Theatre of War Game Manual_DVD

Theatre of War Game Manual_DVD

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License

This License does not provide you with title to or ownership of the software program “Theatre of

War” (the “Software”), but only a right of limited use of the Software, and ownership of the media on which a copy of the Software is reproduced. The Software, including its source code, is, and shall remain, the property of 1C Company. You may make a copy of the Software solely for back-up purposes, provided that you reproduce all proprietary notices (e.g., copyright, trade secret, trademark) in the same form as in the original and retain possession of such back-up copy. The term

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Contents

Installation ............................................................................................... 5

Running the Game ................................................................................. 5

Uninstalling the Game ........................................................................... 5

How to Start a Battle ............................................................................... 6

General Rules of Using the Main Interface ........................................ 6

Profile ....................................................................................................... 7

Settings ..................................................................................................... 8

Game Settings ......................................................................................... 9

Controls ................................................................................................. 10

Video ..................................................................................................... 11

Sound .................................................................................................... 13

Camera .................................................................................................. 14

Single-Player ........................................................................................ 15

Continue Game .................................................................................... 15

Campaign ............................................................................................. 16

Strategic Overview .............................................................................. 17

Difficulty Level ..................................................................................... 18

Units ...................................................................................................... 19

Start Battle ............................................................................................. 20

Reorg anizin g Y our T ask For ce

Team Points .......................................................................................... 20

Units Screen ......................................................................................... 20

Reserve Forces ...................................................................................... 20

Captured Equipment .......................................................................... 22

Obsolete Equipment ............................................................................ 22

Active Task Force ................................................................................ 22

Detailed Unit Data .............................................................................. 23

Sorting and Filters ............................................................................... 24

Reassigning Units ................................................................................ 24

Crew Roles ............................................................................................ 25

Unit Details Panel ................................................................................ 26

Crew Information Panel ...................................................................... 28

Quick Unit Overview Window ......................................................... 30

Soldier Information Panel ................................................................... 30

Crew Member Info Panel ................................................................... 33

Main Combat Interface ...................................................................... 34

Combat Interface Elements ................................................................ 35

Battlefield .............................................................................................. 35

Battle Orders and Status of Combat Tasks. ..................................... 36

Battle Orders Info Button .................................................................... 37

Mini-Map ............................................................................................. 38

Message Log ......................................................................................... 39

Information Panel ................................................................................ 40

Orders ................................................................................................... 46

Interactive Cursor ................................................................................ 48

A v i a t i o n

Ground Attack Aircraft ....................................................................... 51

Fighters ................................................................................................. 51

Air Scouts .............................................................................................. 51

Accuracy of Hitting a Target ............................................................. 52

V ehic

Dama g e Calculations

Damage Inflicted on Vehicles and Personnel .................................. 54

Hitting a Target ................................................................................... 56

Ammo Types ........................................................................................ 57

Non-Combat Characteristics .............................................................. 61

Map Info Icons ..................................................................................... 62

Spending Combat Experience Points ............................................... 64

Ability to Spot Enemy .......................................................................... 65

Chances of Being Spotted .................................................................. 65

Basic Spotting Rules ............................................................................ 66

Online Game Startup Menu .............................................................. 68

Online ................................................................................................... 69

Battle Selection Screen (Server and Client) .................................... 70

Multiplayer Combat Interface ........................................................... 71

Tech Support ........................................................................................ 74

Installing and Running the Game

Installation

Insert the DVD of the game ‘Theater of War’ into the DVD-drive. If the

Autostart option is enabled on your computer, the game start menu will appear automatically. If the Autostart option is turned off, please run the

Autorun.exe

file from the DVD root folder to launch the installation.

If you have purchased the game via digital delivery, you will have to first uncompress the downloaded archive. Next, you will have to locate and then launch the Autorun.exe

file from the uncompressed root folder.

Select “Install” from the Start menu. The installation wizard will launch to take you step by step through the installation process. Follow the instructions. During the installation, game files will be copied to the hard disk, and the game program group will be created in the Start menu. The former contains shortcuts to launch the game, delete it, license and unlicense it, visit the web-resources and view the documentation.

After the installation you will need to license your copy via our online activation system eLicense. Just follow the on-screen instructions to activate your copy. You must also check the FAQ to learn about how you can license and UNLICENSE the game. Unlicensing is necessary to preserve future activations - if you want to transfer the game to another computer or install it on up to two computers at the same time, for example.

Visit the following website for further instructions: http://www.battlefront.com/elicense_faq.html

Running the Game

After the game is installed, launch the game by selecting the shortcut ‘Theater of War’ in the program menu in the respective program group

(the default setting is ‘Battlefront\Theater of War’ ).

Uninstalling the Game

To uninstall the game, select the shortcut ‘Uninstall Theater of War’ from the program group in the Start menu. You can also use the ‘Delete’ button in the Auto-start menu that appears on the screen after you insert the disk in the DVD-drive (unless the Autostart option is turned off).

(Note) Before uninstalling the game, please do not forget to UNLICENSE it first. If you do not unlicense before uninstalling, the license will remain associated with your computer, even if the game is uninstalled.

You will not be able to re-license it at another time unless you still have a second unused activation.

Game Interface

How to Start a Battle

To play a tutorial mission:

Main menu - > Single-Player - > Tutorial - > Select training mission

To launch a battle:

Main menu - > Single-Player - > Battles - > Select battle

To start or continue a campaign:

Main menu - > Single-Player - > Campaign - > Select campaign - >

Select battle

To continue the last battle:

Main menu - > Single-Player - > Continue

To play a network game via a Local Area Network (LAN):

Main menu - > Network game - > Local area network - > Create or join

To play a network game via the Internet:

Main menu - > Network game - > Internet - > Create or join game

General Rules of Using the Main Interface

General rules for using the interface:

The button ‘Exit’ allows to quit the game or a certain game mode.

The button ‘Back’ allows to quit the current menu and leads back to the previous menu screen.

The Main Game Menu

Options available in the Main Menu:

selecting the active player’s profile.

Sin g single battles or a historical campaign.

Multipla yy settings and preferences.

Enc yyccccclopedia.

tary equipment and armament.

the game ‘Theater of War’.

Profile

This menu allows to create, delete and select the active player profile. The player’s profile contains all data on his progress in campaigns as well as all game saves including autosaves done by the player during campaigns and battles.

Saves created under other player profiles will appear in the “Load and Save” menu only when the profile is active.

The left part of the screen contains the list of existing player profiles along with a description of that player’s progress in the different campaigns. The right part of the screen contains a menu allowing players to select or delete an active profile, or to create a new one.

Settings

· Game Settings interface preferences.

· Controls –

· Video – window influence game speed.

· Sound

· Camera

There are two buttons below each Settings window:

Appl yy activates the changes introduced by the user.

Attention! Don’t forget to press this button for the changes to take effect. Otherwise, all changes will be cancelled after closing the window.

Game Settings

Here the player can change the camera control options and toggle on/off various elements of the game interface. The applied changes are saved for each player (that is, they are saved in the corresponding profile).

The following settings are available:

· Invert mouse wheel –

· Swap mouse buttons –

·

Show tooltip – rameters (the scroll bar sets a tool-tip delay)

· Always show unit icons – units on the map; otherwise, they are displayed only above the units selected by the user.

·

Target pointers play of the target arrow or the currently active order.

· Attack sector – attack sector of the selected unit.

· Minimap camera projection – camera position and facing is showng on the mini-map.

· Autosave –

· Ignore campaign loss – if a mission is lost.

Controls

camera, units and game interface. The implemented changes are saved individually for each player (saved in the player’s profile).

following categories:

·

User

‘Pause switch on/off’ command (pause doesn’t work in network games).

· Group groups, as well as commands to quick select these groups.

· Interface

·

Camera

The player can use single keyboard buttons for the game commands as well as key combinations such as Ctrl + key, Alt + key, Shift + key. The same key (or a key combination) can be used only for one command.

In order to assign a key for a command, double-click a correspondcorresponding key or a key combination you want to assign.

In order to remove the assignments of the keys, select a box with a

The keys colored in dark-brown can not be reassigned.

Video

The player can either enhance the graphics quality or increase game speed by modifying the graphics quality in the Video menu. The applied changes are saved for all players. The Video menu is not available in network games.

·

(Screen) Resolution – modifications become effective after restarting the game.

· Object detail –

· Shadows – off (in some battles shadows can be absent due to overcast weather).

·

Model quality

For systems with low RAM and low video memory, select “Low”. Select

“very low” for systems with very slow video cards.

· W ater detail – tions), medium (without reflections), low (with opaque water).

·

Grass detail –

· Trees detail –

· Trees rendering distance – trees are displayed in the game.

· Show roads –

·

Show vehicle motion effects tracks and wheels, engine exhaust smoke and dust effects.

· Hide bodies is off, dead bodies stay on the ground. This may result in slow game speed by the end of a mission. In a network game, this option works only at the server level, and dead bodies will disappear for all clients. If a dead body disappears, that soldier’s combat gear (weapons, ammo) stays on the map.

· High landscape details – tails displayed on the map.

· Always show combat gear – soldier combat gear.

· High sky detail – detail. In some battles the clouds may be absent due to the weather settings.

· Hardware mouse cursor – cursor, which can improve game speed. If the option is off, the game cursor is used.

· Use only one CPU – one of the CPUs in case of errors on dual core PCs).

Attention! If the implemented changes lead to problems with the game, delete the file.\users\video.ini from the game folder. The next time you launch the game the default settings will be used.

Sound

In this window the player can adjust the level and quality of sound.

The applied changes are saved for all players.

If you select this option sound will be switched off completely.

and you will not be able to switch the sound on in the game. You will don’t have any soundcard.

Sound V olume

This scrollbar adjusts the general level of the sounds in the game. The scrollers for Music Volume, Effect Volume, Voice Volume adjust the volume of music, effects and voices in relation to each other.

Background music plays continuously.

Music V olume

Adjusts the background music volume in the game.

Eff ect V olume

Adjusts the volume of sound effects – shots, explosions etc.

Speec h V

Adjusts the volume of all speech messages and unit voices in the game.

If your sound card supports hardware acceleration, switch it on using this option. It considerably improves the sound quality and reduces the CPU load. If you don’t have hardware acceleration, switch off this option. If sound problems occur, this option needs to be disabled.

Exchanges the left and right stereo channels.

Attention! If the applied changes result in the game malfunctioning, delete the file.\users\video.ini from the game folder. The next time you launch the game the default settings will be used.

Camera

This menu adjusts the camera settings.

· Camera mode modes are available: o

Free camera – o Attach to center – ground/object located at the screen center.

o Attach to cursor – object that the mouse points at, and rotates in relation to this point.

o

Maximum camera height mum height of the camera above the ground.

o Minimum camera height mum height of the camera above the ground.

o Keyboard motion when using the keyboard arrows o Keyboard rotation when using the keyboard o Mouse movement and rotation – camera rotation and camera motion when using the mouse (in Free camera mode) o Scroll sensitivity – tion when the mouse cursor is located at the screen edges o

Mouse zoom in / Zoom out – sensitivity.

Single-Player

This is the menu for single player game modes.

Single player options:

Continue Game

by the current player (current profile) will load automatically without a confirmation dialog. This may be an autosave (always recorded at the

beginning of each battle), or a save created by player from a tutorial, single work battles (played via LAN or Internet).

Campaign

The ‘Campaign’ game mode is the main game mode for ‘Theater of

War’. More than 40 battles are grouped in 5 campaigns, one for each of the major participating nations that saw combat action in Europe during World

War Two.

Each virtual soldier and officer in the game has a personality with specific characteristics and skills that can change and develop during the campaign. The campaign takes the player and his soldiers through various critical battles and operations through the entire war.

When you select the option ‘Campaign,’ you jump to the menu for selecting one of the five main campaigns available in ‘Theater of War’.

Campaign selection screen

The left part of the screen contains five flags representing the side you will play in the campaign.

List of campaigns in the game:

USSR 1941-1945: The Eastern Front

Germany 1939-1945: Blitzkrieg & Invasion of USSR

Poland 1939: German Invasion

France 1940: Europe in Flames

USA / United Kingdom, 1944-1945: The Second Front

To select a campaign, double click on the flag of your choice, or screen.

Completed battles

If you begin to play for the very first time or use a newly created profile, you will be given the option to play only the first battle in a given campaign. If you have played one or more battles, then after you select a campaign you will see a list of battles already completed during that campaign. You can replay them at any time.

Progress during a campaign

Each campaign loosely depicts some of the main cornerstones of that nation’s involvement and combat actions during World War Two. During the campaign, the player’s forces will gain experience, master new tactical maneuvers and experience new developments in military equipment.

That’s why initially just one battle is available in each campaign, and after the battle is over, you either move to the next battle, if you have chosen “Ignore Campaign Loss” in the game settings, or you get another chance to repeat and hopefully win the first battle.

Note that each battle you fight has an influence on the forces available to you for the next available mission, as well as their combat experience and therefore capability. If you choose to ignore defeats you might face nearly impossible tasks in the following missions.

If further progress in a campaign seems too difficult you can also

Strategic Overview

After you select a battle you are shown the current strategic situation at your area of the front. The screen offers you two options: shows your mission objectives for the battle, intelligence data on activities of the enemy etc.

Combat briefing

This screen describes the battle you are about to fight. You see the general mission briefing as well as specific objectives you have to reach.

Each combat objective is illustrated by an individual schematic map show-

ing the expected disposition of the main forces, suggested directions for attack and key locations (capturing or destroying them can be of critical importance for the success of the battle).

The tactical map changes depending on which task you have selected by clicking on the respective icon.

Difficulty level

Before each battle starts the player may determine the level of realism for the mission, and accordingly, how difficult it will be to complete combat tasks. The level of difficulty is determined by two factors:

1. Realistic simulation of military equipment used by the troops under your command.

2. Simulation of morale for each individual soldier (infantry, machinery and gun crews)

A player can choose between three levels of difficulty:

Hi gh inflicted on the enemy for both sides corresponds to the real-world performance characteristics of weapons and ammo.

At the Highest difficulty level you cannot switch off morale.

a minor advantage over the enemy due to higher damage inflicted on the enemy (compared to the real-world performance characteristics of military equipment and ammo). At this difficulty level you can also switch off morale.

advantage in fire power (compared to the real-world performance) and the damage done to the enemy. At this difficulty level you can also switch off soldier morale.

Combining levels of realism and switching on/off “morale” you can adjust the difficulty for the current battle as you like.

Units

Before you engage in a battle it is recommended that you check the troops under your command, i.e. the default task force and any available reserve forces. Perhaps, based on your own experience and tactical skills, you will prefer to make changes to the task force or re-assign some crews.

To jump to the Units

Start battle

To start a battle without entering the Units screen, click the button

Reorganizing your task force

Besides knowledge of the fundamental tactical maneuvers, another important skill to successfully accomplish a combat mission is to put together a balanced task force based on operational data and the mission on hand. Editing your assigned task force is possible thro ugh the Units screen

Team Points

The total number of team points and hence the number of troops available to you depends on how much resources your superior command allocates for completing a specific task. This depends on the importance of your combat task, the overall situation at a given part of the front, as well as availability of resources and so forth.

Determining team point values

The value of each combat unit is calculated on the basis of its combat capabilities and material value.

Accordingly, the more powerful and sophisticated the equipment under your control is, the higher its value will be. Of course your task force will also perform better if equipped with up-to-date and powerful equipment and crews.

Units Screen

The Units screen consists of thr ee main portions:

Reserve forces

(This is the left part of the staff screen)

The list of military equipment and soldiers available as reserve. Part of these reserve forces can be added to your task force by swapping squads or equipment as long as the available team points

The reserve forces sometimes contain equipment that cannot be used or moved to the task force slot. Such equipment usually belongs to one of two categories:

· Captured enemy equipment (salvaged from the battlefield during a previous mission)

· Obsolete equipment withdrawn from service and subject to replacement by more up-to-date models.

Note that in the campaign mode equipment that falls in one of the above categories is withdrawn from the reserve after 1-2 battles as unserviceable. That’s why it is critically important to reassign valuable crew members to other units since any crews are withdrawn from the reserve as well.

Below the reserve forces list is a display of information on limitations and errors that may arise when you attempt to transfer a combat unit or a squad from the reserve to the task force.

The display can show:

1. Error message due to a failure to accept a given combat unit

2. Error messages due to a lack of team points to make this combat unit/squad available

3. Error messages due to lack of free space on the task force roster required for adding a combat unit/squad of this type

Captured Equipment

All enemy equipment controlled by your soldiers at the end of a battle is considered to be captured. You can use such equipment during the ongoing battle but may not keep it between operations.

Therefore, soon after the battle in which the equipment was cappasses to the control of other units (maintenance, rear-based units etc.).

In order to give you a chance to reassign any valuable crew members to other units before such units are withdrawn from your command, all captured equipment stays on your reserve roster for one battle after it was captured, but it cannot be used in battles or form part of a new combat detachment.

Before the next battle you should make sure to re-assign any crew members to other forces and/or staff the captured equipment with unexperienced soldiers.

Obsolete Equipment

The battles during your campaign are often separated by weeks, months or even years. During such long periods of war, tactics, doctrines and equipment are constantly changing. The enemy is developing new types of equipment, and so are you.

Tanks, vehicles and weapons which were powerful back in 1940 quickly become nearly useless in 1942. Such outdated equipment is then withdrawn from service.

On your reserve roster, one battle before outdated equipment is withdrawn, such units are marked as ‘outdated’ and are not allowed to be added to a task force to engage in the next battle. However, just like with captured equipment, do not forget to reassign crew members which you’d like to keep to other units, otherwise these soldiers will be withdrawn from your command together with the outdated equipment.

Active task force

(This is the right part of the staff screen labeled “Deployment”).

These units comprise your active task force for a given battle. Some of them may be replaced by units from the reserve up to the limit of the available team points

But regardless of team points, sometimes there may be additional limitations: Some units cannot be withdrawn from the active task force or replaced by reserve forces as your superior command may consider them mission critical.

Such squads are marked as blocked

Your combat tasks and the role your force has to play within a battle, such as reconnaissance or frontal assault, usually determine your default task force composition. In accordance with your objectives, you may be restricted on which and how many units you may use in a battle.

For instance, your superior HQ may consider that three armored units are enough to complete a given task and that otherwise maneuvers of large armored forces may attract too much attention by the enemy, which in turn may endanger your mission.

When a task force already includes the highest possible number of units of a certain type, you will be asked to swap one unit of the same type if you attempt to add more. In such case the unit(s) to be withdrawn from the task force will be marked in red.

The following data is displayed below the task force list:

1. The maximum number of team points for your task force (set by superior command in line with your assigned combat tasks)

2. The number of team points not yet spent

Detailed unit data

This information panel displays detailed data on manpower and equipment.

Sorting and filters

Both the “reserve” and “task force” lists can be sorted/filtered by unit or type. By activating or deactivating the buttons for the various unit types you can select which units are displayed on the screen.

Reassigning Units

A commander may make changes to the number or type of units under his command within certain restrictions and as long as he has enough team points to spare.

However, there are certain additional limitations:

· You cannot remove units from the task force which are considered “mission critical” (unit must not be marked as Blocked)

· Units added may not be marked as Outdated or Captured. This applies mainly to armor, vehicles and artillery.

· The total number of units may not be increased. You may add new units only by replacing their counterparts marked in red.

· You must have enough spare team points

· The status of the buttons ‘Reserve > Troops’ and ‘Reserves <

Troops’ shows if it is possible to reassign a given combat unit. If the button is active then the operation is not subject to any restrictions.

Reassigning Reserves to the active Task Force:

Option 1

1. Select the unit you would like to add

2. Click the button ‘Reserve > Troops’

Option 2

1. Select the unit you would like to add

2. Double-click on it

As long as adding the unit does not contradict any given limitations, the squad will be added to the task force.

To remove a unit from the Task Force:

Option 1

1. Select the unit you would like to remove

2. Click the button ‘Reserves < Troops’

Option 2

1. Select the unit you would like to remove

2. Double-click on it

As long as removing the unit does not contradict any given limitations, the unit will be moved to the reserve pool.

Crew Roles

When you assign crews to vehicles or other equipment or when you add soldiers to a squad, remember that in his new squad/unit a soldier will perform a duty in accordance with the assigned staff role, no matter what his duty was in his previous crew or squad.

For example, if you move a tank driver to the gunner position in a different crew, he will perform his new duty as gunner despite having a high Driver skill.

You should also remember that personal weapons of all soldiers and

officers in infantry squads, vehicles or gun crews are distributed according to the staff role and duty position. If you move a soldier from the position of a sniper in one squad to the position of a grenadier in another squad, the former sniper will change his scoped rifle for a grenade launcher.

Keep in mind that only experienced soldiers with the necessary skills can make best use of a given piece of equipment. Even the most upto-date and heavily armored tank with a powerful gun will not be of much use to you if its crew consists of raw recruits.

On the other hand, you should protect experienced soldiers and not waste them. Combat losses are always heavy and if you lose all your veterans you will have to engage in the next battle with new recruits and inexperienced soldiers.

To estimate combat abilities and skills correctly, you need to familiarize yourself with the detail information of every combat unit. To help you do that, there is a separate panel at the bottom of the interface:

Unit Details Panel

The Unit Details Panel has a common structure with the panel containing personal information on soldiers and officers.

The main elements of the Unit Details Panel are described on the following pages.

(The left part of the interface)

1.

Main and secondary armament.

Shows the main gun and any secondary armament such as additional guns or machine guns found on most types of armored vehicles. Each gun or machine gun has a caption specifying the main function of this type of equipment.

2.

Weapon status.

Aside from information about the types of armament, this panel also displays data about its operational status. When a weapon is damaged and cannot fire, its symbol is shadowed, the “readiness to fire” indicator disappears and it is impossible to assign a new type of ammo.

3.

“Ready to fire” indicator

Each weapon icon contains a number of dots indicating: o All dots are empty - gun is not loaded and is not ready to deliver fire o Some dots are colored in red - the gun is being loaded o All dots are colored in green – gun (or machine gun) is fully loaded and ready to deliver fire

4.

Detailed weapon info

Detailed information about the selected type of armament. Includes the main performance characteristics: o Maximum fire range of a gun/machine gun o Rate of fire (shots per minute) o Time for reloading the weapon, seconds o Number of shots before the next loading (depends on magazine capacity. In case of tanks and self-propelled howitzers just 1 shot is available).

o Chance of hitting a target from a distance of 1,000 meters (calculated on the basis of ammo type and weapon performance characteristics).

o Type of currently loaded ammo and its characteristics o Muzzle velocity, meters per second o Armor penetration depending on distance. The default armor penetration characteristics are displayed for the main gun.

o Dispersion of shot (angular minutes), depend on the weapon and shell types

5.

Ammo

Shows the current type of ammo loaded as well as all types of ammo available. For each type of ammo the number of shots available is shown

(number of magazines and ammo in the current magazine for small-caliber shells and rounds).

(The right part of the interface)

1. Crew of vehicle or gun

Each crew has several duty positions in accordance with the staff roster. Normally these include: o Crew commander o Driver (for wheeled or track vehicles) o Gunner o Loader o Machine gunner

Crew Information Panel

When soldiers or fighters are part of a squad or crew, only the most important information is displayed for each individual soldier, including:

· Health status indicator

· Morale status indicator

· Experience

· Crew position (for crew members)

· Current weapon (for crew members)

If a crew is complete, the unit will perform better and act quicker to make command decisions and perform operations such as aiming, loading and so forth.

If a crew is not complete (a crew role position is vacant), the unit will perform less well and take longer to perform various tasks, resulting in lower fighting efficiency. Another critical point to ensure optimal performance from a unit is to assign staff positions to soldiers and officers with the highest skill that match a particular crew role best.

It is recommended that you always assign officers or NCO’s (noncommissioned officers) to be crew commanders as they usually have the best developed leadership skills.

Assign soldiers or officers with the best Driver skill for the position of driver, as this will contribute to higher maneuverability, better path calculations as well as higher movement speeds and better off-road ability.

The position of a gunner is critical as it directly affects the capability of a given unit to hit the enemy with as few shots and in as short time as possible. A simple rule applies to warfare: hit your enemy first and you will have a chance to survive.

2. Equipment performance characteristics

o Max. movement speed (achieved only when Driver skills of a proper crew member are on the max. level). The highest movement speed is only achieved on roads, while on other surfaces max. speed may have different values.

o Armor (in mm) separately for the hull and for the turret.

Hull armor: Turret armor:

Front

Side

Rear

Top

Bottom

Front

Side

Rear

Top

3. Equipment status

This part of the panel displays the layout of the selected unit as a side and top view and shows the operational status of the main systems.

If one or several systems are damaged, they are colored in red. In case of a gun or a machine-gun this means that the weapon in question is no longer able to deliver fire.

In ‘Theater of War’ there are a number of systems which are tracked individually for their operational status:

1. Chassis (independent for each side)

2. Engine

3. Turret

4. Guns

5. Machine-guns

If a system is damaged, the player is alerted by a brief message which is usually displayed in the Message Log.

4. Class, model and type of equipment

Shows the designation of a given piece of equipment as well as its type or modification.

5. Flag

Shows which country the unit belongs to.

Quick Unit Overview Window

The Quick Unit Overview Window displays only the most important performance statistics for each unit. Such data is displayed both for units under your command as well as any other units on the battle field including enemy units.

The window appears at the bottom right hand corner of the main combat screen when you point the cursor on any unit.

It contains:

1. Operational status icons (on the left) - see list of mini-map icons

2. Name of given unit, its class and type

3. Information about crew members and their assigned roles

(Only available for formations under your control!)

4. Image of given type of equipment

5. Nation to which the unit belongs

6. Information on hull and turret armor, in mm.

Although quite brief, the above information will help to evaluate a given unit’s strengths and weaknesses at a glance.

Soldier Information Panel

The soldier information panel informs the player about the current characteristics, skills, weapons and ammunition of the individual soldiers under his command, as well as their level of health and morale.

Equipment

The weapon(s) a soldier carries, regardless if he acts on his own or as part of a team/crew, is/are displayed in 3 sections:

1.

Main and secondary armament.

Normally, the main armament is the weapon assigned to a given staff role. In the case of Sniper, Grenadier, Machine-Gunner etc. the main armament of a soldier will be the weapon necessary to perform his assigned duty.

Secondary armament is usually used if the main armament is damaged or is out of ammo.

Each weapon is shown with the exact type and model.

2.

“Readiness to fire” icon

The dots indicate a number of possible conditions: o All dots are empty – the weapon is not loaded and is not ready to deliver fire o Some dots are colored in red – the weapon is being loaded o All dots are colored in green – the weapon is fully loaded and ready to deliver fire

3.

Detailed information on selected weapon

Includes the weapon’s main performance characteristics: o Maximum fire range for this weapon

o Rate of fire, shots per minute o Time for reloading weapon, in seconds o Number of shots before next reloading (depends on the capacity of the magazine).

o Dispersion of shot (angular minutes), depending on the weapon and shell type o Current ammo type and its characteristics o Muzzle velocity, meters per second o Armor penetration, depending on distance. The default armor penetration is displayed for the main gun.

4.

Ammo

Current ammo type and all ammo types available for loading (in ammo assignment mode) For each type of ammo, the available number of rounds, or the magazine capacity are shown

5.

Grenades

This slot displays which grenades (if any) the soldier is equipped with.

6.

Combat Gear

Access to equipment pick-up and exchange screen (showing a backpack and the description “Combat gear”). This screen is available via the Combat Interface only (accordingly, during battles only).

Characteristics

1. Health and morale of the selected soldier

2. Current soldier’s characteristics and skills

3. Portrait of the character

4. Personal data of the soldier (first and last name, rank, awards)

(Note) Health, morale and accuracy stats are subject to change during the course of a mission

Crew Member Info Panel

When you place the mouse cursor on a soldier who is part of a squad or crew, additional information on his characteristics and combat skills is displayed:

· First and last name

· Rank

· Nation

· Main characteristics: health, morale

· Additional characteristics and combat skills: Leadership, Driver,

Gunner, Scout, Accuracy, Intelligence

Once you have finished selecting units and soldiers for your task force and are ready to start the battle, click the button ‘Start combat’.

Combat

The game’s main Combat Interface allows for efficient control of your units during combat.

A commander has a number of tasks during combat:

· Control and analyze information coming from the battle field

· Have a clear idea of the fighting efficiency of combat units and squads under your command

· Understand the basic picture, know the quality and quantity of the enemy forces, as well as the direction of enemy attacks and the locations where his forces and equipment are concentrated

· Issue clear orders to your subordinates during combat based on all collected information

The Combat Interface was designed to serve the above objectives.

The following chapter begins with an overview of the main combat interface, explains the interactive cursor and how to issue orders to your units, then follows up with a description of the separate combat phases.

Main Combat Interface

1. The battle field where combat action takes place.

2. Incoming orders from superior command, status of combat tasks.

3. Button for jumping to Briefing screen which displays all Combat

Tasks for the current battle.

4. Mini-map

5. Message log

6. Buttons for expanding message log

7. General Information panel. The following types are possible: a. Current battle statistics panel b. Detailed Unit Info panel c. Soldier Information panel d. Crew Information panel

8. Combat gear pick-up and exchange panel

9. Equipment info view toggle buttons

10. Movement mode control buttons

11. Formation control buttons

12. Order buttons

13. Interactive cursor

14. Quick Unit Overview Window (appears when you place the cursor on a unit)

15. Air and artillery support availability and request icons

16. Unit icons

17. Soldiers and units present on the battle field

18. Markers and indicators

Combat Interface Elements

Battlefield

The battlefield view is the main view for carrying out combat actions and maneuvers of all combat units and squads regardless of the side they belong to. The battlefield is an area with diverse landscapes, foliage, small settlements and certain man-made objects intended for both civil and military use.

A typical battlefield is a square with a side length of up to 4 kilometers. At the same time the area which is visible but not available for active operations may reach 8 kilometers both in width and length.

Landscape features like hills, valleys, dense foliage and man-made objects can have a serious impact on the ability of combat units to observe their surroundings.

Water obstacles and impassable terrain may restrict access to certain parts of terrain.

The following man-made defensive installations and obstacles are found on the battle field:

Trenches

Artillery positions

Barbed wire

Antitank hedgehog

Wooden pillboxes

Mine fields

The battlefield layout cannot be changed during battle.

Battle Orders and Status of Combat Tasks.

In the left bottom corner of the battlefield screen, just above the mini-map, all notifications on new orders received from superior command as well as changes in the status of current combat objectives are shown.

Each message shows a button allowing the player to jump to a full description of the task or the detailed description of the message.

When you click on the task button the Combat task screen will open with a detailed description of the respective Combat task.

Battle Orders Info Button

This button opens the Briefing screen with a list of all current combat tasks and orders.

Mini-Map

The mini-map is a useful tool for getting information about the battlefield as a whole regardless of the area visible on the screen.

The mini-map displays the following information:

Active combat area

This lightly shaded area is the area available for active combat operations. Within its boundaries the player may move and use the forces under his command. A player may not take combat units under his control outside this area.

Surrounding environment

The darker shaded area shows terrain outside of the active combat area. This terrain is not available for active play.

The compass helps you to find directions on the map. It is helpful when you know directions from where you expect your enemy to appear.

Key landscape features are shown as a topographical map using commonly accepted conventional symbols.

A white triangle indicates the area current visible to the player depending on his camera position. During the Setup Phase before a battle, the available Setup Zones are indicated.

Numbered objective markers indicate primary and secondary objectives (combat tasks). The color of soldier and vehicle icons indicates their position and which side they belong to.

Key messages (such as destruction of a combat unit, lack of ammo etc.) are indicated on the mini-map by icons:

Allied soldier

Allied vehicle

The order can not be performed

Empty or neutral vehicle

Enemy soldier

Enemy vehicle

Chassis damaged

No crew

Message Log

No line of fire

Neutral soldier

Waypoint with task number

Player soldier

Player vehicle

Unit is attacked by an invisible enemy unit

Unit’s path is blocked

Unit is killed

Unit is panicked

Main gun is destroyed

No ammo, no weapon

Below the mini-map is the message log. All critical messages from your combat units appear in this list.

(Note) If you issue an order to a unit and notice that it is not being executed, check the message log. Probably the unit is reporting that it’s impossible to carry out the order for one reason or another.

Messages may be colored in either black or red. The red color of a message indicates that a certain combat unit has been destroyed or killed.

If you right-click on a message the battlefield camera will automatically jump to the object/unit.

Buttons for Viewing the Message Log

By default, the messages log is minimized and only displays two lines of the current messages.

Open lo g’

Information Panel

The Information panel is the main tool for accessing information about combat units and the overall statistics of the current battle.

Current Battle Statistics Panel

(

Current battle statistics are available at all times; you just have to deselect any unit (right-click somewhere on an empty spot on the map).

This panel keeps record of all available, lost and captured combat units serving for all sides engaged in the battle.

Unit Information panel

In the combat mode, the unit information panel enables player to select the ammo used for each type of weapon and to control the crew.

Soldier Information Panel

In the combat mode, the soldier information panel allows to select which of the available weapons the soldier will use in combat. Also, the equipment pick-up/exchange panel appears in the combat mode.

Group Formation Info Panel

All combat units on the battle field including soldiers and vehicles may be combined in groups. The information panel displays a summary on all combat units in such a group. Units/soldiers can also be part of more than one group at the same time.

For vehicles/guns combined in groups, the number of crew members and name/model of the equipment are displayed.

For soldiers, the following information is shown:

Main weapon

Grenades (if available)

Character’s portrait

Group commander icon

Health status

Morale status

Number of battles fought under your command

Each squad has a commander. In order to select the entire squad, double-click on the commander’s icon. The entire squad under his command will be selected automatically. All orders issued will then apply to the entire squad.

Equipment Pick-Up/Exchange Panel

During a battle, any soldier on the battlefield (i.e. not inside a tank or vehicle) may pick up ammunition from other soldiers, dead or alive (for instance, when sharing ammo or to equip an unarmed soldier).

The equipment pick-up panel is opened by clicking on the “Combat Gear” button in the Soldier Information Panel.

The Combat Gear button shows how many items are available at the current location.

The equipment pick-up window opens after clicking on the button available. The player can pick up and get rid of any type of weapon, equipment and ammo.

To pick up or discard gear, use the respective buttons (each button has a pop-up caption).

· Select gear on the battle field (in the equipment panel) or carried by soldier (in the soldier information panel)

· Select action

1. Pick up item: a soldier picks up one item of the same type, if he has an empty slot to carry it.

2. Pick up all items: a soldier picks up all items of a certain type if he has a spare slot to carry it.

3. Drop item: a soldier discards one item of that type.

4. Drop all items: the soldier drops all items from the slot.

Viewing Passengers Info

Some vehicles in the game can transport passengers.

Such vehicles are marked with dots indicating vacant/occupied passenger seats and have a separate panel for viewing the list of passengers.

comes active and once clicked opens the control panel. This control panel is identical to the control panel for groups and squads.

Movement Mode Buttons

Each soldier or group of soldiers can be assigned one of three modes of movement. They differ in movement speed and visibility for the enemy, and hence affect the probability of being spotted.

To toggle between movement modes select a soldier or a group and click on the button for the mode you want to assign.

deliver fire from a Standing the enemy.

shooting the soldier Kneels

Crawling a soldier moves by crawling. During stops and shooting the soldier delivers fire from a Prone spot for the enemy.

Formation Control Buttons

The formation control buttons allow you to assign a formation to a group of soldiers or vehicles with one mouse click: als in a formation. In this formation units keep approximately the same location with respect to each other. Useful when under artillery attack.

units in a formation. Soldiers and vehicles take positions close to each other, making them vulnerable for artillery and air attacks. But this formation is convenient for breaking through a defensive line or for example hidden movement behind cover.

have when the formation command is assigned. The player can create his own custom formations in this way.

mizing firepower to the front.

W ed g e For mation: decent firepower to the front and the flanks.

but mainly for marching in file down a road.

The new formation is assumed only after you click on a location for the new formation.

You can change the facing of your formation as follows:

1. Select a new formation (click formation button)

2. Select a point on the terrain for the new formation

3. Holding down the right mouse button, move the cursor to the left or to the right from the center of assumed position

4. Issue the order by releasing the right mouse button.

Order Buttons

The main method to control your troops is by giving direct orders to a selected combat unit or group. All orders in Theater of War are issued through the use of the orders panel and the interactive (context sensitive) cursor, which changes depending on the possible actions by the selected unit, or depending on the type of order given by the player. The orders panel is located at the bottom right corner of the Combat interface.

Orders

– Movement

The standard movement order for units to change position.

– Stop

An order to stop any current tasks (Movement, Attack, Fire, Assault). Note however that after a certain time any unit might begin acting on its own and react to the current combat situation.

– Attack

An order to attack a target by fire. The target is market with red brackets and a red arrow points from the firing unit to the target. The unit selected to attack enters into “Attack” mode and will attempt to move into a position with good line of sight towards his assigned target, including forward to close the distance if necessary.

Additionally to a general attack order, the player may (but doesn’t have to) set a specific aim point:

The above instructions are set by selecting the upper, middle or lower “mini-sight” on the Attack button. After you select the aim point, the combat unit will start delivering fire at the specified aim point for the

– Area Fire

An order to attack a specified point or position. Regardless of whether enemy forces are located in the area or not, your combat units will begin firing at the ordered position. Use this command to fire at groups of infantry soldiers with a tank’s main gun (tanks use only MGs against infantry by default - and the Geneva convention).

– Assault

This orders a unit to storm a certain spot on the map (usually the target spot is controlled by the enemy). Units ordered to assault fire on the move and generally attempt to reach the specified target at all costs.

– Defend

An order to defend in place, and look for good cover in the vicinity.

– Retreat

An order to conduct a fighting withdrawal.

– Rotate

An order to change the facing of a a combat unit or group to look in a different direction. May improve spotting in that direction for example.

– Attach

An order to attach a gun to the selected transport unit.

– Disembark

An order to disembark passengers and crew (in this order) from a transport, vehicle, or gun.

– Hold fire

An order forbidding the selected combat unit or group to fire.

– Hold position

An order forbidding the selected combat unit or group to change position.

Interactive Cursor

The player can control his troops either by giving direct orders through the Orders Panel or with the help of the interactive cursor. The interactive cursor always displays a standard (default) order for a selected unit based on the location of the cursor.

Standard Orders

A standard (default) order is issued in the following cases:

· When the selected unit is able to attack the target indicated by the cursor (cursor assumes an Attack

· When the selected combat unit is able to move to a place indicated by the cursor (cursors assumes a Move ).

· When a selected soldier or squad is able to capture an enemy or unmanned vehicle or gun indicated by the cursor (cursor assumes a Cap-

· When a selected soldier or squad can occupy a trench indicated by the cursor (cursor assumes an Occupy a Trench

The cursor types that can be seen on the battle field are:

The cursor for hooking and unhooking a gun. It appears when

The cursor for attacking a target. It appears when the currently selected unit is able to attack the object indicated by the

The cursor for indicating a target and attacking a location

This cursor shows that the indicated target or position cannot be attacked.

The cursor for assaulting a position or target. It appears when combat unit or group is able to assault the position or object indicated by the cursor.

The battle field camera cursor. Indicates moving the virtual camera down.

Moves the virtual camera to the left.

Moves the virtual camera down and to the left.

Moves the virtual camera up and to the left.

Moves the virtual camera to the right.

Moves the virtual camera down and to the right.

Moves the virtual camera up and to the right.

Moves the virtual camera up.

select an infantry unit and point the cursor at a friendly tank - in that case the infantry will seek cover behind the tank and use it as mobile shield.

This cursor indicates a waypoint for the selected combat unit or group.

object or vehicle indicated by the cursor.

cursor.

The cursor for operating the virtual camera in 3D mode.

Aviation

The purpose of aviation in the game is to support the ground units under player command. The player can request air support of three types:

Ground attack aircraft, fighters and air Scouts.

The availability of air support units is based on the strategic situation at a given part of the front and is entirely up to the decision of superior command.

The player cannot directly control the requested air support but can only give general orders (specify the region for their operation).

Ground Attack Aircraft

Attack aircraft attack the specified area and select their targets in the area in accordance with their own priorities (the approximate priorities are listed below in a descending order):

1. Artillery (heavy, light, flak); 2. SPG; 3. Armored

Cars; 4. Vehicles; 5. Pillboxes, 6. Human targets, 7. Tanks

Fighters

Fighters patrol a target area for a certain period of time. They attack enemy aviation (attack aircraft and bombers) in the target area.

Air Scouts

An air scout gathers air intelligence information in the target area.

If several types of air support are available in a combat (for example, fighters and attack aircraft) only one type can be used at a time.

Each type of air support in a battle is represented only by one and the same air formation. So if you are permitted to request attack aircraft support five times, the same flight will arrive each time. Therefore, some time has to pass before the next arrival of the aviation at the combat area.

This also means that the availability of subsequent air support requests depends on the number of airplanes hit by the enemy during the previous flight. If the whole flight has been shot down by enemy fighters or anti-aircraft guns, you will not be able to request air support again, even if you are permitted to use them 3 more times, simply because the air support formation assigned to you has been destroyed.

The number of times each specific type of air support can be requested is predetermined by the general situation on the front (other missions to be accomplished) and the resources available (in other words: it is scripted for each specific scenario).

Accuracy of Hitting a Target

Each type of airplane has its own armament. Each type of armament has its specific parameters defining its accuracy, density and scatter of fire

(which also depend upon the ammo type). This is valid for all combat vehicles and weapons in Theatre of War. Therefore, air support units might fail to hit or damage targets if they lack the proper armament or ammo.

Artillery Support

Artillery support is provided by batteries of regiment artillery located in the rear.

The player cannot operate these guns directly but can request that certain positions be fired at if artillery support is available, i.e. when the

‘Artillery Support’ icon is visible in the top right corner.

The duration and intensiveness of artillery support depends on type and number of guns in a battery (which is nation specific) and the duration of the artillery barrage (as defined by high command).

Reinforcements

Which reinforcements are available for a specific mission and where and when they arrive is pre-determined by your superior command. Reinforcements appear on the map (during a battle) based on two factors: the fulfillment of combat tasks and losses of vehicles or personnel under player command, i.e. if the player lost too many units but failed to complete his mission, his commander may provide him with reinforcements ahead of time.

Repair and Re-equipment of Vehicles

During a battle, vehicles can be damaged or expend all ammo. It is impossible to repair a vehicle or replenish its ammo on the battle field.

Vehicles can only be repaired after a battle (if it has not been destroyed completely), which happens automatically in between battles.

In order to be able to recover a vehicle, the player needs to have direct control over it at the moment the mission ends, i.e. there should be at least one crew member inside.

If your tank has been damaged but not destroyed during a battle and its crew has escaped (or has been killed) and you would like to have this tank available in future battles, make sure that a soldier gets inside to

“capture” the vehicle before the mission ends. This vehicle will then be completely repaired after the battle, and its ammo and crew replenished.

Replenishment / Rearmament of Squads

Each and every soldier can be reequipped with any small arms he can find on the battle field, i.e. if your tank is hit and the crew leaves the vehicle, the tankers can be armed with additional weapons (they are generally only lightly armed). Each killed soldier leaves all his personal gear nearby: automatic rifles, grenade launchers, carbines, submachine guns, grenades, and pistols. And, of course, the ammo.

It is impossible to change the equipment of soldiers before missions

(in accordance with Field Service Regulations). High command allocates fully staffed platoons with pre-assigned roles (machine gunner, grenade launcher operator, tank hunter, sniper, etc.). The only thing the player can do is to assign a more experienced soldier or a soldier with the required skills to a given position so that he can cope with his role and equipment better. It is impossible to compose a squad of 10 snipers if there can only be

1 sniper in a sqaud according to the mission orders. The same is valid for other military roles.

Infantry squads cannot be replenished during a battle, this can only be done between missions (it happens automatically). The player can assign any soldier under his command to an infantry squad.

On the battlefield, the player can control each soldier directly regardless of whether the soldier is assigned to any platoon or not.

Any soldier, be it an infantryman, a tanker, or a gunner, can be assigned with any role such as operating a tank, firing a cannon or driving a truck. Such soldier will fulfill the role assigned to him either well or badly depending upon his personal skills.

Damage Calculations

The following factors are taken into consideration in the game whenever damage is calculated for various types of objects: ballistics (every weapon in the game has its own ballistics parameters), hit angles, armor at the hit location, shell inertia , high-explosive effect, detonation, blast pressure wave, secondary effects, ricochets, anti-HEAT screens, ammo detonation, and inflammation. The following systems may be disabled: o Chassis: o Transmission; o Engine; o Wheel or tracks o Turret; o Guns; o Machine guns; o Crew

(Note) A vehicle with 8 wheels has to have more than 2 of them damaged before it’s considered immobilized

Damage Inflicted on Vehicles and Personnel

Each vehicle has 5 distinctive armor locations:

Front, Rear, Top, Side, Bottom

Tanks have separate armor for its hull and turret, i.e. a tank’s armor breaks down as follows:

Hull, front Turret, front

Hull, rear

Hull, top

Hull, side

Hull, bottom

Turret, rear

Turret, top

Turret, side

Some tank models have better armor protection on the turret than on the hull, and vice versa. The correct selection of the point of aim may sometimes be crucial in destroying enemy vehicles.

For example, even a King Tiger can become considerably easier to destroy if one gets into its rear, therefore it is crucial to maneuver and rotate a vehicle all the time to hide its vital areas.

Here are some examples of a hit and the inflicted damage:

A shell hits a wheel or track: the chassis is disabled on one side

A shell hits the hull, penetrates and hits the engine: the engine is disabled

A shell hits the hull, penetrates and kills the crew

A shell hits the turret and fails to penetrate, but the turret is damaged and the gun becomes inoperable

A shell hits the turret and fails to penetrate, but the crew is killed due to secondary effects (fragments on the inner side of the armor)

The visible contour of the target and any obstacles along the path of the shell are taken into account: it is understandable that it is much harder to hit a soldier in a trench or a tank obscured by the terrain or behind a house.

If the tracks of a tank are destroyed, the tank does not stop at once but rather makes a turn because of its inertia, and only then stops.

Combat System Basics

A typical armored firefight is generally fairly brief before it reaches its conclusion (usually the elimination of one or both sides).

Therefore it is crucial for the commander to understand the general principles of estimating the chance of hitting a target in order to be able to act quickly.

These are the key factors to be considered when estimating the chances of hitting a target:

Factor Effect

Performance characteristics of a gun a. Initial velocity of a shell b. Deviation of a shell from point of aim

Performance characteristics of a shell a. Range of a shell b. Velocity of a shell c. Deviation of a shell from point of aim

Distance to a target Deviation of a shell from intended point of aim

Moving target

Moving firing unit

Target acquisition

Impossible to acquire target impossible to acquire target

Increases the chances of hitting a target with each subsequent shot

Point of aim

‘Gunner’ skill

Defines the center of the shot dispersion cone

Defines the radius of the shot dispersion cone

The target acquisition procedure is basically as follows:

· The gunner checks the situation on the battlefield and selects the most dangerous target he sees (either himself or with the help of the information received from friendly units);

· The point of aim is selected (depending upon the commander’s order, i.e. the player):

· Center of the target’s contour;

· Center of the contour for the selected aim point (turret, or upper part; hull, or medium part; chassis, or lower part).

· Depending on the operator’s ‘Gunner’ skill, the gun is aimed at

the target within a certain radius from the point of aim selected by the player; the aiming accuracy error is taken into account.

· The gun is fired;

· The shell starts its flight:

· The flight path is adjusted based on the scatter characteristic of a given gun and shell;

· If there are no obstacles along the path of the shell it gets to the final point of the path;

· If the shell meets an obstacle along its path, such as a target, foliage, building, etc., the shell interacts with the relevant surface;

· If the target is an armored vehicle the chance of a ricochet is estimated depending upon the angles of the armor, the angle of the hit, and the type of the shell:

· If the shell does not ricochet, the warhead detonates;

· After the warhead detonates, the damage inflicted on the target is calculated depending upon the type of the shell and the characteristics of the armor, including the damage caused by possible secondary effects;

· The chance that one of the tank’s systems is destroyed is calculated depending upon the point of impact and the force and type of weapon effects.

· If the target has not been destroyed but is immobile, the gunner adjusts his aim based on the results of the first shot, i.e. if a non-moving target is fired at from a non-moving gun, the shot dispersion cone decreases with each subsequent shot.

· If the target is destroyed the gunner goes to the beginning of the cycle for a different target (if available).

Hitting a target

The key factors influencing the chances of hitting a target are:

Factor Effect

Point of aim

‘Gunner’ skill

Scatter (shell and gun)

Visible contour of a target surface area that can be hit

Point of aim, aiming accuracy error (within a certain radius)

Deviation of a shell from the point of aim

Ammo types

To fire a gun efficiently one should properly understand the differences between the various types of ammo.

In the course of the long history of field artillery and armored troops a lot of different tools and systems have been developed to effectively combat armored targets. The ongoing development resulted in a number of different types of shells with different characteristics:

Armor-piercing ability

Behind armor effect

Aerodynamics (air resistance and stability)

Type of explosive

Type of detonating the explosive

Weapon effect, Etc.

Type of Ammo Abbreviation

Armor-piercing shell

Armor-piercing high-explosive shell

Armor-piercing capped shell

Armor-piercing, capped, ballistic-capped shell

Armor-piercing subcaliber composite rigid (tungsten core) shell

Armor-piercing subcaliber composite non-rigid shell

Armor-piercing subcaliber discarding sabot shell

High-explosive fragmentation shell

High-explosive anti-tank shell

AP

APHE

APC

APCBC

APCR

APCNR

APDS

HE

HEAT

“Armor-piercing” covers a variety of projectile designs. These are classified in several ways. The Soviets do so by their diameter in relation to the bore of the gun:

1. Sub-caliber

2. Full-caliber

3. Over-caliber

In the USA, APCR was called HVAP, High Velocity Armor Piercing.

The main German AP round for 5cm guns and above was Panzergranate

39, an APCBC/HE round. APCR was called Panzergranate 40, and APCNR

Panzergranate 41.

Full-caliber kinetic energy rounds

Most armor-piercing rounds in WW2 were of this type. The most basic is plain AP shot, used by the British for the first half of the war and by all nations in smaller calibers. This works simply by punching a hole in the armor, and so depends on high strength, areal density, and striking velocity.

“Shot” is by definition solid, whereas “shell” has a filling. Most nations preferred armor-piercing shell, APHE. This has an explosive filler intended to detonate behind the target’s armor. Against the promise of better behind-armor effect, the cavity weakens the projectile, and the fuze may be actuated prematurely by a burster-plate placed before the main armor.

APC includes a soft-metal piercing cap. This does two things: It reduces the chance of ricochet from angled strikes, and spreads the load of impact on to the projectile’s shoulders, reducing the chance of the nose shattering and improving penetration of face-hardened armor. APCBC adds a thin metal ballistic cap, or windshield, which reduces drag and so helps the projectile maintain velocity at range. Many APC and APCBC rounds include bursting charges, but this is not normally indicated in the designation.

Sub-caliber kinetic energy rounds

At very high striking velocities, steel is no longer strong enough to withstand impact with armor plate. Tungsten carbide is hard and strong enough, but very dense, so full-caliber rounds would be too heavy to fire at high velocities. Three kinds of shot with tungsten-carbide penetrating cores were fielded during WW2. APCR was used by the Americans,

Germans and Russians; APCNR by the British and Germans; and APDS by the British.

APCR has the penetrator mounted in a relatively light rigid body which seats it in the bore and provides obturation. It improves penetration at close range, but the relatively low overall areal density means that velocity drops off quickly with range.

APCNR is similar, but fired from taper-bore or cone-bore guns.

These have barrels that narrow towards the muzzle (taper bore, the German

Gerlich guns), or are fitted with a narrowing adapter (cone bore, the British

Littlejohn Adapter). The non-rigid body is swaged down as it travels down the bore, and emergent caliber is smaller than initial caliber. Penetration performance is good, but barrel life short, and the design of HE projectiles problematic.

In APDS the supporting structure, or “sabot”, falls away as the projectile leaves the muzzle. Sabot petals can be dangerous to personnel nearby. Only the penetrator travels to the target, so areal density is high, and velocity does not drop off too sharply with range. Accuracy was poor in early designs, because of poor shot seating.

Full-caliber and over-caliber hollow-charge rounds

HEAT works on a different principle, punching a hole through armor plate with an explosively-formed penetrator. This penetrator is formed from the (copper or tin) liner of a cone in the high explosive warhead. As the penetrator moves at the detonation velocity of HE, it moves very fast indeed, but it takes some time to form, so penetration performance is highly dependent on stand-off distance. Spaced armor may therefore reduce or improve penetration, depending on how far from the main armor it is relative to the optimum stand-off.

HEAT must be detonated at the base of the projectile in response to an impact at the nose, so it is important to devise an efficient PIBD (Point

Initiating, Base Detonating) fuze. Although penetration performance is good, the hole punched is usually very narrow, producing relatively little behind-armor debris. The main advantage of HEAT is that, as its effectiveness does not depend on striking velocity, it can be used in weapons that would otherwise have negligible armor-piercing capability. It was used in hand-held anti-tank weapons, such as the PIAT and Panzerfaust (overcaliber) and Bazooka and

Panzerschreck (full-caliber). American, German and Russian field artillery used it for tank shooting, and the Germans prolonged the useful life of their early small-caliber anti-tank guns with the

Stielgranate, an over-caliber fin-stabilized HEAT projectile.

Improvised ammunition

Ordinary HE or shrapnel rounds could be used with the fuzes removed as improvised anti-tank rounds against thin armor. British 25pounders in the Western Desert used HE with the shipping plug in place of the fuze until proper AP was issued. The Russians made a similar improvisation with shrapnel in 1941 to make up for a shortage of armor-piercing ammunition.

Skills and Characteristics

An experienced commander always pays attention to each soldier under his command, the soldier’s characteristics, previous experience, and personal skills.

All crew members and infantry squads under your command have a number of characteristics and skills which directly influence both their individual behavior in a battle and their behavior as part of a squad or crew.

(Note) Since the crews of support airplanes and regimental (off-map) artillery are not directly subordinate to you, you have no access to their characteristics and are unable to influence the improvement of their combat skills.

Combat Skills

The combat skills of a soldier may change as his combat experience grows. A soldier’s combat skills (‘Driver’, ‘Gunner’, and ‘Scout’) can only be improved after the mission has been completed provided that the soldier has survived and has accumulated combat experience points which have not yet been spent. A combat skill can only be improved in the ‘ Debriefing ’ screen.

military vehicles properly in a combat situation.

The level of this skill influences:

· Ability to drive vehicles (skill level higher than zero)

· Maneuvering in battle

· Use of various speed modes

· Stability and smoothness of movement

· Ability to cross obstacles

· Ability to fire on the move (level higher than 80)

· Ability to use enemy’s vehicles (level higher than 90)

· Skills in choosing an optimal movement route taking the combat situation into account heavy weapons (tank guns, artillery, and heavy machine guns) accurately.

The level of this skill influences:

· Ability to fire guns (level higher than zero)

· Speed of aiming the gun

· Response time to battle situation changes

· Skills of a correctly choosing the most dangerous enemy

· Accuracy of aiming and hitting

· Ability to fire on the move (level higher than 80) field while remaining unnoticed himself, and to fire from sniper rifles.

The level of this skill influences:

· The maximum distance at which a soldier is capable of spotting and identifying enemy targets;

· A soldier’s ability to remain unspotted on the battle field near the enemy using terrain and natural obstacles;

· Ability to operate sniper rifles and use aimed fire.

A single sniper with a good Scout skill can often approach an enemy unspotted using “crawl” while holding fire, then target the enemy quickly for a few shots, and withdraw to quickly change his position before the enemy is able to identify his location.

target firing small arms (including machine guns). This is the only skill which improves during an ongoing battle when a soldier is using his weapon.

Non-Combat Characteristics

Non-combat characteristics directly affect a soldiers’ behavior and condition during a battle, and include:

Health, Morale, Leadership, Intelligence soldier can withstand from direct hits or secondary effects.

Military vehicles do not have a ‘Health’ skill.

to a given order, a change in the combat situation or the ability to actively participate in combat actions.

acteristic, resistance to factors usually affecting ‘Morale’, and the recovery

(regeneration) speed of ‘Morale’ of the soldier, his comrades-in-arms, and his subordinates.

The ‘Leadership’ parameter:

· The ‘Leadership’ of a commander has effect on himself, all his subordinate soldiers and the soldiers who are within visual contact and belong to the same combat arm (infantry, armor...) as the commander;

· The ‘Leadership’ of soldiers within squads or crews has effect on the soldier himself, and nearby comrades-in-arms (of the same combat arm).

The tank commander’s ‘Leadership’ parameter has no influence on the ‘Morale’ of the infantry fighting near the tank and vice versa.

‘Leadership’ only depends on the rank and the combat decorations awarded. Thus, regular soldiers have no ‘Leadership’ whatsoever. The higher the rank, the higher the ‘Leadership’ skill of an officer or NCO. Since a

person can only be promoted to a new rank or awarded with decorations after a battle is complete, the ‘Leadership’ parameter cannot change during the battle.

influences his ability to learn.

A soldier’s ‘Intelligence’ has no effect on his behavior in a combat situation, assessment of the situation, or reaction to the commander’s orders. The ‘Intelligence’ parameter is only taken into account when calculating combat experience and skill points gained by the soldier as a result of a battle.

The higher the ‘Intelligence’ skill, the higher the multiplier applied to determine the soldier’s combat experience and skill points. This modifier means that a soldier with a higher ‘Intelligence’ skill gains more benefits in the form of practical observations and skills during a battle.

Map Info Icons

If you point the cursor on a soldier or a military vehicle on the battle field, a small window appears showing various info icons:

crew or an infantry-man is in panic;

low ammo (shells <10 pieces, magazines <2 pieces)

no crew in a vehicle

chassis is damaged

weapon is damaged

Combat Experience

After each battle there is a time when the results of the battle are to be evaluated not only in terms of the combat missions accomplished but also in terms of the experience gained by each soldier or each crew member who survived the battle.

The efficiency of a soldier is evaluated based on the accumulated

Combat Experience points during a battle. Points are awarded for any actions accomplished during the battle, such as destroying enemy units and vehicles, capturing objectives and so forth.

Debriefing and Reorganization Screen

The ‘ Debriefing com-

(on the right of the screen)

· Military vehicles which were under your command at the end of the battle, including those captured from the enemy;

· All the personnel, including infantrymen and crew members who have survived the battle;

(on the left of the screen)

· A soldier’s personal data (full name, rank, and decorations);

· A soldier’s experience and statistics for the battles he has fought under your command;

· A soldier’s personal characteristics;

· A soldier’s skills;

· Statistics and combat experience gained in the last battle;

· Military rank, to which a soldier can be promoted based on his accumulated combat experience;

· Decorations a soldier can be awarded

After a battle is over, it is time to review the personnel, their achievements and Combat Experience accumulated in the latest battle.

An individual soldier’s achievements in a battle come down to a simple figure representing his Combat Experience in the ‘Available’ field.

Spending Combat Experience Points

Automatic Distribution of Accumulated Experience

You can choose to distribute Experience Points automatically, both for individual soldiers as well as for the entire roster.

The automatic distribution is based on certain rules, which are also reasonable guidelines when conducting manual distribution:

· Eligible soldiers are promoted and awarded decorations, increasing their ‘Leadership’; the ‘Leadership’ parameter influences the morale of all nearby subordinates in battle.

· If a soldier has a skill that is better developed than the others, this skill will be increased during the automatic experience distribution.

· If a soldier does not have any skills, the first skill to be developed is the ‘Gunner’ skill, then the ‘Driver’ skill, and finally the ‘Scout’ skill.

Combat Experience Points can be distributed as follows:

Action Effect

Improvement of the ‘Driver’ skill

Improvement of the ‘Gunner’ skill

Improvement of the ‘Scout’ skill

Driving military vehicles

Firing heavy weapons: tanks and artillery

Concealment, and observation

Improves ‘Leadership’ skill

Improves ‘Leadership’ skill

Promotion to a higher rank

Awarding a soldier with a medal

Tactics

Each vehicle or soldier possesses several characteristics influencing his ability to spot enemies as well as the chances of being spotted himself:

Ability to Spot Enemy

(basic characteristics)

‘Scout’ (personal skill)

Visibility radius (a permanent value depending on the unit type)

(modifying factors)

Obstacles in the line of sight

Terrain

Enemy firing

Engine sounds

Enemy moving

Battlefield recon from friendly units on the battlefield

Chances of Being Spotted

(basic characteristics)

‘Scout’ (personal skill)

(modifying factors)

Actions performed (movement, firing, engine sound)

(additional parameters)

‘Camouflage’ (depends on the ‘Scout’ skill and the terrain)

Basic Spotting Rules

· Visibility is best to the front of a unit or soldier, but there is no guarantee for 100% identification.

· Enemies outside of the viewing arc of a unit cannot be identified unless they give themselves away by a shot or engine sounds or unless their position is known to other friendly units (in that case their icon appears faded)

· Any obstacle in the line of sight (trees, houses, bushes, operable and damaged vehicles) reduces the chances of spotting an enemy unit.

Grass represents no obstacle to spotting.

· Any cover used by vehicles or personnel modifies the ‘Camouflage’ parameter of the combat unit.

· Fences in villages and towns as well as barbed-wire provide no cover and do not prevent spotting.

· Any soldier can take cover behind any object, including friendly vehicles or the remains of damaged vehicles.

· A large tank can find sufficient cover in a thick forest, whereas already thick brush will suffice for guns. Individual soldiers can hide behind tanks or armored vehicles.

· Even a large military formation can secretly approach an enemy position using a ravine or a hill as cover.

· Any sound or action may disclose the location of vehicles or soldiers. A shot gives the enemy a higher chance to spot the shooter even if the latter is behind cover.

· Even if an enemy is heard (by firing a shot or engine sounds), the target positioning icon (i.e. reliable knowledge about the enemy’s location) does not always appear automatically.

· If a friendly soldier sees an enemy unit you will receive battlefield recon information from them and the unit will therefore appear on your screen with a faded icon

· Soldiers with a high ‘Scout’ skill can remain unspotted even at close range if moving cautiously and only firing occasionally.

· An infantryman with a high ‘Scout’ skill and a sniper rifle (which is less noticeable for the enemy when fired) can inflict significant losses on enemy troops if moving cautiously and changing his firing position frequently.

Weather conditions do affect the chances to spot an enemy.

Network Game

Note: If you are using a router, firewall, proxy server or similal configurations for your internet connection, please do not forget to check the

‘Multiplayer Configuration Readme’ document located in the game directory. It explains how to correctly set your ports and other configuration settings to allow the game to recognize an online connection.

“Theatre of War” supports LAN and online multiplayer games. There can be a total of up to 8 players. Multiplayer games are using the client/ server architecture. Direct Internet access is required to host a game server, i.e. the computer’s IP address is to be accessible from an external network.

At first one of the players should create a game server. Having created it, the server player gets to the multiplayer battle selection screen where he waits for other players to connect. The other players also get to this screen after connecting to the server.

When in the battle selection screen, the players prepare for the coming battle. They explore the available battles, select the side they want to join in the current battle and the color of their armies, and choose to ally with others or play alone.

A “side” in the battle is a group of troops to be operated by the player during the battle. In a multiplayer battle there are normally several sides, e.g.: Germans, Russians, and Americans. Several or even all of the players can select the same side. If several players have selected the same side, it means that they will have the same composition of troops. It does not mean that they are allies (see alliances below).

The player’s army color is the color of the icons appearing on top of his troops on the battlefield. The color of the icons is different for each player. Note that the meaning of the colors in the multiplayer mode differs from the single-player mode: there are no special colors for enemies and allies. Each army is marked by its own color instead.

An alliance means one or several players are friendly to each other.

If players are members of an alliance, their troops do not attack each other but attack other alliances and independent players. An allied player is able to see not only his own troops during a battle, but also the troops of all the other players in his alliance and their combat actions.

Different alliances are always enemies to each other. A player who is not a member to any alliance is an enemy for all others and plays on his own.

If a player has chosen a “Random” side or “Random” army color, he will receive a group of troops selected randomly or his army will be as-

signed with a random unused color, respectively.

Only the host is able to select the battle map to play on.

During the game, any player (except for the host) can log out. The remaining players will continue the game. After logging out the player may not reconnect to the active server to regain control of his troops again.

However, the disconnected player’s troops remain in the game and participate in combat actions on their own, so that the disconnected player could in theory even win in the battle.

If the host decides to disconnect, the game is over and all the players get to the startup menu.

There are no special types of multiplayer battles. There is only one goal in any multiplayer game – to destroy all the enemies! These can be the troops of all the other players if a player plays alone or the troops of all the enemies of the alliance.

Each battle contains a brief description. However, surprises may wait for the players in certain battles, e.g. a group of troops in an ambush that is not controlled by any player or perfectly operable abandoned vehicles that can be used, etc.

A multiplayer game can be won by a single player if he plays alone

(i.e. is not in any alliance) or by the whole alliance. If an alliance wins all its members are considered to be the winners, even those who have lost all their troops.

Online Game Startup Menu

Player’s Name

This is the name by which other players will identify you in an online game. Note that this is not the name of your profile. Here you can change your name for the online game alone.

Local Area Network

Here you can see a list of the visible servers in your LAN. This list is automatically updated from time to time. Press the “Update” button to force update the list manually.

The list does not show the servers with games in progress.

The server list contains the following columns:

· “Server Name”: the name of the online game.

· “Map”: the name of the map currently selected on the server.

· “Players”: the first number shows the quantity of the available

(currently connected) players while the second number appearing after a slash shows the maximum number of players allowed on the server.

· “Version”: the version of “Theatre of War.” You may only log in to servers with the same version of the game.

· “Ping”: communications delay with the server shown in milli-

seconds. The higher the number, the slower the connection.

Certain servers can be unavailable. Unavailable servers are “greyed out”. This means that you cannot connect to this server for some reason.

Examples of typical connection problems are:

· Different version of the game on your computer and on the server;

· The server has no vacant places as it has reached the maximum number of players;

· The server has disconnected you and the disconnection time has not elapsed (see below);

· Other connection problems related to internet connectivity

To connect to the server click on it in the list and then on the “Log in” button. Or double-click server name.

If you wish to create a new server in your LAN, press the “Create

Game” button. See the description “Online” / “Create Game” below.

Online

Here you can either join a server or create your own.

Create Game

A new online game is created in the same way for LAN and Internet.

Press the “Create Game” button. Enter your game name and select

the max number of players. Battle maps with a smaller number of players than the one specified here will not be available.

Enter a password for connecting to the server, if required. If the server is password protected all the players will need to enter the password before being able to log in to your server.

Log in

Here you can enter an online name or IP-address of the game server and the server password to log in (if required).

Battle Selection Screen (Server and Client)

This screen consists of the following parts:

· Player list in the top left part;

· Chat screen in the bottom left part;

· Battle list screen in the right part.

On the battle selection screen the players scroll through the available battles, select their side and the color of their armies, and make alliances.

The currently selected battle is visible as “highlighted” by all the connected players. There is a map of the selected battle in the top right corner of the screen. The spawn points from where the players may start are marked by shields.

The side the player will be on in the battle is marked by a flag.

If a player is a member to any alliance the number of the alliance will appear opposite to that player’s name in the list. If a player is not allied, nothing is displayed. If a player has selected his army color, a small square with this color will appear opposite to that player’s name. Random color is not shown.

If required, the host can disconnect any other player for some time

(up to a minute) by selecting this player and pressing the “Disconnect” button. The disconnected player leaves the game. However, after the lapse of this time the disconnected player may reconnect to the server once again.

The players may switch off the display of each other’s messages in the chat window (“mute”). To do so one should toggle the “Chat” flag in the relevant row of the player list.

When the connected player has chosen his side, color and alliance in the coming battle he should press the “Ready” button.

After the actions listed above are completed, the host selects the battle map and launches the game. The host’s “Start Game” button is initially locked. To launch the game all players are to agree to the terms and conditions of the game and press the “Ready” button. Once this is the case the host’s “Start Game” button is unlocked. By pressing it the host starts the battle.

Multiplayer Combat Interface

The player game interface in a multiplayer game is almost identical to the single-player mode. The only differences concern the current battle statistics panel and the end battle screen.

Current Battle Statistics Panel

In the right part of the statistics panel there is a list of players showing the side, color, and alliance membership of each player. The players whose armies have been defeated are marked by a “Eliminated”

(skull) icon. The names of the disconnected players are highlighted gray.

End Battle Statistics Screen

The difference from the single-player mode is that any player can see the game statistics of the other players by switching to them in the list presented in the top right part of the screen.

By pressing the “Continue” button the host (and all the other players with him, too) move on to the battle selection screen again to start a new game if they like.

Credits

1C Company

Oleg Maddox

Igor Egorov

Yury Antonov

Dmitry Soldatenkov

Sergey Sokov

Yury Kryachko

Rudolf Geyder

ORIGINAL CONCEPT

Nikolay Baryshnikov

Alexander Boltovich

Yury Miroshnikov

PRODUCER

Yury Miroshnikov

PROJECT MANAGER

David Filippov

ART DIRECTOR

Ilya Fofanov

LEAD DESIGNER

Oleg Bazarnov

LEAD PROGRAMMER

Igor Skripachev

LEAD ARTIST

Pavel Mitrofanov

AI PROGRAMMING

Oleg Bazarnov

Igor Skripachev

Roman Aleksandrov

Cyril Ivanov

Anton Kiselyov

DAMAGE SYSTEM PROGRAMMING

Igor Skripachev

Roman Aleksandrov

Sergey Sokov

Vladimir Derkachev

GRAPHIC SYSTEM PROGRAMMING

Michael Samsonov

Anatoly Boltunov

Sergey Sokov

Sergey Shajkin

Igor Egors

Jury Krjachko

Dmitry Gavrilenko

MULTPLAYER PROGRAMMING

Roman Aleksandrov

Vladimir Derkachev

Dmitry Gavrilenko

Igor Skripachev

Maxim Vorsobin

ART

3D MODELLING

Vladimir Verjugin

Alexey Glinsky

Konstantin Loskutov

Evgenie Markov

Andrey Levitov

Sofia Elovikova

Alexander Fateyev

Andrei Shelkun

“TriDigital” Studio

2D

Andrei Maksimov

Paul Mitrofanov

Anton Krjuchkov

Sofia Elovikova

Alexander Grachev

INTERFACE AND MAPS

Andrei Maksimov

Paul Mitrofanov

Anton Krjuchkov

ANIMATIONS

Victor Gluhushin

Sergey Nikolenko

INTRO VIDEO

“TriDigital” Studio

MISSION DESIGN

Alexander Chistjakov

MISSION EDITOR PROGRAMMING

Aleksey Petrjashev

Victor Sharlaj

Dmitry Gavrilenko

MAP EDITOR PROGRAMMING

Dmitry Korolkov

Dmitry Gavrilenko

INTERFACE PROGRAMMING

Aleksey Petrjashev

Dmitry Gavrilenko

Roman Aleksandrov

Maxim Vorsobin

EFFECTS PROGRAMMING

Vladimir Derkachev

Jury Krjachko

Roman Aleksandrov

ANIMATION PROGRAMMING

Anton Kiselyov

Roman Aleksandrov

Sergey Sokov

Alexander Chistjakov

SOUND SYSTEM PROGRAMMING

Rudolf Gejder

Roman Aleksandrov

Igor Skripachev

Andrei Kislov

Alexander Grachev

Oleg Bazarnov

Victor Sharlaj

Arseny Adamov

MAP DESIGN

Alexander Grachev

Alexander Chistjakov

Andrei Kislov

Pavel Mitrofanov

BRIEFINGS

Konstantin Sapronenkov

Alexander Chistjakov

Alexander Grachev

Andrei Kislov

Alexander Baryshnikov

INGAME VIDEO SCRIPTING

Andrei Kislov

HISTORICAL ADVISERS

Jury Pasholok

Boris Julin

Ivan Sliva

SOUND EFFECTS

Alexander Chistjakov

Sergey Nechitailo

VOICE RECORDING

Vladimir Greznev

Alexander Chistjakov

Artem Kolpakov

“Muza-Games” studio

HEAD OF TESTING GROUP

Alexander Shishov

TESTING GROUP

Alexander Trifonov

Sergey Kijatkin

Dmitry Savin

Alexander Shelaputov

Oleg Bujantsev

Nicolay Nikolaev

Alexander Latyshev

Q&A

Anna Solomatina

PR

Nicolay Baryshnikov

Alexei Artemenko

Anatoly Subbotin

Alexander Baryshnikov

LOCALIZATION MANAGER

Oleg Mironov

Company Web Site: http://int.games.1c.ru/

The game uses the technologies of the ‘IL-2:

Shturmovik’ project.

The game uses the technologies of Ligos INTEL INDEO

Software ver 5.11, Ligos® Corporation http://ligos.com/

BATTLEFRONT.COM

PLAY TESTERS / CONSULTANTS:

John ‘Elvis’ Costello

Tim ‘Rune’ Orosz

Chris ‘Jr. Evil’ Orosz

Elmar Bijlsma

Mike ‘PseudoSimonds’ Steiger

Matthew ‘Gunnersman’ Merrell

Craig ‘Harv’ Harvey

John ‘Elvis’ Costello

John D. Salt

Miikka Lyytikainen

Jason ‘Axe’ Ballantyne

Jochen ‘ParaBellum’ Baur

Andreas Bierman

Jari ‘Sergei’ Mikkonen

Martin van Balkom

LOCALIZATION AND EDITING:

Matt Faller

Steve Grammont

Jason Ballantyne

Martin van Balkom

Sean Butler

Game Web Site:http://www.battlefront.com

Tech Support

While we’re taking utmost care in preparation of this software to avoid bugs, today’s myriad of available systems, software and hardware environments makes it impossible to foresee 100% of all issues which players might encounter.

running or installing the game, please visit our Tech Support Forum at: w w w . b a t t l e f r

If you do not find a solution to your problem there, please email us at: unlicensing the game, please refer first to the F.A.Q. at:

If you do not find a solution to your problem there, please email:

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