420@1600
2022
Initial ‘96 production
DOC
Timing change
DOC
CARB w/EGR
DOC
2308
Auto and
Manual
CARB timing change
DOC
2023
Manual
Initial ‘96 production
DOC
Timing change
DOC
1863
440@1600
Auto
2175
’98.5 ISB
215@2700
420@1600
2098, 2513
Auto
2280, 2515
235@2700
460@1600
2024, 2512
215@2700
420@1600
2617
Manual
460@1600
2616
Auto
215@2700
420@1600
2660
235@2700
460@1600
2662
Manual
Auto
460@1600
2865, 2902
Auto
505@1600
2415, 2906
2495, 2907
36
EPA certification
CARB certification
5 Manual
2497, 2905
245@2700
EPA certification
CARB certification
2866, 2903
2496, 2904
EPA certification
CARB certification
Manual
2663
235@2700
EPA certification
CARB certification
2661
‘01 ISB
EPA certification
CARB certification
2618
‘00 ISB
EPA certification
CARB certification
2619
235@2700
EPA certification
CARB certification
2279, 2514
’99 ISB
No Catalyst CPL (pre 1/1/94)
DOC
2174
215@2600
18mm turbo housing and LDA
EPA certification
CARB certification
6 Manual
EPA certification
CARB certification
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Model Year
hP@RPM
Torque @RPM
CPL
Transmission
Comments
‘02 ISB
235@2700
460@1600
8030
Auto
EPA certification
CARB certification
8031
8032
5 Manual
245@2700
505@1600
8034
6 Manual
’03.5 hPCR
235@2700
47RE Auto
8224
5 Manual
47RE Auto
“
DOC
DOC
EPA certification
8223
5 Manual
“
“
305@2900
555@1400
2998
6 Manual
“
“
235@2700
460@1400
8410
47RE Auto
8412
5 Manual
8212
47RE Auto
8226
5 Manual
8228
6 Manual
EPA certification
8213
48RE Auto
EPA certification—2003 ½ model
8412
48RE Auto
CARB certification
8412
6 Manual
8213
48RE Auto
8228
6 Manual
8350
6 Manual
235@2700
325@2900
460@1400
555@1400
460@1400
555@1400
600@1600
8351
8346
48RE Auto
8347
325@2900
610@1600
8423
6 Manual
8424
8421
48RE Auto
8422
8348
’06
5.9 hPCR
“
2624
305@2900
’05 hPCR
CARB certification
460@1400
305@2900
’04.5 hPCR
8216
250@2900
250@2900
‘04 hPCR
460@1400
EPA certification
CARB certification
8035
‘03 hPCR
EPA certification
CARB certification
8033
325@2900
610@1600
8349
8344
8345
6 Manual
“
48RE Auto
“
CARB certification
“
“
DOC
DOC
EPA certification
“
“
“
“
DOC
DOC
EPA certification
“
“
EPA certification
DOC
CARB certification
DOC
EPA certification
DOC
CARB certification
DOC
EPA certification
DOC
CARB certification
DOC
EPA certification
DOC
CARB certification
DOC
EPA – DOC
CARB – DOC
EPA – DOC
CARB – DOC
DOC = diesel oxidation catalyst
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
37
Model Year
’07
5.9 hPCR
hP@RPM
325@2900
Torque @RPM
610@1600
CPL
Transmission
Comments
1091
6 Manual
EPA – DOC
1095
1000
1083
610@1600
’07.5
6.7 Pickup
350@3000
650@1600
8233
8234
8230
8231
8232
’07.5
6.7L Cab/
Chassis
305@2900
610@1600
1264
2885
1257
48RE Auto
“
6 Manual
“
68RFE Auto
“
6 Manual
“
Aisin Auto
“
CARB – DOC
EPA – DOC
CARB – DOC
EPA – DOC/NAC/DPF
CARB – DOC/NAC/DPF
EPA – DOC/NAC/DPF
CARB – DOC/NAC/DPF
EPA – DOC/NAC/DPF
CARB – DOC/NAC/DPF
EPA – DOC/NAC/DPF
CARB
– DOC/NAC/DPF
610@1600
1489
6 Manual
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
650@1600
1490
68RFE Auto
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
8235
6 Manual
All States DOC/DPF
2886
Aisin Auto
All States DOC/DPF
610@1600
1489
6 Manual
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
650@1600
1490
68RFE Auto
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
’08
6.7 Pickup
350@3000
’08
Cab/Chassis
305@2900
’09
6.7 Pickup
350@3000
’09 3500 Cab/
Chassis
305@2900
610@1600
’09 4500-5500
305@2900
Cab/Chassis
610@1600
610@1600
2780
6 Manual
All States DOC/DPF
2775
Aisin Auto
All States DOC/DPF
2779
6 Manual
All States DOC/DPF
2774
Aisin Auto
All States DOC/DPF
610@1600
6 Manual
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
650@1600
68RFE Auto
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
’10
6.7 Pickup
350@3000
’10 3500 Cab/
Chassis
305@2900
610@1600
’10 4500-5500
305@2900
Cab/Chassis
610@1600
6 Manual
All States
Aisin Auto
All States
6 Manual
All States
Aisin Auto
All States
610@1400
Manual
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
650@1600
68RFE Auto
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
’11.5
350@3000
6.7 Pickup (hO)
800@1600
68RFE Auto
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
’11
Cab/Chassis
610@1600
Manual
All States SCR System
Aisin Auto
All States SCR System
’11
6.7 Pickup
350@3000
305@2900
DOC = diesel oxidationcatalyst
38
“
NAC = NOx absorption catalyst
DPF = diesel particulate filter
SCR = selective catalyst reduction (urea)
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Model Year
hP@RPM
’12
6.7 Pickup
350@3000
’12
Cab/Chassis
305@2900
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Transmission
Comments
610@1400
Torque @RPM
Manual
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
800@1600
68RFE Auto
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
Manual
All States SCR System
Aisin Auto
All States SCR System
610@1600
CPL
39
‘04.5 to ‘07 hPCr engine Changes
Further, let’s discuss the changes made to the Cummins
engine, focusing on the necessary changes made to
the former 305 horsepower product in order to produce
the new 325 horsepower engine that meets emissions
requirements for all fifty states.
The primary means to control emissions on the new
engine are inside the combustion chamber. Exhaust gas
recirculation (EGR) is not used. This change represents a
major advance from the interim approach, with use of EGR,
taken in 2002 to meet federal EPA emissions regulations
for the medium-duty truck market with the B-engine. The
engine system becomes significantly simpler. Fifty-eight
new part numbers were required to implement EGR as a
part of the emissions strategy on the other versions of the
B-series engine that Cummins sells to other customers.
Only seven new emissions part numbers were needed for
the new approach used on the Dodge 325/600-610 engine.
Starting 1/1/2004 a diesel oxidation catalyst (catalytic
converter) was employed. The pilot injection/primary
injection strategy has changed significantly. Formerly, a
small pilot injection was followed by the larger injection
event; at higher loads and above 2000 rpm, a single
injection event would be used. In the new engine, two or
three events are used. The pilot injection is larger, and when
under power, a post-event is added. These events are part
of the emissions and power strategy, as well as a means to
noise reduction. The engine control module now contains
550 kilobytes of code for engine control, while the previous
305 horsepower HO engine used only 350 kilobytes.
The Cummins noise control strategy includes carry-over of
the straight-cut gears from the previous HO engine.
A new cylinder head has revised ports with less swirl.
High-cobalt stellite valve seats are used with high strength
inconel valves. The forged steel connecting rods with
cracked-cap technology are carried over from the 305
horsepower engine. These rods pass exactly the same
strength and durability tests as the former, machined cap
rods, while providing more rigidity than the former units.
The exhaust manifold material and shape has been slightly
revised for durability, and multi-layer gaskets are used
between the manifold and head. The piston bowls are
slightly more open. The cooling passages for the piston
rings are carried over from the 305 horsepower HO engine.
2004.5–’07 Component Changes
The engine fan shroud is now engine mounted, with soft
plastic seals to the radiator assembly. Mounting the shroud
onto the engine allowed a tighter clearance to the fan blades
for improved forced air flow and cooling. The area in front
of the air cleaner box is shrouded with an air blocker so
that hot air from the radiator and from recirculation inside
the engine compartment cannot pass to the air cleaner.
Dodge claims an improvement of 30 to 40 degrees in inlet
air temperature. The fan clutch calibration is different, to
reduce fan roar and to improve cooling. The turbocharger
air intake system has been refined with a new “resonator,”
or air baffle. A hood insulator has been installed (absent in
the past few years of Rams). With a new design catalytic
converter, the exhaust system is now a full four inches in
diameter throughout. With a manual transmission, the truck
is configured to be compatible with the use of an exhaust
brake. The intercooler is new, with higher flow.
New for 2005, the lift/supply fuel pump design has been
changed. The previous electronic lift/supply fuel pump was
located next to the fuel filter assembly. The pump has been
relocated to the fuel tank where it pushes fuel to the engine
rather than pulling fuel from the fuel tank.
For those trucks equipped with the 48RE automatic
transmission there are subtle changes in other components.
A pedal position sensor has replaced the throttle position
sensor and the cruise control vacuum actuator has been
removed, having been replaced as an integrated function
of the ECM. There were additional changes to ECM
programming to give the transmission a more aggressive
lock-up schedule and to enhance the shift schedule.
Finally, for 2005 the intake air grid heater now uses a
gasket that is electronically conductive. The conductive
gasket allowed Cummins to eliminate the grid heater’s
ground strap.
Engine hardware—past, present, future: The proof
of the HPCR’s solid engine design will be shown in the
heading covering the engine’s product launch. Likely you
noted that the changes to the engine in the past two years
have been incremental. There are no anticipated changes
for the ‘06 product.
For the ‘04.5 and ‘05 325/600-610 engines the turbocharger
remains an HY-35, but with a new, larger compressor
wheel and housing for increased air flow. The wastegate
has an electronic controller to better match boost pressure
to engine needs for optimized emissions control. The turbo
shaft bearings have small oil reservoirs under them to
improve oiling on cold start-up. The oil drain tube is flexible
steel, replacing the former system of two rigid steel tubes
connected by a hose with two worm-drive clamps. This oil
drain and the new exhaust gaskets were developed as a
result of their successful use in heavy duty engines.
40
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
ENgINE SOFTWARE: PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE
With TDR Issues 46 and 42 in hand, I carefully looked at
the “TDResource” column for Dodge technical service
bulletins (TSBs) that would address programming or
software changes to the engine control module (ECM).
There was only one bulletin (found in Issue 46) and that
TSB has been updated with the following TSB 18-037-04.
CATEgORY 18
The single TSB that has been issued for the sales code
“ETH” engines is indicative of a smooth product launch by
Cummins. Point of clarification: ETH sales code applies to
those engines that are known as high output. The engines
that have a horsepower rating of 325 (’04.5 engines and
early ‘05 models) are a part of the TSB’s coverage.
Robert Patton
TDR Staff
VEhICLE PERFORMANCE
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
18-037-04
9/27/04
‘04.5-’05 (DR)
Fuel economy improvement, white smoke on start up, accuracy of fuel mileage in
overhead console display.
This bulletin applies to DR vehicles equipped with a 5.9L Cummins Turbo Diesel engine
(sales code ETH), with an engine serial number 57130285 through and including
57246361; and the engine date of manufacture 12/10/2003 through and including
8/17/2004. The bulletin gives the dealership specific information for erasing and
reprogramming the Cummins ECM with new software. The following enhancements
are included with this software:
•
Improved fuel economy—A new ECM calibration has been developed
which should provide customers an average fuel economy improvement of
approximately 1 mpg.
•
Reduces white exhaust smoke on cold start at temperatures below 50°.
•
Improves accuracy of the fuel economy calculation in the overhead console
display.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
41
the 6.7-liter engine introduction
CUMMINS ENgINE ADVANCES
AND ThE DODgE ChASSIS CAB
by joe Donnelly
At the 2006 May Madness event we were fortunate to
have Dennis Hurst, Executive Director of Engineering
at Cummins, Inc. as a featured guest speaker. Dennis
gave us an excellent summary of the features and status
of the new 6.7 liter Cummins engine that will be used in
the new Dodge Chassis Cab. The Cummins Turbo Diesel
accounts for 25% of all Ram pickup sales, and over 1.3
million Turbo Diesels have been sold. Other versions of the
B-series engine are used in Freightliner and Ford medium
duty trucks. Our engines are assembled at the Cummins
Mid Range Engine Plant (CMEP) in Columbus, Indiana.
The horsepower and torque ratings have increased from
160 horsepower and 400 ft-lb in ‘89 to 325 horsepower
and 610 ft-lb in ‘05. He noted that the new EPA emissions
standards had some impact on fuel economy, and that we
could expect 17-20 mpg empty and 10-12 mpg loaded. He
presented graphs showing that the Cummins gives one to
three miles per gallon better than the competitors, the Ford
6.0-liter and Chevy 6.6-liter engines.
The 6.7-liter engine has a 107 mm bore and 124 mm stroke
(versus 102 mm × 120 mm for the 5.9-liter engine). In
inches, these measurements correspond to 4.21 × 4.88
inches versus 4.016 × 4.724 inches for the 5.9-liter engine.
The engine is built on the architecture and concepts of the
5.9-liter engine that has been used from ‘03 to present.
As before, the block and head are cast iron, with the block
slightly modified for increased stiffness and noise reduction.
The head has valve seat inserts on both intake and exhaust
ports. High-strength, gallery cooled, aluminum pistons are
used, similar to those used since ‘03 in the 5.9-liter high
output engines. The emphasis with a commercial truck
like a Chassis Cab is not the “horsepower race” but cost of
ownership. Therefore, the engine is rated for a combination
of power and economy of operation at 305 horsepower
at 2900 rpm, and 610 ft-lb at 1600 rpm. This engine will
have extensive electronic features, including power take-off
(pto)-remote, pto-mobile pto; accelerator/throttle interlock
(so the driver can’t leave prematurely); remote accelerator/
throttle; duty cycle monitor (present in today’s 5.9-liter
pickup engine also); switched maximum operating speed;
and idle shut down (cool down time).
The new turbocharger has variable geometry with an
innovative, proprietary sliding nozzle on the turbine side.
The turbocharger is designed for increased capability
at high altitudes. The variable geometry will give the
turbocharger the ability to act as an exhaust brake. At 2000
rpm, this turbo gives 245 ft-lb braking effort versus 180 ft-lb
for a typical aftermarket exhaust brake, a 36% increase.
The new engine will meet ‘07 EPA emissions requirements,
and is designed to be long lasting and quiet, while retaining
the good attributes of diesel sound. The long stroke aids
in take-off with a load or trailer, whereas the competitor’s
V8 engines have shorter strokes and are subject to stalling
easily on take-off.
42
From having the smallest engine of the three used in
pickups, now Cummins will be the largest, compared to the
6.6-liter GM and new 6.4-liter Ford. Cummins has retained
the design and construction features that give it the
“million mile” legacy. It is still the only pickup/Chassis Cab
engine that is medium duty with a 300,000 mile overhaul
interval, versus the 100,000 mile interval suggested by the
competition. The fuel system has evolved, with five fueling
events per power cycle. There are two pilot injections, a
main injection, and two auxiliary injections afterwards. The
engine control module’s central processor is twice as fast
(80 versus 40 mHz), with 40% more flash memory, and 160
features versus 100 in the ‘06 computer. The ‘03 engine
control module had 30 features. The new engine has a
differently designed piston with a stiffer skirt and raised
piston pin. The engine was designed for higher cylinder
pressures and has a slightly re-designed head gasket for
a different coolant flow pattern. You can expect to see
cooled exhaust gas recirculation and particulate traps in
the exhaust system to meet ‘07 EPA emission standards.
Diesel Particulate Filter
Cummins has responded to Dodge’s request for lower noise
and vibration with the new engine. The block’s barrel skirts
are re-contoured and the bores are siamesed (meaning the
bores are cast together without water passages between
them) and numerous small changes are incorporated such
as turbo fin shape, and holes stamped in pulleys to reduce
their noise. Some vibration, inherent to an inline six-cylinder
engine, is removed with the engine mount system. And,
in the case of the Mega Cab, a vibration that excited the
larger cab was removed by fully machining the crankshaft
counterweights.
The Dodge marketing strategy for the pickup truck
provides the images of muscular and provocative styling,
working and playing hard, and a combination of design,
function, and emotion. With the Chassis Cab, the focus
is on function. Chassis Cab buyers are typically small
businesses, and two-thirds have ten or fewer vehicles. They
want a dependable, functional truck that is easily adaptable
to specific applications. Dodge will offer regular and Quad
Cabs, gasoline (Hemi) and diesel engines.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Most Chassis Cabs are expected to have dual rear wheels.
The Aisin six-speed automatic transmission will be featured.
It has two tow settings, three low gears, dynamic interaction
with the Cummins exhaust brake, a 35 horsepower power
take off, and two overdrive choices for fuel economy.
joe Donnelly
TDR Writer
WhAT’S UP WITh ThE NEW 6.7-LITER ENgINE?
by Robert Patton
In buying and selling the 6.7-liter Turbo Diesel, there is bad
news and good news. For reasons well-known to everyone
witnessing the steep rise in fuel prices, demand in the
market for pickup trucks, and particularly for heavy-duty
pickups, has taken a steep slide. But as a consequence
there has never been a better time to buy.
In such a roiled market, there is a lot of uncertainty, but
also much interest in what promises to be a unique pickup.
You’ve heard it from your friends, I’m sure, because as a
TDR type you are the automotive and truck “authority” in
your neighborhood. It goes with the badge on the grille of
your Turbo Diesel.
Let’s suppose a friend, let’s call him Joe NewDiesel, puts
it to you like this: “What’s up with that new 6.7-liter engine
in the famous Dodge-Cummins Turbo Diesel? I’ve read
that it’s a great new engine, but I’ve heard it has teething
problems.” Or he asks, “How can such a powerful engine
really meet the tough emissions controls going into effect
in 2010?” Maybe Joe NewDiesel follows that up with, “How
can it achieve acceptable engine efficiency, considering
the rising cost of fuel?”
If you are the neighborhood expert, or if you are the editor
of the TDR, how do you get the story across, so your
newcomer audience will understand that it makes sense to
own one of those incredible 6.7-liter Turbo Diesels?
Just to make sure we get the facts right, we go to the TDR
index and this is what you find:
Issue 52 – Introduction of Cab and Chassis trucks with the
6.7 by Steve St. Laurent
Issue 53 – Highlights of the 6.7 engine by Joe Donnelly
Issue 54 – Sneak peak at the 6.7 engine in Cab and
Chassis truck by Greg Whale
Issue 55 – Introduction of a regular column chronicling the
engine’s ongoing progress
Issue 56 – Exposé on how Cummins met the strict 2010
emissions standards
Issue 57 – Joe Donnelly’s detailed inspection of 6.7 engine
specifications
Issues 58 through 60 – Input and feedback from new
owners in the field
Issue 61 – A new regular feature, The Cummins’ Column”
with Cummins’ answers.
We could hand Joe NewDiesel this bibliography, but Joe
doesn’t really want a pile of printed technical information.
He just wants to know, thumbs-up or thumbs-down. At
most he wants us to summarize the facts for him.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
43
for 1500 trucks and a V-8 for their 2500/3500 trucks. The
engine will be a radical departure from the normal intake-inthe-center and exhaust-out-of-the-side Vee configuration.”
Joe NewDiesel affects a yawn. (This guy is difficult to bowl
over.)
To keep him engaged, we make a strategic concession: the
new engine is not perfect. “Yes, Mr. NewDiesel, there have
been what you’ve called ‘teething problems’. Admittedly,
vehicles in early production runs were plagued by a flurry of
engine-computer fault codes and the newly designed diesel
particulate filter had initial problems in regeneration cycles,
and turbochargers that were not prepared to deal with an
overburden of soot. In spite of these shake-down complaints,
this engine can safely be pronounced as Excellent.”
Besides a thumbs-up/thumbs-down answer, we believe that
Joe NewDiesel must also be apprised of the background
that led to the introduction of the 6.7 engine. So what
exactly do you say, Mister Editor or Mister TDR Expert?
It’s a challenge, but here is how it might play out between
you or me and Joe NewDiesel. We decide to begin by
spotlighting the most impressive developments in the
diesel industry in recent years. We tell Mr. NewDiesel that
with the new 6.7-liter engine, Cummins has achieved a
nearly unbelievable reduction of 90% (that’s right 90%, you
emphasize) in both particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen
from the already strict standards implemented in 2004.
Joe NewDiesel’s reaction, “Ho hum … everyone has to do it.”
“No, Joe,” we counter; “other diesel engine manufacturers
are still scrambling to qualify for 2010, while the Cummins
engine is so clean that it has put the 2010 standards behind
it, and in so doing leaves the competition behind.”
Joe NewDiesel affects nonchalance: “So, what’s that mean
to me?”
Apparently Mr. NewDiesel is not as wrapped-up in this
emissions thing as we are. Remember he just wants a
thumbs-up or thumbs-down. But we are not letting him off
that easy; we are providing context. We tell him, “So, unlike
the yo-yo changes that we have had to endure every 3 to
4 years, the 6.7 engine will be good until the next set of
emissions legislation in 2013.
“Additionally, consider that the 6.7 engine offers a rocksolid engine-design platform that allows Dodge to ease
into the next generation Ram, to further the stable Dodge/
Cummins relationship, and continue to keep this truck at
the head of the pack.
“It is really uncertain what will happen with the Ford and
Navistar relationship,” you advise Joe NewDiesel; and
therefore you suggest, “You clearly would not want a Ford
truck.” You explain that “the Duramax diesel engine in GM
products will be totally revamped to meet the 2010 emissions
standards. You’ll not want to be the first on the block to
own that engine either. Rumor has it that they’ll offer a V-6
44
“Excellent?” quizzes Joe NewDiesel with raised eyebrow.
“Yes, excellent,” we maintain, settling back for some morespecific technical stuff. Finally Joe shows his interest and
is prepared to listen to our background facts. We pull out
the stops. From here out, it’s not conversation, it’s factual
recitation.
In April the 6.7-liter engine earned the PACE Award winner
status after an extensive review by an independent panel
of judges, a comprehensive written application, and a site
visit. The 14th annual award was presented in a ceremony
in Detroit, Michigan, by Automotive News and co-sponsors
Microsoft, SAP, and Transportation Research Center Inc.
So, to have the PACE Award given to Cummins means
the automotive community recognizes that Cummins is
the first to meet 2010 emissions (I’m counting, that gem of
a fact has been emphasized three times) by using a NOX
absorber catalyst (NAC) thereby eliminating the necessary
scramble that others will face in 2010.
Nonetheless, as we’ve noted, this engine launch is not as
trouble-free as the previous ’03-’07 5.9-liter engine, which
received a resounding thumbs-up from the beginning,
while the comparable Ford 6.0-liter engine received a big
disappointing thumbs-down. At that time the GM Duramax
got a solid thumbs up.
But NewDiesel isn’t interested in history— he maintains
that he is not in the market for a used truck. To add depth
to these facts, we identify the Ford and GM diesel web
sites where he can scrutinize the laundry list of problems
that they are having with their ’07.5 and newer engines.
Joe understands our point. He accept the warrant of
Cummins’ reputation, and he feels safe in the support of
TDR members to keep him in the know. He goes straight to
everybody’s bottom line —the big question today—“How’s
the fuel mileage on the new 6.7?”
Mr. NewDeisel is not being coy now: he has his note pad
out. And we don’t spare the details. At this point, I proceed
unabashedly as editor, drawing technical information from
the resources of the TDR to explain the operation and
energy dynamics of the new engine as it compares to
earlier Turbo Diesel engines.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
My basis for comparison:
• 110,000 miles behind the wheel of a ’03 2500, Quad
Cab, short box, 47RE automatic with 3.54 gearing (.69
x 3.54 = 2.44 overall top gear) and two-wheel drive.
• 25,000 miles behind the wheel of a ’07.5, 3500, Mega
Cab, long box, 68RFE automatic with 3.73 gearing (.63
x 3.73 = 2.34 overall top gear) and two-wheel drive.
Engine Data:
• The ’03 5.9-liter engine was rated at 235hp/460
torque. It had a TST performance module set on
level 3 which provided about 40 more horsepower/60
torque (275hp/520tq). Mileage wise, the TST module
modified the timing of the fuel injection. Injection timing
changes can improve fuel economy, but often do so
at the expense of increased exhaust emissions. (Also
note: Advancing the injection timing will result in higher
peak cylinder pressures and can overstress the power
cylinder, cylinder head and block structure, and engine
rod and main bearings, depending on the amount of
injection timing change.)
• The ’07.5 6.7-liter engine is rated at 350 horsepower/650
torque. No modifications have been made to this
engine.
Without changing my driving habits:
• Pulling 12,000 pound/30ft car hauler at 70 mph
12.0mpg with the ’03
10.0mpg with the ’07.5
• Around town (using a light left foot)
16-17.5mpg with the ’03
13.5-15.0mpg with the ’07.5
• Unloaded freeway travel (level ground) at 75 mph
19-20mpg with the ’03
17-18mpg with the ’07.5
Should I have believe that the ’07.5 truck would be as
frugal as the ’03 truck? Sure, why not have unrealistic
expectations. But seriously, the ’07.5 is a dually truck
(bigger aerodynamic block) and is a Mega Cab/Long Box
and, I’m guessing, weighs 1,200 pounds (17%) more than
the ’03. Likewise the ’07.5 engine offers 75 horsepower
and 130 torque over the ’03. Do I use that power? You bet.
It would be unrealistic to expect the same mileage results.
Observations:
Back in May of ’06, Cummins’ Executive Engineer of the
Cummins Chrysler Program attended the May Madness
TDR event. In a presentation about the upcoming ’07.5
production of the 6.7-liter engine, he noted “new EPA
emissions standards had some impact on fuel economy,
and that we could expect 17-20mpg empty and 10-12mpg
loaded. Graphs were presented showing that the Cummins
gives one to three miles-per-gallon better than the
competitors, the Ford 6.0-liter and Chevy 6.6-liter engines.”
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
As I look at my personal miles-per-gallon, the numbers are
very close to those set forth in the presentation.
With the current price of diesel, fuel economy has
become more important to many of you. So, what
can you do?
• I dle time decreases fuel economy. You are
burning fuel while going nowhere, so you
get 0 MPG.
• D
riving style can have a big impact on fuel
economy. Accelerate at a moderate pace
whenever possible.
• H
igher speeds burn more fuel. Lowering
your speed, especially on the highway, will
improve fuel economy.
The 6.7-liter Turbo Diesel Owner’s DVD provides
some good operating tips for better fuel economy.
It is available for viewing at the TDR’s web site
www.tdr1.com; site features; TDR TV.
Regardless of my data or the expectations of the factoryguy, I do have some test data from Dodge that compares our
Cab and Chassis/work trucks to the Ford 6.4-liter (their new
for ’07.5 product) and the Chevy 6.6-liter engine (for ’07.5).
The data comes from my notes taken at the National Truck
Equipment Association meeting this past spring in Atlanta,
Georgia. I attended a presentation by Dodge discussing
the Cab and Chassis trucks. They had commissioned
an outside testing organization to conduct SAE fuel
consumption testing. The trucks used were the Dodge
5500, Ford 550 and Kodiak 5500 and the trucks were
ballasted to a weight of 15,950 pounds; equivalent options
and identical box configurations. The Dodge proved to be
14% more fuel efficient than the Ford, 23% more efficient
than the Chevy. My apologies, as I can’t recall from my
notes the mpg numbers from the test.
Moving right along now, Joe NewDiesel presses for a
response to the second part of his initial request: that we
provide him a coherent summary of facts on the engine’s
hardware, a sort of digest on parts and design.
It seems to me that the most efficient way to present this
information is to describe the parts and hardware of the
new 6.7-liter engine in terms of how they differs from
those in the previous Cummins engine, working with
help from technical personnel at Cummins, and drawing
on resources as editor of this magazine, including data
from previous TDR articles about how the exhaust aftertreatment components operate.
45
Oil Pump: The mounting bore in the block for the oil pump
was reduced in size to strengthen the block.
ThE ENgINE’S hARDWARE
Cylinder Block and hardware
The 6.7-liter engine has a 107mm bore and 124mm stroke
(versus 102mm × 120mm for the 5.9-liter engine). In inches,
these measurements correspond to 4.21 × 4.88 inches
versus 4.016 × 4.724 inches for the 5.9-liter engine. See
the chart below for a comparison of the later 5.9-liter manual
transmission rating (highest output 5.9-liter for Dodge Ram
truck) to the 6.7-liter pickup truck automatic transmission
rating (highest output 6.7-liter for Dodge Ram truck).
6.7L
5.9L
Displacement
6.7L (409 C.I.D.)
5.9L (359 C.I.D.)
Bore
107mm
102mm
120mm
Stroke
124mm
Max. HP
350 hp @ 3013 RPM
325 hp @ 2900 RPM
Max. Torque
650 lb-ft @ 1500-2800 PRM
610 lb-ft @ 1600 RPM
Turbo
Holset Variable Geometry
Holset Wastegate
Fuel System
Bosch HPCR
Bosch HPCR
To accommodate the larger bore, the cylinder walls are
“siamesed” or cast together with vertical coolant passages
drilled between them. During development of this engine
block, high priority was assigned to considerations of high
strength, proper coolant flow, achieving perfectly round
cylinder bores, and long-term durability. The engine is built
on the architecture and concepts of the 5.9-liter engine
used from ’03 to the present. As I have noted, the block
and head are cast iron, with the block slightly modified for
increased stiffness and noise reduction. The skirt is recontoured for improved stiffness and reduced transmission
of noise. Coolant passages were optimized for coolant flow
with the siamesed bores, with cross-drillings for coolant
flow between cylinders.
Rod Bearings: The lower bearing stayed the same. The
upper rod bearing is a new bi-metal design.
Crankshaft: Increased stroke for the 24mm increase in
displacement. Counterweight profiles were modified for
reduced noise, vibration, and harshness. A simple design
change to machined counterweights versus “as forged”
made a significant improvement in the linear vibration
levels of the engine in vehicle.
Block Stiffener Plate: Used on all engines to strengthen
block and reduce noise.
Fuel Pump: The pressure has been increased from 1600
bar (23,200psi) to 1800 bar (26,100psi).
grid heater: The grid heater is now incorporated into the
intake plate. If the grid fails, the entire plate will have to be
replaced. With exhaust gas recirculation, the grid heater
has a self-cleaning mode to prevent excessive build-up.
Conditions for self cleaning are as follows:—the engine
has been running for 30 seconds, vehicle speed is less
than 18mph, and intake temperature is greater than 66°.
The engine also has a closed crankcase ventilation system
developed by Cummins Filtration. The system incorporates
a coalescing filter that captures oil mist and returns it to the
crankcase. The filter requires service after approximately
60,000 miles.
Turbocharger
The turbocharger is now a proprietary Holset variablegeometry design. The sliding nozzle ring in the turbine
housing (exhaust side) allows for continuously variable
air flow and boost pressure. It works with the cooled
exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and aftertreatment
system to help reduce exhaust emissions. What you will
feel from the driver’s seat is better response and better
altitude capability. The new turbocharger also provides
an integrated exhaust brake. The braking performance is
better than the optional exhaust brake on a 5.9-liter, and it
now comes standard with every Cummins 6.7-liter powered
Dodge Ram.
Cylinder head, Pistons and hardware
The cylinder head has valve seat inserts on both intake
and exhaust ports. High strength, gallery-cooled aluminum
pistons are used, similar to those used since ’03 in the
5.9-liter high output engines. The crankshaft counterweight
profiles have been changed, reducing noise, vibration, and
harshness (NVH). These considerations are important for
penetrating the “mainstream” marketplace, where owners
are less diesel enthusiasts than seekers of smooth, quiet,
powerful, and luxurious pickup trucks.
Valve Lash: The valve lash settings are the same as used
on the later 5.9’s, at 0.010” intake and 0.026” exhaust.
Pistons: The piston pin is offset for reduction in idle noise.
Front Crankshaft Seal: Updated lip style that utilizes a
wear sleeve as needed for service repairs.
Connecting Rods: The rods are still of the fracture split
design but because of weight differences, they are not
backward compatible. The benefit of the fracture split
design is a joint between the rod and the cap that is
perfectly matched and more resistant to slip.
46
Piston Cooling: Targeted piston cooling nozzles are
used on all ratings, providing oil flow to the piston cooling
galleries. The benefit of gallery-cooled pistons is better
durability because of decreased piston temperature.
headgasket: Still graded? Pistons graded? There is only
one service headgasket for the 6.7. It is acceptable for all
repairs as long as the head, block, and piston are within
service limits.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
The Exhaust Aftertreatment
To get an overview of the exhaust aftertreatment components
I went back to Issue 56 and toinformation quoted from the
trade publication Diesel Progress. [Note that the following
descriptions apply primarily to the aftertreatment system in
the pickup. The chassis cab aftertreatment system omits
the NOX Adsorber (NAC), keeping the DOC and DPF which
are both housed in a single canister under the truck.] From
our Issue 56: “The Aftertreatment system is a three-section
unit. All three aftertreatment sections have their own active
regeneration schedules, and the engine ECM controls the
regeneration cycles.
effectiveness. So depending on how much fuel is burned—
typically every two tankfuls,, a separate regeneration cycle
is initiated to remove the sulfur. The use of high sulfur fuel
is not allowed because it results in a high degradation rate
of this catalyst.
“The third part of the aftertreatment is the diesel particulate
filter (DPF). The DPF is regenerated when differential
pressure sensors in the exhaust system detect a specified
amount of loading on the substrate. Unlike the PM filter
systems used on heavy-duty applications, there is no ash
cleaning required, and the PM filter—like the NOX adsorber
and close-coupled catalyst—is rated for the life of the vehicle.
“The system begins with a close-coupled catalyst—
essentially a conventional diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC)
incorporating a metallic substrate—mounted to a short
downpipe just off the back of the turbocharger. A short
distance behind and below the close-coupled catalyst is
the NOX adsorber unit, which is followed by a particulate
filter. Both the NOX adsorber and diesel particulate filter
(DPF) use ceramic substrates.
The “in” and “out” sides of the DPF.
These components were taken from a Cummins test vehicle.
1. diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC)
2. NOX absorber catalyst (NAC)
3. diesel particulate filter (DPF)
“The next part of the system is the NOX adsorber catalyst,
or NAC. The NAC has been cited by the EPA as a promising
technology and as providing a possible key in future rulemaking to solve the daunting nitrous oxide puzzle.
“A NOX adsorber resembles a conventional catalyst,
incorporating a catalytic substrate through which diesel
exhaust is directed. Then the NOX molecules are collected
and held—’adsorbed’—onto the surface of the substrate,
removing them from the exhaust stream. When the surface
area of the substrate is full, the adsorber is regenerated
with heat used to chemically change the NOX into more
benign gases, mostly nitrogen and oxygen.
“The NOX adsorber is regenerated every few minutes at
approximately 600° to 800°F and the process takes about
three to five seconds. The NOX adsorber will also, over time,
collect sulfur from the fuel, which will gradually reduce its
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
EgT, oxygen and pressure sensors monitor
the need for regeneration of the NAC and DPF.
“In another departure from the heavy-duty side, all of
the hydrocarbon dosing (diesel fuel) needed to raise the
temperature for the various aftertreatment regenerations is
handled by the fuel injection system rather than a separate
injection system.
“‘It took some time and a lot of work to integrate the control
system,’ said Jim Fier, technical project leader. ‘Some of
the fuel we use to light the catalyst is partially burned, and
any time you burn fuel, you produce power. If this were not
the case, you would feel that extra fuel as power. With both
the air handling and the fueling, we had to adjust those
various pulses in order to keep the power balance and the
torque balance as we go in and do the regenerations.’
“Cummins itself engineered the entire aftertreatment
system, right down to specifying the washcoat on the
catalyst bricks; and the system was assembled by
Tenneco, which does aftertreatment system packaging for
many segments of DaimlerChrysler.”
47
So, how does the DPF regeneration process operate?
When the ECM determines that regeneration is needed,
fuel dosing brings the temperature above 950°F. Under
normal conditions the injectors pulse three times for a
given firing event. Pilot occurs just before top dead center,
main injection at TDC and post when the piston is traveling
down on the power stroke. If fuel dosing is necessary for
increase in EGTs, there can be two more fuel injection
events, very late on the power stroke then and during the
exhaust stroke.
Active regeneration is more difficult if the vehicle is
operating in a very low speed drive cycle, and will not occur
with the transmission in Park or with the Parking Brake
set. Improvements in regeneration with later calibrations
have made regenerations more effective in all drive cycles,
including in-town drive cycles.
Later calibrations also have improvements in operation at
idle, making the system much more tolerant to idle time
than it was previously. These changes dramatically reduce
the amount of soot produced when idling is necessary, and
allow the system to reduce the level of soot in the DPF under
conditions of more extended idle. However, care must still
be taken to watch for DPF messages on the overhead
console (EVIC) signaling a need for a change in drive cycle
to enable regeneration. With the latest calibrations, idle-up
should not be used in an attempt to help the aftertreatment
system during extended idle, as has been common with
the 6.7. The new idle modes are more effective if idle-up
is NOT used.
Conclusion
Some or all the foregoing text should answer the probing
question posed by “Joe NewDiesel” and others of his kind:
“What’s up with the new 6.7-liter engine?
Should you have questions regarding the 6.7-liter Cummins
engine I would like to forward them on your behalf to our
helpful contacts at Cummins Inc. You can submit your
inquiry to me at rpatton@ix.netcom.com (other contact
information on page 138) and I will try to coordinate a
response(s) for Issue 63
Robert Patton
TDR Staff
48
Notes on exhaust system regeneration:
The ECM continuously monitors the level of
particulates (soot) and other substances in the
exhaust aftertreatment system. As needed, the
ECM triggers a regeneration to remove them.
This is completely transparent to the driver.
There are no indicators on the instrument cluster
or EVIC, and there is no difference in sound or
feel of the engine. In other words, when things
are operating as normal, as they do for the
majority of owners, you will not know that a
regeneration is needed or in-process.
In rare cases, typically due to difficult drive
cycles, a regeneration may not be possible.
In those cases, you may see a message on
the overhead console (EVIC) regarding the
aftertreatment system, stating either ‘CATALYST
FULL’ or ‘EXHAUST SYSTEM REGENERATION
REQUIRED NOW’, depending on the level of
software. As long as the percent-full message
is less than 100%, the system can complete
a regeneration if you change your drive cycle
to allow it to happen. The most effective drive
cycle for regeneration is highway cruise. Some
trucks, depending on the level of software, will
display ‘REGENERATION IN PROCESS’ if your
drive cycle has changed such that regeneration
has been started. Note that this message will
occur only after the system has gotten full
enough to display the ‘EXHAUST SYSTEM
REGENERATION REQUIRED NOW’, meaning
you will not see it on every regeneration.
A visit to your dealer is necessary only if a
message regarding the exhaust aftertreatment
system reading ‘SEE DEALER’ or ‘SERVICE
REQD’ is displayed on the EVIC. In that case,
getting the truck to the dealer sooner, rather than
later, may prevent further damage to the system.
The 6.7-liter Turbo Diesel Owner’s DVD provides
additional detail on the aftertreatment system
and operating tips. Watch it for more information.
Visit the TDR’s web site at www.tdr1.com; site
features; TDR TV.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
notes:
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49
PerFormAnCe enhAnCements, 1989-Current
BOB’S PRESCRIPTIONS FOR POWER
COVERINg 1989-1993
Power: the final frontier. Oops, I’ve been watching too many
Star Trek reruns. However, for those who read the magazine
and frequent the website, the quest for more power is
recognized as a never-ending journey. Looking back to
Issue 39, technical writer Joe Donnelly penned the “Eight
P’s of Diesel Power” and touched on engine performance
upgrades and the proper sequence of events. The article
referenced Joe’s earlier TDR articles that were an in-depth
look at power enhancements. Specifically for the First
Generation truck owners, Joe’s Issue 25 “Prescriptions for
Power” gave the ’89 to ’93 owners a list of items to consider
as they seek greater engine performance.
Joe’s Issue 25 article was written in the summer of ’99.
Four years later is there anything new under the sun? Yes
and no. The “yes” response is courtesy of the writing skills
of Bob Coe, a.k.a. BushWakr. As the First Gen moderator,
and frequent contributor, Bob is well-known to members for
his helpfulness. He has submitted a very thorough article
on First Gen performance upgrades, and I’m pleased to
pass the step-by-step, factual information to you.
The “no” response: no, the article is nothing new under the
sun—Joe covered the same steps four years ago. However,
Bob’s article is much more detailed and not intermixed with
the later model ’94 to ’98 12-valve engines. So for you First
Geners, Bob’s article is easy to follow. Let’s go!
FIRST gEN PERFORMANCE MODIFICATIONS
Let me say at the outset that the First Generation truck
has a particular fascination for me. It is the original “work
horse” running that great power plant, the Cummins
B-series engine. It was made for work, and looks (to me
anyway) like it. If you didn’t already know it, there are more
and more being seen, purchased, repaired and restored in
the last few years, so perhaps this “market” is rejuvenated
by new used-truck owners.
Developing a proper sequence of performance upgrades
and deriving the maximum benefit from them require
some necessary steps. Keep in mind that the list(s) below
are shown to give an ideal-build wherever possible. It is
possible to limit the extent of some items/work and still
achieve satisfactory results.
First of all, the truck must have some basic instrumentation,
the purpose of which is to give you an original set of baseline
readings, as well as to prevent serious consequences such
as piston/head damage or runaway. These readings would
be used to determine the effectiveness and/or impact of any
changes made to the truck. Also it is advisable to keep track
50
of the particular readings for reference. Any subsequent
testing should be done under the same conditions as all
original tests: for example, ambient temperature, humidity,
fuel w/wo additives, stretch(es) of roads, weight load, etc.
It is fairly easy to develop a spreadsheet for tracking these
items and results.
That being said, let’s start with some gauges for your
baseline readings.
Tools of the Trade
Instrumentation must include the following three gauges.
Pyrometer: For measuring exhaust gas temperature
(EGTs). The EGT probe should be mounted pre-turbo in
the exhaust manifold for the most effective and accurate
readings. Since the shutdown temperature(s) are as
important as operating temperatures, it would be ideal to
have a second pyrometer mounted post-turbo as well. In
real life, however, this may be seen as excessive and care
should be taken to ensure that the engine is shut down
only after EGTs have fallen below 300°F with a pre-turbo
pyro mount.
The maximum continuous duty cycle temperature (preturbo) is 1250°F. Above that you run the risk of becoming
other motorists’ entertainment. Pyrometer costs average
between $120 and $219 depending on maker, range,
lighting and face. A common sweep range for these
gauges is 0°F to 1400°F or 0° to 1600°F. Some of us
(ahem!) have been glad their gauge goes as far as 1800°.
What types of readings should be expected with the
EGT probe after the turbocharger? In order to use that
location, some math is required to estimate your actual
temperatures. For every one-pound of boost pressure,
allow approximately 10°F over the actual gauge reading.
This is actually fairly close in general terms, but I have
found that as the boost levels increase above 23-24
psi, the rule of thumb starts losing ground in terms of
accuracy. Your running temperatures can vary by as much
as 300°or more from the gauge reading when the pyro
probe is mounted post-turbo. A safe maximum for postturbo type installations would be approximately 1000°F
(assuming roughly 20 psi boost pressures).
Tachometer: For properly measuring and utilizing
engine torque and horsepower ranges. As performance
is increased, the engine RPM range tends to increase
as well. Oftentimes, injection pump adjustments alone
can cause idle RPM changes. A tachometer is needed
to recognize and make adjustments as the ideal-build
proceeds. Prices range from $90 to $125 depending on
the make and model you choose.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Boost gauge: This instrument is essential for tracking the
intake air pressure of the turbocharger. Very high boost
levels are not always a necessity in a good build. Boost
levels should be only sufficient to allow for full burning of
the fuel charge. In some cases the boost levels can reach
a point where they actually become a detriment to engine
performance and longevity. The turbo component must be
configured to match the fueling levels, RPM and operating
range desired. Prices range from $43 to $400 (high-end,
multi-function gauge).
On a personal note, I have gone through three boost
gauges over the last two years. I began with a 20 psi gauge,
progressed to a 35 psi gauge and now use a 60 psi gauge.
It would have been wiser and more cost effective had I just
accepted the inevitable fact that, in the end, I would need
a gauge with that range. It seems most of us suppose we’ll
settle for another 50 hp and 25 or 30 psi boost when in fact
we almost always seem to delude ourselves that we “won’t
need any more than that.” Plan your purchases wisely.
Transmission Temp gauge: This instrument is essential if
the truck is equipped with an automatic transmission, stock
or otherwise, since transmission temps can be critical to a
transmission’s lifespan.
Do you own a manual transmission? In addition to the
normal servicing of the Getrag five-speed, it should be
overfilled by roughly one quart. This will help extend the life
of the transmission and prevent any of the internal bearings
from being insufficiently lubricated when operated at steep
angles or heavy acceleration. Prices range from $40 to
$70 for a transmission temperature gauge.
The availability of gauges is fairly good. If the particular
gauge/mount you want is not in stock, it can be ordered in
a fairly short time. I recommend that you speak with a shop
specializing in diesel performance, to ensure some measure
of confidence in receiving the correct instrumentation the
first time. There are some well-known brand names in this
field and finding the appropriate gauges to suit your needs
should present no problem.
Replacement of Exhaust System: Replacement of
this component is advisable to remove the crushed and
restrictive sections of the OEM exhaust. A diesel engine
does not perform at full potential any restriction in the
system, unlike the gas engine that can take advantage of
backpressure. Less restriction will help to lower the exhaust
gas temperatures (like all things, only to a point). Currently
there are 3”, 3-1/2”, and 4” systems available for our trucks.
We are now seeing full 5” systems as well. Prices will vary
depending on the supplier and installer. Prices for aluminized
steel systems start at roughly $300 with the stainless steel
turbo back systems costing roughly $500 to $1,000 or more.
The bigger name performance diesel shops will be able to
provide the 3” and 3-1/2” mandrel bent systems, but there
are some smaller companies who have excellent, well
priced products. Do your research first. In the area of 4”
exhaust from the turbo back, there is very little available in
the form of kits. You can have a one-off bent for your truck.
They are a snug fit on the First Gens, particularly on the
4X4 models.
Turbo Exhaust housing: The best method of improving
throttle response and intake boost pressure is usually
changing the exhaust housing size. On our trucks these
housings ranged from 21cm to 18.5cm, with the latter
being the smallest OEM on a factory First Gen truck. The
replacement can be a smaller 16cm, 14cm, or 12cm. Why
smaller? Blowing exhaust gas through a smaller opening
(housing) nets a quicker spool-up of the turbo and buildup of pressure on the fresh-air side of the turbocharger.
Generally the 14cm and the 12cm are a wastegated
housing, which allows excess exhaust pressure to bypass
the exhaust turbine wheel as it dumps directly into the
exhaust pipe. This prevents overboost/high drive pressures
caused by the smaller housing sizes.
The 16cm is a straight bolt-on change. Oddly enough, the
16cm housing works quite well on a First Generation truck,
but it is not a “best” choice on Second Generation engines.
When going to the smaller housings, such as the 14cm or
12cm, it may be necessary to shorten the downpipe just
back from its connection to the turbo. This modification is
required because of the longer “tail” on the smaller housings.
STAgE 1
With the gauges in place it is time to do some baseline
testing. Find that deserted stretch of road and make note of
your RPM, turbocharger boost, exhaust gas temperature,
zero-to-? speed and other measurements you may wish to
monitor. Now it’s time to proceed to Stage 1, which will net
a gain of 30 to 40 horsepower over stock systems.
Replacement of the Existing OEM Air Filter: By using
an aftermarket, high flow filter and opening up the airbox
you will permit the maximum amount of airflow, properly
filtered, to reach the turbocharger.
You will have a number of options in selecting parts. Some
of the more well known examples are the AFE, K&N, BHAF
(big honkin’ air filter). Prices range from $25 for a filter-only
to $250 for a high-flow filter and a relocation kit.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Availability: The only exhaust housing that could be
called a bit scarce is a non-wastegated 14cm housing. It
is a little more difficult to come by and often takes some
time to procure. As for the other options, generally they are
easily available. Note: As you go DOWN in housing size,
you should achieve roughly 2-3 psi more boost over the
previous housing, assuming no other changes. It is worth
noting that as you go down in exhaust housing size, you
will see an increase in your drive pressures at higher levels
of boost. Drive pressure is the pressure at the inlet of the
exhaust housing. The inlet dimensions get progressively
smaller as the housing size decreases and can become
very restrictive to exhaust gas flow.
Prices range from $150 to $250 for a non-wastegated 16cm
housing, $175-$250 for a non-wastegated 14cm housing,
$400-$475 for the adjustable wastegated 14cm housing.
51
Modest adjustments of the injection pump: These
are generally the “no-cost” power enhancements that
are fairly easy to make. The adjustments should be done
in a methodical manner to ensure the desired results.
Generally the owner, with a few simple hand tools and a
small amount of time, can do them all. How, you ask? Well
there are four or five commonly used tricks to tease a little
more horsepower out of a Bosch VE injection pump.
These “tricks” are worth describing in some detail.
The smoke screw. This adjustment screw is accessed by
removing a small 7/16” cap on the very top of the injection
pump. Beneath the cap is a 13mm locknut holding a #25
torx screw. Essentially, this screw provides for adjustment
in pre-load on the aneroid diaphragm. This pre-load gives
the engine a shot of fuel to assist in low engine RPM turbo
spool-up. I identify this spool-up range as “the launch-feel”
or as “the first 60 feet of acceleration.” A clockwise rotation
of the torx screw increases the pre-load, while a counterclockwise rotation decreases it. One visible effect of the
consequent increase or decrease in pre-load will be an
increase or a decrease in start-out smoke.
The AFC diaphragm. This is located under the domed
housing on top of the injection pump which, once removed,
will reveal the black rubber diaphragm and its attached
stem and cone supported by a spring. The diaphragm
responds to engine boost pressure and deviates (deflects)
downward. As this occurs, the cone at the bottom of the
stem moves down and allows the fueling rate to increase.
This adjustment is made by rotating the diaphragm with
its attached cone from a slight to aggressive setting. You
will need to remove this diaphragm and look very closely
at the cone on the bottom. It is in fact, not on the center
of the stem axis but offset. In the hole that this assembly
fits down into, there is a small pin that pops out from the
bottom/front of the hole. This pin rides up and down on
that cone. Once the diaphragm has been removed, you’ll
likely see some marks on the cone from the pin contacting
it. Rotating the diaphragm/cone so that the deepest part of
the cone faces forward (toward the pin) will allow for more
fuel per pound of boost.
The starwheel. When you removed the diaphragm from
the pump, you will have exposed the AFC spring. It is
often a dual colored spring (it makes no difference which
way is up). The spring sits on the starwheel. Rotating the
starwheel up or down will place more or less spring load
on the diaphragm. Turning this up (clockwise) will result
in more boost being needed to start the deflection, and
counter-clockwise reduces the amount of boost needed to
perform the same deflection. Adjustment will also impact
your overall smoke levels and mileage.
The full fuel screw. This is located at the back/inside of
the injection pump against the engine. It is also covered
by a tamper cover, assuming this hasn’t already been
removed. In most cases you will need to loosen and move
the boost tube attached to the rear/top of the pump to get
to the fuel screw as well as the idle screw.
Under the tamper cover is a screw with a 6mm hex tip,
and a 13mm locknut. The firewall end of this screw will
normally have a tack welded lock collar on it. Some basic
adjustments to the full fuel screw can usually be made
without removing the lock collar.
52
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Use care with this adjustment. It will significantly increase
fueling, smoke and EGTs. Remember those gauges
I mentioned, well, this is an excellent example of why you
installed them! Start with 1/2 of a turn and test drive, moving
in 1/4 turn increments as you go. This will help keep you
no more than 1/4 turn away from the dangerous range,
commonly known as “runaway condition.”
valve attached, turn up the air pressure to approximately 20
psi (much more and you may pop the stub off and damage
the back of your alternator). Now listen for air that could be
escaping. Use a spray bottle with soapy water and look for
the bubbles. The prices can range from $500 for a “re-core
to as much as $1,000 for a custom aftermarket intercooler.
Other less obvious items: This would include removing
and porting/polishing things such as the intake horn on
the intake manifold, and the exhaust manifold ports; and
modest porting/polishing of the inlet side of the turbo
exhaust housing, internal polishing of the elbow where
it exits the compressor side of the turbo, and so on.
Remember that smooth surfaces facilitate airflow. Again,
these appear to be minor items on the surface; however,
cumulatively they can make a difference, whether it is
improving airflow in or out, and/or the ability to increase
fueling, reduce temperatures, and minimize smoke.
STAgE 2
The following changes should result in approximately 40100 horsepower increase over the stock engine’s output.
As you make adjustments to this screw, it fools your internal
pump governor and results in an idle increase. Here is where
the tachometer comes in handy! Why? Once you’ve had a
pump go into runaway you’ll understand. If that happens
you’ll need a board, some fast feet, or a friend standing by
to help. A runaway engine/injection pump takes on a will
of its own. In some cases turning the key OFF will have
no effect. The volume of fuel being drawn overpowers the
pump’s ability to electrically shut off the flow. In this case,
you’ll need a friend with a piece of wood or other sturdy
material, to place in front of the turbo inlet. This will starve
the engine of air thus stopping the runaway. This may be
obvious, but DO NOT use your hand . . . unless you are
willing to be nicknamed “three finger Fred.”
Those are the basic injection pump adjustments for this
stage. Please be advised that all of the above modifications,
in one way or another, increase the fuel delivered to the
engine. As you make changes form the factory stock
settings, you should be concerned with the amount of black
smoke (unburned fuel) that you leave in the wake of your
Turbo Diesel. Avoid the temptation to join the gross polluters
association. Literally, there is a reason for the black-eye
that diesel owners often have; we punch ourselves in an
effort to have more power. Punch-drunk with power?
STAgE 1 Plus: You’ve already done the Stage 1
modifications; now it’s time for big power. Here are the
things to do for Stage 2.
VE Pump Modification/Adjusting: In order to achieve
higher horsepower and torque levels, further injection
pump adjustments are required. These can include, but are
not limited to, advanced injection timing, aneroid, high idle,
full fuel, starwheel and removal of the lock collar on the
full fuel screw. A competent, mechanically inclined owner
can perform most of these modifications. However you will
be venturing into the higher levels of nervous factor here.
If you’re unsure, or do not have an experienced person
handy, consult a performance diesel shop.
Advancing Injection Pump Timing: Advancing the
injection timing of the VE pump to near maximum safe
levels improves the overall responsiveness of the engine
as well as aids in reducing some emissions, and results
in smoother idle, and better general performance in
conjunction with injector upgrades.
Pressure test the intercooler to confirm no leaks (‘91.5
to ‘93 trucks): The original OEM intercooler is no longer
being produced as a new item. The best you can do is to
have an existing intercooler rebuilt (similar to a radiator
rebuild) or purchase an aftermarket intercooler.
We often find ourselves chasing more boost with the result
that we forget to make sure the boost pressure we do
have is making it to the intake system. Pressure test your
intercooler! “Why, it doesn’t look bad” you say? Intercoolers
can look just fine until you apply 20 psi of air pressure. You
can plug the inlet to the turbo and, with a stub that has an air
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
53
As a rule the pump timing can be increased to 15-17°
advance or between 1.40mm to 1.50mm spill port lift,
depending on the method used by the shop/mechanic.
While it is occasionally difficult to increase a First Gen
pump much beyond 17° advance, it is recommended that
this is roughly the limit in order to maintain head gasket
integrity, since advanced pump timing generates higher
cylinder pressures.
While not the very best method, it has been found that
by first locating the existing index marks on the injection
pump/gear case, and then rotating the VE pump upward
until there is approximately 1/8” space between them,
usually results in advancing pump timing to approximately
15° advance. This job usually has a billing time of from ½
hour to 2 hours depending on the method used and the
spill-port method is best done by a competent shop.
Performance Injector Upgrade: There are a few injector
upgrades that can significantly alter the performance of
the First Generation engine. For example, 185 horsepower
application injectors (for ‘91.5 to ‘93 engines—the older
engines had a larger diameter injector) offer roughly 28
horsepower. These injectors usually cost between $400
and $500. Changing injectors is not overly difficult but you
will need some specialty tools. For example, you’ll need
an injector puller to remove the often stubborn #5 and #6
injector. They suffer from water exposure from the back
edge of the hood and can be rusted in place.
Other options are the Lucas Injector and similar nozzles
that provide in the range of 55-60 RWHP.
Note of caution: At this level of uprating, the automatic
transmission used in the First Gen trucks (be it the automatic
three-speed or four-speed/overdrive) are reaching their
limits of durability. Going much beyond this range will
inevitably require the transmission, torque converter, and
valve body to be upgraded as well. The five-speed Getrag
manual transmission is also nearing its limitations; however,
regular service and overfilling the transmission with oil by
roughly one quart will help extend its longevity.
Limited Slip Differential: At this point it is advisable but not
strictly necessary for those trucks with an “open differential”
to upgrade to a limited slip or alternate type of system.
STAgE 3
Stage 3 modifications should result in roughly 150
horsepower increase over the stock engine.
Stages 1 and 2 plus:
Significant Injection Pump Internal Alterations and
Modifications: Above the Stage 2 level you will find
further horsepower gains to be very expensive. It takes
fuel to make power, and going beyond 100 horsepower
is really stretching the design limits of the truck’s Bosch
VE fuel pump. For bigger numbers the VE injection pump
will require significant modifications internally, as well as
54
maximizing of the various fueling adjustments. It could also
require replacement of some internal components with
components from other VE pump applications. One such
new-under-the-sun modification is the use of a different
governor spring. This allows for a higher governed engine/
fuel limit. This modification requires delving deeper into the
injection pump and should be done only by a competent
mechanic or someone who has experience in this type of
modification.
Modified Turbo Charger(s): There are a number of
aftermarket options that will make significant improvements
in airflow/supply (boost), cooler boost temperatures,
quicker boost response, reduction of smoke emissions,
improving overall combustion of increased fueling levels.
They are, but are not limited to, a modified HX35 turbo with
different exhaust housing, a modified HX40 turbo charger,
again with different exhaust housings and twin turbo
configurations. These are usually custom built/designed
for the particular application. Prices range from $650 to
you-name-it for a custom twin turbo configuration.
Cam Shaft Replacement: This will make a noticeable
improvement in the engine’s ability to breathe, as well as
aid in turbo spool-up response time, and help lower EGT
levels. With a properly designed and properly applied
cam, you will extend the usable power range noticeably.
This is almost always done by a fully equipped shop with
experience in using and installing custom camshafts.
Prices for this can easily run over $1,000 for a custom
ground “towing” cam to $3,000 or more for race/pulling
cams and associated parts.
high Flow Exhaust Manifold: This aids the flow/removal
of exhaust gases. When this can be facilitated, the system
will run more efficiently and provide good exhaust flow to
the turbocharger for effective turbo response time as well.
Due to the extra heat that results from this overall level of
upgrading, the OEM exhaust manifold can cause cracking
or can break the ear(s) on an engine head or on a manifold.
Additionally, the exhaust manifold gaskets start to creep
and can eventually leak, partly due to boost pressures and
expansion/contraction of the manifold/head. Because the
exhaust manifold and engine head heat/cool at slightly
different rates, the mounting bolt holes in the exhaust
manifold can crack or break. The aftermarket three-piece
system effectively deals with this issue. Price for a threepiece system, $475. A temporary or short term fix is to do
some porting of the exhaust manifold and drilling out of the
two smaller bolt holes on the manifold to give it some room
to expand and contract without breaking off an ear.
Porting/Polishing head: This modification makes a
noticeable improvement in the “breathing” of the First Gen
head, which has poorer air flow than any of the subsequent
generation engine heads. There are multiple levels of
porting and attendant cost to each. It can take as much as
40 hours or more to port a head effectively, but the result
is improved flow and efficiency, results not likely to be the
product of an inexperienced persons.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
This procedure involves a three-angle valve-grind and the
substitution of heavier-duty valves and valve guides for the
originals. And because we are now runnig at higher RPMs
within higher governor settings, we will prefer heavy-duty
60-pound exhaust valve springs.
Driveline Modifications for Stage 3
Automatic Transmission Modifications: Herein is a hotly
debated topic.
A fundamental constraint in any approach to increasing
horsepower in vehicles including automatic transmision is
that none of the First Gen transmisions employs a lockup
torque converter systems. They are all fluid couplings.
That means that the transmission transfers the engine’s
power through a torque converter without lockup clutch(es).
As horsepower increases, the effective stall speed of the
OEM torque converter also increases. In stock trim the
rated stall speed is between 1700 and 1900 RPM.
Stall speed testing is extremely hard on the drivetrain,
because it subjects the torque converter and transmission
with all its components to extreme stress. The Cummins
supplies some big torque at low RPM and if anything is
going to fail, it will be in the flex plate, torque converter,
or transmission. Transmission input and output shafts are
prime example of parts subject to failure.
To perform a stall test (and don’t say I didn’t warn you),
place blocks under the wheels, engage the parking
brake and apply the service brakes with strong pressure.
Then after the engine and transmission are at operating
temperature, place transmission in “D”, firmly apply throttle
to the floor. DO NOT HOLD MORE THAN 5 SECONDS. If
you have a transmission temperature gauge you will soon
see why . . . the result is HEAT!
Throughout this procedure, watch your tachometer. The
point at which your engine RPM stalls, or refuses to advance
farther, establishes the “stall speed.” Lift you foot off the
throttle and allow the engine to idle in “N” or “P” for three–
four minutes to help dissipate the built-up heat. In effect, stall
speed is the point in RPMs which the engine cannot exceed
before the vehicle begins to accelerate, unless restrained
by the braking system. It is typical to see that RPM rise ever
higher as the engine performance increases.
It is entirely possible to have a TC that is slipping badly
due to the excess HP/torque being pushed through it.
That results in high operating temperatures, slippage, line
loss and eventually failure of the transmission. The First
Gen A518/727 operating temperature is generally 180°F
plus or minus.
When towing or working at higher altitudes, especially
with an uprated engine, transmissions can actually see
temperatures as high as 270°F or more under extreme
conditions. In fact there is a thermo switch which forces
the transmission out of OD and prevents the upshift to OD
when the temperature is roughly 270°F or higher. That
level of heat is quickly fatal due to oil breakdown.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
One more important note: Many owners either tow or carry
heavy loads. In order to help with braking, an exhaust
brake is often installed. What is NOT taken into account
is that the exhaust brake on a stock, First Gen, automatic
transmission is about as effective as sticking your hand out
the window. All that is accomplished is excess transmission
wear, slippage, extreme heat buildup, and early demise of
the automatic transmission.
The stock automatic transmission is generally reliable to
roughly 230-250 rear wheel horsepower. Beyond that, the
engine is producing enough power at low enough RPM’s
that the transmission is likely to suffer failure if over-driven
constantly.
There are a number of aftermarket transmission products
available for higher horsepower applications. It is best
to contact several and go into that conversation with a
full sheet of questions about the product, your intended
horsepower goals, type of usage, performance record,
service, cost etc. Above all, be honest in your presentation
when it comes to what you want to do with your truck.
The getrag Manual Transmission: This transmission has
its own weaknesses. It has been known to fail, resulting in
unpleasant transmission problems. Also, this transmission
is best preserved by regular fluid monitoring and over-filling
the case by roughly one quart. This can be done via the
shift tower, or the upper bolt on the PTO cover. This is at
best a stopgap measure when reaching into the higher
horsepower levels. Ideally a conversion to a NV4500 or
NV5600 with appropriate clutch is advisable.
STAgE 4
The following changes can net a 400 to 500 horsepower
gain over the stock 160 horsepower engine. However, these
modifications are extremely expensive. If you don’t believe
me, ask TDR writer and technical guru Joe Donnelly.
Stage 1, 2, and 3 plus:
At this level, you will be making some significant changes to
the original engine system. It will require the replacement of
the Bosch VE injection pump (it just cannot supply enough
fuel) and conversion to a different fuel injection pump. That
pump is known as the Bosch P7100. It is a large, inline
injection pump, capable of supplying significant amounts of
fuel—fuel levels way beyond that of the First Generation’s
VE fuel pump.
It should be noted that options below are listed in order
to create an ideal-build. It is possible to utilize some or
all of the steps listed below, just as in previous stages
of development, provided the owner is aware that
shortcutting can work for one and not for another. A final
note: This horsepower range requires many trips to the
dynamometer. What may work for a sled-pull application
may not work at the drag strip or vice-versa. Will either
engine be streetable? Getting good information can be
difficult as performance secrets are often guarded closely.
55
P7100 Injection Pump: This change requires the
replacement of the timing gear cover, injection pump and
all related items. It is an extensive job and results in a
significant increase in fueling levels, EGT’s, etc. It will also
result in some serious horsepower increases when used in
conjunction with modified turbo charging systems.
Custom head Work: This will entail maximum porting/
polishing of the head and intake manifold. The head
would benefit from a good quality stud kit, as opposed to
the traditional headbolts which can stretch and aren’t as
capable of withstanding the same pressures/torque levels
of stud kits. While not an absolute necessity, studding the
heads is becoming more common.
In addition, the head and/or block will need to be “O-Ringed”
to deal with the much higher boost pressures needed at
this level.
Replacement Racing Cam: Again, like the initial cam
change, if your goal is to reach this level of horsepower,
then you can forego the original cam change earlier on and
go straight to this in order to be cost effective. This cam
change will require additional components/modifications
as noted, but these are not limited to the list below.
Custom Pistons: These may be marine application or
other special designs. The piston(s) will usually require
flycutting, which makes notches to allow for valve
clearance. Ceramic coating of pistons is also used widely
in high horsepower applications.
Special Valves/Seats/guides: This is required to deal
with the increased heat and higher RPM that will result
at this level of modification, as well as the higher boost
pressures that result.
heavy Duty Valve Springs: Required to ensure effective
opening and closing of valves, generally necessary when
running higher RPM’s. (Usually considered 3500 RPM and
above.)
Full Engine Balancing: Ideally, to allow for higher RPM
operating range.
“Girdling” Block: Prevents the block from flexing and
possibly cracking at high HP/RPM levels. This is not an
absolute necessity but a preventative measure becoming
more common.
Fuel “Pusher” Pump: In order to ensure a continuous
supply of fuel at sufficient pressures to feed the injection
pump, a secondary supply or “pusher pump” is often used.
Custom Built/Designed Injectors: The P7100 injection
pump can supply sufficient fuel to run larger injectors. There
are a number of options available. There are few very good
shops that can provide not only large performance injectors
but relatively “clean” considering the volume of fuel being
run in a very high horsepower application. Remember,
“clean” is in the eye of the beholder, or the local law!
Large Aftermarket Intercooler: At this level of fueling
and horsepower a larger aftermarket intercooler is often
needed simply to keep charge air temperatures at a
reasonable level.
Custom Built Transmission/Clutch: Again, at the levels
of horsepower and torque being developed, it is a necessity
to replace any existing transmission/clutch etc, with heavy
duty, race/pulling capable equipment. There are a number
of aftermarket suppliers who specialize in this very type
of product. Currently there are automatic transmissions
holding up to very near 800 RWHP reliably as of this
writing (08/15/03). These will, of course, require secondary
oil coolers. They incorporate billet components, hardened
parts, and other custom components that all contribute to
holding all that horsepower and torque without exploding.
What you end up using will literally be a custom-built,
specifically-tuned system for your specific application.
Transmission durability, reliability, cost, service, and warranty
are extremely important and can not be overstressed. If
installation is done well, a heavy duty transmission can be
as effective as a standard transmission in terms of power
transfer. It will also shift much quicker than a standard
transmission ever could. Go for some test drives, talk to
owners, and remember, in this category, price is NOT the
object, unless you want 20% or more of your performance
upgrades to go missing on their way to the ground, not to
mention finging oil and parts all over the ground!
I hope this article brings some insight into the stages
required to uprate an engine from mild to wild. These
Cummins B-series engines are one of the most incredible
power plants with enormous power potential if modified in
a methodical and logical progression.
Bob Coe
First generation Moderator
Nitrous/Propane Kit: These additions provide significant
horsepower increases for such things as dyno runs, sled
pulling, racing.
Twin Turbo Systems: This is a more common option in
the very high horsepower applications, although there are
aftermarket suppliers who can provide excellent single
turbo systems good to as high as mid 600 horsepower
range, depending on specified usages.
56
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Postscript and Additional Thoughts
As I have had time to review some of the past issues of the
TDR, I can’t help but comment on the knowledge and support
that has been provided to TDR members by folks such as
Joe Donnelly. Joe has given generously of his experience
and knowledge. Thanks, Joe, for your contributions.
While looking through Issue 40 something caught my
attention. On page 50 is an article on how to make a tool
to allow an owner to loosen the hidden 13mm nut holding
the fuel pump too tight to the front cover of the engine.
With the fuel pump loose, the timing of fuel delivery can be
advanced. The editor issued a caution about a one-sizefits-all timing improvement known as the “1/8” method.”
I would like to add some further clarification to the 1/8”
method that was discussed.
As discussed, injection pump timing is adjusted based
on the CPL number/year model of your First Generation
Truck. Timing is most accurately set when using the “spill
port” method. It is also one of, if not the most costly method
to use. That is the price of accuracy and spill port timing is
the most accurate method.
Next is the “degrees” method. It is faster and less accurate,
but unless you’re doing serious dyno/race tuning it is
adequate for our needs.
Fuel pump timing needs to be addressed when swapping
out stock injectors for larger injectors with higher “popoff” pressure. The reason the timing should be altered is
based on the increased pressure requirements. The larger
injector will often require a slightly longer time for the
injection pump to build sufficient line pressure to trigger the
fuel release. Our stock injectors have an approximate popoff (referred to as pop pressure from here on) of roughly
245 bar. (Note: one bar is 14.7 psi.) As the injector of choice
will likely have a higher pop pressure (for example 250 or
255 bar), the delay to fuel release is increased. Starting
the injection process sooner, or advancing the pump timing
can compensate for this delay.
Now add in this important fact that was clearly and
appropriately made by Joe Donnelly some time back; as
timing is increased so too are cylinder pressures. That in
turn results in threat to the head gasket integrity, both short
and long term.
The nagging question remains, “How do I know if my
timing is set just right?” As per the editor’s caution in Issue
40, if you’ve ever set the ignition timing on a gasoline
engine, you’ll know the signs of too much advance. You
will start hearing that distinctive rattle like two marbles in
a plastic cup. It’s pretty hard to miss. You will start hearing
the “knock” when loading the engine or when using low
octane fuel.
On the Cummins B-series engine you will start to hear
what I refer to as a “hard” metallic sound. Think back on
the times that you’ve heard the older Mercedes diesels
idling. They had some very advanced timing and the
resulting rattle that goes with it. If you have a good ear,
you can detect even slight sound differences fairly well.
Need an example? Try triggering the KSB solenoid (cold
start advance) on a warm engine by supplying 12-volts
DC to the contact terminal and listen for the change in
engine tone. Trigger the solenoid on/off, on/off till you hear
the differences. You can use the 1/8” method as a short
term approach, but if you plan on doing the inevitable
modifications for higher horsepower, you really should use
one of the two more accurate methods to set and tune
your timing needs.
Bob Coe
First generation Moderator
I have personally used and suggested this method of
setting the pump timing. What is important to note here is
that the method recommended for setting timing properly
begins with finding engine top dead center (TDC) with the
engine timing pin.
Since this pin can have an error (due to tolerences) of as
much as 2.5° or more, it becomes difficult to know for sure
where your timing actually is at the start of the process.
Now, if you’re using the 1/8” method, you really have no way
of knowing your actual end result since you have no idea of
the original starting point. For example, the Service Manual
calls for 1.35 mm spill port lift on the earlier First Generation
trucks and 1.25 mm on the later, intercooled trucks, or
approximately 12.5° and 13.5° respectively. So if we assume
that the timing is set at 1.25 mm (12.5°) when, in fact, it is
not the error could have the actual timing well off that mark.
Now you use the 1/8” method and make the assumption you
are now running 15° advance . . . Well, you see my point.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
57
1994-2007 PERFORMANCE ENhANCEMENTS
by Joe Donnelly
AIR + FUEL = POWER, PRESCRIPTIONS FOR
POWER WITh FUEL MILEAgE AND DURABILITY
Our editor, Robert Patton, has proposed that there are
three types of Turbo Diesel (or any vehicle) owners:
Beginning more than ten years ago, in TDR Issue 23,
this topic and other Turbo Diesel modifications were
systematically investigated with verification on the Dynojet
dynamometer.
• The Appliance Buyer
• Due Diligence
• The Enthusiast
My take on these owners is as follows:
Type One: The Appliance Buyer. Maybe he talks to a
neighbor, but the appliance buyer is more interested in the
color, the financing, or the perception of ownership. This
owner probably will never be a part of the TDR, although
Dodge has attracted many such owners, as the trucks
have gotten better and the Cummins engines have gotten
quieter and less likely to overshadow to the personality of
the truck.
Type Two: Due Diligence. These folks try to get quick
information about the vehicle. If they are to be influenced
by TDR members, it probably will happen when they are
accumulating information prior to the sale. They might
buy a subscription to whatever diesel magazine seems
attractive, for a year. I think the magazines that repeatedly
give little technical information, but over and over describe
the $10,000 projects that they do, will not get renewed.
Type Three: The Enthusiast. These folks may join the
TDR for a year to see what the experience is all about. One
year later, will the enthusiast renew the subscription? I think
the TDR is aligned mostly toward these buyers because of
the variety of technical information and the fellowship of
the members. I refer to articles from years back to solve
problems, whereas most car and truck magazines are so
repetitive that they end up in the trash can each month.
As TDR members, is there much we can or should do to
influence the Type One and Type Two buyer? How might
this relate to the question of how we keep the enthusiasts
interested and informed? Robert then suggested this
theme for Issue 65: The goal of the TDR has always been
to bring the owner more satisfaction in their ownership of
a Turbo Diesel. That is, “we tell it like it is and save you
money.” In this issue of my column, I’m going to summarize
and update ten years of discussions that I have made on
the performance topic, and how we can wisely spend our
money to achieve our power and economy goals without
sacrificing durability and longevity of our Turbo Diesels.
Many of the “latest and greatest, new and improved”
magazines provide approaches that may or may not work
while spending a lot of money. But we have known how to
achieve our goals better, faster, and cheaper for at least
a decade…and the TDR has been our primary resource.
For an example of the value of the TDR for Turbo Diesel
owners, and not just the enthusiasts, here is a review of
cost-effective approaches to improving power and mileage
of our trucks.
58
Dynamometer Testing
The state-of-the-art Dynojet 248C allows the truck to
“accelerate” in the chosen gear by turning a large, heavy
roller. Its operating principle is inertia, an effect that
is relatively easy to reproduce run after run. There is
probably not any significant bias in the Dynojet numbers
above 2000 rpm, and the torque readings in this rpm range
are also accurate. Below 2000 rpm, there is some negative
bias because the engine has not yet developed full boost
and power. We can make valid comparisons to the stock
configuration for any modifications we try. The readings at
and over 2000 rpm are most likely correct, and the bias
below that rpm is reproducible by starting the run at the
same rpm each time.
Many dynamometers are less capable for high horsepower
Turbo Diesels. In particular, dual roller setups tend to
overheat and slip the tires, and software contains so many
estimates and guesses that the results are not reliable. It
seems that up to around 400 horsepower, most dynos are
capable. However, many competitors are seeking power
levels well beyond 400, and changes can be assessed
only by reliable dyno testing for each of them. Double roller
dynos have the additional problem of over-stressing the
tires and sometimes causing the tires to fail during testing.
Exhaust Improvements
The biggest restriction, albeit a necessary one, is the
exhaust housing and wheel of the turbocharger. Reduction
of exhaust gas temperatures under heavy load begins with
a properly sized turbocharger, not just the turbine (exhaust)
housing, but all other turbocharger parameters. It seemed
that the HX35 turbo used up to 2002 was somewhat
restrictive in supporting increased power, andwe find that
increasingly strict emissions regulations have resulted in the
2003-up turbochargers also being limited. Whatever year
Turbo Diesel you have, it seems that turbo improvements
are needed once you exceed about 325-375 horsepower.
Given the use of an appropriately sized performance
turbocharger with the larger diameter exhaust system, it is
now clear that four-inch exhaust is useful, and necessary for
controlling exhaust gas temperatures, over about 330-350
horsepower. Over about 570 horsepower, a full five-inch
exhaust system becomes useful with a single large turbo.
The use of compound turbos lessens the improvement to
be realized from exhaust larger than 4” diameter because
more heat is extracted by the turbo system.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
The HX35 turbochargers, used in ‘94–‘02 applications,
benefit from the use of a 16 sq. cm. exhaust housing
when horsepower exceeds about 270. Larger single
turbochargers such as the High Tech and BD products are
carefully matched to appropriate exhaust housing sizes by
the suppliers; generally 12 to 16 sq. cm. sizes are employed
for single turbocharger applications.
Increased exhaust airflow may help power a little, both from
less pumping loss and from the ability of the turbocharger
to spool up a little faster. However, don’t expect much of
a gain from a low-restriction muffler or “cat-back” system,
particularly when the fueling is still stock. A few horsepower
may be found, but the cost is usually somewhat high per
horsepower gained. If you are replacing a worn out exhaust
system anyway, or like the looks or sound of a non-stock
exhaust, the small power gain may help with your decision
here. With stock fueling, gains of 5-10 hp may be attained;
with higher fueling, backpressure increases and somewhat
larger gains may be realized.
Intake Airflow
Increased airflow on the intake side (such as low
restriction air intakes and filters) gives no measurable
increase on the dyno. Air intakes were tested extensively
in TDR Issue 56, page 150; and in Issue 59, page 130.
The high-boost power levels and the rate of building boost
and power seem to be the same regardless of whether or
not an air filter is used, for example. The test Ram made
385hp to the rear wheels, and the horsepower curves
were superimposable with a somewhat dirty stock Mopar
air filter, with a new Fleetguard filter, and with the air box
propped open so no filter was used. Maximum boost was
about 40 psi. Since no difference was observed at this
elevated power level and during acceleration of the roller
while building power below 2000 rpm, no horsepower
difference would be expected in normal driving situations.
If the air filter is oiled cloth, and you aggressively overoil the filter media, the oil plus road dirt will eventually
coat the intake piping and the intercooler, reducing the
efficiency of the intercooler. Even low volatility oil can be
sucked into the pipes at the flow rates needed to achieve
the high boost levels attainable with the turbocharged
Cummins engines. If you have compound turbochargers,
the air filter must be capable of flowing enough air so
that a vacuum is not created at the turbocharger inlet.
A vacuum leak can lead to turbo seal leakage.
It seems much easier to accept the cost of fueling upgrades
than the cost of air system upgrades. Most fueling upgrades
are moderate-cost changes, and it is possible—up to a
point—to limp along with the stock air system. Too many of
us “don’t notice” that exhaust gas temperatures are above
the Cummins recommendation of 1300° at full power
(Cummins allows higher EGT’s with HPCR engines, up
to 1450°-1500° depending on the specific engine.) Yeah,
the truck smokes “somewhat,” but what the heck, you can
still see out the windshield! These oversights can lead to
expensive engine repairs later, or to expensive citations
from the smog police.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Air Filters and Air Boxes
A number of folks have replaced the stock air filter with oiledelement filters in their search for more airflow. Those who
make this change have found that the sealing lip of the filter is
very important for the exclusion of dust. As mentioned, overoiling exacerbates the problem of pulling oil or oily dirt into
the turbocharger and intercooler. Dyno testing has shown
that the air box is the real problem, more so than the filter
(see TDR Issue 37, page 26). The stock filter was removed,
and the air box closed for a dyno run. The power loss was
about the same as for the stock air box/filter setup, about 20
horsepower compared to propping the box top open. Opening
the box brought the power level to what would be found with
nothing, or with just the factory 4” diameter curved hose
attached to the inlet of the turbocharger. The stock plastic
“collar” going to the inner fender was not used in these tests,
only the stock air box and hose. Also note that no significant
power loss was found until the engine was producing over
500 horsepower. Of course, an effect might well be noted
at lower power levels in real-world situations such as trailer
towing or hot weather where intake air temperature has a
significant detrimental effect upon exhaust gas temperature.
Intake air temperature was covered in Issue 59, page 130.
One popular replacement filter is the Fleetguard AH19037,
dubbed the “big honkin’ air filter” (BHAF) on the TDR
web-based Discussion Forum. This filter is a paper media
filter with wire wrapped around the outside of the media.
The filter outlet plugs into the stock 4” diameter curved
air intake hose leading to the turbocharger. However, the
10.5” diameter of the BHAF is so large that there isn’t
room for a good air induction box around it if you want
good airflow into the filter media, so you have to close the
hood. This results in a compromise with hot underhood air
taken near the turbo exhaust housing. Still, users report
improvements in exhaust gas temperature of 100°-150° in
some situations. The Fleetguard manufactured version of
the BHAF is flow-rated at 687 cubic feet per minute (cfm)
at 6” of water restriction (suction). For comparison, the
original Fleetguard filter, 25090 (without foam prefilter) for
the Dodge airbox flowed 550 cfm. Dyno testing (see below)
indicates that this filter offers almost no restriction even
with high horsepower engines.
Fleetguard has a similar style 8” diameter fiberglass filter
(AH19002). It is flow-rated at 470 cfm, not as much as the
BHAF (Fleetguard AH19037).
K&N filters offers their RE-880 filter, a high-flow unit that
attaches to the stock 4” hose like the BHAF does. The
K&N is an oiled-element filter. Dyno testing has showed
that horsepower with this filter attached to the stock hose
is about the same as no filter or the BHAF.
While investigating air filter options for high horsepower
situations, we looked into the Fleetguard AF-1752M. Here,
M stands for “magnum” meaning increased dirt capacity.
This filter is sold by Fleetguard for Volvo heavy equipment.
The filter is very strong with steel end caps and wire mesh
inside and outside the filter element. It flows 812 cfm at 6”
water restriction, but it is 7.8” in diameter by 24” long so it is
not real practical for most of us.
59
The AFE setup includes the AFE oiled-element filter with
a rounded (radius) type outlet to the 4” turbo inlet hose.
Surprisingly, it made about 4-5 hp more than no filter or
anything on the turbo at all. It also made more horsepower
than any other filter setup we tested. That improvement is
apparently due to the radiused outlet’s effect on smoothing
the air flow.
Air Filter—
brand,
part number
Flow in cfm @
6” water
restriction
Fleetguard AF25541
in Dodge air box
Dynojet
measured
horsepower
549
Fleetguard 25090
550
Fleetguard AF1752M
in steel air box
812
558
Fleetguard AF1752M
No air box
812
570
Donaldson B105006
(BHAF)
568
No air filter, box,
or hose on turbo
1050
Fleetguard AH19037
(BHAF)
687
AFE 60-90037 filter and
50-10071 housing
Fleetguard AH19002
fiberglass media
570
470
569
Fueling Increases
Obviously fueling increases are the real secret to making
more power with our Cummins diesels. Fueling increases
can also be the least expensive with respect to horsepower
per dollar gains. Here is also the big issue that Dodge
makes regarding warranty claims. If you want to make
big power, your engine needs more fuel. It can then “hurt
itself”—or hurt the drivetrain—more easily if it is driven
without regard to common sense. The air system—mostly
the turbocharger and intercooler—need to be upgraded
to keep the EGT within allowable limits while using the
increased fueling.
Over the years, articles detailed power increases available
from torque plates (12-valve engines with the P7100 inline
injection pump), larger injectors, and electronic boxes
(VP44 and HPCR equipped 24-valve engines). The
potential for improved fuel mileage from larger injectors and
proper injection timing was discussed way back in Issue
29, page 30, and many times since. For example, 24-valve
engines get increased power and mileage both from larger
injectors, such as those used in the 275 horsepower
Recreational Vehicle engine, or from Dynomite Diesel
Stage 1 injectors.
60
With the introduction to testing, exhaust, intake and fueling
out of the way, let’s take a look at specific instructions for
various horsepower and torque levels.
Level 1: 20-40 horsepower, 40-80 ft-lb Torque Increase
APPROACh A: IMPROVED AIRFLOW
As noted above, you cannot expect an air box and filter
change to add noticeable horsepower unless the engine is
already making over 500hp.
The gain from an exhaust change can be noticeable, in
the range of 20-25hp. If you have significant restrictions
in the system, such as a plugged catalytic converter or
muffler, correcting those problems will also help. If you
have a Second Generation Turbo Diesel, the 16 sq. cm.
exhaust housing for the turbocharger may help EGT under
full power and give a bit more maximum power. Under
light loads, EGT will be higher, however, since the turbo
is producing several psi less boost. I noted an increase
of 25hp on the Dynojet by replacing the 2004 turbo with a
moderately larger unit.
APPROACh B: INCREASED FUELINg
574
K&N RE880 on
Dodge hose
AND NOW—ThE PRESCRIPTIONS
The 20-40 hp increase is easily attained by a modest
fueling increase. On the 1989-93 Cummins engines,
adjustment screws are provided on the Bosch VE injection
pump to allow this level of fueling increase. Directions and
diagrams are available free at http://www.tstproducts.com
for the owners of these engines.
On the 1994-1998 12-valve engines, three straightforward
techniques are available to increase fueling:
(1) Adjustment of the stock torque plate: Often called
“adjusting to the high end of specifications, tweaking, or
tuning up.” The amount and type of work will be similar to
that for installing a custom-made torque plate. (You can
review these procedures at http://www.tstproducts.com.)
(2) Installation of a custom made torque plate in the
stock position: Using an installation guide plate or other
means to ensure that the new torque plate is in the same
relative position on the P7100 pump governor housing as
the stock plate was. A custom torque plate such as the TST
Power Kit costs the same to manufacture regardless of the
power increase, and it can give much more power increase
than 20hp. The usual increases are in the order of 50+ hp
and/or 150+ ft-lb torque for this approach.
(3) Installation of higher flow injectors: Injectors are
available for both the 12 and 24 valve engines in various
fuel flow rates.
The 24-valve engines can benefit from larger Bosch
injectors. For example, those used in the 275hp version
of the ISB engine, or from aftermarket Stage 1 injectors
can give around 40hp and 60-80 ft-lb increase at the rear
wheels. The Edge EZ box, the TST PowerMax and the
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Smarty programmer also can be set to provide gains in the
20-40hp range. The 2003-2007 HPCR engines can benefit
from the same sorts of enhancements.
Any of these three increased fueling approaches may be
complemented with an increase in turbo boost. A boost
increase is desirable for the 12-valve engines, but the
boost on the 24-valve engines should not be increased
with the injector change, unless a “boost fooler” module is
installed. This function is included in the electronic boxes
and the Smarty programmer.
This modest power increase has been found to be rather
safe for the stock drivetrain. Note that any of these
approaches which involve fueling increases can impact
your Dodge warranty (see below), as can exhaust changes
if they can be interpreted as increasing power. Gauges
are a valuable addition, to monitor engine condition and
detect failures, such as a boost hose leaking or blowing off,
before damage occurs.
Level 2: 50-80 hp, 180-200 ft-lb Increase
This type of power increase is near or beyond the safe
limits for turning up the VE pump used in 1989-93 engines.
For these engines, consult a knowledgeable specialist or
Bosch pump shop, and be aware that some of the engines
(notably early intercooled Rams) may require bigger
injectors as well as pump adjustments for fueling and
timing in order to achieve this amount of power increase.
This 50-80hp increase is easily attained on the 1994-‘98
12-valve Rams with a TST torque plate and a procedure
to increase turbo boost. The reason this is relatively
simple is that the Bosch P7100 pump was designed for
much larger engines than the Cummins B series, and can
provide sufficient fueling for such increases by a change in
the full load fuel stop (torque) plate. This amount of power
is generally safe with the stock powertrain, as long as a
relatively non-abusive driving/towing style is used.
Computer-related modifications, such as the TST PowerMax
and the Smarty programmer, are available for the 24-valve
Turbo Diesels. Larger Stage 2 or Stage 3 aftermarket
injectors are also available. These kinds of approaches are
also available for the 2003-‘07 HPCR engines. Because
of the greater difficulty and cost of changing injectors on
the HPCR engines, most owners choose an electronic
approach for increasing power to this level.
Since the fueling is increased by high-flow injectors and by
electronics or custom torque plates, either technique has
an impact on the warranty from Dodge.
Whereas gauges are valuable for any Turbo Diesel to
observe problems before failures occur, with the higher
power increases such as this level, the driver will need to
pay attention to the gauges, especially with heavy loads
or towing. Periodically check the boost hose clamps for
tightness and check the boost line connector hoses to be
sure they are not crawling out from under the clamps.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Level 3: 90-200 hp, 220-600 ft-lb. Increase
This range of power increase is available at varying levels
of cost and difficulty, depending on the original horsepower
rating of the Turbo Diesel. For example, the 160, 175,
and 180hp 1994-‘98 Turbo Diesels can achieve about
290-300hp and 780-800 ft-lb at the rear wheels with a
combination of strong torque plate, turbo exhaust housing,
low restriction muffler, and drivetrain (clutch or automatic
transmission) “beefing” to make the power useable. The
215hp 12-valve engine can achieve about 400hp, 1000
ft-lb at the rear wheels with the torque plate and exhaust
modifications. The 24-valve engines, both VP44 and HPCR,
can achieve similar power levels with an aftermarket “box”
such as the TST PowerMax or with a Smarty programmer.
Adding high-flow injectors will increase these numbers
somewhat. The fuel injection system and the features of
the different injection pumps were discussed in Issue 61 on
pages 100-107.
In the upper range of this level of power increases, the
stock manual clutch will probably slip even with the truck
empty, in 5th and maybe 4th gear, if full torque is applied
(about 1800 rpm, full throttle). The automatic transmission
will have problems, mostly related to fluid pressures, flow
rates, and friction coefficients of the various clutches.
Better clutch materials, a tighter stall torque converter with
a better lockup clutch, and valve body modifications to
increase fluid flow rates and line pressure are advisable.
Other drivetrain components seem to hold up well, but need
to be checked regularly for wear. High quality synthetic
lubricant should be used in the differential to reduce shock
and wear. Additional lubricant capacity (such as a high
capacity differential cover) and a magnet to trap metal
particles are also worthwhile. A gauge can be installed to
monitor transmission and differential temperatures. One
approach is to use a single gauge with a switch to monitor
the transmission or the differential temperature sensor. The
temperature sender for the five-speed and the differential
can be mounted in the 3/4” National Pipe Thread (NPT)
pipe plug filler hole by drilling and tapping a hollow hexhead 3/4” NPT brass pipe plug for the 1/8” pipe sender unit.
It is better not to use multiple adapters, as they would place
the sender farther from the major lubricant flow path.
In this power range, you will need an aftermarket
turbocharger that is properly sized to the power level of the
engine and its usage. Gauges and careful monitoring of
them become essential. It is all too easy for a boost hose
to begin leaking as the clamp gets loose over time, or for
a heavy load/trailer to cause EGT to exceed 1300° (14501500° for most HPCR engines) in the exhaust manifold
when the cruise control applies full power to climb that
mountain. Also, it should be obvious that the opportunities
for failures increase with power, and the overall life
expectancy for the engine goes down as the amount of
power used goes up.
61
Suggested reading from your TDR archives:
This issue, pages 53 and 57; TDR index using key words
Fuel Economy and Power Module
Issue 64, pages 82-84; Evaluation of TST PowerMax CR
for HPCR engines
Issue 64, page 37; Distinguishing the power box on HPCR
engines
Issue 61, page 63; TDR index using key words Power
Enhancement
Issue 57, pages 93 and 96; TDR index using key words Fuel
Economy and Performance Enhancement
Issue 53, page 48 and 52; TDR index using key words Fuel
Efficiency, Performance Enhancement and
Performance Module.
Isn’t 400 horsepower just a mild hop-up today?
Ten or twelve years ago, folks worried whether 230hp
was a safe upgrade. Experience and the ready availability
of cam plates power boxes, injectors, etc., have made
many of us casual about uprates to far more horsepower
than that. However, we really should not be casual about
uprating power because the entire engine system must
be considered, to ensure the over-engineering factor is
adequate for all components.
In particular, 400 horsepower really isn’t a “mild” hop-up.
Back in the mid-90s when the Cummins engines made
150-180hp on the dynamometer, 400hp was considered
stratospheric. Now that the HPCR High Output engines
make 280-300HP on the dynamometer in stock form, 400
doesn’t look so far off. However, some things such as the
fuel lift pump and turbocharger aren’t bigger in proportion
to the factory horsepower increase.
When the First Generation Turbo Diesel came out in
calendar year 1988 with 160hp, it had a Holset turbo with
18.5 sq. cm. turbine housing. Now, the Third Generation
Turbo Diesels dyno 120-130hp higher, but use an exhaust
(turbine) housing with less than half the area (9 sq. cm.) This
is done for emissions—to have immediate responsiveness,
and power to compete with other brands, a small housing
is needed for instant spool up. This housing becomes the
choke point at high power/boost, and especially under
power at higher rpm. The 9 sq. cm. translates to a single
pipe 1-1/3 of an inch in diameter. Given about a 1/16” wall
thickness of most exhaust pipes, that means it is like a
single exhaust of just under 1.5” outside diameter tubing.
Go tell a serious drag racer that you want to build a 400hp
engine, and use 1.5” single exhaust. Even if you succeed,
pumping losses and exhaust gas temperatures make the
exercise completely impractical, to the point of seriously
endangering the engine.
Your Turbo Diesel’s Warranty
Any fueling increase results in the same issue—it is an
unauthorized increase in the engines fuel delivery. Whether
you adjust the AFC “star wheel” or the stock torque plate,
62
install big injectors, or install a custom torque plate, there
is no qualitative difference if Dodge wants to make an issue
of it for your warranty claim, and if a failure is attributable to
the increased fueling/power.
Dodge warranties that your Ram and the Cummins engine
will run for a certain period of time/mileage in stock
configuration. If that configuration does not satisfy you,
what good is that warranty, anyway? Some folks don’t
want to be guaranteed that their Rams will run poorly (in
their opinions) for a long, long time. Many folks realize that
the engine is far overengineered, and that the drivetrain
is also overengineered, so some power gains can be
made without failures becoming likely. These owners are
willing to move the situation from “idiot proof” to just “idiot
resistant” and they take on that incremental responsibility
for wise driving styles. In that way, they “become their own
warranty stations” for problems caused by combinations of
increased power in driving or towing.
Suggested reading if you want to brush up on the how-tos
and why-fors of warranty, Issue 60, pages 50-52, has a
three-page examination of warranties and lack thereof.
YOUR QUESTIONS
Now, I’m going to address some of the frequently asked
questions that I see and hear. Let’s jump right in:
Is it really such a good idea to change my stock exhaust
manifold to the 3-piece aftermarket unit?
Yes. The 12-valve engines have a pretty strong manifold,
but it is made of a silicon-containing cast iron that continues
to shrink until it either breaks the mounting bolts at the ends,
or breaks the ears off the head. Look at your manifold from
the head side. You can see the open “trough” where the
bolt goes through the manifold. If the manifold has shrunk
excessively, the bolt will be at the outer edge of the hole.
The 24-valve manifold is not very strong, so it doesn’t
break the head. However, it is very prone to cracking (see
TDR Issue 37, page 56). The Third Generation manifold
before 2006 had poor flow for the number 4 and 5 ports. I
consider this upgrade to be part of an effective preventive
maintenance program.
Power versus Drivability and the Turbocharger
If there remains one compromise that defines the character
of our Turbo Diesel like no other, I would say it is the
turbocharger. To support high horsepower, you need either
one big turbo, or very expensive twin turbos. How much
power you can use, how quickly you can access it without
excessive smoke, and how quickly you can get off the pedal
are all defined by the turbocharger system you select.
Bigger turbos spool up slower than small ones. Bigger
exhaust housings spool slower on a given turbo than small
housings. There are a variety of custom turbochargers and
twin turbocharger setups available. Some do a better job
than others in spool up and air flow.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Once the glitter of the big number wears off, prudent
owners usually don’t use much more power in daily driving
than the stock Third Generation HO engine provides—200
to 300 horsepower depending on rpm. This puts us back
where we wanted to be in the first place, back seven years
ago, when we hoped we could use 230hp safely, without
excessive wear to the engine or drive train. The main
difference today is that we can buy the technology to use
more power than that safely. If we do so, on a moderate or
occasional basis, for passing, towing up hills, and such, we
can expect our engines to last a long time.
injectors a little larger than stock often improved both power
and economy. The fuel atomization was still good, and the
needed fuel came in a little earlier. Hence, 215hp injectors
work well in 12-valve engines, and 275hp recreational
vehicle injectors work well in 24-valve engines. For those
trying to fine-tune even further, various aftermarket injectors
in similar fuel flow (“size”) ranges are available. It is exciting
to read about high horsepower engine modifications, but
reality sets in at the fueling station. Moderate is the by-word
now. Moderate injectors, some timing increase, and some
more rail pressure all help.
Power and Mileage
Here are a few examples and specifics relating to fuel
mileage: Some aftermarket front bumpers and bug shields
can cause a loss of up to 1.5mpg. My Reunel stainless steel
front bumper did not cause such a loss. I found that a timing
box (TST Power Max CR) gave at least 1mpg better fuel
economy on my early 2004. (Reportedly the gain is 2mpg
with the 2004.5 up engine that has more emissions controls
and starts out with poorer economy, typically.) Increasing
injection pump timing on the P7100 pump by about two
degrees may result in one or two miles per gallon better
economy. I have limited comparative data for injectors but
Stage 1 seem to improve mileage a little, and Stage 2 do
not hurt mileage in my Turbo Diesel. Finally, driver habits
remain critical. Running 79 mph on the interstate over long
trips used to be normal. However, reducing speed to 74
mph gained 1-2mpg, and about another maybe 0.5mpg by
going 70-72 mph with stock sized tires and 3.73 gears.
We often wonder if you can have your cake and eat it
too. Claims made by some magazines and Turbo Diesel
owners directly conflict with the claims made by others
regarding power, drivability, and fuel mileage with different
turbochargers, power adders, and accessories. Writers for
the TDR try very hard to keep objectivity in the forefront,
but there is also the Aspirin versus Tylenol versus Motrin
versus Advil situation to consider. Often there will be more
than one valid approach to achieving your objective for
your Turbo Diesel. Just as one headache remedy may
perform similarly to another, more than one approach
may be effective. Just as one medicine may work best
for you, so one approach to optimizing power, exhaust
gas temperatures (engine longevity), and fuel mileage
may work better for your usage of the truck than another
approach. Different but similar approaches to power and
drivability may produce slightly different balances in power
and economy, and results may be noticeably different from
less similar approaches. Different writers take different
approaches, and you will decide what is the best for your
usage.
Adding power is relatively easy with today’s electronic
engines. Adding fuel mileage can be more difficult. Some
principles we learned years ago still apply. Rate of adding
fuel to the cylinders will be changed with injector size, and
now with increasing rail pressure on the high pressure
common rail engines used since 2003. Duration of fueling
is changed by power boxes, and in earlier days, the torque
plate as pioneered by TST (www.tstproducts.com). We also
learned that more timing than stock can help both power
and economy. (Suggested reading from your archives: Issue
53, page 11, “HPCR Performance Update.”) The Cummins
factory engineers are not unaware of this phenomenon,
but they have to carefully balance power, mileage, and
emissions requirements. The TST PowerMax-CR box adds
timing to the new engines. The Smarty programmer (Bob
Wagner, 888-225-7637) adds timing and duration. Smarty
has programs that give almost no smoke and add good
power, and other programs that add tremendous power
and responsiveness. Bigger injectors in effect also add
timing by bringing in the required amount of fuel sooner.
If too large an injector is installed, fuel atomization suffers,
even on HPCR engines because their rail pressure at idle
and low power is not higher than earlier engines. Timing
boxes add timing again because they increase the rate of
fueling. In-depth discussions of fueling boxes appeared in
Issues 45 (page 24), 47 (page 53) and 48 (page 50). Back
in the 12-valve and early 24-valve days, we learned that
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Suggested reading from your TDR archives: Issue 61,
page 100-107, “Fuel Pump Timing”; Issue 61, page 40, “It’s
About the (fuel) Economy, Stupid”; Issue 62, page 46, “Fuel
Economy Stupid—Part Two”; Issue 63, page 8, “Additional
Fuel Economy Tips.”
Stacked, Racked, jacked by the
Shadetree in the Cul-de-sac
What about stacking power boxes and running high
rail pressures? On the 2003-’07 HPCR engines we are
seeing increased injector failures. Any contaminant in
the fuel becomes much more abrasive at higher injection
pressures, necessitating better fuel filtration. I am running
the FASS 200 system with 3 micron filtration, and use the
stock filter canister with a 7 micron filter as “last chance”
back-up. I have seen a lot of injectors with failures at the
nozzles and the injector bodies from high rail pressures
and high exhaust gas temperatures. It remains so tempting
today to add fueling for power, as that is cheaper than
following up with air system upgrades to keep the exhaust
gas temperatures in line. We saw mechanical modes
of injector failures, or of reduced efficiency, with 12 and
24-valve engines. Often the “pop-off” spring pressure
reduced from the spring “taking a set” or reducing its spring
rate. We also saw occasional wear and cracking of nozzle
tips. With the Third Generation HPCR Turbo Diesels,
we see not only mechanical failures but also failures of
the electrical injector solenoids. More failures are seen
with stacked (multiple) power boxes and hard use, with
high EGT. Injector problems can often be seen by rough
running, poor fuel mileage, and even a “dead miss” where
the injector for one cylinder quits firing.
63
AFTERMARKET TURBOChARgER DEVELOPMENTS
by Joe Donnelly
Turbocharger developments have been discussed a
number of times. Why do I seem to spend so much time on
turbochargers? I gave this question some thought recently,
and it is not just because the turbo enables our little B series
engines to act like much larger diesel engines. The most
notable problems and limitations that I have encountered
were related to turbochargers. The only engine failures I
experienced were those of the turbocharger. I was pushing
them beyond their design limits, but I had more trouble
achieving reliability with decent responsiveness from this
one engine system than from all others combined.
Some of us look at the exhaust or turbine housing of the
turbocharger and wonder why it is so small. Here our
diesels may make 400, 500, or more horsepower, and the
cross sectional area of the turbine housing is only 12 or 16
sq. cm., or under that of a single 1-3/4” diameter exhaust
pipe. How can we make such power with 1-3/4” single
exhaust? When we compare a small exhaust housing
with a big wastegate to a non-wastegated larger exhaust
housing, we find that the spool up and power when first
getting on the accelerator pedal is a lot better with the
small housing, but it seems to “choke” the engine (from
reaching full power potential) at high boost and high power.
Tradeoffs…
Today we can buy much better turbos than ever before.
In particular, we can now find turbos that are specially
designed for use with the substantial power additions from
electronic fueling modules added to the current 2003-‘07
engines. As an example, consider that the stock turbo is
intended to support stock power (or slightly more) while
enabling compliance with stringent emissions standards.
The compressor is reasonably efficient to 25-30psi boost,
but as boost rises, the temperature of the compressed
air is increasing greatly. Hence, you are not gaining the
expected mass flow increase at 35psi over that obtained at
25psi. Much of the pressure increase is due to heating of
the air. If you took chemistry in school, you may remember
PV = nRT. This equation expresses the relationship
of pressure (P) and volume (V) to the number of moles
(amount) of air at a given temperature T, with R being
the “gas constant.” Thinking about this equation helps
us understand that an increase in pressure can be offset
by an increase in temperature. The amount of air (n) may
or may not increase, depending on whether increases
in temperature and pressure cancel out, or are skewed
favorably or unfavorably. In the case of the 2003-‘04 turbo,
exhaust gas temperature (upon acceleration) increases
about twice as fast as boost goes from 25 to 30psi as it
would if the turbo were wastegated at 25psi.
The secret, and the answer to all the above questions on
backpressure, is in that turbocharger system and what it
does on the intake side of the engine. The turbo has given
the engine a lot more air, so it thinks it is two or three times
as big as it was with no boost. With a big single turbo we
can try a fairly big exhaust wheel and housing to keep boost
pressure above or close to the amount of backpressure,
but responsiveness at lower power and rpm have suffered.
Additionally, you will not like the poor drivability nor the
smoke while the big turbo tries to spool up on a small
engine. So, we go to a smaller exhaust housing with a
wastegate. The smaller housing gives us the spool up
we want, and boost pressure versus backpressure is still
good, until the wastegate opens. Why does giving a bigger
exhaust flow path to the engine hurt back pressure? As we
open the wastegate, some of the exhaust energy bypasses
the turbine wheel so boost drops, and the boost pressure
just got too low compared to the backpressure. If we
increase fueling and power, we are no better off, because
we are making more exhaust backpressure from burning
more fuel into exhaust gas, and from heating the gas more.
We aren’t increasing boost because the wastegate is open.
That is why a small housing with a nice wastegate is still
not ideal.
The increase in EGT tells us that the charge air is hotter.
There may or may not be more of it (n) at the higher boost,
but there is not enough of an increase in the amount of air
to cancel out the detrimental effect of charge air heating.
On the exhaust side, the housing size is only 9 sq. cm., half
the size that was used in 1989. The wastegate, when fully
open, adds about 2.5 sq. cm. more, but it is still less than
the 12 sq. cm. that was used from 1994-2002 before the
wastegate opened in those years of Turbo Diesels. This
small size on the exhaust side is intended to—and does,
very effectively—provide boost air quickly to burn more
fuel cleanly. The fact that an aftermarket turbocharger
can easily add 25 horsepower with stock fueling strongly
suggests that this 9 sq. cm. exhaust (turbine) side of the
stock turbo is on the small side of acceptable, a situation
necessitated by emissions regulations.
64
Backpressure
The Cummins factory has used wastegated turbochargers
on our Dodge applications since 1994, in part because they
are balancing power and emissions. To get good power and
sell engines, they need responsiveness. To keep smoke
down, meaning to get that good response without the belch
of smoke, they need a small exhaust housing. Because of
engine design limits such as maximum turbo wheel speed
and head gasket sealing, they use the wastegate to limit
boost pressure. They also try to size the turbo so that the
wastegate is open only a tiny fraction of the time the engine
is running, meaning only when it is at full power (in stock
form). Then we come along and increase that maximum
power level greatly, and the wastegate is open much more
of the time if we are using the increased power.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
The Limit of the Single Turbo
In summary, with a single turbocharger we have to make
significant compromises. For good responsiveness, a fairly
small exhaust housing will spool up the turbocharger’s
boost quicker, so more fuel can be burned cleanly, and
the engine will make more power quicker. That same
small housing is airflow limited for high power usage of the
engine. It is not so much that its ability to flow the amount
of exhaust gas is limited, it is more that the turbocharger
cannot spin up to an “infinite” amount of boost safely as
the exhaust gas volume and heat continue to increase.
We accept slower spool up and the need to moderate the
accelerator pedal to keep smoke down. We also accept
that the turbo ends up smaller than would be ideal for Dyno
Day where only the peak horsepower number is important,
and that EGT’s will get too high at full power.
What about my other negative observations from years
ago? I saw problems with boots blowing off and leaks of
all sorts on early setups. I am happy to report that the
BD setup has none of those problems. They have really
done their homework, and have invested in designs and
manufacturing techniques that make their setup fit easily,
give good access to other components, and not have any
tendency to leaks or popping boots off.
What about spoolup with big single, versus twin turbos, and
the smoke problems we have all seen to come from slower
spooling, large single turbochargers? Almost nine years
ago, I put a Holset HX55 on my 1997 to make 600+ hp at
the wheels. It was the slowest spooling turbo I have used to
date. Even as sorry as its drivability was, I blew up three of
them and the smoke was atrocious. We could get away with
smoking diesels back then, but the smog police and public
sentiment are very much against such issues today.
Advantages to Compound (twin)
Turbochargers Over a Single Turbo
how Compound Turbos help
Many who seek to make big power arrive at their twin
turbo setups by trial and error. They could do much better
if they had the knowledge that someone like John Todd
of BD Diesel Performance could provide. John has forty
years of turbocharger experience and fully understands
sizing turbochargers so one will feed the other efficiently.
He is quite familiar with the airflow requirements of our
high horsepower Turbo Diesels, and how to size the
turbochargers exactly and correctly for the engine and
for each other (in compound turbo setups). Suggested
reading about twin turbochargers can be found in your
TDR archives with articles I wrote in Issues 59, 60 and 63.
Writer Scott Dalgleish wrote about twins in Issue 61 and
Doug Leno discussed twin turbos from ATS in Issue 53.
Now we are ready to consider compound turbochargers.
First, what about surge, relative to the engine? For this
discussion we will not dwell on the shape of the turbo
compressor map, which shows where the airflow and
pressure surge line occurs for a given compressor wheel
and housing. Detailed discussion on turbocharger mapping
can be found in your TDR archives, Issue 58, page 50; and
Issue 61, page 92. We will make the rough assumption that
the turbo design parameters are optimized for your driving
needs and goals for horsepower. With the BD Twins, the
secondary turbo is the very surge resistant BD Super B.
John Todd designed the turbo for BD. The primary turbo is
much larger. It receives its exhaust flow from the discharge
of the secondary turbo’s turbine housing.
Cost, Leaks, and Fit of Twins on the Engine
The primary turbo’s compressor discharge (boost air)
feeds the intake of the secondary turbo’s compressor. The
primary turbo is not making very much boost at lower rpm,
and it is building boost more slowly, so it is surge resistant
as well. When there is a concern that surge could occur,
the secondary turbo is the one to be careful of, and to
design for surge resistance. Let’s say a big single turbo
with a small exhaust housing gets us into trouble with bad
surging at 1700 rpm under load and heavy fueling, with 30
psi boost. The turbo is at about a pressure ratio of 3. Under
similar operating conditions, the secondary turbo in the BD
Twins would be operating at a pressure ratio of 3, but it is
very surge-resistant. The primary turbo is operating at a
lower pressure ratio, even though the twins would be giving
higher total boost than a single turbo, 45 psi instead of 30
psi. The BD twins are also operating in boost ranges where
the boost air temperatures are moderate, because both
turbos are operating well within their efficiency ranges.
With the boost air cooler, EGT’s will be cooler.
The first thing I hear, and that I myself considered, is that a
twin turbocharger setup is expensive. Second, I remember
that those who have used twins had a lot of trouble with
boost hoses blowing off, exhaust leaks, boost leaks, and oil
leaks. There was often no access to anything else on that
side of the engine, and removing a part of the twin setup to
gain access was a major hassle.
First, let’s consider the cost issue. In my quest for power,
even at the expense of good drivability at times, I have
used, abused, and blown up many turbos. I used fourteen
different single turbo setups on my 1997 Turbo Diesel. I
was unhappy with the inconvenient placement of the
turbocharger on my 2004 Turbo Diesel, but I thought that
I wouldn’t be going through turbos again like I did with
my 1997. I ended up trying seven setups before going
to the BD twin turbo setup. How much money did I end
up saving by using single turbochargers for ten years of
experimentation and the search for power with drivability?
The answer, of course, is none. If John Todd had designed
the BD twins back then, I would have saved a lot of money
going with them in the first place.
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65
My personal findings with the BD compound turbocharger
systems are that driveability and boost levels are much
better, with less smoke compared to single turbo setups.
With the BD twin turbos, you will see EGT 150° to 400°
cooler under cruising and power conditions with these
optimally sized and designed twins. Let’s consider the
backpressure issue for twin turbos. Even though the
engine now has two exhaust housings, two turbine wheels,
and especially the small turbine housing and wheel of the
Super B secondary turbo, power is better, because when
the boost pressure is higher than the backpressure, the
engine is operating very efficiently.
The entire engine is operating at higher pressures, and our
point of comparison is not ambient atmospheric pressure.
We still need to compare intake pressure to exhaust back
pressure, only not using one atmosphere as the standard
reference point any more. BD has successfully operated
Cummins Turbo Diesels at 80, even 90 psi of boost
without headgasket problems, so long as other factors
are in control. Exhaust gas temperatures were around
1250°, so cylinder temperatures and pressures were
reasonable. Injection timing was kept to reasonable levels
also. In conclusion, do not get worried because the boost
pressures with twin turbos are somewhat higher than with
a single turbo, so long as EGT are reasonable. Enjoy the
more complete fuel combustion and lack of smoke, as well
as the instantaneous build up of boost and power when
you want it.
Conclusion
As I went back through the TDR archives to write “Ten
Years of Performance Enhancements” it was enlightening
to note all of the subjects that the writing staff has covered.
We have truly “been there and done that.” Aside from
the updated material on the HPCR engine and the twin
(compound) turbochargers, were you to cross-examine the
words in this Issue 65 article versus the old Issue 23 you
would not find too many differences.
I am hopeful that this text has laid out the basics and that
I’ve given you the reference locations for further detailed
articles.
Good luck as you make performance upgrades.
joe Donnelly
TDR Writer
WhAT IS ThE LATEST ON PERFORMANCE
FOR ThE ‘07.5-CURRENT 6.7-LITER ENgINE?
by Robert Patton
My assignment for the 2009 Specialty Equipment
Manufacturers Association (SEMA) show was to gather
information on what’s new in aftermarket performance
products made for the Cummins 6.7-liter engine.
The result was a notebook full of product brochures, a
head abuzz with impressions, and a goofy and confused
facial expression in the mirror when I got home.
One thing I learned for sure at SEMA last month in Las
Vegas: ever stricter emissions regulations is still the
name of the game; and the shots are called in garbled
government gobbledygook—a weird language of acronyms
and unnatural abbreviations that does little to clear up the
confusion and uncertainty that pervades every aspect of
design, manufacture, marketing, and consumer operation
of light-weight and medium sized trucks in 2009.
I recall an article I wrote in the fall of 2005 (Issue 49) when
the 6.7-liter engine was first introduced. The topic was
the problems faced by Cummins and Dodge in meeting
the challenge of ever-stricter and seemingly arbitrary
emissions regulations. I introduced my article by talking
about the artificial and obscure language that dominated
discourse everywhere in the industry—the abracadabra
and mumbo jumbo in the legislation and administration of
emissions regulations. Four-years later we still suffer from
obscurity and uncertainty in the rules. Nowhere is this
uncertainty more telling than among the folks with exhibits
at November’s SEMA show—most particularly the vendors
of performance and enhancement accessories.
Case in point: Next year California is testing for diesel
exhaust emissions (see my report in “Technical Topics”,
page 44), and you might marvel that there are any
products available for the 6.7-liter engine. As I reviewed
the brochures from SEMA, and as I penned the ‘Technical
Topics” article, I realized that none of the featured products
for the 6.7 engine has a California Air Resources Board
executive order (which determines legality of aftermarket
parts sold in the bellwether state). For a moment I asked
myself, “Do I really have an article with practical relevance
to the market?” But I also realized that California is only 1
of 50 states and that I should address the broader picture.
Even so, as we proceed in my report on “what’s new” at
SEMA, I must repeat the caveat signaled in the title of the
“Technical Topics” article, Dèjà Vu All Over Again, Again”.
You still must look at the big picture, but keep an eye on
murky background of the big picture, and act responsibly to
avoid making a foolish (perhaps “fuelish” is a more telling
word) decision.
Okay, how is it best to summarize the products? How about
a grid that mirrors the excellent template used by TDR
writer Doug Leno in his look at the products for the ’03’07 5.9-liter HPCR engine way back in Issue 47? And, for
owners of the ’03-’07 engines, you should note that none of
the ’03-’07 5.9-liter HPCR engine aftermarket performance
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boxes mentioned in Leno’s evaluation have a CARB EO
compliance number either. What does this mean to you? I
would strongly suggest that you read the Technical Topics
article.
*Doug Leno’s Issue 47 article on Power Enhancements
for the 5.9-liter HPCR engine should be required reading
for anyone that is considering the use of an aftermarket
performance component or performance fueling increase.
Leno gives the reader the principle of operation; purpose
and approach to testing; observations and turbocharger
limits; fuel rail pressure limits; and conclusions. Previously
he had covered the important topic of warranty—or, should
I say, the lack thereof, should you choose to play in the
world of performance enhancement. And, again, these
5.9-liter products do not have CARB EO compliance.
Upon close inspection of the brochures I found several
“coming soon” announcements. Knowing that coming soon
can mean tomorrow, one year from now or never, I decided
to go shopping online for 6.7-liter products. After all, lightsout at SEMA show was November 6, and my shopping
spree was at the end of November. Certainly a vendor
would want the product out prior to the Christmas season.
As I learn of new products (or correct any oversight) we can
revisit this story in future TDR magazines.
Although the 6.7-liter and 5.9-liter engines share the
Bosch HPCR fuel system, with the complicated exhaust
aftertreatment system used on the 6.7-liter engine the old
Issue 47, Doug Leno-report days of increasing the fuel rail
pressure to add fuel and subsequent power are gone. You
will see from today’s comparative matrix that the majority of
products offered are program downloads to the truck’s ECU.
Comparative Matrix/Summary
I mentioned earlier that I had a notebook full of brochures
from the SEMA show. As I looked through the literature for
6.7-liter products, I was amazed at the number of items for
the ’03-’07 5.9-liter engine. For those who have considered
or purchased 5.9-liter products, I can tip-my-hat to you for
the diligence that it took to make your purchase decision.
The marketplace is crowded, even though the economy
has forced several vendors from Doug Leno’s Issue 47
article out of business.
The products that I found were from seven long-time
performance companies: Bully Dog, Diablo Sport, Edge
Products, MADS Electronics, Pacific Performance
Engineering, Superchips, and TS Performance. Information
that I found from my online shopping spree is summarized
in the table below.
Dodge Cummins Turbo Diesel Performance Programmers/Modules
Product
Price
Installation Connections
Principle of
Operation
Pickup
Cab/Chassis
Bully Dog Technologies
Triple Dog GT
$699
Program download
Programmer
Yes
Yes
Diablo Sport
Extreme Power Puck
$359
Underhood module with
connections to the injector wiring
harness and fuel pressure sensor
Pressure Module
Yes
Yes
Edge Products
Edge Juice w/Attitude
$899
Underhood module with
connections to injector wiring
harness and MAP sensor
Timing and
Duration Module
Yes
No
MADS
Smarty s67
$685
Program download
Programmer
Yes
No
PPE
Xcelerator
$679
Program download
Programmer
Yes
Yes
Superchips
Flashpaq Programmer
$359
Program download
Programmer
Yes
No
Superchips
Cortex Programmer
$399
Program download
Programmer
Yes
No
TS Performance
MP-8
$495
Underhood module with
connection to a customermodified fuel pressure sensor
Pressure Module
Yes
Yes
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how Does It Work?/Principle of Operation
Terms used to describe the 6.7 performance enhancements
and the principle of operation:
Downloaders or programmer: These products change
the timing and fueling instructions inside the ECM itself,
and usually provide more than one programming choice
(for example, towing performance, or extreme). The towing
programs are designed to provide a moderate power
increase while controlling exhaust gas temperatures. Such
goals are typically met with timing advance combined with
small increases in rail pressure and injector duration.
Duration: This method keeps the fuel injector open longer,
extending or stretching the fuel pulse width.
Pressure: By increasing the pressure in the common rail
(injection pressure), more fuel is injected within the same
period of time.
Timing: By changing the timing of the fuel injection, the
engine’s performance, fuel economy, and emissions are
altered.
Edge Products
1080 South Depot Drive
Ogden, UT
888-360-3343
www.edgeproducts.com
Products: Juice (performance module) with Attitude
(monitor), item 30108, retail $899
Description: The Juice with Attitude is a performance
module and a monitor. To install the unit, you find an underhood location for the performance module and plug into
three existing engine sensors.
The Juice module is connected to the Attitude monitor and
the wiring is done through the firewall or beside the door
jamb. The Attitude monitor also plugs into the OBD II port
to retrieve data from the engine’s ECU.
There are seven different power levels to choose from:
stock to 100 horsepower. The unit can read and erase
diagnostic trouble codes. The Juice with Attitude includes a
pyrometer probe to measure EGT at the exhaust manifold.
More details can be found at www.edgeproducts.com.
Sources (in alphabetical order)
Bully Dog Technologies
2839 Highway 39
American Falls, ID 83211
877-285-5936
www.bullydog.com
Products: Triple Dog GT or gauge tuner, item 40420, retail
$699
Description: Triple Dog GT is a downloader and monitor.
Installation involves plugging into the truck’s OBD II port
and performing a download to the truck’s ECM. The monitor
remains plugged into the OBD II port to retrieve data from
the engine’s ECM. There are four different power levels to
choose from: stock; tow, 30hp; performance 75hp; extreme
115-140hp. The unit can read and erase diagnostic trouble
codes. More details can be found at the Bully Dog web site,
www.bullydog.com.
DiabloSport, Inc.
1865 SW 4th Avenue Suite D-2
Delray Beach, FL 33444
877-396-6614
www.diablosport.com
Products: Extreme Power Puck, item P1040, retail $359
Description: The Extreme Power Puck is a performance
module that is mounted under the hood with connections
to the injector wiring harness and fuel rail pressure sensor.
Using the “Diablo dial” that is routed into the truck’s interior,
you can adjust up to 100 different power levels. Horsepower
can be increased by up to 100hp. More details can be found
at the DiabloSport web site, www.diablosport.com.
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MADS Electronics
Verona, Italy
North American Master Distributor
Wagner and Associates
16209 Southeast 322 St.
Auburn, WA 98092
253-735-6281
www.smartypower.com
Products: Smarty S67, item S-67, retail $685
Description: The Smarty S67 is a downloader that
reprograms the ECU by plugging into the truck’s OBD II
port. There are 10 different power levels to choose, from
stock to 170hp.
There is an abundance of information on the Smarty S67
at the MADS Electronics web site, www.madselectronics.
com. From reading and erasing diagnostic trouble codes
to changing values for tire height, the web site lists and
discusses the S67’s features and benefits.
Pacific Performance Engineering
303 N. Placentia
Fullerton, CA 92831
714-985-4825
www.ppediesel.com
Products: PPE Xcelerator for Dodge, item XD0309S,
retail $679
Description: The Xcelerator is a downloader that
reprograms the ECU by plugging into the truck’s OBD II
port. There are three different power levels to choose from:
stock; towing 65hp; performance 115hp.
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There is additional information on the PPE Xcelerator at
the PPE web site, www.ppediesel.com. From reading and
erasing diagnostic trouble codes to changing values for tire
height, the web site lists and discusses the Xcelerator’s
features and benefits.
Superchips Inc.
1790 E. Airport Blvd.
Sanford, FL 32773
888-227-2447
www.superchips.com
Products: Flashpaq Programmer, item 3855, retail $359;
Cortex Programmer, Item 3950, retail $399
Description: The Flashpaq and the Cortex are downloaders
that reprogram the ECU by plugging into the truck’s OBD II
port. There are three different power levels to choose from:
tow safe, 60hp; performance, 60hp and greater torque (no
towing); extreme, 115hp (no towing).
There is additional information at the Superchips web
site, www.superchips.com. From reading and erasing
diagnostic trouble codes to manual de-soot and changing
values for tire height, the web site lists and discusses both
the Flashpaq and Cortex features and benefits.
TS Performance
5425 Nashville Road
Bowling Green, KY 42101
270-746-9999
www.tsperformance.com
Products: MP-8, item 1110304, retail $495
Description: The MP-8 is a performance module. To install
the unit, you find an underhood location for the performance
module. The module plugs into the fuel pressure sensor.
The fuel pressure sensor has to be mechanically modified
and the procedure is outlined in their instructions which are
found in a pdf file at their web site, www.tsperformance.com.
Purchase Decision/Notes
The purchase decision for a performance enhancement
device has always been complicated by the concern that
the owner has about warranty—or lack thereof. Secondary
to the warranty question was/is the question about how
the engine’s newfound power will affect the driveline
components.
With the news about California’s emissions testing and
the possible implementation of testing in your state (see
page 42), the decision is further complicated by the elusive
“CARB EO number.”
And, if yours is the 6.7-liter engine, there are further items to
consider: Will said product work on the pickup engine (the
consumer 2500/3500 trucks), will said product work on the
cab and chassis engine (the commercial 3500/4500/5500
trucks)? The grids on the comparison table show my
attempts to answer this question.
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Will the product affect the truck’s auxiliary emissions
control devices (AECDs)? Does the product work on an
engine manufactured after 3/2009 with a secured ECM
(see “SPY versus SPY” on page 34)?
If that is not enough, then you get into the question of
“stacking.” Can a programmer be used with a performance
module to make the ultimate in 6.7-liter performance?
Geez...I don’t know. The answer is for those that are more
daring than I care to be.
WhAT WOULD I DO?
Since July of 2007 I’ve owned a 3500 truck with the 6.7-liter
Cummins engine.
I’ve encountered questions from owners and prospective
owners about the engine. Admittedly, I hate it when the
media pulls out an extreme example to prove a point, but
when the “extreme” occurs with relative frequency, then it
must not be extreme?
The extreme example: folks are apprehensive to
venture too far away from home with a truck that has
a 6.7-liter engine. Often I am cited as the one guilty of
causing the apprehension by my discussion of fault
codes, regeneration theory of operation, ECM flashes
with new calibrations, and the open discussion that you
see in our printed 6.7-liter column and on the web site.
It is the purpose of this magazine to bring you a better
understanding of the vehicle so that you can make
informed decisions. However, often I am bewildered by
the conclusions that some people reach.
So, let me bring you up to date on my experience. Early on
I had two fault codes that, at the time, I did not know how
to retrieve. After four drive cycles the code turned off. After
one year of operation, the truck went to the dealership for
the G30 recall. The fuel mileage has remained consistent
with the data I presented in Issue 63, pages 48-51. The
mileage is not as good as that obtained with my ’03 2500
Quad Cab, short box truck. After my initial disappointment
(should I say false expectations), I woke up to reality. The
’07.5 truck is a 3500 dually, Mega Cab long box. Because
of the extra size and weight I am more than pleased that
the mileage is slightly less.
In my 2.5 years of ownership the truck has 45,000 miles.
Sometime next year it will be sold to allow me to test and
own the 2010 model year truck. My ownership experience
has been very favorable.
For other owners, has the 6.7-liter had its share of teething
problems? Yes. But the good news is that the majority
of the problems have been related to software and
recalibration. Other good news: reports from Dodge and
Cummins that warranty repairs are declining. More good
news: this engine met the 2010 emission standards when it
was introduced in ’07.5, so it is poised for a successful year
as the 2010 is introduced.
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What would I do? I would (and do) drive the truck with
confidence. I will purchase a 2010 truck with confidence.
How about performance? Granted I live in the Southeast,
but I’ve yet to encounter a situation where the engine’s
350/650 rating was not satisfactory. So, I have to ask,
unless you can afford to pay-to-play and jeopardize your
rights to warranty consideration, why would you need to
enhance this engine’s already strong performance?
Likewise, we all know how the performance gains are
achieved with diesel engines—inject more fuel, add more
air, inject more fuel, add more air… Should you consider
a performance enhancement greater than 350/650, you
must know that there will be more clean-up required of
the exhaust aftertreatment system. Should the system
malfunction, do not believe for a second that you will not be
responsible. Do not believe that the repair will be performed
under the cloak of “warranty.” Likewise, I do not believe that
you would shirk your responsibility by removing the box/
module/program prior to a service repair. Aside from the
blatant act of fraud, do not believe that the engine’s ECU
can’t tell that a “footprint or ghost data” has been added to
the engine.
Finally, we all know it has taken Dodge and Cummins 2.5
years to work through the software glitches and make this
engine the reliable powerplant that it is. I do not believe it
is wise to tamper with something that took the experts with
broad resources so long to fine tune.
(There were a lot of “do not believe” statements in the
preceding paragraphs. In writing technical articles for the
past 17 years I’ve found it helpful to be direct.)
How about the “800-pound gorilla”? What is the story on
better fuel mileage?
You know, the internet is a great tool. As an example, I
looked up “town crier” to see if there was a parallel
between today’s information (the internet) and the
days of yesteryear. Indeed, the town crier made public
announcements, dressed elaborately, carried handbells
for attention, and shouted, “Hear ye, hear ye, hear ye,”
before the announcements. Does the town crier at your
favorite web site do the same? Not likely. But his cries are
every bit as insistent.
Does today’s internet crier have the same credibility as
the ones of yesteryear that were protected by the ruling
monarch? You can be the judge, but one can’t ignore the
web site criers, newsstand magazines, and promotional
advertisements that claim, “Ditch the diesel particulate
filter (and related emissions hardware) and increase your
fuel mileage by 5mpg.”
Absurd, irresponsible, illegal? Yes to all three counts.
For further commentary, please see the sidebar article,
“Absurd, Irresponsible, Illegal.”
I asked a group of Cummins’ engineers. They were candid
in their response. To summarize, one has to consider the
duty cycle of the truck. If it is being used as intended—
moderate to high load in highway travel—the answer is the
obvious: the engine’s output of unburned fuel (particulates)
is very low, the exhaust gas temperature is high and there
is little need to fire-up the self-cleaning oven known as the
diesel particulate filter. Consequently the mileage penalty
is negligible, if any at all.
If the truck is being used as a grocery-getter or has long
periods of idling there can be an effect on fuel mileage.
How much? The estimate is less than 5%. Five-percent is
nowhere close to the claims of 5mpg.
Logic Dictates
Logic dictates. Nonetheless, the lure of big mpg numbers
looms and internet stories are perpetuated by the minute. I
may have to grab the sawzall and download a doo-dad to
test the 6.7 for myself. Should I do so, it would be an illegal
vehicle, but I promise not to waste your time with frivolous
reporting.
On a closing note, it was not long ago that TDR writer Scott
Dalgleish did a series of articles in a quest for better fuel
mileage on his 2005 truck with the 5.9-liter HPCR engine.
Scott’s results were effective. Could any of his methodology
be used on the 6.7-liter engine? I went back to Issue 61,
pages 40-43, to look at the results. Rather than go through
a repeat of the text, I would have you reference the article
using your printed archives or log on to the TDR’s web site
where Issue 61 is found in its entirety. The bottom line on
Scott’s 5.9-liter engine: see this issue’s “Technical Topics”
and wonder how well the engine would fare if Scott still
lived in California and had to pass an emissions test? And,
with the first whiz-bang that he installed on the engine Scott
became his own warranty station. Warranty consideration
he would receive...none at all.
So, could any of his methodology be used on the 6.7-liter
engine? Darned good question, isn’t it?
Conclusion
So, there you have it, a collection of products that are
available for the 6.7-liter engine and my recommendations.
One could assume from the tone of this article (and other
related articles in this issue of the magazine) that you
should be very cautious if you choose to venture into
the arena of performance enhancements for the 6.7-liter
engine and accept responsibility for your actions.
Robert Patton
TDR Staff
Yet, with the continuous barrage of criers, magazines and
advertisements, one has to wonder, “Is there validity to such
hype?” Without thinking thoroughly about the question,
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notes:
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71
PerFormAnCe, WArrAnty And you
Déjà VU ALL OVER AgAIN (FROM 1999)
by Robert Patton
Déjà Vu
Elsewhere in this issue you’ll see where I struggled to find
a title for an article. The title for this exposé on engine
performance upgrades, diesel emissions, and owner
and vendor responsibility was also perplexing. Any of the
following could have been used:
The $25,000 Dilemma
Smoke Happens
Below the Radar Screen
New Kid in Town
Catch 22 and Your Diesel
As I looked over my stack of research papers, I found that
the TDR had previously covered the topic in Issue 26 which
was 8.5 years ago. I’ll use the information from Issue 26
as a springboard to bring us up to date on performance
emissions and responsibility.
Yes, it is Déjà Vu All Over Again. Excerpts from the Issue
26 article that I authored with a staff member (now retired)
of the Cummins engineering team for Dodge will set the
stage for the 2008 update. Going back to Issue 26 I wrote
the following:
At any diesel event you’ll overhear lots of discussions.
The hot topic is typically performance parts and diesel
exhaust emissions. As a bystander it is interesting to note
the differences-of-opinions between the Dodge/Cummins
personnel, performance vendors, and truck owners.
As a follow-up I asked Cummins for an official response to
a collection of questions I had overheard. The following is
our dialog:
Q1 – At any diesel event, there is much discussion about
performance uprates and the resulting exhaust emissions
that leave the tailpipe of a hot-rod engine. Please explain
the Cummins position on uprates and emissions.
A1 – Cummins offers uprate kits that meet the original
emission requirements of the engine. We view other kits or
uprates as “unauthorized engine modifications.”
Q2 – How about the Cummins uprate kits? Please discuss
the factory 230/605 kit for the 12-valve engines and the
235/505 package for the 24-valve engines. Does Cummins
have both of these kits EPA certified?
A2 – Cummins, as a manufacturer of motor vehicle engines,
must certify its engines and ratings that are offered for sale
with the EPA. As such, we have certified both Cummins
uprate kits with the EPA.
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The 230/605 uprate for 1994 through 1997 model year
vehicles (Bosch P7100 fuel pump) is EPA certified under
CPL# 1553 (which must be stamped on the engine dataplate
after the uprate). This uprate may not be used on CARB
certified engines with EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation).
The 24-valve uprate kit boosts torque from 460 to 505
with a revised torque curve to provide for more torque rise
than before. It does not increase horsepower. The kits,
consisting of a new engine control module, have been
released for 1998.5, 1999, and 2000 model year Turbo
Diesels with manual transmissions. There are different kits
for each model year. All the kits are CARB or EPA certified.
Q3 – Let’s discuss the hot-rod performance vendor. Should
their performance uprates meet EPA legislation rules just
like the original engine specification?
A3 – The Clean Air Act Section 203(a) and EPA’s
Memorandum 1A offer guidance for aftermarket parts
usage and requirements. Cummins’ interpretation of these
criteria is that aftermarket parts and conversions must not
adversely affect emissions. Editor’s update: The criteria,
“not adversely affect emissions” has been abused as
evidenced by many of the trucks that rival the local dump
truck driver’s association for gross emissions.
Q4 – Do you know if the other hot-rod vendors have
received EPA certification on their products?
A4 – We are not aware of EPA certifying any aftermarket
kits or parts for use on Cummins engines.
Q5 – Is a California Air Resources Board Executive Order
the same as EPA approval?
A5 – The California Air Resources Board (CARB) issues
Executive Orders that certify families of Cummins engines.
A new vehicle registered in California requires an engine to
be covered by a CARB Executive Order.
Q6 – As a consumer, we can remember the early 70’s
and the arrival of the first catalytic converter equipped
automobiles. There were possible fines for the vehicle
owner if the vehicle owner tampered with the emissions
control of his engine. Is there such a penalty for diesel
owners?
A6 – Yes. Section 205 of the Clean Air Act prescribes
penalties up to $25,000 per day of violation for any person
violating section 203(a).
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Q7 – Okay, I think I understand. I’m not going to discuss my
engine any further… The law certainly has “teeth.” As an
owner, what should I look out for? Certainly the EPA won’t
be pulling vehicles off the highway to test them. If so, there
are some gross emitting dump trucks close by my house
that I’ll point them toward. Comments?
Then, in November of 2007 at the SEMA show, the new kid
in town (that’s the EPA) showed up and met with a handful
of diesel vendors. After the meeting my impression from
third-hand conversations is that there was much work to
be done to clean-up (literally) the products offered for the
diesel performance aftermarket.
A7 – Several states have implemented roadside smoke
tests and vehicle emission control systems inspections
for diesel powered vehicles. EPA also has an in-use test
program where they verify smoke and emission levels from
engines. Cummins recently went through a similar in-use
test with California certified engines.
This leads us to a Catch 22 situation with your diesel. How
so?
Q8 – So, what if I were to purchase an item for “off-road
use only”?
In Q2/A2 Cummins discussed their uprate kits and the fact
that they had EPA certifications. This was/is because the
parts and ratings were from other engines that Cummins
sold to other OEM concerns. Cummins had the technical
financial and physical resources (test cells) to do fullfledged EPA testing.
A8 – Cummins has certified the engines used in the Dodge
pickups to the automotive, on-highway regulations. The
pickups are classified as automotive, on-highway vehicles.
There are no EPA or California provisions for usage of
non-certified parts for “off-road use only.”
Q9 – How about under the guise of “performance use
only”?
A9 – There is also no EPA provision of the regulations for
usage of non-certified parts for performance use only.
Conclusion (from 1999)
This “Technical Topics” discussion has brought to
the forefront a controversy about on performance
enhancements/emissions and leaves the owner of a
hot-rod truck in a quandary. Many (editor included) have
purchased products or made changes to the fuel delivery
that netted additional horsepower. Emissions-wise, some
changes are subtle and some of the performance changes
rival the local gross emitting dump trucks in my area.
We alluded to the teeth of the EPA law [section 203(a), and
section 205]. Do the teeth bite?
All Over Again (New for ‘07.5 and Newer)
So, what’s new?
Until the ’07.5 engines, with their exhaust gas recirculation
and regenerative particulate traps, there really was
not anything to report. Customers ignored the $25,000
dilemma and purchased products that were not compliant.
Smoke happens, but the vendors and customers were
below the radar screen.
(Clever how I’ve used all of the title clichés.)
Please reflect on to the 1999 Cummins interview Q2 and
Q3.
As an aside, with the abundance of aftermarket products
that exist to increase the engine’s performance and
increase the engine’s fuel mileage (mutually exclusive
events, but possible if you don’t have to be concerned
with emissions) you would think that Dodge and Cummins’
aftermarket parts divisions would be at the forefront. Yet
the only parts available are the Cummins EPA-approved
kits. What gives?
Dodge and Cummins have to design the engine to a
different set of standards; standards that are set, enforced
and controlled by the EPA. Trust me: Dodge and Cummins
would relish having a larger fuel mileage advantage over
the Ford and GM pickups. How about your aftermarket
vendor and the standards to which they adhere? Are they
different?
Now, see Q3/A3, Q4/A4 and Q5/A5 and carefully re-read
the answers. The responses mention (1) a vague section
and memo of the Clean Air Act; (2) hot-rod vendors and
the fact that they do not possess EPA certifications; and
(3) the California Air Resource Board and their Certificate
of Conformity (the Executive Order number) for aftermarket
products.
Further explanation of these three key points will bring
us from the 1999 discussion to the current state of the
performance aftermarket in 2008.
(1) “The section 203(a) and EPA memorandum 1A offer
‘guidance’ for aftermarket parts.” Until the advent of the
’07.5 exhaust emission controls. I can only assume that the
aftermarket vendors and owners that modified, stacked,
racked and jacked the performance parts genuinely felt that
the “aftermarket parts and conversions did not adversely
affect emissions.”
Please…
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
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Obviously the teeth of EPA [section 203(a) and section
205] that I referenced in the 1999 article did not bite. In
fairness, I can only imagine that the EPA had (and has?)
more pressing issues to deal with.
(2) “Hot-rod vendors do not possess EPA certifications.” Never
have, never will. Let me see if I can explain this Catch 22…
First, I should refrain from use of the word “never.” There
could be a point where the EPA requires the aftermarket
to certify the parts that are sold, but it is doubtful. Reflect
back to the bigger-fish-to-fry comment used in scenario 1?
Think outside of the Dodge/Cummins Turbo Diesel box—
the performance aftermarket is huge!
So, what is a well-intentioned vendor to do? What is a wellintentioned consumer to do? I’ll come back to discuss the
plight of the consumer in a minute.
For whatever reason—new ’07.5 engines and emissions
controls; an over-burdened EPA; vendors that ignored good
judgment; consumers that ignored good judgment; the
renaissance of diesel-powered vehicles in the US; OEM’s
placing blame for product problems at the performance
aftermarket; other events in the gasoline aftermarket
performance arena—the diesel performance aftermarket
vendors now have the full attention of the EPA. And, the
well-intentioned vendors are willing and ready to submit
their products for testing. Yet, what is the test criteria?
I can recall a discussion that I had in 1999 with a vendor
that had developed a product for the new electronic ’98.5
Cummins 24-valve engine. His comment then was, “Tell
me the test criteria and where to send my product and
I’ll comply.” Given time the tests were developed and I’m
aware of vendors that have CARB EO numbers for the
24-valve engines in the years ’98.5-’02.
Today the vendors are faced with the same dilemma.
However, as a result of the November 2007 meeting at
SEMA, the path to providing emissions-compliant diesel
performance aftermarket products is being brought to the
forefront.
Enter the California Air Resource Board (CARB) and the
Executive Order (EO) process.
There was an excellent article in Performance Business
magazine, December 2007, that explains the test
procedure. Author Jim McFarland writes, “Some years
ago, specialty parts manufacturers were confronted by a
Section (27156) in the California Vehicle Code, pertaining
to the installation of aftermarket parts and systems of
potential impact on vehicle emissions. Essentially, that
Section mandated no part or system affecting an engine’s
emissions performance could be removed or rendered
inoperative and used on-road in California. However,
there was no compliance or exemption procedure in place.
Urged and aided by SEMA, a program was constructed
that enabled compliance, based on the type of emissions
testing functionally similar to the OEM. Once these
stipulated conditions were satisfied, a so-called ‘Executive
Order’ could be issued, thereby allowing legal use of
emissions-related parts and systems on CA highways.”
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November 2008 Update
Since last November’s (2007) meeting, SEMA
representatives, working closely with the EPA and CARB,
have developed a proposed protocol for engine in-vehicle
testing. The protocol has been approved. Suitable engine
dyno test procedures have been presented and has been
approved also. If and when the dyno test procedures are
approved it will give the diesel performance aftermarket
vendors two avenues to test their products. This is really
positive news and, even though enforcement is closely
watching the diesel marketplace, I’ve no doubt that the
performance vendors welcome the opportunity to submit
their products for conformity testing.
So, how does a vendor obtain a CARB EO? Again, from
the Performance Business article I’ll let McFarland explain
the procedure for gasoline-powered cars and trucks.
“The process involves working directly with the CARB
Certification staff and begins by jointly matching specialty
products with the brands and model years of vehicles to
which they apply and will be sold. Test procedures include
what is called the ‘Federal Test Procedure’ that is the
equivalent to what the OEM performs during initial vehicle
certification with the Environmental Protection Agency and
CARB. Plus, for reasons of verifying advertised power
levels involving horsepower-enhancing products, a drivewheel power measurement is conducted to determine if at
least 80% of advertised power gain is produced.”
Now, how does a vendor obtain a CARB EO for a diesel
performance aftermarket product?
The full-blown explanation, history lesson, and documentation
of court battles could go on for pages. Suffice to say there
have been years where the EPA and CARB could agree on
test methods that would equate the EPA’s test cell data (very
expensive test performed by the engine manufacturers) to
CARB’s chassis dyno test (reasonably priced and practical
to perform). And, there have been years where there was
not agreement. In fairness to a handful of diesel vendors,
there have been products submitted, tested and approved
by CARB and EO certificates have been issued. I know that
Banks, TST Products, Hypertech, Edge and Superchips
have EOs for ’98.5 to ’02 products. Noteworthy: from ’02 to
current there is a void in EO certificates issued due to a lack
of approved protocol of testing procedures.
Finally, you fully understand the Catch 22 for diesel
performance aftermarket vendors.
Now, to address the plight of the well-intentioned consumer,
what can you do to ensure that you will not be afoul of the
EPA and their Section 203?
There is not an easy answer. As we learned the ’98.5-’02
customer can seek-out CARB EO certified products, but
prior to and after those dates there is a void. This void was
previously overlooked, but now has the momentum to be
addressed.
I’ll bring updates to you as they develop.
Robert Patton
TDR Staff
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
EMISSIONS LEgISLATION IN CALIFORNIA
Déjá Vu All Over Again, Again
by Robert Patton
November 2009—the world of the automotive aftermarket
has its annual gathering at the Specialty Equipment
Manufacturers Association convention. Two years ago
(Issue 60, page 50-52) I covered a meeting that was a
part of the 2007 SEMA Show with EPA representatives,
California Air Resource Board (CARB) personnel,
aftermarket vendors and SEMA liaisons.
The topic of discussion in November 2007: What is the
process (test procedure) that aftermarket vendors should
use to submit their products for CARB testing, approval
and the resulting emissions stamp-of-approval which is
known as a CARB executive order (EO) number?
The topic of discussion in November 2009: You guessed
it: the same thing.
In preparation for this article I went back to Issue 60 and
reread the text. In the past two years a lot has happened,
but nothing has changed. A lot has happened: the CARB
folks and the aftermarket vendors were on the verge
of a atesting protocol until the question of how tuning
programmers would affect the truck’s auxiliary emissions
control devices (AECDs). Take one step forward and two
steps back. Should you want to read the assorted details,
the Issue 60 text is still relevant. My impression: It is almost
like the stalemate of not having a test procedure was/is
wanted by the CARB personnel.
SEMA liaisons have been to this dog-and-pony show
before. Need examples? Look at all the chips, programmers,
intake manifolds, camshafts, fuel systems parts, etc.,
that exist with CARB EO numbers in the aftermarket for
gasoline engines. But, they’ve not been able to get the
diesel players (CARB and vendors) onto the same page.
Aftermarket vendors seemed concerned, but internal
bickering about how the test procedure should work is still
a point of contention.
Again, the CARB personnel did not seem to care ‘cause
they’re gonna do what they’re gonna do. And—oops it is
like you are back in high school again; the term paper now
has a due date, January 1, 2010.
That’s right, folks; the state of California, through the
emissions testing facilities at the Bureau of Automotive
Repair (BAR) will require a diesel smog check effective,
January, 1, 2010. Ouch.
So What! I Live in Texas
(or any one of the other 48 states).
You live in Texas, I am in Georgia. What does all of this
emissions inspections stuff have to do with those outside
the Republic of California?
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
The obvious answer (Does this question even need to
be asked?) is that what happens in California somehow
happens in other states that follow their lead. If past history
indicates future activity, look for the states of New York,
Maine, Massachusettes and Vermont to follow California’s
lead. However, as you’ll note in the quirks that are a part of
California’s inspection process (items 7a, 7b, and 7c), the
diesel smog check in your state may be better defined with
less subjectivity. Time will tell.
just the Facts, Please
All right, just the facts:
California Diesel Smog Check
1.
Required by Assembly Bill 1488 signed into law by
Governor Schwarzenegger.
2.
All 1998 and newer model-year diesel-powered
vehicles 14,000 pounds or less GVWR are included.
3.
Initial registration and change-of-ownership inspections
begin January 1, 2010, and notification for biennial
(every other year) inspections will begin in February/
March for renewals due in April/May.
4.
About 540,000 vehicles will be subject to Smog
Check for initial registration, change-of-ownership,
and biennial inspections in order to complete the
registration process.
5.
No “New Diesel Vehicle” exemptions will be allowed.
Every truck gets tested.
6.
No tailpipe “sniffer” emissions test will be required.
7.
The Diesel Smog Check Inspection consists of:
a.) Visual Inspection for tampering (missing, modified or
disconnected emission controls and the presence of
parts without a CARB EO Number.”
b.) On-board diagnostics (OBD) interrogation to check
for proper MIL operation: the MIL commanded
“On” or “Off”, and no more than two readiness
monitors “Unset” or “Not-Completed.”
c.) Visual smoke inspection (modified snap-idle
procedure) to determine if excessive smoke
emissions are present.
Like me you’re thinking, “Whoa! I need some details about
the scope of the test.”
Okay, I’ll go through each line item and add clarification as
I understand it. But first you need to understand what the
personnel at the BAR station will be looking for as a part
of the “visual inspection for tampering and the presence of
parts without a CARB EO number.” (That is item 7a of the
smog check.) Here is a quick reference chart that shows
the parts.
75
Diesel Aftermarket Parts Quick Reference
System
Computer
Management
Component
Allowed
as OE
Replacement
Requires
CARB EO
Variable or alternate tuning devices: Power
Modules, PROMs, Chips, Tuners, Pods, Power
Modules or any device that modifies inputs or
outputs to the ECU (including inline devices that
plug into the ECU, wiring harness, or the OBD
connector, signal conditioners, etc.)
X
Air cleaners
X
“Air horn” intakes
Induction System
No CARB OE
is Required
X
Intake manifolds
X
1
X2
Air flow sensor (modifications)
X1
X2
EGR/CDR system (modifications)
X1
X2
Turbochargers (add-on or modified parts including
all related controls, i.e., waste gates, compressors)
X1
X2
X2
Intercoolers
Supercharger
X1
Auxiliary fuel tank(s)
Fuel System
X
Injectors
X1
X2
Injection pump
X1
X2
Fuel pump – Lift pump
X
Added fuel filters/Separators
X
Added or alternative fuel modifications
X
Added or alternate injection modifications including:
Propane, Methanol, Hydrogen, Nitrous Oxide
X
Exhaust gas after-treatment controls:
CATs, Traps, Filters, UREA
Exhaust System
X2
N/A4
General exhaust system changes for vehicles not
equipped with after-treatment emissions systems
(must have provisions for any stock sensors and/or
emission control components)
X
Exhaust system changes: Changes after the last
emission control component, “CAT back”
X
Exhaust brake systems
X
N/A4
Notes: For more details, and the exhaustive list of equipment that cause a Smog Check failure please reference Appendix G.
Must be Replacements for the original equipment.
2
Add-On and/or modified/performance versions must be CARB approved and require EO verification.
3
These CARB EO rules only apply to the Smog Check program.
4
Must meet OE standards.
1
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A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Checking the List
Now, let’s go through the Diesel Smog Check, item by
item:
check inspectors have seen a video telling them how
much smoke is too much smoke. Jeez… good luck.
My understanding of the test: the engine is taken up
to 2000rpm and “snapped” up to a 3000rpm threshold.
The video-trained smog check inspector then issues
the pass/fail.
1.
Yes, it has been signed into law.
2.
Yes, its target is light and medium-duty diesel vehicles.
3.
Every other year inspections.
4.
They’re going to test all 540,000 vehicles. They have a
process.
I’m sure you noticed all of the X1 and X 2 and solid Xs on the
Aftermarket Parts Quick Reference chart. In those cases
where there is a CARB EO “Required” you should check
your aftermarket product for the appropriate number.
5.
In California when you purchase a new gasolinepowered vehicle you are exempt from testing for six
years. The CARB folks have a history with gasoline
vehicles and are confident that they remain clean for
the six-year “new vehicle” period.
Wait, I’ll save you from running to the garage to lift your
truck’s hood to look for the decal or making a dash to the
file folder where you keep all of your records. You see, I
reread the Issue 60 text closely and the hard, cold fact
comes to you from page 52. Quoting from the article:
They do not have a history with diesels. They have
seen some gross examples of pollution. Therefore
new diesel vehicles are not exempt from the smog
check.
6.
7.
The smog check station will not do a “sniffer” into the
tailpipe or use an opacity meter. Why? A government
boondoggle. There is legislation in place that states
that there cannot be additional work load placed on
the smog check station. Yet the Assembly Bill 1488
requires a smog check. The result, a subjective snapidle test (see 7c) to determine the pass/fail.
a) Visual inspection, another boondoggle. The smog
check station personnel are going to look at the
components of your diesel engine in search of CARB
EO number decals. No decal and they can send you
home with a “failed” notice. The chart shows you
the parts/components where the inspector will look
for the EO decal if the part does not have a factory
appearance.
Did you notice the X1 and X 2 and the footnotes at the
bottom of the chart? The visual inspection is, at best,
subjective. So, since very few parts have a CARB EO
decal, I’m hoping that the California TDR audiences
are good friends with the smog check operator;
otherwise you will not have a chance to get an “at bat”
with the snap idle test. Do you still have all of your
stock parts in the garage?
7
b) When the test operator plugs into your OBD II
connection point, the ABD II reader can tell if a
performance module/chip/programmer has been
clearing and/or turning off fault codes.
7
c) If you passed the subjective visual inspection of item
7a, then it is time for the subjective visual smoke test.
The cynic in me learned in the meeting that the smog
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
On My Own
“Noteworthy: from ’02 to current there is a void
in EO certificates issued due to lack of approved
protocol of testing procedures.”
Mr. Customer, reading between-the-lines it looks to me like
you are on your own.
I could break out another Powerpoint chart showing the
components that require strict emissions testing (again,
the test protocol has not yet been determined), those
that require a shuffle of paperwork called “engineering
evaluation,” and those where there are “to be determined”
and “need to resolve” notations. Suffice to say the
aftermarket vendors do not yet have the CARB EO number
decals and neither do you.
So, what are you to do as you and the smog check technician
stand there and argue (or would that be subjectively review?)
whether your turbocharger is “Allowed as OE Replacement
(X1),” or “Requires CARB EO (X 2)?” It was suggested at the
meeting that Mr. Customer have the smog check technician
telephone the CARB representative who then telephones
the aftermarket vendor that made the component to
discuss… Yeah, right, this ain’t going to happen.
Mr. Customer you are on your own. I’ll ask again, do you
still have all of your stock parts in your garage?
Conclusion
For this boondoggle I do not have a conclusion. For those
on the TDR’s web site, we sent this article out in late
November as a preview of things to come for our California
members. The smog checks start in January for changeof-ownership vehicles and then in April for owners of
record. I’ll bring you updates as I have further information.
Robert Patton
TDR Staff
77
Fuel injection system ’89-’02
ThE TURBO DIESEL’S FUEL INjECTION SYSTEM
by joe Donnelly
Time marches on, time marches on… It seems that just
yesterday we were anticipating the ’98.5 model release
with the Cummins 24-valve engine and its Bosch
electronic VP44 fuel pump. The ’98.5 introduction is now
four years old, and with another year past we asked Joe
Donnelly to investigate and describe the three different
fuel systems that have been used on the Cummins
engines in the past twelve years of production. The
following is Joe’s report.
Progress
There have been two driving forces for progress and
change in the design of the fuel injection system for our
Turbo Diesels. The first is federally-mandated (EPA)
emissions regulations, and the second is competition from
other brands which usually takes the form of a search for
greater horsepower and rpm.
Greater horsepower requires that the injection pump be
able to pressurize and meter a greater quantity of fuel.
Lower exhaust emissions are obtained, in part, by higher
fuel pressures. Higher fuel pressures improve atomization
of the fuel spray plume, and increase fuel flow through
the injector orifices. Higher pop-off pressures “clean up”
the spray by minimizing fuel inlet when atomization would
be less than optimum. Higher injection pressures allow
the engine manufacturer to shorten the time duration of
injection, while maintaining the design horsepower, so the
fuel can be introduced into the cylinders when it will burn
most efficiently. Particularly at higher power levels (those
well beyond factory horsepower and clean emissions
ratings), the duration of the fuel injection event may be
substantially longer than optimum for best emissions, in
order to introduce the required amount of fuel into the
engine, and excessive smoke is produced. Smoke is
minimized by improved burning. Burning characteristics
are influenced in part by atomization quality and timing
of the injection event. Electronic controls can improve
the precision of metering duration and of the timing of
fuel injection. To meet current and future emissions
requirements, electronically controlled fuel injection is
important for the successful application of diesel engines
to transportation and powerplant needs.
78
The Fuel Transfer Pump
Fuel is pumped from the fuel tank to the injection pump
by a conventional, low-pressure fuel transfer pump. The
12-valve engines (1989-1998) use a mechanical pump
mounted on the driver’s side of the engine block and driven
by a lobe on the camshaft. The concept and execution for
this pump is basically the same as that used by gasoline
engines for decades. If one were to monitor the mechanical
fuel transfer pump’s operation with a pressure gauge, you
would note the rise and fall of the pressure with the rise
and fall of engine rpm.
The 24-valve engines use a vane-type electrically driven
pump. The pump is very similar to high performance
(racing) gasoline electric fuel pumps. The pump is mounted
to a bracket that also serves as a cover for where the old
mechanical transfer pump was located on the side of the
block. The hole is still incorporated into currently-produced
engine blocks, so they can be retrofitted in repair operations
on older trucks. Using the mechanical pump from 1994 ‘98 as an example, it provides about 17-22 psi fuel pressure
at an idle, and 25-30 psi at rated speed (that is, governed
maximum engine speed). The pump actually is capable of
higher pressures but the P7100 injection pump includes
a bypass/overflow valve to control the pressures. The
electrical lift pump of the 24-valve engine has been subject
to some variations in performance, leading to warranty
replacement of some units. It seems that when working
properly, it should provide up to about 8-12 psi under no
load, and at least 2-4 psi even under full load. Both the
old ’89 – ’93 mechanical VE-style fuel pump and ’98.5 and
newer electronic VP-44 pumps have vane-type pumps
internally to boost the fuel pressure of the supplied fuel.
They have a piston-type pump system to bring the fuel the
rest of the way up to full pressure for injection. The P7100
does not have an intermediate pump. It relies on the fuel
transfer pump for sufficient pressure and output volume to
supply fuel to the plungers and barrels, where the fuel is
brought to high pressure for injection in one stage or step.
To date, our Turbo Diesels have had three types of fuel
injection pumps, but all share the same principles of
operation. A fuel transfer pump, or lift pump, moves fuel
from the fuel tank to the injection pump. The injection pump
pressurizes fuel to 10,000 or more pounds per square inch
(psi), and precisely meters it to the injectors at the right time
interval. The injectors pop open at around 3500 psi, remain
open to allow a flow of fuel that is properly distributed and
atomized into the combustion chamber (piston bowl), and
snap shut when fuel pressure again falls below that level,
thus the end of the injection time period. The time period
expressed in crankshaft degrees of rotation is shown in
Figure 1. The time period for the entire injection and
combustion event is about 5 milliseconds long.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
1. graph of combustion process vs. crankshaft angle.
Bosch VE Fuel Injection Pump –
’89 through ’93 Trucks
The VE distributor-type injection pump came out in the
1970s and was used in the Turbo Diesel applications up
through the 1993 model year. This pump has been widely
used for diesel engines up to about 33 horsepower per
cylinder output (about 200 hp for six cylinder engines). It
weighs only about ten pounds and is relatively compact in
dimensions. It is moderate in cost to buy and to repair. It is
lubricated by diesel fuel only, so it is very sensitive to fuel
quality. Its maximum design output fuel pressure is 700 bar
(10,150 psi). It uses a single high-pressure piston, so it has
fewer parts than many other designs of pumps. Idle speed,
maximum speed, and maximum fuel delivery quantity are
all externally adjustable. Tamper-resistant caps or seals
are put over the adjustment screws at the factory.
The VE pump uses an axial piston high-pressure pump to
pressurize the fuel that it receives from its internal vanetype supply pump. As the pump shaft rotates, the fuel is
pressurized and distributed to the proper injection line for
delivery to the cylinder. The five major sub-assemblies of
this pump are shown in Figure 2. These subassemblies
include the supply pump, high-pressure pump and
distributor, mechanical governor, fuel shutoff valve, and
injection timing device. A disassembled VE pump is shown
in Figure 3. The “aneroid” or air-fuel control cover and
diaphragm are shown at top center. The high pressure
pump and cam plate that drives it are at the bottom right
and center, respectively. The distribution plate where the
injection lines attach is at the bottom far right. The vanetype supply pump module is at lower left.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
2. The subassemblies of the Bosch VE pump.
3. A disassembled Bosch VE pump.
Compared to the pumps used in later model Turbo
Diesels, the VE pump is limited in fuel delivery volume
and pressure. The volume limitation became important
when greater horsepower was sought. The low (10,000 vs.
17,000 psi) pressure meant that new emission regulations
for 1994 could not be met. To meet these EPA regulations,
higher pressure was needed to bring in enough fuel
quickly, during the time period when it would burn most
efficiently and produce the least smoke. This issue made it
clear to the manufacturers of diesel engines that they had
to discontinue use of the VE pump for our Turbo Diesels
and for other over-the-road applications.
79
Bosch P7100 Fuel Injection Pumps –
’94 through ’98.5 Trucks
In today’s vernacular, this is the “extreme” pump for the
Turbo Diesel. It is heavy (about 45 pounds), large, relatively
expensive to buy and to repair, and intended for much larger
engines than our little 359 cubic inch Cummins B-series.
However, this model of pump ended up on the ’94 – ‘98
Turbo Diesels because it gave Cummins and Dodge the
flexibility they needed in an off-the-shelf pump. Engineers
were able to increase power ratings without stressing
the capabilities of the pump. They could meet the new,
more stringent emissions requirements (January 1, 1994)
because this pump had the fuel volume, and especially
the pressure, they needed. This pump is intended for
original equipment manufacturer’s applications up to 94
horsepower per cylinder (564 hp for six cylinders) and
produces fuel pressures up to 150 bar (16,675 psi). Like
the VE pump, it is fully mechanical in operation, but that is
where the similarity ends.
The P7100 pump is an in-line design pump. This means
that the injector for each cylinder of the engine is fed by
a dedicated high-pressure plunger-and-barrel assembly in
the injection pump. These plunger-and-barrel assemblies
are arranged in a linear fashion, not a circle. The fuel is
pressurized by the up-and-down stroke of the plunger,
brought about by a camshaft eccentric (see Figure 4). Thus
this pump has a camshaft that is engine-driven, and each
plunger has a roller-lifter type of actuation. Fuel delivery
quantity is controlled by rotating the plunger. This action
changes the exposure of the fill/spill port of the barrel to
the fuel gallery, to determine the amount of fuel that will be
“trapped” and pressurized. (See Figure 5.) The six plungers
(for a six-cylinder engine) are connected to a fuel control
“rack” which extends to the governor so that the governor
can control the fueling of all six plungers equally and
simultaneously. A picture of some key parts of the P7100
is shown in Fiure 6. A plunger and barrel assembly is in
the center, with the fuel control rack below. The spring that
preloads the roller lifter to the cam lobe is beside the plunger
and barrel. The roller lifter is under the rack, sitting on a
camshaft lobe. The camshaft is at the bottom of the picture.
The pump gear goes on the bottom left—the front end of
the camshaft. The governor flyweight assembly is shown at
the bottom right, attached to the back end of the camshaft.
Attached to the right of the flyweight assembly is the linkage
that is also attached to the rack in an assembled pump. The
rocker that contacts the torque plate and the AFC link, and
the AFC housing, are at the top right area of Figure 6.
For different power ratings, Bosch uses different design
plungers and barrels, and different camshaft lobe profiles.
For our Turbo Diesels, there are three basic internal “sizes”
of P7100 pump: The 160 hp is the smallest; the 175-180
hp is somewhat larger, and the 215 hp version is one of
the largest P7100-pumps available. For comparison,
using Turbo Diesels that are otherwise similar in level of
modification, the internal parts of the 160 hp pump would
allow about 320-340 hp at the wheels, the internal parts
of the 180 hp pump would give about 370-400, and the
215 pump would give 500-540 hp. All of these pumps use
versions of the Bosch Model RQV-K governor.
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4. Operation of the plunger an barrel of the P7100 pump
5. Fuel control rack operation in the P7100 pump.
6. Some parts of the P7100 pump, showing one
plunger and barrel, the camshaft, fuel rack, governor
weights and linkage to the rack, AFC housing.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
The P7100 pump has several advantages other than that of
supporting high horsepower. It is somewhat less sensitive
to fuel quality, or better stated, it is more durable at high
power outputs where high lubricity is more important.
This situation is caused by the pump’s use of engine oil
to lubricate the governor and “bottom end” of the pump.
Of course, the fuel plungers and barrels, and the delivery
valves, still rely upon diesel fuel for their lubrication, so
it would be a serious mistake to think that “any” fuel is
adequate because the pump uses engine oil as a lubricant.
The pump is generally very reliable, and being fully
mechanical in operation it is relatively easy to diagnose
and to modify. A P7100 is shown in Figure 7 hooked up to
the Bosch Model EPS 815 test bench. Test fuel injection
lines are attached to the pump. The pump stand measures
fuel delivered from each barrel and displays the results on
the video monitor shown at top left.
8. RQV-K governor components for the P7100 pump.
9. Air-fuel control (AFC) operation.
7. A P7100 pump in the Bosch EPS 815 test stand.
Not long after this pump began appearing on Turbo
Diesels, Mark Chapple (TST Products) developed a
hop-up system for this pump with a custom-engineered
“torque plate” (Bosch calls it a full-load stop). The torque
plate determines the maximum fuel quantity versus rpm
that the pump can deliver. With the correct TST torque
plate, even the little 160 hp pump easily gave 230 hp at
the wheels of the Turbo Diesel. He also found that higher
uprates were attainable by varying the design of the torque
plate. Soon after, we conduced torque plate studies that
resulted in designs giving up to 400 hp (with the 215 hp
pump) on a basically stock Turbo Diesel (a larger exhaust
turbine housing was the only other modification). The
torque plate and other governor parts are shown in Figure
8. The governor flyweights control the maximum engine
rpm by using a complex linkage to pull back the fuel control
rack when they have extended outwards from centrifugal
force. While at BD Power, Piers Harry (now of Piers Diesel
Research) discovered a combination of Bosch governor
springs that would greatly increase governed speed on the
pumps used in our Turbo Diesels. This is an effective hopup trick for those who feel that the stock governed engine
speed of 2500-2800 rpm is inadequate.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
The air-fuel control module (AFC) is familiar to those
who seek to hop-up the P7100-pump. The torque plate,
attached to the governor housing, is accessed by removing
the AFC housing. Operation of the AFC can be understood
from studying Figure 9. It is a smog control device that
holds back fueling from the maximum allowed by the
torque plate until sufficient boost is developed to burn the
fuel properly. TST Products offers an AFC Spring Kit that
assists the power-hungry in tailoring its operation so that
power and environmental consciousness can co-exist.
Most folks either leave the AFC alone or at most adjust
the “star wheel” under the cap with the 8 mm Allen socket
head. Realize that this is an emissions-control device,
and if you experiment, your government can call your
endeavors “tampering.” On the P7100-pump, Bosch moved
away from metal caps on most of the emissions-sensitive
adjustment areas to the potentially more secure “break-off”
screws. These screws have a button head with a hex head
raised above it on a stalk. Torquing the screw breaks off
the hex-head at the base of the stalk, leaving only a button
head screw with no provision for a tool or for easy removal.
The pump shop removes them with a small hammer and a
chisel. Such screws can be found on the back of the AFC,
one mounting screw of the AFC to the governor, and one
screw retaining the pump timing pin housing to the side of
the pump. Bosch uses sealing wire for some other areas,
and a cap over the high idle screw.
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Bosch VP44 Fuel Injection Pumps –
’98.5 to Current Trucks
The Cummins 24-valve engine was designed to meet
the tighter EPA federal emissions regulations of January
1, 1998. An essential feature of this engine was the use
of electronically-controlled fueling events. The Bosch
VP44 injection pump (see Figure 10) was already in use
in Europe for smaller engines, and was fully electronically
controlled with regard to injection timing and fuel quantity.
This pump delivers fuel at high pressure (1000 bar or
14,500 psi), almost as high as the P7100, to assist in
meeting emissions requirements. The size, weight, and
cost of the pump are much lower than the P7100, more
like the VE pump. However, the new VP44 pump differs in
several important respects from the older pump. In order
to develop the higher pressure it produces, it uses three
radial pistons to pressurize fuel instead of one axial piston.
While the engine mechanically rotates the pump, as with
a VE pump, the fueling commands are all performed via
on-board computer (fuel pump control module). Thus, the
1998.5 to current Turbo Diesels have three computers—
one for the truck (mounted on the firewall as in previous
years), one on the side of the engine (engine control
module), and the third one, the fuel pump control module.
10. Fuel system components for the
24-valve Cummins engine.
To date, not much information has been disseminated by
Bosch or Cummins on this pump. Empirically, its fueling
capacity (ability to produce horsepower) is between that
of the VE and the 215 hp P7100. It does seem capable
of flowing more fuel than the smaller 160 hp and 175-180
hp versions of the P7100. I have seen a few instances
where Turbo Diesels produced around 480-500 hp with a
VP44. The durability of this pump has been questioned,
but definitive answers are not available. Some “batches”
of the pump seem more susceptible to failure than others.
Failures seem to be divided into internal mechanical failure
(grenading) and burn-out of the fuel sending solenoid. It
is not clear to what extent the failures are related to (a)
poor lift pump (i.e. the fuel transfer pump) pressure; (b)
manufacturing tolerances, weaknesses of parts, design
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flaws, or defects; or (c) increases in engine power with
electronic add-on boxes. We know of cases where multiple
boxes or other electronic “aids” are in use, and the pump
has lasted for years. We know of others where the pump
failed almost immediately after a box was added. We know
of still other cases where the pump failed, usually early in
the life of the truck, without warning and on a stock engine.
Mark Chapple (TST Products) feels the pump is most likely
to fail when the driver takes his foot off the accelerator
pedal abruptly after use of full power at high rpm. Chip
Fisher (Blue Chip Diesel) emphasizes the importance of
the fuel transfer pump’s output pressure. Again, definitive
answers are not available.
Currently, rebuilt/remanufactured pumps for Dodge
warranty and for Cummins ReCon come from Bosch,
primarily from their facility in the Czech Republic. Bosch
produces new pumps in Germany. Presently, Bosch is
initiating a localized repair network using their network of
authorized Bosch repair shops (pump shops). However,
this network is not scheduled to come on-line until mid2002, and will be expensive for the shops. The cost will
be around $40,000 if they already have the high-powered
Bosch EPS 815 test and calibration stand, and more than
double that if they do not. It seems that other test stands
have enough power to test the pump but not to calibrate
it, for two reasons: (1) unavailability of proprietary Bosch
software to them; (2) inadequate horsepower to turn
the VP44 pump at a steady speed while it is operating.
Current estimates are that about 40-50 shops will buy
the equipment and adapters needed to test, repair, and
recalibrate the VP44 pump. Until this network comes online, non-warranty repairs and replacements for the VP44
will consist of purchasing a new or reconditioned pump
from Dodge, Cummins, or Bosch. Hence, a major limitation
to this pump at present is the lack of parts and service
available for it. Additionally, the enhanced durability
expected by some consumers from electronic devices has
not been realized to date for this electronically-controlled,
mechanical pump. Diagnostics are limited in capability
and utility. Even the expensive software-based diagnostic
systems do not give details about why the pump failed or
what is wrong with it. Furthermore, repair parts and service
are not presently available even if the cause of the pump
failure could be diagnosed. Nevertheless, there will be
around a million of these pumps in service by the time
Cummins and Dodge change to the common-rail injection
system (information on this system will appear in a future
issue of TDR). Hence, service for the VP44 pumps will be
something of a priority in the future.
To date, there is no widespread use of internal modifications
to “hop up” the VP44 pumps. The differences in performance
of regular (215, 235 hp) vs. ETH (High Output, 245 hp) Turbo
Diesels with electronic or injector modifications points
to internal differences between the two injection pumps.
Diesel Dynamics has developed a way to advance pump
timing mechanically, and to increase fuel delivery (about
50 horsepower worth), but the modifications are costly at
this time. Here again, experimentation and modifications
are in the preliminary stages, and are being conducted
without any information being available from Bosch.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Injectors
The three types of injection pumps discussed above share
a common purpose: They take a “slug” of fuel to high
pressure (10,000 psi or more), and a high pressure line
sends it to the injector. The pump sends the fuel to the
line during the time interval when the engine’s piston is
correctly positioned in the cylinder of the engine to burn
the fuel and make power.
14. 24-valve injector and fuel return systems.
12. Components of early and late 12-valve
and the 24-valve injectors.
Disassembled injectors are shown in Figure 12. A first
generation (1989-93) 12-valve injector is at the top—note
that the threads on the end of the body adjacent to the
big nut are smaller in diameter than on the next injector
(M12 thread from 1989-93 vs. M14 thread from 1994-98).
The bottom injector is for the 24-valve engine, and has a
connector tube next to the injector body. A diagram of a
12-valve injector is shown in Figure 13, and of a 24-valve
injector in Figure 14. All these injectors are operationally
similar (as shown in Fig. 13), but the connector tube is unique
for the 24-valve engine. Note also that the connector tubes
for the early 24-valve engines (before S/N 56462592; most
1998.5 models) may leak if reused when installing new
injectors. New connector tubes can be purchased from
Dodge (05013856AA), Cummins (3944833), or Bosch (F
00Z R20 002).
These injectors have a “seat” or seal area to prevent fuel
from flowing when fuel pressure is below the pop-off
pressure (245-260 bar on Turbo Diesel applications). The
injector nozzles have 4, 5, 6, or 7 holes that are around
0.008” to 0.013” diameter depending on application. The
12-valve engines used copper sealing washers of about
0.02”, 0.06” or 0.09” thickness. The 24-valve engine uses
washers of about 0.06” thickness. Performance injectors
can have more holes, larger diameter holes, or both. Bosch
offers different injectors for different engine horsepower
ratings. As an example, Piers Diesel Research, BD Power
and I found that a specific marine injector for the Diamond
B 370 hp engine is a nice match for high horsepower
applications of the P7100 fuel pump system. This injector
gives a nice power gain in Turbo Diesels.
Injector nozzles can be modified by machining more holes
or by extrude honing. Diesel Dynamics is famous (even
with Bosch!) for its modified injectors. These injectors
can produce more than 100 horsepower over stock, while
maintaining stock idle, smooth acceleration, no “fuel
washing” problems, and very minimal smoke (unless
combined with other major modifications). They have
optimized extrude hone media, honing times, pop-off
pressures, and other performance factors. By searching
Bosch catalogs and by having parts custom made, they
can produce power increases that would not have been
imagined a few years ago. A few other vendors are now
using some of their processes; each buyer needs to assess
price against value and performance. Leaky injectors
can cause a lot of trouble, so be careful about getting
injectors modified in any way that can affect the sealing or
atomization characteristics.
13. Fuel flow to and inside the injector
(12 valve/P7100 shown).
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
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The Future
At this point, the VE and P7100 pump test and repair
programs are mature. Experienced Bosch pump shops
can repair or replace these pumps. A few shops are also
experienced in high performance modifications. Prices for
non-standard work vary considerably, as does expertise.
Bosch still supplies these pumps new. However, the
trucks for which they were built are getting older and
demand will vary. Price and supply can be expected to
vary in the future.
The VP44 test and repair programs are just beginning.
Little is known about these pumps outside of Bosch
headquarters. While Bosch is developing a program
for their authorized pump shops, as mentioned, cost of
entry is relatively high and demand is uncertain at this
time. Therefore, the number of shops that will participate
in the near future is probably not large (maybe up to 40
or 50 shops). Traditionally Bosch has keyed repair parts
to pump part number, and has given their shops virtually
no information about the relative sizes or performance
characteristics of the parts. That means that the shop
can only hope that a part from a pump designed for a
higher horsepower engine might increase power in
another pump. The cost/benefit ratio can be rather poor
for some of these guesses. Similarly, Bosch disseminates
stock adjustment specifications only. The pump shop has
to determine through trial-and-error whether a different
adjustment will improve performance. It is not known at
this time what information Bosch will provide about the
VP44 to their shops, and whether the shops will be able to
develop any “enhancements” in durability or performance
for these pumps.
References:
1. “Cummins Electronic Fuel Injection,” Dodge Technician
Workbook, Chrysler Corp., 1998. (Figs. 1, 10, 14).
2. “Diesel Fuel Injection,” Robert Bosch GmbH, 1994.
(Fig. 2).
3. “5.9 Liter Turbo Diesel Fuel,” Dodge Student
Workbook, Chrysler Corp., 1994. (Figs. 4, 5, 8, 9, 13).
4. J & S Diesel Service, Scott Gerrard, Las Vegas, NV,
2001. (Figs. 3, 6, 7, 11, 12).
By joe Donnelly
henderson, NV
For a couple of years Cummins has been experimenting
with “common rail” fuel injection. The next generation
of EPA federal emissions requirements (October 2002)
will be addressed with the use of this type of injection
system. Basically, common rail injection means that there
will be a high-pressure pump feeding a line or “rail” that
goes to electronically-controlled injectors at each cylinder.
Improvements in precision and accuracy of the fuel timing
higher fuel injection pressures and quantity are sought, along
with better durability, lower cost, and lower noise levels. Just
as the aftermarket took a year or so to develop performance
enhancements for the VP44 system, you can expect a delay
in the availability of performance enhancements for the
common rail system. Given the current regulatory climate,
it will be increasingly important to achieve EPA or CARB
(California Air Resources Board) acceptance for aftermarket
power modification systems. Also, it will probably take
several years for Bosch and Cummins to bring outside
shops like fuel pump shops into the loop, just as it is taking
over four years to do so for the VP44.
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A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
the eiGht P’s oF dieseL PoWer
(and other Maintenance Concerns)
by Joe Donnelly
Proper prior planning prevents pathetic paltry power
problems.
Questions continue about power upgrades, the proper
order of performing upgrades, and the ideal balance of
power upgrades with drivetrain improvements. I find these
power upgrade questions and issues remain even after
writing articles in several past TDR magazines. Reference:
Issue 23, page 38, Air + Fuel = Power; Issue 25, page 40,
Prescriptions for Power; Issue 29, page 30, Fuel Economy
with Power; Issue 35, page 20, Fuel Injection System; and
Issue 37, page 14, Addiction to Power/Knowledge Gained
Over Time and page 26, Airflow). I also get frequent
questions regarding maintenance operations. Such
questions can be found almost daily on the TDR website
Discussion Forum and in telephone calls. This time we will
go over some of the more popular questions.
I just bought a 1996 (or some other year of 12-valve)
Turbo Diesel truck. What should I do for a little more
power?
A lot of Turbo Diesel trucks with the P7100 injection pump
equipped 12-valve engines (1994 through first half of 1998
model year) are coming out of warranty. Many others now
have second owners. In both of these cases, the owner
is now looking for a first power upgrade. The classic,
inexpensive, effective way to add 50 to 100 horsepower
is the TST Power Kit. This kit includes a torque plate and
boost control to allow the turbo to build more boost to
burn the added fuel more efficiently. Other vendors offer
similar kits. The installation is relatively straightforward,
and the results are well proven on the dynamometer and
on the street.
The second way to add significant amounts of power is to
change the injectors to those from a higher horsepower
rated engine. Perhaps the most popular are the injectors
from the 215 hp engine for the lower-rated engines. If you’re
going for a modification higher than 215 hp, try the 370
horsepower marine injectors. Note that if you’re trying to
make big gains from the older engines that were only rated
at 160 hp, the marine injectors are less tractable and most
owners have to spend more money to change the pump’s
delivery valves. The 175 hp and 180 hp engines generally
accept the large 370 hp injectors, but drivability may be
improved with more pump timing (up to 19 degrees). There
are also aftermarket injectors available, such as those from
Diesel Dynamics that give good power increases and may
fit your application better. The right injectors can add up to
100 horsepower or more.
I just bought a 1999 (or some other year of 24-valve)
Turbo Diesel truck. What should I do for more power,
injectors or a fueling box?
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Instead of a Power Kit (torque plate), the pressurized fuel
to the injector is made available for a longer time via a
performance type electronic control of VP44 fuel pump.
Several vendors such as Blue Chip, TST, Edge, BD Power,
Banks, and PDQ offer these boxes, However, before you
go the route of performance increases on the 24-valve
engine, you should check to make sure the VP44 fuel
pump is being adequately pressurized (fuel helps lubricate
and cool the VP44) by the engine’s fuel transfer pump. Also
known as fuel delivery, fuel lift, or fuel priming pump, this
pump’s job is to transfer fuel from the fuel tank to the VP44
fuel pump where it is then injected into the engine. Check
the fuel pressure going to the pump either at the banjo bolt
where the fuel feed line attaches to the pump, or on the top
of the fuel filter housing. You should have about 16 psi of
fuel pressure at idle if the lift pump is in top condition; 10
psi at idle is the specification.
Whether to use a box or injectors as the first upgrade
is mostly a matter of personal preference. Both are
effective. As with the 12-valve engines, larger injectors
are an effective way to add power to the 24-valve engine.
The only applicable, available injector from Bosch is the
one used in the 275 horsepower 24-valve recreational
vehicle (RV) application. This injector adds 50 hp to an
automatic transmission-equipped engine, 42 hp for an
ETH (high output with 6 speed transmission), and 33 hp for
a 5-speed-equipped engine. Aftermarket injectors, such
as Diesel Dynamics Stages 1, 2, and 3 are available for
larger power increases. The larger injectors also require
the use of a boost module (or a power box as above) to
prevent the engine control module (ecm, computer) from
defueling when it “sees” an electrical signal indicating too
much boost.
Onward to the subject of performance-type electronic
control “boxes.” How much power do you want and how
much money do you have to spend? The plug-and-play type
boxes are good for modest gains in the range of 30 to 60
horsepower. They are easy to install and modestly priced.
The other type of performance box intercepts the fueling
signal coming out of the VP44 computer that holds the fuel
solenoid of the pump closed. These clip-on-to-wire boxes
that clip onto a pump wire usually give more power per
dollar increase (up to 135 horsepower), but some folks feel
the box adds to the pump’s load and potential for failure
(especially if the fuel transfer pump’s pressure is too low).
A lot of folks start with one of the more moderately larger
type of injectors, and add a box later if they want more
power. The injectors seem not to be associated with any
increase in likelihood of VP44 fuel pump failure. Bosch has
quietly released a number of improvements to the VP44
injection pump over the years. The fuel transfer pump has
also been subject to numerous improvements. Both seem
to be more reliable now than the early versions (around
1998 and 1999). The boxes tend to give more mid-range
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torque than injectors. This is both good and bad—good
for towing power but harder on the transmission. The
transmission prefers higher rpm and less torque, both
because its bearings see less vibration at higher rpm and
because the various parts are better able to handle the
power at higher rpm.
or defueling at a very fast rate. That is, flooring the pedal,
or taking your foot off the accelerator pedal abruptly. The
shaft size is like the HX35 that uses smaller wheels, so the
HX40 is stressed more highly with aggressive use. I like to
have any HX40, even a brand new one, rebalanced by a
precision-oriented shop such as Bell Turbo.
Should I get a different turbocharger, or just change
the exhaust housing to a bigger one?
The answer to this question depends on how much
power you have added. The larger exhaust housing (16
square centimeters cross-sectional area) for the HX-35
turbocharger (stock unit) is pretty effective at lowering
exhaust gas temperatures (EGT) to the safe maximum of
1300 degrees for engines up to about 330 horsepower.
However, spool up is not as good as with the small housing,
and there may be more smoke while accelerating hard at
low boost. Cruising EGT will be a bit higher and boost
about 2-3 psi lower. Maximum EGT may be as much as
200 degrees lower than with the stock 12 sq. cm. housing.
The 24-valve engines have electronically-controlled airfuel control (AFC) systems and usually become rather
sluggish on initial acceleration with the bigger housing.
Better balancing of fueling/boost/smoke control with
uprated power and a larger turbine housing than stock is
usually easier to achieve with the 12-valve injection pump
and its mechanical AFC.
On the left is the cast iron exhaust “elbow” used
from 1994-1998 and a 3” band clamp used to attach this
elbow to the turbocharger exhaust (turbine) housing.
In the middle is an HX-40 turbo with 4” pipe behind it.
On the right is the “cartridge” for the
HX-55 with a piece of 5” pipe.
On the left is the exhaust side view of the hX-55 cartridge.
For size comparison an HX-40 exhaust wheel
is pictured below it.
In the middle is the exhaust side of the hX-40
with its 3.25” outlet sized for 4” pipe.
Next (moving from left to right) is the stock 1994-2002,
12 square centimeter exhaust housing.
On the right is the HX-35 with 2.5” outlet sized for 3” pipe.
In the center is the 18.5 housing used in 1989-90 and 1993.
Once you add so much fueling that the engine makes
around 500 horsepower, you will find that you need a hybrid
turbo, or the next larger Holset unit, the H2E. No longer
will the turbo be a simple bolt-on. The turbochargers for
the 10, 11, and 15 liter engines are physically larger and
the mounting flanges are bigger. Check with some experts
that you trust to get specific recommendations for your
application. Several turbochargers were shown in Issue 37
on page 30.
At the far right, the 21 housing used in 1991-92 on
the early intercooled engines.
Once the engine gets to about 350 horsepower, and up to
450 hp, the HX40 turbocharger from the 8.3 liter C-series
engine in conjunction with a 4” diameter exhaust system
are effective at reducing EGT about 200 degrees more.
Failures have been noted with this turbo on highly fueled
engines. Most failures can be traced to factory balance
tolerances that are not exact enough for the high boost
often used (40 psi versus factory 18 psi specification), or to
very fast acceleration of the turbo pinwheel due to fueling
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On the left is the hX-35 turbo, shown here with
18.5 sq. cm. exhaust housing and a piece of 3” pipe.
how often should I change lubricants and what
should I use?
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
I prefer to change engine oil every 3,000 miles in heavy
dust, towing, or stop-and-go driving situations. If the
engine can produce a lot of soot (high power uprating), the
soot capacity of the oil additives will be reached sooner,
again indicating this change interval. Otherwise, the Dodge
Owner’s Manual recommendations should be followed.
For warranty, there is not a provision for extended oil drain
intervals, largely due to the small oil pan sump capacity
on our engines. Cummins made this quite clear in their
seminar at the engine plant tour during the TDR Nationals.
The oil additives suspend soot, and once these additives
are consumed, any additional soot is left to cause wear
and deposits. Use oil that meets all the API requirements
in your Owner’s Manual.
In my opinion, for best life, automatic and manual
transmissions should be serviced and the oil changed at
least every 30,000 miles. Again, use a lubricant that meets
manufacturer’s recommendations.
Transfer case lubricant can be any high-quality automatic
transmission fluid (ATF), such as Dexron 3. Dexron is
readily available and inexpensive. It will cost you only
about $3 to change it, and I recommend doing so every
15,000 miles (more often in high dust or heavy four-wheel
drive conditions). I have seen higher mileage ATF and it
wasn’t pretty. It was brown and gritty, indicating damage
was already occurring. The aluminum-cased units in our
Turbo Diesels are very strong and durable if cared for
with regular maintenance. Mine is all original, never taken
apart, and has about 120,000 miles on it, with uprated
power. Yours can probably last a long time too.
I prefer to change differential lubricants about every 30,000
miles also. It is cheap insurance. If any moisture or dirt is
in the housing, the only remedial action you can take is
changing the lubricant. There is no filtration system. Once
again, check your Owner’s Manual and use lubricant that
meets Mopar specifications.
Editors Note: Issue 37 had a lengthy discussion on the
correct lubricants to be used throughout your truck. A
quick review of the three-page article might be of benefit.
how can I make a 12-valve injector puller?
Buy a metric bolt, M14 x 1.5 thread, about 4+ inches long.
Buy a Dodge dually lug nut for an 80s vintage truck. It has
an integral flange head and is for 5/8” fine thread.
Buy a metric deep well lug nut in M14 x 1.5. It should be
threaded all the way through, and if it has a chrome tin
cover, press or cut the cover off. Parts houses such as
Auto Zone have them.
Assemble with the dually lug nut flange to the head of the
bolt.
The metric lug nut is threaded onto the bolt and onto the
injector top. Use the dually lug nut as a slide hammer. Put
two fingers on flats of the nut against the flange. The most
elegant would be to saw off some of the threads on the bolt
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
so it goes only about 1/2” or so into the metric nut, and use
red Loctite on it. You want to end up with about 3-1/8” of
smooth shank on the bolt for the dually lug nut to slide on.
The above should cost you around $5 to $8, less if you find
lug nuts in the wrecking yard.
What can I use for a 24-valve injector puller?
I use a Proto #2007 brake spoon, and an M8 x 1.25 x 50
mm Allen head bolt. I threaded a piece of 1/4” thick steel
about ¾” diameter onto the bolt. To remove the injector,
thread the bolt into the top of the injector. Pry it up with the
tip of the straight end of the brake spoon on a valve spring
retainer. To reinstall the injector, put the tip of the curved
end of the spoon under the washer head of the injector
retainer plate bolt that you did not remove. Rest the curved
part of the spoon on the top of the injector and push down
the straight end to seat the injector. Lubricate the injector
o-ring with engine oil first. Of course, don’t forget to first
retract the connector tubes first from their seats in the
sides of the injectors.
Injectors and installation tools. On the left towel is a
12-valve injector, and two homemade slide hammer pullers.
The longer one helps with #1 because the engine lift strap
is in the way. The shorter one is a better fit for cylinders
#5 and #6. To the right is a steel cover plate to prevent
anything from falling into the intake plenum after the air
intake horn is removed. Underneath is a brass brush for
cleaning out the hole the injector tip goes through. These
holes get carboned up and that is why the injectors are
hard to pull. This tool was made from a rifle bore brush
and rod. Not shown is a cut off hollow 5/16” pushrod that is
used as a Q-tip holder for cleaning the injector wells.
On the right towel is a 24-valve injector for the 1998.5—2002
Turbo Diesels. An M8 x 1.25 x 50 mm bolt with heavy washer
is shown above the injector. This bolt is threaded into the
injector to remove it with the Proto brake spoon to the
right. Using the end that is nearly straight, put the tip on
a valve retainer and the shaft under the washer, and pull
the injector out using the spoon as a lever. To reinstall the
injector, lubricate the o-ring on the body with engine oil,
put the tip of the sharply curved end under the head of the
injector clamp bolt that was not removed. Put the heel on
the top of the injector and press it into the well in the head.
To the right is shown a slide hammer puller with an M8 stud
on the end. This tool can be used if the injectors are
tight from carbon buildup. Finally, a 19 mm (or 3/4”)
flare-nut type crow’s foot and a flex-head 3/8” drive
ratchet are shown. This setup simplifies loosening
the injector line nuts for #5 and #6 cylinders.
87
Is it really such a good idea to change my stock
exhaust manifold to the three-piece Advanced Turbo
Systems (ATS) unit?
Yes. The 12-valve engines have a pretty strong manifold,
but it is made of a silicon-containing cast iron that
continues to shrink until it either breaks the mounting bolts
at the ends, or breaks the ears off the head. Yesterday, a
Turbo Diesel owner called and told me that both #1 and #2
ears were cracked on his head. Look at your manifold from
the head side. You can see the open “trough” where the
bolt goes through the manifold. If the manifold has shrunk
excessively, the bolt will be at the outer edge of the hole. I
inspected almost all 12-valve Turbo Diesels at the National
Rally which were in the Show-N-Shine. All of the ones I
checked that had the stock manifold had this shrinkage
problem. Several cases were so bad that the bolts were
already bent.
I consider this upgrade to be part of an effective preventive
maintenance program. That is why I bought one over two
years ago for my Turbo Diesel. No intention is being made
to “scare” folks into unnecessary upgrades here. The
potential problems have become real ones for too many
owners. At a minimum, monitor your exhaust manifold’s
condition so you can possibly avoid an unpleasant surprise
while towing your trailer to the middle of nowhere.
how much power will my stock clutch/automatic
transmission take?
Most of the stock manual clutches in our Turbo Diesels are
good for around 650-750 ft. lb. of torque when lightly loaded,
less when pulling heavy loads. This torque corresponds to
around 270-320 hp. Hence, when considering that first or
second power upgrade, save some funds for the possibility
that you will need a better manual clutch. In general, it is
pretty safe to add a torque plate (12-valve engine) or plugn-play box (24-valve engine) or medium-sized injectors to
a stock engine. This is about the time that gauges become
mandatory rather than merely “recommended.”
Automatic transmissions usually need upgraded line
pressure and a tighter torque converter to work well with
more than a first level upgrade such as RV or Stage
1 injectors, a torque plate giving 50 more horsepower
(12-valve engine), or a plug-n-play box or clip-onto-wire
fueling box on level 3 out of 10 (24-valve engine). This
guidance is rather general, because driving style is also
important. Some folks “drive it like they own it” and others
“drive it like they stole it.”
A 12-valve cylinder head (it happens to have #1 intake area
cut off) is shown with a stock exhaust manifold attached at
the right (bolted on at #1 exhaust port). A stud threaded into
the “ear” or boss of the head at the far left (#6 exhaust port)
shows that this manifold has shrunk about 3/8” lengthwise.
Sitting on top of the head is a cut-off center section from
a stock 24-valve exhaust manifold that has two serious
cracks, one just outboard of the center, and the other
almost in the middle of the center section.
Yes. The 24-valve manifold is not very strong, so it doesn’t
break the head. However, it is very prone to cracking (Issue
37, page 56). I had one for display at the National Rally that
was off of a stock ETH engine (no added fueling) for less
than a year. It was the second stock manifold on the engine
and had several major cracks. The entire top of the engine
was covered with soot. Fortunately, the hood paint had not
been blistered, and it did not have a transmission cooler
under it (like the automatics do) to get overheated.
During the warranty period, Dodge will replace a defective
manifold. A new one won’t solve the problem on a longterm basis. My recommendation is to bite the bullet and
get the three-piece unit that can expand and contract with
heat and cooling cycles without breaking anything. The
ATS is also made of better iron, and is heavier. For those
who are power-oriented it flows more air. It is much better
able to deal with higher exhaust heat produced by engines
with power uprates. A stock 12-valve manifold and an ATS
three-piece manifold are shown in Issue 37 on page 29.
The phone number for ATS is 800-688-8726.
88
Why is my diesel able to make more power at low rpm,
like 2000-2500, rather than at higher rpm?
Consider the technical theory of fueling versus rpm in a
diesel. The injector flows fuel per time. It can flow only
half as much at 4000 rpm as at 2000. To make high rpm
horsepower, you must use higher flow injectors. The bigger
holes give poor atomization, a reason for the huge black
smoke clouds. Thus, you may get fuel in at 4000, but only
some of it burns. The time for fuel addition gets shorter and
shorter as rpm increases, and the time available for burning
to be initiated and completed, while the piston is positioned
correctly in its stroke, is also reduced. Thus, while torque
x rpm = hp, in a diesel engine it is hard to maintain decent
torque (effective fueling) at high rpm, compared to what
can be achieved with that injector at lower rpm—assuming
decent fuel atomization.
Does my engine lose a lot of horsepower with the
stock clutch fan?
A while ago we dyno tested the stock clutch fan versus no
fan. In terms of power I was wondering what an electrically
operated, free-wheeling fan might gain me. The difference
was 4 hp, answering the question about whether the stocker
was the real power robbing menace that some folks have
accused it of being! We sure can’t complain about OEM
engineering on this part!
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
In addition to the things in my Owner’s Manual, what
other Preventive Maintenance should be performed?
The “Killer Dowel Pin” was addressed in Issue 33, page
46; Issue 37, page 16; and again in Issue 38, page 136.
I feel that all Turbo Diesels up to about the introduction
of the 24-valve engine are susceptible to this problem.
Some corrective action should be strongly considered. I
have a set screw over my Ram’s dowel pin. Moreover, the
engines built before about 1996 did not have any sealer
on the threads of the bolts used to hold the gear case
to the engine block. These bolts work loose easier than
those of later engines where a sealer or thread locker type
compound was used on the threads. In particular, I have
found that the bolt next to the dowel pin often is not tight.
You can remove and apply Loctite to four of the five bolts.
Two are accessed through “windows” in the camshaft
gear, and two are in the open (one near the dowel pin,
and one just above the oil pump). See Issue 33, page 48,
for some photographs.
intolerant of dirt or other contamination. Failure follows. If
the transmission is not perfectly aligned to the crankshaft,
the hard needle or ball bearings are not forgiving, while
bronze and Kevlar are somewhat tolerant.
When the bushing gets worn, if you are paying close
attention when driving, you will notice the clutch release
is not as clean, or even hear the input shaft rub on the
front bearing retainer. By the time you are likely to hear
anything from the needle bearing, it is too late and you
have to buy a bunch of parts.
joe Donnelly
TDR Writer
Valve adjustments should be performed at least as often
as recommended in the Owner’s Manual. I have also found
that precision adjustment is valuable, not just adjusting to
the “customary” plus-or-minus two thousandths.
I occasionally hear about the clutch or pilot bearing
failing. The clutch hub occasionally breaks, perhaps
from too much pulling and lugging at lower rpm where
the strong vibrations of the Cummins are too much for
these components. Pilot bearings fail most often from
the driver habit of holding the clutch pedal down at stops.
Occasionally we hear about difficult-to-diagnose failures,
so here are a couple more thoughts: the bell housing can
be off center, side to side, or up and down. It can also
be farther out from the flywheel in one place. Use a dial
indicator if at all possible to verify alignment, so whatever
pilot bearing/bushing you use will last and not take out the
transmission input shaft bearings.
I have seen a lot of the stock needle-bearing pilot bearings
that failed. Many had just steel powder and the outer
bearing shell still in the flywheel. The input shaft bearing
surface was trashed. Standard Transmission and Gear
(817-625-7109) can sell you a new input/fourth gear but it
isn’t too cheap (something like $125) and you really need
to re-shim the mainshaft endplay afterwards. It’s more if
you need the bearing(s). If not taking out the main shaft,
you could have a shop machine the sealing surface of
the front bearing retainer for tighter clearance, or use a
gasket for more. Far better is prevention.
If you don’t want to machine the flywheel, use an oilite
bronze bushing, .75” ID, 1” OD, about 1” long, and install
it with Loctite behind (after cleaning with lacquer thinner),
and the input nose dry. If you want to do the flywheel and
put in the Kevlar bushing, that’s a good fix too.
The basic problems with the roller and ball bearing setups
are that they will never get more grease than they had
when new. Heat and vibration provide a leakage path
and dry-up the grease eventually. The bearings are quite
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
89
Why didn’t they think oF thAt –
exhAust emissions
MEANINgFUL ABBREVIATIONS
by Robert Patton
Boring Stuff?
EPA, NOx, PM, SCR, EGR, DPF, NAC, VGT, ULSD, HPCR,
HCCI, NMHC, ACERT, TITT: Can you pick the abbreviation
that is non-diesel, non-emissions related? It’s easy, TITT
as in “throw in the towel.” The balance of the abbreviations
serves to bewilder your diligent scribe. However, with a
new round of diesel exhaust emission legislation less
than two years away and with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel
(abbreviation: ULSD), due in the summer of ’06, it is
appropriate that we understand what the abbreviations will
mean to the diesel enthusiast.
As TDR subscribers know, emission legislation dates are
the driving force in the changes to the Cummins engine
hardware. To make a boring story into a relevant topic, the
subject matter has to address “what does it mean to me?”
The best way to answer this question is to crank-up the
way-back machine to Issue 40 and look at the progression
of the ever-tightening emissions standards.
After we review the material which answers the question,
“what does it mean to me?” material, I’ll attempt to tie the big
picture together with a look at those annoying abbreviations
and what is on the horizon for 2006 and 2007.
While it might be tempting to skip through this subtitle,
I’ll ask for your concentrated efforts as we simplify
(oversimplify?) the two emissions components that
concern the diesel engineer: oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and
particulate matter (PM). The following paragraphs may
provide us a more informed understanding of these two
emissions components.
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)
• One of the primary regulated pollutants from diesel
engines.
• Reacts with hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight to
form ozone.
• Formed by reaction between nitrogen and oxygen in the
combustion chamber.
• NOx formation increases with higher combustion
temperature and cylinder pressures.
• Methods of reduction include lower intake manifold
temperature, lower in-cylinder temperature, retarded
fuel injection and combustion optimization. Any incylinder approach to NOx reduction involves lowering the
temperature and limiting the time of the combustion event
• Potential impacts can be higher fuel consumption and
requirement of a more complex cooling system.
Note the sharp, ten-fold drop in emissions from year 2004 to 2007. I recall that one of the first TDR magazines stated that
emissions were the driving force behind changes to the diesel engine. The 2007 emissions targets nail home that statement.
Certainly ultra-low sulfur fuel will help, but the engineering it will take to meet the targets is difficult to imagine.
12
0.7
NOx Federal
10
0.6
PM
0.5
8
gm/bhp-hr
gm/bhp-hr
NOx California
6
4
0.4
0.3
0.2
2
0.1
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2007
2004
2002
1998
1994
1991
1990
1988
0
1985
2007
2004
2002
1998
1994
1991
1990
1988
1985
0
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Particulate Matter (PM)
• Often visible as black smoke.
• Formed when insufficient air or low combustion
temperature prohibits complete combustion of the free
carbon.
• Primarily partially burned fuel and lube oil.
• Methods of control include oil consumption reduction,
catalytic converters, combustion system development
and higher fuel injection pressures.
To oversimplify, think back to last winter and the many
fireside evenings you enjoyed. As you built the fire, there
was inefficient combustion, characterized by black smoke
and not much heat generation. Thirty minutes into the
exercise you were sitting back in the easy chair, with a
raging fire, no more black smoke, a beautiful yellow and
blue flame, and lots of heat.
Now, refer back to the NOx and PM bullet statements and
reflect on the following: the design engineers could control
particulates (PM) by raising the combustion efficiency
(temperatures and pressures). But, raising temperatures
and pressures causes the formation of oxides of nitrogen
(NOx) to go out of the emissions box. Likewise, efficiency
and heat of combustion can be sacrificed to meet the NOx
legislation, but the particulates go out of the emissions box.
How does the engineer get the teeter-totter level?
As an interesting sidenote, NOx not only is formed in
internal combustion engines, it is the result of elevating
the temperature of air—made up of 79% Nitrogen and 21%
Oxygen—high enough for the reaction to occur. One of
the most significant sources of NOx formation in nature is
lightning.
The reaction that forms NOx is also time related; the longer
the temperature remains elevated, the greater the level of
NOx formation.
In the diesel engine, NOx formation can be correlated to
engine performance; the higher the rate of formation, the
more efficient the engine. As most are aware, the impact
of reducing NOx emissions is increased fuel consumption,
which is the result of reduced efficiency.
For a good demonstration of the principle, consider that
in-cylinder temperatures are much higher on two-stroke
engines because fuel is provided on every stroke. Also,
consider the lack of oil control that contributes to too many
particulate emissions. These factors made it impossible for
two-stroke engines to meet emission targets and maintain
fuel consumption and other performance targets. The
1988 on-highway emissions regulations were the final
blow to the two-stroke diesel in trucking applications. Twostroke diesels are now only produced for off-highway and
generator set markets.
to occur. Control of the temperature within the cylinder is
managed in part by reduced intake manifold temperature
(an intercooler/charge air cooler). Although not used on
our Cummins diesel engines, exhaust gas recirculation
(EGR) is another method used to control the in-cylinder
temperature and, in turn, NOx formation. Recirculated
exhaust gas is oxygen-depleted and the inert gas acts to
buffer the combustion event thus lowering the in-cylinder
temperature. Reduced reaction time is controlled largely
by retardation of the injector timing. Also note the ’03-‘05
Turbo Diesel engine with its high-pressure, common-rail
(HPCR) fuel injection system gives a pilot shot of fuel
prior to, and post of the larger injection event. The pilot
shots of fuel help control the temperature and reduce
NOx formation. Pilot injection also has greatly reduced
the noise level that is associated with diesel combustion.
As you review the NOx and PM bullets, you can understand
the balancing act the engineer has to perform. Now, add
to the emissions teeter-totter the need for the engineer to
deliver to the market place an engine that can maintain
or show an increase in fuel economy. Further, competition
dictates higher performance from the engine. Quite a job
for the engineering community.
Summary (thus far)
Throughout this Buyer’s Guide you’ve seen this emissions
sermon presented in many different ways. Most often it
was as a precursor to a discussion of a new engine release
by Dodge and Cummins to meet an impending emission
legislation date.
When you read “So You Want Fuel Economy,” that is found
elsewhere in the Buyer’s Guide, you’ll see that creative
truck owners continue to modify their engines to try and
recapture miles-per-gallon that is typically sacrificed as the
engineer has to meet new emissions hurdles. And, so you
wonder, “Why didn’t those guys at the factory do that?” The
answer is as simple as the two words that were the title to
this article: exhaust emissions! Dodge and Cummins have
to play by a different set of rules than the owner of the
vehicle. And, tampering with or disabling any component of
the emissions control system is a direct violation of federal
law (fines up to $25,000 per day, per violation). Owners are
then left to weigh the consequences versus the increase in
performance, and/or fuel mileage.
Let’s continue the discussion of exhaust emissions with
an article, “The Look Ahead,” that was used in the TDR
magazine prior to the ’07.5 release of the Cummins 6.7-liter
engine.
Robert Patton
TDR Staff
The method of attack in reducing NOx formation in the
diesel engine is basically twofold: a) reduce the in-cylinder
temperature and/or, b) reduce the time for the reaction
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
91
ThE LOOK AhEAD
Back to the Basics
For easy understanding and efficient recall, let’s start with
a glossary of terms that will be used in this article.
EPA: Environmental Protection Agency, the governmental
department that is responsible for governing diesel exhaust
emissions.
NOx: oxides of nitrogen, a key pollutant that reacts with
hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight to form ozone.
PM: particulate matter, another key diesel pollutant that is
primarily soot and other combustion byproducts that form
urban smog.
SCR: selective catalytic reduction, an aftertreatment
technology that uses a chemical reductant (urea) that is
injected into the exhaust stream where it transforms into
ammonia and reacts with NOx on a catalyst, converting the
NOx to nitrogen and water vapor.
EgR: exhaust gas recirculation, a technology that diverts
a small percentage of the oxygen depleted, inert exhaust
gas back into the cylinder to help lower the combustion
temperatures, thus reducing NOx.
DPF: diesel particulate filter, also known as a particulate
trap. DPFs will be used to capture particles of soot in a semiporous medium as they flow through the exhaust system.
DPFs are available in passive or active configurations.
Active DPFs use a control system to actively promote
regeneration events.
NAC: NOx absorber catalyst, a catalyst that releases NOx
for a conversion to nitrogen gas and water vapor.
VgT: variable geometry turbo, turbochargers that
constantly adjust the amount of airflow into the combustion
chamber, optimizing performance and efficiency. In
essence, the turbine casing varies from a small to a large
cross section.
ULSD: ultra low sulfur diesel, this fuel is scheduled to be
available in September 2006. Over the years the sulfur in
diesel fuel has all but been removed. The standards: prior
to 1994 – 5000 ppm; 1994 – 500 ppm; 2006 – 15 ppm. It
is interesting to note that the European standard is 50 ppm
which was enacted in 2004. With ULSD in September 2006
the United States will have the world’s strictest standard.
hPCR: high-pressure, common-rail, this is the type of fuel
system that is currently produced for our Dodge/Cummins
pickup trucks.
hCCI: homogeneous charge compression ignition, a
method of in-cylinder NOx reduction. Think of HCCI as
“massive EGR.”
NMhC: non-methane hydrocarbons, these are primarily
unburned fuel in the exhaust stream and are not a
substantial part of the diesel emissions problem. In 2002
the EPA added the NMHC number to the NOx number for
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a total standard of 2.5-g/bhp-hr (NOx + NMHC).
ACERT: advanced combustion emission reduction
technology, the abbreviation for Caterpillar’s emission
control system.
The 2007 EPA Emissions Rules
Looking ahead to 2007-2010, the emissions requirements
will change dramatically for diesel pickup trucks. Both NOx
and PM are reduced by 90% from 2004 levels. Specifically,
NOx must be reduced to 0.2 grams/brake horsepowerhour by 2010, while the particulate standard is reduced to
0.01 g/bhp-hr PM beginning in 2007.
The EPA has allowed for NOx phase-in from 2007 through
2009. During this time, 50% of the engines produced must
meet the 0.2 g/bhp-hr NOx standard, while 50% may
continue to meet the current 2.5 g/bhp-hr NOx + NMHC
standard.
Most engine manufacturers will use the NOx phase-in
provisions along with averaging to certify engines to a NOx
value roughly halfway between the 2004 number and the
final 2010 NOx level. This calculates to approximately 1.2
g/bhp-hr NOx.
The PM level is not phased in, and thus all engine
production is required to be at 0.01 g/bhp-hr PM beginning
January 2007.
In addition to the lower NOx and PM levels, crankcase
gases will be included in the emissions measurements.
This requirement will drive closed crankcase systems for
2007 or ultra-low emissions from open systems. Open
systems allow crankcase gases to be vented into the
atmosphere through a breather tube. Closed systems
reroute crankcase ventilation gases from the breather
tube back into the engine intake airflow to be used for
combustion.
Likely there will be further EPA regulations which will
require advanced onboard diagnostics, which will lead
to additional sensors to monitor the effectiveness of
emissions systems on the engine.
Ultra-Low Sulfur Fuel
In addition to new exhaust emissions standards and in
support of the new exhaust emissions, the EPA is lowering
the limit for diesel fuel sulfur from 500 parts per million
(ppm) to 15 ppm. The new fuel standard will be phased in
beginning September 1, 2006 (80% participation) through
September 1, 2010 (100% participation). It is expected that
15-ppm fuel will be widely available. On a volume basis, over
95% of highway diesel fuel produced in 2006 is projected to
meet the 15-ppm sulfur standard. On a facility basis, over
90% of refineries and importers have stated that they plan
to produce some15-ppm diesel fuel. It is projected that the
additional cost of the new fuel will be less than 5¢/gallon.
Ultra-low sulfur fuel (ULSD) has several beneficial effects.
It inherently produces less PM from combustion, so it is a
PM control strategy for all in-use equipment. And, just like
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
unleaded gasoline in the early ‘70s, ULSD enables NOx
absorber catalyst (NAC) technology to be highly effective
and reduces the production of sulfuric acid.
In 1994 there were widespread problems associated with
the introduction of low sulfur diesel. The desulphurization
process that removes the sulfur plays havoc with
the aromatic composition of the fuel. The change in
composition caused shrinking, cracking and oxidation of
rubber compounds, specifically fuel pump o-rings, and fuel
leakage was the result. Manufacturers scrambled to switch
the composition of their fuel pump seals.
Many tried to link the fuel pump leakage problem to the
lower lubricity of ‘94s low sulfur fuel. However, a fuel
lubricity specification was never adopted by the American
Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). For 2007 the
ASTM has set fuel lubricity standards and these are set to
take effect in early 2006.
Cooled EgR to Reduce NOx
Cooled EGR is an effective NOx control. The EGR system
takes a measured quantity of exhaust gas, passes it
through a cooler before mixing it with the incoming air
charge to the cylinder. The EGR adds heat capacity and
reduces oxygen concentration in the combustion chamber
by diluting the incoming ambient air. During combustion,
EGR has the effect of reducing flame temperatures, which
in turn reduces NOx production since NOx is proportional
to flame temperature.
In order to control both NOx and particulate emissions
accurately, the amount of recirculated exhaust gas and
air has to be precisely metered into the engine under all
operating conditions. This has driven the use of advanced
variable geometry turbochargers (VGT) that continuously
vary the quantity of air delivered to the engine.
Aftertreatment Solutions to Reduce NOx
While cooled EGR is an in-cylinder technology that can
reduce NOx, there are several aftertreatment solutions
which can achieve reduced NOx levels by treating the
exhaust gases after they leave the engine. These include
selective catalytic reduction (SCR), NOx adsorbers and
lean-NOx catalysts.
SCR systems use a chemical reductant, in this case urea,
which converts to ammonia in the exhaust stream and reacts
with NOx over a catalyst to form harmless nitrogen gas and
water. Urea is a benign substance that is generally made
from natural gas and widely used in industry and agriculture.
The SCR-urea catalyst is a more mature technology. The
first SCR applications have been implemented in Europe
and Japan. And, while the EPA has not said no to SCR,
the world’s diesel manufacturers have an understanding of
the problems associated with SCR in the US—specifically
distribution at fueling locations, additional tanks and
plumbing on trucks and controls to ensure the operator
refills the SCR tanks. Nevertheless, the European diesel
manufacturers as well as Detroit Diesel are intent on using
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
SCR technology for the North American market in 2007.
For several reasons Cummins has chosen SCR for its engine
in Europe: the NOx limits in Europe are a bit more lenient;
relative to the cost of diesel fuel, the urea price is low; and
there is a supporting urea distribution infrastructure.
For the North American market Cummins will continue
with cooled EGR and work with original equipment
manufacturers to select the appropriate NOx aftertreatment.
Caterpillar will continue with their ACERT combustion
technology and the appropriate NOx aftertreatment. In
a November ’04 issue of Transportation Topics, William
Morris, chief engineer for on-highway engines at Caterpillar
responded, “the selective catalytic reduction process ‘was
at the bottom of the list for 2010 solutions.’ Morris said
Caterpillar was more interested in modifying its existing
emission control system called ACERT and that Caterpillar
was doing something similar in 2007 with new designs for
‘pistons, rings and liners’ to improve the combustion that
takes place in the cylinder.”
NOx Adsorber Catalyst to Reduce NOx
The NOx adsorber catalyst (NAC) is a technology
developed in the late 1990s. The NAC uses a combination
of base metal oxide and precious metal coatings to
effect control of NOx. The base metal component (for
example, barium oxide) reacts with NOx to form barium
nitrate—effectively storing the NOx on the surface of the
catalyst. When the available storage sites are occupied,
the catalyst is operated briefly under rich exhaust gas
conditions (the air-to-fuel ratio is adjusted to eliminate
oxygen in the exhaust). This releases the NOx and allows
it to be converted to nitrogen gas and water vapor. Just
like unleaded fuel in the early 70s, ULSD enables NAC
technology to be implemented.
The elimination of all excess oxygen in the exhaust gas for
a short period of time can be accomplished by operating
the engine in a rich mode. This is done by injecting fuel
directly into the exhaust stream ahead of the adsorber to
consume the remaining oxygen in the exhaust. Either way,
the engine and catalyst must be controlled as a system
to determine exactly when regeneration is needed, and to
control the exhaust parameters during regeneration itself.
NOx adsorbers are expected to appear first in light-duty
applications.
PM Reduction
Previous reductions in particulate matter emissions have
been achieved through engine combustion improvements
and oxidation catalysts, the stringent 2007 particulate
standards (90% lower than current-day standards) will
require very effective particulate aftertreatment.
The active diesel particulate filter (DPF) is the only current
technical option for meeting the 2007 PM emissions
standards. It is expected that all engine manufacturers will
use this technology.
93
Filtration of exhaust gas to remove soot particles is
accomplished using porous ceramic media generally made
of cordierite or silicon carbide. A typical filter consists of an
array of small channels that the exhaust gas flows through.
Adjacent channels are plugged at opposite ends, forcing
the exhaust gas to flow through the porous wall, capturing
the soot particles on the surface and inside pores of the
media. Soot accumulates in the filter, and when sufficient
heat is present a regeneration event occurs, oxidizing the
soot and cleaning the filter.
There are several methods to control or raise the
exhaust temperature to manage the regeneration event
in the DPF. The most promising methods for an active
integrated system for 2007 are management of the engine
combustion process in combination with an additional
oxidation catalyst. This will allow regeneration to take place
under low-ambient/low-load conditions when exhaust
temperatures are low, as well as during normal operation.
As oil is consumed and particulate matter is burned off
through regeneration they become ash and collect in the
filter. The ash must be cleaned from the filter or plugging
will occur. Maintenance may be required on diesel
particulate filters.
Cummins is currently working with oil manufacturers on the
development of low-ash oils and to determine how different
oil additive components may behave with regard to filter
plugging. If maintenance of the diesel particulate filter is
required, it is anticipated that it will be at relatively highmileage intervals of 185,000-250,000miles.
2007 Lubricating Oil
New specifications are being developed for lubrication oil
compatible with the low-emissions engines for 2007-2010.
The primary focus will be to make the oils compatible
with aftertreatment devices. For 2007, the immediate
requirement is to reduce ash in order to enable extended
maintenance intervals on the diesel particulate filter
while maintaining the important lubricity capability of the
lubricant.
And the Bottom Line?
Yours truly is not an accomplished prognosticator. I am
often reminded that we incorrectly predicted that the post
1/1/04 Turbo Diesel would have EGR. While the Ford
and General Motors diesels were saddled with EDR, the
engineers at Cummins were diligent with their in-cylinder
development and avoided adding the recirculated exhaust
gas plumbing and controls to the engine.
With my qualifications duly noted, as we look toward the
future I will stick with factual data and quotations from other
periodicals.
ULSD is currently legislated to be available in September
of ’06. The problems associated with the introduction of
low sulfur diesel fuel in 1994 have not been forgotten and
the fuel vendors and the ASTM have standards in place to
avert problems.
94
Particulate control: according to Diesel Progress, November
2004: “Major manufacturers such as Caterpillar, Cummins,
Detroit Diesel and International Truck and Engine have
adopted diesel particulate filters as the preferred strategy/
technology for PM reduction, but there is no consensus
on NOx control technologies. The two most practical and
cost-effective approaches to lower NOx emissions from
diesel trucks are in-cylinder techniques such as a high
rate of EGR and exhaust system technologies such as
urea-SCR, which is being adopted in the European Union
staring in 2005.”
Further, Diesel Progress, December 2004 notes: “Diesel
particulate filter can be considered a relatively mature
technology. At least in light-duty vehicles, DPFs have been
used in high-volume applications in diesel passenger cars
in Europe, with over 850,000 systems sold since 2000. In
the US, several heavy-duty engine manufacturers have
been testing their 2007 truck prototypes and expressed
confidence in the DPF technology.”
Confident that PM can be addressed with DPFs? Let’s
continue to address NOx. Consider this excerpt from
Successful Dealer, March 2004: “According to technology
chief John Wall, Cummins already has laboratory engines
that can achieve a 1g level for NOx emissions and he is
confident of being able to manufacture production engines
that will meet the 1.2g “averaging” level without exhaust
aftertreatment.
“Furthermore, Wall said highly-advanced combustion
research techniques that actually use windows on the
combustion process, and the complex modeling they
can now do, allow him to predict that fuel consumption
will not take a hit next time. It may even improve in some
applications. Conclusion: For Cummins the refinement of
the EGR process currently in place is the right emissions
strategy for North America.
“In Europe, Wall says it is likely Cummins will use the
alternative selective catalytic-reduction (SCR) technology.
The requirements for Euro 5 are less stringent on PM
and the big differential between the cost of fuel between
European countries and the United States (their cost per
gallon is four or five times ours) means SCR is the more
economical solution.
“The economics are simply not there for the US. However,
he did not rule out some SCR for 2010 to clean up the NOx
from 1.2g down to the 0.2g levels.”
•
Specifically, how about NOx control on our light-duty
pickup diesel. Scowering through the trade publication
Transportation Topics—Equipment and Maintenance
Update, March 2004, I found another interview with
Cummins’ John Wall. “John Wall, vice president
and chief technical officer for engine manufacturer
Cummins, said NAC adsorbers would likely go into
lighter applications first because ‘they have a lot of
precious metals in them and they get more expensive
as you scale them up to heavy-duty applications.’”
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To conclude: your light-duty Cummins engine will require
some form of exhaust aftertreatment. The allowable NOx
phase-in between years ‘07 to ‘10 make prediction difficult
and complex. Therefore I will refrain from bold statements
laden with abbreviations like, “expect an EGR and VGTequipped engine with a DPF and later a NAC.
Time will tell. I will keep a watchful eye toward press
information and an open ear when in conversation with
others.
The Right Technology
As a postscript to our crystal ball look into the future I found
an article in the 1/3/05 Transportation Topics magazine
that give further insight into the use of SCR to control NOx
emissions. As was mentioned several times in the article,
the EPA would not take a stand on the technology the
manufacturers should use. However, there was pressure
against the SCR concept. How so? Consider the following
from TT: “SCR can reduce levels of NOx by mixing urea, an
ammonia-based solution, into the exhaust stream ahead of
the catalytic converter. SCR would allow the combustion
process to operate in a more traditional way, proponents
have argued.
“Detroit Diesel Corporation, a subsidiary of Freightliner,
plus the powertrain units of Mack Trucks and Volvo Trucks
North America had been considering SCR for 2007
engines.
“They finally dropped the option in the face of EPA’s
concern over the engine makers’ ability to ensure SCR’s
use when a truck was operating, plus the lack of a
distribution infrastructure for the mixture.”
If we read between the lines it looks like the use of SCR has
not been abandoned, rather pushed back. See if you come
to the same conclusion as we again quote from TT, “Diesel
manufacturers have put the selective catalytic reduction
aftertreatment process on hold, but the manufacturers
said SCR would still be an option for 2010, when emission
standards were set to change again.”
Final Conclusion
Again, I’ll remind you that I am not adept at predicting
the future. However, we’ve provided a paint-by-numbers
guide for the 2007 emissions picture; it’s up to you to fill in
the colors. Will your picture match the one that Cummins
and Dodge are painting? We’ve got about one year before
the 2007 model year truck is introduced. Get busy with
your brush.
Credits: Much of the technical information (abbreviation
definitions and emissions solutions) was gleaned from
Cummins bulletin number 4103666, “2007 Emissions:
Choosing the Right Technology.” Copies of this bulletin
can be sourced at your Cummins distributor or by calling
800-DIESELS.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
95
so you WAnt FueL eConomy
Part One – The Basics of Volumetric Efficiency
The search for better fuel economy perhaps is the reason that
you have downloaded the TDR Buyer’s Guide. Regardless of
the reason, one should understand the mechanical workings
of the engine (volumetric efficiency), lest you are fooled
by the salesman at the truck stop that tells you his miracle
computer chip turbo encapsulator or diesel particulate filter
delete kit s the ticket for better fuel mileage.
Back in the days of mechanical fuel injection pumps (vintage
’89-’98 12-valve trucks) the TDR editor, Robert Patton and
TDR tech guy, Joe Donnelly, collaborated on an article that
discusses the mechanical side of fuel economy. From Issue
29, August of 2000, join the writers in their discussion of
volumetric efficiency, as the flow of air through the engine
has a direct effect on your miles-per-gallon.
Then, use your understanding of the engine’s mechanicals
to shop wisely for best air tornado or strongest fuel magnets
(just kidding) to increase the truck’s fuel economy,
FUEL ECONOMY WITh POWER
By joe Donnelly
How often have you heard a Turbo Diesel owner brag about
the two things we love so much—power and economy?
First he says his truck can tow umpteen thousand pounds
up a cliff at 75 miles per hour. Then he says his Turbo
Diesel gets 47 miles-per-gallon doing it! Certainly, we
would admit no less to the PowerStroke owner on the next
seat at the counter. In previous Technical Topics, we have
discussed some strategies for increasing power, in case
we want “just a little more” to humiliate that Ford or Chevy
pulling a similar trailer up the hill behind us (in our stories,
they are never next to us or in front, of course!). In this issue,
we will discuss some real-world strategies for improving
miles-per-gallon (mpg). Even if 47 is an elusive goal...
(Now, admit it, you know darn well you never got over 42
mpg, and that it dropped all the way to 37 mpg when towing
your 40’, 18,000 pound fifth-wheel!).
Okay, folks. Enough stretching of the truth (creativity, lying,
or whatever you call it). A few of us admit, in strict privacy
of course, that our beloved Turbo Diesels don’t even get
20 mpg (under some conditions, or ever, depending on the
individual truck and owner). That magic number 20 seems
to be the price of entry into the Turbo Diesel Hall of Fame.
When measuring fuel consumption, first of all, be sure your
measurement is accurate. It is very easy to get fooled. Here
is a typical scenario that results in Mr. Rammer swearing
his ride gets 27 mpg: First Mr. Rammer fills the tank slowly,
taking a half hour to squeeze in the last few gallons around
the foam in the filler neck. The truck is tilted forward and
to the right, and rocked frequently by hand, so the last
bit of airspace can be displaced with precious #2 diesel.
Carefully and tightly, he screws on the filler cap, but quickly
so none of the fuel can drool out. For step two, a trip of
100 miles is taken, mostly downhill with a tailwind. Then,
the tank is refilled quickly, and considered full when the
nozzle clicks off the first time. Lo and behold, 2.13 gallons
registered on the pump! Almost feverishly, Mr. Rammer
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pulls out his calculator and with shaky hand punches in
100/2.13 and voila—27 mpg!
Get the point? Mileage must be calculated over a long
distance of similar speed/terrain/driving, or representative
and mixed types of driving, for you to tell much about the
efficacy of a modification. Repeated measurements taken
over an extended period of time, and averaged, make for
much better accuracy. Fill the tank the same way and at
the same pump every time. “Almost” 20 often becomes 19
or even 18.5 mpg when you remove the “inadvertent” fudge
factors—like rounding the miles up and rounding the tenths
of a gallon down. By now Mr. Rammer is irate because
I have impugned his veracity (uhhh, called him a liar, but
politely). Even if our Turbo Diesels don’t all get 20+ mpg,
they can give decent mpg and power too. Let’s go through
some modifications that enhance mileage without hurting
power, and some that increase power without hurting
mileage. Some things help both!
For purposes of this discussion, I have tried to be as impartial
as possible in calculating mpg while testing changes, and
the types of improvements worth trying. As much as it
hurts, I have to admit that the test Turbo Diesel gave under
20 mpg (gasp!) under “certain” (folks, that really means,
almost all) types of driving. Here in the West, there are large
open spaces, 75 mph speed limits even on two lane roads,
and good opportunities to pass those who feel that 50 is
the right speed. Of course, these folks are encountered
only in no-passing zones, so aggressive use of the right
foot is called for (grin) to pass them when there is finally a
chance. At any rate, let’s note that, as a baseline, the test
215 hp Turbo Diesel has given the same range of mileage
over time since new, until making changes in injectors and
pump timing, and that the driver’s right foot (read: hard
acceleration and top speed) is the biggest factor in the
mileage. It could get, and has gotten, over 20 mpg with
gentle application of the loud pedal, but typical figures are
in the 16-19 mpg range for city and highway driving, using
the capabilities of the mighty Cummins engine as “needed”
and taking into account the poorer mileage that is typically
encountered with winter blend diesel fuel. Practical tips
in this article will help you increase your miles-per-gallon
results, without doing anything “radical” like putting a 50 lb.
spring on the accelerator.
In no particular order, some of the bigger add-ons that
can hurt mileage include aftermarket front bumpers or
brush guards (0.5- 1.5 mpg), air and bug deflectors (0.5-1
mpg in the worst cases), and other wind dragging items
like large mirrors and high profile bed caps or trailers.
Interestingly, so-called airflow tailgates do not seem to
help at all. Their major benefit may be the ability to see
the roof of the minicar you are crushing when you back
up! Dodge said that they worked the aerodynamics of
the Turbo Diesel with the tailgate installed and closed,
and that we should drive that way for best results (Issue
21, page 50). Monster, oversized tires hurt several ways:
rolling resistance, inertial loading (both accelerating and
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
stopping), and weight. Underinflated tires hurt mileage too.
Carefully choose an inflation level that puts the whole tread
on the road with the load you are carrying. That will usually
be somewhere near the maximum inflation pressure for the
tire. For example, you might run about 55 psi in the front
with tires rated for 3,000 lb. at 65 psi. When empty, the rear
tire pressure could be lower, perhaps 50 psi. Check with
your tire company for specifics to your tires. As has been
noted in the TDR several times, mpg is reduced by four
wheel drive, 4.10 gears (vs. 3.54), automatic transmission,
and dual rear wheels. Obviously, weight also reduces mpg,
whether in the form of vehicle options, cargo, or a trailer.
Relatively minor effects upon mileage can add up. Reducing
cruise speed and rpm help. However, remember the Turbo
Diesel transmissions are susceptible to damage from
vibration at low rpm; thus it is preferable to cruise at 1,9002,200 rpm as a compromise. Cruise control can help about
1 mpg (unless you have a heavy load and it is hammering
the pedal all the time). A disconnecting fan such as the
Horton can help a bit too under some circumstances.
Radiator shutters in the winter enable the engine to reach
a high enough temperature to operate efficiently. Overdrive
helps in our Turbo Diesels, but if direct drive (4th in the fivespeed, 5th in the six-speed, and 3rd in the automatic) could
be used to maintain the proper engine rpm, a small gain
in efficiency would be realized (perhaps 0.5 mpg). Along
the same line, adding overdrive units can reduce efficiency
somewhat, depending on what gear ratio is in use and
what lubricant is used in them. Synthetic or specially
manufactured lubricants help a little, too. The Mopar Plus
3 automatic transmission fluid is semi-synthetic, and the
manual transmissions use synthetic fluid from the factory.
Good quality synthetic lubricant in the differential(s) will help
reduce friction and hence improve mpg slightly (you may
not see the gain, as it will be small). Cold weather diesel
fuel blends generally give 1-2 mpg less than summer fuel.
Premium grade summer fuel may be the best in this regard,
depending on how the higher cetane rating was achieved.
If you add up a bunch of the above tips, you might get 0.51.0 mpg better, but don’t expect too much in the real world
where so many other factors are involved.
Lower restriction exhaust, from the turbocharger housing
on-back, can help a bit. The engine has to do less work
to remove the exhaust, and less turbocharger boost
incurs less pumping loss, so long as the boost level is
sufficient to burn the fuel efficiently. The stock muffler
is a source of some restriction and a straight-through
design can cut restriction. For most folks, the factory 3”
diameter used from 1994 up is probably quite sufficient,
and it is certainly less expensive than buying a complete
4” system. A larger exhaust turbine housing can improve
economy a bit by reducing the pumping loss that is caused
by forcing the exhaust through a small orifice. The stock
turbocharger exhaust housing is the biggest restriction in
the 1994-up Turbo Diesel’s exhaust. This turbine housing
size must be balanced against responsiveness of the
turbocharger (spool up) which tends to decrease as the
housing becomes larger. The biggest Cummins engines
are characterized by lower pressure in the exhaust
manifold (turbo drive pressure) than boost pressure. With
the HX35W turbocharger used on the Turbo Diesels, drive
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pressure is usually higher than boost pressure. With the
stock wastegated 12 square centimeter (cross sectional
area) turbine housing, drive pressure can be nearly double
the boost pressure. The engine has to do work to force the
exhaust through the housing, which in the case of the 12
sq. cm. is the equivalent of a 1.5” inside diameter exhaust
pipe, and is 49% the size of the turbo outlet! The engine
does work to create boost, and that uses fuel. In general,
you want just enough boost to efficiently burn the fuel that
is needed to make the power requires.
General driver habits make a big difference! Rate of
acceleration, coasting down versus hammering the brakes,
using cruise control, maintaining a moderate speed, limiting
accessory use (such as air conditioning), making smooth
starts, and minimizing idling and run time when stopped:
these are all important in achieving maximum fuel mileage.
Volumetric Efficiency and BSFC
Now, on to some magic and diesel engine theory as
applied to our situations. Our engines make the best use of
the fuel if it is injected at exactly the right time. It will then
burn when the piston is positioned in the bore correctly
so work can be done on it—it can be pushed down the
bore, turning the crankshaft. If the fuel burns too soon,
the force on the piston is inefficient because the piston
is too close to top dead center, where the crankshaft is
not positioned to turn as a result of force on the piston. If
the fuel burns too late, the expanding gases do less work,
there is less pressure on the piston, and much of the heat
is ejected into the metal parts, water jacket, and exhaust
system. Many of us have found that our engines can give
excellent fuel economy when used at low power levels and
tow rpm. Two of the basic reasons for this observation are
(1) the relatively small injectors used as original equipment
in our engines are just the right size to inject a little fuel
over a sufficiently small time interval for good efficiency;
(2) the moderately advanced pump timing (generally 1114 degrees) provides for fuel burning at the right time at
moderate rpm and with fuel being injected over a short
time interval; and (3) frictional and pumping losses are
moderate at lower engine speeds.
Editor’s note: In jest, Joe discusses “magic and diesel
engine theory.” As I read the paragraph describing “the
best use of the fuel if it is injected at exactly the right time,
“ I drew a quick parallel to two often discussed (Issue7,9,
and 20) technical terms, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption
and Volumetric Efficiency. In layman’s terms, brake specific
fuel consumption is the efficiency of an engine. BSFC is
simply a value that helps us describe the engine’s ability to
convert fuel into horsepower.
BSFC tells you how much fuel it takes your engine to
produce each horsepower. The lower the BSFC value, the
greater the fuel efficiency: Fuel consumption (gallon/hr) =
(Bhp x BSFC) ÷ 7.1 Ibs/gallon fuel. To better understand
the BSFC let’s plot its resulting graph for two engines, a
‘92.5/CPL 1579, Cummins 160 horsepower engine and
a ‘95/CPL 1550, Cummins 175 horsepower engine. Next
to the BSFC graphs let’s plot the engine’s torque and
horsepower graphs.
97
Did you notice the lowest (best) BSFC occurs at the same
rpm as torque peak? Coincidental? I don’t think so! Both
are determined by the engine’s ability to completely fill,
compress, combust and exhaust air!
Let’s now see if we can get an understanding of Volumetric
Efficiency. Take a look at the torque and horsepower curves.
As torque and rpm rise, horsepower also rises into the
midrange of the engine. Obviously, greater torque results
in more horsepower. Ed Fortson of 4-Wheel and Off-Road
does an excellent job of describing volumetric efficiency.
“At a certain point—varying with engine design—the
torque curve drops off. Why? Remember that a big factor
in torque production is the combustion pressure on the
pistons. This pressure is greater at lower engine speeds,
when the rpm allows more time for a bigger air charge to be
drawn into the cylinder, more time for efficient combustion
and for exhaust gases to be expelled. Engineers say that
the volumetric efficiency (VE) is greater at low rpm—VE
being a description of how well the engine draws in air.
The formula looks like this: VE = actual air volume intake +
intake volume in ideal conditions.
“As rpm increases, there comes a point—again depending
upon engine design—when combustion pressure
decreases, due to factors such as valve size and timing,
fuel delivery and air flow through the intake and exhaust
systems. In other words, VE decreases.
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“Notice, however, that horsepower continues to increase
for a time even after torque falters. This is due to increasing
rpm, the other factor in horsepower production. And this
is why you’ve probably heard that horsepower buys top
speed whereas torque buys low- end power. It’s torque,
not horsepower, you feel when you first punch your throttle.
“Finally, as the chart shows, horsepower is also dragged
down by falling torque, increased friction and speedrelated engine inefficiencies.
“Of course, the more torque you have to begin with, the
more horsepower you’ll have and you’ll have “it lower on
the tach—ideal for pulling/hauling. Likewise, the higher
and flatter the torque curve, the better midrange and topend performance you’ll have—ideal for highway cruising.
“The bottom line: No matter what kind of pulling/hauling
you do, torque is the heavy hitter!”
Final note, volumetric efficiency reaches its peak at the
rpm at which the torque peak occurs. The physics to
produce torque peak requires the greatest cylinder filling
or volumetric efficiency.
Interesting stuff? What does it mean to you? I hope you’ve
learned from the efficiency relationships that it would be best
to put your engine on cruise control at a speed corresponding
to 1,600 rpm for the given 12-valve performance curve. For
24-valve owners please see our discussion in the 24-valve
topics on page 48. At 1,600 rpm you’ve got the torque peak
of the engine available to keep your speed constant as you
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
encounter a grade. If your speed drops below 1,600 rpm, you
had better downshift because it’s all “downhill” (back side of
the torque curve) from there. You’ve obviously exceeded the
maximum torque produced by the engine and multiplied by
the gearbox/rear end ratio of the load you’re trying to propel.
Is it possible to cruise at 1,600 rpm? In Atlanta, to avoid
being run over by traffic, you’ll have to exceed the 1,600
rpm setting. Also, cruising at this lower rpm range is not
good for the transmission components. Nevertheless,
we’ve enlightened you to seek 1,500/ 1,600 rpm for the
best engine efficiency and mph. Thus now you know why
my favorite questions for a low mpg complaint are, “How
fast do you drive? What is your rear end ratio?” Hmmm...
low mpg trouble shooting, sounds like a future article. Or,
is it simply a matter of driving at a lower rpm/better BSFC
number?
The Injector Topic
As we move to higher power applications (whether the
engine is stock or fueling has been, enhanced) where
more fuel is needed, bigger injectors can inject the needed
volume of fuel over a significantly shorter time interval than
small injectors can. In this context, big or small refers to
the size and number of injector holes or orifices. If the fuel
is injected at the right moment, it will burn most efficiently.
Smaller injectors would use a larger time window, and
some of the fuel injected late would be wasted. Hence,
more fuel would be needed with small injectors to produce
the same power, and byproducts of this inefficiency would
be waste heat and smoke. That does not mean you need
to change the injectors when you add a moderate amount
of power (say, on the order of 50% over stock) with a torque
plate or electronic box; the stock injectors will work, they
are just a bit less efficient, and if you raise the power a lot,
they are too small.
Depending on the rpm range being used, a bit more
injection pump timing will reduce smoke significantly,
increase fuel mileage, cut exhaust gas temperature a
little, and cut mid range torque somewhat. Pump timing
(P7100) in the range of 15-16 degrees works well for some
applications. For example, in the case of the test 215 hp
Turbo Diesel, average unloaded mileage went from 16-19
to a consistent 19.5-22 mpg with a change in injectors and
pump timing, for highway driving at 1,900-2,200 rpm.
Twelve-valve Turbo Diesels with the P7100 pump and
lower hp ratings than 215 may benefit somewhat from 215
injectors for mpg, while gaining 20-30 hp. The 215s can
go to Bosch injectors for marine B engines. The 24-valve
engines respond nicely to the 275 hp Bosch injectors.
Feedback from a number of owners indicates that a 1.5
mpg gain is pretty generally realized on the 24-valve
engines, along with some gain in horsepower (about 33 hp
and 60 ft. lb. on manual transmission Turbo Diesels, 50 hp
and 100 ft. Ib. on automatics). Other aftermarket injectors
may add more power than that, and time will tell how well
they perform compared to Bosch in the long term. Thus,
the theory of injecting the fuel at the optimum moment for
most efficient burning is confirmed by real-world testing.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Editor’s note: You may say to yourself, “Gee, it looks all too
simple ... change (advance) the timing of the fuel delivery
(on the 12-valve engines this is a mechanical change, on
the 24-valve engines the auxiliary “black box” does the
timing change) and throw in a set of big injectors for better
mileage and power. Pretty simple, eh? Why didn’t those
guys at the factory do that?” The answer is as simple as two
words: EXHAUST EMISSIONS! DIC and Cummins have to
play by a different set of rules than the owner of the vehicle.
It is true that tampering with or disabling any component
of the emissions (timing changes and big injectors are
included here) control system is a direct violation of federal
law (fines up to $25,000 per day, per violation). Owners
have to weigh the consequences versus the increase in
performance (Issue 26, page 32).
Are the performance vendors playing by the same set of
rules as DIC and Cummins? You’ll have to ask them as
you make your performance included here) purchase
decisions. My experience has been that the answer is no.
Fuel Pump Timing
In a discussion about changes to timing, turbochargers,
and injectors, we should be aware that technically they
are part of the emissions-certified package produced by
Cummins. Timing, for example, is set within plus-or-minus
one degree of the nominal. This tolerance allows Cummins
some latitude on the assembly line while ensuring that their
engines meet the stringent federal emissions requirements.
These requirements are generally much stricter than
the allowable ranges for in-service state tests. Cummins
has responded to tightening emissions requirements in
the past with the introduction of the intercooler (1991),
the higher pressure P7100 pump and catalytic converter
(1994), exhaust gas recirculation (California, 1996), and
the 24-valve, electronically controlled engine (1998). Most
recently, Issue 18, pages 46 through 50, goes into detail
covering the hardware changes to these different engines.
These changes were made to lower the exhaust emissions,
not to increase power.
Josh Berman of Cummins has responded to questions
in the past with the following brief summary regarding
injection pump timing:
“For Cummins’ Band C-Series engines, the timing is part
of the CPL (Control Parts List), which is basically the
emissions ‘recipe’ that we use when we certify the engine
with the EPA. There is a tolerance band around that timing.
Timing is one of the many things that the performance
engineers consider when they’re developing a rating.
Putting it simply, they have to balance cylinder pressure
limits with emissions and power requirements.”
Advancing the timing will… (good characteristics)
Increase cylinder temperatures/pressures (power)
Increase fuel economy (yes, economy is better)
Decrease exhaust temperature
Decrease your output of Hydrocarbons – a pollutant
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However, advancing the timing will… (bad characteristics)
Increase the amount of black smoke particulates – a
pollutant at peak torque
Increase your output of NOx – a pollutant
[quoted material by Josh Berman, Cummins]
Particulates and NOx pollutants are the key items Cummins/
DaimlerChrysler has to be concerned with. Clearly, it is
“pretty simple, eh?” to do economy/performance timing/
injector changes, yet the manufacturers have to play by a
much stricter (EPA) set of rules. Meeting legislated exhaust
emission guidelines forces Cummins to make economy/
performance compromises. Have you heard this sermon
before?
We discussed exhaust improvements in general above.
To be more specific, stock Turbo Diesels need little if any
exhaust improvement (so long as the catalytic converter
used with 94-up 12-valve engines is not plugged). A lowerrestriction muffler (and somewhat bigger pipes on the
‘89-’93s) is probably enough, and may or may not give a
noticeable increase in mileage, depending on your type of
driving. Once the engine has had its fueling “enhanced”
to the point of about 250 hp, the above exhaust changes
become more significant, and a larger turbocharger
exhaust housing begins to help as well, especially if the
extra power is used often. Even if the power is not being
used, the general improvement in exhaust flow (reduction
in backpressure) can make a small but observable
improvement. Beyond the improvement that can be realized
from low restriction 3” exhaust, a small improvement might
be seen with 4” diameter pipes, noticeable when power is
at least in the 375 hp (or greater) range, measured at the
wheels. However, to realize the potential of 4” exhaust, it is
important to convert the engine to a properly designed and
sized turbocharger designed for the larger exhaust size but
still small enough to work efficiently with a 359 cubic inch B
series engine. Probably because of the electronic air-fuel
controls built into the computers on the 24-valve engines,
they do not seem to respond well to the 16 sq. cm. turbine
housing on the stock HX35 turbocharger. The smaller 14
sq. cm. housing seems to work for them, however, and is
bigger (less restrictive) than the 10 and 12 sq. cm. housings
that are stock on 24-valve Turbo Diesels.
BEYOND “WHAT IF,” GOING TO 400 HP
Researchers at BD Engine Brake and at TST recently went
beyond the “what if” stage of dreaming about what such a
Superturbo would be. These dreams resulted from tests of
Turbo Diesels with B engines in the 380 to 400 hp range.
In that power range, TST considered that boost under
full power was high enough to be beyond the efficiency
map of the stock Holset Model HX35W turbo, even when
relatively large turbine housings were used. Total boost
at full power was more reasonable with the 21 sq. cm.
housing, but responsiveness definitely suffered, and egt
was not observably lower than with the smaller 16 and
18.5 sq. cm. housings. This 21 sq. cm. housing provided
an internal cross-sectional area about 87% as large as the
turbo outlet, which is about 2.4” diameter but restricted by
the 1” diameter pinwheel hub. A much better compromise
100
for that power level was achieved with the 18.5 sq. cm.
exhaust housing, the same size that Dodge used on many
of the First Generation Turbo Diesels. This size housing
corresponds to 76% of the turbo outlet area. Boost under
full power, however, was higher than with the 21 sq. cm.
housing, so a wastegated housing would be ideal to keep
cylinder pressures down, and to keep the boost closer to
the efficiency range for the turbocharger’s compressor.
The stock Turbo Diesel exhaust manifold outlets are close
to 18.5 sq. cm. in area. Below about 350 hp, the 16 sq. cm.
housing was the best compromise (at 66% of the outlet
size), especially when smoke was considered along with
responsiveness.
These studies indicated that the compressor side of the
turbo should be a bit bigger for high horsepower Turbo
Diesels, and an 18.5 sq. cm. wastegated exhaust housing
would be a good compromise for high powered Turbo
Diesels, particularly if the turbo outlet was sized properly
for 4” exhaust pipe. For this to happen, we expected the
exhaust pinwheel to be a bit larger than with the HX35,
but not the full 3.25” diameter that the outlet would be
sized to match up with a 4” exhaust pipe using a band
clamp retainer. The primary factor in turbo spoolup is the
expansion of hot exhaust gases. A pinwheel of about 2.5”
diameter with subsequent expansions to 3.25” and finally
to about 3.9” diameter should give excellent spoolup
After BD identified a candidate HX40W turbocharger from
a C series (505 cubic inch engine) Cummins, they tested
it first on a Turbo Diesel with enhanced fueling and an
automatic transmission.
Results were amazing, as will be discussed in a moment.
For reference, with the HX35W, a 16 sq. cm. exhaust
housing gave slower spoolup with a tight stall speed torque
converter, so a 14 sq. cm. housing had been generally
used on that Turbo Diesel, even though over 1,800 degree
exhaust gas temperatures (egt, in the exhaust manifold)
could be achieved under full power. At 40 psi boost, drive
pressure was 55 psi. With the HX40 Superturbo, spool up
was fast even though the exhaust housing was 18.5 sq.
cm. in area. Drive pressure at 46 psi boost was only 40
psi, and egt was reduced to 1,500 degrees maximum. The
TST test Turbo Diesel received the second Superturbo and
collected data regarding its usefulness for a five-speed
application. Even with a ported head to reduce egt, this
Turbo Diesel had been able to achieve high enough egt
.with the HX35 turbo that the pyrometer probe was easily
pegged above 1,600 degrees. Therefore it was moved to
the exhaust elbow under the theory that approximate data,
corrected by 10 degrees per psi boost, would be better
than no data from a pegged needle! With the fueling level
of this Turbo Diesel, 1,200-1,400 degrees egt in the elbow
after the turbo was easily achieved using the HX35W turbo
and low restriction 3” exhaust at 40 psi+ boost. The HX40
Superturbo with 4” exhaust brought the egt down to around
800 degrees with boost wastegated to 45 psi maximum.
What does this Superturbo experiment mean for economy?
Towing 5,000 Ibs., the mileage of the five-speed Turbo
Diesel went up about 0.5-1 mpg with the Superturbo.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Further testing is in order, of course, but these preliminary
results indicate that a Turbo Diesel can give fine economy
when driven at moderate power levels. The reduction in
pumping losses is beneficial to economy as well as to
power. The fantastic Cummins not only makes great power,
it can do so while giving better mileage than stock!
What does all this mean for the more “reasonable”
Rammer? Horsepower in the range of 230-275 is most
likely “enough” and you don’t need to spend a lot of money
or lose mileage or reliability to get there. You can start
spending money to enhance economy, but don’t expect
the work and parts to pay for themselves quickly! When
you want a lot more power than that, you are asking to
spend dollars for performance parts. You’re also asking for
trouble. You avoid this trouble by spending money to beefup the rest of the truck. With the 12-valve engines, you
can add power with a torque plate and boost control, and
set the pump timing if needed for around $600, parts and
labor. For a similar amount of money, you can put larger
injectors in the 24-valve and gain power and mileage.
In summary, you can leave your Turbo Diesel stock, add
moderate amounts of power, or add lots of power, and
still get good mileage. You can choose modifications that
help mileage. Thus, there are things that add mileage and
things that add power, and some add both. How much do
you want to spend to save money on fuel?
joe Donnelly
Editor’s note: In summary, could the “Beyond ‘What If,’”
super- duper, gonzo, HX40W turbocharged engine meet
an EPA emission test? Doubtful. Do you care? You know
the consequences (Issue 26, page 32)? Do you care? We
conclude this article with the often-repeated mantra: It’s
your truck. It’s your money. Make an informed decision.
Accept responsibility! If you choose to make performance
modifications, you are your own warranty station.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
101
so you Want Fuel economy
Part two – All year models and updates
IT’S ABOUT ThE (FUEL) ECONOMY STUPID!
by Robert Patton
No, I’m not running for office this election year. But, with
my knack for the obvious, I know the focus of attention
is fuel economy. So much so that I could be accused of
head-in-the-sand mentality were I not to acknowledge that
I’ve heard many conversations about parking the truck and
purchasing a beat-up economy car.
I’ve thought the same. Before you make a like decision, be
sure to factor all of the cost. You’ll likely find that the beater
car’s payback is longer than you first realize.
Nonetheless, I wanted a quick solution to the fuel economy
crisis. So, I went to Wal-Mart.
No magic fuel magnets were found on the shelf. Out of
stock.
The air tornado thing was not large enough for my truck’s
intake.
The fevered pace with which I started this article was now
in neutral. If the fuel magnet or the tornado salesman had
come calling I would have purchased the products out of
sheer frustration. Maybe I should do some further research.
As I look back, it was 10 issues ago (Issue 51) or the winter
season of 2005/2006 that we had the TDR writers tell us
about their strategies for driving their diesel in a $3 gallon
world. This was just after hurricane Katrina, but prior to
ULSD fuel and the higher world wide demand for diesel.
Diesel fuel was still lower or equal to the price of regular
grade unleaded gasoline. Diesel owners were still pleased
with their choice of engine and we enjoyed the benefit of
the engine’s 35% better fuel economy than the gasoline
counterpart. Today’s price premium for diesel fuel (about
20% here in Georgia) really hurts.
So, I went back to Issue 51 to see how easy it might be
to write a sequel article. I was captivated by the writer’s
stories.
Issue 51, like a conversation with an old friend, is worth
your reread.
102
• Doug Leno’s cost/benefit analysis on fuel economy
gadgets.
• Brad Nelson’s pinecone and boost build-up driving
technique.
• Bruce Armstrong’s EGT at 600° driving technique.
• Greg Whale’s analysis of price versus Europe where
fuel was $6 for diesel and $8 for gasoline.
• Scott Dalgleish’s fuel economy project truck and the
connection of the wallet to the right foot.
• John Holmes’ price of fuel versus minimum wage
comparison.
• Jerry Neilsen’s pledge to slow down and use the cruise
control. Jerry also noted that “everything is a matter of
perspective.”
• Joe Donnelly points out the obvious and refers the
readers back to Issue 47.
• Mixed in with the fuel economy comments you can’t
miss the late Ron Khol’s tell-it-like-it-is political
commentary.
Throughout Issue 51 several writers made reference to
Joe Donnelly’s “Fuel Economy with Power” article in Issue
47. So I picked it up and searched for information. Rather
than reinvent the wheel (actually Issue 47’s article was an
update from Joe’s Issue 29 material), I’ll review with you
some of the Issue 47 text.
The first thing that caught my attention was the cliché often
seen in the TDR, “The more things change the more they
remain the same.” As this bit of reality set in, it slowed my
fevered pace to find the key that would unlock a dramatic
fuel economy breakthrough.
Regarding fuel mileage (and for that matter performance
and exhaust emissions), this bit of reality was presented
in Issue 47.
“Editor’s note: you may say to yourself, ‘Gee, it looks all too
simple…change (advance) the timing of the fuel delivery
(on the 12-valve engines this is a mechanical change;
on the 24-valve engines and HPCR engines many of the
auxiliary black-boxes do the timing change) and throw in
a set of big injectors for better mileage and power. Pretty
simple, eh? Why didn’t those guys at the factory do that?’
The answer is as simple as two words: exhaust emissions!
Dodge and Cummins have to play by a different set of rules
than the owner of the vehicle. It is true that tampering with
or disabling any component of the emissions control system
(timing changes and big injectors are included here) is a
direct violation of federal law (fines up to $25,000 per day,
per violation). Owners have to weigh the consequences
versus the increase in performance, and in this example,
fuel mileage (Issue 60, page 50).”
Some other summary points from the Issue 47 text:
The article provided a great refresher for 12-valve and
24-valve owners. Of particular interest to all of the TDR
audience is the discussion on brake specific fuel consumption
(BSFC) and volumetric efficiency (VE). We provided the
performance curves for an early Dodge 12-valve, 175 hp
engine. We also provided a preliminary performance curve
for an early 24-valve (non-Dodge application) engine.
Unfortunately the Dodge-specific curves for the ’98.5-’02
engines were never published for the Cummins network,
as the Dodge engine is not an engine sold through the
Cummins distributor system. The same story holds true for
the ’03-’08 Dodge-specific Cummins engines.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Regardless, we can all learn from the BSFC and VE
discussion and benefit by driving close to the engine’s
BSFC and VE “sweet spot.” For 12-valvers it’s 16001700 rpm; for 24-valvers it’s 1600-2000 rpm; for HPCR
engines it is a higher 1900-2100 rpm range as confirmed
in discussions with Cummins Inc. engineers.
From these performance curves I want you to focus on the
bottom chart “Fuel Consumption.” The measurement used
is brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC). In layman’s
terms, brake specific fuel consumption is the efficiency
of an engine. The BSFC number is simply a value that
helps us desribe the engine’s ability to convert fuel into
horsepower.
BSFC tells you how much fuel it takes your engine to
produce each horsepower. The lower the BSFC value, the
greater the fuel efficiency: Fuel consumption (gallon/hr) =
(BHP x BSFC) ÷ 7.1 lbs/gallon fuel.
Been There, Done That; got Lots of Spare Parts
This comment caught my eye: “Power settings above 2
provide marked performance increases along with an
equal increase of driving fun. But the fun has a cost and
decreased fuel economy is the price.”
Scott is about to “go over to the dark side,” “fall off the
wagon”; choose your cliché. This article was written in the
May 2006 time frame when the pre-Katrina fuel price is at
a stable $2.25.
I 53
No report.
I 54
Recap of baseline at 15.8mpg. Noted increase
of mileage to 18.7mpg. Added Industrial Injection
Super Phat Shaft 62 turbocharger and PDR
camshaft. Scott noted that the turbocharger
neither hurt nor helped fuel economy.
I told you Scott had moved to the dark side. Notice the
emphasis on performance: “The setting of the Banks
Speed Loader was 6 and the 0-60mph time dropped from
10.2 seconds to 8.9 seconds.
As much as I would like to pretend that I am a diesel engineer
and offer you a magic fuel economy fix-all, the reality is that
as a group we have already been there and done that. So
much for the sensational title line that I could splash on the
outside cover, “Writer Dude Discovers 25% Greater Fuel
Economy for His Dodge/Cummins Turbo Diesel.”
In the Issue 54 article Scott noted that the PDR camshaft
had a dramatic effect on economy—approximately 2.1
mpg. Great news! But, why didn’t the Cummins engineers
think of that?
Back to the task at hand, can you increase the fuel economy
of your truck? Oddly enough Issue 51 was the second
article in Scott Dalgleish’s quest to improve the mileage on
his ’05 Turbo Diesel 2500, 4x4, Quad Cab with the G56 sixspeed transmission and 3.73 rear differential ratio.
Scott’s explanation from Issue 54: “If obtaining better fuel
economy can be found from a different cam grind, why
didn’t Cummins do it?” The answer is Cummins Inc. can
provide camshaft grinds for better fuel economy. But,
as I stated earlier, Cummins has to abide by a different
set of standards, which are primarily emissions driven.
(Editor’s note: Sounds familiar, doesn’t it?) In order
to meet current NOX standards, combustion cylinder
pressures must be lowered. One way to accomplish
this goal is to retard injection timing, reducing cylinder
pressure and thereby reducing NOX. The Catch 22 is that
it takes more fuel to operate the engine in this manner.
The engineer has to certify clean exhaust emissions,
often at the cost of fuel economy. So will the cam offered
by PDR meet EPA emission standards? To our knowledge
it has not been tested for EPA compliance and probably
would not pass. Would it pass a local emissions test as
administered (snap idle)? Probably.”
Rather than send you back to your archives to gather the
information, I’ve assembled a brief summary of each of his
articles.
Read the summaries and let’s see if we reach the same
conclusion(s) at the end.
I 50
Baseline MPG 15.8 city; 9.8 towing.
Added TST PowerMax CR, Amsoil synthetic
lubricants, Mag-Hytec differential cover, gauges,
fresh air box with aFe Proguard 7 filter. Notes:
Playing with different timing settings the TST
PowerMax CR showed an increase of up to 13%
better mileage.
I 51
Added Gear Vendors overdrive, Banks High Ram
inlet, Banks intercooler, Banks Monster exhaust.
The combined effect of the aftermarket products
thus far: up to 17% better.
I 52
Added BFGoodrich 285/70/17 tires which reduced
engine’s rpm by 100. Experimented with preproduction Banks Six-Gun Tuner and Power PDA.
The combined effect is still in the 16-17% range
with the power setting on the Banks unit at “2.”
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
They did.
I 55
Scott is to the point: “In my review of some of the
back issues I realized I have made a transgression.
I have once again, fallen to the temptation of more
power. While it is true we are close to accomplishing
our goal of 20% better fuel economy across the
board, the alluring power increases have blinded
me like a moth drawn to a bright light. I now believe
that it is possible to obtain the 20% fuel economy
goal AND increase horsepower to the 500-rwhp
mark. Along with this revised goal I had to accept
the reality that was true for me way back in Issue
23, the financial impact of all of these fuel mileage
and performance goodies will never be offset by
the 20% economy I may someday achieve.”
103
Further, Scott writes, “This isn’t to say I have
forsaken the fuel economy project. Currently we are
averaging about 18.1 mpg. That is approximately
a 15% increase across the board (solo, towing,
city and highway). We have produced as much as
18.8 mpg driving solo combined city and highway,
which is a 19% increase! But we have shifted from
some of the original stated criteria. Most notably,
‘to remain emission compliant and to maintain
the factory warranty.’ Some of the parts we have
tried may not be emissions compliant (no current
emissions testing data is available) and their effect
on warranty is subject to debate.
“Knowing this up front, you are faced with a
dilemma. Will you a) live with the fuel economy
offered by the current HPCR engine’s configuration;
b) make some of the changes which provide some
fuel economy improvement and leave the engine
warranty intact, or c) become your own warranty
station and move in the direction which will
provide the best fuel economy and performance
available?
“On the topic of emissions compliance: most, if
not all, of the products tested to date will pass
the current snap-idle emissions testing which
is performed in some states today. Would these
products pass the current Federal standards?
Probably not. We do not have access to the test
equipment nor is there a standard procedure for
such testing after a product is sold to the end user.
Since no testing of the Federal emissions standard
(EPA or CARB) is currently in place (the exception
being for manufacturers), it is a moot point.”
TDR members, if you reference Issue 60, pages 50-52,
you will likely conclude that parts testing for emissions
certification for the ’03-’07 HPCR engine is still a moot point.
I 56
Noted a decrease in mileage of 7% that was
attributed to the required ULSD fuel (January ’07).
Added DDP injectors and mileage checks in at
18.9 mpg.
I 57
Added Leer truck cap, but noted no difference in
economy.
I 58
Changed turbocharger to a Turbo Re-Source unit.
Mileage is 19.1 using Scott’s combination solo
runs on the short and long track.
I 59
A higher performance set of DDP injectors
(DDP90) and an emphasis on horsepower. Fuel
economy went down 6%. Overall economy is
better by 14%
I 60
No report.
I 61
See Scotts turbocharger write-up on page 92.
Conclusion(s)
Credit to Scott—in his adventure seeking fuel economy
and performance, he took the time to address three
important concerns: Why didn’t the factory engineer for fuel
economy? What happens to emissions compliance? What
are the effects to the factory warranty?
As I looked back at his findings, there was one modification
where I could see a cost justification and two nice-to-have
modifications.
The item that can be cost justified: The use of a performance
box that modifies the timing of the fuel injection event. Cost:
$800. Number of gallons that you would need to save (@$4/
gallon) to payback the $800 ($800 ÷ $4 = 200 gallons).
From his Issue 50 Scott found that the mileage increased
by 13% or 15.8 x 1.13 = 17.8 mpg.
Drive 30,000 miles ÷ 15.8 mpg = 1,898 gallons used
Drive 30,000 miles ÷ 17.8 mpg = 1,685 gallons used
213 gallons saved
Okay…drive the truck 30,000 miles and you’ve paid for the
performance/timing box.
The nice-to-have modifications: The camshaft and the
overdrive unit.
From Issue 54 Scott noted the cost of the cam and
installation was $1600. He noted a 2 mpg increase. Yet the
2 mpg was lost (the numbers should have gone up to 19.8
mpg) in his quest for power. But, for the sake of argument,
let’s assume another 2 mpg improvement.
At $1600 ÷ $4 gallon you need to save 400 gallons of fuel to
pay for the camshaft. This would take 60,000 miles.
And the nice-to-have overdrive? Writer Loren Bengston
covered the payback for his overdrive unit back in Issue
47, page 162. In Scott’s case insufficient data exist to do a
calculation.
Bottom Line
It seems simple to me…
• As we learned from Joe Donnelly and Issue 47, operate
the engine at the BSFC rpm that corresponds to the
engine’s sweet spot. Unfortunately, highway speeds
don’t allow you to go that slow without impeding traffic,
so slow down as much as possible.
• Change the engine’s timing. Scott’s findings and the
article by Joe Donnelly on page 98 confirm that this
modification is applicable for all years of the Turbo
Diesel truck. Be careful of the cause and effect and
realize that the payback could take a while.
• All of the other modifications are discretionary.
Robert Patton
TDR Staff
P.S. Wal-Mart is still out of stock on the fuel magnets and the
tornado thing still has not been released for our intake size.
104
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
VENDOR RESPONSE
TO ThE NEED FOR TEST DATA
by Robert Patton
Realizing that there was limited data to substantiate
the timing cause-and-effect, I sent a letter to several
vendors that were listed in Issue 47’s and 48’s articles on
performance for the ’03-’07 HPCR engine. The articles
were authored by writer Doug Leno and Doug provided
a comparison matrix that showed vendor products that
effected timing.
Doug’s write-up (Issue 47 and 48) was done in mid-2005.
Since that time there have been numerous other products
introduced to the market that effect timing. I was remiss
in not asking those vendors to respond. Admittedly, I am
belated in keeping tabs on the performance marketplace.
I received a response from TST Products’ Mark Chapple
and MADS Electronics’ (Smarty) Marco Castano. Their
answers make up the balance of this article.
Is fuel injection timing a “magic bullet” or is the
editor off-his rocker?
TST Products’ response: I don’t see it as a magic bullet,
but I believe there is a definite trend. As emission laws get
tougher, manufacturers retard timing to reduce NOX. The
reduced NOX comes from lower cylinder pressures and
temperatures, but this is the opposite condition one would
want for best fuel efficiency.
MADS Electronics’ (Smarty) response: I’m sorry to say,
timing alone is not the “magic bullet.”
Let me expand.
The following is the letter that was sent to those vendors of
record in mid-2005 whose products effected timing and the
responses that were received:
In Issue 61 the obvious topic for the TDR will be,
“It’s the (Fuel) Economy, Stupid!” We are planning a
story on fuel economy and we would like to include
your input in this article.
I plan to poke fun at myself with an exaggerated story
about out-of-stock fuel magnets and the Tornadothingee that does not fit our diameter air intake.
The serious stuff starts with this disclaimer:
“Numerous times I have been cited for not including
a legal disclaimer prior to an article that discusses a
performance gadget, gizmo, or modification. Make
no mistake: changing the timing of fuel delivery is
a modification that can put your rights to warranty
consideration into serious jeopardy. Additionally,
timing changes must not adversely affect emissions
according to the Clean Air Act, Section 203(a) and
EPA Memorandum 1A.”
This disclaimer will be followed by Joe Donnelly’s
“How-To” material on fuel pump timing for better fuel
economy. Joe covers the mechanical VE and P700
fuel pumps, taking us up to the advent of electronics.
At this point it becomes subjective with comments
from writers, “I think…”
So, I will jump on the band wagon. I think timing
(either mechanical advance or electrical) is the
magic bullet for Dodge/Cummins owners to consider
in their quest for cost-effective mile-per-gallon gains.
Have I missed the mark?
Thus, the purpose of this correspondence is to allow
you and your company a forum to present any fuel
economy data you may have on your VP44 and
HPCR boxes. To keep the correspondence on track,
I have provided a Question & Answer format below. I
would appreciate your responses to these questions.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
The mechanical VE and P-7100 injection pumps have a
preset and fixed value for the “beginning of the injection
stroke.” This means that the preset timing is optimal only
for a rather narrow RPM/load range of the engine.
Since the introduction of the first “real” emissions
regulations (NOX, HC and PM emissions) all engine
manufacturers were forced to introduce electronic engine
management. The introduction of electronic control
modules provided a much more refined control over the
injection timing. Electronic engine management provides
the ability for dynamic timing changes throughout the RPM
band. Therefore not only RPM, but parameters like engine
temperature, boost pressure, intake air temperature, etc.,
can now be taken into account to adjust the timing of the
engine.
Were there no such thing as emissions regulations the
electronics could provide the “perfect” timing for the
engine. Thus the best possible mileage?
Unfortunately, the world is not a perfect place…
In order to reduce the combustion temperature thus NOX
and PM emissions one simple way is to retard the timing.
Furthermore, for the emissions test(s) the low load/low
RPM range is weighted more than, let’s say, wide open
throttle. That means the high load/RPM range is less
important from an emissions point of view.
This leads to what’s under our eyes or should I say right
foot? Detuned/sluggish engines in the 600-2000 RPM
range. Range where we use them most! Detuned because
of the emissions. Sigh!
This is of course counterproductive from the mileage
point of view in a Diesel engine! As you surely know, the
diesel engine is most fuel efficient in the lower RPM range;
typically the best BSFC is yielded, which happens to be
around peak torque.
Then faster the engine gets into the peak torque range then
better its fuel efficiency in the real world. This is where the
105
timing really comes into the picture! Correct timing means
an engine that’s more willing to gain the revs. Thus we get
sooner to the best fuel efficiency range.
Although, the timing is retarded typically on ly 1-2 degrees
for the emissions (also Cummins has to make sure to
deliver the best possible mileage. What about a new word?
Emissions possible mileage?) which leads from my findings
to a 1.5-2% mileage loss.
MADS: Reported mileage gains with the Smarty S-03 are
in the 1 to 3 mpg range. And, although I would like to believe
in a 3mpg gain…I have never experienced it personally in
my daily driver(s)! I’ve found that a 1 to 1.5mpg increase
sounds more reasonable. There is no such thing as “best”
setting for mileage. Everything depends upon driving style
and conditions. This is why we strive to deliver to most
flexible tuning system possible. “One size fits all” just can
not do the trick.
To come to a conclusion. The timing alone gains about 2%
mileage. This nets out to nothing that could be measured
in the real world! Yet, the timing (engine responsiveness)
combined with increased fueling in order to get into the
best BSFC range as soon as possible is what really gains
mileage!
Please share your timing experiences with the
’03-’07 5.9-liter HPCR fuel system and your
performance module. The expected mpg benefit?
Part number to be used? Settings for best mpg?
Data?
This is the real reason why most customers report mileage
gains with their power modules. They get to the RPM range
sooner and can stay longer where the diesel engine is
most fuel efficient.
TST: We ran dyno tests with various timing on our ’03 Ram
and gained about a 4% improvement in fuel economy at
55mph, up to a 10% gain at 75mph. Book mileage jumped
2-3 miles per gallon on this truck for a 10-15% gain.
Do you have a mechanical timing
recommendations(s) for ’89-’93 VE fuel pumps?
The expected mpg benefit?
MADS: The answer is the same as my response to the
question about the VP44 fuel system. The product that
should be used in HPCR applications is the Smarty S-06
or SJ.
TST: The ’89-’03 engines didn’t have to meet as strict
emissions rules thus the timing was left in a position for
fairly high in cylinder temperatures and pressures. Timing
changes would have very little effect on mpg.
MADS: No.
Do
you
have
a
mechanical
timing
recommendations(s) for the ’94-’98 P7100 fuel
pump? The expected mpg benefit? Data?
TST: Timing was retarded more in ’94 to meet the NOX
laws thus advancing timing had more effect on mileage.
Though we didn’t make dyno runs at constant horsepower
to measure fuel economy on our 12-valve truck, my logbook mileage appeared to improve by 3 to 5% once we
advanced timing from about 12.5 to 15.5 degrees BTDC.
This lowered exhaust temperature a bit at a constant
power, and made the engine rattle more.
MADS: No.
Please share your timing experiences with the
’98-’02 VP44 fuel system and your performance
module. The expected mpg benefit? Part number
to be used? Settings for best mpg? Data?
TST: The ’98.5-’02 trucks with the VP44 pump had even
more retarded timing than the ’94-’98 trucks to meet an
even lower NOX standard. We used computer tools to
change the numbers in the ECM timing tables and again
lowered exhaust temperatures and picked up 3-5% fuel
economy in our log-books.
106
Your closing comments:
TST: TST has been in the business of increasing power and
torque for a decade. Up until 2006 about 90% of incoming
started with, “How can I get more of that power and torque
stuff?” Then, almost overnight, the question became, “How
can I get more mileage out of this big beast?”
Power and torque increases were always easy for us to
measure as we test on our own chassis dynamometers.
Typically, we would leave one of our test trucks on the dyno
for 6-8 weeks at a time, daily trying a program change or
parts change, and let the dyno tell us if the engine liked or
disliked the change.
My first job in Cummins engineering in 1966 was keeping
track of hundreds of test semi-trucks running without
ever changing motor oil. Monthly, I would have to pull oil
samples on each of these trucks, record mileage, any oil
addition since the last check, and document the results
of the oil analysis tests. I started keeping record books
on my personal vehicles at that time, recording every
event, fuel fill, oil change, new tires, etc. As a part of the
personal record keeping, I’d calculate the mileage at each
fill and noticed how the mileage constantly changed tank
to tank. I’ve continued this practice to present day with my
diesel trucks, keeping Excel spreadsheets to show each
tank’s mileage, running average, and change in fuel cost.
Carefully filling the tank to the top, with the aid of a tank
vent kit, still did not eliminate the variation tank to tank.
My Excel spreadsheets (and your notepad and pencil) are
good for long-term trends, but I view them as consistently
inconsistent for short-term evaluations.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
With customer requests for better mileage becoming the
number one priority, I spent many hours wondering how
TST could evaluate fuel economy without burning several
tanks of expensive fuel. I recalled my experience in the
Cummins Engine research labs where we often monitored
the fuel consumption of running engines without the
hindrance of an attached vehicle. All engine manufacturers
gather data to calculate brake specific fuel consumption
(BSFC) in order to compare the relative economy or
efficiency of various engines. Typically an engine would
be run for several minutes at a constant brake horsepower
and the fuel used was measured in pounds. The word
brake in this case meant the engine dynamometer
which measured flywheel torque and engine rpm such
that engine flywheel horsepower could be calculated. A
simple calculation could be made with the gathered data
by dividing the weight of the fuel used in pounds per hour
by the horsepower being generated. BSFC number like
0.350 pounds per horsepower per hour was the end result.
A very good engine might run a 0.330 BSFC while a poorer
engine might run close to 0.410 BSFC.
I felt finding a BSFC-like number for a Turbo Diesel would be
a good way to check the relative fuel consumption. I knew
our chassis dyno could be set to measure the horsepower
at the wheels. But at what horsepower did we need to run
the tests? The TST staff brainstormed the question and
decided we needed to determine the actual horsepower it
took to move a Turbo Diesel pickup at various road speeds.
We took our ’03 Dodge Ram out on the Interstate highway
and ran it for several miles in both directions while recording
instrument readings for air temperature, mph, gear selected,
turbo boost, egt, rpm, and rail pressure. We gathered data
for road speeds from 55 mph to 75 mph, in 5 mph increments.
We then tied that truck to the chassis dynamometer and
tried various loads until we could reproduce the instrument
readings we took out on the Interstate. This gave us a
horsepower value to use in our fuel economy tests for
various road speeds. (See figure 1)
left us with the problem of measuring just how much fuel
it took to refill the tank. Suddenly it became obvious,
let’s run the truck using a remote fuel tank that sets on
a very accurate scale and simply weigh the fuel as it is
consumed. By carefully weighing a gallon of fuel, we could
then determine the number of pounds per gallon. We
could then use this pounds-per-gallon number to convert
our pounds of fuel used back to gallons for the mpg
calculation. This is the procedure that is used by Cummins
in official ASE-type testing of big rigs at fleet accounts. We
purchased an electronic scale with a digital readout that
was guaranteed accurate to one hundredth of a pound and
used a transparent five-gallon plastic jug as our fuel tank.
We unhooked the quick connects from the truck tank and
plumbed them such that the engine would draw and send
its return fuel to the plastic jug (See picture below).
Ready to start testing? We thought so. We brought the truck
up to 55mph on the dyno and set the truck cruise control
to hold the speed. That part worked great. Next we started
increasing the load on the dyno until we could repeat the
horsepower number we found from the earlier Interstate
highway testing. That part worked great too. Then we
drove the truck for five minutes at these conditions taking
the fuel weight before and after the test. That part worked
great too. Well, almost. One of our technicians accidentally
touched the five-gallon jug and realized it had become very
hot from the engine’s returned fuel.
It took about four hours to add 50 feet of copper tubing
to our return fuel line. We dropped that copper line into a
large cooler and returned the fuel to the plastic jug. We
then used a garden hose to run cold city water through
the cooler to keep the returned fuel cool. By regulating the
city water flow we could maintain the fuel temperature at a
usable level.
TST 2007
TDRW2007.doc
Next, we needed a way to accurately measure the fuel
used during our testing. While we considered trying to
carefully refill the stock Dodge fuel tank after each run, we
quickly discarded that idea because it was impossible to fill
that tank to the same level each time. We also considered
placing a small tank in the bed of the truck that would be
easier to refill to the same level each time, but that still
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
We were ready to start testing again. This time we were
able to repeat the weight readings time after time during
the five-minute test. We now felt we had a way to quickly
and accurately determine how various engine changes
would affect fuel consumption.
Back in 2002-2004 we developed the PowerMax CR
for the 5.9 HPCR engine. We engineered a way to vary
injection timing, injection duration, and rail pressure on
the fly. Of course our motive was different back then; we
107
were after the most power and torque at the lowest exhaust
temperature. Now with a new goal of best fuel economy,
we started all over again trying to optimize timing, duration,
and rail pressure.
First we determined the fuel consumption curve for the
stock engine using our new measurement method. (See
lower curve in figure 3.) The mileage numbers from this
test were quite a bit better than our record book showed for
this truck, but keep in mind that our new test method was
steady state only, no starting and stopping. I figured if we
could improve the steady state numbers, mileage would
also improve on the highway.
To start, we tried the injection timing schedule from the
PowerMaxCR that gave us the best power curve. That
timing helped fuel economy a bit, but not a significant
difference. Over the next few hours we tried many different
injection timing settings and selected the ones that gave
us best economy from 55 to 75 mph. (See upper curve
in figure 3.) We then tried varying the rail pressure while
using only the best timing found earlier. Changing the rail
pressure didn’t help.
TST 2007
108
We added an “Economy” setting to the PowerMaxCR as
a result of these tests. To date, customer experience has
been mixed. Some claim big gains like 3 to 4mpg, some
report no change at all, while a few claim they lost mileage.
How could this be? Looking back, all testing was done on
the same truck. The truck was a ‘03 Quad Cab, 4x4, SRW,
long bed, six-speed manual, 3.73:1 axle, stock BFG tires
(LT 265/70 R17). The only modifications to the truck were
cab high full length cap, FASS HPFP 95 gph pump, and a
South Bend Double Disc clutch. I felt the FASS pump and
SBC clutch had no affect on the mileage test, but were
needed on the truck for full power testing done separately.
What next? Let’s run the rail pressure box but with stock
timing. Bigger injectors get the fuel in quicker, so do they
help the same as advancing timing? How about a 48RE
automatic truck? Is there any difference in the behavior of
the ’04.5 HPCR engine with its 325hp? I’ve got a 6.7-liter
chassis cab to test. Then there is the 6.7-liter pickup with
the terrific new 68RFE six-speed automatic. What? You
want me to run an ’89, too. It doesn’t end, does it.
Maybe next issue!
Mark Chapple
TST Products
TDRW2407.doc
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
FUEL MILEAgE
The big concern today is fuel mileage, in deference to the
high prices we are paying. Some useful information was
presented in “The Way We Were” in TDR Issue 47, pages
103-107. That article was a reprint of information from way
back in Issue 29, but the concepts are still valid today and
more worth reviewing than ever. Most recently, I discussed
fuel mileage versus performance in Issue 60, page 90.
Fuel is up another dollar or so a gallon since then, so many
readers are even more concerned. Let’s just briefly hit the
high points.
Watch out for unnecessary added weight. It takes fuel to
carry or pull more weight. The Third Generation Turbo
Diesel in your driveway may be 1000 pounds heavier than
your old Second Generation Turbo Diesel was. My ‘04 has
a shipping weight of over 7000 pounds versus 6000 for
my ‘97. The extra 700 pound load of fuel you carry in an
auxiliary fuel tank costs a bit of mileage also!
Wind resistance can be increased by added toys such as
big tires, poorly designed aftermarket front bumpers, and
aftermarket accessories such as brush guards, mirrors
and bug deflectors. Winter fuel has a lower heat content
(usually measured in British thermal units or BTU) so will
often cost 1-2 miles per gallon (mpg). Synthetic or premium
lubricants can help mileage a little. Injectors can play a role
in improving economy. Owners of the ‘98.5 to ‘02 24-valve
Turbo Diesels report an improvement of about 1.5 mpg
from the Bosch #0432193635 injectors that were originally
used on the 275hp rated RV engines. Of course, driver
habits remain one of the biggest, if not the biggest, factor
in fuel economy.
One personal experience regarding driver habits is worth
noting here. Running 79mph on the interstate over long
trips used to be normal. However, reducing speed to 7274mph gained me some mpg, maybe 1 or more.
Moving on from what toys or features on your truck may
be hurting, and how your heavy right foot plays a role, let’s
consider what we can do to the engine itself. Probably one
of the biggest improvements we can make is advancing
the timing toward “best economy” settings rather than the
“best emissions” that the factory has to adopt. Cummins
is aware of the trade-offs, and summarizes the effects of
moderately advanced timing as these:
• Increased cylinder temperatures and pressure (more
power)
• Increased fuel economy
• Decreased exhaust temperature
• Decreased hydrocarbon emissions
• Increased smoke at peak torque
• Increased NOX emissions.
The hardest emissions parameter to bring down to the EPA
legislated levels for diesels is NOX and that is the culprit
behind the retarded timing and the exhaust gas recirculation
(EGR) systems that hurt diesel fuel economy so much. In
this issue we will focus on ways to advance the injection
timing on your Turbo Diesel.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Editor’s note: Numerous times I have been chided
for not adding the legal disclaimer prior to a writer’s
article that discusses a performance gadget, gizmo or
modification. Changing the timing of the fuel delivery
is a modification that “can put your rights to warranty
consideration into serious jeopardy. Additionally, the
timing changes ‘must not adversely affect emissions’
according to the Clean Air Act, Section 203(a) and EPA
Memorandum 1A.”
There you go. If you want the full details of the warranty
and emissions discussion you should refer to Issue 60,
page 50-52. And the answer to “Why didn’t the factory
guys do this?” is addressed on page 42.
SETTINg ThE ENgINE’S TIMINg
Timing the Bosch VE Injection Pump (’89-’93 Vintage)
The VE distributor type injection pump came out in the
1970s and was used in the Dodge Turbo Diesel application
from ‘89 up through the ‘93 model year. This pump has been
widely used for diesel engines up to about 33 horsepower
per cylinder output (about 200 hp for six cylinder engines).
It weighs only about ten pounds and is relatively compact
in dimensions. It is moderate in cost to buy and to repair. It
is lubricated by diesel fuel only, so it is very sensitive to fuel
quality. Its maximum design output fuel pressure is 700 bar
(10,150 psi). It uses a single high-pressure piston, so it has
fewer parts than many other designs of pumps. Idle speed,
maximum speed, and maximum fuel delivery quantity are
all externally adjustable. Tamper-resistant caps or seals
are put over the adjustment screws at the factory.
The VE pump is limited in fuel delivery volume and
pressure, compared to the pumps used in later model
Turbo Diesels. The volume limitation became important
when greater horsepower was sought. The low (10,000
versus 17,000 psi) pressure meant that new emission
regulations for 1994 could not be met. To meet these EPA
regulations, higher pressure was needed to bring in enough
fuel quickly, during the time period when it would burn most
efficiently and produce the least smoke. Higher pressure
also improved atomization, especially if larger injectors
were used to increase fuel delivery for more power. In the
early 1990s, these concerns were coupled with problems
from the advent of low-sulfur fuel, and with the concerns
about poor fuel quality or cleanliness. These issues made
it clear to the manufacturers of diesel engines that they had
to discontinue use of the VE pump for our Turbo Diesels
and for other over-the-road applications.
There are official tools and procedures for setting the
timing of the VE pump. Many years of working with these
pumps on Dodge applications have resulted in some “quick
and dirty” procedures that you can use on a try-and-fit
basis. You can try small incremental positioning (turning)
of the pump to see what effective timing works best for
your truck. If you want to take the pump timing about as far
advanced as you would want, for good performance and
economy, the result will be around 5/8” to 3/4” clearance
between the air-fuel control module (afc) and the cylinder
109
head, about a finger-width. Advancing the pump too much
(moving the top toward the head) gives white smoke, but
not the amount of engine fuel knocking or rattling that you
would get from advanced timing with an in-line P7100
pump. Better mpg may occur with advancing the VE pump
timing slightly from stock. Retarding the pump timing will
generally result in lower engine power.
Close up view of the VE pump mounting area
of the gear housing with the housing timing mark
and the pump-to-housing gasket.
A Bosch VE pump on a Cummins B engine,
with a finger showing the clearance between
the AFC module and the cylinder head.
If you decide to use the “finger clearance” method, first look
closely at the pump flange to the outside of the outermost
mounting stud and nut. You should find a chisel notch on
it, and a corresponding notch in the gear housing. These
marks serve to indicate the “factory” timing setting. To
rotate the pump and advance the injection timing, you need
to loosen the three 13 mm headed nuts and the injector
line nuts at the back of the pump (so you won’t twist the
lines and strain them). The pump will resist turning until the
nuts are loose enough, because of the fiber mounting and
sealing gasket that can be seen in the photos. The Snapon Blue Point SP144 wrench helps greatly in removing the
two hard-to-access pump mounting nuts. The Snap-on
flare nut crow’s-foot helps to loosen the injector line nuts. It
should be 16 mm (5/8”, part number FRH200S) or 17 mm
(part number FRHM17).
Engine side of a VE-pump style Cummins gear housing.
110
Snap-on flare nut crow’s-foot and pump
mounting nut wrench.
This article was an update of Joe’s Issue 35, page 20-21,
article on the Bosch VE fuel injection pump.
Timing the Bosch P7100 Injection Pump
The Bosch P7100 in-line injection pump is heavy (about 45
pounds), large, relatively expensive to buy and to repair, and
originally intended for much larger engines than our little
5.9-liter Cummins B series. This model of pump ended up
on the ‘94-‘98 12-valve Turbo Diesels. Dodge and Cummins
were able to increase power ratings without stressing the
capabilities of the pump. They could meet the new, more
stringent emissions requirements of January, 1994 because
this pump had the fuel volume and especially the pressure
they needed. This pump is intended for original equipment
manufacturer’s applications up to 94 hp per cylinder (563
hp for six cylinders) and produces fuel pressures up to 1150
bar (16,675 psi). Like the VE pump, it is fully mechanical in
operation, but there the similarity ends.
The P7100 pump is an in-line design pump. This means
that the injector for each cylinder of the engine is fed by
a dedicated high-pressure plunger-and-barrel assembly in
the injection pump. These plunger-and-barrel assemblies
are arranged in a linear fashion, not a circle. The fuel is
pressurized by the up-and-down stroke of the plunger,
brought about by a camshaft eccentric (see Figure 4). Thus
this pump has a camshaft that is engine-driven, and each
plunger has a roller-lifter type of actuation. Fuel delivery
quantity is controlled by rotating the plunger. This action
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
changes the exposure of the fill/spill port of the barrel to
the fuel gallery, to determine the amount of fuel that will
be “trapped” and pressurized. (See Figure 5). The six
plungers (for a six-cylinder diesel engine) are connected
to a fuel control “rack” which extends to the governor so
that the governor can control the fueling of all six plungers
equally and simultaneously.
For different power ratings, Bosch uses different design
plungers and barrels, and different camshaft lobe profiles.
For our Turbo Diesels, there are three basic internal sizes
of P7100 pump: The 160hp is the smallest; the 175-180hp
is somewhat larger, and the 215hp version is one of the
largest P-pumps available. For comparison, using Turbo
Diesels that are otherwise similar in level of modification,
The 160hp pump would allow about 320-340hp at the
wheels, the 180hp pump would give about 370-400, and
the 215 pump would give 500-540hp. All of these pumps
use versions of the Bosch Model RQV-K governor.
The P7100 uses engine oil to lubricate the governor and
bottom end of the pump. Of course, the fuel plungers and
barrels, as well as the delivery valves, still rely upon diesel
fuel for their lubrication, so it would be a serious mistake to
think that any type of diesel fuel is adequate because the
pump uses engine oil as a lubricant. The pump is generally
very reliable, and being fully mechanical in operation, it is
relatively easy to diagnose and to modify.
Back in 1999 when I was taking a lot of long trips, I found
that 15 to 15.5 degrees of injection pump timing advance
on the 215hp engine gave the best fuel economy at about
2000 rpm. I ran as much as 19 degrees and did not have
any headgasket or starting issues.
To set the timing of the P7100 pump, you need precision tools
and all fuel system internal parts must be kept scrupulously
clean. You need Miller MLR 6860 pump timing tool kit and
a Snap-on Blue Point SP504 plate style gear puller (or
equivalent). When you remove the #1 delivery valve, do not
touch it dry with bare fingers. Use a clean telescoping stalk/
magnet and keep it covered with clean diesel fuel.
T5. Miller MLR-6860 P7100 pump timing tool kit. At the left
is a magnet on a telescoping “stick.” To its right is the dial
indicator with the stem extension below and to its right. To
the right of that is a timing pin with a steel tip epoxy glued
onto it. The special splined socket is at bottom right, with
the splined end resting on a block of wood. At top center is
the adapter that holds the dial indicator and screws into the
top of the pump barrel. At top right is an engine barring
tool that plugs into the aluminum block adapter plate
and meshes with the flywheel teeth.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
T6. The Snap-on SP504 gear puller with M8x1.25x40 bolts
and the home-made pump shaft turning tool at right.
The P7100 injection pump cannot be simply rotated so the
top is closer to the cylinder head. Its mounting ears do not
have elongated slots, and the back end of this very heavy
pump is supported on a flat pedestal mounted to the engine
block. You must pull the drive gear and then rotate the
pump shaft. Pulling the gear inevitably results in a shock
as the taper fit “pops,” causing the pump shaft to jump out
of time, in the retarded direction—but how much it jumps
(rotates) varies with each time it happens. That is why you
simply CANNOT use a shadetree trick like popping off the
gear, turning the crank a little, and replacing the gear. You
just cannot tell where the pump timing “went” without the
dial indicator.
We will go through the principles and procedures for
setting P7100 pump timing, but the cost of the tools and the
advanced type of effort involved make it neither realistic
nor cost effective for most Turbo Diesel owners to do this
at home.
Principle behind mechanical fuel injection timing
In a four-cycle gasoline engine, the distributor and the
camshaft both turn at one-half crankshaft revolutions per
minute (RPM). Since diesel fuel is ignited upon injection,
a fuel injection pump for a four-cycle diesel engine also
rotates at one-half engine rpm. The 36-tooth crank gear
turns the camshaft gear which has double the number of
teeth (72) on it that the crank gear does. In turn, the cam gear
turns the Bosch P7100-pump drive gear which also has 72
teeth so the pump will inject fuel every second revolution of
the crank (or top dead center position of the piston). Timing
of the pump and this injection event is controlled by the
design of the pump and the rotation/position of the pump
shaft (with its eccentrics that control the fuel “squirts” to the
injectors) versus the position of the crankshaft (and hence
the piston). The pump gear is solidly attached to the pump
shaft by a Morse taper fit similar to the taper fit that holds
the drill chuck to the spindle of a drill press. To advance the
pump timing, you need to pull the gear off the pump shaft,
rotate either the gear or the shaft, and clamp them back
together so that the pump shaft reaches a point where the
fuel injection squirt comes sooner relative to the movement
of the crankshaft and piston.
111
Procedures to re-set the timing with the P7100 pump.
1.
Install a dial indicator so you can track the fuel injection
event within the pump. Install the engine barring tool in
the flywheel and rotate the engine crankshaft until the
needle indicates the lowest point of the pump plunger.
To get to the plunger, you have to remove #1 injection
line, [right hand arrow in photo T7] use a special
splined socket to remove the “tower” on the #1 pump
barrel, and then use a magnet-on-a-telescoping-stick
to pull the delivery valve and its steel casing (about 5/8”
diameter) out of the pump barrel. [see photo T8] Then
you thread on a special holder for the dial indicator,
and install the indicator so the measuring stem is on
top of the plunger. [see photo T9]
T9. Dial indicator installed in #1 barrel
of a P7100 injection pump.
2.
Rotate the engine crankshaft to TDC for #1 cylinder
and make sure it is the TDC of injection (with a four
cycle engine, one is injection/firing TDC and the other
TDC is “overlap” of the exhaust and air intake events).
The correct TDC will have #1 valves closed and both
valves for #6 cylinder will be slightly open.
3. Compare the amount of plunger lift at TDC to timing in
degrees using the table on page 105 for the specific
version of your P7100 pump. Now you know what the
timing is before you reset it.
4.
T7. A Bosch P7100 pump on a Cummins B engine,
with arrows pointing to the oil filler tube/cap,
and to #1 injection line and pump barrel.
While the barring tool prevents the engine from turning,
remove the 30-mm hex nut and washer from the pump
shaft. The nut is behind the oil filler tube (left hand
arrow in photo T7, and bottom left in photo T10), and
to access it you have to unthread the oil fill pipe from
the base, and unthread and remove the base from the
engine gear housing cover (T10).
T8. Delivery valve parts removed from #1 injection pump
barrel assembly in order to set timing.
T10. A Cummins gear housing, front side,
with the oil filler tube at yop left.
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A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
5.
Use a puller (Snap-on SP504 or similar) to “pop” the
gear (photo T11) loose from the tapered pump shaft.
If you watch the big and little dials of the indicator,
you will see how much the pump timing retarded on
this occasion. Use of the puller is illustrated on a CP3
pump and gear in Photo T12. (Notice that the CP3
uses a small 36 tooth gear and thus spins at crankshaft
speed, not camshaft speed!)
6. Now you need to turn the pump shaft so the dial
indicator gives the plunger lift specification you want,
corresponding to the desired timing. You can do this by
reinstalling the pump gear and snugging the nut, then
using the barring tool to turn the engine and hence the
pump. If you are lucky and go to just the right amount of
lift beyond what you want, when you pop off the gear,
the pump will jump (retard) to the lift you want. The
jump should be small if the gear was on just enough
to turn the pump, but not very tight. Then you turn
the engine back to TDC while leaving the pump gear
loose so the pump stays at the timing you want. Use
Mopar non-chlorinated brake cleaner #4897150AB to
gently spray the taper fit of the gear and shaft while
wiggling the gear with a long M8 × 1.25 thread bolt
so all the taper is cleaned. Don’t spray hard and blow
oil out of the bearing on the pump shaft just behind
the taper! Then, gently blow-dry the taper with clean
compressed air. Push the gear onto the shaft, install
the oiled washer and nut, torque to 144 ft-lb.
7.
Here is a tip that may be worth trying if you are going
to set timing a number of times: you can weld a 3/4”
fine thread nut onto an extra P-pump nut, and run a
bolt in to jam against the end of the pump shaft. (Photo
T6, right side, page 103). Then you can turn the pump
to set plunger lift, and hence timing, with this tool and
leave the engine at TDC.
8.
Check the green O-ring on the “tower” for abrasion and
replace it if necessary (Bosch #2 410 210 033). A worn
O-ring seal will allow fuel to leak out during operation.
Put a thin film of grease on the O-ring and the surface
of the pump barrel and tighten the the “tower to 29 and
then 85 ft-lb in a smooth motion.
9.
Re-assemble, tightening injection line nuts to about
25-28 ft-lb.
T11. A Cummins B gear housing with
a P-pump drive gear, washer, and nut.
T12. Use of the SP504 gear puller is
illustrated here with a Bosch CP3 pump.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
The table below shows injection timing in degrees versus
injection pump #1 plunger height (lift) for different Bosch
P7100 in-line injection pump used from ‘94 through the
first half of the ‘98 model year. The engine’s data tag will
show the stock timing in degrees and the plunger lift can be
measured. Using the table you’ll find the lift necessary to
set the timing to achiee better fuel economy. Over time, we
have found that about 15.5 degrees of timing gives most
folks the best fuel economy but a bit less mid range torque
than the stock, lower, timing settings. Your engine CPL can
be found on the data tag that is riveted to the driver’s side
of the front gear case. The table shows timing in degrees
versus millimeters of cylinder #1 pump plunger lift:
113
Deg.
12.5
13
13.5
‘94-‘95
P7100 injection pumps
Automatic
Manual
4.2
5.7
4.3
5.8
4.4
5.9
‘96-‘98
P7100 injection pumps
Automatic
Manual
4.21
4.89
4.29
4.98
4.37
5.07
14
14.5
15
4.5
4.6
4.7
6.0
6.1
6.2
4.45
4.53
4.61
5.16
5.25
5.34
15.5
16
16.5
4.8
4.9
5.0
6.3
6.4
6.5
4.69
4.77
4.85
5.43
5.52
5.61
17
17.5
18
5.1
5.2
5.3
6.6
6.7
6.8
4.93
5.01
5.09
5.70
5.79
5.88
18.5
19
19.5
5.4
5.5
5.6
6.9
7.0
7.1
5.17
5.25
5.33
5.97
6.06
6.15
Timing the VP44 Fuel Injection Pump
The Cummins 24-valve engine was designed to meet
the tighter EPA federal emissions regulations of January
1998. An essential feature of this engine was the use of
electronically-controlled fueling events. The Bosch VP44 injection pump (see Figure 10) was already in use in
Europe for smaller engines, and was fully electronically
controlled with regard to injection timing and fuel quantity.
This pump delivers fuel at high pressure (1000 bar or
14,500 psi), almost as high as the P7100, to assist in
meeting emissions requirements. The size, weight, and
cost of the pump are much lower than the P7100, more
like the VE pump. However, the new VP44 pump differs in
several important respects from the older pump. In order
to develop the higher pressure it produces, it uses three
radial pistons to pressurize fuel instead of one axial piston.
While the engine mechanically rotates the pump, as with a
VE pump, the fueling commands are all performed via onboard computer (fuel pump control module). While there
are different Woodruff keys for the VP44 pump shaft, you
cannot advance the pump timing with them. The computer
will normalize the timing to specification.
As soon as the 24-valve Cummins engine appeared
with our Turbo Diesels, in January 1998, some owners
of the new version of the Cummins B series engine
began complaining that they wanted more power.
Several aftermarket companies addressed the problem
and found that electronic solutions were the most
straightforward to develop and install. Some of the
power-adding products also added timing advance. The
VP44 injection pump is mechanical but is surrounded
by three computers. First is the Dodge computer on the
firewall, second is the engine electronic control module
(ECM) on the driver’s side of the engine, and third is
114
a computer on the top of the VP44 pump itself. The
ECM has proprietary software controlling the fueling
parameters, and the fueling commands are sent to
the VP44 computer through CAN-BUS communication
protocols. The electronic enhancements made by
aftermarket firms have used one or more of the four
techniques listed below:
1.
Intercept the CAN-BUS communications to the
VP44 computer at the multi-connector that plugs
into the pump. This process entails unplugging the
connection, and putting in a Y-connector that goes
to the aftermarket “black box” computer. This add-on
computer then replaces some commands from the
ECM with new ones. One brand (example) that uses
this technology is the BD Plug-n-Power.
2.
Add new instructions along the CAN-BUS using the
data link/diagnostic connector at the engine wiring
harness. This connector is used by Dodge and Cummins
technicians to access the ECM for engine diagnosis,
and to reprogram the ECM. The Edge Products EZ box
uses this system, and their Competition Box uses both
this technique and Technique #3.
3. Intercept the fueling signal coming out of the VP44
computer that holds the fuel solenoid of the pump
closed. This signal determines the time duration that
high pressure fuel is available to the injection line
and injector. The insulation of this wire is pierced
by a Scotch-Lok or similar connector so the add-on
aftermarket computer box can receive this signal
and add another immediately afterwards to hold
the solenoid closed longer. The percentage of the
original signal’s time duration that is added to it by the
aftermarket computer box will determine the power
increase. This technique was introduced by Blue Chip,
then followed by a similar approach from TST, and
later Edge Products.
4. Reprogramming the ECM fueling and/or timing advance
curves.
Techniques 1, 2 and 3 require an additional wiring harness
to the manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor on the
side of the cylinder head at the intake plenum, if they
are to provide large power (fueling) increases. The ECM
generates defueling commands when turbocharger boost
goes too high (reportedly, over 20.5 psi). The aftermarket
computer harness puts a Y-connection into this harness
at the MAP sensor. The box intercepts the boost signal
and replaces the signal going to the ECM with an adjusted
voltage that indicates to the ECM that boost is within the
acceptable range, even when higher boost is actually
present. In this way, sufficient boost becomes available to
burn the additional fuel efficiently.
Add-on “boxes” that use Technique 3 take the engine rpm
and ECM-generated fueling level signals from the pump
wire. Boxes that receive CAN-BUS signals, including the
Edge Comp box that uses both Techniques 2 and 3, take rpm
and fueling commands from signals along the CAN-BUS.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Electronic power enhancement “boxes” that also add timing
include, among others, the Edge Mileage Max and the
Juice module with Attitude gauge and control readout box.
The Smarty programmer gives the option of adding timing
in its re-program of the ECM (Technique 4).
Timing the high Pressure
Common Rail (hPCR) Engines
With the HPCR system, timing is electronic. The pump does
not “squirt” fuel at the proper time into a single injection
line. High pressure fuel is available at all the injectors all
the time the engine is running. The injectors are opened
and closed electrically when the engine control module
(computer, ECM) commands. There is a mechanical
timing sensor on the market that basically moves the
crank sensor a little. However, it cannot move much from
stock position or the cam to crank sensor alignment will
be outside of specifications allowed by the ECM and the
engine will not start or run. Significant timing changes must
be made electronically, either by a remote box or through
ECM programming.
Electronic power enhancement “boxes” that add timing
include, among others, Edge and TST boxes. The Edge
Mileage Max and the Edge Juice module with Attitude
gauge and control readout box. The TST PowerMax-CR
allows the user to select the default additional timing, or
to add further timing advance in increments of 3 degrees.
• T
raditional pressure modules, even without a connection
to the cam/crank sensors or the CAN bus, probably
yield some fuel economy benefit, but not as much as a
true pressure/timing enhancement will.
• T
iming only, as provided by the TST PowerMax CR
(power level 1) will also improve fuel economy. However,
realize that it requires discipline to use such a powerful
module set at only 25 horsepower gain over stock!
• N
ever install a power enhancement from any
manufacturer without addressing other areas of the
truck that may require attention in order to use the
additional power. In particular (and most important) you
must install an EGT gauge (pyrometer) and keep preturbocharger exhaust gas temperatures under 1350°.
joe Donnelly
TDR Writer
TST Products
812-342-6741
www.tstproducts.com
Edge Products
888-490-3343
www.edgeproducts.com
Bob Wagner and Associates
888-225-7637
www.smartypower.com
www.madselectronics.com
The Smarty programmer gives the option of adding timing
in its re-program of the ECM. In addition to the default
timing increase, the user can select additional increases
in the options menus of the Revolution and TNT software
packages.
Editor’s note: TDR writer Doug Leno has done extensive
research on performance modules for the ’03-’07
5.9-liter HPCR engines. His work is chronicled in TDR
Issues 45, 47, 48, 49, 51, 53 and 57. When asked about
fuel mileage (rather than performance) he referred me
to his comments in Issue 51, February of 2006.
Doug Leno’s Conclusions
• D
epending on driving conditions and style, fuel economy
improvements on the order of 10% can probably be
obtained with a combination of pressure and timing
advance. Products offering this approach include the
Banks Six Gun, the Quadzilla Xzillaraider, TST Products’
PowerMaxCR, and likely (though I haven’t tested them)
the towing programs offered by the various downloaders
from Bullydog, Pacific Performance Engineering, ATS,
Smarty and others.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
115
so you WAnt FueL eConomy
Part three – how to drive
hOW-TO-DRIVE
by Robert Patton
As the TDR editor, I get recurring questions from new Turbo
Diesel owners: “How should I drive a Turbo Diesel for the
best economy?” And, “How do I use (do I need) gauges?”
This becomes a “How to” question for me: How to balance
information that has been presented to long-time TDR
members, while covering the basics for the first-time
owners? The answer: summarize/reprint the old and
update with new and relevant information. Let’s break
this article down into a fun-to-read format: something old,
something new, something borrowed, something blue (can
you tell that I recently returned from a wedding?).
Something Old
Something old: We’re going back to Issue 20 to reprint
information specifically about how to drive using Cummins’
engine performance curves.
To ask the TDR for advice on how to drive is dangerous.
I have earned many fast driver awards (you know, the
citations handed out by the state highway patrol) and my
answer is that faster is better. First, to specifically answer
the question on first or second gear for a no-load smooth
start, I use second gear. The ‘98 Owner’s Manual is vague
on the use of second gear starts. The manual states,
“For improved clutch life all five forward gears should be
used.” and further, “You should use first gear when starting
from a standing position if under a heavy load.” It doesn’t
specifically state “do not use second gear.”
Perhaps the cliché, “do as I say, not as I do,” is a fitting
introduction to our article on how to drive.
Our search for the engine’s “sweet spot” is as simple
as looking at a sample torque curve. For purposes of
discussion, we will use the ‘94/’95 175 horsepower engine as
used with the five-speed transmission. To fully understand
the graph, we will introduce a technical term, Brake Specific
Fuel Consumption, as the BSFC values (and guidance from
Clessie Cummins’, sidebar) will show you (on paper) how
to drive.
Brake Specific Fuel Consumption
In layman’s terms, brake specific fuel consumption is the
efficiency of an engine. BSFC is simply a value that helps us
describe the engine’s ability to convert fuel into horsepower.
BSFC tells you how much fuel it takes your engine to
produce each horsepower. The lower the BSFC the better!
Here is the equation to convert BSFC into a number we can
understand, fuel consumption: Fuel consumption (gallons/
hr) = (Bhp × BSFC) ÷ 7.1 lbs/gallon fuel.
116
For example, let’s look at the BSFC for the 1994/1995 175
horsepower/420 torque five-speed engine. The BSFC is
at its lowest at 1500/1600 rpm. The value is .330. If you
were using full horsepower at 1500 rpm the mathematic
fuel consumption would be Gallons = (120 × .330) ÷ 7.1 or
5.57 gallons per hour. Can you equate gallons per hour to
miles per gallon? Certainly, you can check your tachometer/
speedometer to see how “fast” 1500 rpm is in miles per
hour (Approximate answer for a pickup with a 3.54 rear axle
ratio is 53 mph). But the exercise of equating theoretical
gallons per hour to miles per gallon is futile. How often do
you travel at full throttle/1500 rpm? The point of the exercise
is to show where fuel economy is best, at lower rpm ratings.
What does this mean to you? I hope you’ve learned from
the efficiency exercise that it would be best to put your
engine on cruise control at a speed corresponding to
1500/1600 rpm. At 1500/1600 rpm you’ve got the torque
peak of the engine available to keep your speed constant as
you encounter a grade. Speed drops off below 1500/1600
rpm, you had better downshift because it’s all “downhill”
(backside of the torque curve/lugging) from there. You’ve
obviously exceeded the maximum torque produced by the
engine and multiplied by the gearbox/rear end ratio of the
load you’re trying to propel.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Is it possible to cruise at 1500/1600 rpm? On most
highways, to avoid being run over by traffic you’ll have to
exceed the 1600 rpm setting. But, we’ve encouraged you
to seek 1500/1600 rpm for the best engine efficiency and
mph. Now you know why my two favorite questions for a
low mpg complaint are “How fast do you drive?” and “What
is your rear end ratio?” Hmmm… low mpg trouble shooting,
sounds like a future article. Or, is it simply a matter of
driving at a lower rpm/better BSFC number?
For the older truck owners, let’s reference the performance
curve of a First Generation, 12-valve engine with the
Bosch mechanical VE style fuel pump, rated at 160
horsepower/400 torque. Below is a reprint of this graph
from Issue 29 and our discussion of volumetric efficiency
and brake specific fuel consumption. Note that this engine’s
best BSFC number was at 1600 to 1800 rpm with the best
value of .340 at 1700 rpm.
The 24-valve engine is an entirely different story. In
Issue 29 we published preliminary (October 14, 1997)
performance curves from Cummins on the soon-to-bereleased 24-valve 215 and 235 hp engines. At the close of
the Issue 29 article we noted, “We will work with Cummins
to source the complete engine data sheets showing
horsepower, torque, and brake specific fuel consumption.”
Guess what? The data exists, but it does not exist. Let’s
trot-out the preliminary performance curves that were
used in Issue 29 and then we’ll explain the lack of data for
the 24-valve engine.
Chart Evaluation
Where is the gentle sweeping torque curve? What
happened to volumetric efficiency? Note the preliminary
BSFC curve. Let’s investigate further.
Electronic control of the Bosch VP44 fuel pump is the key
to the 24-valve engine’s ability to meet the ‘98 emission
standards. The VP44 electronic module/black box brings
computer control to the engine. The computer control allows
for infinitely variable timing.
Did you notice the lowest BSFC occurs at the same rpm as
torque peak? Coincidental? I don’t think so! Both are
determined by the engine’s ability to completely fill,
compress, combust and exhaust air. Again, Issue 29 has
the complete story on the volumetric efficiency/BSFC
relationships.
Something New
Something new: Lest we get caught in the old routine of the
Editor recounting the old engine performance curves for
12-valve engines, we need new and current data! A valid
concern, here is the story.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Electronic control, variable timing, variable fuel maps, a
free-breathing 24-valve cylinder head – can the engineers
custom tailor the BSFC curve, as they can the torque
curve, to produce a straight line?
The answer is affirmative. Thus, instead of the preliminary
fuel consumption curve, the final Cummins data on the
24-valve engine is not a single curve – rather a collection of
fuel maps that differ based on timing, engine load, throttle
position, etc. The data is, at best, confusing. Unfortunately,
we are left with the preliminary data from Cummins, which, at
the time, was their best approximation of fuel consumption.
117
With the explanation/understanding of the 24-valve’s
approximate fuel curve, we can still use it to help us
approximate 24-valve fuel economy. It is not coincidental
that BSFC was lowest/best at the same rpm as the best
volumetric efficiency and peak torque. The physics to
produce torque peak requires the greatest cylinder filling
or volumetric efficiency. But, the 24-valve engine’s torque
curve is a straight line. However, volumetric efficiency is
still a mechanical function (crankshaft, connecting rods,
pistons, camshafts, rocker arms and valve-train); thus the
resulting preliminary 24-valve engine’s BSFC curve is still
an ever-so-slight upward sloping curve.
Fuel Economy/gearing Debate
Close inspection of the respective 12-valve and 24-valve
BSFC curves reveals that the BSFC has moved to a higher
rpm! The preliminary data on BSFC for the early 215
and 235 horsepower 24-valve engines shows the lowest
numbers to be at 2000 rpm (.334)! The numbers are on
par with a 1600 rpm BSFC on the 175 and 215 horsepower
12-valve engines of .330/.334.
Using BSFC numbers, perhaps you would want to gear
the 24-valve engines with the higher 4.10 ratio to let the
engines rev-out to a 2000 rpm/60 mph cruise speed. Or,
are we again splitting hairs between the 2000 rpm/.334
number and the 24-valve engine’s 1600 rpm/.337 number?
This debate – as well as the debate over lost fuel mileage
with the new 24-valve engine – will continue. The figures
don’t lie and I don’t know the answer. Jim Anderson
commented on the “4.10 gets better mileage than the 3.54”
phenomenon in Issue 27, page 74 and again in Issue 31,
page 90. The topic has been debated at many open house
events, too.
My experience with my ’99 2500, 24-valve truck, 3.54 ratio,
automatic is that my mileage is less by about one mpg than
my ’96, 3500, 12-valve truck, 3.54 ratio, five-speed. Oh,
did I mention I drive the ’99 truck faster than the old ’96?
Ah… but the ’96 dually was heavier by 600 pounds. Apples
and oranges? Does it matter? I’m very pleased with the
mileage of the ’99 truck.
Something Borrowed
From the BSFC curves we can determine the engine’s ideal
cruise rpm. To seek a lower cruising rpm is sound advice.
Couple the low rpm with Mr. Cummins’ experience (sidebar
article) with a reasonable exhaust gas temperature of 600°
or less, and the fuel economy picture becomes very clear.
However, it takes a series of gear changes to get up to
travel speed, the tarmac is not a pancake flat surface, and
the wind and weather can play havoc with our quest for
fuel mileage.
The caution to cruising at a lower rpm is the opportunity
for the exhaust gas temperature to skyrocket on a grade
or against a head wind. The benefits of an exhaust
gas temperature gauge are discussed in the following
commentary by Bruce Mallinson. Bruce is the owner of
118
Diesel Injection, Pittsburgh, PA, phone (724) 274-4080,
and has previously written for the TDR. Something
borrowed... the following text by Bruce Mallinson:
Common Sense/Exhaust gas Temperature
When running at the lower rpm there is less airflow through
the engine. If exhaust gas temperatures – read, your right
foot goes through the floorboard for more than 5-8 seconds
while trying to maintain the low rpm/high gear cruise speed
– moves to the danger zone (1000º for engines when the
temperature sensor is installed after the turbocharger,
1250º for the sensor in the exhaust manifold prior to the
turbocharger. Interesting note: aluminum pistons, as used
in your engine, have a melting point of approximately
1250º. Granted the pistons are cooled by a spray of oil
from the underside, but exceed the 1250º/1000º caution for
any length of time and you’ll understand what “meltdown”
means.), then downshift to pull air through the engine and
cool the exhaust temperature.
Common Sense/Turbo Boost
We can use a vacuum gauge on an automobile to monitor
the air/fuel being sucked into the engine. The less the
vacuum, the fewer miles per gallon of fuel. For our Turbo
Diesel we can use turbocharger boost to check the air being
forced into the engine. The greater the boost, the fewer
the miles per gallon. The TDR talked extensively about
turbochargers, boost, boost specifications and an engine
“check-up” in Issue 17, pages 48-49. My summary of the
two pages of text: Turbo boost is simply compressed air
produced by the turbocharger and forced through an air-toair charge air cooler. Then the compressed air goes into the
intake manifold to be delivered to the combustion chamber.
Without a boost, your truck is dead. It takes a tremendous
amount of oxygen to burn diesel fuel. The only way the
engine will run without turbo boost is at idle or slightly above
idle. The truck will move along in first gear with light throttle.
Anything over that will result in horrendous black smoke
(unburned fuel) from the exhaust pipe.
Every turbocharged engine should have a turbo boost
gauge. This is the most important gauge on the instrument
panel because it lets you know how much power you’re
using, and it also lets you know that the engine is getting
the proper amount of oxygen from the turbocharger.
On your Turbo Diesel engine there are 14 gaskets, eight
hose clamps, four hoses, one O-ring, and one aluminum
air-to-air charge air cooler (it resembles a radiator and is
welded together). If any of these items fail, the compressed
air being produced by the turbocharger will be vented into
the atmosphere and the EGT will skyrocket. If the EGT
gets too high, a piston will fail or the engine will have a
meltdown.
As a rule of thumb, one pound of boost is equivalent to
about 10 flywheel horsepower, so when you’re pulling a
mountain you can control how much power (fuel economy)
you’re using simply by watching the boost gauge.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
The boost gauge and the pyrometer are great diagnostic
tools for determining power losses. If your boost is low and
the pyrometer gauge is running high, it’s telling you that turbo
boost is being lost. If the boost is low and the pyrometer, or
EGT, is low, then there is likely a fuel restriction.
Something To Remember
It takes fuel to make turbo boost, and it takes boost to
control the exhaust gas temperature. If you call a dealer
with a power problem, the first question from the shop
to the owner should be, “What is the boost pressure and
the EGT when pulling a hill?” If you can’t answer those
questions, then you will be spending a lot of money on
troubleshooting. Reference the accompanying chart for
the specifications.
12-valve engines (‘94 - ‘98), automatice transmission
160, 175, 180 horsepower
15-18 psi
12-valve engines ( ‘96 - ‘98), five-speed transmission
215 horsepower
21-23 psi
24-valve engines (‘98.5 - current), automatic or manual
215, 235, 245 horsepower
20-22 psi
One more important aspect of the turbo boost gauge: I’m
sure you’ve noticed how difficult it is for your pickup pulling
your fifth-wheel to buck a strong head wind. It is possible to
have an EGT of 1300º and be on level ground while pushing
through a 35 mph head or side wind while trying to maintain
60-70 mph. Normally, let’s say that your truck requires 11
pounds of turbo boost to maintain your average cruising
speed on the level without head wind. Now with the 35 mph
head wind, it takes 22 pounds of boost and a high EGT to
maintain the same speed. What should you do?
Slow Down And Shift
The first thing the driver should do is slow down and shift out
of overdrive and into direct gear. Much more horsepower
goes to the rear wheels in direct than overdrive. At the lower
speed less boost is required, the EGT will be lower, the fuel
mileage will increase and the wear and tear on the engine
will be much less. Head wind or side wind is an engine and
fuel mileage killer. Adjust the speed by trying to keep the
boost gauge as low as possible along with maintaining a
reasonable speed until you are out of the wind.
When the wind is at your back, you can speed along using
little boost; the EGT is low at 600-800º and the fuel mileage
is great.
Learning to drive with the boost gauge and pyrometer
gauge will increase your driving pleasure, increase the
fuel mileage and also increase the engine’s life. My shop,
Diesel Injection, can help with a wide selection of turbo
boost, EGT, and temperature gauges.
Bruce Mallinson
Diesel Injection of Pittsburg
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
119
your truCk And the Boost treAdmiLL
Boost specifications: The TDR magazine has often been
criticized for being too technical, I should take an opportunity
to explain why the maximum boost specification is important
to an owner.
I searched the archives for an easy-to-understand article
on turbocharger boost. The following is a quick review of
turbocharger basics.
TURBO BASICS
The principle behind a turbocharger is simple: get more
power from the engine without increasing the engine’s size.
To increase engine power, you start by adding more and
more fuel. But soon, you’d be wasting fuel, because the
fuel needs air to burn. Technically, it needs the oxygen in
the air to burn.
In a naturally aspirated engine, the air is pulled from the
atmospheric pressure surrounding the engine into the
combustion chamber on the intake stroke of the cycle.
At sea level there are .016 pounds of oxygen per cubic foot.
At higher altitudes, air is thinner and there’s less oxygen.
For example, at 5,000 feet there’s only .010 pounds of
oxygen per cubic foot. So, at higher altitudes there’s a
greater demand for air to supply an engine with oxygen. A
turbocharger is the solution.
In the simplest of analogies, think of a turbocharger as two
pinwheels connected, back-to-back, via a common shaft.
As you blow on one wheel, the other wheel turns too.
Inside a turbocharger, exhaust gases flow out of the
combustion chambers into the turbine housing. The exhaust
gas is channeled to the pin wheel, causing the pin wheel
“turbine” to rotate.
The turbine wheel turns a common shaft which is connected
to a pin wheel on the fresh air side of the turbocharger,
known as the “compressor.”
The compressor wheel blades draw filtered air into the
compressor housing, raising the air’s density and pressure,
as the air is forced into the engine. More air mixed with
more fuel equals more power.
As you add air/fuel to the engine it makes more power. The
temperature and flow of the exhaust gas increases. With
the increased exhaust flow and temperature, the exhaust
pin wheel (turbine) spins faster. Thus, the intake pin wheel
(compressor) pressurizes (boosts) more air into the engine.
More air/fuel to the engine makes more power, creates
additional exhaust flow and temperature... Get the picture?
BOOST DIAgNOSTICS
How can we use the engine’s “boost” to diagnose engine
performance? There are specifications for boost for
the various engines which have been and are in current
production. Keep in mind that it takes fuel and air to make
power and boost. If the engine meets the boost specification,
the power is there and it passes the “Boost Treadmill test.”
At this juncture it is tempting to generalize the data.
However, I’ll avoid the temptation and research the boost
specification for a given engine build or, in Cumminsspeak, control parts list (CPL). The Cummins CPL is a
number that spells out key components (fuel pump settings,
turbochargers, cylinder heads, pistons, etc.) used in the
engine. The following detailed table presents the data.
Model Year
hP@RPM
Torque @
RPM
CPL
Transmission Comments
Boost
Specification
‘89 – ‘91
160@2500
400@1600
804
Auto/Manual
22-25
‘91.5 – ‘92
160@2500
400@1600
1351
Auto/Manual
Mid-year intercooler
15-19
‘92.5 – ’93
160@2500
400@1600
1579
Auto/Manual
Mid-year change
15-19
‘94
12-Valve
160@2500
400@1600
1815
Auto
15-18
175@2500
420@1600
1816
Manual
15-18
‘94.5
12-Valve
160@2500
400@1600
1549
Auto
DOC
15-18
175@2500
420@1600
1550
Manual
DOC
15-18
‘95
12-Valve
160@2500
400@1600
1959
Auto
DOC
15-18
175@2500
420@1600
1550
Manual
DOC
15-18
DOC = diesel oxidation catalyst
120
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Model Year
hP@RPM
Torque @
RPM
CPL
Transmission Comments
Boost
Specification
‘95.5
12-Valve
160@2500
400@1600
1968
Auto
mid-year change DOC
15-18
175@2500
420@1600
1550
Manual
mid-year change DOC
15-18
180@2500
420@1600
2022
Auto
EPA – DOC
19
215@2600
440@1600
2023
Manual
EPA – DOC
25
180@2500
420@1600
1863
Auto/Manual
CARB – DOC and EGR
19
180@2500
420@1600
2174
Auto
EPA
19
215@2600
440@1600
2175
Manual
EPA
25
180@2500
420@1600
2308
Auto/Manual
CARB – DOC and EGR
19
215@2700
420@1600
2098/2513 Auto
EPA
18
2280/2515 Auto
CARB
18
2024/2512 Manual
EPA
18
2279/2514 Manual
CARB
18
2617
EPA
18
CARB
18
EPA
18
CARB
18
EPA
18
CARB
18
EPA
18
CARB
18
EPA
19.5
CARB
19.5
EPA
19.5
CARB
19.5
EPA
19.5
CARB
19.5
EPA
19.5
CARB
19.5
EPA
19.5
CARB
19.5
EPA
19.5
CARB
19.5
CARB – DOC
23
‘96
12-Valve
‘96.5 – ‘98
12-Valve
‘98.5
24-Valve
235@2700
420@1600
215@2700
420@1600
235@2700
460@1600
215@2700
420@1600
‘99
24-Valve
‘00
24-Valve
235@2700
460@1600
2619
2616
2618
2660
2661
2662
2663
2865/2902
235@2700
460@1600
‘01
24-Valve
2866/2903
2496/2904
2497/2905
245@2700
505@1600
2415/2906
2495/2907
8030
235@2700
460@1600
‘02
24-Valve
‘03
5.9 hPCR
8031
8032
8033
235@2700
505@1600
235@2700
460@1400
250@2900
460@1400
305@2900
555@1400
8034
8035
8216
Auto
Manual
Auto
Manual
Auto
5 Manual
6 Manual
Auto
5 Manual
6 Manual
47RE Auto
8224
5 Manual
2624
48RE Auto
8223
5 Manual
2998
6 Manual
“
“
EPA – Non-Catalyst
23
23
“
“
23
“
“
26
DOC = diesel oxidation catalyst
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
121
Model Year
‘03
5.9 hPCR
’03.5
5.9 hPCR
hP@RPM
Torque @
RPM
235@2700
460@1400
250@2900
460@1400
305@2900
555@1400
235@2700
460@1400
250@2900
460@1400
305@2900
555@1400
235@2700
460@1400
‘04
5.9 hPCR
305@2900
’04.5
5.9 hPCR
325@2900
555@1400
600@1600
CPL
Transmission Comments
Boost
Specification
8216
47RE Auto
23
8224
5 Manual
2624
47RE Auto
8223
5 Manual
“
“
23
2998
6 Manual
“
“
26
8410
48RE Auto
8412
5 Manual
8212
48RE Auto
8226
5 Manual
“
“
23
8228
6 Manual
“
“
26
8213
48RE Auto
“
“
26
8412
48RE Auto
8412
6 Manual
8213
48RE Auto
8228
6 Manual
8350
6 Manual
8351
8346
8347
8423
’05
5.9 hPCR
325@2900
610@1600
8424
8421
8422
8348
’06
5.9 hPCR
325@2900
610@1600
8349
8344
8345
1091
’07
5.9 hPCR
325@2900
610@1600
1095
1000
1083
610@1600
’07.5
6.7 Pickup
350@3000
650@1600
8233
8234
8230
8231
8232
’07.5
6.7L Cab/
Chassis
305@2900
610@1600
1264
2885
1257
DOC = diesel oxidationcatalyst
122
NAC = NOx absorption catalyst
“
48RE Auto
“
6 Manual
“
48RE Auto
“
6 Manual
“
48RE Auto
“
6 Manual
“
48RE Auto
“
6 Manual
“
68RFE Auto
“
6 Manual
“
Aisin Auto
“
CARB – DOC
“
“
23
EPA – Non-Catalyst
23
CARB – DOC
“
23
“
23
EPA – Non-Catalyst
23
CARB – DOC
“
23
“
23
EPA – Non-Catalyst
“
“
26
“
26
EPA – DOC
30
CARB – DOC
30
EPA – DOC
30
CARB – DOC
30
EPA – DOC
30
CARB – DOC
30
EPA – DOC
30
CARB – DOC
30
EPA – DOC
30
CARB – DOC
30
EPA – DOC
30
CARB – DOC
30
EPA – DOC
30
CARB – DOC
30
EPA – DOC
30
CARB – DOC
30
EPA – DOC/NAC/DPF
28*
CARB – DOC/NAC/DPF
28*
EPA – DOC/NAC/DPF
28*
CARB – DOC/NAC/DPF
28*
EPA – DOC/NAC/DPF
26*
CARB – DOC/NAC/DPF
26*
EPA – DOC/NAC/DPF
26*
CARB
26*
DPF = diesel particulate filter
– DOC/NAC/DPF
SCR = selective catalyst reduction (urea)
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Torque @
RPM
CPL
Transmission Comments
Boost
Specification
610@1600
1489
6 Manual
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
28*
650@1600
1490
68RFE Auto
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
28*
8235
6 Manual
All States DOC/DPF
26*
2886
Aisin Auto
All States DOC/DPF
26*
610@1600
1489
6 Manual
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
28*
650@1600
1490
68RFE Auto
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
28*
2780
6 Manual
All States DOC/DPF
26*
2775
Aisin Auto
All States DOC/DPF
26*
2779
6 Manual
All States DOC/DPF
26*
2774
Aisin Auto
All States DOC/DPF
26*
Model Year
hP@RPM
’08
6.7 Pickup
350@3000
’08
Cab/Chassis
305@2900
’09
6.7 Pickup
350@3000
’09 3500 Cab/
Chassis
305@2900
’09 4500-5500
Cab/Chassis
305@2900
’10
6.7 Pickup
350@3000
’10 3500 Cab/
Chassis
305@2900
610@1600
’10 4500-5500
Cab/Chassis
305@2900
610@1600
’11
6.7 Pickup
350@3000
’11.5
6.7 Pickup
(hO)
610@1600
610@1600
610@1600
610@1600
6 Manual
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
28*
650@1600
68RFE Auto
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
28*
6 Manual
All States
26*
Aisin Auto
All States
26*
6 Manual
All States
26*
Aisin Auto
All States
26*
610@1400
Manual
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
28*
650@1600
68RFE Auto
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
28*
350@3000
800@1600
68RFE Auto
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
28*
’11
Cab/Chassis
305@2900
610@1600
Manual
All States SCR System
26*
Aisin Auto
All States SCR System
26*
’12
6.7 Pickup
350@3000
’12
Cab/Chassis
305@2900
DOC = diesel oxidationcatalyst
610@1400
Manual
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
28*
800@1600
68RFE Auto
All States DOC/NAC/DPF
28*
610@1600
NAC = NOx absorption catalyst
Manual
All States SCR System
26*
Aisin Auto
All States SCR System
26*
DPF = diesel particulate filter
SCR = selective catalyst reduction (urea)
*The boost numbers for the ‘07.5 and newer 6.7 liter engine applications are approximate.
There can be variance based on the amount of exhaust gas recirculation in the intake air, the intake
through the opening and variable geometry turbocharger’s position.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
123
As a side note, did you notice how uncluttered the table was
in the early years? Compliance with emissions leglislation
can make things complicated.
Now that you have the specifications in hand—wait a minute,
you don’t have a boost gauge? This instrument is easy to
source, relatively cheap ($40-$60) and easy to install. The
majority of gauges on the market are mechanical devices
that do not require electricity to operate. To put a gauge
in, one can use a “boost bolt” to access the pressurized
intake air.
How did your truck perform on the boost test we suggested?
If your truck didn’t seem up-to-par there are several simple
checks you can do before you take the truck to a service
location. The following are some of the do-it-yourself areas
to check:
• Check for quality of fuel.
• Check for full travel of the throttle lever at the fuel pump.
• Check all turbo to intercooler, intercooler to intake
manifold hoses and clamps for a tight fit.
• Check the condition of your fuel filter.
• Check for fuel inlet restriction.
• Check the condition of your air filter.
• Check for exhaust leaks prior to turbocharger.
• Check for exhaust system restriction.
• For automatic trucks, check your transmission fluid level.
As mentioned, with a gauge installed you can use the boost
readings as a diagnostic check of the engine’s performance.
The engine will need to see a full throttle, loaded condition
in order to make its maximum boost number. The easiest
way to do this is to drive the truck up a hill. No hills in
Kansas? Apply the brakes to load the engine.
124
Hopefully our discussion on boost specifications and
the use of turbo boost as a diagnostic tool will help you
to ensure the best performance of your truck. Happy
motoring.
Robert Patton
TDR Staff
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
BuyinG A used truCk
By Jim Anderson
When you buy a new truck, you are protected by a
manufacturer’s warranty and the integrity of the dealer from
whom you purchase. When buying a used vehicle, you are
much less protected by the law and frequently will have
no warranty from a manufacturer to fall back on in case
of a problem. Therefore you must be much more careful
in inspecting your intended purchase. The benefits to the
used truck purchase: the vehicle cost is less than new, used
trucks typically have had the “new vehicle” bugs fixed, and
they represent greater value for the dollar since the initial
depreciation has already been taken by the first owner.
A whole market has sprung up in the last few years for used
Dodge/Cummins Turbo Diesel trucks, fueled in part by the
high cost of a new one, and by the fact that even trucks
with high mileage have lots of life left in them due to the
legendary reliability and durability of the Cummins diesel.
This has had a side benefit in that used Dodge/Cummins
trucks have retained a greater percentage of their resale
value than the average for all diesel trucks, and they
command high prices on used vehicle lots. This means you
may pay more for your truck but will get more for it when
you eventually become a seller. A well maintained truck
with high mileage should not be disregarded as a good
value, since with good regular maintenance these trucks
can reliably run half a million miles and more!
Vehicle purchasing can be divided into two parts. One is
buying the metal, and the other is buying the money used
for the purchase. Your goal as a used truck purchaser is to
get both parts right.
How do you select just the right truck, and how do you make
sure it has been well maintained? You surely don’t want to
buy a “lemon” when an engine can cost upwards of $7,000,
a new transmission can cost upwards of $3,500, and a
P-7100 rebuilt injection pump can cost you $1,400. Here are
some buying tips to help you find just the right one for you!
Keep in mind that this is likely the second largest purchase
you’ll ever make, second only to a home. Some folks spend
more on their transportation in their lifetime than they spend
on housing. While you may live in one place your entire life,
the average owner trades vehicles once every five years.
Every dollar saved on the purchase price of either a home
or a vehicle will also save on interest dollars paid back
if you are getting a loan. So a dollar saved may actually
amount to as much as $1.25 over the life of the loan.
Inform Yourself
Before you ever set foot on a dealer lot or peruse the want
ads, take the time to familiarize yourself with the various
models and options offered by the manufacturer, and see
how they match your intended use. Narrow your search
down to those models and model years which fit your budget
and which will do the intended job. Select only those models
with the options you want. Make a list of specifications, keep
it with you during your search, and keep to your list.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
For example, if you determine you want a truck for
hauling and towing, but want an extended cab model
with SLT interior, do the research to find which models
and options are required to tow the intended weight,
then stick to inspecting trucks which meet those criteria.
Your familiarization session will lead you to ask the right
questions when you visit the dealer lot or make contact
with private sellers.
Next, check the used vehicle value guides. Most banks
and other agencies that make car loans will have a variety
of used vehicle value guides such as the Kelly Blue Book
or NADA book that list wholesale, retail, and loan values
for each model, each accessory, and offer mileage
compensation factors. These books are filled with option
facts and regional pricing, so can serve as a useful guide
to true worth. For those with a computer, walk your fingers
across a computer keyboard and visit the various web sites
that offer needed information. These include Kelly Blue
Book (kbb.com), NADA used truck guide (NADA.com),
carprice.com, edmunds.com, and others. The dot com
sites often track actual prices paid for trucks in your area
or in a nearby metropolitan area.
If you want to research a particular truck, web sites exist
that allow you to check a particular serial numbered truck
for lost, stolen, totaled, reconstructed, etc, titles (carfax.
com) for a nominal fee. You can also determine if a vehicle
has been included in federal safety recalls by visiting
several other sites. Mining information from the web can be
rewarding, though time consuming, but the more thorough
your research at this stage, the more informed you will
become as a buyer.
Now is also the time to make a call to your automobile
insurance agent for a rate quote to make sure there are
no after-the-purchase unpleasant surprises in this part of
truck ownership.
If you plan to get a loan for the vehicle, now is also a good
time to shop around for the best interest rate and payment
plans, and to get approval for the loan. It is as important to
shop for the cost of money as it is to negotiate a good price
for the truck. After you have done your research, then it is
finally time to go looking for just the right truck! You now
have a pretty good idea of what you want, what you might
have to pay, and how you’re going to pay for it.
My advice is to buy the latest model truck with the lowest
mileage that you can afford. The newer the truck, the lower
the maintenance and repair costs are likely to be over time.
Look for a well-maintained “cream puff.” They’re out there,
but it is up to you to find them.
Inspection Time
In looking at a used vehicle, don’t be dazzled by surface
shine. Look behind the shine to uncover a vehicle’s true
condition. Look at the truck’s overall cleanliness. There
is a difference in appearance between a good cleanup
125
job and continuous regular cleaning over the truck’s life
to the present. Look at the interior for worn carpets and
upholstery. (The editor’s favorite place to check for attention
to detail cleanliness—the door jambs. A clean door jamb
typically indicates a vehicle that has been fanatically
maintained.) Wear should be commensurate with mileage.
Look underneath the body for caked mud and dirt. This
indicates off-road operation or an unintentional trip into the
ditch. Look under the hood. Lots of dirt can indicate severe
use and little maintenance.
problem or problems repeatedly? Is the owner simply selling
a vehicle that is no longer needed? It is up to you to find out.
Check for worn or chafed hoses, oil leaks, coolant leaks,
etc. Pull the dipsticks and check fluid colors and condition.
If you’re buying from a dealer, ask the owner what
the mileage was at turn in time and on what date the
vehicle was turned in. If the truck has been in a dealer’s
possession for a while, has it been used for hauling chores
with no maintenance? Have other potential buyers shied
away from it for some reason not readily evident? Find out
why. Ask the former owner what maintenance has been
performed and when, and if the truck has been wrecked.
What was it used for? Was it satisfactory for that use? If the
owner has maintenance records, arrange to pick them up
if you buy the truck.
Sight down the body sides to see if the panels are smooth.
If they’re wavy, the truck has been wrecked, and further
inspection underneath will reveal the severity of the
accident. Paint color differences between panels and or
variations in body seam gaps also indicate a wreck in the
truck’s past.
Inspect tires for uneven wear to determine if there are
suspension or axle problems. This can also be an indicator
of improperly repaired wreck damage.
Finishing Up
Look for lube drips from the underside of the engine,
transmission and axles. Seal repairs may have to be made.
A light oil drip or evidence of misting near the engine road
draft tube is normal. Look in the glove box and console to
see if any maintenance receipts or records have been left
behind and compare them with what you see. Go for a ride
and note if the engine idles smoothly and pulls strongly. Do
the transmission and clutch work as intended? Does the
automatic transmission shift without slipping or “hanging
between gears”? Do the brakes pull to one side? Does the
truck steer correctly?
You’ve done the research, negotiated the price, and now
it is time to exchange dollars for the vehicle. The job’s not
done until the paperwork is finished—and the paperwork
had better be right! If buying from a dealer, you should
receive a bill of sale and certification of the odometer
reading, along with several other pieces of paper, which
will vary by state. Usually the dealer will apply for a new
title in your name. If buying from a private individual, you
should receive a clear title signed over to you by the owner.
You will then take the title to your vehicle registration place
to get a new title in your name.
While driving, note if there is excessive smoke from the
exhaust. Black smoke indicates overfueling or a clogged
air filter. White or gray smoke indicates excessive oil
getting by the piston rings or an injection pump problem. A
puff of smoke of any color at startup is normal, but should
abate when the engine warms.
Either a bill of sale from a dealer or a signed title from the
owner should be placed in your hands at the time you give
them your check—no exceptions, and no excuses by the
seller. Remember, the job’s not done until the paperwork
is right!
Walk around the truck immediately after the ride and note
any smells of hot dragging brakes or leaking fuel. A hot oil
smell can indicate an oil leak onto the exhaust system.
Don’t be embarrassed to ask to put the truck up on a lift for
a more thorough inspection, or to take the truck to a trusted
mechanic for a professional inspection. A professional
independent inspection for a fee is cheap insurance that
you are making a wise purchase decision. After you are
fully satisfied that the truck is what it is represented to be,
move on to the next step.
Contact the Owner
There are many possible reasons why this particular truck
came to be for sale, and it is up to you to determine the true
reason. Is the owner financially able to afford a new vehicle
with more fancy gadgets, or was the owner tired of fixing a
126
When you find a likely candidate and your search narrows
to a specific vehicle you may want to buy, consult your list
again to make sure it meets all criteria. First on your “to
do” list following a second general walk-around inspection
and a ride-and-drive session of a particular truck should be
some research to find out who the former owner was and
initiate a conversation.
Make sure the serial number on all paperwork agrees with
the serial number stamped into the left front corner of the
dashboard. Paperwork mistakes in this area are frequent
and hard to correct later.
Before driving your new purchase home, call your insurance
agent to insurance. Failure to do so could have disastrous
consequences just down the road.
Finally, if there is any remaining warranty on the vehicle, be
sure to fill out and send in the paperwork to get it transferred
to you. If the truck is less than five years old and has less
than 100,000 miles on the odometer, you should transfer
the remaining engine warranty. That’s it. You now own your
new (to you) truck, and if you have researched fully and
purchased carefully, you’ll have many miles of enjoyable
cruisin’ ahead of you.
jim Anderson
TDR Writer
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
WhAt does eVery turBo dieseL oWner
need to knoW
by Robert Patton
I am reminded daily that “the world is going digital.”
Perhaps so, but as the last of an older breed I enjoy sitting
in the EZ chair and reading the newspaper and periodical
magazines.
Always on the lookout for interesting ideas that serve as
an inspiration to write, I noted an article in the American
Motorcycle Association’s American Motorcyclist titled,
“What Does Every Motorcyclist Need to Know?”
Shazam! Change the title to “What Does Every Turbo
Diesel Owner Need to Know?” and I’ve got the basis for a
good article. So, here goes…
TDR Related Items
First things first—you’ve got the magazine in hand and I
thank you for your subscription. Now that I have paid due
tribute, this resource article is going to direct you to the
TDR’s web site (www.tdr1.com) because I’m guessing that
you may not be aware of the wealth of information that is
available to you.
Once at the TDR’s main page, look to the left and notice
the heading “MAGAZINE.” Scroll down to “Technical FAQs”
and print the file. Read the FAQs and you’ll be on your way
to shedding the title of “diesel newbie.”
Do you want to impress your neighbor with your knowledge
of year-by-year, model-by-model changes to the truck?
Or, do you have a specific question about gear ratios or
horsepower and torque ratings for a given year? Tab down
to “Buyer’s Guide” and the 150+ page (we’re continuously
adding to the Buyer’s Guide) PDF file is available for you to
download. This book is a real gem.
With an eye on the basics one has to realize that your
truck’s Owner’s Manual holds a wealth of information.
From remote key lock reprogramming (some models),
to tire inflation pressures, to the fluid capacities... the
standing joke among TDR staff members is that there
would not be a need for the TDR if owners would consult
their Owner’s Manual.
Kidding aside, the Owner’s Manual is an excellent resource
book and it covers the lubricants and fluids needed in
your truck. The catch: often the Owner’s Manual only
gives the Chrysler/Mopar specification or part number for
a fluid. Should you want to source a generic fluid (read:
less expensive), you will again find the TDR’s Turbo Diesel
Buyer’s Guide to be a great resource. A quick thumb to the
index shows the title “Liquids in Your Truck” and this article
is helpful in your search for lower cost consumable items.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Lower cost is always an important matter. Go back to
the Buyer’s Guide index and note the title “Part Number
Reference.” This chart gives oil, fuel and air filter
crossover numbers; belt and hose numbers; and other
miscellaneous parts. Use the chart wisely and save some
additional money.
If I’ve not yet convinced you that the TDR Buyer’s Guide
is an excellent resource, there is another chapter that is
worthwhile to those looking for performance specifications.
Take a look at “Your Truck and the Boost Treadmill” and
you’ll see what I mean. Other noteworthy chapters: Most
Common Problems, Preventive Maintenance, Mechanics
Tips, and Memorable TDR Articles.
Have you encountered a problem with your truck that you
think may have been previously discussed? While you’re
at the TDR’s web site, tab down to “Magazine Index” and
you’ll be able to print files and then search for the TDR
magazine’s chapter-and-verse coverage of a problem, a
gadget or a gizmo. My thanks to Bob and Jeannette Vallier
for providing this valuable resource for us.
Still plagued with a problem or have an unanswered
question? If you’ve not yet activated your username and
password at the TDR’s web site, now is an excellent time
to do so. Log on to the members’ “Discussion Forums” and
ask the helpful TDR membership.
Enough about the technical information found at the TDR’s
web site; what else does every Turbo Diesel owner need
to know? For an in-depth look at the truck there is nothing
better than a factory service manual. Back in the early
90s the book was one volume and maybe 500 pages. The
latest service manual is not even offered in print, it is a
$120 CD. The last print versions were 10 volumes and
$450. An alternate source is the Haynes manuals at about
350 pages for $18. Both the factory manuals and Haynes
books can be found at Geno’s Garage (800) 755-1715 or
www.genosgarage.com.
Factory Technical Service Bulletins (TSBs)
For a quick look at TSBs you can look at page 54 of this
magazine or go to the TDR’s web site and tab down to
“Dodge Technical Service Bulletins” and take a look
through the archives. Alternately the 150+ page pdf file
“Turbo Diesel Buyer’s Guide” (that you previously printed?)
has the same TSB summary.
127
Chrysler’s TechAuthority – An Outstanding Resource
The TDR’s list of technical service bulletins is provided as
a service to the membership. We recognize and observe
copyright, and our listing is only a summary of the TSB.
If you need the entire text you can visit your dealer and
discuss the referenced TSB number. Alternately, you
can log onto Chrysler’s TechAuthority website (www.
techauthority.com) and you can purchase all of the TSBs
that may apply to your truck based on your truck’s vehicle
identification number (VIN). This service is $20 and the
information is invaluable.
More about TechAuthority: I spent several days putting
together the TSB summary for this year. While I was at the
TechAuthority web site using the VIN for my ’07.5 Turbo
diesel truck, I noted the tab “Service Info.” I clicked onto
it and I was amazed at the wealth of information that was
available.
I could look up front end alignment specifications. I could
review the flywheel runout specifications. I looked up the
removal of upper and lower control arms. I looked up the
removal of the drive shaft center bearing. I looked up the
troublesome diagnostic trouble code (DTC) P0106 that
randomly occurs on my truck.
Then it hit me: it appears that the entire service manual for
my truck was/is available for my viewing for the $20 daily
fee. To confirm my assumption I called Tech Authority and
verified that the information that I was viewing was, in fact,
from the factory service manual.
More accolades for TechAuthority: I mentioned the P0106
code that randomly occurs on my ’07.5 truck. I was armed
with several VINs, so I did some research to see how a ’07
truck with the 5.9-liter engine might differ from my ’07.5
truck with the 6.7-liter engine. I started with a search on
my truck with the 6.7. Using “Service Info,” I scrolled down
to item “28 DTC Based Diagnostics,” then scrolled down to
“MODULE, Engine Control (ECM) 6.7L.”
Next: Diagnostics and Testing
P0217 – Coolant Temperature Too High results in, “during
this time the customer may experience an engine power
derate.”
P242F – Diesel Particulate Filter Restriction – Ash
Accumulation results in, “If the vehicle’s EVIC massage
center notification is ignored, the engine will eventually
derate and set a DTC and MIL lamp.”
I searched for others, but these were the only two that
I came across in my quick review. Elsewhere in this
magazine (page 91, “Make It Go Away”) you can read
further my frustration with DTC codes and engine derate or
damage implications.
The Boy Scouts
Other things you need to know? Were you a Boy Scout?
It is always a good idea to be prepared. A “boonie box”
of spare parts to carry around under the seat is a good
idea. My spares: a fuel filter, belt, belt tensioner, hoses,
thermostat and a small tool kit. By the way, a spare
key hidden underneath the truck has saved me from
inconvenience many times.
Summary
My review of the magazine, the TDR’s web site and the
TDR Turbo Diesel Buyer’s Guide has convinced me that
this membership group is your best resource. My sincere
thanks to all of the members that have helped answer what
every owner needs to know on the TDR’s active web site
message boards. Also, Chrysler’s TechAuthority is an
excellent web site location for information. And now, I’m at
a loss for further recommendations. So, thumb-through the
magazine to see what other TDR writers had to say about
what every owner needs to know.
Robert Patton
TDR Staff
Next: P0106
I was amazed at the information on code P0106. There
was a Theory of Operation; When Monitored; Possible
Causes; and a Service Tree.
I did the same for the ’07 truck with the 5.9-liter engine and
there was much less information. So, for owners of the ’07.5
and newer trucks with 6.7-liter engines, there is a world of
information that awaits at the TechAuthority web site.
A side note to the 6.7-liter audience: As I reviewed the
“Theory of Operation” for my P0106, the write up motivated
me to look at other codes with a focus on whether the code
has a derate-effect on the engine. For example, I found
these two derate codes:
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A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
the driving Force Behind the Changes to the
Cummins engine/meaningful Abbreviations
by Robert Patton
EPA, NOx, PM, SCR, EGR, DPF, NAC, VGT, ULSD, HPCR,
HCCI, NMHC, ACERT, TITT: Can you pick the abbreviation
that is non-diesel, non-emissions related? It’s easy, TITT
as in “throw in the towel.” The balance of the abbreviations
serves to bewilder your diligent scribe. However, with a
new round of diesel exhaust emission legislation less
than two years away and with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel
(abbreviation: ULSD), due in the summer of ’06, it is
appropriate that we understand what the abbreviations will
mean to the diesel enthusiast.
As TDR subscribers know, emission legislation dates are
the driving force in the changes to the Cummins engine
hardware. To make a boring story into a relevant topic, the
subject matter has to address “what does it mean to me?”
The best way to answer this question is to crank-up the
way-back machine to Issue 40 and look at the progression
of the ever-tightening emissions standards.
After we review the material which answers the question,
“what does it mean to me?” material, I’ll attempt to tie the big
picture together with a look at those annoying abbreviations
and what is on the horizon for 2006 and 2007.
Boring Stuff?
While it might be tempting to skip through this subtitle,
I’ll ask for your concentrated efforts as we simplify
(oversimplify?) the two emissions components that
concern the diesel engineer: oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and
particulate matter (PM). The following paragraphs may
provide us a more informed understanding of these two
emissions components.
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)
• One of the primary regulated pollutants from diesel
engines.
• Reacts with hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight to
form ozone.
• Formed by reaction between nitrogen and oxygen in the
combustion chamber.
• NOx formation increases with higher combustion
temperature and cylinder pressures.
• Methods of reduction include lower intake manifold
temperature, lower in-cylinder temperature, retarded
fuel injection and combustion optimization. Any incylinder approach to NOx reduction involves lowering the
temperature and limiting the time of the combustion event.
• Potential impacts can be higher fuel consumption and
requirement of a more complex cooling system.
Note the sharp, ten-fold drop in emissions from year 2004 to 2007. I recall that one of the first TDR magazines stated that
emissions were the driving force behind changes to the diesel engine. The 2007 emissions targets nail home that statement.
Certainly ultra-low sulfur fuel will help, but the engineering it will take to meet the targets is difficult to imagine.
12
0.7
NOx Federal
10
0.6
PM
0.5
gm/bhp-hr
8
6
4
0.4
0.3
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
2007
2004
2002
1998
1994
1991
1990
1988
2007
2004
2002
1998
1994
0
1991
0
1990
0.1
1988
2
1985
0.2
1985
gm/bhp-hr
NOx California
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Particulate Matter (PM)
• Often visible as black smoke.
• Formed when insufficient air or low combustion
temperature prohibits complete combustion of the free
carbon.
• Primarily partially burned fuel and lube oil.
• Methods of control include oil consumption reduction,
catalytic converters, combustion system development
and higher fuel injection pressures.
To oversimplify, think back to last winter and the many
fireside evenings you enjoyed. As you built the fire, there
was inefficient combustion, characterized by black smoke
and not much heat generation. Thirty minutes into the
exercise you were sitting back in the easy chair, with a
raging fire, no more black smoke, a beautiful yellow and
blue flame, and lots of heat.
Now, refer back to the NOx and PM bullet statements and
reflect on the following: the design engineers could control
particulates (PM) by raising the combustion efficiency
(temperatures and pressures). But, raising temperatures
and pressures causes the formation of oxides of nitrogen
(NOx) to go out of the emissions box. Likewise, efficiency
and heat of combustion can be sacrificed to meet the NOx
legislation, but the particulates go out of the emissions box.
How does the engineer get the teeter-totter level?
As an interesting sidenote, NOx not only is formed in
internal combustion engines, it is the result of elevating the
temperature of air—made up of 79% Nitrogen and 21%
Oxygen—high enough for the reaction to occur. One of
the most significant sources of NOx formation in nature
is lightning.
The reaction that forms NOx is also time related; the longer
the temperature remains elevated, the greater the level of
NOx formation.
In the diesel engine, NOx formation can be correlated to
engine performance; the higher the rate of formation, the
more efficient the engine. As most are aware, the impact
of reducing NOx emissions is increased fuel consumption,
which is the result of reduced efficiency.
For a good demonstration of the principle, consider that
in-cylinder temperatures are much higher on two-stroke
engines because fuel is provided on every stroke. Also,
consider the lack of oil control that contributes to too many
particulate emissions. These factors made it impossible for
two-stroke engines to meet emission targets and maintain
fuel consumption and other performance targets. The
1988 on-highway emissions regulations were the final
blow to the two-stroke diesel in trucking applications. Twostroke diesels are now only produced for off-highway and
generator set markets.
The method of attack in reducing NOx formation in the
diesel engine is basically twofold: a) reduce the in-cylinder
temperature and/or, b) reduce the time for the reaction to
occur. Control of the temperature within the cylinder is
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managed in part by reduced intake manifold temperature
(an intercooler/charge air cooler). Although not used on
our Cummins diesel engines, exhaust gas recirculation
(EGR) is another method used to control the in-cylinder
temperature and, in turn, NOx formation. Recirculated
exhaust gas is oxygen-depleted and the inert gas acts to
buffer the combustion event thus lowering the in-cylinder
temperature. Reduced reaction time is controlled largely
by retardation of the injector timing. Also note the ’03-‘05
Turbo Diesel engine with its high-pressure, common-rail
(HPCR) fuel injection system gives a pilot shot of fuel
prior to, and post of the larger injection event. The pilot
shots of fuel help control the temperature and reduce NOx
formation. Pilot injection also has greatly reduced the noise
level that is associated with diesel combustion.
As you review the NOx and PM bullets, you can understand
the balancing act the engineer has to perform. Now, add
to the emissions teeter-totter the need for the engineer to
deliver to the market place an engine that can maintain
or show an increase in fuel economy. Further, competition
dictates higher performance from the engine. Quite a job
for the engineering community.
ThE LOOK AhEAD
Back to the Basics
For easy understanding and efficient recall, let’s start with
a glossary of terms that will be used in this article.
EPA: Environmental Protection Agency, the governmental
department that is responsible for governing diesel exhaust
emissions.
NOx: oxides of nitrogen, a key pollutant that reacts with
hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight to form ozone.
PM: particulate matter, another key diesel pollutant that is
primarily soot and other combustion byproducts that form
urban smog.
SCR: selective catalytic reduction, an aftertreatment
technology that uses a chemical reductant (urea) that is
injected into the exhaust stream where it transforms into
ammonia and reacts with NOx on a catalyst, converting the
NOx to nitrogen and water vapor.
EgR: exhaust gas recirculation, a technology that diverts
a small percentage of the oxygen depleted, inert exhaust
gas back into the cylinder to help lower the combustion
temperatures, thus reducing NOx.
DPF: diesel particulate filter, also known as a particulate
trap. DPFs will be used to capture particles of soot in a semiporous medium as they flow through the exhaust system.
DPFs are available in passive or active configurations.
Active DPFs use a control system to actively promote
regeneration events.
NAC: NOx absorber catalyst, a catalyst that releases NOx
for a conversion to nitrogen gas and water vapor.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
VgT: variable geometry turbo, turbochargers that constantly
adjust the amount of airflow into the combustion chamber,
optimizing performance and efficiency. In essence, the
turbine casing varies from a small to a large cross section.
atmosphere through a breather tube. Closed systems
reroute crankcase ventilation gases from the breather
tube back into the engine intake airflow to be used for
combustion.
ULSD: ultra low sulfur diesel, this fuel is scheduled to be
available in September 2006. Over the years the sulfur in
diesel fuel has all but been removed. The standards: prior
to 1994 – 5000 ppm; 1994 – 500 ppm; 2006 – 15 ppm. It
is interesting to note that the European standard is 50 ppm
which was enacted in 2004. With ULSD in September 2006
the United States will have the world’s strictest standard.
Likely there will be further EPA regulations which will
require advanced onboard diagnostics, which will lead
to additional sensors to monitor the effectiveness of
emissions systems on the engine.
hPCR: high-pressure, common-rail, this is the type of fuel
system that is currently produced for our Dodge/Cummins
pickup trucks.
In addition to new exhaust emissions standards and in
support of the new exhaust emissions, the EPA is lowering
the limit for diesel fuel sulfur from 500 parts per million
(ppm) to 15 ppm. The new fuel standard will be phased in
beginning September 1, 2006 (80% participation) through
September 1, 2010 (100% participation). It is expected
that 15-ppm fuel will be widely available. On a volume
basis, over 95% of highway diesel fuel produced in 2006 is
projected to meet the 15-ppm sulfur standard. On a facility
basis, over 90% of refineries and importers have stated
that they plan to produce some15-ppm diesel fuel. It is
projected that the additional cost of the new fuel will be
less than 5¢/gallon.
hCCI: homogeneous charge compression ignition, a
method of in-cylinder NOx reduction. Think of HCCI as
“massive EGR.”
NMhC: non-methane hydrocarbons, these are primarily
unburned fuel in the exhaust stream and are not a
substantial part of the diesel emissions problem. In 2002
the EPA added the NMHC number to the NOx number for
a total standard of 2.5-g/bhp-hr (NOx + NMHC).
ACERT: advanced combustion emission reduction
technology, the abbreviation for Caterpillar’s emission
control system.
The 2007 EPA Emissions Rules
Looking ahead to 2007-2010, the emissions requirements
will change dramatically for diesel pickup trucks. Both
NOx and PM are reduced by 90% from 2004 levels.
Specifically, NOx must be reduced to 0.2 grams/brake
horsepower-hour by 2010, while the particulate standard
is reduced to 0.01 g/bhp-hr PM beginning in 2007.
The EPA has allowed for NOx phase-in from 2007 through
2009. During this time, 50% of the engines produced
must meet the 0.2 g/bhp-hr NOx standard, while 50%
may continue to meet the current 2.5 g/bhp-hr NOx +
NMHC standard.
Most engine manufacturers will use the NOx phase-in
provisions along with averaging to certify engines to a NOx
value roughly halfway between the 2004 number and the
final 2010 NOx level. This calculates to approximately 1.2
g/bhp-hr NOx.
The PM level is not phased in, and thus all engine
production is required to be at 0.01 g/bhp-hr PM beginning
January 2007.
In addition to the lower NOx and PM levels, crankcase
gases will be included in the emissions measurements.
This requirement will drive closed crankcase systems for
2007 or ultra-low emissions from open systems. Open
systems allow crankcase gases to be vented into the
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Ultra-Low Sulfur Fuel
Ultra-low sulfur fuel (ULSD) has several beneficial effects.
It inherently produces less PM from combustion, so it is a
PM control strategy for all in-use equipment. And, just like
unleaded gasoline in the early ‘70s, ULSD enables NOx
absorber catalyst (NAC) technology to be highly effective
and reduces the production of sulfuric acid.
In 1994 there were widespread problems associated with
the introduction of low sulfur diesel. The desulphurization
process that removes the sulfur plays havoc with
the aromatic composition of the fuel. The change in
composition caused shrinking, cracking and oxidation of
rubber compounds, specifically fuel pump o-rings, and fuel
leakage was the result. Manufacturers scrambled to switch
the composition of their fuel pump seals.
Many tried to link the fuel pump leakage problem to the
lower lubricity of ‘94s low sulfur fuel. However, a fuel
lubricity specification was never adopted by the American
Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). For 2007 the
ASTM has set fuel lubricity standards and these are set to
take effect in early 2006.
Cooled EgR to Reduce NOx
Cooled EGR is an effective NOx control. The EGR system
takes a measured quantity of exhaust gas, passes it
through a cooler before mixing it with the incoming air
charge to the cylinder. The EGR adds heat capacity and
reduces oxygen concentration in the combustion chamber
by diluting the incoming ambient air. During combustion,
EGR has the effect of reducing flame temperatures, which
in turn reduces NOx production since NOx is proportional
to flame temperature.
131
In order to control both NOx and particulate emissions
accurately, the amount of recirculated exhaust gas and
air has to be precisely metered into the engine under all
operating conditions. This has driven the use of advanced
variable geometry turbochargers (VGT) that continuously
vary the quantity of air delivered to the engine.
Aftertreatment Solutions to Reduce NOx
While cooled EGR is an in-cylinder technology that can
reduce NOx, there are several aftertreatment solutions
which can achieve reduced NOx levels by treating the
exhaust gases after they leave the engine. These include
selective catalytic reduction (SCR), NOx adsorbers and
lean-NOx catalysts.
SCR systems use a chemical reductant, in this case urea,
which converts to ammonia in the exhaust stream and
reacts with NOx over a catalyst to form harmless nitrogen
gas and water. Urea is a benign substance that is generally
made from natural gas and widely used in industry and
agriculture.
nitrate—effectively storing the NOx on the surface of the
catalyst. When the available storage sites are occupied,
the catalyst is operated briefly under rich exhaust gas
conditions (the air-to-fuel ratio is adjusted to eliminate
oxygen in the exhaust). This releases the NOx and allows
it to be converted to nitrogen gas and water vapor. Just
like unleaded fuel in the early 70s, ULSD enables NAC
technology to be implemented.
The elimination of all excess oxygen in the exhaust gas for
a short period of time can be accomplished by operating
the engine in a rich mode. This is done by injecting fuel
directly into the exhaust stream ahead of the adsorber to
consume the remaining oxygen in the exhaust. Either way,
the engine and catalyst must be controlled as a system
to determine exactly when regeneration is needed, and to
control the exhaust parameters during regeneration itself.
NOx adsorbers are expected to appear first in light-duty
applications.
The SCR-urea catalyst is a more mature technology. The
first SCR applications have been implemented in Europe
and Japan. And, while the EPA has not said no to SCR,
the world’s diesel manufacturers have an understanding of
the problems associated with SCR in the US—specifically
distribution at fueling locations, additional tanks and
plumbing on trucks and controls to ensure the operator
refills the SCR tanks. Nevertheless, the European diesel
manufacturers as well as Detroit Diesel are intent on using
SCR technology for the North American market in 2007.
For several reasons Cummins has chosen SCR for
its engine in Europe: the NOx limits in Europe are a bit
more lenient; relative to the cost of diesel fuel, the urea
price is low; and there is a supporting urea distribution
infrastructure.
For the North American market Cummins will continue with
cooled EGR and work with original equipment manufacturers
to select the appropriate NOx aftertreatment.
Caterpillar will continue with their ACERT combustion
technology and the appropriate NOx aftertreatment. In
a November ’04 issue of Transportation Topics, William
Morris, chief engineer for on-highway engines at Caterpillar
responded, “the selective catalytic reduction process ‘was
at the bottom of the list for 2010 solutions.’ Morris said
Caterpillar was more interested in modifying its existing
emission control system called ACERT and that Caterpillar
was doing something similar in 2007 with new designs for
‘pistons, rings and liners’ to improve the combustion that
takes place in the cylinder.”
NOx Adsorber Catalyst to Reduce NOx
The NOx adsorber catalyst (NAC) is a technology
developed in the late 1990s. The NAC uses a combination
of base metal oxide and precious metal coatings to
effect control of NOx. The base metal component (for
example, barium oxide) reacts with NOx to form barium
132
PM Reduction
Previous reductions in particulate matter emissions have
been achieved through engine combustion improvements
and oxidation catalysts, the stringent 2007 particulate
standards (90% lower than current-day standards) will
require very effective particulate aftertreatment.
The active diesel particulate filter (DPF) is the only current
technical option for meeting the 2007 PM emissions
standards. It is expected that all engine manufacturers will
use this technology.
Filtration of exhaust gas to remove soot particles is
accomplished using porous ceramic media generally made
of cordierite or silicon carbide. A typical filter consists of an
array of small channels that the exhaust gas flows through.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Adjacent channels are plugged at opposite ends, forcing
the exhaust gas to flow through the porous wall, capturing
the soot particles on the surface and inside pores of the
media. Soot accumulates in the filter, and when sufficient
heat is present a regeneration event occurs, oxidizing the
soot and cleaning the filter.
There are several methods to control or raise the
exhaust temperature to manage the regeneration event
in the DPF. The most promising methods for an active
integrated system for 2007 are management of the engine
combustion process in combination with an additional
oxidation catalyst. This will allow regeneration to take place
under low-ambient/low-load conditions when exhaust
temperatures are low, as well as during normal operation.
As oil is consumed and particulate matter is burned off
through regeneration they become ash and collect in the
filter. The ash must be cleaned from the filter or plugging
will occur. Maintenance may be required on diesel
particulate filters.
Cummins is currently working with oil manufacturers on the
development of low-ash oils and to determine how different
oil additive components may behave with regard to filter
plugging. If maintenance of the diesel particulate filter is
required, it is anticipated that it will be at relatively highmileage intervals of 185,000-250,000miles.
2007 Lubricating Oil
New specifications are being developed for lubrication oil
compatible with the low-emissions engines for 2007-2010.
The primary focus will be to make the oils compatible
with aftertreatment devices. For 2007, the immediate
requirement is to reduce ash in order to enable extended
maintenance intervals on the diesel particulate filter
while maintaining the important lubricity capability of the
lubricant.
And the Bottom Line?
Yours truly is not an accomplished prognosticator. I am
often reminded that we incorrectly predicted that the post
1/1/04 Turbo Diesel would have EGR. While the Ford
and General Motors diesels were saddled with EDR, the
engineers at Cummins were diligent with their in-cylinder
development and avoided adding the recirculated exhaust
gas plumbing and controls to the engine.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
With my qualifications duly noted, as we look toward the
future I will stick with factual data and quotations from other
periodicals.
• ULSD is currently legislated to be available in September
of ’06. The problems associated with the introduction of
low sulfur diesel fuel in 1994 have not been forgotten and
the fuel vendors and the ASTM have standards in place
to avert problems.
• Particulate control: according to Diesel Progress,
November 2004: “Major manufacturers such as
Caterpillar, Cummins, Detroit Diesel and International
Truck and Engine have adopted diesel particulate filters
as the preferred strategy/technology for PM reduction,
but there is no consensus on NOx control technologies.
The two most practical and cost-effective approaches to
lower NOx emissions from diesel trucks are in-cylinder
techniques such as a high rate of EGR and exhaust
system technologies such as urea-SCR, which is being
adopted in the European Union staring in 2005.”
• Further, Diesel Progress, December 2004 notes:
“Diesel particulate filter can be considered a relatively
mature technology. At least in light-duty vehicles,
DPFs have been used in high-volume applications in
diesel passenger cars in Europe, with over 850,000
systems sold since 2000. In the US, several heavyduty engine manufacturers have been testing their 2007
truck prototypes and expressed confidence in the DPF
technology.”
• Confident that PM can be addressed with DPFs?
Let’s continue to address NOx. Consider this excerpt
from Successful Dealer, March 2004: “According to
technology chief John Wall, Cummins already has
laboratory engines that can achieve a 1g level for
NOx emissions and he is confident of being able to
manufacture production engines that will meet the
1.2g “averaging” level without exhaust aftertreatment.
“Furthermore, Wall said highly-advanced combustion
research techniques that actually use windows on the
combustion process, and the complex modeling they
can now do, allow him to predict that fuel consumption
will not take a hit next time. It may even improve in
some applications. Conclusion: For Cummins the
refinement of the EGR process currently in place
is the right emissions strategy for North America.
“In Europe, Wall says it is likely Cummins will use
the alternative selective catalytic-reduction (SCR)
technology. The requirements for Euro 5 are less
stringent on PM and the big differential between the
cost of fuel between European countries and the
United States (their cost per gallon is four or five times
ours) means SCR is the more economical solution.
“The economics are simply not there for the US. However,
he did not rule out some SCR for 2010 to clean up the
NOx from 1.2g down to the 0.2g levels.”
133
• Specifically, how about NOx control on our light-duty
pickup diesel. Scowering through the trade publication
Transportation Topics—Equipment and Maintenance
Update, March 2004, I found another interview with
Cummins’ John Wall. “John Wall, vice president and chief
technical officer for engine manufacturer Cummins, said
NAC adsorbers would likely go into lighter applications
first because ‘they have a lot of precious metals in them
and they get more expensive as you scale them up to
heavy-duty applications.’”
To conclude: your light-duty Cummins engine will require
some form of exhaust aftertreatment. The allowable NOx
phase-in between years ‘07 to ‘10 make prediction difficult
and complex. Therefore I will refrain from bold statements
laden with abbreviations like, “expect an EGR and VGTequipped engine with a DPF and later a NAC.
Time will tell. I will keep a watchful eye toward press
information and an open ear when in conversation with
others.
“They finally dropped the option in the face of EPA’s
concern over the engine makers’ ability to ensure SCR’s
use when a truck was operating, plus the lack of a
distribution infrastructure for the mixture.”
If we read between the lines it looks like the use of SCR has
not been abandoned, rather pushed back. See if you come
to the same conclusion as we again quote from TT, “Diesel
manufacturers have put the selective catalytic reduction
aftertreatment process on hold, but the manufacturers
said SCR would still be an option for 2010, when emission
standards were set to change again.”
Final Conclusion
Again, I’ll remind you that I am not adept at predicting
the future. However, we’ve provided a paint-by-numbers
guide for the 2007 emissions picture; it’s up to you to fill in
the colors. Will your picture match the one that Cummins
and Dodge are painting? We’ve got about one year before
the 2007 model year truck is introduced. Get busy with
your brush.
The Right Technology
As a postscript to our crystal ball look into the future I found
an article in the 1/3/05 Transportation Topics magazine
that give further insight into the use of SCR to control NOx
emissions. As was mentioned several times in the article,
the EPA would not take a stand on the technology the
manufacturers should use. However, there was pressure
against the SCR concept. How so? Consider the following
from TT: “SCR can reduce levels of NOx by mixing urea, an
ammonia-based solution, into the exhaust stream ahead of
the catalytic converter. SCR would allow the combustion
process to operate in a more traditional way, proponents
have argued.
Credits: Much of the technical information (abbreviation
definitions and emissions solutions) was gleaned from
Cummins bulletin number 4103666, “2007 Emissions:
Choosing the Right Technology.” Copies of this bulletin
can be sourced at your Cummins distributor or by calling
800-DIESELS.
“Detroit Diesel Corporation, a subsidiary of Freightliner, plus
the powertrain units of Mack Trucks and Volvo Trucks North
America had been considering SCR for 2007 engines.
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A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
oVer the yeArs—
dodGe teChniCAL serViCe BuLLetins
Not surprisingly, there have been comments by those
unfamiliar with the truck (prospective new/used buyers,
Internet, truck shows) that “the Turbo Diesel certainly has
its share of problems.” To them, no doubt, the grass looks
greener on the other side.
Although some will dwell on the problems, the majority of
owners take initiative to solve/correct, anticipate/prepare
for a future situation. That’s what the TDR is all about!
Thanks to the TDR membership group and the support
from DaimlerChrysler and Cummins we are equipped
with answers and solutions, rather than wonderment and
isolation that would exist without a support group. My
thanks goes out to the TDR members for being a supportive
membership group.
DODgE TEChNICAL SERVICE BULLETINS
With the brief introduction out of the way, this is our review
of Dodge Technical Service Bulletins issued in the previous
years. For a given calendar year, all Dodge vehicle TSBs
are published in book format and are available for purchase
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
in July/August. As a service, we purchase the TSB directory
and then search through the book for only those bulletins
relating to the Turbo Diesel truck.
In an effort to consolidate the TSBs for the magazine, we
use the same index system categories as DaimlerChrysler.
Below are the index categories.
2
3
5
6
7
8
9
11
13
Front Suspension
Rear Axle
Brakes
Clutch
Cooling
Electrical
Engine
Exhaust
Frame & Bumpers
14
16
18
19
21
22
23
24
26
Fuel
Propeller Shafts & U-Joints
Vehicle Performance
Steering
Transmissions
Wheels & Tires
Body
Air Conditioning
Miscellaneous
A note concerning the TSBs and their use: the bulletins are
intended to provide dealers with the latest repair information.
Often the TSB is vehicle identification number (VIN) specific.
VIN data on the Chrysler service network helps the dealer in
his service efforts. A TSB is not an implied warranty.
135
tsBs issued during ‘95 and Prior
CATEgORY 2
FRONT SUSPENSION
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
02-05-95
5/15/95
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
4x4 4x2 Cab Chassis
Rattling/clunk type noise from front of vehicle.
Verify that the stabilizer bar is built with the correct ball stud links. If necessary, the bulletin details
the replacement of both stabilizer links with tapered ball stud links.
02-02-94
2/11/94
‘94 (BR)
Service manual revisions for torque values on front suspension.
02-07-94
6/15/94
‘94 (BR)
This information bulletin differentiates the track bar used on different vintage trucks.
02-08-94
7/22/94
‘94 2500 (BR)
Cab Chassis
with sales code XBC
Low ride height on 8800 GVW cab chassis.
The bulletin describes abnormal low ride height in the rear where the truck is loaded near GVW.
It lists the parts necessary to replace the shocks and rear leaf springs.
02-20-94
12/2/94
‘94 (BR)
Service manual revision for torque values on stabilizer link bar.
02-02-91
1/28/91
‘92 (AD) 2wd
vehicles only
Front spring spacer for two wheel drive trucks.
The condition is a vehicle leaning or low on the left front corner. The repair involves the installation
of a spacer (4322629) on the left coil spring to raise the left front corner approximately one inch.
02-06-90A ‘90 - ‘91 (AD) 2wd
12/17/90
vehicles only
Front spring spacer for two wheel drive trucks.
The condition is a vehicle leaning or low on the left front corner. The repair involves the installation
of a spacer (4322629) on the left coil spring to raise the left front corner approximately one inch.
02-09-90
11/19/90
Service manual revision for camber specification.
‘89 - ‘90 (AD) 4wd
CATEgORY 3
REAR AXLE
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
03-03-95
5/5/95
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
Rear axle trac-loc chatter.
This bulletin supersedes 03-01-94 (7/8/94) and applies to trac-loc Dana model 60, 70 and 80
axles. The symptom is chatter while turning corners. The bulletin involves draining and refilling
the axle with new fluid and trac-loc additive. It is important that gear oil 4796517 and trac-loc
additive 4318060 be used.
03-02-93
5/7/93
‘92 - ‘93 (AD)
Launch shudder/vibration.
For 1992-1993 131” or 149” wheelbase trucks. Describes repair procedure to adjust the pinion
angle of the rear-end to eliminate vibration or shudder in the 1-2 shift made at medium to heavy
throttle. This TSB does not address “wheel hop” that occurs with manual transmission trucks at
start off. Wheel hop is a function of driveline spring wrap up because of high torque being exerted
on the pinion shaft.
136
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 5
BRAKES
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
05-09-95 B
9/22/95
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
All 4x4 and 3500 4x2
Club Chassis only
Drift left or right under moderate or hard braking.
The symptom is a drift right or left during moderate to hard brake applications just short of antilock
operation. The condition is more evident with worn brakes. The steering wheel remains straight
ahead - truck drifts. The repair is not to correct a condition where the steering wheel moves during
the drift. If steering wheel moves, a brake system inspection, according to the service manual, is in
order. The repair involves installing shems between the wheel and (2500) hub/bearing assemble,
(3500) hub extension as required.
05-02-95
3/24/95
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
3500 4x4/4x2
2500 4x4
Front brake noise on trucks with 86 mm diameter caliper pistons.
The symptom is a squeal noise when applying the brakes for a normal stop. The repair involves
grinding or filing a chamfer on both ends of the front brake pads.
05-03-94
3/4/94
‘94 (BR)
Service manual revision for brake bleeding procedure on trucks equipped with ABS brakes.
05-21-94
10/21/94
‘89 - ‘93 (AD)
Premature brake wear on trucks with 12” brake drums.
The bulletin involves replacement of the rear brake shoes (linings) with revised shoes.
05-08-93 A
9/3/93
‘94 (BR)
Pedal feel/characteristics of ABS brakes is the subject of this information only bulletin.
05-15-93
11/1/93
‘94 (BR)
Brake pedal noise.
The symptom is a squawk caused by the metering valve spring chattering when the brake is
depressed. The bulletin involves the installation of a revised metering valve.
05-04-92 A
4/21/92
‘89 - ‘92 (AD)
sales code BKH, BKJ
Premature brake wear on trucks with 12” brake drums.
The bulletin involves replacement of the rear brake shoes (lining) with revised shoes.
05-01-91
1/28/91
‘81 - ‘91 (AD)
Rear wheel anti-lock speed sensor connector repair procedure.
If a red/amber ANTILOCK warning light illuminates and a code 9 diagnostic code is found, a possible
cause is the connector for the RWAL speed sensor. The bulletin describes the repair procedure
and parts needed to correct the problem.
05-05-91
8/12/91
‘90 - ‘91 (AD)
Front disc brake noise from Bendix disc brakes.
The bulletin applies to trucks with Bendix disc brakes (3.38” caliper pistons). Noise can occur and
the repair involves grinding a chamfer on both ends of the outboard brake pad.
05-07-90
9/24/90
‘89 - ‘90 (AD)
Rear wheel anti-lock faults caused by water contamination.
A possible cause for illumination of the BRAKE and ANTILOCK warning lamps could be water
contamination of the 4-way connector at the hydraulic valve and/or at the 50-way connector. The
bulletin describes the repair and parts necessary to add a service jumper harness to the existing
harness.
CATEgORY 6
CLUTCh
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
06-01-94
8/12/94
‘89 - ‘93 (AD) with
manual transmission
Transmission noise below 1400 rpm.
The bulletin describes a powertrain induced cyclic noise condition that appears to be transmission/
driveline related. Especially noticeable in 4th and 5th gears, the noise occurs below 1400 rpm during
coast or light throttle. The noise is not damaging to the powertrain and is due to the dampening
characteristics of the clutch springs. The revision, if needed, involves replacement of the clutch disc.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
137
CATEgORY 6
CLUTCh...Continued
06-01-90 A
12/31/90
Transmission noise below 1400 rpm.
The bulletin describes a powertrain induced cyclic noise condition that appears to be transmission/
driveline related. Especially noticeable in 4th and 5th gears, the noise occurs below 1400 rpm
during coast or light throttle. The noise is not damaging or durability related. The diagnosis
involves a road test to pinpoint the rpm at which the noise occurs. The revision involves a change
of the flywheel.
‘89 - ‘91 (AD) with
manual transmission
CATEgORY 7
COOLINg
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
07-04-94
4/8/94
‘94 (BR)
Service manual revision - thermostat seals.
Revised service manual pages showing t-stat seal pictures.
07-07-94
9/30/94
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
Engine slow to warm-up in cold ambient temperatures.
The bulletin describes an overcooling condition caused by the thermostat being stuck in a partial
open position. Gauge fluction is addressed and is considered normal with no action required.
Owners are advised that the cooling system is large to provide capacity and protection for high
temperatures and high GCWR ratings. Slower warm-ups are to be expected.
07-01-91
1/28/91
‘89 - 90 (AD)
Overheating or no heat condition.
An interference between the thermostat and cylinder head coolant passage on engines built
before engine serial number 44465181 may result in a stuck t-stat in the open or closed position.
A revised t-stat and coolant passage diameter check a part of the repair procedure.
07-04-91
9/23/91
‘90 - ‘91 (AD)
Lower radiator hose leakage.
Some leakage from the lower radiator hose at the waterpump connection may occur due to a step
cast in the water pump nipple. The repair involves installing a second hose clamp.
07-05-91
12/16/91
‘91 (AD)
Fan belt noise/chirp.
The noise is caused by excessive paint in the grooves of the water pump allowing the belt to slip.
Wire brush and solvent to remove the paint is the repair procedure.
07-03-90
12/21/90
All
Recycled engine coolant.
The use of “reconstituted” antifreeze/coolants is not authorized in the performance of any repair
covered under the provisions of warranty.
07-01-89
2/27/89
Auxiliary oil cooler freeze-up.
‘88 - ‘89 with
automatic transmission At ambient temperatures of -10°F or lower, trucks with auxiliary coolers (NHB) may loose
transmission fluid due to a restriction of oil flow. A bypass line is the recommended repair.
CATEgORY 8
ELECTRICAL
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
08-25-95
6/9/95
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
Power mirror vibration associated with installation of “bugscreen” deflectors.
The symptom is blurred images in the power mirrors. The diagnostic procedure - remove the
bugscreen. If vibration ceases the mirrors are ok. Bugscreen deflectors are designed to disrupt
airflow which can lead to mirror/antenna vibration.
08-24-95
9/30/95
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
Accessory frame ground jumper wire.
The bulletin discusses a frame ground jumper wire from the battery negative to the frame bumper
bracket be added if electrical accessories (winch, lights, snow plow, etc.) are added to the vehicle.
138
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 8
ELECTRICAL...Continued
08-22-95
5/12/95
‘94 - ‘96 (BR)
‘89 - ‘93 (AD)
Installation of radio equipment.
The bulletin supersedes 08-31-94, 7/15/94 and discusses the proper installation of communication
equipment in Chrysler vehicles.
08-16-95 A
‘94 - ‘96 (BR)
‘89 - ‘93 (AD)
Speed control - over/undershoot during set of speed selection.
The bulletin discusses the “adaptive strategy” that compensates for vehicle-to-vehicle variations in
speed control cable lengths. Pressing the “set” button without pressure on the accelerator pedal
can cause speed fluctuations. Proper review of the condition with vehicle operator is recommended.
08-05-94
1/20/94
‘94 (BR)
08-06-94
2/4/94
‘94 (BR)
08-08-94 A
5/20/94
‘94 (BR)
08-10-94
2/18/94
‘94 (BR)
08-17-94
4/1/94
‘94 (BR)
08-29-94
6/24/94
‘94 (BR)
Diesel secondary battery does not charge—vehicles built prior to 2/14/94.
Corrosion at battery clamp to secondary battery may prevent charging. Inspect, test, and replace
battery clamp bolt if necessary.
08-33-94
7/15/94
‘91 - ‘93 (AD)
Fuel gauge inaccuracy.
If the fuel gauge reads inaccurately (too much reserve when the tank gauge reads empty), a
revised fuel sending unit may be necessary.
08-41-94
8/5/94
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
08-64-94
11/4/94
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
Power mirror vibration.
On vehicles equipped with power mirrors built prior to 9/18/94 this TSB discusses the diagnosis
and repair for excessive vibration/blurred images.
08-65-94
11/4/94
‘94 (BR)
Poor AM radio reception.
On vehicles built prior to 12/01/93 poor AM reception can be repaired by replacement of the
antenna base and cable assembly.
08-05-93
2/8/93
‘93 (AD)
08-07-93 A
3/19/93
‘92 - ‘93 (AD) with
four wheel drive
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Poor AM radio reception.
Tighten the antenna base to 70 in/lbs to assure reception.
Infinity radio (code RAY) looses sound on right channel speakers.
Infinity (RAY) cassette with equalizer system may loose the sound of right side speakers. RAS
code radios are not affected. An exchange radio is the repair.
Weak sounding horn.
The bulletin discusses an upgrade from a single horn to a dual horn system.
Fuel gauge sticks.
The bulletin covers replacing the fuel pump module, if the fuel gauge intermittently sticks at full,
with less than full capacity.
Battery drain on vehicles equipped with trailer tow package.
Water may collect in the 7 pin trailer tow connector housing causing corrosion. Exterior or interior
lights may erratically operate regardless of switch operation. Inspect the tow connector and notch
the connector to allow for drain.
Trailer tow brake wire location.
An information only bulletin showing the wiring provisions for an electric brake actuator.
White smoke at start-up.
Service changes to the powertrain control module (SEBC) may cause white smoke at start-up.
The SEBC is programmed to eliminate operation of the air intake heater for the first 25 vehicle
starts. After service or in predelivery situations, there may be vehicles that have not accumulated
25 starts. The white smoke condition should be resolved after 25 starts are accumulated.
Speed control surge.
The bulletin describes the correct speed control servo and cable match for the powertrain control
module. Verify compatability of components. Replace speedometer drive gear, if necessary.
139
CATEgORY 8
ELECTRICAL...Continued
08-45-93
10/8/93
‘94 (BR)
Radio lock-up.
The bulletin applies to AM/FM Stereo (RAL) or AM/FM stereo cassette (RAS) radios. If the buttons
and controls do not function the condition is caused by a programming error. The condition is
corrected by following the operational sequence outlined in the TSB.
08-47-93
10/15/93
‘94 (BR)
Erratic coolant temperature gauge reading.
The cooling system on the Cummins diesel engine equipped vehicles provide for capacity and
protection at high GCWR. THe large capacity can cause slower than normal warm-up. Also
temperature gauge reading fluctuations are normal.
08-58-93
12/10/93
‘91 - ‘93 (AD)
Fuel gauge innaccuracy.
Too much reserve fuel in the tank when the gauge indicates empty may be the fault of an incorrect
sending unit. The repair involves a wiring harness and sending unit change.
08-67-93
12/31/93
‘94 (BR)
Service procedure for the stop light switch connector.
An information only bulletin showing the disconnect procedure of the stop light switch.
08-05-91
4/22/91
All trucks
Trailer tow wiring installation.
The information only bulletin gives guidelines for proper wiring of trailer tow wiring packages.
08-10-91
9/9/91
‘89 - ‘91 (AD)
Speedometer reading fluctuates and/or the speed control disengages.
The condition may be caused by spread female connectors at the 2-way distance sensor connector.
Inspect and replace as necessary.
‘91 (AD)
Fuel reads low when fuel tank is full.
If fuel gauge does not read full after filling the fuel tank, the problem may be an incorrectly calibrated
fuel sealing unit. Repair and replace as necessary.
08-11-91
10/7/91
CATEgORY 9
ENgINE
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
09-10-95
6/2/95
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
Diagnosing oil consumption.
The concern is an operator report of greater than one quart per one thousand miles. Variations in
oil level are likely possible if the oil check is performed on a warm engine due to slow drain back
from the inline fuel pump. Discuss with customer and assure dipstick is updated to part number
4796874. The correct dipstick increases the safe zone to two quarts versus the early ‘94 vintage
dipsticks with only a one quart safe zone.
09-04-95
4/14/95
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
Excessive oil drainage from oil draft (breather) tube.
The bulletin applies only to engines built prior to 12/1/94. It involves replacing the tappet cover
with a new sealed version.
09-06-94
4/22/94
‘94 (BR)
Cummins exhaust manifold gaskets.
Service gaskets and production gaskets can vary in thickness. Do not intermix. If an exhaust
gasket requires replacement, then replace all six.
09-22-93
12/31/93
‘94 (BR)
Service manual revision for Cummins piston grading procedure. The information only bulletin
details the pistons to be used if engine rebuild is necessary.
09-07-91
12/2/91
‘91 - ‘92 (AD)
Cylinder head bolt torque tightening procedure.
The information only bulletin describes the bolt tightening procedure for cylinder head bolts.
09-11-89
7/3/89
‘89 (AD) with automatic Knocking noise at rear of engine due to a cracked torque converter drive plate.
On trucks built prior to 2/8/89 if there exist a knocking or grinding noise at the rear of the engine
transmission
check, the torque converter drive plate for cracking. Replace as necessary.
140
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 11
EXhAUST
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
11-03-94
5/13/94
‘94 (BR)
Diesel exhaust stains.
The bulletin applies to 5-speed trucks built prior to 2/1/94 and automatic trucks between 2/1//94
and 10/1/94. The condition is exhaust soot on the side of the truck. A tail pipe extension is the
part needed to remedy the situation.
11-02-92
7/27/92
‘88 - ‘92 (AD)
Rear tailpipe support bracket cracking.
The condition is a rattle noise caused by a crack or break in the rear tailpipe support bracket area.
A revised tailpipe support bracket (5 2018458) is the part used for repair.
CATEgORY 14
FUEL
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
14-05-94
4/8/94
‘94 (BR)
‘89 - ‘93 (AD)
Use of low sulfur fuel.
The bulletin discusses the new for 1994 low sulfur fuel. Fuel lubricity concerns are addressed as
the use of diesel fuel additives to increase the lubricity of low sulfur fuel are not required.
14-15-93
‘89 - ‘93 (AD)
Fuel leakage from the roll-over valve vent.
The bulletin warns that repeated attempts to force fuel into the tank after the automatic shut off has
engaged may lead to a condition where the fuel level in the tank is above the designed operating
level. Fuel may leak out of the roll over valve in this situation. The repair involves raising the roll
over vent location by installing fuel hose to the vent nipple and routing to a high location along
the filler tube.
14-02-90
12/3/90
‘89 - ‘90 (AD)
Accelerator pedal effort too high.
The bulletin describes the installation of revised parts to lessen the pedal effort. If the truck has
a Mopar aftermarket speed control kit, the kit already has the revised parts.
14-01-89
10/2/89
‘89 (AD)
Injection pump diagnosis procedure.
A troubleshooting procedure is outlined to help diagnose diesel engine problems.
CATEgORY 16
PROPELLER ShAFTS & U-jOINTS
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
16-02-95
11/3/95
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
Droaning noise/vibration.
automatic transmission The symptom/condition is a droaning type noise and/or vibration felt in seat track, floor pan or
trucks
steering column. The noise is worst case when pulling a camper or trailer with significant wind
drag. Peak noise level is 1900 rpm for 4x2 trucks 1850 rpm on 4x4 models with torque converter
clutch engaged. The repair involves replacement of the propeller shaft.
16-01-94
10/14/94
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Shudder at start on vehicles with two piece driveshafts operated at near maximum GVW.
The symptom is a driveline shudder when pulling away from a stop. As the vehicle is loaded, the
driveline angle will change. In the case of maximum GVW, the rear differential may rise above
the rear driveshaft center bearing. The alignment could cause a shudder in the driveline. The
repair involves replacement of the driveshaft center support bearing bracket and/or driveshaft.
141
CATEgORY 18
VEhICLE PERFORMANCE
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
18-29-95 A
10/16/95
‘94 - 95 (BR) with
Diesel low power/performance specs.
automatic transmission The bulletin applies to automatic transmission trucks with a customer complaint of slow acceleration
or low power. Performance tests (0-60) are performed and an acceleration table to reference
is provided. The bulletin guides the dealership through a series of trouble shooting tests to
troubleshoot the low power complaint. Checks for wide open throttle, a low pressure fuel system
check, and finally, an injection pump timing adjustment are described.
18-01-94
1/14/94
‘94 (BR) with
Lack of power/harsh transmission shifts.
automatic transmission The bulletin applies to vehicles built before 10/28/93 and involves the replacement of the throttle
control lever to ensure full throttle travel. Also, adjustment of the throttle position sensor is described.
18-10-94 A
7/29/94
‘94 (BR)
18-05-93
4/30/93
‘91 - ‘93 (AD)
18-06-92 A
7/23/93
Poor performance/lack of power.
The bulletin discusses the troubleshooting procedures for a poor performance complaint. After
verification of engine system performance, the bulletin outlines the criteria for a torque converter
stall test for automatic equipped trucks and a 20-50 mph test for manual transmission trucks.
An adjustment procedure for the LDA (a timing advance that is controlled by boost pressure) is
described. The bulletin is known as the “starwheel” or “balloon test” by service technicians.
Erratic 3-4 or 4-3 shifts.
The bulletin discusses erratic shifting (hunting) between third and fourth gear. The shift schedule
‘91 - ‘93 (AD) with
automatic transmission is based on several inputs to the powertrain control module (SEBC). Diagnosis of the components
is described. If a throttle position sensor is required the replacement part number is 4746966.
18-05-92
6/15/92
‘92 (AD)
18-06-92
6/29/92
‘91 - ‘92 (AD)
18-10-92 A
9/8/92
‘91 - ‘92 (AD) with
automatic
transmission
18-11-92
7/13/92
‘91 - ‘92 (AD)
18-17-92
9/8/92
‘91 (AD)
18-18-92
10/19/92
‘91 - ‘92 (AD)
18-15-92
‘91 (AD)
142
Excessive White Smoke/Low Power.
The bulletin involves a diagnostic check of the cooling system and starting instructions before
verifying timing of the engine. Manual transmission engines are set to 12.5 degrees top dead
center. Automatic engines should be set according to the engine data plate.
Vehicle surging when cruise control is engaged.
The condition may be caused by the calibration of the powertrain control module (SEBC).
Replacement of the SEBC is covered in the repair procedure.
Lack of power, poor acceleration in cold ambient temperatures.
Below 33°F some vehicles may be slow to accelerate or feel low on power. The condition may
be caused by ice forming at the fuel intake area of the fuel gauge sending unit module. A revised
module part number and repair procedure are outlined.
Erratic 3-4 or 4-3 shifter.
Note: See TSB 18-06-93 A
Poor performance/lack of power.
Note: See TSB 18-05-93
Engine rpm fluctuates when the cruise control is engaged.
This bulletin is for non-intercooled (build date prior to 1/1/91) trucks. The bulletin involves replacing
the vehicle speed control module with a recalibrated module.
Poor engine performance/erratic engine operation/transmission operation.
Some vehicles may exhibit the above characteristics as well as transmission hunting. Corrosion
or spreading of the female terminals in the 3-way throttle position sensor connector could be the
problem. Diagnosis and repair as necessary.
White smoke at start-up.
At cold ambient conditions white smoke can be a condition. This bulletin applies to trucks built
after 1/1/91. The repair involves replacing the air temperature sensor. If the engine serial number
is higher than 44623028 the sensor is of the new design.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 19
STEERINg
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
19-02-05 B
11/3/95
‘94 - ‘95 (BR) trucks
with a build date prior
to 1/1/95
Clunk or rattle felt in steering wheel/column over rough surfaces or while making a turn.
The repair involves performing an inspection of suspension and steering components to assure
proper torque. The replacement of the steering column intermediate shaft is described.
19-01-94
1/28/94
‘94 (BR) 4x4
Slow steering return.
The bulletin applies to 4x4 trucks with a Dana 60 axle. The diagnosis involves using a spring scale
to determine turning force. The repair involves performing a ball joint tightening.
19-04-94
6/3/94
‘94 (BR)
Low power assist in cold ambient temperatures.
The condition can be minimized by reviewing the cold start procedures. Cold climate power
steering fluid (pn 04778524) may be used.
19-03-93
4/16/93
‘89 - ‘93 (AD)
Steering Column coupler.
A repair package with a revised boot has been developed to service the steering coupler. The
part number is 4740761. This is an information only bulletin.
19-02-91
4/22/91
‘89 - ‘91 (AD) with four
wheel drive
Steering wheel off-center.
Due to a shift in the steering gear bracket in high load conditions, the steering wheel may be off
center during straight driving. The repair involves installing a shoulder bolt that acts as a dowel
pin locking the steering gear bracket to the frame.
CATEgORY 21
TRANSMISSION
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
21-02-95
3/31/95
‘95 (BR)
built after 3/20/95
Quick connect removal and reconnect procedure.
The bulletin is an “information only” bulletin outlining two ways to disconnect the quick connectors
of the automatic transmission lines.
21-03-95 A
6/16/95
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
Automatic transmission cold temperature cooler bypass kit.
The condition occurs at ambient temperatures of -15°F or below. Vehicles equipped with automatic
transmission coolers may experience a lack of fluid flow to the transmission due to restricted
cooler lines. In periods of extended driving transmission failure may result. The bulletin describes
the installation of a cold weather transmission cooler by-pass kit. Caution is needed as the kit
decreases the cooling capacity of the transmission when driving in hot ambient temperatures,
and is not recommended.
21-04-95
4/14/95
‘94 - ‘95 (BR) trucks
with automatic
transmission
Vibration or perceived engine miss.
The symtom is a vibration or perceived engine miss at approximately 1100 rpm as the torque
converter clutch engages. The condition occurs in fourth gear lock-up at speeds between 42 to 48
mph. Depending on year model the powertrain control module is either replaced or reprogramed.
21-05-95 A
1/5/96
‘94 - ‘95 (BR) trucks
with automatic
transmission
21-08-95
1/30/95
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
21-09-95
6/30/95
‘94 - ‘95 (BR) trucks
with manual
transmission
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Delayed transmission engagement/torque convertor drainback.
The condition is delayed transmission engagement of 2 to 8 seconds at initial start-up. The problem
is most noticeable after the vehicle has been parked for an extended period. The bulletin describes
the installation of transmission lines with a one-way drainback valve.
Speed sensor oil seepage.
The bulletin describes how oil seepage can occur in the speed sensor area. The repair is the
installation of a speedometer adapter.
Servicing of 5th gear mainshaft nut on NV 4500 manual transmission.
The information only bulletin describes the replacement of the 5th gear main-shaft nut with a new
nut if the original nut has to be removed. Under no circumstances is the original part to be reused.
Special Mopar lock seal should be applied to the threads at reassembly.
143
CATEgORY 21
TRANSMISSION...Continued
21-11-95
7/7/95
‘96 (BR) trucks with
automatic
transmission
Overdrive unavailable in extreme cold temperatures.
The information only bulletin emphasizes a change to the PCM for 1996. For ‘96 in ammbient
temperatures of -5°F and below the PCM inhibits the transmission from shifting into overdrive.
This protects the transmission from damage if the fluid would begin to freeze. The PCM will allow
overdrive once the ambient temperature has risen approximately 7° above the temperature the
ID was inhibited at.
21-04-94
3/4/94
‘94 (BR) with
manual transmission
NV 4500 HD
Transmission shift lever stuck in or blocked out of 5th gear/reverse.
The shift lever does not shift out of 5th or reverse gear position, or the shift lever will not go into
5th/reverse. Diagnose the transmission and, if necessary, replace the transmission overdrive rail,
lug shift fork, and synchronizer.
21-10-94
5/27/94
‘94 (BR) with
manual transmission
NV 4500 HD
Shift lever contacts instrument panel.
Inspect the shift lever to transmission stub shaft connection. Reseat the lever to the stub shaft
if necessary.
21-17-94
9/16/94
‘94 (BR) ‘93 (AD) with
automatic
transmission
Transmission diagnostic reference supplement.
To assist in the repair of automatic transmission, the information only bulletin, lists symptom/cause/
correction information.
21-18-94
9/30/94
‘94 (BR), ‘89 - ‘93 (AD) Transmission 4-3 downshift clunk.
with automatic trans.
A driveline clunk or harshness occurs during 4-3 coast downshift repair as described in bulletin.
21-24-94
12/2/94
‘94 - ‘95 (BR) with
automatic trans.
Shift linkage adjustment.
The information only bulletin explains how to correct a PRNUL misalignment.
21-25-94
12/23/94
‘94 - ‘94 (BR) with
NP 241 HD transfer
case
High effort when shifting from 2WD high to 4WD high in cold temperatures.
If high effort condition occurs when shifting the transfer case in cold temperatures, the bulletin
describes the repair. The procedure involves a change in the front axle lubricant or possibly a
parts component replacement.
21-23-93
9/3/93
‘92 - ‘93 (AD) with
Lack of 3/4 up-shift and deep throttle 2/4 up-shift.
automatic transmission A complaint of lack of 3/4 up-shift at 50 to 60 mph on the ‘92 MY trucks or complaint of deep
throttle 2/4 up-shift on late built ‘92 and ‘93 models could be related to the overdrive shift calibration.
Using the DRB scan tool verify the engine and transmission systems are functioning properly. The
powertrain control module (SEBC) may require replacement to updated part number 4746568.
21-39-93
12/31/93
‘89 - ‘93 (AD) with
automatic
transmission
Four speed automatic transmission 4-3 downshift clunk.
The bulletin describes a clunk or harshness during 4-3 coast downshift at approximately 18-20
mph. Verify all engine and transmission systems are functioning properly. Repair as required.
21-18-92
11/30/92
‘92 - ‘93 (AD) with
automatic
transmission
Delayed up-shifts and harsh engagement into drive or reverse.
The bulletin describes a repair involving adjustment of the throttle valve cable and replacement
of the return spring.
21-11-91
‘89 - ‘91 (AD) with
A 518 automatic
transmission
3-4 up-shift noise with A 518 transmission.
A noise or rattle during 3-4 up-shift or down-shift may be the result of an overdrive clutch pack
vibration. Diagnose the vehicle to confirm condition and repair as necessary.
21-05-90
2/26/90
‘89 - ‘90 (AD) with
manual transmission
Replacement of transmission shift lever and stubshifter.
The shift lever and stub shifter are available as separate replacement parts. If replacement is
required, use the component parts - do not replace the transmission assembly.
21-14-90
5/7/90
‘90 (AD) with 518
Low/reverse band wear.
automatic transmission Premature wear of the low/reverse band may be the result of one of the overdrive transmission
mounting bolts making light contact with the band strut resulting in incomplete release of the band.
A washer is installed to prevent contact.
21-12-89
5/1/89
‘89 (AD) with
manual transmission
144
Speedometer drive gear replacement procedure.
An information only brochure to supplement the service manual.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 22
WhEELS & TIRES
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
22-03-95
3/3/95
‘95 (BR)
Match mounted tire/wheel combinations.
The bulletin is an “information only” bulletin describing a match mounting process to improve ride
characteristics.
22-04-95
4/7/95
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
Spare tire winch operation.
The bulletin is an “information only” bulletin reminding not to use power tools to drive the spare
tire winch.
22-05-95 A
6/30/95
‘94 - ‘95 (BR) with
code WDC wheels
Wheel runout measurement code WDC wheels procedures.
The bulletin gives the allowable remount and informs the dealer that the tire must be dismounted
to correctly measure radial and lateral runout.
22-06-95
6/16/95
‘95 (BR)
Match mounting during wheel service.
The information only bulletin helps dealers match mount wheels and tires.
Premature rust on chrome wheels.
22-03-94
6/24/94
‘94 (BR)
Wheels manufactured after 1/1/94 have an improved chrome plating process. Wheels prior to
1/1/94 may show signs of premature rust. Replacement of the wheels is described.
22-05-93
7/16/93
‘93 (AD)
Tire and wheel runout.
A quick reference chart is provided for dealer diagnosing.
22-02-92
4/6/92
‘89 - ‘92 (AD)
Wheel vibration on 350 Series trucks with flange type lug nuts.
Wheel/tire vibration may be caused by the wheels being off center on the wheel studs. The repair
involves a wheel centering procedure using two 90° cone nuts.
CATEgORY 23
BODY
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
23-04-95
2/10/95
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
Rattle due to seat belt latch plate bumping trim.
The symptom is a noise due to the seat belt latch bumping against the trim when the belt is not in
use. The repair involves the addition of a sound deadener pad to the trim panel.
23-29-95
6/9/95
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
Cracked sunvisor support bracket/retainer.
The bulletin involves the replacement of the visor bracket with a revised bracket.
23-43-95
6/14/95
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
Door operation not smooth or feels loose.
Visually inspect the door hinge area. If the door hinge bushing has fallen out the bushing should
be reinstalled and crimped to prevent reccurance.
23-52-95 A
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
Standard cab only
Creaking noise or exterior noise from back of cab.
The condition is a sheet metal creaking or exterior noise from the back of the cab caused by verticle
or horizontal cracks in cab back. Using a hoist and a strong light, look for cracks on lower portion of
cab. If cracks are noted four cab reinforcements and replacement cab isolators should be installed.
23-74-95
12/8/95
‘95 -’96 (BR)
23-08-94
1/28/94
‘94 (BR)
Wind noise at front of door.
Inspect the vehicle for the appropriate seal. If not present, perform the repair/installation procedure.
23-32-94
4/1/94
‘94 (BR)
Door fit at roof line.
The top of the door should project higher than the roof panel. Do not attempt a repair if the door
falls within the overflush 1-3 mm condition.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Interior film build-up on windows.
Window film build-up is caused by vinyl interior trim material releasing gasses that adhere to the
glass. The condition lessens as the vehicle gets older.
145
CATEgORY 23
BODY...Continued
23-36-94
4/22/94
‘94 (BR)
Front door to windshield moulding squeak/creak.
A noise from the front of door/plastic windshield moulding can occur. The correction is to install
anti-friction tape to the inside edge of the doors.
23-39-94
5/6/94
‘94 (BR)
Pickup box floor rattle.
The bulletin involves applying sealer to the pickup box floor at the crossmember.
23-40-94 A
5/6/94
‘94 (BR)
Door glass rattle.
If the door glass rattles when the door is closed and the window is open the bulletin describes the
diagnosis and repair of the weather strips.
23-41-94
5/13/94
‘94 (BR)
Creak noise from instrument panel bezel.
If a creaking noise occurs, coming from the instrument panel bezel, add felt tape to dash to dampen/
isolate the components.
23-45-94
6/3/94
‘94 (BR)
Snapping noise at right side of instrument panel.
A snapping noise (sounds like a small stone hitting the window) may occur. If diagnosed, add a
pad to the stiffening rib of the instrument panel to isolate the components.
23-49-94
7/1/94
‘94 (BR)
Warped tailgate.
Vehicles built at the Warren truck assembly plant (Dodge City complex) between 1/10/94 and
2/15/94 are suspect. Inspect as tailgate may be twisted or warped on the right side. Check the
“run number” for date of production. Check the last three digits as 02X through 05X are suspect.
Replace as necessary.
23-51-94
7/1/94
‘94 (BR)
Tailgate rattle.
If a tailgate rattle is heard, inspect the tailgate pivot bracket. Repair as described in bulletin with
replacement stud and bearing mount.
23-60-94
8/12/94
‘94 (BR)
Popping or snapping noise from windshield.
The condition is a noise from the base of the windshield while traveling over rough roads/irregular
surfaces. The repair involves removing windshield spacers at the base of the windshield.
23-63-94
8/26/94
‘89 - ‘93 (AD)
Cowl cracks.
The condition is cracking or popping sounds from the cowl area at the lower corners of the
windshield. Inspect the area underneath the fender at the cowl welds. The fenders must be
removed to see the cracks. The repair involves installing cowl reinforcement brackets to the cowl.
23-68-94
9/30/94
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
Glue seeps out at backlight or windshield moulding.
Hot melt glue (clear to light brown) can seep out at the edge of the light or molding. The repair is
to clean the glue with Mopar Concentrated Windshield Washer Solvent.
23-71-94
10/7/94
‘95 (BR)
Tailgate latch handle loose.
The bulletin applies to vehicles built from 8/30/94 to 9/8/94. The hole in the tailgate was stamped
oversize. Inspect the latch handle and apply Mopar Bond-All Gel Adhesive to correct.
23-73-94
10/7/94
‘94 (BR)
Cup holder rattle.
If cup holder rattles in the closed position, add a foam block to the back of the mug holder.
23-95-94 A
12/30/94
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
Front seat cover wear through above the recliner pivot.
The condition is wear-through at the recliner pivot. Inspect as directed and repair if necessary.
23-98-94
12/23/94
‘94 (BR)
Tailgate hard to latch in cold temperatures.
If the tailgate is difficult to latch when ambient temperatures are below freezing, the strikers should
be checked for proper adjustment. If the problem persist, replace the caliper stop with a shorter
one, part number 55075773.
146
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 23
BODY...Continued
23-101-94
12/30/94
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
Anti-friction tape on A-pillar.
Bulletin 23-36-94 described a squeak and paint abrasion at the door to windshield A-pillar area.
Anti-friction tape is now being applied at the assembly plants to prevent the problem. Do not
remove the anti-friction tape.
23-57-93
10/8/93
‘94 (BR)
Instrument panel creak.
A creak or squeak may be present on the left side of the instrument panel. The repair involves
loosening of the instrument panel to provide additional clearance between the cowl side panel
and instrument panel support joint.
23-64-93
11/19/93
‘94 (BR)
Tailgate rattles.
If tailgate rattles over bumps, check for looseness. If tailgate does not close tightly, replace the
overslam and alignment bumpers.
23-21-92
9/8/92
‘93 (AD)
‘93 standard paint colors.
23-09-91
8/26/91
‘92 (AD)
‘92 standard paint colors.
23-12-90
10/8/90
‘91 (AD)
‘91 standard paint colors.
23-24-89
10/10/89
‘90 (AD)
‘90 standard paint colors.
23-08-89
4/10/89
‘89 (AD)
‘89 standard paint colors.
CATEgORY 24
AIR CONDITIONINg
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
24-01-95 A
3/3/95
’89 - ‘94 (AD)
R-12 to R-134a refigerant adaptation procedure.
The bulletin describes the conversion from R-12 to R-134a. The procedure should only be
performed on vehicles when R-12 is no longer available.
24-06-95 A
5/26/95
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
Odor from air conditioning ducts.
Some vehicles may emit a “musty” odor from the airconditioning ducts. The odor is most noticable
when the A/C system is first turned on. Two possible causes are discussed and repair procedure
are outlined based on less than or greater than 12 months in service.
24-08-95
5/19/95
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
White flakes from instrument panel outlet.
Sodium silicate is used to coat the air conditioner evaporator for corrosion protection. If excessive
amounts are applied during the manufacturing process, there is a tendency for the extra coating
to flake off. Flakes may blow from the vents when the fan is turned on. The bulletin is issued for
information only.
24-08-94
5/6/94
‘94 (BR)
A/C evaporator odor.
A “musty” odor may be emitted from the air conditioner ducts. The odor is most noticeable when
the A/C is first turned on after the system has been left off evernight or longer. The odor is a
result of foreign material accumulating in the evaporator area. The bulletin involves cleaning and
disinfecting the A/C evaporator and housing.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
147
CATEgORY 24
AIR CONDITIONINg...Continued
24-17-94
11/18/94
A/C evaporation freeze-up or lack of cooling on cycling clutch of air conditioning system.
Loss of A/C airflow and/or cooling while the blower fan continues to operate may occur. This bulletin
discusses the role of the powertrain control module in the A/C system.
‘91 - ‘93 (AD)
‘94 - ‘95 (BR)
The electrical signal from the A/C cycling clutch switch passes through the Powertrain Control
Module (PCM) to engage and disengage the A/C clutch relay. If the PCM is not properly disengaging
the A/C clutch via the relay, the compressor will stay on continuously and result in evaporator
freeze-up. Also, the PCM may not energize the A/C clutch relay at all. THis condition results in
the lack of cooling from the A/C system.
The PCM should be checked per the procedure in the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedure
Manual. Diagnostic Trouble Code 33 (A/C clutch relay circuit) will be present when either of
these conditions are caused by the PCM. It is important to perform the complete test sequence
because there are other A.C clutch relay circuit components that could also cause or contribute
to the condition.
24-27-93
11/19/93
‘91 -’93 (AD)
‘94 BR
Air conditioner compressor noise.
A growling noise may be heard with the compressor running. Diagnose the condition as outlined
and perform the repair procedure if necessary. The repair involves installing a revised compressor
valve plate assembly.
CATEgORY 26
MISCELLANEOUS
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
26-04-94
10/28/94
All
Diagnostic procedure manuals.
The bulletin gives a current list of available diagnostic procedure manuals. These manuals provide
system information, step-by-step trouble shooting procedures, diagnostic and driveability tests,
along with diagrams, illustrations and helpful charts to find and fix problems on Chrysler Corporation
vehicles. These manuals can be ordered by calling 1-800-626-1523.
148
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
tsBs issued during ‘96
CATEgORY 2
FRONT SUSPENSION
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
02-01-96A
5/31/96
‘94-’96 (BR)
Camper Special service kit.
The bulletin supersedes TSB 02-01-96 dated 3/15/96. The bulletin applies to body style codes
31, 32, and 62 with one of the listed GVW sales codes Z2B, Z3A, Z7B, Z8A or Z8B. The bulletin
describes the parts and installation procedure for a special service kit developed for use by
owners that consistently carry a box mounted camper. A rear stabilizer bar and auxiliary spring
comprise the kit.
02-03-96
5/31/96
‘94-’96 (BR)
Creaking noise from rear of vehicle.
The diagnosis involves the inspection of the rear leaf spring assembly to verify the appropriate
number of spring tip inserts are present. If tip inserts are broken or missing the repair procedure
is detailed in the TSB.
02-04-96
6/21/96
‘94-’96 (BR)
Two wheel drive
(2WD)
Lower ball joint replacement.
This bulletin applies only to two wheel drive vehicles. It discusses the service differences in tack
welded ball joints/control arms and non tack welded ball joints/control arms.
02-06-96
11/29/96
‘94-’97 (BR)
4x4 only
Track bar ball joint diagnosis.
The bulletin refers to the ‘97 Truck Service Manual and is a supplement to help the technician
troubleshoot loose or worn steering components. The track bar ball joint previously did not have
an inspection procedure.
CATEgORY 3
REAR AXLE
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
03-02-96
5/10/96
‘94-’96 (BR)
2500 and 3500 4x2
trucks, regular cab,
automatic transmission
and two-piece propeller
shafts.
Shudder when pulling away from stop when operated at maximum GVW rating.
The bulletin is a supersession of bulletin 16-01-94. If the vehicle exhibits a driveline shudder while
pulling away from a stop at maximum GVW rating, the bulletin describes the replacement of the
two-piece driveline and center support bracket with a single piece assembly.
03-03-96
8/16/96
‘94-’96 (BR)
With automatic
transmission and 5.9
Turbo Diesel engine.
Note: ‘96 2500 club
cab, 155 WB 4x4 with
heavy duty transfer
case built after 5/9/96
have the revised
propeller shaft.
Droaning noise/vibration.
The symptom typically occurs at maximum load and is engine speed specific - 1900 rpm for 4x2
models, 1850 rpm for 4x4 models with the truck in fourth gear and the torque converter clutch
locked up. If the problem is identified, a repair procedure involving a revised propeller shaft with
a yoke weight damper is described.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
149
CATEgORY 5
BRAKES
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
05-14-95 A
2/9/96
‘95 - ‘96 (BR)
Brake pedal noise when depressed.
The symptom is a squawk type noise when the brakes are depressed. The repair involves installing
a revised back-up plate into the brake combination valve.
05-02-96 A
11/15/96
‘94-’97 (BR)
2500, 8800 GVW sales code and 3500
built before 8/5/96
Accelerated brake lining wear, front versus rear.
The bulletin supersedes TSB 05-02-96 dated 2/23/96. The bulletin adds the 3500 series truck
and incorporates the use of revised brake linings. The bulletin discusses wear conditions. The
repair procedure involves replacing possibly the front brake linings, rear brake linings, or rear
wheel cylinders, depending on truck model and vehicle sales code.
05-08-96
9/13/96
‘94-’96 (BR)
Brake pedal rattle.
If a rattle is heard coming from the brake pedal area and is eliminated when pressure is applied
to the side of the brake pedal, a repair procedure involving a “wave washer” is outlined.
05-09-96
10/4/96
All
Brake noise.
The information only bulletin describes the normal noises that may occur with a properly operating
system, ABS self check, trace squeak, grinding, groaning etc., noises are discussed.
05-10-96
12/13/96
‘94-’97 (BR)
Chassis dynamics diagnosis.
The bulletin discusses conditions where-by the vehicle may move to the right or left when not
controlled by the driver. Several causes are cited (aftermarket wheels, road crown, cross winds,
incorrect tire pressures, worn wheel bearings, etc.). Diagnosis involves testing the vehicle
to determine if the drift is brake related. A brake system evaluation is outlined. Steering and
suspension inspection is discussed. Suspension torque values for fasteners are discussed. A
suspension geometry evaluation is outlined. Front end alignment specifications are provided.
Wheel shim kits and installation of shims for 4x4 trucks is discussed.
CATEgORY 8
ELECTRICAL
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
08-20-96
7/19/96
‘96-’97 (BR)
Cassette auto load error on RAS code radio.
This information only bulletin describes a condition where the radio may enter the cassette play
mode without a cassette being inserted. The bulletin explains the correction and discusses the
function of the Ignition Off Draw (IOD) fuse.
08-21-96A
10/18/96
‘96 (BR)
Wiring harness connector repair packages.
This information only bulletin helps the service technician by providing a part number listing for the
correct electrical components per an assembly. It also gives a review of the diagnosis procedure
for electrical components.
08-23-96
8/23/96
‘94-’96 (BR)
built prior to 12/15/96
Clicking noise from speedometer.
If a clicking/ticking noise is heard coming from the instrument cluster area, the bulletin describes
the repair procedure to replace the speedometer.
08-33-96
10/11/96
‘94-’97 (BR)
Trailer tow wiring information.
Chrysler Corporation has offered optional trailer tow packages on all ‘94 through ‘97 Dodge Ram
Trucks and has made trailer tow packages available through Mopar for vehicles that were not
built with the trailer tow package. Several changes to the trailer tow wiring have occurred since
the truck was introduced. It also identifies flashers. This bulletin identifies the part numbers for
the Mopar trailer tow packages required to adapt trailer wiring to a vehicle that did not have the
trailer tow package installed as original equipment from the factory.
08-47-96
12/20/96
‘97 (BR)
Radio interference from buzzer module.
The condition is a buzzing noise in the rear radio speakers with the radio on/ignition on and the
door ajar. If a buzzing noise is heard the repair involves replacing the buzzer module.
150
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 9
ENgINE
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
09-07-96
6/7/96
‘94-’95 (BR)
Fuel injection pump oil supply bushing oil seepage.
If oil seepage is diagnosed, the bulletin describes the repair procedure using a special oil supply
and removal tool.
CATEgORY 11
EXhAUST
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
11-05-96
8/23/96
‘94-’97 (BR)
Diesel turbocharger diagnostic procedure.
This information only bulletin guides the service technician thorough troubleshooting steps to
properly diagnosis turbocharger situations. Normal/abnormal noises, oil leakage, acceleration
and low boost, are topics discussed in the bulletin.
CATEgORY 14
FUEL
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
14-07-96
8/2/96
‘94-’96 (BR)
Low pressure fuel system diagnostic procedures.
Too low a fuel supply to the Bosch P7100 fuel pump can affect performance. Low rpm miss/
instability, white smoke, hard starting, low power may be the result. This bulletin gives the technician
additional information to assist in diagnosis of the above problems.
CATEgORY 18
VEhICLE PERFORMANCE
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
18-11-96
3/22/96
‘96 (BR)
Revised injection pump timing specifications.
A revision in the injection pump timing specification on Cummins engines with a CPL 2022 or 2023
should be utilized when checking or performing injection pump timing.
CATEgORY 19
STEERINg
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
19-01-96
2/9/96
‘95-’96 (BR)
Clunk or rattle felt in steering column/wheel.
The condition is a clunk or rattle in the steering wheel/column during slow turns or stops on some
‘95-’96 trucks. Diagnosis includes a check of all fasteners for the appropriate torque value.
19-05-96
8/30/96
‘94-’96 (BR)
4x4 trucks with sales
codes Z8A and Z8B
and 4x2 cab chassis
(Z3B) built before
5/15/96.
Shimmy after striking a bump or pothole.
This bulletin supersedes TSB 19-04-95 (5/12/95). The bulletin discusses a sustaining vibration
(shimmy) felt in the front end of the vehicle after striking a bump or pothole. The repair procedure
involves replacing the steering damper, replacing the track bar (if necessary) and the addition of
an auxiliary steering damper.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
151
CATEgORY 19
STEERINg
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
21-04-96
3/15/96
‘96 (BR)
Transmission will not upshift following a 3-2 downshift.
Under certain conditions the transmission will not upshift following a 3-2 downshift. In this condition,
the engine will continue to operate at maximum governor speed in second gear until the throttle
is reduced. The condition only occurs if the overdrive is “off.” The repair involves reprogramming
the powertrain control module with new software.
21-13-96
9/20/96
‘96 (BR)
4x4
Transfer case shifter buzz or clatter.
A buzz or clatter may be heard from the 4x4 shifter at an engine speed of approximately 2000
rpm. The repair involves the addition of an insulating plastic gate liner to the transfer case shifter.
21-15-96
11/8/96
‘95-’97 (BR)
Quick connect removal and reconnect procedure.
The information only bulletin describes the repair procedure for removal/reconnect of the
transmission cooler line fitting on trucks built after 3/20/95 and superseded bulletin 21-02-95,
3/31/95.
CATEgORY 23
BODY
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
23-01-96
1/5/96
‘94-’96 (BR)
Replacement cargo box information.
This information bulletin list the revised part numbers for the 6.5 ft. and 8.0 ft. cargo box with a
reinforced front box floor.
23-02-96
1/19/96
‘94-’96 (BR)
Creak or tick noise from right side instrument panel.
The noise can be reproduced by pushing on the instrument panel at the shelf above the glove box
door. The repair involves the removal of a 3/10 rivet.
23-09-96
2/2/96
‘96 (BR)
Clubcab with a “J” in
the VIN at position
11 and built prior to
10/6/95
Seatbelt buckle difficult to engage with one hand.
The driver side power seat may have a seat belt buckle that may be difficult to latch. The repair
involves replacement of the seatbelt buckle.
23-21-96
3/29/96
‘94-’96 (BR)
Tailgate difficult to close in cold weather.
At less than 5° F the tailgate latch stop bumper may be too stiff to allow for easy closure. Inspect
and replace bumper stop.
23-27-96
4/19/96
‘96 (BR)
Windnoise (whistle) around grille area.
If vehicle exhibits a windnoise (whistle) at speeds of 45 to 85 mph the diagnosis involves checking
the grille for a manufacturing code “CAV3.” If there is not a CAV3 stamp than the grille is not
likely the source of the noise. If noise is from the grille, the repair involves adding 1/4” foam tape
between the grille and hood.
23-29-96
5/10/96
‘94-’96 (BR)
Tailgate cracking on top inner ends.
Some vehicles may exhibit a sheet metal crack along the top inner ends of the tailgate. The bulletin
describes the parts and the correct repair procedure.
23-45-96
8/2/96
‘94-’96 (BR)
Instrument panel creak.
This bulletin supersedes TSB 23-57-93, 8/8/93. A creak or squeak may be present on the left or
right side of the instrument panel. The noise is caused by two sheet metal parts rubbing together.
The repair involves loosening the instrument panel and providing additional clearance between
the cowl and instrument panel support joint.
23-46-96
8/2/96
‘94-’96 (BR)
Rattle in door area.
Inspect the area of the door latch face around the lower window channel retaining bolt. If necessary
perform the outlined repair procedure.
152
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 23
BODY...Continued
23-69-96
11/22/96
Repair procedure for fallout/damaged paint.
Mopar Parts has released a new product, Mopar Fallout Removal Kit (p/n 04882417) for correcting
paint damage due to industrial fallout, rail dust, over-spray and volcanic ash.
‘97 (BR)
The Mopar Fallout Removal Kit does not use a compounding process or acid wash and is the
current Chrysler preferred method for correcting fallout damage. This product uses a clay polymer
material and a liquid that are safer and better than other fallout removal methods.
CATEgORY 24
AIR CONDITIONINg
TSB#
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
MODELS
124-01-96A ‘94-’96 (BR)
10/18/96
24-12-96
8/2/96
24-16-96
10/11/96
Heater A/C system changes mode to defrost when accelerating.
This bulletin supersedes TSB 24-01-96 (2/2/96). The vacuum supply line to the Heater A/C system
may drop when accelerating or when speed control engages. This may cause the vacuum motor to
switch to defrost. The repair involves the addition of a vacuum check valve to the vacuum system.
Water leaks from HVAC floor outlet onto floor.
‘96 (BR)
Water may drain out of the HVAC floor outlets while operating the A/C system. The bulletin
Vehicles assembled
describes the diagnosis and repair procedure.
between 2/1/96 and
6/28/96 with a VIN
code 3 as the first digit.
Vacuum system contaminated with engine oil.
‘95-’96 (BR)
Some Turbo Diesel trucks were produced without a check valve on the vacuum pump. Without a
With engine serial
check valve oil may enter the vacuum system. A visual inspection of the HVAC system is presented
number 56230585 thru and the repair procedure outlined.
56293178 or 45232867
thru 45360437. These
engines were installed
before 6/1/96.
YOU MIghT BE A FORD/ChEVY OWNER IF...*
1. You write off a radiator as a business expense.
2. Your truck is insured by Smith & Wesson.
3. There is a puddle in your driveway year-round.
4. Your stereo speakers used to belong to the Moonlight Drive-in Theater.
5. Your wife has ever said, “Come move this transmission so I can take a bath.”
6. You read the Auto Trader with a highlight pen.
7. You’ve ever hit a deer with your truck, deliberately.
8. There are more than four hats in the rear window of your truck.
9. Directions to your house include “turn off the paved road.”
10. Your hood ornament used to be a bowling trophy.
*From “You Might Be A Redneck If . . . .” by Jeff Foxworthy. Foxworthy’s “Southern” humor can be found at bookstores everywhere. Buy his books for some serious fun.
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tsBs issued during ‘97
CATEgORY 2
FRONT SUSPENSION
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
02-03-97A
8/29/97
‘94-’97 (BR)
Rear of vehicle sits too low.
This bulletin supersedes TSB 02-03-97 as there were part number errors in the previous bulletin.
The bulletin applies to 1500 series trucks rated at 6400 GVW and 2500 series trucks rated at 8800
GVW. The bulletin discusses rear leaf springs and shock absorber availability that will increase
the height of the vehicle when the vehicle is at maximum GVW. The bulletin gives specific part
numbers for various applications.
CATEgORY 5
BRAKES
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
05-03-97
3/17/97
‘94-’97 (BR)
Chassis dynamics diagnosis.
The bulletin supersedes TSB 05-10-96 as revisions have been made to torque specifications and
procedures. The bulletin summarizes different conditions that can cause a vehicle to move to the
right or left when not controlled by the driver. A lengthy test procedure is outlined to isolate the
cause of vehicle drift.
05-04-97
3/28/97
‘94-’97 (BR)
2500-3500 series
Accelerated brake lining wear, front versus rear.
This bulletin supersedes TSB 05-02-96A as the bulletin incorporates the use of revised brake
linings for trucks with 80mm calipers (typically found on 2500, 4x2 trucks). The bulletin discusses
wear conditions, repair procedures, part numbers and rear brake adjustment procedures.
05-07-97
9/22/97
‘98 (BR)
Parking brake release handle does not fully return.
The bulletin applies to trucks built prior to 8/15/97. If applicable, the repair procedure involves
replacing a park brake release lever with a revised part.
CATEgORY 7
COOLINg
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
07-03-97
5/9/97
All
Engine coolant usage.
This information only bulletin discusses the use of propylene glycol instead of ethylene glycol
coolants.
CATEgORY 8
ELECTRICAL
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
08-01-97
2/3/97
‘96-’97 (BR)
JTEC powertrain control wiring harness connector repair packages.
If a dealership determines that a powertrain customer complaint could be related to a poor electrical
connection, the PCM connectors should be inspected. The bulletin describes an assortment of
electrical connector and terminal repair components that are available to aid in powertrain electrical
wiring repairs.
08-21-97
5/23/97
‘94-’97 (BR)
Engine failed to crank—no start.
This information only bulletin discusses a condition where the engine does not crank over when
the ignition is placed in the start position. The shop should then refer to the appropriate ‘97 Service
Manual for proper diagnosis of the starter motor’s electrical circuit.
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CATEgORY 8
ELECTRICAL...Continued
08-22-97A
7/11/97
‘96-’97 (BR)
Inoperative speed control.
This bulletin supersedes TSB 08-22-97, dated 6/20/97. The problem covered by the bulletin is
an inoperative speed control due to a vacuum supply hose that is loose, leaking or deteriorated.
Using the diagnosis as outlined in the ‘97 Service Manual determine the cause of the inoperative
speed control. Perform the repair as outlined in the bulletin.
08-27-97A
9/26/97
‘97 (BR)
Inoperative CD player as a part of sales code RAZ radio.
This bulletin supersedes TSB 08-27-97, dated 7/18/97. The bulletin applies to ‘97 vehicles equipped
with an AM/FM/cassette/CD player, sales code “RAZ” radio. A condition is described where the
CD player may become inoperative, and will not accept the CD when attempting to insert the
disk into the radio. The condition can be intermittent and may occur more often in hotter ambient
temperatures. The AM/FM radio and cassette portion of the radio will continue to operate normally.
The repair involves an exchange of the unit as supplied by Chryslers repair center.
08-30-97
9/5/97
‘98 (BR)
Ashtray receiver lamp degrades from blue-green to bright white.
The ash receiver lamp, when illuminated, may change from a blue-green illumination to a bright
white illumination. This change will occur over a long period of time of continuous use. This bulletin
involves replacing the ash receiver lamp and housing with revised parts.
08-32-97
9/19/97
‘94-’98 (BR)
NHTSA authorized airbag deactivation for medical necessity.
This information only bulletin describes the procedures necessary to deactivate airbags authorized
by NHTSA. Airbag deactivation is a customer pay procedure, not covered under the provisions
of warranty.
08-35-97
9/26/97
‘98 (BR)
Dead battery from ignition off draw (IOD).
The problem described is a dead battery due to the glove box lamp remaining illuminated when
the glove box door is closed. The proper diagnosis involves performing an ignition-off draw (IOD)
test as described in the ‘98 Service Manual. If necessary the bulletin outlines the installation of two
spacers between the glove box lamp switch bracket and the instrument panel glove box opening
upper reinforcement.
08-39-97
11/28/97
‘98 (BR)
Remote keyless entry transmitter batteries discharge prematurely.
This bulletin applies to vehicles built prior to August 15, ‘97 and describes a condition where the
Remote Keyless Entry transmitter batteries discharge in approximately 6 weeks. The repair calls
for replacement and reprogramming of the transmitter.
CATEgORY 11
EXhAUST
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
11-01-97
5/16/97
‘94-’97 (BR)
Whine or howl while driving at highway speeds.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with the diesel engine option. Some vehicles may
experience a whine or howl noise while driving at highway speeds. This noise may be missinterpreted as turbo whine. After proper diagnosis of the condition the bulletin’s repair procedure
involves replacement of the muffler.
CATEgORY 14
FUEL
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
14-07-97
7/18/97
‘94-’97 (BR)
Diesel fuel injection pump tampering.
This information only bulletin applies to inline fuel injection pumps as found on ‘94 thru early ‘98
model trucks. The bulletin stipulates that there are only a few items on the pump that are serviceable
(low idle adjustment, timing adjustment, throttle linkage adjustment, and air bleed procedures).
Any other adjustments or modifications are considered tampering. Tampered injection pumps are
not warrantable. The bulletin shows the service location where to look for suspected tampering.
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CATEgORY 18
VEhICLE PERFORMANCE
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
18-25-97
8/15/97
‘96-’97 (BR)
EGR system failure with Hex Code $2E* on 5.9L Diesel.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9L Cummins Diesel engine built between Jan.
1, 1996 and Dec. 31, 1996 with California emissions sales code NAE. If while performing other
diagnostics, the technician notices Hex Code $2E - EGR SYSTEM FAILURE on the Diagnostic
Scan Tool (DRB III) the diagnosis outlined in the bulletin should be followed. The customer may or
may not experience any engine driveability symptoms. The Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) will
not be illuminated. The repair involves using revised test procedures to diagnose the EGR system
and selectively erase and reprogram the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) with new software
(calibration changes) for the condition listed.
*Editor’s note: $2E is correct.
18-29-97A
12/5/97
‘96-’98 (BR)
with Cummins engine
and five-speed
transmission
Vehicle bucking on ‘96 thru ‘98 trucks with the Cummins engine and a manual transmission.
This bulletin supersedes TSB 18-29-97, dated 10/17/97. The condition to be corrected is one
where the vehicle may exhibit a bucking or jerking condition while under light acceleration or
while driving at steady state speeds. The vehicle may be in a loaded or unloaded state when the
bucking or jerking occurs. This condition results from the sensitivity of the throttle linkage to driver
input. The repair procedure involves replacement of the throttle linkage levers with revised parts.
CATEgORY 19
STEERINg
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
19-08-97
5/30/97
‘96-’97 (BR)
Clunk/rattle felt in steering column/wheel.
This bulletin supersedes TSB 19-01-96, dated 2/9/96 for 1996 model year vehicles. This bulletin
applies to all vehicles built in the United States (first digit of VIN = 1) and vehicles built in Mexico
(first digit of VIN = 3) before Mar. 3, 1997. The condition to be examined is a clunk or rattle that
maybe felt in the steering wheel/column during slow turns, rough road driving, and stops. The
diagnosis involves inspection of the front suspension and steering components, including a check of
all fasteners for proper torque as specified in the appropriate Service Manual. The repair procedure
involves replacement of the steering intermediate shaft.
19-10-97
8/15/97
‘94-’98 (BR)
Steering wander.
If when driving on a straight road, a higher than normal steering wheel movement (perceived as
excessive play) is required to keep the vehicle going straight or if over-compensating the steering
to keep the vehicle from wandering is a condition, the bulletin describes the diagnosis and repair
procedure. The repair involves adjustment of the over-center and, if necessary, the worm thrust
bearing preload adjustments on the steering gear.
19-16-97
11/28/97
‘94-’97 (BR)
Lower steering column noise and/or minor lower steering column movement.
This bulletin applies to vehicles built before Dec. 31, 1996 and describes a lower steering column
noise and/or minor lower steering column movement. If movement in the steering column is greater
than the tolerance, the repair involves adding a “toe plate” (shim) to the steering column.
CATEgORY 21
TRANSMISSION
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
21-12-97
8/29/97
‘96-’97 (BR)
Transfer case shifter buzz or rattle.
This bulletin supersedes TSB 21-13-96, dated 9/20/96. A buzz or clatter may be heard from the
4x4 transfer case shifter at an engine speed of approximately 2000 rpm. The condition may worsen
when the engine is under load. On vehicles equipped with automatic transmission the diagnosis
must be done with the transmission in overdrive and torque converter clutch engaged. If necessary
the correction involves bending the shift lever spring reaction tab outward to increase the spring
tension on the shift lever.
156
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CATEgORY 22
WhEELS & TIRES
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
22-01-97
6/13/97
‘94-’97 (BR)
Tire and wheel runout.
Radial runout is the vertical distance between the high and low points on the tire or wheel edge
measured at the center line of the tread. Lateral runout is the horizontal movement of the tire or
wheel measured near the shoulder of the tire. Runout of more than the preferred specification may
cause the vehicle to shake. This information only bulletin provides the proper specification for runout.
CATEgORY 23
BODY
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
23-03-97
2/14/97
‘89-’93 (AD)
‘94-’97 (BR)
Difficult to clean light colored “chalky” residue from black plastic body components.
The discussion covers difficult to clean light colored “chalky” residue from exterior plastic body
components that are molded in black, especially those that are textured, such as door handles,
mirrors, roof rack attachments, etc. Frequently, this “chalky” residue is actually an accumulation
of car wax, road grime, etc. trapped in the plastic grain. The correction is to clean the component
with a soft bristle brush and mild detergent (liquid dish soap) until the residue is gone.
23-22-97
4/4/97
‘94-’97 (BR)
Driver’s side wiper blade contacts A-Pillar.
This bulletin applies to vehicles built before Oct. 15, 1996. If the driver’s side wiper blade contacts
A-Pillar or a popping sound can be heard when the driver’s side wiper blade reaches its full upper
wipe position (farthest to the left) during high speed wiper operation, this bulletin describes the
repair procedure. The repair has the dealership replace the wiper blades with a blade that has a
revised air deflector.
23-25-97
5/2/97
‘96-’97 (BR)
Windnoise (whistle) around grille area.
This bulletin supersedes TSB 23-27-96, dated 4/19/96. Vehicles may exhibit a condition where a
windnoise whistle occurs from the front of the vehicle. This condition can occur while driving the
vehicle at highway speeds between 45-65 mph or at slower speeds when driving into a headwind.
If necessary a foam strip is installed between the grille and hood.
23-27-97
5/9/97
‘94-’97 (BR)
Water leaking through rear window.
The problem is water leaking past rear window module into cab of vehicle. The bulletin outlines
the repair procedure.
23-39-97
6/27/97
‘94-’97 (BR)
Driver side power mirror vibrates while driving.
This bulletin supersedes TSB 08-64-94, dated 11/4/94. The condition covered in the bulletin is
one where the driver side power mirror vibrates causing blurred images in driver side mirror while
driving. The repair involves installing a power mirror support bracket onto the driver’s side mirror
23-61-97
11/28/97
‘94-’98 (BR)
Noise coming from cargo box area.
The problem is an “oil canning” noise complaint coming from the box area caused by the cargo
box cross member contacting the vehicle’s frame as the vehicle is operated over a rough-surfaced
road. The repair involves installing isolators on two cargo box cross member rails.
23-67-97
12/6/97
‘98 (BR)
Upper rear corner of front door contacts upper front corner of cargo door.
This bulletin applies to Quad Cab Ram trucks and describes a door closing condition where the
upper rear corner of the front door may come in contact with the upper front corner of the cargo
door, causing the paint to chip off the front and/or cargo door. If such, the correction is the installation
of an anti chip plastic molding over the chipped area.
23-68-97
12/19/97
‘98 (BR)
Water leaking into vehicle through side cowl panel.
This bulletin applies to vehicles built between November 16, 1997 and November 26, 1997. If
water leaks through either the right and/or left side cowl panels and dampens the carpet in the
foot well area, a trim cover is removed and a water proof patch is installed over the cowl panel.
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CATEgORY 24
AIR CONDITIONINg
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
24-11-97
7/11/97
‘94-’98 (BR)
A/C evaporator odor.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 24-06-95A, dated 5/26/95. Some vehicle
operators may experience a musty odor from the A/C system, primarily at start up in hot and
humid climates. This odor may be the result of microbial growth on the evaporator core. During
normal A/C system operation, condensation forms in and around the A/C evaporator. When
airborne pollutants mix with this condensation, bacteria and fungi growth begins and odor
results. The repair involves cleaning the evaporator with Mopar aerosol cleaner.
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tsBs issued during ‘98
CATEgORY 5
BRAKES
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
05-04-98
6/12/98
‘97 - ‘99 (BR)
Height sensing proportioning valve removal.
This procedure should only be performed on 2500 series 4x4 vehicles that are continuously
operated at 75% or greater GVW and have had their rear suspension altered. The bulletin describes
a procedure the dealer should follow in the removal of a rear height sensing proportioning valve.
Removal of the proportioning valve should help prolong front brake life.
CATEgORY 6
CLUTCh
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
06-01-98
6/19/98
‘97 - ‘98 (BR)
Release fork orientation.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with an NV4500 manual transmission and either the
8.0L gas engine or the 5.9L Cummins diesel engine. The bulletin covers the proper installation of
the clutch release fork.
CATEgORY 7
COOLINg
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
07-08-98
12/11/98
‘98 - ‘99 (BR)
Diesel engine overheating.
This information applies to vehicles equipped with a 24 valve Cummins diesel engine with an
engine serial number (ESN) 56512007 or prior. This bulletin involves replacing the thermostat
with a revised part (05015090AA).
CATEgORY 8
ELECTRICAL
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
08-09-98
3/13/98
‘94 - ‘98 (BR)
Driver side power mirror vibrates while driving.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 23-39-97, dated June 27, 1997. The problem
covered is that the driver side power mirror vibrates or causes blurred images in driver side
mirror while driving. If removal of aftermarket bugscreen deflectors does not cure the problem, a
procedure for installing a mirror reinforcement bracket is described.
08-11-98
3/13/98
‘98 (BR)
Delayed operation of fog lamps.
The fog lamps illuminate approximately two seconds after being turned ON with the headlamp
LOW beams illuminated. This condition may also occur when the headlamps are turned from
HIGH beam to LOW beam with the fog lamps ON. The repair involves checking the headlamp
connector for proper wire location.
08-13-98
3/27/98
‘98 (BR)
Headlamp switch knob pulls out of headlamp switch.
This bulletin applies to vehicles built before November 16, 1997. Rotate the headlamp switch
knob to the full dim position. Then, apply pressure to the side of the knob and pull the knob to turn
the headlamps ON. If the knob pulls out of the headlamp switch when the headlamps are turned
ON, replace the knob using the described repair procedure.
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CATEgORY 8
08-14-98
3/27/98
‘98 (BR)
ELECTRICAL...Continued
Clicking, rattling, or ratcheting noise coming from the seat belt retractor.
This bulletin applies to all club cab vehicles (both two door Club Cab and Quad Cab models)
built before March, 5, 1998. During normal operation, the seat belt retractor on the vehicles
listed above may emit a clicking, rattling, or ratcheting noise. This noise may be caused by
a solenoid that is energized and de-energized to operate the retractor spool of the seat belt
retractor assembly. The solenoid is controlled by a Seatbelt Control Timer Module (SCTM) which
unlocks the retractor when energized.
If your diagnosis determines and the owner feels that the noise occurs too frequently, the SCTM
on your vehicle may be too sensitive and should be replaced.
08-16-98
4/17/98
‘89 - ‘93 (AD)
‘94 - ‘99 (BR)
Installation of radio transmitting equipment.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 08-22-95, dated May 12, 1995. This
information-only TSB is provided to assist in properly installing communication equipment in
Chrysler vehicle. This information should be given to any owner inquiring about installing radio
transmitting equipment.
08-17-98
Rev. C
12/30/98
‘94 - ‘99 (BR)
Airbag on-off switches.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 08-17-98 Rev. B dated September 18, 1998.
This information only bulletin is provided to identify the parts and procedures necessary to
deactivate airbags authorized by NHTSA. Airbag deactivation is a customer pay procedure.
08-21-98
5/22/98
‘98 (BR)
Radio Interference to/from two-way radio receivers.
Customers may complain of intermittent poor reception on their two-way radios. This condition
does not affect the operation of any AM or FM band radio. Radio receivers from approximately 20
MHZ to 174 MHZ may be susceptible to Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) from the fuel pump
module’s motor. If there is RFI, the bulletin describes the installation of an RFI filter in series with
the electric fuel pump.
08-35-98
6/24/98
‘98 (BR)
Instrument cluster bezel breaks when removed.
This information-only bulletin is a reminder that the instrument cluster bezel is retained by
several snap clip retainers and one screw located underneath the power outlet access door. It is
imperative that this singular screw is removed prior to attempting to remove the instrument cluster
bezel from the instrument cluster.
08-36-98
6/24/98
‘89 - ‘93 (AD)
‘94 - ‘99 (BR)
Use of two digit calendar year codes in automotive computers.
There has been a great deal of recent media attention regarding the turn of the century (year
2000, Y2K, etc.) and the effect it will have on computers that have used two-digit calendar year
coding in their programming. Questions are arising regarding computers used in automotive
applications and the effect year 2000 will have on them.
Two digit calendar-year codes have not been used in any Chrysler automotive onboard
applications and no problems related to use of two digit coding for calendar years are anticipated.
08-51-98
11/27/98
‘99 (BR)
Compass mini trip computer indicates erroneous average miles per gallon, distance to empty,
and/or trip odometer.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with the compass mini trip computer (sales code CUS).
The display will show an erroneous number in the third digit from the right. If repair is necessary,
the module is replaced.
08-54-98
12/30/98
‘99 (BR)
Static inside speakers and/or side speaker cuts out when power outside mirror operates.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with the power audio amplifier (sales code RDE) and
heated outside power mirrors (sales code GTS) built between September 7, 1998 and November
3, 1998. The problem discussed is that static can be heard in the side speakers and/or the sound
coming from the side speakers can cut out and/or in extreme cases, the radio can cut out with the
radio in the FM mode when the power mirror is actuated to its end of travel. The repair involves
replacing the mirrors.
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CATEgORY 9
ENgINE
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
09-06-98
10/30/98
‘98 (BR)
Incorrect engine oil dipstick.
This information applies to vehicles equipped with 24 valve Cummins diesel engines. Some
early 1998 24 valve diesel engines were built with an incorrect dipstick calibration. This incorrect
marking causes an overfilled condition of approximately 1 1/2 quarts when at the top end of the
safe zone on the dipstick. This overfill condition is not damaging to the engine. The Cummins
part number is stamped on the dipstick. The incorrect Cummins P/N is 3944594. The problem is
corrected with the installation of a revised dipstick, 05014562AA/Cummins 3935648.
CATEgORY 11
EXhAUST
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
11-08-98
9/25/98
‘94 - ’98 (BR)
Turbo Diesel wastegate actuator repair kit.
A new kit has been released that will allow technicians to repair turbochargers with failed
wastegate actuators.
CATEgORY 14
FUEL
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
14-01-98
Rev. A
7/17/98
‘98 (BR)
High pressure fuel line service.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 14-01-98 dated March 6, 1998. This information
applies to the 5.9L Cummins electronically injected 24 valve diesel built prior to engine serial
number (ESN) 56462592. Design revisions have been made to the injector connector tube,
and the new design can be re-torqued multiple times without compromising the seal between
the connector tube and high pressure fuel line. The new part number for this connector tube is
05013856AA/Cummins 3944833.
14-02-98
3/27/98
‘98 (BR)
Fuel filter requirements.
With the introduction of the Cummins 24 valve electronically injected engine, a new VP44 injection
pump was also introduced. The VP44 injection pump requires finer fuel filtration due to tighter
tolerances within the pump. Whenever a fuel filter is replaced, make sure the replacement filter is
part number 04883963AB/Cummins 3931476/Fleetguard FS19528.
14-04-98
5/8/98
‘98 (BR)
Accelerator pedal buzzing noise with cruise control engaged.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with the 5.9L 24 valve Cummins diesel engine. If an
audible buzz is coming from the accelerator pedal when the cruise control is engaged a road test
diagnosis is described. If necessary, a re-routing of the accelerator cable is described.
CATEgORY 18
VEhICLE PERFORMANCE
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
18-06-98
2/27/98
‘94 - ‘98 (BR)
Hard starting diagnosis.
This information applies to the 5.9L Cummins mechanically injected 12 valve diesel. The
discussion covers hard or no-start diagnosis and repair.
18-07-98
2/27/98
‘94 - ‘98 (BR)
Effects of incorrect idle speed.
This information applies to the 5.9L Cummins mechanically injected 12 valve diesel. Incorrect idle
adjustments (either too high or low) may cause many different customer concerns. The bulletin
gives a list of items that explain the condition/symptoms associated with incorrect idle settings
along with component checks and specifications to set it properly.
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CATEgORY 21
TRANSMISSION
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
21-10-98
Rev. A
9/25/98
‘94 - ‘99 (BR)
Loss of fifth gear.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 21-10-98, with an effective date of September
11, 1998. This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a NV 4500 manual transmission and
the 8.0L V10 gas engine or the 5.9L Cummins diesel engine. The problem described is that
the transmission operates normally through all ranges except fifth gear. The 14 page bulletin
describes the proper repair procedure.
CATEgORY 23
BODY
TSB #
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
23-13-98
5/8/98
‘98 (BR)
Rear sliding window difficult to open, will not remain latched, and/or leaks water past the lower
run channel.
If the rear sliding window is difficult to open, will not latch, and/or leaks water past the sliding rear
window’s lower run channel, this bulletin describes the proper diagnosis/repair.
23-16-98
5/1/98
‘98 (BR)
Splash guards (mud flaps) discolored and/or distorted due to proximity to tailpipe.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with dual rear wheels. Vehicles equipped with splash
guards may experience discoloration and/or distortion along the outside edge of the passenger
side rear splash guard due to the proximity to the tailpipe. If necessary, a new tailpipe assembly
is installed.
23-17-98
5/1/98
‘94 - ‘98 (BR)
Center armrest driver side hinge cover broken.
If the center armrest upper inertia latch cover (driver side hinge cover) is broken, the proper repair
involves replacement of the hinge.
23-35-98
8/7/98
‘94 - ‘99 (BR)
Door trim panel retainer clip attachment breakage when door trim panel is removed for service.
The bulletin cautions the dealer that damage to the door trim panel may occur if the door trim
panel retainer clips are separated from the door without using a trim panel removing tool.
23-37-98
8/21/98
‘98 - ‘99 (BR)
Cargo net eliminated from production.
This bulletin applies to standard cab vehicles and informs the dealer network that the cargo net
is no longer a production item. It can be purchased through the parts department using Mopar
number 04761197.
23-58-98
11/27/98
‘99 (BR)
Wind noise (whistle) around grill area and/or dimples on the grill painted surface opposite of the
grill fasteners.
This bulletin applies to Ram trucks equipped with the sport package. If there is a windnoise
whistle occurring from the front of the vehicle at highway speeds between 45-65 mph or at slower
speeds when driving into a headwind, this bulletin describes the repair procedure.
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tsBs issued during ‘99
CATEgORY 2
FRONT SUSPENSION
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
02-06-99
Rev. A
12/17/99
‘94-’00 (BR)
Front wheel bearing grease is evident on the bearing seal area.
This bulletin supersedes TSB 02-06-99, dated June 11, 1999. The revisions include the addition
of 4x2 models and additional model years. This information-only bulletin discusses the fact that
front wheel bearings may be incorrectly diagnosed as faulty due to the evidence of wheel bearing
grease on the bearing seal areas. This grease purge is a normal design condition. The factory
fill of the bearings includes a slightly greater amount of grease than is required for the bearing
lifetime lubricant. A portion of the grease purges through the self-venting seal in the initial few
thousand miles to form an additional barrier in the area of the seal and the stamped slinger. This
barrier aids in the prevention of contaminants passing through the seal and into the bearing.
Do not remove or clean the purged grease as part of normal maintenance because it provides
additional protection and once removed, damage to the seal and bearing could result.
02-13-99
09/10/99
‘94 - ‘99 (BR)
Squeaking noise from rear leaf springs.
This bulletin supersedes TSB 02-03-96, dated may 31, 1996. If the diagnosed condition is a
squeaking noise coming from the rear of the vehicle, the bulletin gives the correct repair procedure
to replace the leaf spring tip liners/install spring clip isolators.
CATEgORY 5
BRAKES
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
05-04-99
05/28/99
‘98 - ‘99 (BR)
Chassis dynamics diagnosis.
This 21-page bulletin involves diagnosis and repair of a vehicle drift condition and on some
vehicles, installing a shim between the wheel and the brake rotor, between the wheel and hub/
bearing assembly, or between the wheel and hub extension.
Chassis dynamics diagnosis is the diagnosis of a condition where the vehicle may move either
to the right or the left when not controlled by the driver. This condition can be caused by any of
the following: Non-factory installed options (e.g. snow plow), tires or wheels of different size,
aftermarket wheels, tires that have a belt that has shifted, incorrect tire pressure, a vehicle that
is carrying extra added weight (e.g. tool boxes), steering and/or suspension components that
are worn or damaged, wheel bearings that are worn or damaged, a vehicle that is not with in
alignment specifications, brake drag from brake components that do not release, or braking
imbalance.
Additionally, under certain road conditions (e.g. high road crown, grooved roads, etc.), most
vehicles will move to the right or left uncontrolled by the driver. Also, the same may happen if a
cross-wind condition exists.
05-11-99
12/31/99
‘94 - ‘96 (BR)
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Revised power brake booster check valve.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with the 5.9L Cummins diesel engine. A revised power
brake booster check valve p/n 05011393AA has been released for service. The new check valve
performance has been improved by changing the flapper style check valve to a spring loaded style
check valve. The spring loaded style check valve performance is superior, especially in vehicles
that utilize mechanical vacuum pumps to provide the vacuum source to operate the power brake
booster. Part number 05011393AA should be used any time the power brake booster check valve
is serviced on the subject model vehicles.
163
CATEgORY 8
ELECTRICAL
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
08-06-99
Rev. A
12/17/99
‘98 - ‘00 (BR)
Radio interference to/from two-way radio receivers.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 08-06-99, dated March 5, 1999. Customers
may complain of intermittent poor reception on their two-way radios. This bulletin involves
installing a RFI filter in series with the electric fuel pump motor.
08-16-99
6/11/99
‘99 (BR/BE)
Inoperative or intermittent remote keyless entry (RKE) transmitter.
This bulletin supersedes TSB 08-16-99, Dated May 28, 1999. This bulletin applies to vehicles
built prior to March 1, 1999. It applies only to vehicles equipped with the new peanut shaped
transmitters. The problem discussed is an inoperative RKE transmitter. This condition may be
intermittent and will have similar symptoms to a dead transmitter battery. This can be caused
by a lost or intermittent contact between the battery terminal and the printed circuit board. A
transmitter repair kit containing a new case with an improved battery terminal has been released.
This bulletin involves replacing the RKE transmitter case.
08-17-99
05/28/99
‘99 (BR)
Compass/mini-trip computers no longer need calibration during new vehicle preparation.
This information-only bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with the compass/mini-trip computer
(sales code CUS) built after April 28, 1999. Vehicles equipped with the compass/mini-trip
computer are now having their compasses calibrated by the assembly plant making it no longer
necessary to calibrate the compass during new vehicle preparation. However, in order to ensure
proper operation of the compass, it will still be necessary to set the variance of the compass prior
to vehicle retail delivery.
08-22-99
07/02/99
‘98 (BR)
Intermittent operation of oil pressure gauge.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with the 5.9L Cummins 12-valve Turbo Diesel
engine built before January 5, 1998. The condition for correction is an oil pressure gauge that
intermittently drops to zero pressure. In addition, the warning chime may sound when the oil
pressure gauge drops to zero pressure and the check gauge lamp may come on. Proper repair
involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) with new
software (a calibration change).
08-28-99
08/20/99
‘00 (BR)
Simplified compass mini trip computer calibration.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with the compass mini trip computer (sales code CUS).
The subject model vehicles are shipped from the assembly plants with the compass mini trip
computer NOT calibrated. This will be identified by “CAL” displayed on the compass mini trip
computer. To calibrate the compass mini trip computer, drive the vehicle in a complete circle until
“CAL” is no longer displayed on the compass mini trip computer.
08-32-99
10/01/99
‘98 - ‘99 (BR)
Radio interference to/from two-way radio receivers.
This bulletin addresses the complaint of intermittent poor reception on two-way radios, and
discusses the proper repair. Radio receivers from approximately 30 MHZ to 50 MHZ may be
susceptible to Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) from the Airbag Control Module (ACM).
Note: technical service bulletin 08-06-99, dated March 5, 1999, addresses two-way radio
interference from the fuel pump module and should be performed prior to performing this technical
service bulletin.
08-37-99
11/12/99
‘94 - ‘00 (BR)
Airbag On-Off Switches.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 08-17-98 Rev C, dated December 30, 1998.
This information-only bulletin identifies the parts and procedures necessary to deactivate airbags
authorized by NHTSA. Airbag deactivation is a customer pay procedure, NOT covered under the
provisions of the warranty.
08-39-99
12/10/99
‘00 (BR)
Communications may stop between the JTEC PCM and a generic scan tool.
This information applies to vehicles built before November 30, 1999. The JTEC Powertrain
Control Module (PCM) may stop communications with a generic scan tool. This bulletin involves
selectively erasing and reprogramming the JTEC PCM with new software calibration change
(00Cal13 & 00Cal13A).
164
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 8
ELECTRICAL...Continued
08-42-99
12/17/99
‘98 - ‘99 (BR)
The fuel gauge reads full for an excessive period of time.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with the 5.9L Cummins diesel engine. After driving over
200 miles, the fuel gauge may read full until the vehicle travels over a bump in the road and then
the gauge operates normally. This condition may be caused by the float in the fuel pump module
sticking and may be difficult to diagnose. Perform the repair procedure (new fuel pump module) if
the customer’s concern matches the description identified in the Symptom/Condition.
08-43-99
12/17/99
‘98 - ‘99 (BR)
Central timer module software update when a wiper module is replaced.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with remote keyless entry. Due to a design change
in MOPAR replacement wiper modules, the central timing module must be updated with new
software in order to allow the wiper module to function properly. The outlined repair procedure
must be performed any time the wiper module is replaced.
08-44-99
12/31/99
‘99 - ‘00 (BR)
Intermittent speaker operation/static.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with the Infinity sound system sales codes (RBR, RBN,
and RAZ) built before October 1, 1999. The condition is intermittent operation/static that may
occur in any or all speakers. The bulletin describes the proper repair.
CATEgORY 9
ENgINE
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
09-04-99
07/16/99
‘98 - ‘99 (BR)
Hard-to-diagnose noise coming from the engine turbocharger area.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a Cummins 5.9L – 24V diesel engine built prior to
engine serial number (ESN) 56587424. The ESN is located on the engine data plate which is
located on the front left side of the engine, affixed to the gear housing.
A noise may be present which on initial investigation may sound like a noisy turbocharger bearing.
The sound of the noise may be described as a whistle, a squeal, a howl, a moan, or a gurgle. The
noise will be more noticeable as engine temperature increases. The noise will most often occur
when the warm engine is operated between 1,500 and 2,200 rpm’s. The noise is usually heard
in the cab, louder on the passenger side or seems to come form the dash vents. The noise may
be caused by the coolant supply hose connector. The connector is located on the cylinder head
next to the turbocharger. The connector is used to supply coolant to the heater hose. The bulletin
describes the replacement of the hose connector.
CATEgORY 18
VEhICLE PERFORMANCE
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
18-02-99
02/19/99
‘98 - ‘99 (BR)
Erratic torque converter clutch (TCC) operation.
This information applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9L 24-valve diesel engine and automatic
transmission built between January 1, 1998 and December 18, 1998. Some vehicles may exhibit
a surge-like condition while in fourth gear. This may be caused by the TTC unlocking and locking
when it should be consistently locked. The cause of this erratic operation has been identified
as electrical noise from the Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) or Alternator. This bulletin involves
selectively erasing and reprogramming the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) with new software
(calibration changes 98cal12 and 99cal14).
18-07-99
04/30/99
‘98 - ‘99 (BR)
Erroneous MIL illumination with DTC $A8 (P1763) governor pressure sensor volts too high.
This information applies to vehicles equipped with a reseries automatic transmission built before
December 18, 1998. Some vehicles may exhibit a MIL illumination with DTC $A8 (P1763) GOVERNOR PRESSURE SENSOR VOLTS TOO HIGH. The vehicle operator may experience
slower than normal accelerations because the transmission may temporarily enter third gear
“Limp-In” Mode. The “Limp-In” Mode may last until the vehicle owner cycles the ignition key. The
technician may not detect a problem with the automatic transmission during a diagnostic test
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
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CATEgORY 18
VEhICLE PERFORMANCE...Continued
or test drive. The MIL is caused by an increase in hydraulic pressure. The increased hydraulic
pressure is the result of a new valve body machining process. Vehicles built after January 1,
1998 have an automatic transmission with this new process valve body. Vehicles built before
January 1, 1998 may experience this condition if either the transmission valve body or the entire
automatic transmission was replaced with components manufactured after January 1, 1998. This
bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the JTEC Powertrain Control Module
(PCM) with new software (calibration changes 99Cal14, 98Cal12).
18-08-99
04/30/99
‘98 - ‘99 (BR)
Improved speed control system sensitivity to set speed.
Some customers may complain that their vehicle speed control system may be too busy or drift
more than 2 mph below or above the initial vehicle set speed. Vehicle load and road/terrain
conditions may impact this issue. The new PCM software improves the speed control system
sensitivity so that the vehicle speed remains closer to its set speed with fewer engine rpm
oscillations. This bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the JTEC Powertrain
Control Module (PCM) with new software (calibration changes 98Cal12A, 99Cal 17). There is no
change to the Cummins CM551 Engine Control Module (ECM) software.
18-09-99
05/21/99
‘99 (BR)
Common diagnostic trouble codes caused by an open fuse.
Analysis has revealed an issue with repeated repairs for the same Diagnostic Trouble Code
(DTC). The DTC may be due to an overlooked open circuit used to power the component in
question. In most instances, either the circuit fuse has been erroneously removed or the fuse
itself is open (blown). The component in question, and its circuit, are often protected by two
fuses. It is usually the lower amperage fuse that is either missing or open. The lower amperage
fuse is positioned electrically in the circuit between the component in question and either a relay
or the ignition switch. The lower amperage fuse will be located either in the underhood Power
Distribution Center (PDC) or in the instrument panel Junction Block. The lower amperage fuse
is often missing because it was removed erroneously for use in another low current circuit. If
the lower amperage fuse is open (blown), then the circuit and component in question must be
checked for an electrical short. Check to make sure that the open fuse was not exchanged with
another fuse or was damaged by an installed accessory.
18-11-99
05/28/99
‘98 - ‘99 (BR)
Slow acceleration or lack of power while towing or hauling a heavy load.
This information applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9L - 24V diesel engine built before engine
serial number 56587297 with a date of engine manufacture of May 5, 1999. This information is
available on the engine data plate, which is located on the left side of the engine, affixed to the
gear housing. There may be a condition of low power or slow acceleration when towing or when
hauling a heavy load. This software change, to the Cummins CM551 diesel engine controller, will
increase engine torque. Some 1998 BR vehicles equipped with a 5.9L - 24V diesel engine may
already have the latest software revision. Verify that the ECM is at calibration level 98T17 (p/n’s
333034303J / 333035303J / 333036303J / 333037303J). If the calibration level is 98T17, then
this TSB does not apply and further powertrain diagnosis may be required. This bulletin involves
selectively erasing and reprogramming the Cummins CM551 Engine Control Module (ECM) with
new software (calibration changes 98Cal T17 and 99CalT8B). There is no change to the JTEC
PCM software.
18-21-99
‘98 - ‘99 (BR)
5.9L - 24V Cummins diesel low power or poor performance diagnostic.
The vehicle operator may complain of slow acceleration or a lack of power when towing or hauling
moderate to heavy loads. The condition may be worse at higher altitude. Do not proceed with this
technical service bulletin until TSB 18-11-99 has been performed. This bulletin further describes
diagnostic procedures that may be used to assist the technician in the diagnosis of a low power
or poor performance complaint.
18-24-99
11/15/99
‘00 (BR)
5.9L - 24V Cummins diesel low power or poor performance diagnostic.
The vehicle operator may complain of slow acceleration or a lack of power when towing or hauling
moderate to heavy loads. The condition may be worse at higher altitude. This bulletin involves
diagnostic procedures that may be used to assist the technician in the diagnosis of a low power
or poor performance complaint. The procedures outlined start with confirmation that TSB 18-1198 (turbocharger wastegate actuator repair kit) has been performed. Additionally, the technician
should verify that the throttle is opening fully.
• Perform the complete FUEL TRANSFER PUMP PRESSURE TEST procedure.
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A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 18
VEhICLE PERFORMANCE...Continued
• Inspect the fuel tank rollover valve for restrictions and to ensure that the shipping cap has not
been left on the end of the valve.
• Inspect the charge air cooler hoses and clamps for proper installation. Inspect all connections
and clamps for looseness. Verify that no leaks are present when the engine is under boost
conditions.
• While performing the following road test, verify that the turbo boost pressure is 16 psi during
wide open throttle (WOT) acceleration.
• While road testing the vehicle in a safe area and manner, conduct an acceleration test. For
vehicles equipped with an automatic transmission conduct a 0-60 mph acceleration test. For
vehicles equipped with a manual transmission, conduct a 40-60 mph acceleration test in
fourth gear. It may take the technician performing several acceleration tests to obtain consistent
acceleration times. A performance vehicle/tire size/weight chart is provided. A summary of the
chart reveals 0-60 mph test for automatic trucks 13.5 to 15 secondsis acceptable. In the 40 to
60 mph test, for manual trucks in fourth gear, can vary from 7.5 to 9.0 seconds. Correction
factors for vehicle weight and altitude are presented.
18-24-99
11/15/99
‘00 (BR)
5.9L - 24V diesel engine intermittent engine stumble.
This information applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9L - 24V diesel engine built before engine
serial number 56624822 with a date of manufacture of August 28, 1999. This information is
available on the engine data plate, which is located on the left side of the engine, affixed to the
gear housing. The customer may experience a quick, momentary stumble while driving or when
stopped with t he engine running. This condition is intermittent and may occur at any time during
the operation of the vehicle. A change to the Cummins CM551 Engine Control Module (ECM)
software corrects this condition (calibration change 99CalT9A).
CATEgORY 19
STEERINg
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
19-03-99
05/07/99
‘94 - ‘99 (BR)
Steering slow to return to center.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 19-01-94, dated January 28, 1994. This bulletin
applies to 4x4 vehicles equipped with a Dana model 60 front axle (sales code DRD). The rate of
steering return to center (after turning a corner) may be slower than normal or may require slight
steering wheel correction while driving straight ahead. The repair involves performing a ball joint
tightening sequence.
19-04-99
05/28/99
‘99 (BR)
Steering system diagnosis.
Customers may complain that the steering system “feels heavy” or the steering wheel is not
centered while driving on a straight road. The steering gear used on the 1999 Ram Truck is
designed to have a heavy on-center steering characteristic. Before replacing a steering gear for
a steering system “feel” complaint, perform the suggested diagnosis to ensure that the rest of the
steering system components perform as designed.
CATEgORY 21
TRANSMISSION
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
21-08-99
04/30/99
‘96 - ‘99 (BR)
Buzz, whine or moaning-type noise from a cold transmission when reverse is selected.
Some vehicles may exhibit an intermittent noise from the transmission when reverse gear is
selected. This noise has been described as a buzz, whining, or moaning-like noise. The noise
is most noticeable when transmission fluid temperature is below 100 degrees F (38C). The
condition is caused by a resonance of the transmission regulator valve system. The repair
involves replacing the transmission regulator valve.
21-14-99
11/05/99
‘00 (BR)
47RE transmission - harsh or early shifts.
This information applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9L - 24V diesel engine and 47RE automatic
transmission built before engine serial number 56624822 with a date of manufacture of August
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
167
CATEgORY 21
TRANSMISSION
28, 1999. This information is available on the engine data plate, which is located on the left side
of the engine, affixed to the gear housing.
Some early-built 2000 model year Ram Trucks may experience a harsh 3-4 shift. This condition
may occur during any throttle position situation when transmission sump temperatures are 60
degrees F (15C) or higher. The harsh 3-4 shift may be more pronounced during heavy vehicle
loading, e.g., trailer towing. Some 2000 M.Y vehicles may also experience an early 1-2 or 2-3 shift
condition during wide open throttle (WOT) situations. This condition may have an impact on vehicle
performance (acceleration). This condition may occur when transmission sump temperatures are
32 degrees F (0C) or higher. Changes to the Cummins CM551 engine control module (ECM)
software/calibration corrects the above two conditions (calibration change 00Cal57T9A).
21-19-99
11/12/99
‘99 - ‘00 (BR)
47RE delayed TCC lock-up and/or MIL P1740 = TCC or O/D solenoid performance.
This information applies to vehicles built for the California market (NAE), equipped with a 5.9L
- 24V diesel engine and built between March 2, 1999 and October 1, 1999. The customer
may experience a delayed torque converter clutch engagement (lock-up). This condition may
illuminate the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) due to Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) P1740 TCC or O/D Solenoid Performance. In some situations, the customer may describe the condition
as a lack of a transmission shift (TCC lock-up) between 30 and 50 mph. The transmission valve
body upper housing separator plate was revised (wider slot) to improve fluid flow to the torque
converter clutch. This bulletin describes the replacement of the transmission valve body upper
housing separator plate.
CATEgORY 23
BODY
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
23-08-99
03/05/99
‘94 - ‘99 (BR)
Instrument panel creak.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 23-45-96, dated August 2, 1996. A creak or
squeak may be present near the left and/or right side(s) of the instrument panel. The noise is
caused by the sheet metal joint between the A-pillar and the dash panel plenum lower rubbing
together. This bulletin describes the repair procedure which involves loosening the instrument
panel and providing additional clearance between the A-pillar inner panel and dash panel.
23-18-99
05/21/99
‘98 - ‘99 (BR)
Bezel comes loose from seat belt retractor cover.
This bulletin applies to club/quad cab vehicles. The seat belt retractor cover bezel comes loose
due to a cracked seat belt retractor cover. The crack may occur at the bottom of the opening
where the seat belt bezel snaps into the cover. This bulletin describes the installation of a new
seat belt retractor cover.
23-22-99
07/02/99
‘94 - ‘00 (BR)
Rattle in door area.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 23-46-96, dated August 2, 1996. Customers
may complain of one or more of the following symptoms: rattle heard in the door area; door
window shakes when closing; door lower window channel bolt has pulled through the door sheet
metal; door sheet metal is cracking around the lower window channel bolt. This bulletin involves
removing the window channel from the door and installing a revised window channel.
23-28-99
08/13/99
‘98 - ‘99 (BR)
Power seat track vertical adjustment stuck in a full upward or full downward position.
This bulletin applies to club or quad cab vehicles built before March 1, 1999. The repair condition
is that the front and/or rear power seat track vertical adjuster motors are stuck in a full upward or
full downward position. The repair involves removing existing lubrication on the power seat track
adjustment lead screws and then applying a new lubricant.
23-35-99
Rev. A
10/01/99
‘94 - ‘00 (BR)
Child seat tether anchors.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 23-35-99 dated September 3, 1999. This
bulletin identifies the parts and labor operation numbers necessary to install a child seat tether
anchor.
168
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
tsBs issued during ‘00
CATEgORY 2
FRONT SUSPENSION
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
02-04-00
Rev. A
05/12/00
‘94 - ’01 (BR)
Squeaking/clicking noise from rear leaf springs.
If the vehicle has a squeaking/clicking noise coming from the rear of the vehicle, verify that
the noise is coming from the rear springs as the vehicle’s suspension goes through jounce
and rebound. If a squeaking/clicking noise is coming from the rear springs, perform the repair
procedure. The procedure involves replacing the spring tip liners and installing spring clinch clip
insolators.
CATEgORY 5
BRAKES
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
05-04-00
05/01/00
‘00 (BR)
High pitched squeal from rear brakes.
This bulletin applies to 2500/3500 series Ram trucks built before March 1, 2000. The condition
discussed is a high-pitched squeal coming from the rear brakes when the brakes are applied.
The repair procedure involves installing revised rear brake shoes.
05-06-00
06/09/00
‘00 - ‘01 (BR)
Front brake caliper anti-rattle clip retainer service procedures.
This bulletin applies to vehicles built before June 26, 2000. Vehicles built between April 19, 2000,
and June 26, 2000, were built with a front brake caliper anti-rattle clip retainer. This Technical
Service Bulletin provides the installation procedures for the retainer.
CATEgORY 8
ELECTRICAL
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
08-05-00
04/21/00
‘99 (BR)
Intermittent operation of the instrument cluster.
The needle of the instrument cluster gauges may intermittently drop to zero and/or the telltale
lamps, such as the AIRBAG warning lamp, may intermittently come on. The bulletin involves
replacing the instrument cluster wire harness connector and associated wire terminals.
08-08-00
03/17/00
‘99 - ‘00 (BR)
Inoperative or intermittent remote keyless entry (RKE) transmitter.
The problem described is an inoperative RKE transmitter. This condition may be intermittent and
will have similar symptoms to a dead transmitter battery. This bulletin discusses replacing and
reprogramming the (RKE) transmitter.
08-11-00
03/24/00
‘94 - ‘00 (BR)
Recordable compact discs used in automotive CD players.
Some recordable compact disc media, such as CD-R and CD-RW, may not comply with the
standard CD format used in automotive CD players. When these CDs are used, customers may
encounter error messages skipping, or delaminating of the labels, which can cause an eject failure.
It is important to question whether these kinds of CD media are being used. When customers
encounter these symptoms, check the system with a known playable CD. The media may not be
compatible with some automotive CD players. Replacing or exchanging the CD player will not
address these issues.
08-16-00
04/28/00
‘94 - ‘00 (BR)
Front door speaker buzz.
The bulletin discusses a buss noise coming from the front door speaker(s). The noise may
be more noticeable while listening to “talk” radio segments with deep male voices. The repair
procedure involves installing a urethane foam pad between the inner door panel and the door
trim.
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169
CATEgORY 8
ELECTRICAL...Continued
08-17-00
05/12/00
‘99 - ‘00 (BR)
Intermittent speaker operation/static.
Intermittent operation/static may occur in any or all speakers. The bulletin applies to vehicles
equipped with the Infinity sound system sales codes (RBR, RBN, and RAZ) built before October
1, 1999. This repair involves installing new speaker kits on both right and left front doors and
installing foam between the inner door trim panel and the door.
08-18-00
05/12/00
‘98 - ‘01 (BR)
Radio Interference to/from two-way radio receivers.
Customers may complain of intermittent poor reception on their two-way radios. This bulletin
involves installing a RFI filter in series with the electric fuel pump motor.
08-23-00
06/23/00
‘98 - ‘01 (BR)
Plastic boot to protect the electrical harness B+ end terminal at the generator.
While service is being performed to the engine, it may be possible for a momentary electrical
short to occur. The electrical short may be caused when a metallic object, such as a wrench or
oil filter, comes in contact with the B+ end terminal of the generator wire harness. The B+ end
terminal is bolted to the generator B+ stud (output terminal). The B+ stud on the generator is
protected by a plastic surround. Part of the wire harness end terminal may extend beyond the
protective plastic surround for the B+ output terminal.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9L – 24V diesel engine built before engine
serial number 56681800 with a date of manufacture of January 29, 2000. The repair procedure
involves the installation of a protective rubber boot (part number 04487042) over the B+ terminal.
08-26-00
09/29/00
‘00 - ‘01 (BR)
Central timer module electrically “locks-up.”
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with remote keyless entry (sales code GXR). In addition,
this bulletin applies to vehicles built on or before the following build dates: Ram trucks built at
the St. Louis North Assembly Plant on or before August 21, 2000; Ram trucks built at the Saltillo
Truck Assembly Plant on or before August 31, 2000; Ram trucks built at the Lago Alberto Truck
Assembly Plant on or before September 6, 2000. The repair involves replacing the Central Timer
Module (CTM) with a revised part.
CATEgORY 9
ENgINE
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
09-02-00
02/18/00
‘99 - ‘00 (BR)
A heavy oil or fuel-like odor coming from the diesel engine compartment.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9L diesel engine. The problem is a heavy oil
or fuel-like odor coming from the engine compartment. This condition may occur after the engine
oil has been changed. The odor appears to reduce in intensity as the engine oil ages. This aging
usually occurs between the first 300 to 500 miles following the oil change.
The odor condition is the result of certain diesel engine oil additives. These oil additives are
blended with the base oil during the manufacture of the engine oil. Some diesel engine oils with
the American Petroleum Institute quality rating of CH-4 or CH-4+ may be more prone ot exhibiting
the odor condition.
The DaimlerChrysler recommended diesel engine oil (p/n 04798231 or p/n 0479832) is formulated
to minimize the heavy oil odor condition.
09-03-00
02/18/00
‘00 (BR)
Engine oil seepage past the oil fill cap on 5.9L-24V diesel engine.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9L-24V diesel engine built before engine serial
number 56664950 with a date of manufacture of December 8,j 1999.
Oil seepage may be noticed in the area of the oil fill cap. This may be due to paint overspray
around the oil fill opening of the cylinder head valve cover. The paint overspray may cause
an uneven sealing surface. The corrective action involves using fine grit sandpaper to insure a
smooth mating surface.
Another possible cause for the oil seepage may be a damaged oil fill cap o-ring. The o-ring may
be cut die to the presence of a sharp corner around the top edge of the cylinder head cover oil
fill opening.
170
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 14
FUEL
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
14-01-00
02/04/00
‘00 (BR)
Thump/bump sound heard 1-3 seconds after the vehicle comes to a stop.
This bulletin applies to 2500 series Club/Quad cab vehicles equipped with the 6 ½ foot box built
before December 1, 1999.
Customers may hear a thump/bump sound that occurs 1-3 seconds after the vehicle comes to a
complete stop. In some cases, the thump/bump sound may be transmitted through the floor of the
vehicle allowing the customer to feel the thump/bump in the floor pan of the vehicle. The sound
will only occur when the fuel level of the vehicle is between ½ and 7/8 tank of fuel.
Since the fuel level of the vehicle must be between ½ to 7/8 full, the condition may be difficult to
diagnose. The repair involves replacing the fuel tank.
14-02-00
04/14/00
‘00 - ‘01 (BR)
Crack in diesel fuel filter housing cover caused by an improper servicing procedure.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9L-24V diesel engine built before engine serial
number 56686747 with a date of manufacture of February 09, 2000. Analysis of returned fuel
filter housing covers has determined that a number of plastic covers are being replaced due to
cracks. Further analysis has revealed that the cracks may be caused by improper cover removal
procedures. Do not use the square opening to remove or install the cover. The fuel filter cover
may crack. To remove or install the fuel filter cover correctly, only use the 1 1/8” hex head. Use
of a six point socket is preferred.
14-03-00
04/14/00
‘98 - ‘01 (BR)
Maintenance to the Water-In-Fuel sensor probes due to possible fuel contamination.
The probes on the end of the Water-In-Fuel (WIF) sensor may become less effective at sensing
the presence of water in the fuel if they are exposed to contaminated fuel. Contaminant from the
fuel may insulate the WIF sensor probes and inhibit the WIF lamp from illuminating when water
is present.
Any time service is performed on the fuel filter or fuel filter housing, the probes on the end of
the Water-In-Fuel sensor should be cleaned. Use a clean cloth to wipe the WIF probes of any
contaminant.
CATEgORY 18
VEhICLE PERFORMANCE
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
18-015-00
Rev. A
12/21/00
‘98 - ‘01 (BR)
Driveability enhancements for winter fuel use and for hard starts.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9L-24V diesel engine built between engine
serial numbers 56419738 to 56798357, with a date of manufacture of December 16, 1997 to
November 15, 2000.
The customer may complain of poor driveability when winter fuel is used to power the engine. Or,
the customer may complain of a hard or no-start condition, while the engine is at normal operating
temperatures, when using any type of good quality diesel fuel. The poor driveability condition may
occur only when either straight #1 diesel fuel is used or when other special cold climate winter
blend fuels are in use.
The no-start or long engine crank condition may occur when attempting to restart the engine
while the temperature of the engine is till close to its normal operating temperature. This hard
hot restart condition may be experienced in all ambient climates, but may be more of a concern
in warmer ambient climates. The repair involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the
Cummins CM551 Engine Control Module (ECM) with new software.
18-024-00
12/21/00
‘01 (BR)
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Low engine power when the automatic transmission is in overdrive.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 24-valve diesel engine and automatic transmission
built between engine serial numbers 56666444 to 56798357, with a date of manufacture of
December 15, 1999 to November 15, 2000. This information is available on the engine data
plate, which is located on the left side of the engine, affixed to the side of the timing gear housing.
171
CATEgORY 18
VEhICLE PERFORMANCE...Continued
The customer may complain of low engine power and/or poor performance. This engine condition
may occur while the automatic transmission is being operated in its overdrive gear. This condition
may be further aggravated if the customer is using the vehicle for towing purposes.
The Engine Control Module (ECM) software, on a 2001 Ram Truck equipped with a 24-valve
diesel engine, is designed to “torque manage” the power output of the engine. This is done to
protect the automatic transmission components. The revised software calibration restores the
power output and improves the vehicle performance in overdrive.
Note: If TSB 18-015-00 Rev A has previously been performed too the vehicle in question, then
the ECM software has already been revised with the correct calibration to address the above
condition. The ECM will not require reprogramming.
The repair procedure involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the Cummins CM551
Engine Control Module (ECM) with new software (calibration versions: 56T13, 59T6). There is no
change to the JTEC PCM software.
CATEgORY 19
STEERINg
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
19-04-00
06/09/00
‘94 - ‘00 (BR)
Squeaking/creaking sound in steering column while turning.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with non-tilt steering columns. A squeaking/creaking
sound may be heard coming from the area of the steering wheel while turning. The sound is
associated with rotation fo the steering wheel or may be heard while going over bumps in the
road. The repair involves installing new lock housing attaching screws.
CATEgORY 21
TRANSMISSION
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
21-02-00
03/10/00
‘99 - ‘00 (BR)
47RE transmission-delayed upshift or no TCC engagement between 30 and 50 MPH.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a federal market 5.9L-24V diesel engine and built
between March 2, 1999 and October 1, 1999.
The customer may experience a condition where the transmission may seem to have a delayed
3-4 upshift, while moderately accelerating from 30 to 50 MPH. The customer may also note high
engine rpm’s while operating in third or fourth gear. This condition may be caused by a delay
in the engagement of the transmission torque converter clutch (torque converter lockup). The
repair involves the replacement of the transmission valve body upper housing separator plate.
21-04-00
06/30/00
‘96 - ‘99 (BR)
Erroneous MIL illumination for P1763 – Transmission Governor Pressure Sensor Volts Too High.
Some vehicles may exhibit a MIL illumination with a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) of P1763 –
Transmission Governor Pressure Sensor Volts Too High. The vehicle operator may experience
slower than normal vehicle accelerations because the transmission may have temporarily
entered its third gear “limp-In” mode as a result of the DTC. The “Limp-In” mode may last until
the vehicle owner cycles the ignition key. The technician may not detect a problem with the
automatic transmission during a diagnostic test or test drive.
The MIL is caused by an increase in hydraulic pressure. The increased hydraulic pressure is the
result of a new valve body machining process, which entered into production January 1, 1998.
This condition will occur most often with vehicles that were built between January 1, 1998 and
December 18, 1998.
Vehicles built prior to January 1, 1998 may also experience this condition if the valve body or the
transmission assembly is replaced with components built after January 1, 1998.
This bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the JTEC Powertrain Control
Module (PCN) with new software.
172
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 21
TRANSMISSION...Continued
21-08-00
09/01/00
47RE delayed TCC lock-up and/or MIL P1740 – TCC or O/D Solenoid Performance.
This information applies to vehicles build for the California market (NAE), equipped with a
5.9L-24V diesel engine and built between March 2, 1999 and October 1, 1999.
‘99 - ‘00 (BR)
The customer may experience a delayed torque converter clutch engagement (lock-up). This
condition may illuminate the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) due to Diagnostic Trouble Code
(DTC) P 1740 – TCC or O/D Solenoid Performance. In some situations, the customer may
describe the condition as a lack of a transmission shift (TCC lock-up) between 30 to 50 MPH.
The transmission valve body upper housing separator plate was revised, with a wider (0.470
inches) slot in the lockup vent circuit, to improve fluid flow in the torque converter clutch. This
bulletin involves the replacement of the transmission valve body upper housing separator plate.
21-12-00
09/15/00
‘00 - ‘01 (BR)
Tapping/knocking sound during idle.
This bulletin applies to vehicles built before May 10, 2000, equipped with an automatic
transmission. A tapping/knocking sound may be heard or felt in the driver side floor pan area
during idle conditions. With the engine running at an idle, listen for knocking sound coming form
the driver side floor pan area. If a tapping/knocking sound can be heard, replace the shift linkage
with revised parts.
CATEgORY 23
BODY
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
23-03-00
02/04/00
‘00 (BR)
Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) Plate Relocated
The VIN plate on the subject model vehicles has been relocated from the instrument panel to the
cowl bar. Due to the relocation of the VIN plate, the windshield frit (the frit is the black-out band at
the bottom of the windshield) required a change so that the VIN plate could be seen through the
windshield. The view of the VIN plate may be blocked if a 1999 or earlier windshield is installed
on the vehicle.
Do not install or have class suppliers install 1999 or earlier windshields on 2000 model year
subject model vehicles. Likewise, do not install or have glass suppliers install 2000 or later
windshields on earlier models.
23-19-00
05/05/00
‘94 - ‘01 (BR)
Instrument panel creak.
A creak or squeak may be present near the left and/or right side(s) of the instrument panel. The
noise is caused by the sheet metal joint between the A-pillar and the dash p0anel plenum lower
rubbing together. The repair involves loosening that instrument panel and providing additional
clearance between the A-pillar inner panel and dash panel.
23-25-00
06/30/00
‘97 - ‘01 (BR)
Paint fogging/whitening.
Painted surfaces of the vehicle that are covered for extended periods of time with front end
covers (bras), transit films or magnetic signs may appear to have a white “milky” spot on dark
colors, or a fogging, coffee colored spot lighter colors. The repair involves removal of a fogging
or staining condition from any painted surface where moisture may be trapped under the clear
coat by using a heat gun.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
173
tsBs issued during ‘01
CATEgORY 2
FRONT SUSPENSION
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
02-001-01
1/19/01
‘94 - ‘01
Rear of vehicle sits too high to allow hook up to a fifth-wheel trailer.
This bulletin applies to 2500 and 3500 4x4s. The curb hight lowering package is designed to
reduce the rear spring spacer block by 1 7/8 inch, which will lower the rear of the vehicle by
several inches proving clearance so that most customers can attach their fifth-wheel or goose
neck trailer to the trailer hitch turntable.
CATEgORY 5
BRAKES
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
05-002-01
3/9/01
‘01
Parking brake pedal adjustment.
This bulletin applies to 2500/3500 series Ram trucks with four-wheel disc brakes, built before
November 20, 2000. Parking brake cable appears to be mis-adjusted, which may cause the
parking brake lamp to remain illuminated even after the parking brake pedal has been released.
The parking brake system, however, is not mis-adjusted and functions normally. Install new
parking brake cables.
CATEgORY 8
ELECTRICAL
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
08-010-01
5/25/01
‘94 - ‘02
Airbag/clock spring service.
When servicing any airbag system, it is essential to follow the proper Service Manual and/or
Diagnostic Manual procedures for diagnosing, testing, and replacing of any component. Do
not use silicone or any other lubricant spray on or near the clock spring. Lubricants are often
used in the clock spring area of the steering column to eliminate noise. Any repair that may
disrupt the positioning of the steering wheel with the front wheels will require that the clock spring
be centered. This includes clock spring replacement, steering column service, HVAC service,
steering gear service, and front suspension crossmember service.
CATEgORY 9
ENgINE
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
09-002-01
03/02/01
‘98 - ‘01 (BR)
Exhaust manifold bolt retention straps.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 24-valve diesel engine built on or between
engine serial number 56419738 and 56777585, with a date of engine manufacture from January
01, 1998 to September 22, 2000. This information is available on the engine data plate, which is
located on the left side of the engine, affixed to the side of the timing gear housing.
Vehicles that are used for extended heavy trailer hauling purposes may experience a loss of
exhaust manifold bolt torque. This condition may lead to exhaust gas blow-by past the exhaust
manifold gasket(s) and even loss of exhaust manifold bolts.
A new exhaust manifold bolt retention strap has been released as a means of locking the outboard
exhaust manifold bolts in place. This will prevent bolt rotation and torque loss during the thermal
expansion and contraction cycles of the exhaust manifold.
174
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 9
ENgINE...Continued
09-001-01
1/19/01
‘01
Intermittent loss of oil pressure sensor ouput voltage.
This bulletin applies to 2500/3500 diesels with engine serial number 56744083 to 56809910. The
output voltage of the oil pressure sensor may intermittently dropout. This condition may cause
the engine oil pressure gauge needle to erroneously indicate lower than actual oil pressure. A
warning chime may sound and the “Check Gauges” lamp may illuminate. The Engine Control
Module (ECM) software has been revised to address this condition. Replacing the oil pressure
sensor will not correct this condition.
09-003-01
5/4/01
All
Engine oil additives/supplements.
Engine oil additives/supplements (EOS) should not be used to enhance engine oil performance.
Engine oil additives/supplements should not be used to extend engine oil change intervals. No
additive is known to be safe for engine durability and can degrade emission components. Additives
can contain undesirable materials that harm the long term durability of engines. Generally it is
not desirable to mix additive packages from different suppliers in the crankcase; there have
been reports of low temperature of low temperature engine failures caused by additive package
incompatibility with such mixtures.
09-006-01
08/24/01
‘98 - ‘02 (BR)
Engine oil pan gasket sealing.
This bulletin applies to Ram trucks equipped with the 24-valve diesel engine. Repeat oil pan gasket leaks can occur on 24-valve diesels if the gasket is applied without the use of Mopar Silicon
Rubber Adhesive (RTV) sealant (PN 04883971). This bulletin provides specific routing of the
sealant when replacing the engine oil pan gasket. When replacing an oil pan gasket, apply a 1/8”
bead of RTV to the oil pan side of the gasket, around the back of the engine, extending up to the
fourth bolt hole from the rear on each side, as per the referenced diagram.
To be
determined
‘98 - ‘02 (BR)
Crankcase breather overflow.
This bulletin applies to ’98 - ’02 (BR) Ram trucks equipped with the 24-valve Cummins diesel
engine built after March 27, 1998 (ESN 56443872). Owners of ’98 - ’02 trucks equipped with the
24-valve Cummins diesel engine may experience engine oil overflow from the front crankcase
breather when the vehicle is operated on an extreme downhill grade (36.5% or 22° slope/grade).
Operation of this type for extended periods of time can cause enough engine oil depletion to
damage the engine. A kit containing all components necessary to eliminate the oil overflow has
been made available. The bulletin outlines the repair procedure that relocates the breather from
the front of the engine to a new location on the driver’s side tappet cover.
CATEgORY 18
VEhICLE PERFORMANCE
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
18-31-1
New
Release
‘98.5 - 2002 (BR/BE)
Cold idle engine warming.
This bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the Engine Control Module with new
software. This bulletin applies to all Ram trucks built after December 17, 1997 equipped with the
24-valve 5.9L Cummins diesel engine.
Extended idle operation, especially in cold weather, can allow varnishes/oils to condense on
the exhaust valve stems, leading to stuck valves, and damaged valve train components. The
repair procedure involves calibration software that will activate when certain parameters are met,
reducing the chance of valve sticking as well as improving cab heat warm-up time. Idle speed will
slowly ramp up from 800 rpm to 1200 rpm when all of the following conditions are met:

Intake Manifold Temperature less than 60°C (32°F)

Coolant Temp is less than 60°C (140°F)

The transmission is in Neutral or Park

The Service Brake pedal is not depressed

Throttle = 0%

Vehicle Speed = 0 mph
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
175
CATEgORY 18
VEhICLE PERFORMANCE...Continued
If intake manifold temperature (IMT) is less than -9°C (15°F), three of the cylinders will be shut
off upon reaching 1200 rpm, creating a slight change in engine sound which is normal. Thus
the engine has to work to overcome the three “dead” cylinders. This allows the engine to create
increased heat in the cooling system, allowing more rapid warm up.
Either feature will abort when any one of the following occurs:

The automatic transmission is placed in gear (forward or reverse)

The service brake pedal is depressed

Throttle position is greater than 0%

Vehicle speed greater than 0 mph

Coolant temperature is greater than 79°C (175°F)
CATEgORY 21
TRANSMISSION
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
21-004-01
02/16/01
‘01 (BR)
Overdrive disabled to improve transmission reliability during cold temperature operation.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with an automatic transmission where the vehicle was
built on or between June 26, 2000 and December 23, 2000, and the PCM software level is earlier
(lower) than calibration 14 for model year 2001.
Quality analysis has determined that insufficient lubrication of certain internal transmission
components may occur when a vehicle is operated in temperatures lower than -20°C (-5°F). This
condition may be caused by the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) freezing in the cooler lines
and interrupting the flow of lubricating oil (ATF) to the transmission overdrive unit. This condition
should be a concern only in areas where very cold ambient temperatures of -20°C (-5°F) are
experienced.
The revised software will not allow 4th gear overdrive to occur if ambient temperatures are less
than -20°C (-5°F). The revised PCM software has been implemented to improve transmission
reliability. The customer should be informed that reduced fuel economy would be expected when
overdrive is not in use.
The repair involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the Powertrain Control Module (PCM)
with new software (calibration level 01Cal14).
CATEgORY 25
EMISSIONS
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
25-001-01
1/19/01
‘01 (BR/BE)
Generic Scan Tool May Not Display Certain DTC’s and Erroneous LDP Switch.
This bulletin applies to vehicles with an RE automatic transmission built before January 12, 2001
(MDH 0112XX). A generic scan tool may not display certain Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC)
when a Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) illuminates. The PCM software must be updated to
calibration level 0lCall4A.
25-002-01
1/19/01
‘01 (BR/BE)
Scan Tool Erroneously Displays P000 For DTC’s P1740 And P0461.
This bulletin applies to vehicles with an RE automatic transmission built before January 31,
2001 (MDH 0131XX). A Generic Scan Tool or an Enhanced Scan Tool, like the DRB III, may
erroneously display certain Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) as P0000. As a result, the scan tool
may display Freeze Frame data incorrectly. The PCM software must be updated to calibration
level 0lCall4A.
176
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
tsBs issued during ‘02
CATEgORY 2
FRONT SUSPENSION
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
02-001-01
1/19/01
‘94 - ‘01
Rear of vehicle sits too high to allow hook up to a fifth-wheel trailer.
This bulletin applies to 2500 and 3500 4x4s. The curb height lowering package is designed to
reduce the rear spring spacer block by 1 7/8 inch, which will lower the rear of the vehicle by
several inches providing clearance so that most customers can attach their fifth-wheel or goose
neck trailer to the trailer hitch turntable.
CATEgORY 5
BRAKES
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
05-002-01
3/9/01
‘01
Parking brake pedal adjustment.
This bulletin applies to 2500/3500 series Ram trucks with four-wheel disc brakes, built before
November 20, 2000. Parking brake cable appears to be mis-adjusted, which may cause the
parking brake lamp to remain illuminated even after the parking brake pedal has been released.
The parking brake system, however, is not mis-adjusted and functions normally. Install new
parking brake cables.
CATEgORY 8
ELECTRICAL
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
08-010-01
5/25/01
‘94 - ‘02
Airbag/clock spring service.
When servicing any airbag system, it is essential to follow the proper Service Manual and/or
Diagnostic Manual procedures for diagnosing, testing, and replacing of any component. Do not
use silicone or any other lubricant spray on or near the clock spring. Lubricants are often used
in the clock spring area of the steering column to eliminate noise. Any repair that may disrupt
the positioning of the steering wheel with the front wheels will require that the clock spring
be centered. This includes clock spring replacement, steering column service, HVAC service,
steering gear service, and front suspension crossmember service.
08-016-01
8/3/01
‘02 (BR/BE)
Locking radio antenna connector.
This information only bulletin applies to all 2002 vehicles equipped with radios. The radio units
will have a new locking radio antenna connector. This connector requires that a sliding plastic
collar be pulled away from the radio, similar to an air hose connector, to release the lock. Pulling
the antenna out of the radio without activating the release could damage the antenna or the radio.
08-017-01
9/21/01
‘02 (BR/BE)
Safety systems -- Vehicle modifications/repair.
Any of the safety systems may be disabled by inadvertent damage to wiring or system
components or by changing or modifying the location of a component.
08-025-01
11/23/01
‘94 - ‘01 (BR/BE)
Airbag on-off switches.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 08-037-99, dated 11/12/99. This bulletin is
provided to identify the parts and procedures necessary to deactivate airbags authorized by
NHTSA. Airbag deactivation is a customer pay procedure, not covered under the provisions
of the warranty. The component parts are covered under the appropriate Mopar part warranty.
DaimlerChrysler Corporation is now offering airbag on-off switches for the selected vehicles listed
above. The switches are packaged in a kit containing all necessary parts (except as indicated)
and a detailed instruction sheet. Under the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s
rule, consumers will be authorized for on-off switches by claiming they meet any of several
criteria. Airbag on-off switches must not be installed without the vehicle owner presenting the
NHTSA authorization letter. For more information concerning the authorization process and/
or the authorization letter call NHTSA’s Auto Safety Hotline at 1-800-424-9393. We encourage
the dealer to install these switches when the customer is interested in doing so and has the
necessary NHTSA authorization.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
177
CATEgORY 9
ENgINE
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
09-002-01
03/02/01
‘98 - ‘01 (BR)
Exhaust manifold bolt retention straps.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 24-valve diesel engine built on or between
engine serial number 56419738 and 56777585, with a date of engine manufacture from January
01, 1998 to September 22, 2000. This information is available on the engine data plate, which is
located on the left side of the engine, affixed to the side of the timing gear housing.
09-001-01
1/19/01
‘01
Intermittent loss of oil pressure sensor ouput voltage.
This bulletin applies to 2500/3500 diesels with engine serial number 56744083 to 56809910. The
output voltage of the oil pressure sensor may intermittently dropout. This condition may cause
the engine oil pressure gauge needle to erroneously indicate lower than actual oil pressure. A
warning chime may sound and the “Check Gauges” lamp may illuminate. The Engine Control
Module (ECM) software has been revised to address this condition. Replacing the oil pressure
sensor will not correct this condition.
09-003-01
5/4/01
All
Engine oil additives/supplements.
Engine oil additives/supplements (EOS) should not be used to enhance engine oil performance.
Engine oil additives/supplements should not be used to extend engine oil change intervals. No
additive is known to be safe for engine durability and they can degrade emission components.
Additives can contain undesirable materials that harm the long term durability of engines. Generally
it is not desirable to mix additive packages from different suppliers in the crankcase; there have
been reports of low temperature engine failures caused by additive package incompatibility with
such mixtures.
09-004-01
5/18/01
‘89 - ‘93 (AD)
‘94 - ‘01 (BR/BE)
Engine lubricant.
This bulletin involves 1989 – 2001 Ram trucks equipped with the 5.9L Cummins diesel engines.
This bulletin discusses the recommended oil filters for use with Cummins 5.9L diesel engine:
Part No.
Manufacturer
05016547AC
Mopar
LF3894
Fleetguard Stratapore
LF3552
Fleetguard Microglass
LF3959
Fleetguard Cellulose
3937695 Cummins Cellulose
FL896
MotorCraft Cellulose
L45335
Purolator Cellulose
PF1070
AC Delco Cellulose
The information only bulletin was issued to alert the field to problems caused by aftermarket
oil filters. For example, neoprene compounds used internally in the manufacture of oil filters
not recommended by DaimlerChrysler may separate from the filter, lodge in the piston cooling
nozzle, and cause the engine to fail. THIS IS NOT AN ENGINE DEFECT.
09-006-01
08/24/01
‘98 - ‘02 (BR)
Engine Oil Pan Gasket Sealing
This bulletin applies to Ram trucks equipped with the 24-valve diesel engine. Repeated oil pan
gasket leaks can occur on 24-valve diesels if the gasket is applied without the use of Mopar
Silicon Rubber Adhesive (RTV) sealant (PN 04883971). This bulletin provides specific routing of
the sealant when replacing the engine oil pan gasket. When replacing an oil pan gasket, apply a
1/8” bead of RTV to the oil pan side of the gasket, around the back of the engine, extending up to
the fourth bolt hole from the rear on each side, as per the referenced diagram.
09-002-02
3/11/02
‘98 - ’02 (BR)
Crankcase Breather Overflow
This bulletin applies to ’98 - ’02 (BR) Ram trucks equipped with the 24-valve Cummins diesel
engine built after March 27, 1998 (ESN 56443872). Owners of ’98 - ’02 trucks equipped with the
24-valve Cummins diesel engine may experience engine oil overflow from the front crankcase
breather when the vehicle is operated on an extreme downhill grade (36.5% or 22° slope/grade).
Operation of this type for extended periods of time can cause enough engine oil depletion to
damage the engine. A kit containing all components necessary to eliminate the oil overflow has
been made available. The bulletin outlines the repair procedure that relocates the breather from
the front of the engine to a new location on the driver’s side tappet cover.
178
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 18
VEhICLE PERFORMANCE
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
18-019-01
9/3/01
‘98.5 - ‘02 (BR/BE)
Cold idle engine warming.
This bulletin addresses selectively erasing and reprogramming the Engine Control Module with
new software. This bulletin applies to all Ram trucks built after December 17, 1997, equipped with
the 24-valve 5.9L Cummins diesel engine.
Extended idle operation, especially in cold weather, can allow varnishes/oils to condense on
the exhaust valve stems, leading to stuck valves, and damaged valve train components. The
repair procedure involves calibration software that will activate when certain parameters are met,
reducing the chance of valve sticking as well as improving cab heat warm-up time. Idle speed will
slowly ramp up from 800 rpm to 1200 rpm when all of the following conditions are met:
§ Intake Manifold Temperature is less than 60°C (32°F)
§ Coolant Temp is less than 60°C (140°F)
§ The transmission is in Neutral or Park
§ The Service Brake pedal is not depressed
§ Throttle = 0%
§ Vehicle Speed = 0 mph
If intake manifold temperature (IMT) is less than -9°C (15°F), three of the cylinders will be shut
off upon reaching 1200 rpm, creating a slight change in engine sound which is normal. Thus
the engine has to work to overcome the three “dead” cylinders. This allows the engine to create
increased heat in the cooling system, allowing more rapid warm up.
Either feature will abort when any one of the following occurs:
§ The automatic transmission is placed in gear (forward or reverse)
§ The service brake pedal is depressed
§ Throttle position is greater than 0%
§ Vehicle speed is greater than 0 mph
§ Coolant temperature is greater than 79°C (175°F)
18-014-01
7/9/01
‘98 - ‘02 (BR/BE)
Performance enhancement for severe cold weather environments.
This bulletin applies to all Ram trucks equipped with a 5.9L 24-valve Cummins diesel engine
with a 49-state emissions calibration and an automatic transmission. The bulletin describes how
to selectively erase and reprogram the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) with new software
(59t7a). The problem addressed by the PCM reprogram is a hard starting and/or idle speed
fluctuations condition.
Cummins 24-valve engines used with automatic transmissions can be severely affected by the
use of sub-grade #1 diesel fuel when ambient temperatures are below 0°C (32°F), typically
prevalent during the Winter months in Alaska, Northwestern Canada, and similar climates/
temperatures elsewhere.
This change will have no effect on performance during warm weather or when standard grade
diesel fuels #1 or #2 are used.
Vehicles with 49-state certification can apply this calibration change if needed. The calibration
can be changed back to the original calibration if desired.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
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CATEgORY 19
STEERINg
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
19-009-01
10/26/01
‘97 - ‘02 (BE/BR)
Driver airbag trim cover service.
Driver airbag trim covers/horn switches for the above vehicles are serviceable and as such,
when applicable, must be used instead of replacing the airbag module assembly. Airbag module
assemblies returned for trim cover and serviceable horn switch issues, are subject to charge
back.
The horn switch is integral to the driver airbag unit. Only DaimlerChrysler-trained and authorized
dealer service technicians should perform service of this unit. Failure to take the proper
precautions or to follow the proper procedures could result in accidental, incomplete, or improper
airbag deployment and possible occupant injuries.
CATEgORY 21
TRANSMISSION
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
21-004-01
02/16/01
‘01 (BR)
Overdrive disabled to improve transmission reliability during cold temperature operation.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with an automatic transmission where the vehicle was
built on or between June 26, 2000, and December 23, 2000, and the PCM software level is earlier
(lower) than calibration 14 for model year 2001.
Quality analysis has determined that insufficient lubrication of certain internal transmission
components may occur when a vehicle is operated in temperatures lower than -20°C (-5°F). This
condition may be caused by the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) freezing in the cooler lines
and interrupting the flow of lubricating oil (ATF) to the transmission overdrive unit. This condition
should be a concern only in areas where very cold ambient temperatures of -20°C (-5°F) are
experienced.
The revised software will not allow 4th gear overdrive to occur if ambient temperatures are less
than -20°C (-5°F). The revised PCM software has been implemented to improve transmission
reliability. The customer should be informed that reduced fuel economy would be expected when
overdrive is not in use.
The repair involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the Powertrain Control Module (PCM)
with new software (calibration level 01Cal14).
21-009-01
10/15/01
‘01 (BE/BR)
NV5600 Countershaft service.
This bulletin involves Ram trucks manufactured prior to March 17, 2001, and equipped with
the NV5600 6-speed, heavy duty transmission. Customers may experience a shifter vibration
(commonly referred to as “gear clash”) of the shift knob when shifting from one gear to another
between 2500 and 3500 RPM after a cold start up. This condition is most evident when ambient
temperatures are at or near 0°C (32°F) but can occur at warmer temperatures as well. The
condition is most often reported on 3rd to 4th gear shifting, but can occur in the other shift ranges
as well. The problem can be verified by assuring the transmission is at ambient temperature,
vehicle moving and, with the engine at 2500 to 3500 RPM, shifting into and out of the gear ranges.
This repair may include disassembly of the countershaft assembly, requiring the use of a 20-ton
press. Attempts to use lesser equipment to effect this repair could result in damage or injury.
If such a press is available, rebuilding the countershaft assembly is preferred. In the event a press
is not available, a new countershaft assembly (PN 05073361AA) has been made available.
Follow the service procedures in the appropriate service manual to complete necessary repairs.
Follow normal warranty procedures to report the repairs.
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CATEgORY 21
TRANSMISSION...Continued
21-006-01
6/29/01
Automatic transmission fluid usage ATF+4 (Type 9602).
This information only bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 21-16-99, dated October 22,
1999. The bulletin discusses a new transmission fluid (ATF+4 – Type 9602) which has been
developed and is being used as factory fill for all vehicles with Chrysler automatic transmissions.
Until now, vehicles originally filled with ATF+2 or ATF+3 were to be serviced with ATF+3. Effective
immediately, it is recommended that all vehicles with Chrysler automatic transmissions except for
1999 and earlier minivans be serviced with ATF+4. ATF+3 should continue to be used for 1999
and earlier minivans because of the potential for torque converter shudder during break in. For all
other applications the ATF+4 fluid offers significant benefits as outlined below.
‘94 - ‘02 (BR/BE)
ATF+4 must always be used in vehicles that were originally filled with ATF+4.
Service intervals do not change. The service interval currently in effect for a given vehicle should
continue to be followed.
ATF+4 is compatible with ATF+3 and can be used to top off vehicles that currently have ATF+2 or
ATF+3. Do not use ATF+2 or ATF+3 to top off vehicles that have ATF+4 fluid.
Benefits:
•
Better anti-wear properties
•
Improved rust/corrosion prevention
•
Controls oxidation
•
Eliminates deposits
•
Controls friction
•
Retains anti-foaming properties
•
Superior properties for low temperature operation
Mopar ATF+4 is a World Class Fluid having exceptional durability. However, the red dye used in
ATF+4 is not permanent; as the fluid ages it may become darker or appear brown in color. ATF+4
also has a unique odor that may change with age. With ATF+4 fluid, color and odor are no longer
indicators of fluid condition and do not support a fluid change.
CATEgORY 22
WhEELS
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
22-001-01
Rev. A
9/28/01
‘00 - ‘01 (BR/BE)
Chrome wheel care.
Chrome wheels should be cleaned regularly with mild soap and water to maintain their luster and
prevent corrosion. Wash them with the same soap solution as the body of the vehicle.
To clean extremely dirty wheels care must be taken in the selection of tire and wheel cleaning
chemicals and equipment to prevent damage to wheels. Only Mopar Wheel Treatment, p/n
05066247AB – 12 oz. Or 05066248AB – 5 gal., is recommended to remove brake dust, dirt,
grease and grime. Any of the “DO NOT USE” items listed below can damage or stain wheels and
wheel trim.
DO NOT USE:
•
Any abrasive type cleaner
•
Any abrasive cleaning pad (such as steel wool) or abrasive brush
•
Any cleaner that contains an acid (this will immediately react with and discolor the
chromium surface)
•
Any oven cleaner
•
Any abrasive metal cleaner.
•
Chrome polish unless it is buffed off immediately after application.
•
Any abrasive cleaning pad or brush
•
A car wash that has carbide tipped wheel-cleaning brushes.
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CATEgORY 23
BODY
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
23-027-01
9/21/01
‘98 - ‘02 (BR/BE)
Equipped with
6x9 Mirrors
Sales Code GPS
or GPU
Outside rearview mirror glass replacement.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 23-034-00 Rev. A, dated December 15, 2000.
It is unnecessary to replace the entire outside rearview mirror assembly when the mirror glass
is broken or is missing. Replacement mirror glasses are available from Mopar. Because of the
extremely long list of part numbers involved, please consult the Mopar parts catalog for the
correct part number(s).
23-034-01
11/30/01
‘00 - ‘01 (BR/BE)
Scratching sound from the door seal while driving.
A scratching or itching type sound may be heard, coming from the front door opening. If a
customer indicates that the condition is present, perform the repair procedure, which involves
lubricating the secondary door seal with part number 04773427: Weather Seal Lubricant.
CATEgORY 25
EMISSIONS
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
25-001-01
1/19/01
‘01 (BR/BE)
Generic Scan Tool May Not Display Certain DTC’s and Erroneous LDP Switch.
This bulletin applies to vehicles with an RE automatic transmission built before January 12, 2001
(MDH 0112XX). A generic scan tool may not display certain Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC)
when a Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) illuminates. The PCM software must be updated to
calibration level 0lCall4A.
25-002-01
1/19/01
‘01 (BR/BE)
Scan Tool Erroneously Displays P000 For DTC’s P1740 And P0461.
This bulletin applies to vehicles with an RE automatic transmission built before January 31,
2001 (MDH 0131XX). A Generic Scan Tool or an Enhanced Scan Tool, like the DRB III, may
erroneously display certain Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) as P0000. As a result, the scan tool
may display Freeze Frame data incorrectly. The PCM software must be updated to calibration
level 0lCall4A.
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tsBs issued during ‘03
CATEgORY 2
FRONT SUSPENSION
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
02-003-02
6/17/02
‘00 - ‘02 (BR/BE)
Toe-in specification change.
This bulletin involves an update to the toe-in specification for front end alignments. The
specification for toe-in has been revised to 0.2° ± 0.1° total toe in. This change has been shown to
improve straight ahead driving performance and should be used whenever a front end alignment
is performed.
CATEgORY 3
REAR AXLE
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
03-001-02
2/11/02
‘02 (BR/BE)
Front axle disconnect system.
This bulletin involves a mid-2002 model year deletion of the front axle disconnect system on
2002 (BE/BR) 2500 and 3500 Ram Trucks. This change effects the front axle, transfer case
and engine/headlamp and dash wiring harnesses. The bulletin applies to 2500 and 3500 (BE/
BR) Ram trucks built after January 4, 2002 and equipped with front axles with the following part
numbers: 52070136AO, 52070137AO, 52070138AP, and 52070139AO.
The vehicles involved will retain Shift On the Fly (SFO) capability; however, with this change, the
front driveshaft will now turn continuously when the vehicle is being driven. Due to the timing of
this change this information is not reflected in the Service Manual and a future release will outline
service procedures.
03-002-02
7/1/02
‘02 - ‘03 (DR)
Use of synthetic rear axle lubricant.
This bulletin applies to 2002-2003 (DR) Ram trucks equipped with the 9 ¼” rear axle and trailer
tow package. It is critical to optimum performance in trailer towing conditions that when service is
being performed on the 9 ¼” rear axle on 2002-2003 (DR) Ram trucks, the axle must be refilled
with Mopar 75W-140 synthetic gear and axle lubricant (PN 04874469). Five ounces (148ml) of
Mopar friction modifier (PN 04318060AB) must also be added to vehicles equipped with the traclok style rear axle.
CATEgORY 6
CLUTCh
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
06-001-03
5/16/03
‘03 (BR)
Rattle sound from transmission when idling.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9L Cummins high output Turbo Diesel (sales
code ETH) and NV5600 six-speed manual transmission (sales code DEE) built on or before May
11, 2003. The vehicle operator may describe a rattle sound when idling in neutral with the clutch
pedal released. The bulletin involves replacing the clutch disc with a revised part.
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CATEgORY 8
ELECTRICAL
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
08-016-02
9/2/02
‘02 - ‘03 (DR)
Horn chirp and erroneous alarm.
This bulletin involves reprogramming the forward control module (FCM) should there be an erroneous horn chirp when a door is opened or an erroneous alarm. The correction is a reflash of
the FCM.
08-004-03
3/14/03
‘02 - ‘03 (DR)
Electro mechanical instrument cluster (MIC) erroneous indicator lamps.
Three conditions have been identified which may be caused by communication errors between
the electro mechanical instrument cluster (MIC) and other electronic modules on the vehicle.
1. An intermittent false “Check Gauges” on diesel engine equipped vehicles. 2. An intermittent
false chime and “Low Wash” indicator. 3. A “Trans Temp” indicator on a manual transmissions
equipped vehicle.
This bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the MIC with new software.
08/007/03
4/4/03
‘03 (DR)
Alternator mounting bracket cracked.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9L 24-valve diesel engine (sales codes ETC,
or ETH) and built on or before February 13, 2003, with engine serial numbers prior to 57013271.
The problem is that the vehicle operator may experience an accessory drive belt squeal during
normal driving conditions. This bulletin describes how to replace the alternator support bracket
with a revised bracket.
CATEgORY 9
ENgINE
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
09-002-02
3/11/02
‘98 - ‘02 (BR)
Crankcase breather overflow.
This bulletin applies to 1998-2002 (BR) Ram trucks equipped with the 24-valve Cummins diesel
engine built after March 27, 1998 (engine serial number 56443872). Owners of these vehicles
may experience engine oil overflow from the front crankcase breather when the vehicle is operated off-road on an extreme downhill grade (37.5% or 22° slope/grade). Operation of this type
for extended periods of time can cause enough engine oil depletion to damage the engine. A kit
containing all components necessary to eliminate the oil overflow has been made available. If
the condition exists, perform the repair procedure outlined in this bulletin. The repair involves the
addition of a new breather kit.
09-008-02
10/21/02
‘98 - ‘02 (BR/BE)
Engine knock or rattle sound when climbing a long grade and towing a heavy trailer.
This bulletin applies to 1998-2002 Ram trucks equipped with the 24-valve Cummins diesel engine
(sales code ETC or ETH). Owners may experience an engine knock or rattle sound when climbing
a long grade while towing a heavy trailer. If the condition exists, replace the engine thermostat as
outlined in the service manual. Note: Mopar 05015708AC is to be used exclusively for this service
bulletin. Use thermostat 05015708AB for all other 24-vlave Cummins thermostat repairs.
CATEgORY 13
FRAME/BUMPER
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
13-001-03
2/7/03
‘03 (DR)
Frame alterations.
This bulletin is to support the 2003 Body Builder’s Guide and presents guidelines that must be
followed during modifications or alterations to any 2003 Dodge Ram pickup frame. The following
general industry standard procedures are recommended for proper installation of special bodies
and/or equipment on the Ram pickup frame, such as fifth-wheel hitches, snow plows, etc. Failure
to follow these recommendations could result in damage to the basic vehicle and possible injury
to occupants. The information only bulletin gives the guidelines for welding and drilling of holes
into the frame.
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CATEgORY 14
FUEL
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
14-001-02
Rev. A
10/7/02
‘02 (BR/BE)
Fuel cap difficult to remove.
This bulletin involves installing a revised fuel cap.
14-002-02
Rev. A
7/22/02
‘98 - ‘02 (BE/BR)
Tampering with VP44 fuel pump on Cummins diesel engine.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 14-002-02, dated July 1, 2002. A number of
the VP44 fuel pumps have been returned through the warranty process as a result of tampering.
Generally, the customer complains that the vehicle dies while driving. When diagnosed, there
may or may not be Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) present. When DTCs are present, there may
be one or more of the following:
DTC
124
146
361
363
364
375
P Code
P 0234
P 0217
P 0254
P 0251
P 1689
P 0602
Description
Turbo boost limit exceeded.
Decreased engine performance due to engine overheat condition.
Fuel injection pump fuel valve current too high.
Fuel injection pump mechanical failure fuel valve feedback circuit.
No communication between ECM and injector pump module.
ECM fuel calibration error.
The diagrams show the area where performance enhancing equipment is being connected into
the outboard wire of the two wires that control operation of the metering solenoid in the pump.
Another type of device places a connector between the metering solenoid harness and the upper connector on the pump. Telltale evidence can be seizure of the pump rotor, and/or cracked
or overstressed pump cam ring. The protective sleeve around the two wires may be rolled or cut
back to gain access for connection. Injection pumps that have been tampered with are not warrantable.
14-005-02
11/8/02
‘03 (DR)
Fuel filter/water separator drain valve restriction.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9L Cummins 24-valve diesel engine (sales
code ETC or ETH), built before October 11, 2002. The problem described is that when the fuel filter/water separator drain valve is opened, nothing comes out. The bulletin outlines the procedure
for purging fluid out of the filter.
CATEgORY 18
VEhICLE PERFORMANCE
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
18-024-02
8/12/02
‘03 (DR)
Incorrect dual wheel identification in VIN, may effect replacement powertrain control module
(PCM) programming.
The sixth character in the VIN is used to identify the vehicle series (1500, 2500, 3500). Some
2003 vehicles equipped with dual rear wheels, built prior to July 15, 2003, may have an incorrect
number as the sixth character of the VIN. All vehicles equipped with dual wheels, sales code
WLA, should have the number “4” as the sixth character. This identifies the vehicle as a 3500
series equipped with dual rear wheels. The incorrectly built vehicles will have the number “3” in
that position. In the event that a Powertrain Control Module (PCM) would require replacement,
the new module requires that the complete VIN be input during the programming procedure. If
a new PCM is programmed with a “3” as the sixth character and it is equipped with dual rear
wheels, a conflict is likely to occur with the ABS module which will set an error code. Dual rear
wheel equipped vehicles require an ABS module calibrated for dual rear wheels. If PCM replacement is ever required, simply input a “4” instead of the “3” as the sixth character in the VIN when
programming the PCM.
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CATEgORY 18
VEhICLE PERFORMANCE . . . Continued
18-025-02
9/4/02
‘03 (DR)
Erroneous diagnostic trouble codes stored in the transfer case control module (TCCM).
This bulletin applies to 2003 4WD ram trucks equipped with an electric shift-on-the-fly transfer
case (sales codes DH3 or DH5) built before November 1, 2002. During a module scan or check
of the TCCM, the technician may see erroneous stored trouble codes. The codes should be
ignored.
18-015-03
4/4/03
‘03 (DR)
Powertrain control module (PCM) shift quality improvements
The bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9L standard output Cummins diesel
engine(sales code ETC) and a 47RE transmission(sales code DGP) built before December 31,
2002. The vehicle operator may find that the vehicle will not shift out of third gear at throttle between 50% and 90% until 70 mph. The repair involves selectively erasing and reprogramming
the powertrain control module (PCM) with new software.
18-027-03
7/4/03
‘03 (DR)
No throttle response, lack of power while towing and diagnostic trouble codes (DTC) P2638/
P0700.
The bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a Cummins diesel engine (sales code ETC or
ETH) built on or before July 25, 2003. The vehicle may exhibit:
·
No throttle response if the engine is started with the Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor
(APPS) in an off-idle position (pedal depressed) and the transmission is shifted into
drive or reverse while the APPS remains in an off-idle position (pedal depressed),
causing the engine to remain at idle.
·
Lack of power while towing or hauling a heavy load with the transmission in overdrive
– vehicles equipped with 47RE transmission.
The repair involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the Cummins CM845 engine control
module (ECM) with new software.
18-030-03
8/29/03
‘98.5 - ‘02 (BE/BR)
‘03 - ‘04 (DR)
Generic Cummins engine control module (ECM) procedure.
This bulletin applies to Ram trucks equipped with the 5.9L Cummins 24-valve diesel engine
(sales code ETC or ETH). Mopar is phasing out pre-programmed Cummins Diesel engine
control modules (ECM). New modules will no longer be pre-programmed when received from
Mopar. Replacement of future ECM’s will require programming utilizing the DRBIII and TechCONNECT.
CATEgORY 19
STEERINg
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
19-003-02
4/15/02
‘97 - ‘02 (BR/BE)
Hissing sound coming from the power steering system on vehicles equipped with hydroboost
brakes.
A hissing sound may be present in the power steering system during steering maneuvers or
straight ahead driving. This bulletin involves replacing the power steering hoses connecting the
hydroboost to the power steering pump and gear.
19-005-03
8/29/03
‘94 - ‘02 (BR/BE)
‘02 - ‘04 (DR)
Power steering fluid usage.
The factory fill power steering fluid for most 2004 model year Chrysler Group vehicles is ATF+4
(part number 05013457AA/S9602) and it provides superior performance at both low and high
temperatures. Refer to the table to identify factory fill and the approved service power steering
fluid by year and model. From the table it is noted that the ’94 to ’02 truck uses part number
04883077/MS5931.
MS9602 should not be mixed or used as a “topping off” fluid on systems requiring MS5931.
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CATEgORY 23
BODY
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
23-018-02
5/20/02
‘00 - ‘01 (BR/BE)
Armrest lid difficult to open.
The armrest lid may be difficult to latch or if latched, may be difficult to open. This may be
caused by an improperly adjusted latch pin. This bulletin involves adjusting the armrest lid latch
pin.
23-018-03
6/13/03
‘03 (DR)
Instrument panel whistle.
A whistling sound may be present coming form the front of the instrument panel near the bottom of the windshield when the heater A/C blower is on. This may be caused by air escaping
through the holes in the center of the rivets that attach the VIN plate to the instrument panel.
This can be mis-diagnosed as a windshield air leak. If necessary, remove the instrument panel
top cover and apply a small drop of clear glass sealer to the center of each of the rivets to seal
the rivet holes.
CATEgORY 24
hEATINg & A/C
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
24-009-02
10/28/02
All Chrysler group
products using
R-134A refrigerant
A/C system leak detection.
Vehicles from the factory no longer have leak detection dye in the A/C system. To determine the
source of a R-134a leak, a leak tracer dye has to be injected into the A/C system.
24-003-03
5/23/03
‘90 - ‘04
All Chrysler group
products
A/C system additives.
The use of A/C system sealers may result in damage to A/C refrigerant recovery/evacuation/
recharging equipment and/or A/C system components. Many federal, state/provincial and local
regulations prohibit the recharge of A/C systems with known leaks. DaimlerChrysler recommends the detection of A/C system leaks through the use of approved leak detectors available
through Pentastar Service Equipment (PSE) and fluorescent leak detection dyes available
through Mopar Parts. Vehicles found with A/C system sealers should be treated as contaminated and replacement of the entire A/C refrigerant system is recommended.
24-004-03
6/13/03
‘03 (DR)
Defrost/door inoperative.
The defrost door may break at the pivot shaft causing inadequate travel. The system may not
completely close, causing a lack of air discharge out the floor vents and full discharge from the
defrost outlet. This may be caused by a broken actuator stop on the heater A/C (HVAC) housing. The bulletin describes the repair procedure for replacing the defrost door and the lower half
of the heater/AC housing.
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187
‘03-‘09 third GenerAtion
teChniCAL serViCe BuLLetins
This combined section represents our review of Dodge Technical
Service Bulletins (TSBs) issued to date (8/2009). Previously,
Dodge vehicle TSBs were published in CD format and were
available for purchase in July/August. As a service, we would
purchase the TSB directory and then search through the CD to
isolate only those bulletins relating to the Turbo Diesel truck.
The TSB directory is no longer available. However, the service
that replaces it is an improvement. Armed with your truck’s vehicle
indentification number (VIN) and a credit card you can log on to
www.techauthority.com and, for $20, you can view/print all of the
TSBs that apply to your vehicle.
Using several VINs from years 2003 to 2009 we downloaded the
TSBs and have summarized the subject, the description of the
problem, and the corrective action. Should you need the entire
text, you should consult your dealer or use the www.techauthority.
com web site to purchase the bulletin(s) pertaining to your truck.
One final note: As mentioned, the TSBs that we’ve researched
cover those issued from 2003 to date (8/2009). For clarity we
have printed in bold the TSB number and the models of trucks to
which the TSB applies. The bold print will help you distinguish the
old lisitngs from the newer ones.
In an effort to consolidate the TSBs for the magazine, we’re going
to use the same index system categories as DaimlerChrysler.
Below are the index categories.
2
3
5
6
7
8
9
11
13
Front Suspension
Axle/Driveline
Brakes
Clutch
Cooling
Electrical
Engine
Exhaust
Frame & Bumpers
14
16
18
19
21
22
23
24
26
Fuel
Propeller Shafts and U-Joints
Vehicle Performance
Steering
Transmission
Wheels & Tires
Body
Air Conditioning
Miscellaneous
A note concerning the TSBs and their use: The bulletins are
intended to provide dealers with the latest repair information.
Often the TSB is specific to the VIN. VIN data on the Chrysler
service network helps the dealer in his service efforts. A TSB is
not an implied warranty.
2009 tsBs
With the new service at www.techauthority.com we’ve gathered
information on Dodge Technical Service Bulletins that have been
released thus far in 2009. These 2009 TSBs are incorporated into
our summary listing.
CATEgORY 2
FRONT SUSPENSION
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
02-003-08
6/20/08
’08 (DM)
4500/5500
Front and/or rear shock absorber noise.
The customer may experience a clunking-like sound when traveling over small inputs (bumps
and dips) in the road. This clunk-like sound is sometimes described as being similar to the
sound that “loose lumber” may make when loose boards strike each other. This condition is
more noticeable during cold ambient conditions below 40°F and at lower vehicle speeds when
background noise is less. The sound may come from the front and/or rear shock absorbers.
This condition is due to internal components within the vehicle shock absorber and the bulletin
describes the replacement procedure.
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tsBs issued during ‘03-’09
CATEgORY 3
AXLE/DRIVELINE
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
03-003-04
6/15/04
‘03 - ‘04 (DR)
Launch shudder.
This bulletin involves adjusting the propeller shaft working angles and applies to vehicles
equipped with a two-piece rear driveshaft. The problem is described as a drive line shudder or
vibration while accelerating from a stop. The condition is most noticeable under heavy throttle
acceleration and is usually present only at low speeds (below 25 mph). Vehicles equipped with
a two-piece driveshaft are designed to minimize reaction forces that result from the universal
joint transmitting torque at an angle. These forces cannot be eliminated entirely because of
the necessity to compromise joint angle selection between curb and design loading conditions.
U-joint angles change depending upon the amount of weight applied to the vehicle bed.
Therefore U-joint angle readings may need to be taken with different vehicle loads in order to
obtain a satisfactory compromise. The vehicle should be evaluated under the loaded condition
that produces the objectionable disturbance.
The repair procedure involves measurements at the transmission yoke, front propeller shaft,
rear propeller shaft and rear axle. The working angles should be adjusted to provide the lowest
angle possible for the output shaft to front propeller shaft, front propeller shaft to rear propeller
shaft, and rear propeller shaft to axle pinion. The measurements will determine which direction
to move the center bearing to optimize the angles. Install the appropriate bracket to obtain the
minimum working angle, but still maintain at least ½ degree to ensure that there will be some
movement in the U-joint bearings.
03-004-04
6/22/04
‘03 - ‘04 (DR)
Axle whine.
This bulletin applies to 4x2, 2500 series, 140.5 inch wheelbase vehicles equipped with diesel
engine, sales code ETC/ETH, and an automatic transmission, sales code DG8. The problem is
that some vehicles may exhibit rear axle whine at speeds between 35 and 70 mph. The repair
procedure involves identification of the pinion flange and propeller shaft that the vehicle is
equipped with. If a repair is necessary, the propeller shaft is replaced using the chart listing the
appropriate part numbers.
03-003-06
10/20/06
‘03-’07 (DR)
Axle-fluid level.
This bulletin supersedes TSB 03-001-04, revision A dated 5/11/04.
The axle fill holes on some 2004 Dodge Truck axles may be located considerably higher than
the actual fluid level. Filling the axle until the fluid comes out of the fill hole will overfill the axle,
which could cause fluid foaming. When checking fluid level or filling a rear axle with fluid, you
must measure distance from the bottom of the fill hole to the actual fluid level. This can easily
be accomplished using a pipe cleaner or piece of wire. Make a 90 degree bend in the wire two
inches from the end. The wire can then be inserted into the axle fill hole and used as a dipstick.
Measure the distance from the bend to the oil level. The fluid levels for the axles are shown in
the table below.
Ram Truck 2500/3500
Axle
10.5 Rear Axle
11.5 Rear Axle
9 ¼ Front Axle
Fluid Level (measured from the bottom of the fill hole)
1 inch ± ¼ inch
¼ inch ± ¼ inch
¼ inch ± ¼ inch
Fluid Capacity
85 oz. SAE 75W-90 Synthetic
122 oz. SAE 75W-90 Synthetic
76 oz. SAE 75W-90 Synthetic
Note: The limited slip feature on 2500/3500 series Ram Trucks utilizes the Trac Rite locking
feature which does not require Trac-Lok additives or friction modifiers.
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CATEgORY 6
CLUTCh
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
06-001-03
5/16/03
‘03 (BR)
Rattle sound from transmission when idling.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9L Cummins high output Turbo Diesel (sales
code ETH) and NV5600 six-speed manual transmission (sales code DEE) built on or before May
11, 2003. The vehicle operator may describe a rattling sound when idling in neutral with the clutch
pedal released. The bulletin involves replacing the clutch disc with a revised part.
06-001-07
2/03/07
‘07
Clutch system may over-adjust causing difficulty engaging transmission gear.
This bulletin involves replacement of the clutch system flywheel, pressure plate, and disc.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9 liter or 6.7 liter Cummins Turbo Diesel engine
and the G56 manual transmission (sales code ETH, ETJ, and DEG respectively), and built on or
before November 09, 2006.
The customer may experience difficulty attempting to engage a manual transmission gear. This
may be due to the self-adjusting mechanism in the clutch system. The self-adjusting clutch
mechanism may over-adjust (forward adjust). This condition most often will occur within the first
1,000 miles of vehicle operation.
The bulletin describes the proper repair technique to replace the flywheel, clutch plate, and clutch
disc.
CATEgORY 8
ELECTRICAL
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
08-004-03
3/14/03
‘02 - ‘03 (DR)
Electro mechanical instrument cluster (MIC) erroneous indicator lamps.
Three conditions have been identified which may be caused by communication errors between
the electro mechanical instrument cluster (MIC) and other electronic modules on the vehicle. 1.
An intermittent false “Check Gauges” on diesel engine equipped vehicles. 2. An intermittent false
chime and “Low Wash” indicator. 3. A “Trans Temp” indicator on a manual transmission equipped
vehicle.
This bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the MIC with new software.
08/007/03
4/4/03
‘03 (DR)
Alternator mounting bracket cracked.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9L 24-valve diesel engine (sales codes ETC,
or ETH) and built on or before February 13, 2003, with engine serial numbers prior to 57013271.
The problem is that the vehicle operator may experience an accessory drive belt squeal during
normal driving conditions. This bulletin describes how to replace the alternator support bracket
with a revised bracket.
08-019-03
6/20/03
‘03 (DR)
Lamp-out indicator with aftermarket pickup box installation.
This information-only bulletin discusses situations where an aftermarket utility box is installed
after the removal of the original equipment pickup box. Under the circumstances the lamp-out
indicator may illuminate. This is due to the use of aftermarket rear stop and turn signal lamps
which use a dual filament bulb instead of separate circuits for the stop and turn indicator. The
bulletin then describes the reprogramming procedure to reset the lamp-out indicator.
190
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 8
ELECTRICAL . . . Continued
08-031-03
10/31/03
‘03 (DR)
PCM connector corroded—sets MIL light.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9 liter diesel engine and an automatic
transmission. Water may enter the PCM connector causing corrosion of electrical terminals on
the PCM. This condition can set diagnostic trouble codes and illuminate the MIL light. If diagnostic
trouble codes are present or other diagnostics lead to PCM connector problems, inspect the PCM
and the PCM wire harness connector. The repair procedure involves replacement of the wiring
harness.
08-011-04
3/16/04
‘04 (DR)
Poor radio sound quality with Infinity speakers.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with Infinity speakers, sales code RCK. Radios
equipped with Infinity Speakers may exhibit a variety of symptoms due to reversed right front
speaker wiring (polarity). Symptoms include: front door or speaker buzz, poor sound quality, lack
of bass. The solution involves correcting speaker wiring polarity in the radio connector.
08-014-04
3/30/04
‘04 (DR)
Radio intermittent audio.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with an AM/FM/cassette radio built prior to January 30,
2004 or AM/FM/CD radio built prior to January 30, 2004. Radios built after 1/30/04 will no longer
have vent holes in the area the repair procedure covers. If the audio drops out when the vehicle
is moved from a cold to a warm or humid environment, the reason is that condensation builds
up across the audio amplifier circuitry, causing the amplifier to shut down. Typically, cycling the
ignition switch off and on will restore the audio output. If the problem persists, the correct repair
procedure is to apply tape over the row of slots on the left hand side of the radio’s top cover.
08-014-05
2/17/05
‘04 - ‘05 (DR)
Mopar accessory remote starter inoperative due to hood switch.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a Mopar remote starter kit. The problem frequently
occurs as one or more of the following:
• When the transmitter is pressed twice for start, the vehicle horn will chirp once but the vehicle
engine will not start.
• When the transmitter is pressed twice for start, the vehicle horn will chirp twice, indicating a
problem with the remote start system and the vehicle engine will not start.
• When the transmitter is pressed twice for start, the vehicle will chirp once, the engine will
start and then turn off.
The technician may not be able to verify the symptom(s) because it may be an intermittent
condition. The corrective action involves replacing the hood switch for the remote starting system.
08-024-05
5/4/05
‘02 - ‘06 (DR)
Radio communication equipment installation recommendations.
This information only bulletin gives the dealership technician some guidelines for the installation
of two-way radio equipment.
08-058-05
10/29/05
‘05 - ‘06 (DR)
Revised radio antenna mast installation procedure.
This information only bulletin advises the proper tightening torque (30-32 in-lbs) for the radio
antenna mast for various Chrysler group products.
08-014-06
3/16/06
‘06 (DR)
UConnect Hands Free module fails to respond due to module lock-up.
This bulletin supersedes service bulletin 08-049-05 dated September 1, 2005, and applies to
vehicles equipped with UConnect Hands Free Communications (sales code RSP) that were built
prior to October 2, 2005. If the UConnect Hands Free Communications system does not respond
when system activation is attempted by the customer, the technical service bulletin gives the
technician the proper repair technique to reset the hands-free module.
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CATEgORY 8
ELECTRICAL . . . Continued
08-016-06
Rev. A
7/18/06
‘06 - ‘07 (DR)
Intermittent operation of electrical components due to ignition off draw (IOD) fuse not being fully
seated.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 08-016-06, dated March 22, 2006. The ignition
off draw (IOD) fuse is used to prevent battery discharge during shipping and long term storage of
vehicles. If the fuse is not completely inserted, partial contact of the fuse terminals could occur.
When the vehicle is prepped for customer delivery, ensure that the fuse is fully engaged. When
the IOD fuse holder is depressed into the carrier, an initial distinct detent will be felt to overcome
the “pre-hold position.” On ’06 and ’07 DR vehicles the circuits fed by the IOD fuse are: Radio,
EVIC, Wireless Control Module, Hands Free Module, Satellite Radio, Video Screen, CCN wakeup with ignition off, Underhood Lamp, and CCN Interior Lighting.
08-020-06
5/5/06
‘06 (DR)
Overhead console average fuel economy display.
This information-only bulletin discusses the calculation method used by the truck’s average fuel
economy display. On ’06 vehicles, the calculation has been changed to use the last displayed
average fuel economy as a starting point for the calculation after a reset. The average fuel
economy will then be adjusted from that point. If the display read 21.6 mpg at the time the reset
was activated, the new display will start at 21.6 mpg and would change from that point depending
on the current fuel usage. This was done to eliminate the extreme variations caused by very high
or low fuel usage at the time of the reset.
08-021-06
Rev. A
10/13/06
‘06
TIPM Flash: DTC’s indicating short circuits in the wiring on the trailer or no engine crank with DTC
P1277 – starter control circuit too low.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 08-021-06, dated May 10, 2006.
This bulletin involves a discussion and reprogramming of the totally integrated power module
(TIPM). This bulletin applies to vehicles built prior to April 03, 2006.
The customer may experience any of the following TIPM diagnostic trouble codes (DTC’s):
B166B - Left Trailer Tow Lamp Control Circuit Low. Trailer harness left lamp circuit is shorted to
ground.
B166C - Left Trailer Tow Lamp Control Circuit High. Trailer harness left lamp circuit is shorted to
battery voltage.
B178C - Left Trailer Tow Lamp Control Circuit Over Current. Trailer harness left lamp circuit is
intermittently grounding.
B166F - Right Trailer Tow Lamp Control Circuit Low. Trailer harness right lamp circuit is shorted
to ground.
B1670 - Right Trailer Tow Lamp Control Circuit High. Trailer harness right lamp circuit is shorted
to battery voltage.
B166E - Right Trailer Tow Lamp Control Circuit Over Current. Trailer harness right lamp circuit is
intermittently grounding.
B1667 - Back Up Lamp Feed Low. Trailer harness back up circuit is shorted to ground.
B2215 - Front Control Module Internal (TIPM). An internal fault code counter has exceeded its
limit of 250 counts and one or more electrical outputs controlled by the TOPM have been
disabled.
P1277 - Starter Control Circuit 2 Low (TIPM). The output feed current to the starter solenoid has
exceeded the upper current limit of 75 amps. This may result in a no-crank condition.
DTC’s B1667, B166B, B166E, B166F, B178C and B2215: These DTC’s indicate that a (hard
or intermittent) short circuit to ground exists in the wiring of one or more of the trailer electrical
harness circuits. The TIPM retries the output on each ignition cycle or request (brake or turn
signal activation) in an attempt to enable the output in case the fault is intermittent. The new TIPM
software raises the TIPM circuit trigger point from 15 amps to 20 amps.
DTC’s B166C and B1670: These DTC’s indicate that a short circuit to battery voltage (12 volts)
exists in the wiring of one of the trailer electrical harness circuits.
192
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 8
ELECTRICAL . . . Continued
DTC B2215 - Front Control Module (TIPM): This fault code occurs when the TIPM detects a
short (to ground or to battery) on one of the trailer circuits more than 250 times. When B2215 is
present with one of the above trailer circuit faults, the TIPM will turn off (disable) the respective
faulty trailer circuit or circuits. This internal fault does not mean that the TIPM module is defective.
The TIPM memory can be cleared, and this action will turn on a previously disabled trailer circuit.
If possible, the fault in the circuit should be repaired first before clearing the TIPM memory. The
dealer will need a scan tool to clear the TIPM memory.
DTC P1277 - Starter Control Circuit too Low (TIPM): The TIPM monitors the output current to
the starter solenoid for over-current conditions. The DTC is set when the output current to starter
solenoid exceeds 75 amps. On trucks equipped with a diesel engine, there may be times in cold
climates when it is normal for the starter solenoid current to exceed 75 amps. The new TIPM
software raises the TIPM current trigger point for DTC P1277 from 75 amps to 100 amps.
If any of the DTC’s listed above are present, perform the repair procedure.
08-026-06
Rev. A
10/25/06
‘06 (DR/DH/D1)
Overhead console temperature reading inaccurate or dome lamp turns off too soon.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 08-026-06, dated June 02, 2006.
This bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the cabin compartment node (CCN)
with new software. This bulletin applies to vehicles built on or before May 30, 2006. The vehicle
owner may notice that if a vehicle door is left open for longer than 20 seconds the illuminated
interior (dome) lamps will turn off. Or the vehicle operator may report that the ambient temperature
first displayed in the overhead console is not accurate (displays -40°C or -40°F), when the ignition
switch is turned to the “On” position, then slowly updates to the outside ambient temperature as
the vehicle is driven. If the vehicle operator describes or experiences the symptom/condition,
perform the repair procedure which involves a reflash to the CCN.
08-044-06
10/07/06
‘07 (DR)
Steering angle sensor over travel performance (DTC:C1240).
This bulletin involves the diagnosis and possible replacement of the steering angle sensor. This
bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with the Electronic Stability Program (sales code BNB) and
built prior to October 03, 2006. The customer may experience an illumination on the instrument
cluster of the ABS (anti-Lock Brake System) and/or the ESP/BAS (Electronic Stability Program/
Brake Assist System) warning lights. Investigation may reveal the presence of diagnostic trouble
code (DTC) C1240 – Steering Angle Sensor Over Travel Performance.
If the diagnostic test procedure for DTC C1240 determines that the steering angle sensor is at
fault, then perform the repair procedure.
08-046-06
10/25/06
‘04-’07
Cell phone induced buzz or clicking-like sound in radio speakers.
This bulletin involves a discussion regarding cell phone generated signal interference with the
vehicle radio system. A customer may experience a buzzing or clicking-like sound coming from
the vehicle radio speaker(s). The sound may be heard when the radio is in AM or FM mode. The
clicking-like sound may sound like Morse code.
This information-only bulletin points out that the construction of certain cell phones may generate
frequencies that can interfere with the vehicle radio system. These frequencies may result in
buzzing and/or clicking-like sounds in the vehicle radio. This condition can be easily corrected by
instructing the customer to move their cell phone away from the immediate area around vehicle
radio system (radio, radio amplifier, antenna, antenna lead). Do not replace any radio system
component in an attempt to address this condition.
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CATEgORY 8
ELECTRICAL . . . Continued
08-003-07
01/27/07
‘07 (DR/DH/D1/DC)
Remote start system – Diagnostic chart for antenna.
This bulletin involves a diagnostic chart that may be used to aid the technician with the diagnosis of
the antenna on an originally equipped (factory installed) remote start system. This bulletin applies
to vehicles with an original equipment remote start system (sales code XBM). The customer
may notice that the signal range of the remote keyless entry system is reduced (less than 100
feet). This condition may be due to the RKE antenna. The diagnostic flow chart is provided as a
diagnostic aid for dealer technicians.
08-015-07
06/06/07
‘06-’07 (DR)
Flash: Sunroof module, excessive ignition off draw, pop in radio with ignition off, dome lamp
flickers and may not go off.
This bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the Sunroof Motor Module with new
software.
08-018-07
06/23/07
‘07 (DR/DH/D1/DC)
Mopar remote start system – RKE – intermittent operation or alarm may sound.
This bulletin involves the installation of a Mopar remote start system service repair kit.
08-007-08
REV. A
7/4/08
’07-’08
Engine does not crank or start due to electronic lockup of the remote key module.
This bulletin applies to vehicles built on or before May 05, 2008. The customer may experience
a no engine crank and a no engine start condition. Also, the remote keyless entry system will
not operate. This condition may be due to an electrostatic discharge from the ignition key into
the wireless control module (WCM), causing the WCM to electronically lock up. This condition is
corrected by the replacement of the WCM (also known as the Sentry Key Remote Entry Module).
08-028-08
9/18/08
‘08 (DR/DH/DC/D1)
08-035-08
11/21/08
‘07-’09 (DH/D1)
Voice recognition screen lock-up on REN or REZ radio equipped with hands-free
communications.
The customer may experience one of the following conditions: a) A “lock up” condition of the radio
screen when the voice recognition (VR) button is pressed b) When the VR button is pressed, the
radio display changes to the phone screen and there is a lack of the “Ready” audio prompt.
If the above symptom/condition is experienced, the HFM is replaced. This bulletin applies to
radios built before 11/6/07.
Proper testing tools for oxygen sensor terminals.
This bulletin describes the use of proper test probes to test the oxygen (O2) sensor connector
terminals equipped with the new TP2 style sensor. The recommended tool for these testing
procedures is the Miller Tool #6801.
CATEgORY 9
ENgINE
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
09-004-06
03/31/06
’03-’06 (DR)
Accessory drive belt chirp at shutdown.
This bulletin applies to vehicles with diesel engine sales code ETH. A chirping sound may be
heard coming from the accessory drive belt when the engine is shut down. If a customer indicates
that the condition is present, the bulletin directs the technician to install an overrunning clutch
pulley on the generator.
194
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 9
ENgINE . . . Continued
09-002-09
REV. A
6/13/09
MIL illumination due to DTC P2262 - Revised diagnosis and repair procedures.
This bulletin applies to vehicle equipped with a Cummins 6.7-liter engine (sales code ETJ). The
bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 09-002-09 dated 5/2/09. This bulletin discusses
revised diagnostic and repair procedures for DTC P2262 - Turbocharger Boost Pressure Not
Detected - Mechanical. Recent PCM calibration updates have improved the robustness to this
DTC through updated diagnostic strategies. As a result, many events which have no adverse
affects on drivability, emissions, or reliability will no longer set the P2262 fault.
‘07-’09 (DH/D1)
As a result of recent PCM calibration updates, the proper repair for some P2262 faults is merely
to update the calibration, while others will require cleaning or replacing the turbocharger. Scan
Tool software includes a P2262 diagnosis test for this purpose. The new P2262 diagnosis test
must be used prior to performing any of the following:
• Clearing codes
• Updating the PCM
• Beginning the turbocharger repair.
Based on the outcome of the P2262 diagnosis test, the Scan Tool will provide one of the following
as the proper direction for the appropriate repair. Service info and complete the repair as directed:
• Update PCM flash calibration to the latest calibration. No repair required to the turbocharger.
• Clean the turbocharger.
• Update PCM flash calibration to the latest calibration and clean the turbocharger.
• Replace the turbocharger.
• Update PCM flash calibration to the latest calibration and replace the turbocharger.
CATEgORY 11
FRAME/BUMPER
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
11-002-07
9/25/07
’07-’08 (DH/D1)
2500/3500
Inspection and test procedures for the 6.7-liter diesel particulate filter (DPF).
This bulletin applies to vehicle equipped with a Cummins 6.7-liter engines (sales code ETF). The
customer may experience a malfunction indicator lamp (MIL) illumination, warning chime, and an
overhead electronic vehicle information center (EVIC) message that states “Catalyst Full Service
Required.” Investigation may reveal that the MIL illumination is due to one or more of the following
diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs):
P1451 – Diesel Particulate Filter System Performance.
P2463 – Diesel Particulate Filter – Soot Accumulation.
P242F – Diesel Particulate Filter Restriction – Ash Accumulation.
The balance of the 10-page bulletin describes the inspection, test, repair, or replacement of the
DPF based on the severity of the accumulation in the DPF.
11-001-08
5/21/08
’07-’08 (DH/D1)
2500/3500
Cleaning the turbocharger on the Cummins 6.7-liter engine.
This 17-page bulletin describes the process of cleaning the turbocharger using Cummins Engine
Update Kit 10138-UPD to address excess soot accumulation. The procedure cleans the internal
components on the exhaust side of the turbocharger.
The bulletin goes hand-in-hand with TSBs 11-005-08 and 11-002-07 for detailed turbocharger,
engine and exhaust aftertreatment system repair procedures.
11-002-08
5/21/08
’07-’08 (DH/D1)
2500/3500
Inspections and test for the turbocharger on the Cummins 6.7-liter engine.
The customer may experience a malfunction indicator lamp (MIL) illumination due to diagnostic
trouble code (DTC): P2262 – Turbocharger Boost Pressure Not Detected – Mechanical.
If further codes of P1451, P2463 or P242F are present, the technician is referred to the repair
procedure listed in TSB 11-002-07. If the codes are not present, the repair and cleaning
procedures in this 8-page bulletin and TSB 11-001-08 are to be performed.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
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CATEgORY 11
FRAME/BUMPER . . . Continued
11-001-09
7/23/09
‘07-’09 (DH/D1)
Diesel Particulate Filter: Diagnosis and repair of DTC’s P1451, P200C, P242F or black smoke
from exhaust.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a Cummins 6.7-liter engine (sales code ETJ). The
customer may experience a malfunction indicator lamp (MIL) illumination, warning chime and
an overhead electronic vehicle information center (EVIC) message regarding the aftertreatment
system and/or black smoke from the exhaust and/or a no start condition. Further investigation by
the technician may reveal that the MIL illumination and/or EVIC message is due to one or more
of the following diagnostic trouble codes (DTC’’s):
P1451 - Diesel Particulate Filter - System Performance
P242F - Diesel Particulate Filter Restriction - Ash Accumulation
P200C - Diesel Particulate Filter Over Temperature - Bank 1.
This bulletin provides revised diagnostic and repair procedures for DTC’s P1451, P200C, P242F,
black smoke from the exhaust, or a no start condition due to a nonfunctional or plugged diesel
particulate filter (DPF).
11-002-09
8/5/09
‘07-’09 (D1/DH)
Diesel particulate filter Stationary DeSoot.
This bulletin applies to D1/DH vehicles equipped with a 6.7-liter Cummins diesel engine (sales
code ETJ). Mobile DeSoot still applies to DC/DM vehicles equipped with the 6.7-liter Cummins
diesel engine (sales code ETJ). Stationary DeSoot has replaced Mobile DeSoot as the repair
for Diagnostic Trouble Codes P1451 and P2463. This bulletin provides the procedure to perform
Stationary DeSoot. This new procedure allows running the DeSoot in a secured area with the
vehicle unattended.
Stationary DeSoot can only be performed when the diesel particulate filter has exceeded a
specified soot threshold. The Diagnostic Scan Tool will not allow the procedure to operate unless
the threshold has been exceeded. If the vehicle does not have an active P1451, the soot in the
Diesel Particulate Filter is at a normal level and a scan tool initiated DeSoot is not needed.
CATEgORY 13
FRAME/BUMPER
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
13-001-03
2/7/03
‘03 (DR)
Frame alterations.
This bulletin is to support the 2003 Body Builder’s Guide and presents guidelines that must be
followed during modifications or alterations to any 2003 Dodge Ram pickup frame. The following
general industry standard procedures are recommended for proper installation of special bodies
and/or equipment on the Ram pickup frame, such as fifth-wheel hitches, snow plows, etc. Failure
to follow these recommendations could result in damage to the basic vehicle and possible injury
to occupants. The information-only bulletin gives the guidelines for welding and drilling of holes
into the frame.
196
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 14
FUEL
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
14-004-05
‘03 - ‘05 (DR)
Electronic fuel control (EFC) actuator available for service
This bulletin deals specifically with an engine surge at idle condition. The diagnostic procedures
are the same as those listed in TSB 14-003-05. The bulletin describes the repair procedure for
replacement of the electronic fuel control actuator.
14-003-06
Rev. A
10/27/06
‘03 - ‘07
(DR/DH/D1/DC)
Cummins diesel diagnostics.
This bulletin applies to vehicles with the 5.9 liter engine, sales code ETH or ETC.
Revised diagnostic procedures are available for the following conditions:
• Engine cranks for a long time or will not start
• White smoke and/or misfire after starting when the engine temperature is below 150° F
• Engine surges at idle
• Engine sounds
The 12-page bulletin gives the service technician a set of revised diagnostic procedures for the
fuel system. Each condition is discussed and possible causes are established. Step-by-step
instructions help the technician identify and repair the problem.
14-005-06
07/27/06
‘07 (DH/D1/DC)
5.9-liter and 6/7-liter Cummins diesel engines - correct low and ultra-low sulfur highway diesel fuel use.
This bulletin involves a discussion regarding the correct diesel fuel to use for either the 5.9-liter or
the 6.7-liter Cummins diesel engine (sales code ETH and ETJ respectively).
Dodge Ram trucks equipped with the 6.7L Cummins Turbo-Diesel engine are required by Federal
law to be fueled with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (model year ’07.5). Early production 2007 Dodge
Ram trucks equipped with the 5.9 Cummins Turbo Diesel engine are allowed by Federal law to be
fueled with low sulfur diesel fuel, and are encouraged to fuel with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. The
new ultra-low sulfur highway diesel fuel enables vehicles equipped with the advanced emissions
control devices to achieve more stringent U/S EPA vehicle emissions standards.
14-007-06
Rev. A
09/02/06
‘06-’07 (DH/D1/DC)
Fuel and fuel filtering requirements for Cummins 5.9-liter and 6.7-liter engines.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 14-007-06, dated August 25, 2006.
This information-only bulletin involves a discussion regarding fuel system requirements. The
bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9-liter High Output or a 6.7-liter Cummins Turbo
Diesel engine (sales codes ETH or ETJ respectively) that were built on or after March 07, 2006.
Bulletin highlights follow:
For the diesel engine system to operate at its peak performance a high level of fuel quality must
be maintained. Emission control and fuel delivery systems have advanced significantly. Care
must be taken to ensure that the fuel that is delivered to the engine fuel injection system is of the
highest quality possible and free of contaminants.
Significant components to fuel quality are: the initial quality of the fuel (as dispensed from the
service station fuel pump or bulk storage), on-vehicle fuel storage, and the on-vehicle fuel filtering
of the diesel fuel prior to the fuel injection process.
Use good quality diesel fuel from a reputable supplier. It is recommended that purchase of diesel fuel be
made from a service station that is known to dispense a high volume of highway diesel fuel.
Ultra low sulfur highway diesel fuel is required for use in Dodge Ram trucks equipped with a
6.7-liter diesel engine.
A maximum blend of 5% biodiesel (B5) is acceptable as long as the biodiesel mixture meets ASTM
specification D-975, D-975-grade S-15, and ASTM D6751. A biodiesel fuel blend that is higher
than 5% is not acceptable without additional fuel processing because these higher percentage
biodiesel blends contain excess amounts of moisture which exceed the water stripping capability
of the on-engine final fuel filter. Should a higher percentage biodiesel fuel be used, an auxiliary
water stripping filter will be required.
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FUEL . . . Continued
A maximum blend of 20% biodiesel (B20) can be used by government, military, and commercial
fleets who equip their vehicle(s) with an optional water separator, and adhere to the guidelines in
the Department of Defense specification A-A-59693.
Fuel conditioners (additives) are not recommended and should not be required if you buy good
quality fuel and follow cold weather advice supplied in the Owner’s Manual.
CATEgORY 18
VEhICLE PERFORMANCE
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
18-015-03
4/4/03
‘03 (DR)
Powertrain control module (PCM) shift quality improvements.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9L standard output Cummins diesel engine
(sales code ETC) and a 47RE transmission(sales code DGP) built before December 31, 2002.
The vehicle operator may find that the vehicle will not shift out of third gear at throttle between
50% and 90% until 70 mph. The repair involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the
powertrain control module (PCM) with new software.
18-027-03
7/4/03
‘03 (DR)
No throttle response, lack of power while towing and diagnostic trouble codes P2638/P0700.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a Cummins diesel engine (sales code ETC or ETH)
built on or before July 25, 2003. The vehicle may exhibit:
• No throttle response if the engine is started with the Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor
(APPS) in an off-idle position (pedal depressed) and the transmission is shifted into drive or
reverse while the APPS remains in an off-idle position (pedal depressed), causing the engine
to remain at idle.
• Lack of power while towing or hauling a heavy load with the transmission in overdrive—
vehicles equipped with 47RE transmission.
The repair involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the Cummins CM845 engine control
module (ECM) with new software.
18-030-03
8/29/03
‘98.5 - ‘02 (BE/BR)
‘03 - ‘04 (DR)
Generic Cummins engine control module (ECM) procedure.
This bulletin applies to Ram trucks equipped with the 5.9L Cummins 24-valve diesel engine
(sales code ETC or ETH). Mopar is phasing out pre-programmed Cummins Diesel engine control
modules (ECM). New modules will no longer be pre-programmed when received from Mopar.
Replacement of future ECM’s will require programming utilizing the DRBIII and TechCONNECT.
18-003-04
2/3/04
‘03 - ‘04 (DR)
Poor A/C performance, slow fuel gauge response, and diagnostic trouble codes PO341 and P1757.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a Cummins Turbo Diesel engine (sales code ETC
or ETH) with an engine serial number 57130284 or earlier and the engine date of manufacture on
or before December 10, 2003. The owner of the vehicle may describe slow fuel gauge response
after adding fuel. On California emission equipped vehicles, the problem is rapid A/C clutch
cycling and poor A/C performance until coolant temperature reaches 170°. The repair involves
erasing and reprogramming the Cummins ECM with new software.
18-004-04
2/3/04
‘04 (DR)
Poor cab heat and/or slow engine warm-up in cold ambient temperatures.
This bulletin applies to DR vehicles equipped with a Cummins Turbo Diesel engine (sales code
ETC or ETH) and an automatic transmission, with an engine serial number 57130284 or earlier
and the engine date of manufacture on or before December 10, 2003. The vehicle operator may
describe poor cab heat and/or slow engine warm-up in cold ambient temperatures. A new feature
has been added that allows the vehicle operator to use the speed control switches to increase
the engine speed up to 1500 rpm in order to improve cab heat. The feature must be enabled
using the DRBIII. If the vehicle operator would like to have the feature enabled, perform the repair
procedure which involves erasing and reprogramming the Cummins ECM with new software.
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VEhICLE PERFORMANCE . . . Continued
18-007-04
2/24/04
‘04 (DR)
White smoke, engine stumble/misfire, or flat spot in engine performance.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a Cummins Turbo Diesel engine (sales code ETH)
with an engine serial number 57130285 through and including 57149668 and the engine date
of manufacture 12/10/2003 through and including 2/2/2004. The vehicle operator may describe:
• White smoke during no-load engine acceleration between 2800 and 3000 rpm.
• Engine stumble/misfire or flat spot during moderate accelerations between 1500 and 2500
rpm. May be accompanied by white smoke.
• During cold ambient temperatures (30° or below) white smoke and/or engine stumble when
engine is started after an extended cold soak.
• During cold ambient temperatures (30° or below) white smoke when restarting engine that
has not yet reached normal operating temperature.
If the vehicle operator describes or the technician experiences the problem, perform the repair
procedure which involves erasing and reprogramming the Cummins ECM with new software.
18-033-04
8/20/04
‘98.5 - ‘02 (BR)
‘03 - ‘05 (DR)
Cummins engine control module (ECM) procedure.
Mopar is phasing out pre-programmed Cummins diesel engine control modules (ECM). New
modules will no longer be pre-programmed when received from Mopar. Replacement of future
ECM’s will require programming at the dealership. This bulletin describes the programming
procedure.
18-041-05
12/20/05
‘06
Flash: engine performance/white smoke.
This bulletin applies to Ram trucks equipped with the 5.9L Cummins 24-valve diesel engine (sales
code ETH) built on or after June 9, 2005, through and including November 8, 2005. This bulletin
involves programming the PCM (Cummins) with new software. The software is designed to
reduce white smoke and improve engine performance after a cold start at ambient temperatures
below 60°F and to improve oil pressure gauge operation.
18-001-06
Rev. A
7/12/06
‘06 - ‘07 (DR, DH, D1)
‘07 (DC)
StarSCAN StarMOBILE abort recovery procedures.
This information-only bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 18-001-06, dated January
11, 2006, and provides guidelines to minimize flash reprogramming problems and recovery
procedure information for failed flash attempts.
18-003-06
Rev. A
09/27/06
‘05 - ‘06 (DH, D1)
Flash: long crank when starting and/or transmission shift and battery charging enhancements.
This bulletin applies to Ram trucks equipped with the 5.9L Cummins 24-valve diesel engine (sales
code ETH) built on or after January 01, 2005. The vehicle operator may experience extended
engine crank time in cold ambient temperatures on vehicles equipped with manual transmissions.
This flash also provides the following enhancements:
• Improved start times for manual transmission vehicles
• Improved automatic transmission shifting
• Engine fan is activated if the coolant temperature sensor fails
• Enhanced battery charging
This bulletin involves flash reprogramming the PCM (Cummins) with the software.
18-005-06
Rev. B
05/31/06
‘06 (DH/D1)
Flash: DTC correction, turbocharger protection, and clutch durability improvement.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 18-005-06 Rev. A, dated April 26, 2006. This
bulletin applies to Ram trucks equipped with the 5.9L Cummins 24-valve diesel engine (sales
code ETH) built on or after June 9, 2005, through and including May 31, 2006. The PCM software
has been revised to address the following issues:
• A MIL may illuminate due to one or more of the following diagnostic trouble codes:
P0071 – Inlet Air Temperature Sensor Rationality
P0111 – Intake Air Temperature (IAT) Sensor Rationality
P0514 – Battery Temperature Sensor Rationality
P0191 – Fuel Pressure Rationality
• Turbocharger durability improvement: Implemented an engine speed limitation when cold, to
protect the turbocharger bearings.
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VEhICLE PERFORMANCE . . . Continued
• Clutch durability improvement: Implemented a minimum engine speed limitation when
launching vehicle from a stop, to protect the clutch.
This bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the PCM (Cummins) with new
software.
18-022-07
03/14/07
‘03 - ‘05 (DR)
Flash: 5.9L Turbo-Diesel engine system enhancements
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9L Turbo Diesel engine (sales codes ETC
and ETH respectively). The bulletin supersedes 18-022-06 dated 07/13/06. The following
enhancements are included with this software update:
• Improved engine cooling (radiator fan activation) and prevention of possible engine overheat.
When coolant temperature faults are present, the radiator fan is enabled (turned on) during
vehicle operation.
• Correction to oil pressure reading when engine is operating at higher engine temperatures
above 195°F.
• Improvement to the Temperature Sensor Rationality Test to prevent possible false test
failures and their following related diagnostic trouble codes:
DTC P0071 – Inlet Air Temperature Sensor Rationality
DTC P0111 – Intake Air Temperature (IAT) Sensor Rationality
DTC P0514 – Battery Temperature Sensor Rationality.
• Additional water-in-fuel (WIF) warning added to indicate that the operator has had a WIF
(DTC P2269) and has continued to operate the vehicle in excess of 500 miles without
draining the water from the fuel filter. The following is the new WIF DTC that has been added:
DTC P0169 – WIF Too Long Error
• Improvement to the fuel pressure rationality test to prevent false test failures and the related
DTC 0191.
This bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the engine control module with new
software.
18-038-06
12/05/06
‘07 (DC)
Flash: DTC P0471 – Exhaust pressure sensor rationality on Cummins 6.7-liter Turbo Diesel.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 6.7-liter engine (sales code ETJ) built on or
before October 05, 2006. The vehicle operator may experience a malfunction indicator lamp (MIL)
illumination due to diagnostic trouble code (DTC) P0471: exhaust pressure sensor rationality.
This bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the engine control module (ECMCummins) with new software.
18-001-07
01/06/07
‘06 - ‘07 (DH/D1)
Flash: check gauges lamp illuminates for alternator charging with DTC P2502, P2503, or P2509
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9-liter engine (sales code ETH) built on or before
November 29, 2006. The customer may experience the illumination of the “Check Gauges” lamp
on the instrument panel cluster. Inspection of the gauges may reveal that the battery charging
gauge may read in the 11-volt range rather than in the 14-volt range. There may not be a Check
Engine/Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) illumination.
Further diagnosis may reveal the following diagnostic trouble codes (DTC’s) have been set:
P2502 – Charging System Error – Diesel
P2503 – Charging System Output Low – Diesel
P2509 – Powerdown Data Lost Error – Diesel
This bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the powertrain control module
(Cummins PCM) with new software.
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A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 18
18-009-07
Rev. B
07/13/07
‘07 (DC)
VEhICLE PERFORMANCE . . . Continued
Ram truck 3500 Cab and Chassis – Excessive soot accumulation in exhaust, PCM may not
reprogram, and other engine system enhancements.
This bulletin applies to Ram truck 3500 Cab and Chassis vehicles equipped with 6.7-liter Cummins
Turbo Diesel engine (sales code ETJ). This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 18-00907 Rev. A, dated May 16, 2007.
The vehicle operator and/or technician may experience one or more of the following conditions:
• The technician may not be able to reprogram (flash) the PCM with new application software.
• After extensive idling of the vehicle engine or if an intake air leak is present, the vehicle
operator may experience a MIL illumination and/or an electronic vehicle information center
(EVIC) message alert due to one or more of the following DTC’s:
P1451 – Diesel Particulate Filter System Performance.
P2463 – Diesel Particulate filter – Soot Accumulation
P242F – Diesel Particulate Filter Restriction – Ash Accumulation.
• The vehicle operator may experience a MIL illumination due to one of the following DTC’s:
P0101 – Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor Performance.
P0106 – Boost Pressure Sensor Rationality.
P0191 – Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit Performance.
• Improved Water-In-Fuel (WIF) alert. To improve awareness that water has been detected in
the fuel system, the vehicle operator will be alerted to a five (5) chime alert versus a single (1)
chime alert.
This bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the powertrain control module
(PCM) with “bootloader” software and application software.
18-030-07
04/26/07
‘04 - ‘07
(DR/DH/D1/DC)
Engine off-idle speed limit feature to protect turbocharger when vehicle is not moving.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9-liter or a 6.7-liter Cummins Turbo Diesel
engine (sales codes: ETC, ETH, or ETJ). This bulletin involves a discussion regarding an engine
control feature that limits engine off-idle speeds when the vehicle is not moving.
Dependent upon engine coolant temperature, the engine control module (ECM) will temporarily
limit the maximum engine speed when the vehicle is not moving. For automatic transmission
equipped vehicles the maximum engine speed is temporarily delayed when the vehicle speed is
less than one mph, and when the transmission selector is in either the neutral or park position.
For manual transmission equipped vehicles, the maximum engine speed is temporarily delayed
when the vehicle speed is less than one mph. This ECM feature is used to protect the engine
turbocharger.
This delay in maximum engine and turbocharger shaft speed allows for sufficient oil lubrication to
the turbocharger shaft bearings which is important for long term turbocharger durability.
The maximum engine speed for the 5.9-liter engine is temporarily limited to 1,600 RPM when the
above conditions are met. The 6.7-liter engine speed is temporarily limited to 1,200 RPM when
the above conditions are met. The length of time that the maximum engine speed is temporarily
limited is dependent upon engine coolant temperature. For example, the delay can be up to 45
seconds at 35° or 7 seconds at 70°.
18-033-07
Rev. B
06/28/07
‘07 (DH/D1)
Ram truck 2500 and 3500 – Excessive soot accumulation in exhaust, PCM may not reprogram,
OBD readiness status and other engine system enhancements.
This bulletin applies to Ram truck 2500 and 3500 vehicles equipped with 6.7-liter Cummins
Turbo Diesel engine (sales code ETJ) built on or before June 11, 2007. This bulletin supersedes
technical service bulletin 18-033-07 Rev. A, dated June 12, 2007.
The vehicle operator and/or technician may experience one or more of the following conditions
and/or enhancements:
• The technician may not be able to reprogram (flash) the PCM with new application software.
• The vehicle may fail an emission inspection maintenance (I/M) test because two or more onaboard diagnostic (OBD) monitors report that they are not ready for testing. This condition may
cause the customer vehicle to fail an emissions I/M test. The following is a list of OBD Monitors
that may report as not ready for testing:
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VEhICLE PERFORMANCE . . . Continued
a. Non-Methane Hydrocarbon (NMHC) Catalyst Monitor.
b. Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Absorber Monitor.
c. Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Monitor.
d. Electrical Charging System Monitor.
e. EGR System Monitor.
f. Oxygen Sensor Monitor.
• After extensive idling of the vehicle engine or if an intake air leak is present, the vehicle
operator may experience a MIL illumination and/or an electronic vehicle information center
(EVIC) message alert due to one or more of the following DTCs:
P1451 – Diesel Particulate Filter System performance
P2463 – Diesel Particulate Filter – Soot Accumulation
P242F – Diesel Particulate Filter Restriction – Ash Accumulation.
• The vehicle operator may experience a MIL illumination due to one of the following DTC’s:
P0106 – Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor Performance.
P242B – Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Circuit Performance – Bank 1 Sensor 3
P245A – EGR Cooler Bypass Control Circuit – Open
• An intermittent rough engine idle and/or white smoke following initial engine start.
• A throttle tip-in stumble at engine speeds of 1,300 to 2,100 rpm.
• An engine hesitation at altitude of 5,000 feet between engine speeds of 1,200 to 1,600 rpm.
• A turbocharger “chuff-like” sound during rapid deceleration.
This bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the Powertrain Control Module
(PCM) with “bootloader” software and application software.
In October of ’07 this TSB (and the number of fault codes addressed by the reprogramming of
the ECM) was superseded by a recall (Recall G30) of all 6.7-liter engines built to that date. The
TSB 18-033-07 was left in the magazine to give 6.7-liter owners data to see what the Recall
G30 scope of work entailed.
Then in December of ‘08 the G30 recall and the TSB 18-013-08 that described the proper repair
technique were updated again by TSB 18-013-08A.
18-037-07
Rev. A
07-20-07
‘07 (DH/D1)
68RFE Transmission – DTC P0868 low line pressure.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 68RFE automatic transmission (sale code DG7)
built on or before April 30, 2007. The customer may experience a malfunction indicator lamp (MIL)
illumination due to diagnostic trouble code (DTC) P0868-Low Line Pressure. This condition may
be due to the transmission control module (TCM) software or to a hardware circuit in the TCM.
This bulletin involves checking the transmission control module (TCM) to determine that it is
in proper working order and then selectively erasing and reprogramming the TCM with new
software.
18-013-08
3/13/08
’07 - ’08
Engine system and exhaust aftertreatment system enhancements.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a Cummins 6.7-liter engine (sales code ETJ) built
on or before February 14, 2008. This bulletin discusses the G30 recall and the many drivability
issues that are addressed and covered in the G30 recall software update.
18-013-08
REV. A
12/4/08
‘07-’09 (DH/D1)
Engine system and exhaust aftertreatment system enhancements.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a Cummins 6.7-liter engine (sale code ETJ) built
on or before November 27, 2008. This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 18-01308, dated March 13, 2008. This bulletin involves verifying that Emission Recall G30 - Replace
Oxygen Sensor Module and Reprogram ECM has been performed. If not, perform Recall G30
first, then verify the software level, and if necessary, selectively erasing and reprogramming the
Engine Control Module (ECM) with new software. Additionally, verify the software level, and if
necessary, selectively erasing and reprogramming the Cab Compartment Node (CCN) module
with new software. With this latest ECM software release listed in this Service Bulletin, the
following symptoms have been completely addressed.
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CATEgORY 18
VEhICLE PERFORMANCE . . . Continued
• One of the following driveability conditions:
a. An intermittent rough engine idle and/or white smoke following initial engine start.
b. A throttle tip-in stumble at engine speeds of 1,300 to 2,100 rpm.
c. An engine hesitation at altitude of 5,000 feet between engine speeds of 1,200 to 1,600 rpm.
d. A turbocharger “chuff-like” sound during rapid deceleration.
• The vehicle may fail an Emission Inspection Maintenance (I/M) Test because two or more OnBoard Diagnostic (OBD) monitors report that they are not ready for testing. This condition may
cause the customer vehicle to not pass an Emissions I/M test. The following is a list of OBD
Monitors that may report as not ready for testing:
a. Non-Methane Hydrocarbon (NMHC) Catalyst Monitor.
b. Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Absorber Monitor.
c. Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor Monitor.
d. Electrical Charging System Monitor.
e. EGR System Monitor.
f. Oxygen Sensor Monitor.
• Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) due to one or more of the following Diagnostic Trouble
Codes (DTC’s):
a. P0101 - Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor Rationality
b. P0128 - Thermostat Rationality
c. U1421 - Implausible Ignition Key Off Time Received.
The latest ECM software includes a new extended idle feature to accommodate the extended
idle times present in some duty cycles. This feature may help to reduce the accumulation of soot
in the exhaust aftertreatment system when the engine is idling for an extended period of time.
A number of improvements have been made to the engine diagnostics. Performing this Service
Bulletin completely will enable these diagnostic improvements.
To determine if the vehicle has the latest software, compare the software level to the following
notes:
• If the vehicle in question is a 2007 model year vehicle, then compare the current ECM
software level part number to one of the following part numbers (or with a higher suffix):
55350430AZ (or higher) = DH 2500 6.7L Manual Transmission 50 State
55350435AZ (or higher) = DH 2500 6.7L Automatic Transmission 50 State
55351430AZ (or higher) = D1 3500 6.7L Manual Transmission 50 State
55351435AZ (or higher) = D1 3500 6.7L Automatic Transmission 50 State
• If the vehicle in question is a 2008 model year vehicle, then compare the current ECM
software level part number to one of the following part numbers (or with a higher suffix):
62350430AR (or higher) = DH 2500 6.7L Manual Transmission 50 State
62350435AR (or higher) = DH 2500 6.7L Automatic Transmission 50 State
62351430AR (or higher) = D1 3500 6.7L Manual Transmission 50 State
62351435AR (or higher) = D1 3500 6.7L Automatic Transmission 50 State
• If the vehicle in question is a 2009 model year vehicle, then compare the current ECM
software level part number to one of the following part numbers (or with a higher suffix):
72350430AF (or higher) = DH 2500 6.7L Manual Transmission 50 State
72350435AF (or higher) = DH 2500 6.7L Automatic Transmission 50 State
72351430AF (or higher) = D1 3500 6.7L Manual Transmission 50 State
72351435AF (or higher) = D1 3500 6.7L Automatic Transmission 50 State
• Determine if the current CCN module level software part number is one of the following (or
with a higher suffix):
05172187AG (or higher) = 2007 DH (2500) or 2007 D1 (3500)
05172334AG (or higher) = 2008 DH (2500) or 2008 D1 (3500)
05172529AG (or higher) = 2009 DH (2500) or 2009 D1 (3500)
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VEhICLE PERFORMANCE . . . Continued
18-035-08
9/13/08
‘07-’08 (DH/D1)
MIL illumination due to P2000, P2A00 and/or P2A01.
The customer may experience MIL illumination. Further investigation by the technician may find
one or more of the following DTC(s) present:
P2000 - NOx Absorber Efficiency Below Threshold - Bank 1.
P2A00 - O2 Sensor 1/1 Circuit Performance.
P2A01 - O2 Sensor 1/2 Circuit Performance.
This bulletin involves verifying all TSBs related to high sooting issues have been properly
addressed, replacing both Oxygen (O2) Sensors, and wrapping the exhaust pipe in the area of
the FRONT O2 sensor.
18-001-09
1/21/09
‘07-’09 (DC/DM)
(3500/4500/5500 Cab
Chassis)
Engine systems and exhaust aftertreatment systems enhancements.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a Cummins 6.7-liter engine (sales code ETJ) built
on or before January 13, 2009. This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 18-009-07 Rev.
B, dated July 13, 2007.
This bulletin involves verifying that the latest software has been installed on 2007 MY vehicles.
Selectively erasing and reprogramming the Engine Control Module (ECM). Selectively erasing
and reprogramming the Cab Compartment Node (CCN).
The latest PCM software will address the erroneous MIL illumination of the following faults:
P0191 - Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Circuit Performance
P0128 - Thermostat Rationality
P0106 - Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor Performance
P0524 - Engine Oil Pressure Too Low
P061A - ETC Level 2 Torque performance
P0607 - ECU Internal Performance
The latest PCM software will include the following operational and diagnostic improvements:
Improve engine cooling capability and prevention of over temp condition (P0217 - Coolant
Temperature Too High) when operating with snow plow. New feature that allows for customer
selectable remote PTO speed (if equipped). The latest ECM software includes a new extended
idle feature to accommodate the extended idle times present in some duty cycles. This feature
may help to reduce the accumulation of soot in the exhaust aftertreatment system when the
engine is idling for an extended period of time.
To determine if the vehicle has the latest software, compare the following notes:
• If the vehicle in question is a 2007 model year vehicle, then compare the current PCM
software level part number to one of the following part numbers (or with a higher suffix):
52300430AX (or higher) = DC 3500 6.7L Manual Transmission 50 State
55300434AX (or higher) = DC 3500 6.7L Automatic Transmission 50 State
• If the vehicle in question is a 2008 model year vehicle, then compare the current PCM
software level part number to one of the following part numbers (or with a higher suffix):
61300430AK (or higher) = DC 3500 6.7L Manual Transmission 50 State
61300434AK (or higher) = DC 3500 6.7L Automatic Transmission 50 State
61301430AK (or higher) = DM 4500/5500 6.7L Manual Transmission 50 State
61301434AK (or higher) = DM 4500/5500 6.7L Automatic Transmission 50 State
• If the vehicle in question is a 2009 model year vehicle, then compare the current PCM
software level part number to one of the following part numbers (or with a higher suffix):
71300430AH (or higher) = DC 3500 6.7L Manual Transmission 50 State
71300434AH (or higher) = DC 3500 6.7L Automatic Transmission 50 State
71301430AH (or higher) = DM 4500/5500 6.7L Manual Transmission 50 State
71301434AH (or higher) = DM 4500/5500 6.7L Automatic Transmission 50 State
• Determine if the current CCN module level software part number is one of the following (or
with a higher suffix):
05172187AH (or higher) = 2007 DC (3500) / DM (3500/4500)
05172334AG (or higher) = 2008 DC (3500) / DM (3500/4500)
05172529AG (or higher) = 2009 DC (3500) / DM (3500/4500)
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VEhICLE PERFORMANCE . . . Continued
18-024-09
8/6/09
MIL illumination and stationary DeSoot and other enhancements.
This bulletin applies to D1/DH vehicles equipped with a 6.7-liter Cummins engine (sales code
ETJ) built before May 5, 2009. The customer may experience:
•
An erroneous MIL illumination for P2262 - Turbocharger Boost Pressure Not Detected Mechanical.
•
Improved diagnostics for P2299 - Brake Pedal Position/Accelerator Pedal position
Incompatible.
•
An erroneous MIL illumination for P0402 - Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Flow
Excessive Detected.
•
An erroneous MIL illumination for P040B - EFR Temperature Sensor 1 Circuit Performance.
•
An erroneous MIL illumination for P0405 - EFR Position Sensor Circuit Low.
This bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the Engine Control Module (ECM)
with new software.
‘07-’09 (D1/DH)
CATEgORY 19
STEERINg
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
19-005-03
8/29/03
‘94 - ‘02 (BR/BE)
‘02 - ‘04 (DR)
Power steering fluid usage.
The factory fill power steering fluid for most 2004 model year Chrysler Group vehicles is ATF+4
(part number 05013457AA/S9602) and it provides superior performance at both low and high
temperatures. Refer to the table to identify factory fill and the approved service power steering
fluid by year and model. From the table, it is noted that the ’94 to ’02 truck uses part number
04883077/MS5931. MS9602 should not be mixed or used as a “topping off” fluid on systems
requiring MS5931.
19-008-03
11/28/03
‘03 (DR)
Vibration in steering column.
A vibration may be felt in the steering wheel and/or the accelerator pedal on diesel engine vehicles
with the engine operating between 2000 and 2200 rpm. The vibration may be more pronounced
with the A/C compressor on. Operate the engine between 2000 and 2200 rpm. If the vibration is
present, perform the repair procedure which involves installing a power steering hose containing
a vibration damper.
19-010-04
11/29/04
‘04 - ‘05 (DR)
Power steering fluid contamination.
This information-only bulletin discusses the use of supplements to the power steering fluid. Do
not use fluids or supplements that contain Teflon as they will cause a restriction at the filter
in the power steering system. The power steering fluid used in Chrysler Group vehicles is an
engineered product. The addition of any unapproved fluids or supplements can interfere with the
proper function of the fluid and cause damage to the steering system. To ensure the performance
and durability of Chrysler Group steering systems, use only Mopar Power Steering Fluid +4,
ATF+4 automatic transmission fluid, or equivalent (MS-9602), in the power steering system.
19-003-05
5/3/05
‘03 - ‘05 (DR)
In and out movement in steering column.
This bulletin applies to vehicles built after December 1, 2003. If there is a small amount of
movement in the steering column when pulling the steering wheel toward you while seated in
the driver’s seat, the TSB outlines the proper repair procedure which involves the installation of a
steering retainer kit to the steering column.
19-008-05
Rev. A
11/2/05
‘02 - ‘06 (DR)
Revised power steering system bleeding procedures.
This bulletin supersedes service bulletin 19-008-05, dated October 26, 2005. The bulletin
discussed that Mopar Power Steering fluid +4 or ATF+4 (MS-9602) is to be used in the power
steering system of DR vehicles. No other power steering or automatic transmission fluid is to
be used in these systems. Damage may result to the power steering pump and system if the
incorrect fluid is used. Do not overfill the power steering reservoir. If the air is not purged from the
power steering system correctly, pump failure could result.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
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CATEgORY 21
TRANSMISSION
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
21-023-05
11/11/05
‘06
Out of park sense alarm.
This information only bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9L Turbo Diesel engine (sales
code ETH). This information only bulletin discusses an alarm for “out of park” transmission setting.
Vehicles with a diesel engine and an automatic transmission are equipped with an alarm that
warns the customer, upon exiting the vehicle, that the transmission is not in the “Park” position.
This feauture will only be functional under the following conditions:
• engine running
• foot off the brake pedal
• driver’s seat belt unbuckled
• driver’s door open.
When this feature is triggered the horn will sound and the high beams and turn signal lamps will
flash. This feature is standard equipment and cannot be disabled.
21-006-06
3/11/06
‘05 - ‘06
Transmission jumps out of reverse.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with Cummins Turbo Diesel engines, sales code ETH
and G56 manual transmissions sales code DEG. A customer may experience the transmission
jumping out of reverse. If the customer indicates that the condition is present, perform the repair
procedure which involves replacing the reverse synchronizer.
21-010-06
4/14/06
All
Automatic transmission fluid usage ATF+4 (Type MS9602).
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 21-004-04, dated March 16, 2004. ATF+4,
type 9602, is being used as factory fill for Chrysler Group automatic transmissions. ATF+4 is
recommended for all vehicles equipped with Chrysler Group automatic transmissions except
for those noted: AW-4 transmissions, Sprinter transmissions, Crossfire transmissions, MK/
PM vehicles equipped with Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). ATF+4 is backward
compatible with ATF+3, ATF+2, and ATF+. Additionally, ATF+4 can be used to top off vehicles
that used ATF+3, ATF+2, or ATF+. Benefits:
• Better anti-wear properties
• Improved rust/corrosion prevention
• Controls oxidation
• Eliminates deposits
• Controls friction
• Retains anti-foaming properties
• Superior properties for low temperature operation.
Mopar ATF+4 has exceptional durability. However, the red dye used in ATF+4 is not permanent;
as the fluid ages it may become darker or appear brown in color. ATF+4 also has a unique odor
that may change with age. With ATF+4 fluid, color and odor are no longer indicators of fluid
condition and do not necessarily support a fluid change.
21-003-07
02/09/07
Automatic transmission diagnostic tear down procedure.
This bulletin provides a procedure to determine repair versus replacement of an automatic
transmission assembly. Follow the proper repair procedure based on the transmission type. This
procedure is to be used after the transmission has been removed from the vehicle.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 21-008-06, dated 04/08/06.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 21-021-08, dated 09/17/08.
21-006-07
03/20/07
206
‘05 (DH)
Flash: New 48RE feature that allows normal shift schedule with full disable of 4th gear overdrive.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9-liter Cummins Turbo Diesel engine and a
48RE automatic transmission (sales codes ETH and DG8 respectively). A new 48RE transmission
feature is added that will allow normal shift schedule with full disable of 4th gear (overdrive gear),
when the customer selects the Over-Drive (O/D) switch.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 21
TRANSMISSION . . . Continued
Prior to the implementation of this new transmission feature, the use of the O/D switch changed
the automatic transmission shift schedule from a “normal” shift schedule to a tow/haul mode shift
schedule, and allowed 4th gear (overdrive gear) engagement.
This new transmission feature will not change the transmission shift schedule, but will allow full
4th gear overdrive disable (lock out). With this new feature the customer will have the “normal”
shift schedule with NO overdrive (4th gear).
This bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the Cummins Engine Control
Module (ECM) with new software.
21-009-07
5/24/07
‘04 - ‘07
48RE Transmission – 1-2 shift hunt at light throttle.
The customer may experience a 1-2 shift transmission hunt during light throttle application.
This condition may be due to a governor pressure solenoid valve. This bulletin involves the
replacement of the governor pressure solenoid valve in the transmission valve body.
21-014-07
All
Automatic transmission fluid usage ATF+4 (Type MS9602).
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 21-010-06, dated 4/16/06. ATF+4, type 9602,
is being used as factory fill for Chrysler Group automatic transmissions. ATF+4 is recommended
for all vehicles equipped with Chrysler Group automatic transmissions except for those noted:
Sprinter transmissions, Crossfire transmissions, MK/PM vehicles equipped with Continuously
Variable Transmission (CVT), all vehicles equipped with a A568RC transmission (sales code
DG3), all vehicles with a Getrag MP56 (sales code DG5), and Grand Cherokees with the diesel
engine option. ATF+4 is backward compatible with ATF+3, ATF+2, and ATF+. Additionally, ATF+4
can be used to top off vehicles that used ATF+3, ATF+2, or ATF+. Benefits:
• Better anti-wear properties
• Improved rust/corrosion prevention
• Controls oxidation
• Eliminates deposits
• Controls friction
• Retains anti-foaming properties
• Superior properties for low temperature operation.
Mopar ATF+4 has exceptional durability. However, the red dye used in ATF+4 is not permanent;
as the fluid ages, it may become darker or appear brown in color. ATF+4 also has a unique odor
that may change with age. With ATF+4 fluid, color and odor are no longer indicators of fluid
condition and do not necessarily support a fluid change.
21-019-07
11/14/07
’07 - ’08 (DH/D1)
2500/3500
68RFE transmission – harsh coast downshift and/or harsh 2-3 upshift.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 68RFE automatic transmission (sale code DG7)
built on or before November 6, 2007. The customer may experience a harsh downshift from
the transmission when coming to a stop. When a vehicle stop is initiated from 4th gear (around
25mph), the harsh downshift condition will usually occur as the vehicle decelerates to a speed
of about 10mph. If the transmission is in 2nd, 3rd, 5th, or 6th gear when the stop is initiated, the
condition will not be present. This may cause the condition to appear to be intermittent to the
customer. Because the harsh downshift may occur below 10mph, the customer may believe that
they are experiencing a harsh 2-1 downshift.
Some customers may also experience a harsh 2-3 upshift during normal acceleration. This
symptom is less common than the harsh coast downshift.
This bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the transmission control module
(TCM) with new software.
21-021-08
9/17/08
‘95-’02 (BR/BE)
‘07-’09 (D1/DC)
‘02-’09 (DR/Dh)
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Automatic transmission diagnostic tear down procedure.
This bulletin provides a procedure to determine repair versus replacement of an automatic
transmission assembly. Follow the proper repair procedure based on the transmission type. This
procedure is to be used after the transmission has been removed from the vehicle.
207
CATEgORY 22
WhEELS AND TIRES
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
22-001-05
12/1/05
‘00 - ‘01 (BR/BE)
‘02 - ‘06 (DR)
Chrome wheel care.
This information-only bulletin discusses chrome wheel care. Chrome wheels should be cleaned
regularly with mild soap and water or Mopar Car Wash Concentrate to maintain their luster and
prevent corrosion. Wash them with the same soap solution as the body of the vehicle. Care must
be taken in the selection of tire and wheel cleaning chemicals and equipment to prevent damage
to wheels. Any of the “Do Not Use” items listed below can damage or stain wheels and wheel trim.
• Wheel cleaners that contain hydrofluoric acid, biflouride compounds, sulfuric acid, or
phosphoric acid.
• Any abrasive type cleaner.
• Any abrasive cleaning pad (such as steel wool) or abrasive brush.
• Any oven cleaner.
• A car wash that has carbide tipped wheel-cleaning brushes.
22-005-06
10/07/06
‘03 - ‘07
(DR/DH/D1/DC)
Front end shimmy on 4x4 vehicles when traveling over rough surfaces in the road.
This bulletin applies to four wheel drive (4x4) 2500 and 3500 model vehicles. The customer may
experience a self sustaining vibration (shimmy) felt in the front end of the vehicle after striking a
bump or pothole. This bulletin involves verifying the condition of the vehicle front suspension and
steering components, and adjusting the front tire pressure.
If the customer experiences the above condition, perform the repair procedure which includes a
steering damper, tie rods and end links.
22-002-07
Rev. A
7/12/07
’08 (DH)
2500
CATEgORY 23
Tire pressure monitor system (TPMS) “Light Load” reset switch and tire rotation caution.
This information-only bulletin provides information for new vehicle preparation, setting tire
pressures, rotating tires and setting the light load switch on vehicles with the tire pressure
monitoring system installed.
BODY
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
TSB#
MODELS
23-018-03
6/13/03
‘03 (DR)
23-016-03
6/13/03
‘03 (DR)
23-025-03
10/24/03
‘03 (DR)
208
Instrument panel whistle.
A whistling sound may be present coming from the front of the instrument panel near the bottom
of the windshield when the heater A/C blower is on. This may be caused by air escaping through
the holes in the center of the rivets that attach the VIN plate to the instrument panel. This can be
mis-diagnosed as a windshield air leak. If necessary, remove the instrument panel top cover and
apply a small drop of clear glass sealer to the center of each of the rivets to seal the rivet holes.
Buzzing or vibrating sound coming from the front of the vehicle.
The description of the problem is a buzzing or vibrating sound coming from the front of the vehicle
at highway speeds. Open the hood and inspect the ID plate located on the radiator support. The
ID plate should be attached with four rivets. If there are only two rivets securing the ID plate, the
ID plate may be vibrating against the radiator support. The repair involves securing the ID plate
with additional rivets.
Scratched aftermarket window tint film.
Customers who have installed aftermarket window tint film see scratches on the film on the
windows from contact with the door inner belt weather strip. Some vehicles may have been built
with the weather strip not having a coating of soft protective flocking on the surface that contacts
the window. The repair involves installing a revised door inner belt weather strip.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 23
BODY . . . Continued
23-001-04
1/13/04
‘03 (DR)
Bug deflector wind whistle.
Some vehicles equipped with a factory installed hood mounted bug deflector may exhibit a
whistling sound coming from the front of the vehicle. The repair procedure involves installing
foam tape to the bug deflector.
23-003-04
1/27/04
‘02 - ‘04 (DR)
Water leak at grab handle.
Water may enter the vehicle through the secondary door seal retainer or the roof seam, onto the
headliner and run down the “A” pillar, coming out at the grab handle. The repair involves sealing
holes in the roof panel.
23-004-04
‘04 (DR)
Cup holder binds or sticks.
If the cup holder binds, will not open, or only opens partially, the instrument panel trim should be
adjusted to provide clearance for the cup holder.
23-011-04
‘03 - ‘04 (DR)
Bug deflector loose/rattling.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a factory installed bug deflector, sales code MXB.
The bug deflector or air dam located on the front of the hood may become loose and rattle. The
deflector could become dislodged in an automatic car wash. The repair involves replacing the
bug deflector fasteners.
23-029-04
8/2/04
‘04 (DR)
Binding front power window.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with trailer tow mirrors, sales code GPD or GPG.
Vehicle owners may experience the power window on the front door binding or slow to operate.
The corrective action involves lubricating the window channel and installing a spacer under the
outside mirror.
23-005-05
1/31/05
‘03 - ‘04 (DR)
Improved secondary door seal.
Mud or dirt may accumulate on the rocker panel, causing customers to complain that their
clothing gets dirty when they enter or exit the vehicle. This bulletin involves installing a new lower
secondary door seal.
23-022-05
4/2/05
‘05 - ‘06 (DR)
Low gloss interior trim.
This information-only bulletin discusses that all Chrysler, Dodge, and Jeep vehicles are designed
with a low gloss interior trim. This low gloss finish maintains pleasing aesthetics, and minimizes
glare of the instrument panel into the windshield. This low gloss finish should not be altered with
a medium or high gloss interior treatment solution such as MOPAR Protector’s or other Armor
All-like products.
Instead, MOPAR Satin Select (part number 05174395AA) which has been specifically developed
to remove minor surface contamination and maintain the low gloss appearance, should be used
for interior trim treatment.
23-049-05
10/12/05
‘04 - ‘05 (DR)
Drip rail door seal torn.
The drip rail or secondary door seal may become torn from contact with the lower “A” pillar of the
front door. The repair involves replacing the secondary door seal with an improved seal.
23-009-06
2/14/06
‘04 - ‘05
Water leak at roof mounted marker lamps.
Water leaks may be present coming from the roof mounted marker lamps. New marker lamps
have been released which contain base gaskets. These marker lamps should be used in all
cases where water leaks are present at the marker lamps. These lamps will have to be replaced
in sets of five due to appearance differences. If water leak tests reveal that water leaks are
present at the marker lamps, perform the repair procedure.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
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CATEgORY 23
BODY . . . Continued
23-014-06
3/8/06
All Chrysler Group
Vehicles
23-018-06
5/5/06
‘06 (DR)
Windshield wiper blade maintenance.
Windshield wiper blades/elements are frequently replaced unnecessarily. If the wipe pattern
appears to be streaky or if there is chatter and no damage to the wiper blades/elements is
obvious, the following steps should be performed:
• Use a soft cloth or sponge and squeegee and a solution of 50/50 alcohol and water, to wash
the windshield.
• Raise the wiper blades off the glass and clean the wiper blade elements with a solution of
50/50 alcohol and water and a soft cloth, paper towel or sponge.
• Return the wiper blades to their normal operating position. If the wipe pattern is still
objectionable, repeat several times. If the wipe pattern is still objectionable, replace the wiper
blades/elements.
Speaker buzz.
Customers may experience a buzzing sound coming from the door area when the radio is on.
This bulletin involves adding insulating tape to the inner door and door trim panel.
23-004-07
01/26/07
‘04 - ‘07 (DR)
Transit film removal.
This information only bulletin provides a transit film removal procedure.
23-021-06
Rev. A
08/09/06
‘07 (DR)
YES Essentials stain, odor, and static resistant fabric care.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with YES Essentials stain, odor, and static resistant
fabric (sales code XGW). YES Essentials fabric is an easy-care material that repels and releases
soil to maintain the like-new appearance. Spills remain on the surface of the fabric to allow for
easy clean up and to prevent stains and odors. The material is antimicrobial and static resistant.
YES Essentials fabric may be cleaned in the following manner:
• Remove as much of the stain as possible by blotting with a clean, dry towel.
• Blot any remaining stain with a clean, damp towel.
• For tough stains, apply Mopar Total clean, p/m 04897840AA, or a mild soap solution to a clean
damp cloth and remove the stain. Use a fresh, damp towel to remove the soap residue.
• For grease stains, apply Mopar Multi-purpose Cleaner, p/n 05127532AA, to a clean, damp
cloth and remove the stain. Use a fresh, damp towel to remove the soap residue.
• Do NOT use any solvents or fabric protectants on Yes Essentials fabric.
23-047-06
10/21/06
‘06 - ‘07 (DR/DH/D1)
Cracked windshield.
Windshield cracks caused by an impact from a foreign object (i.e. stone) are often difficult to
identify. The following assessment should be used to verify the presence of an impact chip on
the crack.
If no obvious impact chip is present, run a ball point pen along the crack and feel for a slight drop
or pit in the glass. If a slight drop or pit in the glass is present, this indicates a small impact caused
the crack. If the molding contains a witness mark or dent from an impact, inspect under the
molding for an impact chip in the same manner. Cracks caused by an impact are not warrantable.
23-010-07
3/24/07
’06 - ’07 (DR/DH/D1)
1500/2500/3500
Water leak due to small void in backlite sealer.
The customer may experience the presence of water on or under the rear area floor carpet.
This condition is likely due to water leaking past a small void in the adhesive used to retain the
backlite glass to the body panel. It is recommended that a flowable sealer be applied to seal a
small void in the backlite adhesive.
23-011-07
3/30/07
’06 - ’07 (DR/DH/D1)
1500/2500/3500
Glass keeper loose on back power sliding window.
The customer may notice that the glass keeper on the rear backlite has separated from the
glass. The bulletin gives directions for the proper repair procedure.
210
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEgORY 23
BODY . . . Continued
23-013-07
04/13/07
Trailer Towing Mirror – New mirror glass locking tab, new removal procedure.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with trailer tow mirrors (sales codes GPD or GPG) built
after April 16, 2007, and for any vehicle where service replacement of the mirror glass is required.
‘02 - ‘07
(DR/DH/D1/DC)
The trailer towing mirror assembly has a replaceable mirror glass. As part of the replaceable
mirror glass, a locking tab has been added to the plastic backing on the mirror glass. This change
has been made to vehicles built after April 16, 2007. This change is also being incorporated in
service replacement of mirror glass.
This bulletin involves a discussion regarding new removal procedure when replacing the mirror
glass on a trailer tow mirror.
23-028-07
Rev.A
7/20/07
’06 - ’07 (DR/DH/D1)
1500/2500/3500
Buzz-like sound from front door speaker area when radio is on.
The sound in question will come from the interior door trim panel, in the area where the radio
speaker is mounted. This condition may be misdiagnosed as a bad radio speaker. The actual
cause is typically the interface between the door trim panel sound insulation and the door water
shield. The repair procedure involves the addition of sound insulation to the door panel.
23-035-07
08/08/07
‘06 - ‘08
(DC/DM/DR/DH/D1)
Exterior Lamp – lens fogging.
Some customers may report that vehicle exterior lamp assemblies are fogged with a light layer
of condensation on the inside of the lenses. This may be reported after the lamps have been
turned on and brought up to operating temperature, turned off, and then rapidly cooled by cold
water (such as rain, or the water from a car wash). Lens fogging can also occur under certain
atmospheric conditions after a vehicle has been parked outside overnight (i.e., a warm humid day
followed by clear cool night). This will usually clear as atmospheric conditions change to allow
the condensation to change back into a vapor. Turning the lamps on will usually accelerate this
process.
A lamp that has a large number of water droplets visible on most internal surfaces indicates a
problem with the lamp sealing that has allowed water to enter the lamp. In this instance, the
customer is likely to report that moisture in the lamp is always present and never disappears. A
lamp that exhibits internal moisture permanently should be replaced.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 23-041-06, dated September 27, 2006.
23-017-08
5/10/08
’08 (DR/DH/D1)
1500/2500/3500
Tailgate retaining cables appear to be of unequal lengths.
This bulletin applies to vehicles built on or before May 7, 2008. One of the two side tailgate
check cables may not be properly tensioned. This condition may cause the appearance that the
tailgate cables are of unequal lengths. The repair procedure involves setting the loose/longer in
appearance cable firmly into its seat.
23-046-07
10/30/07
’06 - ’08
(DR/D1/DC/DH)
Repair of etched paint.
This bulletin involves evaluating the paint condition on all horizontal panels for etching. If
the problem exists, the bulletin describes the proper repair procedure using sanding/buffing
techniques or spot paint refinishing.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
211
CATEgORY 24
hEATINg & A/C
TSB#
MODELS
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
24-003-03
5/23/03
‘90 - ‘04
All Chrysler group
products
A/C system additives.
The use of A/C system sealers may result in damage to A/C refrigerant recovery/evacuation/
recharging equipment and/or A/C system components. Many federal, state/provincial and local
regulations prohibit the recharge of A/C systems with known leaks. DaimlerChrysler recommends
the detection of A/C system leaks through the use of approved leak detectors available through
Pentastar Service Equipment (PSE) and fluorescent leak detection dyes available through
Mopar Parts. Vehicles found with A/C system sealers should be treated as contaminated, and
replacement of the entire A/C refrigerant system is recommended.
24-004-03
6/13/03
‘03 (DR)
Defrost/door inoperative.
The defrost door may break at the pivot shaft, causing inadequate travel. The system may not
completely close, causing a lack of air discharge out of the floor vents and full discharge from the
defrost outlet. This may be caused by a broken actuator stop on the heater A/C (HVAC) housing.
The bulletin describes the repair procedure for replacing the defrost door and the lower half of
the heater/AC housing.
24-021-05
12/16/05
‘06 (DR)
Mega Cab – lack of air flow from rear seat heat duct.
This bulletin applies to 2006 Ram Truck Mega Cab built between 8/29/2005 and 8/31/2005.
The rear seat actuator rod could become disconnected from the actuator lever, causing the rear
seat heater door to become inoperative. This bulletin involves replacing the rear seat heat duct
actuator lever.
24-006-06
8/9/06
‘02 - ‘07 (DR)
A/C cooling coil odor.
This bulletin involves inspecting for leaves and other foreign material, cleaning, and treating the
cooling coil and housing. Some vehicle operators may experience a musty odor from the A/C
system, primarily at start up in hot and humid climates. This odor may be the result of microbial
growth on the cooling coil. During normal A/C system operation, condensation, bacteria and
fungi growth begins and odor results. If the operator describes, or the technician experiences, a
musty odor when operating the A/C system, perform the appropriate repair procedure based on
the vehicle model.
212
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
tsBs issued during ‘10
CATEGORY 8
ELECTRICAL
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
08-004-10
3/2/10
’10 (D1)
’10 (DJ)
’09-’10 (DS)
Radio video disable update.
This information-only bulletin describes the programming process used for allowing the front
seat video option to be displayed if the vehicle is in park (automatic) or the emergency brake is
on (manual).
09-018-10
7/29/10
’10 (DJ)
’09-’10 (DS)
Left turn signal on trailer may be inoperative.
When verifying trailer turn signal function prior to towing a trailer, the customer may experience
a non functional left trailer turn signal. Check connector terminal number one. If there is silicone
in the connector use a suitable tool, such as a straight blade Exacto knife, to scrape the silicone
off the outside of the number one, left terminal.
CATEGORY 9
ENGINE
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
09-001-10
7/2/10
All diesel models
Dust-out diagnosis for Cummins diesel engines.
This information-only bulletin involves proper inspection procedures to determine engine failure
due to dust-out condition. Engines damaged due to the infiltration of dirt and/or debris through
the air intake system are not warrantable.
CATEGORY 14
FUEL
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
14-001-10
2/2/10
’03-’09 (DH, D1)
Electronic fuel control actuator (FCA) available for service/New diagnostics available for DTC
P0251.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a 5.9-liter Cummins Turbo Diesel engine. Should
the engine surge at idle or MIL illumination of code P0251 occur, follow the diagnostics in the
service bulletin. The bulletin involves replacing the FCA with a revised Mopar part number
05183245AA.
14-002-10
2/11/10
’03-’09 (DH, D1)
’07-’09 (DC)
Heavy duty filtration – Mopar retrofit or add on parts available.
This bulletin applies to D1/DH/DR vehicles equipped with a 5.9-liter Cummins engine built
from 2003 model year and D1/DH/DC vehicles equipped with a 6.7-liter Cummins engine built
from 2007 model year. Several fuel system add-on or retrofit parts are available to enhance
the filtering capability for customers exposing their vehicles to extremely dirty conditions. The
description of parts available for Cummins diesel equipped vehicles is listed below:
6.7-Liter Changes
• New fuel filter. This is the FS2 design. (5 and 10 micron filter-in-filter) fuel filter to retrofit earlier
models (shell and element).
68061633AA – FS2 Element, fuel filter and shell.
68061634AA – FS2 Element, fuel filter – This filter to supersede the original 5183410AA
filter when supplies are exhausted.
6.7-Liter and 5.9-Liter Changes
• Fuel tank vent hose. 5.9 and 6.7 add-on or upgraded fuel tank vent hose kit with vent cap.
68068997AA – Fuel Tank Vent. Must be used in conjunction with the appropriate Fuel
Tank Vent Kit listed below:
68051906AA – Kit, Severe Duty Fuel Tank Ventilation – DC 52 Gallon Tank
68061341AA – Kit, Severe Duty Fuel Tank Ventilation – D1/DH 35 Gallon Tank
68061342AA – Kit, Severe Duty Fuel Tank Ventilation – D1/DH 34 Gallon Tank
5.9-Liter Changes
• 5.9 upgraded air filter. This filter is similar in design to the current 6.7-liter air filter. The part
number is: 53034249AA – Element, Air Filter – 2003-2007 5.9-liter
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
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CATEGORY 18
VEHICLE PERFORMANCE
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
18-024-09
12/3/09
Rev. A
’07-’09 (D1, DH)
Diagnostic and System improvements and improved air filter minder.
This bulletin supersedes technical service bulletin 18-024-09, dated August 6, 2009. This bulletin
applies to D1/DH vehicles equipped with a 6.7-liter Cummins engine built before May 5, 2009.
This bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the engine control module (ECM)
with new software. Pickup trucks equipped with a 6.7-liter Cummins diesel have a number of
software improvements available. This latest bulletin will include:
• EGR valve cleaning cycle.
• DPF “Snuffer” feature to expand DPF temperature controls during deSoot.
• DPF “Super deSoot” feature to enhance the deSoot process.
• Improved air filter minder detection.
• Added turbo cleaning scan tool service procedure available through a diagnostic scan tool.
This procedure is available with version 10.02 due out in December.
• Many other enhancements.
18-016-10
4/30/10
’07-’08 (DH)
’07-’08 (D1)
CCN update required with J35 recall.
This bulletin applies to ’07 and ’08 vehicles equipped with a Cummins 6.7-liter engine. This bulletin
supersedes service bulletin 18-013-08 Rev. A, dated December 4, 2008. Many improvements
have been addressed with the latest engine control module (ECM) software addressed in Recall
J35. The cab compartment node (CCN) may require updating in conjunction with the Recall.
This service bulletin discusses the procedure used to update the CCN.
18-017-10
5/15/10
’06 (DH) 2500 pickup
5.9-liter
’06 (D1) 3500 pickup
5.9-liter
’07 ((DH) 2500 pickup
5.9-liter
’07 (D1) 3500 pickup
5.9-liter
’07 (DC) 3500 Cab/
Chassis 6.7-liter
The problem addressed with this bulletin is that the truck will not pass a Smog Check On-Board
Diagnostic (OBD) Test or Inspection and Maintenance check up.
This bulletin applies to 2006 and 2007 vehicles equipped with a 5.9-liter Cummins engine (sales
code ETC or ETH) with Federal emissions (sales code NAA) built after January 1, 2006, or
Cab Chassis equipped with a 6.7-liter Cummins engine (sales code ETJ) built prior to January
11, 2007. This bulletin supersedes service bulletin 18-038-09, dated December 19, 2009. This
revised bulletin will cover federal emissions (EPA) certified vehicles only. Vehicles equipped with
CARB (California) emissions have been removed and are addressed in Recall K01, dated May
2010.
The instructions in the bulletin tell the technician how to selectively erase and reprogram the
Engine Control Module (ECM) with new software.
18-020-10
6/10/10
’07-’10 (DC)
’08-’10 (DM)
Engine systems and exhaust aftertreatment systems enhancements.
Cab chassis trucks equipped with a 6.7-liter Cummins engine have a number of software
improvements available. This latest service bulletin (which supersedes 18-038-06 and 18001-09) will include improvements to prevent erroneous Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL)
illumination:
• P000F – Fuel System Over Pressure Relief Valve Activated
• P0087 – Fuel Rail Pressure Too Low
• P0106 – Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor Performance
• P0191 – Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor circuit Performance
• P1011 – Fuel Pump Delivery Pressure Too Low
• P2299 – Brake Pedal Position/Accelerator Pedal Position Incompatible
• P2262 – Turbocharger Boost Pressure Not Detected – Mechanical
The bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the ECM.
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CATEGORY 19
FRONT SUSPENSION
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
19-002-10
1/23/10
’08-’09 (DM)
Steering wander.
While traveling on a straight stretch of highway, a customer may feel the need to provide steering
input to correct a vehicle wander condition. This bulletin applies to 4x2 vehicles built before
August 8, 2009. This bulletin involves inspection or replacement of suspension components and
revised caster specifications to improve road feel and correct a vehicle wander condition. If the
vehicle operator describes the symptom/condition, perform the repair procedure.
19-004-10
5/29/10
’09 (DH)
Steering Wander
While traveling on a straight stretch of highway, a customer may feel the need to provide steering
input to correct a vehicle wander condition. This bulletin applies to 4x4 vehicles built before
February 4, 2009. This bulletin involves installing an Intermediate steering shaft kit, part number
05165725AA.
CATEGORY 21
TRANSMISSION
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
21-003-10
5/12/10
’07 (DC)
MIL illumination due to transmission related DTC P0711 or P0776.
This bulletin applies to 2007 3500 Chassis Cab models equipped with a 6.7-liter diesel engine
and an AS68RC automatic transmission. This bulletin supersedes service bulletin 21-019-08,
dated August 2, 2008. The customer may experience a malfunction indicator lamp (MIL) due to
one or both of the following diagnostic trouble codes:
P0711 – Transmission Temperature Sensor 1 Performance
P0776 – Pressure Control Solenoid B Performance.
This bulletin involves verifying software levels in the transmission control module (TCM) and the
engine control module (ECM). Then, as necessary, selectively erasing and reprogramming the
TCM and possibly the ECM.
CATEGORY 23
BODY
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
23-006-10
3/10/10
’10 (D2)
’10 (DJ)
’09 (DS)
Hood creaking and squeaking sound.
The customer may experience a creaking and or squeaking sound from the hood area when
turning the vehicle and or going over rough terrain. Inspect the hood, and if a squeaking or
creaking sound is observed when pressing the front of the hood, perform the repair procedure,
which calls for the addition of anti-squeak tape to the underside of the hood.
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CATEGORY 25
Emissions Control
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
25-001-09
10/20/09
’07-’09 (DH/D1)
MIL Illumination due to P2000, P2A00 and/or P2A01.
This bulletin supersedes service bulletin 18-035-08 dated September 13, 2008. This bulletin
applies to vehicles equipped with a 6.7-liter Cummins diesel engine. The customer may
experience MIL illumination. Further investigation by the technician may find one or more of the
following DTC(s) present:
• P2000 – NOX Absorber Efficiency Below Threshold – Bank 1.
• P2A00 – O2 Sensor 1/1 Circuit Performance.
• P2A01 – O2 Sensor 1/2 Circuit Performance.
This bulletin involves verifying all TSB’s related to high sooting issues have been properly
addressed, inspecting both Oxygen (O2) sensors and either cleaning the sensors or replacing
sensors, and installing an O2 Sensor Blanket/Shield on the exhaust pipe in the area of the front
O2 sensor.
25-001-10
7/9/10
’11 (DD)
’11 (DP)
Diesel exhaust fluid.
This bulletin provides information regarding the diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) vehicle delivery fill
guidelines. The vehicle is equipped with a “Low DEF” warning system that notifies the driver
when the level of DEF drops below approximately 2.5 gallons. The warning system includes
warning messages displayed by the EVIC and audible chimes. The first level warning displays
the message “Refill DEF Engine Will Not Restart In XXX Miles”. If the vehicle is driven too long
with low DEF, the message “Refill DEF Engine Will Not Start” will be displayed. At that point,
the engine will no longer restart if it is shut off. A minimum of 2.5 gallons of DEF will need to be
added in order to be able to restart the engine.
The following diagnostic trouble code may be displayed on a Diagnostic Scan Tool if the level
of DEF was low.
• P203F – (Diesel Exhaust Fluid) Reductant Level Too Low
When this code is set, the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) initiates a countdown that will
inhibit an engine restart if the DEF system is not serviced within 500 miles .
• P1C70 – SCR Error Detected – Engine Disabled
When this code is set, the PCM commands the EVIC to display the “Refill DEF Engine Will
Not Start” message. The message will continuously display when the counter reaches zero,
and will be accompanied by a periodic chime. The engine will not start after it has been turned
off unless up to 2.5 gallons of DEF is added to the tank.
DEF has a temperature dependent shelf life that shortens when exposed to elevated
temperatures. As temperatures increase, the Urea in the DEF degrades. As the concentration
degrades, the urea will become less effective at reducing NOx levels in the SCR catalyst. The
following chart provides the approximate shelf life of DEF Versus temperature.
Temperature
Estimated Useful Life
32°F
(0°C)
Indefinite
50°F (10°C)
75 Years
68°F (20°C)
11 Years
86°F (30°C)
23 Months
95°F (35°C)
10 Months
104°F (40°C)
4 Months
122°F (50°C)
1 Month
140°F (60°C)
1 Week
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tsBs issued during ‘11
CATEGORY 7
Cooling
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
07-003-10
9/9/10
’07-’10 DC/DM
’11 DD/DP
High coolant temperatures on vehicles equipped with snow plows.
Customers that operate their vehicle with a snow plow attached to the vehicle may cause the
airflow passing through the radiator to be disrupted resulting in higher than normal engine
temperatures. The Cummins ECM is equipped with software that can fully engage the fan
clutch to allow an increase of airflow through the radiator. Customers can initiate the fan clutch
operation by performing the following button sequence:
• Turn the ignition key to the run position or start the truck.
• Simultaneously press and release the Cruise Control “Cancel” button/lever and the
“Exhaust Brake” button. Repeat this sequence four times within five seconds. The chime
will sound twice as an audible indicator that the function is engaged.
• To disable the function, repeat the same procedure. The chime will sound four times as an
audible indicator that the function is disengaged.
Note: ’07-’09 truck engine ECMs were not equipped with the fan engagement software. These
engines would require the latest software update (18-020-10) in order to have the fan-on
capability.
07-002-11
8/13/11
’11 DJ/D2
Transmission cooler hose weepage.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with the Cummins engine and an automatic
transmission built between September 20, 2010, and January 17, 2011. Some of the listed
vehicles have been built with a transmission cooler hose that may experience fluid weepage.
Inspect the upper transmission cooler hose (“Hot” side line that runs near the battery) for date
code 2440. If the upper transmission cooler hose has date code 2440 on the hose, verify
whether or not the hose was built between 21:14 – 23:16 (Time Stamp). The date code may be
on the lower side of the hose. It may be necessary to use a mirror or rotate the hose.
This bulletin involves inspecting the upper transmission cooler hose for a specific date code and
time stamp. If found within the suspect range, the transmission cooler hose must be replaced.
08-014-10
6/29/10
’10 D1/DJ
Radio locks up.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a radio with sales code REN, REZ. The problem
may be that the radio will not change stations or frequency intermittently. The only function that
will be available is volume control. The repair involves upgrading the software of the REN/REZ
radio.
08-026-10
Rev. A
12/18/10
’11 DD/DJ/DP/D2
Park assist system for message clarity and false messages on 4x4 models.
This bulletin applies to vehicles built with the Parksense Rear Park Assist (sales code XAA).
Customers may not understand the EVIC message display “Blinded”. This indicates that the
Parksense Rear Park Assist sensors require cleaning. The EVIC flash will change the display
to indicate “Clean Sensors”. The EVIC may display the message “Press 4 Low” when a shift
into 4x4 is not allowed. This message has no meaning on these vehicles. The EVIC flash will
prevent this message from being displayed.
This bulletin involves reprogramming the EVIC with new software.
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CATEGORY 8
ELECTRICAL
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
08-028-10
Rev. A
11/2/10
’10 DJ/DX/D2
RBZ radio software enhancements.
This bulletin applies to vehicles built with a radio that has a sales code RBZ. The customer may
experience one or more of the following problems:
• The display may appear to be dimly lit when in backup camera mode (if equipped).
• Screen fonts too small or unclear.
• Video playback, display too bright.
• Audio playback, sound quality/frequency response could be improved.
• Hands free call information does not display caller ID.
• Bluetooth streaming audio information is incomplete.
The repair involves upgrading the software on the RBZ radio.
08-001-11
Rev. A
3/5/11
’10-’11 DJ/D2
Radio software enhancements.
This bulletin applies to vehicles built with a radio/navigation units with sales codes RER, REW
or REP. The problems experienced:
• The radio may lock up when a U-Connect call ends, this may cause battery drain.
• Intermittent/no sound from audio system.
• Repeated “Updating Channels” message when in satellite radio mode.
• Losing Bluetooth connection intermittently and not displaying accurate caller ID information
when using U-Connect.
This bulletin involves upgrading the software on the RER, REW, or REP Radio.
08-003-11
Rev. B
3/17/11
’10-’11 DD/DJ/DX/D2
’11 D2
Exterior mirror courtesy lamps stay on longer than the customer desires.
This bulletin involves checking the software version and, if necessary, flash reprogramming
front door control modules with new software. This bulletin supersedes bulletin 08-003-11
revision A. This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with exterior mirror courtesy lights (sales
code LEC) built between January 1, 2010, and December 13, 2010.
08-018-11
Rev. A
7/1/11
’10-’11 DJ/D2
Static, squeal, no sound, or intermittent sound from speakers.
This bulletin applies to DJ and D2 vehicles built between July 15, 2010, and November 30,
2010, equipped with 9 amplified speakers w/subwoofer (sales code RC3) or 9 amplified
speakers (sales code RCZ). This bulletin also applies to DJ, and D2 vehicles built between July
15, 2010, and February 28, 2011, equipped with Premium I speakers (sales code RCK).
The repair involves removing and replacing the amplifier.
08-024-11
Rev. A
7/1/11
’11 DD/DJ/DP
Flash: Intermittent no start or intermittent RKE function.
This bulletin applies to DD, DJ, and DP vehicles built before April 7, 2011, equipped with remote
keyless entry (sales code GXM). This bulletin involves flash reprogramming the wireless ignition
node (WIN) with new software. The service flash corrects the following conditions
• Intermittent no start.
• Intermittent RKE.
The above conditions may be caused by a software lockup in the module. The lockup condition
may be cleared by removing the reinserting fuse M27. Flash reprogramming the WIN will
correct these conditions.
08-015-11
4/6/11
’11 DJ/D2/DD/DP
Loss of communications with the hands free module (HFM).
If there is a loss of the hands free module function the service bulletin involves performing a
USB service flash of the hands free module.
08-033-11
6/22/11
’11 DJ/D2/DD/DP
Intermittent diagnostic trouble code P0201 – Fuel injector 1 circuit open/closed.
This bulletin applies to a small number of vehicles equipped with the Cummins engine built
between March 1, 2011, and March 11, 2011. Suspect vehicles may intermittently set DTC
P0201 – Fuel injector 1 circuit open/closed. This bulletin involves replacing terminal number 26
from the powertrain control module (PCM) 76-way connector.
08-049-11
8/12/11
’11 DJ/D2/DD/DP/DX
Front overhead ambient light intermittent operation or inoperable.
This bulletin applies to vehicles built between February 11, 2011, and March 9, 2011. If there is
intermittent or no operation of the front overhead light this bulletin explains how to remove and
repair the light.
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CATEGORY 9
ENGINE
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
09-004-10
11/11/10
’11 DJ/D2/DD/DP
Incorrect engine oil level indicator.
Cummins engines are equipped with an engine oil level indicator that identifies a “Safe” region
on the end of the indicator. Some vehicles were equipped with an engine oil level indicator
end that had “Add, Cold, Hot, and Do Not Add” increments on the end. These engine oil level
indicators will need to be replaced. This bulletin involves inspecting the engine oil level indicator
and replacing it if found to have an incorrect indicator end.
CATEGORY 13
13-001-11
5/13/11
’10-’11 DJ
CATEGORY 14
14-005-10
9/21/10
’10-’11 DJ/D2
CATEGORY 18
18-004-11
Rev. A
2/18/11
’10 DJ/D2
FRAME & BUMPERS
Front axle skid plate to oil pan contact.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with 6.7-liter Cummins engine and TRX package
(sales code AMW) built after September 1, 2009, and built prior to September 23, 2010. The
front axle skid plate may contact the oil pan during extreme off road usage. The repair involves
inspection of the oil pan and if necessary replacement of the front skid plate and oil pan.
FUEL SYSTEM
Fuel filler housing pops out of sheet metal.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a single wheel rear axle only built before August
9, 2010. The customer may notice that the fuel filler housing has popped out from the body on
one side or the other. This bulletin involves removing the fuel filler housing to file some material
off of the tabs that will not lock into place. If tab(s) are broken it will be necessary to replace the
fuel filler housing and it still may be necessary to file some material off of the tab(s) that will not
lock into place.
VEHICLE PEFORMANCE
Diagnostic and system improvements.
This bulletin applies to trucks equipped with a 6.7-liter Cummins diesel. The bulletin describes a
number of software improvements/enhancements that are available:
• P046C – EGR position sensor performance
• P051B – Crankcase pressure sensor circuit range/performance
• P0101 – Mass air flow sensor “A” circuit performance
• P2002 – Diesel particulate filter efficiency below threshold
• P2196 – O2 sensor 1/1 out of range low
• P245B – EGR cooler bypass status line intermittent
• P2262 – Turbocharger boost pressure not detected – mechanical
• P2271 – O2 sensor ½ out of range low
This bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the engine control module (ECM)
with new software.
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CATEGORY 18
VEHICLE PEFORMANCE...continued
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
18-029-11
5/28/11
’11 DD/DP
Engine systems and PTO enhancements.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with a Cummins engine built before January 1, 2011.
These cab chassis trucks have a number of software improvements available. This latest
service bulletin will include:
Improvements to prevent unnecessary malfunction indicator lamp (MIL) illumination for:
• P0524 – fault for low oil pressure, set during low ambient temperatures.
• P051B – fault for crankcase pressure.
Enhanced diagnostics for:
• Variable geometry turbocharger.
• Fuel level sensor.
Other updates:
• Low diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) level EVIC messaging strategy changes.
• Diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) system tampering EVIC messaging strategy changes.
• Oil change monitor – updated for easier reset (same basic procedure, easier to reset).
• Scan tool display updates.
• Enable mobile PTO capability.
• Correct operation of remote PTO.
• Correct EVIC messaging related to DEF level reporting.
• System robustness improvements.
• DEF tank level reporting erroneously at high DEF tank level. When DEF tank is overfilled,
the EVIC may display low fluid level (20-22%).
This bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the engine control module (ECM)
with new software.
CATEGORY 19
STEERING
19-001-11
Rev. A
8/9/11
’08-’10 DM
’11 DP
’10-’11 DJ/D2/DD
’06-’09 DH/D1
’07-’09 DC
’05 DH
’03-’04 DR
Tie rod ball stud housing alignment procedure.
This bulletin describes the proper procedure to ensure parallel alignment of the right and left
steering tie rod ball stud housings. The bulletin applies to 4x4 models of the 2500/3500 pickup
truck and to all 3500/4500/5500 Cab Chassis trucks which have a solid front axle. The overview
of this repair procedure: The right-to-left tie rod ball stud housings must be aligned parallel to
one another and not exceed +/-3 degrees of combined parallelism. This procedure is required
any time service is performed to either the tie rod or when performing a front end alignment or
toe set procedure. Failure to properly perform the parallel alignment procedure may lead to tie
rod damage.
19-003-11
2/2/11
’10-’11 DJ/D2
’11 DD
Steering honk and/or groan sound during low speed parking lot maneuvers.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with 6.7-liter Cummins engine built prior to November
23,2010. The customer may experience a honk and/or groan sound coming from the steering
system during low speed parking lot maneuvers. This bulletin involves inspecting and, if
necessary, replacing the power steering gear. This bulletin applies to 4x4 models of the
2500/3500 pickup truck.
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CATEGORY 20
BODY
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
23-024-11
7/12/11
’11 DD/DP
’10-’11 DJ/D2
’09-’10 DM/DC
’09 DH/D1
Whistle and/or high pitch windnoise at door near windshield A-pillar.
This bulletin applies to vehicles built before April 18, 2011. The customer may experience
whistle and/or high pitch windnoise at door near windshield A-pillar. This bulletin involves
installing a foam stuffer block into door weatherstrip.
CATEGORY 25
25-002-10
9/22/10
’11 DD/DP
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
EMISSIONS CONTROL
Misassembled diesel exhaust fluid engine coolant control valve.
This bulletin applies to vehicles equipped with the Cummins engine built between March 3,
2010, and July 19, 2010. Some trucks may have been built with a DEF engine coolant control
valve that may be internally misassembled which may not be able to completely shut the flow
of coolant passing through the coolant tubes in the DEF tank. This allows the DEF temperature
to rise above its normal operating range. DEF that has been exposed to elevated temperatures
can cause the DEF to degrade. This bulletin involves replacing the diesel exhaust fluid (DEF)
engine coolant control valve assembly. Some of the involved vehicles may also require draining
and adding DEF.
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tsBs issued during ‘12
CATEGORY 8
ELECTRICAL
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
08-011-12
2/8/102
’12 DJ/DD/D2/DP
Radio anti-theft codes.
Starting in model year 2012 radios will come equipped with an anti-theft feature. Once a radio is
installed in a vehicle, it learns the vehicle’s VIN and cannot be used in another vehicle unless an
anti-theft code is applied.
This “information only” TSB tells the dealer how to obtain the radio’s anti-theft code. This bulletin
also supersedes bulletin 08-051-11 dated 8/20/11 by providing updated service information.
Editor’s Comments – Radios
Have you tried to restore a car with a “coded” radio? I’ve been playing with BMW coded
radios from cars that are now 25 years old. What a pain in the tail.
This brings several questions to mind: In today’s market, where a replacement can be
purchased for $69, does theft occur that often? Why is Chrysler 30 years behind the theft
code thing? What implications will this have to Joe-second-owner/Joe-restoration who
does not have TSB 08-011-12 to tell him how the dealer can unlock a code?
Geez.
CATEGORY 9
09-004-11
9/12/11
Any Cummins diesel
engine that is still
covered under the
provisions of the
factory warranty.
ENGINE
Dust-out diagnosis for Cummins diesel engines.
This “information only” bulletin involves proper inspection procedures to determine engine failure
due to dust-out condition. Engines damaged due to the infiltration of dirt and/or debris through the
air intake system are not warrantable.
Engines that exhibit particular symptoms that may have been caused by improper air filtration
and/or lack of proper maintenance. Some of these symptoms are listed below (not limited to):
Knocking
Hard or no start
Low power/poor performance
Oil consumption
Lower end bearing failure
Broken rod
Smoking
Blow-by (rings not sealing)
Oil on turbo (dust damage to seal/bearing)
This nine-page bulletin supersedes bulletin 09-001-10 dated 7/2/10 and gives the service network
an easy to print/easy to follow diagnosis procedure. The highlights:
• Major mechanical damage can be caused by fuel, fuel injectors, up-rate kits or programmers.
Inspect vehicle for any device that adds more power (fuel), which may damage the engine
mechanically. Check for any aftermarket power enhancer box or downloader. Repairs
performed on engines with failures caused by these devices do not qualify for warranty
coverage.
• Inspect for aftermarket cold air performance air filter housing, duct work and/or air filter type
(wrong style air filter which may be used in a stock air filter box).
• Vehicles with extremely large amounts of visible dirt accumulation are candidates for dust out
damage if not properly maintained or use of improper filters. Engines with excessive cylinder
and/or ring wear will consume excess oil. Look for oil spilled near filler on valve cover which
may indicate oil has been (or is) added often.
As mentioned, the bulletin continues for nine-pages that show the cause/effect from lack of
proper air filtration.
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CATEGORY 9
ENGINE...continued
Editor’s Comments – Dust Out
If you spend a day answering the tech line at Geno’s Garage you would be surprised at the
number of phone calls asking about air filters and cold air boxes.
The staffs’ answer: If you value your rights to warranty consideration, leave the air intake
system alone.
Prior to this TSB there was the 09-001-10 TSB. Prior to these TSBs there was the “K&N
story,” the short version being that testing was done on this filter in 1999 by Dodge and
Cummins. Prior to the test, K&N was the number two selling item at Geno’s Garage.
After the test, K&N filters were no longer offered by Geno’s. However, folks still want to
know more as aftermarket advertising does an admirable job of selling these parts. So, if
you need to help control exhaust gas temperatures due to the high horsepower you are
making, you should consider a cold air box and a multi-layer filter. The Geno’s folks do sell
a multi-layer filter. See TDR Issues __ and ___ for the cold air box story. See TDR Issue __,
page __, for the K&N story.
CATEGORY 14
FUEL SYSTEM
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
14-004-11
4/1/11
’03-’09 (D1/DH/DR)
’07-’10 (DC)
Heavy duty filtration – Mopar retrofit or add on parts available.
This bulletin applies to D1/DH/DR vehicles equipped with a 5.9-liter Cummins engine built
from 2003 model year and D1/DH/DC vehicles equipped with a 6.7-liter Cummins engine built
from 2007.5 model year. Several fuel system add-on or retrofit parts are available to enhance
the filtering capability for customers exposing their vehicles to extremely dirty conditions. The
description of parts available for Cummins diesel equipped vehicles is listed below:
5.9-Liter Changes – Air Filter
• 5.9 upgraded air filter. This filter is similar in design to the current 6.7-liter air filter. The part
number is: 53034249AA – Element, Air Filter – 2003-2007 5.9-liter
6.7-Liter Changes – Fuel Filter
• New fuel filter. This is the FS2 design. (5 and 10 micron filter-in-filter) fuel filter to retrofit
earlier models (shell and element).
68061633AA – FS2 Element, fuel filter and shell.
68061634AA – FS2 Element, fuel filter – This filter to supersede the original 5183410AA
filter when supplies are exhausted.
6.7-Liter and 5.9-Liter Changes – Tank Ventilation
• Fuel tank vent hose. 5.9 and 6.7 add-on or upgraded fuel tank vent hose kit with vent cap.
68068997AA – Fuel Tank Vent ($66.10). Must be used in conjunction with the appropriate
Fuel Tank Vent Kit listed below:
68051906AA – Kit, Severe Duty Fuel Tank Ventilation – DC 52 Gallon Tank ($32.95)
68061341AA – Kit, Severe Duty Fuel Tank Ventilation – D1/DH 35 Gallon Tank ($58.85)
68061342AA – Kit, Severe Duty Fuel Tank Ventilation – D1/DH 34 Gallon Tank ($63.20)
6.7-Liter and 5.9-Liter – Auxiliary Fuel Filter
• Severe duty fuel filter kit. This kit supplies the owner with an auxiliary fuel filter, mounting
bracket for under the frame installaiton, hoses, hardware and electrical connections to add
annother fuel filter to the truck.
68083851AA kit, ’07-’12 Cab and Chassis
68083853AA kit, ’04-’12 Pickup (2500/3500)
68026934AA wiring adaptor, for use with kit 6808353AA and in the model years ’04.5-’07.
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CATEGORY 14
FUEL SYSTEM...continued
Editor’s Comments – HD filtration
This is one of those “been there, done that” TSBs. We discussed the merits of this TSB
and specifically the “6.7-liter and 5.9-liter – Auxiliary Fuel filter” in last issue’s magazine,
Issue 77, pages 14-16.
In the cost analysis/conclusion part of the article, I closed by saying, “Ding, ding, ding,
bottom line, what is the cost analysis?” The Mopar kit will cost about $450. From last
issue, my “Fool Transfer Pump/Boy Scout” project for the ’05 to current trucks cost $625.
“The Fool Transfer Pump/Boy Scout project gives you better filtration and a redundant
pump for fuel supply. However, its installation requires removal of the fuel tank.
Nonetheless, for my peace of mind, I’ll spend the $625 and do the extra labor for the fool
solution that I presented in Issue 76. Your decision?”
A lot can happen in the 11 months from the beginning of a project to magazine-in-hand.
However, I continue to stand behind my decision to use the redundant FASS “Platinum
08-95G” fuel transfer pump and filter as I wrote about in Issue 76, pages 16-21.
CATEGORY 18
VEHICLE PEFORMANCE
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
18-004-11
Rev. B
12/21/11
’10 (DJ/D2)
Diagnostic and system improvements.
This bulletin supersedes service bulletin 18-004-11 Rev. A, dated February 18, 2011. This bulletin
applies to vehicles equipped with a 6.7-liter Cummins engine. The software flash provides a
number of software improvements/enhancements. These include:
P049D – EGR control position exceeded learning limit
P2002 – Diesel particulate filter efficiency below threshold
P2195 – 02 sensor 1/1 out of range high
P2196 – 02 sensor 1/1 out of range low
P2270 – 02 sensor ½ out of range high
P2271 – 02 sensor ½ out of range low
P241A – 02 sensor 1/1 and ½ oxygen concentration mismatch
P2609 – Intake air heater system performance
The previous TSB had software improvements for:
P046C – EGR position sensor performance
P051B – Crankcase pressure sensor circuit range/performance
P0101 – Mass air flow sensor “A” circuit performance
P245B – EGR cooler bypass status line intermittent
P2262 – Turbocharger boost pressure not detected – mechanical
The bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the engine control module (ECM)
with new software.
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A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEGORY 18
VEHICLE PEFORMANCE...continued
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
18-045-11
10/19/11
All 6.7-liter dieselequipped vehicles
Cummins 6.7-liter Turbo Diesel common diagnostic process.
This bulletin supersedes service bulletins 09-002-09 dated June 13, 2009; 09-003-09 dated
December 2, 2009; and 11-001-09 dated July 23, 2009.
This diagnostic process was developed for any drivability concern with the 6.7-liter engine. Nondrivability engine issues or engine cooling system issues are not in the scope of this process.
The process begins by identifying the customer’s concern and applying it to one of the following
symptoms:
MIL illumination
Engine cranks but does not start or starts and immediately stalls
Engine surges, bucks, runs rough – no MIL
Engine noise – no MIL
Excessive black smoke out exhaust – no MIL
Excessive white smoke out exhaust – no MIL
Excessive blue smoke out exhaust – no MIL
Once the data has been collected and analyzed, the diagnostic process can continue. The tests
are designed to direct the service technician to the diagnostic path that leads to corrective actions
that repair conditions that occur most frequently for that specific concern.
18-005-12
1/28/12
’11 (DD/DP)
Engine systems and PTO enhancements.
This bulletin supersedes service bulletin 18-029-11 dated December 17, 2011. Cab chassis trucks
equipped with a 6.7-liter Cummins diesel have a number of software improvements available.
This latest Service bulletin will include:
Improvements to prevent unnecessary malfunction indicator lamp (MIL) illumination for:
P0524 – Engine oil pressure sensor circuit low
P051B – Crankcase pressure sensor circuit range/performance
P20EE – SCR NOx catalyst efficiency below threshold – Bank 1
U010E – Lost communication with diesel exhaust fluid control unit
P2609 – Intake air heater system performance
P061A – ETC level 2 torque performance
P1123 – Power take off system monitor control error
P2579 – Turbocharger speed sensor circuit performance
Enhanced diagnostics for:
Variable geometry turbocharger
Fuel level sensor
Misfire without MIL illumination
Other updates:
Low diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) level EVIC messaging strategy changes
Diesel Exhaust fluid (DEF) system tampering EVIC messaging strategy changes
Oil change monitor – updated for easier reset (same basic procedure, easier to reset)
Scan tool display updates
Enable mobile PTO capability
Correct operation of remote PTO
Correct EVIC messaging related to DEF level reporting
System robustness improvements
DEF tank level reporting erroneously at high DEF tank level. When DEF tank is overfilled, the
EVIC may display low fluid level (20-22%).
This bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the engine control module (ECM)
with new software.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
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CATEGORY 18
VEHICLE PEFORMANCE...continued
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
18-001-12
Rev A
1/28/12
’12 (DD/DP)
Engine systems and PTO enhancements.
This bulletin supersedes service bulletin 18.001/12, dated January 07, 2112. Cab chassis trucks
equipped with a 6.7-liter Cummins diesel have a number of software improvements available.
This latest service bulletin will include:
Improvements to prevent unnecessary malfunction indicator lamp (MIL) illumination for:
• P061A – ETC Level 2 Torque Performance
•P20EE – ACR NOx Catalyst Efficiency Below Threshold – Bank 1
•P229F – Aftertreatment NOx Sensor Circuit Performance – Bank 1 Sensor 2
•P2609 – Intake Air Heater System Performance
•P1123 – Power Take Off System Monitor Control Error
•U010E – Lost Communication With Diesel Exhaust Fluid Control Unit
Enhanced Diagnostics For:
•Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) efficiency diagnostic improvements.
Other Update:
•Idle shutdown message on EVIC.
•Turbo protection feature (Not displayed if vehicle is in park or no vehicle speed). Limits RPM
at cold ambient to prevent turbo damage.
•Scan tool display updates.
•Correct operation of remote PTO.
•System robustness improvements.
The bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the engine control module (ECM)
with new software.
18-013-12
3/17/12
’12 (DJ/D2)
Diagnostic and system improvements.
This bulletin supersedes service bulletin 18-055-11, dated December 17, 2011. This bulletin
involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the engine control module (ECM) with new
software. The software package has improvements/enhancements available for the following
DTC’s:
• P049D – EGR Control Position Exceeded Learning Limit
• P2002 – Diesel Particulate Filter Efficiency Below Threshold
• P2195 – 02 Sensor 1/1 Out of Range High
• P2196 – 02 Sensor 1/1 Out of Range Low
• P2170 – 02 Sensor 1/2 Out of Range High
• P2171 – 02 Sensor 1/2 Out of Range Low
• P241A – 02 Sensor 1/1 and 1/2 Oxygen Concentration Mismatch
• P2609 – Intake Air Heater System Performance
Vehicles flashed to address the above codes should be driven and repair validated. If code(s)
return, follow diagnostic procedures available in DealerCONNECT/TechCONNECT.
The software also updates the ECU with other improvements:
• Correct water in fuel (WIF) parameter
• ScanTool may report a code as stored, even though the fault has been cleared by completing
a significant number of drive cycles without a repeat occurrence.
• Active codes not always displayed correctly.
• Engine derate with IOD removed. This will help prevent turbo damage due to oil thickening
in cold climate start up on new vehicles in transit.
• Scan tool readiness reporting issues.
• Other drivability enhancements.
• EGR Valve cleaning and monitoring enhancements to help reduce occurrences of P049D.
• Erroneous, brief brake lamp flash at key on.
• Improve EVIC message regarding idle shut down.
• Ability to read EGR valve gap an wiTECH
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A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEGORY 18
VEHICLE PEFORMANCE...continued
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
18-012-12
3/19/12
’11 (DJ/D2)
Diagnostic and system improvements.
This bulletin supersedes service bulletin 18-002-11 Rev. B, dated December 16, 2011. This
bulletin involves selectively erasing and reprogramming the engine control module (ECM)
with new software. The new software will have improvements/enhancements available for the
following DTC’s:
• P0101 – Mass Air Flow Sensor “A” Circuit Performance
• P2262 – Turbocharger Boost Pressure Not Detected – Mechanical
• P2457 – Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooling System Performance
• P245B – EGR Cooler Bypass Status Line Intermittent
• P049D – EGR Control Position Exceeded Learning Limit
• P2195 – 02 Sensor 1/1 Out of Range High
• P2196 – 02 Sensor 1/1 Out of Range Low
• P2002 – Diesel Particulate Filter Efficiency Below Threshold (for high altitude failures)
• P2270 – 02 Sensor 1/2 Out of Range High
• P2271 – 02 Sensor 1/2 Out of Range Low
• P241A – 02 Sensor 1/1 and 1/2 Oxygen Concentration Mismatch
• P2609 – Intake Air Heater System Performance
Vehicles flashed to address the above codes should be driven and repair validated. If code(s)
return, follow diagnostic procedures available in DealerCONNECT/TechCONNECT.
The software also updates the ECU with other improvements:
• WiTech turbo test revision.
• ScanTool may report a code as stored, even though the fault has been cleared by
completing a significant number of drive cycles without a repeat occurrence.
• Active codes not always displayed correctly.
• Engine derate with IOD removed. This will help prevent turbo damage due to oil
thickening in cold climate start up on new vehicles in transit.
• Enhancement to reduce shift clunk at stop.
• Other drivability enhancements.
• EGR Valve cleaning and monitoring enhancements to help reduce occurrences of
P049D.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
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CATEGORY 19
STEERING
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
19-002-12
7/12/12
’03-’04 (DR)
’05-’09 (DH)
’06-’09 (D1)
’07-’09 (DC)
’10-’12 (D2/DJ/DD)
The customer may experience steering wheel vibration typically while driving above 50 mph.
Vehicles equipped with a solid front axle (4x4 or cab and chassis trucks) can be susceptible
to steering shimmy. Often this condition is due to modifications to the vehicle that may involve
aftermarket equipment that may not be compatible with the vehicle architecture or is not intended
for on-road use. For original equipment, this condition can be corrected with routine inspection for
properly maintained wheels and tires and replacement of damaged or worn components.
Troubleshooting of the problem begins with the verification of warranty coverage and discussion
with the customer. The technician is directed to test drive the vehicle to confirm the complaint
Next, a long series of inspections, questions, verifications and corrections are presented. The
following gives you an example of how the troubleshooting is done:
Is the vehicle equipped with aftermarket components or other modifications (e.g. lift kits, wheels,
suspension components or tires) that can affect the performance of or wear upon steering
components? If the answer is “yes,” the dealer is to notify the owner and document in the repair
order that limited warranties do not cover conditions or damage caused by the use of aftermarket
components, improper maintenance, or impact damage can cause steering shimmy or otherwise
accelerate the wear of steering components that cause steering shimmy. The dealership can
inspect steering components that were supplied by the manufacturer for defects in material,
workmanship and factory preparation and determine if necessary repairs are covered under the
terms of the warranties applicable to the vehicle. Clearly, aftermarket items may affect who pays
for further inspection.
• Inspect the vehicle steering components for any damage.
• Are the tires on the vehicle properly inflated to the correct pressure?
• Do the tires exhibit a condition of excessive wear, cupping or damage?
• Verify proper wheel and tire balance.
• Inspect the steering damper.
• Does the track bar show signs of excessive wear or damage?
• Do the tie rods show signs of excessive wear or damage?
• Does the drag link show signs of excessive wear or damage?
• Verify vehicle wheel alignment is within specification and adjust accordingly.
• Do the ball joints show signs of excessive wear or damage?
Editor’s Comments – Death Wobble
If you spend a day answering the tech line at Geno’s Garage, you would be surprised at
the number of phone calls asking about the “Death Wobble.”
More often than not, the customer wants a one-size-fits-all answer to the problem. It is not
that easy, and the Geno’s staff suggests that they save money by crawling under the truck
to diagnose the problem. So, it is refreshing to see that Dodge has helped us tackle the
problem with a step-by-step repair procedure.
The TDR has also covered the death wobble problem and in Issue 74, pages 12-23, we
presented “Steering Woes.” If you are having death wobble problems, this article is well
worth your reread.
Finally, there is a part not mentioned in the Dodge TSB that can be added to your truck
to help stabilize the front end. My guess as to why Dodge didn’t mention a steering box
stabilizer is that it is an aftermarket item not offered through the Mopar parts system.
228
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CATEGORY 21
TRANSMISSION AND TRANSFER CASE
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
21-011-11
11/4/11
’11 (DD/DP)
Difficulty climbing steep grades at maximum gross combined weight rating in third and fourth
gear.
This bulletin applies to Cab and Chassis vehicles equipped with a six-speed Aisin automatic
transmission. Customers may notice they have difficulty climbing steep grades at maximum
gross combined weight rating while the vehicle is in third and fourth gear. This usually happens
while towing a trailer. This could also be described as a lug down feeling in third and fourth gear.
A new feature has been added to the TCM logic that allows new downshift points for the 4-3 and
3-2 downshifts. These new shift points keep the engine at or near peak horsepower to avoid this
performance issue.
This bulletin involves flash reprogramming the transmission control module (TCM) with new
software.
CATEGORY 23
23-006-10
3/10/10
’10 (D2/DJ)
BODY
Hood creaking and squeaking sound.
This bulletin applies to D2/DJ vehicles built before January 29, 2010. The customer may
experience a creaking and/or squeaking sound from the hood area when turning the vehicle and/
or going over rough terrain.
This repair involves adding Anti-squeak tape to the hood.
23-003-12
2/07/12
All Chrysler vehicles
Light to moderate paint surface imperfections on factory applied paint finish.
This “information only” bulletin applies to vehicles with isolated light to moderate paint surface
imperfections (scratches, bird dropping stains, chemical etching, etc.) on factory applied paint.
The bulletin outlines a list of Meguiar’s products that can be used to clean the paint.
Service personnel are reminded to always begin with the least aggressive method to remove a
paint condition. Work one section at a time. Always work on a cool paint surface free of bonded
surface contaminants. Should above surface defects be present; prepare the surface with
Meguiar’s Detailing Clay.
Editor’s Comments – Paint Detailing
When it comes to detailing a truck or car, nothing replaces good lighting, a sharp eye and
lots of elbow-grease.
Again, the TDR and its writers have “been there, done that,” and the most recent article on
detailing your truck is found in Issue 68, pages 58-65.
23-019126/19/12
’12 (DJ/DD/D2/DP)
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Shaking motion in left rearview tow mirror assembly.
This bulletin applies to vehicles built before January 10, 2012. This bulletin involves inspecting
and, if necessary, replacing the left rearview tow mirror assembly.
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CATEGORY 25
EMISSIONS CONTROL
TSB#
MODEL
SUBjECT/DESCRIPTION
25-002-11
12/6/11
’10-’12 (DJ/D2)
On board diagnosis (OBD) monitor readiness.
Vehicles that fail to pass a state mandated emissions inspection may have certain OBD readiness
monitors that have not completely run. Anytime an ECM/PCM has been replaced or flashed, the
OBD readiness monitors may need to run again to complete the monitoring process. This bulletin
describes the necessary steps required to run each monitor.
Customers may be required to drive the vehicle for an extended period of time in a variety of
driving styles to allow all of the OBD monitors to run.
25-003-11
12/6/11
’11-’12 (DD/DP)
On board diagnosis (OBD) monitor readiness.
Vehicles that fail to pass a state mandated emissions inspection may have certain OBD readiness
monitors that have not completely run. Anytime an ECM/PCM has been replaced or flashed, the
OBD readiness monitors may need to run again to complete the monitoring process. This bulletin
describes the necessary steps required to run each monitor.
Customers may be required to drive the vehicle for an extended period of time in a variety of
driving styles to allow all of the OBD monitors to run.
25-001-12
5/3/12
’10-’12 (DJ/D2)
’11-’12 (DD/DP)
Diagnostic trouble code (DTC) P0471 set in temperatures below freezing.
This bulletin involves installing an insulated exhaust manifold pressure (EMP) sensor tube and
insulation over the EMP sensor along with a new EMP sensor.
During the normal combustion process, condensation can form in the EMP sensor tube. Rarely,
this condensation may contact the EMP sensor pressure sensing element. If the vehicle is
operating in temperatures below freezing, the condensation may freeze. The expanding moisture
as it freezes could cause the pressure sensing element to crack causing damage to the EMP
sensor and setting DTC P0471 will illuminate the MIL immediately after the fault becomes active.
25-003-12
8/02/12
230
’11-’12 (DD/DP)
Diesel exhaust fluid.
This bulletin provides information regarding the diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) vehicle delivery
fill guidelines. The bulletin supersedes 25-001-10 dated 9/1/10. The tank is pre-filled with
approximately three gallons of DEF from the manufacturing assembly plant. This factory fill should
be adequate to perform the vehicle’s Pre-Delivery Inspection and other in-dealership operations.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
reCALL notiCes
OUTER DASh SILENCER PAD AND
hEAT ShIELD SAFETY RECALL (737)
The outer dash silencer pad, on the below listed vehicles,
may contact the exhaust pipe. Under certain operating
conditions, the exhaust pipe may become not enough to
over heat or ignite the silencer pad. To correct this condition,
part of the silencer pad must be removed and a heat shield
must be added to the exhaust pipe.
Models: 1997 model year Dodge Ram (BR) trucks equipped
with a 5.9L diesel engine (‘D’ in the 8th VIN Position) built
at the:
 Saltillo Assembly Plant (‘G’ in the 11th VIN Position) from
March 7, 1997 through May 15, 1997
 St. Louis North Assembly Plant (‘J’ in the 11th VIN Position)
from March 15, 1997 through May 16, 1997
 Lago Alberto Assembly Plant (‘M’ in the 11th VIN Position)
from March 18, 1997 through May 15, 1997
The service/repair procedure involves removal of a portion
of the silencer pad and the installation of heat resistant foil
tape to the remainder of the silencer pad and the installation
of a heat shield onto the exhaust pipe.
IgNITION SWITCh WIRINg RECALL (875)
The ignition switch and/or steering column wiring may
overheat when the blower motor is operated at high speed
for an extended period of time. This can cause stalling, loss
of blower motor or power window operation, ABS or airbag
lamp illumination or a steering column/instrument panel fire.
The vehicles involved in the recall have a vehicle
identification number as follows:
 Warren (“S” in the 11th VIN position) through April 4, 1996;
 St. Louis (“J” in the 11th VIN position) through March 23,
1996;
 Lago Alberto (“M” in the 11 VIN position) through April
14, 1996;
th
 Saltillo (“G” in the 11th VIN position) through April 14,
1996.
The repair involves installing a blower motor relay and
overlay harness to remove the blower motor circuit from the
ignition switch. In addition, the ignition switch and electrical
connector must be inspected for damage and replaced if
necessary.
Note to TDR subscribers: the primary parts package for
this repair does not include a replacement ignition switch
assembly, but rather provides a blower motor relay and
overlay harness; if necessary, an ignition switch wiring pigtail;
clips, screws, washers, etc., to install the blower motor relay.
During the repair the ignition switch and associated
connectors are to be inspected. The technician is instructed
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
to look for indications of melting or deformation, specifically
at terminals four and five. Very few vehicles are expected to
require ignition switch replacement.
Editor’s note: The title of the recall, “Ignition Switch Recall
875” leads one to conclude that the recall is to replace the
ignition switch assembly. As summarized from the dealer
service instructions, the recall has very little to do with the
ignition switch, but rather is focused on adding a relay to
the blower motor circuit. The moral of the story – don’t jump
to conclusions based on the title of a memo and be sure
additional trailer light wiring and accessories that are added
to your vehicle are on a separate relay-switched circuit.
FUEL TRANSFER PUMP RECALL (878)
The fuel transfer (lift) pump on about 12,000 24-valve
vehicles may be susceptible to premature internal armature
shaft bushing wear. Failure of the shaft bushing typically
causes a no-start condition. To correct the problem, the
supplier of the fuel transfer pump (Federal Mogul) has
returned to the original sintered iron bushing design.
The suspect vehicles have a Cummins engine serial number
sequence that falls between 56662576 and 56671920. These
engines were installed at the DaimlerChrysler assembly
plant in St. Louis from 12/3/99 to 1/18/00; Lago Alberto from
12/2/99 to 2/1/00; Satillo from 12/2/99 to 2/1/00.
The replacement involves removal of the starter motor to
gain access to the electronic transfer pump. Remove and
install a replacement pump. Reinstall the starter and check
for leaks and proper operation. The flat rate time schedule
for replacement is approximately one hour.
ThROTTLE CONTROL CABLE AND ThROTTLE
LINKAgE REPLACEMENT SAFETY RECALL (970)
DaimlerChrysler Corporation has determined that a defect,
which relates to motor vehicle safety, exists in some 1994
through 1996 model year Dodge Trucks equipped with a
Cummins Turbo Diesel engine (identified by a “C” in the
eighth position of the VIN).
The throttle control cable on your Ram truck may fray and
eventually break. A frayed throttle control cable may not
allow the throttle to return to the idle position.
In addition, the throttle control linkage joints may corrode
and cause the throttle to bind or stick.
Either of the above conditions could increase the truck’s
stopping distance and cause an accident without warning.
DaimlerChrysler will repair your truck free of charge (parts
and labor). To do this, your dealer will replace your truck’s
throttle control cable and throttle linkage. The work will take
about 1.0 hour to complete. The service/repair procedure
231
involves removal of the throttle control cable, throttle linkage
rod ends and linkage ball studs as all of these parts are
replaced. Detailed removal and reinstallation instructions
are provided to the dealership (reference Safety Recall 970).
If you have already experienced the problem described
above and have paid to have it repaired, you may send your
original receipts and/or other adequate proof of payment to
the following address for reimbursement: DaimlerChrysler
Customer Assistance Center, PO Box 1040, St. Charles,
MO 63302-1040, Attention: Recall Center.
UPPER CONTROL ARM FASTENERS
(Recall 955)
2001 BR/BE Ram Truck Quad Cab manufactured in July
2000.
The upper control arms attached with cadmium coated
nuts can cause the bolts to stretch due to the application
of a higher than specified clamp load. Breakage of the
upper control arm fasteners could cause the axle to rotate
forward under braking conditions. This rotation could twist
the steering linkage and possibly separate the brake lines,
increasing the risk of a crash. Dealers will replace the upper
control arm bolts and nuts.
REAR AXLE SPACER PLATE
(Recall 966)
2001 (BR/BE) Dodge Ram Truck Quad Cab equipped with
a camper package and overload springs manufactured in
July 2000.
The rear axle spacer plate could lead to deformation of the
upper spring plate during assembly of the axle to the vehicle
resulting a soft joint. The soft joint could cause the rear axle
U-bolts to lose clamp load, resulting in displacement of the
rear axle and a loss of vehicle control. This could increase
the risk of a crash. Dealers will remove the spacer plates
and the spring plates will be replaced.
ThROTTLE CABLE
(Recall 970)
CLOCKSPRINg
(Recall 982)
2001 (BR/BE) Dodge Ram Truck manufactured from May
2000 To October 2000.
Sound deadener material internal to the clockspring could
become detached from the clockspring cover and housing.
When this occurs, the material could interfere with the
clockspring ribbon and cause an open circuit. The driver air
bag system will become disabled and the air bag warning
lamp will illuminate on the instrument panel. Dealers will
replace the clockspring assembly.
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION NOTIFICATION NO. C44
TRANSMISSION COOLER LINE
Date: February 2004
Models: ’03-’04 (DR)
This notification applies only to trucks equipped with a 5.9
liter Cummins diesel engine (sales code ETC or ETH) and
an automatic transmission (sales code DG8 or DGP) built
through November 24, 2003. The transmission cooler line
on about 97,000 of the above vehicles can transmit high
pressure pulses when the vehicle is operated at heavy
loads. These pulses may cause the engine-mounted
transmission cooler to crack and leak fluid which could
result in significant transmission damage.
Repair: The transmission cooler line must be replaced
on all involved vehicles. In addition, the engine-mounted
transmission cooler must be inspected and replaced if
necessary.
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION NOTIFICATION NO. C42
POWERTRAIN CONTROL MODULE CONNECTORS
1994-1996 (BR/BE) Dodge Ram Truck with diesel engine
manufactured from July 1993 to July 1996.
Date: February 2004
Models: ’03 (DR)
On certain pickup trucks, the throttle cable could unravel
(fray) or break, resulting in a loss of throttle control.
A throttle that does not return to idle could result in
unexpected acceleration, increasing the risk of a crash.
Dealers will inspect and replace the throttle cable and
upper bell crank lever.
This notification applies only to trucks equipped with a
5.9 liter Cummins diesel engine (sales code ETC or ETH)
and an automatic transmission (sales code DGP or DG8)
built through July 9, 2003. The Powertrain Control Module
(PCM) electrical connectors on about 70,000 of the above
trucks may allow water to enter into the connectors. Water
and the resulting corrosion in a PCM connector can cause
the speed control and/or transmission overdrive function to
become inoperative.
BRAKE hOSE/ABS SENSOR WIRE
ASSEMBLY CLEARANCE
(Recall 971)
2000 (BR/BE) Dodge Ram Truck with ABS manufactured
from July 1999 To September 1999.
Some vehicles may have inadequate clearance between
the front tire/wheel and the brake hose/ABS sensor wire
assembly. During full lock turns, it is possible for the tire or
wheel to contact the brake hose/ABS sensor wire assembly.
232
This could ultimately result in wire damage and/or a hole in
the brake line, affecting brake effectiveness, increasing the
risk of a crash. Dealers will replace the front brake hose
assemblies, and the ABS sensor wire will be inspected and
replaced if necessary.
Repair: The three electrical connectors on the PCM must
be removed and inspected for corrosion. If no corrosion is
found, the connectors must be sealed by installing rubber
O-rings onto the harness connectors.
If corrosion is found in the connector, the transmission wiring
harness and PCM must be replaced.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION NOTIFICATION E10
FRONT SUSPENSION COIL SPRINgS
Date: July 2005
Models: ’05 (DH) Dodge Ram 3500 4x2 Pickup Truck
This notification applies only to the above vehicles built
through May 27, 2005. Incorrect front coil springs may
have been installed on about 8,100 of the above trucks’
front suspension. This may cause the front suspension to
bottom out prematurely, which can reduce ride quality.
Repair: Both front suspension coil springs must be
replaced.
SAFETY RECALL E17
OUT-OF-PARK ALARM SYSTEM
Date: March 2006
Models: ’03 – ’04 (DR)
’05 (DH)
This recall applies only to the vehicles equipped with
a 5.9L diesel engine (6 or C in the eighth VIN Position)
and an automatic transmission (sales code DGP or DG8).
In certain circumstances when a driver has not placed
the shifter lever fully into the “Park” position and leaves
the engine running, the vehicle may unexpectedly move
rearward after seeming to be stable. Unintended rearward
movement of a vehicle could injure those in and/or near
the vehicle.
Repair: An Out-of-Park alarm system must be installed on
the vehicle. The alarm system will beep the horn and flash
the headlamps and shift indicator if a driver tries to exit
a running vehicle without fully placing the shifter into the
“Park” position.
SAFETY RECALL F05
ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM CONTROL MODULE
Date: July 2006
Models: ’06 (D1) Dodge Ram Pickup (3500 Series)
’06 (DH) Dodge Ram Pickup (1500 Mega Cab and 2500
Series)
This recall applies only to the above vehicles equipped
with a four-wheel Antilock Brake System (sales code BGK
or BRT) built from September 12, 2005 through December
11, 2005. The Antilock Brake System (ABS) control module
on about 37,900 of the above vehicles may cause the rear
brakes to lock up during certain braking conditions. This
could result in a loss of vehicle control and cause a crash
without warning.
Repair: The ABS control module must be replaced and
initialized with the StarSCAN tool.
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION NOTIFICATION F19
ROLL-OVER VALVE VENT hOSES
Date: June 2006
Models: ’06 (DH) Dodge Ram 2500 Pickup and Cab-Chassis
’06 (D1) Dodge Ram 3500 Pickup and Cab-Chassis
This notification applies only to the above vehicles equipped
with a 5.9L diesel engine (C in the eighth VIN position) built
through February 1, 2006. The roll-over valves on about
69,300 of the vehicles may allow water to enter into the fuel
tank. Excessive water in the fuel can damage the injection
pump and/or injectors if the engine is off for an extended
period of time.
Repair: A vent hose must be installed at each tank rollover valve (ROV). The fuel system must be inspected for
excessive water content. If excessive water is found, the
water must be removed and the fuel filter must be replaced.
EMISSIONS RECALL g30
REPLACE OXYgEN SENSOR MODULE
AND REPROgRAM ECM
Date: October 2007
Models: ’07–’08 (DH/D1) Dodge Ram 2500/3500 Pickup
Truck
This notification applies only to the above vehicles
equipped with a 6.7-liter diesel engine built through August
20, 2007. The on-board diagnostic (OBD) system on about
74,000 of the above vehicles may not detect a failed oxygen
sensor or illuminate the malfunction indicator light (MIL) as
required. In addition, the OBD system may cause these
trucks to fail an inspection maintenance test and may not
store mileage as required for certain transmission faults.
Repair: The oxygen sensor module must be replaced and
the engine control module (ECM) must be reprogrammed
(flashed). The new software will also improve vehicle
drivability and reduce the potential for exhaust soot
accumulation in the vehicle’s particulate filter. The
recalibration of the ECM updates and supersedes TSB 18033-07 Revision B, dated 6/28/07 (see page 63 for details).
EMISSIONS RECALL h31
VECI LABEL
Date: October 2008
Models: ’08 (D1) Dodge Ram 3500 Truck Cab and Chassis
An incorrect Vehicle Emission Control Information (VECI)
label was inadvertently installed on about 60 of the above
vehicles. The original VECI label does not include the
required information for vehicles built without a pickup box.
Repair: A new VECI label must be installed over the
vehicle’s original VECI label.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
233
SAFETY RECALL h34
DASh SILENCER PAD
Date: January 2009
Models: ’07 – ’08 (DH, D1, DC, DM)
The dash silencer pad on about 110,000 vehicles, built with
a Cummins 6.7-liter diesel engine through 11/5/07, may sag
and contact the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler.
This may cause the dash silencer to locally overheat and
cause an underhood fire without warning.
Repair: All vehicles must have a dash silencer pad support
bracket installed.
SAFETY RECALL h36
STEERINg DRAg LINK INNER jOINT
AND DAMPER BRACKET
Date: May 2009
Models: ’08 – ’09 (DH/D1) 2500/3500 series or
1500 Mega Cab (4x4 only)
’08 – ’09 (DC) 3500 series Cab Chassis
This recall applies only to the above vehicles built from
February 19, 2008 through October 30, 2008.
The steering drag link inner joint on about 32,700 of
the above vehicles may fracture under certain driving
conditions. This could result in a loss of steering control
and cause a crash without warning.
Also the steering damper bracket at the tie rod tube may
loosen. This could allow the bracket to slide on the tube
and may cause increased vehicle turning radius.
Repair: The drag link inner joint must be replaced and the
steering damper bracket must be inspected and replaced,
if required.
SAFETY RECALL h46
MOPAR STEERINg LINKAgE
Date: May 2009
Models: ’03 – ’04 (DR) 2500/3500 series 4x4
’05 (DH) 2500/3500 series 4x4
’06 – ’09 (DH) 2500/3500 series or 1500 Mega
Cab 4x4
’06 – ’09 (D1) 3500 series 4x4
’07 – ’09 (DC) 3500 series Cab Chassis
This recall only applies to vehicles that had certain Mopar
service parts steering components installed.
During a prior service appointment, a Mopar service
parts steering linkage was installed on about 13,900 of
the above vehicles. The drag link inner joint may fracture
under certain driving conditions. This could result in a loss
of steering control and cause a crash without warning.
234
Also, the steering damper bracket at the tie rod tube may
loosen. This could allow the bracket to slide on the tube
and may cause increased vehicle turning radius.
Repair: The steering linkage must be inspected and some
steering linkage components may need to be replaced.
CALIFORNIA EMISSIONS RECALL K01
REPROgRAM ECM—OBD READINESS
Date: May 2010
Models: ’03 (DR) Dodge Ram 2500/3500 Pickup Truck
’06-’07 (DH/D1) Dodge Ram 2500/3500 Pickup
Truck
’07 (DC) Dodge Ram 3500 Cab Chassis
This recall applies only to the above vehicles equipped with
a 5.9-liter diesel engine (sales codes ETC and ETH) and a
California emission control system (sales code NAE). And
to above vehicles equipped with a 6.7-liter diesel engine
(sales code ETJ) and a California emission control system
(sales code NAE) built through January 5, 2007.
The Engine Control Module (ECM) on the above vehicles
may fail to accurately report diagnostic system information
with some generic scan tools This may cause the vehicle
to be rejected or fail an Inspection/Maintenance Test (also
known as a Smog Check).
Repair: The Engine control Module (ECM) must be
reprogrammed (flashed).
EMISSIONS RECALL j35
REPROgRAM ECM—REgENERATION STRATEgY
Date: April 2010
Models: ’07.5-’09 (DH/D1) Dodge Ram 2500/3500 Pickup
Truck
This recall applies only to the above vehicles equipped
with a 6.7-liter diesel engine (sale code ETJ). The Engine
Control Module (ECM) software program on the above
vehicles may cause illumination of the Malfunction
Indicator Lamp (MIL) when no problem exists or under
certain conditions allow heavy sooting of the turbocharger,
exhaust gas recirculation valve and diesel particulate filter.
Heavy sooting could damage emissions components and
result in increased emissions.
Repair: The Engine Control Module must be reprogrammed
(flashed). The bulletin describes the service procedure that
the dealership technician is to follow. Using the dealership’s
scan tools, the time allowance for the reprogramming
operation is less than one hour. As a part of the recall and
ECM update the technician has to verify that the previous
emissions recall, recall G30, October 2007, has been
performed. The G30 recall contains software that must
be installed to prevent damage to the ECM. There are no
parts involved in the J35 recall notice.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
SAFETY RECALL K08
WIRELESS IgNITION NODE RECEIVER
Date: August 2010
Models: ’10 (DJ) Ram Truck (2500 Series)
’10 (D2) Ram Truck (3500 Series)
This recall applies only to the above vehicles built at Saltillo
Assembly Plant (“G” in the 11th VIN position) equipped with
an automatic transmission from January 6, 2010 through
February 16, 2010. This recall also affected other Chrysler
vehicles.
The Wireless Ignition Node (WIN) receiver on about
8,900 of the above vehicles may experience a condition
where the Frequency Operated Button Integrated Key
(FOBIK) may be removed prior to placing the automatic
transmission gear shift lever in the “PARK” position. This
could result in unintended vehicle movement and cause a
crash without warning.
To correct this condition, the Wireless Ignition Node
receiver must be inspected and replaced if necessary. The
new WIN must be programmed and all FOBIK transponders
must be programmed so they are able to interface with the
new WIN receiver.
SAFETY RECALL K28
LEFT TIE ROD END
Date: February 2011
Models: ’08-’10 (DM) Ram Truck (4500/5500 series cab
chassis)
’11 (DP) Ram Truck (4500/5500 series cab chassis)
This recall applies only to the above vehicles built through
September 02, 2010.
The left outer tie rod end on about 15,500 of the above
vehicles may fracture due to a misalignment condition.
Under certain driving conditions, this may lead to a
weakening and eventual fracture of the left outer tie rod
ball stud. A fractured tie rod end could cause a loss of
directional stability and a crash without warning.
The left outer tie rod end must be replaced, toe-in must be
set, and the tie rod ends must be aligned.
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION NOTIFICATION L14
REPROgRAM hVAC CONTROL hEAD
Date: April 12, 2011
Models: ’10 (D2) Ram Truck (2500 series)
’10 (DJ) Ram Truck (3500 series)
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION NOTIFICATION K17
|REPROgRAM hVAC CONTROL hEAD AND INSPECT/
REPLACE ACTUATORS
This notification applies only to the above vehicles built
with Manual Temperature Control (MTC) from March 18,
2010, through June 24, 2010.
Date: September 29, 2010
Models: ’10 (DJ) Ram Truck (2500 series)
’10 (D2) Ram Truck (3500 series)
The Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC)
control head software on about 10,330 of the above
vehicles may cause the mode door actuator gears to make
noise and/or break. This could cause the inability to fully
control the HVAC functions.
This recall applies only to the above vehicles built through
May 22, 2010
The HVAC mode door actuator gears on about 52,000 of
the above vehicles may break and result in the inability to
fully control the HVAC functions.
To correct this condition, all involved vehicles must have
updated HVAC control head software installed and the
mode door actuators must be tested and replaced as
required.
To correct this condition, the HVAC control head must be
reprogrammed with new software.
SAFETY RECALL K33
POWER STEERINg RESERVOIR CAP
Date: February 1, 2011
Models: ’10-’11 (DC/DM/DJ/D2/DD/DP) Ram Truck
This recall applies only to the above vehicles equipped
with a Cummins engine built at the Saltillo Assembly Plant
(“G” in the 11th VIN Position) through October 05, 2010.
The power steering reservoir cap on about 11,300 of the
above vehicles may cause excessive vent pressure levels
in the power steering/hydraulic brake booster system. This
may cause the vehicle to have brake lights that remain
illuminated for an extended period of time after the brake
pedal has been released. Brake lights that are slow to turn
off could increase the risk of a crash.
To correct this condition, the power steering reservoir cap
must be replaced.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
235
EMISSIONS RECALL K34
REPROgRAM ECM – EgR DIAgNOSTIC
Date: February 8, 2011
Models: ’10 (DJ/D2) Ram Truck (2500/3500 series pickup)
This recall applies only to the above vehicles equipped
with a Cummins engine built from October 1, 2009, through
June 24, 2010.
The Engine Control Module (ECM) on about 1193 of the
above vehicles may have been built with a software error
that prevents the EGR cooler bypass valve diagnostic from
running after detecting a pending fault, disabling deNOx
without illuminating the MIL. This may cause the vehicle’s
exhaust emissions to exceed the allowable limit for oxides
of nitrogen.
To correct this condition, the Engine Control Module (ECM)
must be reprogrammed (flashed).
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION NOTIFICATION L03
DOOR LATChES
Date: March 2011
Models: ’11 (D2) Ram Truck (3500 Series) Pick up
’11 (DD) Ram Truck (3500 Series) Cab Chassis
’11 (DJ) Ram Truck (2500 Series) Pick up
’11 (DP) Ram Truck (4500/5500 Series) Cab
Chassis
This notification applies only to the above vehicles
equipped with power door locks (sales code JPB) built from
July 01, 2010, through November 23, 2010.
The right front door latch, right rear door latch and/or
swing gate latch on about 35,000 of the above vehicles
may develop a ratcheting sound while using the power
door locks.
The right front door latch and right rear door latch must be
inspected and replaced if necessary.
SAFETY RECALL L16
LEFT TIE ROD
Models/Service Parts:
’03-’04 (DR) 2500/3500 (4x4)
’06-’08 (D1) 3500 (4x4)
’07-’08 (DC) 3500 Cab Chassis
’05-’08 (DH) 2500 (4x4)
’05 (DH) 3500 (4x4)
This recall applies only to the above vehicles that were
built between July 12, 2002, and February 13, 2011, and
had the steering linkage replaced with Mopar service parts
after February 14, 2008.
Subject: The left tie rod ball stud on about 208,000 of
the above vehicles may fracture under certain driving
conditions. This could cause a loss of directional control
and/or a crash without warning.
The same vehicles may also have a loose front track bar
bolt. This could cause a rattle or banging noise under
certain driving conditions.
Repair: The vehicle must be inspected for the type of
steering linkage the vehicle is equipped with and those
found with a certain linkage configuration must have
the right and left tie rod angles measured. If the tie rod
angles are not within specification, the left tie rod must be
replaced.
Note: special Tool 10326 was released to dealers in
November of 2010. Service Bulletin 19-001-11 was also
issued to alert dealers to the new service tool and procedure
for setting toe on the affected, and all subsequent, vehicles.
Conclusion
Wow, what a listing of information! Thanks, again, to the
TDR members that forward information to us. Also, thanks
to those at Chrysler and Cummins that provided their
insight. This text concludes the TSB listing(s) for ‘03-’09
Third Generation trucks.
Is the grass greener on the other side? We hope the TSB
and Recall information will help you in your purchase/
ownership of the Dodge Cummins Turbo Diesel truck. We
choose to think that answers and solutions are much better
than wonderment. Happy Motoring!
Date: March 2012
Models/Production:
’08-’09 (DH) 2500 (4x4)
’08-’09 (D1) 3500 (4x4)
’10-’11 (DJ) 2500 (4x4)
’10-’11 (D2) 3500 (4x4)
’08-’10 (DC) 3500 Cab Chassis
’11 (DD) 3500 Cab Chassis
This recall applies only to the above vehicles built at the
Saltillo Assembly Plant (“G” in the 11th VIN Position) from
February 14, 2008, through March 28, 2011.
236
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
most Common ProBLems
The “Most Common Problems” title is certain to catch your
attention. Rightfully so, we chose the brazen title to serve
a purpose.
“Favorite Fumbles—Fabulous Fixes” looks at problems
that we’ve seen in the many years of the TDR magazine
and web site.
As a prospective owner or as the new owner of a used
Turbo Diesel you need to be aware of the problems that are
inherent with the truck you are considering or have recently
purchased. Although some will dwell on the problems, the
majority of TDR owners take initiative to solve/correct,
anticipate/prepare for a future situation. That’s what the
TDR is all about! And, thanks to the support from Chrysler
and Cummins, we are equipped with answers and solutions
rather than wonderment and isolation that would exist
without a support group.
“12-Valve Dowel Pin Solution” gives a discussion and
solution to the problem that can happen to a ‘89-‘98
12-valve engine.
With the introduction out of the way, I resourced three
important TDR articles:
“Fuel Transfer Pumps Revisited” talks about the low
pressure fuel system for all year model trucks and then
gives specific repair techniques for the vintage year truck
you may own. This is a must-read for anyone with a ‘98.5‘02 model year Turbo Diesel.
We hope you find “Most Common Problems” to be helpful in
your evaluation of the Dodge/Cummins Turbo Diesel pickup.
Favorite Fumbles—Fabulous Fixes
G. R. Whale and Jim Anderson
Everyone knows the automakers have proving grounds
where, rather obviously, part of the process is to prove
things work. In theory, any part the customer can break
can be broken under controlled circumstances at the
proving grounds.
However, customers routinely outnumber proving ground
personnel. At some western desert testing centers the
typical daily on-site staff amounts to 25-50 people, and if
you put each in a car and spread them out on the “big” oval
track, there’d still be a quarter of a mile of space between
the cars. The reptiles outnumber humans exponentially
and they don’t drive—does that tell you anything?
So things go wrong with vehicles. And without debating
what might cause the TDR readership to be so adept at it
(or Dodge for the lack of satisfactory “proving”), the readers
do find many things that go wrong. And then they figure out
how to fix them.
When the first Dodge/Cummins arrived in 1989, it had
more than a few things going for it. Apart from the engine
and transmission, not too much of it was new . . . heck, a lot
of it could be traced to the early 1970s. So, again in theory,
the only “new” problems would be limited to the engine
or some part of the driveline, wiring, or cooling system
attached to it.
So let’s begin our discussion with problems that can be
associated with Dodge/Cummins pickups, in First, Second,
and Third Generation order, and randomly chosen by TDR
writers Whale and Anderson. Some are more infamous
than others, as it is with customers.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
ACROSS ThE BOARD
glitch: My steering’s sloppy or the tires are cupping.
Fix: This one can oft be traced beyond pilot error, although
we’re certainly not ruling that out. It tends to be more of
an issue on 4WD trucks, and newer models have fewer
problems. A Borgeson steering shaft helps on almost any
truck, and First Generation four-wheel drives often benefit
from an adjustable drag link; a mild drop-pitman arm; or on
really heavy front ends, an upgrade or replacement of the
upper kingpin bushing—a much simpler job than it sounds.
Two-wheel-drive versions benefit from a set of Moog ball
joints. Later model 4WDs tend to wear out trackbars, and
Luke’s Link appears to have the fix for that one.
In some First Generation trucks the steering box broke
off the frame rail, or the box moved on the frame from
elongated bolt holes. Like many ‘70s vintage GM 4x4s,
adding a brace from the opposite side frame rail fixed it, but
unlike the GMs, the aftermarket did not develop a kit for it.
Worn axle U-joints (4x4 only) along with other worn front
end parts could cause a phenomenon known among
Dodge diesel owners as a “death wobble” that was set
up by crossing a seam in the road that ran at an angle to
the direction of travel. Cure: inspect/ replace any loose or
worn front end component including wheel bearings, front
axle U-joints, hubs, tie-rod ends, pitman arms, steering
boxes, ball joints, steering stabilizer, track bar, etc. The
cumulative slop of all the above components leads to the
“death wobble”.
Ref: I 33, p 41; I 35, p 13; I46, p 20
237
glitch: My truck’s dripping oil.
Fix: Not until many years into the Dodge/Cummins
partnership did the engine have PCV…it was positively
vented straight overboard. Occasionally some oil would
find its way into the blow-by tube, and eventually drip
out the bottom. When Second Generation trucks came
out, this problem also resulted in a lot of erroneous front
differential yoke seal replacements because the engine
oil (not differential fluid) dripped down in the same area.
Of course, if Dodge hadn’t moved the differential from the
right side to the wrong side, this problem wouldn’t have
existed. Most people simply put a small bottle with some
holes in the side on the bottom of the vent tube—it could
still “breathe” but the oil was trapped in the bottle. Dodge
did this for 2001 but most oil change locations forget to
empty it, and when it fills the fan blows oil all over the place.
On 24-valve engines the breather moved to the front…and
any truck on a steep descent could lose a lot of engine oil
as crankcase pressure pushed it out the tube. Cummins
offers a fix that moves the breather inlet back alongside
the engine where it is less affected by crankcase oil level
on steep grades—right where it was on 12-valve engines
(Dodge TSB 09-002-02, Crankcase Breather Overflow:
I38, page 84).
Ref: I 24, p 17
Other ways to cure the heavy oil smell are to drive the truck
only in warm weather and to use used lube oil when you
do an oil change.
Say what?
During the winter months the air is colder and the diesel
exhaust fumes and oil breather fumes hang low to the
ground. Thus, an explanation for the noticeable smell in
the winter months.
But, used oil? Seriously there is a Dodge technical service
bulletin (TSB 09-02-00; I34, page 99) that addresses the
heavy oil smell. The odor condition is a result of certain
diesel oil additives and the odor reduces in intensity as the
oil ages. The aging process typically takes place in 250 to
750 miles after the oil change. Used oil anyone?
glitch: The truck started, but the starter won’t stop.
Fix: Worn and pitted starter solenoid contacts will cause
the truck not to start, or the starter won’t disengage after
the engine fires. A heavy duty contact kit is available from
Larry B (I 49, p 154) to fix the problem.
glitch: Gauges don’t work.
Fix: The cause is most often a poor ground between the
dashboard and the body, chassis, and engine. Run new
ground straps from the dashboard frame to the body, from
the body to the frame, and from the frame to the engine.
This can affect all diesel Rams. A secondary cause on
’99 to ’02 trucks is a faulty connection between the dash
display driver cable and the PCM.
glitch: Gauges do work, but the fuel reading is inaccurate.
On ’89 to ’02 trucks the Dodge-only fuel tank sending unit
fails, either by becoming stuck at a certain fuel level or by
reading low level at all times.
Fix: The only solution is to drop the fuel tank and replace
the sender. The barrel strainer the level sender attaches
to may also develop a glitch where it doesn’t move up
and down with fuel level, thus leading to erroneous level
readings. Replace the barrel strainer.
The old cotton sock idea is an easy fix with no
drips or oily film on anything but the outer sock.
I replace the sock while I am under the truck changing oil.
I extended the tube and drip catch bottle down to the
anti-sway bar and secured it with a couple of wire ties.
gary-K7gLD, Canyon City, OR
glitch: My truck smells like a refinery.
Owners of 24-valve trucks reported a “heavy oil smell”
coming into the truck cab, caused by the crankcase
breather tube venting the smell (particularly after an oil
change) into the air stream of the engine fan, especially
when sitting at a stoplight with the heater or air conditioner
running and the cab fan on. The vent fan sucked the smell
into the cab air intake at the windshield base.
Fix: Extend the crankcase breather outlet toward the rear
of the engine out of the engine fan air stream. Dodge offers
an engine oil that lacks the aromatic compounds that cause
the objectionable smell.
238
Ref: I 49, p 148
glitch: My clutch won’t release.
Fix: This may happen to any Dodge diesel. If the clutch
fails to release upon stopping the truck, either the clutch
master/slave cylinder circuit has failed, thus requiring
replacement; or the pilot bearing in the flywheel, which
captures the nose of the transmission input shaft, has
failed, allowing the input shaft to be deflected sideways
when the clutch pedal is pushed, which binds the clutch as it
slides on the input shaft splines. Pilot bearing replacement
is necessary, along with replacement of the transmission
input shaft if the nose of the shaft is not perfectly round
or is scored. While the Dodge input shaft is priced at over
$500, the shaft can be bought in the same box with similar
part numbers from other sources for about $100. Damage
to both components can be avoided by using the clutch
only for gear changes, and not sitting with your foot on it.
Ref: I50, p 36; I49, p 10; I36, p 75
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
glitch: Driveline vibration based on road speed.
Fix: It sounds like a worn out driveshaft universal joint or
unbalanced shaft, but may also be caused by a bad carrier
bearing or bearing support in a two-piece driveshaft
system. The bearing cannot be re-lubricated by the owner,
and the entire sealed carrier bearing assembly must be
replaced. This is presently a Dodge-only part. A heavy
load in the lower gears will cause driveline windup as well,
leading to vibration that lessens with road speed or less
torque applied to the axle. On Third Generation trucks, the
driveline alignment should be checked as well.
FIRST gENERATION
glitch: The front driveshaft on First Generation trucks falls
out.
Fix: With the newfound massive torque, slipping front
wheels that quickly found traction inevitably made the
engine jump out of its mounts or snapped the little Spicer
1310-series front u-joint. A rebuilt driveshaft with a 1350
u-joint solves the problem, and owners with a lifted truck
are cautioned to check the Cardan joint cage clearance at
the back of this driveshaft.
glitch: My windshield squeaks.
Fix: All trucks squeak, but this problem applies only to First
Generation trucks and involves the bodywork cracking—
more literally breaking apart—at the cowl near the lower
corners of the windshield. TSB 23-63-94 showed the parts
(steel stampings) and procedure for repairing the problem.
The adhesive mentioned in the TSB has been discontinued
and 3M Panel Bonding Adhesive recommended as the
substitute.
Ref: I 33, p 41
glitch: My automatic is too automated.
Fix: If your automatic transmission truck changes its mind
a lot about what gear to use, don’t start with the gearbox,
but check the throttle position sensor. The letters TPS are
as well known to readers, as this infamous part could be
a major nuisance. The TPS failure is characterized by a
100-200 rpm swing as the torque converter clutch locks
and unlocks repeatedly while the transmission remains in
4th (overdrive) gear. Clean it and the connectors yourself
or get a new one; chances are if it hasn’t gone bad, it will.
Do not confuse a TPS failure with a TTS (Transmission
Temperature Sensor) failure, which is characterized by a
200-400 rpm swing as the transmission cycles between 3rd
and 4th gear. Replace the TTS and check the connectors
for corrosion. The downshift is made when the failed TTS
sensor says the outside temp is below –5° (zero volts). The
upshift is made when the TTS again sends a signal (+1
to +5 volts) to the PCM saying the outside temp suddenly
climbed to ambient temp, thus allowing overdrive to be
engaged.
Ref: I 37, p 46
glitch: ’89-’91.5 truck runs hot.
Fix: This version of the engine was turbocharged, but
not intercooled, and long uphill climbs at full throttle
caused the engine to overheat due to hot turbocharged
air, particularly if the fueling had been turned up for more
power. Members routed a fresh air duct from the front of
the truck to the turbocharger area to cool the turbo, thus
cutting the heat load on the engine, and the aftermarket
developed intercoolers that usually came with a new grille
for clearance.
Another solution to the ‘89 to ‘91 run hot problem was the
retrofit of the larger radiator and fan used in the ‘91.5 to ‘93
trucks. Way back in Issue 6 TDR member Bruce Burney
presented four pages of step-by-step instructions as well
as a detailed parts list (approximately $750 in 1991) to do
the conversion. From pictures in our archives the ‘91.5/’93
radiator looks to be about half-again as large. Should a
member need a reprint, we will be happy to fax the article
to him.
SECOND gENERATION
glitch: My gearbox is a nut short.
Fix: One of the most infamous flaws in Second Generation
trucks with the NV4500 gearbox was the mainshaft nut
backing off and making fifth gear useless or gone altogether.
TSB 21-10-98 Rev A from 9/25/98 addresses this issue in
13 pages of detail. The replacement nut has a set screw
to lock it in place, after you’ve installed thread locker and
torqued it to 350 ft-lbs. The Dodge fix didn’t always work,
since the original nut was cheaply made. Sometimes a new
gear was needed due to internal gear spline wear, or a new
transmission output rear shaft was needed due to external
spline wear. Sometimes the Dodge revised nut didn’t work,
but the similar-appearing Standard Transmission and Gear
nut did. Welding the nut onto the shaft didn’t work, as it
crystallized the surface steel on the shaft and it later broke at
the weld point. There was no Dodge recall on this problem.
An avoidance tactic on 12-valve engines is to downshift
from 5th to 4th gear when at full throttle at a minimum of
1,800 RPM to avoid excessive torque and engine vibration
that causes the nut to loosen. And remember to use GL-4
lubricant as called for by New Venture Gear and your
manual.
Ref: I 24, p 27; I 46, p 17
glitch: The headlights don’t work anymore.
Fix: A problem common to many versions, this is usually
caused by running too many trailer lights. The parking circuit
in your light switch was never designed to run 40 clearance
lamps on the trailer and it failed in protest. Replacing the
light switch does not solve the problem, but adding a relay
to take all the added load does. If you use a camper or pull
a trailer, you might consider adding a “ground switch” to the
rear lights on your truck, so that they do not reflect in your
mirrors when backing up or when the camper is onboard.
In late 2001 there was a recall issued for ’94 to ’96 model
year trucks covering problems associated with the ignition
circuit and the truck’s blower motor. This important recall
information follows:
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
239
Ignition Switch Wiring Recall 875
The ignition switch and/or steering column wiring on about
710,000 of the above vehicles may overheat when the
blower motor is operated at high speed for an extended
period of time. This can cause stalling, loss of blower
motor or power window operation, ABS and airbag lamp
illumination or a steering column/instrument panel fire.
The vehicles involved in the recall have a vehicle
identification number as follows:
Warren (“S” in the 11th VIN position) through
April 4, 1996;
St. Louis (“J” in the 11th VIN position) through
March 23, 1996
Lago Alberto (“M” in the 11th VIN position) through
April 14, 1996;
Saltillo (“G” in the 11th VIN position) through
April 14, 1996.
The repair involves installing a blower motor relay and
overlay harness to remove the blower motor circuit from
the ignition switch. In addition, the ignition switch and
electrical connector must be inspected for damage and
replaced if necessary.
Note to the membership: the primary parts package for
this repair does not include a replacement ignition switch
assembly, but rather provides a blower motor relay and
overlay harness; if necessary, an ignition switch wiring
pigtail; clips, screws, washers, etc., to install the blower
motor relay.
During the repair the ignition switch and associated
connectors are to be inspected. The technician is instructed
to look for indications of melting or deformation, specifically
at terminals four and five. Very few vehicles are expected
to require ignition switch replacement.
If your truck has throttle but low power/excessive smoke,
it’s quite possible that one or more of the rubber boots
connecting the turbocharger and intercooler piping has
slipped under its clamp, allowing your turbocharger’s
pressurized air to leak. Properly replace the boot under
the clamp, retighten the clamp and inspect the rest of the
rubber boots of the system for holes in boots or slipping
under clamps to restore full manifold boost pressure.
glitch: Can you say diet?
Fix: No recall, service bulletin or advisory has ever been
published on this subject, but some Ram owners found that
the seat cushion collapses and the problem is common to
all Second Generation trucks. Repair options include an
aftermarket seat or new replacement seat, both of which
may cost as much as the truck’s Blue Book value at this
point; a local reupholstery shop; or since the seats have
springs at the bottom, a home-made remedy of restuffing for
a few bucks. Alternate fixes include new shock absorbers,
more weight in the bed, or cutting back the calories.
Ref: I 35, p 14
glitch: It’s very hard to stop. No 4WD. HVAC acting weird.
(vintage ’94-’96 trucks)
Fix: So what.?To paraphrase the immortal words of
Commendatore Fanfani, anybody can make a car go
slow, don’t bother me with details about brakes. Any
time the brakes and HVAC act strangely simultaneously,
suspect the vacuum source. Typically the problem occurs
where the hose connects to the 4WD shift collar. Of
course your engine doesn’t draw a vacuum but a pump
generates it to power some brake boosters, most HVAC
systems (which default to Defrost as a safety issue) and on
Second Generation and later 4WD models, the front axle
disconnect system. The vacuum hose is cheap and easy to
find, regardless of the size.
Ref: I 39, p 40
glitch: ATF drools.
Editor’s note: The title of the recall, “Ignition Switch Recall
875” leads one to conclude that the recall is to replace the
ignition switch assembly. As summarized from the dealer
service instructions, the recall has very little to do with the
ignition switch, but rather is focused on adding a relay to
the blower motor circuit. The moral of the story—don’t jump
to conclusions based on the title of a memo and be sure
additional trailer light wiring and accessories that are added
to your vehicle are on a separate relay-switched circuit.
Fix: Although a number of things could be to blame, the
first place to look was always the plastic fittings on the
transmission fluid cooler lines on ’94-’96 trucks. Sooner or
later, these got brittle from being overheated and expired,
allowing the transmission to pump its fluid all over the
road. The fix involves changing the plastic line retainers to
Weatherhead fittings; Dodge also offered an upgraded set
of lines with metal clips.
Ref: I 30, p 50
On ’94-’98 models the transmission lines crossed on the
bellhousing. At the cross point, the metal lines rubbed
together and wore a hole in one line thus causing loss of
all ATF fluid. After replacing the lines, owners installed
rubber hose over the lines to keep them apart and prevent
vibration rubbing.
glitch: Go with no throttle.
Fix: With all the racing antics and double-clutching gear
jammers, it’s no wonder the throttle cable on ’94-’96 trucks
tended to wear out. It might be the worn spring, ball joints,
or the cable itself, but a lot of TDR owners had trouble
getting the throttle response desired. This became Safety
Recall 970 (part # CANZ9700).
Ref: I 17, p 30; I 21, p 39; I 35, p 45
Ref: I 34, p 44
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A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
glitch: My truck’s dripping . . . fuel this time, and it’s hard
to start.
Fix: Fuel out often means air in, and most diesels will be
hard, if not impossible, to start with air in the fuel lines.
The hoses around the lift pump, mostly on P7100 trucks,
degrade over time and develop leaks. And the clamps used
tend to distort and often lead to their own leaks; better to
get some screw-type band clamps when you do the job.
When replacing the dowel pin, replace the crankshaft oil
seal and vice versa due to a seal leak. The fix involves
staking the pin, covering the pin with a teardrop-shaped
washer placed under a nearby bolt, or removing the pin
altogether since it has already served its purpose in
locating the housing during engine assembly.
Ref: I 40, p 56 and p 148
Ref: I 24, p 19; I 46, p 26
glitch: Engine quits, tach drops to “0.”
Fix: When your diesel behaves like a gas engine with
broken points, it’s often a bad crankshaft position or
camshaft position sensor. Depending on the year, it may
also be characterized by the alternator, cruise control, air
conditioner compressor not working properly; failure of the
automatic transmission to engage overdrive; or failure of
the lockup clutch to operate. The crankshaft position sensor
is located on the front of the engine immediately above the
crankshaft pulley on 12-valve engines or behind the starter
on 24-valve engines. Without a cam or crankshaft position
signal going to the PCM, the above features won’t operate.
Replacement of the sensor restores operation. This is a
Cummins part, not a Dodge part.
A close-up picture of the dowel pin.
glitch: Shut-down solenoid is shut down.
Fix: The fuel shutdown solenoid on ’94-’98 12-valve trucks
has caused its fair share of difficulties, leaving trucks that
won’t start, won’t stay running, or won’t shut off. In some
cases a “manual” approach to fixing it (much like tapping
an old starter solenoid with a mallet), might get you home.
An alternate method is to delete the start/run solenoid
and replace it with a cab controlled cable to move the
fuel shutdown arm. This also makes a fine theft deterrent
for the vehicle. Adjustments and replacements are do-ityourself operations.
Ref: I 46, p 32 (adjust) Re: start/run solenoid.; I 41, p 38;
I 48, p 98
glitch: Manual transmissions fluid specials.
Fix: The five-speed and six-speed New Venture Gear
(NV series) manual transmissions both specify a lubricant
that is not available at retail locations in quart quantities.
Suitable substitutes have been discovered by TDR
members that include: 80W-90 synthetic GL-4 gear oil from
Amsoil and Red Line for five-speed transmissions, and
Pennzoil synthetic 75W-90 gear oil for six-speed manual
transmissions at much lower cost than the Mopar lubricant
from the Dodge dealer. Use of the wrong lube in either
transmission will result in poor shifting and increased wear.
Ref: I 37, p 104
glitch: The dreaded dowel pin drop.
Fix: A potential problem for ’94-’98 12-valve trucks
and some ‘99 trucks is the dowel pin used to locate the
aluminum timing gear cover on the front of the engine.
When this cheap part falls out, expensive things happen,
and it’s shown some proclivity for falling out. Cummins says
the number of problem engines has been very small, but
has revised the part. There are a number of preventative
measures, some of which can be done with hand tools.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
A picture showing an egg-shaped washer
that covers the dowel pin.
glitch: No cruise control . . . crankshaft position sensor
okay.
Fix: On ’89 to ’98.5 12-valve trucks the cruise control can
become inoperative due to battery acid corrosion from the
driver side battery. Replace the control unit after cleaning
the area with a baking soda/water solution to neutralize
spilled battery acid. Also inspect the battery tray above the
solenoids for corrosion damage and repair as necessary.
glitch: Low power output on 24-valve engines.
Fix: Clean/replace the MAP (Manifold Absolute Pressure)
sensor and/or the AIT (Air Intake Temperature) sensor
to restore power that is caused by false readings from
these dirty sensors. Dirty sensor tips or poor electrical
connections at ostensibly weatherproof plugs render the
sensors inoperative, which causes restrictions in fueling.
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glitch: ’94-’98 12-valve, P-7100 engine specific problems.
Fix: The fuel return line rubber portion on the underside of
the intake manifold, in the area of the fuel filter boss, tended
to fail due to engine heat and to air getting into the fuel
system. Replacing the hose with a better quality hose that
is diesel fuel rated and more heat resistant is the solution.
Low fuel system pressure that causes low power and
stalling at hot idle, especially in automatic transmission
trucks, may not necessarily signal a failing lift pump. It
can also be caused by a failing fuel overflow valve that
bypasses too much fuel through the injection pump.
Low power and smoke complaints point to intercooler
piping that may not be tight. Additionally, the fuel heater/
pre-strainer is probably clogged. This strainer is used only
on the Dodge application. The nylon pre-strainer clogs
with trash, restricting fuel flow to the lift pump and injection
pump. Clean pre-strainer by unscrewing the bottom of the
unit, or replace it if damaged.
Another 12-valve specific problem: the quad ring on prestrainer bowl is cut or distorted. Dodge offers a kit that
consists of a new strainer and a new quad ring (O-ring with
squared edges) for the strainer bottom assembly for about
$32. The strainer seldom fails. A new quad ring is available
at most rubber supply and larger auto supply stores for a
buck or two.
ThIRD gENERATION
glitch: Third Generation performance and fuel issues.
The lift pump located in the area of the fuel filter is being
upgraded/replaced by Dodge dealers with the in-tank fuel
lift pump as used on the ’05 trucks when failure on earlier
models is reported during the warranty period.
Fix: If your Third Generation truck is hard to start or offers
limited output, check the CP-3 high pressure fuel pump that
feeds fuel at 23,000 PSI to the fuel manifold. Failure of the
high pressure fuel pump is cured by pump replacement.
You should also check the voltage at the electric in-tank
fuel pump. There is no TSB on either of these at this time.
glitch: Excess truck washing due to fuel spills.
Fix: Fuel can spill on the painted fender surface from fuel
overflow during the tank filling process on some Third
Generation trucks. Drill a small hole in the plastic piece
surrounding the fuel filler opening below the fill tube
opening to allow any fuel overflow to drain out rather than
run down the painted side of your truck.
g.R. Whale
jim Anderson
TDR Writers
Ref: These problems with the 12-valve low pressure fuel
system were covered in detail in Issue 49, pages 148-152.
12-Valve dowel Pin Common-sensical solution
Always on the lookout for a better way to accomplish a
task, the folks at TST products have developed a commonsensical (is that a word?) method to correct the dowel pin
problem that many owners have seen with their 12-valve
engines. Before I present their solution, let’s provide a brief
history of the problem.
The dowel pin has been (starting with production in 1983),
and continues to be, used on the Cummins B-series engine
as a locating and alignment point for the attachment of the
front gear cover to the engine block. The problem that has
been encountered by owners is predominately with the ’94
to ’98 12-valve engines. The dowel pin is not a problem on
24-valve engines as the timing cover was changed to fit the
24-valve’s VP44 fuel pump. These 12-valve engines have
the heavier Bosch P7100 fuel pump which was required
for higher horsepower ratings and for the higher injection
pressures needed to meet stricter emission legislation
enacted 1/1/1994.
The belief is that the vibrations and weight of the P7100
fuel pump cause the dowel pin to loosen in its bore and
possibly fall out. If the dowel pin does fall, it can be caught
in the fuel pump gear causing a major problem (cracked
242
cam nose): or it can fall between the cam gear and the
front housing and, in its path to the bottom of the oil pan,
crack the gear case housing. I’ve heard many a story of
how the cracked housing has been fixed using J-B Weld
epoxy. Alternately, the gear housing can be removed and
replaced, but this is a big task as the engine’s camshaft
has to be removed to remove/replace the housing. A final
fall-out scenario, the pin falls to the bottom of the oil pan
and resides in the bottom of the pan forever (or at least until
the pan is removed). There is a screen on the oil pickup
tube that prevents the pin from moving into anywhere other
than the bottom of the oil pan.
The TST Solution
Several methods of securing the pin into its bore have been
developed by shops that service B-series engines. These
methods have been covered in previous TDR magazines
(Issue 38, page 136; Issue 33, page 46). Additionally, there
is a thread on the TDR web site that takes you through
the “how-to” should one wish to use the drill/jig method.
However, on a recent visit to TST’s shop outside Columbus,
Indiana, I discovered yet another way to perform this
preventive maintenance type procedure.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
mechanic. A brief descriptive of the steps involved (again,
shadetree-type work as it is simply parts removal and
installation) and a few key pictures will take you through the
major steps. TST has a comprehensive set of instructions,
an egg-washer, with a longer gear cover bolt, a Cummins
crankcase seal, a tube of gasket maker (RTV) for the front
cover. The price for the kit is $48. As a note, TST suggests
that you consider a replacement fan belt (it’s time to change
the belt and keep the old one for a spare) and replacement
hoses (time to change these too). You’ll find other vendors
offer these replacement parts.
The TST shop guys have this project down to a two hour
science. Lots of removals are necessary, but the repair is
simple in scope.
1) Drain and remove the coolant overflow tank.
For those not familiar with the dowel pin
the arrow shows its location.
2) Drain and remove, or push to the side, the windshield
washer tank.
3) Remove 10mm bolts (4) and clips that hold the fan
shroud in place. The fan shroud will later be removed
with the fan in step 7.
4) Remove engine accessory drive belt using your 3/8”
ratchet in the belt tensioner access socket.
5) Cut a piece of cardboard big enough to cover the engineside of the radiator. Tape the cardboard into place.
A close-up picture of the dowel pin.
6) Locate the 10mm bolts (4) for the fan support bracket.
Remove the three (#1, #2, #3) easy-to-access bolts.
The last bolt (#4) can only be removed with an open
end wrench. Support the fan assembly with one hand
and loosen the bolt with the other, making sure not to
damage the radiator fins.
2
1
Above is a picture of an egg-shaped washer that
is their solution to the problem.
Again, many methods of dowel pin preventive maintenance
have been previously discussed. Using some TST shop
short-cuts, and the TST developed egg-washer, the task
of dowel pin correction has been reduced from highly
involved to a job that can be tackled by the shadetree
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
3
3
4
7) CAREFULLY work the fan and the fan shroud out
together. This takes time, so go slow. Working with a
friend helps. Make sure not to DAMAGE the radiator
cooling fins or any hoses that may be in the way.
243
8) Remove the engine oil fill tube located at the front upper
side of the gear case. To do this, remove the one 16mm
bolt from the bracket to the cylinder head, and loosen
the 8mm bolt that clamps the bracket to the oil fill tube.
Now rotate the bracket out of the way, and with the use
of a large pair of pliers rotate the assembly counterclockwise to remove it from the gear case cover.
9) Remove the two 13mm nuts from the engine speed
sensor (RPM pick up). Make sure to make note the
orientation of the bracket and the placement of the wire
hold-down bracket. Place the sensor off to the side,
making sure not to damage the sensor or the wires to
the sensor.
10) Remove the engine vibration damper using a 15mm
socket and 1/2 inch drive breaker bar.
11) Using a 10mm socket, remove all the gear cover
bolts. Two of these bolts are 8mm and it is best to
use a wrench, as these bolts are for the engine speed
sensor. Note there are long and short bolts; they will
need to be put in the proper locations when reinstalled.
Remove the gear cover.
12) Locate the dowel pin and look to see if it is fully seated.
Most of the pins will be flush with the gear housing or
just below flush if they have not backed out. If the pin
seems to be backed out find a small punch. With a
hammer and punch tap on the head of the dowel pin
and drive it into the block as far as possible.
15) Remove the crankshaft oil seal from the gear cover
using a punch or seal driver. Located in the kit is a new
crankshaft seal, seal driver, crankshaft seal starter
and a dust shield. Install the new crankshaft seal in
the gear housing cover applying loctite to the outside
of the seal. Using the seal driver, install the new seal in
the gear housing cover making sure it is square in the
opening. Clean all oil residues from the gear housing
cover and gear housing gasket surface and any old
gasket material. Apply a light coating of RTV or an oil
resistant weather trim adhesive to the gasket surface
area of the gear housing cover and place the new
gasket on in the proper orientation. Clean all oil off the
front of the crankshaft. The new Teflon seal must be
installed on a clean dry surface. Using the crankshaft
seal starter in the new seal, place the gear housing
onto the front of the engine, push the gear housing
cover over the crankshaft nose, and remove the seal
starter from the crankshaft. Start a couple of bolts to
hold cover in place.
16) Reinstall the gear cover bolts and torque to 18 ft. lbs.
17) Reinstall the four (15mm) engine dampener bolts and
torque bolts to 92 ft. lbs.
18) Reinstall the engine speed sensor. Set the sensor-tovibration damper air gap to 0.49 in. minimum to 0.51
in. maximum. Make sure that the two notches in the
damper aren’t under the sensor when setting the air
gap, tighten and torque the mounting nuts to 18 ft. lbs.
and remove the feeler gauge.
19) Reinstall the fan and fan support bracket along with
the fan shroud. The torque value for the four 10mm fan
shroud bolts is 18 ft. lbs. Once the fan is in place the
fan shroud can be installed. Again, it is nice to have
assistance as you carefully lower the fan/fan support
into place.
20) Reinstall the windshield washer tank to the fan shroud.
21) Reinstall the engine accessory drive belt according to
the diagram on the front radiator support of your truck.
13) Lucky step 13! Time to install the special egg-washer,
preventive maintenance part. Locate the 10mm bolt
next to the dowel pin and remove it, reinstall the longer
bolt using the special washer supplied in the kit. This
washer will prevent the dowel pin from backing out.
Apply loctite high strength (red) thread locker to the
threads and torque the bolt to 18 ft. lbs. torque.
14) Using a gasket scraper, clean the gear housing gasket
surface and the gear housing cover.
244
22) Check around the engine compartment and make sure
all tools and equipment are clear of any moving parts
and test start the engine. Check for any oil leaks and
to make sure the engine drive belt is running straight.
Correct any oil leaks or drive belt problems before
driving the truck.
Thanks to the folks at TST for allowing us to take excerpts
from their detailed installation instructions.
Scott Kilby
TST Products
(812) 342-6741
Robert Patton
TDR Staff
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
jANUARY 2012 POSTSCRIPT –
12-VALVE DOWEL PIN PROBLEM
AND ADDITIONAL ITEMS TO ChECK
The second bolt is at 2:00 o’clock. Both of these bolts are
easily accessed through a hole in the camshaft gear when
the crankshaft is rotated.
Before my role as the TDR’s editor, years 1987-1996, I was
a product support manager for the B-series engine at the
Cummins distributor in Atlanta, Georgia. Before the 1994
year model Turbo Diesel truck, the Dodge engine’s used
a Bosch VE fuel injection pump. As was mentioned in the
preceding article, it was thought that the dowel pin problem
was restricted to the ’94-’98 trucks with the heavier Bosch
P7100 fuel injection pump.
In my many years with Cummins prior to 1994 I can say that
the dowel pin was not a problem. However, precautionary
TDR members with ’89-’93 model year trucks have
checked the dowel pin and found it to be loose. So, this
postscript is a notice to the ’89-’93 owners to also check
their dowel pin.
Likewise, some ’98.5-’99 owners with the 24-valve engine
have reported a loose pin condition. However, according
to Cummins, the dowel pin problem was corrected at ’98.5
production with a staked design. So, a watchword also
goes out to these ’98.5-’99 owners.
The third one is difficult to access and is at about 4:30
o’clock. I cut the head off a 10-mm wrench and welded it
to a screwdriver to make a crow’s foot type wrench to get
to it. It is good to have a cheap 10-mm wrench or two to
sacrifice for this project.
Finally—and this is very important—there are four gear
case bolts (three are in back of the camshaft gear the
other one holds the dowel pin cover in place), that should
be retightened and/or Lock-tited into place. The following
text from TDR Issue 70 shows the procedure.
gEAR CASE BOLTS BEhIND CAM gEAR
When I checked the dowel pin, commonly known among
members as the Killer Dowel Pin (KDP) in my ’89 Turbo
Diesel D250 with 182,000 miles, it had not moved. I drove
the dowel pin back about 0.020-inch and peened the bore.
For members who want to tighten the 10-mm gear case
bolts, I have included photos of the three gear case bolts
behind the cam gear that should be tightened also. The top
bolt is located at about 12:30 o’clock.
RedRamAndy, Wentzville, MO
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
245
12-Valve no-start Condition
The bolt that clamps the positive battery cable to the driver’s
side battery has a stud on its head, with various leads
attached. One is the hot lead to the passenger side battery.
Two are fusible links, one blue and one orange. The blue
one goes to the fuel shutdown relay. Either this connector
or the wire often become corroded because of battery acid.
If so, slip off the terminal and crimp on a new one.
My local Dodge dealer quoted me $450 for the part; my
local Cummins distributor quoted $285. I decided to call my
friend Randy at Dave’s Diesel ([800] 343-73580). Dave’s
Diesel had one in stock for $265 less an additional 10%
TDR member discount. I decided I couldn’t beat that. The
new kit comes complete with new solenoid and all new
brackets and heavy-duty hardware.
The key to this diagnosis is the use of a cheap twelve-volt
test light. Disconnect the fuel shutdown solenoid. There
are three leads in the wiring harness: hot=start, ground,
and hot=run. When the connection at the battery is poor,
the test light will probably glow dimly when connected to
the start pin of the wiring harness.
To remove the old solenoid, start by disconnecting the
wiring harness. Then unbolt the two 8mm bolts that hold
the solenoid in place and remove the clip that holds the
solenoid to the linkage. Next, remove the three 8mm bolts
that hold the mounting bracket to the governor housing.
Finally, remove the old shutoff lever. The new kit replaces
the old 8mm hardware with new 10mm hardware.
If your fuel shutdown solenoid is bad, usually the start
circuit is the one that has burned out. If you turn the key on
and pull up the fuel lever on the P7100 injection pump and
the lever stays up, the start circuit is bad or the solenoid
is bad.
Cummins offers a newly designed solenoid that is much
larger than the original that came on our Turbo Diesels, and
it comes with a much thicker mounting bracket. Otherwise
it will fit right onto the pump, and its wiring harness plugs
right into the Dodge harness. The Cummins part number is
3800723, but be prepared for the cost, about $278.
joe Donnelly
TDR Writer
MORE NO START—SOLENOID REPLACEMENT
In Issue 36 on page 36, Joe G, Eureka, CA, discusses the
method of checking the fuel shut-off solenoid on the ’94
thru ’98 12-valve engines. The editor made note to check
your local Radio Shack for generic relays at a substantial
cost savings. But what do you do if the problem ends up
being the fuel shut-off solenoid itself? I, like everyone else,
try to save as much money as possible so I can spend
money on things that I want.
I went through the diagnostic steps as Joe G stated by
finding and locating the large three wire connector between
the master cylinder and the engine and disconnected the
solenoid from the wiring harness. The black wire with the
trace is the ground and the white wire is the hot to the pullup coil power. You will need a 10-gauge wire for your test
leads. Apply the ground test wire to the black wire in the
connector and 12-volts to the white wire. The solenoid
should pull up. If it does not, disconnect the linkage and try
it again. If the solenoid works, the problem is most likely the
relay, but if it does not move, then it is the solenoid.
246
Installation is in reverse of removal. Check the length of
shaft on the solenoid; it should be 2.64 inches from the
top of the lever pin to the bottom of the bracket. The new
solenoid linkage comes preset and tightened so you should
not have to adjust the linkage, but if the linkage has been
misaligned you will have to loosen the shaft locknut and
rotate the adjuster to the correct length.
Just by following Joe G’s easy steps I was able to save
myself a lot of money and a lot of hassle. Overall the
replacement took about thirty minutes and was a fairly
easy job (skill level 2). Just the job for the do-it-yourselfer.
Hopefully next time I will get to write about something that
was not broken.
Brandon Parks
geno’s garage
Editor’s note: In a previous life I owned a ’96 Turbo Diesel.
I had the same no-start, need-to-replace-something
problem with either the relay or the solenoid. Brandon
didn’t mention, but if a no-start condition occurs one
of the first things you should check is the movement
of the solenoid linkage. If the pull-up coil doesn’t work
(no matter the reason—wiring, relay, solenoid) with the
key in the on position, reach below the rod and push it
up! Now, drive on to your destination and troubleshoot
the problem as time permits. Likewise, if you turn the
key off but the solenoid doesn’t release, the engine will
keep running. Time to push the solenoid lever down
and the engine will stop.
Final notes from the voice-of-experience: I had a heck
of a time correcting my no-start problem. With both new
relay and new solenoid laid out on top of the engine,
the solenoid did not want to pull up. I proceeded to
un-wire my hidden anti theft switch (Issue 26, page
17), but that did not help. After much frustration, the
solution presented itself: the solenoid needed a little
bit of pretension and it would pull-up every time. As
it is installed there is pre-tension in the linkage…but
there wasn’t any with the solenoid laid out on top of the
engine. Jeez…
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Vintage ’94-’04 Lock/unlock
How do I stop the automatic transmission from unlocking
when the truck is in overdrive or third gear?
Unfortunately there is not a “one size fits all” answer to this
question. However, at Geno’s we benefit from the millions
of miles of knowledge from members of the Turbo Diesel
Register magazine and from our own busted knuckle
experiences.
Before we suggest some different part numbers and repair
techniques we have to break this lock/unlock problem
down into year models of the truck:
’94-’98 with a 12-valve engine
’98.5-’04 with the 24-valve engine (VP=44 injection
with the ’98.5-’02; HPCR with the ’03-’04)
All year model trucks may benefit from a noise isolation
product from BD Power, part number BD 1300030.
Interference in the throttle position sensor circuits (APPS)
on Dodge Cummins engines from ’94-’04 will create false
voltage readings in the APPS/TPS circuit and cause the
lock-up torque converter to rapidly cycle on and off as you
drive. This part removes the RF interference.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
If the noise isolation is not the problem, for ’98.5-’04
owners the next step is to look at the accelerator pedal
position sensor (APPS), also known as the throttle position
sensor (TPS). The Geno’s Garage replacement is an
aftermarket item that is half the price of the factory unity.
Our part number is TPS 98502.
You can read further about the lock/unlock problem in your
TDR magazine(s). Related articles:
Transmission Noise
Issue 70, page 28
Issue 69, page 30
Issue 62, page 25
Issue 54, page 38
Issue 53, page 10
APPS
Issue 68, page 29
Issue 66, page 30
Issue 60, page 92
Shift Problems
Issue 60, page 28
247
MORE TORQUE CONVERTER
INTERMITTENT LOCK/UNLOCK
At 37 to 40–mph in third gear and at 52 to 55-mph in fourth
gear the transmission in my ’01 Turbo Diesel (351,000
miles) will shift in and out of torque converter lockup
repeatedly. I’ve tried the “fixes” suggested by members,
but obviously I am missing something. The alternator wires
have been wrapped for years. I thought it was a defective
ground at the battery since the cable has a non-factory end
that was loose which I repaired. I serviced the transmission
and found no problems. I replaced the accelerator pedal
position sensor (APPS) assembly which didn’t solve the
problem. I have run out of ideas to remedy my problem.
hammersley, Camas, WA
From my testing this weekend, it appears that the torque
converter lock/unlock issue on my ’01 Turbo Diesel 3500
may be solved. I will know for sure in about ten days when
I tow my fifth-wheel trailer to the mountains of New Mexico.
I received many suggestions on how to correct the torque
converter lock/unlock issue and followed up on all of them.
Check the battery cables first!
Unwrap the alternator wires, cut the alternator ground wire
and alternator charge wires out of the existing harness,
and reroute them separately and away from each other.
Route the alternator ground wire along the firewall to the
four-way split in the harness and the alternator charge wire
over the radiator support. Rerouting those two wires has
the highest success rate of any fix, so you might as well
start with something that works.
cerberusiam, McDonough, gA
I will try your solution. Do you have any photos of the wire
rerouting modification?
hammersley, Camas, WA
My son did the modification. He actually pulled the ground
wire completely out of the harness and extended it so he
could route it along the firewall instead of in the engine control
module/powertrain control module (ECM/PCM) harness.
He routed the charge wire from the alternator in the plastic
conduit across the top of the radiator and back to the original
termination point by the power distribution center (PDC).
cerberusiam, McDonough, gA
I followed the advice of TDR member “cerberusiam” and
separated the alternator ground and charge wires from
the rest of the wire harness. I re-routed the two wires and
cleaned all the ground connections.
I also installed a Navrone noise suppression filter Model
N-25 by Navone Engineering at (http://www.davidnavone.
com/cart.asp?24&cat=2 or 800-669-6139) as seen in
the photos which may be helpful to other members who
might want to use this electrical noise filter. I rerouted the
alternator charge line and ground at the same time. After
completion of the project, I have driven the truck on the
highway and could not reproduce the torque converter
unlock/lock issue.
After nothing else worked, rerouting the alternator charge
wire has solved the problem. Why, after 360,000 miles,
did the torque converter lock/unlock problem suddenly
develop? Years ago, I had the aluminum foil shielding
wrapped on the harness near the alternator and no
problems. What changed to make the rerouting necessary?
hammersley, Camas, WA
Deterioration of the shielding in the wire and in the
alternator is the usual culprit. The frequency changed just
enough to set up a different type of noise that the shielding
could not filter. As age deteriorates the PCM’s ability to filter
specifically stray noise, it begins to make more of an impact.
Unfortunately, the electronics deteriorate to the point where
they may not work and the truck may become unusable.
Add on filters and tin foil will not stop the problem when
the frequency changes enough to impact the PCM as it
ages. The ground wire is the usual culprit, but as you have
discovered, the alternator charge wire can “dirty things up”
also. I’m glad it worked for you.
cerberusiam, McDonough, gA
248
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Photos of final installation with air cleaner housing reinstalled.
Silver Ratler, Lubbock, TX
Editor’s Note: For more information on the common
intermittent torque converter unlock/lock problem and
suggested repairs, see Issue 73, page 32; Issue 71, page
35; Issue 70, page 30; Issue 69, page 30; Issue 62, page
25; Issue 53, pages 10 and 38. One or a combination of
suggested repairs appear to have been successful.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
249
mystery switch
Torque Converter Lockup Switch for ’96-’98 Ram
The following diagram is supplied at no cost or obligation by TST Products. Note that use of this method of lockup may be
hard on vehicle drivetrain and may void vehicle drivetrain warranty. Use makes vehicle drive like a manual transmission in
4th gear such that vehicle may/will stall at low speeds/stops if lockup is not disconnected.
1.
Install jumper wire in place of the trans relay in the Power Distribution Center (black box behind driver side battery)
as shown in diagram below. This jumper wire will supply 12 volt positive to the transmission torque converter clutch
solenoid. This jumper will be electrically hot thus it should be installed so as not to short against ground.
2.
Install ground wire from the B11 orange wire with black stripe to a switch or relay such that the ground source can
be turned on and off. The B11 wire is located in the middle computer connector located on the firewall behind the air
cleaner.
Driver must ground the B11 wire, have gear selector in Drive, and be moving fast enough to be in 2nd gear before the
torque converter clutch will engage. Transmission will shift from 2nd to 3rd, and 3rd to 4th (unless Overdrive is off) with the
torque converter clutch locked. Once in 4th, the transmission will not downshift unless the ground source is interrupted,
i.e. the switch is turned off.
250
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Torque Converter Lockup Switch for ’94-’95 Ram
The following diagram is supplied at no cost or obligation by TST Products. Note that use of this method of lockup may be
hard on vehicle drivetrain and may void vehicle drivetrain warranty. Use makes vehicle drive like a manual transmission in
4th gear such that vehicle may/will stall at low speeds/stops if lockup is not disconnected.
Install ground wire from the pin 54 orange wire with black stripe to a switch or relay such that the ground source can be
turned on and off. The pin 54 orange wire with black stripe is located in computer connector located on the firewall behind
the air cleaner.
Driver must ground the pin 54 wire, have gear selector in Drive, and be moving fast enough to be in 2nd gear before the
torque converter clutch will engage. Transmission will shift from 2nd to 3rd, and 3rd to 4th (unless Overdrive is off) with the
torque converter clutch locked. Once in 4th, the transmission will not downshift unless the ground source is interrupted,
i.e. the switch is turned off.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
251
Block 53 and Class Action settlement
ThE 24-VALVE, 53 BLOCK
CRACKINg BLUES—FACT OR FICTION?
By Andy Redmond
history
Disquieting reports concern members who have a truck
with a 53 block casting number. Although this is not the first
time this problem has been addressed (see Issue 48, page
30, Block Identification and Block Replacement), I’ve seen
little documentation as to its cause, repair procedures, or
longevity of any repairs. This infamous casting number has
some history (albeit limited) of the cast iron block cracking
below and behind the center expansion or freeze-plug
(passenger side of engine). Model years affected are late
’98.5 production 24-valve engines up to 2001. Okay, now
that affected model year owners have flashlight in hand and
are searching for the block number, its location is found on
the lower left front corner (driver’s side) of the engine block
behind the vacuum pump/power steering pump assembly.
iron repair techniques and how to test your 53 block for a
potential failure incident. Gary also shared with me that
he has worked extensively with Cummins and most of
the other OEMs for both cast iron and aluminum repair
techniques. Since he has extensively researched the 53
block as well as the trilogy of successor blocks, I quickly
became confident that he was in-the-know.
Crack(s) occur directly above text, along the angled rail
of the block, under the core/expansion plugs along the
molded shelf to the angled block skirt.
Reason for Failure/Subsequent Block Cracking?
You can’t miss it, “block 53,” on the driver’s
side of the engine, toward the front gear case,
behind the vacuum pump.
What piqued my interest in this topic was a TDR member
from Maine who called with questions about the differences
between engine blocks and the cracked 53 block in his
girlfriend’s ‘99 truck with 200,000 plus miles. Seems
that they had just sold the truck a few weeks prior to our
conversation to an acquaintance, who had phoned the day
before wanting his money back. After the transaction, the
new owner was spooked. So now when you sell a used
truck you have to warranty it too?
The conversation got me to thinking. After speaking
further with my best friend in New Hampshire (an expert
welder), Sean Tatham at North Country Welding, I
ventured to the website of a cast iron guru in California
named Gary Reed. Gary is both the CEO of Lock-n-Stitch
and Full Torque. I further learned that Gary has almost 40
years experience in cast iron and its repair, not to mention
a through knowledge of fasteners and how differing
metals react to heat. It seems that Gary has a proven
repair and reinforcement brackets for the 53 block. In our
correspondence, Gary shared his thoughts on proper cast
252
The block 53 was used by Dodge and in other ISB
applications such as Freightliner, Monaco and other
motorhomes. In my discussion with Gary he stated that
the 53 engine block casting is too thin in a crucial area.
The weak area can crack due to differing expansion rates
as the metal unevenly expands as the engine comes to
operating temperature. So, if you have a block 53, it is a
wise practice to warm up the engine before you put it into
a high load situation.
Gary has performed research at a Cummins remanufacturing
facility, where he measured fifty engine blocks. His
measurements allowed him to conclude that the block will
not likely fail if it measures a thickness of at least .250”.
Cracked blocks he measured have consistently showed
casting thickness in the range of .230”-.245”. In order to
check this dimension you will have to remove the center
expansion plug and use a one-inch micrometer to measure
the suspect crack area. This likely entails turbocharger and
exhaust manifold removal. Again, realize that block 53s
were used in many non-Dodge applications and of those
block 53s produced only a few have documented cracking/
failure. So, if you go to the trouble of checking the block 53
and you find it is less than .250” you’ve identified a block
that may crack at some point during its service life. Is that
80,000, 200,000, 600,000 miles? Should you run out and
sell the truck? Would you purchase a block 53 truck?
Both questions invite an emotional response. Yet, both
questions can be addressed with a factual dollars-andsense (play on words) answer. Read on.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
The FIX: Meet Lock-N-Stitch
I am in the service business. Like many others my
impression has been that a cracked cast iron block can’t
be repaired. However, Gary has one reliable way to repair
cast iron. The repair technique involves heating the cast
material (engine block) to 1,250°. The next step is to
powder weld the cracked area. However, for our block 53
problem this method would require engine removal from
the truck and complete disassembly—read: expensive and
not practical.
Before you call this a complete repair, take some time to
prevent future cracking. Lock-N-Stitch sells a support
bracket ($375 each) that adds strength to the block in this
weak area. It is recommended that one support bracket be
used for cracks that are up to 3”, two brackets for cracks
that are 3” to 6”, and three brackets for cracks that are 6”
to 12”.
The other obvious and expensive repair option is to source
a Cummins replacement block or a good used engine. The
latter will likely require honing and/or boring and oversized
pistons/piston rings. Both options are acceptable solutions.
Even if most everything is swapped-out, you are looking at
35-40 hours of labor.
Enter another repair technique, Lock-N-Stitch. The Lock-NStitch and its related fixtures allow for the repair to be done
with the engine in the chassis. For access to the crack you
will have to remove the turbocharger and exhaust manifold.
Drain the coolant and thoroughly clean the cracked area.
The crack is then drilled with many precise holes. A fixture
that is provided with the kit controls the depth of the holes
and their spacing along the crack. Pins are then inserted
into the holes. Manufactured by Lock-N-Stitch, the pins
have a special break-off head that breaks very close to
flush with the block. A grinding wheel will take the pins
to flush.
Reinforcement Bracket
The costs for one stitch kit is $320 (1”-4” length crack) and
one support bracket $375, totaling approximately $700. It’s
prudent to add at least another $700 for labor. A skilled
technician is easily able to perform this repair, albeit a
tedious process.
Gary shared with me that blocks produced after 53 were
thick. The post trilogy of block casting numbers after the
53 starts with an e-series block, which had no casting
number, then numerically labeled blocks 54, 55, and 56.
Lock-N-Stitch also has stitch kits for the repair of Cummins
cylinder heads. The 12-valve heads are infamous for
cracking in the injector bore and on the integral intake and
exhaust valve seats.
Andy Redmond
TDR Writer
Sources:
gary j. Reed, CEO
LOCK-N-STITCh Inc.
1015 S. Soderquist Rd.
Turlock, CA 95380
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
(800) 736-8261
(209) 632-1740 fax
www.locknstitch.com
253
BLOCK 53 EPILOgUE
Andy Redmond’s “Block 53” story was published in May
2008. His article referenced an earlier story from Issue 48
in May 2005. Subsequently, a TDR member documented
his experience with the Lock-n-Stitch repair in Issue 62,
November 2008.
As a conclusion to this story, in October 6, 2010, there was
a class action settlement on the Block 53 fiasco. As the
TDR’s editor, when I read the notice my comment was,
“Too complicated, too little, too late and too sad.” Below is
a copy of the notice.
254
As a reader of this Buyer’s Guide you A) have already
purchased a ’98.5-’01 truck, B) are considering the purchase
of a ’98.5-’01 truck, or C) are an interested reader.
From carefully reading Andy Redmond’s Issue 60 text you
know that most often the problem does not occur. I wish I
could give you some data on the percentage of incidents,
but I don’t have the answer. However, I can give you very
good guesstimate on ’98.5-’01 production volumes—my
guess being about 310,000 trucks.
Aside from the fact that you’ve been educated and are
aware of the situation, if you own or are considering a
’98.5-’01 truck there is no good ending to this story.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
steering Woes
Introduction
by Robert Patton
In a staff meeting a Geno’s Garage employee shared with
me the latest find from the newsstand. The headline from
Diesel-This-And-That was “Cure for the Dodge Death
Wobble.”
Wanting to learn about the one-size-fits-all “cure,” he
purchased the magazine, hoping to read about the
definitive answer.
If there is a single part to cure the steering problem, all
Turbo Diesel owners would like to know about it. You’ll
find that I’m not so bold as to suggest the one-size-fitsall approach, especially considering that we have four
generations of trucks to consider.
As I read the article in Diesel-This-And-That, I looked
closely for the author to give himself an “out.” You know,
using words like possibly; maybe; double-check your (fill
in the blank); also consider (fill-in-the-blank). If the words
were used, I missed them. Their suggested cure was the
combination of a steering stabilizer and a replacement
track bar, quite an expensive repair.
Again, I’m not so bold to suggest a single answer. I would
rather share with you the experiences from vendors, TDR
writers and TDR members. So in this article “Steering
Woes” you’ll find a compilation of correspondence that will
get you started in the direction of correcting the problem
rather than replacing parts that may or may not help. An
outline of this article looks like this:
Finally, I am fortunate in that I have not had any steering
problems with any of the five Turbo Diesel trucks that
I have owned. You can chalk this up to the fact that all
of my concrete-cowboy needs are met with two-wheel
drive trucks. Without the need to tinker with the steering
components, I am not qualified to offer advice. However,
TDR writer Andy Redmond works on these trucks day-in
and day-out. So, throughout the article you’ll find “Andy
Redmond responds:” as he adds commentary to the
other writer’s material and at the end of this compilation of
data, he updates his Issue 53 article with new alignment
specification that includes ’03-’09 Third Generation trucks.
Let’s get started with Andy’s article “An Overview of
Suspension components,” followed by his “Comments on
First Generation Trucks.”
AN OVERVIEW OF SUSPENSION COMPONENTS
by Andy Redmond
The focus of this article on “Steering Woes” is primarily
written for those ’94-’02 Second Generation owners.
However, I thought I would put a basic table together to
show the type of suspension and known problems to cover
all years of Turbo Diesel with the 4x4 drivetrain.
Owners should note that in 2003 the track bar was
redesigned with the introduction of the American Axle
for the Third Generation trucks. With the exception of the
lesser quality ball joints and hub bearing assemblies, the
front suspension on these ’03 and newer, later generation
trucks is substantially more robust and durable.
“Overview of Suspension Components,”
by TDR Writer Andy Redmond
“A Comment on First Generation Trucks,”
by TDR Writer Andy Redmond
“Is it a Simple “Rebuild of the Trackbar?”
by Luke’s Link employee Michael Engle
“Comments on ’94-’02 Death Wobble,”
by TDR Writer Andy Redmond
“Steering Woes on a ’94-’02 Second Generation Truck,”
by TDR member Brent Boxall
“Preferred Alignment Specifications Update”
by TDR Writer Andy Redmond
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
255
Year
Front Suspension Type
Leaf sprung-solid axle—Dana 60
Steering shaft rag joint. King pin wear and perhaps worn
bushings in leaf spring eyelets
1994-1999
Link coil (upper and lower trailing links with
coil-sprung solid front axle—Dana 60).
This truck uses a track bar to align the axle
between the frame rails.
Track bar wears out quickly (due to ball stud end). Small
eccentric adjusters on lower trailing arms allow for
insufficient positive caster adjustment. Steering gear that
wears over time.
2000-2002
Link coil (upper and lower trailing links with
coil sprung solid front axle—Dana 60).
This truck uses a track bar to align the axle
between the frame rails. There was a design
improvement with the dual piston brake
calipers, non captive rotors, different spindles,
ball joints and larger alignment eccentrics.
Same problems as earlier Second Generation
trucks, but now the ability to achieve preferred caster
adjustment, due to design changes in the lower trailing
arms (larger caster eccentrics). Steering gear that
wears over time.
2003-2009
Link coil suspension (American Axle)
Lesser quality ball joints and hub bearings. Much
improved track bar design and attachment point (track
bar has two eyes, versus the poorly designed earlier
style eyelet/ball stud design). A switch to a Delphi
steering gear from the Saginaw part. It too suffers some
reliability issues.
2010-2011
Link coil design similar to 2003-2009 models
Many subtle changes including larger sway bar links,
redesigned track bar, larger steering gear/steering
linkages. This steering gear shows promise of being over
engineered and very robust!
I know, I know, you want to read about the answer to your
steering woes, specifically those woes that pertain to the
’94-’02 Second Generation trucks. We will get to the answer
in due time. Do you dare skip ahead to my “Comments on
the ’94-’02 Death Wobble” or is it as simple as a “Rebuild
of the Trackbar.” Read on!
A COMMENT ON FIRST gENERATION TRUCKS
by Andy Redmond
As expected, the First Generation truck handled pretty
well, although they didn’t ride too nicely. The handling and
long wearing front end parts are classic old school—a solid
front axle, with leaf spring suspension, tapered roller wheel
bearings and manual locking axle hubs. The steering
shaft’s “rag joint” is the most common steering issue. Even
if the king pin (steering knuckle pivot points), and various
steering end links are worn, the leaf springs center the axle
(between the frame rails), resulting in a truck that usually
drives fairly straight.
REBUILD OF ThE TRACKBAR?
by Michael Engle/Luke’s Link
Anyone who has experienced steering problems while
driving a Dodge pickup truck knows all too well the
symptoms: wandering or drifting and/or a shimmy, or
even a violent shake when hitting a bump, known as
the “death wobble.” When trying to identify the specific
problem, most people look to vehicle alignment, worn
ball joints, steering boxes, or even tires. However, don’t
overlook the real problem: the ends of the track bar.
256
Known Problems
1989-1993
For the novice that is new to four-wheel drive, the track
bar is the bar that sits under your differential and runs
from the axle to the frame. This bar acts as a stabilizer
to keep the truck tracking straight as it travels down
the road. From ’94 to ’02 (Second Generation trucks)
the track bar had a bushing on one end and a ball joint
on the other end. Many people mistakenly replace the
entire track bar when the true cause of the problem is
simply the ball stud on the driver side end of the track
bar. Internally Dodge put a two-coiled metal spring to
hold pressure on the ball stud. Once this spring (which
is not strong enough in the first place), flattens out, the
bar sits on the ball stud and moves up and down. Below
is a picture of the spring that wears out.
Wandering or drifting occurs while driving because
when the steering wheel is moved, the track bar pulls
the axle, and that “play” in the bar lets the axle keep
moving. This causes the driver to pull the steering the
other way and you end up constantly steering the truck.
The death wobble occurs when shock or vibration is
sent from the axle to the track bar, causing the bar to
shake because of the play. The shake is then sent to
the frame of the truck which makes the truck shake.
Generally you must slow the truck to allow it to regain
its “composure.”
So if you are facing either of these problems, what do
you do? Some might think going with a thicker track
bar will solve this problem. A thicker track bar (with the
same “sloppy” ball stud) will not last any longer than the
stock bar. Likewise, regardless of a lifetime warranty
that is offered by some manufacturers, it is likely you
will be changing track bars every 6 to 12 months.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
So what is the solution? Luke’s Link of Colorado offers a
permanent solution to Dodge pickup tracking problems.
At Luke’s Link our line (technically speaking, a ball stud
socket collar) was designed to rebuild and convert track
bars to a fully adjustable end. With this kit, you remove the
ball stud and internal parts and slide a cap or C-clamp over
the end. You then install the new modified internal parts
with the new modified spring being the main component.
Then a large plug screws into the cap to tighten everything
down. With this setup, the ball joint will never wear out. If it
does, you can adjust it by unscrewing the plug and putting
a spacer under the plug to shim the spring down. This only
takes a few minutes to adjust. This allows the track bar
assembly to last for the life of the truck.
Luke’s Link has a simple check and test to determine if
your track bar ball stud is bad.
• You need two people to complete the inspection, and
at least one person should have some fairly good
strength. Make sure your vehicle is parked on a solid
surface with tires pointed straight forward. Do not
jack the truck off the ground.
• Have the stronger person sit in the driver’s seat and
unlock the steering wheel. Do not start the engine!
The other person should be under the vehicle with a
flashlight.
• The person in the driver’s seat should move the
steering wheel back and forth fairly hard. Under the
vehicle you should examine the ball stud joint to see if
there is any movement up or down. Make sure you are
looking at the track bar as well as the tie rod ends. The
main objective is to use the weight of the truck against
the axle. That is why it is important to leave the truck
completely on the ground. If there is movement, your
ball stud joint is likely in need of replacement. (Please
note that the tie rod ends will swivel and that is normal.
The track bar, however, should not move at all.) The
entire replacement part kit for this repair is $69.
About Luke’s Link
Luke’s Link has sold tens of thousands of repair kits in the
United States and internationally, and is recognized as a
leader in specialty auto products. We’ve been in business
for over 25 years. We’ve been prominently featured at many
automotive web sites and in publications including Peterson’s
4x4 Magazine. Owner/Operator/Inventor Johnnie Laucus
has owned a front-end shop for over 30 years. Laucus and
his engineer continue to expand and improve their product
line. In addition to this kit working on the Dodge track bar,
it will also work on the tie rod ends from ’94-’06 as well as
Jeep track bars and most Ford tie rod ends up to ’98. Luke’s
Link also has developed a kit for the Dodge ’03-’07 track
bar bushings. The bushing kit includes two poly bushings,
and new better fitting bolts for the ends. This set is $36 and
eliminates the need to replace the entire $350 track bar.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Please don’t confuse Luke’s Link kits with a cheap or
temporary fix. Luke’s Link offers low cost solutions
because it permanently solves the problems, with no need
to purchase expensive or unnecessary parts. See Luke’s
Link on the web at www.lukeslink.com or contact us at
1-800-962-4090.
“COMMENTS ON THE ’94-’02 DEATH WOBBlE”
by Andy Redmond
Luke’s Link is a great company with a great product.
However, I’ve experienced only marginal success unless
the repair kit was installed on a lightly worn track bar. The
kit often was not able to tighten the worn parts enough,
allowing continued death wobble. Unless Luke’s Link has
been updated, their directions state it will not work on the
slightly more heavy duty Moog DS1413 track bar.
For the Death Wobble problem on a Second Generation
truck, I wrote an article in Issue 46 (November 2004) that
covered the installation of a truck bar relocation bracket
and a new Mopar ’03-’08 track bar. Since the editor sent
this article to me for my review, I went back seven years
to Issue 46 to see if my opinion had changed. It has
not. As I mentioned, the repair is more involved than
the simple rebuild of the track bar with a Luke’s Link.
The parts used back then were a track bar relocation
bracket from Solid Steel Industries (www.solidsteel.
biz, part number DSS0019402-4, $209) Mopar ’03-’08
track bar (part number 52106795AC, at about $250). I
still use these parts. Since 2004 other companies have
introduced different versions of this kit; specifically,
the folks at BD Power offer a bracket and track bar kit
(BD part number 1032011, $480). My experience with
the BD kit is that it is more difficult to install. The Issue
46 article (pages 154-156) has the details of the SSI
bracket with the Mopar track bar.
STEERINg WOES ON A SECOND gENERATION 4X4
by Brent Boxall
The problem with steering issues is that they come
along slowly. Mine began at about 120,000 miles with a
mechanical “clunky” feeling in the steering wheel, and with
141,000 miles on the clock, my 2001 Ram 2500 Quad cab
4x4 had developed a tendency to move around in the lane
without driver input. I never experienced the “death wobble”
many speak of, but I’m sure I was a DUI suspect from time
to time, especially when towing. This wandering steering
issue made the truck a handful to drive so I decided to
fix it. Below is a description of what I did to fix my truck,
beginning at about 120,000 miles and completing the repair
at about 141,000 miles. This article is not intended as a
how to guide, but rather is a list of the steps I took when
repairing my truck. As always, your mileage may vary.
I fixed my steering in three phases: one being from the
steering column to the steering box; the next from the
steering box to the wheels; and finally phase three, the tie
rod ends and ball joints.
257
Phase One: Steering Column to Steering Box –
Chasing the Mechanical “Clunk”
After searching the truck’s steering system for loose
motion, I decided that the steering shaft in the bottom of
the column felt slightly loose. The best way to check this is
to stand next to the left front wheel and reach down below
the master cylinder and grab the shaft where it comes out
of the column tube. Pull the shaft up and down and feel for
mechanical play or loose motion in the column bearing.
Remember that a little bit of motion, like 0.002-0.003” can
feel like a lot in the steering wheel.
To investigate further I removed my original steering
shaft that connects the column shaft to the steering gear
box. This shaft felt good in my hands when checking for
rotational slop, until I realized that I had it telescoped to
a different spot in its extension range than where it rode
when in the truck. Upon more careful inspection I realized
that at the exact point in its extension range where it was
installed in the truck it had a slight amount of rotational
slop, less than 1 degree, but still noticeable.
To fix one of these issues I decided to replace the bearing in
the bottom of the steering column with the bushing offered
by http://rocksolidramtrucksteering.com. The instructions
supplied with the kit were very straightforward and it appears
to be somewhat easier to do on my truck given it is a manual
rather than the automatic trucks with the column gear
selector. One note worth mentioning here is that any time
you uncouple the steering system, the steering wheel is free
to turn inside the cab. This must not be allowed to happen as
it may bring about the destruction of the “clock spring” inside
the column. The clock spring is actually a thin ribbon cable
type electrical connection between the portion of the column
that rotates and the part that doesn’t rotate. The catch here
is that the cable or clock spring is a fixed length so if you
connect the steering back up in a different orientation than
it currently is, you may run out of cable when turning left or
right. The best way to avoid this is to put the truck’s front
wheels straight ahead prior to disassembly. Then take a
cargo strap and attach it to one of the driver’s seat floor
supports, thread it through the steering wheel and connect
to the other seat support as shown below:
This technique makes the steering stay put while
you work which avoids clock spring damage.
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Andy Redmond adds to Brent’s story: The bushing
offered by “rocksolidramtrucksteering.com” is a
worthy modification, more for steering column wear
and noise more so than handling concerns. Dodge
offers a toe plate bushing for later steering columns in
the Second generation trucks, which is used to solve
the problems of column wear and noise (clunking).
To replace the steering shaft I chose the Borgeson steering
shaft, part number 950. The installation instructions for the
Borgeson are straightforward and easy. I highly recommend
test fitting the steering shaft and then using Loctite for
all set screws and jam nuts. Again, follow Borgeson’s
instructions, your steering system is IMPORTANT!
While I had the steering shaft out of the truck I removed the
steering gearbox to check the play in it. The easiest way to
get the steering box out is to remove the hydraulic lines and
remove the tie rod end on the Pitman arm. The Pitman arm
retaining nut came off easily but the arm seemed not to
want to move. I chose not to remove my Pitman arm since it
was stuck hard even after soaking with penetrating oil. I put
the steering box on my bench and tried rotating the input
shaft very slightly to see if I had Pitman arm movement.
Using a dial indicator I determined that my steering box
had very near zero loose motion in it, so the steering gear
box went back in the truck.
Andy Redmond adds to Brent’s story: To adjust the
steering box for wear, I use the procedure outlined in
Dodge technical service bulletin (TSB) 19-10-97. Where
do you find this oldie (written in 1997)? The TDR’s web
site has a summary of the bulletin and a web search on
“TSB 19-10-97” will uncover the entire bulletin.
Every steering gear I’ve tightened has resulted in better
steering manners (less steering wheel motion before
the truck starts to change directions) after tightening
the preload. Please realize that this preload adjustment
does not address any side play in the sector shaft that
is connected to the Pitman arm.
And, although Brent didn’t remove his Pitman arm, I’ve
found that before attempting to remove the arm it helps
to wire brush everything, followed by a dousing of brake
cleaner, chased by some penetrating oil. If needed, try
some heat from a small torch. Sometimes a pneumatic
impact wrench on the Pitman arm puller is necessary
to pull a stubborn Pitman arm. I’ve even broken high
quality Pitman arm pullers, “abusing” them in such
a fashion. however, I’ve always been able to remove
the Pitman arm without Pitman arm or steering gear
damage, all with the steering gear on the truck!
One problem became readily apparent when I removed
the power steering hydraulic hoses. My power steering
fluid smelled burned and was unnaturally dark in color.
I then decided to take the power steering pump off and
check the condition of the pump. This observation fit with
the extremely high temperature of the hose fittings near
the hydraulic brake assist unit I have observed over the
life of the truck. I decided to do something about high
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
temperature of the power steering fluid. So I found an
automatic transmission fluid cooler that would fit on the
driver’s side of the air conditioning condenser in front of the
intercooler. I designed a bracket and mounted the cooler in
line in the return hose from the steering gear box back to
the power steering pump reservoir.
An automatic transmission fluid cooler in its
new job as a power steering fluid cooler.
This fluid cooler plumbed into the return line worked like
a charm to keep the power steering fluid cool. Even on a
100° day, after driving in traffic, you can put your hand on
the return line going from the cooler to the pump reservoir
and it is warm/hot to the touch, a major improvement over
the “roast your finger” stock system.
Problems arise! This new system worked great but the
stock pump either did not have the pressure or enough flow
to operate the system if I was braking while turning during
slow speed maneuvers and/or when the engine’s speed
was near idle. This can be attributed to the additional return
line back pressure created by cooler and the additional
8-10’ of hose required to get out to and from the cooler. One
way to tell if your power steering pump is having trouble
keeping up flow-wise, is to turn the steering wheel very
abruptly when the truck is moving very slowly. You will feel
the power assist “catch-up” a fraction of a second later. This
is a major indication that your pump isn’t providing enough
flow. The way to tell if your power steering pump isn’t
making enough pressure is during stopping and turning. If
the pump pressure is low the power brake assist will be
weak requiring more brake pedal pressure to stop and
steering effort is increased especially noticeable during low
speed maneuvers.
West Texas Offroad (www.westtexasoffroad.com) has a
good description of the Saginaw pump pressure regulator
and how to modify it, which I did, but still couldn’t get
enough performance from the stock pump. If I adjusted for
pressure, I didn’t have enough flow and likewise if I set up
the pump for adequate flow I lost too much brake power
assist and slow speed power steering assist.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Save a link to the “Tech” section of the West Texas Offroad
website. The technique of removing a spacer washer to
increase pressure is outlined in the next paragraph.
While searching for power steering pumps, I found
Performance Steering Components at www.pscmotorsports.
com. After talking with them on the phone I learned that our
trucks come stock with a Saginaw 1300 Series pump and
PSC offers 1300 series pumps as well as a 1400 Series
high performance pump. The 1400 requires a fluid cooler,
which I had just installed, so I ordered their part number
SP1490. After installing the pump and some Royal Purple
Max EZ Synthetic power steering fluid, I figured I was set.
The pump did great on flow, but required some effort to turn
the front wheels in a parking lot and also a heavy foot to stop
the truck. Now the information from West Texas Offroad
comes in handy on the pump pressure regulator. Take the
high pressure hose off the pump and unscrew the pressure
regulator per the West Texas instructions. You will notice
that the PSC SP1490 comes with two pressure regulation
washers on the regulator shaft. Remove one of them and
reassemble. After putting fluid back in the reservoir and
purging the air out of the system, it was picture-perfect.
The steering was one finger, even while stopped, and all
the flow you could ask for was there. I tried stopping while
turning, which uses both the hydraulic power brake assist
and the steering. All worked perfectly. Brake assist during a
simulated panic stop was also excellent.
Andy Redmond adds to Brent’s story: For 85% of TDR
members considering such a modification, they would
be smart to order the cooler/better Saginaw 1400
series pump from PSC as a kit.
Shimming the pressure regulator can cause exactly
what Brent explains; plus, when shimming the OEM
pump, I have seen the pump let go internally, leaving
you with no power steering (and no power brakes—’97
to ’02 hydro-boost equipped trucks), often within a
few minutes of the shimming process. This is a huge
safety concern. Shimming a pump is an exact science,
particularly impractical without pressure gauges and
a flow meter.
The Rock Solid column bushing and Borgeson steering
shaft fixed the clunky mechanical slop in the steering wheel
and the roasted power steering fluid problem was taken
care of with the fluid cooler and high performance pump.
These changes made the truck steer better than stock!
Okay, the clunky feel to the steering was gone, but the
truck still wandered around in the lane, most noticeably at
freeway speeds. My plan to change only so much of the
system before proceeding with further changes was tested
by commuting in the truck every day for a couple of months.
Phase One was complete. Time to start Phase Two.
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Phase Two: Steering Box to Wheels –
Chasing the Wandering Ram.
I chose Moog parts for all my front suspension replacements.
It is easy to see why the Moog components are better,
below is the new Moog track bar lying next to the stock bar.
One of my initial tests prior to beginning any steering work
on the truck was to jack up one front tire at a time and try to
rock the elevated tire in and out, top to bottom, and left to
right, thinking that I could isolate loose motion to a specific
ball joint or tie rod end. This test yielded no loose motion
no matter how much I pushed and pulled on each tire. This
made me wonder if the steering was really bad or if losing
my driving skill was part of the aging process! I somehow
convinced myself that the track bar must be the problem,
and the truck was just too heavy for me to physically detect
slop in the track bar.
Andy Redmond adds to Brent’s story: Ahhh…training
and experience helps when you are looking for
component wear. I and other TDR writers have provided
good instructions over the years on identifying loose
and worn chassis parts. Our techniques are similar
to Michael Engle’s method (the preceding Luke’s
Link narrative). The basic test: an assistant sawing
on the steering wheel (wheels on the ground) to test
track bar and steering linkages. This, followed by a
slightly raised tire, then utilizing a long pry bar (while
an assistant watches) to check the ball joints and hub
bearings. These methods of testing will allow you to
see any worn components.
I ordered a Moog DS1413 track bar from Rock Auto and
installed it. Installing the track bar is a fairly straightforward
operation: just remove the bolt from the axle connection on
the passenger side and remove the nut from the ball stud
accessible from the driver’s side fender well. Removing the
driver’s side wheel is a major help. To get the stud to back
out of the tapered hole in the frame use some penetrating
oil and a small sledge hammer to bump it out.
Andy Redmond adds to Brent’s story: Ahhh…training
and experience with too many sledge hammers helps
when you are trying to remove tapered ball studs.
Before you resort to the hammer method, try a pickle
fork, a modified Pitman arm puller or a Miller/SPX tool
C3894-A to break the tapered ball stud free.
just in case you missed it from my earlier discussion
in “Comments on the ’94-’02 Death Wobble,” my cureall is a combination of two parts: a track bar relocation
bracket and a ’03-’08 Mopar track bar. Installed on a
customer’s ’95 Turbo Diesel 2500, his truck has over
150K miles of trouble-free operation. These parts
should have been factory installed!
This track bar replacement settled the truck down quite a
bit and gave it some fairly decent road manners. I drove the
truck for several months with it at this stage and decided
that while it was tolerable, it still lacked the control and
stability it had when new.
Since I found the steering box to be good in the Phase One
inspection, I decided to look at the steering output shaft
and tie rod end. I had an assistant get in the truck while it
was sitting in the driveway, engine not running. I had him
rock the steering wheel back and forth very slightly while
I put my hands on all the joints including the steering box
output shaft. It appeared that the steering shaft bearings/
bushings inside the steering gearbox were good. I decided
that I didn’t like the steering box output shaft sticking out
without any support on the “free end” and realized this
could be a durability problem, so I decided to order and
install a BD steering box stabilizer from Geno’s Garage.
The BD stabilizer is basically a steering box output shaft
extension and support bearing. You remove the Pitman arm
nut and then add the BD shaft extender. Next you remove
the four bolts holding your front sway bar to the truck and
install the BD stabilizer under the sway bar brackets, using
the sway bar bolt locations and longer bolts supplied with
the kit. A self-aligning flange bearing is then added to the
BD stabilizer to support the newly extended output shaft.
Again, follow BD’s installation instructions.
Although my kit came from Solid Steel Industries,
I have also had occasion to install the kit from BD
Power. The BD variant is more difficult to install as it
also requires tedious alignment and, in some cases,
later drilling holes in the cross member.
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A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
The picture below shows the BD steering box stabilizer
installation after two years of use.
The BD steering box stabilizer enhances the truck’s
steering system by giving the steering shaft support
out past the point of load application which reduces
stress on the steering box’s output shaft bearings.
It also stiffens the frame rail near the steering box
mounting location, reducing side-to-side flexation.
Spline engagement housing on back side of front axle.
Before you put the truck up on the four jack stands,
remove the hub caps and take the half shaft hub nuts off.
This requires first removing the cotter pins and then a 1
11/16” socket. Penetrating oil and patience are important
components for this phase of the project. In my experience
the best penetrating oil you can get is mixture of 50%
acetone and 50% automatic transmission fluid. One word
of caution is that the penetrating oil isn’t friendly to the clear
coat on your aluminum wheels, so caution with runoff is
necessary. However, repeated application of penetrating
oil over a week’s time prior to disassembly will make the job
go much easier, especially with the bearing hubs.
Phase Three: Ball joints and Tie Rod Ends
The ball joints and tie rod ends are the only tasks left!
Many will advise putting the truck in four-wheel drive prior
to removing the front axle half shafts. Engaging 4WD puts
the spline engagement collar (central axle disconnect
– CAD) inside the axle housing half on the intermediate
shaft and half on the passenger side half shaft. This allows
you to remove the passenger side half shaft without the
collar falling down in the housing. If you leave the truck
in 2WD as I did and remove the passenger side half
shaft, the spline engagement collar will fall down in the
engagement housing. This is not a major issue at all since
you can disconnect the 4WD sensor and remove the four
1/4-20 bolts holding the spline engagement actuator/
housing cover. Once removed simply put the collar on the
intermediate shaft while reinstalling the passenger side
half shaft. Then position the collar on the spline so that
the actuator fork engages the collar and you can bolt up
the actuator/housing cover. I recommend removing the
spline engagement housing cover anyway to wipe the old
differential lube and crud out of the sump.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
My old Chicago Pneumatic 1/2” impact wrench
having a go with a 3/4” socket adapter and 1 11/16” socket.
Both nuts are standard clockwise tighten so remember
patience and penetrating oil. My impact wrench took
about 20 seconds per side and the nuts were off.
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Safety Reminder
For working on the front suspension the truck must be up
in the air so that you have clearance to work. For pressing
ball joints out of the axle you will need quite a bit of ground
clearance for the ‘C’ frame press.
I had two jack stands with a capacity of six tons each and
thought that would be plenty. After using my floor jack and
placing my two jack stands under the frame rails just aft of
the control arm brackets I decided I had too much weight
too high! The truck was fairly steady but it was possible
to move it around slightly by pulling on it with my hands.
It only took a second for me to decide this wasn’t secure
enough for me to lie under so I purchased two additional
six-ton jack stands and added them under the axle.
The jack stand configuration I used is shown below.
Remove steering damper.
Once the truck is safely up on the jack stands and you are
confident it is there to stay, remove both front wheels. The
next step is removing the brake calipers. Plan to hang them
from the control arm using a wire, a Ty-wrap, or a hook so
that the brake hose is not stressed. Never drop the caliper
or allow the hose to hold the weight of the caliper. The
brake rotor should now slide off to reveal the bearing hub.
(Unless you have a ’94-’99, which is a different design.)
With the brake rotors off both sides, this is a great time to
break this project down into two projects: tie rod ends and ball
joints. (Well…maybe four projects. You may want to change
the front differential oil while the steering components are
out of the way.) I recommend removing the steering damper
at the axle, the tie rod end out of the end of the Pitman arm,
and the tie rods from each steering knuckle.
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This allows the entire steering tie rod system to come off in
one assembly so the new components can be assembled
to match. Care must be taken when handling the entire
steering system as an assembly since it is heavy and the
tie rods can allow the components to rotate and pinch your
finger(s) between the various rods. (Ask me how I know.)
With the tie rods and steering damper off, now is a good
time to get a drain pan under the front differential and
remove the differential cover. To remove the differential
cover, remove all the bolts holding it on and use a putty
knife to separate it from the differential housing. If your oil
needs to be changed, draining it now will limit the amount of
oil that drips on the floor while the half shafts are removed.
Remove all the residual sealant from the sealing surface on
the differential housing and differential cover, taking care
not to allow any sealant flakes to get into the differential
housing. Don’t forget to take a clean rag and wipe the wear
particles out of the bottom of the differential housing. Your
gears and bearings will thank you.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
Now for the bearing hubs! With the rotors off, half shaft nuts
removed and the tie rod end removed from the steering
knuckle, the fun of getting the bearing hubs off begins.
Remove the ABS sensor if equipped and tie it back out
of the way so the cable and/or sensor can’t get damaged.
Many pullers exist that connect onto the lug studs and
push on the end of the half shaft in an attempt to get the
bearing hub off. I don’t like these since the reaction force
is pushing the half shaft back into the axle. The factory
service manual instructs one to back off of the four hub/
bearing housing bolts ¼ inch each. Then tap the bolts with
a hammer to loosen the hub/bearing from the steering
knuckle. Welcome to Fantasy Island! With 141,000 miles
on my truck, the bearing hubs didn’t respond to “tapping
with a hammer.”
The solution turned out to be a Lisle (LIS39300) Front
Hub and Knuckle Separator from ToolTopia.com and my
pneumatic impact hammer.
Andy Redmond adds to Brent’s story: I’ve used all the
methods for stuck hub bearings and by far both the
easiest and best method is the deep socket extension
trick or Snap-On Tool DhP1. Use of the Snap-On tool
wedged against a loosened bolt and against the axle
tube while an assistant turns the steering wheel will
pop them loose every time. Alternate the tool between
the bolts to walk it off little bits at the time. In fact, I
can even do it by myself, although it’s a lot of running
back and forth. Most DIY’s don’t have an air chisel
or compressor with adequate power for Brent’s
pneumatic impact hammer task, plus you don’t ruin
what bit of hearing you have left, huh?
If you want, you can review my write-up on the SnapOn Tool DhP1 by looking at TDR Issue 69, page 120.
Use the LIS39300 with your pneumatic hammer on the
backed off bolts, maintaining a solid backup behind the
impact hammer so the blows work the LIS39300 instead of
reacting back into a loosely held hammer.
A Publication of the TURBO DIESEL REGISTER
The face of the LIS 39300 is hollow so it won’t beat up
the hub/knuckle bolts. With patience and penetrating oil
(and sometimes a little heat) the hubs will come out. With
the passenger side knuckle turned to the right you run
the impact hammer on the front two bolts, and with the
passenger knuckle turned to the left, the rear two get the
impact hammer. Opposite for the driver’s side. One thing
I noticed is that the housing must be “walked” off evenly.
As you run the LIS39300 equipped impact hammer on the
front two bolts the hub will come out on the front. Place a
putty knife and then screw- driver in this gap so when you
begin to hammer on the rear bolts it will help to force the
hub out. Once the bearing hubs are off, gently ease the
half shaft out of each side and lay them on newspaper. The
trick here is to keep the spline and sealing surface of the
shafts clean and scratch free.
With the bearing hubs and half shafts out, remove the nuts
on the ball joints and the large retaining ring off the bottom
ball joint as shown below.
Also note extensive use of penetrating oil, it really does help.
The next task is to get the steering knuckles off the ball
joint studs. This job can be done easily with your pneumatic
impact ham