MFJ-9475 manual - MFJ Enterprises Inc.

MFJ-9475 manual - MFJ Enterprises Inc.
MFJ-9475 Installation Manual
75-Meter SSB Travel Radio
INTRODUCTION
Congratulations on your choice of the MFJ-9475 75-Meter transceiver. The MFJ-9475 is
specially designed to deliver performance you never thought possible from a low power radio.
Please read this manual carefully before attempting to operate your new radio. Lets begin with
an introduction to some special features we think you’ll like!
FEATURES
EASY TO OPERATE: The MFJ-9475 is an easy-to-operate,” back to basics" radio. Operate the
unit with ease in minutes!
GREAT SENSITIVITY: Quiet DBM front end and lots of overall gain for great sensitivity. If
the signal is there, you will hear it!
ANALOG S-METER: Adjust the tuner or aim the beam with pinpoint accuracy. A calibrated
analog S-Meter measures even the smallest variations in signal strength. The meter also
monitors your speech processing level on transmit.
EXCELLENT SELECTIVITY: Sharp ladder filter cuts adjacent chatter and focuses transmitter
power where you need it most for great selectivity.
SMOOTH, STABLE VFO: Effortless tuning with custom manufactured 8:1 reduction drive ball
bearing VFO tuning capacitor provides smooth and stable VFO. Fine Tune lets you zero-in
smoothly.
POWERFUL AF OUTPUT: Big audio and powerful AF output even in noisy locations from a
special Philips BTL audio chip and rugged 3" speaker.
FULL-TIME RF SPEECH PROCESSING: Commanding speech cuts through QRM and
competes with radios running far more power. Compare with your 100-watt rig. You will be
amazed by the signal reports!
TRAVEL LIGHT: Packs the same punch as 50-Watt radios without the heavy 10 Amp power
supply! Designed to run on NiCd's or the ultra light MFJ-4110 AC wall adapter supply.
RUGGED TRANSMITTER: Bullet-proof Motorola PA transmitter runs cool, and tolerates 3:1
VSWR accidentally opened feedlines or feedline shorts.
MADE TO LAST: Conservative design, with a premium plate through pc board, quality
components, handsome brushed aluminum panel, and a tough vinyl clad case ensure years of
dependable service.
At home or on the go, you will enjoy countless hours operating the MFJ-9475. Best of all, it is
fully backed by MFJ's exclusive "No Matter What" 1 year guarantee. If it breaks, we will take
care of it!
MFJ-9475 Installation Manual
75-Meter SSB Travel Radio
QUICK START INSTRUCTIONS:
You will need three things to get your MFJ-9475 on the air fast:
[ ] 12 14 Volt 2 Amp Power Source
[ ] 600 Ohm Dynamic PTT Microphone
[ ] 75-Meter Antenna
1. POWER SUPPLY: The MFJ-4114 AC/NiCd Portable Power Pack or MFJ-4110 AC walladapter supply are Especially designed to run the MFJ-9475. You may also use any 13.8 Volt
supply or 10-cell NiCd pack as long as it delivers 2 A on peaks (12 Volt supplies will work fine
but at reduced RF output). Use a 5.5mm OD x 2.1mm coaxial type power plug (Radio Shack
274-1567) with (+) connected to the center pin.
MICROPHONE: The MFJ-9475 speech processor circuit was designed around the
companion MFJ-290 600 Ohm Dynamic Microphone. Radio Shack's 21 1172 replacement
microphone also plugs in without modification and works well. If the mic you select requires a
plug, install a 5 Pin DIN connector (Radio Shack 274 003) as shown:
2.
Pin 3: PTT Line
Pin 4: Mic Line
Pin 1,2,5: Ground
3. ANTENNA: The MFJ-9475 will function with any 75-Meter antenna exhibiting a VSWR of
3:1 or less (your home station antenna or any Portable Dipole should work fine). AVOID
USING ANTENNAS WITH UNKNOWN OR HIGH VSWR. The MFJ-9475 PA is not
protected by high VSWR shutdown circuitry and you may generate out-of-band parasitics if a
high VSWR load is present.
IMPORTANT OPERATING NOTES
Your MFJ-9475 features a very potent speech processor.
PLEASE RESIST THE
TEMPTATION TO SHOUT OR "CLOSE TALK" INTO THE MICROPHONE IN ORDER TO
BE HEARD! Instead, hold the mic about 2"away and speak normally. The S-Meter should
deflect about 1/2 scale as you speak although this may vary somewhat with antenna load. When
operating in noisy environments, you may find it necessary to turn down the mic gain control (a
screwdriver adjustment located on back panel) to reduce background noise.
The MFJ-9475 uses an analog VFO tuning dial that is inherently less accurate than digital
readouts (on the plus side, analog tuning reduces phase noise, lowers power consumption, and
saves you money). Please take the potential for dial error into account when operating near the
edge of your authorized sub band.
MFJ-9475 Installation Manual
75-Meter SSB Travel Radio
TYPICAL SPECIFICATIONS
RECEIVER SECTION:
Frequency Coverage:
Receiver Type:
VFO Frequency:
IF Frequency:
IF Selectivity:
AGC:
Sensitivity:
Audio:
Receive Current:
3.750 to 4.000 MHz
Single conversion superhet
6.000 - 6.250 MHz
10 MHz
-6 dB at 2.5 KHz
Audio-derived
<.5 uV for 12 dB S/N
>1 Watt into 8 Ohms at 10% THD
50-100 mA typical
TRANSMITTER SECTION:
RF Power Output:
VSWR Tolerance:
Maximum Current:
Audio Enhancement:
10W Average Speech *
3:1 VSWR
2.2 Amps peak at 13.8 VDC
RF compression processor
BLOCK DIAGRAM:
SW-Q5
RX BPF
L1-L2
BFO /
PROD DET
U3
VFO
RX MXR
U1
AF AMP
U4a
AF PWR
U5
F S
VOL
XTAL
FILTER
SW-Q6
MIC AMP
U4b
IF AMP
U2
BUF
Q1
BAL MOD
U6
SW-Q8
AGC
Q2-Q4
M
PTT
TX MXR
U7
TX BPF
L5-L6
SW-Q7
PRE-DRV
Q9
DRV
Q10
T/R
K1
PA
Q11
LPF
MFJ-9475 Installation Manual
75-Meter SSB Travel Radio
THEORY OF OPERATION
RECEIVER:
Four-pole bandpass filter L1-L2 preselects incoming 4- MHz signals. Active mixer U1 amplifies
and converts signals to 10 MHz using a self generated 6-MHz VFO signal. Crystal ladder filter
Y1-Y6 sets message channel bandwidth (diode switching routes transmit and receive signals
through the filter and U2). IF-amplifier U2 provides AGC controlled IF gain in RX and RF
compression speech processing in transmit.
The DC amplifier Q3/Q4 drives the AGC input of U2 and the S-meter circuit. In RX, AGC is
audio derived from AF pre-amp U4a (switch Q2 sets slow AGC decay for SSB reception). On
transmit, processor control voltage is derived from PA level detector D9 (Q2 sets fast decay for
syllabic processor).
Receiver product detector U3 demodulates incoming SSB signals (10-MHz LO is self generated
by U3). U3's audio output feeds U4a, a preamp and active LP audio filter. U4a drives ACG
detector D6/D7 (input to U4a is killed by switch Q5 during TX to disable the AGC path to U2).
U4a also drives AF power amplifier U5 through the volume control. U5, which powers the
speaker during RX, is gated into standby during TX to prevent residual feed through.
TRANSMITTER:
Microphone speech amp U4b drives balance modulator U6 during TX (switch Q6 kills U4
output to prevent mic bleed through via U6/U2 during RX). LO for U6 is derived from U3's
BFO oscillator. Q8 is used to unbalance U6 for carrier. DSB output from U6 is routed to Y1 Y6
via switch D1/D2 for removal of USB products and carrier artifacts. After undergoing dynamic
compression in U2, the processed LSB signal is routed to transmitter mixer U7 by switch D3/D4
where it is mixed with 6-MHz VFO (VFO signal is sampled from U1's oscillator and buffered by
Q1). Bandpass filter L5-L6 selects the 4-MHz mixer product and feeds it to pre-driver Q9. Q9
feeds driver Q10. Q10 drives PA stage Q11. Q11 operates in single-ended class AB with bias
generated by clamping diode D10. T5 matches PA output to a 50 Ohm system, and low pass
filter L7-L8 suppresses harmonic content. Level detector D9 tracks the SSB speech envelope
and generates feedback to Q3/Q4 and U2. Syllabic compression of the speech waveform
optimizes average transmitter output power. The MFJ-9475 is especially designed to operate
from lightweight constant current power sources such as NiCd cells or the MFJ wall adapter AC
supply.
SWITCHING AND REGULATION:
Q7 activates relay K1, which routes the antenna line and activates the +T and +R buses (+T and
+R buses power some stages, key switch nodes, and bias Q11 on during TX). Adjustable
regulator U8 sets Vcc for low-level stages. Fixed regulator U9 sets U1 operating voltage to
ensure VFO stability. Crowbar diode D11 and a pc track fuse protect the radio from reverse
polarity.
MFJ-9475 Installation Manual
75-Meter SSB Travel Radio
MFJ-9420/40/75 CONTROL LOCATION AND FUNCTION
4
MFJ ENTERPRISES, INC.
STARKVILLE, MS USA
CW
KEY
INPUT
IN
ANTENNA
2
5
OUT
POWER
+
1
3
MIC
GAIN
12-15VDC
1.2 AMP
REAR PANEL
1. POWER JACK:
2. ANTENNA JACK:
3. MIC GAIN:
4. CW ADAPT:
5. KEY:
5.5mm OD, 2.1mm ID, (+) to center pin.
SO 239 for standard coax plugs.
Sets Speech amp Gain (normal setting 12:00).
Engages CW adapter (accessory).
Accepts straight key or keyer.
250
1
200
3
5
7
10
4
ON
POWER
7
150 000
150 350
SSB CW
14.000
CW SSB
MH z
ON
XMIT
OFF
300
9 +10 +30dB
0 PRO CESS 7
2
100
400-4020
S 1
050
3
OFF
MIC
TUNE
5
TUNING
6
FINE
TUNE
MFJ 20-METER SSB TRANSCEIVER
MODEL MFJ-9420
FRONT PANEL
1. METER:
2. POWER SWITCH:
3. MIC:
4. TUNE:
5. XMIT:
6. TUNING:
7. FINE TUNE:
8. VOLUME:
Show signal strength on RX, ALC on TX.
Turns power on to transceiver.
5 Pin Din Jack for Dynamic Microphone.
Injects carrier for ATU adjustments.
LED illuminates when transmitting.
Tunes in stations, indicates VFO frequency.
Allows for fine tune adjustment.
Adjusts listening level.
VOLUME
8
MFJ-9475 Installation Manual
75-Meter SSB Travel Radio
SETTING UP YOUR MFJ-9475 PORTABLE STATION
To put your MFJ-9475 station in operation, you will need a power source, a 75-Meter antenna,
and a microphone. Here are some specific suggestions to help you get started:
POWER SOURCE: 12 15 V @ 2A (+) TO CENTER PIN
The MFJ-4114 AC/DC PORTABLE POWER PACK and MFJ-4110 AC wall adapter supply are
especially designed for your radio. However, you may use any filtered DC power source capable
of delivering 12 15 volts at 2 Amps (13.8V required for full RF output). The DC power
connector at the rear of your MFJ-9475 is a 5.5mm OD, 2.1mm ID coaxial type jack. Extra
plugs are available from RadioShack stores (#274-1567). Always connect plus (+) to the
CENTER PIN.
MICROPHONE: USE 600 OHM DYNAMIC
The MFJ-9475 speech circuit is designed especially for 600 Ohm dynamic microphones such as
the MFJ-290 (the MFJ-290 is supplied if you purchase the MFJ-9475M package). You may also
use other suitable 600 Ohm desk or hand mics by installing a 5 pin DIN plug (Radio Shack
#274-003). See installation diagram below:
PTT pin 3
MIC pin 4
GND pins 1,2,5.
1
3
4
5
2
WARNING:
NEVER USE AN AMPLIFIED MICROPHONE WITH YOUR TRANSCEIVER.
The speech processor already has extremely high gain and may distort severely
overdriven by a "power mic".
ANTENNA REQUIREMENTS: VSWR 3:1 OR LESS
The MFJ-9475 accepts most 75-Meter antennas with a VSWR of 3:1 or less. Use your regular
station antenna or a portable 75-Meter dipole such as the MFJ-1774 ultra light. For non-resonant
wires, use a tuner such as the MFJ-971. Always "rough tune" for maximum receiver sensitivity
first using incoming signals and your S-Meter to find a peak. AVOID OPERATING INTO
UNMATCHED HIGH VSWR ANTENNAS. THE MFJ-9475 DOES NOT HAVE A HIGH
VSWR SHUT DOWN CIRCUIT AND BADLY MISMATCHED LOADS COULD RESULT IN
TRANSMITTER INSTABILITY AND GENERATION OF OUT OF BAND SIGNALS!
MFJ-9475 Installation Manual
75-Meter SSB Travel Radio
STEP-BY-STEP OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
STEP 1. Connect a suitable microphone, power source, and 75-Meter antenna.
STEP 2. Turn VOLUME fully counter clockwise (down) and press ON switch to power up
radio. PWR indicator should light.
STEP 3. Turn VOLUME clockwise for a comfortable listening level.
STEP 4. If you are using an antenna tuner, adjust ATU controls for strongest received signals or
maximum background noise on the S-Meter. Then, press CARRIER to generate a
steady RF signal for final adjustment. Red XMIT indicator should light.
STEP 5. The VFO tuning range covers 3.750 to 4.000 MHz and the MFJ-9475 tuning dial was
carefully calibrated at the factory. However, by nature an analog frequency readout may
be subject to some inaccuracy or misinterpretation. To ensure compliance with FCC
rules, we suggest the following:
(a.) Periodically check the VFO dial with a digital transceiver or counter to confirm
location of band edges.
(b.) Avoid transmitting on the margins of your allocation unless you are certain the
station you are calling is in "in band."
STEP 6. To transmit, press the mic's PTT switch and speak at normal conversational level with
the mic held about 2 inches from your mouth. The MFJ-9475 has a very potent speech
processor and will pick up your voice at full intensity. Avoid the natural temptation to
yell or close talk this will only overload the processing circuit and hurt the intelligibility
of your signal!
SPECIAL OPERATING NOTES
The MFJ-9475 does not have automatic high VSWR shutdown and you must provide a
"reasonable" 75-Meter antenna to ensure proper operation. Whenever possible, use a low SWR
resonant type antenna such as a dipole or tuned vertical. If you use an ATU, carefully roughtune first for maximum S-Meter readings before activating the CARRIER switch.
Under FCC Rules, licensed amateurs are solely responsible for the frequency of operation of
their transmitters. MFJ cannot be held responsible for out of band operation due to
misinterpretation or mis-calibration of the MFJ-9475 analog VFO dial.
MFJ-9475 Installation Manual
75-Meter SSB Travel Radio
SIMPLE 75-METER ANTENNA SUGGESTIONS
COAXIAL FED DIPOLES: A wire dipole for the phone band should measure about 120' (or 60'
per leg). Feed with RG-58U or RG-8X; raise high and in the clear for best performance. If you
have only one high support, make an inverted V. The "full sloper" (sloping dipole) is also an
excellent single support antenna with some directivity. MFJ also offers a number of suitable
antennas for the 75-Meter Travelradio, including single-band coax dipoles, a folded dipole,
Ultralite OCFD dipoles, G5 RV, and a Collinear Array.
WARNING: CONSTRUCTING OR ERECTING AMATEUR RADIO ANTENNAS IN
LOCATIONS WHERE THEY MAY COME INTO CONTACT WITH
ELECTRICAL POWERLINES MAY RESULT IN ACCIDENTAL
INJURY OR DEATH!
GETTING THE MOST FROM YOUR MFJ-9475 STATION:
While spanning the globe with a small portable rig like the MFJ-9475 may SOUND difficult, it
really is not -- many DX-window trans-Atlantic contacts have been made using these radios.
More important, they have the audio punch you'll need to cut through QRM and seasonal QRN
for local nets and round-tables. Whether on vacation or operating from home, here are a few tips
to help you deliver "armchair copy" with low power.
GROOM YOUR ANTENNA
Inspect and clean all traps and contacting surfaces. Replace corroded hardware, dirty
connectors, and aging coax. Retune for minimum SWR in the phone band.
Raise wire dipoles high and in the clear 40 to 60 feet is far better than 10 or 20. Carefully prune
for minimum SWR. If you have only one high support, install an inverted V or sloper.
Multiband verticals (1/4 wave types) require at least 4 to 12 good 1/4-wave radials -- add them if
needed! Also, clean up corrosion and adjust for minimum SWR in the phone band.
Avoid "compromise" antennas. When it comes to pure operating enjoyment, every dB you gain
at the antenna pays big dividends!
USE PROVEN OPERATING TECHNIQUES FOR DX
Be a good listener and search out and answer CQs, or call stations that have just completed
QSOs (a practice called tailgating).
Never hesitate to call weaker stations -- it may be a fellow QRP enthusiast running low power or
a local station using a marginal antenna. You may be much louder than you think!
Be realistic about diving into huge DX pileups. Once a choice DX station hits the packet
clusters and the big guns move in, calling may be a waste of time until the smoke clears.
Tune slowly and listen carefully. If one exotic station is coming through, there may be others
you can work nearby.
MFJ-9475 Installation Manual
75-Meter SSB Travel Radio
Pay attention to DX forecasts and gray line propagation. When the band is hot, power
differences become much less significant. Operating just before the band goes out at night may
yield strong signal reports from exotic locations with little QRM.
Do not be shy about calling. The MFJ-9475 has very potent audio and on air tests indicate its
signal is competitive with 100-Watt radios. If your antenna is good, most stations won't even
know you are running low power!
TROUBLESHOOTING
IN CASE OF TROUBLE, CHECK IT OUT FIRST – THEN CALL US AT 800-647-TECH
(800-647-8324): Your MFJ-9475 is fully backed for 1 year by MFJ's "NO MATTER WHAT
GUARANTEE". After that, MFJ Customer Service Technicians will be there to help you keep
your rig in top shape for as long as you own it. However, before you call us, please check
through this list just to make sure the problem is not something simple you can fix yourself!
1. RADIO DOES NOT POWER UP
Is power plug okay, broken supply wire?
Is supply or battery functional?
Is reverse polarity fuse open?
2. NO SIGNALS RECEIVED
Is antenna disconnected or broken?
Is TUNE switch stuck on?
Is the band dead?
3. RADIO DOES NOT TRANSMIT OR KEYS ERRATICALLY
Is microphone and connector okay?
4. ERRATIC TRANSMIT
Is SWR high (above 3:1)?
Is power source voltage low or "soft" under load?
5. AGC IS INEFFECTIVE OR S-METER IS NOT ZEROED
Is Regulator okay (10.0 V on TP1)?
Is AGC okay (4.3 on TP2?)
If TP1, TP2 is okay and AGC works, rezero meter via R51.
6. RADIO DRIFTS IN FREQUENCY
Is radio sitting in Sun, on hot surface, in cold draft?
Was radio moved from extreme cold to warm (condensation)?
If you suspect condensation, allow radio to fully dry out.
7. POOR CARRIER SUPPRESSION
Was radio moved from extreme cold to warm (condensation)?
Was radio exposed to rough handling or shock?
To null, unplug mic and ground pin 3 to key radio. Adjust R36 and T3 for minimum carrier
(monitor using a second receiver).
8. LOW TRANSMIT AUDIO:
Is the mic a 600 ohm dynamic type?
Is the MIC GAIN set too low?
MFJ-9475 Installation Manual
75-Meter SSB Travel Radio
9. NOISE ON TRANSMIT AUDIO:
Is MIC GAIN set too high in a noisy room?
Is mic next to a power transformer or motor?
If these checks don't uncover the problem, or if you do not feel qualified to make the prescribed
adjustments, please call us for help at 800-647-TECH (800-647-8324).
FIELD ALIGNMENT PROCEDURES FOR THE MFJ-9420 TRANSCEIVER
SPECIAL TOOLS, PARTS, TEST EQUIPMENT:
AC Power Supply, 13.8 Volts @ 2 Amps
Voltmeter
Non-inductive Alignment Tool kit
Frequency Counter
Wattmeter with 50 Ohm Resistive Dummy Load
4-MHZ Signal Generator or other weak signal source
General Coverage Receiver with digital readout
INITIAL TEST SET UP:
A. Remove transceiver cover.
B. Connect 13.8 Volts Power Supply to Power Jack.
C. Connect Microphone.
D. Turn on unit.
VOLTAGE CHECKS AND ADJUSTMENTS: (use voltmeter)
A. VOLTAGE REGULATOR: Set R64 for 10.0 V at TP1.
B. RECEIVER AGC: Set R6 for 4.3 Volts at TP2.
VFO CALIBRATION:
A. Tune the VFO dial to 3.9 MHz.
B. Connect counter probe to U7 pin 6
C. Adjust L3 for 6.1 MHz readout.
BFO FREQUENCY CHECK AND ALIGNMENT:
A. Tune across a 3.9-MHz. test signal (use generator).
B. Identify 2 peaks in passband by watching S-Meter.
C. Carefully set the VFO dial to lower frequency response peak.
D. Adjust BFO trimcap (C61) until the beat note is 600 Hz.
E. Recheck. First peak should be at 600 Hz, second peak around 2000 Hz. Pitch of CW tones
should go UP as you tune UP frequency, indicating LSB operation.
CARRIER NULL: (use a second receiver to monitor beat note)
A. Turn mic gain to zero.
B. Key mic and monitor signal slightly off frequency.
C. Alternately adjust R36 and T3 for minimum carrier.
RECEIVER SENSITIVITY CHECK:
A. Connect weak 3.9-MHz signal source to antenna jack.
B. Tune in signal source for maximum S-Meter reading.
C. Touch up L1, L2, T1, and T2 for max SIG Meter reading.
TRANSMITTER BANDPASS FILTER AND COMPRESSOR ALIGNMENT:
MFJ-9475 Installation Manual
75-Meter SSB Travel Radio
A. Connect QRP Wattmeter with dummy load to ANT Jack.
B. Turn R61 fully CW and then the Press Carrier Switch (SW2).
C. Carefully touch up L5 and L6 for peak output.
D. Turn R61 CCW until RF output power drops by 10%.
If radio fails to operate properly after following these procedures, call 800 647 8324 for help.
*If reverse polarity track fuse opens, install a miniature 2.5 A pigtail fuse or a 3/4" hair pin loop of #32 wire.
DC VOLTAGE CHART TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
For advanced troubleshooters, the following are typical DC voltages found in the MFJ-9475.
Voltages were checked with handheld probe type DVM to minimize effects of lead inductance
and to limit the potential for RF feedback.
Vcc = 13.8 (Supply Voltage)
TP1 = 10.0 (LM-317 Output)
TP2 = 4.3 (AGC Bias Voltage)
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: (TX checks made with mic. keyed, no audio)
PIN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-----------------RX----------------U2
U3
U4
U5
10.0
1.4
5.0
9.9
10.0
1.4
5.0
2.5
0
0
5.0
0
3.3
4.0
0
2.9
4.9
4.0
5.0
4.9
3.3
5.0
5.0
0
0
4.6
5.0
0
10.0
5.1
9.9
4.9
U1
1.4
1.4
0
3.9
3.9
4.9
4.5
5.0
------TX----U6
U7
1.3
1.4
1.3
1.4
0
0
4.9
4.7
4.9
4.7
5.7
5.8
4.9
5.2
4.9
5.8
BIPOLAR AND JFET DEVICES:
D/E = Drain/Emitter
S/B = Source/Base
G/C = Gate/Collector
* = Test in TRANSMIT mode
** = Test with TUNE switch depressed
*** = DO NOT TEST gate of Q9 may cause generation of parasitic oscillations.
D/E
S/B
G/C
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5*
Q6
Q7*
9.8
2.3
0
0
0.7
13.2
9.0
3.9
0
9.7
8.9
4.3
0
0.7
13.0
0
0.7
0
3.5
2.8
0
Q8**
0
0
9.0
Q9
Q10
13.0
0
***
0.25
1.0
13.7
Q11 (2SC3133 PA Transistor): To avoid RF damage to DVM, check collector voltage in receive
mode only full supply voltage (13.8 V) should be present. Check base (bias) with PTT pressed,
no audio this should indicate 0.6v. Emitter is grounded.
MFJ-9475 Installation Manual
SCHEMATIC
75-Meter SSB Travel Radio
MFJ-9475 Installation Manual
75-Meter SSB Travel Radio
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising