IP Core Signals for MAX 10 Devices

IP Core Signals for MAX 10 Devices
MAX 10 FPGA Device Architecture
2015.05.04
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The MAX® 10 devices consist of the following:
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Logic array blocks (LABs)
Analog-to-digital converter (ADC)
User flash memory (UFM)
Embedded multiplier blocks
Embedded memory blocks (M9K)
Clocks and phase-locked loops (PLL)
General purpose I/O
High-speed LVDS I/O
External memory interfaces
Configuration flash memory (CFM)
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Logic Array Block
Figure 1: Typical Device Floorplan for MAX 10 Devices
• The amount and location of each block varies in each MAX 10 device.
• Certain MAX 10 devices may not contain a specific block.
Clocks
PLL
Logic Array Blocks
I/O Banks
PLL
I/O Banks
PLL
Internal Flash
ADC block
UFM
I/O Banks
I/O Banks
CFM
PLL
Embedded Memory
Embedded Multipliers
Related Information
• MAX 10 Device Datasheet
Provides more information about specification and performance for MAX 10 devices.
• MAX 10 FPGA Device Overview
Provides more information about maximum resources in MAX 10 devices
Logic Array Block
The LABs are configurable logic blocks that consist of a group of logic resources.
Each LAB consists of the following:
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•
•
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16 logic elements (LEs)—smallest logic unit in MAX 10 devices
LE carry chains—carry chains propagated serially through each LE within a LAB
LAB control signals—dedicated logic for driving control signals to LEs within a LAB
Local interconnect—transfers signals between LEs in the same LAB
Register chains—transfers the output of one LE register to the adjacent LE register in a LAB
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LAB Interconnects
3
Figure 2: LAB Structure of MAX 10 Devices
Row Interconnect
Column
Interconnect
Direct link
interconnect
from adjacent
block
Direct link
interconnect
from adjacent
block
Direct link
interconnect
to adjacent
block
Direct link
interconnect
to adjacent
block
LAB
Local Interconnect
The Quartus® II Compiler places associated logic in a LAB or adjacent LABs, allowing the use of local and
register chain connections for performance and area efficiency.
LAB Interconnects
The LAB local interconnect is driven by column and row interconnects and LE outputs in the same LAB.
The direct link connection minimizes the use of row and column interconnects to provide higher
performance and flexibility. The direct link connection enables the neighboring elements from left and
right to drive the local interconnect of a LAB. The elements are:
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LABs
PLLs
M9K embedded memory blocks
embedded multipliers
Each LE can drive up to 48 LEs through local and direct link interconnects.
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LAB Control Signals
Figure 3: LAB Local and Direct Link Interconnects for MAX 10 Devices
Direct link interconnect from
left LAB, M9K memory
block, embedded multiplier,
PLL, or IOE output
Direct link interconnect from
right LAB, M9K memory
block, embedded multiplier,
PLL, or IOE output
LEs
Direct link
interconnect
to right
Direct link
interconnect
to left
Local
Interconnect
LAB
LAB Control Signals
Each LAB contains dedicated logic for driving control signals to its LEs.
The control signals include:
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Two clock signals
Two clock enable signals
Two asynchronous clear signals
One synchronous clear signal
One synchronous load signal
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LAB Control Signals
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Figure 4: LAB-Wide Control Signals for MAX 10 Devices
Dedicated
LAB Row
Clocks
6
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
labclkena2
labclkena1
labclk1
labclk2
labclr1
syncload
synclr
labclr2
Table 1: Control Signal Descriptions for MAX 10 Devices
Control Signal
labclk1
labclk2
Description
• Each LAB can use two clocks signals. The clock and clock enable signals
of each LAB are linked. For example, any LE in a particular LAB using
the labclk1 signal also uses the labclkena1 signal.
• If the LAB uses both the rising and falling edges of a clock, it also uses
both LAB-wide clock signals.
• The LAB row clocks [5..0] and LAB local interconnect generate the
LAB-wide clock signals. The MultiTrack interconnect inherent low skew
allows clock and control signal distribution in addition to data distribu‐
tion.
labclkena2
• Each LAB can use two clock enable signals. The clock and clock enable
signals of each LAB are linked. For example, any LE in a particular LAB
using the labclk1 signal also uses the labclkena1 signal.
• Deasserting the clock enable signal turns off the LAB-wide clock signal.
labclr1
Asynchronous clear signals:
labclkena1
labclr2
syncload
synclr
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• LAB-wide control signals that control the logic for the clear signal of the
register.
• The LE directly supports an asynchronous clear function.
Synchronous load and synchronous clear signals:
• Can be used for implementing counters and other functions
• LAB-wide control signals that affect all registers in the LAB
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Logic Elements
You can use up to eight control signals at a time. Register packing and synchronous load cannot be used
simultaneously.
Each LAB can have up to four non-global control signals. You can use additional LAB control signals as
long as they are global signals.
A LAB-wide asynchronous load signal to control the logic for the preset signal of the register is not
available. The register preset is achieved with a NOT gate push-back technique. MAX 10 devices only
support either a preset or asynchronous clear signal.
In addition to the clear port, MAX 10 devices provide a chip-wide reset pin (DEV_CLRn) to reset all
registers in the device. An option set before compilation in the Quartus II software controls this pin. This
chip-wide reset overrides all other control signals.
Logic Elements
LE is the smallest unit of logic in the MAX 10 device family architecture. LEs are compact and provide
advanced features with efficient logic usage.
Each LE has the following features:
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A four-input look-up table (LUT), which can implement any function of four variables
A programmable register
A carry chain connection
A register chain connection
The ability to drive the following interconnects:
• local
• row
• column
• register chain
• direct link
• Register packing support
• Register feedback support
LE Features
LEs contain inputs, outputs and registers to enable several features.
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LE Features
Figure 5: LE High-Level Block Diagram for MAX 10 Devices.
Register Chain
Routing from
previous LE
LAB-Wide
Synchronous
Load
LE Carry-In
data 1
data 2
data 3
Look-Up Table
(LUT)
Register Bypass
LAB-Wide
Synchronous
Clear
Synchronous
Load and
Clear Logic
Carry
Chain
data 4
Programmable
Register
D
Row, Column,
And Direct Link
Routing
Q
ENA
CLRN
Row, Column,
And Direct Link
Routing
labclr1
labclr2
Chip-Wide
Reset
(DEV_CLRn)
Register Feedback
Asynchronous
Clear Logic
Clock &
Clock Enable
Select
LE Carry-Out
Local
Routing
Register Chain
Output
labclk1
labclk2
labclkena1
labclkena2
LE Inputs
There are six available inputs to the LE in both mode LE operating modes, Normal Mode and Arithmetic
Mode. Each input is directed to different destinations to implement the desired logic function. The LE
inputs are:
• four data inputs from the LAB local interconnect
• an LE carry-in from the previous LE carry-chain
• a register chain connection
LE Outputs
Each LE has three outputs which are:
• Two LE outputs drive the column or row and direct link routing connections
• One LE output drives the local interconnect resources
The register packing feature is supported in MAX 10 devices. With register packing, the LUT or register
output drives the three outputs independently. This feature improves device utilization by using the
register and the LUT for unrelated functions.
The LAB-wide synchronous load control signal is not available when using register packing.
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LE Operating Modes
Register Chain Output
Each LE has a register chain output which allows registers in the same LAB to cascade together. This
feature speed up connections between LABs and optimize local interconnect resources by allowing the
following:
• LUTs to be used for combinational functions
• registers to be used for an unrelated shift register implementation
Programmable Register
You can configure the programmable register of each LE for D, T, JK, or SR flipflop operation. Each
register has the following inputs:
• clock—can be driven by signals that use the global clock network, general-purpose I/O pins or the
internal logic
• clear—can be driven by signals that use the global clock network, general-purpose I/O pins or the
internal logic
• clock enable—can be driven by general-purpose I/O pins or the internal logic
For combinational functions, the LUT output bypasses the register and drives directly to the LE outputs.
Register Feedback
The register feedback mode allows the register output to feed back into the LUT of the same LE. This is to
ensure that the register is packed with its own fan-out LUT which provides another mechanism for
improved fitting. The LE can also drive out registered and unregistered versions of the LUT output.
LE Operating Modes
The LEs in MAX 10 devices operate in two modes.
• Normal mode
• Arithmetic mode
These operating modes use LE resources differently. Both LE modes have six available inputs and LABwide signals.
The Quartus II software automatically chooses the appropriate mode for common functions, such as
counters, adders, subtractors, and arithmetic functions, in conjunction with parameterized functions such
as the library of parameterized modules (LPM) functions.
You can also create special-purpose functions that specify which LE operating mode to use for optimal
performance.
Normal Mode
Normal mode is suitable for general logic applications and combinational functions.
In normal mode, four data inputs from the LAB local interconnect are inputs to a four-input LUT. The
Quartus II Compiler automatically selects the carry-in (cin) or the data3 signal as one of the inputs to the
LUT. LEs in normal mode support packed registers and register feedback.
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Arithmetic Mode
9
Figure 6: LE Operating in Normal Mode for MAX 10 devices
Register Chain
Connection
Packed Register Input
sload
(LAB Wide)
sclear
(LAB Wide)
D
Row, Column, and
Direct Link Routing
ENA
CLRN
Row, Column, and
Direct Link Routing
Q
data1
data2
data3
cin (from cout
of previous LE)
Four-Input
LUT
clock (LAB Wide)
ena (LAB Wide)
aclr (LAB Wide)
data4
Register Bypass
Register Feedback
Local Routing
Register
Chain Output
Arithmetic Mode
Arithmetic mode is ideal for implementing adders, counters, accumulators, and comparators.
The LE in arithmetic mode implements a 2-bit full adder and basic carry chain. LEs in arithmetic mode
can drive out registered and unregistered versions of the LUT output. Register feedback and register
packing are supported when LEs are used in arithmetic mode.
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Analog-to-Digital Converter
Figure 7: LE Operating in Arithmetic Mode for MAX 10 devices
Register Chain
Connection
Packed Register Input
sload
(LAB Wide)
sclear
(LAB Wide)
data4
data1
data2
Three-Input
LUT
Row, Column, and
Direct link routing
ENA
CLRN
Row, Column, and
Direct link routing
Q
data3
cin (from cout
of previous LE)
D
Three-Input
LUT
clock (LAB Wide)
ena (LAB Wide)
aclr (LAB Wide)
Local Routing
cout
Register
Chain Output
Register Bypass
Register Feedback
Carry Chain
The Quartus II Compiler automatically creates carry chain logic during design processing. You can also
manually create the carry chain logic during design entry. Parameterized functions, such as LPM
functions, automatically take advantage of carry chains for the appropriate functions. The Quartus II
Compiler creates carry chains longer than 16 LEs by automatically linking LABs in the same column.
To enhanced fitting, a long carry chain runs vertically, which allows fast horizontal connections to M9K
memory blocks or embedded multipliers through direct link interconnects. For example, if a design has a
long carry chain in a LAB column next to a column of M9K memory blocks, any LE output can feed an
adjacent M9K memory block through the direct link interconnect.
If the carry chains run horizontally, any LAB which is not next to the column of M9K memory blocks uses
other row or column interconnects to drive a M9K memory block.
A carry chain continues as far as a full column.
Analog-to-Digital Converter
MAX 10 devices feature up to two analog-to-digital converters (ADC). The ADCs provide the MAX 10
devices with built-in capability for on-die temperature monitoring and external analog signal conversion.
The ADC solution consists of hard IP blocks in the MAX 10 device periphery and soft logic through the
Altera Modular ADC IP core.
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ADC Block Locations
11
The ADC solution provides you with built-in capability to translate analog quantities to digital data for
information processing, computing, data transmission, and control systems. The basic function is to
provide a 12 bit digital representation of the analog signal being observed.
The ADC solution works in two modes:
• Normal mode—monitors up to 18 single-ended external inputs with a cumulative sampling rate of one
megasymbols per second (Msps).
• Temperature sensing mode—monitors internal temperature data input with a sampling rate of up to
50 kilosymbols per second (ksps).
Figure 8: ADC Hard IP Block in MAX 10 Devices
PLL Clock In
Dedicated
Analog Input
ADC Analog Input
(Dual Function) [16:1]
ADC Hard IP Block
Mux
Sampling
and Hold
Sequencer [4:0]
DOUT [11:0]
12 bit 1 Mbps ADC
Control/Status
Temperature Sensor
Altera Modular ADC IP Core
ADC VREF
Internal VREF
Related Information
MAX 10 Analog to Digital Converter User Guide
ADC Block Locations
The ADC blocks are located at the top left corner of the MAX 10 device periphery.
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ADC Block Locations
Figure 9: ADC Block Location in 10M04 and 10M08 Devices
ADC1
8
7
1A
6
1B
5
2
I/O Bank
3
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ADC Block Locations
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Figure 10: ADC Block Location in 10M16 Devices
ADC1
8
7
1A
6
1B
5
2
OCT
3
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4
I/O Bank
ADC Block
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User Flash Memory
Figure 11: ADC Block Location in 10M25, 10M40, and 10M50 Devices
Package E144 of these devices have only one ADC block.
8
ADC1
7
ADC2
1A
6
1B
5
2
OCT
3
4
I/O Bank
ADC Block
User Flash Memory
Altera MAX 10 devices feature a user flash memory (UFM) block that stores non-volatile information.
The UFM is part of the internal flash available in MAX 10 devices.
The UFM architecture of MAX 10 devices is a combination of soft and hard IPs. You can only access the
UFM using the Altera On-Chip Flash IP core in the Quartus II software.
Figure 12: Altera On-Chip Flash IP Block Diagram
Avalon-MM
Avalon-MM
Avalon-MM Slave
Parallel Controller
(Data)
Parallel
Avalon-MM Slave
Serial Controller
(Data)
Avalon-MM
Control Register
Status Register
Avalon-MM Slave Controller
(Control)
Serial
UFM Block Interface
altera_onchip_flash
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Embedded Multiplier
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This IP block has two Avalon-MM slave controllers:
• Data—a wrapper of the UFM block that provides read and write accesses to the flash.
• Control—the CSR and status register for the flash, that is required only for write operations.
Related Information
MAX 10 User Flash Memory (UFM) User Guide
Embedded Multiplier
MAX 10 device supports up to 144 embedded multiplier blocks for digital signal processing applications.
Figure 13: Embedded Multipliers Arranged in Columns with Adjacent LABS
Embedded
Multiplier
Column
1 LAB
Row
Embedded
Multiplier
You can also use embedded multipliers of the MAX 10 devices to implement multiplier adder and
multiplier accumulator functions. The multiplier portion of the function is implemented using embedded
multipliers. The adder or accumulator function is implemented in logic elements (LEs).
Related Information
MAX 10 Embedded Multiplier User Guide
9-Bit Multipliers
You can configure each embedded multiplier to support two 9 × 9 independent multipliers for input
widths of up to 9 bits.
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18-Bit Multipliers
Figure 14: 9-Bit Multiplier Mode
signa
signb
aclr
clock
ena
Data A 0 [8..0]
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
Data B 0 [8..0]
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
Data A 1 [8..0]
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
Data Out 0 [17..0]
CLRN
9 x 9 Multiplier
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
Data B 1 [8..0]
D
Q
ENA
D
Q
ENA
Data Out 1 [17..0]
CLRN
9 x 9 Multiplier
Embedded Multiplier
All 9-bit multiplier inputs and results are independently sent through registers. The multiplier inputs can
accept signed integers, unsigned integers, or a combination of both.
Each embedded multiplier block has only one signa and one signb signal to control the sign representa‐
tion of the input data to the block. If the embedded multiplier block has two 9 × 9 multipliers the
following applies:
• The Data A input of both multipliers share the same signa signal
• The Data B input of both multipliers share the same signb signal
18-Bit Multipliers
You can configure each embedded multiplier to support a single 18 x 18 multiplier for input widths of 10
to 18 bits.
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Embedded Memory
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Figure 15: 18-Bit Multiplier Mode
signa
signb
aclr
clock
ena
Data A [17..0]
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
Data B [17..0]
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
D
Q
ENA
Data Out [35..0]
CLRN
18 x 18 Multiplier
Embedded Multiplier
All 18-bit multiplier inputs and results are independently sent through registers. The multiplier inputs can
accept signed integers, unsigned integers, or a combination of both. Also, you can dynamically change the
signa and signb signals and send these signals through dedicated input registers.
Embedded Memory
The MAX 10 embedded memory block is optimized for applications such as high throughput packet
processing, embedded processor program, and embedded data storage.
The MAX 10 embedded memory structure consists of 9,216-bit (including parity bits) blocks. Each M9K
block can be used in different widths and can be configured to provide the following memory functions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Single-port RAM
Simple dual-port RAM
True dual-port RAM
Single-port ROM
Dual-port ROM
Shift-register
FIFO
Memory-based multiplier
Related Information
MAX 10 Embedded Memory User Guide
MAX 10 FPGA Device Architecture
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Clock Networks and PLL
Clock Networks and PLL
MAX 10 devices support global clock network (GCLK) and phase-locked loop (PLL).
Clock networks provide clock sources for the core. You can use clock networks in high fan out global
signal network such as reset and clear.
PLLs provide robust clock management and synthesis for device clock management, external system clock
management, and I/O interface clocking.
Related Information
MAX 10 Clock Networks and PLLs User Guide
Global Clock Networks
GCLKs drive throughout the entire device, feeding all device quadrants. All resources in the device, such
as the I/O elements, logic array blocks (LABs), dedicated multiplier blocks, and M9K memory blocks can
use GCLKs as clock sources.
Use these clock network resources for control signals, such as clock enables and clears fed by an external
pin. Internal logic can also drive GCLKs for internally-generated GCLKs and asynchronous clears, clock
enables, or other control signals with high fan-out.
Figure 16: GCLK Network Sources for 10M02, 10M04, and 10M08 Devices
DPCLK2
DPCLK3
GCLK[0..4]
CLK[0,1][p,n]
GCLK[5..9]
CLK[2,3][p,n]
DPCLK0
DPCLK1
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Global Clock Networks
19
Figure 17: GCLK Network Sources for 10M16, 10M25, 10M40, and 10M50 Devices
CLK[4,5][p,n]
GCLK[10..14]
DPCLK2
DPCLK3
GCLK[0..4]
CLK[0,1][p,n]
GCLK[5..9]
CLK[2,3][p,n]
DPCLK0
DPCLK1
GCLK[15..19]
CLK[6,7][p,n]
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PLL Block and Locations
PLL Block and Locations
Figure 18: MAX 10 PLL High-Level Block Diagram
Each clock source can come from any of the two or four clock pins located on the same side of the device
as the PLL.
PLL
CLKIN
LOCK
circuit
4:1
Multiplexer
÷n
inclk0
inclk1
4:1
Multiplexer
Clock
Switchover
Block
clkswitch
clkbad0
clkbad1
activeclock
pfdena
PFD
lock
÷C0
CP
LF
VCO
Range
Detector
VCO
8 ÷2 (1)
8
÷C1
÷C2
÷C3
÷C4
PLL
output
mux
GCLKs
ADC clock (2)
External clock output
÷M
No Compensation; ZDB Mode
Source-Synchronous; Normal Mode
GCLK
networks
Notes:
(1) This is the VCO post-scale counter K.
(2) Only counter C0 of PLL1 and PLL3 can drive the ADC clock.
The main purpose of a PLL is to synchronize the phase and frequency of the VCO to an input reference
clock.
The following figures show the physical locations of the PLLs. Every index represents one PLL in the
device. The physical locations of the PLLs correspond to the coordinates in the Quartus II Chip Planner.
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PLL Block and Locations
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Figure 19: PLL Locations for 10M02 Device
Bank 8
Bank 6
Bank 5
Bank 2
Bank 1
PLL 2 (2)
PLL 1 (1)
Bank 3
Notes:
(1) Available on all packages except V36 package.
(2) Available on U324 and V36packages only.
Figure 20: PLL Locations for 10M04 and 10M08 Devices
Bank 7
Bank 3
Bank 4
PLL 2 (2)
PLL 1 (1)
Bank 5
Bank 2
Bank 6
Bank 1B Bank 1A
Bank 8
Notes:
(1) Available on all packages except V81 package.
(2) Available on F256, F484, U324, and V81 packages only.
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High-Speed LVDS I/O
Figure 21: PLL Locations for 10M16, 10M25, 10M40 and 10M50 Devices
Bank 8
Bank 7
PLL 2 (1)
Bank 2
Bank 5
Bank 6
Bank 1B Bank 1A
PLL 3 (1)
OCT
PLL 1
Bank 3
Bank 4
PLL 4 (1)
Note:
(1) Available on all packages except E144 and U169 packages.
High-Speed LVDS I/O
The MAX 10 device family supports high-speed LVDS protocols through the LVDS I/O banks and the
Altera Soft LVDS IP core.
The MAX 10 devices use registers and logic in the core fabric to implement LVDS input and output
interfaces.
• For LVDS transmitters and receivers, MAX 10 devices use the the double data rate I/O (DDIO)
registers that reside in the I/O elements (IOE). This architecture improves performance with regards to
the receiver input skew margin (RSKM) or transmitter channel-to-channel skew (TCCS).
• For the LVDS serializer/deserializer (SERDES), MAX 10 devices use logic elements (LE) registers.
Related Information
MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O User Guide
MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O Location
The I/O banks in MAX 10 devices support true LVDS input and emulated LVDS output on all I/O banks.
Only the bottom I/O banks support true LVDS output.
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MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O Location
Figure 22: LVDS Support in I/O Banks of 10M02 Devices
This figure shows a top view of the silicon die. Each bank is labeled with the actual bank number.
LVPECL support only in banks 2 and 6.
8
1
6
TX
5
2
3
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RX
LVDS
Emulated LVDS
RSDS
Emulated RSDS
Mini-LVDS
Emulated Mini-LVDS
PPDS
Emulated PPDS
BLVDS
LVPECL
TMDS
Sub-LVDS
SLVS
HiSpi
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MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O Location
Figure 23: LVDS Support in I/O Banks of 10M04 and 10M08 Devices
This figure shows a top view of the silicon die. Each bank is labeled with the actual bank number.
LVPECL support only in banks 2 and 6.
8
7
1A
6
TX
1B
5
2
3
Altera Corporation
4
RX
LVDS
Emulated LVDS
RSDS
Emulated RSDS
Mini-LVDS
Emulated Mini-LVDS
PPDS
Emulated PPDS
BLVDS
LVPECL
TMDS
Sub-LVDS
SLVS
HiSpi
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General Purpose I/O
Figure 24: LVDS Support in I/O Banks of 10M16, 10M25, 10M40, and 10M50 Devices
This figure shows a top view of the silicon die. Each bank is labeled with the actual bank number.
LVPECL support only in banks 2, 3, 6, and 8.
8
7
1A
6
TX
1B
5
2
OCT
3
4
RX
LVDS
Emulated LVDS
RSDS
Emulated RSDS
Mini-LVDS
Emulated Mini-LVDS
PPDS
Emulated PPDS
BLVDS
LVPECL
TMDS
Sub-LVDS
SLVS
HiSpi
General Purpose I/O
The I/O system of MAX 10 devices support various I/O standards. In the MAX 10 devices, the I/O pins
are located in I/O banks at the periphery of the devices. The I/O pins and I/O buffers have several
programmble features.
The I/O elements are located in a group of four modules per I/O bank:
• High speed DDR3 I/O banks—supports various I/O standards and protocols including DDR3. These
I/O banks are available only on the right side of the device.
• High speed I/O banks—supports various I/O standards and protocols except DDR3. These I/O banks
are available on the top, left, and bottom sides of the device.
• Low speed I/O banks—lower speeds I/O banks that are located at the top left side of the device.
For more information about I/O pins support, refer to the pinout files for your device.
Related Information
MAX 10 General Purpose I/O User Guide
MAX 10 I/O Banks Locations
The I/O banks are located at the periphery of the device.
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MAX 10 I/O Banks Locations
Figure 25: I/O Banks for 10M02 Device—Preliminary
VREF8
VCCIO8
8
VREF6
VREF1
1
6
VCCIO1
VCCIO6
VREF2
VREF5
5
2
VCCIO2
VCCIO5
Low Speed I/O
3
VCCIO3
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High Speed I/O
VREF3
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27
Figure 26: I/O Banks for 10M04 and 10M08 Devices—Preliminary
VREF8
VCCIO8
VREF7
8
VCCIO1A
VREF1
VCCIO1B
VCCIO7
7
1A
VREF6
6
VCCIO6
1B
VREF5
VREF2
5
2
VCCIO2
VCCIO5
Low Speed I/O
3
VCCIO3
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4
VREF3
VCCIO4
High Speed I/O
VREF4
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External Memory Interface
Figure 27: I/O Banks for 10M16, 10M25, 10M40, and 10M50 Devices—Preliminary
VREF8
VCCIO8
VREF7
8
VCCIO1A
VREF1
VCCIO1B
VCCIO7
7
1A
VREF6
6
VCCIO6
1B
VREF5
VREF2
5
2
VCCIO2
VCCIO5
OCT
Low Speed I/O
High Speed I/O
3
VCCIO3
4
VREF3
VCCIO4
High Speed DDR3 I/O
VREF4
External Memory Interface
The MAX 10 devices are capable of interfacing with a broad range of external memory standards.
This capability allows you to use the MAX 10 devices in a wide range of applications such as image
processing, storage, communications, and general embedded systems.
The external memory interface solution in MAX 10 devices consist of:
• The I/O elements that support external memory interfaces.
• The UniPHY IP core that allows you to configure the memory interfaces to support different external
memory interface standards.
Related Information
MAX 10 External Memory Interface User Guide
MAX 10 I/O Banks for External Memory Interface
In MAX 10 devices, external memory interfaces are supported only on the I/O banks on the right side of
the device. You must place all external memory I/O pins only on the right side I/O banks.
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Configuration
29
Figure 28: I/O Banks for External Memory Interfaces
PLL
8
7
Only the top right PLL
is usable for external
memory interfaces
PLL
1A
External memory interface
support only available on
I/O banks on the right side
of the device.
1B
PHYCLK
6
5
2
OCT
PLL
3
4
PLL
Configuration
MAX 10 devices support two types of configuration schemes:
• JTAG configuration—configuration using JTAG ports.
• Internal configuration—configuration using internal flash.
Figure 29: Overview of JTAG Configuration and Internal Configuration for MAX 10 Devices
JTAG Configuration
Configuration Data
.sof
MAX 10 Device
CRAM
Internal
Configuration
.pof
CFM
JTAG In-System Programming
Related Information
MAX 10 FPGA Configuration User Guide
MAX 10 FPGA Device Architecture
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JTAG Configuration
JTAG Configuration
JTAG configuration scheme allows you to directly configure the device core through JTAG pins—TDI,
TDO, TMS, and TCK pins. The Quartus II software automatically generates .sof that are used for JTAG
configuration with a download cable in the Quartus II software programmer.
The JTAG configuration scheme for MAX 10 devices does not support encryption and compression.
Internal Configuration
Before internal configuration, you need to program the configuration data into the configuration flash
memory (CFM). The configuration data to be written to CFM will be part of the programmer object file
(.pof). Using JTAG In-System Programming (ISP), you can program the .pof into the internal flash.
During internal configuration, MAX 10 devices load the configuration RAM (CRAM) with configuration
data from the CFM.
There are five modes of internal configuration scheme for MAX 10 devices:
•
•
•
•
•
Dual Compressed Images
Single Compressed Image
Single Compressed Image with Memory Initialization
Single Uncompressed Image
Single Uncompressed Image with Memory Initialization
Power Management
MAX 10 devices offer the following power supply device options:
• Single-supply device—requires 1 external power supply of 3.0 V or 3.3 V whilst offering maximum
convenience and board simplicity.
• Dual-supply device—requires 2 external power supplies of 1.2 V and 2.5 V whilst offering the most
features, lowest power, and highest performance.
Related Information
Power Management User Guide
Single-Supply Device
MAX 10 single-supply devices only need either a 3.0- or 3.3-V external power supply. The external power
supply serves as an input to the MAX 10 device VCC_ONE and VCCA power pins. This external power supply
is then regulated by an internal voltage regulator in the MAX 10 single-supply device to 1.2 V. The 1.2-V
voltage level is required by core logic operation.
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Dual-Supply Device
31
Figure 30: MAX 10 Single-Supply Device
Max 10 Single-Supply Device
3.3 V/3.0 V
VCC_ONE/VCCA
Voltage
Regulator
1.2 V
Dual-Supply Device
MAX 10 dual-supply devices require 1.2 V and 2.5 V for the device core logics and periphery operations.
Figure 31: MAX 10 Dual-Supply Device
VCCA, VCCA_ADC
(2.5 V)
VCC, VCCD_PLL, VCCINT
(1.2 V)
MAX 10
Dual-Supply Device
Document Revision History for MAX 10 FPGA Device Architecture
Date
Version
Changes
May 2015
2015.05.04
• Removed 'Internal Configuration' figure.
• Added 'Overview of of JTAG Configuration and Internal Configu‐
ration for MAX 10 Devices' figure in 'Configuration'.
December 2014
2014.12.15
• Updated Altera On Chip Flash IP core block diagram for user flash
memory.
• Updated links.
September 2014
2014.09.22
Initial release.
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TOC-2
Contents
MAX 10 Embedded Memory Overview.............................................................. 1-1
MAX 10 Embedded Memory Architecture and Features................................... 2-1
MAX 10 Embedded Memory General Features...................................................................................... 2-1
Control Signals................................................................................................................................. 2-1
Parity Bit............................................................................................................................................2-2
Read Enable.......................................................................................................................................2-2
Read-During-Write......................................................................................................................... 2-3
Byte Enable........................................................................................................................................2-3
Packed Mode Support..................................................................................................................... 2-4
Address Clock Enable Support.......................................................................................................2-5
Asynchronous Clear........................................................................................................................ 2-6
MAX 10 Embedded Memory Operation Modes..................................................................................... 2-7
Supported Memory Operation Modes..........................................................................................2-7
MAX 10 Embedded Memory Clock Modes.............................................................................................2-9
Asynchronous Clear in Clock Modes........................................................................................... 2-9
Output Read Data in Simultaneous Read and Write................................................................2-10
Independent Clock Enables in Clock Modes............................................................................. 2-10
MAX 10 Embedded Memory Configurations....................................................................................... 2-10
Port Width Configurations.......................................................................................................... 2-10
Mixed-Width Port Configurations..............................................................................................2-11
Maximum Block Depth Configuration.......................................................................................2-12
MAX 10 Embedded Memory Design Consideration..........................................3-1
Implement External Conflict Resolution..................................................................................................3-1
Customize Read-During-Write Behavior.................................................................................................3-1
Same-Port Read-During-Write Mode.......................................................................................... 3-2
Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode.........................................................................................3-3
Consider Power-Up State and Memory Initialization............................................................................3-5
Control Clocking to Reduce Power Consumption................................................................................. 3-5
Selecting Read-During-Write Output Choices........................................................................................3-6
RAM: 1-Port IP Core References........................................................................ 4-1
RAM: 1-Port IP Core Signals For MAX 10 Devices................................................................................4-2
RAM: 1-Port IP Core Parameters For MAX 10 Devices........................................................................ 4-3
RAM: 2-PORT IP Core References..................................................................... 5-1
RAM: 2-Ports IP Core Signals (Simple Dual-Port RAM) For MAX 10 Devices................................ 5-5
RAM: 2-Port IP Core Signals (True Dual-Port RAM) for MAX 10 Devices.......................................5-7
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TOC-3
RAM: 2-Port IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices......................................................................... 5-9
ROM: 1-PORT IP Core References.....................................................................6-1
ROM: 1-PORT IP Core Signals For MAX 10 Devices............................................................................6-2
ROM: 1-PORT IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices..................................................................... 6-4
ROM: 2-PORT IP Core References.....................................................................7-1
ROM: 2-PORT IP Core Signals for MAX 10 Devices.............................................................................7-3
ROM:2-Port IP Core Parameters For MAX 10 Devices.........................................................................7-5
Shift Register (RAM-based) IP Core References................................................ 8-1
Shift Register (RAM-based) IP Core Signals for MAX 10 Devices....................................................... 8-1
Shift Register (RAM-based) IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices............................................... 8-2
FIFO IP Core References.....................................................................................9-1
FIFO IP Core Signals for MAX 10 Devices.............................................................................................. 9-2
FIFO IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices.......................................................................................9-4
ALTMEMMULT IP Core References................................................................10-1
ALTMEMMULT IP Core Signals for MAX 10 Devices.......................................................................10-1
ALTMEMMULT IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices............................................................... 10-2
Additional Information for MAX 10 Embedded Memory User Guide............ A-1
Document Revision History for MAX 10 Embedded Memory User Guide.......................................A-1
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MAX® 10 embedded memory block is optimized for applications such as high throughput packet
processing, embedded processor program, and embedded data storage.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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Features
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The MAX 10 embedded memory structure consists of 9,216-bit (including parity bits) blocks. You can use
each M9K block in different widths and configuration to provide various memory functions such as
RAM, ROM, shift registers, and FIFO.
The following list summarizes the MAX 10 embedded memory features:
• Embedded memory general features
• Embedded memory operation modes
• Embedded memory clock modes
Related Information
MAX 10 Device Overview
For information about MAX 10 devices embedded memory capacity and distribution
MAX 10 Embedded Memory General Features
MAX 10 embedded memory supports the following general features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
8,192 memory bits per block (9,216 bits per block including parity).
Independent read-enable (rden) and write-enable (wren) signals for each port.
Packed mode in which the M9K memory block is split into two 4.5 K single-port RAMs.
Variable port configurations.
Single-port and simple dual-port modes support for all port widths.
True dual-port (one read and one write, two reads, or two writes) operation.
Byte enables for data input masking during writes.
Two clock-enable control signals for each port (port A and port B).
Initialization file to preload memory content in RAM and ROM modes.
Control Signals
The clock-enable control signal controls the clock entering the input and output registers and the entire
M9K memory block. This signal disables the clock so that the M9K memory block does not see any clock
edges and does not perform any operations.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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Parity Bit
The rden and wren control signals control the read and write operations for each port of the M9K
memory blocks. You can disable the rden or wren signals independently to save power whenever the
operation is not required.
Figure 2-1: Register Clock, Clear, and Control Signals Implementation in M9K Embedded Memory
Block
Dedicated
Row LAB
Clocks
6
Local
Interconnect
clock_b
clock_a
clocken_b
clocken_a
rden_a
rden_b
wren_a
wren_b
aclr_b
aclr_a
addressstall_b
byteena_b
addressstall_a byteena_a
Parity Bit
You can perform parity checking for error detection with the parity bit along with internal logic
resources. The M9K memory blocks support a parity bit for each storage byte. You can use this bit as
either a parity bit or as an additional data bit. No parity function is actually performed on this bit. If error
detection is not desired, you can use the parity bit as an additional data bit.
Read Enable
M9K memory blocks support the read enable feature for all memory modes.
If you...
Create the read-enable port and perform a write
operation with the read enable port deasserted
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...Then
The data output port retains the previous values that
are held during the most recent active read enable.
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Read-During-Write
If you...
2-3
...Then
• Activate the read enable during a write
operation, or
• Do not create a read-enable signal
The output port shows:
• the new data being written,
• the old data at that address, or
• a “Don't Care” value when read-during-write
occurs at the same address location.
Read-During-Write
The read-during-write operation occurs when a read operation and a write operation target the same
memory location at the same time.
The read-during-write operation operates in the following ways:
• Same-port
• Mixed-port
Related Information
Customize Read-During-Write Behavior on page 3-1
Byte Enable
• Memory block that are implemented as RAMs support byte enables.
• The byte enable controls mask the input data, so that only specific bytes of data are written. The
unwritten bytes retain the values written previously.
• The write enable (wren) signal, together with the byte enable (byteena) signal, control the write
operations on the RAM blocks. By default, the byteena signal is high (enabled) and only the wren
signal controls the writing.
• The byte enable registers do not have a clear port.
• M9K blocks support byte enables when the write port has a data width of ×16, ×18, ×32, or ×36 bits.
• Byte enables operate in a one-hot fashion. The LSB of the byteena signal corresponds to the LSB of the
data bus. For example, if byteena = 01 and you are using a RAM block in ×18 mode, data[8:0] is
enabled and data[17:9] is disabled. Similarly, if byteena = 11, both data[8:0] and data[17:9] are
enabled.
• Byte enables are active high.
Byte Enable Controls
Table 2-1: M9K Blocks Byte Enable Selections
byteena[3:0]
Affected Bytes. Any Combination of Byte Enables is Possible.
datain x 16
datain x 18
datain x 32
datain x 36
[0] = 1
[7:0]
[8:0]
[7:0]
[8:0]
[1] = 1
[15:8]
[17:9]
[15:8]
[17:9]
[2] = 1
—
—
[23:16]
[26:18]
[3] = 1
—
—
[31:24]
[35:27]
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Data Byte Output
Data Byte Output
If you...
...Then
Deassert a byte-enable bit during a write cycle
The old data in the memory appears in the
corresponding data-byte output.
Assert a byte-enable bit during a write cycle
The corresponding data-byte output depends on the
®
Quartus II software setting. The setting can be
either the newly written data or the old data at that
location.
RAM Blocks Operations
This figure shows how the wren and byteena signals control the RAM operations.
Figure 2-2: Byte Enable Functional Waveform
inclock
wren
rden
address
data
byteena
an
a0
a1
XXXX
contents at a1
10
01
a2
XXXX
11
FFFF
XX
ABFF
FFFF
FFCD
ABCD
FFFF
contents at a2
q (asynch)
a1
a0
ABCD
XX
contents at a0
a2
doutn
ABFF
FFCD
ABCD
ABFF
FFCD
ABCD
For this functional waveform, New Data Mode is selected.
Packed Mode Support
You can implement two single-port memory blocks in a single block under the following conditions:
• Each of the two independent block sizes is less than or equal to half of the M9K block size. The
maximum data width for each independent block is 18 bits wide.
• Each of the single-port memory blocks is configured in single-clock mode.
Related Information
MAX 10 Embedded Memory Clock Modes on page 2-9
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Address Clock Enable Support
2-5
Address Clock Enable Support
• The address clock enable feature holds the previous address value for as long as the address clock
enable signal (addressstall) is enabled (addressstall = 1).
• When you configure M9K memory blocks in dual-port mode, each port has its own independent
address clock enable.
• Use the address clock enable feature to improve the effectiveness of cache memory applications during
a cache-miss.
• The default value for the addressstall signal is low.
• The address register output feeds back to its input using a multiplexer. The addressstall signal
selects the multiplexer output.
Figure 2-3: Address Clock Enable Block Diagram
address[0]
address[0]
register
address[0]
address[N]
address[N]
register
address[N]
addressstall
clock
Address Clock Enable During Read Cycle Waveform
Figure 2-4: Address Clock Enable Waveform During Read Cycle
inclock
rdaddress
a0
a1
a2
a3
a4
a5
a6
rden
addressstall
latched address
an
a5
a1
a4
a0
(inside memory)
q (synch) doutn-1 doutn dout0 dout1 dout1 dout1 dout4
doutn dout0 dout1 dout1 dout1 dout4 dout5
q (asynch)
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Address Clock Enable During Write Cycle Waveform
Address Clock Enable During Write Cycle Waveform
Figure 2-5: Address Clock Enable Waveform During Write Cycle
inclock
wraddress
data
a0
a1
a2
a3
a4
a5
a6
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
wren
addressstall
latched address
(inside memory)
contents at a0
contents at a1
contents at a2
an
XX
a1
a0
a4
a5
00
01
XX
03
02
XX
contents at a3
XX
contents at a4
contents at a5
04
XX
XX
05
Asynchronous Clear
You can selectively enable asynchronous clear per logical memory using the RAM: 1-PORT and RAM: 2PORT IP cores.
The M9k block supports asynchronous clear for:
• Read address registers: Asserting asynchronous clear to the read address register during a read
operation might corrupt the memory content.
• Output registers: When applied to output registers, the asynchronous clear signal clears the output
registers and the effects are immediately seen. If your RAM does not use output registers, you can still
clear the RAM outputs using the output latch asynchronous clear feature.
• Output latches
Note: Input registers other than read address registers are not supported.
Figure 2-6: Output Latch Asynchronous Clear Waveform
clk
aclr
aclr at latch
q
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a1
a2
a0
a1
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Resetting Registers in M9K Blocks
2-7
Related Information
• Internal Memory (RAM and ROM) User Guide.
Resetting Registers in M9K Blocks
There are three ways to reset registers in the M9K blocks:
• Power up the device
• Use the aclr signal for output register only
• Assert the device-wide reset signal using the DEV_CLRn option
MAX 10 Embedded Memory Operation Modes
The M9K memory blocks allow you to implement fully-synchronous SRAM memory in multiple
operation modes. The M9K memory blocks do not support asynchronous (unregistered) memory inputs.
Note: Violating the setup or hold time on the M9K memory block input registers may corrupt memory
contents. This applies to both read and write operations.
Supported Memory Operation Modes
Table 2-2: Supported Memory Operation Modes in the M9K Embedded Memory Blocks
Memory Operation Mode
Single-port RAM
Related IP Core
RAM: 1-PORT IP Core
Description
Single-port mode supports non-simultaneous read
and write operations from a single address.
Use the read enable port to control the RAM output
ports behavior during a write operation:
• To show either the new data being written or the
old data at that address, activate the read enable
during a write operation.
• To retain the previous values that are held
during the most recent active read enable,
perform the write operation with the read enable
port deasserted.
Simple dual-port RAM
RAM: 2-PORT IP Core
You can simultaneously perform one read and one
write operations to different locations where the
write operation happens on port A and the read
operation happens on port B.
True dual-port RAM
RAM: 2-PORT IP Core
You can perform any combination of two port
operations:
• two reads, two writes, or,
• one read and one write at two different clock
frequencies.
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Supported Memory Operation Modes
Memory Operation Mode
Single-port ROM
Related IP Core
ROM: 1-PORT IP Core
Description
Only one address port is available for read
operation.
You can use the memory blocks as a ROM.
• Initialize the ROM contents of the memory
blocks using a .mif or .hex file.
• The address lines of the ROM are registered.
• The outputs can be registered or unregistered.
• The ROM read operation is identical to the read
operation in the single-port RAM configuration.
Dual-port ROM
ROM: 2-PORT IP Core
The dual-port ROM has almost similar functional
ports as single-port ROM. The difference is dualport ROM has an additional address port for read
operation.
You can use the memory blocks as a ROM.
• Initialize the ROM contents of the memory
blocks using a .mif or .hex file.
• The address lines of the ROM are registered.
• The outputs can be registered or unregistered.
• The ROM read operation is identical to the read
operation in the single-port RAM configuration.
Shift-register
Shift Register (RAMbased) IP Core
You can use the memory blocks as a shift-register
block to save logic cells and routing resources.
The input data width (w), the length of the taps (m),
and the number of taps (n) determine the size of a
shift register (w × m × n).
You can cascade memory blocks to implement
larger shift registers.
FIFO
FIFO IP Core
You can use the memory blocks as FIFO buffers.
• Use the FIFO IP core in single clock FIFO
(SCFIFO) mode and dual clock FIFO (DCFIFO)
mode to implement single- and dual-clock FIFO
buffers in your design.
• Use dual clock FIFO buffers when transferring
data from one clock domain to another clock
domain.
• The M9K memory blocks do not support
simultaneous read and write from an empty
FIFO buffer.
Memory-based
multiplier
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ALTMEMMULT IP Core
You can use the memory blocks as a memory-based
multiplier.
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MAX 10 Embedded Memory Clock Modes
Related Information
MAX 10 Embedded Memory Related IPs
MAX 10 Embedded Memory Clock Modes
Modes
Clock Mode
Independent
Clock Mode
Description
True
DualPort
Simple SingleDualPort
Port
ROM
FIFO
Yes
—
—
Yes
—
Input/Output • M9K memory blocks can implement input
Clock Mode
or output clock mode for single-port, true
dual-port, and simple dual-port memory
modes.
• An input clock controls all input registers to
the memory block, including data, address,
byteena, wren, and rden registers.
• An output clock controls the data-output
registers.
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Read or Write • M9K memory blocks support independent
Clock Mode
clock enables for both the read and write
clocks.
• A read clock controls the data outputs, read
address, and read enable registers.
• A write clock controls the data inputs, write
address, and write enable registers.
—
Yes
—
—
Yes
Single-Clock
Mode
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
A separate clock is available for the following
ports:
• Port A—Clock A controls all registers on the
port A side.
• Port B—Clock B controls all registers on the
port B side.
A single clock, together with a clock enable,
controls all registers of the memory block.
Related Information
• Packed Mode Support on page 2-4
• Control Clocking to Reduce Power Consumption on page 3-5
• Output Read Data in Simultaneous Read and Write on page 2-10
Asynchronous Clear in Clock Modes
In all clock modes, asynchronous clear is available only for output latches and output registers. For
independent clock mode, this is applicable on port A and port B.
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Output Read Data in Simultaneous Read and Write
Output Read Data in Simultaneous Read and Write
If you perform a simultaneous read/write to the same address location using the read or write clock mode,
the output read data is unknown. If you want the output read data to be a known value, use single-clock
or input/output clock mode and then select the appropriate read-during-write behavior in the RAM: 1PORT and RAM: 2-PORT IP cores.
Related Information
MAX 10 Embedded Memory Clock Modes on page 2-9
Independent Clock Enables in Clock Modes
Table 2-3: Supported Clock Modes for Independent Clock Enables
Clock Mode
Description
Read/write
Supported for both the read and write clocks.
Independent
Supported for the registers of both ports.
MAX 10 Embedded Memory Configurations
Table 2-4: Maximum Configurations Supported for M9K Embedded Memory Blocks
Feature
M9K Block
8192 × 1
4096 × 2
2048 × 4
1024 × 8
Configurations (depth × width)
1024 × 9
512 × 16
512 × 18
256 × 32
256 × 36
Port Width Configurations
The following equation defines the port width configuration: Memory depth (number of words) × Width
of the data input bus.
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Mixed-Width Port Configurations
• If your port width configuration (either the depth or the width) is more than the amount an internal
memory block can support, additional memory blocks (of the same type) are used. For example, if you
configure your M9K as 512 × 36, which exceeds the supported port width of 512 × 18, two M9Ks are
used to implement your RAM.
• In addition to the supported configuration provided, you can set the memory depth to a non-power of
two, but the actual memory depth allocated can vary. The variation depends on the type of resource
implemented.
• If the memory is implemented in dedicated memory blocks, setting a non-power of two for the
memory depth reflects the actual memory depth.
• When you implement your memory using dedicated memory blocks, refer to the Fitter report to check
the actual memory depth.
Mixed-Width Port Configurations
The mixed-width port configuration support allows you to read and write different data widths to an
M9K memory block. The following memory modes support the mixed-width port configuration:
• Simple dual-port RAM
• True dual-port RAM
• FIFO
M9K Block Mixed-Width Configurations (Simple Dual-Port RAM)
Read Port
Write Port
8192 × 1 4096 × 2 2048 × 4 1024 × 8 512 × 16 256 × 32 1024 × 9 512 × 18
256 × 36
8192 × 1
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
—
—
4096 × 2
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
—
—
2048 × 4
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
—
—
1024 × 8
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
—
—
512 × 16
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
—
—
256 × 32
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
—
—
1024 × 9
—
—
—
—
—
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
512 × 18
—
—
—
—
—
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
256 × 36
—
—
—
—
—
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
M9K Block Mixed-Width Configurations (True Dual-Port RAM Mode)
Read Port
Write Port
8192 × 1
4096 × 2
2048 × 4
1024 × 8
512 × 16
1024 × 9
512 × 18
8192 × 1
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
—
4096 × 2
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
—
2048 × 4
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
—
1024 × 8
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
—
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Maximum Block Depth Configuration
Read Port
Write Port
8192 × 1
4096 × 2
2048 × 4
1024 × 8
512 × 16
1024 × 9
512 × 18
512 × 16
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
—
1024 × 9
—
—
—
—
—
Yes
Yes
512 × 18
—
—
—
—
—
Yes
Yes
Maximum Block Depth Configuration
The Set the maximum block depth parameter allows you to set the maximum block depth of the
dedicated memory block you use. You can slice the memory block to your desired maximum block depth.
For example, the capacity of an M9K block is 9,216 bits, and the default memory depth is 8K, in which
each address is capable of storing 1 bit (8K × 1). If you set the maximum block depth to 512, the M9K
block is sliced to a depth of 512 and each address is capable of storing up to 18 bits (512 × 18).
Use this parameter to save power usage in your devices and to reduce the total number of memory blocks
used. However, this parameter might increase the number of LEs and affects the design performance.
When the RAM is sliced shallower, the dynamic power usage decreases. However, for a RAM block with a
depth of 256, the power used by the extra LEs starts to outweigh the power gain achieved by shallower
slices.
The maximum block depth must be in a power of two, and the valid values vary among different
dedicated memory blocks.
This table lists the valid range of maximum block depth for M9K memory blocks.
Table 2-5: Valid Range of Maximum Block Depth for M9K Memory Blocks
Memory Block
M9K
Valid Range
256 - 8K. The maximum block depth must be in a power of two.
The IP parameter editor prompts an error message if you enter an invalid value for the maximum block
depth. Altera recommends that you set the value of the Set the maximum block depth parameter to Auto
if you are unsure of the appropriate maximum block depth to set or the setting is not important for your
design. The Auto setting enables the Compiler to select the maximum block depth with the appropriate
port width configuration for the type of internal memory block of your memory.
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There are several considerations that require your attention to ensure the success of your designs.
Implement External Conflict Resolution
In the true dual-port RAM mode, you can perform two write operations to the same memory location.
However, the memory blocks do not have internal conflict resolution circuitry.
To avoid unknown data being written to the address, implement external conflict resolution logic to the
memory block.
Customize Read-During-Write Behavior
Customize the read-during-write behavior of the memory blocks to suit your design requirements.
Figure 3-1: Difference Between the Two Types of Read-during-Write Operations —Same Port and
Mixed Port.
FPGA Device
Port A
data in
Port B
data in
Mixed-port
data flow
Same-port
data flow
Port A
data out
Port B
data out
Related Information
Read-During-Write on page 2-3
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trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
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Same-Port Read-During-Write Mode
Same-Port Read-During-Write Mode
The same-port read-during-write mode applies to a single-port RAM or the same port of a true dual-port
RAM.
Table 3-1: Output Modes for Embedded Memory Blocks in Same-Port Read-During-Write Mode
This table lists the available output modes if you select the embedded memory blocks in the same-port readduring-write mode.
Output Mode
"new data"
(flow-through)
Description
The new data is available on the rising edge of the same clock cycle on which
the new data is written.
When using New Data mode together with byte enable, you can control the
output of the RAM.
When byte enable is high, the data written into the memory passes to the
output (flow-through).
When byte enable is low, the masked-off data is not written into the memory
and the old data in the memory appears on the outputs. Therefore, the
output can be a combination of new and old data determined by byteena.
"don't care"
The RAM outputs reflect the old data at that address before the write
operation proceeds.
Figure 3-2: Same-Port Read-During-Write: New Data Mode
clk_a
wren_a
rden_a
a0
address_a
data_a
q_a (asynch)
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A
a1
B
A
C
B
D
C
E
D
F
E
F
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Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode
Figure 3-3: Same Port Read-During-Write: Old Data Mode
clk_a
wren_a
rden_a
a0
address_a
data_a
q_a (asynch)
A
a1
B
a0(old data)
C
A
D
B
E
a1(old data)
F
D
E
Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode
The mixed-port read-during-write mode applies to simple and true dual-port RAM modes where two
ports perform read and write operations on the same memory address using the same clock—one port
reading from the address, and the other port writing to it.
Table 3-2: Output Modes for RAM in Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode
Output Mode
Description
"old data"
A read-during-write operation to different ports causes the RAM
output to reflect the “old data” value at the particular address.
"don't care"
The RAM outputs “don’t care” or “unknown” value.
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Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Operation with Dual Clocks
Figure 3-4: Mixed-Port Read-During-Write: Old Data Mode
clk_a&b
wren_a
address_a
data_a
a
b
A
B
C
D
E
F
rden_b
address_b
q_b (asynch)
a
a (old data)
b
A
B
b (old data)
D
E
In Don't Care mode, the old data is replaced with “Don't Care”.
Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Operation with Dual Clocks
For mixed-port read-during-write operation with dual clocks, the relationship between the clocks
determines the output behavior of the memory.
If You...
...Then
Use the same clock for the two clocks
The output is the old data from the address
location.
Use different clocks
The output is unknown during the mixed-port
read-during-write operation. This unknown value
may be the old or new data at the address location,
depending on whether the read happens before or
after the write.
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Consider Power-Up State and Memory Initialization
3-5
Consider Power-Up State and Memory Initialization
Consider the power-up state of the different types of memory blocks if you are designing logic that
evaluates the initial power-up values, as listed in the following table:
Table 3-3: Initial Power-Up Values of Embedded Memory Blocks
Memory Type
M9K
Output Registers
Power Up Value
Used
Zero (cleared)
Bypassed
Zero (cleared)
By default, the Quartus II software initializes the RAM cells to zero unless you specify a .mif.
All memory blocks support initialization with a .mif. You can create .mif files in the Quartus II software
and specify their use with the RAM IP when you instantiate a memory in your design. Even if a memory is
preinitialized (for example, using a .mif), it still powers up with its output cleared. Only the subsequent
read after power up outputs the preinitialized values.
Only the following MAX 10 configuration modes support memory initialization:
• Single Compressed Image with Memory Initialization
• Single Uncompressed Image with Memory Initialization
Related Information
Selecting Internal Configuration modes.
Provides more information about selecting MAX 10 internal configuration modes.
Control Clocking to Reduce Power Consumption
Reduce AC power consumption in your design by controlling the clocking of each memory block:
• Use the read-enable signal to ensure that read operations occur only when necessary. If your design
does not require read-during-write, you can reduce your power consumption by deasserting the readenable signal during write operations, or during the period when no memory operations occur.
• Use the Quartus II software to automatically place any unused memory blocks in low-power mode to
reduce static power.
• Create independent clock enable for different input and output registers to control the shut down of a
particular register for power saving purposes. From the parameter editor, click More Options (beside
the clock enable option) to set the available independent clock enable that you prefer.
Related Information
MAX 10 Embedded Memory Clock Modes on page 2-9
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Selecting Read-During-Write Output Choices
Selecting Read-During-Write Output Choices
• Single-port RAM only supports same-port read-during-write, and the clock mode must be either
single clock mode, or input/output clock mode.
• Simple dual-port RAM only supports mixed-port read-during-write, and the clock mode must be
either single clock mode, or input/output clock mode.
• True dual-port RAM supports same port read-during-write and mixed-port read-during-write.
• For same port read-during-write, the clock mode must be either single clock mode, input/output
clock mode, or independent clock mode.
• For mixed port read-during-write, the clock mode must be either single clock mode, or input/
output clock mode.
Note: If you are not concerned about the output when read-during-write occurs and would like to
improve performance, select Don't Care. Selecting Don't Care increases the flexibility in the type
of memory block being used, provided you do not assign block type when you instantiate the
memory block.
Table 3-4: Output Choices for the Same-Port and Mixed-Port Read-During-Write
Memory Block
M9K
Single-Port RAM
Simple DualPort RAM
Same-Port
Read-DuringWrite
Mixed-Port
Read-DuringWrite
True Dual-Port RAM
Same-Port
Read-DuringWrite
Mixed-Port Read-During-Write
Don’t Care
Old Data
New Data
Old Data
New Data
Don’t Care
Old Data
Don’t Care
Old Data
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The RAM: 1-Port IP core implements the single-port RAM memory mode.
Figure 4-1: RAM: 1-Port IP Core Signals with the Single Clock Option Enabled
q[]
data[]
wren
address[]
addressstall_a
rden
outaclr
clock
clken
Figure 4-2: RAM: 1-Port IP Core Signals with the Dual Clock Option Enabled
q[]
data[]
wren
address[]
addressstall_a
inclock
inclocken
outclock
outclocken
outaclr
rden
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
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RAM: 1-Port IP Core Signals For MAX 10 Devices
RAM: 1-Port IP Core Signals For MAX 10 Devices
Table 4-1: RAM:1-Port IP Core Input Signals
Signal
Required
Description
data
Yes
Data input to the memory. The data port is required
and the width must be equal to the width of the q port.
address
Yes
Address input to the memory.
wren
Yes
Write enable input for the wraddress port.
addressstall_a
Optional
Address clock enable input to hold the previous address
of address_a port for as long as the addressstall_a
port is high.
clock
Yes
The following list describes which of your memory
clock must be connected to the clock port, and port
synchronization in different clocking modes:
• Single clock—Connect your single source clock to
clock port. All registered ports are synchronized by
the same source clock.
• Read/Write—Connect your write clock to clock
port. All registered ports related to write operation,
such as data_a port, address_a port, wren_a port,
and byteena_a port are synchronized by the write
clock.
• Input/Output—Connect your input clock to clock
port. All registered input ports are synchronized by
the input clock.
• Independent clock—Connect your port A clock to
clock port. All registered input and output ports of
port A are synchronized by the port A clock.
clkena
Optional
Clock enable input for clock port.
rden
Optional
Read enable input for rdaddress port.
aclr
Optional
Asynchronously clear the registered input and output
ports. The asynchronous clear effect on the registered
ports can be controlled through their corresponding
asynchronous clear parameter, such as indata_aclr,
wraddress_aclr, and so on.
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Signal
Required
Optional
inclock
4-3
Description
The following list describes which of your memory
clock must be connected to the inclock port, and port
synchronization in different clock modes:
• Single clock—Connect your single source clock to
inclock port and outclock port. All registered
ports are synchronized by the same source clock.
• Read/Write—Connect your write clock to inclock
port. All registered ports related to write operation,
such as data port, wraddress port, wren port, and
byteena port are synchronized by the write clock.
• Input/Output—Connect your input clock to
inclock port. All registered input ports are
synchronized by the input clock.
inclocken
Optional
Clock enable input for inclock port.
outclock
Optional
The following list describes which of your memory
clock must be connected to the outclock port, and port
synchronization in different clock modes:
• Single clock—Connect your single source clock to
inclock port and outclock port. All registered
ports are synchronized by the same source clock.
• Read/Write—Connect your read clock to outclock
port. All registered ports related to read operation,
such as rdaddress port, rdren port, and q port are
synchronized by the read clock.
• Input/Output—Connect your output clock to
outclock port. The registered q port is synchron‐
ized by the output clock.
Optional
outclocken
Clock enable input for outclock port.
Table 4-2: RAM:1-Port IP Core Output Ports
Signal
Required
Yes
q
Description
Data output from the memory. The q port must be
equal to the width data port.
RAM: 1-Port IP Core Parameters For MAX 10 Devices
Table 4-3: RAM: 1-Port IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
Parameter
Values
Description
Parameter Settings: Widths/Blk Type/Clks
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Parameter
Values
Description
How wide should the 'q' output bus be?
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,
10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,
22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27,
28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 36,
40, 48, 64, 72, 108,
128, 144, and 256.
Specifies the width of the 'q' output bus
in bits.
How many <X>-bit words of memory?
32, 64, 128, 256, 512,
1024, 2048, 4096,
8192, 16384, 32768,
and 65536.
Specifies the number of <X>-bit
words.
Auto
On/Off
M9K
On/Off
LC
On/Off
Specifies the memory block type. The
types of memory block that are
available for selection depends on your
target device.
What should the memory block type be?
Use default
logic cell style
Options
On/Off
Use Stratix
On/Off
M512
emulation logic
cell style
Set the maximum block depth to
Auto, 32, 64, 128,
256, 512, 1024, 2048,
4096, and 8192
Specifies the logic cell implementation
options. This option is enabled only
when you choose LCs memory type.
Specifies the maximum block depth in
words. This option is disabled only
when you choose LCs memory type.
What clocking method would you like to use?
Single clock
On/Off
A single clock and a clock enable
controls all registers of the memory
block.
Dual clock: use separate ‘input’ and
‘output’ clocks
On/Off
An input and an output clock controls
all registers related to the data input
and output to/from the memory block
including data, address, byte enables,
read enables, and write enables.
Parameter Settings: Regs/Clkens/Byte Enable/Aclrs
Which ports should be registered?
'data' and 'wren' input ports
—
This option is automatically enabled.
Specifies whether to register the read
or write input and output ports.
'address' input port
—
This option is automatically enabled.
Specifies whether to register the read
or write input and output ports.
'q' output port
On/Off
Specifies whether to register the read
or write input and output ports.
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Parameter
Values
Create one clock enable signal for each
clock signal.
More Options
4-5
Description
On/Off
Specifies whether to turn on the option
to create one clock enable signal for
each clock signal.
Use clock
enable for port
A input
registers
On/Off
Specify whether to use clock enable for
port A input and output registers.
Use clock
enable for port
A output
registers
On/Off
Specify whether to use clock enable for
port A input and output registers.
Create an
'addressstall_a'
input port
On/Off
Specifies whether to create clock
enables for address registers. You can
create these ports to act as an extra
active low clock enable input for the
address registers.
Create an ‘aclr’ asynchronous clear for the On/Off
registered ports.
Specifies whether to create an
asynchronous clear port for the
registered ports.
More Options
'q' port
On/Off
Specifies whether the q port is cleared
by the aclr port.
Create a 'rden' read enable signal
On/Off
Specifies whether to create a rden read
enable signal.
Parameter Settings: Read During Write Option
Single Port Read During Write Option
What should the q output be when
reading from a memory location being
written to?
• Don't Care
• New Data
• Old Data
Get x's for write masked bytes instead of
old data when byte enable is used
On/Off
Specifies the output behavior when
read-during-write occurs.
• Don't Care—The RAM outputs
"don't care" or "unknown" values
for read-during-write operation.
• New Data—New data is available
on the rising edge of the same clock
cycle on which it was written.
• Old Data— The RAM outputs
reflect the old data at that address
before the write operation
proceeds.
Turn on this option to obtain 'X' on
the masked byte.
Parameter Settings: Mem Init
Do you want to specify the initial content of the memory?
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Parameter
Values
No, leave it blank
On/Off
Initialize memory content data to XX..X
on power-up in simulation
On/Off
Yes, use this file for the memory content
data
On/Off
Description
Specifies the initial content of the
memory. Initialize the memory to
zero.
Allows you to specify a memory
initialization file (.mif) or a hexadec‐
imal (Intel-format) file (.hex).
Note: The configuration scheme
of your device is Internal
Configuration. In order to
use memory initialization,
you must select a single
image configuration mode
with memory initialization,
for example the Single
Compressed Image with
Memory Initialization
option. You can set the
configuration mode on the
Configuration page of the
Device and Pin Options
dialog box.
Allow In-System Memory Content Editor On/Off
to capture and update content independ‐
ently of the system clock
Specifies whether to allow In-System
Memory Content Editor to capture
and update content independently of
the system clock.
The 'Instance ID' of this RAM is
Specifies the RAM ID.
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The RAM: 2-PORT IP core implements the simple dual-port RAM and true dual-port RAM memory
modes.
Figure 5-1: RAM: 2-Port IP Core Signals With the One Read Port and One Write Port, and Single Clock
Options Enabled
q[]
data[]
wraddress[]
wren
rdaddress[]
rden
byteena_a[]
aclr
wr_addressstall
rd_addressstall
clock
enable
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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RAM: 2-PORT IP Core References
Figure 5-2: RAM: 2-Port IP Core Signals with the One Read Port and One Write Port, and Dual Clock: Use
Separate 'Read' and 'Write' Clocks Options Enabled
q[]
data[]
wraddress[]
wren
rdaddress[]
rden
wrclock
wrclocken
rdclock
rdclocken
rdinclocken
rdoutclocken
rd_aclr
byteena_a[]
wr_addressstall
rd_addressstall
Figure 5-3: RAM: 2-Port IP Core Signals with the One Read Port and One Write Port, and Dual Clock: Use
Separate 'Input' and 'Output' Clocks Options Enabled
data[]
q[]
wraddress[]
wren
rdaddress[]
rden
byteena_a[]
inclock
inclocken
outclock
outclocken
Altera Corporation
in_aclr
out_aclr
wr_addressstall
rd_addressstall
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Figure 5-4: RAM: 2-Port IP Core Signals with the Two Read/Write Ports and Single Clock Options
Enabled
q_a[]
data_a[]
address_a[]
q_b[]
wren_a
rden_a
data_b[]
address_b[]
wren_b
rden_b
byteena_a[]
addressstall_a
addressstall_b
aclr
clock
enable
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Figure 5-5: RAM: 2-Port IP Core Signals with the Two Read/Write Ports and Dual Clock: Use Separate
'Input' and 'Output' Clocks Options Enabled
q_a[]
data_a[]
address_a[]
q_b[]
wren_a
rden_a
data_b[]
address_b[]
wren_b
rden_b
inclock
inclocken
outclock
outclocken
Altera Corporation
out_aclr
byteena_a[]
addressstall_a
addressstall_b
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5-5
Figure 5-6: RAM: 2-Port IP Core Signals with the Two Read/Write Ports and Dual Clock: Use Separate for
A and B Ports Options Enabled
q_a[]
data_a[]
address_a[]
q_b[]
wren_a
rden_a
data_b[]
address_b[]
wren_b
rden_b
clock_a
enable_a
clock_b
enable_b
aclr_a
aclr_b
byteena_a[]
addressstall_a
addressstall_b
RAM: 2-Ports IP Core Signals (Simple Dual-Port RAM) For MAX 10 Devices
Table 5-1: RAM: 2-Ports IP Core Input Signals (Simple Dual-Port RAM)
Signal
Required
Description
data
Yes
Data input to the memory. The data port is required and the
width must be equal to the width of the q port.
wraddress
Yes
Write address input to the memory. The wraddress port is
required and must be equal to the width of the raddress port.
wren
Yes
Write enable input for wraddress port. The wren port is
required.
rdaddress
Yes
Read address input to the memory. The rdaddress port is
required and must be equal to the width of wraddress port.
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Signal
clock
Required
Yes
Description
The following list describes which of your memory clock must
be connected to the clock port, and port synchronization in
different clock modes:
• Single clock—Connect your single source clock to clock
port. All registered ports are synchronized by the same
source clock.
• Read/Write—Connect your write clock to clock port. All
registered ports related to write operation, such as data_a
port, address_a port, wren_a port, and byteena_a port are
synchronized by the write clock.
• Input/Output—Connect your input clock to clock port. All
registered input ports are synchronized by the input clock.
• Independent clock—Connect your port A clock to clock
port. All registered input and output ports of port A are
synchronized by the port A clock.
inclock
Yes
The following list describes which of your memory clock must
be connected to the inclock port, and port synchronization in
different clock modes:
• Single clock—Connect your single source clock to inclock
port and outclock port. All registered ports are synchron‐
ized by the same source clock.
• Read/Write—Connect your write clock to inclock port. All
registered ports related to write operation, such as data
port, wraddress port, wren port, and byteena port are
synchronized by the write clock.
• Input/Output—Connect your input clock to inclock port.
All registered input ports are synchronized by the input
clock.
outclock
Yes
The following list describes which of your memory clock must
be connected to the outclock port, and port synchronization in
different clock modes:
• Single clock—Connect your single source clock to inclock
port and outclock port. All registered ports are synchron‐
ized by the same source clock.
• Read/Write—Connect your read clock to outclock port. All
registered ports related to read operation, such as
rdaddress port, rdren port, and q port are synchronized by
the read clock.
• Input/Output—Connect your output clock to outclock
port. The registered q port is synchronized by the output
clock.
rden
Altera Corporation
Optional
Read enable input for rdaddress port. The rden port is
supported when the use_eab parameter is set to OFF.
Instantiate the IP core if you want to use read enable feature
with other memory blocks.
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Signal
byteena_a
Required
Optional
5-7
Description
Byte enable input to mask the data_a port so that only specific
bytes, nibbles, or bits of the data are written. The byteena_a
port is not supported in the following conditions:
• If the implement_in_les parameter is set to ON.
• If the operation_mode parameter is set to ROM.
outclocken
Optional
Clock enable input for outclock port.
inclocken
Optional
Clock enable input for inclock port.
Table 5-2: RAM: 2-Ports IP Core Output Signals (Simple Dual-Port RAM)
Signal
Required
Yes
q
Description
Data output from the memory. The q port is required, and
must be equal to the width data port.
RAM: 2-Port IP Core Signals (True Dual-Port RAM) for MAX 10 Devices
Table 5-3: RAM: 2-Port IP Core Input Signals (True Dual-Port RAM)
Signal
data_a
Required
Optional
Description
Data input to port A of the memory. The data_a port is
required if the operation_mode parameter is set to any of the
following values:
• SINGLE_PORT
• DUAL_PORT
• BIDIR_DUAL_PORT
address_a
wren_a
Yes
Address input to port A of the memory. The address_a port is
required for all operation modes.
Optional
Write enable input for address_a port. The wren_a port is
required if you set the operation_mode parameter to any of the
following values:
• SINGLE_PORT
• DUAL_PORT
• BIDIR_DUAL_PORT
data_b
Optional
Data input to port B of the memory. The data_b port is
required if the operation_mode parameter is set to BIDIR_
DUAL_PORT.
address_b
Optional
Address input to port B of the memory. The address_b port is
required if the operation_mode parameter is set to the
following values:
• DUAL_PORT
• BIDIR_DUAL_PORT
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Signal
Required
Description
wren_b
Yes
Write enable input for address_b port. The wren_b port is
required if you set the operation_mode parameter to BIDIR_
DUAL_PORT.
clock
Yes
The following list describes which of your memory clock must
be connected to the clock port, and port synchronization in
different clock modes:
• Single clock—Connect your single source clock to clock
port. All registered ports are synchronized by the same
source clock.
• Read/Write—Connect your write clock to clock port. All
registered ports related to write operation, such as data_a
port, address_a port, wren_a port, and byteena_a port are
synchronized by the write clock.
• Input/Output—Connect your input clock to clock port. All
registered input ports are synchronized by the input clock.
• Independent clock—Connect your port A clock to clock
port. All registered input and output ports of port A are
synchronized by the port A clock.
inclock
Yes
The following list describes which of your memory clock must
be connected to the inclock port, and port synchronization in
different clock modes:
• Single clock—Connect your single source clock to inclock
port and outclock port. All registered ports are synchron‐
ized by the same source clock.
• Read/Write—Connect your write clock to inclock port. All
registered ports related to write operation, such as data
port, wraddress port, wren port, and byteena port are
synchronized by the write clock.
• Input/Output—Connect your input clock to inclock port.
All registered input ports are synchronized by the input
clock.
outclock
Yes
The following list describes which of your memory clock must
be connected to the outclock port, and port synchronization in
different clock modes:
• Single clock—Connect your single source clock to inclock
port and outclock port. All registered ports are synchron‐
ized by the same source clock.
• Read/Write—Connect your read clock to outclock port. All
registered ports related to read operation, such as
rdaddress port, rdren port, and q port are synchronized by
the read clock.
• Input/Output—Connect your output clock to outclock
port. The registered q port is synchronized by the output
clock.
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Signal
Required
5-9
Description
rden_a
Optional
Read enable input for address_a port. The rden_a port is
supported depending on your selected memory mode and
memory block.
rden_b
Optional
Read enable input for address_b port. The rden_b port is
supported depending on your selected memory mode and
memory block.
Byte enable input to mask the data_a port so that only specific
bytes, nibbles, or bits of the data are written. The byteena_a
port is not supported in the following conditions:
byteena_a
• If the implement_in_les parameter is set to ON.
• If the operation_mode parameter is set to ROM.
addressstall_a
Optional
addressstall_b
Optional
Address clock enable input to hold the previous address of
address_a port for as long as the addressstall_a port is high.
Address clock enable input to hold the previous address of
address_b port for as long as the addressstall_b port is high.
Table 5-4: RAM:2-Port IP Core Output Signals (True Dual-Port RAM)
Signal
Required
Yes
q_a
Description
Data output from Port A of the memory. The q_a port is
required if the operation_mode parameter is set to any of the
following values:
• SINGLE_PORT
• BIDIR_DUAL_PORT
• ROM
The width of q_a port must be equal to the width of data_a
port.
Yes
q_b
Data output from Port B of the memory. The q_b port is
required if you set the operation_mode to the following values:
• DUAL_PORT
• BIDIR_DUAL_PORT
The width of q_b port must be equal to the width of data_b
port.
RAM: 2-Port IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
Table 5-5: RAM: 2-Port IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
Option
Legal Values
Description
Parameter Settings: General
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Option
Legal Values
Description
How will you be using the dual port RAM? • With one read port and
one write port
• With two read/write ports
Specifies how you use the
dual port RAM.
How do you want to specify the memory
size?
Determines whether to
specify the memory size in
words or bits.
• As a number of words
• As a number of bits
Parameter Settings: Widths/ Blk Type
How many <X>-bit words of memory?
Use different data widths on different ports
—
On/Off
Specifies the number of <X>
-bit words.
Specifies whether to use
different data widths on
different ports.
When you select With
one read port and one
write port, the
following options are
available:
Read/Write Ports
• How wide should
the ‘data_a’ input
bus be?
• How wide should
the ‘q’ output bus
be?
When you select
With two read/
write ports, the
following options
are available:
Specifies the width of the
input and output ports.
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 16, 18,
32, 36, 64, 72, 108, 128, 144,
256, and 288
The How wide should the
‘q’ output bus be? and the
How wide should the ‘q_b’
output bus be? options are
only available when you turn
on the Use different data
widths on different ports
parameter.
• How wide
should the ‘q_a’
output bus be?
• How wide
should the ‘q_b’
output bus be?
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Option
What should the memory block type be?
Legal Values
• Auto
• M9K
• LCs
5-11
Description
Specifies the memory block
type. The types of memory
block that are available for
selection depends on your
target device.
The LCs value is only
available under the following
conditions:
• Turn on the With one
read port and one write
port option
• Turn off Use different
data widths on different
ports option.
Option
How should the
memory be
implemented?
Set the maximum block depth to
• Use default logic cell style
• Use Stratix M512
emulation logic cell style
Specifies the logic cell
implementation options.
This option is enabled only
when you choose LCs
memory type.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Specifies the maximum
block depth in words.
Auto
128
256
512
1024
2048
4096
8192
Parameter Settings: Clks/Rd, Byte En
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Option
What clocking method would you like to
use?
Legal Values
Description
Specifies the clocking
When you select With one
read port and one write port, method to use.
the following values are
• Single clock—A single
available:
clock and a clock enable
controls all registers of
• Single clock
the memory block.
• Dual clock: use separate
‘input’ and ‘output’ clocks • Dual Clock: use separate
‘input’ and ‘output’
• Dual clock: use separate
clocks—An input and an
‘read’ and ‘write’ clocks
output clock controls all
When you select With two
registers related to the
read/write ports, the
data input and output to/
following options are
from the memory block
available:
including data, address,
byte enables, read
• Single clock
enables, and write
• Dual clock: use separate
enables.
‘input’ and ‘output’ clocks
• Dual clock: use separate
• Dual clock: use separate
‘read’ and ‘write’ clocks—
clocks for A and B ports
A write clock controls the
data-input, write-address,
and write-enable registers
while the read clock
controls the data-output,
read-address, and readenable registers.
• Dual clock: use separate
clocks for A and B ports
—Clock A controls all
registers on the port A
side; clock B controls all
registers on the port B
side. Each port also
supports independent
clock enables for both
port A and port B
registers, respectively.
Create a ‘rden’ read enable signal
On/Off
Available when you select
With one read port and one
write port option.
Create a ‘rden_a’ and ‘rden_b’ read enable
signal
On/Off
• Available when you select
With two read/write
ports option.
• Specifies whether to
create a read enable
signal for Port A and B.
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Option
Byte Enable Ports Create byte enable for
port A
Legal Values
5-13
Description
On/Off
Specifies whether to create a
byte enable for Port A and B.
Turn on these options if you
want to mask the input data
so that only specific bytes,
nibbles, or bits of data are
written.
On/Off
Specifies whether to register
the read or write input and
output ports.
On/Off
The read and write input
ports are turned on by
default. You only need to
specify whether to register
the Q output ports.
Parameter Settings: Regs/Clkens/Aclrs
Which ports
should be
registered?
When you select With
one read port and one
write port, the
following options are
available:
• Write input ports
‘data_a’,
‘wraddress_a’, and
‘wren_a’
• Read input ports
'rdaddress' and
'rden'
• Read output port(s)
‘q_a’ and 'q_b'
When you select With
two read/write ports,
the following options
are available:
• Write input ports
‘data_a’,
‘wraddress_a’, and
‘wren_a’ write
input ports
• Read output port(s)
‘q’_a and ‘q_b’
More Option
When you select With
one read port and one
write port, the
following options are
available:
• ‘q_b’ port
When you select With
two read/write ports,
the following options
are available:
• ‘q_a’ port
• ‘q_b’ port
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Option
Legal Values
Create one clock enable signal for each
clock signal.
On/Off
Specifies whether to turn on
the option to create one
clock enable signal for each
clock signal.
On/Off
• Clock enable options—
Clock enable for port B
input and output
registers are turned on by
default. You only need to
specify whether to use
clock enable for port A
input and output
registers.
• Address options—
Specifies whether to
create clock enables for
address registers. You can
create these ports to act
as an extra active low
clock enable input for the
address registers.
On/Off
Specifies whether to create
an asynchronous clear port
for the registered ports.
More Option
When you select With
one read port and one
write port, the
following option is
available:
• Clock enable
options
• Clock enable
options: Use
clock enable for
write input
registers
• Address options
• Create an ‘wr_
addressstall’
input port.
• Create an ‘rd_
addressstall’
input port.
Description
When you select With
two read /write ports,
the following options
are available:
• Clock enable
options
• Use clock enable
for port A input
registers
• Use clock enable
for port A
output registers
• Address options
• Create an
‘addressstall_a’
input port.
• Create an
‘addressstall_b’
input port.
Create an ‘aclr’ asynchronous clear for the
registered ports.
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Option
More Option
When you select With
one read port and one
write port, the
following options are
available:
Legal Values
On/Off
5-15
Description
Specifies whether the
raddress, q_a, and q_b
ports are cleared by the aclr
port.
• ‘rdaddress’ port
• ‘q_b’ port
When you select With
two read /write ports,
the following options
are available:
• ‘q_a’ port
• ‘q_b’ port
Parameter Settings: Output 1
Mixed Port ReadDuring-Write for
Single Input
Clock RAM
When you select With • Old memory contents
one read port and one
appear
write port, the
• I do not care (the outputs
following option is
will be undefined)
available:
• How should the q
output behave
when reading a
memory location
that is being written
from the other
port?
When you select With
two read /write ports,
the following option is
available:
• How should the q_
a and q_b outputs
behave when
reading a memory
location that is
being written from
the other port?
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Specifies the output behavior
when read-during-write
occurs.
• Old memory contents
appear— The RAM
outputs reflect the old
data at that address
before the write
operation proceeds.
• I do not care—This
option functions
differently when you turn
it on depending on the
following memory block
type you select:
• When you set the
memory block type to
Auto, or M9K, the
RAM outputs ‘don't
care’ or “unknown”
values for readduring-write
operation without
analyzing the timing
path.
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Option
Do not analyze the timing between write
and read operation. Metastability issues are
prevented by never writing and reading at
the same address at the same time.
Legal Values
On/Off
Description
This option is automatically
turned on when you turn on
the I do not care (The
outputs will be undefined)
option. This option enables
the RAM to output ‘don’t
care’ or 'unknown' values for
read-during-write operation
without analyzing the timing
path.
Parameter Settings: Output 2 (This tab is only available when you select two read/write ports)
Port A ReadDuring-Write
Option
Port B ReadDuring-Write
Option
What should the ‘q_a’
output be when
reading from a
memory location being
written to?
What should the
‘q_b’ output be
when reading from
a memory location
being written to?
Get x’s for write masked bytes instead of
old data when byte enable is used
Specifies the output behavior
when read-during-write
occurs.
• New data
• Old Data
On/Off
• New Data—New data is
available on the rising
edge of the same clock
cycle on which it was
written.
• Old Data—The RAM
outputs reflect the old
data at that address
before the write
operation proceeds.
This option is automatically
turned on when you select
the New Data value. This
option obtains ‘X’ on the
masked byte.
Parameter Settings: Mem Init
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Option
Do you want to specify the initial content
of the memory?
Legal Values
• No, leave it blank
• Yes, use this file for the
memory content data
5-17
Description
Specifies the initial content
of the memory.
• To initialize the memory
to zero, select No, leave it
blank.
• To use a Memory Initiali‐
zation File (.mif) or a
Hexadecimal (Intelformat) File (.hex), select
Yes, use this file for the
memory content data.
Note: The configuration
scheme of your
device is Internal
Configuration. In
order to use
memory initiali‐
zation, you must
select a single
image configura‐
tion mode with
memory initiali‐
zation, for
example the
Single
Compressed
Image with
Memory Initiali‐
zation option.
You can set the
configuration
mode on the
Configuration
page of the
Device and Pin
Options dialog
box.
The initial content file should conform to
which port's dimension?
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• PORT_A
• PORT_B
Specifies which port's
dimension that the initial
content file should conform
to.
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The ROM: 1-PORT IP core implements the single-port ROM memory mode.
Figure 6-1: ROM: 1-PORT IP Core Signals with the Single Clock Option Enabled
q[]
address[]
addressstall_a
rden
outaclr
inaclr
clock
clken
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of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
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Figure 6-2: ROM: 1-PORT IP Core Signals with the Dual Clock: Use Separate 'Input' and 'Output' Clocks
Option Enabled
q[]
address[]
addressstall_a
rden
outaclr
inaclr
inclock
inclocken
outclock
outclocken
ROM: 1-PORT IP Core Signals For MAX 10 Devices
Table 6-1: ROM: 1-PORT IP Core Input Signals
Signal
address
Required
Yes
Description
Address input to the memory.
addressstall_a
Optional
Address clock enable input to hold the previous address
of address_a port for as long as the addressstall_a
port is high.
rden
Optional
Read enable input for rdaddress port. The rden port is
supported when the use_eab parameter is set to OFF.
Instantiate the IP if you want to use read enable feature
with other memory blocks.
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Signal
clock
Required
Yes
6-3
Description
The following list describes which of your memory
clock must be connected to the clock port, and port
synchronization in different clock modes:
• Single clock—Connect your single source clock to
clock port. All registered ports are synchronized by
the same source clock.
• Read/Write—Connect your write clock to clock
port. All registered ports related to write operation,
such as data_a port, address_a port, wren_a port,
and byteena_a port are synchronized by the write
clock.
• Input/Output—Connect your input clock to clock
port. All registered input ports are synchronized by
the input clock.
• Independent clock—Connect your port A clock to
clock port. All registered input and output ports of
port A are synchronized by the port A clock.
clken
inclock
Optional
Yes
Clock enable input for clock port.
The following list describes which of your memory
clock must be connected to the inclock port, and port
synchronization in different clock modes:
• Single clock—Connect your single source clock to
inclock port and outclock port. All registered
ports are synchronized by the same source clock.
• Read/Write—Connect your write clock to inclock
port. All registered ports related to write operation,
such as data port, wraddress port, wren port, and
byteena port are synchronized by the write clock.
• Input/Output—Connect your input clock to
inclock port. All registered input ports are
synchronized by the input clock.
inclocken
outclock
Optional
Yes
Clock enable input for inclock port.
The following list describes which of your memory
clock must be connected to the outclock port, and
port synchronization in different clock modes:
• Single clock—Connect your single source clock to
inclock port and outclock port. All registered
ports are synchronized by the same source clock.
• Read/Write—Connect your read clock to outclock
port. All registered ports related to read operation,
such as rdaddress port, rdren port, and q port are
synchronized by the read clock.
• Input/Output—Connect your output clock to
outclock port. The registered q port is synchron‐
ized by the output clock.
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Signal
Required
Optional
outclocken
Description
Clock enable input for outclock port.
Table 6-2: ROM: 1-PORT IP Core Output Signals
Signal
Required
Description
Yes
q
Data output from the memory. The q port is required,
and must be equal to the width data port.
ROM: 1-PORT IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
Table 6-3: ROM: 1-Port IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
Option
Legal Values
Description
Parameter Settings: General
How wide should the 'q' output bus be?
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,
Specifies the width of the 'q'
12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19,
output bus in bits.
20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27,
28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 36, 40, 48,
64, 72, 108, 128, 144, and 256.
How many <X>-bit words of memory?
32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024,
2048, 4096, 8192, 16384,
32768, and 65536.
Specifies the number of <X>
-bit words.
What should the memory block type be?
• Auto
• M9K
Specifies the memory block
type. The types of memory
block that are available for
selection depends on your
target device.
Set the maximum block depth to
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Specifies the maximum
block depth in words.
Altera Corporation
Auto
32
64
128
256
512
1024
2048
4096
8192
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Option
What clocking method would you like to
use?
Legal Values
• Single clock
• Dual clock: use separate
‘input’ and ‘output’ clocks
6-5
Description
Specifies the clocking
method to use.
• Single clock—A single
clock and a clock enable
controls all registers of
the memory block.
• Dual clock: use separate
‘input’ and ‘output’
clocks—An input and an
output clock controls all
registers related to the
data input and output to/
from the memory block
including data, address,
byte enables, read
enables, and write
enables.
Parameter Settings: Regs/Clkens/Aclrs
Which ports
should be
registered?
• 'address' input port
• 'q' output port
On/Off
Specifies whether to register
the read or write input and
output ports.
Create one clock enable signal for each
clock signal.
On/Off
Specifies whether to turn on
the option to create one
clock enable signal for each
clock signal.
More Options
On/Off
• Clock enable options—
Clock enable for port B
input and output
registers are turned on by
default. You only need to
specify whether to use
clock enable for port A
input and output
registers.
• Address options—
Specifies whether to
create clock enables for
address registers. You
can create these ports to
act as an extra active low
clock enable input for the
address registers.
On/Off
Specifies whether to create
an asynchronous clear port
for the registered ports.
• Clock enable options
• Use clock enable
for port A input
registers
• Use clock enable
for port A output
registers
• Address options
• Create an 'address‐
stall_a' input port
Create an ‘aclr’ asynchronous clear for the
registered ports.
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Option
More Options
Legal Values
• 'address' port
• 'q' port
On/Off
Create a 'rden' read enable signal
On/Off
Description
Specifies whether the
address and q ports are
cleared by the aclr port.
Specifies whether to create a
rden read enable signal.
Parameter Settings: Mem Init
Do you want to specify the initial content
of the memory?
Allow In-System Memory Content Editor
to capture and update content independ‐
ently of the system clock
The 'Instance ID' of this RAM is
Altera Corporation
Yes, use this file for the
memory content data.
On/Off
—
Specifies the initial content
of the memory. In ROM
mode you must specify a
Memory Initialization File
(.mif) or a Hexadecimal
(Intel-format) File (.hex).
The configuration scheme of
your device is Internal
Configuration. In order to
use memory initialization,
you must select a single
image configuration mode
with memory initialization,
for example the Single
Compressed Image with
Memory Initialization
option. You can set the
configuration mode on the
Configuration page of the
Device and Pin Options
dialog box.
Specifies whether to allow
In-System Memory Content
Editor to capture and update
content independently of the
system clock.
Specifies the RAM ID.
ROM: 1-PORT IP Core References
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ROM: 2-PORT IP Core References
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This IP core implements the dual-port ROM memory mode. The dual-port ROM has almost similar
functional ports as single-port ROM. The difference is dual-port ROM has an additional address port for
read operation.
Figure 7-1: ROM: 2-PORT IP Core Signals with the Single Clock Option Enabled
q_a[]
address_a[]
q_b[]
rden_a
address_b[]
rden_b
addressstall_a
addressstall_b
aclr
clock
enable
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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Figure 7-2: ROM: 2-PORT IP Core Signals with the Dual Clock: Use Separate 'Input' and 'Output' Clocks
Option Enabled
q_a[]
address_a[]
q_b[]
rden_a
address_b[]
rden_b
inclock
inclocken
outclock
outclocken
out_aclr
addressstall_a
addressstall_b
Figure 7-3: ROM: 2-PORT IP Core Signals with the Dual Clock: Use Separate Clocks for A and B Ports
Option Enabled
q_a[]
address_a[]
rden_a
q_b[]
address_b[]
rden_b
clock_a
enable_a
clock_b
enable_b
Altera Corporation
aclr_a
aclr_b
addressstall_a
addressstall_b
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7-3
ROM: 2-PORT IP Core Signals for MAX 10 Devices
Table 7-1: ROM: 2-PORT IP Core Input Signals
Signal
address_a
Required
Yes
Description
Address input to port A of the memory. The address_a port is
required for all operation modes.
rden_a
Optional
Read enable input for address_a port. The rden_a port is
supported depending on your selected memory mode and memory
block.
address_b
Optional
Address input to port B of the memory. The address_b port is
required if the operation_mode parameter is set to the following
values:
• DUAL_PORT
• BIDIR_DUAL_PORT
rden_b
Optional
Read enable input for address_b port. The rden_b port is
supported depending on your selected memory mode and memory
block.
clock
Yes
The following list describes which of your memory clock must be
connected to the clock port, and port synchronization in different
clock modes:
• Single clock—Connect your single source clock to clock port.
All registered ports are synchronized by the same source clock.
• Read/Write—Connect your write clock to clock port. All
registered ports related to write operation, such as data_a port,
address_a port, wren_a port, and byteena_a port are
synchronized by the write clock.
• Input/Output—Connect your input clock to clock port. All
registered input ports are synchronized by the input clock.
• Independent clock—Connect your port A clock to clock port.
All registered input and output ports of port A are synchron‐
ized by the port A clock.
addressstall_a
Optional
addressstall_b
Optional
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Address clock enable input to hold the previous address of
address_a port for as long as the addressstall_a port is high.
Address clock enable input to hold the previous address of
address_b port for as long as the addressstall_b port is high.
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Signal
inclock
Required
Yes
Description
The following list describes which of your memory clock must be
connected to the inclock port, and port synchronization in
different clock modes:
• Single clock—Connect your single source clock to inclock port
and outclock port. All registered ports are synchronized by the
same source clock.
• Read/Write—Connect your write clock to inclock port. The
write clock synchronizes all registered ports related to write
operation, such as data port, wraddress port, wren port, and
byteena port.
• Input/Output—Connect your input clock to inclock port. The
input clock synchronizes all registered input ports.
outclock
Yes
The following list describes which of your memory clock must be
connected to the outclock port, and port synchronization in
different clock modes:
• Single clock—Connect your single source clock to inclock port
and outclock port. All registered ports are synchronized by the
same source clock.
• Read/Write—Connect your read clock to outclock port. The
read clock synchronizes all registered ports related to read
operation, such as rdaddress port, rdren port, and q port.
• Input/Output—Connect your output clock to outclock port.
The output clock synchronizes the registered q port.
inclocken
Optional
Clock enable input for inclock port.
outclocken
Optional
Clock enable input for outclock port.
aclr
Optional
Asynchronously clear the registered input and output ports. The
asynchronous clear effect on the registered ports can be controlled
through their corresponding asynchronous clear parameter, such
as indata_aclr and wraddress_aclr.
Table 7-2: ROM: 2-PORT IP Core Output Signals
Signal
q_a
Required
Yes
Description
Data output from port A of the memory. The q_a port is required
if you set the operation_mode parameter to any of the following
values:
• SINGLE_PORT
• BIDIR_DUAL_PORT
• ROM
The width of the q_a port must be equal to the width of the data_a
port.
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Signal
Required
Yes
q_b
7-5
Description
Data output from port B of the memory. The q_b port is required
if you set the operation_mode parameter to the following values:
• DUAL_PORT
• BIDIR_DUAL_PORT
The width of q_b port must be equal to the width of data_b port.
ROM:2-Port IP Core Parameters For MAX 10 Devices
Table 7-3: ROM:2-Port IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
Option
Legal Values
Description
Parameter Settings: Widths/Blk Type
How do you want to specify the memory
size?
Determines whether to specify the
• As a number of
memory size in words or bits.
words
• As a number of bits
How many <X>-bit words of memory?
—
Specifies the number of <X>-bit
words.
Use different data widths on different
ports
On/Off
Specifies whether to use different
data widths on different ports.
How wide should the
‘q_a’ output bus be?
Read Ports
How wide should
the ‘q_b’ output bus
be?
Specifies the width of the input and
output ports.
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,
The How wide should the ‘q_b’
16, 18, 32, 36, 64, 72,
output
bus be? option is only
108, 128, 144, 256, and
available
when you turn on the Use
288
different data widths on different
ports parameter.
What should the memory block type be?
Auto, M9K
Specifies the memory block type.
The types of memory block that are
available for selection depends on
your target device.
Set the maximum block depth to
Auto, 128, 256, 512,
Specifies the maximum block depth
1024, 2048, 4096, 8192 in words.
Parameter Settings: Clks/Rd, Byte En
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Option
What clocking method would you like to
use?
Legal Values
Description
Specifies the clocking method to use.
• Single clock
• Dual clock: use
• Single clock—A single clock and
separate ‘input’ and
a clock enable controls all
‘output’ clocks
registers of the memory block.
• Dual clock: use
• Dual Clock: use separate ‘input’
separate clocks for
and ‘output’ clocks—An input
A and B ports
and an output clock controls all
registers related to the data input
and output to/from the memory
block including data, address,
byte enables, read enables, and
write enables.
• Dual clock: use separate clocks
for A and B ports—Clock A
controls all registers on the port
A side; clock B controls all
registers on the port B side. Each
port also supports independent
clock enables for both port A and
port B registers, respectively.
Create a ‘rden_a’ and 'rden_b' read enable On/Off
signal
Specifies whether to create read
enable signals.
Parameter Settings: Regs/Clkens/Aclrs
Which ports
should be
registered?
• Write input ports
• Read output port(s)
On/Off
Specifies whether to register the read
or write input and output ports.
More Options
• Input ports
On/Off
The read and write input ports are
turned on by default. You only need
to specify whether to register the Q
output ports.
On/Off
Specifies whether to turn on the
option to create one clock enable
signal for each clock signal.
• 'address_a' port
• 'address_b' port
• Q output ports
• ‘q_a’ port
• 'q_b' port
Create one clock enable signal for each
clock signal.
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Option
More Options
Legal Values
• Clock enable options On/Off
• Use clock enable
for port A input
registers
• Use clock enable
for port A output
registers
• Address options
•
• Create an
‘addressstall_a’
input port.
• Create an
‘addressstall_b’
input port.
7-7
Description
• Clock enable options—Clock
enable for port B input and
output registers are turned on by
default. You only need to specify
whether to use clock enable for
port A input and output
registers.
• Address options—Specifies
whether to create clock enables
for address registers. You can
create these ports to act as an
extra active low clock enable
input for the address registers.
Create an ‘aclr’ asynchronous clear for the On/Off
registered ports.
Specifies whether to create an
asynchronous clear port for the
registered ports.
More Options
Specifies whether the ‘q_a’, and ‘q_b’
ports are cleared by the aclr port.
• ‘q_a’ port
• ‘q_b’ port
On/Off
Parameter Settings: Mem Init
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Option
Do you want to specify the initial content
of the memory?
Legal Values
Description
Yes, use this file for the Specifies the initial content of the
memory content data memory.
• To initialize the memory to zero,
select No, leave it blank.
• To use a Memory Initialization
File (.mif) or a Hexadecimal
(Intel-format) File (.hex), select
Yes, use this file for the memory
content data.
Note: The configuration
scheme of your device is
Internal Configuration.
In order to use memory
initialization, you must
select a single image
configuration mode with
memory initialization, for
example the Single
Compressed Image with
Memory Initialization
option. You can set the
configuration mode on
the Configuration page of
the Device and Pin
Options dialog box.
The initial content file should conform to
which port's dimension?
Altera Corporation
• PORT_A
• PORT_B
Specifies which port's dimension
that the initial content file should
conform to.
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The Shift Register (RAM-based) IP core contains additional features not found in a conventional shift
register. You can use the memory blocks as a shift-register block to save logic cells and routing resources.
You can cascade memory blocks to implement larger shift registers.
Figure 8-1: Shift Register (RAM-based) IP Core Signals
shift_in[]
clock
clken
aclr
shiftout[]
taps[]
Shift Register (RAM-based) IP Core Signals for MAX 10 Devices
Table 8-1: Shift Register (RAM-based) IP Core Input Signals
Signal
Required
Description
shiftin[]
Yes
Data input to the shifter. Input port WIDTH bits wide.
clock
Yes
Positive-edge triggered clock.
clken
No
Clock enable for the clock port. clken defaults to VCC.
aclr
No
Asynchronously clears the contents of the shift register chain. The
shiftout outputs are cleared immediately upon the assertion of the aclr
signal.
Table 8-2: Shift Register (RAM-based) IP Core Output Signals
Signal
shiftout[]
Required
Yes
Description
Output from the end of the shift register. Output port WIDTH bits wide.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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Signal
Required
Yes
taps[]
Description
Output from the regularly spaced taps along the shift register. Output
port WIDTH * NUMBER_OF_TAPS wide. This port is an aggregate of all the
regularly spaced taps (each WIDTH bits) along the shift register.
Shift Register (RAM-based) IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
Table 8-3: Shift Register (RAM-based) IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
Option
Values
Description
How wide should the "shiftin" input and
the "shiftout" output buses be?
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 16, 24,
32, 48, 64, 96, 128, 192, and
256.
Specifies the width of the
input pattern.
How many taps would you like?
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 16, 24,
32, 48, 64, 96, and 128.
Specifies the number of
regularly spaced taps along
the shift register.
On/Off
Creates groups for each tap
output.
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 16, 32, 64, and
128
Specifies the distance
between the regularly spaced
taps in clock cycles. This
number translates to the
number of RAM words that
will be used. The value must
be at least 3.
Create groups for each tap output
How wide should the distance between
taps be?
Create a clock enable port
On/Off
Creates the clken port
Create an asynchronous clear port
On/Off
Creates the aclr port.
What should the RAM block type be?
Altera Corporation
Auto, M9K
Specifies the RAM block
type.
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FIFO IP Core References
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The FIFO IP core implements the FIFO mode, enabling you to use the memory blocks as FIFO buffers.
• Use the FIFO IP core in single clock FIFO (SCFIFO) and dual clock FIFO (DCFIFO) modes to
implement single- and dual-clock FIFO buffers in your design.
• Dual clock FIFO buffers are useful when transferring data from one clock domain to another clock
domain.
• The M9K memory blocks do not support simultaneous read and write from an empty FIFO buffer.
Figure 9-1: FIFO IP Core: SCFIFO Mode Signals
data[]
wrreq
rdreq
clock
q[]
full
almost_full
empty
almost_empty
usedw[]
sclr
aclr
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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FIFO IP Core Signals for MAX 10 Devices
Figure 9-2: FIFO IP Core: DCFIFO Mode Signals
data[]
wrreq
wrclk
rdreq
rdclk
wrfull
wrempty
wrusedw[]
q[]
rdfull
rdempty
rdusedw[]
aclr
FIFO IP Core Signals for MAX 10 Devices
Table 9-1: FIFO IP Core Input Signals
Signal
Required
Description
clock
Yes
Positive-edge-triggered clock.
wrclk
Yes
Positive-edge-triggered clock. Synchronizes the following ports:
•
•
•
•
•
rdclk
Yes
Positive-edge-triggered clock. Synchronizes the following ports:
•
•
•
•
•
data
Yes
data
wrreq
wrfull
wrempty
wrusedw
q
rdreq
rdfull
rdempty
rdusedw
Holds the data to be written in the FIFO IP core when the wrreq
signal is asserted.
If you manually instantiate the FIFO IP core, ensure that the port
width is equal to the How wide should the FIFO be? parameter.
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FIFO IP Core Signals for MAX 10 Devices
Signal
wrreq
Required
Yes
9-3
Description
Assert this signal to request for a write operation.
Ensure that the following conditions are met:
• Do not assert the wrreq signal when the full (for the FIFO IP
core in SCFIFO mode) or wrfull (for the FIFO IP core in
DCFIFO mode) port is high. Enable the overflow protection
circuitry or turn on the Disable overflow checking. Writing to a
full FIFO will corrupt contents parameter so that the FIFO IP
core can automatically disable the wrreq signal when it is full.
• The wrreq signal must meet the functional timing requirement
based on the full or wrfull signal.
• Do not assert the wrreq signal during the deassertion of the aclr
signal. Violating this requirement creates a race condition
between the falling edge of the aclr signal and the rising edge of
the write clock if the wrreq port is set to high.
rdreq
Yes
Assert this signal to request for a read operation. The rdreq signal
acts differently in normal synchronous FIFO mode and show-ahead
mode synchronous FIFO modes.
Ensure that the following conditions are met:
• Do not assert the rdreq signal when the empty (for the FIFO IP
core in SCFIFO mode) or rdempty (for the FIFO IP core in
DCFIFO mode) port is high. Enable the underflow protection
circuitry or turn on the Disable underflow checking. Reading
from an empty FIFO will corrupt contents parameter so that the
FIFO IP core can automatically disable the rdreq signal when it is
empty.
The rdreq signal must meet the functional timing requirement
based on the empty or rdempty signal.
No
sclr
No
aclr
Assert this signal to clear all the output status ports, but the effect on
the q output may vary for different FIFO configurations. There are
no minimum number of clock cycles for aclr signals that must
remain active.
Table 9-2: FIFO IP Core Output Signals
Signal
q
FIFO IP Core References
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Required
Description
Shows the data read from the read request operation. In SCFIFO and
DCFIFO modes, the width of the q port must be equal to the width of
the data port. If you manually instantiate the IPs, ensure that the
port width is equal to the How wide should the FIFO be? parameter.
In DCFIFO_MIXED_WIDTHS mode, the width of the q port can be
different from the width of the data port. If you manually instantiate
the IP, ensure that the width of the q port is equal to the Use a
different output width parameter. The IP supports a wide write port
with a narrow read port, and vice versa. However, the width ratio is
restricted by the type of RAM block, and in general, are in the power
of 2.
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FIFO IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
Signal
Required
Description
No
When asserted, the FIFO IP core is considered full. Do not perform
write request operation when the FIFO IP core is full. In general, the
rdfull signal is a delayed version of the wrfull signal. However, the
rdfull signal functions as a combinational output instead of a
derived version of the wrfull signal. Therefore, you must always
refer to the wrfull port to ensure whether or not a valid write
request operation can be performed, regardless of the target device.
rdempty
No
When asserted, the FIFO IP core is considered empty. Do not
perform read request operation when the FIFO IP core is empty. In
general, the wrempty signal is a delayed version of the rdempty
signal. However, the wrempty signal functions as a combinational
output instead of a derived version of the rdempty signal. Therefore,
you must always refer to the rdempty port to ensure whether or not a
valid read request operation can be performed, regardless of the
target device.
almost_full
No
Asserted when the usedw signal is greater than or equal to the
Almost full parameter. It is used as an early indication of the full
signal.
almost_empty
No
Asserted when the usedw signal is less than the Almost empty
parameter. It is used as an early indication of the empty signal.
full
wrfull
rdfull
empty
wrempty
usedw
wrusedw
rdusedw
No
Show the number of words stored in the FIFO. Ensure that the port
width is equal to the usedw[] parameter if you manually instantiate
the FIFO IP core in SCFIFO or DCFIFO modes. In DCFIFO_
MIXED_WIDTH mode, the width of the wrusedw and rdusedw ports
must be equal to the usedw[] and Use a different output width
parameters respectively.
FIFO IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
Table 9-3: FIFO IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
Parameter
How wide should the
FIFO be?
Use a different output
width(1)
(1)
HDL Parameter
lpm_width
lpm_width_r
Description
Specifies the width of the data and q ports for the FIFO IP
core in SCFIFO mode and DCFIFO mode. For the FIFO IP
core in DCFIFO_MIXED_WIDTHS mode, this parameter
specifies only the width of the data port.
Specifies the width of the q port for the FIFO IP core in
DCFIFO_MIXED_WIDTHS mode.
Applicable in DCFIFO_MIXED_WIDTHS mode only.
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FIFO IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
Parameter
Usedw[]
How deep should the
FIFO be?
Which kind of read
access do you want with
the rdreq signal?
Do you want a common
clock for reading and
writing the FIFO?
Disable overflow
checking. Writing to a
full FIFO will corrupt
contents
Disable underflow
checking. Reading from
an empty FIFO will
corrupt contents.
Add an extra MSB to
usedw (2)
(2)
HDL Parameter
lpm_widthu
lpm_numwords
lpm_showahead
lpm_type
overflow_
checking
underflow_
checking
add_usedw_msb_
bit
9-5
Description
Specifies the width of the usedw port for the FIFO IP core
in SCFIFO mode, or the width of the rdusedw and
wrusedw ports for the FIFO IP core in DCFIFO mode. For
the FIFO IP core in DCFIFO_MIXED_WIDTHS mode, it
only represents the width of the wrusedw port.
Specifies the depths of the FIFO you require. The value
must be at least 4. The value assigned must comply with
the 2LPM_WIDTHU equation.
Specifies whether the FIFO is in normal synchronous FIFO
mode or show-ahead mode synchronous FIFO mode.
Fornormal synchronous FIFO mode, the FIFO IP core
treats the rdreq port as a normal read request that only
performs read operation when the port is asserted. For
show-ahead mode synchronous FIFO mode, the FIFO IP
core treats the rdreq port as a read-acknowledge that
automatically outputs the first word of valid data in the
FIFO IP core (when the empty or rdempty port is low)
without asserting the rdreq signal. Asserting the rdreq
signal causes the FIFO IP core to output the next data
word, if available. If you turn on this parameter, you may
reduce performance.
Identifies the library of parameterized modules (LPM)
entity name. The values are SCFIFO and DCFIFO.
Specifies whether or not to enable the protection circuitry
for overflow checking that disables the wrreq port when
the FIFO IP core is full. This parameter is enabled by
default.
Specifies whether or not to enable the protection circuitry
for underflow checking that disables the rdreq port when
the FIFO IP core is empty. This parameter is enabled by
default. Note that reading from an empty SCFIFO mode
gives unpredictable results.
Increases the width of the rdusedw and wrusedw ports by
one bit. By increasing the width, it prevents the FIFO IP
core from rolling over to zero when it is full. This
parameter is disabled by default.
Applicable in DCFIFO mode only.
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FIFO IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
Parameter
HDL Parameter
How many sync stages?(2) rdsync_
delaypipe
How many sync stages?(2) wrsync_
delaypipe
Implement FIFO storage use_eab
with logic cells only, even
if the device contains
memory blocks.
Add circuit to
synchronize ‘aclr’ input
with ‘wrclk’(2)
Add circuit to
synchronize ‘aclr’ input
with ‘rdclk’
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write_aclr_
synch
Description
Specifies the number of synchronization stages in the cross
clock domain. The value of the rdsync_delaypipe
parameter relates the synchronization stages from the
write control logic to the read control logic; the wrsync_
delaypipe parameter relates the synchronization stages
from the read control logic to the write control logic. Use
these parameters to set the number of synchronization
stages if the clocks are not synchronized, and set the
clocks_are_synchronized parameter to FALSE. The actual
synchronization stage implemented relates variously to the
parameter value assigned, depends on the target device.
Specifies the number of synchronization stages in the cross
clock domain. The value of the rdsync_delaypipe
parameter relates the synchronization stages from the
write control logic to the read control logic; the wrsync_
delaypipe parameter relates the synchronization stages
from the read control logic to the write control logic. Use
these parameters to set the number of synchronization
stages if the clocks are not synchronized, and set the
clocks_are_synchronized parameter to FALSE. The actual
synchronization stage implemented relates variously to the
parameter value assigned, depends on the target device.
Specifies whether or not the FIFO IP core is constructed
using RAM blocks. This parameter is disabled by default. If
you turn off this parameter, the FIFO IP core is
implemented in logic elements, regardless of the memory
block type assigned to the What should the memory block
type be parameter.
Specifies whether or not to add a circuit that causes the
aclr port to be internally synchronized by the wrclk
clock. Adding the circuit prevents the race condition
between the wrreq and aclr ports that could corrupt the
FIFO IP core. This parameter is disabled by default.
read_aclr_
synch
Specifies whether or not to add a circuit that causes the
aclr port to be internally synchronized by the rdclk
clock. Adding the circuit prevents the race condition
between the rdreq and aclr ports that could corrupt the
FIFO IP core. This parameter is disabled by default.
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Parameter
Which type of optimiza‐
tion do you want?(2)
HDL Parameter
clocks_are_
synchronized
9-7
Description
Specifies whether or not the write and read clocks are
synchronized, which in turn determines the number of
internal synchronization stages added for stable operation
of the FIFO. The values are TRUE and FALSE. If omitted,
the default value is FALSE. You must only set the
parameter to TRUE if the write clock and the read clock
are always synchronized and they are multiples of each
other. Otherwise, set this to FALSE to avoid metastability
problems. If the clocks are not synchronized, set the
parameter to FALSE, and use the rdsync_delaypipe and
wrsync_delaypipe parameters to determine the number of
synchronization stages required.
What should the memory ram_block_type Specifies the target device’s memory block to be used. To
block type be
get the proper implementation based on the RAM configu‐
ration that you set, allow the Quartus II software to
automatically choose the memory type by ignoring this
parameter and turn on the Implement FIFO storage with
logic cells only, even if the device contains memory
blocks. parameter. This gives the Compiler the flexibility
to place the memory function in any available memory
resource based on the FIFO depth required.
Would you like to
add_ram_
register the output to
output_
maximize the perform‐
register
ance but use more area?(3)
Becomes true when
usedw[] is greater than or almost_full_
equal to:(3)
value
Almost full(3)
Almost empty(3)
Becomes true when
usedw[] is less than:(3)
almost_empty_
value
Currently selected device intended_
family
device_family
(3)
Specifies whether to register the q output. The values are
Yes (best speed) and No (smallest area). The default value
is No (smallest area).
Sets the threshold value for the almost_full port. When the
number of words stored in the FIFO IP core is greater than
or equal to this value, the almost_full port is asserted.
Sets the threshold value for the almost_empty port. When
the number of words stored in the FIFO IP core is less than
this value, the almost_empty port is asserted.
Specifies the intended device that matches the device set in
your Quartus II project. Use this parameter only for
functional simulation.
Applicable in SCFIFO mode only.
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The ALTMEMMULT IP core creates only memory-based multipliers using on-chip memory blocks
found in M9K memory blocks.
Figure 10-1: ALTMEMMULT IP Core Signals
data_in[]
coeff_in[]
sload_coeff
sclr
clock
result[]
load_done
ALTMEMMULT IP Core Signals for MAX 10 Devices
Table 10-1: ALTMEMMULT IP Core Input Signals
Signal
Required
Description
clock
Yes
Clock input to the multiplier.
coeff_in[]
No
Coefficient input port for the multiplier. The size of the input port
depends on the WIDTH_C parameter value.
data_in[]
Yes
sclr
No
sel[]
No
sload_coeff
No
Data input port to the multiplier. The size of the input port depends on the
WIDTH_D parameter value.
Synchronous clear input. If unused, the default value is active high.
Fixed coefficient selection. The size of the input port depends on the
WIDTH_S parameter value.
Synchronous load coefficient input port. Replaces the current selected
coefficient value with the value specified in the coeff_in input.
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trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
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ALTMEMMULT IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
Signal
Required
sload_data
No
Description
Synchronous load data input port. Signal that specifies new multiplication
operation and cancels any existing multiplication operation. If the MAX_
CLOCK_CYCLES_PER_RESULT parameter has a value of 1, the sload_data
input port is ignored.
Table 10-2: ALTMEMMULT IP Core Output Signals
Signal
Required
Description
result[]
Yes
Multiplier output port. The size of the input port depends on the WIDTH_R
parameter value.
result_valid
Yes
Indicates when the output is the valid result of a complete multiplication.
If the MAX_CLOCK_CYCLES_PER_RESULT parameter has a value of 1, the
result_valid output port is not used.
load_done
No
Indicates when the new coefficient has finished loading. The load_done
signal asserts when a new coefficient has finished loading. Unless the
load_done signal is high, no other coefficient value can be loaded into the
memory.
ALTMEMMULT IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
Table 10-3: ALTMEMMULT IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
Option
How wide should the 'data_
in' input bus be?
Values
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 16,
24, and 32
Description
Specifies the width of the data_in port.
What is the representation of SIGNED,
'data_in'?
UNSIGNED
Specifies whether the data_in input port is signed
or unsigned.
How wide should the
coefficient be?
Specifies the width of the coeff_in port.
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 16,
24
What is the representation of SIGNED,
the coefficient?
UNSIGNED
Specifies whether the coeff_in input port and the
pre-loaded coefficients are signed or unsigned.
What is the value of the
initial coefficient?
Specifies value of the first fixed coefficient.
0, 1, 2, 3, and 4
Create ports to allow loading On/Off
coefficients
Creates the coeff_in and sload_coeff port.
Create a synchronous clear
input
On/Off
Creates the sclr port.
What should the RAM block
type be?
Auto, M9K
Specifies the RAM block type.
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Additional Information for MAX 10 Embedded
Memory User Guide
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Document Revision History for MAX 10 Embedded Memory User Guide
Date
Version
Changes
May 2015
2015.05.04
• Updated 'Yes, use this file for the memory content data' parameter
note for RAM:1-Port, RAM:2-Port, ROM:1-Port, and ROM:2-Port.
• Added information about the internal configuration mode that
supports memory initialization in 'Consider Power-Up State and
Memory Initialization'
September 2014
2014.09.22
Initial release.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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TOC-2
Contents
Embedded Multiplier Block Overview................................................................1-1
Embedded Multipliers Features and Architecture............................................. 2-1
Embedded Multipliers Architecture..........................................................................................................2-1
Input Register................................................................................................................................... 2-1
Multiplier Stage................................................................................................................................ 2-2
Output Register................................................................................................................................ 2-2
Embedded Multipliers Operational Modes..............................................................................................2-3
18-Bit Multipliers............................................................................................................................. 2-3
9-Bit Multipliers............................................................................................................................... 2-4
Embedded Multipliers Implementation Guides.................................................3-1
Embedded Multipliers Implementation Guides......................................................................................3-1
IP Catalog and Parameter Editor...................................................................................................3-1
Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options................................................................................3-2
Files Generated by IP Cores............................................................................................................3-3
LPM_MULT (Multiplier) IP Core References.................................................... 4-1
LPM_MULT Parameter Settings............................................................................................................... 4-1
LPM_MULT Ports....................................................................................................................................... 4-3
ALTMULT_ACCUM (Multiply-Accumulate) IP Core References....................5-1
ALTMULT_ACCUM Parameter Settings................................................................................................5-1
ALTMULT_ACCUM Ports........................................................................................................................5-8
ALTMULT_ADD (Multiply-Adder) IP Core References...................................6-1
ALTMULT_ADD Parameter Settings...................................................................................................... 6-1
ALTMULT_ADD Ports.............................................................................................................................. 6-8
ALTMULT_COMPLEX (Complex Multiplier) IP Core References.................. 7-1
ALTMULT_COMPLEX Parameter Settings............................................................................................7-1
ALTMULT_COMPLEX Ports................................................................................................................... 7-2
Additional Information for MAX 10 Embedded Multipliers User Guide........A-1
Document Revision History for MAX 10 Embedded Multipliers User Guide ................................. A-1
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The embedded multiplier is configured as either one 18 x 18 multiplier or two 9 x 9 multipliers. For
multiplications greater than 18 x 18, the Quartus® II software cascades multiple embedded multiplier
blocks together. There are no restrictions on the data width of the multiplier but the greater the data
width, the slower the multiplication process.
Figure 1-1: Embedded Multipliers Arranged in Columns with Adjacent LABS
Embedded
Multiplier
Column
1 LAB
Row
Embedded
Multiplier
Table 1-1: Number of Embedded Multipliers in the MAX 10 Devices
Embedded
Multipliers
9 x 9 Multipliers (1)
18 x 18 Multipliers (1)
10M02
16
32
16
10M04
20
40
20
10M08
24
48
24
10M16
45
90
45
Device
(1)
These columns show the number of 9 x 9 or 18 x 18 multipliers for each device. The total number of
multipliers for each device is not the sum of all the multipliers.
© 2014 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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Embedded Multiplier Block Overview
Embedded
Multipliers
9 x 9 Multipliers (1)
18 x 18 Multipliers (1)
10M25
55
110
55
10M40
125
250
125
10M50
144
288
144
Device
You can implement soft multipliers by using the M9K memory blocks as look-up tables (LUTs). The
LUTs contain partial results from multiplying input data with coefficients implementing variable depth
and width high-performance soft multipliers for low-cost, high-volume DSP applications. The availability
of soft multipliers increases the number of available multipliers in the device.
Table 1-2: Number of Multipliers in the MAX 10 Devices
Embedded
Multipliers
Soft Multipliers
(16 x 16)(2)
Total Multipliers (3)
10M02
16
12
28
10M04
20
21
41
10M08
24
42
66
10M16
45
61
106
10M25
55
75
130
10M40
125
140
265
10M50
144
182
326
Device
(1)
(2)
(3)
These columns show the number of 9 x 9 or 18 x 18 multipliers for each device. The total number of
multipliers for each device is not the sum of all the multipliers.
Soft multipliers are implemented in sum of multiplication mode. M9K memory blocks are configured with
18-bit data widths to support 16-bit coefficients. The sum of the coefficients requires 18-bits of resolution to
account for overflow.
The total number of multipliers may vary, depending on the multiplier mode you use.
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Each embedded multiplier consists of three elements. Depending on the application needs, you can use an
embedded multiplier block in one of two operational modes.
Embedded Multipliers Architecture
Each embedded multiplier consists of the following elements:
• Multiplier stage
• Input and output registers
• Input and output interfaces
Figure 2-1: Multiplier Block Architecture
signa
signb
aclr
clock
ena
Data A
D
Q
ENA
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
Data B
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
Data Out
CLRN
Input
Register
Output
Register
Embedded Multiplier Block
Input Register
Depending on the operational mode of the multiplier, you can send each multiplier input signal into
either one of the following:
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trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
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Multiplier Stage
• An input register
• The multiplier in 9- or 18-bit sections
Each multiplier input signal can be sent through a register independently of other input signals. For
example, you can send the multiplier Data A signal through a register and send the Data B signal directly
to the multiplier.
The following control signals are available to each input register in the embedded multiplier:
• Clock
• Clock enable
• Asynchronous clear
All input and output registers in a single embedded multiplier are fed by the same clock, clock enable, and
asynchronous clear signals.
Multiplier Stage
The multiplier stage of an embedded multiplier block supports 9 × 9 or 18 × 18 multipliers and other
multipliers in between these configurations. Depending on the data width or operational mode of the
multiplier, a single embedded multiplier can perform one or two multiplications in parallel.
Each multiplier operand is a unique signed or unsigned number. Two signals, signa and signb, control
an input of a multiplier and determine if the value is signed or unsigned. If the signa signal is high, the
Data A operand is a signed number. If the signa signal is low, the Data A operand is an unsigned
number.
The following table lists the sign of the multiplication results for the various operand sign representations.
The results of the multiplication are signed if any one of the operands is a signed value.
Data A
Data B
Result
signa Value
Logic Level
signb Value
Logic Level
Unsigned
Low
Unsigned
Low
Unsigned
Unsigned
Low
Signed
High
Signed
Signed
High
Unsigned
Low
Signed
Signed
High
Signed
High
Signed
You can dynamically change the signa and signb signals to modify the sign representation of the input
operands at run time. You can send the signa and signb signals through a dedicated input register. The
multiplier offers full precision, regardless of the sign representation.
When the signa and signb signals are unused, the Quartus II software sets the multiplier to perform
unsigned multiplication by default.
Output Register
You can register the embedded multiplier output using output registers in either 18- or 36-bit sections.
This depends on the operational mode of the multiplier. The following control signals are available for
each output register in the embedded multiplier:
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Embedded Multipliers Operational Modes
2-3
• Clock
• Clock enable
• Asynchronous clear
All input and output registers in a single embedded multiplier are fed by the same clock, clock enable, and
asynchronous clear signals.
Embedded Multipliers Operational Modes
You can use an embedded multiplier block in one of two operational modes, depending on the applica‐
tion needs:
• One 18-bit x 18-bit multiplier
• Up to two 9-bit x 9-bit independent multipliers
You can also use embedded multipliers of the MAX® 10 devices to implement multiplier adder and
multiplier accumulator functions. The multiplier portion of the function is implemented using embedded
multipliers. The adder or accumulator function is implemented in logic elements (LEs).
18-Bit Multipliers
You can configure each embedded multiplier to support a single 18 x 18 multiplier for input widths of 10
to 18 bits.
The following figure shows the embedded multiplier configured to support an 18-bit multiplier.
Figure 2-2: 18-Bit Multiplier Mode
signa
signb
aclr
clock
ena
Data A [17..0]
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
Data B [17..0]
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
D
Q
ENA
Data Out [35..0]
CLRN
18 x 18 Multiplier
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9-Bit Multipliers
All 18-bit multiplier inputs and results are independently sent through registers. The multiplier inputs can
accept signed integers, unsigned integers, or a combination of both. Also, you can dynamically change the
signa and signb signals and send these signals through dedicated input registers.
9-Bit Multipliers
You can configure each embedded multiplier to support two 9 × 9 independent multipliers for input
widths of up to 9 bits.
The following figure shows the embedded multiplier configured to support two 9-bit multipliers.
Figure 2-3: 9-Bit Multiplier Mode
signa
signb
aclr
clock
ena
Data A 0 [8..0]
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
Data B 0 [8..0]
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
Data A 1 [8..0]
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
Data Out 0 [17..0]
CLRN
9 x 9 Multiplier
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
Data B 1 [8..0]
D
Q
ENA
D
Q
ENA
Data Out 1 [17..0]
CLRN
9 x 9 Multiplier
Embedded Multiplier
All 9-bit multiplier inputs and results are independently sent through registers. The multiplier inputs can
accept signed integers, unsigned integers, or a combination of both.
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9-Bit Multipliers
2-5
Each embedded multiplier block has only one signa and one signb signal to control the sign representa‐
tion of the input data to the block. If the embedded multiplier block has two 9 × 9 multipliers the
following applies:
• The Data A input of both multipliers share the same signa signal
• The Data B input of both multipliers share the same signb signal
Embedded Multipliers Features and Architecture
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The Quartus II software contains tools for you to create and compile your design, and configure your
device.
You can prepare for device migration, set pin assignments, define placement restrictions, setup timing
constraints, and customize IP cores using the Quartus II software.
Embedded Multipliers Implementation Guides
The Quartus II software contains tools for you to create and compile your design, and configure your
device.
You can prepare for device migration, set pin assignments, define placement restrictions, setup timing
constraints, and customize IP cores using the Quartus II software.
IP Catalog and Parameter Editor
The Quartus II IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog) and parameter editor help you easily customize and
integrate IP cores into your project. You can use the IP Catalog and parameter editor to select, customize,
and generate files representing your custom IP variation.
The IP Catalog automatically displays the IP cores available for your target device. Double-click any IP
core name to launch the parameter editor and generate files representing your IP variation. The
parameter editor prompts you to specify your IP variation name, optional ports, architecture features, and
output file generation options. The parameter editor generates a top-level .qsys or .qip file representing the
IP core in your project. Alternatively, you can define an IP variation without an open Quartus II project.
When no project is open, select the Device Family directly in IP Catalog to filter IP cores by device.
Note: The IP Catalog is also available in Qsys (View > IP Catalog). The Qsys IP Catalog includes
exclusive system interconnect, video and image processing, and other system-level IP that are not
available in the Quartus II IP Catalog.
Use the following features to help you quickly locate and select an IP core:
© 2014 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
101 Innovation Drive, San Jose, CA 95134
ISO
9001:2008
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Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options
• Filter IP Catalog to Show IP for active device family or Show IP for all device families.
• Search to locate any full or partial IP core name in IP Catalog. Click Search for Partner IP, to access
partner IP information on the Altera website.
• Right-click an IP core name in IP Catalog to display details about supported devices, installation
location, and links to documentation.
Figure 3-1: Quartus II IP Catalog
Search and filter IP for your target device
Double-click to customize, right-click for information
Note: The IP Catalog and parameter editor replace the MegaWizard Plug-In Manager in the Quartus II
software. The Quartus II software may generate messages that refer to the MegaWizard Plug-In
Manager. Substitute "IP Catalog and parameter editor" for "MegaWizard Plug-In Manager" in these
messages.
™
Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options
Follow these steps to specify IP core parameters and options.
1. In the IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog), locate and double-click the name of the IP core to customize.
The parameter editor appears.
2. Specify a top-level name for your custom IP variation. This name identifies the IP core variation files
in your project. If prompted, also specify the target Altera device family and output file HDL
preference. Click OK.
3. Specify parameters and options for your IP variation:
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• Optionally select preset parameter values. Presets specify all initial parameter values for specific
applications (where provided).
• Specify parameters defining the IP core functionality, port configurations, and device-specific
features.
• Specify options for generation of a timing netlist, simulation model, testbench, or example design
(where applicable).
• Specify options for processing the IP core files in other EDA tools.
4. Click Finish or Generate to generate synthesis and other optional files matching your IP variation
specifications. The parameter editor generates the top-level .qip or .qsys IP variation file and HDL files
for synthesis and simulation. Some IP cores also simultaneously generate a testbench or example
design for hardware testing.
The top-level IP variation is added to the current Quartus II project. Click Project > Add/Remove Files
in Project to manually add a .qip or .qsys file to a project. Make appropriate pin assignments to connect
ports.
Files Generated by IP Cores
The following integer arithmetic IP cores use the MAX 10 device embedded multipliers block:
•
•
•
•
LPM_MULT
ALTMULT_ACCUM (MAC)
ALTMULT_ADD
ALTMULT_COMPLEX
Verilog HDL Prototype Location
You can view the Verilog HDL prototype for the IP cores in the following Verilog Design Files (.v):
Table 3-1: Verilog HDL Prototype Location
Integer Arithmetic Megafunctions
Directory
Verilog Design File (.v)
LPM_MULT
<Quartus II installation directory> lpm.v
\eda\synthesis
• ALTMULT_ACCUM
• ALTMULT_ADD
• ALTMULT_COMPLEX
<Quartus II installation directory> altera_mf.v
\eda\synthesis
VHDL Component Declaration Location
You can view the VHDL component declaration for the IP cores in the following VHDL Design Files
(.vhd):
Integer Arithmetic Megafunctions
Directory
VHDL Design File (.vhd)
LPM_MULT
<Quartus II installation directory> LPM_PACK.vhd
\libraries\vhdl\lpm
• ALTMULT_ACCUM
• ALTMULT_ADD
• ALTMULT_COMPLEX
<Quartus II installation directory> altera_mf_components.vhd
\libraries\vhdl\altera_mf
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LPM_MULT (Multiplier) IP Core References
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LPM_MULT Parameter Settings
There are three groups of options: General, General2, and Pipeling.
Table 4-1: LPM_MULT Parameters - General
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
GUI Parameter
Multiplier configuration
Parameter
Condition
Value
Description
—
—
• Multiply
‘dataa’ input
by ‘datab’
input
• Multiply
‘dataa’ input
by itself
(squaring
operation)
Specifies the multiplier
configuration.
How wide should the
‘dataa’ input be?
LPM_
WIDTHA
—
1–256
Specifies the width of the
dataa[] port.
How wide should the
‘datab’ input be?
LPM_
WIDTHB
—
1–256
Specifies the width of the
datab[] port.
How should the width of LPM_
the ‘result’ output be
WIDTHP
determined?
—
• Automatically Specifies how the result
width is determined.
calculate the
width
• Restrict the
width to [] bits
How should the width of LPM_
WIDTHP
the ‘result’ output be
determined? >
How should the
width of the
‘result’ output
be determined? >
Restrict the width to []
bits
1–256
You can set the result
width.
Restrict the width
to [] bits = On
© 2014 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
101 Innovation Drive, San Jose, CA 95134
ISO
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LPM_MULT Parameter Settings
Table 4-2: LPM_MULT Parameters - General2
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
GUI Parameter
Parameter
Condition
Value
Description
Does the ‘datab’ input
bus have a constant
value?
—
—
• No
• Yes, the value
is []
You can specify the
constant value of the
‘datab’ input bus, if any.
Which type of multipli‐
cation do you want?
LPM_
REPRESENTATI
ON
—
• Unsigned
• Signed
Specifies the type of
multiplication
performed.
Which multiplier
implementation should
be used?
DEDICATED_
MULTIPLIER_
CIRCUITRY
—
Specifies the multiplier
• Use default
implementation.
implementa‐
tion
• Use the
dedicated
multiplier
circuitry (Not
available for all
families)
• Use logic
elements
Table 4-3: LPM_MULT Parameters - Pipeling
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
GUI Parameter
Parameter
Condition
LPM_PIPELINE
—
Create an ‘aclr’
asynchronous clear
port
—
Create a ‘clken’ clock
enable clock
—
Do you want to
pipeline the function?
What type of optimiza‐ MAXIMIZE_
tion do you want?
SPEED
Altera Corporation
Value
Description
• No
• Yes, I want
output
latency of []
clock cycles
You can add extra
latency to the outputs,
if any.
Do you want to
pipeline the
function? = Yes,
I want output
latency of []
clock cycles
On or off
Specifies asynchronous
clear for the complex
multiplier. Clears the
function asynchro‐
nously when aclr port
is asserted high.
Do you want to
pipeline the
function? = Yes,
I want output
latency of []
clock cycles
On or off
Specifies active high
clock enable for the
clock port of the
complex multiplier
—
• Default
• Speed
• Area
You can specify if the
type of optimization is
determined by Quartus
II, speed, or area.
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LPM_MULT Ports
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LPM_MULT Ports
Table 4-4: LPM_MULT IP Core Input Ports
Port Name
Required
Description
dataa[]
Yes
Data input. The size of the input port depends on the LPM_
WIDTHA parameter value.
datab[]
Yes
Data input. The size of the input port depends on the LPM_
WIDTHB parameter value.
clock
No
Clock input for pipelined usage. For LPM_PIPELINE values
other than 0 (default), the clock port must be enabled.
clken
No
Clock enable for pipelined usage. When the clken port is
asserted high, the adder/subtractor operation takes place.
When the signal is low, no operation occurs. If omitted, the
default value is 1.
aclr
No
Asynchronous clear port used at any time to reset the
pipeline to all 0s, asynchronously to the clock signal. The
pipeline initializes to an undefined (X) logic level. The
outputs are a consistent, but non-zero value.
Table 4-5: LPM_MULT IP Core Output Ports
Port Name
result[]
LPM_MULT (Multiplier) IP Core References
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Required
Yes
Description
Data output. The size of the output port depends on the
LPM_WIDTHP parameter value. If LPM_WIDTHP < max (LPM_
WIDTHA + LPM_WIDTHB, LPM_WIDTHS) or (LPM_WIDTHA + LPM_
WIDTHS), only the LPM_WIDTHP MSBs are present.
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Core References
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ALTMULT_ACCUM Parameter Settings
There are four groups of options: General, Extra Modes, Multipliers, and Accumulator.
Table 5-1: ALTMULT_ACCUM Parameters - General
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
GUI Parameter
What is the number of
multipliers?
Parameter
Value
Description
—
1
By default, only 1
multiplier is supported.
—
On
By default all
multipliers have similar
configurations
How wide should the A WIDTH_A
input buses be?
—
1–256
Specifies the width of A
input buses.
How wide should the B WIDTH_B
input buses be?
—
1–256
Specifies the width of B
input buses.
How wide should the
WIDTH_
‘result’ output bus be? RESULT
—
1–256
Specifies the width of
‘result’ output bus.
Create a 4th asynchro‐
nous clear input option
—
—
On or Off
Turn on this option if
you want to create a 4th
asynchronous clear
input option.
Create an associated
clock enable for each
clock
—
—
On or Off
Turn on this option if
you want to create an
associated clock enable
for each clock.
—
• Signed
• Unsigned
• Variable
Specifies the represen‐
tation format for A
inputs.
All multipliers have
similar configurations
NUMBER_OF_
MULTIPLIERS
Condition
—
What is the representa‐ REPRESENTATI
tion format for A
ON_A
inputs?
© 2014 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
101 Innovation Drive, San Jose, CA 95134
ISO
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ALTMULT_ACCUM Parameter Settings
GUI Parameter
‘signa’ input controls
the sign (1 signed/0
unsigned)
Parameter
PORT_SIGNA
Condition
Value
Description
Input
More Options
Representation >
What is the
representation
format for A
inputs? =
Variable
High ‘signa’ input
indicates signed and
low ‘signa’ input
indicates unsigned.
Register ‘signa’ input
—
Input
On or Off
Representation >
More Options
Turn on this option if
you want to enable the
register of ‘signa’
input
Add an extra pipeline
register
—
Input
On or Off
Representation >
More Options
Turn on this option if
you want to enable the
extra pipeline register
Input Register > What
is the source for clock
input?
SIGN_REG_A
Input
Clock0–Clock3
Representation >
More Options
Specifies the source for
clock input.
Input Register > What
is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
SIGN_ACLR_A
Input
• Aclr0–Aclr2
Representation > • None
More Options
Specifies the source for
asynchronous clear
input.
Pipeline Register >
What is the source for
clock input?
SIGN_
PIPELINE_
REG_A
Input
Clock0–Clock3
Representation >
More Options
Specifies the source for
clock input.
Pipeline Register >
What is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
SIGN_
PIPELINE_
ACLR_A
Input
• Aclr0–Aclr2
Representation > • None
More Options
Specifies the source for
asynchronous clear
input.
What is the representa‐ REPRESENTATI
tion format for B
ONS_B
inputs?
‘signb’ input controls
the sign (1 signed/0
unsigned)
PORT_SIGNB
—
• Signed
• Unsigned
• Variable
Specifies the represen‐
tation format for B
inputs.
Input
More Options
Representation >
What is the
representation
format for B
inputs? =
Variable
High ‘signb’ input
indicates signed and
low ‘signb’ input
indicates unsigned.
Register ‘signb’ input
—
Input
On or Off
Representation >
More Options
Turn on this option if
you want to enable the
register of ‘signb’
input
Add an extra pipeline
register
—
Input
On or Off
Representation >
More Options
Turn on this option if
you want to enable the
extra pipeline register
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GUI Parameter
Parameter
Condition
Value
5-3
Description
Input Register > What
is the source for clock
input?
SIGN_REG_B
Input
Clock0–Clock3
Representation >
More Options
Specifies the source for
clock input.
Input Register > What
is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
SIGN_ACLR_B
Input
• Aclr0–Aclr2
Representation > • None
More Options
Specifies the source for
asynchronous clear
input.
Pipeline Register >
What is the source for
clock input?
SIGN_
PIPELINE_
REG_B
Input
Clock0–Clock3
Representation >
More Options
Specifies the source for
clock input.
Pipeline Register >
What is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
SIGN_
PIPELINE_
ACLR_B
Input
• Aclr0–Aclr2
Representation > • None
More Options
Specifies the source for
asynchronous clear
input.
Table 5-2: ALTMULT_ACCUM Parameters - Extra Modes
GUI Parameter
Parameter
Condition
Value
Description
Create a shiftout
output from A input of
the last multiplier
—
—
On or Off
Turn on this option to
create a shiftout output
from A input of the last
multiplier.
Create a shiftout
output from B input of
the last multiplier
—
—
On or Off
Turn on this option to
create a shiftout output
from B input of the last
multiplier.
Add extra register(s) at
the output
—
—
On
By default, output
register must be
enabled for
accumulator.
What is the source for
clock input?
OUTPUT_REG
Outputs
Configuration >
More Options
Clock0–Clock3
Specifies the clock
signal for the registers
on the outputs.
What is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
OUTPUT_ACLR Outputs
Configuration >
More Options
• Aclr0–Aclr2
• None
Specifies the asynchro‐
nous clear signal for
the registers on the
outputs.
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
7, 8, or 12
Specifies the extra
latency to add to the
output.
Add [] extra latency to
the output
—
Outputs
Configuration >
More Options
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ALTMULT_ACCUM Parameter Settings
GUI Parameter
Which multiplieradder implementation
should be used?
Parameter
DEDICATED_
MULTIPLIER_
CIRCUITRY
Condition
—
Value
Description
Specifies the
• Use the
multiplier-adder
default
implementa‐ implementation.
tion
• Use dedicated
multiplier
circuitry (Not
available for
all families)
• Use logic
elements
Table 5-3: ALTMULT_ACCUM Parameters - Multipliers
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
GUI Parameter
Parameter
Condition
Register input A of the
multiplier
—
—
What is the source for
clock input?
INPUT_REG_A
Clock0–Clock3
• Input
Configuration
> Register
input A of the
multiplier =
On
• Input
Configuration
> More
Options
Specifies the clock port
for the dataa[] port.
What is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
INPUT_ACLR_
A
• Input
• Aclr0–Aclr2
Configuration • None
> Register
input A of the
multiplier =
On
• Input
Configuration
> More
Options
Specifies the asynchro‐
nous clear port for the
dataa[] port.
Register input B of the
multiplier
—
Altera Corporation
—
Value
On or Off
On or Off
Description
Turn on to enable
register input A of the
multiplier.
Turn on to enable
register input B of the
multiplier.
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GUI Parameter
Parameter
Condition
Value
5-5
Description
What is the source for
clock input?
INPUT_REG_B
Clock0–Clock3
• Input
Configuration
> Register
input B of the
multiplier =
On
• Input
Configuration
> More
Options
Specifies the clock port
for the datab[] port.
What is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
INPUT_ACLR_
B
• Input
• Aclr0–Aclr2
Configuration • None
> Register
input B of the
multiplier =
On
• Input
Configuration
> More
Options
Specifies the asynchro‐
nous clear port for the
datab[] port.
What is the input A of
the multiplier
connected to?
—
—
Multiplier input
By default, input A of
the multiplier is always
connected to the
multiplier’s input.
What is the input B of
the multiplier
connected to?
—
—
Multiplier input
By default, input B of
the multiplier is always
connected to the
multiplier’s input.
Register output of the
multiplier
—
—
On or Off
Turn on to enable
register output of the
multiplier.
What is the source for
clock input?
MULTIPLIER_
REG
Clock0–Clock3
• Output
Configuration
> Register
output of the
multiplier =
On
• Output
Configuration
> More
Options
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Specifies the clock
signal for the register
that immediately
follows the multiplier.
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ALTMULT_ACCUM Parameter Settings
GUI Parameter
What is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
Parameter
MULTIPLIER_
ACLR
Condition
Value
• Output
• Aclr0–Aclr2
Configuration • None
> Register
output of the
multiplier =
On
• Output
Configuration
> More
Options
Description
Specifies the asynchro‐
nous clear signal of the
register that follows the
corresponding
multiplier.
Table 5-4: ALTMULT_ACCUM Parameters - Accumulator
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
GUI Parameter
Parameter
Condition
Create an ‘accum_
sload’ input port
—
—
Register ‘accum_sload’
input
Add an extra pipeline
register
Altera Corporation
Value
Description
On or off
Dynamically specifies
whether the
accumulator value is
constant. If the accum_
sload port is high,
then the multiplier
output is loaded into
the accumulator.
—
• Accumulator On or off
> Create an
‘accum_sload’
input port =
On
• Accumulator
> More
Options
Turn on to enable
register ‘accum_sload’
input.
—
• Accumulator
> Create an
‘accum_
sload’ input
port = On
• Accumulator
> More
Options
On or off
Turn on this option if
you want to enable the
extra pipeline register
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ALTMULT_ACCUM Parameter Settings
GUI Parameter
Parameter
Condition
Value
5-7
Description
Input Register > What
is the source for clock
input?
ACCUM_
SLOAD_REG
• Accumulator Clock0–Clock3
> Create an
‘accum_sload’
input port =
On
• Accumulator
> More
Options
Specifies the clock
signal for the accum_
sload port.
Input Register > What
is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
ACCUM_
SLOAD_ACLR
• Accumulator
> Create an
‘accum_
sload’ input
port = On
• Accumulator
> More
Options
• Aclr0–Aclr2
• None
Specifies the asynchro‐
nous clear source for
the first register on the
accum_sload input.
Pipeline Register >
What is the source for
clock input?
ACCUM_
SLOAD_
PIPELINE_REG
• •
Accumulator
> Create an
‘accum_
sload’ input
port = On
• Accumulator
> More
Options
Clock0–Clock3
Specifies the source for
clock input.
Pipeline Register >
What is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
ACCUM_
SLOAD_
PIPELINE_
ACLR
• Accumulator • Aclr0–Aclr2
> Create an
• None
‘accum_soad’
input port =
On
• Accumulator
> More
Options
Specifies the source for
asynchronous clear
input.
Create an ‘overflow’
output port
Add [] extra latency to
the multiplier output
—
EXTRA_
MULTIPLIER_
LATENCY
ALTMULT_ACCUM (Multiply-Accumulate) IP Core References
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—
On or Off
Overflow port for the
—
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
7, 8, or 12
Specifies the number of
clock cycles of latency
for the multiplier
portion of the DSP
block. If the
MULTIPLIER_REG
parameter is specified,
then the specified clock
port is used to add the
latency.
accumulator
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ALTMULT_ACCUM Ports
ALTMULT_ACCUM Ports
Table 5-5: ALTMULT_ACCUM IP Core Input Ports
Port Name
Required
Description
accum_sload
No
Causes the value on the accumulator feedback path to go to
zero (0) or to accum_sload_upper_data when concatenated
with 0. If the accumulator is adding and the accum_sload port
is high, then the multiplier output is loaded into the
accumulator. If the accumulator is subtracting, then the
opposite (negative value) of the multiplier output is loaded
into the accumulator.
aclr0
No
The first asynchronous clear input. The aclr0 port is active
high.
aclr1
No
The second asynchronous clear input. The aclr1 port is
active high.
aclr2
No
The third asynchronous clear input. The aclr2 port is active
high.
aclr3
No
The fourth asynchronous clear input. The aclr3 port is active
high.
addnsub
No
Controls the functionality of the adder. If the addnsub port is
high, the adder performs an add function; if the addnsub port
is low, the adder performs a subtract function.
clock0
No
Specifies the first clock input, usable by any register in the IP
core.
clock1
No
Specifies the second clock input, usable by any register in the
IP core.
clock2
No
Specifies the third clock input, usable by any register in the IP
core.
clock3
No
Specifies the fourth clock input, usable by any register in the
IP core.
dataa[]
Yes
Data input to the multiplier. The size of the input port
depends on the WIDTH_A parameter value.
datab[]
Yes
Data input to the multiplier. The size of the input port
depends on the WIDTH_B parameter value.
ena0
No
Clock enable for the clock0 port.
ena1
No
Clock enable for the clock1 port.
ena2
No
Clock enable for the clock2 port.
ena3
No
Clock enable for the clock3 port.
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Port Name
Required
5-9
Description
signa
No
Specifies the numerical representation of the dataa[] port. If
the signa port is high, the multiplier treats the dataa[] port
as signed two's complement. If the signa port is low, the
multiplier treats the dataa[] port as an unsigned number.
signb
No
Specifies the numerical representation of the datab[] port. If
the signb port is high, the multiplier treats the datab[] port
as signed two's complement. If the signb port is low, the
multiplier treats the datab[]port as an unsigned number.
Table 5-6: ALTMULT_ACCUM IP Core Output Ports
Port Name
Required
Description
overflow
No
Overflow port for the accumulator.
result[]
Yes
Accumulator output port. The size of the output port depends
on the WIDTH_RESULT parameter value.
scanouta[]
No
Output of the first shift register. The size of the output port
depends on the WIDTH_A parameter value. When instantiating
the ALTMULT_ACCUM IP core with the MegaWizard PlugIn Manager, the MegaWizard Plug-In Manager renames the
scanouta[] port to shiftouta port.
scanoutb[]
No
Output of the second shift register. The size of the input port
depends on the WIDTH_B parameter value. When instantiating
the ALTMULT_ACCUM IP core with the MegaWizard PlugIn Manager, the MegaWizard Plug-In Manager renames the
scanoutb[] port to shiftoutb port.
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ALTMULT_ADD Parameter Settings
There are three groups of options: General, Extra Modes, and Multipliers.
Table 6-1: ALTMULT_ADD Parameters - General
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
GUI Parameter
What is the number of
multipliers?
Parameter
Value
Description
—
1, 2, 3, or 4
Specifies the number of
multipliers. You can
specify up to four
multipliers.
—
On or Off
Turn on this option if
you want all multipliers
to have similar
configurations.
How wide should the A WIDTH_A
input buses be?
—
1–256
Specifies the width of A
input buses.
How wide should the B WIDTH_B
input buses be?
—
1–256
Specifies the width of B
input buses.
How wide should the
WIDTH_
‘result’ output bus be? RESULT
—
1–256
Specifies the width of
‘result’ output bus.
Create a 4th asynchro‐
nous clear input option
—
—
On or Off
Turn on this option if
you want to create a 4th
asynchronous clear
input option.
Create an associated
clock enable for each
clock
—
—
On or Off
Turn on this option if
you want to create an
associated clock enable
for each clock.
—
• Signed
• Unsigned
• Variable
Specifies the represen‐
tation format for A
inputs.
All multipliers have
similar configurations
NUMBER_OF_
MULTIPLIERS
Condition
—
What is the representa‐ REPRESENTATI
tion format for A
ON_A
inputs?
© 2014 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
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ALTMULT_ADD Parameter Settings
GUI Parameter
‘signa’ input controls
the sign (1 signed/0
unsigned)
Parameter
PORT_SIGNA
Condition
Value
Description
Input
More Options
Representation >
What is the
representation
format for A
inputs? =
Variable
High ‘signa’ input
indicates signed and
low ‘signa’ input
indicates unsigned.
Register ‘signa’ input
—
Input
On or Off
Representation >
More Options
Turn on this option if
you want to enable the
register of ‘signa’
input
Add an extra pipeline
register
—
Input
On or Off
Representation >
More Options
Turn on this option if
you want to enable the
extra pipeline register
Input Register > What
is the source for clock
input?
SIGNED_
REGISTER_A
Input
Clock0–Clock3
Representation >
More Options
Specifies the source for
clock input.
Input Register > What
is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
SIGNED_
ACLR_A
Input
• Aclr0–Aclr2
Representation > • None
More Options
Specifies the source for
asynchronous clear
input.
Pipeline Register >
What is the source for
clock input?
SIGNED_
PIPELINE_
REGISTER_A
Input
Clock0–Clock3
Representation >
More Options
Specifies the source for
clock input.
Pipeline Register >
What is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
SIGNED_
PIPELINE_
ACLR_A
Input
• Aclr0–Aclr2
Representation > • None
More Options
Specifies the source for
asynchronous clear
input.
What is the representa‐ REPRESENTATI
tion format for B
ONS_B
inputs?
‘signb’ input controls
the sign (1 signed/0
unsigned)
PORT_SIGNB
—
• Signed
• Unsigned
• Variable
Specifies the represen‐
tation format for B
inputs.
Input
More Options
Representation >
What is the
representation
format for B
inputs? =
Variable
High ‘signb’ input
indicates signed and
low ‘signb’ input
indicates unsigned.
Register ‘signb’ input
—
Input
On or Off
Representation >
More Options
Turn on this option if
you want to enable the
register of ‘signb’
input
Add an extra pipeline
register
—
Input
On or Off
Representation >
More Options
Turn on this option if
you want to enable the
extra pipeline register
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GUI Parameter
Parameter
Condition
Value
6-3
Description
Input Register > What
is the source for clock
input?
SIGNED_
REGISTER_B
Input
Clock0–Clock3
Representation >
More Options
Specifies the source for
clock input.
Input Register > What
is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
SIGNED_
ACLR_B
Input
• Aclr0–Aclr2
Representation > • None
More Options
Specifies the source for
asynchronous clear
input.
Pipeline Register >
What is the source for
clock input?
SIGNED_
PIPELINE_
REGISTER_B
Input
Clock0–Clock3
Representation >
More Options
Specifies the source for
clock input.
Pipeline Register >
What is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
SIGNED_
PIPELINE_
ACLR_B
Input
• Aclr0–Aclr2
Representation > • None
More Options
Specifies the source for
asynchronous clear
input.
Table 6-2: ALTMULT_ADD Parameters - Extra Modes
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
GUI Parameter
Parameter
Condition
Create a shiftout
output from A input of
the last multiplier
—
—
On or Off
Turn on to create a
signal from A input.
Create a shiftout
output from B input of
the last multiplier
—
—
On or Off
Turn on to create a
signal from B input.
Register output of the
adder unit
—
—
On or Off
Turn on to create a
register output of the
adder unit.
What is the source for
clock input?
OUTPUT_
REGISTER
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Clock0–Clock3
• Outputs
Configuration
> Register
output of the
adder unit =
On
• Outputs
Configuration
> More
Options
Description
Specifies the clock
signal for the output
register.
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GUI Parameter
What is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
Parameter
Condition
Value
OUTPUT_ACLR • Outputs
• Aclr0–Aclr2
Configuration • None
> Register
output of the
adder unit =
On
• Outputs
Configuration
> More
Options
Description
Specifies the source for
asynchronous clear
input.
What operation should MUTIPLIER1_
be performed on
DIRECTION
outputs of the first pair
of multipliers?
General > What
is the number of
multipliers? = 2,
3, or 4
‘addnsub1’ input
controls the operation
(1 add/0 sub)
—
Adder Operation More Options
> What
operation should
be performed on
outputs of the
first pair of
multipliers? =
Variable
Register ‘addnsub1'
input
—
—
On or Off
Turn on this option if
you want to enable the
register of ‘addnsub1’
input
Add an extra pipeline
register
—
—
On or Off
Turn on this option if
you want to enable the
extra pipeline register
• Add
• Subtract
• Variable
Specifies whether the
second multiplier adds
or subtracts its value
from the sum. Values
are add and subtract. If
Variable is selected the
addnsub1 port is used.
High ‘addnsub1’ input
indicates add and low
‘addnsub1’ input
indicates subtract.
Input Register > What
is the source for clock
input?
ADDNSUB_
MULTIPLIER_
REGISTER[1]
Adder Operation Clock0–Clock3
> More Options
Specifies the source for
clock input.
Input Register > What
is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
ADDSUB_
MULTIPLIER_
ACLR[1]
Adder Operation • Aclr0–Aclr2
> More Options • None
Specifies the source for
asynchronous clear
input.
Pipeline Register >
What is the source for
clock input?
ADDNSUB_
MULTIPLIER_
PIPELINE_
REGISTER[1]
Adder Operation Clock0–Clock3
> More Options
Specifies the source for
clock input.
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GUI Parameter
Pipeline Register >
What is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
Parameter
ADDNSUB_
MULTIPLIER_
PIPELINE_
ACLR[1]
What operation should MUTIPLIER3_
be performed on
DIRECTION
outputs of the second
pair of multipliers?
Condition
Value
6-5
Description
Adder Operation • Aclr0–Aclr2
> More Options • None
Specifies the source for
asynchronous clear
input.
General > What
is the number of
multipliers? = 4
—
Specifies whether the
fourth and all
subsequent oddnumbered multipliers
add or subtract their
results from the total.
Values are add and
subtract. If Variable is
selected, the addnsub3
port is used.
‘addnsub3’ input
controls the sign (1
add/0 sub) - More
Options
—
—
—
High ‘addnsub3’ input
indicates add and low
‘addnsub3’ input
indicates subtract.
Register ‘addnsub3’
input
—
—
On or Off
Turn on this option if
you want to enable the
register of ‘addnsub3’
input.
Add an extra pipeline
register
—
—
On or Off
Turn on this option if
you want to enable the
extra pipeline register.
Input Register > What
is the source for clock
input?
ADDNSUB_
MULTIPLIER_
REGISTER[3]
Adder Operation Clock0–Clock3
> More Options
Specifies the source for
clock input.
Input Register > What
is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
ADDSUB_
MULTIPLIER_
ACLR[3]
Adder Operation • Aclr0–Aclr2
> More Options • None
Specifies the source for
asynchronous clear
input.
Pipeline Register >
What is the source for
clock input?
ADDNSUB_
MULTIPLIER_
PIPELINE_
REGISTER[3]
Adder Operation Clock0–Clock3
> More Options
Specifies the source for
clock input.
Pipeline Register >
What is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
ADDNSUB_
MULTIPLIER_
PIPELINE_
ACLR[3]
Adder Operation • Aclr0–Aclr2
> More Options • None
Specifies the source for
asynchronous clear
input.
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ALTMULT_ADD Parameter Settings
GUI Parameter
Which multiplieradder implementation
should be used?
Parameter
Condition
DEDICATED_
MULTIPLIER_
CIRCUITRY
—
Value
Description
Specifies the
• Use the
multiplier-adder
default
implementa‐ implementation.
tion
• Use dedicated
multiplier
circuitry (Not
available for
all families)
• Use logic
elements
Table 6-3: ALTMULT_ADD Parameters - Multipliers
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
GUI Parameter
Register input A of the
multiplier
Parameter
Condition
—
—
Value
On or Off
Description
Turn on to enable
register input A of the
multiplier.
What is the source for
clock input?
INPUT_
REGISTER_
A[0..3]
Clock0–Clock3
• Input
Configuration
> Register
input A of the
multiplier =
On
• • Input
Configuration
> More
Options
Specifies the source for
clock input.
What is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
INPUT_ACLR_
A[0..3]
• Input
• Aclr0–Aclr2
Configuration • None
> Register
input A of the
multiplier =
On
• Input
Configuration
> More
Options
Specifies the source for
asynchronous clear
input.
Register input B of the
multiplier
—
Altera Corporation
—
On or Off
Turn on to enable
register input B of the
multiplier.
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GUI Parameter
Parameter
Condition
Value
6-7
Description
What is the source for
clock input?
INPUT_
REGISTER_
B[0..3]
Clock0–Clock3
• Input
Configuration
> Register
input B of the
multiplier =
On
• Input
Configuration
> More
Options
Specifies the source for
clock input.
What is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
INPUT_ACLR_
B[0..3]
• Input
• Aclr0–Aclr2
Configuration • None
> Register
input B of the
multiplier =
On
• Input
Configuration
> More
Options
Specifies the source for
asynchronous clear
input.
What is the input A of
the multiplier
connected to?
INPUT_
SOURCE_
A[0..3]
—
• Multiplier
input
• Shiftin input
Specifies the input A of
the multiplier is
connected to either
multiplier input or
shiftin input.
What is the input B of
the multiplier
connected to?
INPUT_
SOURCE_B[0..3]
—
• Multiplier
input
• Shiftin input
Specifies the input B of
the multiplier is
connected to either
multiplier input or
shiftin input.
Register output of the
multiplier
—
—
On or Off
Turn on to enable the
register for output of
the multiplier.
What is the source for
clock input?
MULTIPLIER_
REGISTER[]
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Clock0–Clock3
• Output
Configuration
> Register
output of the
multiplier =
On
• Output
Configuration
> More
Options
Specifies the source for
clock input.
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ALTMULT_ADD Ports
GUI Parameter
What is the source for
asynchronous clear
input?
Parameter
Condition
MULTIPLIER_
ACLR[]
Value
• Output
• Aclr0–Aclr2
Configuration • None
> Register
output of the
multiplier =
On
• Output
Configuration
> More
Options
Description
Specifies the source for
asynchronous clear
input.
ALTMULT_ADD Ports
Table 6-4: ALTMULT_ADD IP Core Input Ports
Port Name
Required
Description
dataa[]
Yes
Data input to the multiplier. Input port [NUMBER_OF_
MULTIPLIERS * WIDTH_A - 1..0] wide.
datab[]
Yes
Data input to the multiplier. Input port [NUMBER_OF_
MULTIPLIERS * WIDTH_B - 1..0] wide.
clock[]
No
Clock input port [0..3] to the corresponding register. This port
can be used by any register in the IP core.
aclr[]
No
Input port [0..3]. Asynchronous clear input to the
corresponding register.
ena[]
No
Input port [0..3]. Clock enable for the corresponding clock[]
port.
signa
No
Specifies the numerical representation of the dataa[] port. If the
signa port is high, the multiplier treats the dataa[] port as a
signed two's complement number. If the signa port is low, the
multiplier treats the dataa[] port as an unsigned number.
signb
No
Specifies the numerical representation of the datab[] port. If the
signb port is high, the multiplier treats the datab[] port as a
signed two's complement number. If the signb port is low, the
multiplier treats the datab[] port as an unsigned number.
Table 6-5: ALTMULT_ADD IP Core Output Ports
Port Name
Required
result[]
Yes
overflow
No
Altera Corporation
Description
Multiplier output port. Output port [WIDTH_RESULT -
1..0] wide.
Overflow flag. If output_saturation is enabled, overflow
flag is set.
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ALTMULT_ADD Ports
Port Name
Required
Description
scanouta[]
No
Output of scan chain A. Output port [WIDTH_A - 1..0]
wide.
scanoutb[]
No
Output of scan chain B. Output port [WIDTH_B - 1..0]
wide.
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ALTMULT_COMPLEX Parameter Settings
There are two groups of options: General and Implementation Style/Pipelining.
Table 7-1: ALTMULT_COMPLEX Parameters - General
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
GUI Parameter
Parameter
Condition
Value
Description
How wide should the A WIDTH_A
input buses be?
—
1–256
Specifies the width of A
input buses.
How wide should the B WIDTH_B
input buses be?
—
1–256
Specifies the width of B
input buses.
How wide should the
WIDTH_
‘result’ output bus be? RESULT
—
1–256
Specifies the width of
‘result’ output bus.
What is the representa‐ REPRESENTATI
tion format for A
ON_A
inputs?
—
• Signed
• Unsigned
Specifies the represen‐
tation format for A
inputs.
What is the representa‐ REPRESENTATI
tion format for B
ONS_B
inputs?
—
• Signed
• Unsigned
Specifies the represen‐
tation format for B
inputs.
Table 7-2: ALTMULT_COMPLEX Parameters - Implementation Style/Pipelining
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
GUI Parameter
Parameter
Condition
Value
Which implementa‐
tion style should be
used?
IMPLEMENTATIO
N_STYLE
—
Automatically
select a style for
best trade-off for
the current
settings
Description
By default automatic
selection for MAX 10
device is selected.
Quartus II software
will determine the best
implementation based
on the selected device
family and input
width.
© 2014 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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ALTMULT_COMPLEX Ports
GUI Parameter
Output latency []
clock cycles
Parameter
Condition
PIPELINE
Value
Description
—
0–14
Specifies the number
of clock cycles for
output latency.
Create an asynchro‐
nous Clear input
—
—
On or off
Specifies synchronous
clear for the complex
multiplier. Clears the
function asynchro‐
nously when the aclr
port is asserted high.
Create clock enable
input
—
—
On or off
Specifies active high
clock enable for the
clock port of the
complex multiplier.
ALTMULT_COMPLEX Ports
Table 7-3: ALTMULT_COMPLEX IP Core Input Ports
Port Name
Required
Description
aclr
No
Asynchronous clear for the complex multiplier. When the aclr
port is asserted high, the function is asynchronously cleared.
clock
Yes
Clock input to the ALTMULT_COMPLEX function.
dataa_imag[]
Yes
Imaginary input value for the data A port of the complex
multiplier. The size of the input port depends on the WIDTH_A
parameter value.
dataa_real[]
Yes
Real input value for the data A port of the complex multiplier.
The size of the input port depends on the WIDTH_A parameter
value.
datab_imag[]
Yes
Imaginary input value for the data B port of the complex
multiplier. The size of the input port depends on the WIDTH_B
parameter value.
datab_real[]
Yes
Real input value for the data B port of the complex multiplier.
The size of the input port depends on the WIDTH_B parameter
value.
ena
No
Active high clock enable for the clock port of the complex
multiplier.
Table 7-4: ALTMULT_COMPLEX IP Core Output Ports
Port Name
result_imag
Altera Corporation
Required
Yes
Description
Imaginary output value of the multiplier. The size of the output
port depends on the WIDTH_RESULT parameter value.
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ALTMULT_COMPLEX Ports
Port Name
result_real
Required
Yes
Description
Real output value of the multiplier. The size of the output port
depends on the WIDTH_RESULT parameter value.
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Multipliers User Guide
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Document Revision History for MAX 10 Embedded Multipliers User Guide
Date
September
2014
Version
2014.09.22
Changes
Initial release.
© 2014 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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TOC-2
Contents
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Overview................................................................. 1-1
Clock Networks Overview.......................................................................................................................... 1-1
Internal Oscillator Overview...................................................................................................................... 1-1
PLLs Overview..............................................................................................................................................1-1
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features...................................... 2-1
Clock Networks Architecture and Features............................................................................................. 2-1
Global Clock Networks................................................................................................................... 2-1
Clock Pins Introduction..................................................................................................................2-1
Clock Resources............................................................................................................................... 2-2
Global Clock Network Sources...................................................................................................... 2-2
Global Clock Control Block............................................................................................................2-4
Global Clock Network Power Down.............................................................................................2-6
Clock Enable Signals........................................................................................................................2-7
Internal Oscillator Architecture and Features......................................................................................... 2-8
PLLs Architecture and Features.................................................................................................................2-8
PLL Architecture.............................................................................................................................. 2-8
PLL Features................................................................................................................................... 2-10
PLL Locations................................................................................................................................. 2-10
Clock Pin to PLL Connections.....................................................................................................2-12
PLL Counter to GCLK Connections........................................................................................... 2-12
PLL Control Signals.......................................................................................................................2-13
Clock Feedback Modes..................................................................................................................2-14
PLL External Clock Output.......................................................................................................... 2-17
ADC Clock Input from PLL......................................................................................................... 2-19
Spread-Spectrum Clocking...........................................................................................................2-19
PLL Programmable Parameters................................................................................................... 2-19
Clock Switchover........................................................................................................................... 2-22
PLL Cascading................................................................................................................................ 2-26
PLL Reconfiguration..................................................................................................................... 2-26
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Design Considerations........................................... 3-1
Clock Networks Design Considerations...................................................................................................3-1
Guideline: Clock Enable Signals.................................................................................................... 3-1
Guideline: Connectivity Restrictions............................................................................................ 3-1
Internal Oscillator Design Considerations...............................................................................................3-2
Guideline: Connectivity Restrictions............................................................................................ 3-2
PLLs Design Considerations...................................................................................................................... 3-2
Guideline: PLL Control Signals......................................................................................................3-2
Guideline: Self-Reset........................................................................................................................3-2
Guideline: Output Clocks............................................................................................................... 3-2
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TOC-3
Guideline: PLL Cascading...............................................................................................................3-3
Guideline: Clock Switchover.......................................................................................................... 3-3
Guideline: .mif Streaming in PLL Reconfiguration.....................................................................3-4
Guideline: scandone Signal for PLL Reconfiguration.................................................................3-4
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Implementation Guides......................................... 4-1
ALTCLKCTRL IP Core...............................................................................................................................4-1
IP Catalog and Parameter Editor...................................................................................................4-1
Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options................................................................................4-2
Files Generated for Altera IP Cores (Legacy Parameter Editor)............................................... 4-4
ALTPLL IP Core.......................................................................................................................................... 4-5
IP Catalog and Parameter Editor...................................................................................................4-6
Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options................................................................................4-7
Files Generated for Altera IP Cores (Legacy Parameter Editor)............................................. 4-17
ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP Core.................................................................................................................4-18
IP Catalog and Parameter Editor.................................................................................................4-18
Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options..............................................................................4-19
Files Generated for Altera IP Cores (Legacy Parameter Editor)............................................. 4-20
Obtaining the Resource Utilization Report................................................................................4-21
Internal Oscillator IP Core....................................................................................................................... 4-21
IP Catalog and Parameter Editor.................................................................................................4-22
Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options..............................................................................4-23
Files Generated for Altera IP Cores (Legacy Parameter Editor)............................................. 4-24
ALTCLKCTRL IP Core References.....................................................................5-1
ALTCLKCTRL Parameters.........................................................................................................................5-1
ALTCLKCTRL Ports and Signals.............................................................................................................. 5-2
ALTPLL IP Core References............................................................................... 6-1
ALTPLL Parameters.................................................................................................................................... 6-1
Operation Modes Parameter Settings........................................................................................... 6-1
PLL Control Signals Parameter Settings.......................................................................................6-2
Programmable Bandwidth Parameter Settings............................................................................6-2
Clock Switchover Parameter Settings........................................................................................... 6-3
PLL Dynamic Reconfiguration Parameter Settings.................................................................... 6-4
Dynamic Phase Configuration Parameter Settings.....................................................................6-4
Output Clocks Parameter Settings.................................................................................................6-5
ALTPLL Ports and Signals..........................................................................................................................6-6
ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP Core References......................................................... 7-1
ALTPLL_RECONFIG Parameters............................................................................................................ 7-1
ALTPLL_RECONFIG Ports and Signals.................................................................................................. 7-2
ALTPLL_RECONFIG Counter Settings...................................................................................................7-7
Internal Oscillator IP Core References...............................................................8-1
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Internal Oscillator Parameters................................................................................................................... 8-1
Internal Oscillator Ports and Signals.........................................................................................................8-1
Additonal Information for MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide................ A-1
Document Revision History for MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide.......................................... A-1
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Clock Networks Overview
MAX® 10 devices support global clock (GCLK) networks.
Clock networks provide clock sources for the core. You can use clock networks in high fan-out global
signal network such as reset and clear.
Internal Oscillator Overview
MAX 10 devices offer built-in internal oscillator up to 116 MHz.
You can enable or disable the internal oscillator.
PLLs Overview
Phase-locked loops (PLLs) provide robust clock management and synthesis for device clock management,
external system clock management, and I/O interface clocking.
You can use the PLLs as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Zero-delay buffer
Jitter attenuator
Low-skew fan-out buffer
Frequency synthesizer
Reduce the number of oscillators required on the board
Reduce the clock pins used in the device by synthesizing multiple clock frequencies from a single
reference clock source
On-chip clock de-skew
Dynamic phase shift
Counters reconfiguration
Bandwidth reconfiguration
Programmable output duty cycle
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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PLLs Overview
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• PLL cascading
• Reference clock switchover
• Drive the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) clock
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Clock Networks Architecture and Features
Global Clock Networks
GCLKs drive throughout the entire device, feeding all device quadrants. All resources in the device, such
as the I/O elements, logic array blocks (LABs), dedicated multiplier blocks, and M9K memory blocks can
use GCLKs as clock sources. Use these clock network resources for control signals, such as clock enables
and clears fed by an external pin. Internal logic can also drive GCLKs for internally-generated GCLKs and
asynchronous clears, clock enables, or other control signals with high fan-out.
Clock Pins Introduction
There are two types of external clock pins that can drive the GCLK networks.
Dedicated Clock Input Pins
You can use the dedicated clock input pins (CLK<#>[p,n]) to drive clock and global signals, such as
asynchronous clears, presets, and clock enables for GCLK networks.
If you do not use the dedicated clock input pins for clock input, you can also use them as general-purpose
input or output pins.
The CLK pins can be single-ended or differential inputs. When you use the CLK pins as single-ended clock
inputs, both the CLK<#>p and CLK<#>n pins have dedicated connection to the GCLK networks. When you
use the CLK pins as differential inputs, pair two clock pins of the same number to receive differential
signaling.
Dual-Purpose Clock Pins
You can use the dual-purpose clock (DPCLK) pins for high fan-out control signals, such as protocol signals,
TRDY and IRDY signals for PCI via GCLK networks.
The DPCLK pins are only available on the left and right of the I/O banks.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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101 Innovation Drive, San Jose, CA 95134
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Clock Resources
Clock Resources
Table 2-1: MAX 10 Clock Resources
Clock Resource
Device
Dedicated clock input pins
Number of Resources
Available
Source of Clock Resource
• 10M02
• 10M04
• 10M08
8 single-ended or 4
differential
•
•
•
•
CLK[7..0][p,n] pins on the
16 single-ended or 8
top, left, bottom, and right of
differential
the I/O banks
10M16
10M25
10M40
10M50
DPCLK pins
All
4
CLK[3..0][p,n] pins on the
left and right of the I/O
banks
DPCLK[3..0] pins on the left
and right of the I/O banks
For more information about the clock input pins connections, refer to the pin connection guidelines.
Related Information
MAX 10 FPGA Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Global Clock Network Sources
Table 2-2: MAX 10 Clock Pins Connectivity to the GCLK Networks
CLK Pin
CLK0p
GCLK[0,2,4]
CLK0n
GCLK[1,2]
CLK1p
GCLK[1,3,4]
CLK1n
GCLK[0,3]
CLK2p
GCLK[5,7,9]
CLK2n
GCLK[6,7]
CLK3p
GCLK[6,8,9]
CLK3n
GCLK[5,8]
CLK4p(1)
GCLK[10,12,14]
CLK4n(1)
GCLK[11,12]
(1)
(1)
GCLK
CLK5p
GCLK[11,13,14]
CLK5n(1)
GCLK[10,13]
CLK6p(1)
GCLK[15,17,19]
This only applies to 10M16, 10M25, 10M40, and 10M50 devices.
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Global Clock Network Sources
CLK Pin
GCLK
CLK6n(1)
CLK7p
2-3
GCLK[16,17]
(1)
GCLK[16,18,19]
CLK7n(1)
GCLK[15,18]
DPCLK0
GCLK[0,2]
DPCLK1
GCLK[1,3,4]
DPCLK2
GCLK[5,7]
DPCLK3
GCLK[6,8,9]
Figure 2-1: GCLK Network Sources for 10M02, 10M04, and 10M08 Devices
DPCLK2
DPCLK3
GCLK[0..4]
CLK[0,1][p,n]
GCLK[5..9]
CLK[2,3][p,n]
DPCLK0
DPCLK1
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Global Clock Control Block
Figure 2-2: GCLK Network Sources for 10M16, 10M25, 10M40, and 10M50 Devices
CLK[4,5][p,n]
GCLK[10..14]
DPCLK2
DPCLK3
GCLK[0..4]
CLK[0,1][p,n]
GCLK[5..9]
CLK[2,3][p,n]
DPCLK0
DPCLK1
GCLK[15..19]
CLK[6,7][p,n]
Global Clock Control Block
The clock control block drives GCLKs. The clock control blocks are located on each side of the device,
close to the dedicated clock input pins. GCLKs are optimized for minimum clock skew and delay.
The clock control block has the following functions:
• Dynamic GCLK clock source selection (not applicable for DPCLK pins and internal logic input)
• GCLK multiplexing
• GCLK network power down (dynamic enable and disable)
Table 2-3: Clock Control Block Inputs
Input
Dedicated clock input pins
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Description
Dedicated clock input pins can drive clocks or
global signals, such as synchronous and asynchro‐
nous clears, presets, or clock enables onto given
GCLKs.
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2-5
Global Clock Control Block
Input
Description
DPCLK pins
DPCLK pins are bidirectional dual function pins that
are used for high fan-out control signals, such as
protocol signals, TRDY and IRDY signals for PCI via
the GCLK. Clock control blocks that have inputs
driven by DPCLK pins cannot drive PLL inputs.
PLL counter outputs
PLL counter outputs can drive the GCLK.
Internal logic
You can drive the GCLK through logic array
routing to enable the internal logic elements (LEs)
to drive a high fan-out, low-skew signal path. Clock
control blocks that have inputs driven by internal
logic cannot drive PLL inputs.
Figure 2-3: Clock Control Block
Clock Control Block
Static Clock Select (3)
CLK[n + 3]
CLK[n + 2]
CLK[n + 1]
CLK[n]
inclk1
inclk0
fIN
Internal Logic
DPCLK
PLL
C3
C4
clkswitch (1)
inclk1
inclk0
fIN
clkswitch (1)
C0
C1
C2
PLL
C0
C1
C2
Enable/
Disable
Global
Clock
Static Clock
Select (3)
clkselect[1..0] (2)
Internal Logic (4)
C3
C4
Notes:
(1) The clkswitch signal can either be set through the configuration file or dynamically set when using the manual PLL switchover
feature. The output of the multiplexer is the input clock (fIN) for the PLL.
(2) The clkselect[1..0] signals are fed by internal logic. You can use the clkselect[1..0] signals to dynamically select the clock source for
the GCLK when the device is in user mode. Only one PLL (applicable to PLLs on the same side) can be selected as the clock source to
the GCLK.
(3) The static clock select signals are set in the configuration file. Therefore, dynamic control when the device is in user mode is not
feasible.
(4) You can use internal logic to enable or disable the GCLK in user mode.
Each MAX 10 device has a maximum of 20 clock control blocks. There are five clock control blocks on
each side of the device.
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Global Clock Network Power Down
Each PLL generates five clock outputs through the c[4..0] counters. Two of these clocks can drive the
GCLK through a clock control block.
From the Clock Control Block Inputs table, only the following inputs can drive into any given clock
control block:
•
•
•
•
Two dedicated clock input pins
Two PLL counter outputs
One DPCLK pin
One source from internal logic
The output from the clock control block in turn feeds the corresponding GCLK. The GCLK can drive the
PLL input if the clock control block inputs are outputs of another PLL or dedicated clock input pins.
Normal I/O pins cannot drive the PLL input clock port.
Figure 2-4: Clock Control Block on Each Side of the Device
Clock Input Pins
PLL Outputs
DPCLK
Internal Logic
4
5
Clock
Control
Block
4
5
GCLK
5
Five Clock Control
Blocks on Each Side
of the Device
Out of these five inputs to any clock control block, the two clock input pins and two PLL outputs are
dynamically selected to feed a GCLK. The clock control block supports static selection of the signal from
internal logic.
Related Information
• ALTCLKCTRL Parameters on page 5-1
• ALTCLKCTRL Ports and Signals on page 5-2
Global Clock Network Power Down
You can disable the MAX 10 GCLK (power down) by using both static and dynamic approaches. In the
static approach, configuration bits are set in the configuration file generated by the Quartus® II software,
which automatically disables unused GCLKs. The dynamic clock enable or disable feature allows internal
logic to control clock enable or disable of the GCLKs.
When a clock network is disabled, all the logic fed by the clock network is in an off-state, reducing the
overall power consumption of the device. This function is independent of the PLL and is applied directly
on the clock network.
You can set the input clock sources and the clkena signals for the GCLK multiplexers through the
ALTCLKCTRL IP core parameter editor in the Quartus II software.
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Clock Enable Signals
2-7
Related Information
• ALTCLKCTRL Parameters on page 5-1
• ALTCLKCTRL Ports and Signals on page 5-2
Clock Enable Signals
The MAX 10 devices support clkena signals at the GCLK network level. This allows you to gate off the
clock even when a PLL is used. After reenabling the output clock, the PLL does not need a resynchroniza‐
tion or relock period because the circuit gates off the clock at the clock network level. In addition, the PLL
can remain locked independent of the clkena signals because the loop-related counters are not affected.
Figure 2-5: clkena Implementation
clkena
D
Q
clkena_out
clkin
clk_out
Note: The clkena circuitry controlling the C0 output of the PLL to an output pin is implemented with
two registers instead of a single register.
Figure 2-6: Example Waveform of clkena Implementation with Output Enable
The clkena signal is sampled on the falling edge of the clock (clkin). This feature is useful for
applications that require low power or sleep mode.
clkin
clkena
clk_out
The clkena signal can also disable clock outputs if the system is not tolerant to frequency overshoot
during PLL resynchronization.
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Internal Oscillator Architecture and Features
Related Information
• Guideline: Clock Enable Signals on page 3-1
• ALTCLKCTRL Parameters on page 5-1
• ALTCLKCTRL Ports and Signals on page 5-2
Internal Oscillator Architecture and Features
MAX 10 devices have built-in internal ring oscillator with clock multiplexers and dividers. The internal
ring oscillator operates up to 232 MHz which is not accessible. This operating frequency further divides
down to slower frequencies.
By default internal oscillator is turned off in user mode. You can turn on the oscillator by asserting the
oscena signal in the Internal Oscillator IP core.
When the oscena input signal is asserted, the oscillator is enabled and the output can be routed to the
logic array through the clkout output signal. When the oscena signal is set low, the clkout signal is
constant high. You can analyze this delay using the TimeQuest timing analyzer.
PLLs Architecture and Features
PLL Architecture
The main purpose of a PLL is to synchronize the phase and frequency of the voltage-controlled oscillator
(VCO) to an input reference clock.
Figure 2-7: MAX 10 PLL High-Level Block Diagram
Each clock source can come from any of the two or four clock pins located on the same side of the device
as the PLL.
PLL
CLKIN
LOCK
circuit
4:1
Multiplexer
÷n
inclk0
inclk1
4:1
Multiplexer
Clock
Switchover
Block
clkswitch
clkbad0
clkbad1
activeclock
pfdena
PFD
lock
÷C0
CP
LF
VCO
Range
Detector
VCO
8 ÷2 (1)
8
÷C1
÷C2
÷C3
÷C4
PLL
output
mux
GCLKs
ADC clock (2)
External clock output
÷M
No Compensation; ZDB Mode
Source-Synchronous; Normal Mode
GCLK
networks
Notes:
(1) This is the VCO post-scale counter K.
(2) Only counter C0 of PLL1 and PLL3 can drive the ADC clock.
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PLL Architecture
2-9
Phase-Frequency Detector (PFD)
The PFD has inputs from the feedback clock, fFB, and the input reference clock, fREF. The PLL compares
the rising edge of the input reference clock to a feedback clock using a PFD. The PFD produces an up or
down signal that determines whether the VCO needs to operate at a higher or lower frequency.
Charge Pump (CP)
If the charge pump receives a logic high on the up signal, current is driven into the loop filter. If the
charge pump receives a logic high on the down signal, current is drawn from the loop filter.
Loop Filter (LF)
The loop filter converts the up and down signals from the PFD to a voltage that is used to bias the VCO.
The loop filter filters out glitches from the charge pump and prevents voltage overshoot, which minimizes
jitter on the VCO.
Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
The voltage from the charge pump determines how fast the VCO operates. The VCO is implemented as a
four-stage differential ring oscillator. A divide counter, M, is inserted in the feedback loop to increase the
VCO frequency, fVCO, above the input reference frequency, fREF.
The VCO frequency is determined using the following equation:
fVCO = fREF × M = fIN × M/N ,
where fIN is the input clock frequency to the PLL and N is the pre-scale counter.
The VCO frequency is a critical parameter that must be between 600 and 1,300 MHz to ensure proper
operation of the PLL. The Quartus II software automatically sets the VCO frequency within the
recommended range based on the clock output and phase shift requirements in your design.
Post-Scale Counters (C)
The VCO output can feed up to five post-scale counters (C0, C1, C2, C3, and C4). These post-scale counters
allow the PLL to produce a number of harmonically-related frequencies.
Internal Delay Elements
The MAX 10 PLLs have internal delay elements to compensate for routing on the GCLK networks and
I/O buffers. These internal delays are fixed.
PLL Outputs
The MAX 10 PLL supports up to 5 GCLK outputs and 1 dedicated external clock output. The output
frequency, fOUT, to the GCLK network or dedicated external clock output is determined using the
following equation:
fREF = fIN/N and
fOUT = fVCO/C = (fREF × M)/C = (fIN × M)/(N × C),
where C is the setting on the C0, C1, C2, C3, or C4 counter.
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PLL Features
PLL Features
Table 2-4: MAX 10 PLL Features
Feature
C output counters
M, N, C counter sizes
Support
5
1 to 512 (2)
Dedicated clock outputs
1 single-ended or 1 differential
Dedicated clock input pins
4 single-ended or 2 differential
Spread-spectrum input clock tracking
PLL cascading
Yes (3)
Through GCLK
Source synchronous compensation
Yes
No compensation mode
Yes
Normal compensation
Yes
Zero-delay buffer compensation
Yes
Phase shift resolution
Down to 96 ps increments (4)
Programmable duty cycle
Yes
Output counter cascading
Yes
Input clock switchover
Yes
User mode reconfiguration
Yes
Loss of lock detection
Yes
4:1 multiplexer CLK input selection
Yes
PLL Locations
The following figures show the physical locations of the PLLs. Every index represents one PLL in the
device. The physical locations of the PLLs correspond to the coordinates in the Quartus II Chip Planner.
(2)
(3)
(4)
C counters range from 1 through 512 if the output clock uses a 50% duty cycle. For any output clocks using a
non-50% duty cycle, the post-scale counters range from 1 through 256.
Only applicable if the input clock jitter is in the input jitter tolerance specifications.
The smallest phase shift is determined by the VCO period divided by eight. For degree increments, the
MAX 10 device family can shift all output frequencies in increments of at least 45°. Smaller degree
increments are possible depending on the frequency and divide parameters.
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PLL Locations
2-11
Figure 2-8: PLL Locations for 10M02 Device
Bank 8
Bank 6
Bank 5
Bank 2
Bank 1
PLL 2 (2)
PLL 1 (1)
Bank 3
Notes:
(1) Available on all packages except V36 package.
(2) Available on U324 and V36packages only.
Figure 2-9: PLL Locations for 10M04 and 10M08 Devices
Bank 7
Bank 3
Bank 4
PLL 2 (2)
PLL 1 (1)
Bank 5
Bank 2
Bank 6
Bank 1B Bank 1A
Bank 8
Notes:
(1) Available on all packages except V81 package.
(2) Available on F256, F484, U324, and V81 packages only.
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Clock Pin to PLL Connections
Figure 2-10: PLL Locations for 10M16, 10M25, 10M40 and 10M50 Devices
Bank 8
Bank 7
PLL 2 (1)
Bank 2
Bank 5
Bank 6
Bank 1B Bank 1A
PLL 3 (1)
OCT
PLL 1
Bank 3
Bank 4
PLL 4 (1)
Note:
(1) Available on all packages except E144 and U169 packages.
Clock Pin to PLL Connections
Table 2-5: MAX 10 Dedicated Clock Input Pin Connectivity to PLL
Dedicated Clock Pin
PLL
CLK[0,1][p,n]
PLL1, PLL3
CLK[2,3][p,n]
PLL2, PLL4
CLK[4,5][p,n]
PLL2, PLL3
CLK[6,7][p,n]
PLL1, PLL4
PLL Counter to GCLK Connections
Table 2-6: MAX 10 PLL Counter Connectivity to the GCLK Networks
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PLL Counter Output
GCLK
PLL1_C0
GCLK[0,3,15,18]
PLL1_C1
GCLK[1,4,16,19]
PLL1_C2
GCLK[0,2,15,17]
PLL1_C3
GCLK[1,3,16,18]
PLL1_C4
GCLK[2,4,17,19]
PLL2_C0
GCLK[5,8,10,13]
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PLL Control Signals
PLL Counter Output
GCLK
PLL2_C1
GCLK[6,9,11,14]
PLL2_C2
GCLK[5,7,10,12]
PLL2_C3
GCLK[6,8,11,13]
PLL2_C4
GCLK[7,9,12,14]
PLL3_C0(5)
GCLK[0,3,10,13]
PLL3_C1(5)
GCLK[1,4,11,14]
(5)
PLL3_C2
GCLK[0,2,10,12]
PLL3_C3(5)
GCLK[1,3,11,13]
PLL3_C4(5)
GCLK[2,4,12,14]
(5)
GCLK[5,8,15,18]
PLL4_C1(5)
GCLK[6,9,16,19]
PLL4_C2(5)
GCLK[5,7,15,17]
PLL4_C3(5)
GCLK[6,8,16,18]
PLL4_C4(5)
GCLK[7,9,17,19]
PLL4_C0
2-13
PLL Control Signals
You can use the following three signals to observe and control the PLL operation and resynchronization.
pfdena
Use the pfdena signal to maintain the last locked frequency so that your system has time to store its
current settings before shutting down.
The pfdena signal controls the PFD output with a programmable gate. The PFD circuit is enabled by
default. When the PFD circuit is disabled, the PLL output does not depend on the input clock, and tends
to drift outside of the lock window.
areset
The areset signal is the reset or resynchronization input for each PLL. The device input pins or internal
logic can drive these input signals.
When you assert the areset signal, the PLL counters reset, clearing the PLL output and placing the PLL
out of lock. The VCO is then set back to its nominal setting. When the areset signal is deasserted, the
PLL resynchronizes to its input as it relocks.
The assertion of the areset signal does not disable the VCO, but instead resets the VCO to its nominal
value. The only time that the VCO is completely disabled is when you do not have a PLL instantiated in
your design.
(5)
This only applies to 10M16, 10M25, 10M40, and 10M50 devices.
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Clock Feedback Modes
locked
The locked output indicates that the PLL has locked onto the reference clock and the PLL clock outputs
are operating at the desired phase and frequency set in the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor.
Altera recommends using the areset and locked signals in your designs to control and observe the status
of your PLL. This implementation is illustrated in the following figure.
Figure 2-11: locked Signal Implementation
locked
VCC
PLL
DFF
D
Q
locked
areset
Note: If you use the SignalTap® II tool to probe the locked signal before the D flip-flop, the locked
signal goes low only when areset is deasserted. If the areset signal is not enabled, the extra logic
is not implemented in the ALTPLL IP core.
Related Information
• Guideline: PLL Control Signals on page 3-2
• PLL Control Signals Parameter Settings on page 6-2
• ALTPLL Ports and Signals on page 6-6
Clock Feedback Modes
The MAX 10 PLLs support up to four different clock feedback modes. Each mode allows clock multiplica‐
tion and division, phase shifting, and programmable duty cycle.
The PLL fully compensates input and output delays only when you use the dedicated clock input pins
associated with a given PLL as the clock sources.
For example, when using PLL1 in normal mode, the clock delays from one of the following clock input
pins to the PLL and the PLL clock output-to-destination register are fully compensated:
•
•
•
•
CLK0
CLK1
CLK2
CLK3
When driving the PLL using the GCLK network, the input and output delays might not be fully
compensated in the Quartus II software.
Related Information
Operation Modes Parameter Settings on page 6-1
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Source Synchronous Mode
2-15
Source Synchronous Mode
If the data and clock arrive at the same time at the input pins, the phase relationship between the data and
clock remains the same at the data and clock ports of any I/O element input register.
You can use this mode for source synchronous data transfers. Data and clock signals at the I/O element
experience similar buffer delays as long as both signals use the same I/O standard.
Figure 2-12: Example of Phase Relationship Between Clock and Data in Source Synchronous Mode
Data pin
PLL reference
clock at input pin
Data at register
Clock at register
Source synchronous mode compensates for clock network delay, including any difference in delay
between the following two paths:
• Data pin to I/O element register input
• Clock input pin to the PLL PFD input
For all data pins clocked by a source synchronous mode PLL, set the input pin to the register delay chain
in the I/O element to zero in the Quartus II software. All data pins must use the PLL COMPENSATED
logic option in the Quartus II software.
No Compensation Mode
In no compensation mode, the PLL does not compensate for any clock networks. This mode provides
better jitter performance because clock feedback into the PFD does not pass through as much circuitry.
Both the PLL internal and external clock outputs are phase-shifted with respect to the PLL clock input.
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Normal Mode
Figure 2-13: Example of Phase Relationship Between the PLL Clocks in No Compensation Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL Reference
Clock at the Input Pin
PLL Clock at the
Register Clock Port
(1), (2)
External PLL Clock
Outputs (2)
Notes:
(1) Internal clocks fed by the PLL are phase-aligned to each other.
(2) The PLL clock outputs can lead or lag the PLL input clocks. The PLL clock outputs lag the
PLL input clocks depending on the routine delays.
Normal Mode
In normal mode, the PLL fully compensates the delay introduced by the GCLK network. An internal clock
in normal mode is phase-aligned to the input clock pin. In this mode, the external clock output pin has a
phase delay relative to the input clock pin. The Quartus II software timing analyzer reports any phase
difference between the two.
Figure 2-14: Example of Phase Relationship Between the PLL Clocks in Normal Compensation Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL Reference
Clock at the Input pin
PLL Clock at the
Register Clock Port
External PLL Clock
Outputs (1)
Note:
(1) The external clock output can lead or lag the PLL internal clock signals.
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Zero-Delay Buffer Mode
2-17
Zero-Delay Buffer Mode
In zero-delay buffer (ZDB) mode, the external clock output pin is phase-aligned with the clock input pin
for zero delay through the device. When using this mode, use the same I/O standard for the input clock
and output clocks to ensure clock alignment at the input and output pins.
Figure 2-15: Example of Phase Relationship Between the PLL Clocks in ZDB Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL Reference Clock
at the Input Pin
PLL Clock
at the Register Clock Port
External PLL Clock Output
at the Output Pin
PLL External Clock Output
Each PLL in the MAX 10 devices supports one single-ended clock output or one differential clock output.
Only the C0 output counter can feed the dedicated external clock outputs without going through the
GCLK. Other output counters can feed other I/O pins through the GCLK.
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PLL External Clock Output
Figure 2-16: PLL External Clock Output
C0
C1
C2
PLL #
C3
C4
clkena 0 (1)
clkena 1 (1)
PLL #_CLKOUTp (2)
PLL #_CLKOUTn (2)
Notes:
(1) These external clock enable signals are available only when using the ALTCLKCTRL IP core.
(2) PLL#_CLKOUTp and PLL#_CLKOUTn pins are dual-purpose I/O pins that you can use as one single-ended
or one differential clock output.
Each pin of a differential output pair is 180° out of phase. To implement the 180° out-of-phase pin in a
pin pair, the Quartus II software places a NOT gate in the design into the I/O element.
The clock output pin pairs support the following I/O standards:
•
•
•
•
•
Same I/O standard as the standard output pins (in the top and bottom banks)
LVDS
LVPECL
Differential high-speed transceiver logic (HSTL)
Differential SSTL
The MAX 10 PLLs can drive out to any regular I/O pin through the GCLK. You can also use the external
clock output pins as general-purpose I/O pins if you do not require any external PLL clocking.
Related Information
MAX 10 General Purpose I/O User Guide
Provides more information about the I/O standards supported by the PLL clock output pins.
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ADC Clock Input from PLL
2-19
ADC Clock Input from PLL
Only the C0 output counter from PLL1 and PLL3 can drive the ADC clock.
Counter C0 has dedicated path to the ADC clock input.
Spread-Spectrum Clocking
The MAX 10 devices allow a spread-spectrum input with typical modulation frequencies. However, the
device cannot automatically detect that the input is a spread-spectrum signal. Instead, the input signal
looks like deterministic jitter at the input of the PLL.
The MAX 10 PLLs can track a spread-spectrum input clock if the input signal meets the following
conditions:
• The input signal is within the input jitter tolerance specifications.
• The modulation frequency of the input clock is below the PLL bandwidth as specified in the Fitter
report.
MAX 10 devices cannot generate spread-spectrum signals internally.
PLL Programmable Parameters
Programmable Duty Cycle
The programmable duty cycle allows PLLs to generate clock outputs with a variable duty cycle. This
feature is supported on the PLL post-scale counters.
The duty cycle setting is achieved by a low and high time-count setting for the post-scale counters. To
determine the duty cycle choices, the Quartus II software uses the frequency input and the required
multiply or divide rate.
The post-scale counter value determines the precision of the duty cycle. The precision is defined as 50%
divided by the post-scale counter value. For example, if the C0 counter is 10, steps of 5% are possible for
duty cycle choices between 5 to 90%.
Combining the programmable duty cycle with programmable phase shift allows the generation of precise
nonoverlapping clocks.
Related Information
Post-Scale Counters (C0 to C4) on page 4-11
Provides more information about configuring the duty cycle of the post-scale counters in real time.
Programmable Bandwidth
The PLL bandwidth is the measure of the PLL’s ability to track the input clock and its associated jitter.
The MAX 10 PLLs provide advanced control of the PLL bandwidth using the programmable characteris‐
tics of the PLL loop, including loop filter and charge pump. The 3-dB frequency of the closed-loop gain in
the PLL determines the PLL bandwidth. The bandwidth is approximately the unity gain point for open
loop PLL response.
Related Information
• Programmable Bandwidth with Advanced Parameters on page 4-10
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• Charge Pump and Loop Filter on page 4-13
Provides more information about the PLL components to update PLL bandwidth in real time.
• Programmable Bandwidth Parameter Settings on page 6-2
Programmable Phase Shift
The MAX 10 devices use phase shift to implement clock delays. You can phase shift the output clocks
from the MAX 10 PLLs using one of the following methods:
• Fine resolution using VCO phase taps
• Coarse resolution using counter starting time
The VCO phase output and counter starting time are the most accurate methods of inserting delays.
These methods are purely based on counter settings, which are independent of process, voltage, and
temperature.
The MAX 10 devices support dynamic phase shifting of VCO phase taps only. The phase shift is configu‐
rable for any number of times. Each phase shift takes about one scanclk cycle, allowing you to implement
large phase shifts quickly.
Fine Resolution Phase Shift
Fine resolution phase shifts are implemented by allowing any of the output counters (C[4..0]) or the M
counter to use any of the eight phases of the VCO as the reference clock. This allows you to adjust the
delay time with a fine resolution. The following equation shows the minimum delay time that you can
insert using this method.
Figure 2-17: Fine Resolution Phase Shift Equation
fREF in this equation is the input reference clock frequency
For example, if fREF is 100 MHz, N = 1, and M = 8, then fVCO = 800 MHz, and Φfine = 156.25 ps. The PLL
operating frequency defines this phase shift, a value that depends on the reference clock frequency and
counter settings.
The following figure shows an example of phase shift insertion using the fine resolution through VCO
phase taps method. The eight phases from the VCO are shown and labeled for reference.
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Programmable Phase Shift
2-21
Figure 2-18: Example of Delay Insertion Using VCO Phase Output and Counter Delay Time
The observations in this example are as follows:
• CLK0 is based on 0° phase from the VCO and has the C value for the counter set to one.
• CLK1 signal is divided by four, two VCO clocks for high time and two VCO clocks for low time. CLK1 is
based on the 135° phase tap from the VCO and has the C value for the counter set to one.
• CLK2 signal is also divided by four. In this case, the two clocks are offset by 3 Φfine. CLK2 is based on the
0° phase from the VCO but has the C value for the counter set to three. This creates a delay of two
Φcoarse (two complete VCO periods).
1/8 tVCO
tVCO
0
45
90
135
180
225
270
315
CLK0
td0-1
CLK1
CLK2
td0-2
Coarse Resolution Phase Shift
Coarse resolution phase shifts are implemented by delaying the start of the counters for a predetermined
number of counter clocks.
Figure 2-19: Coarse Resolution Phase Shift Equation
C in this equation is the count value set for the counter delay time—the initial setting in the PLL usage
section of the compilation report in the Quartus II software. If the initial value is 1, C – 1 = 0° phase shift.
Related Information
• Dynamic Phase Configuration Implementation on page 4-15
• Dynamic Phase Configuration Counter Selection on page 4-16
• Dynamic Phase Configuration with Advanced Parameters on page 4-16
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Clock Switchover
• Dynamic Phase Configuration Parameter Settings on page 6-4
Provides more information about the ALTPLL IP core parameter settings in the Quartus II software.
• ALTPLL_RECONFIG Parameters on page 7-1
Provides more information about the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core parameter settings in the Quartus
II software.
Clock Switchover
The clock switchover feature allows the PLL to switch between two reference input clocks. Use this feature
for clock redundancy or for a dual-clock domain application where a system turns on the redundant clock
if the previous clock stops running. The design can perform clock switchover automatically when the
clock is no longer toggling or based on a user-controlled signal, clkswitch.
The following clock switchover modes are supported in MAX 10 PLLs:
• Automatic switchover—The clock sense circuit monitors the current reference clock. If the current
reference clock stops toggling, the reference clock automatically switches to inclk0 or inclk1 clock.
• Manual clock switchover—The clkswitch signal controls the clock switchover. When the clkswitch
signal goes from logic low to high, and stays high for at least three clock cycles, the reference clock to
the PLL switches from inclk0 to inclk1, or vice-versa.
• Automatic switchover with manual override—This mode combines automatic switchover and manual
clock switchover. When the clkswitch signal goes high, it overrides the automatic clock switchover
function. As long as the clkswitch signal is high, any further switchover action is blocked.
Related Information
• Guideline: Clock Switchover on page 3-3
• Clock Switchover Parameter Settings on page 6-3
Automatic Clock Switchover
The MAX 10 PLLs support a fully configurable clock switchover capability.
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Figure 2-20: Automatic Clock Switchover Circuit Block Diagram
This figure shows a block diagram of the automatic switchover circuit built into the PLL.
clkbad0
clkbad1
activeclock
Switchover
State
Machine
Clock
Sense
clksw
clkswitch
(Provides Manual
Switchover Support)
inclk0
inclk1
N Counter
muxout
PFD
refclk
fbclk
When the current reference clock is not present, the clock sense block automatically switches to the
backup clock for PLL reference. You can select a clock source at the backup clock by connecting it to the
inclk1 port of the PLL in your design.
The clock switchover circuit also sends out three status signals—clkbad[0], clkbad[1], and
activeclock—from the PLL to implement a custom switchover circuit in the logic array.
In automatic switchover mode, the clkbad[0] and clkbad[1] signals indicate the status of the two clock
inputs. When the clkbad[0] and clkbad[1] signals are asserted, the clock sense block detects that the
corresponding clock input has stopped toggling. These two signals are not valid if the frequency difference
between inclk0 and inclk1 is greater than 20%.
The activeclock signal indicates which of the two clock inputs (inclk0 or inclk1) is selected as the
reference clock to the PLL. When the frequency difference between the two clock inputs is more than
20%, the activeclock signal is the only valid status signal.
Note: Glitches in the input clock may cause the frequency difference between the input clocks to be more
than 20%.
When the current reference clock to the PLL stops toggling, use the switchover circuitry to automatically
switch from inclk0 to inclk1 that runs at the same frequency. This automatic switchover can switch
back and forth between the inclk0 and inclk1 clocks any number of times when one of the two clocks
fails and the other clock is available.
For example, in applications that require a redundant clock with the same frequency as the reference
clock, the switchover state machine generates a signal (clksw) that controls the multiplexer select input.
In this case, inclk1 becomes the reference clock for the PLL.
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Automatic Switchover with Manual Override
When using automatic clock switchover mode, the following requirements must be satisfied:
• Both clock inputs must be running when the FPGA is configured.
• The period of the two clock inputs differ by no more than 20%.
If the current clock input stops toggling while the other clock is also not toggling, switchover is not
initiated and the clkbad[0..1] signals are not valid. If both clock inputs do not have the same frequency,
but their period difference is within 20%, the clock sense block detects when a clock stops toggling.
However, the PLL might lose lock after the switchover completes and needs time to relock.
Note: Altera recommends resetting the PLL using the areset signal to maintain the phase relationships
between the PLL input and output clocks when using clock switchover.
Figure 2-21: Example of Automatic Switchover After Loss of Clock Detection
This figure shows an example waveform of the switchover feature in automatic switchover mode. In this
example, the inclk0 signal remains low. After the inclk0 signal remains low for approximately two clock
cycles, the clock sense circuitry drives the clkbad[0] signal high. Since the reference clock signal is not
toggling, the switchover state machine controls the multiplexer through the clksw signal to switch to the
backup clock, inclk1.
inclk0
inclk1
muxout
(1)
clkbad0
clkbad1
activeclock
Note:
(1) Switchover is enabled on the falling edge of inclk0 or inclk1, depending on which clock is available. In this figure,
switchover is enabled on the falling edge of inclk1.
Automatic Switchover with Manual Override
In automatic switchover with manual override mode, you can use the clkswitch signal for user- or
system-controlled switch conditions. You can use this mode for same-frequency switchover, or to switch
between inputs of different frequencies.
For example, if inclk0 is 66 MHz and inclk1 is 200 MHz, you must control the switchover using the
clkswitch signal. The automatic clock sense circuitry cannot monitor clock input (inclk0 and inclk1)
frequencies with a frequency difference of more than 20%.
This feature is useful when clock sources originate from multiple cards on the backplane, requiring a
system-controlled switchover between frequencies of operation.
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Manual Clock Switchover
2-25
You must choose the backup clock frequency and set the M, N, and C counters so that the VCO operates
within the recommended frequency range.
The following figure shows a clock switchover waveform controlled by the clkswitch signal. In this case,
both clock sources are functional and inclk0 is selected as the reference clock. The clkswitch signal goes
high, which starts the switchover sequence. On the falling edge of inclk0, the counter’s reference clock,
muxout, is gated off to prevent clock glitching. On the falling edge of inclk1, the reference clock
multiplexer switches from inclk0 to inclk1 as the PLL reference. The activeclock signal is asserted to
indicate the clock that is currently feeding the PLL, which is inclk1.
In automatic override with manual switchover mode, the activeclock signal mirrors the clkswitch
signal. Since both clocks are still functional during the manual switch, neither clkbad signal goes high.
Because the switchover circuit is positive-edge sensitive, the falling edge of the clkswitch signal does not
cause the circuit to switch back from inclk1 to inclk0. When the clkswitch signal goes high again, the
process repeats.
Figure 2-22: Example of Clock Switchover Using the clkswitch (Manual) Control
inclk0
inclk1
muxout
clkswitch
activeclock
clkbad0
clkbad1
To initiate a manual clock switchover event,
both inclk0 and inclk1 must be running when
the clkswitch signal goes high.
The clkswitch signal and automatic switch work only if the clock being switched to is available. If the
clock is not available, the state machine waits until the clock is available.
Manual Clock Switchover
In manual clock switchover mode, the clkswitch signal controls whether inclk0 or inclk1 is selected as
the input clock to the PLL. By default, inclk0 is selected.
A clock switchover event is initiated when the clkswitch signal transitions from logic low to logic high,
and is being held high for at least three inclk cycles. You must bring the clkswitch signal back to low
again to perform another switchover event. If you do not require another switchover event, you can leave
the clkswitch signal in a logic high state after the initial switch. Pulsing the clkswitch signal high for at
least three inclk cycles performs another switchover event.
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PLL Cascading
If inclk0 and inclk1 have different frequencies and are always running, the minimum amount of time
for which clkswitch signal is high must be greater than or equal to three of the slower-frequency inclk0
and inclk1 cycles.
PLL Cascading
Related Information
Guideline: PLL Cascading on page 3-3
PLL-to-PLL Cascading
Two PLLs are cascaded to each other through the clock network. If your design cascades PLLs, the source
(upstream) PLL must have a low-bandwidth setting and the destination (downstream) PLL must have a
high-bandwidth setting.
Counter-to-Counter Cascading
The MAX 10 PLLs support post-scale counter cascading to create counters larger than 512. This is
implemented by feeding the output of one C counter into the input of the next C counter.
Figure 2-23: Counter-to-Counter Cascading
VCO Output
VCO Output
VCO Output
VCO Output
VCO Output
C0
C1
C2
C3
C4
VCO Output
When cascading counters to implement a larger division of the high-frequency VCO clock, the cascaded
counters behave as one counter with the product of the individual counter settings.
For example, if C0 = 4 and C1 = 2, the cascaded value is C0 x C1 = 8.
The Quartus II software automatically sets all the post-scale counter values for cascading in the configura‐
tion file. Post-scale counter cascading cannot be performed using PLL reconfiguration.
PLL Reconfiguration
The PLLs use several divide counters and different VCO phase taps to perform frequency synthesis and
phase shifts. In MAX 10 PLLs, you can reconfigure both counter settings and phase shift the PLL output
clock in real time. You can also change the charge pump and loop filter components, which dynamically
affects the PLL bandwidth.
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PLL Reconfiguration
2-27
The following PLL components are configurable in real time:
•
•
•
•
•
Pre-scale counter (N)
Feedback counter (M)
Post-scale output counters (C0-C4)
Charge pump current (ICP)
Loop filter components (R, C)
You can use these PLL components to update the following settings in real time without reconfiguring the
entire FPGA:
• Output clock frequency
• PLL bandwidth
• Phase shift
The ability to reconfigure the PLL in real time is useful in applications that may operate in multiple
frequencies. It is also useful in prototyping environments, allowing you to sweep PLL output frequencies
and dynamically adjust the output clock phase.
For instance, a system generating test patterns is required to generate and send patterns at 75 or 150 MHz,
depending on the requirements of the device under test. Reconfiguring the PLL components in real time
allows you to switch between two such output frequencies in a few microseconds.
You can also use this feature to adjust clock-to-out (tCO) delays in real time by changing the PLL output
clock phase shift. This approach eliminates the need to regenerate a configuration file with the new PLL
settings.
Figure 2-24: PLL Reconfiguration Scan Chain
This figure shows the dynamic adjustment of the PLL counter settings by shifting their new settings into a
serial shift register chain or scan chain. Serial data shifts to the scan chain via the scandata port, and shift
registers are clocked by scanclk. The maximum scanclk frequency is 100 MHz. After shifting the last bit
of data, asserting the configupdate signal for at least one scanclk clock cycle synchronously updates the
PLL configuration bits with the data in the scan registers.
FVCO
from M counter
from N counter
PFD
VCO
LF/K/CP
scandata
scanclkena
configupdate
inclk
scandataout
/C4
/C3
/C2
/C1
/C0
/M
/N
scandone
scanclk
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The counter settings are updated synchronously to the clock frequency of the individual counters.
Therefore, not all counters update simultaneously.
The dynamic reconfiguration scheme uses configuration files, such as the Hexadecimal-format file (.hex)
or the Memory Initialization file (.mif). These files are used together with the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP
core to perform the dynamic reconfiguration.
Related Information
• Guideline: .mif Streaming in PLL Reconfiguration on page 3-4
• PLL Dynamic Reconfiguration Implementation on page 4-10
• PLL Dynamic Reconfiguration Parameter Settings on page 6-4
Provides more information about the ALTPLL IP core parameter settings in the Quartus II software.
• ALTPLL_RECONFIG Parameters on page 7-1
Provides more information about the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core parameter settings in the Quartus
II software.
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Clock Networks Design Considerations
Guideline: Clock Enable Signals
Altera recommends using the clkena signals when switching the clock source to the PLLs or GCLK. The
recommended sequence is as follows:
1. Disable the primary output clock by deasserting the clkena signal.
2. Switch to the secondary clock using the dynamic select signals of the clock control block.
3. Allow some clock cycles of the secondary clock to pass before reasserting the clkena signal. The exact
number of clock cycles to wait before enabling the secondary clock depends on your design. You can
build a custom logic to ensure a glitch-free transition when switching between different clock sources.
Related Information
• Clock Enable Signals on page 2-7
• ALTCLKCTRL Parameters on page 5-1
• ALTCLKCTRL Ports and Signals on page 5-2
Guideline: Connectivity Restrictions
The following guidelines describe the restrictions associated with the signal sources that can drive the
inclk input:
• You must use the inclk ports that are consistent with the clkselect ports.
• When you are using multiple input sources, the inclk ports can only be driven by the dedicated clock
input pins and the PLL clock outputs.
• If the clock control block feeds any inclk port of another clock control block, both clock control
blocks must be able to be reduced to a single clock control block of equivalent functionality.
• When you are using the glitch-free switchover feature, the clock you are switching from must be active.
If the clock is not active, the switchover circuit cannot transition from the clock you originally selected.
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Internal Oscillator Design Considerations
Internal Oscillator Design Considerations
Guideline: Connectivity Restrictions
You cannot drive the PLLs with internal oscillator.
PLLs Design Considerations
Guideline: PLL Control Signals
You must include the areset signal in your designs if one of the following conditions is true:
• PLL reconfiguration or clock switchover is enabled in your design.
• Phase relationships between the PLL input clock and output clocks must be maintained after a loss-oflock condition.
• The input clock to the PLL is toggling or unstable at power-up.
• The areset signal is asserted after the input clock is stable and within specifications.
Related Information
PLL Control Signals on page 2-13
Guideline: Self-Reset
The lock time of a PLL is the amount of time required by the PLL to attain the target frequency and phase
relationship after device power-up, after a change in the PLL output frequency, or after resetting the PLL.
A PLL might lose lock for a number of reasons, such as the following causes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Excessive jitter on the input clock.
Excessive switching noise on the clock inputs of the PLL.
Excessive noise from the power supply, causing high output jitter and possible loss of lock.
A glitch or stopping of the input clock to the PLL.
Resetting the PLL by asserting the areset port of the PLL.
An attempt to reconfigure the PLL might cause the M counter, N counter, or phase shift to change,
causing the PLL to lose lock. However, changes to the post-scale counters do not affect the PLL locked
signal.
• PLL input clock frequency drifts outside the lock range specification.
• The PFD is disabled using the pfdena port. When this happens, the PLL output phase and frequency
tend to drift outside of the lock window.
The ALTPLL IP core allows you to monitor the PLL locking process using a lock signal named locked
and also allows you to set the PLL to self-reset on loss of lock.
Guideline: Output Clocks
Each MAX 10 PLL supports up to five output clocks. You can use the output clock port as a core output
clock or an external output clock port. The core output clock feeds the FPGA core and the external output
clock feeds the dedicated pins on the FPGA.
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Guideline: PLL Cascading
3-3
The ALTPLL IP core does not have a dedicated output enable port. You can disable the PLL output using
the areset signal to disable the PLL output counters.
Guideline: PLL Cascading
Consider the following guidelines when cascading PLLs:
• Set the primary PLL to low bandwidth to help filter jitter. Set the secondary PLL to high bandwidth to
track the jitter from the primary PLL. You can view the Quartus II software compilation report file to
ensure the PLL bandwidth ranges do not overlap. If the bandwidth ranges overlap, jitter peaking can
occur in the cascaded PLL scheme.
Note: You can get an estimate of the PLL deterministic jitter and static phase error (SPE) by using the
TimeQuest Timing Analyzer in the Quartus II software. Use the SDC command
derive_clock_uncertainty to generate a report titled PLLJ_PLLSPE_INFO.txt in your
project directory. Then, use set_clock_uncertainty command to add jitter and SPE
values to your clock constraints.
• Keep the secondary PLL in a reset state until the primary PLL has locked to ensure the phase settings
are correct on the secondary PLL.
• You cannot connect any of the inclk ports of any PLLs in a cascaded scheme to the clock outputs
from PLLs in the cascaded scheme.
Related Information
PLL Cascading on page 2-26
Guideline: Clock Switchover
Use the following guidelines to design with clock switchover in PLLs:
• Clock loss detection and automatic clock switchover requires that the frequency difference between
inclk0 and inclk1 is within 20% range. Failing to meet this requirement causes the clkbad[0] and
clkbad[1] signals to function improperly.
• When using manual clock switchover, the frequency difference between inclk0 and inclk1 can be
more than 20%. However, differences between the two clock sources (frequency, phase, or both) can
cause the PLL to lose lock. Resetting the PLL ensures that the correct phase relationships are
maintained between the input and output clocks.
• Both inclk0 and inclk1 must be running when the clkswitch signal goes high to start the manual
clock switchover event. Failing to meet this requirement causes the clock switchover to malfunction.
• Applications that require a clock switchover feature and a small frequency drift must use a lowbandwidth PLL. When referencing input clock changes, the low-bandwidth PLL reacts slower than a
high-bandwidth PLL. When the switchover happens, the low-bandwidth PLL propagates the stoppage
of the clock to the output at a slower speed than the high-bandwidth PLL. The low-bandwidth PLL
filters out jitter on the reference clock. However, be aware that the low-bandwidth PLL also increases
lock time.
• After a switchover occurs, there might be a finite resynchronization period for the PLL to lock onto a
new clock. The exact amount of time it takes for the PLL to relock depends on the PLL configuration.
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Guideline: .mif Streaming in PLL Reconfiguration
• The phase relationship between the input clock to the PLL and output clock from the PLL is important
in your design. Assert areset for 10 ns after performing a clock switchover. Wait for the locked signal
(or gated lock) to go high before reenabling the output clocks from the PLL.
• Disable the system during switchover if the system is not tolerant of frequency variations during the
PLL resynchronization period. You can use the clkbad[0] and clkbad[1] status signals to turn off the
PFD (pfdena = 0) so that the VCO maintains its last frequency. You can also use the switchover state
machine to switch over to the secondary clock. After enabling the PFD, the output clock enable signals
(clkena) can disable clock outputs during the switchover and resynchronization period. After the lock
indication is stable, the system can reenable the output clock or clocks.
• The VCO frequency gradually decreases when the primary clock is lost and then increases as the VCO
locks onto the secondary clock, as shown in the following figure. After the VCO locks onto the
secondary clock, some overshoot can occur (an over-frequency condition) in the VCO frequency.
Figure 3-1: VCO Switchover Operating Frequency
Primary Clock Stops Running
Frequency Overshoot
Switchover Occurs
ΔFvco
VCO Tracks Secondary Clock
Related Information
• Clock Switchover on page 2-22
• Clock Switchover Parameter Settings on page 6-3
Guideline: .mif Streaming in PLL Reconfiguration
Consider the following guidelines when using .mif streaming in PLL reconfiguration:
• 10M02 devices do not support .mif streaming in PLL reconfiguration due to flash size limitation. Altera
recommends using an external flash.
• 10M04, 10M08, 10M16, 10M25, 10M40, and 10M50 devices only support .mif streaming in single
image mode. Altera recommends using an external flash for dual image mode. The MAX 10 devices do
not support using both dual image mode and PLL reconfiguration with .mif simultaneously.
Related Information
PLL Reconfiguration on page 2-26
Guideline: scandone Signal for PLL Reconfiguration
scandone signal must be low before the second PLL reconfiguration. For scandone signal to go low, PLL
areset signal must be asserted.
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ALTCLKCTRL IP Core
The clock control block (ALTCLKCTRL) IP core is a clock control function for configuring the clock
control block.
The common applications of the ALTCLKCTRL IP core are as follows:
• Dynamic clock source selection—When using the clock control block, you can select the dynamic
clock source that drives the global clock network.
• Dynamic power-down of a clock network—The dynamic clock enable or disable feature allows
internal logic to power down the clock network. When a clock network is powered down, all the logic
fed by that clock network is not toggling, thus reducing the overall power consumption of the device.
The ALTCLKCTRL IP core provides the following features:
• Supports clock control block operation mode specifications
• Supports specification of the number of input clock sources
• Provides an active high clock enable control input
IP Catalog and Parameter Editor
The Quartus II IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog) and parameter editor help you easily customize and
integrate IP cores into your project. You can use the IP Catalog and parameter editor to select, customize,
and generate files representing your custom IP variation.
Note: The IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog) and parameter editor replace the MegaWizard Plug-In
Manager for IP selection and parameterization, beginning in Quartus II software version 14.0. Use
the IP Catalog and parameter editor to locate and paramaterize Altera IP cores.
™
The IP Catalog lists installed IP cores available for your design. Double-click any IP core to launch the
parameter editor and generate files representing your IP variation. The parameter editor prompts you to
specify an IP variation name, optional ports, and output file generation options. The parameter editor
generates a top-level Qsys system file (.qsys) or Quartus II IP file (.qip) representing the IP core in your
project. You can also parameterize an IP variation without an open project.
2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
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Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options
Use the following features to help you quickly locate and select an IP core:
• Filter IP Catalog to Show IP for active device family or Show IP for all device families. If you have no
project open, select the Device Family in IP Catalog.
• Type in the Search field to locate any full or partial IP core name in IP Catalog.
• Right-click an IP core name in IP Catalog to display details about supported devices, open the IP core's
installation folder, and view links to documentation.
• Click Search for Partner IP, to access partner IP information on the Altera website.
Figure 4-1: Quartus II IP Catalog
Show IP only for target device
Search for installed IP cores
Double-click to customize, right-click for
detailed information
Note: The IP Catalog is also available in Qsys (View > IP Catalog). The Qsys IP Catalog includes
exclusive system interconnect, video and image processing, and other system-level IP that are not
available in the Quartus II IP Catalog. For more information about using the Qsys IP Catalog, refer
to Creating a System with Qsys in the Quartus II Handbook.
Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options
You can quickly configure a custom IP variation in the parameter editor. Use the following steps to
specify IP core options and parameters in the parameter editor. Refer to Specifying IP Core Parameters
and Options (Legacy Parameter Editors) for configuration of IP cores using the legacy parameter editor.
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1. In the IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog), locate and double-click the name of the IP core to customize.
The parameter editor appears.
2. Specify a top-level name for your custom IP variation. The parameter editor saves the IP variation
settings in a file named <your_ip>.qsys. Click OK.
3. Specify the parameters and options for your IP variation in the parameter editor, including one or
more of the following. Refer to your IP core user guide for information about specific IP core
parameters.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
• Optionally select preset parameter values if provided for your IP core. Presets specify initial
parameter values for specific applications.
• Specify parameters defining the IP core functionality, port configurations, and device-specific
features.
• Specify options for processing the IP core files in other EDA tools.
Click Generate HDL, the Generation dialog box appears.
Specify output file generation options, and then click Generate. The IP variation files generate
according to your specifications.
To generate a simulation testbench, click Generate > Generate Testbench System.
To generate an HDL instantiation template that you can copy and paste into your text editor, click
Generate > HDL Example.
Click Finish. The parameter editor adds the top-level .qsys file to the current project automatically. If
you are prompted to manually add the .qsys file to the project, click Project > Add/Remove Files in
Project to add the file.
After generating and instantiating your IP variation, make appropriate pin assignments to connect
ports.
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Files Generated for Altera IP Cores (Legacy Parameter Editor)
Figure 4-2: IP Parameter Editor
View IP port
and parameter
details
Specify your IP variation name
and target device
Apply preset parameters for
specific applications
Files Generated for Altera IP Cores (Legacy Parameter Editor)
The Quartus II software version generates the following output for your IP core that uses the legacy
parameter editor.
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ALTPLL IP Core
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Figure 4-3: IP Core Generated Files
<Project Directory>
<your_ip>.qip or .qsys - System or IP integration file
<your_ip>.sopcinfo - Software tool-chain integration file
<your_ip> - IP core variation files
<your_ip>_bb.v - Verilog HDL black box EDA synthesis file
<your_ip>_inst.v or .vhd - Sample instantiation template
<your_ip>_generation.rpt - IP generation report
<your_ip>.bsf - Block symbol schematic file
<your_ip>.ppf - XML I/O pin information file
<your_ip>.spd - Combines individual simulation startup scripts 1
<your_ip>_syn.v or .vhd - Timing & resource estimation netlist 1
<your_ip>.html - Contains memory map
simulation - IP simulation files
<your_ip>.sip - NativeLink simulation integration file
<your_ip>.v, .vhd, .vo, .vho - HDL or IPFS models2
<simulator vendor> - Simulator setup scripts
<simulator_setup_scripts>
synthesis - IP synthesis files
<your_ip>.qip - Lists files for synthesis
<your_ip>.debuginfo - Lists files for synthesis
<your_ip>.v or .vhd - Top-level IP variation synthesis file
testbench - Simulation testbench files 1
<testbench_hdl_files>
<simulator_vendor> - Testbench for supported simulators
<simulation_testbench_files>
<your_ip>_tb - Testbench for supported simulators
<your_ip>_tb.v or .vhd - Top-level HDL testbench file
Notes:
1. If supported and enabled for your IP variation
2. If functional simulation models are generated
ALTPLL IP Core
The ALTPLL IP core specifies the PLL circuitry. You can use this IP core to configure the PLL types,
operation modes, and advanced features of the PLL.
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IP Catalog and Parameter Editor
IP Catalog and Parameter Editor
The Quartus II IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog) and parameter editor help you easily customize and
integrate IP cores into your project. You can use the IP Catalog and parameter editor to select, customize,
and generate files representing your custom IP variation.
Note: The IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog) and parameter editor replace the MegaWizard Plug-In
Manager for IP selection and parameterization, beginning in Quartus II software version 14.0. Use
the IP Catalog and parameter editor to locate and paramaterize Altera IP cores.
™
The IP Catalog lists installed IP cores available for your design. Double-click any IP core to launch the
parameter editor and generate files representing your IP variation. The parameter editor prompts you to
specify an IP variation name, optional ports, and output file generation options. The parameter editor
generates a top-level Qsys system file (.qsys) or Quartus II IP file (.qip) representing the IP core in your
project. You can also parameterize an IP variation without an open project.
Use the following features to help you quickly locate and select an IP core:
• Filter IP Catalog to Show IP for active device family or Show IP for all device families. If you have no
project open, select the Device Family in IP Catalog.
• Type in the Search field to locate any full or partial IP core name in IP Catalog.
• Right-click an IP core name in IP Catalog to display details about supported devices, open the IP core's
installation folder, and view links to documentation.
• Click Search for Partner IP, to access partner IP information on the Altera website.
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Figure 4-4: Quartus II IP Catalog
Show IP only for target device
Search for installed IP cores
Double-click to customize, right-click for
detailed information
Note: The IP Catalog is also available in Qsys (View > IP Catalog). The Qsys IP Catalog includes
exclusive system interconnect, video and image processing, and other system-level IP that are not
available in the Quartus II IP Catalog. For more information about using the Qsys IP Catalog, refer
to Creating a System with Qsys in the Quartus II Handbook.
Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options
You can quickly configure a custom IP variation in the parameter editor. Use the following steps to
specify IP core options and parameters in the parameter editor. Refer to Specifying IP Core Parameters
and Options (Legacy Parameter Editors) for configuration of IP cores using the legacy parameter editor.
1. In the IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog), locate and double-click the name of the IP core to customize.
The parameter editor appears.
2. Specify a top-level name for your custom IP variation. The parameter editor saves the IP variation
settings in a file named <your_ip>.qsys. Click OK.
3. Specify the parameters and options for your IP variation in the parameter editor, including one or
more of the following. Refer to your IP core user guide for information about specific IP core
parameters.
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Expanding the PLL Lock Range
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
• Optionally select preset parameter values if provided for your IP core. Presets specify initial
parameter values for specific applications.
• Specify parameters defining the IP core functionality, port configurations, and device-specific
features.
• Specify options for processing the IP core files in other EDA tools.
Click Generate HDL, the Generation dialog box appears.
Specify output file generation options, and then click Generate. The IP variation files generate
according to your specifications.
To generate a simulation testbench, click Generate > Generate Testbench System.
To generate an HDL instantiation template that you can copy and paste into your text editor, click
Generate > HDL Example.
Click Finish. The parameter editor adds the top-level .qsys file to the current project automatically. If
you are prompted to manually add the .qsys file to the project, click Project > Add/Remove Files in
Project to add the file.
After generating and instantiating your IP variation, make appropriate pin assignments to connect
ports.
Figure 4-5: IP Parameter Editor
View IP port
and parameter
details
Specify your IP variation name
and target device
Apply preset parameters for
specific applications
Expanding the PLL Lock Range
The PLL lock range is between the minimum (Freq min lock parameter) and maximum (Freq min lock
parameter) input frequency values for which the PLL can achieve lock. Changing the input frequency
might cause the PLL to lose lock, but if the input clock remains within the minimum and maximum
frequency specifications, the PLL is able to achieve lock. The Quartus II software shows these input
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frequency values in the PLL Summary report located under the Resource Section of the Fitter folder in the
Compilation Report.
The Quartus II software does not necessarily pick values for the PLL parameters to maximize the lock
range. For example, when you specify a 75 MHz input clock in the ALTPLL parameter editor, the actual
PLL lock range might be between 70 MHz to 90 MHz. If your application requires a lock range of 50 MHz
to 100 MHz, the default lock range of this PLL is insufficient.
For devices that support clock switchover in PLLs, you can use the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor to
maximize the lock range.
To extract valid parameter values to maximize your PLL lock range, perform the following steps:
1. In the schematic editor, double-click the ALTPLL instance in your design to open the ALTPLL
parameter editor.
2. On the General/Modes page, for What is the frequency of the inclk0 input?, type the value of the low
end of your desired PLL lock range.
For example, if your application requires a lock range of 50 MHz to 100 MHz, type 50 MHz.
3. On the Inputs/Lock page, turn on Create output file(s) using the 'Advanced' PLL parameters.
4. On the Clock switchover page, turn on Create an 'inclk1' input for a second input clock and enter
the high end of your lock range as the frequency for inclk1.
For example, if your application requires a lock range of 50 MHz to 100 MHz, type 100 MHz.
5. Set the rest of the parameters in the remaining pages of the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor.
6. Compile your project and note the lock range shown in the PLL Summary report. If it is satisfactory,
note all of the values for the PLL from this report, such as the M value, N value, charge pump current,
loop filter resistance, and loop filter capacitance.
7. In the schematic editor, double-click the ALTPLL instance in your design to open the ALTPLL
parameter editor.
8. On the Clock switchover page, turn off Create an 'inclk1' input for a second input clock.
9. Click Finish to update the PLL wrapper file.
10.In a text editor, open the PLL wrapper file. Modify all of the values for the parameters listed in step 6.
Save the changes.
• If the wrapper file is in Verilog format, go to the defparam section.
• If the wrapper file is in VHDL HDL, go to the Generic Map section.
11.Compile your project.
12.Check the PLL Summary report to confirm that the PLL lock range meets your requirements. The
modified PLL should have the desired lock range.
If your input clock frequency is too close to the end of the desired PLL lock range—for example the low
end of the desired lock range is 50 MHz and the input clock frequency is 50 MHz, the PLL might not
maintain lock when the input clock has jitter or the frequency drifts below 50 MHz. You may choose to
expand your PLL lock range to ensure your expected input clock frequency is further from the end of the
range. For this example, you can enter 45 MHz and 105 MHz to ensure that your target lock range of
50 MHz to 100 MHz is within the PLL lock range.
The Quartus II software prompts an error message if it is unable to implement your preferred lock range
using this procedure. Therefore, you have to look into other options, such as PLL reconfiguration to
support your input frequency range.
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Programmable Bandwidth with Advanced Parameters
Programmable Bandwidth with Advanced Parameters
An advanced level of control is also possible for precise control of the PLL loop filter characteristics. This
level allows you to explicitly select the following advanced parameters:
• Charge pump current (charge_pump_current)
• Loop filter resistance (loop_filter_r)
• Loop filter capacitance(loop_filter_c)
This option is intended for advanced users who know the exact details of their PLL configuration. You
can use this option if you understand the parameters well enough to set them optimally. The files
generated are not intended to be reused by the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor. After the ALTPLL IP
core output files are specified using the advanced parameters, the Quartus II compiler cannot change
them. For example, the compiler cannot perform optimization. Thus, your design cannot benefit from
improved algorithms of the compiler. The Quartus II compiler cannot select better settings or change
some settings that the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor finds to be incompatible with your design.
The parameter settings to generate output files using advanced PLL parameters are located on the Inputs/
Lock page of the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor.
Turn on Create output file(s) using the 'Advanced' PLL parameters to enable the feature.
When you turn on this option, the generated output files contain all of the initial counter values used in
the PLL. You can use these values for functional simulation in a third-party simulator.
These parameter settings create no additional top-level ports.
Related Information
• Programmable Bandwidth on page 2-19
• Charge Pump and Loop Filter on page 4-13
Provides more information about the PLL components to update PLL bandwidth in real time.
• Programmable Bandwidth Parameter Settings on page 6-2
PLL Dynamic Reconfiguration Implementation
To reconfigure the PLL counters, perform the following steps:
1. Assert the scanclkena signal at least one scanclk cycle prior to shifting in the first bit of scandata
(Dn).
2. Shift the serial data (scandata) into the scan chain on the second rising edge of scanclk.
3. After all 144 bits have been scanned into the scan chain, deassert the scanclkena signal to prevent
inadvertent shifting of bits in the scan chain.
4. Assert the configupdate signal for one scanclk cycle to update the PLL counters with the contents of
the scan chain.
The scandone signal goes high indicating that the PLL is being reconfigured. A falling edge indicates
that the PLL counters have been updated with new settings.
5. Reset the PLL using the areset signal if you make any changes to the M, N, post-scale output C
counters, or the ICP , R, and C settings.
6. You can repeat steps 1 through 5 to reconfigure the PLL any number of times.
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Post-Scale Counters (C0 to C4)
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Figure 4-6: PLL Reconfiguration Scan Chain Functional Simulation
scandata
Dn
D0
LSB
scanclk
scanclkena
scandataout
Dn_old
D0_old
Dn
configupdate
scandone
areset
When reconfiguring the counter clock frequency, you cannot reconfigure the corresponding counter
phase shift settings using the same interface. You can reconfigure phase shifts in real time using the
dynamic phase shift reconfiguration interface. If you wish to keep the same nonzero phase shift setting
(for example, 90°) on the clock output, you must reconfigure the phase shift after reconfiguring the
counter clock frequency.
Related Information
PLL Reconfiguration on page 2-26
Post-Scale Counters (C0 to C4)
You can configure the multiply or divide values and duty cycle of the post-scale counters in real time.
Each counter has an 8-bit high time setting and an 8-bit low time setting. The duty cycle is the ratio of
output high or low time to the total cycle time, which is the sum of the two.
The post-scale counters have two control bits:
• rbypass—For bypassing the counter
• rselodd—For selecting the output clock duty cycle
When the rbypass bit is set to 1, it bypasses the counter, resulting in a division by one. When this bit is
set to 0, the PLL computes the effective division of the VCO output frequency based on the high and low
time counters. The PLL implements this duty cycle by transitioning the output clock from high-to-low on
the rising edge of the VCO output clock.
For example, if the post-scale divide factor is 10, the high and low count values are set to 5 and 5
respectively, to achieve a 50–50% duty cycle. However, a 4 and 6 setting for the high and low count values,
respectively, would produce an output clock with 40–60% duty cycle.
The rselodd bit indicates an odd divide factor for the VCO output frequency with a 50% duty cycle. The
PLL implements this duty cycle by transitioning the output clock from high-to-low on a falling edge of the
VCO output clock.
For example, if the post-scale divide factor is 3, the high and low time count values are 2 and 1
respectively, to achieve this division. This implies a 67%–33% duty cycle. If you need a 50%–50% duty
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Scan Chain
cycle, you must set the rselodd control bit to 1 to achieve this duty cycle despite an odd division factor.
When you set rselodd = 1, subtract 0.5 cycles from the high time and add 0.5 cycles to the low time.
The calculation for the example is shown as follows:
• High time count = 2 cycles
• Low time count = 1 cycle
• rselodd = 1 effectively equals:
• High time count = 1.5 cycles
• Low time count = 1.5 cycles
• Duty cycle = (1.5/3)% high time count and (1.5/3)% low time count
Related Information
Programmable Duty Cycle on page 2-19
Scan Chain
The MAX 10 PLLs have a 144-bit scan chain.
Table 4-1: PLL Component Reprogramming Bits
Block Name
Counter
Control Bit
Total
C4(6)
16
2(7)
18
C3
16
2(7)
18
C2
16
2
(7)
18
C1
16
2(7)
18
C0
16
2(7)
18
M
16
(7)
2
18
N
16
2(7)
18
Charge Pump
9
0
9
Loop Filter(8)
9
0
9
Total number of bits
(6)
(7)
(8)
Number of Bits
144
LSB bit for C4 low-count value is the first bit shifted into the scan chain.
These two control bits include rbypass, for bypassing the counter, and rselodd, for selecting the output
clock duty cycle.
MSB bit for loop filter is the last bit shifted into the scan chain.
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Figure 4-7: PLL Component Scan Chain Order
DATAIN
LF
MSB
CP
N
M
C0
C3
C2
C1
LSB
DATAOUT
C4
Figure 4-8: PLL Post-Scale Counter Scan Chain Bit Order
DATAOUT
HB
HB
HB
HB
HB
HB
HB
HB
HB
HB
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
LB
LB
LB
LB
LB
LB
LB
LB
LB
LB
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
DATAIN
rbypass
rselodd
Charge Pump and Loop Filter
You can reconfigure the following settings to update the PLL bandwidth in real time:
• Charge pump (ICP)
• Loop filter resistor (R)
• Loop filter capacitor (C)
Table 4-2: Charge Pump Bit Control
CP[2]
CP[1]
CP[0]
Setting (Decimal)
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
3
1
1
1
7
Table 4-3: Loop Filter Resistor Value Control
LFR[4]
LFR[3]
LFR[2]
LFR[1]
LFR[0]
Setting (Decimal)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
3
0
0
1
0
0
4
0
1
0
0
0
8
1
0
0
0
0
16
1
0
0
1
1
19
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Bypassing PLL Counter
LFR[4]
LFR[3]
LFR[2]
LFR[1]
LFR[0]
Setting (Decimal)
1
0
1
0
0
20
1
1
0
0
0
24
1
1
0
1
1
27
1
1
1
0
0
28
1
1
1
1
0
30
Table 4-4: Loop Filter High Frequency Capacitor Control
LFC[1]
LFC[0]
Setting (Decimal)
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
3
Related Information
• Programmable Bandwidth on page 2-19
• Programmable Bandwidth with Advanced Parameters on page 4-10
• Programmable Bandwidth Parameter Settings on page 6-2
Bypassing PLL Counter
Bypassing a PLL counter results in a multiplification (M counter) or a division (N, C0 to C4 counters) factor
of one.
Table 4-5: PLL Counter Settings
PLL Scan Chain Bits [0..8] Settings
Description
LSB
MSB
PLL counter
bypassed
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
1(9)
PLL counter not
bypassed
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
0(9)
To bypass any of the PLL counters, set the bypass bit to 1. The values on the other bits are ignored.
(9)
Bypass bit
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Dynamic Phase Configuration Implementation
To perform one dynamic phase shift step, perform the following steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Set PHASEUPDOWN and PHASECOUNTERSELECT as required.
Assert PHASESTEP for at least two SCANCLK cycles. Each PHASESTEP pulse allows one phase shift.
Deassert PHASESTEP after PHASEDONE goes low.
Wait for PHASEDONE to go high.
Repeat steps 1 through 4 as many times as required to perform multiple phase shifts.
PHASEUPDOWN and PHASECOUNTERSELECT signals are synchronous to SCANCLK and must meet the tsu and th
requirements with respect to the SCANCLK edges.
You can repeat dynamic phase-shifting indefinitely. For example, in a design where the VCO frequency is
set to 1,000 MHz and the output clock frequency is set to 100 MHz, performing 40 dynamic phase shifts
(each one yields 125 ps phase shift) results in shifting the output clock by 180º, which is a phase shift of 5
ns.
Figure 4-9: Dynamic Phase Shift Timing Diagram
SCANCLK
PHASESTEP
PHASEUPDOWN
PHASECOUNTERSELECT
PHASEDONE
a
b
c
d
PHASEDONE goes low
synchronous with SCANCLK
The PHASESTEP signal is latched on the negative edge of SCANCLK (a,c) and must remain asserted for at
least two SCANCLK cycles. Deassert PHASESTEP after PHASEDONE goes low.
On the second SCANCLK rising edge (b,d) after PHASESTEP is latched, the values of PHASEUPDOWN and
PHASECOUNTERSELECT are latched. The PLL starts dynamic phase-shifting for the specified counters and in
the indicated direction.
The PHASEDONE signal is deasserted synchronous to SCANCLK at the second rising edge (b,d) and remains
low until the PLL finishes dynamic phase-shifting. Depending on the VCO and SCANCLK frequencies,
PHASEDONE low time may be greater than or less than one SCANCLK cycle.
You can perform another dynamic phase-shift after the PHASEDONE signal goes from low to high. Each
PHASESTEP pulse enables one phase shift. The PHASESTEP pulses must be at least one SCANCLK cycle apart.
Related Information
• Programmable Phase Shift on page 2-20
• Dynamic Phase Configuration Parameter Settings on page 6-4
Provides more information about the ALTPLL IP core parameter settings in the Quartus II software.
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Dynamic Phase Configuration Counter Selection
• ALTPLL_RECONFIG Parameters on page 7-1
Provides more information about the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core parameter settings in the Quartus
II software.
• PLL Dynamic Reconfiguration Parameter Settings on page 6-4
Provides more information about the ALTPLL IP core parameter settings in the Quartus II software.
• ALTPLL_RECONFIG Parameters on page 7-1
Provides more information about the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core parameter settings in the Quartus
II software.
Dynamic Phase Configuration Counter Selection
Table 4-6: Phase Counter Select Mapping
PLL Counter Selection
PHASECOUNTERSELECT [2]
[1]
[0]
All output counters
0
0
0
M counter
0
0
1
C0 counter
0
1
0
C1 counter
0
1
1
C2 counter
1
0
0
C3 counter
1
0
1
C4 counter
1
1
0
Related Information
Programmable Phase Shift on page 2-20
Dynamic Phase Configuration with Advanced Parameters
The finest phase shift step resolution you can get in the ALTPLL IP core is 1/8 of the VCO period. If the
VCO frequency is at the lower end of the supported VCO range, the phase shift step resolution might be
larger than preferred for your design.
You can modify your phase shift resolution using the dynamic phase reconfiguration feature of the PLL. If
you want to modify the phase shift resolution without the dynamic phase reconfiguration feature enabled,
perform the following steps:
1. Create an ALTPLL instance. Make sure you specify the speed grade of your target device and the PLL
type.
2. On the PLL Reconfiguration page, turn on Create optional inputs for dynamic phase reconfigura‐
tion and Enable phase shift step resolution.
3. On the Output Clocks page, set your desired phase shift for each required output clock. Note all the
internal PLL settings shown.
4. On the Bandwidth/SS page, click More Details to see the internal PLL settings. Note all of the settings
shown.
5. On the Inputs/Lock page, turn on Create output file(s) using the ‘Advanced’ PLL Parameters.
6. Return to the PLL Reconfiguration page and turn off Create Optional Inputs for Dynamic Phase
Reconfiguration.
7. Click Finish to generate the PLL instantiation file(s).
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When using Advanced Parameters, the PLL wrapper file (<ALTPLL_instantiation_name>.v or
<ALTPLL_instantiation_name>.vhd) is written in a format that allows you to identify the PLL
parameters. The parameters are listed in the Generic Map section of the VHDL file, or in the
defparam section of the Verilog file.
8. Open your PLL instantiation wrapper file and locate either the Generic Map or the defparam section.
9. Modify the settings to match the settings that you noted in steps 3 and 4.
10.Save the PLL instantiation wrapper file and compile your design.
11.Verify that the output clock frequencies and phases are correct in the PLL Usage report located under
the Resource section of the Fitter folder in the Compilation Report.
By using this technique, you can apply valid PLL parameters as provided by the ALTPLL IP core
parameter editor to optimize the settings for your design.
Alternatively, you can leave the dynamic phase reconfiguration option enabled and tie the relevant input
ports—phasecounterselect[3..0], phaseupdown, phasestep, and scanclk—to constants, if you prefer
not to manually edit the PLL wrapper file using the Advanced PLL Parameters option.
Related Information
Programmable Phase Shift on page 2-20
Files Generated for Altera IP Cores (Legacy Parameter Editor)
The Quartus II generates the following output for IP cores that use the legacy MegaWizard parameter
editor.
Figure 4-10: IP Core Generated Files
<Project Directory>
<your_ip>.qip - Quartus II IP integration file
<your_ip>.v or .vhd - Top-level IP synthesis file
<your_ip>_bb.v - Verilog HDL black box EDA synthesis file
<your_ip>.bsf - Block symbol schematic file
<your_ip>_syn.v or .vhd - Timing & resource estimation netlist 1
<your_ip>.vo or .vho - IP functional simulation model 2
<your_ip>_inst.v or .vhd - Sample instantiation template
<your_ip>.cmp - VHDL component declaration file
greybox_tmp 3
Notes:
1. If supported and enabled for your IP variation
2. If functional simulation models are generated
3. Ignore this directory
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ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP Core
ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP Core
The ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core implements reconfiguration logic to facilitate dynamic real-time
reconfiguration of PLLs. You can use the IP core to update the output clock frequency, PLL bandwidth,
and phase shifts in real time, without reconfiguring the entire FPGA.
Use the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core in designs that must support dynamic changes in the frequency and
phase shift of clocks and other frequency signals. The IP core is also useful in prototyping environments
because it allows you to sweep PLL output frequencies and dynamically adjust the output clock phase.
You can also adjust the clock-to-output (tCO) delays in real-time by changing the output clock phase shift.
This approach eliminates the need to regenerate a configuration file with the new PLL settings. This
operation requires dynamic phase-shifting.
IP Catalog and Parameter Editor
The Quartus II IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog) and parameter editor help you easily customize and
integrate IP cores into your project. You can use the IP Catalog and parameter editor to select, customize,
and generate files representing your custom IP variation.
Note: The IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog) and parameter editor replace the MegaWizard Plug-In
Manager for IP selection and parameterization, beginning in Quartus II software version 14.0. Use
the IP Catalog and parameter editor to locate and paramaterize Altera IP cores.
™
The IP Catalog lists installed IP cores available for your design. Double-click any IP core to launch the
parameter editor and generate files representing your IP variation. The parameter editor prompts you to
specify an IP variation name, optional ports, and output file generation options. The parameter editor
generates a top-level Qsys system file (.qsys) or Quartus II IP file (.qip) representing the IP core in your
project. You can also parameterize an IP variation without an open project.
Use the following features to help you quickly locate and select an IP core:
• Filter IP Catalog to Show IP for active device family or Show IP for all device families. If you have no
project open, select the Device Family in IP Catalog.
• Type in the Search field to locate any full or partial IP core name in IP Catalog.
• Right-click an IP core name in IP Catalog to display details about supported devices, open the IP core's
installation folder, and view links to documentation.
• Click Search for Partner IP, to access partner IP information on the Altera website.
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Figure 4-11: Quartus II IP Catalog
Show IP only for target device
Search for installed IP cores
Double-click to customize, right-click for
detailed information
Note: The IP Catalog is also available in Qsys (View > IP Catalog). The Qsys IP Catalog includes
exclusive system interconnect, video and image processing, and other system-level IP that are not
available in the Quartus II IP Catalog. For more information about using the Qsys IP Catalog, refer
to Creating a System with Qsys in the Quartus II Handbook.
Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options
You can quickly configure a custom IP variation in the parameter editor. Use the following steps to
specify IP core options and parameters in the parameter editor. Refer to Specifying IP Core Parameters
and Options (Legacy Parameter Editors) for configuration of IP cores using the legacy parameter editor.
1. In the IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog), locate and double-click the name of the IP core to customize.
The parameter editor appears.
2. Specify a top-level name for your custom IP variation. The parameter editor saves the IP variation
settings in a file named <your_ip>.qsys. Click OK.
3. Specify the parameters and options for your IP variation in the parameter editor, including one or
more of the following. Refer to your IP core user guide for information about specific IP core
parameters.
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Files Generated for Altera IP Cores (Legacy Parameter Editor)
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
• Optionally select preset parameter values if provided for your IP core. Presets specify initial
parameter values for specific applications.
• Specify parameters defining the IP core functionality, port configurations, and device-specific
features.
• Specify options for processing the IP core files in other EDA tools.
Click Generate HDL, the Generation dialog box appears.
Specify output file generation options, and then click Generate. The IP variation files generate
according to your specifications.
To generate a simulation testbench, click Generate > Generate Testbench System.
To generate an HDL instantiation template that you can copy and paste into your text editor, click
Generate > HDL Example.
Click Finish. The parameter editor adds the top-level .qsys file to the current project automatically. If
you are prompted to manually add the .qsys file to the project, click Project > Add/Remove Files in
Project to add the file.
After generating and instantiating your IP variation, make appropriate pin assignments to connect
ports.
Figure 4-12: IP Parameter Editor
View IP port
and parameter
details
Specify your IP variation name
and target device
Apply preset parameters for
specific applications
Files Generated for Altera IP Cores (Legacy Parameter Editor)
The Quartus II generates the following output for IP cores that use the legacy MegaWizard parameter
editor.
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Figure 4-13: IP Core Generated Files
<Project Directory>
<your_ip>.qip - Quartus II IP integration file
<your_ip>.v or .vhd - Top-level IP synthesis file
<your_ip>_bb.v - Verilog HDL black box EDA synthesis file
<your_ip>.bsf - Block symbol schematic file
<your_ip>_syn.v or .vhd - Timing & resource estimation netlist 1
<your_ip>.vo or .vho - IP functional simulation model 2
<your_ip>_inst.v or .vhd - Sample instantiation template
<your_ip>.cmp - VHDL component declaration file
greybox_tmp 3
Notes:
1. If supported and enabled for your IP variation
2. If functional simulation models are generated
3. Ignore this directory
Obtaining the Resource Utilization Report
For details about the resource usage and performance of the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core, refer to the
compilation reports in the Quartus II software.
To view the compilation reports for the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core in the Quartus II software, follow
these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Processing menu, click Start Compilation to run a full compilation.
After compiling the design, on the Processing menu, click Compilation Report.
In the Table of Contents browser, expand the Fitter folder by clicking the “+” icon.
Under Fitter, expand Resource section, and select Resource Usage Summary to view the resource
usage information.
5. Under Fitter, expand Resource section, and select Resource Utilization by Entity to view the
resource utilization information.
Internal Oscillator IP Core
The Internal Oscillator IP core specifies the internal oscillator frequencies for the devices.
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IP Catalog and Parameter Editor
IP Catalog and Parameter Editor
The Quartus II IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog) and parameter editor help you easily customize and
integrate IP cores into your project. You can use the IP Catalog and parameter editor to select, customize,
and generate files representing your custom IP variation.
Note: The IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog) and parameter editor replace the MegaWizard Plug-In
Manager for IP selection and parameterization, beginning in Quartus II software version 14.0. Use
the IP Catalog and parameter editor to locate and paramaterize Altera IP cores.
™
The IP Catalog lists installed IP cores available for your design. Double-click any IP core to launch the
parameter editor and generate files representing your IP variation. The parameter editor prompts you to
specify an IP variation name, optional ports, and output file generation options. The parameter editor
generates a top-level Qsys system file (.qsys) or Quartus II IP file (.qip) representing the IP core in your
project. You can also parameterize an IP variation without an open project.
Use the following features to help you quickly locate and select an IP core:
• Filter IP Catalog to Show IP for active device family or Show IP for all device families. If you have no
project open, select the Device Family in IP Catalog.
• Type in the Search field to locate any full or partial IP core name in IP Catalog.
• Right-click an IP core name in IP Catalog to display details about supported devices, open the IP core's
installation folder, and view links to documentation.
• Click Search for Partner IP, to access partner IP information on the Altera website.
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Figure 4-14: Quartus II IP Catalog
Show IP only for target device
Search for installed IP cores
Double-click to customize, right-click for
detailed information
Note: The IP Catalog is also available in Qsys (View > IP Catalog). The Qsys IP Catalog includes
exclusive system interconnect, video and image processing, and other system-level IP that are not
available in the Quartus II IP Catalog. For more information about using the Qsys IP Catalog, refer
to Creating a System with Qsys in the Quartus II Handbook.
Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options
You can quickly configure a custom IP variation in the parameter editor. Use the following steps to
specify IP core options and parameters in the parameter editor. Refer to Specifying IP Core Parameters
and Options (Legacy Parameter Editors) for configuration of IP cores using the legacy parameter editor.
1. In the IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog), locate and double-click the name of the IP core to customize.
The parameter editor appears.
2. Specify a top-level name for your custom IP variation. The parameter editor saves the IP variation
settings in a file named <your_ip>.qsys. Click OK.
3. Specify the parameters and options for your IP variation in the parameter editor, including one or
more of the following. Refer to your IP core user guide for information about specific IP core
parameters.
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Files Generated for Altera IP Cores (Legacy Parameter Editor)
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
• Optionally select preset parameter values if provided for your IP core. Presets specify initial
parameter values for specific applications.
• Specify parameters defining the IP core functionality, port configurations, and device-specific
features.
• Specify options for processing the IP core files in other EDA tools.
Click Generate HDL, the Generation dialog box appears.
Specify output file generation options, and then click Generate. The IP variation files generate
according to your specifications.
To generate a simulation testbench, click Generate > Generate Testbench System.
To generate an HDL instantiation template that you can copy and paste into your text editor, click
Generate > HDL Example.
Click Finish. The parameter editor adds the top-level .qsys file to the current project automatically. If
you are prompted to manually add the .qsys file to the project, click Project > Add/Remove Files in
Project to add the file.
After generating and instantiating your IP variation, make appropriate pin assignments to connect
ports.
Figure 4-15: IP Parameter Editor
View IP port
and parameter
details
Specify your IP variation name
and target device
Apply preset parameters for
specific applications
Files Generated for Altera IP Cores (Legacy Parameter Editor)
The Quartus II software version generates the following output for your IP core that uses the legacy
parameter editor.
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Figure 4-16: IP Core Generated Files
<Project Directory>
<your_ip>.qip or .qsys - System or IP integration file
<your_ip>.sopcinfo - Software tool-chain integration file
<your_ip> - IP core variation files
<your_ip>_bb.v - Verilog HDL black box EDA synthesis file
<your_ip>_inst.v or .vhd - Sample instantiation template
<your_ip>_generation.rpt - IP generation report
<your_ip>.bsf - Block symbol schematic file
<your_ip>.ppf - XML I/O pin information file
<your_ip>.spd - Combines individual simulation startup scripts 1
<your_ip>_syn.v or .vhd - Timing & resource estimation netlist 1
<your_ip>.html - Contains memory map
simulation - IP simulation files
<your_ip>.sip - NativeLink simulation integration file
<your_ip>.v, .vhd, .vo, .vho - HDL or IPFS models2
<simulator vendor> - Simulator setup scripts
<simulator_setup_scripts>
synthesis - IP synthesis files
<your_ip>.qip - Lists files for synthesis
<your_ip>.debuginfo - Lists files for synthesis
<your_ip>.v or .vhd - Top-level IP variation synthesis file
testbench - Simulation testbench files 1
<testbench_hdl_files>
<simulator_vendor> - Testbench for supported simulators
<simulation_testbench_files>
<your_ip>_tb - Testbench for supported simulators
<your_ip>_tb.v or .vhd - Top-level HDL testbench file
Notes:
1. If supported and enabled for your IP variation
2. If functional simulation models are generated
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ALTCLKCTRL Parameters
Table 5-1: ALTCLKCTRL IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
Parameter
How do you want to use
the ALTCLKCTRL
Value
Decription
For global clock, or Specify the ALTCLKCTRL buffering mode. You can
For external path select from the following modes:
• For global clock—Allows a clock signal to reach all
parts of the chip with the same amount of skew; you
can select input port clkselect to switch between
the four clock inputs.
• For external path—Represents the clock path from
the outputs of the PLL to the dedicated clock output
pins; only one clock output is accepted.
How many clock inputs
would you like?
1, 2, 3, or 4
Specify the number of input clock sources for the clock
control block. You can specify up to four clock inputs.
You can change the number of clock inputs only if you
choose For global clock option.
Create ‘ena’ port to
enable or disable the
clock network driven by
this buffer
On or Off
Turn on this option if you want to create an active high
clock enable signal to enable or disable the clock
network.
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trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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ALTCLKCTRL Ports and Signals
Parameter
Ensure glitch-free
switchover implementa‐
tion
Value
On or Off
Decription
Turn on this option to implement a glitch-free
switchover when you use multiple clock inputs.
You must ensure the currently selected clock is running
before switching to another source. If the selected clock
is not running, the glitch-free switchover implementa‐
tion will not be able to switch to the new clock source.
By default, the clkselect port is set to 00. A clock
must be applied to inclk0x for the values on the
clkselect ports to be read.
Related Information
•
•
•
•
Global Clock Control Block on page 2-4
Global Clock Network Power Down on page 2-6
Clock Enable Signals on page 2-7
Guideline: Clock Enable Signals on page 3-1
ALTCLKCTRL Ports and Signals
Table 5-2: ALTCLKCTRL Input Ports for MAX 10 Devices
Port Name
clkselect[]
Condition
Optional
Description
Input that dynamically selects the clock source to drive the
clock network that is driven by the clock buffer.
Input port [1 DOWNTO 0] wide.
If omitted, the default is GND.
If this signal is connected, only the global clock network can
be driven by this clock control block.
The following list shows the signal selection for the binary
value:
• 00—inclk[0]
• 01—inclk[1]
ena
Optional
Clock enable of the clock buffer.
If omitted, the default value is VCC.
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ALTCLKCTRL Ports and Signals
Port Name
inclk[]
Condition
Required
5-3
Description
Clock input of the clock buffer.
Input port [1 DOWNTO 0] wide.
You can specify up to two clock inputs, inclk[1..0].
Clock pins, clock outputs from the PLL, and core signals can
drive the inclk[] port.
Multiple clock inputs are only supported for the global clock
networks.
Table 5-3: ALTCLKCTRL Output Ports for MAX 10 Devices
Port Name
outclk
Condition
Required
Description
Output of the clock buffer.
Related Information
•
•
•
•
Global Clock Control Block on page 2-4
Global Clock Network Power Down on page 2-6
Clock Enable Signals on page 2-7
Guideline: Clock Enable Signals on page 3-1
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ALTPLL Parameters
The following tables list the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
Operation Modes Parameter Settings
You can set the operation mode for PLL in the General/Modes page of the ALTPLL IP core parameter
editor.
Table 6-1: Operation Mode Parameter Editor Settings
Parameter
Value
Which device speed
grade will you be using?
Any, 7, or 8
What is the frequency of
the inclock0 input?
—
Use the feedback path
inside the PLL
Which output clock will
be compensated for?
In normal mode, In
source-synchronous
compensation
mode, In zero-delay
buffer mode, or
With no
compensation
C0, C1, C2, C3, or C4
Description
Specify the speed grade if you are not already using a
device with the fastest speed. The lower the number, the
faster the speed grade.
Specify the frequency of the input clock signal.
Specify which operation mode to use.
For source-synchronous mode and zero-delay buffer
mode, you must make PLL Compensation assignments
using the Assignment Editor in addition to setting the
appropriate mode in the IP core. The assignment allows
you to specify an output pin as a compensation target
for a PLL in zero-delay buffer mode, or to specify an
input pin or group of input pins as compensation
targets for a PLL in source-synchronous mode.
Specify which PLL output port to compensate.
The drop down list contains all output clock ports for
the selected device. The correct output clock selection
depends on the operation mode that you select.
For example, for normal mode, select the core output
clock. For zero-delay buffer mode, select the external
output clock.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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PLL Control Signals Parameter Settings
Related Information
Clock Feedback Modes on page 2-14
PLL Control Signals Parameter Settings
The parameter settings for the control signals are located on the Inputs/Lock page of the ALTPLL IP core
parameter editor.
Turn on the control signal you want to create from the options available.
Related Information
PLL Control Signals on page 2-13
Programmable Bandwidth Parameter Settings
You can configure the bandwidth of the ALTPLL IP core on the Bandwidth/SS page of the ALTPLL IP
core parameter editor.
Table 6-2: Bandwidth Configuration Parameter Editor Settings
Parameter
Auto
Value
—
Description
The ALTPLL parameter editor chooses the best possible
bandwidth values to achieve the desired PLL settings. In some
cases, you can get a bandwidth value outside the Low and High
preset range.
You can use the programmable bandwidth feature with the clock
switchover feature to get the PLL output settings that you desire.
You must set the bandwidth to Auto if you want to enable the
spread-spectrum feature.
Preset
Low
PLL with a low bandwidth has better jitter rejection but a slower
lock time.
Medium
PLL with a medium bandwidth has a balance between lock time
and jitter rejection.
High
PLL with a high bandwidth has a faster lock time but tracks more
jitter.
The table on the right in the Bandwidth/SS page shows the values of the following components:
•
•
•
•
Charge pump current
Loop filter resistance
Loop filter capacitance
M counter
These parameter settings create no additional top-level ports.
Related Information
• Programmable Bandwidth on page 2-19
• Programmable Bandwidth with Advanced Parameters on page 4-10
• Charge Pump and Loop Filter on page 4-13
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Clock Switchover Parameter Settings
6-3
Clock Switchover Parameter Settings
The parameter settings for clock switchover feature are located on the Clock switchover page of the
ALTPLL IP core parameter editor.
Table 6-3: Clock Switchover Parameter Editor Settings
Parameter
Value
Description
Create an 'inclk1' input
for a second input clock
On or Off
Create a 'clkswitch'
input to manually select
between the input clocks
—
Select this option for manual clock switchover mode.
Allow PLL to automati‐
cally control the
switching between input
clocks
—
Select this option for automatic clock switchover mode.
Turn on this option to enable the switchover feature.
The inclk0 signal is by default the primary input clock
signal of the ALTPLL IP core.
The automatic switchover is initiated during loss of lock
or when the inclk0 signal stops toggling.
Create a 'clkswitch'
input to dynamically
control the switching
between input clocks
On or Off
Perform the input clock
switchover after
(number) input clock
cycles
On or Off
Create an 'activeclock'
output to indicate the
input clock being used
On or Off
Create a 'clkbad' output
for each input clock
On or Off
Turn on this option for automatic clock switchover
with manual override mode.
The automatic switchover is initiated during loss of lock
or when the clkswitch signal is asserted.
Turn on this option to specify the number of clock
cycles to wait before the PLL performs the clock
switchover.
The allowed number of clock cycles to wait is devicedependent.
Turn on this option to monitor which input clock
signal is driving the PLL.
When the current clock signal is inclk0, the
activeclock signal is low. When the current clock
signal is inclk1, the activeclock signal is high.
Turn on this option to monitor when the input clock
signal has stopped toggling.
The clkbad0 signal monitors the inclk0 signal. The
clkbad1 signal monitors the inclk1 signal.
The clkbad0 signal goes high when the inclk0 signal
stops toggling. The clkbad1 signal goes high when the
inclk1 signal stops toggling. The clkbad signals
remain low when the input clock signals are toggling.
Related Information
• Clock Switchover on page 2-22
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PLL Dynamic Reconfiguration Parameter Settings
• Guideline: Clock Switchover on page 3-3
PLL Dynamic Reconfiguration Parameter Settings
The parameter settings for the normal dynamic reconfiguration scheme are located on the PLL Reconfi‐
guration page of the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor.
Table 6-4: PLL Dynamic Reconfiguration Parameter Editor Settings
Parameter
Create optional inputs
for dynamic reconfigu‐
ration
Value
Description
On or Off
Turn on this option to enable all the PLL reconfigura‐
tion ports for this instantiation—scanclk, scanclkena,
scandata, scandone, scandataout, and configupdate.
Initial Configuration
File
—
Specify the location of the configuration file that is used
to initialize the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core.
Additional Configura‐
tion File(s)
—
Specify additional configuration file. This file might
contain additional settings for the PLL, or might be
used to initialize the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core.
Related Information
• PLL Reconfiguration on page 2-26
• Dynamic Phase Configuration Implementation on page 4-15
Dynamic Phase Configuration Parameter Settings
The parameter settings to enable the dynamic phase configuration feature are located on the PLL
Reconfiguration page of the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor.
Table 6-5: Dynamic Phase Configuration Parameter Editor Settings
Parameter
Value
Create optional inputs
for dynamic phase
reconfiguration
On or Off
Enable phase shift step
resolution edit
Description
Turn on this option to enable the dynamic phase
configuration feature. The following ports are created:
•
•
•
•
•
On or Off
phasecounterselect[2..0]
phaseupdown
phasestep
scanclk
phasedone
Turn on this option to modify the value for Phase shift
step resolution(ps) for each individual PLL output
clock on the Output Clocks page.
By default, the finest phase shift resolution value is 1/8
of the VCO period. If the VCO frequency is at the lower
end of the supported VCO range, the phase shift
resolution might be larger than preferred for your
design. Use this option to fine tune the phase shift step
resolution.
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Output Clocks Parameter Settings
6-5
Related Information
• Programmable Phase Shift on page 2-20
• Dynamic Phase Configuration Implementation on page 4-15
Output Clocks Parameter Settings
The Output Clocks page of the ALTPLL parameter editor contains the parameter settings of the clock
output signals. You can configure the c0, c1, c2, c3, and c4 clock output signals of the ALTPLL IP core.
Each option has the following two columns:
• Requested settings—The settings that you want to implement.
• Actual settings—The settings closest values that can be implemented in the PLL circuit to best approxi‐
mate the requested settings.
Use the values in the actual settings column as a guide to adjust the requested settings. If the requested
settings for one of the output clocks cannot be approximated, the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor
produces a warning message at the top of every page.
Table 6-6: Output Clocks Parameter Editor Settings
Parameter
Use this clock
Value
On or Off
Description
Turn on this option to generate an output clock port in
your ALTPLL instance.
The output clock port that is to be compensated for is
enabled by default. It cannot be disabled, unless you
select a different output clock port to be compensated
for.
Enter output clock
frequency
—
Specify the frequency of the output clock signal.
Enter output clock
parameters
—
Specify the the output clock parameters instead of the
frequency.
Clock multiplication
factor
—
Specify the clock multiplication factor of the signal.
Clock division factor
—
Specify the clock division factor of the signal.
Clock phase shift
—
Set the programmable phase shift for an output clock
signals.
The smallest phase shift is 1/8 of VCO period. For
degree increments, the maximum step size is 45
degrees. You can set smaller steps using the Clock
multiplication factor and Clock division factor
options.
For example, if the post-scale counter is 32, the smallest
phase shift step is 0.1°. The up and down buttons let
you cycle through phase shift values. Alternatively, you
can enter a number in the phase shift field manually
instead of using the buttons.
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ALTPLL Ports and Signals
Parameter
Value
Description
Clock duty cycle (%)
—
Set the duty cycle of the output clock signal.
Per Clock Feasibility
Indicators
—
Indicate output clocks that contain unachievable
settings.
The output clock name in red is the name of the clock
with unachievable settings. The clock listed in green has
no settings issues, and the grayed-out names are the
unselected output clocks. You must adjust the requested
settings for the affected output clocks to resolve the
warning messages.
The ALTPLL IP core parameter editor calculates the simplest fraction, and displays it in the actual settings
column. You can use the copy button to copy values from the actual settings to the requested settings.
Figure 6-1: PLL Output Clock Frequency
For example, if the input clock frequency is 100 MHz, and the requested multiplication and division
factors are 205 and 1025 respectively, the output clock frequency is calculated as 100 × 205/1025=20 MHz.
The actual settings reflect the simplest fraction—the actual multiplication factor is 1, and the actual
division factor is 5.
ALTPLL Ports and Signals
Table 6-7: ALTPLL Input Ports for MAX 10 Devices
Port Name(10)
areset
clkswitch
Condition
Optional
Optional
Description
Resets all counters to initial values, including the
GATE_LOCK_COUNTER parameter.
The control input port to dynamically toggle
between clock input ports (inclk0 and inclk1
ports), or to manually override the automatic clock
switchover.
You should create the clkswitch port if only the
inclk1 port is created.
configupdate
(10)
Optional
Dynamic full PLL reconfiguration.
Replace brackets, [], in the port name with integer to get the exact name. For example, inclk0 and inclk1.
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Port Name(10)
inclk[]
Condition
Required
6-7
Description
The clock inputs that drive the clock network.
If more than one inclk[] port is created, you must
use the clkselect port to specify which clock is
used. The inclk0 port must always be connected;
connect other clock inputs if switching is necessary.
A dedicated clock pin or PLL output clock can drive
this port.
pfdena
Optional
Enables the phase frequency detector (PFD).
When the PFD is disabled, the PLL continues to
operate regardless of the input clock. Because the
PLL output clock frequency does not change for
some time, you can use the pfdena port as a
shutdown or cleanup function when a reliable input
clock is no longer available.
phasecounterselect[]
Optional
Specifies counter select. You can use the
phasecounterselect[2..0] bits to select either the
M or one of the C counters for phase adjustment.
One address map to select all C counters. This signal
is registered in the PLL on the rising edge of
SCANCLK.
phasestep
Optional
Specifies dynamic phase shifting. Logic high enables
dynamic phase shifting.
phaseupdown
Optional
Specifies dynamic phase shift direction. 1= UP, 0 =
DOWN. Signal is registered in the PLL on the rising
edge of SCANCLK.
scanclk
Optional
Input clock port for the serial scan chain.
Free-running clock from core used in combination
with PHASESTEP to enable or disable dynamic phase
shifting. Shared with SCANCLK for dynamic reconfi‐
guration.
(10)
scanclkena
Optional
Clock enable port for the serial scan chain.
scandata
Optional
Contains the data for the serial scan chain.
Replace brackets, [], in the port name with integer to get the exact name. For example, inclk0 and inclk1.
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ALTPLL Ports and Signals
Table 6-8: ALTPLL Output Ports for MAX 10 Devices
Port Name(11)
activeclock
Condition
Optional
Description
Specifies which clock is the primary reference clock
when the clock switchover circuit initiates.
If the inclk0 is in use, the activeclock port goes
low. If the inclk1 is in use, the activeclock port
goes high.
You can set the PLL to automatically initiate the
clock switchover when the primary reference clock
is not toggling correctly, or you can manually
initiate the clock switchover using the clkswitch
input port.
c[]
Required
clkbad[]
Optional
The clock output of the PLL.
clkbad1 and clkbad0 ports check for input clock
toggling.
If the inclk0 port stops toggling, the clkbad0 port
goes high. If the inclk1 port stops toggling, the
clkbad1 port goes high.
(11)
Replace the brackets, [], in the port name with an integer to get the exact name (for example, c0 and c1).
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Port Name(11)
locked
Condition
Optional
6-9
Description
This output port acts as an indicator when the PLL
has reached phase-locked. The locked port stays
high as long as the PLL is locked, and stays low
when the PLL is out-of-lock.
The number of cycles needed to gate the locked
signal is based on the PLL input clock. The gatedlock circuitry is clocked by the PLL input clock. The
maximum lock time for the PLL is provided in the
MAX 10 Device Datasheet.
Take the maximum lock time of the PLL and divide
it by the period of the PLL input clock. The result is
the number of clock cycles needed to gate the
locked signal.
The lock signal is an asynchronous output of the
PLL. The PLL lock signal is derived from the
reference clock and feedback clock feeding the
phase frequency detector (PFD) as follows:
• Reference clock = Input Clock/N
• Feedback clock = VCO/M
The PLL asserts the locked port when the phases
and frequencies of the reference clock and feedback
clock are the same or within the lock circuit
tolerance. When the difference between the two
clock signals goes beyond the lock circuit tolerance,
the PLL loses lock.
phasedone
Optional
This output port indicates that dynamic phase
reconfiguration is completed.
When phasedone signal is asserted, it indicates to
core logic that the phase adjustment is complete and
PLL is ready to act on a possible second adjustment
pulse. This signal asserts based on internal PLL
timing and deasserts on rising edge of SCANCLK.
scandataout
Optional
The data output for the serial scan chain.
You can use the scandataout port to determine
when PLL reconfiguration completes. The last
output is cleared when reconfiguration completes.
scandone
Optional
This output port indicates that the scan chain write
operation is initiated.
The scandone port goes high when the scan chain
write operation initiates, and goes low when the
scan chain write operation completes.
(11)
Replace the brackets, [], in the port name with an integer to get the exact name (for example, c0 and c1).
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ALTPLL_RECONFIG Parameters
Table 7-1: ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
Page
Parameter
Settings
Parameter
Value
Description
Currently Selected
Device Family
—
Specifies the chosen device family.
Which scan chain type
will you be using?
—
The scan chain is a serial shift register chain
that is used to store settings. It acts like a
cache. When you assert the reconfig signal,
the PLL is reconfigured with the values in the
cache. The type of scan chain must follow the
type of PLL to be reconfigured. The scan
chain type has a default value of Top/
Bottom.
Do you want to specify
the initial value of the
scan chain?
No, leave it
blank,
Add ports to write to
the scan chain from
external ROM during
run time
Specifies the initial value of the scan chain.
Select No, leave it blank to not specify a file
or select Yes, use this file for the content
Yes, use this file data to browse for a .hex or .mif file.
for the content
data
The option to initialize from a ROM is not
available. However, you can choose to add
ports to write to the scan chain from an
external ROM during runtime by turning on
Add ports to write to the scan chain from
external ROM during run time.
On, Off
Turn on this option to take advantage of
cycling multiple configuration files, which are
stored in external ROMs during user mode.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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ALTPLL_RECONFIG Ports and Signals
Page
Parameter
Value
Simulation Libraries
EDA
Generate netlist
Summary
—
—
Description
Specifies the libraries for functional
simulation.
On, Off
Turn on this option to generate synthesis area
and timing estimation netlist.
—
Specifies the types of files to be generated. A
gray checkmark indicates a file that is
automatically generated; an unchecked check
box indicates an optional file. Choose from
the following types of files:
• AHDL Include file (<function name>.inc)
• VHDL component declaration file
(<function name>.cmp)
• Quartus II symbol file (<function name>
.bsf)
• Instantiation template file (<function
name>_inst.v or <function name>_
inst.vhd)
• Verilog HDL black box file (<function
name>_bb.v)
If the Generate netlist option is turned on,
the file for that netlist is also available
(<function name>_syn.v).
Related Information
•
•
•
•
Programmable Phase Shift on page 2-20
Dynamic Phase Configuration Implementation on page 4-15
PLL Reconfiguration on page 2-26
Dynamic Phase Configuration Implementation on page 4-15
ALTPLL_RECONFIG Ports and Signals
Table 7-2: ALTPLL_RECONFIG Input Ports for MAX 10 Devices
Port Name
clock
Condition
Required
Description
Clock input for loading individual parameters. This signal
also clocks the PLL during reconfiguration.
The clock input port must be connected to a valid clock.
Refer to the MAX 10 Device Datasheet for the clock fMAX.
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ALTPLL_RECONFIG Ports and Signals
Port Name
reset
Condition
Required
7-3
Description
Asynchronous reset input to the IP core.
Altera recommends that you reset this IP core before first
use to guarantee that it is in a valid state. However, it does
power up in the reset state. This port must be connected.
data_in[]
Optional
Data input that provides parameter value when writing
parameters.
This 9-bit input port provides the data to be written to the
scan cache during a write operation. The bit width of the
counter parameter to be written determines the number
of bits of data_in[] that are read into the cache.
For example, the low bit count of the C0 counter is 8-bit
wide, so data_in[7..0] is read to the correct cache
location. The bypass mode for the C0 counter is 1-bit
wide, so data_in[0] is read for the value of this
parameter.
If omitted, the default value is 0.
counter_type[]
Optional
Specifies the counter type.
An input port in the form of a 4-bit bus that selects which
counter type should be selected for the corresponding
operation (read, write, or reconfig).
Refer to the counter_type[3..0] settings table for the
mapping between the counter_type value and the
physical counter to be set.
counter_param[]
Optional
Specifies the parameter for the value specified in the
counter_type port.
An input port in the form of a 3-bit bus that selects which
parameter for the given counter type should be updated.
The mapping to each parameter type and the
corresponding parameter bit-width are defined in the
counter_param[3..0] settings table.
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ALTPLL_RECONFIG Ports and Signals
Port Name
read_param
Condition
Optional
Description
Reads the parameter specified with the counter_type and
counter_param ports from cache and fed to the data_
out[] port.
When asserted, the read_param signal indicates that the
scan cache should be read and fed to data_out[]. The bit
location of the scan cache and the number of bits read
and sent to data_out[] depend on the counter_type
and counter_param values. The read_param signal is
sampled at the rising clock edge. If the read_param signal
is asserted, the parameter value is read from the cache.
Assert the read_param signal for 1 clock cycle only to
prevent the parameter from being read twice.
The busy signal is asserted on the rising clock edge
following the assertion of the read_param signal. While
the parameter is read, the busy signal remains asserted.
After the busy signal is deasserted, the value on data_
out[] is valid and the next parameter can be loaded.
While the busy signal is asserted, the value on data_
out[] is not valid.
When the read_param signal is asserted, the busy signal is
only asserted on the following rising edge of the clock and
not on the same clock cycle as the read_param signal.
write_param
Optional
Writes the parameter specified with the counter_type
and counter_param ports to the cache with the value
specified on the data_in[] port.
When asserted, the write_param signal indicates that the
value on data_in[] should be written to the parameter
specified by counter_type[] and counter_param[]. The
number of bits read from the data_in[] port depends on
the parameter. The write_param signal is sampled at the
rising clock edge. If the write_param signal is asserted,
the parameter value is written to the cache. Assert the
write_param signal for 1 clock cycle only to prevent the
parameter from being written twice.
The busy signal is asserted on the rising clock edge
following the assertion of the write_param signal. While
the parameter is being written, the busy signal remains
asserted and input to data_in[] is ignored. After the
busy signal is deasserted, the next parameter can be
written.
When the write_param signal is asserted, the busy signal
is only asserted on the following rising edge of the clock.
The busy signal is not asserted on the same clock cycle as
the write_param signal.
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ALTPLL_RECONFIG Ports and Signals
Port Name
reconfig
Condition
Required
7-5
Description
Specifies that the PLL should be reconfigured with the
PLL settings specified in the current cache.
When asserted, the reconfig signal indicates that the PLL
should be reconfigured with the values in the cache. The
reconfig signal is sampled at the rising clock edge. If the
reconfig signal is asserted, the cached settings are loaded
in the PLL. Assert the reconfig signal for 1 clock cycle
only to prevent reloading the PLL configuration. The
busy signal is asserted on the rising clock edge following
the assertion of the reconfig signal. While the PLL is
being loaded, the busy signal remains asserted. After the
busy signal is deasserted, the parameter values can be
modified again.
During and after reconfiguration, the scan chain data
cache remains unchanged. This allows you to easily create
a new set of reconfiguration settings using only one
parameter.
If write_param has not been asserted since the previous
assertion of reconfig, the entire scan chain is shifted in
to the PLL again.
When the reconfig signal is asserted, the busy signal is
only asserted on the following rising edge of the clock.
The busy signal is not asserted on the same clock cycle as
the reconfig signal.
pll_areset_in
Optional
Input signal indicating that the PLL should be reset.
When asserted, the pll_areset_in signal indicates the
PLL IP core should be reset. This port defaults to 0 if left
unconnected. When using the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP
core in a design, you cannot reset the PLL in any other
way. You must use this IP core port to manually reset the
PLL.
pll_scandone
Optional
Input port for the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core. This
port is driven by the PLL's scandone output signal and
determines when the PLL is reconfigured.
pll_scandataout
Required
Input port driven by the scandataout signal from the
ALTPLL IP core. Use this port to read the current
configuration of the ALTPLL IP core. This input port
holds the ALTPLL scan data output from the dynamically
reconfigurable bits. The pll_scandataout port must be
connected to the scandataout port of the PLL. The
activity on this port can only be observed when the
reconfig signal is asserted.
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ALTPLL_RECONFIG Ports and Signals
Table 7-3: ALTPLL_RECONFIG Output Ports for MAX 10 Devices
Port Name
data_out[]
Condition
Optional
Description
Data read from the cache when read_param is asserted.
This 9-bit output bus provides the parameter data to the
user. When the read_param signal is asserted, the values
on counter_type[] and counter_param[] determine the
parameter value that is loaded from cache and driven on
the data_out[] bus. When the IP core deasserts the busy
signal, the appropriate bits of the bus (for example,[0] or
[3..0]) hold a valid value.
busy
Optional
Indicates that the PLL is reading or writing a parameter to
the cache, or is configuring the PLL.
While the busy signal is asserted, no parameters can be
read or written, and no reconfiguration can be initiated.
Changes to the IP core can be made only when the busy
signal is not asserted. The signal goes high when the
read_param, write_param, or reconfig input port is
asserted, and remains high until the specified operation is
complete. In the case of a reconfiguration operation, the
busy signal remains high until the pll_areset signal is
asserted and then deasserted.
pll_areset
Required
Drives the areset port on the PLL to be reconfigured.
The pll_areset port must be connected to the areset
port of the ALTPLL IP core for the reconfiguration to
function correctly. This signal is active high. The pll_
areset is asserted when pll_areset_in is asserted, or,
after reconfiguration, at the next rising clock edge after
the scandone signal goes high. If you use the ALTPLL_
RECONFIG IP core, use the pll_areset output port to
drive the PLL areset port.
pll_configupdate
Optional
Drives the configupdate port on the PLL to be reconfig‐
ured. When asserted, the pll_configupdate port loads
selected data to PLL configuration latches. The signal is
asserted after the final data bit is sent out.
pll_scanclk
Required
Drives the scanclk port on the PLL to be reconfigured.
For information about the maximum scanclk frequency
for the various devices, refer to the respective device
handbook.
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ALTPLL_RECONFIG Counter Settings
Port Name
pll_scanclkena
Condition
Optional
7-7
Description
This port acts as a clock enable for the scanclk port on
the PLL to be reconfigured.
Reconfiguration begins on the first rising edge of pll_
scanclk after pll_scanclkena assertion. On the first
falling edge of pll_scanclk, after the deassertion of the
pll_scanclkena signal, the IP core stops scanning data
to the PLL.
pll_scandata
Required
Drives the scandata port on the PLL to be reconfigured.
This output port from the IP core holds the scan data
input to the PLL for the dynamically reconfigurable bits.
The pll_scandata port sends scandata to the PLL. Any
activity on this port can only be observed when the
reconfig signal is asserted.
ALTPLL_RECONFIG Counter Settings
Table 7-4: counter_type[3..0] Settings for MAX 10 Devices
Counter Selection
Binary
Decimal
N
0000
0
M
0001
1
CP/LF
0010
2
VCO
0011
3
C0
0100
4
C1
0101
5
C2
0110
6
C3
0111
7
C4
1000
8
Illegal value
1001
9
Illegal value
1010
10
Illegal value
1011
11
Illegal value
1100
12
Illegal value
1101
13
Illegal value
1110
14
Illegal value
1111
15
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Table 7-5: counter_param[2..0] Settings for MAX 10 Devices
Counter Type
Regular counters (C0 C4)
CP/LF
VCO
M/N counters
Counter Param
Binary
Decimal
Width (bits)
High count
000
0
8
Low count
001
1
8
Bypass
100
4
1
Mode (odd/even division)
101
5
1
Charge pump unused
101
5
5
Charge pump current
000
0
3
Loop filter unused
100
4
1
Loop filter resistor
001
1
5
Loop filter capacitance
010
2
2
VCO post scale
000
0
1
High count
000
0
8
Low count
001
1
8
Bypass
100
4
1
Mode (odd/even division)
101
5
1
Nominal count
111
7
9
For even nominal count, the counter bits are automatically set as follows:
• high_count = Nominalcount/2
• low_count= Nominalcount/2
For odd nominal count, the counter bits are automatically set as follows:
• high_count = (Nominalcount + 1)/2
• low_count = Nominalcount - high_count
• odd/even division bit = 1
For nominal count = 1, bypass bit = 1.
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Internal Oscillator Parameters
Table 8-1: Internal Oscillator IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
Parameter
Clock Frequency
Value
55, 116
Decription
Specify the clock frequency for simulation. If not
specified, the default value is 55 MHz.
Internal Oscillator Ports and Signals
Table 8-2: Internal Oscillator Input Port for MAX 10 Devices
Port Name
Condition
Required
oscena
Description
Input control signal to turn on or turn off the internal
oscillator.
Table 8-3: Internal Oscillator Output Port for MAX 10 Devices
Port Name
clkout
Condition
Optional
Description
Output clock from the internal oscillator.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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Additonal Information for MAX 10 Clocking
and PLL User Guide
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Document Revision History for MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
Date
Version
Changes
May 2015
2015.05.04
Rearranged the fine resolution phase shift equation.
December 2014
2014.12.15
• Corrected the statement that if you do not use the dedicated clock
input pins for clock input, you can also use them as generalpurpose input or output pins.
• Added description in Internal Oscillator Architecture and Features
to state that the internal ring oscillator operates up to 232 MHz and
this frequency is not accessible.
• Added connectivity restrictions guideline for internal oscillator.
• Added Internal Oscillator IP Core parameter: Clock Frequency.
• Moved Internal Oscillator Frequencies table from Internal
Oscillator Architecture and Features chapter to MAX 10 FPGA
Device Datasheet.
September 2014
2014.09.22
Initial release.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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MAX 10 General Purpose I/O User Guide
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TOC-2
Contents
MAX 10 I/O Overview......................................................................................... 1-1
MAX 10 Devices I/O Resources Per Package ..........................................................................................1-1
MAX 10 I/O Vertical Migration Support................................................................................................. 1-3
MAX 10 I/O Architecture and Features..............................................................2-1
MAX 10 I/O Standards Support................................................................................................................ 2-1
MAX 10 I/O Standards Voltage and Pin Support....................................................................... 2-4
MAX 10 I/O Elements.................................................................................................................................2-7
MAX 10 I/O Banks Architecture................................................................................................... 2-8
MAX 10 I/O Banks Locations........................................................................................................ 2-9
MAX 10 I/O Buffers.................................................................................................................................. 2-11
Schmitt-Trigger Input Buffer....................................................................................................... 2-12
Programmable I/O Buffer Features............................................................................................. 2-12
I/O Standards Termination...................................................................................................................... 2-18
Voltage-Referenced I/O Standards Termination...................................................................... 2-18
Differential I/O Standards Termination.....................................................................................2-19
MAX 10 On-Chip I/O Termination............................................................................................2-21
MAX 10 I/O Design Considerations................................................................... 3-1
Guidelines: VCCIO Range Considerations.................................................................................................3-1
Guidelines: Voltage-Referenced I/O Standards Restriction.................................................................. 3-1
Guidelines: Enable Clamp Diode for LVTTL/LVCMOS Input Buffers...............................................3-2
Guidelines: Adhere to the LVDS I/O Restrictions Rules........................................................................3-3
Guidelines: I/O Restriction Rules.............................................................................................................. 3-3
Guidelines: Analog-to-Digital Converter I/O Restriction..................................................................... 3-3
Guidelines: External Memory Interface I/O Restrictions.......................................................................3-8
Guidelines: Dual-Purpose Configuration Pin..........................................................................................3-9
MAX 10 I/O Implementation Guides................................................................. 4-1
Altera GPIO Lite IP Core............................................................................................................................4-1
Altera GPIO Lite IP Core Data Paths............................................................................................4-2
IP Catalog and Parameter Editor...................................................................................................4-4
Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options................................................................................4-6
Files Generated for Altera IP Cores (Legacy Parameter Editor)............................................... 4-7
Verifying Pin Migration Compatibility.................................................................................................... 4-8
Altera GPIO Lite IP Core References................................................................. 5-1
Altera GPIO Lite Parameter Settings........................................................................................................ 5-1
Altera GPIO Lite Interface Signals............................................................................................................ 5-5
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Additional Information for MAX 10 General Purpose I/O User Guide...........A-1
Document Revision History for MAX 10 General Purpose I/O User Guide..................................... A-1
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The MAX® 10 general purpose I/O (GPIO) system consists of the I/O elements (IOE) and the Altera
GPIO Lite IP core.
• The IOEs contain bidirectional I/O buffers and I/O registers located in I/O banks around the periphery
of the device.
• The Altera GPIO Lite IP core supports the GPIO components and features, including double data rate
I/O (DDIO), delay chains, I/O buffers, control signals, and clocking.
Related Information
• MAX 10 I/O Architecture and Features on page 2-1
Provides information about the architecture and features of the I/Os in MAX 10 devices.
• MAX 10 I/O Design Considerations on page 3-1
Provides I/O design guidelines for MAX 10 Devices.
• MAX 10 I/O Implementation Guides on page 4-1
Provides guides to implement I/Os in MAX 10 Devices.
• Altera GPIO Lite IP Core References on page 5-1
Lists the parameters and signals of Altera GPIO Lite IP core for MAX 10 Devices.
MAX 10 Devices I/O Resources Per Package
Table 1-1: Package Plan for MAX 10 Single Power Supply Devices—Preliminary
Package
Type
M153
U169
E144
153-pin MBGA
169-pin UBGA
144-pin EQFP
Size
8 mm × 8 mm
11 mm × 11 mm
22 mm × 22 mm
Ball Pitch
0.5 mm
0.8 mm
0.5 mm
10M02
112
130
101
10M04
112
130
101
10M08
112
130
101
10M16
—
130
101
Device
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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MAX 10 Devices I/O Resources Per Package
Package
Type
M153
U169
E144
153-pin MBGA
169-pin UBGA
144-pin EQFP
Size
8 mm × 8 mm
11 mm × 11 mm
22 mm × 22 mm
Ball Pitch
0.5 mm
0.8 mm
0.5 mm
10M25
—
—
101
10M40
—
—
101
10M50
—
—
101
Device
Table 1-2: Package Plan for MAX 10 Dual Power Supply Devices—Preliminary
Package
Type
V36
V81
U324
F256
F484
F672
36-pin
WLCSP
81-pin
WLCSP
324-pin
UBGA
256-pin
FBGA
484-pin
FBGA
672-pin FBGA
Size
3 mm × 3
mm
4 mm × 4
mm
15 mm × 15
mm
17 mm × 17
mm
23 mm × 23
mm
27 mm × 27 mm
Ball
Pitch
0.4 mm
0.4 mm
0.8 mm
1.0 mm
1.0 mm
1.0 mm
10M02
27
—
160
—
—
—
10M04
—
—
246
178
—
—
10M08
—
56
246
178
250
—
10M16
—
—
246
178
320
—
10M25
—
—
—
178
360
—
10M40
—
—
—
178
360
500
10M50
—
—
—
178
360
500
Device
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MAX 10 I/O Vertical Migration Support
1-3
MAX 10 I/O Vertical Migration Support
Figure 1-1: Migration Capability Across MAX 10 Devices—Preliminary
• The arrows indicate the migration paths. The devices included in each vertical migration path are
shaded. Some packages have several migration paths. Devices with lesser I/O resources in the same
path have lighter shades.
• To achieve the full I/O migration across product lines in the same migration path, restrict I/Os usage
to match the product line with the lowest I/O count.
Device
Package
V36
V81
M153
U169
U324
F256
E144
F484
F672
10M02
10M04
10M08
10M16
10M25
10M40
10M50
Note: To verify the pin migration compatibility, use the Pin Migration View window in the Quartus® II
software Pin Planner.
Related Information
Verifying Pin Migration Compatibility on page 4-8
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The I/O system of MAX 10 devices support various I/O standards. In the MAX 10 devices, the I/O pins
are located in I/O banks at the periphery of the devices. The I/O pins and I/O buffers have several
programmble features.
Related Information
MAX 10 I/O Overview on page 1-1
MAX 10 I/O Standards Support
MAX 10 devices support a wide range of I/O standards, including single-ended, voltage-referenced singleended, and differential I/O standards.
Table 2-1: Supported I/O Standards in MAX 10 Devices
The voltage-referenced I/O standards are not supported in the following I/O banks of these device packages:
• All I/O banks of V36 package of 10M02.
• All I/O banks of V81 package of 10M08.
• Bank 1A and 1B of E144 package of 10M50.
I/O Standard
Type
3.3 V LVTTL/3.3 V
LVCMOS
Direction
Application
Standard Support
Yes
General purpose
JESD8-B
Yes
Yes
General purpose
JESD8-B
Singleended
Yes
Yes
General purpose
JESD8-5
1.8 V LVCMOS
Singleended
Yes
Yes
General purpose
JESD8-7
1.5 V LVCMOS
Singleended
Yes
Yes
General purpose
JESD8-11
Input
Output
Singleended
Yes
3.0 V LVTTL/3.0 V
LVCMOS
Singleended
2.5 V LVCMOS
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
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MAX 10 I/O Standards Support
Type
Direction
Input
Output
Application
Standard Support
1.2 V LVCMOS
Singleended
Yes
Yes
General purpose
JESD8-12
3.0 V PCI
Singleended
Yes
Yes
General purpose
PCI Rev. 2.2
3.3 V Schmitt Trigger
Singleended
Yes
—
General purpose
—
2.5 V Schmitt Trigger
Singleended
Yes
—
General purpose
—
1.8 V Schmitt Trigger
Singleended
Yes
—
General purpose
—
1.5 V Schmitt Trigger
Singleended
Yes
—
General purpose
—
SSTL-2 Class I
Voltagereferenced
Yes
Yes
DDR1
JESD8-9B
SSTL-2 Class II
Voltagereferenced
Yes
Yes
DDR1
JESD8-9B
SSTL-18 Class I
Voltagereferenced
Yes
Yes
DDR2
JESD8-15
SSTL-18 Class II
Voltagereferenced
Yes
Yes
DDR2
JESD8-15
SSTL-15 Class I
Voltagereferenced
Yes
Yes
DDR3
—
SSTL-15 Class II
Voltagereferenced
Yes
Yes
DDR3
—
SSTL-15(1)
Voltagereferenced
Yes
Yes
DDR3
JESD79-3D
SSTL-135(1)
Voltagereferenced
Yes
Yes
DDR3L
—
1.8 V HSTL Class I
Voltagereferenced
Yes
Yes
DDR II+, QDR II+,
and RLDRAM 2
JESD8-6
1.8 V HSTL Class II
Voltagereferenced
Yes
Yes
DDR II+, QDR II+,
and RLDRAM 2
JESD8-6
1.5 V HSTL Class I
Voltagereferenced
Yes
Yes
DDR II+, QDR II+,
QDR II, and
RLDRAM 2
JESD8-6
Available in MAX 10 16, 25, 40, and 50 devices only.
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(3)
(4)
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MAX 10 I/O Standards Support
I/O Standard
Type
1.5 V HSTL Class II
Direction
Application
Standard Support
Yes
DDR II+, QDR II+,
QDR II, and
RLDRAM 2
JESD8-6
Yes
Yes
General purpose
JESD8-16A
Voltagereferenced
Yes
Yes
General purpose
JESD8-16A
HSUL-12(1)
Voltagereferenced
Yes
Yes
LPDDR2
—
Differential SSTL-2
Class I and II
Differential
Yes(2)
Yes(3)
DDR1
JESD8-9B
Differential SSTL-18
Class I and Class II
Differential
Yes(2)
Yes(3)
DDR2
JESD8-15
Differential SSTL-15
Class I and Class II
Differential
Yes(2)
Yes(3)
DDR3
—
Differential SSTL-15
Differential
Yes(2)
Yes(3)
DDR3
JESD79-3D
Differential SSTL-135
Differential
Yes(2)
Yes(3)
DDR3L
—
Differential 1.8 V
HSTL Class I and Class
II
Differential
Yes(2)
Yes(3)
DDR II+, QDR II+,
and RLDRAM 2
JESD8-6
Differential 1.5 V
HSTL Class I and Class
II
Differential
Yes(2)
Yes(3)
DDR II+, QDR II+,
QDR II, and
RLDRAM 2
JESD8-6
Differential 1.2 V
HSTL Class I and Class
II
Differential
Yes(2)
Yes(3)
General purpose
JESD8-16A
Differential HSUL-12
Differential
Yes(2)
Yes(3)
LPDDR2
—
LVDS (dedicated)(4)
Differential
Yes
Yes
—
ANSI/TIA/EIA-644
LVDS (external
resistor)
Differential
—
Yes
—
ANSI/TIA/EIA-644
Mini-LVDS
(dedicated)(4)
Differential
—
Yes
—
—
Input
Output
Voltagereferenced
Yes
1.2 V HSTL Class I
Voltagereferenced
1.2 V HSTL Class II
The inputs treat differential inputs as two single-ended inputs and decode only one of them.
The outputs use two single-ended output buffers with the second output buffer programmed as inverted.
You can use dedicated LVDS transmitters only on the bottom I/O banks. You can use LVDS receivers on all
I/O banks.
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I/O Standard
Type
Mini-LVDS (external
resistor)
Direction
Application
Standard Support
Yes
—
—
—
Yes
—
—
Differential
—
Yes
—
—
RSDS (external
resistor, 3R)
Differential
—
Yes
—
—
PPDS (dedicated)(4)
Differential
—
Yes
—
—
PPDS (external
resistor)
Differential
—
Yes
—
—
LVPECL
Differential
Yes
—
—
—
Bus LVDS
Differential
Yes
Yes(5)
—
—
TMDS
Differential
Yes
—
—
—
Sub-LVDS
Differential
Yes
Yes(6)
—
—
SLVS
Differential
Yes
Yes(7)
—
—
HiSpi
Differential
Yes
—
—
—
Input
Output
Differential
—
RSDS (dedicated)(4)
Differential
RSDS (external
resistor, 1R)
Related Information
• MAX 10 I/O Buffers on page 2-11
Provides more information about available I/O buffer types and supported I/O standards.
• LVDS Transmitter I/O Termination Schemes, MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O User Guide
MAX 10 I/O Standards Voltage and Pin Support
Table 2-2: MAX 10 I/O Standards Voltage Levels and Pin Support
VCCIO (V)
(5)
(6)
(7)
Pin Type Support
I/O Standard
Input
Output
VREF (V)
3.3 V LVTTL/
3.3 V LVCMOS
3.3/3.0/
2.5
3.3
—
PLL_
CLKOUT
MEM_CLK
CLK
DQS
User I/O
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
The outputs use two single-ended output buffers with the second output buffer programmed as inverted. A
single series resistor is required.
Requires external termination resistors.
The outputs uses two single-ended output buffers as emulated differential outputs. Requires external
termination resistors.
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VCCIO (V)
(8)
2-5
Pin Type Support
I/O Standard
Input
Output
VREF (V)
3.0 V LVTTL/
3.0 V LVCMOS
3.0/2.5
3.0
2.5 V LVCMOS
3.0/2.5
1.8 V LVCMOS
PLL_
CLKOUT
MEM_CLK
CLK
DQS
User I/O
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
2.5
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
1.8/1.5
1.8
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
1.5 V LVCMOS
1.8/1.5
1.5
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
1.2 V LVCMOS
1.2
1.2
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
3.0 V PCI
3.0
3.0
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
3.3 V Schmitt
Trigger
3.3
—
—
—
—
Yes
Yes(8)
Yes
2.5 V Schmitt
Trigger
2.5
—
—
—
—
Yes
Yes(8)
Yes
1.8 V Schmitt
Trigger
1.8
—
—
—
—
Yes
Yes(8)
Yes
1.5 V Schmitt
Trigger
1.5
—
—
—
—
Yes
Yes(8)
Yes
SSTL-2 Class I
2.5
2.5
1.25
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
SSTL-2 Class II
2.5
2.5
1.25
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
SSTL-18 Class I
1.8
1.8
0.9
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
SSTL-18 Class II
1.8
1.8
0.9
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
SSTL-15 Class I
1.5
1.5
0.75
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
SSTL-15 Class II
1.5
1.5
0.75
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
SSTL-15
1.5
1.5
0.75
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
SSTL-135
1.35
1.35
0.675
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
1.8 V HSTL Class
I
1.8
1.8
0.9
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
1.8 V HSTL Class
II
1.8
1.8
0.9
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
1.5 V HSTL Class
I
1.5
1.5
0.75
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
1.5 V HSTL Class
II
1.5
1.5
0.75
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Bidirectional— use Schmitt Trigger input with LVTTL output.
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VCCIO (V)
I/O Standard
Pin Type Support
Input
Output
VREF (V)
1.2 V HSTL Class
I
1.2
1.2
1.2 V HSTL Class
II
1.2
HSUL-12
Differential SSTL2 Class I and II
Differential SSTL18 Class I and
Class II
Differential SSTL15 Class I and
Class II
Differential SSTL15
Differential SSTL135
Differential 1.8 V
HSTL Class I and
Class II
Differential 1.5 V
HSTL Class I and
Class II
Differential 1.2 V
HSTL Class I and
Class II
PLL_
CLKOUT
MEM_CLK
CLK
DQS
User I/O
0.6
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
1.2
0.6
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
1.2
1.2
0.6
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
2.5
—
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
2.5
—
1.25
—
—
Yes
Yes
—
—
1.8
—
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
1.8
—
0.9
—
—
Yes
Yes
—
—
1.5
—
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
1.5
—
0.75
—
—
Yes
Yes
—
—
1.5
—
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
1.5
—
0.75
—
—
Yes
Yes
—
—
1.35
—
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
1.35
—
0.675
—
—
Yes
Yes
—
—
1.8
—
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
1.8
—
0.9
—
—
Yes
Yes
—
—
1.5
—
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
1.5
—
0.75
—
—
Yes
Yes
—
—
1.2
—
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
1.2
—
0.6
—
—
Yes
Yes
—
Differential
HSUL-12
—
1.2
—
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
1.2
—
0.6
—
—
Yes
Yes
—
LVDS (dedicated)
2.5
2.5
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
LVDS (external
resistor)
—
2.5
—
Yes
Yes
—
—
Yes
Mini-LVDS
(dedicated)
—
2.5
—
Yes
Yes
—
—
Yes
Mini-LVDS
(external resistor)
—
2.5
—
Yes
Yes
—
—
Yes
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MAX 10 I/O Elements
VCCIO (V)
I/O Standard
Pin Type Support
Input
Output
VREF (V)
RSDS (dedicated)
—
2.5
RSDS (external
resistor, 1R)
—
RSDS (external
resistor, 3R)
PLL_
CLKOUT
MEM_CLK
CLK
DQS
User I/O
—
Yes
Yes
—
—
Yes
2.5
—
Yes
Yes
—
—
Yes
—
2.5
—
Yes
Yes
—
—
Yes
PPDS (dedicated)
—
2.5
—
Yes
Yes
—
—
Yes
PPDS (external
resistor)
—
2.5
—
Yes
Yes
—
—
Yes
LVPECL
2.5
—
—
—
—
Yes
—
—
Bus LVDS
2.5
2.5
—
—
—
—
—
Yes
TMDS
2.5
—
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
Sub-LVDS
2.5
1.8
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
SLVS
2.5
2.5
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
HiSpi
2.5
—
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
MAX 10 I/O Elements
The MAX 10 I/O elements (IOEs) contain a bidirectional I/O buffer and five registers for registering
input, output, output-enable signals, and complete embedded bidirectional single data rate (SDR) and
double data rate (DDR) transfer.
The I/O buffers are grouped into groups of four I/O modules per I/O bank:
• The MAX 10 devices share the user I/O pins with the VREF, RUP, RDN, CLKPIN, PLLCLKOUT, configura‐
tion, and test pins.
• Schmitt Trigger input buffer is available in all I/O buffers.
Each IOE contains one input register, two output registers, and two output-enable (OE) registers:
• The two output registers and two OE registers are used for DDR applications.
• You can use the input registers for fast setup times and output registers for fast clock-to-output times.
• You can use the OE registers for fast clock-to-output enable times.
You can use the IOEs for input, output, or bidirectional data paths. The I/O pins support various singleended and differential I/O standards.
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Figure 2-1: IOE Structure in Bidirectional Configuration
io_clk[5..0]
Column
or Row
Interconnect
OE
OE Register
clkout
oe_out
D
VCCIO
Q
Optional
PCI Clamp
ENA
ACLR/PRN
VCCIO
Programmable
Pull-Up
Resistor
aclr/prn
Chip-Wide Reset
Output
Pin Delay
Output Register
D
data_in1
sclr/
preset
Current Strength Control
Open-Drain Out
Slew Rate Control
Q
ENA
ACLR/PRN
data_in0
D
clkin
oe_in
Q
Input Pin to
Input Register
Delay
or Input Pin to
Logic Array
Delay
Bus Hold
ENA
ACLR/PRN
Input Register
Related Information
MAX 10 Power Management User Guide
Provides more information about the I/O buffers in different power cycles and hot socketing.
MAX 10 I/O Banks Architecture
The I/O elements are located in a group of four modules per I/O bank:
• High speed DDR3 I/O banks—supports various I/O standards and protocols including DDR3. These
I/O banks are available only on the right side of the device.
• High speed I/O banks—supports various I/O standards and protocols except DDR3. These I/O banks
are available on the top, left, and bottom sides of the device.
• Low speed I/O banks—lower speeds I/O banks that are located at the top left side of the device.
For more information about I/O pins support, refer to the pinout files for your device.
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Related Information
MAX 10 Device Pin-Out Files
MAX 10 I/O Banks Locations
The I/O banks are located at the periphery of the device.
For more details about the modular I/O banks available in each device package, refer to the related
information.
Figure 2-2: I/O Banks for MAX 10 02 Devices—Preliminary
VREF8
VCCIO8
8
VREF6
VREF1
1
6
VCCIO1
VCCIO6
VREF2
VREF5
5
2
VCCIO2
VCCIO5
Low Speed I/O
3
VCCIO3
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VREF3
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MAX 10 I/O Banks Locations
Figure 2-3: I/O Banks for MAX 10 04 and 08 Devices—Preliminary
VREF8
VCCIO8
VREF7
8
VCCIO1A
VREF1
VCCIO1B
VCCIO7
7
1A
VREF6
6
VCCIO6
1B
VREF5
VREF2
5
2
VCCIO2
VCCIO5
Low Speed I/O
3
VCCIO3
Altera Corporation
4
VREF3
VCCIO4
High Speed I/O
VREF4
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Figure 2-4: I/O Banks for MAX 10 16, 25, 40, and 50 Devices—Preliminary
VREF8
VCCIO8
VREF7
8
VCCIO1A
VREF1
VCCIO1B
VCCIO7
7
1A
VREF6
6
VCCIO6
1B
VREF5
VREF2
5
2
VCCIO2
VCCIO5
Low Speed I/O
OCT
High Speed I/O
3
VCCIO3
4
VREF3
VCCIO4
High Speed DDR3 I/O
VREF4
MAX 10 I/O Buffers
The general purpose I/Os (GPIOs) in MAX 10 devices consist of LVDS I/O and DDR I/O buffers.
Table 2-3: Types of GPIO Buffers in MAX 10 Devices
LVDS I/O Buffers
• Support differential and single-ended I/O
standards.
• Available only on I/O banks at the bottom side
of the device.
• For LVDS, the bottom I/O banks support LVDS
transmitter, emulated LVDS transmitter, and
LVDS receiver buffers.
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DDR I/O Buffers
• Support differential and single-ended I/O
standards.
• Available on I/O banks at the left, right, and top
sides of the device.
• For LVDS, the DDR I/O buffers support only
LVDS receiver and emulated LVDS transmitter
buffers.
• For DDR, only the DDR I/O buffers on the right
side of the device supports DDR3 external
memory interfaces. DDR3 support is only
available for MAX 10 16, 25, 40, and 50 devices.
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Schmitt-Trigger Input Buffer
Related Information
• MAX 10 I/O Standards Support on page 2-1
• LVDS Transmitter I/O Termination Schemes, MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O User Guide
Schmitt-Trigger Input Buffer
The MAX 10 devices feature selectable Schmitt trigger input buffer on all I/O banks.
The Schmitt trigger input buffer has similar VIL and VIH as the LVTTL I/O standard but with better noise
immunity. The Schmitt trigger input buffers are the used as default input buffers during configuration
mode.
Related Information
MAX 10 Device Datasheet
Programmable I/O Buffer Features
The MAX 10 I/O buffers support a range of programmable features. These features increase the flexibility
of I/O utilization and provide an alternative to reduce the usage of external discrete components such as a
pull-up resistor and a diode.
Programmable Open Drain
The optional open-drain output for each I/O pin is equivalent to an open collector output. If it is
configured as an open drain, the logic value of the output is either high-Z or logic low.
Use an external resistor to pull the signal to a logic high.
Programmable Bus Hold
Each I/O pin provides an optional bus-hold feature that is active only after configuration. When the
device enters user mode, the bus-hold circuit captures the value that is present on the pin by the end of
the configuration.
The bus-hold circuitry holds this pin state until the next input signal is present. Because of this, you do
not require an external pull-up or pull-down resistor to hold a signal level when the bus is tri-stated.
For each I/O pin, you can individually specify that the bus-hold circuitry pulls non-driven pins away from
the input threshold voltage—where noise can cause unintended high-frequency switching. To prevent
over-driving signals, the bus-hold circuitry drives the voltage level of the I/O pin lower than the VCCIO
level.
If you enable the bus-hold feature, you cannot use the programmable pull-up option. To configure the
I/O pin for differential signals, disable the bus-hold feature.
Programmable Pull-Up Resistor
Each I/O pin provides an optional programmable pull-up resistor during user mode. The pull-up resistor,
typically 25 kΩ, weakly holds the I/O to the VCCIO level.
If you enable the weak pull-up resistor, you cannot use the bus-hold feature.
Programmable Current Strength
You can use the programmable current strength to mitigate the effects of high signal attenuation that is
caused by a long transmission line or a legacy backplane.
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Table 2-4: Programmable Current Strength Settings for MAX 10 Devices
The output buffer for each MAX 10 device I/O pin has a programmable current strength control for the I/O
standards listed in this table.
I/O Standard
IOH / IOL Current Strength Setting (mA)
(Default setting in bold)
3.3 V LVCMOS
3.3 V LVTTL
2
8, 4
3.0 V LVTTL/3.0 V LVCMOS
16, 12, 8, 4
2.5 V LVTTL/2.5 V LVCMOS
16, 12, 8, 4
1.8 V LVTTL/1.8 V LVCMOS
16, 12, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2
1.5 V LVCMOS
16, 12, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2
1.2 V LVCMOS
12, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2
SSTL-2 Class I
12, 8
SSTL-2 Class II
16
SSTL-18 Class I
12, 10, 8
SSTL-18 Class II
16, 12
SSTL-15 Class I
12, 10, 8
SSTL-15 Class II
16
1.8 V HSTL Class I
12, 10, 8
1.8 V HSTL Class II
16
1.5 V HSTL Class I
12, 10, 8
1.5 V HSTL Class II
16
1.2 V HSTL Class I
12, 10, 8
1.2 V HSTL Class II
14
BLVDS
16, 12, 8
SLVS
16, 12, 8
Sub-LVDS
12, 8, 4
Note: Altera recommends that you perform IBIS or SPICE simulations to determine the best current
strength setting for your specific application.
Programmable Output Slew Rate Control
You have the option of three settings for programmable slew rate control—0, 1, and 2 with 2 as the default
setting. Setting 0 is the slow slew rate and 2 is the fast slew rate.
• Fast slew rate—provides high-speed transitions for high-performance systems.
• Slow slew rate—reduces system noise and crosstalk but adds a nominal delay to the rising and falling
edges.
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Table 2-5: Programmable Output Slew Rate Control for MAX 10 Devices
This table lists the single-ended I/O standards and current strength settings that support programmable output
slew rate control. For I/O standards and current strength settings that do not support programmable slew rate
control, the default slew rate setting is 2 (fast slew rate).
I/O Standard
IOH / IOL Current Strength Supporting Slew Rate Control
3.0 V LVTTL/3.0 V LVCMOS
16, 12, 8
2.5 V LVTTL/2.5 V LVCMOS
16, 12, 8
1.8 V LVTTL/1.8 V LVCMOS
16, 12, 8
1.5 V LVCMOS
16, 12, 10, 8
1.2 V LVCMOS
12, 10, 8
SSTL-2 Class I
12, 8
SSTL-2 Class II
16
SSTL-18 Class I
12, 10, 8
SSTL-18 Class II
16, 12
SSTL-15 Class I
12, 10, 8
SSTL-15 Class II
16
1.8 V HSTL Class I
12, 10, 8
1.8 V HSTL Class II
16
1.5 V HSTL Class I
12, 10, 8
1.5 V HSTL Class II
16
1.2 V HSTL Class I
12, 10, 8
1.2 V HSTL Class II
14
You can specify the slew rate on a pin-by-pin basis because each I/O pin contains a slew rate control. The
slew rate control affects both the rising and falling edges.
Note: Altera recommends that you perform IBIS or SPICE simulations to determine the best slew rate
setting for your specific application.
Programmable IOE Delay
You can activate the programmable IOE delays to ensure zero hold times, minimize setup times, increase
clock-to-output times, or delay the clock input signal. This feature helps read and write timing margins
because it minimizes the uncertainties between signals in the bus.
Each pin can have a different input delay from pin-to-input register or a delay from output
register-to-output pin values to ensure that the signals within a bus have the same delay going into or out
of the device.
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Table 2-6: Programmable Delay Chain
Programmable Delays
Quartus II Logic Option
Input pin-to-logic array delay
Input delay from pin to internal cells
Input pin-to-input register delay
Input delay from pin to input register
Output pin delay
Delay from output register to output pin
Dual-purpose clock input pin delay
Input delay from dual-purpose clock pin to fan-out destina‐
tions
There are two paths in the IOE for an input to reach the logic array. Each of the two paths can have a
different delay. This allows you to adjust delays from the pin to the internal logic element (LE) registers
that reside in two different areas of the device. You must set the two combinational input delays with the
input delay from pin to internal cells logic option in the Quartus II software for each path. If the pin uses
the input register, one of the delays is disregarded and the delay is set with the input delay from pin to
input register logic option in the Quartus II software.
The IOE registers in each I/O block share the same source for the preset or clear features. You can
program preset or clear for each individual IOE, but you cannot use both features simultaneously. You
can also program the registers to power-up high or low after configuration is complete. If programmed to
power-up low, an asynchronous clear can control the registers. If programmed to power-up high, an
asynchronous preset can control the registers. This feature prevents the inadvertent activation of the
active-low input of another device upon power up. If one register in an IOE uses a preset or clear signal,
all registers in the IOE must use that same signal if they require preset or clear. Additionally, a synchro‐
nous reset signal is available for the IOE registers.
Related Information
• MAX 10 Device Datasheet
• Timing Closure and Optimization chapter, Volume 2: Design Implementation and Optimization,
Quartus II Handbook
Provides more information about the input and output pin delay settings.
PCI Clamp Diode
The MAX 10 devices are equipped with optional PCI clamp diode that you can enable for the input and
output of each I/O pin.
The PCI clamp diode is available and enabled by default in the Quartus II software for the following I/O
standards:
• 3.3 V LVTTL/3.3 V LVCMOS
• 3.0 V LVTTL/3.0 V LVCMOS
• 3.0 V PCI
Programmable Pre-Emphasis
The differential output voltage (VOD) setting and the output impedance of the driver set the output
current limit of a high-speed transmission signal. At a high frequency, the slew rate may not be fast
enough to reach the full VOD level before the next edge, producing pattern-dependent jitter. Pre-emphasis
momentarily boosts the output current during switching to increase the output slew rate.
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Pre-emphasis increases the amplitude of the high-frequency component of the output signal. This
increase compensates for the frequency-dependent attenuation along the transmission line.
The overshoot introduced by the extra current occurs only during change of state switching. This
overshoot increases the output slew rate but does not ring, unlike the overshoot caused by signal
reflection. The amount of pre-emphasis required depends on the attenuation of the high-frequency
component along the transmission line.
Figure 2-5: LVDS Output with Programmable Pre-Emphasis
Voltage boost
from pre-emphasis
VP
OUT
V OD
OUT
VP
Differential output
voltage (peak–peak)
Table 2-7: Quartus II Software Assignment for Programmable Pre-Emphasis
Field
Assignment
To
tx_out
Assignment name
Programmable Pre-emphasis
Allowed values
0 (disabled), 1 (enabled). Default is 1.
Programmable Differential Output Voltage
The programmable VOD settings allow you to adjust the output eye opening to optimize the trace length
and power consumption. A higher VOD swing improves voltage margins at the receiver end, and a smaller
VOD swing reduces power consumption.
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Figure 2-6: Differential VOD
This figure shows the VOD of the differential LVDS output.
Single-Ended Waveform
Positive Channel (p)
V OD
Negative Channel (n)
V CM
Ground
Differential Waveform
V OD (diff peak - peak) = 2 x V
V OD
OD
(single-ended)
p-n=0V
V OD
You can statically adjust the VOD of the differential signal by changing the VOD settings in the Quartus II
software Assignment Editor.
Table 2-8: Quartus II Software Assignment Editor—Programmable VOD
Field
Assignment
To
tx_out
Assignment name
Programmable Differential Output Voltage (VOD)
Allowed values
0 (low), 1 (medium), 2 (high). Default is 2.
Programmable Emulated Differential Output
The MAX 10 devices support emulated differential output where a pair of IOEs drives bidirectional I/O
pins.
The emulated differential output feature is supported for the following I/O standards:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Differential SSTL-2 Class I and II
Differential SSTL-18 Class I and II
Differential SSTL-15 Class I and II
Differential SSTL-15
Differential SSTL-135
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class I and II
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class I and II
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class I and II
Differential HSUL-12
LVDS 3R
Mini-LVDS 3R
PPDS 3R
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Programmable Dynamic Power Down
•
•
•
•
RSDS 1R and 3R
BLVDS
SLVS
Sub-LVDS
Programmable Dynamic Power Down
The MAX 10 16, 25, 40, and 50 devices feature programmable dynamic power down for several I/O
standards to reduce the static power consumption.
In these devices, you can apply the programmable dynamic power down feature to the I/O buffers for the
following I/O standards:
• Input buffer—SSTL, HSTL, HSUL, LVDS
• Output buffer—LVDS
Related Information
MAX 10 Power Management User Guide
Provides more information about using the programmable dynamic power down feature.Provides more
information about the programmable output delay specifications.
I/O Standards Termination
Voltage-referenced and differential I/O standards requires different termination schemes.
The 3.3-V LVTTL, 3.0-V LVTTL and LVCMOS, 2.5-V LVTTL and LVCMOS, 1.8-V LVTTL and
LVCMOS, 1.5-V LVCMOS, 1.2-V LVCMOS, and 3.0-V PCI I/O standards do not specify a recommended
termination scheme per the JEDEC standard.
Voltage-Referenced I/O Standards Termination
Voltage-referenced I/O standards require an input reference voltage (VREF) and a termination voltage
(VTT). The reference voltage of the receiving device tracks the termination voltage of the transmitting
device.
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Figure 2-7: HSTL I/O Standard Termination
HSTL Class I
Termination
HSTL Class II
VTT
VTT
50 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
VTT
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
VREF
50 Ω
VREF
Transmitter
Receiver
VTT
Series OCT
50 Ω
OCT with
and without
Calibration
Transmitter
Series OCT
25 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
VREF
Receiver
VTT
VTT
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
VREF
Transmitter
Receiver
Transmitter
Receiver
Figure 2-8: SSTL I/O Standard Termination
Termination
SSTL Class I
SSTL Class II
VTT
25 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
50 Ω
50 Ω
VREF
Transmitter
50 Ω
25 Ω
Receiver
Series OCT
OCT with
and without
Calibration
VTT
25 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
VREF
Receiver
VTT
50 Ω
VTT
50 Ω
50 Ω
VREF
Transmitter
50 Ω
Transmitter
Series OCT
VTT
50 Ω
VTT
VREF
Receiver
Transmitter
Receiver
Differential I/O Standards Termination
Differential I/O standards typically require a termination resistor between the two signals at the receiver.
The termination resistor must match the differential load impedance of the bus.
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Figure 2-9: Differential HSTL I/O Standard Termination
Termination
Differential HSTL
V TT
50 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
V TT
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
Transmitter
Receiver
V TT
Series OCT
50 Ω
50 Ω
V TT
50 Ω
50 Ω
OCT
50 Ω
Transmitter
Receiver
Figure 2-10: Differential SSTL I/O Standard Termination
Termination
Differential SSTL Class I
VTT
50 Ω
25 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
25 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
Receiver
OCT
Transmitter
50 Ω
50 Ω
Receiver
VTT
Series OCT
25 Ω
VTT
50 Ω
50 Ω
VTT
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
Receiver
50 Ω
Transmitter
VTT
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
25 Ω
50 Ω
VTT VTT
50 Ω
25 Ω
50 Ω
VTT
50 Ω
VTT VTT
VTT
Transmitter
Series OCT
Differential SSTL Class II
Transmitter
VTT
50 Ω
Receiver
Related Information
MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O User Guide
Provides more information about differential I/O external termination.
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MAX 10 On-Chip I/O Termination
The on-chip termination (OCT) block in MAX 10 devices provides I/O impedance matching and
termination capabilities. OCT maintains signal quality, saves board space, and reduces external
component costs.
The MAX 10 devices support serial (RS) OCT for single-ended output pins and bidirectional pins. For
bidirectional pins, OCT is active for output only.
Figure 2-11: Single-ended I/O Termination (RS)
This figure shows the single-ended termination scheme supported in MAX 10 device.
Receiving
Device
Driver
Series Termination
RS
Z 0 = 50 Ω
VREF
Table 2-9: OCT Schemes Supported in MAX 10 Devices
Direction
OCT Schemes
Device Support
I/O Bank Support
RS OCT with calibration
MAX 10 16, 25,
40, and 50
devices
Right bank only
RS OCT without calibration
All MAX 10
devices
All I/O banks
Output
OCT Calibration
The OCT calibration circuit compares the total impedance of the output buffer to the external resistors
connected to the RUP and RDN pins. The circuit dynamically adjusts the output buffer impedance until it
matches the external resisters.
Each calibration block comes with a pair of RUP and RDN pins.
During calibration, the RUP and RDN pins are each connected through an external 25 Ω, 34 Ω, 40 Ω, 48 Ω,
or 50 Ω resistor for respective on-chip series termination value of 25 Ω, 34 Ω, 40 Ω, 48 Ω, and 50 Ω:
• RUP—connected to VCCIO.
• RDN—connected to GND.
The OCT calibration circuit compares the external resistors to the internal resistance using comparators.
The OCT calibration block uses the comparators' output to dynamically adjust buffer impedance.
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RS OCT in MAX 10 Devices
During calibration, the resistance of the RUP and RDN pins varies. To estimate of the maximum possible
current through the external calibration resistors, assume a minimum resistance of 0 Ω on the RUP and
RDN pins.
RS OCT in MAX 10 Devices
Table 2-10: Selectable I/O Standards for RS OCT
This table lists the output termination settings for RS OCT with and without calibration on different I/O
standards.
• RS OCT with calibration—supported only on the right side I/O banks of the MAX 10 16, 25, 40, and 50 devices.
• RS OCT without calibration—supported on all I/O banks of all MAX 10 devices.
Calibrated OCT (Output)
Uncalibrated OCT (Output)
RS (Ω)
RS (Ω)
3.0 V LVTTL/3.0V LVCMOS
25, 50
25, 50
2.5 V LVTTL/2.5 V LVCMOS
25, 50
25, 50
1.8 V LVTTL/1.8 V LVCMOS
25, 50
25, 50
1.5 V LVCMOS
25, 50
25, 50
1.2 V LVCMOS
25, 50
25, 50
SSTL-2 Class I
50
50
SSTL-2 Class II
25
25
SSTL-18 Class I
50
50
SSTL-18 Class II
25
25
SSTL-15 Class I
50
50
SSTL-15 Class II
25
25
SSTL-15
34, 40
34, 40
SSTL-135
34, 40
34, 40
1.8 V HSTL Class I
50
50
1.8 V HSTL Class II
25
25
1.5 V HSTL Class I
50
50
1.5 V HSTL Class II
25
25
1.2 V HSTL Class I
50
50
1.2 V HSTL Class II
25
25
34, 40, 48
34, 40, 48
Differential SSTL-2 Class I
50
50
Differential SSTL-2 Class I
25
25
I/O Standard
HSUL-12
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Calibrated OCT (Output)
Uncalibrated OCT (Output)
RS (Ω)
RS (Ω)
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
50
50
Differential SSTL-18 Class II
25
25
Differential SSTL-15 Class I
50
50
Differential SSTL-15 Class II
25
25
Differential SSTL-15
34, 40
34, 40
Differential SSTL-135
34, 40
34, 40
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class I
50
50
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class II
25
25
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class I
50
50
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class II
25
25
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class I
50
50
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class II
25
25
34, 40, 48
34, 40, 48
I/O Standard
Differential HSUL-12
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There are several considerations that require your attention to ensure the success of your designs. Unless
noted otherwise, these design guidelines apply to all variants of this device family.
Related Information
MAX 10 I/O Overview on page 1-1
Guidelines: VCCIO Range Considerations
There are several VCCIO range considerations because of I/O pin configuration function and I/O bank
location.
• The shared I/O pins can only support a VCCIO range of 1.5 V to 3.3 V when you access the configura‐
tion function in user mode.The configuration function of the I/O pins can only support 1.5 V to 3.3 V.
If you need to access, for example, JTAG pins during user mode, the bank where the pin resides will be
constrained by this VCCIO range. If you want to use I/O standards within the 1.2 V to 1.35 V range, you
must not use the configuration function of any of the I/O pins during user mode. This only affects
bank 1 (including bank 1A and bank 1B in applicable devices) and bank 8 because only these banks
have I/O pins with configuration function.
• If you plan to migrate from devices that has banks 1A and 1B to devices that has only bank 1, ensure
that the VCCIO of bank 1A and 1B are the same.
• For the V36 package of the 10M02 device, the VCCIO of these groups of I/O banks must be the same:
• Group 1—banks 1, 2 and 8
• Group 2—banks 3, 5, and 6
• For the V81 package of the 10M08 device, the VCCIO of these groups of I/O banks must be the same:
• Group 1—banks 1A, 1B, and 2
• Group 2—banks 5 and 6
Guidelines: Voltage-Referenced I/O Standards Restriction
These restrictions apply if you use the VREF pin.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
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Guidelines: Enable Clamp Diode for LVTTL/LVCMOS Input Buffers
• If you use a shared VREF pin as an I/O, all voltage-reference input buffers (SSTL, HSTL, and HSUL) are
disabled.
• If you use a shared VREF pin as a voltage reference, you must enable the input buffer of specific I/O pin
to use the voltage-reference I/O standards.
• The voltage-referenced I/O standards are not supported in the following I/O banks of these device
packages:
• All I/O banks of V36 package of 10M02.
• All I/O banks of V81 package of 10M08.
• Bank 1A and 1B of E144 package of 10M50.
• Maximum number of voltage-referenced inputs for each VREF pin is 75% of total number of I/O pads.
The Quartus II software will provide a warning if you exceed the maximum number.
• Except for I/O pins that you used for static signals, all non-voltage-referenced output must be placed
two pads away from a VREF pin. The Quartus II software will output an error message if this rule is
violated.
Related Information
MAX 10 I/O Standards Support on page 2-1
Guidelines: Enable Clamp Diode for LVTTL/LVCMOS Input Buffers
If the VCCIO of the I/O bank is lower than the voltage of the LVTTL/LVCMOS input buffers, Altera
recommends that you enable the clamp diode.
• 3.3 V LVCMOS/LVTTL input buffers—enable clamp diode if VCCIO of the I/O bank is 3.0 V.
• 3.3 V or 3.0 V LVCMOS/LVTTL input buffers—enable clamp diode if VCCIO of the I/O bank is 2.5 V.
By enabling the clamp diode under these conditions, you will be able to limit overshoot or undershoot.
However, this does not comply with hot socket current specification.
If you do not enable the clamp diode under these conditions, the signal integrity for the I/O pin will be
impacted and there will be overshoot or undershoot problem. In this situation, you must ensure that your
board design conforms to the overshoot/undershoot specifications.
Table 3-1: Voltage Tolerance Maximum Ratings for 3.3 V or 3.0 V
This table lists the voltage tolerance specifications. Ensure that your board design conforms to these specifications
if you do not want to follow the clamp diode recommendation.
Altera Corporation
Voltage
Minimum (V)
Maximum (V)
VCCIO = 3.3 V
3.135
3.45
VCCIO = 3.0 V
2.85
3.15
VIH (AC)
—
4.1
VIH (DC)
—
3.6
VIL (DC)
–0.3
0.8
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Guidelines: Adhere to the LVDS I/O Restrictions Rules
3-3
Guidelines: Adhere to the LVDS I/O Restrictions Rules
For LVDS applications, adhere to the I/O restriction pin connection guidelines to avoid excessive jitter on
the LVDS transmitter output pins. The Quartus II software generates a critical warning if these rules are
violated.
Related Information
MAX 10 FPGA Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Guidelines: I/O Restriction Rules
For different I/O standards and conditions, you must limit the number of I/O pins. This I/O restriction
rule is applicable if you use LVDS transmitters or receivers.
Table 3-2: Maximum Percentage of I/O Pins Allowed for Specific I/O Standards in an I/O Bank
This table lists the maximum number of general purpose output pins allowed in a bank in terms of percentage to
the total number of I/O pins available in an I/O bank if you use these combinations of I/O standards and
conditions.
I/O Standard
2.5 V LVTTL/
LVCMOS
2.5 V SSTL
Condition
Max Pins Per Bank (%)
16 mA current strength and 25 Ω OCT (fast and slow
slew rate)
25
12 mA current strength (fast and slow slew rate)
30
8 mA current strength (fast and slow slew rate) and 50
Ω OCT (fast slew rate)
45
4 mA current strength (fast and slow slew rate)
65
—
100
Guidelines: Analog-to-Digital Converter I/O Restriction
These restrictions are applicable if you use the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) block.
The Quartus II software uses physics-based rules to define the number of I/Os allowed in a particular
bank. These rules are based on noise calculation to analyze accurately the impact of I/O placement on the
ADC performance.
Implementation of the physics-based rules will be in stages, starting from Quartus II software version 14.1
for 10M04, 10M08, 10M40, and 10M50 devices. The physics-based rules for other MAX 10 devices will be
implemented in future versions of the software.
Altera highly recommends that you adhere to these guidelines to ensure ADC performance. Furthermore,
following these guidelines prevents additional critical warning from future versions of the Quartus II
software when the physics-based rules are implemented.
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Guidelines: Analog-to-Digital Converter I/O Restriction
Table 3-3: I/O Restrictions Related to ADC Usage—Preliminary
Condition
You use the ADC.
Restriction
Altera recommends that you follow these I/O placement guidelines:
• Place all high drive strength single-ended I/O standards, especially
LVTTL type buffer, in only banks 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7.
• Place transmitter pins in only banks 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7.
• For best results, do not assign I/O pins near the ADC pins.
• If you must place I/O transmitter pins in bank 8, place these pins as far
away as possible from the ADC pins. You can place I/O receiver pins
near the ADC pins.
• In banks 1B and 8, use static or low-activity I/O pins such as control or
reset pins.
You use dedicated ANAIN1 or
ANAIN2 in the ADC.
You cannot use any GPIO pins in banks 1A and 1B.
You use any of the 16 ADC
inputs in bank 1A.
• You cannot use any GPIO pins in banks 1A and 1B.
• You cannot place any GPIO pins next to the dedicated ADC pin.
• You must disable all JTAG operation during ADC sampling mode. If
JTAG operations occur while the ADC is running, the ADC data will
be invalid.
You use the ADC in the E144 • You cannot use any GPIO pins in banks 1A, 1B, 2, and 8.
package of MAX 10 devices.
• You can use only 84% of I/O pins in bank 3.
• You can use only 75% of I/O pins in bank 7.
• In total, you can use only 54% of I/O pins of the device.
You use dedicated ANAIN1 or
ANAIN2 in the following
packages of MAX 10 devices:
•
•
•
•
•
•
M153
U169
U324
F256
F484
F672
• You cannot use any GPIO pins in banks 1A and 1B.
• To be able to utilize all I/O pins in I/O bank 8:
• Altera recommends that you use only I/O standards in groups 1
and 2 as listed in Table 3-4.
• If you use the I/O standards in the other I/O groups, refer to Table
3-5 for the I/O utilization degradation in bank 8.
• Altera recommends that you use high drive strength I/O standards in
only banks 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7.
This condition also applies if
you use the dedicated analog
input pins together with the
dual function ADC pins.
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Guidelines: Analog-to-Digital Converter I/O Restriction
Condition
Restriction
You use any of the dual
function ADC pins in the
following packages of MAX
10 devices:
•
•
•
•
•
•
3-5
• You cannot use any GPIO pins in banks 1A and 1B.
• To be able to utilize all I/O pins in I/O bank 8:
• Altera recommends that you use only I/O standards in groups 1, 2,
and 3 as listed in Table 3-4.
• If you use the I/O standards in the other I/O groups, refer to Table
3-6 for the I/O utlization degradation in bank 8.
• Altera recommends that you use high drive strength I/O standards in
banks 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7.
M153
U169
U324
F256
F484
F672
This condition applies if you
do not use the dedicated
analog input pins.
Table 3-4: I/O Standards Groups Categorized According to Drive Strengths
I/O Standard Group
I/O Standards Name and Drive Strength
Group 1
•
•
•
•
2.5 V LVDS
2.5 V RSDS
BLVDS at 4 mA
SLVS at 4 mA
Group 2
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
BLVDS at 8 mA
SLVS at 8 mA
Sub-LVDS at 8 mA
1.8 V, 1.5 V, and 1.2 V HSTL Class I at 8 mA
SSTL-15 at 34 Ω or 40 Ω
SSTL-135 at 34 Ω or 40 Ω
HSUL-12 at 34 Ω or 40 Ω
SSTL-2 Class I at 8 mA
SSTL-18 Class I at 8 mA
SSTL-15 Class I at 8 mA
2.5 V and 1.8 V LVTTL at 4 mA
2.5 V, 1.8 V, 1.5 V, and 1.2 V LVCMOS at 4 mA
1.8 V LVTTL at 2 mA
1.8 V, 1.5 V, and 1.2 V LVCMOS at 2 mA
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I/O Standard Group
I/O Standards Name and Drive Strength
Group 3
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
BLVDS at 12 mA
SLVS at 12 mA
Sub-LVDS at 12 mA
SSTL-2 Class I at 10 mA or 12 mA
SSTL-18 Class I at 10 mA or 12 mA
SSTL-15 Class I at 10 mA or 12 mA
1.8 V, 1.5 V, and 1.2 V HSTL Class I at 10 mA or 12 mA
SSTL-2 at 50 Ω
SSTL-18 at 50 Ω
SSTL-15 at 50 Ω
1.8 V, 1.5 V and 1.2 V HSTL at 50 Ω
HSUL-12 at 48 Ω
2.5 V and 1.8 V LVTTL at 50 Ω
2.5 V, 1.8 V, 1.5 V, and 1.2 V LVCMOS at 50 Ω
1.8 V LVTTL at 6 mA or 8 mA
1.8 V, 1.5 V, and 1.2 V LVCMOS at 6 mA or 8 mA
3.0 V LVTTL at 4 mA
3.0 V LVCMOS at 4 mA
Group 4
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
SSTL-18 Class II at 12 mA
3.0 V LVTTL at 50 Ω
3.0 V LVCMOS at 50 Ω
2.5 V LVTTL at 8 mA
2.5 V LVCMOS at 8 mA
1.8 V LVTTL at 10 mA or 12 mA
1.8 V, 1.5 V, and 1.2 V LVCMOS at 10 mA or 12 mA
3.3 V LVCMOS at 2 mA
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Guidelines: Analog-to-Digital Converter I/O Restriction
I/O Standard Group
3-7
I/O Standards Name and Drive Strength
Group 5
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
SSTL-2 Class II at 16 mA
SSTL-18 Class II at 16 mA
SSTL-15 Class II at 16 mA
1.8 V and 1.5 V HSTL Class II at 16 mA
1.2 V HSTL Class II at 14 mA
SSTL-18 at 25 Ω
SSTL-15 at 25 Ω
SSTL-2 at 25 Ω
1.8 V, 1.5 V, and 1.2 V HSTL at 25 Ω
2.5 V and 1.8 V LVTTL at 25 Ω
2.5 V, 1.8 V, 1.5 V, and 1.2 LVCMOS at 25 Ω
1.8 V LVTTL at 16 mA
1.8 V and 1.5 V LVCMOS at 16 mA
2.5 V LVCMOS at 12 mA
2.5 V LVTTL at 12 mA
3.0 V LVCMOS at 8 mA
3.0 V LVTTL at 8 mA
3.3 V LVTTL at 4 mA or 8 mA
Group 6
•
•
•
•
•
•
2.5 V LVTTL at 16 mA
2.5 V LVCMOS at 16 mA
3.0 V LVTTL at 12 mA
3.0 V LVCMOS at 12 mA
3.0 V LVTTL at 25 Ω
3.0 V LVCMOS at 25 Ω
Group 7
• 3.0 V LVTTL at 16 mA
• 3.0 V LVCMOS at 16 mA
Table 3-5: Dedicated Analog Input Pin I/O Usage Restriction for I/O Bank 8
This table lists the percentage of I/O pins available in I/O bank 8 if you use the dedicated ANAIN1 or ANAIN2 in the
M153, U169, U324, F256, F484, or F672 package of MAX 10 devices. Refer to Table 3-4 for the list of I/O
standards in each group.
I/O Standards
TX
RX
Availability (%)
Group 1
18
18
100
Group 2
18
18
100
Group 3
9
9
50
Group 4
6
6
33
Group 5
5
5
28
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I/O Standards
TX
RX
Availability (%)
Group 6
4
4
22
Group 7
4
4
22
Table 3-6: Dual Function ADC Pin I/O Usage Restriction for I/O Bank 8
This table lists the percentage of I/O pins available in I/O bank 8 if you use the dual function ADC pins in the
M153, U169, U324, F256, F484, or F672 package of MAX 10 devices. Refer to Table 3-4 for the list of I/O
standards in each group.
I/O Standards
TX
RX
Availability (%)
Group 1
18
18
100
Group 2
18
18
100
Group 3
18
18
100
Group 4
12
12
67
Group 5
11
11
61
Group 6
10
10
56
Group 7
8
8
44
Guidelines: External Memory Interface I/O Restrictions
These I/O rules are applicable if you use external memory interfaces in your design.
Two GPIOs Adjacent to DQ Pin Is Disabled
This limitation is applicable to MAX 10 10M16, 10M25, 10M40, and 10M50 devices, and only if you use
DDR3 and LPDDR2 SDRAM memory standards.
Table 3-7: DDR3 and LPDDR2 Memory Interface Widths and Device Packages Where Two GPIOs Adjacent
to DQ Pins Are Disabled
This table lists the combination of MAX 10 10M16, 10M25, 10M40, and 10M50 device packages, and DDR3 and
LPDDR2 memory interface widths where you cannot use two GPIO pins that are adjacent to the DQ pins.
Device Package
Memory Interface Width (DDR3 and LPPDR2 only)
U324
x8
F484
x8, x16, x24
F672
x8, x16, x24
Total I/O Utilization In Bank Must Be 75 Percent or Less In Some Devices
If you use DDR3 or LPDDR2 SDRAM memory interface standards, you can generally use a maximum of
75 percent of the total number of I/O pins available in a bank. This restrictions differ from device to
device. In some devices packages you can use all 100 percent of the I/Os. The Quartus II software will
output an error message if the I/O usage per bank of that device is affected by this rule.
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Guidelines: Dual-Purpose Configuration Pin
3-9
If you use DDR2 memory interface standards, you can assign 25 percents of the I/O pins as input pins
only.
Guidelines: Dual-Purpose Configuration Pin
To use configuration pins as user I/O pins in user mode, you have to adhere to the following guidelines.
Table 3-8: Dual-Purpose Configuration Pin Guidelines for MAX 10 Devices
Pins
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
Guidelines
During initialization:
• tri-state the external I/O driver and drive an external pull-up resistor(9) or
• use the external I/O driver to drive the pins to the state same as the external weak pullup resistor
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
Tri-state the external driver of the configuration pins before the tWAIT (minimum) wait
time is reached. You can use these pins for configuration purpose after tWAIT (maximum).
TDO
You can only use the nCONFIG pin as a single-ended input pin in user mode.
nCONFIG
If the nCONFIG is set as user I/O, you can trigger the reconfiguration by:
• asserting RU_nCONFIG of the remote system upgrade circuitry
• issuing PULSE_NCONFIG JTAG instruction
• If you intend to switch back and forth between user I/O pins and JTAG pin functions
using the JTAGEN pin, all JTAG pins must be assigned as single-ended I/O pins or
voltage-referenced I/O pins. Schmitt trigger input is the recommended input buffer.
• JTAG pins cannot perform as JTAG pins in user mode if you assign any of the JTAG
pin as a differential I/O pin.
• You must use the JTAG pins as dedicated pins and not as user I/O pins during JTAG
programming.
• Do not toggle JTAG pin during the initialization stage.
• Put the test access port (TAP) controller in reset state and drive the TDI and TMS pins
high and TCK pin low before the initialization.
TDO
TMS
TCK
TDI
Related Information
MAX 10 FPGA Configuration User Guide
Provides more information about the dual-purpose I/O pins in configuration and user modes.
(9)
If you intend to remove the external weak pull-up resistor, Altera recommends that you remove it after
the device enters user mode.
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You can implement your I/O design in the Quartus II software. The software contains tools for you to
create and compile your design, and configure your device.
The Quartus II software allows you to prepare for device migration, set pin assignments, define placement
restrictions, setup timing constraints, and customize IP cores. For more information about using the
Quartus II software, refer to the related information.
Related Information
MAX 10 I/O Overview on page 1-1
Altera GPIO Lite IP Core
The Altera GPIO Lite IP core supports the MAX 10 GPIO components. To implement the GPIOs in your
design, you can customize the Altera GPIO Lite IP core to suit your requirements and instantiate it in
your design.
GPIOs are I/Os used in general applications not specific to transceivers, memory-like interfaces or LVDS.
The Altera GPIO Lite IP core features the following components:
• Double data rate input/output (DDIO)—A digital component that doubles the data-rate of a
communication channel.
• I/O buffers—connect the pads to the FPGA.
Figure 4-1: High Level View of Single-Ended GPIO
Core
OEIN[1:0]
GPIO
OE
Path
DATAIN[3:0]
Output
Path
DATAOUT[3:0]
Input
Path
Buffer
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
101 Innovation Drive, San Jose, CA 95134
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
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Altera GPIO Lite IP Core Data Paths
Related Information
•
•
•
•
•
•
Altera GPIO Lite IP Core References on page 5-1
Introduction to Altera IP Cores
Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options on page 4-6
Files Generated for Altera IP Cores (Legacy Parameter Editor)
Simulating Altera IP Cores in other EDA Tools
Upgrading Outdated IP Cores
Altera GPIO Lite IP Core Data Paths
Table 4-1: Altera GPIO Lite Data Path Modes
Data Path
Mode
Bypass
Single Register
DDR
Input
Data goes from the delay
element to the core,
bypassing all double data
rate I/Os (DDIOs).
The full-rate DDIO operates The full-rate DDIO
as a single register.
operates as a regular
DDIO.
Output
Data goes from the core
The full-rate DDIO operates The full-rate DDIO
straight to the delay element, as a single register.
operates as a regular
bypassing all DDIOs.
DDIO.
Bidirectional
The output buffer drives
both an output pin and an
input buffer.
The full-rate DDIO operates
as a single register. The
output buffer drives both an
output pin and an input
buffer.
The full-rate DDIO
operates as a regular
DDIO. The output buffer
drives both an output pin
and an input buffer. The
input buffer drives a set
of three flip-flops.
If you use asynchronous clear and preset signals, all DDIOs share these same signals.
DDR Input Path
The pad sends data to the input buffer and the input buffer feeds the delay element. From the delay
element, the data is fed to the DDIO stage, which consists of three registers:
• RegAi samples the data from pad_in at the positive clock edge.
• RegBi samples the data from pad_in at the negative clock edge.
• RegCi samples the data from RegAi at the negative clock edge.
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Figure 4-2: Simplified View of Altera GPIO Lite DDR Input Path
DDIO_IN
pad_in
RegAi
Delay
Element
Input
Buffer
D
RegCi
D
Q
Q
IO_DATAIN0
Q
IO_DATAIN1
inclk
RegBi
D
Figure 4-3: Altera GPIO Lite Input Path Timing Diagram
pad_in
High Z
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
High Z
D7
inclk
Output from RegAi
D0
D2
D4
D6
Output from RegBi
D1
D3
D5
D7
Output from RegCi
D0
D2
D4
D6
DDR Output Path with Output Enable
• RegCo samples the data from IO_DATAOUT0 at the positive clock edge.
• RegDo samples the data from IO_DATAOUT1 when outclock value is 0.
• Output DDR samples the data from RegCo at the positive clock edge, and from RegDo at the negative
clock edge.
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IP Catalog and Parameter Editor
Figure 4-4: Simplified View of Altera GPIO Lite DDR Output Path with Output Enable
DDIO_OUT
RegCo
IO_DATAOUT0
D
OE
Delay
Element
Q
Output DDR
RegDo
IO_DATAOUT1
D
Q
QB
outclock
Figure 4-5: Altera GPIO Lite Output Path Timing Diagram
OE
IO_DATAOUT1
D0
D2
D4
D6
IO_DATAOUT0
D1
D3
D5
D7
outclock
RegCo
RegD0
Output DDR
D1
D3
D0
D0
D5
D2
D1
D7
D4
D2
D3
D6
D4
D5
D6
D7
IP Catalog and Parameter Editor
The Quartus II IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog) and parameter editor help you easily customize and
integrate IP cores into your project. You can use the IP Catalog and parameter editor to select, customize,
and generate files representing your custom IP variation.
Note: The IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog) and parameter editor replace the MegaWizard Plug-In
Manager for IP selection and parameterization, beginning in Quartus II software version 14.0. Use
the IP Catalog and parameter editor to locate and paramaterize Altera IP cores.
™
The IP Catalog lists installed IP cores available for your design. Double-click any IP core to launch the
parameter editor and generate files representing your IP variation. The parameter editor prompts you to
specify an IP variation name, optional ports, and output file generation options. The parameter editor
generates a top-level Qsys system file (.qsys) or Quartus II IP file (.qip) representing the IP core in your
project. You can also parameterize an IP variation without an open project.
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Use the following features to help you quickly locate and select an IP core:
• Filter IP Catalog to Show IP for active device family or Show IP for all device families. If you have no
project open, select the Device Family in IP Catalog.
• Type in the Search field to locate any full or partial IP core name in IP Catalog.
• Right-click an IP core name in IP Catalog to display details about supported devices, open the IP core's
installation folder, and view links to documentation.
• Click Search for Partner IP, to access partner IP information on the Altera website.
Figure 4-6: Quartus II IP Catalog
Show IP only for target device
Search for installed IP cores
Double-click to customize, right-click for
detailed information
Note: The IP Catalog is also available in Qsys (View > IP Catalog). The Qsys IP Catalog includes
exclusive system interconnect, video and image processing, and other system-level IP that are not
available in the Quartus II IP Catalog. For more information about using the Qsys IP Catalog, refer
to Creating a System with Qsys in the Quartus II Handbook.
Related Information
Provides more information about the programmableCreating a System With Qsys, Volume 1: Design
and Synthesis, Quartus II Handbook
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Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options
You can quickly configure a custom IP variation in the parameter editor. Use the following steps to
specify IP core options and parameters in the parameter editor. Refer to Specifying IP Core Parameters
and Options (Legacy Parameter Editors) for configuration of IP cores using the legacy parameter editor.
1. In the IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog), locate and double-click the name of the IP core to customize.
The parameter editor appears.
2. Specify a top-level name for your custom IP variation. The parameter editor saves the IP variation
settings in a file named <your_ip>.qsys. Click OK.
3. Specify the parameters and options for your IP variation in the parameter editor, including one or
more of the following. Refer to your IP core user guide for information about specific IP core
parameters.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Altera Corporation
• Optionally select preset parameter values if provided for your IP core. Presets specify initial
parameter values for specific applications.
• Specify parameters defining the IP core functionality, port configurations, and device-specific
features.
• Specify options for processing the IP core files in other EDA tools.
Click Generate HDL, the Generation dialog box appears.
Specify output file generation options, and then click Generate. The IP variation files generate
according to your specifications.
To generate a simulation testbench, click Generate > Generate Testbench System.
To generate an HDL instantiation template that you can copy and paste into your text editor, click
Generate > HDL Example.
Click Finish. The parameter editor adds the top-level .qsys file to the current project automatically. If
you are prompted to manually add the .qsys file to the project, click Project > Add/Remove Files in
Project to add the file.
After generating and instantiating your IP variation, make appropriate pin assignments to connect
ports.
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Files Generated for Altera IP Cores (Legacy Parameter Editor)
4-7
Figure 4-7: IP Parameter Editor
View IP port
and parameter
details
Specify your IP variation name
and target device
Apply preset parameters for
specific applications
Related Information
• Altera GPIO Lite IP Core on page 4-1
• Quartus II Handbook, Volume 1: Design and Synthesis
Provides more information about using IP cores in the Quartus II software.
Files Generated for Altera IP Cores (Legacy Parameter Editor)
The Quartus II software version 14.0 and previous generates the following output for IP cores that use the
legacy MegaWizard parameter editor.
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Figure 4-8: IP Core Generated Files
<Project Directory>
<your_ip>.qip - Quartus II IP integration file
<your_ip>.v, .sv. or .vhd - Top-level IP synthesis file
<your_ip> - IP core synthesis files
<your_ip>.sv, .v, or .vhd - HDL synthesis files
<your_ip>.sdc - Timing constraints file
<your_ip>.bsf - Block symbol schematic file
<your_ip>.cmp - VHDL component declaration file
<your_ip>_syn.v or .vhd - Timing & resource estimation netlist 1
<your_ip>.sip - Lists files for simulation
<your_ip>.ppf - XML I/O pin information file
<your_ip>.spd - Combines individual simulation scripts 1
<your_ip>_sim.f - Refers to simulation models and scripts 1
<your_ip>_sim 1
<AlteraIP_name>_instance
<Altera IP>_instance.vo - IPFS model 2
<simulator_vendor>
<simulator setup scripts>
<your_ip>_testbench or _example - Testbench or example 1
Notes:
1. If supported and enabled for your IP variation
2. If functional simulation models are generated
Verifying Pin Migration Compatibility
You can use the Pin Migration View window in the Quartus II software Pin Planner to assist you in
verifying whether your pin assignments migrate to a different device successfully.
You can vertically migrate to a device with a different density while using the same device package, or
migrate between packages with different densities and ball counts.
1. Open Assignments > Pin Planner and create pin assignments.
2. If necessary, perform one of the following options to populate the Pin Planner with the node names in
the design:
• Analysis & Elaboration
• Analysis & Synthesis
• Fully compile the design
3. Then, on the menu, click View > Pin Migration View.
4. To select or change migration devices:
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5.
6.
7.
8.
4-9
a. Click Device to open the Device dialog box.
b. Under Migration compatibility click Migration Devices.
To show more information about the pins:
a. Right-click anywhere in the Pin Migration View window and select Show Columns.
b. Then, click the pin feature you want to display.
If you want to view only the pins, in at least one migration device, that have a different feature than the
corresponding pin in the migration result, turn on Show migration differences.
Click Pin Finder to open the Pin Finder dialog box and find and highlight pins with specific function‐
ality.
If you want to view only the pins found and highlighted by the most recent query in the Pin Finder
dialog box, turn on Show only highlighted pins.
To export the pin migration information to a Comma-Separated Value File (.csv), click Export.
Related Information
MAX 10 I/O Vertical Migration Support on page 1-3
MAX 10 I/O Implementation Guides
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You can set various parameter settings for the Altera GPIO Lite IP core to customize its behaviors, ports,
and signals.
The Quartus II software generates your customized Altera GPIO Lite IP core according to the parameter
options that you set in the parameter editor.
Related Information
• MAX 10 I/O Overview on page 1-1
• Altera GPIO Lite IP Core on page 4-1
Altera GPIO Lite Parameter Settings
You can set the parameter settings for the Altera GPIO Lite IP core in the Quartus II software. There are
three groups of options: General, Buffer, and Registers.
Table 5-1: Altera GPIO Lite Parameters - General
Parameter
Condition
Allowed
Values
Description
Data direction
—
• input
• output
• bidir
Specifies the data direction for the
GPIO.
Data width
—
1 to 128
Specifies the data width.
Table 5-2: Altera GPIO Lite Parameters - Buffer
Parameter
Use true differential buffer
Condition
Data direction =
input or output
Allowed
Values
• On
• Off
Description
If turned on, enables true
differential I/O buffers and
disables pseudo differential I/O
buffers.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
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ISO
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Registered
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Altera GPIO Lite Parameter Settings
Parameter
Condition
Allowed
Values
Description
Use pseudo differential buffer Data direction =
output or bidir
• On
• Off
• If turned on in output mode—
enables pseudo differential
output buffers and disables
true differential I/O buffers.
• If turned on in bidir mode—
enables true differential input
buffer and pseudo differential
output buffer.
Use bus-hold circuitry
Data direction =
input or output
• On
• Off
If turned on, the bus hold
circuitry can weakly hold the
signal on an I/O pin at its lastdriven state where the output
buffer state will be 1 or 0 but not
high-impedance.
Use open drain output
Data direction =
output or bidir
• On
• Off
If turned on, the open drain
output enables the device to
provide system-level control
signals such as interrupt and write
enable signals that can be asserted
by multiple devices in your
system.
Enable oe port
Data direction =
output
• On
• Off
If turned on, enables user input to
the OE port. This option is
automatically turned on for
bidirectional mode.
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Table 5-3: Altera GPIO Lite Parameters - Registers
Parameter
Register mode
Condition
—
Allowed
Values
• bypass
• singleregister
• ddr
Description
Specifies the register mode for the
Altera GPIO Lite IP core:
• bypass—specifies a simple
wire connection from/to the
buffer.
• single-register—specifies that
the DDIO is used as a simple
register in single data-rate
mode (SDR). The Fitter may
pack this register in the I/O.
• ddr— specifies that the IP core
uses the DDIO.
Enable aclr port
• Register mode =
ddr
• On
• Off
If turned on, enables the ACLR
port for asynchronous clears.
Enable aset port
• Data direction =
output or bidir
• Register mode =
ddr
• Set registers to
power up high
(when aclr and
aset ports are not
used) = off
• On
• Off
If turned on, enables the ASET
port for asynchronous preset.
Set registers to power up high • Register mode =
• On
(when aclr and aset ports are
ddr
• Off
not used)
• Enable aclr port =
off
• Enable aset port =
off
• Enable sclr port =
off
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If you are not using the ACLR and
ASET ports:
• On—specifies that registers
power up HIGH.
• Off—specifies that registers
power up LOW.
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Altera GPIO Lite Parameter Settings
Parameter
Condition
Allowed
Values
Description
Enable inclocken/outclocken
ports
Register mode = ddr
• On
• Off
• On—exposes the clock enable
port to allow you to control
when data is clocked in or out.
This signal prevents data from
being passed through without
your control.
• Off—clock enable port is not
exposed and data always pass
through the register automati‐
cally.
Invert din
• Data direction =
output
• Register mode =
ddr
• On
• Off
If turned on, inverts the data out
output port.
Invert DDIO inclock
• Data direction =
input or bidir
• Register mode =
ddr
• On
• Off
• On—captures the first data bit
on the falling edge of the input
clock.
• Off—captures the first data bit
on the rising edge of the input
clock.
Use a single register to drive
the output enable (oe) signal
at the I/O buffer
• Data direction =
• On
output or bidir
• Off
• Register mode =
single-register or
ddr
• Use DDIO
registers to drive
the output enable
(oe) signal at the I/
O buffer = off
If turned on, specifies that a single
register drives the OE signal at the
output buffer.
Use DDIO registers to drive
the output enable (oe) signal
at the I/O buffer
• Data direction =
• On
output or bidir
• Off
• Register mode =
ddr
• Use a single
register to drive
the output enable
(oe) signal at the I/
O buffer = off
If turned on, specifies that the
DDR I/O registers drive the OE
signal at the output buffer. The
output pin is held at high
impedance for an extra half clock
cycle after the OE port goes high.
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Altera GPIO Lite Interface Signals
Parameter
Condition
Implement DDIO input
• Data direction =
registers in hard implementa‐
input or bidir
tion (Only available in certain • Register mode =
devices)
ddr
Allowed
Values
• On
• Off
5-5
Description
• On—implements the DDIO
input registers using hard
block at the I/O edge.
• Off—implements the DDIO
input registers as soft
implementation using registers
in the FPGA core fabric.
This option is applicable only for
MAX 10 16, 25, 40, and 50 devices
because the DDIO input registers
hard block is available only in
these devices. To avoid Fitter
error, turn this option off for
other MAX 10 devices.
Altera GPIO Lite Interface Signals
Depending on parameter settings you specify, different interface signals are available for the Altera GPIO
Lite IP core.
Table 5-4: Pad Interface Signals
The pad interface connects the Altera GPIO Lite IP core to the pads.
Signal Name
Direction
Description
pad_in
Input
Input pad port if you use the input path.
pad_in_b
Input
Input negative pad port if you use the input path and enable
the true or pseudo differential buffers.
pad_out
Output
Output pad port if you use the output path.
pad_out_b
Output
Output negative pad port if you use the output path and
enable the true of pseudo differential buffers.
pad_io
pad_io_b
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Bidirectional Bidirectional pad port if you use bidirectional paths.
Bidirectional Bidirectional negative pad port if you use bidirectional paths
and enable true or pseudo differential buffers.
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Altera GPIO Lite Interface Signals
Table 5-5: Data Interface Signals
The data interface is an input or output interface from the Altera GPIO Lite IP core to the FPGA core.
Signal Name
Direction
Input
din
Description
Data received from the input pin.
Signal width for each input pin:
• DDR mode—2
• Other modes—1
Output
dout
Data to send out through the output pin.
Signal width for each output pin:
• DDR mode—2
• Other modes—1
oe
Input
Control signal that enables the output buffer. This signal is
active HIGH.
nsleep
Input
Control signal that enables the input buffer. This signal is
active LOW.
This signal is available for the 10M16, 10M25, 10M40, and
10M50 devices.
Table 5-6: Clock Interface Signals
The clock interface is an input clock interface. It consists of different signals, depending on the configuration. The
Altera GPIO Lite IP core can have zero, one, two, or four clock inputs. Clock ports appear differently in different
configurations to reflect the actual function performed by the clock signal.
Signal Name
Direction
Description
inclock
Input
Input clock that clocks the registers in the input path.
inclocken
Input
Control signal that controls when data is clocked in. This
signal is active HIGH.
outclock
Input
Input clock that clocks the registers in the output path.
ouctlocken
Input
Control signal that controls when data is clocked out. This
signal is active HIGH.
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Table 5-7: Reset Interface Signals
The reset interface connects the Altera GPIO Lite IP core to the DDIOs.
Signal Name
Direction
Description
aclr
Input
Control signal for asynchronous clear that sets the register
output state to 0. This signal is active HIGH.
aset
Input
Control signal for asynchronous preset that sets the register
output state to 1. This signal is active HIGH.
sclr
Input
Control signal for synchronous clear that sets the register
output to 0. This signal is active HIGH.
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Purpose I/O User Guide
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Document Revision History for MAX 10 General Purpose I/O User Guide
Date
Version
Changes
May 2015
2015.05.04
• Removed the F672 package of the MAX 10 10M25 device.
• Updated footnote for LVDS (dedicated) in the table listing the
supported I/O standards to clarify that you can use LVDS receivers
on all I/O banks.
• Added missing footnote number for the DQS column of the 3.3 V
Schmitt Trigger row in the table that lists the I/O standards voltage
levels and pin support.
• Added a table listing the I/O standards and current strength
settings that support programmable output slew rate control.
• Updated the topic about external memory interface I/O restrictions
to add x24 memory interface width to the F484 package.
• Added topic about the programmable differential output voltage.
• Updated the guidelines for voltage-referenced I/O standards to add
a list of device packages that do not support voltage-referenced I/O
standards.
• Updated the topic about the I/O restriction rules to remove
statements about the differential pad placement rules.
• Renamed the input_ena signal name to nsleep and updated the
relevant description.
• Updated the description for the Invert DDIO inclock parameter of
the Altera GPIO Lite IP core.
December 2014
2014.12.15
Updated the topic about the ADC I/O restriction:
• Added information about implementation of physics-based rules in
the Quartus II software.
• Updated the list of I/O standards groups for the ADC I/O restric‐
tion.
September 2014
2014.09.22
Initial release.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
101 Innovation Drive, San Jose, CA 95134
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O User Guide
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TOC-2
Contents
MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O Design Overview............................................. 1-1
Altera Soft LVDS Implementation Overview.......................................................................................... 1-2
MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS Architecture and Features..................................... 2-1
MAX 10 LVDS Channels Support ............................................................................................................2-1
MAX 10 LVDS SERDES I/O Standards Support.....................................................................................2-7
MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS Circuitry.....................................................................................................2-10
MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O Location..............................................................................................2-11
Differential I/O Pins in Low Speed Region............................................................................................ 2-14
MAX 10 LVDS Transmitter Design....................................................................3-1
High-Speed I/O Transmitter Circuitry..................................................................................................... 3-1
LVDS Transmitter Programmable I/O Features..................................................................................... 3-1
Programmable Pre-Emphasis.........................................................................................................3-1
Programmable Differential Output Voltage................................................................................ 3-2
LVDS Transmitter I/O Termination Schemes.........................................................................................3-3
Emulated LVDS External Termination........................................................................................ 3-3
Sub-LVDS Transmitter External Termination............................................................................ 3-3
SLVS Transmitter External Termination..................................................................................... 3-4
Emulated RSDS, Emulated Mini-LVDS, and Emulated PPDS Transmitter External
Termination................................................................................................................................ 3-4
LVDS Transmitter FPGA Design Implementation.................................................................................3-5
Altera Soft LVDS IP Core in Transmitter Mode......................................................................... 3-6
High-Speed I/O Timing Budget...................................................................................................3-10
Guidelines: LVDS Transmitter Channels Placement............................................................... 3-11
Guidelines: LVDS Channels PLL Placement............................................................................. 3-11
Guidelines: LVDS Transmitter Logic Placement...................................................................... 3-12
LVDS Transmitter Debug and Troubleshooting...................................................................................3-12
Perform RTL Simulation Before Hardware Debug...................................................................3-12
Geometry-Based and Physics-Based I/O Rules......................................................................... 3-13
MAX 10 LVDS Receiver Design.......................................................................... 4-1
High-Speed I/O Receiver Circuitry........................................................................................................... 4-1
Soft Deserializer................................................................................................................................4-1
Data Realignment Block (Bit Slip).................................................................................................4-2
LVDS Receiver I/O Termination Schemes...............................................................................................4-2
LVDS, Mini-LVDS, and RSDS Receiver External Termination................................................4-2
SLVS Receiver External Termination............................................................................................4-3
Sub-LVDS Receiver External Termination.................................................................................. 4-3
TMDS Receiver External Termination......................................................................................... 4-4
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TOC-3
HiSpi Receiver External Termination........................................................................................... 4-4
LVPECL External Termination..................................................................................................... 4-5
LVDS Receiver FPGA Design Implementation.......................................................................................4-6
Altera Soft LVDS IP Core in Receiver Mode............................................................................... 4-6
High-Speed I/O Timing Budget...................................................................................................4-11
Guidelines: Floating LVDS Input Pins........................................................................................4-14
Guidelines: LVDS Receiver Channels Placement......................................................................4-14
Guidelines: LVDS Channels PLL Placement............................................................................. 4-14
Guidelines: LVDS Receiver Logic Placement............................................................................ 4-15
Guidelines: LVDS Receiver Timing Constraints.......................................................................4-15
LVDS Receiver Debug and Troubleshooting.........................................................................................4-15
Perform RTL Simulation Before Hardware Debug...................................................................4-15
Geometry-Based and Physics-Based I/O Rules......................................................................... 4-16
MAX 10 LVDS Transmitter and Receiver Design..............................................5-1
Transmitter–Receiver Interfacing............................................................................................................. 5-1
LVDS Transmitter and Receiver FPGA Design Implementation.........................................................5-2
LVDS Transmitter and Receiver PLL Sharing Implementation............................................... 5-2
Initializing the Altera Soft LVDS IP Core.................................................................................... 5-3
LVDS Transmitter and Receiver Debug and Troubleshooting............................................................. 5-3
Perform RTL Simulation Before Hardware Debug.....................................................................5-3
Geometry-Based and Physics-Based I/O Rules........................................................................... 5-3
MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS Board Design Considerations............................... 6-1
Guideline: Improve Signal Quality............................................................................................................ 6-1
Guidelines: Control Channel-to-Channel Skew......................................................................................6-1
Receiver Input Skew Margin.......................................................................................................... 6-2
RSKM Report for LVDS Receiver..................................................................................................6-3
Guidelines: Determine Board Design Constraints..................................................................................6-4
Guidelines: Perform Board Level Simulations.........................................................................................6-4
Altera Soft LVDS IP Core References................................................................. 7-1
Altera Soft LVDS Parameter Settings .......................................................................................................7-1
Altera Soft LVDS Interface Signals............................................................................................................7-6
Additional Information for MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O User Guide........A-1
Document Revision History for MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O User Guide..................................A-1
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The MAX® 10 device family supports high-speed LVDS protocols through the LVDS I/O banks and the
Altera Soft LVDS IP core.
Table 1-1: Summary of LVDS I/O Buffers Support in MAX 10 I/O Banks
I/O Buffer Type
I/O Bank Support
True LVDS input buffer
All I/O banks
True LVDS output buffer
Only bottom I/O banks
Emulated LVDS output buffer
All I/O banks
The LVDS I/O standards support differs between MAX 10 D and S variants. Refer to related information
for more details.
Related Information
• MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS Architecture and Features on page 2-1
Provides information about the high-speed LVDS architecture and the features supported by the
device.
• MAX 10 LVDS Transmitter Design on page 3-1
Provides information and guidelines for implementing LVDS transmitter in MAX 10 devices using the
Altera Soft LVDS IP core.
• MAX 10 LVDS Receiver Design on page 4-1
Provides information and guidelines for implementing LVDS receiver in MAX 10 devices using the
Altera Soft LVDS IP core.
• MAX 10 LVDS Transmitter and Receiver Design on page 5-1
Provides design guidelines for implementing both LVDS transmitters and receivers in the same MAX
10 device.
• Altera Soft LVDS IP Core References on page 7-1
Lists the parameters and signals of Altera Soft LVDS IP core for MAX 10 devices.
• MAX 10 LVDS SERDES I/O Standards Support on page 2-7
Lists the supported LVDS I/O standards and the support in different MAX 10 device variants.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
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Altera Soft LVDS Implementation Overview
Altera Soft LVDS Implementation Overview
You can implement LVDS applications in MAX 10 devices as transmitter-only, receiver-only, or a
combination of transmitters and receivers.
Figure 1-1: MAX 10 LVDS Implementation Overview
Altera Soft LVDS
LVDS Transmitter
Implementation
Altera Corporation
LVDS Receiver
Implementation
LVDS Transmitter
and Receiver
Implementation
MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O Design Overview
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Features
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The MAX 10 devices use registers and logic in the core fabric to implement LVDS input and output
interfaces.
• For LVDS transmitters and receivers, MAX 10 devices use the the double data rate I/O (DDIO)
registers that reside in the I/O elements (IOE). This architecture improves performance with regards to
the receiver input skew margin (RSKM) or transmitter channel-to-channel skew (TCCS).
• For the LVDS serializer/deserializer (SERDES), MAX 10 devices use logic elements (LE) registers.
Related Information
• MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O Design Overview on page 1-1
• MAX 10 LVDS SERDES I/O Standards Support on page 2-7
Lists the supported LVDS I/O standards and the support in different MAX 10 device variants.
MAX 10 LVDS Channels Support
The LVDS channels available vary among MAX 10 devices. All I/O banks in MAX 10 devices support true
LVDS input buffers and emulated LVDS output buffers. However, only the bottom I/O banks support
true LVDS output buffers.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
101 Innovation Drive, San Jose, CA 95134
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MAX 10 LVDS Channels Support
Table 2-1: LVDS Buffers in MAX 10 Devices
This table lists the LVDS buffer support for I/O banks on each side of the devices.
Product Line
Package
V36
M153
10M02
U169
U324
E144
Altera Corporation
Side
True LVDS Pairs
Emulated LVDS Pairs
TX
RX
Top
0
1
1
Right
0
3
3
Left
0
3
3
Bottom
3
3
3
Top
0
12
12
Right
0
12
12
Left
0
12
12
Bottom
9
49
13
Top
0
12
12
Right
0
17
17
Left
0
15
15
Bottom
9
14
14
Top
0
13
13
Right
0
24
24
Left
0
20
20
Bottom
9
16
16
Top
0
10
10
Right
0
12
12
Left
0
11
11
Bottom
7
12
12
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MAX 10 LVDS Channels Support
Product Line
Package
M153
U169
10M04
U324
F256
E144
Side
Emulated LVDS Pairs
TX
RX
Top
0
12
12
Right
0
12
12
Left
0
12
12
Bottom
9
13
13
Top
0
12
12
Right
0
17
17
Left
0
15
15
Bottom
9
14
14
Top
0
27
27
Right
0
31
31
Left
0
28
28
Bottom
15
28
28
Top
0
19
19
Right
0
22
22
Left
0
19
19
Bottom
13
20
20
Top
0
8
8
Right
0
12
12
Left
0
11
11
Bottom
10
10
10
MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS Architecture and Features
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2-3
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MAX 10 LVDS Channels Support
Product Line
Package
V81
M153
U169
10M08
U324
F256
E144
F484
Altera Corporation
Side
True LVDS Pairs
Emulated LVDS Pairs
TX
RX
Top
0
5
5
Right
0
7
7
Left
0
6
6
Bottom
7
7
7
Top
0
12
12
Right
0
12
12
Left
0
12
12
Bottom
9
13
13
Top
0
12
12
Right
0
17
17
Left
0
15
15
Bottom
9
14
14
Top
0
27
27
Right
0
31
31
Left
0
28
28
Bottom
15
28
28
Top
0
19
19
Right
0
22
22
Left
0
19
19
Bottom
13
20
20
Top
0
8
8
Right
0
12
12
Left
0
11
11
Bottom
10
10
10
Top
0
27
27
Right
0
33
33
Left
0
28
28
Bottom
15
28
28
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MAX 10 LVDS Channels Support
Product Line
Package
U169
U324
10M16
F256
E144
F484
Side
Emulated LVDS Pairs
TX
RX
Top
0
12
12
Right
0
17
17
Left
0
15
15
Bottom
9
14
14
Top
0
27
27
Right
0
31
31
Left
0
28
28
Bottom
15
28
28
Top
0
19
19
Right
0
22
22
Left
0
19
19
Bottom
13
20
20
Top
0
8
8
Right
0
12
12
Left
0
11
11
Bottom
10
10
10
Top
0
39
39
Right
0
38
38
Left
0
32
32
Bottom
22
42
42
MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS Architecture and Features
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2-5
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MAX 10 LVDS Channels Support
Product Line
Package
F256
10M25
E144
F484
F256
E144
10M40
F484
F672
Altera Corporation
Side
True LVDS Pairs
Emulated LVDS Pairs
TX
RX
Top
0
19
19
Right
0
22
22
Left
0
19
19
Bottom
13
20
20
Top
0
8
8
Right
0
12
12
Left
0
11
11
Bottom
10
10
10
Top
0
41
41
Right
0
48
48
Left
0
36
36
Bottom
24
46
46
Top
0
19
19
Right
0
22
22
Left
0
19
19
Bottom
13
20
20
Top
0
9
9
Right
0
12
12
Left
0
11
11
Bottom
10
10
10
Top
0
41
41
Right
0
48
48
Left
0
36
36
Bottom
24
46
46
Top
0
53
53
Right
0
70
70
Left
0
60
60
Bottom
30
58
58
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MAX 10 LVDS SERDES I/O Standards Support
Product Line
Package
F256
E144
10M50
F484
F672
Side
True LVDS Pairs
2-7
Emulated LVDS Pairs
TX
RX
Top
0
19
19
Right
0
22
22
Left
0
19
19
Bottom
13
20
20
Top
0
9
9
Right
0
12
12
Left
0
11
11
Bottom
10
10
10
Top
0
41
41
Right
0
48
48
Left
0
36
36
Bottom
24
46
46
Top
0
53
53
Right
0
70
70
Left
0
60
60
Bottom
30
58
58
MAX 10 LVDS SERDES I/O Standards Support
The MAX 10 D and S device variants support different LVDS I/O standards. All I/O banks in MAX 10
devices support true LVDS input buffers and emulated LVDS output buffers. However, only the bottom
I/O banks support true LVDS output buffers.
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MAX 10 LVDS SERDES I/O Standards Support
Table 2-2: MAX 10 LVDS I/O Standards Support
Single and dual supply MAX 10 devices support different I/O standards. For more information about single and
dual supply devices, refer to the device overview.
MAX 10 Device
Support
I/O Standard
I/O Bank
TX
RX
Dual
Supply
Device
Single
Supply
Device
True LVDS
All
Bottom
banks
only
Yes
Yes
Yes
• All I/O banks support
true LVDS input buffers.
• Only the bottom I/O
banks support true LVDS
output buffers.
Emulated LVDS
(three resistors)
All
Yes
—
Yes
Yes
All I/O banks support
emulated LVDS output
buffers.
Bottom
Yes
—
Yes
—
Emulated RSDS
(single resistor)
All
Yes
—
Yes
—
All I/O banks support
emulated RSDS output
buffers.
Emulated RSDS
(three resistors)
All
Yes
—
Yes
—
All I/O banks support
emulated RSDS output
buffers.
True Mini-LVDS
Bottom
Yes
—
Yes
—
Emulated MiniLVDS (three
resistors)
All
Yes
—
Yes
—
Bottom
Yes
—
Yes
—
—
All
Yes
—
Yes
—
—
True RSDS
PPDS
Emulated PPDS
(three resistors)
Altera Corporation
Notes
—
—
All I/O banks support
emulated Mini-LVDS output
buffers.
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MAX 10 LVDS SERDES I/O Standards Support
2-9
MAX 10 Device
Support
I/O Standard
I/O Bank
TX
RX
Dual
Supply
Device
Single
Supply
Device
Bus LVDS
All
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
• Bus LVDS (BLVDS)
output uses two singleended outputs with the
second output
programmed as inverted.
• BLVDS input uses LVDS
input buffer.
• You can tristate BLVDS
output.
LVPECL
All
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
Supported only on dual
function clock input pins.
TMDS
All
—
Yes
Yes
—
• Requires external
termination but does not
require VREF.
• Requires external level
shifter to support 3.3 V
TMDS input. This level
shifter must convert the
TMDS signal from ACcoupled to DC-coupled
before you connect it to
the MAX 10 input buffer.
• TMDS receiver support
uses dedicated 2.5 V
LVDS input buffer.
Sub-LVDS
All
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
• Transmitter supports
only emulated Sub-LVDS
using emulated 1.8 V
differential signal as
output.
• Requires external output
termination.
• Does not require VREF.
• Sub-LVDS receiver
support uses dedicated
2.5 V LVDS input buffer.
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MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS Circuitry
MAX 10 Device
Support
I/O Standard
I/O Bank
TX
RX
Dual
Supply
Device
Single
Supply
Device
Notes
SLVS
All
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
• SLVS transmitter support
uses emulated LVDS
output.
• Requires external
termination but does not
require VREF.
• SLVS receiver support
uses dedicated 2.5 V
LVDS input buffer.
HiSpi
All
—
Yes
Yes
—
• Only input is supported
because HiSpi is a
unidirectional I/O
standard.
• Requires external
termination but does not
require VREF.
• HiSpi receiver support
uses dedicated 2.5 V
LVDS input buffer.
Related Information
• MAX 10 FPGA Device Overview
• Emulated LVDS External Termination on page 3-3
• Emulated RSDS, Emulated Mini-LVDS, and Emulated PPDS Transmitter External Termination
on page 3-4
• TMDS Receiver External Termination on page 4-4
• Sub-LVDS Transmitter External Termination on page 3-3
• Sub-LVDS Receiver External Termination on page 4-3
• SLVS Transmitter External Termination on page 3-4
• SLVS Receiver External Termination on page 4-3
• HiSpi Receiver External Termination on page 4-4
MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS Circuitry
The LVDS solution uses the I/O elements and registers in the MAX 10 devices. The Altera Soft LVDS IP
core implements the serializer and deserializer as soft SERDES blocks in the core logic.
Altera Corporation
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MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O Location
The MAX 10 devices do not contain dedicated serialization or deserialization circuitry:
• You can use I/O pins and core fabric to implement a high-speed differential interface in the device.
• The MAX 10 solution uses shift registers, internal PLLs, and I/O elements to perform the serial-toparallel and parallel-to-serial conversions of incoming and outgoing data.
• The Quartus® II software uses the parameter settings of the Altera Soft LVDS IP core to automatically
construct the differential SERDES in the core fabric.
Figure 2-1: Soft LVDS SERDES
This figure shows a transmitter and receiver block diagram for the soft LVDS SERDES circuitry with the
interface signals of the transmitter and receiver data paths.
tx_in
10 bits
maximum
data width
10
ALTERA_SOFT_LVDS
tx_in
inclock
C0
FPGA
Fabric
LVDS Receiver
ALTERA_SOFT_LVDS
10
rx_out
+
–
rx_in
C0
inclock
rx_outclock
C0
tx_out
LVDS Transmitter
C1
tx_coreclock
rx_out
+
–
tx_out
rx_in
C1
inclock
rx_inclock / tx_inclock
areset
pll_areset
ALTPLL
C1
Related Information
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
Provides more information about the PLL and the PLL output counters.
MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O Location
The I/O banks in MAX 10 devices support true LVDS input and emulated LVDS output on all I/O banks.
Only the bottom I/O banks support true LVDS output.
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MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O Location
Figure 2-2: LVDS Support in I/O Banks of 10M02 Devices
This figure shows a top view of the silicon die. Each bank is labeled with the actual bank number.
LVPECL support only in banks 2 and 6.
8
1
6
TX
5
2
3
Altera Corporation
RX
LVDS
Emulated LVDS
RSDS
Emulated RSDS
Mini-LVDS
Emulated Mini-LVDS
PPDS
Emulated PPDS
BLVDS
LVPECL
TMDS
Sub-LVDS
SLVS
HiSpi
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MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O Location
Figure 2-3: LVDS Support in I/O Banks of 10M04 and 10M08 Devices
This figure shows a top view of the silicon die. Each bank is labeled with the actual bank number.
LVPECL support only in banks 2 and 6.
8
7
1A
6
TX
1B
5
2
3
MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS Architecture and Features
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4
RX
LVDS
Emulated LVDS
RSDS
Emulated RSDS
Mini-LVDS
Emulated Mini-LVDS
PPDS
Emulated PPDS
BLVDS
LVPECL
TMDS
Sub-LVDS
SLVS
HiSpi
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Differential I/O Pins in Low Speed Region
Figure 2-4: LVDS Support in I/O Banks of 10M16, 10M25, 10M40, and 10M50 Devices
This figure shows a top view of the silicon die. Each bank is labeled with the actual bank number.
LVPECL support only in banks 2, 3, 6, and 8.
8
7
1A
6
TX
1B
5
2
OCT
3
4
RX
LVDS
Emulated LVDS
RSDS
Emulated RSDS
Mini-LVDS
Emulated Mini-LVDS
PPDS
Emulated PPDS
BLVDS
LVPECL
TMDS
Sub-LVDS
SLVS
HiSpi
Differential I/O Pins in Low Speed Region
Some of the differential I/O pins are located in the low speed region of the MAX 10 device.
• For each user I/O pin (excluding configuration pin) that you place in the low speed region, the
Quartus II software generates an informational warning message.
• Refer to the device pinout to identify the low speed I/O pins.
• Refer to the device datasheet for the performance information of these I/O pins.
Related Information
• MAX 10 Device Pin-Out Files
Provides pin-out files for each MAX 10 device.
• MAX 10 Device Datasheet
Altera Corporation
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You can implement transmitter-only applications using the MAX 10 LVDS solution. You can use the
Altera Soft LVDS IP core to instantiate soft SERDES circuitry. The soft SERDES circuitry works with the
clocks and differential I/O pins to create a high-speed differential transmitter circuit.
Related Information
• MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O Design Overview on page 1-1
• MAX 10 LVDS SERDES I/O Standards Support on page 2-7
Lists the supported LVDS I/O standards and the support in different MAX 10 device variants.
High-Speed I/O Transmitter Circuitry
The LVDS transmitter circuitry uses the I/O elements and registers in the MAX 10 devices. The Altera
Soft LVDS IP core implements the serializer as a soft SERDES block in the core logic.
Related Information
MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS Circuitry on page 2-10
LVDS Transmitter Programmable I/O Features
You can program some features of the I/O buffers and pins in MAX 10 devices according to your design
requirements. For high-speed LVDS transmitter applications, you can program the pre-emphasis setting.
Programmable Pre-Emphasis
The differential output voltage (VOD) setting and the output impedance of the driver set the output
current limit of a high-speed transmission signal. At a high frequency, the slew rate may not be fast
enough to reach the full VOD level before the next edge, producing pattern-dependent jitter. Pre-emphasis
momentarily boosts the output current during switching to increase the output slew rate.
Pre-emphasis increases the amplitude of the high-frequency component of the output signal. This
increase compensates for the frequency-dependent attenuation along the transmission line.
The overshoot introduced by the extra current occurs only during change of state switching. This
overshoot increases the output slew rate but does not ring, unlike the overshoot caused by signal
reflection. The amount of pre-emphasis required depends on the attenuation of the high-frequency
component along the transmission line.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
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ISO
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Programmable Differential Output Voltage
Figure 3-1: LVDS Output with Programmable Pre-Emphasis
Voltage boost
from pre-emphasis
VP
OUT
V OD
OUT
VP
Differential output
voltage (peak–peak)
Table 3-1: Quartus II Software Assignment for Programmable Pre-Emphasis
Field
Assignment
To
tx_out
Assignment name
Programmable Pre-emphasis
Allowed values
0 (disabled), 1 (enabled). Default is 1.
Programmable Differential Output Voltage
The programmable VOD settings allow you to adjust the output eye opening to optimize the trace length
and power consumption. A higher VOD swing improves voltage margins at the receiver end, and a smaller
VOD swing reduces power consumption.
Figure 3-2: Differential VOD
This figure shows the VOD of the differential LVDS output.
Single-Ended Waveform
Positive Channel (p)
V OD
Negative Channel (n)
V CM
Ground
Differential Waveform
V OD (diff peak - peak) = 2 x V
V OD
OD
(single-ended)
p-n=0V
V OD
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LVDS Transmitter I/O Termination Schemes
3-3
You can statically adjust the VOD of the differential signal by changing the VOD settings in the Quartus II
software Assignment Editor.
Table 3-2: Quartus II Software Assignment Editor—Programmable VOD
Field
Assignment
To
tx_out
Assignment name
Programmable Differential Output Voltage (VOD)
Allowed values
0 (low), 1 (medium), 2 (high). Default is 2.
LVDS Transmitter I/O Termination Schemes
For transmitter applications in MAX 10 devices, you must implement external termination for some I/O
standards.
Emulated LVDS External Termination
The emulated LVDS transmitter requires a three-resistor external termination scheme.
Figure 3-3: External Termination for Emulated LVDS Transmitter
In this figure, RS = 120 Ω and RP = 170 Ω.
RS
50 Ω
RP
100 Ω
50 Ω
RS
Emulated LVDS on FPGA
LVDS peer
Sub-LVDS Transmitter External Termination
The Sub-LVDS transmitter requires a three-resistor external termination scheme.
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SLVS Transmitter External Termination
Figure 3-4: External Termination for Sub-LVDS Transmitter
1.8 V
Z0 = 50 Ω
267 Ω
TX
121 Ω
100 Ω
RX
Z0 = 50 Ω
267 Ω
Sub-LVDS on FPGA
Sub-LVDS peer
SLVS Transmitter External Termination
The SLVS transmitter requires a three-resistor external termination scheme.
Figure 3-5: External Termination for SLVS Transmitter
2.5 V
2.5 V
221 Ω
15 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
48.7 Ω
TX
100 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
48.7 Ω
221 Ω
SLVS on FPGA
RX
15 Ω
2.5 V
SLVS peer
Emulated RSDS, Emulated Mini-LVDS, and Emulated PPDS Transmitter External
Termination
The emulated RSDS, emulated mini-LVDS, or emulated PPDS transmitter requires a three-resistor
external termination scheme. You can also use a single-resistor external termination for the emulated
RSDS transmitter.
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Figure 3-6: External Termination for Emulated RSDS, Mini-LVDS, or PPDS Transmitter
In this figure, RS is 120 Ω and RP is 170 Ω.
RS
50 Ω
RP
100 Ω
50 Ω
RS
Emulated RSDS,
Mini-LVDS, or PPDS
on FPGA
RSDS, Mini-LVDS, or
PPDS peer
Figure 3-7: Single-Resistor External Termination for Emulated RSDS Transmitter
50 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
50 Ω
Emulated RSDS on FPGA
RSDS peer
LVDS Transmitter FPGA Design Implementation
MAX 10 devices use a soft SERDES architecture to support high-speed I/O interfaces. The Quartus II
software creates the SERDES circuits in the core fabric by using the Altera Soft LVDS IP core. To improve
the timing performance and support the SERDES, MAX 10 devices use the I/O registers and LE registers
in the core fabric.
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Altera Soft LVDS IP Core in Transmitter Mode
In the Quartus II software, you can design your high-speed transmitter interfaces using the Altera Soft
LVDS IP core. This IP core uses the resources optimally in the MAX 10 devices to create the high-speed
I/O interfaces.
• You can use the Altera Soft LVDS parameter editor to customize your serializer based on your design
requirements.
• The high-speed I/O interface created using the Altera Soft LVDS IP core always sends the most signifi‐
cant bit (MSB) of your parallel data first.
Related Information
Altera Soft LVDS Parameter Settings on page 7-1
Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options
You can quickly configure a custom IP variation in the parameter editor. Use the following steps to
specify IP core options and parameters in the parameter editor. Refer to Specifying IP Core Parameters
and Options (Legacy Parameter Editors) for configuration of IP cores using the legacy parameter editor.
1. In the IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog), locate and double-click the name of the IP core to customize.
The parameter editor appears.
2. Specify a top-level name for your custom IP variation. The parameter editor saves the IP variation
settings in a file named <your_ip>.qsys. Click OK.
3. Specify the parameters and options for your IP variation in the parameter editor, including one or
more of the following. Refer to your IP core user guide for information about specific IP core
parameters.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Altera Corporation
• Optionally select preset parameter values if provided for your IP core. Presets specify initial
parameter values for specific applications.
• Specify parameters defining the IP core functionality, port configurations, and device-specific
features.
• Specify options for processing the IP core files in other EDA tools.
Click Generate HDL, the Generation dialog box appears.
Specify output file generation options, and then click Generate. The IP variation files generate
according to your specifications.
To generate a simulation testbench, click Generate > Generate Testbench System.
To generate an HDL instantiation template that you can copy and paste into your text editor, click
Generate > HDL Example.
Click Finish. The parameter editor adds the top-level .qsys file to the current project automatically. If
you are prompted to manually add the .qsys file to the project, click Project > Add/Remove Files in
Project to add the file.
After generating and instantiating your IP variation, make appropriate pin assignments to connect
ports.
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Figure 3-8: IP Parameter Editor
View IP port
and parameter
details
Specify your IP variation name
and target device
Apply preset parameters for
specific applications
Related Information
Altera Soft LVDS Parameter Settings on page 7-1
PLL Source Selection for Altera Soft LVDS IP Core
You can create the LVDS interface components by instantiating the Altera Soft LVDS IP core with an
internal or external PLL.
Instantiate Altera Soft LVDS IP Core with Internal PLL
You can set the Altera Soft LVDS IP core to build the SERDES components and instantiate the PLL
internally.
• To use this method, turn off the Use external PLL option in the PLL Settings tab and set the necessary
settings in the PLL Settings and Transmitter Settings tab.
• The Altera Soft LVDS IP core integrates the PLL into the LVDS block.
• The drawback of this method is that you can use the PLL only for the particular LVDS instance.
Instantiate Altera Soft LVDS IP Core with External PLL
You can set the Altera Soft LVDS IP core to build only the SERDES components but use an external PLL
source.
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Guidelines: LVDS TX Interface Using External PLL
•
•
•
•
To use this method, turn on the Use external PLL option in the PLL Settings tab.
Follow the required clock setting to the input ports as listed in the notification panel.
You can create your own clocking source using the ALTPLL IP core.
Use this method to optimize PLL usage with other functions in the core.
Related Information
• MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
Provides more information about the PLL and the PLL output counters.
• MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
Provides more information about the PLL and the PLL output counters.
Guidelines: LVDS TX Interface Using External PLL
You can instantiate the Altera Soft LVDS IP core with the Use External PLL option. Using external PLL,
you can control the PLL settings. For example, you can dynamically reconfigure the PLL to support
different data rates and dynamic phase shifts. To use this option, you must instantiate the ALTPLL IP core
to generate the various clock signals.
If you turn on the Use External PLL option for the Altera Soft LVDS transmitter, you require the
following signals from the ALTPLL IP core:
• Serial clock input to the tx_inclock port of the Altera Soft LVDS transmitter.
• Parallel clock used to clock the transmitter FPGA fabric logic and connected to the tx_syncclock
port.
Related Information
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
Provides more information about the PLL and the PLL output counters.
ALTPLL Signal Interface with Altera Soft LVDS Transmitter
You can choose any of the PLL output clock ports to generate the LVDS interface clocks.
If you use the ALTPLL IP core as the external PLL source of the Altera Soft LVDS transmitter, use the
source-synchronous compensation mode.
Table 3-3: Example: Signal Interface en ALTPLL and Altera Soft LVDS Transmitter
From the ALTPLL IP Core
Fast clock output (c0)
To the Altera Soft LVDS Transmitter
tx_inclock
The fast clock output (c0) can only drive
tx_inclock on the Altera Soft LVDS
transmitter.
Slow clock output (c1)
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Determining External PLL Clock Parameters for Altera Soft LVDS Transmitter
3-9
Determining External PLL Clock Parameters for Altera Soft LVDS Transmitter
To determine the ALTPLL IP core clock parameter for the Altera Soft LVDS IP core transmitter, follow
these steps in your design:
1. Instantiate the Altera Soft LVDS IP core transmitter using internal PLL.
2. Compile the design up to TimeQuest timing analysis.
3. In the Table of Contents section of the Compilation Report window, navigate to TimeQuest Timing
Analyzer > Clocks.
4. Note the clock parameters used by the internal PLL for the Altera Soft LVDS IP core transmitter.
In the list of clocks, clk0 is the fast clock.
Figure 3-9: Clock Parameters Example for Altera Soft LVDS Transmitter
Configure the ALTPLL output clocks with the parameters you noted in this procedure and connect the
clock outputs to the correct Altera Soft LVDS clock input ports.
Files Generated for Altera IP Cores (Legacy Parameter Editor)
The Quartus II software version 14.0 and previous generates the following output for IP cores that use the
legacy MegaWizard parameter editor.
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Initializing the Altera Soft LVDS IP Core
Figure 3-10: IP Core Generated Files
<Project Directory>
<your_ip>.qip - Quartus II IP integration file
<your_ip>.v, .sv. or .vhd - Top-level IP synthesis file
<your_ip> - IP core synthesis files
<your_ip>.sv, .v, or .vhd - HDL synthesis files
<your_ip>.sdc - Timing constraints file
<your_ip>.bsf - Block symbol schematic file
<your_ip>.cmp - VHDL component declaration file
<your_ip>_syn.v or .vhd - Timing & resource estimation netlist 1
<your_ip>.sip - Lists files for simulation
<your_ip>.ppf - XML I/O pin information file
<your_ip>.spd - Combines individual simulation scripts 1
<your_ip>_sim.f - Refers to simulation models and scripts 1
<your_ip>_sim 1
<AlteraIP_name>_instance
<Altera IP>_instance.vo - IPFS model 2
<simulator_vendor>
<simulator setup scripts>
<your_ip>_testbench or _example - Testbench or example 1
Notes:
1. If supported and enabled for your IP variation
2. If functional simulation models are generated
Initializing the Altera Soft LVDS IP Core
The PLL locks to the reference clock before the Altera Soft LVDS IP core implements the SERDES blocks
for data transfer.
During device initialization the PLL starts to lock to the reference clock and becomes operational when it
achieves lock during user mode. If the clock reference is not stable, it corrupts the phase shifts of the PLL
output clock. This phase shifts corruption can cause failure and corrupt data transfer between the highspeed LVDS domain and the low-speed parallel domain.
To avoid data corruption, follow these steps when initializing the Altera Soft LVDS IP core:
1. Assert the pll_areset signal for at least 10 ns.
2. After at least 10 ns, deassert the pll_areset signal.
3. Wait until the PLL lock becomes stable.
After the PLL lock port asserts and is stable, the SERDES blocks are ready for operation.
High-Speed I/O Timing Budget
The LVDS I/O standard enables high-speed transmission of data that results in better overall system
performance. To take advantage of fast system performance, you must analyze the timing for high-speed
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signals. Timing analysis for the differential block is different than traditional synchronous timing analysis
techniques.
The basis of the source synchronous timing analysis is the skew between the data and the clock signals
instead of the clock-to-output setup times. High-speed differential data transmission requires the use of
timing parameters provided by IC vendors and is strongly influenced by board skew, cable skew, and
clock jitter.
Transmitter Channel-to-Channel Skew
The receiver input skew margin (RSKM) calculation uses the transmitter channel-to-channel skew
(TCCS)—an important parameter based on the MAX 10 transmitter in a source-synchronous differential
interface.
• For LVDS transmitters, the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer provides the TCCS value in the TCCS report
(report_TCCS) in the Quartus II compilation report. The report shows TCCS values for serial output
ports.
• You can also get the TCCS value from the device datasheet.
Related Information
MAX 10 Device Datasheet
Guidelines: LVDS Transmitter Channels Placement
To maintain an acceptable noise level on the VCCIO supply, observe the placement restrictions for singleended I/O pins in relation to differential pads.
Altera recommends that you create a Quartus II design, specify your device I/O assignments, and compile
your design to validate your pin placement. The Quartus II software verifies your pin connections against
the I/O assignment and placement rules to ensure that the device will operate properly.
You can use the Quartus II Pin Planner Package view to ease differential I/O assignment planning:
• On the View menu, click Show Differential Pin Pair Connections to highlight the differential pin
pairing. The differential pin pairs are connected with red lines.
• For differential pins, you only need to assign the signal to a positive pin. The Quartus II software
automatically assigns the negative pin if the positive pin is assigned with a differential I/O standard.
In MAX 10 devices, the routing of each differential pin pair is matched. Consequently, the skew between
the positive and the negative pins is minimal. The internal routings of both pins in a differential pair are
matched even if the pins are non-adjacent.
MAX 10 support x18 bundling mode. To control skew, place all LVDS channels in the same bundle side
by side and the channels must not cross I/O banks. In your PCB design, Altera recommends package skew
compensation to minimize skew and maximize performance.
Guidelines: LVDS Channels PLL Placement
Each PLL in the MAX 10 device can drive only the LVDS channels in I/O banks on the same edge as the
PLL.
Table 3-4: Examples of Usable PLL to Drive I/O Banks in MAX 10 Devices
I/O Bank Edge
Input refclk
GCLK mux
Usable PLL
Left
Left
Left
Top left or bottom left
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Guidelines: LVDS Transmitter Logic Placement
I/O Bank Edge
Input refclk
GCLK mux
Usable PLL
Bottom
Bottom
Bottom
Bottom left or bottom right
Right
Right
Right
Top right or bottom right
Top
Top
Top
Top left or top right
Guidelines: LVDS Transmitter Logic Placement
The Quartus II software automatically optimizes the SERDES logic placement to meet the timing
requirements. Therefore, you do not have to perform placement constraints on the Altera Soft LVDS IP
core logic.
To improve the performance of the Quartus II Fitter, you can create LogicLock™ regions in the device
floorplan to confine the transmitter SERDES logic placement.
• The TCCS parameter is guaranteed per datasheet specification to the entire bank of differential I/Os
that are located in the same side. This guarantee applies if the transmitter SERDES logic is placed
within the LAB adjacent to the output pins.
• Constrain the transmitter SERDES logic to the LAB adjacent to the data output pins and clock output
pins to improve the TCCS performance.
Related Information
Quartus II Incremental Compilation for Hierarchical and Team-Based Design chapter, Volume 1:
Design and Synthesis, Quartus II Handbook
Provides step by step instructions about creating a design floorplan with LogicLock location assignments.
LVDS Transmitter Debug and Troubleshooting
You can obtain useful information about the LVDS interface performance with board-level verification
using the FPGA prototype.
Although the focus of the board-level verifcation is to verify the FPGA functionality in your end system,
you can take additional steps to examine the margins. Using oscilloscopes, you can examine the margins
to verify the predicted size of the data-valid window, and the setup and hold margins at the I/O interface.
You can also use the Altera SignalTap® II Logic Analyzer to perform system level verification to correlate
the system against your design targets.
Related Information
In-System Debugging Using External Logic Analyzers chapter, Volume 3: Verification, Quartus II
Handbook
Perform RTL Simulation Before Hardware Debug
Before you debug on hardware, Altera recommends that you perform an RTL simulation. Using the RTL
simulation, you can check the code functionality before testing in real hardware.
For example, you can use the RTL simulation to verify that when you send a training pattern from a
remote transmitter, the bitslipping mechanism in your LVDS receiver works.
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Geometry-Based and Physics-Based I/O Rules
You need to consider the I/O placement rules related to LVDS. The Quartus II software generates critical
warning or error messages if the I/O placements rules are violated.
For more information, refer to the related information.
Related Information
MAX 10 General Purpose I/O User Guide
MAX 10 LVDS Transmitter Design
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You can implement receiver-only applications using the MAX 10 LVDS solution. You can use the Altera
Soft LVDS IP core to instantiate soft SERDES circuitry. The soft SERDES circuitry works with the clocks
and differential I/O pins to create a high-speed differential receiver circuit.
Related Information
• MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O Design Overview on page 1-1
• MAX 10 LVDS SERDES I/O Standards Support on page 2-7
Lists the supported LVDS I/O standards and the support in different MAX 10 device variants.
High-Speed I/O Receiver Circuitry
The LVDS receiver circuitry uses the I/O elements and registers in the MAX 10 devices. The deserializer is
implemented in the core logic as a soft SERDES blocks.
In the receiver mode, the following blocks are available in the differential receiver datapath:
• Deserializer
• Data realignment block (bit slip)
Related Information
MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS Circuitry on page 2-10
Soft Deserializer
The soft deserializer converts a 1-bit serial data stream into a parallel data stream based on the
deserialization factor.
Figure 4-1: LVDS x8 Deserializer Waveform
RX_IN 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 a b c d e f g h A B C D E F G H X X X X X X X X
FCLK
RX_OUT[9:0]
XXXXXXXX
76543210
abcdefgh
ABCDEFGH
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
101 Innovation Drive, San Jose, CA 95134
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
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Data Realignment Block (Bit Slip)
Signal
Description
rx_in
LVDS data stream, input to the Altera Soft LVDS channel.
fclk
Clock used for receiver.
loaden
Enable signal for deserialization generated by the Altera Soft LVDS IP core.
rx_out[9:0]
Deserialized data.
Data Realignment Block (Bit Slip)
Skew in the transmitted data and skew added by the transmision link cause channel-to-channel skew on
the received serial data streams. To compensate for channel-to-channel skew and establish the correct
received word boundary at each channel, each receiver channel contains a data realignment circuit. The
data realignment circuit realigns the data by inserting bit latencies into the serial stream.
To align the data manually, use the data realignment circuit to insert a latency of one RxFCLK cycle . The
data realignment circuit slips the data one bit for every RX_DATA_ALIGN pulse. You must wait at least two
core clock cycles before checking to see if the data is aligned. This wait is necessary because it takes at least
two core clock cycles to purge the corrupted data.
An optional RX_CHANNEL_DATA_ALIGN port controls the bit insertion of each receiver independently of the
internal logic. The data slips one bit on the rising edge of RX_CHANNEL_DATA_ALIGN.
The RX_CHANNEL_DATA_ALIGN signal has these requirements:
•
•
•
•
The minimum pulse width is one period of the parallel clock in the logic array.
The minimum low time between pulses is one period of the parallel clock.
The signal is edge-triggered.
The valid data is available two parallel clock cycles after the rising edge of RX_CHANNEL_DATA_ALIGN.
Figure 4-2: Data Realignment Timing
This figure shows receiver output (RX_OUT) after one bit slip pulse with the deserialization factor set to 4.
rx_inclock
rx_in
3
2
1
0
3
2
1
0
3
2
1
0
rx_outclock
rx_channel_data_align
rx_out
3210
321x
xx21
0321
LVDS Receiver I/O Termination Schemes
All LVDS receiver channels require termination to achieve better signal quality and ensure impedance
matching with the transmission line and driver.
LVDS, Mini-LVDS, and RSDS Receiver External Termination
The LVDS, mini-LVDS, or RSDS receiver requires a single resistor external termination scheme.
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SLVS Receiver External Termination
4-3
Figure 4-3: External Termination for LVDS I/O Standard
50 Ω
100 Ω
TX
RX
50 Ω
Differential Outputs
Differential Inputs
SLVS Receiver External Termination
The SLVS receiver requires a single-resistor external termination scheme.
Figure 4-4: External Termination for SLVS Receiver
2.5 V
Z0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
TX
RX
Z0 = 50 Ω
SLVS peer
SLVS on FPGA
Sub-LVDS Receiver External Termination
The Sub-LVDS receiver requires a single-resistor external termination scheme.
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TMDS Receiver External Termination
Figure 4-5: External Termination for Sub-LVDS Receiver
2.5 V
Z0 = 50 Ω
TX
100 Ω
RX
Z0 = 50 Ω
Sub-LVDS peer
Sub-LVDS on FPGA
TMDS Receiver External Termination
Figure 4-6: External Termination for TMDS Receiver
This diagram shows the external level shifter that is required for the TMDS input standards support in
MAX 10 devices.
1.8 V
50 Ω
50 Ω
2.5 V
0.1 µF
Z0 = 50 Ω
TX
RX
0.1 µF
Z0 = 50 Ω
TMDS peer
TMDS on FPGA
HiSpi Receiver External Termination
The HiSpi receiver requires a single-resistor external termination scheme.
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LVPECL External Termination
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Figure 4-7: External Termination for HiSpi Receiver
2.5 V
Z0 = 50 Ω
TX
100 Ω
RX
Z0 = 50 Ω
HiSpi peer
HiSpi on FPGA
LVPECL External Termination
The MAX 10 devices support the LVPECL I/O standard on input clock pins only.
• LVDS input buffers support LVPECL input operation.
• LVPECL output operation is not supported.
Use AC coupling if the LVPECL common-mode voltage of the output buffer does not match the LVPECL
input common-mode voltage.
Note: Altera recommends that you use IBIS models to verify your LVPECL AC/DC-coupled termination.
Figure 4-8: LVPECL AC-Coupled Termination
0.1 µF
Z0 = 50 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
0.1 µF
LVPECL Output Buffer
VICM
50 Ω
50 Ω
LVPECL Input Buffer
Support for DC-coupled LVPECL is available if the LVPECL output common mode voltage is within the
MAX 10 LVPECL input buffer specification.
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Figure 4-9: LVPECL DC-Coupled Termination
Z0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
LVPECL Output Buffer
LVPECL Input Buffer
For information about the VICM specification, refer to the device datasheet.
Related Information
MAX 10 Device Datasheet
LVDS Receiver FPGA Design Implementation
MAX 10 devices use a soft SERDES architecture to support high-speed I/O interfaces. The Quartus II
software creates the SERDES circuits in the core fabric by using the Altera Soft LVDS IP core. To improve
the timing performance and support the SERDES, MAX 10 devices use the I/O registers and LE registers
in the core fabric.
Altera Soft LVDS IP Core in Receiver Mode
In the Quartus II software, you can design your high-speed receiver interfaces using the Altera Soft LVDS
IP core. This IP core uses the resources in the MAX 10 devices optimally to create the high-speed I/O
interfaces.
• You can use the Altera Soft LVDS parameter editor to customize your deserializer based on your
design requirements.
• The Altera Soft LVDS IP core implements the high-speed deserializer in the core fabric.
Related Information
Altera Soft LVDS Parameter Settings on page 7-1
Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options
You can quickly configure a custom IP variation in the parameter editor. Use the following steps to
specify IP core options and parameters in the parameter editor. Refer to Specifying IP Core Parameters
and Options (Legacy Parameter Editors) for configuration of IP cores using the legacy parameter editor.
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1. In the IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog), locate and double-click the name of the IP core to customize.
The parameter editor appears.
2. Specify a top-level name for your custom IP variation. The parameter editor saves the IP variation
settings in a file named <your_ip>.qsys. Click OK.
3. Specify the parameters and options for your IP variation in the parameter editor, including one or
more of the following. Refer to your IP core user guide for information about specific IP core
parameters.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
• Optionally select preset parameter values if provided for your IP core. Presets specify initial
parameter values for specific applications.
• Specify parameters defining the IP core functionality, port configurations, and device-specific
features.
• Specify options for processing the IP core files in other EDA tools.
Click Generate HDL, the Generation dialog box appears.
Specify output file generation options, and then click Generate. The IP variation files generate
according to your specifications.
To generate a simulation testbench, click Generate > Generate Testbench System.
To generate an HDL instantiation template that you can copy and paste into your text editor, click
Generate > HDL Example.
Click Finish. The parameter editor adds the top-level .qsys file to the current project automatically. If
you are prompted to manually add the .qsys file to the project, click Project > Add/Remove Files in
Project to add the file.
After generating and instantiating your IP variation, make appropriate pin assignments to connect
ports.
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PLL Source Selection for Altera Soft LVDS IP Core
Figure 4-10: IP Parameter Editor
View IP port
and parameter
details
Specify your IP variation name
and target device
Apply preset parameters for
specific applications
Related Information
Altera Soft LVDS Parameter Settings on page 7-1
PLL Source Selection for Altera Soft LVDS IP Core
You can create the LVDS interface components by instantiating the Altera Soft LVDS IP core with an
internal or external PLL.
Instantiate Altera Soft LVDS IP Core with Internal PLL
You can set the Altera Soft LVDS IP core to build the SERDES components and instantiate the PLL
internally.
• To use this method, turn off the Use external PLL option in the PLL Settings tab.
• The Altera Soft LVDS IP core integrates the PLL into the LVDS block.
• The drawback of this method is that you can use the PLL only for the particular LVDS instance.
Instantiate Altera Soft LVDS IP Core with External PLL
You can set the Altera Soft LVDS IP core to build only the SERDES components but use an external PLL
source.
•
•
•
•
Altera Corporation
To use this method, turn on the Use external PLL option in the PLL Settings tab.
Follow the required clock setting to the input ports as listed in the notification panel.
You can create your own clocking source using the ALTPLL IP core.
Use this method to optimize PLL usage with other functions in the core.
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Guidelines: LVDS RX Interface Using External PLL
4-9
Related Information
• MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
Provides more information about the PLL and the PLL output counters.
• MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
Provides more information about the PLL and the PLL output counters.
Guidelines: LVDS RX Interface Using External PLL
You can instantiate the Altera Soft LVDS IP core with the Use External PLL option. Using external PLL,
you can control the PLL settings. For example, you can dynamically reconfigure the PLL to support
different data rates and dynamic phase shifts. To use this option, you must instantiate the ALTPLL IP core
to generate the various clock signals.
If you turn on the Use External PLL option for the Altera Soft LVDS receiver, you require the following
signals from the ALTPLL IP core:
• Serial clock input to the rx_inclock port of the Altera Soft LVDS transmitter.
• Parallel clock used to clock the transmitter FPGA fabric logic.
• The locked signal for Altera Soft LVDS PLL reset port.
Related Information
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
Provides more information about the PLL and the PLL output counters.
ALTPLL Signal Interface with Altera Soft LVDS Receiver
You can choose any of the PLL output clock ports to generate the LVDS interface clocks.
If you use the ALTPLL IP core as the external PLL source of the Altera Soft LVDS transmitter, use the
source-synchronous compensation mode.
Table 4-1: Example: Signal Interface Between ALTPLL and Altera Soft LVDS Receiver with Even
Deserialization Factor
From the ALTPLL IP Core
Fast clock output (c0)
To the Altera Soft LVDS Receiver
rx_inclock
The serial clock output (c0) can only
drive rx_inclock on the Altera Soft
LVDS receiver.
Slow clock output (c1)
rx_syncclock
Table 4-2: Example: Signal Interface Between ALTPLL and Altera Soft LVDS Receiver with Odd
Deserialization Factor
From the ALTPLL IP Core
Fast clock output (c0)
To the Altera Soft LVDS Receiver
rx_inclock
The serial clock output (c0) can only
drive rx_inclock on the Altera Soft
LVDS receiver.
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Determining External PLL Clock Parameters for Altera Soft LVDS Receiver
From the ALTPLL IP Core
To the Altera Soft LVDS Receiver
Slow clock output (c1)
rx_syncclock
Read clock (c2) output from the PLL
rx_readclock
(clock input port for reading operation from RAM buffer and
read counter)
Determining External PLL Clock Parameters for Altera Soft LVDS Receiver
To determine the ALTPLL IP core clock parameter for the Altera Soft LVDS IP core receiver, follow these
steps in your design:
1. Instantiate the Altera Soft LVDS IP core receiver using internal PLL.
2. Compile the design up to TimeQuest timing analysis.
3. In the Table of Contents section of the Compilation Report window, navigate to TimeQuest Timing
Analyzer > Clocks.
4. Note the clock parameters used by the internal PLL for the Altera Soft LVDS IP core receiver.
In the list of clocks, clk0 is the fast clock.
Figure 4-11: Clock Parameters Example for Altera Soft LVDS Receiver
Configure the ALTPLL output clocks with the parameters you noted in this procedure and connect the
clock outputs to the correct Altera Soft LVDS clock input ports.
Files Generated for Altera IP Cores (Legacy Parameter Editor)
The Quartus II software version 14.0 and previous generates the following output for IP cores that use the
legacy MegaWizard parameter editor.
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Figure 4-12: IP Core Generated Files
<Project Directory>
<your_ip>.qip - Quartus II IP integration file
<your_ip>.v, .sv. or .vhd - Top-level IP synthesis file
<your_ip> - IP core synthesis files
<your_ip>.sv, .v, or .vhd - HDL synthesis files
<your_ip>.sdc - Timing constraints file
<your_ip>.bsf - Block symbol schematic file
<your_ip>.cmp - VHDL component declaration file
<your_ip>_syn.v or .vhd - Timing & resource estimation netlist 1
<your_ip>.sip - Lists files for simulation
<your_ip>.ppf - XML I/O pin information file
<your_ip>.spd - Combines individual simulation scripts 1
<your_ip>_sim.f - Refers to simulation models and scripts 1
<your_ip>_sim 1
<AlteraIP_name>_instance
<Altera IP>_instance.vo - IPFS model 2
<simulator_vendor>
<simulator setup scripts>
<your_ip>_testbench or _example - Testbench or example 1
Notes:
1. If supported and enabled for your IP variation
2. If functional simulation models are generated
Initializing the Altera Soft LVDS IP Core
The PLL locks to the reference clock before the Altera Soft LVDS IP core implements the SERDES blocks
for data transfer.
During device initialization the PLL starts to lock to the reference clock and becomes operational when it
achieves lock during user mode. If the clock reference is not stable, it corrupts the phase shifts of the PLL
output clock. This phase shifts corruption can cause failure and corrupt data transfer between the highspeed LVDS domain and the low-speed parallel domain.
To avoid data corruption, follow these steps when initializing the Altera Soft LVDS IP core:
1. Assert the pll_areset signal for at least 10 ns.
2. After at least 10 ns, deassert the pll_areset signal.
3. Wait until the PLL lock becomes stable.
After the PLL lock port asserts and is stable, the SERDES blocks are ready for operation.
High-Speed I/O Timing Budget
The LVDS I/O standard enables high-speed transmission of data that results in better overall system
performance. To take advantage of fast system performance, you must analyze the timing for high-speed
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Receiver Input Skew Margin
signals. Timing analysis for the differential block is different than traditional synchronous timing analysis
techniques.
The basis of the source synchronous timing analysis is the skew between the data and the clock signals
instead of the clock-to-output setup times. High-speed differential data transmission requires the use of
timing parameters provided by IC vendors and is strongly influenced by board skew, cable skew, and
clock jitter.
Receiver Input Skew Margin
Use RSKM, TCCS, and sampling window (SW) specifications for high-speed source-synchronous
differential signals in the receiver data path.
Figure 4-13: RSKM Equation
Conventions used for the equation:
• RSKM—the timing margin between the clock input of the receiver and the data input sampling
window, and the jitter induced from core noise and I/O switching noise.
• Time unit interval (TUI)—time period of the serial data.
• SW—the period of time that the input data must be stable to ensure that the LVDS receiver samples
the data successfully. The SW is a device property and varies according to device speed grade.
• TCCS—the timing difference between the fastest and the slowest output edges across channels driven
by the same PLL. This measurement includes the tCO variation, clock, and clock skew.
You must calculate the RSKM value, based on the data rate and device, to determine if the LVDS receiver
can sample the data:
• A positive RSKM value, after deducting transmitter jitter, indicates that the LVDS receiver can sample
the data properly.
• A negative RSKM, after deducting transmitter jitter, indicates that it cannot sample the data properly.
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Figure 4-14: Differential High-Speed Timing Diagram and Timing Budget
Timing Diagram
External
Input Clock
Time Unit Interval (TUI)
Internal
Clock
TCCS
Receiver
Input Data
TCCS
RSKM
SW
tSW (min)
Bit n
Timing Budget
External
Clock
Internal
Clock
Falling Edge
TUI
RSKM
tSW (max)
Bit n
Clock Placement
Internal
Clock
Synchronization
Transmitter
Output Data
TCCS
RSKM
RSKM
TCCS
2
Receiver
Input Data
SW
RSKM Report for LVDS Receiver
For LVDS receivers, the Quartus II software provides an RSKM report showing the SW, TUI, and RSKM
values.
• To generate the RSKM report, run the report_RSKM command in the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer.
The RSKM report is available in the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer section of the Quartus II compilation
report.
• To obtain a more realistic RSKM value, assign the input delay to the LVDS receiver through the
constraints menu of the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer. The input delay is determined according to the
data arrival time at the LVDS receiver port, with respect to the reference clock.
• If you set the input delay in the settings parameters for the Set Input Delay option, set the clock name
to the clock that references the source-synchronous clock that feeds the LVDS receiver.
• If you do not set any input delay in the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer, the receiver channel-to-channel
skew defaults to zero.
• You can also directly set the input delay in a Synopsys Design Constraint file (.sdc) by using the
set_input_delay command.
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Example: RSKM Calculation
Example: RSKM Calculation
This example shows the RSKM calculation for FPGA devices at 1 Gbps data rate with a 200 ps board
channel-to-channel skew.
•
•
•
•
•
TCCS = 100 ps
SW = 300 ps
TUI = 1000 ps
Total RCCS = TCCS + Board channel-to-channel skew = 100 ps + 200 ps = 300 ps
RSKM = (TUI – SW – RCCS) / 2 = (1000 ps – 300 ps – 300 ps) / 2 = 200 ps
If the RSKM is greater than 0 ps after deducting transmitter jitter, the receiver will work correctly.
Guidelines: Floating LVDS Input Pins
You can implement floating LVDS input pins in MAX 10 devices.
For floating LVDS input pins, apply a 100 Ω differential resistance across the P and N legs of the LVDS
receiver. You can use external termination.
If you use floating LVDS input pins, Altera recommends that you use external biasing schemes to reduce
noise injection and current consumption.
Guidelines: LVDS Receiver Channels Placement
To maintain an acceptable noise level on the VCCIO supply, observe the placement restrictions for singleended I/O pins in relation to differential pads.
Altera recommends that you create a Quartus II design, specify your device I/O assignments, and compile
your design to validate your pin placement. The Quartus II software verifies your pin connections against
the I/O assignment and placement rules to ensure that the device will operate properly.
You can use the Quartus II Pin Planner Package view to ease differential I/O assignment planning:
• On the View menu, click Show Differential Pin Pair Connections to highlight the differential pin
pairing. The differential pin pairs are connected with red lines.
• For differential pins, you only need to assign the signal to a positive pin. The Quartus II software
automatically assigns the negative pin if the positive pin is assigned with a differential I/O standard.
In MAX 10 devices, the routing of each differential pin pair is matched. Consequently, the skew between
the positive and the negative pins is minimal. The internal routings of both pins in a differential pair are
matched even if the pins are non-adjacent.
MAX 10 support x18 bundling mode. To control skew, place all LVDS channels in the same bundle side
by side and the channels must not cross I/O banks. In your PCB design, Altera recommends package skew
compensation to minimize skew and maximize performance.
Guidelines: LVDS Channels PLL Placement
Each PLL in the MAX 10 device can drive only the LVDS channels in I/O banks on the same edge as the
PLL.
Table 4-3: Examples of Usable PLL to Drive I/O Banks in MAX 10 Devices
I/O Bank Edge
Input refclk
GCLK mux
Usable PLL
Left
Left
Left
Top left or bottom left
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I/O Bank Edge
Input refclk
GCLK mux
Usable PLL
Bottom
Bottom
Bottom
Bottom left or bottom right
Right
Right
Right
Top right or bottom right
Top
Top
Top
Top left or top right
4-15
Guidelines: LVDS Receiver Logic Placement
The Quartus II software automatically optimizes the SERDES logic placement to meet the timing
requirements. Therefore, you do not have to perform placement constraints on the Altera Soft LVDS IP
core logic.
To improve the performance of the Quartus II Fitter, you can create LogicLock regions in the device
floorplan to confine the transmitter SERDES logic placement.
• The TCCS parameter is guaranteed per datasheet specification to the entire bank of differential I/Os
that are located in the same side. This guarantee applies if the transmitter SERDES logic is placed
within the LAB adjacent to the output pins.
• Constrain the transmitter SERDES logic to the LAB adjacent to the data output pins and clock output
pins to improve the TCCS performance.
Guidelines: LVDS Receiver Timing Constraints
For receiver designs that uses the core logic to implement the SERDES circuits, you must set proper
timing constraints.
For LVDS receiver data paths where the PLL operation is in source-synchronous compensation mode, the
Quartus II compiler automatically ensures that the associated delay chain settings are set correctly.
However, if the input clock and data at the receiver are not edge- or center-aligned, it may be necessary
for you to set the timing constraints in the Quartus II TimeQuest Timing Analyzer. The timing
constraints specify the timing requirements necessary to ensure reliable data capture.
LVDS Receiver Debug and Troubleshooting
You can obtain useful information about the LVDS interface performance with board-level verification
using the FPGA prototype.
Although the focus of the board-level verifcation is to verify the FPGA functionality in your end system,
you can take additional steps to examine the margins. Using oscilloscopes, you can examine the margins
to verify the predicted size of the data-valid window, and the setup and hold margins at the I/O interface.
You can also use the Altera SignalTap II Logic Analyzer to perform system level verification to correlate
the system against your design targets.
Perform RTL Simulation Before Hardware Debug
Before you debug on hardware, Altera recommends that you perform an RTL simulation. Using the RTL
simulation, you can check the code functionality before testing in real hardware.
For example, you can use the RTL simulation to verify that when you send a training pattern from a
remote transmitter, the bitslipping mechanism in your LVDS receiver works.
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Geometry-Based and Physics-Based I/O Rules
You need to consider the I/O placement rules related to LVDS. The Quartus II software generates critical
warning or error messages if the I/O placements rules are violated.
For more information, refer to the related information.
Related Information
MAX 10 General Purpose I/O User Guide
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MAX 10 LVDS Transmitter and Receiver Design
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You can implement mixed transmitter and receiver applications using the MAX 10 LVDS solution. You
can use the Altera Soft LVDS IP core to instantiate soft SERDES circuitry. The soft SERDES circuitry
works with the clocks and differential I/O pins to create high-speed differential transmitter and receiver
circuits.
In a mixed transmitter and receiver implementation, the transmitter and receiver can share some FPGA
resources.
Related Information
• MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O Design Overview on page 1-1
• MAX 10 LVDS SERDES I/O Standards Support on page 2-7
Lists the supported LVDS I/O standards and the support in different MAX 10 device variants.
Transmitter–Receiver Interfacing
You can instantiate the components for the Altera Soft LVDS interfaces by using internal or external
PLLs.
Figure 5-1: Typical Altera Soft LVDS Interfaces with Internal PLL
FPGA Device
LVDS Source
Device
CLOCK and
DATA
LVDS Receiver IP Core
SERDES logic
and DDIO
PLL
LVDS Transmitter IP Core
PLL
SERDES logic
and DDIO
CLOCK and
DATA
LVDS Destination
Device
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
101 Innovation Drive, San Jose, CA 95134
ISO
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LVDS Transmitter and Receiver FPGA Design Implementation
Figure 5-2: Typical Altera Soft LVDS Interfaces with External PLL
FPGA Device
LVDS Source
Device
LVDS Receiver IP Core
DATA
CLOCK
PLL
IP Core
SERDES logic
and DDIO
LVDS Transmitter IP Core
PLL
IP Core
SERDES logic
and DDIO
DATA
LVDS Destination
Device
CLOCK
Related Information
• MAX 10 LVDS Transmitter Design on page 3-1
Provides more information about specific features and support of the LVDS transmitters.
• MAX 10 LVDS Receiver Design on page 4-1
Provides more information about specific features and support of the LVDS receivers.
LVDS Transmitter and Receiver FPGA Design Implementation
MAX 10 devices use a soft SERDES architecture to support high-speed I/O interfaces. The Quartus II
software creates the SERDES circuits in the core fabric by using the Altera Soft LVDS IP core. To improve
the timing performance and support the SERDES, MAX 10 devices use the I/O registers and LE registers
in the core fabric.
LVDS Transmitter and Receiver PLL Sharing Implementation
In applications where an LVDS transmitter and receiver are required, you typically need two PLLs—one
for each interface. Using the Altera Soft LVDS IP core, you can reduce PLL usage by sharing one PLL
between the transmitter and receiver.
• Turn on the Use common PLL(s) for receivers and transmitters option to allow the Quartus II
compiler to share the same PLL.
• To share a PLL, several PLLs must have the same PLL settings, such as PLL feedback mode, clock
frequency, and phase settings. The LVDS transmitters and receivers must use the same input clock
frequency and reset input.
• If you are sharing a PLL, you can use more counters to enable different deserialization factor and data
rates for the transmitters and receivers. However, because you are using more PLL counters, the PLL
input clock frequency and the PLL counter resolution cause limitations in clocking the transmitters
and receivers.
Note: The number of PLLs available differs among MAX 10 packages. Altera recommends that you select
a MAX 10 device package that provides sufficient number of PLL clockouts for your design.
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Initializing the Altera Soft LVDS IP Core
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Initializing the Altera Soft LVDS IP Core
The PLL locks to the reference clock before the Altera Soft LVDS IP core implements the SERDES blocks
for data transfer.
During device initialization the PLL starts to lock to the reference clock and becomes operational when it
achieves lock during user mode. If the clock reference is not stable, it corrupts the phase shifts of the PLL
output clock. This phase shifts corruption can cause failure and corrupt data transfer between the highspeed LVDS domain and the low-speed parallel domain.
To avoid data corruption, follow these steps when initializing the Altera Soft LVDS IP core:
1. Assert the pll_areset signal for at least 10 ns.
2. After at least 10 ns, deassert the pll_areset signal.
3. Wait until the PLL lock becomes stable.
After the PLL lock port asserts and is stable, the SERDES blocks are ready for operation.
LVDS Transmitter and Receiver Debug and Troubleshooting
You can obtain useful information about the LVDS interface performance with board-level verification
using the FPGA prototype.
Although the focus of the board-level verifcation is to verify the FPGA functionality in your end system,
you can take additional steps to examine the margins. Using oscilloscopes, you can examine the margins
to verify the predicted size of the data-valid window, and the setup and hold margins at the I/O interface.
You can also use the Altera SignalTap II Logic Analyzer to perform system level verification to correlate
the system against your design targets.
Perform RTL Simulation Before Hardware Debug
Before you debug on hardware, Altera recommends that you perform an RTL simulation. Using the RTL
simulation, you can check the code functionality before testing in real hardware.
For example, you can use the RTL simulation to verify that when you send a training pattern from a
remote transmitter, the bitslipping mechanism in your LVDS receiver works.
Geometry-Based and Physics-Based I/O Rules
You need to consider the I/O placement rules related to LVDS. The Quartus II software generates critical
warning or error messages if the I/O placements rules are violated.
For more information, refer to the related information.
Related Information
MAX 10 General Purpose I/O User Guide
MAX 10 LVDS Transmitter and Receiver Design
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MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS Board Design
Considerations
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To achieve optimal performance from the MAX 10 device, you must consider critical issues such as
impedance of traces and connectors, differential routing, and termination techniques.
Guideline: Improve Signal Quality
To improve signal quality, follow these board design guidelines:
• Base your board designs on controlled differential impedance. Calculate and compare all parameters
such as trace width, trace thickness, and the distance between two differential traces.
• Maintain equal distance between traces in differential I/O standard pairs as much as possible. Routing
the pair of traces close to each other maximizes the common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR).
• Keep the traces as short as possible to limit signal integrity issues. Longer traces have more inductance
and capacitance.
• Place termination resistors as close to receiver input pins as possible.
• Use surface mount components.
• Avoid 90° corners on board traces.
• Use high-performance connectors.
• Design backplane and card traces so that trace impedance matches the impedance of the connector
and termination.
• Keep an equal number of vias for both signal traces.
• Create equal trace lengths to avoid skew between signals. Unequal trace lengths result in misplaced
crossing points and decrease system margins as the transmitter-channel-to-channel skew (TCCS)
value increases.
• Limit vias because they cause discontinuities.
• Keep toggling single-ended I/O signals away from differential signals to avoid possible noise coupling.
• Do not route single-ended I/O clock signals to layers adjacent to differential signals.
• Analyze system-level signals.
Guidelines: Control Channel-to-Channel Skew
For the MAX 10 devices, perform PCB trace compensation to adjust the trace length of each LVDS
channel. Adjusting the trace length improves the channel-to-channel skew when interfacing with
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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ISO
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Receiver Input Skew Margin
receivers. The Quartus II software Fitter Report panel reports the amount of delay you must add to each
trace for the MAX 10 device.
You can use the recommended trace delay numbers published under the LVDS Transmitter/Receiver
Package Skew Compensation panel and manually compensate the skew on the PCB board trace. This
skew compensation reduces the channel-to-channel skew so you can comply with the timing budget
between LVDS channels.
At the package level, you must control the LVDS I/O skew for each I/O bank and each side of the device.
If you plan to vertically migrate from one device to another using the same board design, you must
control the package migration skew for each migratable LVDS I/O pin.
Receiver Input Skew Margin
Use RSKM, TCCS, and sampling window (SW) specifications for high-speed source-synchronous
differential signals in the receiver data path.
Figure 6-1: RSKM Equation
Conventions used for the equation:
• RSKM—the timing margin between the clock input of the receiver and the data input sampling
window, and the jitter induced from core noise and I/O switching noise.
• Time unit interval (TUI)—time period of the serial data.
• SW—the period of time that the input data must be stable to ensure that the LVDS receiver samples
the data successfully. The SW is a device property and varies according to device speed grade.
• TCCS—the timing difference between the fastest and the slowest output edges across channels driven
by the same PLL. This measurement includes the tCO variation, clock, and clock skew.
You must calculate the RSKM value, based on the data rate and device, to determine if the LVDS receiver
can sample the data:
• A positive RSKM value, after deducting transmitter jitter, indicates that the LVDS receiver can sample
the data properly.
• A negative RSKM, after deducting transmitter jitter, indicates that it cannot sample the data properly.
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RSKM Report for LVDS Receiver
6-3
Figure 6-2: Differential High-Speed Timing Diagram and Timing Budget
Timing Diagram
External
Input Clock
Time Unit Interval (TUI)
Internal
Clock
TCCS
Receiver
Input Data
TCCS
RSKM
SW
tSW (min)
Bit n
Timing Budget
External
Clock
Internal
Clock
Falling Edge
TUI
RSKM
tSW (max)
Bit n
Clock Placement
Internal
Clock
Synchronization
Transmitter
Output Data
TCCS
RSKM
RSKM
TCCS
2
Receiver
Input Data
SW
RSKM Report for LVDS Receiver
For LVDS receivers, the Quartus II software provides an RSKM report showing the SW, TUI, and RSKM
values.
• To generate the RSKM report, run the report_RSKM command in the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer.
The RSKM report is available in the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer section of the Quartus II compilation
report.
• To obtain a more realistic RSKM value, assign the input delay to the LVDS receiver through the
constraints menu of the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer. The input delay is determined according to the
data arrival time at the LVDS receiver port, with respect to the reference clock.
• If you set the input delay in the settings parameters for the Set Input Delay option, set the clock name
to the clock that references the source-synchronous clock that feeds the LVDS receiver.
• If you do not set any input delay in the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer, the receiver channel-to-channel
skew defaults to zero.
• You can also directly set the input delay in a Synopsys Design Constraint file (.sdc) by using the
set_input_delay command.
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Example: RSKM Calculation
Example: RSKM Calculation
This example shows the RSKM calculation for FPGA devices at 1 Gbps data rate with a 200 ps board
channel-to-channel skew.
•
•
•
•
•
TCCS = 100 ps
SW = 300 ps
TUI = 1000 ps
Total RCCS = TCCS + Board channel-to-channel skew = 100 ps + 200 ps = 300 ps
RSKM = (TUI – SW – RCCS) / 2 = (1000 ps – 300 ps – 300 ps) / 2 = 200 ps
If the RSKM is greater than 0 ps after deducting transmitter jitter, the receiver will work correctly.
Guidelines: Determine Board Design Constraints
After you have closed timing for your FPGA design, examine your board design to determine the different
factors that can impact signal integrity. These factors affect overall timing at the receiving device in the
LVDS interface.
The time margin for the LVDS receiver (indicated by the RSKM value) is the timing budget allocation for
board level effects such as:
• Skew—these factors cause board-level skew:
• Board trace lengths
• Connectors usage
• Parasitic circuits variations
• Jitter—jitter effects are derived from factors such as crosstalk.
• Noise—on board resources with imperfect power supplies and reference planes may also cause noise.
To ensure successful operation of the Altera Soft LVDS IP core receiver, do not exceed the timing budget.
Related Information
Board Design Guidelines Solution Center
Provides resources related to board design for Altera devices.
Guidelines: Perform Board Level Simulations
After you determined the system requirements and finalized the board design constraints, use an
electronic design automation (EDA) simulation tool to perform board-level simulations. Use the IBIS or
HSPICE models of the FPGA and the target LVDS device for the simulation.
The board-level simulation ensures optimum board setup where you can determine if the data window
conforms to the input specifcation (electrical and timing) of the LVDS receiver.
You can use the programmable pre-emphasis feature on the true LVDS output buffers to compensate the
frequency-dependent attenuation of the transmission line. With this feature, you can maximize the data
eye opening at the far end receiver especially on long transmission lines.
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Guidelines: Perform Board Level Simulations
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Related Information
• Altera IBIS Models
Provides IBIS models of Altera devices for download.
• Altera HSPICE Models
Provides SPICE models of Altera devices for download.
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Altera Soft LVDS IP Core References
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You can set various parameter settings for the Altera Soft LVDS IP core to customize its behaviors, ports,
and signals.
The Quartus II software generates your customized Altera Soft LVDS IP core according to the parameter
options that you set in the parameter editor.
Related Information
• MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O Design Overview on page 1-1
• MAX 10 LVDS SERDES I/O Standards Support on page 2-7
Lists the supported LVDS I/O standards and the support in different MAX 10 device variants.
Altera Soft LVDS Parameter Settings
There are four groups of options: General , PLL Settings , Receiver Settings , and Transmitter Settings
Table 7-1: Altera Soft LVDS Parameters - General
Parameter
Condition
Functional mode
—
Allowed
Values
• RX
• TX
Description
Specifies the functional mode for the Altera
Soft LVDS IP core:
• RX—specifies the IP is an LVDS
receiver.
• TX—specifies the IP is an LVDS
transmitter.
Number of
channels
—
1–18
SERDES factor
—
1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 10 Specifies the number of bits per channel.
Specifies the number of LVDS channels.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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Altera Soft LVDS Parameter Settings
Table 7-2: Altera Soft LVDS Parameters - PLL Settings
Parameter
Condition
Allowed
Values
Description
Use external PLL
—
• On
• Off
Specifies whether the Altera Soft LVDS IP
core generates a PLL or connects to a userspecified PLL.
Data rate
—
No limit
Specifies the data rate going out of the PLL.
The multiplication value for the PLL is
OUTPUT_DATA_RATE divided by
INCLOCK_ PERIOD.
Inclock frequency
—
Depends on
Data rate.
Specifies the input clock frequency to the
PLL in MHz.
Enable rx_locked
port
• General,
• On
Functional mode = • Off
RX
• Use external PLL =
Off
If turned on, enables the rx_locked port.
Enable tx_locked
port
• General,
• On
Functional mode = • Off
TX
• Use external PLL =
Off
If turned on, enables the tx_locked port.
Enable pll_areset
port
Always on
If turned on, enables the pll_areset port
in internal PLL mode.
• On
• Off
In external PLL mode, the pll_areset port
is always on.
Enable tx_data_
reset port
• General,
• On
Functional mode = • Off
TX
• Use external PLL =
Off
If turned on, enables the tx_data_reset
port.
Enable rx_data_
reset port
• General,
• On
Functional mode = • Off
RX
• Use external PLL =
Off
If turned on, enables the rx_data_reset
port.
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Altera Soft LVDS Parameter Settings
Parameter
Condition
Use common
Use external PLL =
PLL(s) for receivers Off
and transmitters
Allowed
Values
• On
• Off
7-3
Description
• On—specifies that the compiler uses the
same PLL for the LVDS receiver and
transmitter.
• Off—specifies that the compiler uses
different PLLs for LVDS receivers and
transmitters.
You can use common PLLs if you use the
same input clock source, deserialization
factor, pll_ areset source, and data rates.
Enable self-reset on Use external PLL =
loss lock in PLL
Off
• On
• Off
If turned on, the PLL is reset when it loses
lock.
Desired transmitter • General,
Depends on
inclock phase shift
Functional mode = Data rate.
TX
• Use external PLL =
Off
Specifies the phase shift parameter used by
the PLL for the transmitter.
Desired receiver
inclock phase shift
Specifies the phase shift parameter used by
the PLL for the receiver.
Depends on
• General,
Functional mode = Data rate.
RX
• Use external PLL =
Off
Table 7-3: Altera Soft LVDS Parameters - Receiver Settings
Parameter
Enable bitslip
mode
Condition
Allowed
Values
Description
General, Functional
mode = RX
• On
• Off
If turned on, enables the rx_data_align
port.
Enable
General, Functional
independent bitslip mode = RX
controls for each
channel
• On
• Off
If turned on, enables the rx_channel_
data_align port.
The rx_channel_data_align is an edgesensitive bit-slip control signal:
• Each rising edge on this signal causes the
data realignment circuitry to shift the
word boundary by one bit.
• The minimum pulse width requirement
is one parallel clock cycle.
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Altera Soft LVDS Parameter Settings
Parameter
Condition
Allowed
Values
Enable rx_data_
align_reset port
• General,
• On
Functional mode = • Off
RX
• Enable bitslip
mode = On
• Enable
independent bitslip
controls for each
channel = Off
Add extra register
for rx_data_align
port
• General,
• On
Functional mode = • Off
RX
• Enable bitslip
mode = On
Bitslip rollover
value
1–11
• General,
Functional mode =
RX
• Enable bitslip
mode = On
Use RAM buffer
—
• On
• Off
Description
If turned on, enables the rx_data_align_
reset port.
If turned on, registers the rx_data_align
port.
If you turn this option off, you must preregister the rx_data_align[] port in the
logic that feeds the receiver.
Specifies the number of pulses before the
circuitry restores the serial data latency to 0.
If turned on, the Altera Soft LVDS IP core
implements the output synchronization
buffer in the embedded memory blocks.
This implementation option uses more
logic than Use a multiplexer and synchro‐
nization register option but results in the
correct word alignment.
Use a multiplexer
and synchroniza‐
tion register
—
• On
• Off
If turned on, the Altera Soft LVDS IP core
implements a multiplexer instead of a
buffer for output synchronization.
Use logic element
based RAM
—
• On
• Off
If turned on, the Altera Soft LVDS IP core
implements the output synchronization
buffer in the logic elements.
This implementation option uses more
logic than Use a multiplexer and synchro‐
nization register option but results in the
correct word alignment.
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Altera Soft LVDS Parameter Settings
Parameter
Register outputs
Condition
General, Functional
mode = RX
Allowed
Values
• On
• Off
7-5
Description
If turned on, registers the rx_out[] port.
If you turn this option off, you must preregister the rx_out[] port in the logic that
feeds the receiver.
Table 7-4: Altera Soft LVDS Parameters - Transmitter Settings
Parameter
Enable 'tx_
outclock' output
port
Tx_outclock
division factor
Condition
Allowed
Values
• General,
• On
Functional mode = • Off
TX
• PLL Settings, Use
external PLL = Off
• General,
• 1
Functional mode = • 2
TX
• General,
• PLL Settings, Use
SERDES
external PLL = Off
factor
• Enable 'tx_
outclock' output
port = On
Outclock duty
cycle
—
—
Desired transmitter • General,
Depends on
outclock phase
Functional mode = Data rate.
shift
TX
• PLL Settings, Use
external PLL = Off
• Enable 'tx_
outclock' output
port = On
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Description
If turned on, enables the tx_outclock port.
Every tx_outclock signal goes through the
shift register logic, except in the following
parameter configurations:
• When the outclock_divide_by signal =
1
• When the outclock_divide_by signal
is equal to the deserialization_
factor signal (for odd factors only), and
the outclock_duty_cycle signal is 50
Specifies that the frequency of the tx_
outclock signal is equal to the the
transmitter output data rate divided by the
selected division factor.
Specifies the external clock timing
constraints.
Specifies the phase shift of the output clock
relative to the input clock.
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Altera Soft LVDS Interface Signals
Parameter
Condition
Allowed
Values
Description
Register 'tx_in'
input port
General, Functional
mode = TX
Clock resource
• General,
• tx_inclock
Functional mode = • tx_
TX
coreclock
• Register 'tx_in'
input port = On
Specifies which clock resource registers the
tx_in input port.
Enable 'tx_
coreclock' output
port
General, Functional
mode = TX
If turned on, enables the tx_coreclock
output port.
Clock source for
'tx_coreclock'
• General,
• Auto
Functional mode =
selection
TX
• Global
• Enable 'tx_
clock
coreclock' output
• Regional
port = On
clock
• DualRegional
clock
• On
• Off
If turned on, registers the tx_in[] port.
If you turn this option off, you must preregister the tx_in[] port in the logic that
feeds the transmitter.
• On
• Off
Specifies which clock resource drives the
tx_coreclock output port.
Related Information
• Altera Soft LVDS IP Core in Transmitter Mode on page 3-6
• Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options on page 3-6
• Altera Soft LVDS IP Core in Receiver Mode on page 4-6
Altera Soft LVDS Interface Signals
Depending on parameter settings you specify, different signals are available for the Altera Soft LVDS IP
core.
Table 7-5: Transmitter Interface Signals
Signal Name
pll_areset
Altera Corporation
Direction
Width (Bit)
Input
1
Description
Asynchronously resets all counters to the
initial values.
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Altera Soft LVDS Interface Signals
Signal Name
Direction
Width (Bit)
Input
<n>
• This signal is used if Use external PLL
parameter setting is turned on.
• This signal does not affect the data
realignment block or the PLL.
This signal is parallel data that Altera Soft
LVDS IP core transmits serially.
tx_in[]
Input
<m>
Input data is synchronous to the tx_
coreclock signal. The data bus width per
channel is the same as the serialization
factor (SF).
Reference clock input for the transmitter
PLL.
tx_inclock
Input
1
The parameter editor automatically selects
the appropriate PLL multiplication factor
based on the data and reference clock
frequency.
Output clock that feeds non-peripheral
logic.
tx_coreclock
Output
1
FPGA fabric–transmitter interface clock—
the parallel transmitter data generated in
the FPGA fabric is clocked with this clock.
Provides the LVDS PLL status:
tx_locked
Output
1
• Remains high when the PLL is locked to
the input reference clock.
• Remains low when the PLL fails to lock.
Serialized LVDS data output signal of <n>
channels.
tx_out[]
Output
Send Feedback
Description
Asynchronous reset for the shift registers,
capture registers, and synchronization
registers for all channels.
tx_data_reset
Altera Soft LVDS IP Core References
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<n>
tx_out[(<n>-1)..0] drives parallel data
from tx_in[(<J> × <n>)-1 ..0] where
<J> is the serialization factor and <n> is the
number of channels. tx_out[0] drives data
from tx_in[(<J>-1)..0]. tx_out[1]
drives data from the next <J> number of
bits on tx_in.
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Altera Soft LVDS Interface Signals
Signal Name
Direction
Width (Bit)
Description
External reference clock.
tx_outclock
Output
1
The frequency of this clock is program‐
mable to be the same as the data rate.
Table 7-6: Receiver Interface Signals
signal Name
rx_data_reset
Direction
Width (Bit)
Input
<n>
Description
Asynchronous reset for all channels,
excluding the PLL.
This signal is available if Use external PLL
parameter setting is turned on.
rx_in[]
Input
<n>
LVDS serial data input signal of <n>
channels.
rx_in[(<n>-1)..0] is deserialized and
driven on rx_out[(<J> × <n>)-1 ..0]
where <J> is the deserialization factor and
<n> is the number of channels. rx_in[0]
drives data to rx_out[(<J>-1)..0]. rx_
in[1] drives data to the next <J> number
of bits on rx_out.
rx_inclock
Input
1
LVDS reference input clock.
The parameter editor automatically selects
the appropriate PLL multiplication factor
based on the data rate and reference clock
frequency selection.
rx_coreclk
Input
<n>
LVDS reference input clock.
• Replaces the non-peripheral clock from
the PLL.
• One clock for each channel.
rx_locked
Output
1
Provides the LVDS PLL status:
• Stays high when the PLL is locked to the
input reference clock.
• Stays low when the PLL fails to lock.
rx_out
Output
<m>
Receiver parallel data output.
The data bus width per channel is the same
as the deserialization factor (DF).
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signal Name
rx_outclock
Direction
Width (Bit)
Output
1
7-9
Description
Parallel output clock from the receiver PLL.
• This signal is not available if you turn on
the Use external PLL parameter setting.
• The FPGA fabric–receiver interface
clock must be driven by the PLL
instantiated through the ALTPLL
parameter editor.
rx_data_align
Input
1
Controls the byte alignment circuitry.
You can register this signal using the rx_
outclock signal.
rx_data_align_reset
Input
1
Resets the byte alignment circuitry.
Use the rx_data_align_reset input signal
if:
• You need to reset the PLL during device
operation.
• You need to re-establish the word
alignment.
rx_channel_data_align
Input
<n>
Controls byte alignment circuitry.
rx_cda_reset
Input
<n>
Asynchronous reset to the data realignment
circuitry. This signal resets the data realign‐
ment block.
The minimum pulse width requirement for
this reset is one parallel clock cycle.
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Document Revision History for MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O User Guide
Date
May 2015
Version
2015.05.04
Changes
• Removed the F672 package from the 10M25 device.
• Updated the number of bottom true receiver channels for package
M153 of the 10M02 device from 49 to 13.
• Added BLVDS output support in single-supply MAX 10 devices.
Previously, BLVDS support for single-supply devices was input
only.
• Updated the RSKM definition in the topic about receiver input
skew margin to include jitter induced from core noise and I/O
switching noise.
• Updated topics related to using the Altera Soft LVDS IP core
(transmitter or receiver) in external PLL mode:
•
•
•
•
•
Added rx_readclock, rx_syncclock, and tx_synclock ports.
Removed pll_areset port.
Added examples for odd and even serialization factors.
Added procedures to obtain the external PLL clock parameters.
Removed similar guidelines in the chapter for the transmitter
and receiver design. The updated guidelines for the receiver
only and transmitter only designs can apply for designs that use
both transmitters and receivers.
• Updated parameter settings of the Altera Soft LVDS IP core:
• Removed allowed values "6" and "9" from the SERDES factor
parameter.
• Added allowed value "Off" to the Enable pll_areset port
parameter.
• Updated the parameter label Register_rx_bitslip_ctrl port to
Add extra register for rx_data_align port and specified that
you must pre-register the port if you turn it on.
.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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Document Revision History for MAX 10 High-Speed LVDS I/O User Guide
Date
Version
December 2014
2014.12.15
• Updated table listing LVDS channels to include LVDS channel
counts for each device package.
• Added information in the topics about channels placement that
MAX 10 devices support x18 bundling mode.
• Updated the examples in topics about channels PLL placement to
provide more details.
• Added link to the MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide that
provides more information about the PLL and the PLL output
counters used to clock the soft SERDES.
September 2014
2014.09.22
Initial release.
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Guide
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TOC-2
Contents
MAX 10 External Memory Interface Overview.................................................. 1-1
MAX 10 External Memory Interface Support and Performance.......................................................... 1-2
MAX 10 External Memory Interface Architecture and Features.......................2-1
MAX 10 I/O Banks for External Memory Interface................................................................................2-1
MAX 10 DQ/DQS Groups..........................................................................................................................2-2
MAX 10 Memory Controller......................................................................................................................2-3
MAX 10 External Memory Read Datapath.............................................................................................. 2-5
DDR Input Registers........................................................................................................................2-5
MAX 10 External Memory Write Datapath.............................................................................................2-7
DDR Output Registers.................................................................................................................... 2-7
MAX 10 Address/Command Path............................................................................................................ 2-9
MAX 10 PHY Clock (PHYCLK) Network............................................................................................. 2-10
Phase Detector for VT Tracking..............................................................................................................2-11
On-Chip Termination...............................................................................................................................2-11
Phase-Locked Loop....................................................................................................................................2-12
MAX 10 Low Power Feature.................................................................................................................... 2-12
MAX 10 External Memory Interface Design Considerations............................ 3-1
MAX 10 DDR2 and DDR3 Design Considerations................................................................................ 3-1
DDR2/DDR3 External Memory Interface Pins........................................................................... 3-1
DDR2/DDR3 Recommended Termination Schemes for MAX 10 Devices............................ 3-3
LPDDR2 Design Considerations............................................................................................................... 3-4
LPDDR2 External Memory Interface Pins...................................................................................3-4
LPPDDR2 Power Supply Variation Constraint...........................................................................3-5
LPDDR2 Recommended Termination Schemes for MAX 10 Devices.................................... 3-6
Guidelines: MAX 10 DDR3, DDR2, and LPDDR2 External Memory Interface I/O Limitation..... 3-6
Guidelines: MAX 10 Board Design Requirement for DDR2, DDR3, and LPDDR2..........................3-8
Guidelines: Reading the MAX 10 Pin-Out Files......................................................................................3-8
MAX 10 External Memory Interface Implementation Guides.......................... 4-1
UniPHY IP Core.......................................................................................................................................... 4-1
IP Catalog and Parameter Editor...................................................................................................4-2
Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options................................................................................4-3
Files Generated for Altera IP Cores (Legacy Parameter Editor)............................................... 4-5
LPDDR2 External Memory Interface Implementation..........................................................................4-6
Supported LPDDR2 Topology....................................................................................................... 4-7
DDR2 and DDR3 External Memory Interface Implementation...........................................................4-8
MAX 10 Supported DDR2 or DDR3 Topology...........................................................................4-8
Altera Corporation
TOC-3
UniPHY IP Core References for MAX 10...........................................................5-1
UniPHY Parameter Settings for MAX 10.................................................................................................5-1
UniPHY Parameters—PHY Settings.............................................................................................5-1
UniPHY Parameters—Memory Parameters................................................................................ 5-3
UniPHY Parameters—Memory Timing.......................................................................................5-8
UniPHY Parameters—Board Settings........................................................................................ 5-10
UniPHY Parameters—Controller Settings.................................................................................5-16
UniPHY Parameters—Diagnostics............................................................................................. 5-19
Additional Information for MAX 10 External Memory Interface User Guide
......................................................................................................................... A-1
Document Revision History for MAX 10 External Memory Interface User Guide.......................... A-1
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MAX 10 External Memory Interface Overview
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The MAX® 10 devices are capable of interfacing with a broad range of external memory standards. With
this capability, you can utilize MAX 10 devices in a wide range of applications such as image processing,
storage, communications, and general embedded systems.
The external memory interface solution in MAX 10 devices consist of:
• The I/O elements that support external memory interfaces.
• The UniPHY IP core that allows you to configure the memory interfaces to support different external
memory interface standards.
Note: Altera recommends that you construct all DDR2, DDR3, and LPDDR2 SDRAM external memory
interfaces using the UniPHY IP core.(1)
Related Information
MAX 10 External Memory Interface Architecture and Features on page 2-1
MAX 10 External Memory Interface Design Considerations on page 3-1
MAX 10 External Memory Interface Implementation Guides on page 4-1
UniPHY IP Core References for MAX 10 on page 5-1
Documentation: External Memory Interfaces
Provides more information about external memory system performance specification, board design
guidelines, timing analysis, simulation, and debugging.
• External Memory Interface Handbook Volume 1: Altera Memory Solution Overview and Design
Flow
Provides more information about using Altera devices for external memory interfaces including Altera
memory solution and design flow.
• External Memory Interface Handbook Volume 2: Design Guidelines
Provides more information about using Altera devices for external memory interfaces including
memory selection, board design, implementing memory IP cores, timing, optimization, and
debugging.
• Functional Description—MAX 10 EMIF
Provides more information about implementing memory IP cores for MAX 10 devices.
•
•
•
•
•
(1)
Licensing terms and costs for UniPHY IP core apply.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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MAX 10 External Memory Interface Support and Performance
MAX 10 External Memory Interface Support and Performance
The MAX 10 devices contain circuitry that supports several memory external memory interface
standards.
Table 1-1: Memory Standards Supported by MAX 10 Devices
External Memory Interface
Standard
Voltage (V)
Max Frequency (MHz)
DDR3
1.5
303
DDR3L
1.35
303
1.8
200
1.2
200(3)
DDR2
LPDDR2
(2)
Related Information
• External Memory Interface Spec Estimator
Provides a parametric tool that allows you to find and compare the performance of the supported
external memory interfaces in Altera devices.
• Contact Altera
• Planning Pin and FPGA Resources chapter, External Memory Interface Handbook
Provides the maximum number of interfaces supported by MAX 10 devices for each memory
standards, pin counts for various external memory interface implementation examples, and informa‐
tion about the clock, address/command, data, data strobe, DM, and optional ECC signals.
• MAX 10 Device Datasheet
(2)
(3)
MAX 10 devices support only single-die LPDDR2.
To achieve the specified performance, constrain the memory device I/O and core power supply variation to
within ±3%. By default, the frequency is 167 MHz.
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MAX 10 External Memory Interface Overview
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MAX 10 External Memory Interface
Architecture and Features
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The external memory interface architecture of MAX 10 devices is a combination of soft and hard IPs.
Figure 2-1: High Level Overview of MAX 10 External Memory Interface System
This figure shows a high level overview of the main building blocks of the external memory interface
system in MAX 10 devices.
User
Design
Memory
Controller
Physical
Layer (PHY)
External
Memory SDRAM
• The full rate data capture and write registers use the DDIO registers inside the I/O elements.
• PHY logic is implemented as soft logic in the core fabric.
• The memory controller is the intermediary between the user logic and the rest of the external memory
interface system. The Altera® memory controller IP is a soft memory controller that operates at half
rate. You can also use your own soft memory controller or a soft memory controller IP from Altera's
third-party partners.
• The physical layer (PHY) serves as the bridge between the memory controller and the external
memory DRAM device.
Related Information
• MAX 10 External Memory Interface Overview on page 1-1
• Documentation: External Memory Interfaces
Provides more information about external memory system performance specification, board design
guidelines, timing analysis, simulation, and debugging.
• Memories & Memory Controllers
Provides a list of memory controller IP solutions from Altera and partners.
MAX 10 I/O Banks for External Memory Interface
In MAX 10 devices, external memory interfaces are supported only on the I/O banks on the right side of
the device. You must place all external memory I/O pins on the I/O banks on the right side of the device.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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MAX 10 DQ/DQS Groups
Figure 2-2: I/O Banks for External Memory Interfaces
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
8
PLL
7
Only the top right PLL
is usable for external
memory interfaces
PLL
1A
6
PHYCLK
External memory interface
support only available on
I/O banks on the right side
of the device.
1B
5
2
OCT
3
PLL
4
PLL
External memory interfaces support is available only for 10M16, 10M25, 10M40, and 10M50 devices.
MAX 10 DQ/DQS Groups
Different MAX 10 devices and packages support different numbers of DQ/DQS groups for external
memory interfaces.
Table 2-1: Supported DQ/DQS Group Sizes in MAX 10 Devices and Packages
This table lists the number of DQ/DQS groups supported on different MAX 10 devices and packages. Only the
I/O banks on the right side of the devices support external memory interfaces.
Device
10M16
Altera Corporation
Package
F256, U324, and
F484
I/O Bank
Number of DQ Groups
(Right Side)
x8
B5
1
B6
1
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Device
Package
F256
10M25
F484
F256
10M40
F484
F672
F256
10M50
F484
F672
I/O Bank
Number of DQ Groups
(Right Side)
x8
B5
1
B6
1
B5
1
B6
2
B5
1
B6
1
B5
1
B6
2
B5
2
B6
2
B5
1
B6
1
B5
1
B6
2
B5
2
B6
2
2-3
Related Information
Planning Pin and FPGA Resources chapter, External Memory Interface Handbook
Provides the maximum number of interfaces supported by MAX 10 devices for each memory standards,
pin counts for various external memory interface implementation examples, and information about the
clock, address/command, data, data strobe, DM, and optional ECC signals.
MAX 10 Memory Controller
MAX 10 devices use the HPC II external memory controller.
Table 2-2: Features of the MAX 10 Memory Controller
Feature
Description
Half-Rate Operation
The controller and user logic can run at half the memory clock rate.
Controller Latency
The controller has a low best-case time between a read request or a
write request on the local interface, and the memory command being
sent to the AFI interface.
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MAX 10 Memory Controller
Feature
Description
Data Reordering
The memory controller will reorder read and write requests as
necessary to achieve the most efficient throughput of data.
Starvation Control
The controller implements a starvation counter to limit the length of
time that a command can go unserved. This counter ensures that
lower-priority requests are not overlooked indefinitely due to data
reordering. You can set a starvation limit, to ensure that a waiting
command is served immediately, when the starvation counter reaches
the specified limit.
Priority Bypass
The memory controller accepts user requests to bypass the priority
established by data reordering. When the controller detects a highpriority request, it allows that request to bypass the current queue. The
high-priority request is then processed immediate, reducing latency.
Standard Interface
The memory controller uses Avalon-ST as its native interface, allowing
the flexibility to extend to Avalon-MM, AXI, or a proprietary protocol
with an adapter.
Avalon-MM Data Slave Local
Interface
The controller supports the Altera Avalon memory-mapped protocol.
Bank Management
The memory controller will intelligently keep a page open based on
incoming traffic, improving efficiency, especially for random traffic.
Streaming Reads and Writes
The memory controller has the ability to issue reads or writes continu‐
ously to sequential addresses each clock cycle, if the bank is open. This
feature allows for the passage of large amounts of data, with high
efficiency.
Bank Interleaving
The memory controller has the ability to issue reads or writes continu‐
ously to random addresses. The bank addresses must be correctly
cycled by user logic.
Predictive Bank Management
The memory controller has the ability to issue bank management
commands early, so that the correct row is already open when a read or
write request occurs. This feature allows for increased efficiency.
Quasi-1T Address/Command
Half-Rate
One controller clock cycle equals two memory clock cycles in a halfrate interface. To maximize command bandwidth, the memory
controller provides the option to allow two memory commands on
every controller clock cycle. The controller is constrained to issue a row
command on the first clock phase and a column command on the
second clock phase, or vice versa. Row commands include activate and
precharge commands; column commands include read and write
commands.
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MAX 10 External Memory Read Datapath
Feature
2-5
Description
Built-In Burst Adaptor
The memory controller has the ability to accept bursts of arbitrary size
on the local interface, and map these to efficient memory commands.
Self-Refresh Controls and User
Auto-Refresh Controls
The memory controller has the ability to issue self-refresh commands
and allow user auto-refresh through a sideband interface.
Enable Auto Power-Down
The memory controller has the ability to power-down if no commands
are received.
MAX 10 External Memory Read Datapath
In MAX 10 devices, instead of using DQS strobes, the memory interface solution uses internal read
capture clock to capture data directly in the double data rate I/O (DDIO) registers in the I/O elements.
• The PLL supplies memory clock to the DRAM device and generates read capture clock that is
frequency-locked to the incoming data stream. The read capture clock and the incoming read data
stream have an arbitrary phase relationship.
• For maximum timing margin, calibration sequence is used to position the read capture clock within
the optimum sampling position in the read data eye.
• Data is captured directly in the DDIO registers implemented in the I/O periphery.
DDR Input Registers
The DDR input capture registers in MAX 10 devices are implemented in the I/O periphery.
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DDR Input Registers
Figure 2-3: External Memory Interface Read Datapath
FPGA Core
afi_rdata_en
read_increment_vfifo
(from Sequencer)
Latency Shifter
read_latency_counter
(from Sequencer)
D
Q
CLK
latency_counter
afi_rdata
afi_rdata_valid
FPGA Periphery
FIFO Shifter
D
INCR
CLK
Q
From Other DQ
within DQS Group
RDATA_LFIFO
rdreq
Q
wrreq
D
CLK
Input HR Register
Input HR Register
RDATA_FIFO
Q
RD CLK
D
WR CLK
Q
Q
Q
PLL
Altera Corporation
Q
D
dataout
pad
Q
GCLK AFI_CLK (HR)
PHYCLK MEM_CLK (FR)
PHYCLK DQ_WRITE_CLK (FR)
PHYCLK READ_CAPTURE_CLK0
TRACKING_CLK
D
DDIO_IN
Q
D
Q
D
DQ
fr_clk
hr_clk
inclock
Q
PHYCLK
clkin[0]
clkin[1]
clkin[2]
clkin[3]
clkout[0]
clkout[1]
clkout[2]
clkout[3]
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MAX 10 External Memory Write Datapath
2-7
Figure 2-4: External Memory Interface Read Datapath Timing
soft
afi clock
afi_rdata _en
write_enable for LFIFO
(afi_rdata _valid)
data transferred marked as valid
dcba
hgfe
VFIFO pipe
read _enable for LFIFO
data transferred marked as valid
afi_clk captured data
(after rdata _fifo)
capture clock /2
HR register output
(clocked by div /2 clock )
2 nd flopped data
first ddio data
captured on soft
dcba
dcba
dcba
ba
hgfe
hgfe
hgfe
ba
dc
fe
dc
fe
hg
hg
hard
capture clock
read mem _dq
ddio output
a b c d e f g h
ba
dc
fe
hg
In MAX 10 external memory interfaces, post-amble is not a concern because the read data strobe signal,
DQS, is not used during read operation.
MAX 10 External Memory Write Datapath
For all DDR applications supported by MAX 10 devices, the DQS strobe is sent to the external DRAM as
center-aligned to the write DQ data.
The clock that clocks DDIO registers of the DQ output is phase-shifted –90º from the clock that drives the
DDIO registers of the DQS strobe. This create a DQS strobe that is center-aligned to the DQ data.
The external memory write datapath is not calibrated.
DDR Output Registers
A dedicated DDIO write block is implemented in the DDR output and output enable paths.
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DDR Output Registers
Figure 2-5: External Memory Interface Write Datapath
FPGA Core
FPGA Periphery
Full Rate Cycle
Shifter for WL
Adjustment
afi_wdata_valid
4
D
Q
fr_cycle_shifter
4
Multiplexer Generator
datain
muxsel
Simple DDIO
datain dataout 2
hr_clk
fr_clk
muxsel
Transfer Register
2
D
Q
Simple DDIO
datain dataout 2
hr_clk
fr_clk
muxsel
Transfer Register
2
D
Q
Simple DDIO
datain dataout 2
hr_clk
fr_clk
muxsel
Transfer Register
2
D
Q
D
Q
Q
Q
fr_clk
afi_wdata
afi_dqs_burst
4
4
D
Q
fr_cycle_shifter
D
Q
fr_cycle_shifter
4
4
Multiplexer Generator
datain
muxsel
DDIO OUT
D
Q
Q
DQ
Q
D
Q
Q
Q
fr_clk
dqs/dqs#
2
Transfer Register
2
D
Q
Q
GCLK AFI_CLK (HR)
PHYCLK MEM_CLK (FR)
PLL
Altera Corporation
PHYCLK DQ_WRITE_CLK (FR)
PHYCLK READ_CAPTURE_CLK0
TRACKING_CLK
clkin[0]
clkin[1]
clkin[2]
clkin[3]
DDIO OUT
D
Q
DQS
Q
PHYCLK
clkout[0]
clkout[1]
clkout[2]
clkout[3]
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MAX 10 Address/Command Path
2-9
Figure 2-6: External Memory Interface Write Datapath Timing
soft
afi clock
Write Data
afi_wdata
abcd
efgh
phy_ddio_dq
(after fr_cycle_shifter)
mux select
cd xx
ghab
xx ef
WR DATA Hi
X
c
a
g
e
X
WR DATA Lo
X
d
b
h
f
X
Write Data Valid
afi_wdata_valid[0]
afi_wdata_valid[1]
phy_ddio_wrdata_en[0]
(after fr_cycle_shifter)
phy_ddio_wrdata_en[1]
(after fr_cycle_shifter)
DQS enable
afi_dqs_burst[0]
afi_dqs_burst[1]
phy_ddio_dqs_en[0]
(after fr_cycle_shifter)
phy_ddio_dqs_en[1]
(after fr_cycle_shifter)
mux select
DQS_OE
DQ_OE
hard
mem clock
Transferred DQS_OE
Transferred DQ_OE
adc clock
mem_dq
d c b a h g f e
mem_dqs
mem_dqs_n
MAX 10 Address/Command Path
Altera's soft memory controller IP and PHY IP operate at half rate and issue address/command
instructions at half-rate.
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MAX 10 PHY Clock (PHYCLK) Network
• You must send the address/command instructions to the external DRAM center-aligned with respect
to the external memory clock (CK/CK#).
• For LPDDR2 applications, the address/command path is double data rate (DDR). Dedicated DDIO
output registers in the I/O periphery clocks out the address/command instructions to the external
DRAM.
• For DDR2/3 applications, the address/command path is single data rate (SDR). Instead of dedicated
DDIO output registers, simple output I/O registers in the I/O periphery clocks out the address/
command instructions to the external DRAM device.
MAX 10 PHY Clock (PHYCLK) Network
The PHYCLK network is a dedicated high-speed and low skew balanced clock tree that provides better
clock skew for external memory interface applications.
In MAX 10 devices, only the top right PLL is routed to the PHYCLK tree. Therefore, the PHYCLK tree is
available only for the I/O banks on the right side of the MAX 10 10M16, 10M25, 10M40, and 10M50
devices.
Figure 2-7: I/O Banks for External Memory Interfaces
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
PLL
8
7
Only the top right PLL
is usable for external
memory interfaces
PLL
1A
External memory interface
support only available on
I/O banks on the right side
of the device.
1B
PHYCLK
6
5
2
OCT
PLL
Altera Corporation
3
4
PLL
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Phase Detector for VT Tracking
2-11
Phase Detector for VT Tracking
There may be variations in the read and write paths caused by voltage and temperature changes. The
phase detector keeps track of the variation of the mimic clock to optimize the system timing.
Figure 2-8: VT Tracking System Overview
FPGA Core
FPGA Periphery
I/O Register
CK/CK#
2
Sequencer
CK/CK#
DDIO
Out
DRAM
MIMIC_CLK_P/N
UPDATE
PHASESTEP
COUNTERSELECT
PHASEDONE
RESET
ACK
PD_UP
PD_DOWN
Phase Detector
Phase alignment
Dynamic Phase
Shift Control
PLL
GCLK SYS_CLK (HR)
PHYCLK MEM_CLK (FR)
PHYCLK DQ_WRITE_CLK (FR)
PHYCLK READ_CAPTURE_CLK (FR)
TRACKING_CLK (FR)
In the MAX 10 external memory interface solution, the memory clocks are used to mimic the read and
write paths. The memory clock pins loop back to the phase detector as a mimic clock. The phase detector
provides any variation of the mimic clock to the sequencer. The sequencer adjusts the read capture clock
to match the clock phase change.
On-Chip Termination
The MAX 10 devices support calibrated on-chip series termination (RS OCT) on the right side I/O banks.
• To use the calibrated OCT, use the RUP and RDN pins for each RS OCT control block.
• You can use each OCT calibration block to calibrate one type of termination with the same VCCIO.
You must set the RUP and RDN resistor values according to the RS OCT value. For example, if the RS OCT
value is 34 Ω, then the set both RUP and RDN value to 34 Ω.
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Phase-Locked Loop
Related Information
MAX 10 On-Chip I/O Termination
Provides more information about OCT.
Phase-Locked Loop
For the external memory interface, the PLL generates the memory system clock, write clock, capture
clock, and the logic–core clock.
• The system clock clocks the DQS write strobe, and the address and command signals.
• The write clock that is shifted –90° from the system clock clocks out the DQ signals during memory
writes.
You can use the PLL reconfiguration feature to calibrate the read–capture phase shift to balance the setup
and hold margins. At startup, the sequencer calibrates the capture clock.
For external memory interfaces in MAX 10 devices, you must use the top right PLL (PLL 2).
Related Information
PLL Locations
Provides more information about PLL location and availability in different MAX 10 packages.
MAX 10 Low Power Feature
The MAX 10 low power feature is automatically activated when the self refresh or low power down modes
are activated. The low power feature sends the afi_mem_clk_disable signal to stop the clock used by the
controller.
To conserve power, the MAX 10 UniPHY IP core performs the following functions:
• Tri-states the address and command signals except CKE and RESET_N signals
• Disables the input buffer of DDR input
Note: The MAX 10 low power feature is available from version 15.0 of the Quartus® II software. To
enable this feature, regenerate your MAX 10 UniPHY IP core using the Quartus II software version
15.0 or later.
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MAX 10 External Memory Interface Design
Considerations
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There are several considerations that require your attention to ensure the success of your designs. Unless
noted otherwise, these design guidelines apply to all variants of this device family.
Related Information
• MAX 10 External Memory Interface Overview on page 1-1
• Planning Pin and FPGA Resources chapter, External Memory Interface Handbook
Provides pin planning guidelines for implementing external memory interfaces with Altera devices.
MAX 10 DDR2 and DDR3 Design Considerations
DDR2/DDR3 External Memory Interface Pins
In DDR2/DDR3 interfaces, the MAX 10 devices use data (DQ), data strobe (DQS), clock, address, and
command pins to interface with external memory devices. The devices also use the data mask (DM) pins
to enable data masking.
Related Information
DDR2/DDR3 Recommended Termination Schemes for MAX 10 Devices on page 3-3
MAX 10 Data and Data Clock (Data Strobe) Pins
For the MAX 10 external memory interfaces, the DQ pins are the data pins for bidirectional read and
write, and the DQS pins are the data strobe pins used only during write operations.
The MAX 10 devices support bidirectional data strobes. Connect the bidirectional DQ data signals to the
same MAX 10 device DQ pins. The DQS pin is used only during write mode. In read mode, the MAX 10
PHY generates the read capture clock internally and ignores the DQS signal. However, you must still
connect DQS signal to the MAX 10 DQS pin.
Related Information
Guidelines: Reading the MAX 10 Pin-Out Files on page 3-8
MAX 10 I/O Bank DQ/DQS Support for DDR2/DDR3
For DDR2/DDR3 SDRAM, I/O banks 5 and 6 in MAX 10 devices can support DQ and DQS signals with
DQ-bus widths of 8, 16 and 24 bits.
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trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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Data Mask Pins
• For DDR2 and DDR3 SDRAM interfaces, the devices use ×8 mode DQS group regardless of the
interface width.
• If you need to support wider interfaces, use multiple ×8 DQ groups.
• You can use any unused DQ pins as regular user I/O pins if they are not used as memory interface
signals.
• The x24 interface is implemented through x16 + ECC.
Related Information
MAX 10 DQ/DQS Groups on page 2-2
Provides the supported DQ/DQS groups for each device.
Data Mask Pins
In MAX 10 devices, the data mask (DM) pins are pre-assigned in the device pinouts. Although the Quartus
II Fitter treats the DQ and DM pins in a DQS group equally for placement purposes, the pre-assigned DQ and
DM pins are the preferred pins.
Each group of DQS and DQ signals has one DM pin:
•
•
•
•
You require data mask (DM) pins only while writing to the external memory devices.
A low signal on the DM pin indicates that the write is valid.
Driving the DM pin high causes the memory to mask the DQ signals.
Similar to the DQ output signals, the DM signals are clocked by the –90º shifted clock.
DDR2/DDR3 Error Correction Coding Pins
Some DDR2 and DDR3 SDRAM devices support error correction coding (ECC). ECC is a method of
detecting and automatically correcting errors in data transmission.
• In 24-bit DDR2 or DDR3 SDRAM, there are eight ECC data pins and 16 data pins.
• Connect the DDR2 and DDR3 SDRAM ECC pins to a separate DQS or DQ group in the MAX 10
device.
• The memory controller needs additional logic to encode and decode the ECC data.
Related Information
ALTECC (Error Correction Code: Encoder/Decoder) chapter, Integer Arithmetic Megafunctions User
Guide
Provides more information about ALTECC_ENCODER and ALTECC_DECODER IP cores that
implement ECC functionality.
DDR2/DDR3 Address and Control/Command Pins
For DDR2/DDR3 interfaces, the address signals and the control or command signals are sent at a single
data rate.
You can use any of the user I/O pins on all I/O banks of MAX 10 devices to generate the address and
control or command signals to the external memory device.
Memory Clock Pins
At the external memory device, the memory clock signals (CK and CK#) are used to capture the address
signals, and the control or command signals.
In MAX 10 devices, the double data rate I/O (DDIO) registers are used to generate the CK/CK# signals.
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DDR2/DDR3 Recommended Termination Schemes for MAX 10 Devices
3-3
The memory clock pins are predefined and are listed in the device pinout files. Refer to the the relevant
device pinout files to determine the locations of the memory clock pins.
Related Information
• Pin Connection Guidelines Tables, Planning Pin and FPGA Resources chapter, External Memory
Interface Handbook
Provides more information about CK/CK# pins placement.
• MAX 10 Device Pin-Out Files
DDR2/DDR3 Recommended Termination Schemes for MAX 10 Devices
If you are creating interfaces with multiple DDR2 or DDR3 components where the address, command,
and memory clock pins are connected to more than one load, follow these steps:
1. Simulate the system to get the new slew-rate for the DQ/DQS, DM, address and command, and clock
signals.
2. Use the derated tIS and tIH specifications from the DDR2 or DDR3 datasheet based on the simulation
results.
3. If timing deration causes your interface to fail timing requirements, consider duplication of these
signals to lower their loading, and hence improve timing.
Note: Class I and Class II termination schemes in the following tables refer to drive strength and not
physical termination.
Table 3-1: Termination Recommendations for MAX 10 DDR2 Component
Signal Type
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
SSTL 18 I/O
Standard
FPGA–End Discrete
Termination
Memory–End Termination 1
ODT75(4)
Memory I/O Standard
DQ/DQS
Class I 12
mA
50 Ω parallel to VTT
discrete
HALF(5)
DM
Class I 12
mA
—
Address and
command
Class I with
maximum
drive
strength
—
56 Ω parallel to VTT discrete
—
Clock
Class I 12
mA
—
• x1 = 100 Ω differential(6)
• x2 = 200 Ω differential.(7)
—
—
ODT75 vs. ODT50 on the memory has the effect of opening the eye more, with a limited increase in
overshoot/undershoot.
HALF is reduced drive strength.
x1 is a single-device load.
x2 is a two-device load.
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LPDDR2 Design Considerations
Table 3-2: Supported External Memory Interface Termination Scheme for DDR3 and DDR2
Memory Interface Standard
I/O Standard
RS OCT
RUP, RDN (Ω)
25, 50
25, 50
34, 40
34, 40
DDR3
SSTL-15
DDR3L
SSTL-135
34, 40
34, 40
DDR2
SSTL-18
25, 50
25, 50
Related Information
Planning Pin and FPGA Resources
Provides more information about termination and signal duplication.
LPDDR2 Design Considerations
Note: MAX 10 devices support single-die LPDDR2 only.
LPDDR2 External Memory Interface Pins
In LPDDR2 interfaces, the MAX 10 devices use data (DQ), data strobe (DQS), clock, command, and
address pins to interface with external memory devices. The devices also use the data mask (DM) pins to
enable data masking.
MAX 10 Data and Data Clock (Data Strobe) Pins
For the MAX 10 external memory interfaces, the DQ pins are the data pins for bidirectional read and
write, and the DQS pins are the data strobe pins used only during write operations.
The MAX 10 devices support bidirectional data strobes. Connect the bidirectional DQ data signals to the
same MAX 10 device DQ pins. The DQS pin is used only during write mode. In read mode, the MAX 10
PHY generates the read capture clock internally and ignores the DQS signal. However, you must still
connect DQS signal to the MAX 10 DQS pin.
Related Information
Guidelines: Reading the MAX 10 Pin-Out Files on page 3-8
MAX 10 I/O Bank DQ/DQS Support for LPDDR2
For LPDDR2 SDRAM, I/O banks 5 and 6 in MAX 10 devices can support DQ and DQS signals with DQbus widths of 8 and 16 bits.
• For LPDDR2 SDRAM interfaces, the devices use ×8 mode DQS group regardless of the interface
width.
• If you need to support wider interfaces, use multiple ×8 DQ groups.
• You can use any unused DQ pins as regular user I/O pins if they are not used as memory interface
signal.
Related Information
MAX 10 DQ/DQS Groups on page 2-2
Provides the supported DQ/DQS groups for each device.
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Data Mask Pins
3-5
Data Mask Pins
In MAX 10 devices, the data mask (DM) pins are pre-assigned in the device pinouts. Although the Quartus
II Fitter treats the DQ and DM pins in a DQS group equally for placement purposes, the pre-assigned DQ and
DM pins are the preferred pins.
Each group of DQS and DQ signals has one DM pin:
•
•
•
•
You require data mask (DM) pins only while writing to the external memory devices.
A low signal on the DM pin indicates that the write is valid.
Driving the DM pin high causes the memory to mask the DQ signals.
Similar to the DQ output signals, the DM signals are clocked by the –90º shifted clock.
LPDDR2 Address and Control/Command Pins
For LPDDR2 interfaces, the address signals and the control or command signals are sent at double data
rate.
You can use any of the user I/O pins on all I/O banks of MAX 10 devices to generate the address and
control or command signals to the external memory device.
Memory Clock Pins
At the external memory device, the memory clock signals (CK and CK#) are used to capture the address
signals, and the control or command signals.
In MAX 10 devices, the double data rate I/O (DDIO) registers are used to generate the CK/CK# signals.
The memory clock pins are predefined and are listed in the device pinout files. Refer to the the relevant
device pinout files to determine the locations of the memory clock pins.
Related Information
• Pin Connection Guidelines Tables, Planning Pin and FPGA Resources chapter, External Memory
Interface Handbook
Provides more information about CK/CK# pins placement.
• MAX 10 Device Pin-Out Files
LPPDDR2 Power Supply Variation Constraint
For an LPDDR2 interface that targets 200 MHz, constrain the memory device I/O and core power supply
variation to within ±3%.
• Memory I/O power supply pin is VDDQ
• Memory core power supply pin is VDD
Related Information
MAX 10 Power Management User Guide
MAX 10 External Memory Interface Design Considerations
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LPDDR2 Recommended Termination Schemes for MAX 10 Devices
LPDDR2 Recommended Termination Schemes for MAX 10 Devices
Table 3-3: Supported External Memory Interface Termination Scheme for LPDDR2
Memory Interface
Standard
LPDDR2
I/O Standard
RS OCT
RUP, RDN (Ω)
HSUL-12
34, 40, 48
34, 40, 48
Guidelines: MAX 10 DDR3, DDR2, and LPDDR2 External Memory Interface
I/O Limitation
While implementing certain external memory interface standards, the number of I/O pins available is
limited.
• While implementing DDR2—for 25 percent of the remaining I/O pins available in I/O banks 5 and 6,
you can assign them only as input pins.
• While implementing DDR3 or LPDDR2—the I/O pins listed in the following table are not available for
use. Of the remaining I/O pins, you can assign only 75 percent of the available I/O pins in I/O banks 5
and 6 for normal I/O operation.
Table 3-4: Unavailable I/O Pins While Implementing DDR3 or LPDDR2 External Memory Interfaces in
Certain Device Packages—Preliminary
Device
10M16
Package
F256
U324
F484
F672
N16
R15
U21
—
P16
P15
U22
R18
M21
P18
L22
E16
F21
D16
F20
E19
F18
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Guidelines: MAX 10 DDR3, DDR2, and LPDDR2 External Memory Interface I/O
Limitation
Device
10M25
3-7
Package
F256
U324
F484
F672
N16
—
U21
—
P16
U22
M21
L22
F21
F20
E19
F18
F17
E17
10M40
N16
10M50
P16
—
U21
W23
U22
W24
M21
U25
L22
U24
F21
T24
F20
R25
E19
R24
F18
P25
F17
K23
E17
K24
J23
H23
G23
F23
G21
G22
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Guidelines: MAX 10 Board Design Requirement for DDR2, DDR3, and LPDDR2
Guidelines: MAX 10 Board Design Requirement for DDR2, DDR3, and
LPDDR2
• For DDR2, DDR3, and LPDDR2 interfaces, the maximum board skew between pins must be lower
than 40 ps. This guideline applies to all pins (address, command, clock, and data).
• To minimize unwanted inductance from the board via, Altera recommends that you keep the PCB via
depth for VCCIO banks below 49.5 mil.
• For devices with DDR3 interface implementation, onboard termination is required for the DQ, DQS,
and address signals. Altera recommends that you use termination resistor value of 80 Ω to VTT.
• For the DQ, address, and command pins, keep the PCB trace routing length less than six inches for
DDR3, or less than three inches for LPDDR2.
Related Information
• External Memory Interface Handbook Volume 1: Altera Memory Solution Overview and Design
Flow
Provides more information about using Altera devices for external memory interfaces including Altera
memory solution and design flow.
• External Memory Interface Handbook Volume 2: Design Guidelines
Provides more information about using Altera devices for external memory interfaces including
memory selection, board design, implementing memory IP cores, timing, optimization, and
debugging.
• Functional Description—MAX 10 EMIF
Provides more information about implementing memory IP cores for MAX 10 devices.
• MAX 10 FPGA Signal Integrity Design Guidelines
Provides design guidelines related to signal integrity for MAX 10 devices.
Guidelines: Reading the MAX 10 Pin-Out Files
For the maximum number of DQ pins and the exact number per group for a particular MAX 10 device,
refer to the relevant device pin-out files.
In the pin-out files, the DQS and DQSn pins denote the differential data strobe/clock pin pairs. The DQS and
DQSn pins are listed in the MAX 10 pin-out files as DQSXR and DQSnXR:
• X indicates the DQ/DQS grouping number.
• R indicates the location of the group which is always on the right side of the device.
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Implementation Guides
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You can implement your external memory interface design in the Quartus II software. The software
contains tools for you to create and compile you design, and configure your device.
In the Quartus II software, you can instantiate and configure the UniPHY IP core to suit your memory
interface requirement.
Related Information
• MAX 10 External Memory Interface Overview on page 1-1
• External Memory Interface Handbook Volume 1: Altera Memory Solution Overview and Design
Flow
Provides more information about using Altera devices for external memory interfaces including Altera
memory solution and design flow.
• External Memory Interface Handbook Volume 2: Design Guidelines
Provides more information about using Altera devices for external memory interfaces including
memory selection, board design, implementing memory IP cores, timing, optimization, and
debugging.
• Functional Description—MAX 10 EMIF
Provides more information about implementing memory IP cores for MAX 10 devices.
UniPHY IP Core
The UniPHY IP core allows you to control the soft IP of the MAX 10 external memory interface solution.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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IP Catalog and Parameter Editor
Figure 4-1: MAX 10 UniPHY IP Core Block Diagram
External Memory Interface IP
PLL
I/O Structure
PHY
Reference Clock
Calibration
Sequencer
External
Memory
Device
DQ I/O
I/O Block
Write Path
Memory
Controller
Read Path
Address/Command
Path
IP Catalog and Parameter Editor
The Quartus II IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog) and parameter editor help you easily customize and
integrate IP cores into your project. You can use the IP Catalog and parameter editor to select, customize,
and generate files representing your custom IP variation.
Note: The IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog) and parameter editor replace the MegaWizard Plug-In
Manager for IP selection and parameterization, beginning in Quartus II software version 14.0. Use
the IP Catalog and parameter editor to locate and paramaterize Altera IP cores.
™
The IP Catalog lists installed IP cores available for your design. Double-click any IP core to launch the
parameter editor and generate files representing your IP variation. The parameter editor prompts you to
specify an IP variation name, optional ports, and output file generation options. The parameter editor
generates a top-level Qsys system file (.qsys) or Quartus II IP file (.qip) representing the IP core in your
project. You can also parameterize an IP variation without an open project.
Use the following features to help you quickly locate and select an IP core:
• Filter IP Catalog to Show IP for active device family or Show IP for all device families. If you have no
project open, select the Device Family in IP Catalog.
• Type in the Search field to locate any full or partial IP core name in IP Catalog.
• Right-click an IP core name in IP Catalog to display details about supported devices, open the IP core's
installation folder, and view links to documentation.
• Click Search for Partner IP, to access partner IP information on the Altera website.
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Figure 4-2: Quartus II IP Catalog
Show IP only for target device
Search for installed IP cores
Double-click to customize, right-click for
detailed information
Note: The IP Catalog is also available in Qsys (View > IP Catalog). The Qsys IP Catalog includes
exclusive system interconnect, video and image processing, and other system-level IP that are not
available in the Quartus II IP Catalog. For more information about using the Qsys IP Catalog, refer
to Creating a System with Qsys in the Quartus II Handbook.
Related Information
Creating a System With Qsys, Volume 1: Design and Synthesis, Quartus II Handbook
Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options
You can quickly configure a custom IP variation in the parameter editor. Use the following steps to
specify IP core options and parameters in the parameter editor. Refer to Specifying IP Core Parameters
and Options (Legacy Parameter Editors) for configuration of IP cores using the legacy parameter editor.
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1. In the IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog), locate and double-click the name of the IP core to customize.
The parameter editor appears.
2. Specify a top-level name for your custom IP variation. The parameter editor saves the IP variation
settings in a file named <your_ip>.qsys. Click OK.
3. Specify the parameters and options for your IP variation in the parameter editor, including one or
more of the following. Refer to your IP core user guide for information about specific IP core
parameters.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Altera Corporation
• Optionally select preset parameter values if provided for your IP core. Presets specify initial
parameter values for specific applications.
• Specify parameters defining the IP core functionality, port configurations, and device-specific
features.
• Specify options for processing the IP core files in other EDA tools.
Click Generate HDL, the Generation dialog box appears.
Specify output file generation options, and then click Generate. The IP variation files generate
according to your specifications.
To generate a simulation testbench, click Generate > Generate Testbench System.
To generate an HDL instantiation template that you can copy and paste into your text editor, click
Generate > HDL Example.
Click Finish. The parameter editor adds the top-level .qsys file to the current project automatically. If
you are prompted to manually add the .qsys file to the project, click Project > Add/Remove Files in
Project to add the file.
After generating and instantiating your IP variation, make appropriate pin assignments to connect
ports.
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Files Generated for Altera IP Cores (Legacy Parameter Editor)
4-5
Figure 4-3: IP Parameter Editor
View IP port
and parameter
details
Specify your IP variation name
and target device
Apply preset parameters for
specific applications
Files Generated for Altera IP Cores (Legacy Parameter Editor)
The Quartus II generates the following output for IP cores that use the legacy MegaWizard parameter
editor.
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LPDDR2 External Memory Interface Implementation
Figure 4-4: IP Core Generated Files
<Project Directory>
<your_ip>.qip - Quartus II IP integration file
<your_ip>.v or .vhd - Top-level IP synthesis file
<your_ip>_bb.v - Verilog HDL black box EDA synthesis file
<your_ip>.bsf - Block symbol schematic file
<your_ip>_syn.v or .vhd - Timing & resource estimation netlist 1
<your_ip>.vo or .vho - IP functional simulation model 2
<your_ip>_inst.v or .vhd - Sample instantiation template
<your_ip>.cmp - VHDL component declaration file
greybox_tmp 3
Notes:
1. If supported and enabled for your IP variation
2. If functional simulation models are generated
3. Ignore this directory
LPDDR2 External Memory Interface Implementation
Figure 4-5: Top Level View of LPDDR2 Architecture in MAX 10 Devices
Core
Periphery
Off FPGA
Memory PHY
DQ x8 group
(soft)
Soft Memory
Controller
DQ x8 group
(soft)
GCLK
PLL
Altera Corporation
clk[0]
clk[1]
clk[2]
clk[3]
8
fr_resync_clk
DQ x8 group
hr_resync_clk
8
External Memory
Device
fr_resync_clk
DQ x8 group
hr_resync_clk
sys_clk
PHYCLK
phy_mem_clk
dq_write_clk
read_capture_clk
dqs_tracking_clk
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Supported LPDDR2 Topology
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Related Information
Planning Pin and FPGA Resources chapter, External Memory Interface Handbook
Provides the maximum number of interfaces supported by MAX 10 devices for each memory standards,
pin counts for various external memory interface implementation examples, and information about the
clock, address/command, data, data strobe, DM, and optional ECC signals.
Supported LPDDR2 Topology
For LPDDR2, the external memory interface IP for MAX 10 devices uses one capture clock and one
tracking clock with one discrete device.
Figure 4-6: Supported Topology for LPDDR2 Memory Interfaces
This figure shows the supported LPDDR2 topology. Only one discrete LPDDR2 device is supported with
a 16 bit maximum interface width. The memory interface IP in MAX 10 devices generates LPDDR2 IPs
targeted for this configuration only.
FPGA
16
LPDDR2
CS
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DDR2 and DDR3 External Memory Interface Implementation
DDR2 and DDR3 External Memory Interface Implementation
Figure 4-7: Top Level View of DDR2, DDR3, or DDR3L Architecture in MAX 10 Devices
Core
Periphery
Off FPGA
Memory PHY
DQ x8 group
(soft)
Soft Memory
Controller
DQ x8 group
(soft)
DQ x8 group
(soft)
GCLK
PLL
clk[0]
clk[1]
clk[2]
clk[3]
8
fr_resync_clk
DQ x8 group
hr_resync_clk
8
External Memory
Device
fr_resync_clk
DQ x8 group
hr_resync_clk
8
fr_resync_clk
DQ x8 group
hr_resync_clk
sys_clk
External Memory
Device
PHYCLK
phy_mem_clk
dq_write_clk
read_capture_clk
read_capture_ecc_clk
Related Information
Planning Pin and FPGA Resources chapter, External Memory Interface Handbook
Provides the maximum number of interfaces supported by MAX 10 devices for each memory standards,
pin counts for various external memory interface implementation examples, and information about the
clock, address/command, data, data strobe, DM, and optional ECC signals.
MAX 10 Supported DDR2 or DDR3 Topology
For DDR2 or DDR3/DDR3L, the external memory interface IP for MAX 10 devices uses two capture
clocks with two discrete devices.
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Figure 4-8: Supported Topology for DDR2 or DDR3 Memory Interfaces
This figure shows the supported DDR2/DDR3 topology. One clock captures the lower 16 bit of data and
the other clock captures the top 8 bit of data. The memory interface IP in MAX 10 devices generates
DDR2 or DDR3/DDR3L IPs targeted for this configuration only.
FPGA
16
DDR3
8
DDR3
CS
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For MAX 10 devices, there are three variations of the UniPHY IP core:
• DDR2 SDRAM Controller
• DDR3 SDRAM Controller
• LPDDR2 SDRAM Controller
Related Information
• MAX 10 External Memory Interface Overview on page 1-1
• External Memory Interface Handbook Volume 1: Altera Memory Solution Overview and Design
Flow
Provides more information about using Altera devices for external memory interfaces including Altera
memory solution and design flow.
• External Memory Interface Handbook Volume 2: Design Guidelines
Provides more information about using Altera devices for external memory interfaces including
memory selection, board design, implementing memory IP cores, timing, optimization, and
debugging.
• Functional Description—MAX 10 EMIF
Provides more information about implementing memory IP cores for MAX 10 devices.
UniPHY Parameter Settings for MAX 10
You can set the parameter settings for the UniPHY IP core in the Quartus II software. There are six
groups of options: PHY Settings, Memory Parameters, Memory Timing, Board Settings, Controller
Settings, and Diagnostics.
UniPHY Parameters—PHY Settings
There are three groups of options: General Settings, Clocks, and Advanced PHY Settings.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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UniPHY Parameters—PHY Settings
Table 5-1: PHY Settings - General Settings
Parameter
Speed Grade
Description
Specifies the speed grade of the targeted FPGA device that affects the
generated timing constraints and timing reporting.
Note: For MAX 10 devices, DDR3 and LPDDR2 is supported only
for speed grade –6, and DDR2 for speed grades –6 and –7.
Generate PHY only
Turn on this option to generate the UniPHY IP core without a memory
controller.
If you turn on this option, the AFI interface is exported so that you can
easily connect your own memory controller.
Table 5-2: PHY Settings - Clocks
Parameter
Memory clock frequency
Description
The frequency of the clock that drives the memory device. Use up to 4
decimal places of precision.
You can use the External Memory Spec Estimator to obtain the
maximum supported frequency for your target memory configuration.
Achieved memory clock
frequency
The actual frequency the PLL generates to drive the external memory
interface (memory clock).
PLL reference clock frequency
The frequency of the input clock that feeds the PLL. Use up to 4
decimal places of precision.
Rate on Avalon-MM interface
The width of data bus on the Avalon-MM interface.
The MAX 10 supports only Half rate, which results in a width of 4× the
memory data width.
Achieved local clock frequency
The actual frequency the PLL generates to drive the local interface for
the memory controller (AFI clock).
Table 5-3: DDR3 SDRAM PHY Settings - Advanced PHY Settings
Parameter
Supply voltage
Description
The supply voltage and sub-family type of memory.
This option is available for DDR3 SDRAM only.
I/O standard
The I/O standard voltage.
Set the I/O standard according to your design’s memory standard.
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UniPHY Parameters—Memory Parameters
Parameter
Reconfigurable PLL location
5-3
Description
If you set the PLL used in the UniPHY IP core memory interface to be
reconfigurable at run time, you must specify the location of the PLL.
This assignment generates a PLL that can only be placed in the given
sides.
Related Information
External Memory Interface Spec Estimator
Provides a parametric tool that allows you to find and compare the performance of the supported external
memory interfaces in Altera devices.
UniPHY Parameters—Memory Parameters
There are three groups of options: Memory Parameters, Memory Topology, and Memory Initialization
Options.
Table 5-4: Memory Parameters
Use the Memory Parameters options group to apply the memory parameters from your memory manufacturer’s
data sheet.
Parameter
Description
Memory vendor
The vendor of the memory device. Select the memory vendor
according to the memory vendor you use. For memory vendors that
are not listed in the setting, select JEDEC with the nearest memory
parameters and edit the parameter values according to the values of the
memory vendor that you use. However, if you select a configuration
from the list of memory presets, the default memory vendor for that
preset setting is automatically selected.
Memory format
The format of the memory device.
This parameter is automatically set to Discrete Device.
Memory device speed grade
The maximum frequency at which the memory device can run.
Total interface width
The total number of DQ pins of the memory device. Limited to 8 to 24
bits.
DQ/DQS group size
The number of DQ bits per DQS group.
Number of DQS groups
The number of DQS groups is calculated automatically from the Total
interface width and the DQ/DQS group size parameters.
Number of chip selects
The number of chip-selects the IP core uses for the current device
configuration.
Specify the total number of chip-selects according to the number of
memory device.
This option is available for DDR2 and DDR3 SDRAM only.
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UniPHY Parameters—Memory Parameters
Parameter
Depth expansion
Description
Specifies number of devices are expanded in depth. Only single chipselect is supported.
This option is available for LPDDR2 SDRAM only.
Number of clocks
The width of the clock bus on the memory interface.
Row address width
The width of the row address on the memory interface.
Column address width
The width of the column address on the memory interface.
Bank-address width
The width of the bank address bus on the memory interface.
Enable DM pins
Specifies whether the DM pins of the memory device are driven by the
FPGA. You can turn off this option to avoid overusing FPGA device
pins when using x4 mode memory devices.
When you are using x4 mode memory devices, turn off this option for
DDR3 SDRAM.
You must turn on this option if you are using Avalon byte enable.
DQS# Enable
Turn on differential DQS signaling to improve signal integrity and
system performance.
This option is available for DDR2 SDRAM only.
Table 5-5: Memory Parameters - Memory Topology (DDR3 SDRAM)
This options group is available for DDR3 SDRAM only.
Parameter
Fly-by topology
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Description
Specifies whether the IP core uses fly-by topology in the layout of
width-expanded discrete devices.
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Table 5-6: Memory Parameters - Memory Initialization Options (DDR3 SDRAM)
This table lists the memory initialization options for DDR3 SDRAM.
Parameter
Description
Read burst type
Specifies accesses within a given burst in sequential or
interleaved order.
Specify sequential ordering for use with the Altera
memory controller. Specify interleaved ordering only for
use with an interleaved-capable custom controller, when
the Generate PHY only parameter is enabled on the
PHY Settings tab.
Mode Register 0
DLL precharge
power down
Specifies whether the DLL in the memory device is off or
on during precharge power-down.
Memory CAS
latency setting
The number of clock cycles between the read command
and the availability of the first bit of output data at the
memory device and also interface frequency. Refer to
memory vendor data sheet speed bin table.
Set this parameter according to the target memory speed
grade and memory clock frequency.
Output drive
strength setting
The output driver impedance setting at the memory
device.
To obtain the optimum signal integrity performance,
select the optimum setting based on the board simulation
results.
Mode Register 1
Memory additive
CAS latency
setting
ODT Rtt nominal
value
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The posted CAS additive latency of the memory device.
Enable this feature to improve command and bus
efficiency, and increase system bandwidth. For more
information about optimizing the memory controller,
refer to related information.
The on-die termination resistance at the memory device.
To obtain the optimum signal integrity performance,
select the optimum setting based on the board simulation
results.
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UniPHY Parameters—Memory Parameters
Parameter
Description
Auto selfrefresh
method
Disable or enable auto selfrefresh.
Selfrefresh
temperature
Specifies the selfrefresh temperature as Normal or
Extended.
Memory write
CAS latency
setting
The number of clock cycles from the releasing of the
internal write to the latching of the first data in, at the
memory device and also interface frequency. Refer to
memory vendor data sheet speed bin table and set
according to the target memory speed grade and memory
clock frequency.
Dynamic ODT
(Rtt_WR) value
The mode of the dynamic ODT feature of the memory
device. This is used for multi-rank configurations. For
more guidelines about DDR2 and DDR3 SDRAM board
layout, refer to the related information.
Mode Register 2
To obtain the optimum signal integrity performance,
select the optimum setting based on the board simulation
results.
Table 5-7: Memory Parameters - Memory Initialization Options (DDR2 SDRAM)
This table lists the memory initialization options for DDR2 SDRAM.
Parameter
Description
Burst length
Specifies the burst length.
Read burst type
Specifies accesses within a given burst in sequential or
interleaved order.
Specify sequential ordering for use with the Altera
memory controller. Specify interleaved ordering only for
use with an interleaved-capable custom controller, when
the Generate PHY only parameter is enabled on the
PHY Settings tab.
Mode Register 0
DLL precharge
power down
Determines whether the DLL in the memory device is in
slow exit mode or in fast exit mode during precharge
power down. For more information, refer to memory
vendor data sheet.
Memory CAS
latency setting
Determines the number of clock cycles between the
READ command and the availability of the first bit of
output data at the memory device. For more information,
refer to memory vendor data sheet speed bin table.
Set this parameter according to the target memory speed
grade and memory clock frequency.
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UniPHY Parameters—Memory Parameters
Parameter
5-7
Description
Output drive
strength setting
Determines the output driver impedance setting at the
memory device.
To obtain the optimum signal integrity performance,
select the optimum setting based on the board simulation
results.
Memory additive
CAS latency
setting
Mode Register 1
Memory on-die
termination
(ODT) setting
Mode Register 2
SRT Enable
Determines the posted CAS additive latency of the
memory device.
Enable this feature to improve command and bus
efficiency, and increase system bandwidth.
Determines the on-die termination resistance at the
memory device.
To obtain the optimum signal integrity performance,
select the optimum setting based on the board simulation
results.
Determines the selfrefresh temperature (SRT). Select 1x
refresh rate for normal temperature (0-85C)or select 2x
refresh rate for high temperature (>85C).
Table 5-8: Memory Parameters - Memory Initialization Options (LPDDR2 SDRAM)
This table lists the memory initialization options for LPDDR2 SDRAM.
Parameter
Description
Burst Length
Specifies the burst length.
Read Burst Type
Specifies accesses within a given burst in sequential or
interleaved order.
Mode Register 1
Mode Register 2
Specify sequential ordering for use with the Altera
memory controller. Specify interleaved ordering only for
use with an interleaved-capable custom controller, when
the Generate PHY only parameter is enabled on the
PHY Settings tab.
Memory CAS
latency setting
Determines the number of clock cycles between the
READ command and the availability of the first bit of
output data at the memory device.
Set this parameter according to the target memory
interface frequency. Refer to memory data sheet and also
target memory speed grade.
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UniPHY Parameters—Memory Timing
Parameter
Mode Register 3
Description
Output drive
strength settings
Determines the output driver impedance setting at the
memory device.
To obtain the optimum signal integrity performance,
select the optimum setting based on the board simulation
results.
Related Information
• External Memory Interface Handbook Volume 1: Altera Memory Solution Overview and Design
Flow
Provides more information about using Altera devices for external memory interfaces including Altera
memory solution and design flow.
• External Memory Interface Handbook Volume 2: Design Guidelines
Provides more information about using Altera devices for external memory interfaces including
memory selection, board design, implementing memory IP cores, timing, optimization, and
debugging.
• Functional Description—MAX 10 EMIF
Provides more information about implementing memory IP cores for MAX 10 devices.
UniPHY Parameters—Memory Timing
Use the Memory Timing options to apply the memory timings from your memory manufacturer’s data
sheet.
Table 5-9: Memory Timing
For each parameter, refer to the memory vendor data sheet.
Parameter
Applies To
Description
Set According To
tIS (base)
DDR2, DDR3, Address and control setup to CK clock rise.
LPDDR2
Memory speed
grade
tIH (base)
DDR2, DDR3, Address and control hold after CK clock rise.
LPDDR2
Memory speed
grade
tDS (base)
DDR2, DDR3, Data setup to clock (DQS) rise.
LPDDR2
Memory speed
grade
tDH (base)
DDR2, DDR3, Data hold after clock (DQS) rise.
LPDDR2
Memory speed
grade
tDQSQ
DDR2, DDR3, DQS, DQS# to DQ skew, per access.
LPDDR2
Memory speed
grade
tQHS
DDR2,
LPDDR2
DQ output hold time from DQS, DQS#
(absolute time value).
Memory speed
grade
tQH
DDR3
DQ output hold time from DQS, DQS#
(percentage of tCK).
Memory speed
grade
tDQSCK
DDR2, DDR3, DQS output access time from CK/CK#.
LPDDR2
Memory speed
grade
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Parameter
UniPHY Parameters—Memory Timing
Applies To
Description
Set According To
tDQSCK Delta
Short
LPDDR2
Absolute value of the difference between any
two tDQSCK measurements (within a byte
lane) within a contiguous sequence of bursts
within a 160 ns rolling window.
Memory speed
grade
tDQSCK Delta
Medium
LPDDR2
Absolute value of the difference between any
two tDQSCK measurements (within a byte
lane) within a contiguous sequence of bursts
within a 1.6 µs rolling window.
Memory speed
grade
tDQSCK Delta
Long
LPDDR2
Absolute value of the difference between any
two tDQSCK measurements (within a byte
lane) within a contiguous sequence of bursts
within a 32ms rolling window.
Memory speed
grade
tDQSS
DDR2, DDR3, First latching edge of DQS to associated clock
LPDDR2
edge (percentage of tCK).
tDQSH
DDR2,
LPDDR2
DQS Differential High Pulse Width
(percentage of tCK). Specifies the minimum
high time of the DQS signal received by the
memory.
5-9
Memory speed
grade
Memory speed
grade
tQSH
DDR3
tDSH
DDR2, DDR3, DQS falling edge hold time from CK
LPDDR2
(percentage of tCK).
tDSS
DDR2, DDR3, DQS falling edge to CK setup time (percentage Memory speed
LPDDR2
grade
of tCK).
tINIT
DDR2, DDR3, Memory initialization time at power-up.
LPDDR2
Memory speed
grade
tMRD
DDR2, DDR3
tMRW
LPDDR2
Memory speed
grade
tRAS
DDR2, DDR3, Active to precharge time.
LPDDR2
Memory speed
grade
tRCD
DDR2, DDR3, Active to read or write time.
LPDDR2
Memory speed
grade
tRP
DDR2, DDR3, Precharge command period.
LPDDR2
Memory speed
grade
tREFI
DDR2, DDR3 Refresh command interval.
Memory speed
grade and tempera‐
ture range
tREFIab
LPDDR2
Memory speed
grade
tRFC
DDR2, DDR3 Auto-refresh command interval.
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Load mode register command period.
Refresh command interval (all banks).
Memory speed
grade
Memory device
capacity
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UniPHY Parameters—Board Settings
Parameter
Applies To
Description
Set According To
tRFCab
LPDDR2
tWR
DDR2, DDR3, Write recovery time.
LPDDR2
tWTR
DDR2, DDR3, Write to read period.
Memory speed
LPDDR2
grade and memory
Calculate the value based on the memory clock clock frequency
frequency.
tFAW
DDR2, DDR3, Four active window time.
LPDDR2
Memory speed
grade and page size
tRRD
DDR2, DDR3, RAS to RAS delay time.
LPDDR2
Calculate the value based on the memory clock
frequency.
Memory speed
grade, page size
and memory clock
frequency
tRTP
DDR2, DDR3, Read to precharge time.
Memory speed
LPDDR2
grade and memory
Calculate the value based on the memory clock clock frequency
frequency.
Auto-refresh command interval (all banks).
Memory device
capacity
Memory speed
grade
UniPHY Parameters—Board Settings
There are three groups of options: Setup and Hold Derating, Channel Signal Integrity, and Board
Skews.
Table 5-10: Board Settings - Setup and Hold Derating
The slew rate of the output signals affects the setup and hold times of the memory device, and thus the write
margin. You can specify the slew rate of the output signals to see their effect on the setup and hold times of both
the address and command signals and the DQ signals, or alternatively, you may want to specify the setup and hold
times directly. You should enter information derived during your PCB development process of prelayout (line)
and postlayout (board) simulation.
Parameter
Description
Derating method
Derating method. The default settings are based on Altera internal
board simulation data. To obtain accurate timing analysis according to
the condition of your board, Altera recommends that you perform
board simulation and enter the slew rate in the Quartus II software to
calculate the derated setup and hold time automatically or enter the
derated setup and hold time directly.
CK/CK# slew rate (differential)
CK/CK# slew rate (differential).
Address/Command slew rate
Address and command slew rate.
DQS/DQS# slew rate (Differen‐
tial)
DQS and DQS# slew rate (differential).
DQ slew rate
DQ slew rate.
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UniPHY Parameters—Board Settings
Parameter
5-11
Description
tIS
Address/command setup time to CK.
tIH
Address/command hold time from CK.
tDS
Data setup time to DQS.
tDH
Data hold time from DQS.
Table 5-11: Board Settings - Channel Signal Integrity
Channel signal integrity is a measure of the distortion of the eye due to intersymbol interference, crosstalk, or
other effects. Typically, when going from a single-rank configuration to a multi-rank configuration there is an
increase in the channel loss, because there are multiple stubs causing reflections. Although the Quartus II timing
models include some channel uncertainty, you must perform your own channel signal integrity simulations and
enter the additional channel uncertainty, relative to the reference eye, into the parameter editor.
Parameter
Description
Derating method
Choose between default Altera settings (with specific Altera boards) or
manually enter board simulation numbers obtained for your specific
board.
Address and command eye
reduction (setup)
The reduction in the eye diagram on the setup side (or left side of the
eye) due to ISI on the address and command signals compared to a
case when there is no ISI. (For single rank designs, ISI can be zero; in
multirank designs, ISI is necessary for accurate timing analysis.)
Address and command eye
reduction (hold)
The reduction in the eye diagram on the hold side (or right side of the
eye) due to ISI on the address and command signals compared to a
case when there is no ISI.
Write DQ eye reduction
The total reduction in the eye diagram due to ISI on DQ signals
compared to a case when there is no ISI. Altera assumes that the ISI
reduces the eye width symmetrically on the left and right side of the
eye.
Read DQ eye reduction
Write Delta DQS arrival time
Read Delta DQS arrival time
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The increase in variation on the range of arrival times of DQS
compared to a case when there is no ISI. Altera assumes that the ISI
causes DQS to further vary symmetrically to the left and to the right.
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UniPHY Parameters—Board Settings
Table 5-12: Board Settings - Board Skews
PCB traces can have skews between them that can reduce timing margins. Furthermore, skews between different
chip selects can further reduce the timing margin in multiple chip-select topologies. This section allows you to
enter parameters to compensate for these variations.
Note: Altera recommends that you use the Board Skew Parameter Tool to help you calculate the board skews. For
more information, refer to the related information section.
Parameter
Maximum CK delay
to DIMM/device
Description
The delay of the longest CK trace from the FPGA to the memory device is
expressed by the following equation:
Where n is the number of memory clock and r is number rank of device.
Maximum DQS
delay to DIMM/
device
The delay of the longest DQS trace from the FPGA to the memory device, whether
on a DIMM or the same PCB as the FPGA is expressed by the following equation:
Where n is the number of DQS and r is number of rank of DIMM/device. For
example in dual-rank DIMM implementation, if there are 2 DQS in each rank
DIMM, the maximum DQS delay is expressed by the following equation:
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UniPHY Parameters—Board Settings
Parameter
Minimum delay
difference between
CK and DQS
5-13
Description
The minimum skew or smallest positive skew (or largest negative skew) between
the CK signal and any DQS signal when arriving at the same DIMM/device over all
DIMMs/devices is expressed by the following equation:
Where n is the number of memory clock, m is the number of DQS, and r is the
number of rank of DIMM/device. For example in dual-rank DIMM implementa‐
tion, if there are 2 pairs of memory clock and 4 DQS signals (two for each clock)
for each rank DIMM, the minimum delay difference between CK and DQS is
expressed by the following equation:
This parameter value affects the write leveling margin for DDR3 interfaces with
leveling in multi-rank configurations. This parameter value also applies to nonleveling configurations of any number of ranks with the requirement that DQS
must have positive margins in Timequest Report DDR.
For multiple boards, the minimum skew between the CK signal and any DQS
signal when arriving at the same DIMM over all DIMMs is expressed by the
following equation, if you want to use the same design for several different boards:
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UniPHY Parameters—Board Settings
Parameter
Maximum delay
difference between
CK and DQS
Description
The maximum skew or smallest negative skew (or largest positive skew) between
the CK signal and any DQS signal when arriving at the same DIMM/device over all
DIMMs/devices is expressed by the following equation:
Where n is the number of memory clock, m is the number of DQS, and r is the
number of rank of DIMM/device. For example in dual-rank DIMM implementa‐
tion, if there are 2 pairs of memory clock and 4 DQS signals (two for each clock)
for each rank DIMM, the maximum delay difference between CK and DQS is
expressed by the following equation:
This value affects the write Leveling margin for DDR3 interfaces with leveling in
multi-rank configurations. This parameter value also applies to non-leveling
configurations of any number of ranks with the requirement that DQS must have
positive margins in Timequest Report DDR.
For multiple boards, the maximum skew (or largest positive skew) between the CK
signal and any DQS signal when arriving at the same DIMM over all DIMMs is
expressed by the following equation, if you want to use the same design for several
different boards:
Maximum skew
within DQS group
The largest skew among DQ and DM signals in a DQS group. This value affects the
read capture and write margins for DDR2 and DDR3 SDRAM interfaces in all
configurations (single or multiple chip-select, DIMM or component).
For multiple boards, the largest skew between DQ and DM signals in a DQS group
is expressed by the following equation:
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UniPHY Parameters—Board Settings
Parameter
5-15
Description
Maximum skew
The largest skew between DQS signals in different DQS groups. This value affects
between DQS groups the resynchronization margin in memory interfaces without leveling such as DDR2
SDRAM and discrete-device DDR3 SDRAM in both single- or multiple chip-select
configurations.
For multiple boards, the largest skew between DQS signals in different DQS groups
is expressed by the following equation, if you want to use the same design for
several different boards:
Average delay
difference between
DQ and DQS
The average delay difference between each DQ signal and the DQS signal,
calculated by averaging the longest and smallest DQ signal delay values minus the
delay of DQS. The average delay difference between DQ and DQS is expressed by
the following equation:
where n is the number of DQS groups. For multi-rank or multiple CS configura‐
tion, the equation is:
Maximum skew
within address and
command bus
The largest skew between the address and command signals for a single board is
expressed by the following equation:
For multiple boards, the largest skew between the address and command signals is
expressed by the following equation, if you want to use the same design for several
different boards:
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UniPHY Parameters—Controller Settings
Parameter
Average delay
difference between
address and
command and CK
Description
A value equal to the average of the longest and smallest address and command
signal delay values, minus the delay of the CK signal. The value can be positive or
negative. Positive values represent address and command signals that are longer
than CK signals; negative values represent address and command signals that are
shorter than CK signals. The average delay difference between address and
command and CK is expressed by the following equation:
where n is the number of memory clocks. For multi-rank or multiple CS configu‐
ration, the equation is:
The Quartus II software uses this skew to optimize the delay of the address and
command signals to have appropriate setup and hold margins for DDR2 and
DDR3 SDRAM interfaces. You should derive this value through board simulation.
For multiple boards, the average delay difference between address and command
and CK is expressed by the following equation, if you want to use the same design
for several different boards:
Related Information
• Analizing Timing of Memory IP chapter, External Memory Interface Handbook
Provides more information about derating method and measuring eye reduction.
• Board Skew Parameter Tool
UniPHY Parameters—Controller Settings
There are four groups of options: Avalon Interface, Low Power Mode, Efficiency, and Configuration,
Status and Error Handling.
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UniPHY Parameters—Controller Settings
5-17
Table 5-13: Controller Settings - Avalon Interface
Parameter
Descriptions
Generate power-of-2 data bus
Rounds down the Avalon-MM side data bus to the nearest power of 2.
widths for Qsys or SOPC Builder You must enable this option for Qsys systems.
If this option is enabled, the Avalon data buses are truncated to 256 bits
wide. One Avalon read-write transaction of 256 bit width maps to four
memory beat transactions, each of 72 bits (8 MSB bits are zero, while
64 LSB bits carry useful content). The four memory beats may
comprise an entire burst length-of-4 transaction, or part of a burstlength-of-8 transaction.
Generate SOPC Builder
compatible resets
This option is not required when using the MegaWizard Plug-in
Manager or Qsys.
Maximum Avalon-MM burst
length
Specifies the maximum burst length on the Avalon-MM bus. Affects
the AVL_SIZE_WIDTH parameter.
Enable Avalon-MM byte-enable
signal
When you turn on this option, the controller adds the byte enable
signal (avl_be) for the Avalon-MM bus to control the data mask
(mem_dm) pins going to the memory interface. You must also turn on
Enable DM pins if you are turning on this option.
When you turn off this option, the byte enable signal (avl_be) is not
enabled for the Avalon-MM bus, and by default all bytes are enabled.
However, if you turn on Enable DM pins with this option turned off,
all write words are written.
Avalon interface address width
The address width on the Avalon-MM interface.
Avalon interface data width
The data width on the Avalon-MM interface.
Table 5-14: Controller Settings - Low Power Mode
Parameter
Description
Enable Self-Refresh Controls
Enables the self-refresh signals on the controller top-level design. These
controls allow you to control when the memory is placed into selfrefresh mode.
Enable Deep Power-Down
Controls
Enables the Deep-Powerdown signals on the controller top level. These
controls allow you to control when the memory is placed in DeepPowerdown mode.
This option is available only for LPDDR2 SDRAM.
Enable Auto Power-Down
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Allows the controller to automatically place the memory into powerdown mode after a specified number of idle cycles. Specifies the
number of idle cycles after which the controller powers down the
memory in the auto-power down cycles parameter.
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UniPHY Parameters—Controller Settings
Parameter
Auto Power-Down Cycles
Description
The number of idle controller clock cycles after which the controller
automatically powers down the memory. The legal range is from 1 to
65,535 controller clock cycles.
Table 5-15: Controller Settings - Efficiency
Parameter
Description
Enable User Auto-Refresh
Controls
Enables the user auto-refresh control signals on the controller top level.
These controller signals allow you to control when the controller issues
memory autorefresh commands.
Enable Auto-Precharge Control
Enables the autoprecharge control on the controller top level. Asserting
the autoprecharge control signal while requesting a read or write burst
allows you to specify whether the controller should close (autopre‐
charge) the currently open page at the end of the read or write burst.
Local-to-Memory Address
Mapping
Allows you to control the mapping between the address bits on the
Avalon-MM interface and the chip, row, bank, and column bits on the
memory:
• Chip-Row-Bank-Col—improves efficiency with sequential traffic.
• Chip-Bank-Row-Col—improves efficiency with random traffic.
• Row-Chip-Bank-Col—improves efficiency with multiple chip
select and sequential traffic.
Command Queue Look-Ahead
Depth
Selects a look-ahead depth value to control how many read or writes
requests the look-ahead bank management logic examines. Larger
numbers are likely to increase the efficiency of the bank management,
but at the cost of higher resource usage. Smaller values may be less
efficient, but also use fewer resources. The valid range is from 1 to 16.
Enable Reordering
Allows the controller to perform command and data reordering that
reduces bus turnaround time and row/bank switching time to improve
controller efficiency.
Starvation limit for each
command
Specifies the number of commands that can be served before a waiting
command is served. The valid range is from 1 to 63.
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UniPHY Parameters—Diagnostics
5-19
Table 5-16: Controller Settings - Configuration, Status and Error Handling
Parameter
Description
Enable Configuration and Status Enables run-time configuration and status interface for the memory
Register Interface
controller. This option adds an additional Avalon-MM slave port to
the memory controller top level, which you can use to change or read
out the memory timing parameters, memory address sizes, mode
register settings and controller status. If Error Detection and
Correction Logic is enabled, the same slave port also allows you to
control and retrieve the status of this logic.
CSR port host interface
Specifies the type of connection to the CSR port. The port can be
exported, internally connected to a JTAG Avalon Master, or both:
• Internal (JTAG)—connects the CSR port to a JTAG Avalon
Master.
• Avalon-MM Slave —exports the CSR port.
• Shared—exports and connects the CSR port to a JTAG Avalon
Master.
Enable Error Detection and
Correction Logic
Enables ECC for single-bit error correction and double-bit error
detection. MAX 10 devices supports ECC only for 16 bits + 8 bits ECC
memory configuration.
Enable Auto Error Correction
Allows the controller to perform auto correction when a single-bit
error is detected by the ECC logic.
To turn this on, you must first turn on Enable Error Dectection and
Correction Logic.
UniPHY Parameters—Diagnostics
There is one option group supported for MAX 10 devices: Simulation Options.
Table 5-17: Diagnostics - Simulation Options
Parameter
Enable verbose memory model output
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Description
Turn on this option to display more detailed information about
each memory access during simulation.
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Memory Interface User Guide
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Document Revision History for MAX 10 External Memory Interface User
Guide
Date
May 2015
Version
2015.05.04
Changes
• Updated the footnote in the topic about external memoy interface
support and performance to specify that the default maximum
frequency for LPDDR2 is 167 MHz.
• Removed the F672 package from the 10M25 device.
• Removed the note about contacting Altera for DDR3, DDR3L,
DDR2, and LPDDR2 external memory interface support. The
Quartus II software supports these external memory interfaces
from version 15.0.
• Added a topic about the PHYCLK network.
• Moved information about recommended LPDDR2 termination
scheme into a new topic under LPDDR2 design considerations
section. The information was previously in the topic about
recommended DDR2/DDR3 termination schemes.
• Updated the guidelines about board design requirement to improve
clarity.
• Updated and added related information links to relevant informa‐
tion.
• Added a topic about the low power feature available from version
15.0 of the Quartus II software.
• Updated the topic about the phase detector to add a figure showing
the VT tracking system overview.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
101 Innovation Drive, San Jose, CA 95134
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9001:2008
Registered
A-2
Document Revision History for MAX 10 External Memory Interface User Guide
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Version
December 2014
2014.12.15
• Changed Altera MAX 10 EMIF IP core to UniPHY IP core.
• Removed reference to DIMM in a footnote under the table that lists
the termination recommendations for DDR2 component. The
UniPHY IP core for MAX 10 does not support DIMM.
• Added a list of the MAX 10 memory controller features.
• Added "Preliminary" tag to the table that lists the I/Os unavailable
in certain MAX 10 packages while implementing DDR3 or
LPDDR2 external memory interfaces.
• Updated the board design requirement with additional guidelines.
• Added information for the MAX 10 external memory interface
UniPHY IP core. This addition includes the chapters about external
memory interface implementation and IP core references.
• Edited texts and added related information links to improve clarity.
September 2014
2014.09.22
Initial release.
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MAX 10 Analog to Digital Converter User
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TOC-2
Contents
MAX 10 ADC Overview...................................................................................... 1-1
ADC Block Counts in MAX 10 Devices................................................................................................... 1-1
ADC Channel Counts in MAX 10 Devices.............................................................................................. 1-2
MAX 10 ADC Vertical Migration Support.............................................................................................. 1-3
MAX 10 Single or Dual Supply Devices................................................................................................... 1-4
MAX 10 ADC Conversion..........................................................................................................................1-4
MAX 10 ADC Architecture and Features........................................................... 2-1
MAX 10 ADC Hard IP Block..................................................................................................................... 2-1
ADC Block Locations...................................................................................................................... 2-2
Single or Dual ADC Devices.......................................................................................................... 2-4
ADC Analog Input Pins.................................................................................................................. 2-5
ADC Prescaler.................................................................................................................................. 2-5
ADC Clock Sources......................................................................................................................... 2-5
ADC Voltage Reference.................................................................................................................. 2-6
ADC Temperature Sensing Diode.................................................................................................2-6
ADC Sequencer................................................................................................................................ 2-8
ADC Timing..................................................................................................................................... 2-9
Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Cores...........................................................2-9
Altera Modular ADC IP Core Configuration Variants............................................................ 2-10
Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Cores Architecture......................2-14
Altera ADC HAL Driver...........................................................................................................................2-20
MAX 10 ADC Design Considerations................................................................ 3-1
Guidelines: ADC Ground Plane Connection...........................................................................................3-1
Guidelines: Board Design for Power Supply Pin and ADC Ground (REFGND)................................... 3-1
Guidelines: Board Design for Analog Input.............................................................................................3-2
Guidelines: Board Design for ADC Reference Voltage Pin................................................................... 3-4
MAX 10 ADC Implementation Guides.............................................................. 4-1
Creating MAX 10 ADC Design..................................................................................................................4-2
Customizing and Generating Altera Modular ADC IP Core................................................................ 4-2
Parameters Settings for Generating ALTPLL IP Core............................................................................4-3
Parameters Settings for Generating Altera Modular ADC or Altera Modular Dual ADC IP
Core.......................................................................................................................................................... 4-4
Completing ADC Design............................................................................................................................4-7
Altera Modular ADC IP Core References...........................................................5-1
Altera Modular ADC Parameters Settings............................................................................................... 5-1
Altera Corporation
TOC-3
Altera Modular ADC IP Core Channel Name to MAX 10 Device Pin Name Mapping....... 5-5
Altera Modular Dual ADC Parameters Settings......................................................................................5-6
Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Core Channel Name to MAX 10 Device Pin Name
Mapping.....................................................................................................................................5-10
Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC Interface Signals........................................... 5-11
Command Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC....................5-11
Response Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC...................... 5-12
Threshold Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC.....................5-13
CSR Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC............................... 5-14
IRQ Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC............................... 5-14
Peripheral Clock Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC......... 5-14
Peripheral Reset Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC.......... 5-14
ADC PLL Clock Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC.......... 5-15
ADC PLL Locked Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC........5-15
Altera Modular ADC Register Definitions.............................................................................................5-15
Sequencer Core Registers..............................................................................................................5-16
Sample Storage Core Registers.....................................................................................................5-16
ADC HAL Device Driver for Nios II Gen 2...........................................................................................5-18
Additional Information for MAX 10 Analog to Digital Converter User
Guide............................................................................................................... A-1
Document Revision History for MAX 10 Analog to Digital Converter User Guide.........................A-1
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MAX® 10 devices feature up to two analog-to-digital converters (ADC). The ADCs provide the MAX 10
devices with built-in capability for on-die temperature monitoring and external analog signal conversion.
The ADC solution consists of hard IP blocks in the MAX 10 device periphery and soft logic through the
Altera Modular ADC IP core.
The ADC solution provides you with built-in capability to translate analog quantities to digital data for
information processing, computing, data transmission, and control systems. The basic function is to
provide a 12 bit digital representation of the analog signal being observed.
The ADC solution works in two modes:
• Normal mode—monitors single-ended external inputs with a cumulative sampling rate of 1 million
samples per second (MSPS):
• Single ADC devices—up to 17 single-ended external inputs (one dedicated analog and 16 dual
function input pins)
• Dual ADC devices—up to 18 single-ended external inputs (one dedicated analog and eight dual
function input pins in each ADC block)
• Temperature sensing mode—monitors external temperature data input with a sampling rate of up to
50 kilosamples per second. In dual ADC devices, only the first ADC block supports this mode.
Related Information
•
•
•
•
MAX 10 ADC Architecture and Features on page 2-1
MAX 10 ADC Design Considerations on page 3-1
MAX 10 ADC Implementation Guides on page 4-1
Altera Modular ADC IP Core References on page 5-1
ADC Block Counts in MAX 10 Devices
The ADC block is available in single and dual supply MAX 10 devices.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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ADC Channel Counts in MAX 10 Devices
Table 1-1: Number of ADC Blocks in MAX 10 Devices and Packages
For more information about the device part numbers that feature ADC blocks, refer to the device overview.
Device
Package
Power
Supply
10M04
10M08
10M16
10M25
10M40
10M50
M153
Single
1
1
—
—
—
—
U169
Single
1
1
1
—
—
—
U324
Dual
1
1
1
—
—
—
F256
Dual
1
1
1
2
2
2
E144
Single
1
1
1
1
1
1
F484
Dual
—
1
1
2
2
2
F672
Dual
—
—
—
—
2
2
Related Information
MAX 10 FPGA Device Overview
ADC Channel Counts in MAX 10 Devices
Different MAX 10 devices support different number of ADC channels.
Table 1-2: ADC Channel Counts in MAX 10 Devices
• Devices with two ADC blocks have two dedicated analog inputs and each ADC block has 8 dual function pins.
You can use the dual function pins in an ADC block as general purpose I/O (GPIO) pins if you do not use the
ADC.
• For more information about the device part numbers that feature ADC blocks, refer to the device overview.
Package
M153
U169
U324
F256
Altera Corporation
Pin Type
ADC Channel Counts Per Device
10M04
10M08
10M16
10M25
10M40
10M50
Dedicated
1
1
—
—
—
—
Dual
function
8
8
—
—
—
—
Dedicated
1
1
1
—
—
—
Dual
function
8
8
8
—
—
—
Dedicated
1
1
1
—
—
—
Dual
function
16
16
16
—
—
—
Dedicated
1
1
1
2
2
2
Dual
function
16
16
16
16
16
16
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MAX 10 ADC Vertical Migration Support
Package
E144
F484
F672
Pin Type
ADC Channel Counts Per Device
10M04
10M08
10M16
10M25
10M40
10M50
Dedicated
1
1
1
1
1
1
Dual
function
8
8
8
8
8
8
Dedicated
—
1
1
2
2
2
Dual
function
—
16
16
16
16
16
Dedicated
—
—
—
—
2
2
Dual
function
—
—
—
—
16
16
Related Information
• MAX 10 FPGA Device Overview
• MAX 10 ADC Vertical Migration Support on page 1-3
MAX 10 ADC Vertical Migration Support
Figure 1-1: ADC Vertical Migration Across MAX 10 Devices—Preliminary
The arrows indicate the ADC migration paths. The devices included in each vertical migration path are
shaded.
Package
Device
M153
U169
U324
F256
E144
F484
F672
10M04
10M08
10M16
10M25
10M40
10M50
Dual ADC Device: Each ADC (ADC1 and ADC2) supports 1 dedicated analog input pin and 8 dual function pins.
Single ADC Device: Single ADC that supports 1 dedicated analog input pin and 16 dual function pins.
Single ADC Device: Single ADC that supports 1 dedicated analog input pin and 8 dual function pins.
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MAX 10 Single or Dual Supply Devices
Table 1-3: Pin Migration Conditions for ADC Migration
Source
Target
Single ADC device
Single ADC device
Dual ADC device
Single ADC device
Dual ADC device
Dual ADC device
Dual ADC device
Single ADC device
Migratable Pins
You can migrate all ADC input pins
• One dedicated analog input pin.
• Eight dual function pins from the ADC1
block of the source device to the ADC1
block of the target device.
Related Information
ADC Channel Counts in MAX 10 Devices on page 1-2
MAX 10 Single or Dual Supply Devices
MAX 10 devices are available in single or dual supply packages.
• For devices with single power supply:
• Use on chip regulator to power up the digital supply.
• Use VCCA to power up the ADC analog.
• For dual power supply devices, you must provide external power supplies of 1.2 V and 2.5 V to power
up the ADC.
To choose the correct device, refer to the MAX 10 device overview.
For more information about the ADC parameter, refer to the device datasheet.
Related Information
• MAX 10 Device Datasheet
• MAX 10 FPGA Device Overview
MAX 10 ADC Conversion
The ADC in dual supply MAX 10 devices can measure from 0 V to 2.5 V. In single supply MAX 10
devices, it can measure up to 3.0 V or 3.3 V, depending on your power supply voltage.
• In prescaler mode, the analog input can measure up to 3.0 V in dual supply MAX 10 devices and up to
3.6 V in single supply MAX 10 devices.
• The analog input scale has full scale code from 000h to FFFh. However, the measurement can only
display up to full scale – 1 LSB.
• For the 12 bits corresponding value calculation, use unipolar straight binary coding scheme.
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MAX 10 ADC Conversion
1-5
Figure 1-2: ADC Measurement Display for 2.5 V
Output Code
Full Scale
Transition
FFF
12 bit Output Code (Hex)
FFE
FFD
Full scale input = 2.5 V
Resolution = 212 = 4096
1 LSB = 2.5V / 4096 = 610.35µ V
003
002
001
000
610.35µ 1220.70µ
2.4993896
Input Voltage (V)
The MAX 10 ADC is a 1 MHz successive approximation register (SAR) ADC. If you set up the PLL and
Altera Modular ADC IP core correctly, the ADC operates at 1 MHz during normal sampling and 50 kHz
during temperature sensing.
Note: The analog value represented by the all-ones code is not full scale but full scale – 1 LSB. This is a
common convention in data conversion notation and applies to ADCs.
Related Information
• Creating MAX 10 ADC Design on page 4-2
• Altera Modular ADC Parameters Settings on page 5-1
• Altera Modular Dual ADC Parameters Settings on page 5-6
MAX 10 ADC Overview
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In MAX 10 devices, the ADC is a 12 bits SAR ADC that provides the following features:
• Sampling rate of up to 1 MSPS
• Up to 18 channels for analog measurement: 16 dual function channels and two dedicated analog input
channels in dual ADC devices
• Single-ended measurement capability
• Simultaneous measurement capability at the dedicated analog input pins for dual ADC devices
• Soft logic sequencer
• On-chip temperature sensor with sampling rate of 50 kilosamples per second
• Internal or external voltage references usage. The source of the internal voltage reference is the ADC
analog supply; the ADC conversion result is ratiometric.
Related Information
MAX 10 ADC Overview on page 1-1
MAX 10 ADC Hard IP Block
The MAX 10 ADC is a successive approximation register (SAR) ADC that converts one analog sample in
one clock cycle.
Each ADC block supports one dedicated analog input pin and up to 16 channels of dual function pins.
You can use the built-in temperature sensing diode (TSD) to perform on-chip temperature measurement.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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ADC Block Locations
Figure 2-1: ADC Hard IP Block in MAX 10 Devices
Note: In dual ADC devices, the temperature sensor is available only in ADC1.
PLL Clock In
Dedicated
Analog Input
ADC Analog Input
(Dual Function) [16:1]
ADC Hard IP Block
Sequencer [4:0]
DOUT [11:0]
Sampling
and Hold
Mux
12 bit 1 Mbps ADC
Control/Status
Temperature Sensor
Altera Modular ADC IP Core
ADC VREF
Internal VREF
ADC Block Locations
The ADC blocks are located at the top left corner of the MAX 10 device periphery.
Figure 2-2: ADC Block Location in MAX 10 04 and 08 Devices
ADC1
8
7
1A
6
1B
5
2
I/O Bank
3
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ADC Block
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ADC Block Locations
2-3
Figure 2-3: ADC Block Location in MAX 10 16 Devices
ADC1
8
7
1A
6
1B
5
2
OCT
3
MAX 10 ADC Architecture and Features
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4
I/O Bank
ADC Block
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Single or Dual ADC Devices
Figure 2-4: ADC Block Location in MAX 10 25, 40, and 50 Devices
Package E144 of these devices have only one ADC block.
ADC1
8
7
ADC2
1A
6
1B
5
2
OCT
3
4
I/O Bank
ADC Block
Single or Dual ADC Devices
MAX 10 devices are available with single or dual ADC blocks.
For devices with one ADC block, you can use up to 17 ADC channels:
• These channels include one dedicated analog input and up to 16 dual function pins.
• You can use the dual function pins as GPIO pins when you do not use the ADC.
Note: MAX 10 devices in the E144 package have only 8 dual function ADC pins.
For devices with two ADC blocks, you can use up to 18 ADC channels:
• For dual ADC devices, each ADC block can support one dedicated analog input pin and up to 8 dual
function pins.
• If you use both ADC blocks in dual ADC devices, you can use up to two dedicated analog input pins
and 16 dual function pins.
• For simultaneous measurement, you can use only dedicated analog input pins in both ADC blocks
because the package routing of both dedicated analog pins are matched. For dual function pins, the
routing latency between two ADC blocks may cause data mismatch in simultaneous measurement.
• For simultaneous measurement, use the Altera Modular Dual ADC IP core..
To choose the correct device, refer to the MAX 10 device overview.
Related Information
• MAX 10 FPGA Device Overview
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ADC Analog Input Pins
2-5
• ADC Channel Counts in MAX 10 Devices on page 1-2
ADC Analog Input Pins
The analog input pins support single-ended and unipolar measurements.
The ADC block in MAX 10 devices contains two types of ADC analog input pins:
• Dedicated ADC analog input pin—pins with dedicated routing that ensures both dedicated analog
input pins in a dual ADC device has the same trace length.
• Dual function ADC analog input pin—pins that share the pad with GPIO pins.
If you use bank 1A for ADC, you cannot use the bank for GPIO.
Each analog input pin in the ADC block is protected by electrostatic discharge (ESD) cell. For more
information, refer to the device datasheet.
Related Information
MAX 10 Device Datasheet
ADC Prescaler
The ADC block in MAX 10 devices contains a prescaler function.
The prescaler function divides the analog input voltage by half. Using this function, you can measure
analog input greater than 2.5 V. In prescaler mode, the analog input can handle up to 3 V input for the
dual supply MAX 10 devices and 3.6 V for the single supply MAX 10 devices.
Figure 2-5: ADC Prescaler Block Diagram
ADC
Analog
Input
3.6 kΩ
3.6 kΩ
Mux
REFGND
The prescaler feature is available on these channels in each ADC block:
• Single ADC device—channels 8 and 16 (if available)
• Dual ADC device:
• Using Altera Modular ADC IP core—channel 8 of first or second ADC
• Using Altera Modular Dual ADC IP core—channel 8 of ADC1 and channel 17 of ADC2
ADC Clock Sources
The ADC block uses the device PLL as the clock source. The ADC clock path is a dedicated clock path.
You cannot change this clock path.
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ADC Voltage Reference
Depending on the device package, the MAX 10 devices support one or two PLLs—PLL1 only, or PLL1 and
PLL3.
For devices that support two PLLs, you can select which PLL to connect to the ADC. You can configure
the ADC blocks with one of the following schemes:
• Both ADC blocks share the same clock source for synchronization.
• Both ADC blocks use different PLLs for redundancy.
If each ADC block in your design uses its own PLL, the Quartus® II Fitter automatically selects the clock
source scheme based on the PLL clock input source:
• If each PLL that clocks its respective ADC block uses different PLL input clock source, the Quartus II
Fitter follows your design (two PLLs).
• If both PLLs that clock their respective ADC block uses the same PLL input clock source, the Quartus
II Fitter merges both PLLs as one.
In dual ADC mode, both ADC instance must share the same ADC clock setting.
ADC Voltage Reference
Each ADC block in MAX 10 devices can independently use an internal or external voltage reference. In
dual ADC devices, you can assign an internal voltage reference to one ADC block and an external voltage
reference to the other ADC block.
There is only one external VREF pin in each MAX 10 device. Therefore, if you want to assign external
voltage reference for both ADC blocks in dual ADC devices, share the same external voltage reference for
both ADC blocks.
Altera recommends that you use external voltage reference for the ADC blocks. If the ADC block uses an
internal voltage reference, the ADC block is tied to its analog voltage and the conversion result is
ratiometric.
ADC Temperature Sensing Diode
The ADC block in MAX 10 devices has built-in TSD. You can use the built-in TSD to monitor the
internal temperature of the MAX 10 device.
• While using the temperature sensing mode, the ADC sampling rate is 50 kilosamples per second
during temperature measurement.
• After the temperature measurement completes, if the next conversion in the sequence is normal
sampling mode, the Altera Modular ADC IP core automatically switches the ADC back to normal
sampling mode. The cumulative sampling rate in normal sampling mode is 1 MSPS.
• When the ADC switches from normal sensing mode to temperature sensing mode, and vice versa,
calibration is run automatically for the changed clock frequency. The calibration incurs at least six
clock calibration cycle from the new sampling rate.
• The ADC TSD measurement uses a 64-samples running average method. For example:
•
•
•
•
The first measured temperature value is the average of samples 1 to 64.
The second measured temperature value is the average of samples 2 to 65.
The third measured temperature value is the average of samples 3 to 66.
The subsequent temperature measurements follow the same method.
For dual ADC devices, the temperature sensor is available in ADC1 only.
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Temperature Measurement Code Conversion
2-7
Temperature Measurement Code Conversion
Use the temperature measurement code conversion table to convert the values measured by the ADC TSD
to actual temperature.
Table 2-1: Temperature Code Conversion Table—Preliminary
Temp (C)
Code
Temp (C)
Code
Temp (C)
Code
Temp (C)
Code
Temp (C)
Code
-40 3798
-6 3738
28 3670
62 3593
96 3510
-39 3796
-5 3736
29 3667
63 3592
97 3507
-38 3795
-4 3733
30 3666
64 3591
98 3504
-37 3793
-3 3732
31 3664
65 3590
99 3501
-36 3792
-2 3731
32 3662
66 3589
100 3500
-35 3790
-1 3730
33 3660
67 3585
101 3498
-34 3788
0 3727
34 3658
68 3582
102 3496
-33 3786
1 3725
35 3656
69 3579
103 3494
-32 3785
2 3721
36 3654
70 3576
104 3492
-31 3782
3 3720
37 3651
71 3573
105 3490
-30 3781
4 3719
38 3648
72 3570
106 3489
-29 3780
5 3717
39 3645
73 3567
107 3486
-28 3779
6 3715
40 3643
74 3564
108 3483
-27 3777
7 3713
41 3642
75 3561
109 3480
-26 3775
8 3711
42 3641
76 3558
110 3477
-25 3773
9 3709
43 3640
77 3555
111 3474
-24 3771
10 3707
44 3638
78 3552
112 3471
-23 3770
11 3704
45 3636
79 3551
113 3468
-22 3768
12 3703
46 3634
80 3550
114 3465
-21 3766
13 3702
47 3632
81 3549
115 3461
-20 3765
14 3700
48 3630
82 3548
116 3460
-19 3764
15 3699
49 3628
83 3547
117 3459
-18 3762
16 3698
50 3625
84 3546
118 3456
-17 3759
17 3697
51 3622
85 3542
119 3451
-16 3756
18 3696
52 3619
86 3538
120 3450
-15 3754
19 3695
53 3616
87 3534
121 3449
-14 3752
20 3688
54 3613
88 3530
122 3445
-13 3751
21 3684
55 3610
89 3526
123 3440
-12 3750
22 3682
56 3607
90 3525
124 3432
-11 3748
23 3680
57 3604
91 3524
125 3431
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ADC Sequencer
Temp (C)
Code
Temp (C)
Code
Temp (C)
Code
Temp (C)
Code
Temp (C)
Code
-10 3746
24 3678
58 3601
92 3522
—
—
-9 3744
25 3677
59 3598
93 3519
—
—
-8 3742
26 3676
60 3595
94 3516
—
—
-7 3740
27 3673
61 3594
95 3513
—
—
ADC Sequencer
The Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC IP cores implement the sequencer. Use the
Altera Modular ADC or Altera Modular Dual ADC parameter editor to define the ADC channel
acquisition sequence and generate the HDL code.
The sequencer can support sequences of up to 64 ADC measurement slots. While configuring the Altera
Modular ADC or Altera Modular Dual ADC IP core, you can select which channel, including the TSD
channel, to sample in each sequencer slot. During runtime, you cannot change the channel sequence but
you can configure the conversion mode using the Nios II HAL driver API.
You can specify up to 64 slots and assign the channel for each slot. You can repeat the same channel
number several times if required.
Related Information
Guidelines: ADC Sequencer in Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Core on page 2-8
Guidelines: ADC Sequencer in Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Core
Follow these sequencer guidelines if you use dual ADC blocks with the Altera Modular Dual ADC IP core.
• The conversion sequence length of both ADC blocks must be the same.
• You can configure independent patterns for the conversion sequence of each ADC blocks.
• You can set a sequencer slot in ADC2 to NULL. If you set the slot to NULL, ADC2 will perform a
dummy conversion for the slot with output of "0". The NULL option is available only for ADC2.
• The temperature sensor is available only in ADC1. If you configure a sequencer slot in ADC1 for
temperature sensing, you must set the same sequencer slot number in ADC2 to NULL.
Related Information
ADC Sequencer on page 2-8
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ADC Timing
ADC Timing
Figure 2-6: MAX 10 ADC Timing Diagram
• This figure shows the timing diagram for the command and response interface of the Altera Modular
ADC control core.
• The timing diagram shows the latency of the first valid response data, and the latency between the first
acknowledgment of the first command request and the back-to-back response data.
clock
reset_n
command_valid
commandd_channel[4:0]
0x00
0x10
0x01
0x02
command_starofpacket
command_endofpacket
command_ready
response_valid
response_channel[4:0]
response_data[11:0]
0x00
0x10
0x00
0x01
0x000
0x008
0x000
0x001
response_startofpacket
response_endofpacket
3 ADC soft IP clock + 2 μs
1 μs
3 ADC soft IP clock + 3 μs
The timing diagram shows an example where:
• The conversion sequence is channel 16 → channel 1 → channel 2
• The response data for channel 16 is 8
• The response data for channel 1 is 1
Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Cores
You can use the Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC IP cores to generate soft IP
controllers for the ADC hard IP blocks in MAX 10 devices.
There are two ADC IP cores:
• Altera Modular ADC IP core—Each instance can control one ADC hard IP block. In a dual ADC
device, you can instantiate one Altera Modular ADC IP core instance for each ADC block. However,
both instances will be asynchronous to each other.
• Altera Modular Dual ADC IP core—You can control both ADC hard IP block with a single IP
instance.
• For the analog input pins (ANAIN1 and ANAIN2) in both ADC hard IP blocks, the measurement
is synchronous.
• For the dual function input pins, there are some measurement timing differences caused by the
routing latency.
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Altera Modular ADC IP Core Configuration Variants
You can perform the following functions with the Altera Modular ADC or Altera Modular Dual ADC IP
core parameter editor:
•
•
•
•
Configure the ADC clock and reference voltage.
Select which analog input channels that the ADC block samples.
Configure the threshold value to trigger a threshold violation notification.
Set up a conversion sequence to determine which channel requires more frequent attention.
Related Information
Altera Modular ADC IP Core References on page 5-1
Altera Modular ADC IP Core Configuration Variants
The Altera Modular ADC IP core provides four configuration variants that target different ADC use
cases. These configuration variants support usages from basic system monitoring to high performance
ADC data streaming.
Configuration 1: Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage on page 2-10
In this configuration variant, you can use the standard sequencer micro core with internal on-chip RAM
for storing ADC samples.
Configuration 2: Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage and Threshold Violation
Detection on page 2-11
In this configuration variant, you can use the standard sequencer micro core with internal on-chip RAM
for storing ADC samples with the additional capability of detecting threshold violation.
Configuration 3: Standard Sequencer with External Sample Storage on page 2-13
In this configuration variant, you can use the standard sequencer micro core and store the ADC samples
in external storage.
Configuration 4: ADC Control Core Only on page 2-13
In this configuration variant, the Altera Modular ADC generates only the ADC control core.
Related Information
Altera Modular ADC IP Core References on page 5-1
Configuration 1: Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage
In this configuration variant, you can use the standard sequencer micro core with internal on-chip RAM
for storing ADC samples. This configuration is useful for basic system monitoring application.
In a system monitoring application, the ADC captures a block of samples data and stores them in the onchip RAM. The host processor retrieves the data before triggering another block of ADC data sample
request. The speed of the host processor in servicing the interrupt determines the interval between each
block sample request.
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Configuration 2: Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage and
Threshold Violation Detection
2-11
Figure 2-7: Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage (Altera Modular ADC IP Core)
altera_adc
peripheral clock
peripheral reset
CSR
altera_adc_sequencer
S
adc_pll_clock
(clock from dedicated PLL)
adc_pll_locked
(locked signal from dedicated PLL)
altera_adc_control
command
SRC
SRC
SNK
altera_adc_sample_store
S
CSR
IRQ
response
SNK
Figure 2-8: Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage (Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Core)
altera_dual_adc
altera_adc_control
altera_adc_sequencer
SRC
peripheral clock
peripheral reset
command
SRC
SNK
response
adc_pll_clock
(clock from dedicated PLL)
adc_pll_locked
(locked signal from dedicated PLL)
SRC
sync handshake
altera_adc_response_merge
SNK
CSR
S
altera_dual_adc_synchronizer
SNK
SNK
SNK
SRC
altera_adc_sample_store
response
SNK
S
CSR
IRQ
sync handshake
SRC
SRC
command
SNK
SRC
response
altera_adc_control
Related Information
• Customizing and Generating Altera Modular ADC IP Core on page 4-2
• Completing ADC Design on page 4-7
Configuration 2: Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage and Threshold Violation
Detection
In this configuration variant, you can use the standard sequencer micro core with internal on-chip RAM
for storing ADC samples with the additional capability of detecting threshold violation. This
configuration is useful for system monitoring application where you want to know whether the ADC
samples value fall outside the maximum or minimum threshold value.
When the threshold value is violated, the Altera Modular ADC or Altera Modular Dual ADC IP core
notifies the discrete logic component. The discrete component then triggers system recovery action. For
example, the system can increase the fan speed in a temperature control system.
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Configuration 2: Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage and
Threshold Violation Detection
Figure 2-9: Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage and Threshold Violation Detection
(Altera Modular ADC IP Core)
altera_adc
peripheral clock
peripheral reset
CSR
altera_adc_sequencer
S
command
SRC
S
response
Avalon ST Splitter
Core
SNK
SRC
response
SNK
SRC
SNK
altera_adc_sample_store
CSR
IRQ
adc_pll_clock
(clock from dedicated PLL)
adc_pll_locked
(locked signal from dedicated PLL)
altera_adc_control
SRC
altera_adc_threshold_detect
threshold
SRC
SNK
response
In dual ADC mode, you can configure the threshold detection of each ADC instance independently of
each other. This capability is available because each ADC instance measures different analog metrics.
Figure 2-10: Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage and Threshold Violation Detection
(Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Core)
threshold
altera_dual_adc
SRC
altera_adc_threshold_detect
altera_adc_control
altera_adc_sequencer
SRC
peripheral clock
peripheral reset
command
SNK
SRC
response
SNK
S
altera_dual_adc_synchronizer
SNK
sync handshake
SRC
SNK
SNK
SRC
Avalon ST Splitter
Core
response
altera_adc_response_merge
SNK
Avalon ST Splitter
SNK
Core
SNK
SRC response
SRC
altera_adc_sample_store
response
SNK
S
CSR
IRQ
SRC
SRC
command
adc_pll_clock
(clock from dedicated PLL)
adc_pll_locked
(locked signal from dedicated PLL)
response
SRC
SRC
sync handshake
CSR
SNK
SRC
altera_adc_control
response
response
SNK
altera_adc_threshold_detect
SRC
threshold
Related Information
• Customizing and Generating Altera Modular ADC IP Core on page 4-2
• Completing ADC Design on page 4-7
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Configuration 3: Standard Sequencer with External Sample Storage
2-13
Configuration 3: Standard Sequencer with External Sample Storage
In this configuration variant, you can use the standard sequencer micro core and store the ADC samples
in external storage.
You need to design your own logic to interface with the external storage.
Figure 2-11: Standard Sequencer with External Sample Storage (Altera Modular ADC IP Core)
altera_adc
peripheral clock
peripheral reset
altera_adc_sequencer
CSR
S
adc_pll_clock
(clock from dedicated PLL)
adc_pll_locked
(locked signal from dedicated PLL)
altera_adc_control
command
SRC
response
SRC
SNK
Figure 2-12: Standard Sequencer with External Sample Storage (Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Core)
altera_dual_adc
altera_adc_control
altera_adc_sequencer
SRC
peripheral clock
peripheral reset
command
SRC
SNK
SRC
sync handshake
SNK
CSR
S
response
adc_pll_clock
(clock from dedicated PLL)
adc_pll_locked
(locked signal from dedicated PLL)
altera_dual_adc_synchronizer
SNK
sync handshake
SRC
SRC
command
SNK
SRC
response
altera_adc_control
Related Information
• Customizing and Generating Altera Modular ADC IP Core on page 4-2
• Completing ADC Design on page 4-7
Configuration 4: ADC Control Core Only
In this configuration variant, the Altera Modular ADC generates only the ADC control core. You have full
flexibility to design your own application-specific sequencer and use your own way to manage the ADC
samples.
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Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Cores Architecture
Figure 2-13: ADC Control Core Only (Altera Modular ADC IP Core)
peripheral clock
peripheral reset
command
altera_adc
adc_pll_clock
(clock from dedicated PLL)
adc_pll_locked
(locked signal from dedicated PLL)
altera_adc_control
response
SRC
SNK
Figure 2-14: ADC Control Core Only (Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Core)
altera_dual_adc
altera_adc_control
command
SRC
SNK
response
SRC
peripheral clock
peripheral reset
adc_pll_clock
(clock from dedicated PLL)
adc_pll_locked
(locked signal from dedicated PLL)
sync handshake
SNK
altera_dual_adc_synchronizer
SNK
sync handshake
SRC
command
SNK
SRC
response
altera_adc_control
Related Information
• Customizing and Generating Altera Modular ADC IP Core on page 4-2
• Completing ADC Design on page 4-7
Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Cores Architecture
The Altera Modular ADC IP core consists of six micro cores.
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2-15
Table 2-2: Altera Modular ADC Micro Cores
Micro Core
Description
ADC control
This core interacts with the ADC hard IP block. The ADC control core uses
Avalon ST interface to receive commands from upstream cores, decodes, and
drives the ADC hard IP block accordingly.
Sequencer
This core contains command register and static conversion sequence data.
The sequencer core issues commands for downstream cores to execute.
• You can use the command register to configure the intended conversion
mode.
• You can configure the length and content of the conversion sequence data
only when generating the IP core.
• You can access the register of the sequencer core through the Avalon-MM
slave interface.
• The command information to the downstream core goes through the
Avalon ST interface.
Sample storage
This core stores the ADC samples that are received through the Avalon ST
interface.
• The samples are stored in the on-chip RAM. You can retrieve the samples
through the Avalon-MM slave interface.
• With this core, you have the option to generate interrupt when the ADC
receives a block of ADC samples (one full round of conversion sequence).
Response merge
This core merges simultaneous responses from two ADC control cores into a
single response packet to send to the sample storage core. This core is
available only if you use the Altera Modular Dual ADC IP core in the
following configurations:
• Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage
• Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage and Threshold
Violation Detection
Dual ADC synchronizer
core
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This core performs synchronization handshakes between two ADC control
cores. This core is available only if you use the Altera Modular Dual ADC IP
core.
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ADC Control Core
Micro Core
Threshold detection
Description
• This core supports fault detection. The threshold detection core receives
ADC samples through the Avalon ST interface and checks whether the
samples value exceeds the maximum or falls below the minimum
threshold value.
• The threshold detection core conveys threshold value violation informa‐
tion through the Avalon ST interface.
• You can configure which channel to enable for maximum and minimum
threshold detection and the threshold values only during IP core
generation.
ADC Control Core
The ADC control core drives the ADC hard IP according to the command it receives. The control core
also maps the channels from the Altera Modular ADC IP core to the channels in the ADC hard IP block.
The ADC control core of the Altera Modular ADC IP core implements only the functions that are related
to ADC hard IP block operations. For example:
•
•
•
•
Power up
Power down
Analog to digital conversion on analog pins
Analog to digital conversion on on-chip temperature sensor
The ADC control core has two clock domains:
• One clock domain for clocking the ADC control core soft logic
• Another clock domain for the the ADC hard IP block
The ADC control core does not have run-time configurable options.
Figure 2-15: ADC Control Core High-Level Block Diagram
peripheral clock
peripheral reset
command
Altera Corporation
SRC
adc_pll_clock
(clock from dedicated PLL)
adc_pll_locked
(locked signal from dedicated PLL)
response
SRC
sync handshake (dual ADC only)
altera_adc_control
SNK
ADC
Controller
FSM
ADC
Hard IP
Wrapper
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Sequencer Core
2-17
Table 2-3: ADC Control Core Backpressure Behavior
Interface
Command
Backpressure Behavior
The ADC control core asserts ready when it is ready to perform a sample conversion.
The ADC control core only accepts one command at a time. The control core releases
ready when it completes processing current command and prepares to perform the
next command.
Once the ADC control core asserts "cmd_ready=1" to acknowledge the current
command, the Sequencer core provides the next valid request within two clock cycles.
If the next valid request comes after two clock cycles, the ADC control core perform
non-continuous sampling.
Response
The ADC control core does not support backpressure in the response interface. The
fastest back-to-back assertion of valid request is 1 µs.
Sequencer Core
The sequencer core control the type of conversion sequence performed by the ADC hard IP. You can
configure the conversion mode during run time using the sequencer core registers.
During Altera Modular ADC or Altera Modular Dual ADC IP core configuration, the sequencer core
provides up to 64 configurable slots. You can define the sequence that the ADC channels are sampled by
selecting the ADC channel for each sequencer slot.
The sequencer core has a single clock domain.
Figure 2-16: Sequencer Core High-Level Block Diagram
peripheral clock
peripheral reset
CSR
altera_adc_sequencer
Command Register
S
Static Conversion
Sequence Data Array
(up to 64 slots)
Sequencer
Controller
SRC
command
Sequencer
Controller
SRC
command
(dual ADC only)
Table 2-4: Sequencer Core Conversion Modes
Conversion Mode
Description
Single cycle ADC • In this mode, when the run bit is set, ADC conversion starts from the channel that
conversion
you specify in the first slot.
• The conversion continues onwards with the channel that you specify in each
sequencer slot.
• Once the conversion finishes with the last sequencer slot, the conversion cycle
stops and the ADC hard IP block clears the run bit.
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Sample Storage Core
Conversion Mode
Description
Continuous ADC • In this mode, when the run bit is set, ADC conversion starts from the channel that
conversion
you specify in the first slot.
• The conversion continues onwards with the channel that you specify in each
sequencer slot.
• Once the conversion finishes with the last sequencer slot, the conversion begins
again from the first slot of the sequence.
• To stop the continuous conversion, clear the run bit. The sequencer core continues
the conversion sequence until it reaches the last slot and then stops the conversion
cycle.
Related Information
• Altera Modular ADC Parameters Settings on page 5-1
Lists the parameters available during Altera Modular ADC IP core configuration.
• Altera Modular Dual ADC Parameters Settings on page 5-6
Lists the parameters available during Altera Modular Dual ADC IP core configuration.
• Sequencer Core Registers on page 5-16
Lists the registers for run-time control of the sequencer core.
Sample Storage Core
The sample storage core stores the ADC sampling data in the on-chip RAM. The sample storage core
stores the ADC samples data based on conversion sequence slots instead of ADC channels.
For example, if the you sample a sequence of CH1, CH2, CH1, CH3, CH1, and then CH4, the ADC
sample storage core stores the channel sample data in the same RAM entry sequence. This means that
CH1 sample data will be in the first, third, and fifth RAM entries; one for each sequence slot.
The sample storage core asserts IRQ when it completes receipt of a sample block. You can disable the IRQ
assertion during run time using the interrupt enable register (IER) of the sample storage core. If you
disable IRQ assertion, you must create polling methods in your design to determine the complete receipt
of a sample block.
The sample storage core has a single clock domain.
Figure 2-17: Sample Storage Core High-Level Block Diagram
peripheral clock
peripheral reset
CSR
IRQ
Altera Corporation
altera_adc_sample_store
S
64 RAM Entries for
ADC Sample Storage
RAM
Control
IER Register
ISR Register
Interrupt
Control
SNK
response
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Response Merge Core
2-19
Related Information
Sample Storage Core Registers on page 5-16
Response Merge Core
The response merge core merges simultaneous responses from two ADC control cores in the Altera
Modular Dual ADC IP core.
The Altera Modular Dual ADC IP core uses the response merge core if you use the following configura‐
tions:
• Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage
• Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage and Threshold Violation Detection
Figure 2-18: Response Merge Core High-Level Block Diagram
peripheral clock
peripheral reset
altera_adc_response_merge
response
SNK
response
SNK
Response merge
logic
SRC
response
Dual ADC Synchronizer Core
The dual ADC synchronizer core performs synchronization handshakes between two ADC control cores
in the Altera Modular Dual ADC IP core.
The peripheral clock domain is asynchronous to the ADC PLL clock domain in the ADC control core.
Control event from the ADC hard IP block can appear at the peripheral clock domain at the same time, or
by a difference of one peripheral clock between ADC1 and ADC2 control cores. Both ADC hard IP cores
communicates with the dual ADC synchronizer core through the Avalon-ST interface.
For example, although a new command valid event from the sequencer arrives at both ADC control cores
at the same peripheral clock cycle, the end of conversion signals arrive at one peripheral clock cycle
difference between ADC1 and ADC2. To avoid the condition where ADC1 begins conversion earlier or
later than ADC2, the ADC control core performs synchronization handshake using the dual ADC
synchronizer core.
An ADC control core asserts a sync_valid signal when it detects an ADC PLL clock domain event. The
dual ADC synchronizer core asserts the sync_ready signal after it receives sync_valid signals from both
ADC control cores. After the sync_ready signal is asserted, both ADC control cores proceed to their next
internal state.
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Threshold Detection Core
Figure 2-19: Dual ADC Synchronizer Core High-Level Block Diagram
altera_dual_adc_synchronizer
peripheral clock
peripheral reset
sync handshake
SNK
sync handshake
SNK
Synchronizer
logic
Threshold Detection Core
The treshold detection core compares the sample value that the ADC block receives to the threshold value
that you define during Altera Modular ADC IP core configuration. This core does not have run-time
configurable options.
If the ADC sample value is beyond the maximum or minimum threshold limit, the threshold detection
core issues a violation notification through the Avalon-ST interface.
The treshold detection core has a single clock domain.
Figure 2-20: Threshold Detection Core High-Level Block Diagram
peripheral clock
peripheral reset
threshold
altera_adc_threshold_detect
SRC
Comparator
Logic
SNK
response
Altera ADC HAL Driver
The Altera ADC HAL driver supports the following features:
• Read ADC channel data.
• Enable maximum or minimum threshold and return a user callback when the interrupt is triggered.
• Command the control of the ADC (run, stop, and recalibrate).
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MAX 10 ADC Design Considerations
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There are several considerations that require your attention to ensure the success of your designs. Unless
noted otherwise, these design guidelines apply to all variants of this device family.
Related Information
MAX 10 ADC Overview on page 1-1
Guidelines: ADC Ground Plane Connection
For power pins, use the GND pin. For the ADC and VREF pins, use the REFGND pin.
Related Information
MAX 10 FPGA Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about pin connections including pin names and connection guidelines.
Guidelines: Board Design for Power Supply Pin and ADC Ground (REFGND)
The crosstalk requirement for analog to digital signal is -100 dB up to 2 GHz. There must be no parallel
routing between power, ground, and I/O traces. If a power plane is not possible, route the power and
ground traces as wide as possible.
• To reduce IR drop and switching noise, keep the impedance as low as possible for the ADC power and
ground. The maximum DC resistance for power is 1.5 Ω.
• The power supplies connected to the ADC should have ferrite beads in series followed by a 10 µF
capacitor to the ground. This setup ensures that no external noise goes into the device power supply
pins.
• Decouple each of the device power supply pin with a 0.1 µF capacitor. Place the capacitor as close as
possible to the device pin.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
101 Innovation Drive, San Jose, CA 95134
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
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Guidelines: Board Design for Analog Input
Figure 3-1: Recommended RC Filter for Power Traces
Ferrite Beads
Power
Supply
VCCADC_2P5
10 µF
0.1 µF
Place this cap close to the pin
GND
GND
Ferrite Beads
Power
Supply
VCCADC_1P2
10 µF
0.1 µF
Place this cap close to the pin
GND
GND
There is no impedance requirement for the REFGND. Altera recommends that you use the lowest
impedance with the most minimum DC resistance possible. Typical resistance is less than 1 Ω.
Altera recommends that you set a REFGND plane that extends as close as possible to the corresponding
decoupling capacitor and FPGA:
• If possible, define a complete REFGND plane in the layout.
• Otherwise, route the REFGND using a trace that is as wide as possible from the island to the FPGA pins
and decoupling capacitor.
• The REFGND ground is the reference ground plane for the ADC VREF and analog input.
• Connect REFGND ground to the system digital ground through ferrite beads. You can also evaluate the
ferrite bead option by comparing the impedance with the frequency specifications.
Guidelines: Board Design for Analog Input
The crosstalk requirement for analog to digital signal is -100 dB up to 2 GHz. There must be no parallel
routing between analog input signals and I/O traces, and between analog input signal with FPGA I/O
signal traces.
Trace Routing
• If possible, route the switching I/O traces on different layer.
• There is no specific requirement for input signal trace impedance. However, the DC resistance for the
input trace must be as low as possible.
• Route the analog input signal traces as adjacent as possible to REFGND if there is no REFGND plane.
• Use REFGND as ground reference for the ADC input signal.
• For prescaler-enabled input signal, set the ground reference to REFGND. Performance degrades if the
ground reference of prescaler-enabled input signal is set to common ground (VSS).
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Guidelines: Board Design for Analog Input
3-3
Input RC Filter Selection
• The total RC filter value, including package, trace, and parasitic driver must be less that 42.4 ns. This
consideration is to ensure that the input signal is fully settled during the sampling phase.
• A low pass RC filter can reduce the trace spacing between analog input signal to digital I/O signal to
meet -100 dB crosstalk requirement.
• The cut off frequency depends on the analog input frequency. Altera recommends that the Fcutoff @ -3dB
(MHz) is a 5th harmonic of the input frequency.
• For prescaler-enabled input, if the total resistance of RDRIVER + RBOARD + RPACKAGE+ RFILTER is more
than 11 Ω, the gain error exceeds the specification. This formula approximates the worst case
condition: (RDRIVER + RBOARD + RPACKAGE + RFILTER) – 11) ÷ 48,000 × 100% of FS
• Altera recommends that you place pads for RC. By having the pads, you have options for RC
placement such as the option to short the R and leaving C as not connected (NC).
• Place the RC filter as close as possible to the analog input signals.
Table 3-1: RC Constant and Filter Value
This table is an example of the method to quantify the RC constant and identify the RC filter value.
Total RC Constant = (RDRIVER + RBOARD + RPACKAGE + RFILTER) × (CDRIVER + CBOARD + CPACKAGE + CFILTER +
Pin Capacitance)
Driver
Board
Package
RC Filter
R (Ω)
C
(pF)
R (Ω)
C
(pF)
R (Ω)
C
(pF)
Pin
Capacita
nce (pF)
1000
2
5
17
3
5
6
10
5
2
5
17
3
5
6
5
2
5
17
3
5
6
Fcutoff @ -3dB
(MHz)
Total RC
Constant (ns)
RC Req.
(ns)
1
15913
31.56
42.4
50
300
11
20.79
42.4
45
500
7
30.74
42.4
R (Ω)
C
(pF)
Figure 3-2: RC Filter Design Example for Analog Input Pin
This figure shows the example of the RC filter.
• The RC filter ground reference is REFGND.
• For prescaler-enabled input channel, the ground reference is REFGND.
• The low pass RC value depends on the total RC constant requirement.
ADCIN
10.0 Ω (RFILTER )
Place this cap
close to the pin
ADC Analog Input
1 pF
(CFILTER )
Altera
Device
REFGND
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Guidelines: Board Design for ADC Reference Voltage Pin
Guidelines: Board Design for ADC Reference Voltage Pin
The crosstalk requirement for analog to digital signal is -100 dB up to 2 GHz. There is no parallel routing
between analog input signals and I/O traces. Route the VREF traces as adjacent as possible to REFGND.
If a REFGND plane is not possible, route the analog input signal as adjacent as possible to REFGND.
There is one ADC reference voltage pin in each MAX 10 device. This pin uses REFGND as ground
reference. Keep the trace resistance less than 0.8 Ω.
Figure 3-3: RC Filter Design Example for Reference Voltage Pin
Place the RC filter as close as possible to the analog input pin.
VREF
1.0 Ω
10.0 µF
REFGND
Altera Corporation
1 µF
Altera
device
REFGND
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You can implement your ADC design in the Quartus II software. The software contains tools for you to
create and compile your design, and configure your device.
The Quartus II software allows you to set up the parameters and generate your Altera Modular ADC IP
core. For more information about using the Quartus II software, refer to the related information.
Figure 4-1: High Level Block Diagram of the MAX 10 ADC Solution
Altera FPGA
Altera Modular ADC IP Core
Avalon MM Slave
User Design
Avalon-MM
Master
ADC soft IP clock
Avalon-MM interface
RAM Block
RAM read/write CSR
and ADC digital output
Bidirectional
dual port
Sequencer
state machine
Altera PLL
IP Core
ADC hard IP clock
External voltage
reference pin
ADC hard IP
block
Control, status, and data
signals to sample analog
input pin, one pin at a time
Analog input pins
Related Information
• MAX 10 ADC Overview on page 1-1
• Quartus II Handbook, Volume 1: Design and Synthesis
Provides more information about using IP cores in the Quartus II software.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
101 Innovation Drive, San Jose, CA 95134
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
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2014.12.15
Creating MAX 10 ADC Design
Creating MAX 10 ADC Design
To create your ADC design, you must customize and generate the ALTPLL and Altera Modular ADC IP
cores.
The ALTPLL IP core provides the clock for the Altera Modular ADC IP core.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Customize and generate the ALTPLL IP core.
Customize and generate the Altera Modular ADC IP core.
Connect the ALTPLL IP core to the Altera Modular ADC IP core.
Create ADC Avalon slave interface to start the ADC.
Related Information
• Customizing and Generating Altera Modular ADC IP Core on page 4-2
• Parameters Settings for Generating Altera Modular ADC or Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Core on
page 4-4
• Parameters Settings for Generating ALTPLL IP Core on page 4-3
• Completing ADC Design on page 4-7
Customizing and Generating Altera Modular ADC IP Core
Altera recommends that you use the Altera Modular ADC IP core with a Nios II processor, which
supports the ADC HAL driver.
1. Create a new project in the Quartus II software.
While creating the project, select a device that has one or two ADC blocks.
2. In the Quartus II software, select Tools > Qsys.
3. In the Qsys window, select File > New System.
A clock source block is automatically added under the System Contents tab.
4. In the System Contents tab, double click the clock name.
5. In the Parameters tab for the clock source, set the Clock frequency.
6. In the IP Catalog tab in the Qsys window, double click Processors and Peripherals > Peripherals >
Altera Modular ADC.
The Altera Modular ADC appears in the System Contents tab and the Altera Modular ADC
parameter editor opens.
7. In the Altera Modular ADC parameter editor, specify the parameter settings and channel sampling
sequence for your application.
8. In the System Contents tab in the Qsys window, double click the Export column of the
adc_pll_clock and adc_pll_locked interfaces to export them.
9. Connect the clock, reset_sink, sample_store_csr, and sample_store_irq signals. Optionally, you
can use the Nios II Processor, On-Chip Memory, and JTAG UART IP cores to form a working ADC
system that uses the Altera ADC HAL drivers.
10.In the Qsys window, select File > Save.
You can copy an example HDL code to declare an instance of your ADC system. In the Qsys window,
select Generate > HDL Example.
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Parameters Settings for Generating ALTPLL IP Core
4-3
Related Information
• Creating MAX 10 ADC Design on page 4-2
• Parameters Settings for Generating ALTPLL IP Core on page 4-3
• Parameters Settings for Generating Altera Modular ADC or Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Core on
page 4-4
• Configuration 1: Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage on page 2-10
• Configuration 2: Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage and Threshold Violation
Detection on page 2-11
• Configuration 3: Standard Sequencer with External Sample Storage on page 2-13
• Configuration 4: ADC Control Core Only on page 2-13
• ADC PLL Clock Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC on page 5-15
• ADC PLL Locked Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC on page 5-15
Parameters Settings for Generating ALTPLL IP Core
Navigate through the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor and specify the settings required for your design.
After you have specified all options as listed in the following table, you can generate the HDL files and the
optional simulation files.
For more information about all ALTPLL parameters, refer to the related information.
Table 4-1: ALTPLL Parameters Settings
To generate the PLL for the ADC, use the following settings.
Tab
Parameter Settings > General/
Modes
Parameter Settings > Inputs/
Lock
MAX 10 ADC Implementation Guides
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Parameter
What is the frequency
of the inclk0 input?
Setting
Specify the input frequency to the PLL.
Create an 'areset' input Turn off this option.
to asynchronously reset
the PLL
Create 'locked' output
Turn on this option. You need to connect this
signal to the adc_pll_locked port of the
Altera Modular ADC or Altera Modular Dual
ADC IP core.
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Parameters Settings for Generating Altera Modular ADC or Altera Modular Dual ADC
IP Core
Tab
Parameter
Setting
Use this clock
Turn on this option.
Enter output clock
frequency
Specify an output frequency of 2, 10, 20, 40,
or 80 MHz. You can specify any of these
frequencies. The ADC block runs at 1 MHz
internally but it contains a clock divider that
can further divide the clock by a factor of 2,
10, 20, 40, and 80.
Output Clocks > clk c0
Use this same frequency value in your Altera
Modular ADC or Altera Modular Dual ADC
IP core. You need to connect this signal to the
adc_pll_clock port of the Altera Modular
ADC or Altera Modular Dual ADC IP core.
Related Information
•
•
•
•
•
•
Creating MAX 10 ADC Design on page 4-2
Customizing and Generating Altera Modular ADC IP Core on page 4-2
Completing ADC Design on page 4-7
MAX 10 Clock Networks and PLLs User Guide
ADC PLL Clock Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC on page 5-15
ADC PLL Locked Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC on page 5-15
Parameters Settings for Generating Altera Modular ADC or Altera
Modular Dual ADC IP Core
Navigate through theAltera Modular ADC IP core parameter editor and specify the settings required for
your design. After you have specified all options as listed in the following tables, you can generate the
HDL files and the optional simulation files.
Altera recommends that you save the generated files in the design file directory (default setting).
For more information about each Altera Modular ADC or Altera Modular Dual ADC parameter, refer to
the related information section.
Table 4-2: Parameter Settings in General Group
Parameter
Setting
Core Variant
There are four configuration variants of the Altera Modular ADC IP
core. Select the core variant that meets your requirement. For more
information, refer to the related information.
Debug Path
Turn this on to enable the debug path for the selected core variant.
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IP Core
Parameter
4-5
Setting
Generate IP for which ADCs of
this device?
For devices with two ADC blocks, select the ADC block for which you
are generating the IP core. There are feature differences between the
two ADC blocks. The temperature sensor is available only in the first
ADC block. There are also different number of channels in both ADC
blocks.
ADC Input Clock
Select the same frequency that you set for the ALTPLL IP core that
clocks the Altera Modular ADC IP core.
Reference Voltage Source
Select whether you want to use external or internal reference voltage.
There is only one VREF pin. For dual ADC blocks, you can use one
external VREF source for both ADC blocks, or external VREF for one
ADC block and internal VREF for the other ADC block.
External Reference Voltage
If you use external VREF source in your design, specify the VREF level.
Table 4-3: Parameters Settings in Channels Group
You can navigate through the tabs for all the available channels and turn on the channel you want to use. In each
channel (and TSD) tab, you can specify the settings in this table.
Parameter
Use Channel 0 (Dedicated
analog input pin - ANAIN)
Setting
This option is available in the CH0 tab.
CH0 is the dedicated analog input channel. If you want to use the
dedicated analog input, turn on this option.
Use Channel N
You can select which dual-function ADC channels to turn on or off.
There are 16 channels (CH1 to CH16) for single ADC devices and 8
channels (CH1 to CH8) for each ADC block in dual ADC devices.
Use on-chip TSD
This option is available in the TSD tab. The TSD channel is the
temperature sensing channel.
Turn on this option if you want the IP core to read the built-in
temperature sensor in the ADC block.
The sampling rate of the ADC block falls to 50 KHz when it reads the
temperature measurement. After it completes the temperature reading,
the ADC sampling rate returns to 1 MHz.
For the Altera Modular Dual ADC IP core, if you specify the TSD in a
sequencer slot for ADC1, specify NULL in the same sequencer slot
number for ADC2.
Enable Maximum threshold for
Channel N
Turn on this option if you want to set a maximum threshold value for
the channel.
Enter Maximum Threshold for
Channel N
Enter the maximum threshold voltage for the channel. The IP core will
generate a threshold violation notfication signal to indicate that the
sampled data is over the threshold value that you specify.
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IP Core
Parameter
Setting
Enable Maximum threshold for
on-chip TSD (TSD tab)
Enter the maximum threshold temperature for the temperature sensor
in Celsius. The IP core will generate a threshold violation notfication
signal to indicate that the sampled temperature is over the temperature
that you specify.
Enable Minimum threshold for
Channel N
Turn on this option if you want to set a minimum threshold value for
the channel.
Enter Minimum Threshold for
Channel N
Enter the minimum threshold voltage for the channel. The IP core will
generate a threshold violation notfication signal to indicate that the
sampled data is below the threshold value that you specify.
Enter Minimum Threshold for
on-chip TSD (TSD tab)
Enter the maximum threshold temperature for the temperature sensor
in Celcius. The IP core will generate a threshold violation notfication
signal to indicate that the sampled temperature is below the tempera‐
ture that you specify.
Table 4-4: Parameters Settings in Sequencer Group
Parameter
Setting
Number of slot used
Select the number of channels to use for conversion. The parameter
editor displays the number of slots available in the Conversion
Sequence Channels based on your selection.
Slot N
For each available slot, select the channel to sample in the sequence.
The available channels depend on the channels that you turned on in
the Channels parameters group.
If you turned on a channel but do not select the channel in any of the
sequencer slots, the unselected channel is not measured during the
ADC sampling sequence.
The ADC block samples the measurements in the sequence you
specify. After it reaches the last slot in the sequence, it repeats the
sampling from the first slot.
Related Information
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Altera Corporation
Creating MAX 10 ADC Design on page 4-2
Customizing and Generating Altera Modular ADC IP Core on page 4-2
Completing ADC Design on page 4-7
Altera Modular ADC Parameters Settings on page 5-1
Altera Modular Dual ADC Parameters Settings on page 5-6
Altera Modular ADC IP Core Channel Name to MAX 10 Device Pin Name Mapping on page 5-5
Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Core Channel Name to MAX 10 Device Pin Name Mapping on page
5-10
MAX 10 ADC Implementation Guides
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Completing ADC Design
4-7
Completing ADC Design
The ADC design requires that the ALTPLL IP core clocks the Altera Modular ADC IP core.
Before you begin
Generate the ALTPLL and Altera Modular ADC IP cores with the settings in the related information.
Figure 4-2: Basic MAX 10 ADC Design
Altera Modular ADC
clock_clk
PLL
inclk0
inclk0 frequency: 100.000 MHz
Operation Mode: Normal
Clk Ratio Ph (dg) DC (%)
c0 1/10 0.00 50.00
reset_sink_reset_n
c0
locked
adc_pll_clock_clk
clock
reset_sink
adc_pll_clock
adc_pll_locked
adc_pll_locked_export
sequencer_csr
sequencer_csr_address
sequencer_csr_read
sequencer_csr_write
sequencer_csr_writedata[31..0]
sequencer_csr_readdata[31..0]
sample_store_csr
sample_store_csr_address[6..0]
sample_store_csr_read
sample_store_csr_write
sample_store_csr_writedata[31..0]
sample_store_csr_readdata[31..0]
clk
irq
sample_store_irq
sample_store_irq_irq
reset_n
clk
export
address
read
write
writedata
readdata
address
read
write
writedata
readdata
1. Create the design as shown in the preceding figure.
2. Connect the c0 signal from the ALTPLL IP core to the adc_pll_clock_clk port of the Altera Modular
ADC IP core.
3. Connect the locked signal from the ALTPLL IP core to the adc_pll_locked_export port of the
Altera Modular ADC IP core.
4. Create the ADC Avalon slave interface to start the ADC.
Related Information
• Creating MAX 10 ADC Design on page 4-2
• Parameters Settings for Generating ALTPLL IP Core on page 4-3
• Parameters Settings for Generating Altera Modular ADC or Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Core on
page 4-4
• Configuration 1: Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage on page 2-10
• Configuration 2: Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage and Threshold Violation
Detection on page 2-11
• Configuration 3: Standard Sequencer with External Sample Storage on page 2-13
• Configuration 4: ADC Control Core Only on page 2-13
MAX 10 ADC Implementation Guides
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The Altera Modular ADC IP core is a soft controller for the ADC hard IP blocks. You can generate soft
IPs to instantiate the on-chip ADC blocks. With this IP core, you can configure the ADCs and abstract the
low level handshake with the ADC hard IP blocks.
The Quartus II software generates your customized Altera Modular ADC IP core according to the
parameter options that you set in the parameter editor.
Related Information
• MAX 10 ADC Overview on page 1-1
• Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Cores on page 2-9
• Altera Modular ADC IP Core Configuration Variants on page 2-10
Altera Modular ADC Parameters Settings
There are three groups of options: General , Channels, and Sequencer.
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trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
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Altera Modular ADC Parameters Settings
Table 5-1: Altera Modular ADC Parameters - General
Parameter
Allowed Values
Description
Core Variant
• Standard
Selects the core configuration for the Altera Modular
sequencer with ADC IP core.
Avalon-MM
sample storage
• Standard
sequencer with
Avalon-MM
sample storage
and threshold
violation
detection
• Standard
sequencer with
external sample
storage
• ADC control
core only
Debug Path
• Disabled
• Enabled
Enables the debug path.
Generate IP for which
ADCs of this device?
• 1st ADC
• 2nd ADC
For devices that have two ADC blocks, specifies which
ADC block you want to instantiate using the IP core.
ADC Input Clock
2, 10, 20, 40, and
80 MHz
Specifies the frequency of the PLL clock counter zero
(c0) clock supply for the ADC core clock.
• You must configure the c0 of the first ALTPLL IP
core that you instantiate to output one of the frequen‐
cies in the allowed values list.
• Connect the ALTPLL c0 output signal to the Altera
Modular ADC clk_in_pll_c0 input signal.
Reference Voltage Source • External
• Internal
Altera Corporation
Specifies the source of voltage reference for the ADC:
• External—uses VCCVREF pin as the voltage reference
source.
• Internal—uses the on-chip 2.5 V (3.0/3.3V on
voltage-regulated devices) as the voltage reference
source.
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Altera Modular ADC Parameters Settings
Parameter
External Reference
Voltage
Allowed Values
• Dual supply
devices: up to
2.5 V
• Single supply
devices: up to
3.63 V
5-3
Description
Specifies the voltage of VCCVREF pin if you use it as
reference voltage to the ADC.
Table 5-2: Altera Modular ADC Parameters - Channels
This group of parameters is divided into several tabs—one for each channel, and one tab for the TSD.
Parameter
Allowed Values
Use Channel 0 (Dedicated • On
analog input pin • Off
ANAIN)
Description
Enables the dedicated analog input pin.
(CH0 tab)
Use Channel N
(Each channel in its own
tab)
Use on-chip TSD
• On
• Off
(TSD tab)
• On
• Off
Enable Maximum
threshold for Channel N
• On
• Off
• On
• Off
(TSD tab)
Enter Maximum
Threshold for Channel N
(Each channel in its own
tab, including channel 0)
Altera Modular ADC IP Core References
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• 1 to 16 channels for single ADC devices
• 1 to 8 channels for dual ADC devices
Specifies that the IP core reads the built-in temperature
sensor in the ADC.
If you turn on this option, the ADC sampling rate is up
to 50 KHz when it reads the temperature measurement.
After it completes the temperature reading, the ADC
sampling rate is up to 1 MHz.
(Each channel in its own
tab)
Enable Maximum
threshold for on-chip
TSD
Enables the dual-function analog input, where N is:
Depends on
reference voltage
Enables the maximum threshold feature for the channel.
This option is available only if you select the Standard
sequencer with Avalon-MM sample storage and
threshold violation detection core variant.
Enables the maximum threshold feature for the TSD.
This option is available only if you select the Standard
sequencer with Avalon-MM sample storage and
threshold violation detection core variant.
Specifies the maximum threshold value in Volts.
This setting is available only if you select the Standard
sequencer with Avalon-MM sample storage and
threshold violation detection core variant.
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Altera Modular ADC Parameters Settings
Parameter
Allowed Values
Enter Maximum
Threshold for on-chip
TSD
—
• On
• Off
Enables the minimum threshold feature for the channel.
This option is available only if you select the Standard
sequencer with Avalon-MM sample storage and
threshold violation detection core variant.
(Each channel in its own
tab, including channel 0)
Enable Minimum
threshold for on-chip
TSD
• On
• Off
Enables the minimum threshold feature for the TSD.
Depends on
reference voltage
Specifies the minimum threshold value in Volts.
This option is available only if you select the Standard
sequencer with Avalon-MM sample storage and
threshold violation detection core variant.
(TSD tab)
Enter Minimum
Threshold for Channel N
(Each channel in its own
tab, including channel 0)
—
Enter Minimum
Threshold for on-chip
TSD
This setting is available only if you select the Standard
sequencer with Avalon-MM sample storage and
threshold violation detection core variant.
Specifies the minimum threshold value in Celcius.
This setting is available only if you select the Standard
sequencer with Avalon-MM sample storage and
threshold violation detection core variant.
(TSD tab)
Enable Prescaler for
Channel N
Specifies the maximum threshold value in Celcius.
This setting is available only if you select the Standard
sequencer with Avalon-MM sample storage and
threshold violation detection core variant.
(TSD tab)
Enable Minimum
threshold for Channel N
Description
•
•
On
Off
Enables the prescaler function, where N is:
• Channels 8 and 16 (if available) for single ADC
devices.
• Channel 8 of ADC1 or ADC2 for dual ADC devices.
Table 5-3: Altera Modular ADC Parameters - Sequencer
Parameter
Number of slot used
Allowed Values
1 to 64
Description
Specifies the number of conversion sequence slots to use.
The Conversion Sequence Channels section displays the
slots available according to the number of slots you select
here.
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Parameter
Slot N
Allowed Values
Enabled channel
number (CH N)
5-5
Description
Specifies which enabled ADC channel to use for the slot
in the sequence.
The selection option lists the ADC channels that you
turned on in the Channels parameter group.
Related Information
• Sequencer Core on page 2-17
• Configuration 1: Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage on page 2-10
• Configuration 2: Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage and Threshold Violation
Detection on page 2-11
• Configuration 3: Standard Sequencer with External Sample Storage on page 2-13
• Configuration 4: ADC Control Core Only on page 2-13
• Altera Modular ADC IP Core Channel Name to MAX 10 Device Pin Name Mapping on page 5-5
• Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Core Channel Name to MAX 10 Device Pin Name Mapping on page
5-10
Altera Modular ADC IP Core Channel Name to MAX 10 Device Pin Name Mapping
Each ADC channel in the Altera Modular ADC IP core corresponds to different device pin name for
single and dual ADC devices.
Table 5-4: Altera Modular ADC IP Core Channel to Pin Mapping for Single ADC Devices
Channel Name
Pin Name
CH0
ANAIN1
CH1
ADC1IN1
CH2
ADC1IN2
CH3
ADC1IN3
CH4
ADC1IN4
CH5
ADC1IN5
CH6
ADC1IN6
CH7
ADC1IN7
CH8
ADC1IN8
CH9
ADC1IN9
CH10
ADC1IN10
CH11
ADC1IN11
CH12
ADC1IN12
CH13
ADC1IN13
CH14
ADC1IN14
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Altera Modular Dual ADC Parameters Settings
Channel Name
Pin Name
CH15
ADC1IN15
CH16
ADC1IN16
Table 5-5: Altera Modular ADC IP Core Channel to Pin Mapping for Dual ADC Devices
ADC Block
First ADC
Second ADC
Channel Name
Pin Name
CH0
ANAIN1
CH1
ADC1IN1
CH2
ADC1IN2
CH3
ADC1IN3
CH4
ADC1IN4
CH5
ADC1IN5
CH6
ADC1IN6
CH7
ADC1IN7
CH8
ADC1IN8
CH0
ANAIN2
CH1
ADC2IN1
CH2
ADC2IN2
CH3
ADC2IN3
CH4
ADC2IN4
CH5
ADC2IN5
CH6
ADC2IN6
CH7
ADC2IN7
CH8
ADC2IN8
Altera Modular Dual ADC Parameters Settings
There are three groups of options: General , Channels, and Sequencer.
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5-7
Table 5-6: Altera Modular Dual ADC Parameters - General
Parameter
Allowed Values
Description
Core Variant
• Standard
Selects the core configuration for the Altera Modular
sequencer with Dual ADC IP core.
Avalon-MM
sample storage
• Standard
sequencer with
Avalon-MM
sample storage
and threshold
violation
detection
• Standard
sequencer with
external sample
storage
• ADC control
core only
ADC Input Clock
2, 10, 20, 40, and
80 MHz
Specifies the frequency of the PLL clock counter zero
(c0) clock supply for the ADC core clock.
• You must configure the c0 of the first ALTPLL IP
core that you instantiate to output one of the frequen‐
cies in the allowed values list.
• Connect the ALTPLL c0 output signal to the Altera
Modular Dual ADC clk_in_pll_c0 input signal.
Reference Voltage (ADC1 • External
or ADC2)
• Internal
External Reference
Voltage
Altera Modular ADC IP Core References
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• Dual supply
devices: up to
2.5 V
• Single supply
devices: up to
3.63 V
Specifies the source of voltage reference for the ADC:
• External—uses VCCVREF pin as the voltage reference
source.
• Internal—uses the on-chip 2.5 V (3.0/3.3V on
voltage-regulated devices) as the voltage reference
source.
Specifies the voltage of VCCVREF pin if you use it as
reference voltage to the ADC.
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Altera Modular Dual ADC Parameters Settings
Table 5-7: Altera Modular Dual ADC Parameters - Channels
This group of parameters is divided into two main tabs for ADC1 and ADC2. For each tab, there are several
channel tabs—one for each channel, and one tab for the TSD in ADC1.
Parameter
Use Channel 0 or 9
(Dedicated analog input
pin - ANAIN)
Allowed Values
Description
• On
• Off
Enables the dedicated analog input pin for ADC1 or
ADC2.
• On
• Off
Enables the dual-function analog input, where N is:
(CH0 tab for ADC1 or
CH9 tab for ADC2)
Use Channel N
(Each channel in its own
tab)
Use on-chip TSD
(TSD tab in ADC1 only)
• On
• Off
• Channels 1 to 8 for ADC1
• Channels 10 to 17 for ADC2
Specifies that the IP core reads the built-in temperature
sensor in ADC1.
If you turn on this option, the ADC sampling rate is up
to 50 KHz when it reads the temperature measurement.
After it completes the temperature reading, the ADC
sampling rate is up to 1 MHz.
Note: If you select the TSD for a sequencer slot in
ADC1, select NULL for the same sequencer
slot number in ADC2.
Enable Maximum
threshold for Channel N
• On
• Off
(Each channel in its own
tab)
Enable Maximum
threshold for on-chip
TSD
• On
• Off
(TSD tab)
Enter Maximum
Threshold for Channel N
(Each channel in its own
tab, including channel 0)
Altera Corporation
Depends on
reference voltage
Enables the maximum threshold feature for the channel.
This option is available only if you select the Standard
sequencer with Avalon-MM sample storage and
threshold violation detection core variant.
Enables the maximum threshold feature for the TSD.
This option is available only if you select the Standard
sequencer with Avalon-MM sample storage and
threshold violation detection core variant.
Specifies the maximum threshold value in Volts.
This setting is available only if you select the Standard
sequencer with Avalon-MM sample storage and
threshold violation detection core variant.
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Altera Modular Dual ADC Parameters Settings
Parameter
Allowed Values
Enter Maximum
Threshold for on-chip
TSD
—
• On
• Off
This option is available only if you select the Standard
sequencer with Avalon-MM sample storage and
threshold violation detection core variant.
• On
• Off
Enables the minimum threshold feature for the TSD.
Depends on
reference voltage
Specifies the minimum threshold value in Volts.
This option is available only if you select the Standard
sequencer with Avalon-MM sample storage and
threshold violation detection core variant.
(TSD tab)
Enter Minimum
Threshold for Channel N
(Each channel in its own
tab, including channel 0)
—
Enter Minimum
Threshold for on-chip
TSD
This setting is available only if you select the Standard
sequencer with Avalon-MM sample storage and
threshold violation detection core variant.
Specifies the minimum threshold value in Celcius.
This setting is available only if you select the Standard
sequencer with Avalon-MM sample storage and
threshold violation detection core variant.
(TSD tab)
Enable Prescaler for
Channel N
Specifies the maximum threshold value in Celcius.
Enables the minimum threshold feature for the channel.
(Each channel in its own
tab, including channel 0)
Enable Minimum
threshold for on-chip
TSD
Description
This setting is available only if you select the Standard
sequencer with Avalon-MM sample storage and
threshold violation detection core variant.
(TSD tab)
Enable Minimum
threshold for Channel N
5-9
•
•
On
Off
Enables the prescaler function, where N is:
• Channel 8 in ADC1
• Channel 17 in ADC2
Table 5-8: Altera Modular Dual ADC Parameters - Sequencer
Parameter
Number of slot used
Allowed Values
1 to 64
Description
Specifies the number of conversion sequence slots to use
for both ADC1 and ADC2.
The Conversion Sequence Channels section displays the
slots available for ADC1 and ADC2 according to the
number of slots you select here.
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Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Core Channel Name to MAX 10 Device Pin Name
Mapping
Parameter
Slot N
Allowed Values
Enabled channel
number (CH N)
Description
Specifies which enabled ADC channel to use for the slot
in the sequence.
The selection option lists the ADC channels that you
turned on in the Channels parameter group for ADC1
and ADC2.
Note: If you select the TSD for a sequencer slot in
ADC1, select NULL for the same sequencer
slot number in ADC2.
Related Information
• Sequencer Core on page 2-17
• Configuration 1: Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage on page 2-10
• Configuration 2: Standard Sequencer with Avalon-MM Sample Storage and Threshold Violation
Detection on page 2-11
• Configuration 3: Standard Sequencer with External Sample Storage on page 2-13
• Configuration 4: ADC Control Core Only on page 2-13
• Altera Modular ADC IP Core Channel Name to MAX 10 Device Pin Name Mapping on page 5-5
• Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Core Channel Name to MAX 10 Device Pin Name Mapping on page
5-10
Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Core Channel Name to MAX 10 Device Pin Name
Mapping
Each ADC channel in the Altera Modular Dual ADC IP core corresponds to different device pin name.
Table 5-9: Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Core Channel to Pin Mapping
ADC Block
ADC1
Altera Corporation
Channel Name
Pin Name
CH0
ANAIN1
CH1
ADC1IN1
CH2
ADC1IN2
CH3
ADC1IN3
CH4
ADC1IN4
CH5
ADC1IN5
CH6
ADC1IN6
CH7
ADC1IN7
CH8
ADC1IN8
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Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC Interface Signals
ADC Block
ADC2
Channel Name
Pin Name
CH9
ANAIN2
CH10
ADC2IN1
CH11
ADC2IN2
CH12
ADC2IN3
CH13
ADC2IN4
CH14
ADC2IN5
CH15
ADC2IN6
CH16
ADC2IN7
CH17
ADC2IN8
5-11
Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC Interface Signals
Depending on parameter settings you specify, different signals are available for the Altera Modular ADC
or Altera Modular Dual ADC IP core.
Command Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC
The command interface is an Avalon-ST type interface that supports a ready latency of 0.
Table 5-10: Command Interface Signals
Signal
Width
(Bit)
Description
valid
1
Indication from the source port that current transfer is valid.
ready
1
Indication from the sink port that it is ready for current transfer.
channel
5
Indicates the channel that the ADC hard block samples from for
current command.
•
•
•
•
Altera Modular ADC IP Core References
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31—recalibration request
30:18—not used
17—temperature sensor
16:0—channel 16 to channel 0 where channel 0 is the dedicated
analog input pin and channel 1 to channel 16 are the dual
purpose analog input pins.
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Response Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC
Signal
startofpacket
Width
(Bit)
1
Description
Indication from the source port that current transfer is the start of
packet.
• For altera_adc_sequencer core implementation, the IP core
asserts this signal during the first slot of conversion sequence
data array.
• For altera_adc_control core implementation, this signal is
ignored. The IP core just passes the received information back to
the corresponding response interface.
endofpacket
1
Indication from the source port that current transfer is the end of
packet.
• For altera_adc_sequencer core implementation, IP core asserts
this signal during the final slot of conversion sequence data
array.
• For altera_adc_control core implementation, this signal is
ignored. The IP core just passes the received information back to
the corresponding response interface.
Related Information
• Altera Modular ADC IP Core Channel Name to MAX 10 Device Pin Name Mapping on page 5-5
• Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Core Channel Name to MAX 10 Device Pin Name Mapping on page
5-10
Response Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC
The response interface is an Avalon-ST type interface that does not support backpressure. To avoid
overflow condition at the source port, implement sink ports with response data process time that is fast
enough, or with enough buffers storage.
Table 5-11: Response Interface Signals
Signal
Width
(Bit)
Description
valid
1
Indication from the source port that current transfer is valid.
channel
5
Indicates the ADC channel to which the ADC sampling data
corresponds for the current response.
• 31:18—not used
• 17—temperature sensor
• 16:0—channel 16 to channel 0 where channel 0 is the dedicated
analog input pin and channel 1 to channel 16 are the dual
purpose analog input pins.
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Threshold Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC
Signal
Width
(Bit)
5-13
Description
12 or 24 ADC sampling data:
data
• 12 bit width for Altera Modular ADC
• 24 bit width for Altera Modular Dual ADC
startofpacket
1
Indication from the source port that current transfer is the start of
packet.
For altera_adc_control core implementation, the source of this
signal is from the corresponding command interface.
endofpacket
1
Indication from the source port that current transfer is the end of
packet.
For altera_adc_control core implementation, the source of this
signal is from the corresponding command interface.
Threshold Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC
The threshold interface is an Avalon-ST type interface that does not support backpressure.
Table 5-12: Threshold Interface Signals
Signal
Width
(Bit)
Description
valid
1
Indication from the source port that current transfer is valid.
channel
5
Indicates the ADC channel for which the threshold value has been
violated.
• 31:18—not used
• 17—temperature sensor
• 16:0—channel 16 to channel 0 where channel 0 is the dedicated
analog input pin and channel 1 to channel 16 are the dual
purpose analog input pins.
data
1
Indicates the type of threshold violation:
• 1—Exceeds maximum threshold value
• 0—Below minimum threshold value
Related Information
• Altera Modular ADC IP Core Channel Name to MAX 10 Device Pin Name Mapping on page 5-5
• Altera Modular Dual ADC IP Core Channel Name to MAX 10 Device Pin Name Mapping on page
5-10
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CSR Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC
CSR Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC
The CSR interface is an Avalon-MM slave interface.
Table 5-13: CSR Interface Signals
Signal
address
Width
(Bit)
1 or 7
Description
Avalon-MM adress bus. The address bus width is in the unit of
word adressing:
• altera_adc_sample_store core—address width is seven
• altera_adc_sequencer core—address width is one
read
1
Avalon-MM read request.
write
1
Avalon-MM write request.
writedata
32
Avalon-MM write data bus.
readdata
32
Avalon-MM read data bus.
IRQ Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC
The IRQ interface is an interrupt interface type.
Table 5-14: IRQ Interface Signals
Signal
Width
(Bit)
1
irq
Description
Interrupt request.
Peripheral Clock Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC
The peripheral clock interface is a clock sink interface type.
Table 5-15: Peripheral Clock Interface Signals
Signal
clock
Width
(Bit)
1
Description
Single clock that clocks all Altera Modular ADC or Altera Modular
Dual ADC micro cores.
Peripheral Reset Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC
The peripheral reset interface is a reset sink interface type.
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ADC PLL Clock Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC
5-15
Table 5-16: Peripheral Reset Interface Signals
Signal
reset_n
Width
(Bit)
1
Description
Single reset source that that resets all Altera Modular ADC or
Altera Modular Dual ADC micro cores.
ADC PLL Clock Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC
The ADC PLL clock interface is a clock sink interface type.
Table 5-17: ADC PLL Clock Interface Signals
Signal
Width
(Bit)
1
clock
Description
ADC hard IP clock source from C0 output of dedicated PLL1 or
PLL3.
Export this interface from the Qsys system.
Related Information
• Customizing and Generating Altera Modular ADC IP Core on page 4-2
• Parameters Settings for Generating ALTPLL IP Core on page 4-3
ADC PLL Locked Interface of Altera Modular ADC and Altera Modular Dual ADC
The ADC PLL locked interface is a conduit end interface type.
Table 5-18: ADC PLL Locked Interface Signals
Signal
conduit
Width
(Bit)
1
Description
ADC hard IP locked signal output of dedicated PLL1 or PLL3.
Export this interface from the Qsys system.
Related Information
• Customizing and Generating Altera Modular ADC IP Core on page 4-2
• Parameters Settings for Generating ALTPLL IP Core on page 4-3
Altera Modular ADC Register Definitions
The registers in the generated Altera Modular ADC IP core provide the IP core with the control and
settings during operation.
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Sequencer Core Registers
Sequencer Core Registers
Table 5-19: Command Register (CMD)
Address Offset: 0x0
Bit
Name
Attribute
31:4
Reserved
Read
3:1
Mode
Description
Read-Write Indicates the operation mode of
the sequencer core.
In continuous conversion, the
data will be overwritten after a
complete sampling sequence.
Run
Default
—
0
• 7—Recalibrate the
ADC
• 6 to 2—Reserved
• 1—Single cycle ADC
conversion
• 0—Continuous ADC
conversion
0
• 1—Run
• 0—Stop
0
Reserved
This register is ignored when the
run bit (bit 0) is set.
0
Value
Read-Write Use this control bit to trigger the
sequencer core operation.
The Altera Modular ADC IP core
waits until the sequencer core
completes its current operation
before writing to this register bit.
Related Information
Sequencer Core on page 2-17
Sample Storage Core Registers
Table 5-20: ADC Sample Register (ADC_SAMPLE) of Altera Modular ADC
Address Offset: 0x3F (slot 63)—0x0 (slot 0)
Bit
Name
Attribute
Description
31:
12
Reserved
Read
Reserved
11:
0
Sample
Read
The slot number to which the
ADC sample corresponds.
Value
Default
—
0
0 to 63
0
Value
Default
—
0
Table 5-21: ADC Sample Register (ADC_SAMPLE) of Altera Modular Dual ADC
Address Offset: 0x3F (slot 63)—0x0 (slot 0)
Bit
Name
Attribute
31:
28
Reserved
Read
Altera Corporation
Description
Reserved
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Sample Storage Core Registers
Bit
Name
Attribute
Description
27:
16
Sample
Read
The slot number to which the
ADC sample corresponds for
ADC2.
15:
12
Reserved
Read
Reserved
11:
0
Sample
Read
The slot number to which the
ADC sample corresponds for
ADC1.
5-17
Value
Default
0 to 63
0
—
0
0 to 63
0
Table 5-22: Interrupt Enable Register (IER)
Address Offset: 0x40
Clear the enable bit to prevent the corresponding interrupt status bit from causing interrupt output assertion
(IRQ). The enable bit does not stop the interrupt status bit value from showing in the interrupt status register
(ISR).
Bit
Name
Attribute
31:
1
Reserved
Read
0
M_EOP
Description
Reserved
Read-Write The enable bit for the end of
packet (EOP) interrupt.
Value
Default
—
0
0
• 1—Enables the
corresponding
interrupt
• 0—Disables the
corresponding
interrupt
Table 5-23: Interrupt Status Register (ISR)
Address Offset: 0x41
Bit
Name
Attribute
31:
1
Reserved
Read
0
EOP
Description
Reserved
Read-Write EOP interrupt.
(one cycle)
Value
Default
—
0
• 1—Indicates complete
receipt of a sample
block
• 0—Automatically
clears to 0 after
indication of complete
receipt
1
Related Information
Sample Storage Core on page 2-18
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ADC HAL Device Driver for Nios II Gen 2
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ADC HAL Device Driver for Nios II Gen 2
The Altera Modular ADC IP core provides a HAL device driver. You can integrate the device driver into
the HAL system library for Nios® II Gen 2 systems.
The Altera Modular ADC IP core provides software files that define low-level access to the hardware. You
can use the macros definition and functions in the software files to initialize the Altera Modular ADC
core.
• altera_modular_adc_sequencer_regs.h—this file defines the register map for the sequencer core. It
provides symbolic constants to access the low-level hardware.
• altera_modular_adc_sample_store_regs.h—this file defines the register for sample storage core. It
provides symbolic constants to access the low-level hardware.
• altera_modular_adc.h—include this file into your application. It automatically includes the other header
files and defines additional functions.
• altera_modular_adc.c—this file implements helper functions that are defined in the header file.
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Document Revision History for MAX 10 Analog to Digital Converter User
Guide
Date
May 2015
Version
2015.05.04
Changes
• Added the Altera Modular Dual ADC IP core.
• Removed F672 from the 10M25 device and added ADC informa‐
tion for the E144 package of the 10M04 device:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
• Updated the ADC block counts.
• Updated the ADC vertical migration support.
• Updated the ADC channel counts.
Updated the table that lists the ADC channel count to list only 8
dual function pins (instead of 16) for the M153 and U169 packages.
Updated the ADC vertical migration diagram to clarify that there
are single ADC devices with eight and 16 dual function pins.
Updated the topic about ADC conversion to specify that in
prescaler mode, the analog input in dual and single supply devices
can measure up to 3.0 V and 3.6 V, respectively.
Updated the ADC IP core architecture figures to include features
for the dual ADC IP core.
Added information and topics about the response merge and dual
ADC synchronizer micro cores.
Removed notes about contacting Altera for the ADC pin RLC filter
design.
Updated the ADC prescaler topic to change the ADC2 channel that
supports prescaler from channel 16 to channel 17.
Updated the diagram that shows the ADC timing:
• To clarify that the numbers are hexadecimal numbers.
• Relabeled the signals to match the command and response
interface signal names.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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Registered
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Document Revision History for MAX 10 Analog to Digital Converter User Guide
Date
Version
UG-M10ADC
2014.12.15
Changes
• Updated the RC constant and filter value and the filter design
example figure to clarify the source of the example values.
• Added guidelines for setting up the sequencer in dual ADC mode.
• Added topics that list the mapping of Altera Modular ADC and
Altera Modular Dual ADC IP cores channel names to MAX 10
device pin names.
• Corrected the address offset of the interrupt enable register (from
0x41 to 0x40) and interrupt status register (from 0x40 to 0x41) for
the sample storage core.
• Updated the sample storage core registers table to include registers
for Altera Modular Dual ADC.
• Removed statements about availability of the threshold trigger
feature in a future version of the Quartus II software. The feature is
now available from version 15.0 of the software.
December 2014
2014.12.15
• Added ADC prescaler block diagram.
• Replaced the ADC continuous conversion timing diagram with the
ADC timing diagram.
• Corrected a minor error in the example in the topic about the
sample storage core.
• Added information that the ADC TSD measures the temperature
using a 64-samples running average method.
• Updated majority of the temperature codes in the table that lists the
temperature code conversion.
• Added chapter that provides the ADC design considerations.
• Removed mention of value "0" for values allowed for the number of
sequencer slots used in Altera Modular ADC IP core parameter
editor. Only values 1 to 64 are allowed.
• Removed the statement about enabling and disabling additional
ADC response interface or debugging in the topic about the Altera
Modular ADC IP core configuration variants. You can enable or
disable the debug path in the parameter editor.
• Removed the debug paths diagrams for each ADC core configura‐
tion.
• Removed the statement about using the sequencer core to trigger
recalibration. The ADC is automatically recalibrated when it
switches from normal sensing mode to temperature sensing mode.
• Edited text to clarify about routing power or ground traces if power
or ground plane is not possible.
• Updated the total RC constant values in the table that shows the RC
constant and filter values calculation.
• Corrected spelling for "prescaler".
Septemper 2014
2014.09.22
Initial release.
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TOC-2
Contents
MAX 10 FPGA Configuration Overview............................................................ 1-1
MAX 10 FPGA Configuration Schemes and Features....................................... 2-1
Configuration Schemes............................................................................................................................... 2-1
JTAG Configuration........................................................................................................................ 2-1
Internal Configuration.................................................................................................................... 2-2
Configuration Features............................................................................................................................... 2-8
Remote System Upgrade in Dual Compressed Images.............................................................. 2-8
Configuration Design Security.....................................................................................................2-15
SEU Mitigation and Configuration Error Detection................................................................ 2-18
Configuration Data Compression............................................................................................... 2-22
Configuration Details................................................................................................................................2-23
Configuration Sequence................................................................................................................2-23
MAX 10 Configuration Pins.........................................................................................................2-25
MAX 10 FPGA Configuration Design Guidelines............................................. 3-1
Dual-Purpose Configuration Pins............................................................................................................. 3-1
Guidelines: Dual-Purpose Configuration Pin..............................................................................3-1
Enabling Dual-purpose Pin............................................................................................................ 3-2
Configuring MAX 10 Devices using JTAG Configuration.................................................................... 3-2
JTAG Configuration Setup............................................................................................................. 3-3
ICB Settings in JTAG Configuration.............................................................................................3-4
Configuring MAX 10 Devices using Internal Configuration................................................................ 3-4
Selecting Internal Configuration Modes...................................................................................... 3-5
.pof and ICB Settings....................................................................................................................... 3-5
Programming .pof into Internal Flash.......................................................................................... 3-7
Accessing the Remote System Upgrade Block Through User Interface.............................................. 3-8
Error Detection............................................................................................................................................ 3-8
Verifying Error Detection Functionality...................................................................................... 3-8
Enabling Error Detection................................................................................................................3-9
Accessing Error Detection Block Through User Interface........................................................ 3-9
Enabling Data Compression.....................................................................................................................3-10
Enabling Compression Before Design Compilation.................................................................3-11
Enabling Compression After Design Compilation................................................................... 3-11
AES Encryption..........................................................................................................................................3-11
Generating .ekp File and Encrypt Configuration File.............................................................. 3-12
Generating .jam/.jbc/.svf file from .ekp file................................................................................3-13
Programming .ekp File and Encrypted POF File...................................................................... 3-14
Encryption in Internal Configuration.........................................................................................3-15
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TOC-3
MAX 10 FPGA Configuration IP Core Implementation Guides...................... 4-1
Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core................................................................................................................. 4-1
Instantiating the Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core....................................................................... 4-1
Resetting the Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core............................................................................. 4-1
Altera Dual Configuration IP Core........................................................................................................... 4-1
Instantiating the Altera Dual Configuration IP Core................................................................. 4-2
Altera Dual Configuration IP Core References..................................................5-1
Altera Dual Configuration IP Core Avalon-MM Address Map............................................................5-1
Altera Dual Configuration IP Core Parameters...................................................................................... 5-3
Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core References........................................................6-1
Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core Ports.......................................................................................................6-1
Additional Information for MAX 10 FPGA Configuration User Guide.......... A-1
Document Revision History for MAX 10 FPGA Configuration User Guide.....................................A-2
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You can configure MAX® 10 configuration RAM (CRAM) using the following configuration schemes:
• JTAG configuration—using JTAG interface.
• Internal configuration—using internal flash.
Supported Configuration Features
Table 1-1: Configuration Schemes and Features Supported by MAX 10 Devices
Configuration Scheme
Remote System
Upgrade
Compression
Design Security
SEU Mitigation
JTAG configuration
—
—
—
Yes
Internal configuration
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Related IP Cores
• Altera Dual Configuration IP Core—used in the remote system upgrade feature.
• Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core—retrieves the chip ID of MAX 10 devices.
Related Information
• MAX 10 FPGA Configuration Schemes and Features on page 2-1
Provides information about the configuration schemes and features.
• MAX 10 FPGA Configuration Design Guidelines on page 3-1
Provides information about using the configuration schemes and features.
• Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core on page 2-16
• Altera Dual Configuration IP Core on page 2-14
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
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MAX 10 FPGA Configuration Schemes and
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Configuration Schemes
Figure 2-1: High-Level Overview of JTAG Configuration and Internal Configuration for MAX 10 Devices
JTAG Configuration
Configuration Data
.sof
MAX 10 Device
CRAM
Internal
Configuration
.pof
CFM
JTAG In-System Programming
JTAG Configuration
In MAX 10 devices, JTAG instructions take precedence over the internal configuration scheme.
Using the JTAG configuration scheme, you can directly configure the device CRAM through the JTAG
interface—TDI, TDO, TMS, and TCK pins. The Quartus® II software automatically generates an SRAM
Object File (.sof). You can program the .sof using a download cable with the Quartus II software
programmer.
Related Information
Configuring MAX 10 Devices using JTAG Configuration on page 3-2
Provides more information about JTAG configuration using download cable with Quartus II software
programmer.
2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
©
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JTAG Pins
JTAG Pins
Table 2-1: JTAG Pin
Pin
TDI
Function
Serial input pin for:
• instructions
• test data
• programming data
TDO
Serial output pin for:
• instructions
• test data
• programming data
TMS
TCK
Input pin that provides the control
signal to determine the transitions of
the TAP controller state machine.
Clock input to the BST circuitry.
Description
• TDI is sampled on the rising edge of TCK
• TDI pins have internal weak pull-up resistors.
• TDO is sampled on the falling edge of TCK
• The pin is tri-stated if data is not shifted out
of the device.
• TMS is sampled on the rising edge of TCK
• TMS pins have internal weak pull-up resistors.
—
All the JTAG pins are powered by the VCCIO 1B. In JTAG mode, the I/O pins support the LVTTL/
LVCMOS 3.3-1.5V standards.
Related Information
• MAX 10 Device Datasheet
Provides more information about supported I/O standard in MAX 10 devices.
• Guidelines: Dual-Purpose Configuration Pin on page 3-1
• Enabling Dual-purpose Pin on page 3-2
Internal Configuration
You need to program the configuration data into the configuration flash memory (CFM) before internal
configuration can take place. The configuration data to be written to CFM will be part of the programmer
object file (.pof). Using JTAG In-System Programming (ISP), you can program the .pof into the internal
flash.
During internal configuration, MAX 10 devices load the CRAM with configuration data from the CFM.
Internal Configuration Modes
The internal configuration scheme for all MAX 10 devices except for 10M02 device consists of the
following modes:
•
•
•
•
•
Dual Compressed Images—configuration image is stored as image 0 and image 1 in the CFM
Single Compressed Image
Single Compressed Image with Memory Initialization
Single Uncompressed Image
Single Uncompressed Image with Memory Initialization
In dual compressed images mode, you can use the CONFIG_SEL pin to select the configuration image.
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Configuration Flash Memory
2-3
The internal configuration scheme for 10M02 device supports the following mode:
• Single Compressed Image
• Single Uncompressed Image
Related Information
• Configuring MAX 10 Devices using Internal Configuration on page 3-4
• Remote System Upgrade in Dual Compressed Images on page 2-8
Configuration Flash Memory
The CFM is a non-volatile internal flash that is used to store configuration images. The CFM may store up
to two compressed configuration images, depending on the compression and the MAX 10 devices. The
compression ratio for the configuration image should be at least 30% for the device to be able store two
configuration images.
Table 2-2: Maximum Number of Compressed Configuration Image for MAX 10 Devices
Device
Maximum Number of Compressed Configuration Image
10M02
1
10M04, 10M08, 10M16, 10M25, 10M40, and 10M50
2
Related Information
Configuration Flash Memory Permissions on page 2-18
Configuration Flash Memory Sectors
All CFM in MAX 10 devices consist of three sectors, CFM0, CFM1, and CFM2 except for the 10M02. The
sectors are programmed differently depending on the internal configuration mode you select.
The 10M02 device consists of only CFM0. The CFM0 sector in 10M02 devices is programmed similarly
when you select single compressed image or single uncompressed image.
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Configuration Flash Memory Total Programming Time
Figure 2-2: Configuration Flash Memory Sectors Utilization for all MAX 10 Devices Except for the
10M02 Device
Unutilized CFM1 and CFM2 sectors can be used for additional user flash memory (UFM).
Configuration Flash Memory Sectors
Internal Configuration
Mode
CFM2
Dual Compressed Image
CFM1
CFM0
Compressed Image 1
Single Uncompressed Image
Compressed Image 0
User Flash Memory
Uncompressed Image 0
Single Uncompressed Image
with Memory Initialization
Uncompressed Image 0 with Memory Initialization
Single Compressed Image
with Memory Initialization
Compressed Image 0 with Memory Initialization
Single Compressed Image
User Flash Memory
Compressed Image 0
Related Information
CFM and UFM Array Size
Configuration Flash Memory Total Programming Time
Table 2-3: Configuration Flash Memory Total Programming Time for Sectors in MAX 10 Devices
Device
Programming Time (s)
CFM2
CFM1
CFM0
10M02
—
—
5.4
10M04
6.5
4.6
11.1
10M08
12.0
8.9
20.8
10M16 and 10M25
16.4
12.6
29.0
10M40 and 10M50
30.2
22.7
52.9
In-System Programming
You can program the internal flash including the CFM of MAX 10 devices with ISP through industry
standard JTAG interface. ISP offers the capability to program, erase, and verify the CFM. The JTAG
circuitry and ISP instructions for MAX 10 devices are compliant to the IEEE-1532-2002 programming
specification.
During ISP, the MAX 10 receives the IEEE Std. 1532 instructions, addresses, and data through the TDI
input pin. Data is shifted out through the TDO output pin and compared with the expected data.
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Real-Time ISP
2-5
The following are the generic flow of an ISP operation:
1. Check ID—the JTAG ID is checked before any program or verify process. The time required to read
this JTAG ID is relatively small compared to the overall programming time.
2. Enter ISP—ensures the I/O pins transition smoothly from user mode to the ISP mode.
3. Sector Erase—shifting in the address and instruction to erase the device and applying erase pulses.
4. Program—shifting in the address, data, and program instructions and generating the program pulse to
program the flash cells. This process is repeated for each address in the internal flash sector.
5. Verify—shifting in addresses, applying the verify instruction to generate the read pulse, and shifting
out the data for comparison. This process is repeated for each internal flash address.
6. Exit ISP—ensures that the I/O pins transition smoothly from the ISP mode to the user mode.
You can also use the Quartus II Programmer to program the CFM.
Related Information
Programming .pof into Internal Flash on page 3-7
Provides the steps to program the .pof using Quartus II Programmer.
Real-Time ISP
In a normal ISP operation, to update the internal flash with a new design image, the device exits from user
mode and all I/O pins remain tri-stated. After the device completes programing the new design image, it
resets and enters user mode.
The real-time ISP feature updates the internal flash with a new design image while operating in user
mode. During the internal flash programming, the device continues to operate using the existing design.
After the new design image programming process completes, the device will not reset. The new design
image update only takes effect in the next reconfiguration cycle.
ISP and Real-Time ISP Instructions
Table 2-4: ISP and Real-Time ISP Instructions for MAX 10 Devices
Instruction
Instruction Code
CONFIG_IO
00 0000 1101
PULSE_NCONFIG
00 0000 0001
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Description
• Allows I/O reconfiguration through JTAG ports using
the IOCSR for JTAG testing. This is executed after or
during configurations.
• nSTATUS pin must go high before you can issue the
CONFIG_IO instruction.
Emulates pulsing the nCONFIG pin low to trigger reconfi‐
guration even though the physical pin is unaffected.
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ISP and Real-Time ISP Instructions
Instruction
Instruction Code
(1)
Description
10 1100 1100
• Puts the device in ISP mode, tri-states all I/O pins,
and drives all core drivers, logic, and registers.
• Device remains in the ISP mode until the ISC_
DISABLE instruction is loaded and updated.
• The ISC_ENABLE instruction is a mandatory instruc‐
tion. This requirement is met by the ISC_ENABLE_
CLAMP or ISC_ENABLE_HIZ instruction.
10 0011 0011
• Puts the device in ISP mode and forces all I/O pins to
follow the contents of the JTAG boundary-scan
register.
• When this instruction is activated, all core drivers,
logics, and registers are frozen. The I/O pins remain
clamped until the device exits ISP mode successfully.
ISC_DISABLE
10 0000 0001
• Brings the device out of ISP mode.
• Successful completion of the ISC_DISABLE instruction
happens immediately after waiting 200 µs in the RunTest/Idle state.
ISC_PROGRAM(2)
10 1111 0100
ISC_NOOP(2)
10 0001 0000
ISC_ENABLE_HIZ
ISC_ENABLE_CLAMP
(1)
Sets the device up for in-system programming. Program‐
ming occurs in the run-test or idle state.
• Sets the device to a no-operation mode without
leaving the ISP mode and targets the ISC_Default
register.
• Use when:
• two or more ISP-compliant devices are being
accessed in ISP mode and;
• a subset of the devices perform some instructions
while other more complex devices are completing
extra steps in a given process.
(1)
(2)
Sets the device up to load the flash address. It targets the
ISC_Address register, which is the flash address register.
ISC_ADDRESS_SHIFT(2)
10 0000 0011
ISC_ERASE(2)
10 1111 0010
• Sets the device up to erase the internal flash.
• Issue after ISC_ADDRESS_SHIFT instruction.
ISC_READ(2)
10 0000 0101
• Sets the device up for verifying the internal flash
under normal user bias conditions.
• The ISC_READ instruction supports explicit
addressing and auto-increment, also known as the
Burst mode.
Do not issue the ISC_ENABLE_HIZ and ISC_ENABLE_CLAMP instructions from the core logic.
All ISP and real-time ISP instructions are disabled when the device is not in the ISP or real-time ISP mode,
except for the enabling and disabling instructions.
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Initialization Configuration Bits
Instruction
Instruction Code
2-7
Description
BGP_ENABLE
01 1001 1001
• Sets the device to the real-time ISP mode.
• Allows access to the internal flash configuration
sector while the device is still in user mode.
BGP_DISABLE
01 0110 0110
• Brings the device out of the real-time ISP mode.
• The device has to exit the real-time ISP mode using
the BGP_DISABLE instruction after it is interrupted by
reconfiguration.
Caution: Do not use unsupported JTAG instructions. It will put the device into an unknown state and
requires a power cycle to recover the operation.
Initialization Configuration Bits
Initialization Configuration Bits (ICB) stores the configuration feature settings of the MAX 10 device. You
can set the ICB settings during Convert Programming File.
Table 2-5: Initialization Configuration Bits for MAX 10 Devices
Configuration Settings
Description
Default State/Value
Power On Reset Scheme
• Instant ON
• Fast POR delay
• Slow POR delay
Instant ON
Set I/O to weak pull-up prior
usermode
• Enable: I/O will set to week pull-up prior to
usermode.
• Disable: I/O will be input tri-stated.
Enable
Auto-reconfigure from
secondary image when initial
image fails.
Enable:
Enable
• Device will automatically load secondary image
if initial image fails.
Disable:
• device will automatically load image 0.
• device will not load image 1 if image 0 fails.
• CONFIG_SEL pin setting is ignored.
Use secondary image ISP data • Disable: Use ISP data from image 0
as default setting when
• Enable: Use ISP data from image 1
available.
ISP data contains the information about state of
the pin during ISP. This can be either tri-state with
weak pull-up or clamp the I/O state. You can set
the ISP clamp through Device and Pin Option, or
Pin Assignment tool.
Disable
Verify Protect
Disable
To disable or enable the Verify Protect feature.
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Configuration Features
Configuration Settings
Description
Default State/Value
Allow encrypted POF only
If enabled, configuration error will occur if
unencrypted .pof is used.
Disable
JTAG Secure(3)
To disable or enable the JTAG Secure feature.
Disable
Enable Watchdog
To disable or enable the watchdog timer for
remote system upgrade.
Enable
Watchdog value
To set the watchdog timer value for remote system
upgrade.
0x1FFF(4)
Related Information
• .pof and ICB Settings on page 3-5
• .pof Generation through Convert Programming Files on page 3-6
Provides more information about setting the ICB during .pof generation using Convert Programming
File.
• Instant-on on page 2-24
Provides more information about Instant ON and other power on reset scheme.
• Verify Protect on page 2-17
• JTAG Secure Mode on page 2-16
• ISP and Real-Time ISP Instructions on page 2-5
• User Watchdog Timer on page 2-14
Configuration Features
Remote System Upgrade in Dual Compressed Images
MAX 10 devices support the remote system upgrade feature. By default, the remote system upgrade
feature is enabled in all MAX 10 devices when you select the dual compressed image internal
configuration mode.
The remote system upgrade feature in MAX 10 devices offers the following capabilities:
•
•
•
•
Manages remote configuration
Provides error detection, recovery, and information
Supports direct-to-application configuration image
Supports compressed and encrypted .pof
You can use the Altera Dual Configuration IP core or the remote system upgrade circuitry to access the
remote system upgrade block in MAX 10 devices.
(3)
(4)
The JTAG Secure feature will be disabled by default in Quartus II. If you are interested in using the JTAG
Secure feature, contact Altera for support.
The watchdog timer value depends on the MAX 10 you are using. Refer to the Watchdog Timer section for
more information.
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Remote System Upgrade Flow
2-9
Remote System Upgrade Flow
Both the application configuration images, image 0 and image 1, are stored in the CFM. The MAX 10
device loads either one of the application configuration image from the CFM.
Figure 2-3: Remote System Upgrade Flow for MAX 10 Devices
Sample CONFIG_SEL pin
igu
rati
o
Rec
onf
Flow when Auto-reconfigure
from secondary image when
initial image fails is disabled.
CONFIG_SEL=0
tion
gura
onfi
Rec
n
Power-up
CONFIG_SEL=1
Power-up
First Error Occurs
Image 0
Image 1
First Error Occurs
Second Error Occurs
Second Error Occurs
rO
o
Err
s
tio
ura
fig
r
ccu
con
Re
Wait for Reconfiguration
n
Reconfiguration
The remote system upgrade feature detects errors in the following sequence:
1. After power-up, the device samples the CONFIG_SEL pin to determine which application configuration
image to load. The CONFIG_SEL pin setting can be overwritten by the input register of the remote
system upgrade circuitry for the subsequent reconfiguration.
2. If an error occurs, the remote system upgrade feature reverts by loading the other application configu‐
ration image. These errors cause the remote system upgrade feature to load another application
configuration image:
• Internal CRC error
• User watchdog timer time-out
3. Once the revert configuration completes and the device is in user mode, you can use the remote system
upgrade circuitry to query the cause of error and which application image failed.
4. If a second error occurs, the device waits for a reconfiguration source. If the Auto-restart configura‐
tion after error is enabled, the device will reconfigure without waiting for any reconfiguration source.
5. Reconfiguration is triggered by the following actions:
• Driving the nSTATUS low externally.
• Driving the nCONFIG low externally.
• Driving RU_nCONFIG low.
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Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
Figure 2-4: Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
Internal Oscillator
Status Register (SR)
Current
State
Logic
Bit[33..0]
Previous
State
Register 1
Bit[31..0]
Previous
State
Register 2
Bit[31..0]
Control Register
Bit [38..0]
Logic
Input Register
Bit [38..0]
update
RU
Master
State
Machine
Logic
RU
Reconfiguration
State
Machine
Shift Register
din
Bit [40..39]
dout
din
dout
Bit [38..0]
capture
clkout capture
Logic
RU_DIN
RU_SHIFTnLD
update
clkin
RU_CLK
RU_CAPTnUPDT
timeout User
Watchdog
Timer
RU_DOUT
RU_nCONFIG
RU_nRSTIMER
Logic Array
The remote system upgrade circuitry does the following functions:
•
•
•
•
•
Tracks the current state of configuration
Monitors all reconfiguration sources
Provides access to set up the application configuration image
Returns the device to fallback configuration if an error occurs
Provides access to the information on the failed application configuration image
Remote System Upgrade Circuitry Signals
Table 2-6: Remote System Upgrade Circuitry Signals for MAX 10 Devices
Core Signal Name
RU_DIN
Altera Corporation
Logical
Signal
Name
regin
Input/
Output
Input
Description
Use this signal to write data to the shift register on the rising
edge of RU_CLK. To load data to the shift register, assert RU_
SHIFTnLD.
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Remote System Upgrade Circuitry Input Control
Core Signal Name
RU_DOUT
RU_nRSTIMER
RU_nCONFIG
RU_CLK
RU_SHIFTnLD
RU_CAPTnUPDT
Logical
Signal
Name
Input/
Output
2-11
Description
Output
Use this signal to get output data from the shift register. Data
is clocked out on each rising edge of RU_CLK if RU_SHIFTnLD is
asserted.
rsttimer
Input
Use this signal to reset the user watchdog timer. A falling edge
of this signal triggers a reset of the user watchdog timer.
rconfig
Input
Use this signal to reconfigure the device. Driving this signal
low triggers the device to reconfigure if you enable the remote
system upgrade feature.
clk
Input
The clock to the remote system upgrade circuitry. All registers
in this clock domain are enabled in user mode if you enable
the remote system upgrade. Shift register and input register
are positive edge flip-flops.
shiftnld
Input
regout
captnupdt
Input
Control signals that determine the mode of remote system
upgrade circuitry.
• When RU_SHIFTnLD is driven low and RU_CAPTnUPDT is
driven low, the input register is loaded with the contents of
the shift register on the rising edge of RU_CLK.
• When RU_SHIFTnLD is driven low and RU_CAPTnUPDT is
driven high, the shift register captures values from the
input_cs_ps module on the rising edge of RU_CLK.
• When RU_SHIFTnLD is driven high, the RU_CAPTnUPDT will
be ignored and the shift register shifts data on each rising
edge of RU_CLK.
Related Information
• Accessing the Remote System Upgrade Block Through User Interface on page 3-8
Provides more information about accessing the remote system upgrade through user interface atom.
• MAX 10 Device Datasheet
Provides more information about Remote System Upgrade timing specifications.
Remote System Upgrade Circuitry Input Control
The remote system upgrade circuitry has three modes of operation.
• Update—loads the values in the shift register into the input register.
• Capture—loads the shift register with data to be shifted out.
• Shift—shifts out data to the user logic.
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Remote System Upgrade Input Register
Table 2-7: Control Inputs to the Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
Remote System Upgrade Circuitry Control Inputs
RU_SHIFTnLD
RU_CAPTnUPDT
Shift register
[40]
Shift register
[39]
0
0
Don't Care
Don't Care
0
1
0
0
1
0
Operation
Mode
Input Settings for Registers
Shift
Register[38:0]
Input
Register[38:0]
Update
Shift Register
[38:0]
Shift Register
[38:0]
0
Capture
Current State
Input
Register[38:0]
1
Capture
{8’b0,
Previous State
Application1}
Input
Register[38:0]
Input
Register[38:0]
0
1
1
0
Capture
{8’b0,
Previous State
Application2}
0
1
1
1
Capture
Input
Register[38:0]
Input
Register[38:0]
1
Don't Care
Don't Care
Don't Care
Shift
{ru_din, Shift
Register
[38:1]}
Input
Register[38:0]
The following shows examples of driving the control inputs in the remote system upgrade circuitry:
• When you drive RU_SHIFTnLD high to 1’b1, the shift register shifts data on each rising edge of RU_CLK
and RU_CAPTnUPDT has no function.
• When you drive both RU_SHIFTnLD and RU_CAPTnUPDT low to 1’b0, the input register is loaded with
the contents of the shift register on the rising edge of RU_CLK.
• When you drive RU_SHIFTnLD low to 1’b0 and RU_CAPTnUPDT high to 1’b1, the shift register
captures values on the rising edge of RU_DCLK.
Remote System Upgrade Input Register
Table 2-8: Remote System Upgrade Input Register for MAX 10 Devices
Bits
Name
38:14
Reserved
13
ru_config_sel
12
ru_config_sel_
overwrite
Altera Corporation
Description
Reserved—set to 0.
• 0: Load configuration image 0
• 1: Load configuration image 1
This bit will only work if the ru_config_sel_overwrite bit is set
to 1.
• 0: Disable overwrite CONFIG_SEL pin
• 1: Enable overwrite CONFIG_SEL pin
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Remote System Upgrade Status Registers
Bits
Name
11:0
Reserved
2-13
Description
Reserved—set to 0.
Remote System Upgrade Status Registers
Table 2-9: Remote System Upgrade Status Register—Current State Logic Bit for MAX 10 Devices
Bits
Name
33:30
msm_cs
29
ru_wd_en
28:0
wd_timeout_value
Description
The current state of the master state machine (MSM).
The current state of the enabled user watchdog timer. The default
state is active high.
The current, entire 29-bit watchdog time-out value.
Table 2-10: Remote System Upgrade Status Register—Previous State Bit for MAX 10 Devices
Bits
Name
31
nconfig
30
crcerror
29
nstatus
28
wdtimer
27:26
Reserved
25:22
msm_cs
21:0
Reserved
Description
An active high field that describes the reconfiguration sources
which caused the MAX 10 device to leave the previous application
configuration. In the event of a tie, the higher bit order takes
precedence. For example, if the nconfig and the ru_nconfig
triggered at the same time, the nconfig takes precedence over the
ru_nconfig.
Reserved—set to 0.
The state of the MSM when a reconfiguration event occurred. The
reconfiguration will cause the device to leave the previous applica‐
tion configuration.
Reserved—set to 0.
Master State Machine
The master state machine (MSM) tracks current configuration mode and enables the user watchdog
timer.
Table 2-11: Remote System Upgrade Master State Machine Current State Descriptions for MAX 10 Devices
msm_cs Values
State Description
0010
Image 0 is being loaded.
0011
Image 1 is being loaded after a revert in application image happens.
0100
Image 1 is being loaded.
0101
Image 0 is being loaded after a revert in application image happens.
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User Watchdog Timer
User Watchdog Timer
The user watchdog timer prevents a faulty application configuration from stalling the device indefinitely.
You can use the timer to detect functional errors when an application configuration is successfully loaded
into the device.
The counter is 29 bits wide and has a maximum count value of 229. When specifying the user watchdog
timer value, specify only the most significant 12 bits. The granularity of the timer setting is 217 cycles. The
cycle time is based on the frequency of the user watchdog timer internal oscillator. Depending on the
counter and the internal oscillator of the device, you can set the cycle time from 9ms to 244s.
Figure 2-5: Watchdog Timer Formula for MAX 10 Devices
The timer begins counting as soon as the application configuration enters user mode. When the timer
expires, the remote system upgrade circuitry generates a time-out signal, updates the status register, and
triggers the loading of the revert configuration image. To reset the timer, pulse the RU_NRSTIMER for a
minimum of 250 ns.
When you enable the watchdog timer, the setting will apply to all images, all images should contain the
soft logic configuration to reset the timer. Application Configuration will reset the control block registers.
Related Information
• User Watchdog Internal Circuitry Timing Specifications
Provides more information about the user watchdog frequency.
• Initialization Configuration Bits on page 2-7
Altera Dual Configuration IP Core
The Altera Dual Configuration IP core offers the following capabilities through Avalon-MM interface:
•
•
•
•
Asserts RU_nCONFIG to trigger reconfiguration.
Asserts RU_nRSTIMER to reset watchdog timer if the watchdog timer is enabled.
Writes configuration setting to the input register of the remote system upgrade circuitry.
Reads information from the remote system upgrade circuitry.
Figure 2-6: Altera Dual Configuration IP Core Block Diagram
clk
nreset
Altera
Dual Configuration
avmm_rcv_address[2..0]
avmm_rcv_read
avmm_rcv_writedata[31..0]
avmm_rcv_write
avmm_rcv_readdata[31..0]
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Configuration Design Security
2-15
Related Information
• Altera Dual Configuration IP Core Avalon-MM Address Map on page 5-1
• Avalon Interface Specifications
Provides more information about the Avalon-MM interface specifications applied in Altera Dual
Configuration IP Core.
• Instantiating the Altera Dual Configuration IP Core on page 4-2
• Accessing the Remote System Upgrade Block Through User Interface on page 3-8
Configuration Design Security
The MAX 10 design security feature supports the following capabilities:
• Encryption—Built-in encryption standard (AES) to support 128-bit key industry-standard design
security algorithm
• Chip ID—Unique device identification
• JTAG secure mode—limits access to JTAG instructions
• Verify Protect—allows optional disabling of CFM content read-back
AES Encryption Protection
The MAX 10 design security feature provides the following security protection for your designs:
• Security against copying—the non-volatile key is securely stored in the MAX 10 devices and cannot be
read through any interface. Without this key, attacker will not be able to decrypt the encrypted
configuration image.
• Security against reverse engineering—reverse engineering from an encrypted configuration file is very
difficult and time consuming because the file require decryption.
• Security against tampering—after you enable the JTAG Secure and Encrypted POF (EPOF) only, the
MAX 10 device can only accept configuration files encrypted with the same key. Additionally, configu‐
ration through the JTAG interface is blocked.
Related Information
.pof Generation through Convert Programming Files on page 3-6
Encryption and Decryption
MAX 10 supports AES encryption. Programming bitstream is encrypted based on the encryption key that
is specified by user. In MAX 10 devices, the key is part of the ICB settings stored in the internal flash.
Hence, the key will be non-volatile but user can clear/delete the key by a full chip erase the device.
When you use compression with encryption, the configuration file is first compressed, and then
encrypted using the Quartus II software. During configuration, the device first decrypts, and then
decompresses the configuration file.
The header and I/O configuration shift register (IOCSR) data will not be encrypted. The decryption block
is activated after the IOCSR chain is programmed. The decryption block only decrypts core data and
postamble.
Related Information
JTAG Instruction Availability on page 2-17
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Unique Chip ID
Unique Chip ID
Unique chip ID provides the following features:
• Identifies your device in your design as part of a security feature to protect your design from an
unauthorized device.
• Provides non-volatile 64-bits unique ID for each MAX 10 device with write protection.
You can use the Altera Unique Chip ID IP core to acquire the chip ID of your MAX 10 device.
Related Information
• Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core on page 4-1
• Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core Ports on page 6-1
Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core
Figure 2-7: Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core Block Diagram
clkin
data_valid
Altera Unique
Chip ID
reset
chip_id[63..0]
At the initial state, the data_valid signal is low because no data is read from the unique chip ID block.
After feeding a clock signal to the clkin input port, the Altera Unique Chip ID IP core begins to acquire
the chip ID of your device through the unique chip ID block. After acquiring the chip ID of your device,
the Altera Unique Chip ID IP core asserts the data_valid signal to indicate that the chip ID value at the
output port is ready for retrieval.
The operation repeats only when you provide another clock signal when the data_valid signal is low. If
the data_valid signal is high when you provide another clock signal, the operation stops because the
chip_id[63..0] output holds the chip ID of your device.
A minimum of 67 clock cycles are required for the data_valid signal to go high.
The chip_id[63:0]output port holds the value of chip ID of your device until you reconfigure the device
or reset the Altera Unique Chip ID IP core.
JTAG Secure Mode
In JTAG Secure mode, the device only allows mandatory JTAG 1149.1 instructions to be exercised.
You can enable the JTAG secure when generating the .pof in the Convert Programming Files. To exit JTAG
secure mode, issue the UNLOCK JTAG instruction. The LOCK JTAG instruction puts the device in the JTAG
secure mode again. The LOCK and UNLOCK JTAG instructions can only be issued through the JTAG core
access.
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JTAG Secure Mode Instructions
2-17
Related Information
• JTAG Instruction Availability on page 2-17
• Configuration Flash Memory Permissions on page 2-18
• .pof Generation through Convert Programming Files on page 3-6
JTAG Secure Mode Instructions
Table 2-12: JTAG Secure Mode Instructions for MAX 10 Devices
JTAG Instruction
Instruction Code
LOCK
10 0000 0010
UNLOCK
10 0000 1000
Description
• Activates the JTAG secure mode.
• Blocks access from both external pins and core to
JTAG.
Deactivates the JTAG secure mode.
Verify Protect
Verify Protect is a security feature to enhance CFM security. When you enable the Verify Protect, only
program and erase operation are allowed on the CFM. This capability protects the CFM contents from
being copied.
You can turn on the Verify Protect feature by enabling the Verify Protect in the Quartus II programmer.
Related Information
Configuration Flash Memory Permissions on page 2-18
JTAG Instruction Availability
Table 2-13: JTAG Instruction Availability Based on JTAG Secure Mode and Encryption Settings
JTAG Secure Mode
Encryption
Disabled
Disabled
Enabled
Enabled
Description
All JTAG Instructions enabled
All JTAG Instructions are enabled except:
• CONFIGURE
Disabled
All JTAG Instructions are disabled except:
Enabled
•
•
•
•
•
•
SAMPLE/PRELOAD
BYPASS
EXTEST
IDCODE
UNLOCK
LOCK
Related Information
• JTAG Secure Mode on page 2-16
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Configuration Flash Memory Permissions
• Encryption and Decryption on page 2-15
Configuration Flash Memory Permissions
The JTAG secure mode and verify protect features determines the CFM operation permission.. The table
list the operations permitted based on the security settings.
Table 2-14: CFM Permissions for MAX 10 Devices
JTAG Secure Mode Disabled
Operation
Verify Protect
Disabled
Verify Protect
Enabled
JTAG Secure Mode Enabled
Verify Protect
Disabled
Verify Protect
Enabled
ISP through core
Illegal operation
Illegal operation
Illegal operation
Illegal operation
ISP through
JTAG pins
Full access
Program and erase
only
No access
No access
Real-time ISP
through core
Full access
Program and erase
only
No access
No access
Real-time ISP
through JTAG
pins
Full access
Program and erase
only
No access
No access
UFM interface
through core(5)
Full access
Full access
Full access
Full access
Related Information
• JTAG Secure Mode on page 2-16
• Verify Protect on page 2-17
SEU Mitigation and Configuration Error Detection
The dedicated circuitry built in MAX 10 devices consists of an error detection cyclic redundancy check
(EDCRC) feature. You can use this feature to mitigate single-event upset (SEU) or soft errors.
The hardened on-chip EDCRC circuitry allows you to perform the following operations without any
impact on the fitting of the device:
• Auto-detection of cyclic redundancy check (CRC) errors during configuration.
• Identification of SEU in user mode with the optional CRC error detection.
• Testing of error detection by error detection verification through the JTAG interface.
Related Information
• Verifying Error Detection Functionality on page 3-8
• Enabling Error Detection on page 3-9
• Accessing Error Detection Block Through User Interface on page 3-9
(5)
The UFM interface through core is available if you select the dual compressed image mode.
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Configuration Error Detection
2-19
Configuration Error Detection
In configuration mode, a frame-based CRC is stored in the configuration data and contains the CRC value
for each data frame.
During configuration, the MAX 10 device calculates the CRC value based on the frame of data that is
received and compares it against the frame CRC value in the data stream. Configuration continues until
the device detects an error or when all the values are calculated.
For MAX 10 devices, the CRC is computed by the Quartus II software and downloaded into the device as
part of the configuration bit stream. These devices store the CRC in the 32-bit storage register at the end
of the configuration mode.
User Mode Error Detection
SEUs are changes in a CRAM bit state due to an ionizing particle. MAX 10 devices have built-in error
detection circuitry to detect data corruption in the CRAM cells.
This error detection capability continuously computes the CRC of the configured CRAM bits. The CRC of
the contents of the device are compared with the pre-calculated CRC value obtained at the end of the
configuration. If the CRC values match, there is no error in the current configuration CRAM bits. The
process of error detection continues until the device is reset—by setting nCONFIG to low.
The error detection circuitry in MAX 10 device uses a 32-bit CRC IEEE Std. 802 and a 32-bit polynomial
as the CRC generator. Therefore, the device performs a single 32-bit CRC calculation. If an SEU does not
occur, the resulting 32-bit signature value is 0x000000, which results in a 0 on the output signal
CRC_ERROR. If an SEU occurs in the device, the resulting signature value is non-zero and the CRC_ERROR
output signal is 1. You must decide whether to reconfigure the FPGA by strobing the nCONFIG pin low or
ignore the error.
Error Detection Block
Figure 2-8: Error Detection Block Diagram
Error detection block diagram including the two related 32-bit registers—the signature register and the
storage register.
Error Detection
State Machine
Control Signals
Compute & Compare
CRC
32
32-bit Storage
Register
32
32-bit Signature
Register
32
CRC_ERROR
There are two sets of 32-bit registers in the error detection circuitry that store the computed CRC
signature and pre-calculated CRC value. A non-zero value on the signature register causes the CRC_ERROR
pin to go high.
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CHANGE_EDREG JTAG Instruction
Table 2-15: Error Detection Registers for MAX 10 Devices
Register
Description
32-bit signature register
This register contains the CRC signature. The signature register contains the
result of the user mode calculated CRC value compared against the precalculated CRC value. If no errors are detected, the signature register is all
zeroes. A non-zero signature register indicates an error in the configuration
CRAM contents. The CRC_ERROR signal is derived from the contents of this
register.
32-bit storage register
This register is loaded with the 32-bit pre-computed CRC signature at the end
of the configuration stage. The signature is then loaded into the 32-bit
Compute and Compare CRC block during user mode to calculate the CRC
error. This register forms a 32-bit scan chain during execution of the CHANGE_
EDREG JTAG instruction. The CHANGE_EDREG JTAG instruction can change the
content of the storage register. Therefore, the functionality of the error
detection CRC circuitry is checked in-system by executing the instruction to
inject an error during the operation. The operation of the device is not halted
when issuing the CHANGE_EDREG JTAG instruction.
CHANGE_EDREG JTAG Instruction
Table 2-16: CHANGE_EDREG JTAG Instruction Description
JTAG Instruction
CHANGE_EDREG
Instruction Code
00 0001 0101
Description
This instruction connects the 32-bit CRC storage register
between TDI and TDO. Any precomputed CRC is loaded
into the CRC storage register to test the operation of the
error detection CRC circuitry at the CRC_ERROR pin.
Error Detection Timing
When the error detection CRC feature is enabled through the Quartus II software, the device
automatically activates the CRC process upon entering user mode, after configuration and initialization is
complete.
The CRC_ERROR pin will remain low until the error detection circuitry has detected a corrupted bit in the
previous CRC calculation. After the pin goes high, it remains high during the next CRC calculation. This
pin does not log the previous CRC calculation. If the new CRC calculation does not contain any corrupted
bits, the CRC_ERROR pin is driven low. The error detection runs until the device is reset.
The error detection circuitry is clocked by an internal configuration oscillator with a divisor that sets the
maximum frequency. The CRC calculation time depends on the device and the error detection clock
frequency.
Related Information
Enabling Error Detection on page 3-9
Error Detection Frequency
You can set a lower clock frequency by specifying a division factor in the Quartus II software.
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Cyclic Redundancy Check Calculation Timing
2-21
Table 2-17: Minimum and Maximum Error Detection Frequencies for MAX 10 Devices—Preliminary
Device
Error Detection Frequency
Maximum Error
Detection
Frequency (MHz)
Minimum Error
Detection
Frequency (kHz)
55 MHz/2n to 116 MHz/2n
58
214.8
Valid Values for n
10M02
10M04
10M08
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
10M16
10M25
10M40
35 MHz/2n to 77 MHz/2n
10M50
38.5
136.7
Cyclic Redundancy Check Calculation Timing
Table 2-18: Cyclic Redundancy Check Calculation Time for MAX 10 Devices—Preliminary
Device
Divisor Value (n = 2)
Minimum Time (ms)
Maximum Time (ms)
10M02
2
6.6
10M04
6
15.7
10M08
6
15.7
10M16
10
25.5
10M25
14
34.7
10M40
43
106.7
10M50
43
106.7
Figure 2-9: CRC Calculation Formula
You can use this formula to calculate the CRC calculation time for divisor other than 2.
Example 2-1: CRC Calcualtion Example
For 10M16 device with divisor value of 256:
Minimum CRC calculation time for divisor 256 = 10 x (256/2) = 1280 ms
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Recovering from CRC Errors
Recovering from CRC Errors
The system that MAX 10 resides in must control device reconfiguration. After detecting an error on the
CRC_ERROR pin, strobing the nCONFIG pin low directs the system to perform reconfiguration at a time
when it is safe for the system to reconfigure the MAX 10 device.
When the data bit is rewritten with the correct value by reconfiguring the device, the device functions
correctly.
While SEUs are uncommon in Altera devices, certain high-reliability applications might require a design
to account for these errors.
Configuration Data Compression
MAX 10 devices can receive compressed configuration bitstream and decompress the data in real-time
during configuration. This feature helps to reduce the configuration image size stored in the CFM.
Preliminary data indicates that compression typically reduces the configuration file size by at least 30%
depending on the design.
Related Information
• Enabling Compression Before Design Compilation on page 3-11
• Enabling Compression After Design Compilation on page 3-11
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Configuration Details
2-23
Configuration Details
Configuration Sequence
Figure 2-10: Configuration Sequence for MAX 10 Devices
Power Up
• nSTATUS and CONF_DONE
driven low
• All I/Os pins are tri-stated
• Clears configuration RAM bits
Power supplies including V CCIO, VCCA and VCC
reach recommended operating voltage
Reset
• nSTATUS and CONF_DONE remain low
• All I/Os pins are tri-stated
• Samples CONFIG_SEL pin
nSTATUS and nCONFIG released high
CONF_DONE pulled low
Configuration Error Handling
• nSTATUS pulled low
• CONF_DONE remains low
• Restarts configuration if option
enabled
Configuration
Writes configuration data to
FPGA
CONF_DONE released high
Initialization
• Initializes internal logic and
registers
• Enables I/O buffers
User Mode
Executes your design
You can initiate reconfiguration by pulling the nCONFIG pin low to at least the minimum tCFG low-pulse
width. When this pin is pulled low, the nSTATUS and CONF_DONE pins are pulled low and all I/O pins are
tied to an internal weak pull-up.
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Power Up
Related Information
.pof Generation through Convert Programming Files on page 3-6
Provides more information about how to set th weak pull-up during configuration.
Power Up
If you power-up a device from the power-down state, you need to power the VCCIO for bank 1B and 8 to
the appropriate level for the device to exit POR.
To begin configuration, the required voltages must be powered up to the appropriate voltage levels as
shown in the following table. The VCCIO for bank 1B and bank 8 must be powered up to a voltage between
1.5V – 3.3V during configuration.
Table 2-19: Single-Supply and Dual-Supply Voltage Requirements for MAX 10 Devices
Power Supply Device Options
Voltage that must be Powered-Up
Regulated VCC_ONE
Single-supply
VCCA
VCCIO bank 1B and bank 8
VCC
Dual-supply
VCCA
VCCIO bank 1B and bank 8
Related Information
• MAX 10 Power Management User Guide
Provides more information about power supply modes in MAX 10 devices
• MAX 10 Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the ramp-up time specifications.
• MAX 10 FPGA Device Family Pin Connection Guideline
Provides more information about configuration pin connections.
Instant-on
The MAX 10 devices support instant-on feature. The instant-on mode is the fastest power-up mode for
MAX 10 devices.
If you enable instant-on, the device will directly enter the configuration stage. The POR delay value will be
used to delay the POR signal if the instant-on feature is not enabled.
Table 2-20: Instant-On Power Up Sequence Requirement for MAX 10 Devices
Power Supply Device Options
Power Up Sequence
Single-supply
VCCIO must ramp up to full rail before VCCA and VCC_ONE start ramping
Dual-supply
All power supplies must ramp up to full rail before VCC starts ramping
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Reset
2-25
Table 2-21: POR Requirements and Timing for MAX 10 Devices
Instant-On
POR Delay Setting
Ramp Rate Requirement (tRAMP)
POR Delay (tPOR)
Enabled
Don’t Care
200 us to 3 ms
No delay
Disabled
Fast POR
200 us to 3 ms
3 ms to 9 ms
Disabled
Standard POR
200 us to 50 ms
50 ms to 200 ms
Reset
POR delay is the time frame between the time when all the power supplies monitored by the POR
circuitry reach the recommended operating voltage and when nSTATUS is released high and the MAX 10
device is ready to begin configuration.
Configuration
During configuration, the configuration data is written to the device.
Configuration Error Handling
To restart configuration automatically, turn on the Auto-restart configuration after error option in the
General page of the Device and Pin Options dialog box in the Quartus II software.
If you do not turn on this option, you can monitor the nSTATUS pin to detect errors. To restart configura‐
tion, pull the nCONFIG pin low for at least the duration of tCFG.
Initialization
After you pull the CONF_DONE pin high, the initialization sequence begins. The initialization clock source is
from the internal oscillator. By default, the internal oscillator is the clock source for initialization. If you
use the internal oscillator, the MAX 10 device will receive enough clock cycles for proper initialization.
User Mode
After the initialization completes, your design starts executing. The user I/O pins will then function as
specified by your design.
MAX 10 Configuration Pins
All configuration pins and JTAG pins in MAX 10 devices are dual-purpose pins. The configuration pins
function as configuration pins prior to user mode. When the device is in user mode, they function as user
I/O pins or remain as configuration pins.
Table 2-22: Configuration Pin Summary for MAX 10 Devices
All pins are powered by VCCIO Bank 1B and 8.
Configuration Pin
Input/Output
CRC_ERROR
Output only, open-drain
CONFIG_SEL
Input only
Internal configuration
DEV_CLRn
Input only
Optional, JTAG and internal configurations
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JTAG Pin Sharing Behavior
Configuration Pin
Input/Output
Configuration Scheme
DEV_OE
Input only
CONF_DONE
Bidirectional, open-drain
JTAG and internal configurations
nCONFIG
Input only
JTAG and internal configurations
nSTATUS
Bidirectional, open-drain
JTAG and internal configurations
JTAGEN
Input only
Optional, JTAG configuration
TCK
Input only
JTAG configuration
TDO
Output only
JTAG configuration
TMS
Input only
JTAG configuration
TDI
Input only
JTAG configuration
Optional, JTAG and internal configurations
Related Information
• Guidelines: Dual-Purpose Configuration Pin on page 3-1
• Enabling Dual-purpose Pin on page 3-2
JTAG Pin Sharing Behavior
Table 2-23: JTAG Pin Sharing Behavior for MAX 10 Devices
Configuration Stage
JTAG Pin Sharing
Disabled
User mode
Configuration
Altera Corporation
Enabled
Don’t Care
JTAGEN Pin
JTAG Pins (TDO, TDI, TCK, TMS)
User I/O pin
Dedicated JTAG pins.
Driven low
User I/O pins.
Driven high
Dedicated JTAG pins.
Not used
Dedicated JTAG pins.
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Dual-Purpose Configuration Pins
Guidelines: Dual-Purpose Configuration Pin
To use configuration pins as user I/O pins in user mode, you have to adhere to the following guidelines.
Table 3-1: Dual-Purpose Configuration Pin Guidelines for MAX 10 Devices
Pins
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
Guidelines
During initialization:
• tri-state the external I/O driver and drive an external pull-up resistor(6) or
• use the external I/O driver to drive the pins to the state same as the external weak pullup resistor
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
Tri-state the external driver of the configuration pins before the tWAIT (minimum) wait
time is reached. You can use these pins for configuration purpose after tWAIT (maximum).
TDO
You can only use the nCONFIG pin as a single-ended input pin in user mode.
nCONFIG
If the nCONFIG is set as user I/O, you can trigger the reconfiguration by:
• asserting RU_nCONFIG of the remote system upgrade circuitry
• issuing PULSE_NCONFIG JTAG instruction
(6)
If you intend to remove the external weak pull-up resistor, Altera recommends that you remove it after
the device enters user mode.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
101 Innovation Drive, San Jose, CA 95134
ISO
9001:2008
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Enabling Dual-purpose Pin
Pins
Guidelines
• If you intend to switch back and forth between user I/O pins and JTAG pin functions
using the JTAGEN pin, all JTAG pins must be assigned as single-ended I/O pins or
voltage-referenced I/O pins. Schmitt trigger input is the recommended input buffer.
• JTAG pins cannot perform as JTAG pins in user mode if you assign any of the JTAG
pin as a differential I/O pin.
• You must use the JTAG pins as dedicated pins and not as user I/O pins during JTAG
programming.
• Do not toggle JTAG pin during the initialization stage.
• Put the test access port (TAP) controller in reset state and drive the TDI and TMS pins
high and TCK pin low before the initialization.
TDO
TMS
TCK
TDI
Related Information
• MAX 10 FPGA Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about recommended resistor values.
• MAX 10 Configuration Pins on page 2-25
• JTAG Pins on page 2-2
Enabling Dual-purpose Pin
To use the configuration and JTAG pins as user I/O in user mode, you must do the following in the
Quartus II software:
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Assignments menu, click Device.
Click Device and Pin Options.
Select the General tab of Device and Pin Options.
In the General Options list, do the following:
• Check the Enable JTAG pin sharing to use JTAG pins as user I/O.
• Uncheck the Enable nCONFIG, nSTATUS, and CONF_DONE pins to use configuration pins as
user I/O.
Related Information
• MAX 10 Configuration Pins on page 2-25
• JTAG Pins on page 2-2
Configuring MAX 10 Devices using JTAG Configuration
The Quartus II software generates a .sof that can used for JTAG configuration. You can directly configure
the MAX 10 device by using a download cable with the Quartus II software programmer.
Alternatively, you can use the JRunner software with a JAM Standard Test and Programming Language
(STAPL) Format File (.jam) or JAM Byte Code File (.jbc) with other third-party programmer tools.
Related Information
• AN 414: The JRunner Software Driver: An Embedded Solution for PLD JTAG Configuration
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JTAG Configuration Setup
3-3
• AN 425: Using the Command-Line Jam STAPL Solution for Device Programming
JTAG Configuration Setup
To configure MAX 10 device using a download cable, connect the device as shown in the following figure.
Figure 3-1: JTAG Configuration of a Single Device Using a Download Cable
VCCIO
VCCIO
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
VCCIO
10 kΩ
MAX 10
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
JTAGEN
VCCIO
10 kΩ
VCCIO
10 kΩ
Download Cable V
CCIO
(JTAG Mode)
10-Pin Male Header
1 2
3 4
5 6
7 8
9 10
TCK
TDO
TMS
TDI
JTAGEN
1 kΩ
To configure a device in a JTAG chain, the programming software sets the other devices to bypass mode.
A device in bypass mode transfers the programming data from the TDI pin to the TDO pin through a single
bypass register. The configuration data is available on the TDO pin one clock cycle later.
The Quartus II software uses the CONF_DONE pin to verify the completion of the configuration process
through the JTAG port:
• CONF_DONE pin is low—indicates that the configuration has failed.
• CONF_DONE pin is high—indicates that the configuration was successful.
After the configuration data is transmitted serially using the JTAG TDI port, the TCK port is clocked to
perform device initialization.
Voltage Overshoot Prevention
To prevent voltage overshoot, power up the download cable to 2.5 V when VCCIO of the JTAG pins are
2.5 V to 3.3 V. Tie the TCK pin to ground. If the VCCIO of the JTAG pins are using 1.5 V or 1.8 V, the
download cable should be powered by the same VCCIO. For single-supply device which has to power-up
the download cable within the range of 3.0 V to 3.3 V, Altera recommends you to add external resistor or
diode.
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ICB Settings in JTAG Configuration
JTAGEN
If you use the JTAGEN pin, Altera recommends the following settings:
• Once you entered user mode and JTAG pins are regular I/O pins—connect the JTAGEN pin to a weak
pull-down (1 kΩ).
• Once you entered user mode and JTAG pins are dedicated pins—connect the JTAGEN pin to a weak
pull-up (10 kΩ).
ICB Settings in JTAG Configuration
The ICB settings is loaded into the device during .pof programming of the internal configuration scheme.
The .sof used during JTAG configuration does not contain ICB settings. The Quartus II Programmer will
make the necessary setting based on the following:
• Device without ICB settings—ICB settings cleared from the internal flash or new device
• Device with ICB settings—prior ICB settings programmed using .pof
Device Without ICB Settings
For devices without ICB settings, the default value will be used. However, Quartus II Programmer disables
the user watchdog timer by setting the Watchdog Timer Enable bit to 0. This step is to avoid any
unwanted reconfiguration occurred due to user watchdog timeout.
If the default ICB setting is undesired, you can program the desirable ICB setting first by using .pof
programming before doing the JTAG configuration.
Device With ICB Settings
For device with ICB settings, the settings will be preserved until the internal flash is erased. Hence, you
need to remember the previous ICB settings because JTAG configuration will follow the ICB setting and
behave accordingly.
If the prior ICB setting is undesired, you can program the desirable ICB setting first by using .pof
programming before doing the JTAG configuration.
Related Information
• .pof and ICB Settings on page 3-5
• .pof Generation through Convert Programming Files on page 3-6
Provides more information about setting the ICB during .pof generation using Convert Programming
File.
• Instant-on on page 2-24
Provides more information about Instant ON and other power on reset scheme.
• Verify Protect on page 2-17
• JTAG Secure Mode on page 2-16
• ISP and Real-Time ISP Instructions on page 2-5
• User Watchdog Timer on page 2-14
Configuring MAX 10 Devices using Internal Configuration
There are three main steps for using internal configuration scheme for MAX 10 devices.
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Selecting Internal Configuration Modes
3-5
• Select the internal configuration scheme
• Generate the .pof with ICB settings
• Program the .pof the internal flash
Related Information
• Internal Configuration Modes on page 2-2
• Remote System Upgrade in Dual Compressed Images on page 2-8
Selecting Internal Configuration Modes
To select the configuration mode, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Open the Quartus II software and load a project using a MAX 10 device.
On the Assignments menu, click Settings. The Settings dialog box appears.
In the Category list, select Device. The Device page appears.
Click Device and Pin Options.
In the Device and Pin Options dialog box, click the Configuration tab.
In the Configuration Scheme list, select Internal Configuration.
In the Configuration Mode list, select 1 out of 5 configuration modes available. The 10M02 devices
has only 2 modes available.
8. Turn on Generate compressed bitstreams if needed.
9. Click OK.
.pof and ICB Settings
There are two methods which the .pof will be generated and setting-up the ICB. The internal
configuration mode you selected will determine the corresponding method.
Table 3-2: .pof Generation and ICB Setting Method for Internal Configuration Modes
Internal Configuration
Mode
Single Compressed
Image
Single Uncompressed
Image
(7)
.pof Generation and ICB
Setting Method
Auto-generated .pof(7)
Description
• Quartus II will automatically generate the .pof
during project compilation
• ICB can be set in Device and Pin Options
Auto-generated .pof does not allow encryption. To enable the encryption feature in Single Compressed and
Single Uncompressed mode, use the Convert Programming Files method.
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Auto-Generated .pof
Internal Configuration
Mode
.pof Generation and ICB
Setting Method
Single Compressed
Image with Memory
Initialization.
Single Uncompressed
Image with Memory
Initialization
Convert Programming
Files
Description
• User needs to generate .pof using Convert
Programming Files.
• ICB can be set during Convert Programming
Files task.
Dual Compressed
Images
Auto-Generated .pof
To set the ICB for the auto-generated .pof, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
On the Assignments menu, click Settings. The Settings dialog box appears.
In the Category list, select Device. The Device page appears.
Click Device and Pin Options.
In the Device and Pin Options dialog box, select the Configuration from the category pane.
Click the Device Options … button.
The Max 10 Device Options dialog box allows you to set the following:
a. Power on Reset Scheme: Instant On, Fast POR Delay or Standard POR Delay.
b. User IOs week pull up during configuration.
c. Verify Protect.
7. Click OK once setting is completed.
.pof Generation through Convert Programming Files
To set the ICB settings and convert .sof to .pof, follow these steps:
1. On the File menu, click Convert Programming Files.
2. Under Output programming file, select Programmer Object File (.pof) in the Programming file
type list.
3. In the Mode list, select Internal Configuration.
4. To set the ICB settings, click Option/Boot Info and the ICB setting dialog box will appear. The ICB
setting dialog box allows you to set the following:
a. Power on Reset Scheme: Instant On, Fast POR Delay or Standard POR Delay.
b. User IOs week pull up during configuration.
c. Auto-recofigure from secondary image when initial image fails (enabled by default).
Note: When you disable this feature, the device will always load the configuration image 0 without
sampling the physical CONFIG_SEL pin. After successfully load the configuration image 0,
you can switch between configuration image using the config_sel_overwrite bit of the
input register. Refer to related information for details about Altera Dual Configuration IP
core input register.
d. Use secondary image ISP data as default setting when available.
e. JTAG Secure.
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Programming .pof into Internal Flash
3-7
Note: The JTAG Secure feature will be disabled by default in Quartus II. If you are interested in
using the JTAG Secure feature, contact Altera for support.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Caution: MAX 10 FPGA device would become permanently locked if user enabled JTAG secure
mode in the POF file and POF is encrypted with the wrong key.
f. Verify Protect.
g. Allow encrypted POF only.
h. Watchdog timer for dual configuration and watching value (Enabled after adding 2 .sof page with 2
design that compiled with Dual Compressed Internal Images).
i. User Flash Memory settings.
In the File name box, specify the file name for the programming file you want to create.
To generate a Memory Map File (.map), turn on Create Memory Map File (Auto generate
output_file.map). The .map contains the address of the CFM and UFM with the ICB setting that you
set through the Option/Boot Info option.
To generate a Raw Programming Data (.rpd), turn on Create config data RPD (Generate
output_file_auto.rpd).
With the help of Memory Map File, you can identify the data of each functional block easily. You can
also extract the flash data for third party programming tool or update the configuration or user data
through Altera On-Chip Flash IP.
The .sof can be added through Input files to convert list and you can add up to two .sof files.
For remote system upgrade purpose, you can retain the original page 0 data in the .pof, and replaces
page 1 data with new .sof file. To perform this, user need to add the .pof file in page 0, then add .sof
page, then add the new .sof file to page 1.
After all settings are set, click Generate to generate related programming file.
Related Information
MAX 10 User Flash Memory User Guide
Provides more information about Altera On-Chip Flash IP Core.
Programming .pof into Internal Flash
You can use the Quartus II Programmer to program the .pof into the CFM through JTAG interface. The
Quartus II Programmer also allows you to program the UFM part of the internal flash.
To program the .pof into the flash, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
In the Programmer window, click Hardware Setup and select USB Blaster.
In the Mode list, select JTAG.
Click Auto Detect button on the left pane.
Select the device to be programmed, and click Add File.
Select the .pof to be programmed to the selected device.
There are several options in programming the internal flash:
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Accessing the Remote System Upgrade Block Through User Interface
• To program any of the CFM0/CFM1/CFM2 only, select the corresponding CFM in the Program/
Configure column.
• To program the UFM only, select the UFM in the Program/Configure column.
• To program the CFM and UFM only, select the CFM and UFM in the Program/Configure column.
Note: ICB setting is preserved in this option. However, before the programming starts, Quartus II
Programmer will make sure the ICB setting in the device and the ICB setting in the
selected .pof are the same. If the ICB settings are different, Quartus II Programmer will
overwrite the ICB setting.
• To program the whole internal flash including the ICB settings, select the <yourpoffile.pof> in the
Program/Configure column.
7. To enable the real-time ISP mode, turn-on the Enable real-time ISP to allow background program‐
ming.
8. After all settings are set, click Start to start programming.
Accessing the Remote System Upgrade Block Through User Interface
The following example shows how the input and output ports of a WYSIWYG atom are defined in the
MAX 10 device.
fiftyfivenm_rublock <rublock_name>
(
.clk(<clock source>),
.shiftnld(<shiftnld source>),
.captnupdt(<captnupdt source>),
.regin(<regin input source from the core>),
.rsttimer(<input signal to reset the watchdog timer>),
.rconfig(<input signal to initiate configuration>),
.regout(<data output destination to core>),
);
defparam <rublock_name>.sim_init_config = <initial configuration for simulation
only>;
defparam <rublock_name>.sim_init_watchdog_value = <initial watchdog value for
simulation only>;
defparam <rublock_name>.sim_init_config = <initial status register value for
simulation only>;
Related Information
Remote System Upgrade Circuitry Signals on page 2-10
Provides more information about remote system upgrade signals.
Error Detection
This section covers detailed guidelines on error detection.
Verifying Error Detection Functionality
You can inject a soft error by changing the 32-bit CRC storage register in the CRC circuitry. After
verifying the failure induced, you can restore the 32-bit CRC value to the correct CRC value using the
same instruction and inserting the correct value. Be sure to read out the correct value before updating it
with a known bad value.
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In user mode, MAX 10 devices support the CHANGE_EDREG JTAG instruction, which allows you to write to
the 32-bit storage register. You can use .jam to automate the testing and verification process. You can
only execute this instruction when the device is in user mode. This instruction enables you to dynamically
verify the CRC functionality in-system without having to reconfigure the device. You can then switch to
use the CRC circuit to check for real errors induced by an SEU.
After the test completes, to clear the CRC error and restore the original CRC value, power cycle the device
or follow these steps:
1. After the configuration completes, use CHANGE_EDREG JTAG instruction to shift out the correct
precomputed CRC value and load the wrong CRC value to the CRC storage register. When an error is
detected, the CRC_ERROR pin will be asserted.
2. Use CHANGE_EDREG JTAG instruction to shift in the correct precomputed CRC value. The CRC_ERROR
pin is de-asserted to show that the error detection CRC circuitry is working.
Related Information
SEU Mitigation and Configuration Error Detection on page 2-18
Enabling Error Detection
The CRC error detection feature in the Quartus II software generates the CRC_ERROR output to the
optional dual-purpose CRC_ERROR pin.
To enable the error detection feature using CRC, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Open the Quartus II software and load a project using MAX 10 device family.
On the Assignments menu, click Settings. The Settings dialog box appears.
In the Category list, select Device.
Click Device and Pin Options.
In the Device and Pin Options dialog box, click the Error Detection CRC tab.
Turn on Enable error detection CRC.
In the Divide error check frequency by field, enter a valid divisor.
The divisor value divides down the frequency of the configuration oscillator output clock. This output
clock is used as the clock source for the error detection process.
8. Click OK.
Related Information
SEU Mitigation and Configuration Error Detection on page 2-18
Accessing Error Detection Block Through User Interface
The error detection circuit stores the computed 32-bit CRC signature in a 32-bit register. The user logic
from the core reads out this signature. The fiftyfivenm_crcblock primitive is a WYSIWYG component
used to establish the interface from the user logic to the error detection circuit. The
fiftyfivenm_crcblock primitive atom contains the input and output ports that must be included in the
atom. To access the logic array,you must insert the fiftyfivenm_crcblock WYSIWYG atom into your
design. The recommended clock frequency of .clk port is to follow the clock frequency of EDCRC block.
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Enabling Data Compression
Figure 3-2: Error Detection Block Diagram with Interfaces for MAX 10 Devices
Internal Chip Oscillator
Clock Divider
(1 to 256 Factor)
VCC
CRC_ERROR
(Shown in BIDIR Mode)
Pre-Computed CRC
(Saved in the Option Register)
LDSRC
SHIFTNLD
CRC_ERROR
CRC
Computation
CLK
SRAM
Bits
REGOUT
Error Detection
Logic
Logic Array
The following example shows how the input and output ports of a WYSIWYG atom are defined in the
MAX 10 device.
fiftyfivenm_crcblock <name>
(
.clk(<ED_CLK clock source>),
.shiftnld(<ED_SHIFTNLD source>),
.ldsrc (<LDSRC source>),
.crcerror(<CRCERROR_CORE out destination>),
.regout(<output destination>)
);
defparam <crcblock_name>.oscillator_divider = <internal oscillator division (1 to
256)>;
Related Information
• SEU Mitigation and Configuration Error Detection on page 2-18
• Error Detection Timing on page 2-20
Enabling Data Compression
When you enable compression, the Quartus II software generates configuration files with compressed
configuration data.
A compressed configuration file is needed to use the dual configuration mode in the internal configura‐
tion scheme. This compressed file reduces the storage requirements in internal flash memory, and
decreases the time needed to send the bitstream to the MAX 10 device family. There are two methods to
enable compression for the MAX 10 device family bitstreams in the Quartus II software:
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Enabling Compression Before Design Compilation
3-11
• Before design compilation—using the Compiler Settings menu.
• After design compilation—using the Convert Programming Files option.
Enabling Compression Before Design Compilation
To enable compression before design compilation, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
On the Assignments menu, click Device. The Settings dialog box appears.
Click Device and Pin Options. The Device and Pin Options dialog box appears.
Click the Configuration tab.
Turn on Generate compressed bitstreams.
Click OK.
In the Settings dialog box, click OK.
Related Information
Configuration Data Compression on page 2-22
Enabling Compression After Design Compilation
To enable compression after design compilation, follow these steps:
1. On the File menu, click Convert Programming Files.
2. Under Output programming file, from the pull-down menu, select your desired file type.
3. If you select the Programmer Object File (.pof), you must specify a configuration device, directly
under the file type.
4. In the Input files to convert box, select SOF Data.
5. Click Add File to browse to the MAX 10 device family .sof.
6. In the Convert Programming Files dialog box, select the .pof you added to SOF Data and click
Properties.
7. In the SOF Properties dialog box, turn on the Compression option.
Related Information
Configuration Data Compression on page 2-22
AES Encryption
This section covers detailed guidelines on applying AES Encryption for design security. There are two
main steps in applying design security in MAX 10 devices. First is to generate the encryption key
programming (.ekp) file and second is to program the .ekp file into the device.
The .ekp file has other different formats, depending on the hardware and system used for programming.
There are three file formats supported by the Quartus II software:
• JAM Byte Code (.jbc) file
• JAM™ Standard Test and Programming Language (STAPL) Format (.jam) file
• Serial Vector Format (.svf) file
Only the .ekp file type generated automatically from the Quartus II software. You must create the .jbc, .jam
and .svf files using the Quartus II software if these files are required in the key programming.
Note: Altera recommends that you keep the .ekp file confidential.
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Generating .ekp File and Encrypt Configuration File
To generate the .ekp file and encrypt your configuration file, follow these steps:
1. On the File menu, click Convert Programming Files.
2. Under Output programming file, select Programmer Object File (.pof) in the Programming file
type list.
3. In the Mode list, select Internal Configuration.
4. Click Option/Boot Info and the ICB setting dialog box will appear.
5. You can enable the enable the Allow encrypted POF only option. Click OK once ICB setting is set.
The device will only accept encrypted bitstream during internal configuration if this option is enabled.
If you encrypt one of CFM0, CFM1 or CFM2 only, the Programmer will post a warning.
6. Type the file name in the File name field, or browse to and select the file.
7. Under the Input files to convert section, click SOF Data.
8. Click Add File to open the Select Input File dialog box.
9. Browse to the unencrypted .sof and click Open.
10.Under the Input files to convert section, click on the added .sof.
11.Click Properties and the SOF Files Properties: Bitstream Encryption dialog box will appear.
12.Turn on Generate encrypted bitstream.
13.Turn on Generate key programming file and type the .ekp file path and file name in the text area, or
browse to and select <filename>.ekp.
14.You can the key with either a .key file or entering the key manually.
Note: MAX 10 devices require the entry of 128-bit keys.
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• Adding key with a .key file.
The .key file is a plain text file in which each line represents a key unless the line starts with "#". The
"#" symbol is used to denote comments. Each valid key line has the following format:
<key identity><white space><128-bit hexadecimal key>
# This is an example key file
key1 0123456789ABCDEF0123456789ABCDEF
1. Enable the Use key file checkbox.
2. Click Open and add the desired .key file and click Open again.
3. Under Key entry part, the key contained in the .key file will be selected in the drop-down list.
4. Click OK.
• Entering you key manually.
1. Under Key entry part, click the Add button.
2. Select the Key Entry Method to enter the encryption key either with the On-screen Keypad or
Keyboard.
3. Enter a key name in the Key Name (alphanumeric) field.
4. Key in the desired key in the Key (128-bit hexadecimal) field and repeat in the Confirm Key
field below it.
5. Click OK.
15.Read the design security feature disclaimer. If you agree, turn on the acknowledgment box and click
OK.
16.In the Convert Programming Files dialog box, click OK. The <filename>.ekp and encrypted configura‐
tion file will be generated in the same project directory.
Note: For dual configuration .pof file, both .sof file need to be encrypted with the same key.The
generation of key file and encrypted configuration file will not be successful if different keys are
used.
Generating .jam/.jbc/.svf file from .ekp file
To generate .jam/.jbc/.svf file from .ekp file, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
On the Tools menu, click Programmer and the Programmer dialog box will appear.
In the Mode list, select JTAG as the programming mode.
Click Hardware Setup. The Hardware Setup dialog box will appear.
Select USBBlaster as the programming hardware in the currently selected hardware list and click
Done.
Click Add File and the Select Programmer File dialog box will appear.
Type <filename>.ekp in the File name field and click Open.
Select the .ekp file you added and click Program/Configure.
On the File menu, point to Create/Update and click Create JAM, SVF, or ISC File. The Create JAM,
SVF, or ISC File dialog box will appear.
Select the file format required for the .ekp file in the File format field.
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Programming .ekp File and Encrypted POF File
• JEDEC STAPL Format (.jam)
• Jam STAPL Byte Code (.jbc)
• Serial Vector Format (.svf)
10.Type the file name in the File name field, or browse to and select the file.
11.Click OK to generate the .jam, .jbc or .svf file.
Programming .ekp File and Encrypted POF File
There are two methods to program the encrypted .pof and .ekp file:
• Program the .ekp and .pof separately.
• Integrate the .ekp into .pof and program both altogether.
Programming .ekp File and Encrypted .pof Separately
To program the .ekp and encrypted .pof separately using the Quartus II software, follow these steps:
1. In the Quartus II Programmer, under the Mode list, select JTAG as the programming mode.
2. Click Hardware Setup and the Hardware Setup dialog box will appear.
3. Select USBBlaster as the programming hardware in the Currently selected hardware list and click
Done.
4. Click Add File and the Select Programmer File dialog box will appear.
5. Type <filename>.ekp in the File name field and click Open.
6. Select the .ekp file you added and click Program/Configure.
7. Click Start to program the key.
Note: The Quartus II software message window provides information about the success or failure of
the key programming operation. Once the .ekp is programmed, .pof can be programmed
separately. To retain the security key in the internal flash that had been programmed through
the .ekp, continue with the following steps.
8. Select the .ekp to be programmed to the selected device.
9. Check only the functional block that need to be updated at child level. Do not check operation at the
parent level when using Programmer GUI.
10.After all settings are set, click Start to start programming.
Integrate the .ekp into .pof Programming
To integrate the .ekp into .pof and program both altogether using the Quartus II software, follow these
steps:
1. In the Quartus II Programmer, under the Mode list, select JTAG as the programming mode.
2. Click Hardware Setup and the Hardware Setup dialog box will appear.
3. Select USBBlaster as the programming hardware in the Currently selected hardware list and click
Done.
4. Click the Auto Detect button on the left pane.
5. Select the .pof you wish to program to the device.
6. Select the <yourpoffile.pof>, right click and select Add EKP File to integrate .ekp file with the .pof
file.
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Once the .ekp is integrated into the .pof, you can to save the integrated .pof into a new .pof. This newly
saved file will have original .pof integrated with .ekp information.
7. Select the <yourpoffile.pof> in the Program/Configure column.
8. After all settings are set, click Start to start programming
Encryption in Internal Configuration
During internal configuration, the FPGA decrypts the .pof with the stored key and uses the decrypted data
to configure itself. The configuration image loaded during configuration is also affected by the encryption
settings and the Auto-reconfigure from secondary image when initial image fails setting.
Table 3-3: Configuration Image Outcome Based on Encryption Settings, Encryption Key and CONFIG_SEL
Pin Settings
Table shows the scenario when Auto-reconfigure from secondary image when initial image fails is enabled.
Configura‐
tion Image
Mode
CFM0 (image 0)
Encryption Key
CFM1 (image 1)
Encryption Key
Key Stored
in the Device
Allow
Encrypted
POF Only
CONFIG_SEL
pin
Design Loaded
After Power-up
Single
Not Encrypted
Not Available
No key
Disabled
0
image 0
Single
Not Encrypted
Not Available
No key
Disabled
1
image 0
Single
Not Encrypted
Not Available
Key X
Disabled
0
image 0
Single
Not Encrypted
Not Available
Key X
Disabled
1
image 0
Single
Not Encrypted
Not Available
Key X
Enabled
0
Configuration Fail
Single
Not Encrypted
Not Available
Key X
Enabled
1
Configuration Fail
Single
Key X
Not Available
No key
Enabled
0
Configuration Fail
Single
Key X
Not Available
No key
Enabled
1
Configuration Fail
Single
Key X
Not Available
Key X
Enabled
0
image 0
Single
Key X
Not Available
Key X
Enabled
1
image 0
Single
Key X
Not Available
Key Y
Enabled
0
Configuration Fail
Single
Key X
Not Available
Key Y
Enabled
1
Configuration Fail
Dual
Not Encrypted
Not Encrypted
No key
Disabled
0
image 0
Dual
Not Encrypted
Not Encrypted
No key
Disabled
1
image 1
Dual
Key X
Not Encrypted
No key
Disabled
0
image 1(8)
Dual
Key X
Not Encrypted
No key
Disabled
1
image 1
Dual
Key X
Not Encrypted
Key X
Disabled
0
image 0
Dual
Key X
Not Encrypted
Key X
Disabled
1
image 1
Dual
Key X
Not Encrypted
Key X
Enabled
0
image 0
Dual
Key X
Not Encrypted
Key X
Enabled
1
image 0
(8)
(9)
After image 0 configuration failed, device will automatically load image 1.
After image 1 configuration failed, device will automatically load image 0.
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Encryption in Internal Configuration
Configura‐
tion Image
Mode
CFM0 (image 0)
Encryption Key
CFM1 (image 1)
Encryption Key
Key Stored
in the Device
Allow
Encrypted
POF Only
CONFIG_SEL
pin
Design Loaded
After Power-up
Dual
Key X
Not Encrypted
Key Y
Enabled
0
Configuration Fail
Dual
Key X
Not Encrypted
Key Y
Enabled
1
Configuration Fail
Dual
Key X
Key X
No key
Enabled
0
Configuration Fail
Dual
Key X
Key X
No key
Enabled
1
Configuration Fail
Dual
Key X
Key X
Key X
Enabled
0
image 0
Dual
Key X
Key X
Key X
Enabled
1
image 1
Dual
Key X
Key Y
Key X
Enabled
0
image 0(9)
Dual
Key X
Key Y
Key X
Enabled
1
image 0
Dual
Key Y
Key Y
Key Y
Enabled
0
image 0
Dual
Key Y
Key Y
Key Y
Enabled
1
image 1(9)
Dual
Key X
Key Y
Key Y
Enabled
0
image 1
Dual
Key X
Key Y
Key Y
Enabled
1
image 1
Table 3-4: Configuration Image Outcome Based on Encryption Settings and Encryption Key
Table shows the scenario when Auto-reconfigure from secondary image when initial image fails is disabled. If
this setting is disabled, device will always load image 0.
CFM0 (image 0)
Encryption Key
Key Stored in the
Device
Allow Encrypted POF
Only
Design Loaded After Power-up
Not Encrypted
No key
Disabled
image 0
Not Encrypted
Key X
Disabled
image 0
Not Encrypted
Key Y
Disabled
image 0
Not Encrypted
No key
Enabled
Configuration Fail
Not Encrypted
Key X
Enabled
Configuration Fail
Not Encrypted
Key Y
Enabled
Configuration Fail
Key X
No key
Disabled
Configuration Fail
Key X
Key X
Disabled
image 0
Key X
Key Y
Disabled
Configuration Fail
Key X
No key
Enabled
Configuration Fail
Key X
Key X
Enabled
image 0
Key X
Key Y
Enabled
Configuration Fail
Key Y
No key
Disabled
Configuration Fail
Key Y
Key X
Disabled
Configuration Fail
Key Y
Key Y
Disabled
image 0l
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CFM0 (image 0)
Encryption Key
Encryption in Internal Configuration
Key Stored in the
Device
Allow Encrypted POF
Only
Design Loaded After Power-up
Key Y
No key
Enabled
Configuration Fail
Key Y
Key X
Enabled
Configuration Fail
Key Y
Key Y
Enabled
image 0
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Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core
This section provides the guideline to implement the Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core.
Related Information
• Unique Chip ID on page 2-16
• Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core Ports on page 6-1
Instantiating the Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core
To instantiate the Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Tools menu of the Quartus II software, click IP Catalog.
Under the Library category, expand the Basic Functions and Configuration Programming.
Select Altera Unique Chip ID and click Add, and enter your desired output file name
In the Save IP Variation dialog box:
• Set your IP variation filename and directory.
• Select IP variation file type.
5. Click Finish.
Resetting the Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core
To reset the Altera Unique Chip ID IP core, you must assert high to the reset signal for at least one clock
cycle. After you de-assert the reset signal, the Altera Unique Chip ID IP core re-reads the unique chip ID
of your device from the fuse ID block. The Altera Unique Chip ID IP core asserts the data_valid signal
after completing the operation.
Altera Dual Configuration IP Core
This section provides the guideline to implement the Altera Dual Configuration IP Core.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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Instantiating the Altera Dual Configuration IP Core
Instantiating the Altera Dual Configuration IP Core
To instantiate the Altera Dual Configuration IP Core, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Tools menu of the Quartus II software, click IP Catalog.
Under the Library category, expand the Basic Functions and Configuration Programming.
Select Altera Dual Configuration and after clicking Add, the IP Parameter Editor appears.
In the New IP Instance dialog box:
• Set the top-level name of your IP.
• Select the Device family.
• Select the Device
5. Click OK.
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Altera Dual Configuration IP Core Avalon-MM Address Map
Table 5-1: Altera Dual Configuration IP Core Avalon-MM Address Map for MAX 10 Devices
• Altera recommends you to set the reserve bits to 0 for write operations. For read operations, the IP core will
always generate 0 as the output.
• Write 1 to trigger any operation stated in the description.
• You need to trigger the desired operation from offset 2 before any read operation of offset 4, 5, 6 and 7.
Offset
R/W
Width
(Bits)
0
W
32
Description
• Bit 0—trigger reconfiguration.
• Bit 1—reset the watchdog timer.
• Bit 31:2—reserved.
Signals are triggered at the same write cycle on Avalon.
1
W
32
• Bit 0—trigger config_sel_overwrite to the input register.
• Bit 1—writes config_sel to the input register. Set 0 or 1 to load
from configuration image 0 or 1 respectively.
• Bit 31:2—reserved.
The busy signal is generated right after the write cycle, while the
configuration image information is registered. Once busy signal is
high, writing to this address is ignored until the process is
completed and the busy signal is de-asserted.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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Altera Dual Configuration IP Core Avalon-MM Address Map
Offset
R/W
Width
(Bits)
2
W
32
Description
• Bit 0—trigger read operation from the user watchdog.
• Bit 1—trigger read operation from the previous state applica‐
tion 2 register.
• Bit 2—trigger read operation from the previous state applica‐
tion 1 register.
• Bit 3—trigger read operation from the input register.
• Bit 31:4—reserved.
The busy signal is generated right after the write cycle.
3
R
32
• Bit 0—IP busy signal.
• Bit 31:1—reserved.
The busy signal indicates the Dual Configuration IP core is in the
writing or reading process. In this state, all write operation to the
remote system upgrade block registers operation request are
ignored except for triggering the reset timer. Altera recommends
you to pull this busy signal once you triggered any read or write
process.
4
R
32
•
•
•
•
5
R
32
• Bit 3:0—previous state application 1 reconfiguration source
value.
• Bit 7:4—msm_cs value of the previous state application 1.
• Bit 31:8—reserved.
6
R
32
• Bit 3:0—previous state application 2 reconfiguration source
value.
• Bit 7:4—msm_cs value of the previous state application 2.
• Bit 31:8—reserved.
7
R
32
• Bit 0—config_sel_overwrite value from the input register.
• Bit 1—config_sel value of the input register.(11)
• Bit 31:2—reserved.
Bit 11:0—user watchdog value.(10)
Bit 12—current state of the user watchdog.
Bit 16:13—msm_cs value of the current state.
Bit 31:17—reserved.
Related Information
• Altera Dual Configuration IP Core on page 2-14
(10)
(11)
You can only read the 12 most significant bit of the 29 bit user watchdog value using Dual Configuration
IP Core.
Reads the config_sel of the input register only. It will not reflect the physical CONFIG_SEL pin setting.
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Altera Dual Configuration IP Core Parameters
5-3
• Avalon Interface Specifications
Provides more information about the Avalon-MM interface specifications applied in Altera Dual
Configuration IP Core.
• Instantiating the Altera Dual Configuration IP Core on page 4-2
• Accessing the Remote System Upgrade Block Through User Interface on page 3-8
Altera Dual Configuration IP Core Parameters
Table 5-2: Altera Dual Configuration IP Core Parameter for MAX 10
Parameter
Value
Clock frequency
Up to 80MHz
Description
Specifies the number of cycle to assert RU_nRSTIMER and RU_
nCONFIG signals. Note that maximum RU_CLK is 40Mhz, Altera
Dual Configuration IP Core has restriction to run at 80Mhz
maximum, which is twice faster than hardware limitation. This is
because Altera Dual Configuration IP Core generate RU_CLK at
half rate of the input frequency.
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Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core References
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Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core Ports
Table 6-1: Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core Ports
Port
Input/Output
Width (Bits)
Description
clkin
Input
1
• Feeds clock signal to the unique chip ID
block. The maximum supported frequency
is 100 MHz.
• When you provide a clock signal, the IP core
reads the value of the unique chip ID and
sends the value to the chip_id output port.
reset
Input
1
• Resets the IP core when you assert the reset
signal to high for at least one clock cycle.
• The chip_id [63:0]output port holds the
value of the unique chip ID until you
reconfigure the device or reset the IP core.
data_valid
Output
1
• Indicates that the unique chip ID is ready
for retrieval. If the signal is low, the IP core
is in initial state or in progress to load data
from a fuse ID.
• After the IP core asserts the signal, the data
is ready for retrieval at the chip_id[63..0]
output port.
chip_id
Output
64
• Indicates the unique chip ID according to its
respective fuse ID location. The data is only
valid after the IP core asserts the data_
valid signal.
• The value at power-up resets to 0.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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Additional Information for MAX 10 FPGA
Configuration User Guide
A
2015.05.04
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© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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Document Revision History for MAX 10 FPGA Configuration User Guide
Document Revision History for MAX 10 FPGA Configuration User Guide
Date
May 2015
Altera Corporation
Version
2015.05.04
Changes
• Rearranged and updated Configuration Setting names 'Initializa‐
tion Configuration Bits for MAX 10 Devices' table.
• Updated 'High-Level Overview of Internal Configuration for MAX
10 Devices' figure with JTAG configuration and moved the figure
to 'Configuration Schemes' section.
• Added link to corresponding description of configuration settings
in 'Initialization Configuration Bits for MAX 10 Devices' table.
• Updated the default watchdog time value from hexadecimal to
decimal value in 'Initialization Configuration Bits for MAX 10
Devices' table.
• Updated the ISP data description in 'Initialization Configuration
Bits for MAX 10 Devices' table.
• Updated 'User Watchdog Timer' by adding time-out formula.
• Added link to 'User Watchdog Internal Circuitry Timing Specifica‐
tions' in MAX 10 FPGA Device Datasheet.
• Added footnote to indicate that JTAG secure is disabled by default
and require Altera support to enable in 'Initialization Configura‐
tion Bits for MAX 10 Devices' table.
• Updated minimum and maximum CRC calculation time for
divisor 2.
• Updated remote system upgrade flow diagram.
• Updated 'Encryption in Internal Configuration' table by adding
'Key' terms and changed Image 1 and Image 2 to Image 0 and
Image 1 respectively.
• Added footnote to 'Encryption in Internal Configuration' to
indicate auto-reconfiguration when image fails.
• Added formula to calculate minimum and maximum CRC calcula‐
tion time for other than divisor 2.
• Added caution when JTAG Secure is turned on.
• Added information about auto-generated .pof for certain type of
internal configuration modes.
• Added .pof and ICB setting guide through Device and Pin Options
and convert programming file.
• Added configuration RAM (CRAM) in 'Overview'
• Editorial changes.
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Document Revision History for MAX 10 FPGA Configuration User Guide
Date
Version
December 2014
2014.12.15
• Rename BOOT_SEL pin to CONFIG_SEL pin.
• Update Altera IP Core name from Dual Boot IP Core to Altera
Dual Configuration IP Core.
• Added information about the AES encryption key part of ICB.
• Added encryption feature guidelines.
• Updated ICB settings options available in 14.1 release.
• Updated Programmer options on CFM programming available in
14.1 release.
September 2014
2014.09.22
Initial release.
Changes
Additional Information for MAX 10 FPGA Configuration User Guide
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TOC-2
Contents
MAX 10 User Flash Memory Overview...............................................................1-1
MAX 10 UFM Architecture and Features...........................................................2-1
UFM and CFM Array Size.......................................................................................................................... 2-1
UFM Memory Organization Map............................................................................................................. 2-1
UFM Block Diagram................................................................................................................................... 2-2
UFM Operating Modes............................................................................................................................... 2-4
MAX 10 UFM Design Considerations................................................................ 3-1
Guideline: UFM Power Supply Requirement.......................................................................................... 3-1
Guideline: Program and Read UFM with JTAG..................................................................................... 3-1
Guideline: UFM Content Initialization.................................................................................................... 3-2
Guideline: Erase Before Program.............................................................................................................. 3-2
MAX 10 UFM Implementation Guides.............................................................. 4-1
Altera On-Chip Flash IP Core....................................................................................................................4-1
Introduction to Altera IP Cores..................................................................................................... 4-1
Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options................................................................................4-1
Files Generated for Altera IP Cores...............................................................................................4-3
Simulating Altera IP Cores in other EDA Tools..........................................................................4-6
UFM Avalon-MM Operating Modes........................................................................................................4-7
UFM Read Status and Control Register........................................................................................4-7
UFM Write Control Register..........................................................................................................4-8
UFM Program (Write) Operation................................................................................................. 4-8
UFM Sector Erase Operation....................................................................................................... 4-10
UFM Page Erase Operation..........................................................................................................4-10
UFM Read Operation....................................................................................................................4-11
UFM Burst Read Operation......................................................................................................... 4-13
Altera On-Chip Flash IP Core References.......................................................... 5-1
Altera On-Chip Flash Parameters............................................................................................................. 5-1
Altera On-Chip Flash Signals.....................................................................................................................5-2
Altera On-Chip Flash Registers................................................................................................................. 5-4
Additional Information for MAX 10 UFM User Guide ................................... A-1
Document Revision History for Content MAX 10 User Flash Memory User Guide....................... A-1
Altera Corporation
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Altera MAX® 10 FPGAs offer a user flash memory (UFM) block that stores non-volatile information.
The UFM provides an ideal storage solution that you can access using the Avalon Memory Mapped
(Avalon-MM) slave interface to UFM.
The UFM block also offers the following features.
Features
Endurance
Capacity
Counts up to 10,000 program/erase cycles
Data retention (after 10,000 program/ • 20 years at 85 ºC
erase cycles)
• 10 years at 100 ºC
Maximum operating frequency
• Serial interface: 7.25 MHz
• Parallel interface: 116 MHz
Data length
Stores data of up to 32 bits length in parallel
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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The UFM architecture of MAX 10 devices is a combination of soft and hard IPs. You can only access the
UFM using the Altera On-Chip Flash IP core in the Quartus II software.
UFM and CFM Array Size
Each array is organized as various sectors. You can erase each page or sector independently. The Altera
On-Chip Flash IP core also gives you access to configuration flash memory (CFM) based on your
specification in the parameter editor.
Table 2-1: UFM and CFM Array Size
This table lists the dimensions of the UFM and CFM arrays.
Device
Pages per Sector
UFM1
UFM0
CFM2
CFM1
CFM0
Page Size
(Kb)
Total User Flash
Memory Size (Kb)
(1)
Total Configuration
Memory Size (Kb)
10M02
3
3
0
0
34
16
96
544
10M04
0
8
41
29
70
16
1248
2240
10M08
8
8
41
29
70
16
1376
2240
10M16
4
4
38
28
66
32
2368
4224
10M25
4
4
52
40
92
32
3200
5888
10M40
4
4
48
36
84
64
5888
10752
10M50
4
4
48
36
84
64
5888
10752
UFM Memory Organization Map
The address scheme changes based on the configuration mode you specify in the Altera On-Chip Flash
parameter editor.
The following tables show the dynamic UFM and CFM support based on different configuration mode
and MAX10 FPGA variant.
(1)
The maximum possible value, which is dependent on the mode you select.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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UFM Block Diagram
Table 2-2: Dynamic Flash Size Support: Flash and Analog Variants
Configuration
UFM1
UFM0
CFM2
CFM1
CFM0
—
—
—
Dual compressed images
UFM space UFM space
Single uncompressed image
UFM space UFM space UFM space
Single compressed image
UFM space UFM space UFM space UFM space
Single uncompressed image with
memory initialization
UFM space UFM space
Single compressed image with
memory initialization
UFM space UFM space
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CFM2
CFM1
CFM0
Table 2-3: Dynamic Flash Size Support: Compact Variant
Configuration
UFM1
UFM0
Dual compressed images
Not available
Single uncompressed image
UFM space UFM space
—
—
—
Single compressed image
UFM space UFM space
—
—
—
Single uncompressed image with
memory initialization
Not available
Single compressed image with
memory initialization
Not available
UFM Block Diagram
This figure shows the top level view of the Altera On-Chip Flash IP core block diagram. The Altera OnChip Flash IP core supports both parallel and serial interfaces for all MAX 10 FPGAs, except for 10M02
devices. 10M02 devices only allow serial interface.
Figure 2-1: Altera On-Chip Flash IP Core Block Diagram
Avalon-MM
Avalon-MM
Avalon-MM Slave
Parallel Controller
(Data)
Parallel
Avalon-MM Slave
Serial Controller
(Data)
Avalon-MM
Control Register
Status Register
Avalon-MM Slave Controller
(Control)
Serial
UFM Block Interface
altera_onchip_flash
This IP block has two Avalon-MM slave controllers:
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UFM Block Diagram
2-3
• Data—a wrapper of the UFM block that provides read and program accesses to the flash.
• Control—the CSR and status register for the flash, which is required only for program and erase
operations.
These figures show the detailed overview of the Avalon-MM interface during read and program (write)
operation.
Figure 2-2: Altera On-Chip Flash IP Core Avalon-MM Slave Read and Program (Write) Operation in
Parallel Mode
This diagram shows the standard interface for all 10M04, 10M08, 10M16, 10M25, 10M40, and 10M50
devices in parallel mode.
altera_onchip_flash
clock
reset_n
addr[x:0]
read
readdata[31:0]
write
writedata[31:0]
waitrequest
readdatavalid
burstcount[x:0]
UFM
Block I/F
Avalon-MM Slave Parallel
Parallel Controller
(Data)
clock
reset_n
UFM
Block
Interface
internal read
Control Register
internal write
Status Register
Avalon-MM Slave
Controller
(Control)
read/
write
read
addr
read
readdata[31:0]
write
writedata[31:0]
external
external
Figure 2-3: Altera On-Chip Flash IP Core Avalon-MM Slave Read and Program (Write) Operation in
Serial Mode
This diagram shows the standard interface for all MAX 10 devices in serial mode.
altera_onchip_flash
clock
reset_n
addr[x:0]
read
readdata
write
writedata
waitrequest
readdatavalid
burstcount[x:0]
UFM
Block I/F
Avalon-MM Slave
Serial Controller
(Data)
Serial
clock
reset_n
UFM
Block
Interface
internal read
Control Register
internal write
Status Register
Avalon-MM Slave
Controller
(Control)
read/
write
read
addr
read
readdata[31:0]
write
writedata[31:0]
external
external
These figures show the detailed overview of the Avalon-MM interface during read only operation.
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UFM Operating Modes
Figure 2-4: Altera On-Chip Flash IP Core Avalon-MM Slave Read Only Operation in Parallel Mode
altera_onchip_flash
clock
reset_n
addr[x:0]
read
readdata[31:0]
waitrequest
readdatavalid
burstcount[x:0]
UFM
Block I/F
Avalon-MM Slave Parallel
Parallel Controller
(Data)
UFM
Block
Interface
Figure 2-5: Altera On-Chip Flash IP Core Avalon-MM Slave Read Only Operation in Serial Mode
altera_onchip_flash
clock
reset_n
addr[x:0]
read
readdata
waitrequest
readdatavalid
burstcount[x:0]
UFM
Block I/F
Avalon-MM Slave
Serial Controller
(Data)
Serial
UFM
Block
Interface
UFM Operating Modes
The UFM block offers the following operating modes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Read
Burst read
Program (Write)
Sector erase
Page erase
Sector write protection
You can choose one of the following access modes in the Altera On-Chip Flash parameter editor to read
and control the operations.
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UFM Operating Modes
2-5
• Read and program mode—this mode allows both data and control slave interface. This mode is
applicable for both UFM and CFM sectors.
• Read only mode—this mode allows only data slave interface, and restricted to only read operations.
This mode is applicable for both UFM and CFM sectors.
• Hidden—this mode does not allow any read or program (write) operations. This mode is applicable
only for CFM sectors.
The following table shows the comparison between parallel and serial modes.
Table 2-4: Comparison between Parallel Mode and Serial Mode
Feature
Parallel Mode
Serial Mode
Avalon-MM Data Interface
Parallel mode with 32-bit
data bus
Serial mode with 32 bits based burst
count
Access Mode
• Read and program
• Read only
• Hidden
• Read and program
• Read only
• Hidden
Read Mode
• Incrementing burst
read
• Wrapping burst read
Incrementing burst read only
Program (Write) Operation
Single 32-bit parallel
program operation
Single 32-bit serial program
operation
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There are several considerations that require your attention to ensure the success of your designs. Unless
noted otherwise, these design guidelines apply to all variants of this device family.
Guideline: UFM Power Supply Requirement
During UFM and CFM operations, make sure to follow the maximum slew rate requirement for power
supply ramp down. This setting prevents device damage in case of power loss.
Table 3-1: Maximum Slew Rate Requirement
Device
Maximum Slew Rate
Single-supply device
0.073V/µs
Multi-supply device
0.023V/µs
3.3V
2.5V
0V
0V
<0.073V/µs
<0.023V/µs
Single-Supply Device
Multi-Supply Device
Guideline: Program and Read UFM with JTAG
You can program UFM using JTAG interface version IEEE Standard 1149.1.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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Guideline: UFM Content Initialization
The JTAG interface supports Jam™ Standard Test and Programming Language (STAPL) Format File
(.jam), Programmer Object File (.pof), and JAM Byte Code File (.jbc).
Guideline: UFM Content Initialization
You can initialize the UFM content using Altera software.
The initial memory content supports Memory Initialization File (.mif), and Hexadecimal (Intel-Format)
File (.hex).
You can initialize the UFM content using either one of the following ways:
• Set the initial memory content through the Altera On-Chip Flash IP core.
• Set the initial memory content through the Convert Programming File tool in the Quartus II software
when you convert .sof to .pof.
Guideline: Erase Before Program
Make sure to erase the flash location before you perform a program (write) operation.
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Altera On-Chip Flash IP Core
The Altera IP core design flow helps you get started with any Altera IP core.
Introduction to Altera IP Cores
Altera® and strategic IP partners offer a broad portfolio of off-the-shelf, configurable IP cores optimized
for Altera devices. The Quartus® II software installation includes the Altera IP library. You can integrate
optimized and verified Altera IP cores into your design to shorten design cycles and maximize
performance. You can evaluate any Altera IP core in simulation and compilation in the Quartus II
software. The Quartus II software also supports integration of IP cores from other sources. Use the IP
Catalog to efficiently parameterize and generate synthesis and simulation files for a custom IP variation.
The Altera IP library includes the following categories of IP cores:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Basic functions
DSP functions
Interface protocols
Low power functions
Memory interfaces and controllers
Processors and peripherals
Note: The IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog) and parameter editor replace the MegaWizard Plug-In
Manager for IP selection and parameterization, beginning in Quartus II software version 14.0. Use
the IP Catalog and parameter editor to locate and paramaterize Altera and other supported IP
cores.
™
Related Information
• IP User Guide Documentation
• Altera IP Release Notes
Specifying IP Core Parameters and Options
You can quickly configure a custom IP variation in the parameter editor. Use the following steps to
specify IP core options and parameters in the parameter editor. Refer to Specifying IP Core Parameters
and Options (Legacy Parameter Editors) for configuration of IP cores using the legacy parameter editor.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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1. In the IP Catalog (Tools > IP Catalog), locate and double-click the name of the IP core to customize.
The parameter editor appears.
2. Specify a top-level name for your custom IP variation. The parameter editor saves the IP variation
settings in a file named <your_ip>.qsys. Click OK.
3. Specify the parameters and options for your IP variation in the parameter editor, including one or
more of the following. Refer to your IP core user guide for information about specific IP core
parameters.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Altera Corporation
• Optionally select preset parameter values if provided for your IP core. Presets specify initial
parameter values for specific applications.
• Specify parameters defining the IP core functionality, port configurations, and device-specific
features.
• Specify options for processing the IP core files in other EDA tools.
Click Generate HDL, the Generation dialog box appears.
Specify output file generation options, and then click Generate. The IP variation files generate
according to your specifications.
To generate a simulation testbench, click Generate > Generate Testbench System.
To generate an HDL instantiation template that you can copy and paste into your text editor, click
Generate > HDL Example.
Click Finish. The parameter editor adds the top-level .qsys file to the current project automatically. If
you are prompted to manually add the .qsys file to the project, click Project > Add/Remove Files in
Project to add the file.
After generating and instantiating your IP variation, make appropriate pin assignments to connect
ports.
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Files Generated for Altera IP Cores
4-3
Figure 4-1: IP Parameter Editor
View IP port
and parameter
details
Specify your IP variation name
and target device
Apply preset parameters for
specific applications
Files Generated for Altera IP Cores
The Quartus II software generates the following IP core output file structure:
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Files Generated for Altera IP Cores
Figure 4-2: IP Core Generated Files
<project directory>
<your_ip>.qsys - System or IP integration file
<your_ip>.sopcinfo - Software tool-chain integration file
<your_ip>
<your_ip> n
<testbench>_tb
IP variation files
IP variation files
testbench system
<your_ip>_tb.qsys
Testbench system file
<your_ip>.cmp - VHDL component declaration file
<your_ip>_bb.v - Verilog HDL black box EDA synthesis file
<your_ip>_inst.v or .vhd - Sample instantiation template
<your_ip>.ppf - XML I/O pin information file
<testbench>_tb
testbench files
<your_ip>.qip - Lists IP synthesis files
<your_testbench>_tb.csv
<your_ip>.sip - Contains assingments for IP simulation files
<your_testbench>_tb.spd
<your_ip>_generation.rpt - IP generation report
<your_ip>.debuginfo - Contains post-generation information
<your_ip>.html - Connection and memory map data
sim
simulation files
<your_ip>.bsf - Block symbol schematic
<your_ip>.spd - Combines simulation scripts for multiple cores
<EDA tool setup
scripts>
sim
synth
Simulation files
IP synthesis files
<your_ip>.v or .vhd
Top-level simulation file
<EDA tool name>
Simulator scripts
<simulator_setup_scripts>
<ip subcores> n
Subcore libraries
<your_ip>.v or .vhd
Top-level IP synthesis file
synth
Subcore
synthesis files
sim
Subcore
Simulation files
<HDL files>
<HDL files>
Table 4-1: IP Core Generated Files
File Name
Description
<my_ip>.qsys
The Qsys system or top-level IP variation file. <my_ip> is the name
that you give your IP variation.
<system>.sopcinfo
Describes the connections and IP component parameterizations in
your Qsys system. You can parse its contents to get requirements
when you develop software drivers for IP components.
Downstream tools such as the Nios II tool chain use this file.
The .sopcinfo file and the system.h file generated for the Nios II tool
chain include address map information for each slave relative to each
master that accesses the slave. Different masters may have a different
address map to access a particular slave component.
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Files Generated for Altera IP Cores
File Name
4-5
Description
<my_ip>.cmp
The VHDL Component Declaration (.cmp) file is a text file that
contains local generic and port definitions that you can use in VHDL
design files.
<my_ip>.html
A report that contains connection information, a memory map
showing the address of each slave with respect to each master to
which it is connected, and parameter assignments.
<my_ip>_generation.rpt
IP or Qsys generation log file. A summary of the messages during IP
generation.
<my_ip>.debuginfo
Contains post-generation information. Used to pass System Console
and Bus Analyzer Toolkit information about the Qsys interconnect.
The Bus Analysis Toolkit uses this file to identify debug components
in the Qsys interconnect.
<my_ip>.qip
Contains all the required information about the IP component to
integrate and compile the IP component in the Quartus II software.
<my_ip>.csv
Contains information about the upgrade status of the IP component.
<my_ip>.bsf
A Block Symbol File (.bsf) representation of the IP variation for use
in Quartus II Block Diagram Files (.bdf).
<my_ip>.spd
Required input file for ip-make-simscript to generate simulation
scripts for supported simulators. The .spd file contains a list of files
generated for simulation, along with information about memories
that you can initialize.
<my_ip>.ppf
The Pin Planner File (.ppf) stores the port and node assignments for
IP components created for use with the Pin Planner.
<my_ip>_bb.v
You can use the Verilog black-box (_bb.v) file as an empty module
declaration for use as a black box.
<my_ip>.sip
Contains information required for NativeLink simulation of IP
components. You must add the .sip file to your Quartus project.
<my_ip>_inst.v or _inst.vhd
HDL example instantiation template. You can copy and paste the
contents of this file into your HDL file to instantiate the IP variation.
<my_ip>.regmap
If the IP contains register information, the .regmap file generates.
The .regmap file describes the register map information of master
and slave interfaces. This file complements the .sopcinfo file by
providing more detailed register information about the system. This
enables register display views and user customizable statistics in
System Console.
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File Name
<my_ip>.svd
Description
Allows HPS System Debug tools to view the register maps of
peripherals connected to HPS within a Qsys system.
During synthesis, the .svd files for slave interfaces visible to System
Console masters are stored in the .sof file in the debug section.
System Console reads this section, which Qsys can query for register
map information. For system slaves, Qsys can access the registers by
name.
<my_ip>.v
or
HDL files that instantiate each submodule or child IP core for
synthesis or simulation.
<my_ip>.vhd
mentor/
Contains a ModelSim® script msim_setup.tcl to set up and run a
simulation.
aldec/
Contains a Riviera-PRO script rivierapro_setup.tcl to setup and run a
simulation.
/synopsys/vcs
Contains a shell script vcs_setup.sh to set up and run a VCS®
simulation.
/synopsys/vcsmx
Contains a shell script vcsmx_setup.sh and synopsys_ sim.setup file to
set up and run a VCS MX® simulation.
/cadence
Contains a shell script ncsim_setup.sh and other setup files to set up
and run an NCSIM simulation.
/submodules
Contains HDL files for the IP core submodule.
<child IP cores>/
For each generated child IP core directory, Qsys generates /synth and /
sim sub-directories.
Simulating Altera IP Cores in other EDA Tools
The Quartus II software supports RTL and gate-level design simulation of Altera IP cores in supported
EDA simulators. Simulation involves setting up your simulator working environment, compiling
simulation model libraries, and running your simulation.
You can use the functional simulation model and the testbench or example design generated with your IP
core for simulation. The functional simulation model and testbench files are generated in a project
subdirectory. This directory may also include scripts to compile and run the testbench. For a complete list
of models or libraries required to simulate your IP core, refer to the scripts generated with the testbench.
You can use the Quartus II NativeLink feature to automatically generate simulation files and scripts.
NativeLink launches your preferred simulator from within the Quartus II software.
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Figure 4-3: Simulation in Quartus II Design Flow
Design Entry
(HDL, Qsys, DSP Builder)
Altera Simulation
Models
Quartus II
Design Flow
Gate-Level Simulation
Analysis & Synthesis
Fitter
(place-and-route)
RTL Simulation
Post-synthesis functional
simulation netlist
Post-synthesis
functional
simulation
Post-fit functional
simulation netlist
Post-fit functional
simulation
Post-fit timing
simulation netlist
(Optional)
Post-fit
Post-fit timing
timing
simulation
simulation
(3)
EDA
Netlist
Writer
TimeQuest Timing Analyzer
Device Programmer
Note: Post-fit timing simulation is supported only for Stratix IV and Cyclone IV devices in the current
version of the Quartus II software. Altera IP supports a variety of simulation models, including
simulation-specific IP functional simulation models and encrypted RTL models, and plain text
RTL models. These are all cycle-accurate models. The models support fast functional simulation of
your IP core instance using industry-standard VHDL or Verilog HDL simulators. For some cores,
only the plain text RTL model is generated, and you can simulate that model. Use the simulation
models only for simulation and not for synthesis or any other purposes. Using these models for
synthesis creates a nonfunctional design.
Related Information
Simulating Altera Designs
UFM Avalon-MM Operating Modes
The UFM operating modes use Avalon-MM interface.
UFM Read Status and Control Register
You can access the control register value through the Avalon-MM control slave interface.
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UFM Write Control Register
Figure 4-4: Read Status and Control Register
The figure below shows the timing diagram for the read status and control register.
clock
address
addr
read
readdata
value
To use the control register, assert the read signal and send the control register address to the control slave
address.
The flash IP core then sends the register value through the readdata bus.
UFM Write Control Register
You can program (write) the control register value through Avalon-MM control slave interface.
Figure 4-5: Program (Write) Control Register
The figure below shows the timing diagram for the program control register.
clock
address
addr
write
writedata
value
To program the control register, assert the write signal.
The flash IP core then sends address 0×01 (control register) and writedata (register value) to control the
slave interface.
UFM Program (Write) Operation
The UFM offers a single 32-bit program (write) operation.
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To perform a UFM program operation, follow these steps:
1. Disable the write protection mode. Write 0 into the write protection register for the sector of the given
data through the Avalon-MM control interface.
2. Program the following data into flash through the Avalon-MM data interface.
• Address: legal address (from Avalon-MM address map)
• Data: user data
Set burstcount to 1 (parallel mode) or 32 (serial mode).
3. The flash IP core sets the busy field in the status register to 2'b10 when the program operation is in
progress.
4. If the operation goes well, the flash IP core sets the write successful field in the status register to 1'b1
or write successful. The flash IP core sets the write successful field in the status register to 1'b0 (failed)
if one of the following conditions takes place:
• The burst count is not equal to 1 (parallel mode) or 32 (serial mode).
• The given address is out of range.
• The sector protection mode or write protection mode of the corresponding sector is not clear (the
value is not 1'b0).
5. Repeat the earlier steps if you want to perform another program operation.
6. You have to enable back the write protection mode when the program operation completes. Write 1
into the write protection register for the corresponding sector through the Avalon-MM control
interface.
Note: Check the status register after each write to make sure the program operation is successful
(write successful).
Figure 4-6: Program Operation in Parallel Mode
The figure below shows the write data timing diagram in parallel mode.
clock
address
addr
write
burstcount
1
writedata
data
waitrequest
Write
address
to UFM
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Max 305 µs
UFM Reset
Max 250 µs
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UFM Sector Erase Operation
Figure 4-7: Program Operation in Serial Mode
The figure below shows the write data timing diagram in serial mode.
clock
address
addr
write
burstcount
32
writedata
31
30 29 28 27 26 25
6 5 4 32 1
waitrequest
Write address to UFM
Serial Write 32 bits Data
to UFM (32 Cycles)
UFM Sector Erase Operation
The sector erase operation allows the UFM to erase by sectors.
To perform a UFM sector erase operation, follow these steps:
1. Disable the write protection mode. Write 0 into the write protection register for the sector through the
Avalon-MM control interface.
2. Write the appropriate bits into the control register to select the sector erase location. The flash IP core
stores the sector erase address and initiates the sector erase operation.
Note: The IP core only accepts the sector erase address when it is in IDLE state;busy field at status
register is2'b00. If the IP core is busy, it will ignore the sector erase address.
3. The flash IP core sets the busy field in the status register to 2'b01 when the erase operation is in
progress.
4. The flash IP core then asserts the waitrequest signal if there are any new incoming read or write
commands from the data interface.
5. The flash IP core erases the sector. It stores the physical flash erase result in the erase successful field in
the status register when the sector erase operation completes.
Note: The maximum erase time is 350 ms.
6. The flash IP core sets the erase successful field in the status register to 1'b0 (failed) if one of the
following conditions takes place:
• You send an illegal sector number.
• The sector protection mode or write protection mode of the corresponding sector is not clear (the
value is not 1'b0)
7. Repeat the earlier steps if you want to perform another sector erase operation.
8. You have to enable back the write protection mode when the sector erase operation completes. Write 1
into the write protection register for the corresponding sector through the Avalon-MM control
interface.
Note: Check the status register after each erase to make sure the erase operation is successful (erase
successful).
UFM Page Erase Operation
The page erase operation allows the UFM to erase by pages.
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To perform a UFM page erase operation, follow these steps:
1. Disable the write protection mode. Write 0 into the write protection register for the sector through the
Avalon-MM control interface.
2. Write the appropriate bits into the control register to select the page erase location. The flash IP core
stores the page erase address and initiates the page erase operation.
Note: The IP core only accepts the page erase address when the IP is in IDLE state; busy field at status
register is2'b00. If the IP core is busy, it will ignore the page erase address.
3. The flash IP core sets the busy field in the status register to 2'b01 when the erase operation is in
progress.
4. The flash IP core then asserts the waitrequest signal if there are any new incoming read or write
commands from the data interface.
5. The flash IP core erases the page. It stores the physical flash erase result in the erase successful field in
the status register when the page erase operation completes.
Note: The maximum erase time is 350 ms.
6. The flash IP core sets the erase successful field in the status register to 1b'0 (failed) if you send an
illegal address.
7. Repeat the earlier steps if you want to perform another page erase operation.
8. You have to enable back the write protection mode when the page erase operation completes. Write 1
into the write protection register for the corresponding page through the Avalon-MM control
interface.
Note: Check the status register after each erase to make sure the erase operation is successful (erase
successful).
UFM Read Operation
The UFM offers a single 32-bit read operation.
To perform a read operation, the address register must be loaded with the reference address where the
data is or is going to be located in the UFM.
To perform a UFM read operation, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Assert the read signal to send the legal data address to the data slave interface.
Set the burstcount to 1 (parallel mode) or 32 (serial mode).
The flash IP core asserts the waitrequest signal when it is busy.
The flash IP core asserts the readdatavalid signal and sends the data through the readdata bus.
The flash IP core sets the busy field in the status register to 2'b11 when the read operation is in
progress.
6. If the operation goes well, the flash IP core sets the read successful field in the status register to 1'b1 or
read successful. It sets the read successful field in the status register to 1'b0 (failed) and returns empty
flash if you try to read from an illegal address or protected sector.
The following figures show the timing diagrams for the read operations for the different MAX 10 devices
in parallel and serial modes.
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Figure 4-8: Read Operation for 10M04, 10M08, 10M16 and 10M25 Devices in Parallel Mode
clock
read
write
address
addr
burstcount
1
waitrequest
writedata
readdatavalid
readdata
data0
Figure 4-9: Read Operation for 10M40 and 10M50 Devices in Parallel Mode
clock
read
write
address
burstcount
addr
1
waitrequest
writedata
readdatavalid
readdata
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Figure 4-10: Read Operation for MAX 10 Devices in Serial Mode
clock
read
write
address
addr
burstcount
32
waitrequest
writedata
readdatavalid
readdata
31 30 29 28 27 26
5 4 3 2 1 0
UFM Burst Read Operation
The burst read operation is a streaming 32-bit read operation.
The burst read operation offers the following modes:
• Data incrementing burst read—allows a maximum of 128 burst counts.
• Data wrapping burst read—has fixed burst counts of 2 (10M04/08) and 4 (10M16/25/40/50)
To perform a UFM burst read operation, follow these steps:
1. Assert the read signal and send the legal burstcount and legal data addresses to the data interface.
2. The flash IP core asserts the waitrequest signal when it is busy.
3. The flash IP core then asserts the readdatavalid signal and sends the data through the readdata bus.
Note: For data wrapping burst read operation, if the address reaches the end of the flash, it wraps back
to the beginning of the flash and continues reading.
4. The flash IP core sets the busy field in the status register to 2'b11 or busy_read when the read
operation is in progress.
5. If the operation goes well, the flash IP core sets the read successful field in the status register to 1'b1 or
read successful. It sets the read successful field in the status register to 1'b0 (failed) and changes all
empty flash to 1 if you try to read from an illegal address or protected sector.
UFM Data Incrementing Burst Read
The following figures show the timing diagrams for the data incrementing burst read operations for the
different MAX 10 devices.
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Figure 4-11: Incrementing Burst Read Operation for 10M04 and 10M08 Devices in Parallel Mode
clock
read
write
address
burstcount
addr
8
waitrequest
writedata
readdatavalid
readdata
data0 data1
data2 data3
data4 data5
data6 data7
Figure 4-12: Incrementing Burst Read Operation for 10M16 and 10M25 Devices in Parallel Mode
clock
read
write
address
burstcount
addr
addr
6
2
waitrequest
writedata
readdatavalid
readdata
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data1 data2 data3 data4 data5 data6
data7
data8
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UFM Data Incrementing Burst Read
Figure 4-13: Incrementing Burst Read Operation for 10M50 Devices in Parallel Mode
clock
read
write
addr
address
burstcount
8
waitrequest
writedata
readdatavalid
readdata
data0 data1 data2 data3
data4 data5 data6 data7
Figure 4-14: Unaligned Address Incrementing Burst Read Operation for 10M50 Devices in Parallel
Mode
clock
read
write
address
burstcount
addr
7
waitrequest
writedata
readdatavalid
readdata
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data1
data2
data3
data4
data5
data6
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UFM Data Wrapping Burst Read
Figure 4-15: Incrementing Burst Read Operation for MAX 10 Devices in Serial Mode
clock
read
write
address
addr
burstcount
64
waitrequest
writedata
readdatavalid
readdata
63 62 61 60 59 58
31 30 29 28 27 26
UFM Data Wrapping Burst Read
The UFM IP supports data wrapping when it receives an unaligned address.
Note: Wrapping burst read is available only for parallel interface.
Table 4-2: Data Wrapping Support for MAX 10 Devices
Device
10M04, or 10M08
Data Register
Length
32
Flash IP Data
Bus Width
64
Fixed Supported
Burst Count
2
Data Wrapping
The address wraps back to the
previous boundary after 64 bits
or 2 cycles. For example, for a
wrapping in a 32-bit data
interface:
1. Start address is 0×01
2. Address sequence will be
0×01, then back to address
0×00
10M16, 10M25,
10M40, or 10M50
32
128
4
The address wraps back to the
previous boundary after 128 bits
or 4 cycles. For example, for a
wrapping in a 32-bit data
interface:
1. Start address is 0×02
2. Address sequence will be
0×02 and 0×03, then back to
address 0×00 and 0×01
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The following figures show the timing diagrams for the data wrapping burst read operations for the
different MAX 10 devices.
Figure 4-16: Wrapping Burst Read Operation for 10M04 and 10M08 Devices
clock
read
write
address
addr0
addr1
burstcount
2
waitrequest
writedata
readdatavalid
readdata
data0
data1
data2
data3
Figure 4-17: Wrapping Burst Read Operation for 10M16 and 10M25 Devices
clock
read
write
address
burstcount
addr0
addr1
4
waitrequest
writedata
readdatavalid
readdata
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data1
data2
data3
data4
data5
data6
data7
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UFM Data Wrapping Burst Read
Figure 4-18: Wrapping Burst Read Operation for 10M40 and 10M50 Devices
clock
read
write
address
burstcount
addr0
addr1
4
waitrequest
writedata
readdatavalid
readdata
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data4 data5 data6 data7
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Altera On-Chip Flash IP Core References
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This section provides information about the Altera On-Chip Flash IP Core parameters, signals, and
registers.
Altera On-Chip Flash Parameters
The following table lists the parameters for the Altera On-Chip Flash IP core.
Table 5-1: Altera On-Chip Flash IP Core Parameters
Parameters
Data interface
Default Value
Parallel
Description
Allows you to select the type of interface. You can
choose parallel or serial.
Note: 10M02 devices support only serial
interface.
Read burst mode
Incrementing
Allows you to select the type of read burst mode. You
can choose incrementing or wrapping.
Incrementing Burstcount range is 1, 2, 4,
mode
7, ... 128
Wrapping
mode
Burstcount fixed to 2 or 4
Note: Serial mode supports only incrementing
mode.
Read burst count
2
Allows you the flexibility to adjust the burst count
bus width.
• Parallel mode: This setting represents the
maximum burst count number.
• Serial mode: This setting supports stream read
and represents the words to be read for each read
operation. The Avalon-MM interface burst count
bus width is equal to 32*read burst count.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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ISO
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Altera On-Chip Flash Signals
Parameters
Default Value
Configuration mode
Single
uncompressed
image
Flash Memory
—
Description
Allows you to select the configuration mode. You can
choose one of these options:
• Dual compressed images
• Single uncompressed image: Accesses CFM2
sector as UFM
• Single compressed image: Accesses CFM2 and
CFM1 sectors as UFM
• Single uncompressed image with memory initiali‐
zation
• Single compressed image with memory initializa‐
tion
The sector ID, address range value, and flash type are
generated dynamically by hardware .tcl based on the
device and configuration mode you select. Indicates
the address mapping for each sector and adjusts the
Access Mode for each sector individually.
Note: Only CFM sectors support Hidden access
mode.
Clock frequency
116.0 MHz
Key in the appropriate clock frequency in MHz. The
maximum frequency is 116.0 MHz for parallel
interface and 7.25 MHz for serial interface.
Initialize flash content
Off
Turn on this option to initialize the flash content.
Enable non-default initializa‐
tion file
Off
Turn on this option to enable your preferred initiali‐
zation file. If you choose to have a non-default file,
type the filename or select the .hex file using the
browse button.
User created hex or mif file
—
This option is only available if you turn on Enable
non-default initialization file. Assign your own .hex
or .mif filename.
User created dat file for
simulation
—
This option is only available if you turn on Enable
non-default initialization file. Assign your own
simulation filename.
Altera On-Chip Flash Signals
The following table lists the signals for the Altera On-Chip Flash IP core.
Table 5-2: Avalon-MM Slave Input and Output Signals for Parallel and Serial Modes.
Signal
Width
Direction
1
Input
Description
Clock and Reset
clock
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System clock signal that clocks the entire
peripheral.
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Altera On-Chip Flash Signals
Signal
5-3
Width
Direction
1
Input
System synchronous reset signal that resets the
entire peripheral. The IP core asserts this signal
asynchronously. This signal becomes synchronous
in the IP core after the rising edge of the clock.
avmm_csr_addr
1
Input
Avalon-MM address bus that decodes registers.
avmm_csr_read
1
Input
Avalon-MM read control signal. The IP core
asserts this signal to indicate a read transfer. If
present, the readdata signal is required.
avmm_csr_readdata
32
Output
Avalon-MM read back data signal. The IP core
asserts this signal during read cycles.
avmm_csr_write
1
Input
Avalon-MM write control signal. The IP core
asserts this signal to indicate a write transfer. If
present, the writedata signal is required.
avmm_csr_writedata
32
Input
Avalon-MM write data bus. The bus master asserts
this bus during write cycles.
User-defined
Input
Avalon-MM address bus that indicates the flash
data address. The width of this address depends on
your selection of device and configuration mode.
1
Input
Avalon-MM read control signal. The IP core
asserts this signal to indicate a read transfer. If
present, the readdata signal is required.
Output
Avalon-MM read back data signal. The IP core
asserts this signal during read cycles.
Input
Avalon-MM write control signal. The IP core
asserts this signal to indicate a write transfer. If
present, the writedata signal is required.
Input
Avalon-MM write data bus. The bus master asserts
this bus during write cycles.
reset_n
Description
Control
Data
avmm_data_addr
avmm_data_read
avmm_data_readdata
• Parallel
mode: 32
• Serial
mode: 1
1
avmm_data_write
avmm_data_writedata
• Parallel
mode: 32
• Serial
mode: 1
avmm_data_
waitrequest
avmm_data_readdatavalid
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1
Output
The IP core asserts this bus to pause the master
when the IP core is busy during read or write
operations.
1
Output
The IP core asserts this signal when the readdata
signal is valid during read cycles.
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Altera On-Chip Flash Registers
Signal
avmm_data_
burstcount
Width
Direction
User-defined
Input
Description
The bus master asserts this signal to initiate a burst
read operation.
• In write operations, the burstcount is always
fixed to 1 for parallel mode and 32 for serial
mode.
• In incrementing burst read mode, the
supported read burstcount range:
Parallel mode
1-2(burstcount width-1)
Serial mode
1-128*32
• In wrapping burst read mode (parallel mode
only), the supported read burstcount is fixed to
2 and 4.
10M04, and 10M08
2
10M16, 10M25,
10M40 and 10M50
4
Altera On-Chip Flash Registers
The following table lists the address mapping and registers for the Altera On-Chip Flash IP core.
Table 5-3: Altera On-Chip Flash Control Address Mapping
Register
Address
Access
Description
Status Register
0×00
Read only
Stores the status and result of recent
operations and sector protection
mode.
Control Register
0×01
Read/Program
Stores the following information:
• Page erase address
• Sector erase address
• Sector write protection mode
Table 5-4: Altera On-Chip Flash Status Register
Bit Offset
1–0
Field
busy
Default Value
2'b00
Description
2'b00 IDLE
2'b01 BUSY_ERASE
2'b10 BUSY_WRITE
2'b11 BUSY_READ
2
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rs (read
successful)
1'b0
1'b0 Read failed
1'b1 Read successful
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Altera On-Chip Flash Registers
Bit Offset
3
4
Field
Default Value
ws (write
successful)
1'b0
es (erase
successful)
1'b0
5-5
Description
1'b0 Write failed
1'b1 Write successful
1'b0 Erase failed
1'b1 Erase successful
5
sp (UFM1
protection bit)
—
6
sp (UFM0
protection bit)
—
7
sp (CFM2
protection bit)
—
8
sp (CFM1
protection bit)
—
9
sp (CFM0
protection bit)
—
31–10
dummy
(padding)
—
The IP core sets these bits based on the
specified device and configuration mode. If the
IP core sets one of these bits, you cannot read
or program on the specified sector.
All of these bits are set to 1.
Table 5-5: Altera On-Chip Flash Control Register
Bit Offset
19–0
Field
pe (page erase
address)
Default Value
All 1's
Description
Sets the page erase address to initiate a page
erase operation. The IP core only accepts the
page erase address when it is in IDLE state.
Otherwise, the page address will be ignored.
The legal value is any available address. The IP
core erases the corresponding page of the given
address.
Altera On-Chip Flash IP Core References
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Bit Offset
22–20
Field
se (sector erase
address)
Default Value
3'b111
Description
Sets the sector erase address to initiate a sector
erase operation. The IP core only accepts the
sector erase address when it is in IDLE state.
Otherwise, the page address will be ignored.
3'b001
UFM1
3'b010
UFM0
3'b011
CFM2
3'b100
CFM1
3'b101
CFM0
3'b111
Not set
Other values Illegal address
Note: If you set both sector address and
page address at the same time, the
sector erase address gets the priority.
The IP core accepts and executes the
sector erase address and ignores the
page erase address.
23
wp (UFM1 write
protection)
1
24
wp (UFM0 write
protection)
1
25
wp (CFM2 write
protection)
1
26
wp (CFM1 write
protection)
1
27
wp (CFM0 write
protection)
1
31–28
dummy
(padding)
Altera Corporation
The IP core uses these bits to protect the sector
from write and erase operation. You must clear
the corresponding sector write protection bit
before your program or erase the sector.
Disable write protected
1'b0
mode
1'b1
—
Enable write protected
mode
All of these bits are set to 1.
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Document Revision History for Content MAX 10 User Flash Memory User
Guide
Date
May 2014
Version
2015.05.04
Changes
• Changed write to industry-standard term program.
• Added a note to the UFM and CFM Array Size section that the total
UFM size is the maximum possible value, which is dependent on the
selected mode.
• Added design consideration information about the maximum slew
rate requirement for power supply ramp down.
• Added design consideration information about erasing the flash
location before performing a program operation.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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Document Revision History for Content MAX 10 User Flash Memory User Guide
Date
December
2014
Version
2014.12.15
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Changes
• Added support for serial interface.
• Added maximum operating frequency of 7.25 MHz for serial
interface.
• Updated the UFM block diagram to include serial interface.
• Added design consideration information about creating initial
memory content using the IP core, and programming UFM using
JTAG interface version IEEE Standard 1149.1.
• Added new timing diagrams for read and write operations in serial
mode.
• Added information for the new serial interface related GUI
parameters, signals, and registers.
• Added information for the following new Avalon-MM slave interface
signals for serial mode: addr, read, readdata, write, writedata,
waitrequest, readdatavalid, and burstcount.
• Added information for the following new parameters:
• Data Interface that allows you to choose between Parallel and
Serial interface.
• Configuration Scheme and Configuration Mode that replace
Dual Images. The new parameters include all supported configu‐
ration modes.
• Read Burst Count that allows the burstcount width to be autoadjusted.
September
2014
Altera Corporation
2014.09.22
Initial release.
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MAX 10 JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing
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TOC-2
Contents
Overview.............................................................................................................. 1-1
JTAG BST Architecture.......................................................................................2-1
JTAG Pins..................................................................................................................................................... 2-1
JTAG Circuitry Functional Model............................................................................................................ 2-1
JTAG Boundary-Scan Register...................................................................................................................2-2
Boundary-Scan Cells in MAX 10 I/O Pin.....................................................................................2-3
JTAG BST Operation Control............................................................................ 3-1
JTAG IDCODE ........................................................................................................................................... 3-1
JTAG Secure Mode...................................................................................................................................... 3-2
JTAG Private instruction............................................................................................................................ 3-2
JTAG Instructions........................................................................................................................................3-2
I/O Voltage Support in the JTAG Chain............................................................ 4-1
Enabling and Disabling JTAG BST Circuitry.....................................................5-1
Guidelines for JTAG BST....................................................................................6-1
Boundary-Scan Description Language Support................................................. 7-1
Additional Information for MAX 10 JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing User
Guide .............................................................................................................. A-1
Document Revision History for MAX 10 JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing User Guide..................... A-1
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MAX® 10 devices support the IEEE Std.1149.1 (JTAG) boundary-scan testing (BST).
When you perform BST, you can test pin connections without using physical test probes and capture
functional data during normal operation. The boundary-scan cells (BSCs) in a device can force signals
onto pins, or capture data from pin or core logic signals. Forced test data is serially shifted into the BSCs.
Captured data is serially shifted out and externally compared to expected results.
Note: You can perform BST on MAX 10 devices before, after, and during configuration.
Related Information
• MAX 10 FPGA Configuration User Guide
Provides more information about JTAG in-system programming.
• JTAG BST Architecture on page 2-1
• JTAG Boundary-Scan Register on page 2-2
• JTAG BST Operation Control on page 3-1
• I/O Voltage Support in the JTAG Chain on page 4-1
• Enabling and Disabling JTAG BST Circuitry on page 5-1
• Guidelines for JTAG BST on page 6-1
• Boundary-Scan Description Language Support on page 7-1
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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JTAG BST Architecture
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MAX 10 JTAG interface uses four pins, TDI, TDO, TMS, and TCK.
JTAG Pins
Table 2-1: JTAG Pin Descriptions
Pin
TDI
Function
Serial input pin for:
• instructions
• test data
• programming data
TDO
Serial output pin for:
• instructions
• test data
• programming data
TMS
TCK
Input pin that provides the control
signal to determine the transitions of
the TAP controller state machine.
Description
• TDI is sampled on the rising edge of TCK
• TDI pins have internal weak pull-up resistors.
• TDO is sampled on the falling edge of TCK
• The pin is tri-stated if data is not being
shifted out of the device.
• TMS is sampled on the rising edge of TCK
• TMS pins have internal weak pull-up resistors.
The clock input to the BST circuitry.
—
All the JTAG pins are powered by the VCCIO 1B. In JTAG mode, the I/O pins support the LVTTL/
LVCMOS 3.3-1.5V standards.
JTAG Circuitry Functional Model
The JTAG BST circuitry requires the following registers:
• Instruction register—determines which action to perform and which data register to access.
• Bypass register (1-bit long data register)—provides a minimum-length serial path between the TDI and
TDO pins.
• Boundary-scan register—shift register composed of all the BSCs of the device.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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JTAG Boundary-Scan Register
Figure 2-1: JTAG Circuitry Functional Model
•
•
•
•
Test access port (TAP) controller—controls the JTAG BST.
TMS and TCK pins—operate the TAP controller.
TDI and TDO pins—provide the serial path for the data registers.
The TDI pin also provides data to the instruction register to generate the control logic for the data
registers.
Instruction Register
TDI
TDO
UPDATEIR
CLOCKIR
SHIFTIR
TMS
TCK
Instruction Decode
TAP
Controller
UPDATEDR
CLOCKDR
SHIFTDR
Data Registers
Bypass Register
Boundary-Scan Register
a
Device ID Register
ISP Registers
JTAG Boundary-Scan Register
You can use the boundary-scan register to test external pin connections or to capture internal data. The
boundary-scan register is a large serial shift register that uses the TDI pin as an input and the TDO pin as an
output. The boundary-scan register consists of 3-bit peripheral elements that are associated with MAX 10
I/O pins.
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Boundary-Scan Cells in MAX 10 I/O Pin
2-3
Boundary-Scan Cells in MAX 10 I/O Pin
The MAX 10 3-bit BSC contains the following registers:
• Capture registers—connect to internal device data through OUTJ, OEJ, and PIN_IN signals.
• Update registers—connect to external data through PIN_OUT and PIN_OE signals.
Figure 2-2: User I/O BSC with JTAG BST Circuitry for MAX 10 Devices
The TAP controller generates the global control signals internally for the JTAG BST registers, shift,
clock, and update. The instruction register generates the MODE signal.
The data signal path for the boundary-scan register runs from the serial data in (SDI) signal to the serial
data out (SDO) signal. The scan register begins at the TDI pin and ends at the TDO pin of the device.
Capture
Registers
SDO
Update
Registers
INJ
PIN_IN
0
1
D
0
1
D
Q
D
INPUT
0
1
Q
INPUT
OEJ
From or
to Device
I/O Cell
Circuitry or
Logic Array
Q
D
OE
Q
OE
VCC
0
1
0
1
PIN_OE
0
1
PIN_OUT
OUTJ
0
1
D
Q
D
Q
OUTPUT
OUTPUT
SHIFT
CLOCK
UPDATE
Pin
Output
Buffer
SDI
JTAG BST Architecture
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HIGHZ
MODE
Global
Signals
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Boundary-Scan Cells in MAX 10 I/O Pin
Table 2-2: BSC Capture and Update Register for MAX 10 Devices
Captures
Pin Type
User I/O
Drives
Output
Capture
Register
OE Capture
Register
Input
Capture
Register
Output
Update
Register
OE Update
Register
Input Update
Register
OUTJ
OEJ
PIN_IN
PIN_OUT
PIN_OE
INJ
Note: All VCC and GND pin types do not have BSCs.
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JTAG IDCODE
The IDCODE is unique for each MAX 10 device. Use this code to identify the devices in a JTAG chain.
Table 3-1: IDCODE Information for MAX 10 Devices
Device
Supply Option
Singlesupply
Dualsupply
Device
Version (4
Bits)
Part Number (16 Bits)
10M02
0000
0011 0001 1000 0001
000 0110 1110
1
10M04
0000
0011 0001 1000 1010
000 0110 1110
1
10M08
0000
0011 0001 1000 0010
000 0110 1110
1
10M16
0000
0011 0001 1000 0011
000 0110 1110
1
10M25
0000
0011 0001 1000 0100
000 0110 1110
1
10M40
0000
0011 0001 1000 1101
000 0110 1110
1
10M50
0000
0011 0001 1000 0101
000 0110 1110
1
10M02
0000
0011 0001 0000 0001
000 0110 1110
1
10M04
0000
0011 0001 0000 1010
000 0110 1110
1
10M08
0000
0011 0001 0000 0010
000 0110 1110
1
10M16
0000
0011 0001 0000 0011
000 0110 1110
1
10M25
0000
0011 0001 0000 0100
000 0110 1110
1
10M40
0000
0011 0001 0000 1101
000 0110 1110
1
10M50
0000
0011 0001 0000 0101
000 0110 1110
1
Manufacturer Identity LSB (1 Bit)
(11 Bits)
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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JTAG Secure Mode
JTAG Secure Mode
In JTAG secure mode, the device only allow SAMPLE/PRELOAD, BYPASS, EXTEST, and IDCODE JTAG
instructions.
Related Information
MAX 10 FPGA Configuration User Guide
Provides more information about the JTAG Secure Mode.
JTAG Private instruction
Caution: Never invoke the following instruction codes. These instructions can damage the device and
render it unusable:
•
•
•
•
10 0100 0000
10 0011 0000
10 1110 0000
10 0011 0001
JTAG Instructions
Instruction Name
SAMPLE/PRELOAD
EXTEST (1)
BYPASS
USERCODE
IDCODE
(1)
Instruction
Binary
Description
00 0000 0101 • Permits an initial data pattern to be an output at the device pins.
• Allows you to capture and examine a snapshot of signals at the
device pins if the device is operating in normal mode.
00 0000 1111 • Forces test pattern at the output pins and capture the test results at
the input pins.
• Allows you to test the external circuitry and board-level intercon‐
nects.
11 1111 1111 • Places the 1-bit bypass register between the TDI and TDO pins.
• Allows the BST data to pass synchronously through target devices
to adjacent devices during normal device operation.
00 0000 0111 • Places the 1-bit bypass register between the TDI and TDO pins.
• Allows you to shift the USERCODE register out of the TDO pin serially.
00 0000 0110 • Selects the IDCODE register and places it between the TDI and TDO
pins.
• Allows you to shift the IDCODE register out of the TDO pin serially.
HIGHZ, CLAMP, and EXTEST instructions do not disable weak pull-up resistors or bus hold features.
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Instruction Name
JTAG Instructions
Instruction
Binary
3-3
Description
HIGHZ (1)
00 0000 1011 • Places the 1-bit bypass register between the TDI and TDO pins. The
1-bit bypass register tri-states all the I/O pins.
• Allow the BST data to pass synchronously through target devices to
adjacent devices if device is operating in normal mode.
CLAMP (1)
00 0000 1010 • Places the 1-bit bypass register between the TDI and TDO pins. The
1-bit bypass register holds I/O pins to a state defined by the data in
the boundary-scan register.
• Allow the BST data to pass synchronously through target devices to
adjacent devices if device is operating in normal mode.
USER0
USER1
JTAG BST Operation Control
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00 0000 1100 • Allows you to define the scan chain between the TDI and TDO pins
in the MAX 10 logic array.
• Use this instruction for custom logic and JTAG interfaces.
00 0000 1110 • Allows you to define the scan chain between the TDI and TDO pins
in the MAX 10 logic array.
• Use this instruction for custom logic and JTAG interfaces.
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A JTAG chain can contain several Altera and non-Altera devices.
The TDO pin of a device drives out at the voltage level according to the VCCIO of the device. The devices
can interface with each other although the devices may have different VCCIO levels.
For example, a device with 3.3-V VCCIO can drive to a device with 5.0-V VCCIO because 3.3 V meets the
minimum VIH on transistor-to-transistor logic (TTL)-level input for the 5.0-V VCCIO device.
MAX 10 devices can support 1.5-, 1.8-, 2.5-, or 3.3-V input levels, depending on the VCCIO voltage of I/O
Bank 1B.
To interface the TDI and TDO lines of the JTAG pins of devices that have different VCCIO levels, insert a
level shifter between the devices. If possible, construct the JTAG chain where device with a higher VCCIO
level drives to a device with an equal or lower VCCIO level. In this setup, you only require a level shifter for
shifting the TDO level to a level JTAG tester accept.
Figure 4-1: JTAG Chain of Mixed Voltages and Level Shifters
Must be 5.0-V
Tolerant
Must be 3.3-V
Tolerant
TDI
5.0-V
VCCIO
3.3-V
VCCIO
2.5-V
VCCIO
TDO
Level
Shifter
1.5-V
VCCIO
1.8-V
1.8-V
VVCCIO
CCIO
Tester
Shift TDO to Level
Accepted by Tester
if Necessary
Must be 1.8-V
Tolerant
Must be 2.5-V
Tolerant
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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The JTAG BST circuitry in MAX 10 devices is automatically enabled after the power-up.
To ensure that you do not inadvertently enable the JTAG BST circuitry when it is not required, disable the
circuitry permanently with pin connections as listed in the following table.
Table 5-1: Pin Connections to Permanently Disable the JTAG BST Circuitry in MAX 10 Devices
JTAG Pins
Connection to Disable
TMS
VCCIO supply of Bank 1B
TCK
GND
TDI
VCCIO supply of Bank 1B
TDO
Leave open
You must enable this circuitry only if you use the BST or ISP features.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
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Consider the following guidelines when you perform BST with the device:
• If the “10...” pattern does not shift out of the instruction register through the TDO pin during the first
clock cycle of the SHIFT_IR state, the TAP controller did not reach the proper state. To solve this
problem, try one of the following procedures:
• Verify that the TAP controller has reached the SHIFT_IR state correctly. To advance the TAP
controller to the SHIFT_IR state, return TAP controller to the RESET state and send the 01100 code
to the TMS pin.
• Check the connections to the VCC, GND, JTAG, and dedicated configuration pins on the device.
• Perform a SAMPLE/PRELOAD test cycle before the first EXTEST test cycle to ensure that known data is
present at the device pins when you enter EXTEST mode. If the OEJ update register contains 0, the data
in the OUTJ update register is driven out. The state must be known and correct to avoid contention
with other devices in the system.
• To perform testing before configuration, hold the nCONGFIG pin low.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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The BSDL—a subset of VHDL—provides a syntax that allows you to describe the features of an IEEE Std.
1149.1 BST-capable device that can be tested. Test software development systems then use the BSDL files
for test generation, analysis, failure diagnostics, and in-system programming.
Related Information
IEEE 1149.1 BSDL Files
Provides more information about BSC group definitions.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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Document Revision History for MAX 10 JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing
User Guide
Date
Version
Changes
May 2015
2015.05.04
Added note on about performing the boundary-scan testing in
'Overview'.
September 2014
2014.09.22
Initial release.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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TOC-2
Contents
MAX 10 Power Management Overview..............................................................1-1
MAX 10 Power Management Features and Architecture.................................. 2-1
Power Supply Device Options....................................................................................................................2-1
Single-Supply Device....................................................................................................................... 2-1
Dual-Supply Device......................................................................................................................... 2-1
Comparison of the MAX 10 Power Supply Device Options......................................................2-2
Power Supply Design.......................................................................................................................2-3
Power-On Reset Circuitry.......................................................................................................................... 2-4
Power Supplies Monitored and Not Monitored by the POR Circuitry................................... 2-4
Instant-On Support......................................................................................................................... 2-6
Power Management Controller Scheme...................................................................................................2-6
Power Management Controller Architecture.............................................................................. 2-6
Hot Socketing............................................................................................................................................... 2-8
Hot-Socketing Specifications......................................................................................................... 2-8
Hot-Socketing Feature Implementation.......................................................................................2-9
Power Management Controller Reference Design............................................. 3-1
Clock Control Block.................................................................................................................................... 3-2
I/O Buffer...................................................................................................................................................... 3-2
Internal Oscillator........................................................................................................................................ 3-2
Power Management Controller................................................................................................................. 3-3
Entering State....................................................................................................................................3-3
Sleep State..........................................................................................................................................3-3
Exiting State...................................................................................................................................... 3-3
Awake State.......................................................................................................................................3-3
Entering or Exiting Sleep Mode.................................................................................................................3-4
Entering Sleep Mode........................................................................................................................3-4
Exiting Sleep Mode.......................................................................................................................... 3-4
Timing Parameters.......................................................................................................................... 3-5
Hardware Implementation and Current Measurement......................................................................... 3-5
Additional Information for MAX 10 Power Management User Guide ........... A-1
Document Revision History for MAX 10 Power Management User Guide...................................... A-1
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MAX® 10 devices offer the following power supply device options:
• Single-supply device—requires 1 external power supply of 3.0 V or 3.3 V whilst offering maximum
convenience and board simplicity.
• Dual-supply device—requires 2 external power supplies of 1.2 V and 2.5 V whilst offering the most
features, highest performance, and when coupled with high-efficiency Enpirion® PowerSoCs, the
lowest power solution.
Related Information
MAX 10 Power Management Features and Architecture on page 2-1
Provides information about power management features and architecture
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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MAX 10 Power Management Features and
Architecture
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MAX 10 power optimization features are as follows:
•
•
•
•
Single-supply or dual-supply device options
Power-on reset (POR) circuitry
Power management controller scheme
Hot socketing
Power Supply Device Options
This section covers the single-supply and dual-supply device options supported in MAX 10 devices.
Single-Supply Device
MAX 10 single-supply devices only need either a 3.0- or 3.3-V external power supply. The external power
supply serves as an input to the MAX 10 device VCC_ONE and VCCA power pins. This external power supply
is then regulated by an internal voltage regulator in the MAX 10 single-supply device to 1.2 V. The 1.2-V
voltage level is required by core logic operation.
Figure 2-1: MAX 10 Single-Supply Device
Max 10 Single-Supply Device
3.3 V/3.0 V
VCC_ONE/VCCA
Voltage
Regulator
1.2 V
Dual-Supply Device
MAX 10 dual-supply devices require 1.2 V and 2.5 V for the device core logics and periphery operations.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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Comparison of the MAX 10 Power Supply Device Options
Figure 2-2: MAX 10 Dual-Supply Device
VCCA, VCCA_ADC
(2.5 V)
MAX 10
Dual-Supply Device
VCC, VCCD_PLL, VCCINT
(1.2 V)
Comparison of the MAX 10 Power Supply Device Options
Table 2-1: Comparison of the MAX 10 Power Supply Device Options
Characteristics
Single-Supply Device
Dual-Supply Device
Voltage regulator count (1)
1
2
Core and I/O performance
Low
High
For MAX 10 single-supply devices, only one power supply is required—3.0 V or 3.3 V to power the core
of the FPGA. The same power supply can be used to power the I/O if the same 3.0 V or 3.3 V voltage is
required. If different I/O voltage is used, then additional voltage regulators will be needed.
For MAX 10 dual-supply devices, two power supplies are required to supply power to the device core,
periphery, phase-locked loop (PLL), and analog-to-digital converters (ADC) blocks—1.2 V and 2.5 V.
Depending on the I/O standard voltage requirement, you may use two or more voltage regulators.
As the power rails for the FPGA core are supplied externally in the MAX 10 dual-supply devices, the
design can be optimized for power by using high efficiency switching power supplies on the board. The
power savings will be equal to the increased efficiency of the regulators used compared to the internal
linear regulators of the MAX 10 single-supply devices. If linear regulators are used to power the MAX 10
dual-supply devices, the power consumption of the MAX 10 dual-supply devices will be approximately
equal to the MAX 10 single-supply devices.
The device performance of the single-supply device is lower than that of the dual-supply device. For the
performance difference in terms of LVDS, pseudo-LVDS, digital signal processing (DSP), and internal
memory performance, refer to the MAX 10 FPGA device datasheet.
Related Information
MAX 10 FPGA Device Datasheet
Provides details about the MAX 10 performance difference in terms of LVDS, pseudo-LVDS, DSP, and
internal memory performance.
(1)
This shows the number of power supplies required by the core and periphery of the MAX 10 devices. You
may need additional voltage regulators to supply power to the VCCIO if the VCCIO does not have the same
voltage level as the core and periphery supply.
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Power Supply Design
2-3
Power Supply Design
Designing a power tree for a MAX 10 single- or dual-supply device will vary depending on the static and
dynamic power, as well as I/O and other feature utilization, for each specific use case.
Altera® Enpirion portfolio of power management solutions, combined with comprehensive design tools,
enable optimized MAX 10 device power supply design. The Enpirion portfolio includes power
management solutions that are compatible with all MAX 10 variants.
The MAX 10 FPGA Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines provides a more detailed recommendation
about how to group inputs in order to power a MAX 10 device. The PowerPlay Early Power Estimators
(EPE) tool for MAX 10 devices provides input rail power requirements and specific device recommenda‐
tions based on each specific MAX 10 use case.
Individual input rail voltage and current requirements are summarized on the Report tab while input rail
groupings and specific power supply recommendations can be found on the Main and Enpirion tabs,
respectively.
Warning: MAX 10 single-supply devices have maximum power consumption of VCC_ONE, as listed in the
following table. Running a design that goes beyond the maximum power consumption of
VCC_ONE of the MAX 10 single-supply device may cause functional issue on the device.
Therefore, ensure that your device does not exceed the maximum power consumption of
VCC_ONE when you analyze the power consumption of your design using the PowerPlay EPE
spreadsheet.
Table 2-2: Maximum Power Consumption of VCC_ONE for MAX 10 Single-Supply Devices
Device
Maximum Power Consumption (W)
10M02S
0.778
10M04S
1.362
10M08S
1.362
10M16S
2.270
10M25S
2.943
10M40S
5.267
10M50S
5.267
Related Information
• Enpirion Power Management Solutions
Provides more information about Altera's Power Management IC and PowerSoC solutions designed
for powering FPGAs.
• MAX 10 FPGA Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides a more detailed recommendation about how to group inputs in order to power a MAX 10
device.
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Power-On Reset Circuitry
Power-On Reset Circuitry
The POR circuitry keeps the MAX 10 device in the reset state until the POR monitored power supply
outputs are within the recommended operating range of the maximum power supply ramp time, tRAMP.
If the ramp time, tRAMP, is not met, the MAX 10 device I/O pins and programming registers remain tristated, during which device configuration could fail.
The MAX 10 device POR circuit monitors the following power rails during power up regardless of the
power supply device options:
• VCC or regulated VCC_ONE
• VCCIO of banks 1B and 8 (2)
• VCCA
The POR circuitry also ensures VCCIO level of I/O banks 1B and 8(2) that contain configuration pins reach
an acceptable level before configuration is triggered.
Power Supplies Monitored and Not Monitored by the POR Circuitry
Table 2-3: Power Supplies Monitored and Not Monitored by the POR Circuitry
Power Supply Device Options
Power Supplies Monitored
Single-supply device
• Regulated VCC_ONE
• VCCA
• VCCIO (3)
Dual-supply device
• VCC
• VCCA
• VCCIO(3)
Power Supplies Not Monitored
—
• VCCD_PLL
• VCCA_ADC
• VCCINT
The MAX 10 POR circuitry uses an individual POR-detecting circuitry to monitor each of the configura‐
tion-related power supplies independently. The main POR circuitry is gated by the outputs of all the
individual POR detectors. The main POR circuitry waits for all individual POR circuitries to release the
POR signal before allowing the control block to start programming the device. The main POR is released
after the last ramp-up power reaches the POR trip level followed by a POR delay.
By default, Quartus® II assigns POR delay time to standard POR delay. For some of the applications that
need fast wake-up to begin operation, you can enable fast POR delay time on the Quartus II programmer
user interface.
(2)
(3)
VCCIO of banks 1 and 8 for the 10M02 device.
For banks 1B and 8 for all MAX 10 devices and banks 1 and 8 for the 10M02 device.
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Power Supplies Monitored and Not Monitored by the POR Circuitry
2-5
Figure 2-3: Relationship Between tRAMP and POR Delay
Volts
POR trip level
first power
supply
last power
supply
Time
POR delay
tRAMP
configuration
time
Figure 2-4: Simplified POR Diagram for MAX 10 Devices
VCCIO
VCC_ONE
VCCIO POR
Voltage
Regulator
VCCA
VCC POR
Modular
Main POR
VCCA POR
Single Supply Device
Main POR
VCCIO
VCCIO POR
VCC
VCC POR
VCCA
VCCA POR
Modular
Main POR
Main POR
Dual Supply Device
After the MAX 10 device enters user mode, the POR circuit continues to monitor the VCCA and VCC
power supplies. This is to detect a brown-out condition during user mode. If either the VCCA or VCC
voltages go below the POR trip point during user mode, the main POR signal is asserted. When the main
POR signal is asserted, the device is forced into reset state. VCCIO(3) is monitored by the POR circuitry. In
the event of the VCCIO(3) voltage drops during user mode, the POR circuit does not reset the device.
However, if you are using instant-on features, the POR circuit does monitor the VCCIO voltage drop for
up to 9 ms after the last power rail reaches its trip point.
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Instant-On Support
Instant-On Support
In some applications, it is necessary for a device to wake up very quickly to begin operation. The MAX 10
device offers the instant-on feature to support fast wake-up time applications. With instant-on feature,
MAX 10 device can directly enter configuration mode without any POR delay after the POR trips for the
monitored power supplies. Then your design can be configured from internal configuration flash memory
(CFM). This feature provides the shortest time to enter user mode as a whole.
In order to benefit from the instant-on feature of the MAX 10 device, there is a power-up sequence and
ramp time requirement to follow. The following table shows the power-up sequence requirement for
different power supply device options. For the minimum and maximum ramp time, refer to the
recommended operating conditions in the MAX 10 FPGA device datasheet.
Instant-On Requirement
Table 2-4: Instant-On Power-Up Sequence Requirement
Power Supply Device Options
Power-Up Sequence
Single-supply device
VCCIO must ramp up to full rail before VCCA and VCC_ONE start ramping.
Dual-supply device
All power supplies must ramp up to full rail before VCC starts ramping.
Related Information
MAX 10 FPGA Device Datasheet
Provides details about the MAX 10 ramp time requirements, internal oscillator clock frequency, and hotsocketing specifications.
Power Management Controller Scheme
The power management controller scheme allows you to allocate some applications in sleep mode during
runtime. This enables you to to turn off portions of the design, thus reducing dynamic power consump‐
tion. You can re-enable your application with a fast wake-up time of less than 1 ms.
Power Management Controller Architecture
Figure 2-5: Power Management Controller Architecture
Internal
Oscillator
Power Management Controller
Sleep Mode
Finite
I/O Power Down
State
Machine
Global Clock Gating
I/O Buffer
Global Clock Network
MAX 10 device contains hardware features that enable I/O power down and global clock (GCLK) gating
to manage low-power state during sleep mode. You can power down the I/O buffer dynamically when
your application is in idle or sleep mode. One example is the digital single lens reflex DSLR camera
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Internal Oscillator
2-7
application where the LVDS I/O needs to be powered down during the idle condition. Without touching
any buttons, the screen turns off while the camera is still powered on.
Altera provides a soft power management controller as reference design utilizing low-power features
implemented in the MAX 10 devices. You can modify the reference design based on your application. The
soft power management controller includes a simple finite state machine (FSM) to manage low-power
state mode by powering down the I/O buffer and GCLK gating during sleep mode.
All MAX 10 devices contain hardware feature for clock gating. The 10M16, 10M25, 10M40, and 10M50
devices contain hardware features for I/O power down. With hardware features, you can manage the lowpower state during sleep mode by using the soft power management controller that you define.
You can implement the power management controller in FPGA core fabric with minimum one I/O port
reserved for sleep mode enter and exit signals.
Internal Oscillator
The internal oscillator clocks the power management controller operation. The internal oscillator is
routed from flash to the core. The internal oscillator enables the power management controller to detect
the wake-up event and the sleep mode event. In order to enable the internal oscillator clock when the
power management controller is enabled, you have to set oscena to 1. For the clock frequency of the
internal oscillator, refer to the MAX 10 FPGA device datasheet.
Related Information
MAX 10 FPGA Device Datasheet
Provides details about the MAX 10 ramp time requirements, internal oscillator clock frequency, and hotsocketing specifications.
I/O Buffer Power Down
The MAX 10 device has a dynamic power-down feature on some of the I/O buffers that have high-static
power consumption. The dynamic power-down feature is only applicable for the I/O buffers that have
been programmed for the I/O standards in the following table.
Table 2-5: I/O Buffer Power Down
I/O Buffer
I/O Standards
Input
SSTL, HSTL, HSUL,
and LVDS
Output
All I/O standards
Control Port
Control Signal Capability
nsleep
1 per I/O bank(4)
oe
1 per I/O buffer
During power-up and configuration modes, the soft power management controller is not yet configured
and the control signals are forced to 1 (inactive). After configuration mode, when the power management
controller is activated, the power management controller will default the control signals to 1. When
control signals are 0, the power management controller powers down or tri-states the I/O buffers.
Subsequently the I/O is put into the sleep mode.
The MAX 10 device I/O buffers need to maintain the previous states during the sleep mode operation.
The previous states in your core logics will still remain upon exiting the sleep mode.
(4)
I/O banks 1A and 1B share one control signal.
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Global Clock Gating
Global Clock Gating
The dynamic power-down feature is available in GCLK networks only. You can use the power
management controller for the dynamic power-down of a GCLK network by controlling the active high
enout signal. The GCLK networks serve as low-skew clock sources for functional blocks such as logic
array blocks (LABs), DSP, embedded memory, and PLLs.
When a GCLK network is gated, all the logics fed by the GCLK network are in off-state. This reduces the
overall power consumption of the device. The dynamic power-down feature allows core logics to control
the following power-up and power-down conditions of the GCLK networks:
• Power down synchronously or asynchronously
• Power up asynchronously
Figure 2-6: GCLK Gating
Clock Control Block
lenout
enout
gclkout
Power
Management
Controller
clk1
clkn
gclkin
Hot Socketing
The MAX 10 device offers hot socketing, which is also known as hot plug-in or hot swap, and power
sequencing support without the use of any external devices. You can insert or remove the MAX 10 device
on a board in a system during system operation. This does not affect the running system bus or the board
that is inserted into the system.
The hot-socketing feature removes some encountered difficulties when using the MAX 10 device on a
PCB that contains a mixture of devices with different voltage levels.
With the MAX 10 device hot-socketing feature, you no longer need to ensure a proper power-up sequence
for each device on the board. MAX 10 device hot-socketing feature provides:
• Board or device insertion and removal without external components or board manipulation
• Support for any power-up sequence
• Non-intrusive I/O buffers to system buses during hot insertion
Hot-Socketing Specifications
The MAX 10 device is a hot-socketing compliant device that does not need any external components or
special design requirements. Hot-socketing support in the MAX 10 device has the following advantages:
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Drive MAX 10 Devices Before Power Up
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• You can drive the devices before power up without damaging the device.
• I/O pins remain tri-stated during power up. The device does not drive out before or during power up,
therefore not affecting other buses in operation.
Drive MAX 10 Devices Before Power Up
Before or during power up or power down, you can drive signals into I/O pins, dedicated input pins, and
dedicated clock pins without damaging the MAX 10 devices.
The MAX 10 device supports any power-up or power-down sequence to simplify system-level design.
I/O Pins Remain Tri-stated During Power up
The output buffers of the MAX 10 device are turned off during system power up or power down. The
MAX 10 device family does not drive out until the device is configured and working in recommended
operating conditions. The I/O pins are tri-stated until the device enters user mode with a weak pull-up
resistor to VCCIO.
A possible concern for semiconductor devices in general regarding hot-socketing is the potential for latch
up. Latch up can occur when electrical subsystems are hot-socketed into an active system. During hotsocketing, the signal pins may be connected and driven by the active system. This occurs before the power
supply can provide current to the VCC of the device and ground planes. This condition can lead to latch
up and cause a low-impedance path from VCC to ground in the device. As a result, the device extends a
large amount of current, possibly causing electrical damage.
The design of the I/O buffers and hot-socketing circuitry ensures that the MAX 10 device family is
immune to latch up during hot-socketing.
Related Information
MAX 10 FPGA Device Datasheet
Provides details about the MAX 10 ramp time requirements, internal oscillator clock frequency, and hotsocketing specifications.
Hot-Socketing Feature Implementation
The hot-socketing feature tri-states the output buffer during the power-up (VCCIO or VCC power supplies)
or power-down event. The hot-socketing circuitry generates an internal HOTSCKT signal when VCCIO or
VCC is below the threshold voltage during power up or power down. The HOTSCKT signal cuts off the
output buffer to ensure that no DC current leaks through the pin (except for weak pull-up leaking). Each
I/O pin has the circuitry shown in the following figure. The hot-socketing circuit does not include
CONF_DONE and nSTATUS pins to ensure that these pins are able to operate during configuration. Thus, it is
an expected behavior for these pins to drive out during power-up and power-down sequences.
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Hot-Socketing Feature Implementation
Figure 2-7: Hot-Socketing Circuitry for MAX 10 Devices
Power-On
Reset (POR)
Monitor
VCCIO
Weak
Pull-Up
Resistor
PAD
R
Output Enable
Voltage
Tolerance
Control
Hot-Socket
Output
Pre-Driver
Input Buffer
to Logic Array
The POR circuit monitors the voltage level of power supplies and keeps the I/O pins tri-stated until the
device is in user mode. The weak pull-up resistor in MAX 10 device I/O elements (IOE) keeps the I/O
pins from floating. The voltage tolerance control circuit protects the I/O pins from being driven before
VCCIO and VCC supplies are powered up. This prevents the I/O pins from driving out when the device is
not in user mode.
Altera uses GND as reference for hot-socketing operation and I/O buffer designs. To ensure proper
operation, Altera recommends connecting the GND between boards before connecting the power
supplies. This prevents the GND on your board from being pulled up inadvertently by a path to power
through other components on your board. A pulled up GND can cause an out-of-specification I/O voltage
or current condition with the Altera device.
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This reference design utilizes the low-power feature supported in MAX 10 devices. The following figure
shows the related block diagrams in the power management controller reference design.
Figure 3-1: Power Management Controller Block Diagram
sleep
rst_n
sleep_status
Internal Oscillator
(altera_int_osc)
PMC
clk_osc (altera_pmc)
ioe
gpio_pad_output[3:0]
clk_ena
Clock Control Block clk_gated
(clk_control_altclkctrl)
clk
I/O Buffer
(altera_gpio_lite)
User
Logic
cnt_value[7:0]
cnt_enter_sleep[7:0]
cnt_exit_sleep[7:0]
The following table lists the input and output ports of the reference design.
Table 3-1: Input and Output Ports of the Power Management Controller Reference Design
Port Name
Input/Output
Description
sleep
Input
Sleep control.
rst_n
Input
Active low reset signal.
clk
Input
Clock signal.
sleep_status
Output
Sleep status of the system. This signal
is asserted high when the system is
entering the sleep mode condition.
This signal is de-asserted when the
system exits the sleep mode condition
completely.
gpio_pad_output[3:0]
Output
General-purpose I/O (GPIO) output
ports.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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Clock Control Block
Port Name
Input/Output
Description
cnt_value[7:0]
Output
Free-running counter value in user
logic.
cnt_enter_sleep[7:0]
Output
Counter value when the system is
entering sleep mode condition.
cnt_exit_sleep[7:0]
Output
Counter value when the system is
exiting sleep mode condition.
The power management controller design is a FSM showing the state of powering down and powering up
global clocks (GCLKs) and I/O buffers. The internal oscillator, clock control block, and I/O buffer are
intellectual property (IP) that are supported by the Quartus II software and you can instantiate the IPs
from the IP catalog. The user logic can be any logical circuitry that are implemented using logic element
(LE) and embedded component such as DSP and internal memory in your design. In this reference
design, the user logic used is a free-running 8-bit counter. The cnt_enter_sleep and cnt_exit_sleep
ports are used to ensure user logic can enter and exit sleep mode without data corruption. It is expected
for that cnt_enter_sleep[7:0] and cnt_exit_sleep[7:0] are at the same value after the user logic
enter and exit sleep mode. gpio_pad_output ports demonstrate tri-stated state of the GPIO when the
system is in sleep mode.
Related Information
PMC Reference Design
Clock Control Block
The clock control IP core (clk_control_altclkctrl) is an IP provided in the Quartus II software. This
IP is used to control the clock system in the device. The GCLKs that drive through the device can be
dynamically powered down by controlling the active high ena signal. The ena port is an input to the clock
control IP block. When this IP is instantiated, select the ena port to enable the controls of GCLKs.
I/O Buffer
Altera GPIO Lite IP core (altera_gpio_lite) is implemented as an input, output, or bidirectional I/O
buffer. You can control the power down of these I/O buffers by enabling the nsleep port of the input
buffer and the oe port of the output buffer. The oe and nsleep ports are pulled low by the power
management controller design to power down the I/O buffers during sleep mode. Altera recommends you
to use a separate Altera GPIO Lite IP when some of the I/O buffer is not required to be powered down.
Internal Oscillator
Internal Oscillator IP core (altera_in_osc) is a free-running oscillator once you enable it. This oscillator
will be running throughout the entire power management controller design.
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Power Management Controller
3-3
Power Management Controller
The power management controller implements a simple FSM to control the power-up and power-down
sequences of the GCLK networks and I/O buffer. The following figure shows the FSM of the power
management controller design.
Figure 3-2: FSM of the Power Management Controller
Awake
clk_ena = 1 &
ioe = 1
Sleep = 1
Exiting
Entering
Sleep = 0
Sleep
clk_ena = 0 &
ioe = 0
Entering State
When the power management controller detects a sleep event, the FSM transitions to the Entering state
and performs power-down operation on I/O buffers and GCLK networks. A sleep event is detected when
the sleep signal is asserted. A sleep event could be triggered by an internal or external request.
Sleep State
After the power-down operation on I/O buffers and GCLK networks, the FSM transitions to the Sleep
state and waits for the wake-up event. This state is the sleep mode state.
Exiting State
When the power management controller detects a wake-up event, the FSM transitions to the Exiting state
and performs power-up operation on I/O buffers and GCLK networks. A wake-up event is detected when
the sleep signal is de-asserted. A wake-up event could be triggered by an internal or external request such
as interruption or time-out on some counters..
Awake State
After the power-up operation on I/O buffers and GCLK networks, the FSM transitions to the Awake state.
This process repeats when a sleep event is initiated again.
Power Management Controller Reference Design
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Entering or Exiting Sleep Mode
Entering or Exiting Sleep Mode
During power-up and configuration modes, the sleep signal must be low. When the sleep signal is
asserted, the device immediately enters sleep mode. Upon entering sleep mode, the functionality of the
device such as GCLK networks and I/O buffers are dynamically powered down—to minimize dynamic
power dissipation. All configuration data is retained when the device is in the sleep mode.
Entering Sleep Mode
The following figure shows the timing diagram when the device enters sleep mode.
Figure 3-3: Entering Sleep Mode Timing Diagram
clk
sleep
current_state
ioe
clk_ena[15:0]
Awake
T1
Entering
Sleep
T2
16’hFFFF
16’h0000
Disabling
sleep_status
The following lists the sequence when the device enters sleep mode.
1. An internal or external request drives the sleep signal high, forcing the device to go into sleep mode.
2. After a delay of T1, the power management controller powers down all the I/O buffers by de-asserting
ioe signal that connects to oe and nsleep ports of the I/O buffers.
3. After a delay of T2, the power management controller turns off all GCLK networks by disabling
clk_ena[15:0] signal from LSB to MSB. After three clock cycles, the clk_ena[15:0] signal is fully
disabled and transits into the sleep state.
4. The power management controller remains in sleep state until the sleep signal is de-asserted.
5. User logic will latch the running counter value before entering the sleep state and output to
cnt_sleep_enter port. The running counter is then frozen.
6. gpio_pad_output (GPIO) is tri-stated when ioe is de-asserted.
Exiting Sleep Mode
The following figure shows the timing diagram when the device exits sleep mode.
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Timing Parameters
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Figure 3-4: Exiting Sleep Mode Timing Diagram
clk
sleep
current_state
Sleep
Exiting
Awake
Enabling
16’hFFFF
T4
ioe
T3
clk_ena[15:0]
16’h0000
sleep_status
The following lists the sequence when the device exits sleep mode.
1. An internal or external request drives the sleep signal low, forcing the device to exit sleep mode.
2. After a delay of T3, the power management controller turns on all GCLK networks by enabling
clk_ena[15:0] signal from LSB to MSB. After three clock cycles, the clk_ena[15:0] signal is fully
enabled and all GCLK networks are turned on.
3. After a delay of T4, the power management controller powers up all the I/O buffers by asserting the
ioe signal.
4. The power management controller remains in awake state until the sleep signal is asserted.
5. User logic will latch the running counter value before the awake state and output to cnt_sleep_exit
port. The running counter is then release from freeze.
6. gpio_pad_output (GPIO) is driving its output value when ioe is asserted.
Timing Parameters
The following table lists the definition and minimum value of the T1, T2, T3, and T4 parameters in the
entering sleep mode timing diagram and exiting sleep mode timing diagram, respectively.
Table 3-2: T1, T2, T3, and T4 Parameters Minimum Value and Definition
Parameter
Width (bits)
Minimum Value
(Decimal)
Description
T1
6
1
ioe disable timing.
T2
6
11
clk_ena disable timing.
T3
6
1
clk_ena enable timing.
T4
6
40
ioe enable timing.
T1, T2, T3, and T4 can be increased based on your system requirement.
Hardware Implementation and Current Measurement
This design is implemented using the 10M50DAF484C8 device. You can implement this design using any
MAX 10 device. This design runs