released under the foi act 1982 - Department of Immigration and

released under the foi act 1982 - Department of Immigration and
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From imagination to impact
CCTV Futures Report
For Australian Customs and Border Protection
Prof. Brian C. Lovell (NICTA)
Mr. Paul Donato (Lighthouse Alliance)
Dr. Abbas Bigdelli (NICTA)
Ms. Sandra Mau (NICTA)
30 June 2009
CCTV Futures Report
Table of Contents
1
Executive Summary ........................................................................................................... 4
2
Introduction....................................................................................................................... 6
3
Trends Summary................................................................................................................ 7
Top 10 CCTV Technology Trends ............................................................................... 7
3.2
Top 10 CCTV System Trends ...................................................................................... 8
Customs Business Context................................................................................................. 9
4.1
The role of CCTV in Customs ..................................................................................... 9
4.2
Customs Environments for CCTV Usage.................................................................... 9
4.3
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4
3.1
4.4
5
Classification of Current Customs CCTV Systems.................................................... 11
Need to Digitise Infrastructure................................................................................ 12
CCTV Technology Trends ................................................................................................. 13
5.1
CCTV Evolution: From Analog to Digital ................................................................. 13
5.1.1
CCTV Generations............................................................................................ 13
5.1.2
Migration to Digital.......................................................................................... 16
5.1.3
Implications & Benefits of Going Digital.......................................................... 17
5.2
Data Storage ............................................................................................................ 17
5.2.1
Recorders: VCR/DVR/NVR .............................................................................. 17
5.2.2
Local vs. Remote Storage................................................................................. 18
5.2.3
Storage Medium .............................................................................................. 19
5.3
Data Transmissions.................................................................................................. 21
5.3.1
Data Transmission ........................................................................................... 21
5.3.2
Open Standards in Compression Technology (H264 SVC)............................... 27
5.3.3
Bandwidth ....................................................................................................... 29
5.3.4
Data Security ................................................................................................... 31
5.3.5
Open Standards in Communication and Software .......................................... 32
5.3.6
Systems Ownership ......................................................................................... 33
5.4
Cameras................................................................................................................... 34
5.4.1
Megapixel Cameras ......................................................................................... 34
5.4.2
Other Special Purpose Features ...................................................................... 38
5.4.3
Placement........................................................................................................ 40
1
5.4.4
Automated Camera Checking.......................................................................... 40
5.4.5
Sensor Fusion................................................................................................... 41
5.5
5.5.1
Integrating Video Analytics into a Monitoring Centre .................................... 42
5.5.2
Common Analytic Challenges .......................................................................... 47
5.5.3
Mitigating Common Analytic Challenges......................................................... 47
5.6
Displays.................................................................................................................... 48
5.6.1
Advanced Presentation on 2D and 3D maps................................................... 48
5.6.2
16:9 Format Based on HDTV standard ............................................................ 50
5.6.3
Mobile Device Integration (PDA, Phone)......................................................... 52
5.8
Command, Control & Coordination (C3) ................................................................. 53
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5.7
6
Analytics .................................................................................................................. 42
Evaluation – Performance Metrics and ROI Measures............................................ 56
The CCTV Future .............................................................................................................. 57
Table of Tables
Table 1 Top 10 Technologies for Future CCTV .......................................................................... 7
Table 2 Top 10 System Trends.................................................................................................. 8
Table 3 Typical Customs environments................................................................................... 10
Table 4 Classification of existing Customs CCTV systems........................................................ 11
Table 5 Comparison of SSD and HDD storage ........................................................................ 20
Table 6 WIFI data transmission standards .............................................................................. 25
Table 7 Mobile phone data transmission standards ............................................................... 25
Table 8 Codecs for Surveillance Applications.......................................................................... 29
Table 9 CIF standards for standard definition digital video .................................................... 34
Table 10 Standards for high definition digital video ............................................................... 35
Table 11 Timeframe for Visual Alarms .................................................................................... 46
Table of Figures
Figure 1 Transition from analog to IP (digital) cameras in world video surveillance market
over the period 1980 to 2010.................................................................................................. 12
Figure 2 Classification of CCTV Generations from CISCO White Paper ................................... 14
Figure 3 Typical IP-video network configuration with NVRs .................................................. 16
Figure 4 24dBi 2.4GHz Square Grid/Dish Antenna .................................................................. 24
2
Figure 5 Wireless IP camera network based on mesh networking technology ...................... 26
Figure 6 CCTV Image of London Tube Bombers 7th of July, 2005. Note the interframe
prediction artifact that shows the metal railing in front of one of the bombers instead of
behind him............................................................................................................................... 28
Figure 7 Total Open IP Surveillance Software Market............................................................ 33
Figure 8 HD resolution (left) versus SD resolution (right) ....................................................... 36
Figure 9 A 16 MPixel camera viewing airport departure hall.................................................. 37
Figure 10 A 16 MPixel camera viewing city intersection......................................................... 38
Figure 11 IP camera made up of 5 cell phone camera lenses. In the form of an Ethernet
powered box, this camera provides a 180° panoramic shot................................................... 40
Figure 12 Rain mitigation video filter operating at the Port of Brisbane during storm. ......... 44
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Figure 13 Feature selective fusion of IR and visible light ........................................................ 45
Figure 14 Overlay of AIS data on 3D model of container ship at Port of Brisbane. ................ 45
Figure 15 Surveillance video stitched in real-time at Newark Airport .................................... 48
Figure 16 Surveillance video of a real fire at the Port of Brisbane overlaid on a 3D model of
the site..................................................................................................................................... 49
Figure 17 Tracking a suspect at Jacksonville airport. Suspect position is overlaid on a map of
the terminal. Alternate view of suspect from another camera is made available to operator
through a popup video. ........................................................................................................... 49
Figure 18 HDTV widescreen 16:9 aspect ratio, compared to analog 4:3 ratio....................... 50
Figure 19 UK share of sales of 16:9 with the introduction of digital...................................... 51
Figure 20 Forecast of 16:9 Panel Penetration in the Notebook PC (Left) and LCD Monitor
Markets (Right)........................................................................................................................ 51
Figure 21 Mobile Device Integration ...................................................................................... 52
Figure 22 Examples of virtual desktop software. Left: Spaces on Mac, Right: openSUSE
10.2's virtual desktop .............................................................................................................. 54
3
1 Executive Summary
CCTV is an important tool for monitoring the major air and seaport borders to safeguard
Australian national interests. Currently, the CCTV industry is undergoing a technological shift
as traditional analog CCTV technologies based on television technologies are being replaced
with hybrid and full digital systems based on internet and computer networking
technologies. section 47E(d)
There is no practical possibility of keeping analog CCTV systems alive into the
near future - indeed, even the underlying analog television infrastructure is being switchedoff across Australia between 2010 and 20131. Thus the CCTV systems must be upgraded to
digital technologies to maintain, and preferably improve, their effectiveness both in terms of
performance and operational costs.
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CCTV surveillance is a vast area that is changing rapidly due to the adoption of IP network
technologies. It is also a very diverse field and a complete survey would require several
textbooks. In an attempt to make the report accessible to several target audiences, we have
extracted the top 10 technology (Table 1 on page 7) and system trends (Table 2 on page 8)
for particular attention, but in no particular order, and have highlighted how they relate to
Customs business areas. The report can certainly be read from cover to cover, but it would
possibly be more efficient to look over the top 10s and then drill down to the relevant
sections of interest.
Top 10 Technology Trends
1
IP end-to end, Power over Ethernet
2
HDD/SSD Local Storage
3
Open Standards in Compression Technology
4
Wireless CCTV
5
Special Purpose cameras - Low Light, Wide Dynamic Range
6
Advanced Presentation on 2D and 3D maps
7
Megapixel Cameras
8
16:9 format based on HDTV standard
9
Fast Forensic Search
10 Video Analytics -Motion, Queue length, face , etc
1
Digital Switchover, Australian Government Department of Broadband, Communications and the
Digital Economy, 2009.
4
Top 10 System Trends
Open Standards - Seamless access to all cameras
2
Single Desktop Control Room
3
Interoperability of Camera Networks
4
Partitioning of Infrastructure
5
Remote Monitoring
6
Data Fusion - CCTV + sensors
7
Scalable Situational Awareness
8
Automated Camera Checking
9
Mobile Device Integration
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1
10 Performance & ROI Metrics
5
2 Introduction
In 2009, Customs engaged National Information and Communications Technology Australia
(NICTA) to provide an independent assessment of the current state of the art and future
trends in CCTV surveillance systems which can enhance Customs operations in the future.
NICTA is a government funded company dedicated to ICT research, commercialization, and
research training.
Scope
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The scope of this report is a high level overview of the trends for CCTV technologies, systems
and, operations with a focus on the Customs environments of airport, seaport, container
examination facilities, and armouries. Other environments including post cargo, air cargo,
investigation rooms, and aircraft are out of scope. This report briefly reviews the
requirements for those operating environments in-scope and examines how emerging and
current technologies can better meet those requirements to provide highly effective CCTV
surveillance in the future. The report does not advocate any one solution in particular, nor
does it examine the resource constraints for Customs to provide a strategy for migration or
upgrading. Since this report is focused primarily on a future vision for CCTV surveillance,
funding considerations for the migration to a future network is out of the scope.
Approach
Each Customs environment has an associated symbol which is used throughout the report to
indicate strong relevance of a particular trend or technology to that environment:
Seaport
Symbol:
Airport
Symbol:
Container Examination
Facilities (CEFS)
Symbol:
Detained Goods and
Custodial Armouries (DGCA)
Symbol:
The report is divided into sections comprising:
•
Top 10 Trends Summaries - Section 3 summarizes the top 10 technology trends and
top 10 system trends in terms of their business benefits to Customs and provides a
quick reference to the rest of the document
•
Custom’s Business Context - Section 4 discusses Custom’s activities and operational
requirements
•
CCTV Surveillance Trends - Section 5 gives an overview of trends in CCTV
surveillance technologies and systems
•
A Vision for the Future - Section 6 summarises the business benefits to Customs in
embracing the emerging technology trends
6
3 Trends Summary
3.1 Top 10 CCTV Technology Trends
As there are many stakeholders in Australian Customs and Border Security with different
issues and objectives, it may be convenient to use the following table to determine which
emerging and future technologies will be most relevant to business objectives. Many of
these technologies are available for purchase now, but they will no doubt improve over
time. The following table lists 10 of the top CCTV technologies that are emerging.
Top 10
Overall Business Benefits
Technology Trends
IP end-to end
Save Time
Save Staff
Improved
Performance
Relevant
Environments
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1
Save $
Pages
Power over
Ethernet
2
HDD/SSD Local
Storage
18
3
Open Standards
in Compression
Technology
27
24
34
48
34
50
45
42
H264 SVC
4
Wireless CCTV
5
Special Purpose
cameras
Low Light, Wide
Dynamic Range
6
Advanced
Presentation on
2D and 3D maps
7
Megapixel
Cameras
8
16:9 format
based on HDTV
standard
9
Fast Forensic
Search
10 Video Analytics
Motion, Queue
length, face , etc
Table 1 Top 10 Technologies for Future CCTV (Legend:
Seaport
Airport
CEFS
DGCA)
7
3.2 Top 10 CCTV System Trends
In addition to the point technologies listed in the previous section, the new technologies are
promoting a complete rethink of how CCTV should be used and operated. A major disruptor
is the introduction of IP (Internet Protocol) technologies from computer networks. In analog
systems it was difficult and expensive to send video signals long distances on coax and
dedicated fibre links. The introduction of IP means that video can be transmitted over
virtually any distance and through any internet medium (wireless, phone network etc). Now
it is becoming possible to build surveillance systems that span whole cities or even multiple
cities. With this trend management problems are emerging that require new solutions and
different priorities. For example, in small systems that are not interconnected, proprietary
solutions are easier to install and convenient. However as more systems become connected
there is a strong need for non-proprietary open standards that are supported by a variety of
equipment. The following table lists 10 of the top CCTV System Trends that are emerging.
Top 10
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Overall Business Benefits
System Trends
Save $
Save Time
Save Staff
Improved
Performance
1
32
Open Standards
Relevant
Environments
Pages
Seamless access
to all cameras
2
Single Desktop
Control Room
54
3
Interoperability
of Camera
Networks
53
4
Partitioning of
Infrastructure
33
5
Remote
Monitoring
53
6
Data Fusion
CCTV + sensors
41
7
Scalable
Situational
Awareness
54
8
Automated
Camera
Checking
40
9
Mobile Device
Integration
52
57
10 Performance &
ROI Metrics
Table 2 Top 10 System Trends (Legend:
Seaport
Airport
CEFS
DGCA)
8
4 Customs Business Context
4.1 The role of CCTV in Customs
Customs is responsible for Australian border management to prevent illegal movement of
goods and people while facilitating legitimate trade and travel. It also contributes to wider
national security by assisting other agencies in counter terrorism and law enforcement
initiatives using CCTV as a tool to detect and target criminal and terrorist activity, assisting in
incident response at Australian airports and seaports, and providing high quality CCTV
images as evidence for law enforcement agencies when mounting prosecutions.
In day to day operations CCTV has many practical roles to play.
Gathering performance statistics for passenger movements as a measure of quality
of service at airports
•
Monitoring queue lengths to ensure adequate staffing and effective passenger
movements at airports
•
Protecting staff by repudiating claims for damage and theft by members of the
public (airports- baggage inspection)
•
Gathering surveillance footage on persons of interest at the request of agencies at
airports
•
Determining which aircraft a passenger has arrived on for illegal immigrants who
have destroyed their documents at airports.
•
Monitoring staff to ensure safety as they enter and exit vessels at sea ports
•
Monitoring distant sites to determine when customs officers should leave the office
to inspect arriving ships at sea ports
•
Monitoring visitors accessing Detained Goods Facility
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•
4.2 Customs Environments for CCTV Usage
Customs operates CCTV in many environments including airports, seaports, container
inspection, and armouries. Each environment has special needs and the same CCTV
equipment is unlikely to be suitable for all environments. The following table is a summary
of typical CCTV characteristics in the main Customs Environments:
Seaport
The goal of the surveillance is to detect, recognize, or identify objects in the
field of view
section 47E(d)
section 47E(d)
Areas of activity may change as ships arrive and depart from docks. Typically
addressed by PTZ cameras.
section 47E(d)
Need recognition capability for vehicle number plates and containers
Day and night video operation is needed - 24/7 monitoring requirement
Low light conditions are common
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Airport
Surveillance system needs to be covert in some instances (so that no visible
illumination is used at night)
Harsh external environment due to temperature, weather, and sea air as well
as exposed infrastructure
Wind causes camera and image vibration
Appropriate mountings and housings are critical
High cost to install – also labour intensive
section 47E(d)
CCTV equipment is usually obvious to those behaving in a criminal manner and
thus enables them transfer activity outside the range of view or obscure view.
Requirement to ensure cameras or in good working order at all times (ie.
routine maintenance automated rather than manual – alarm to be triggered if
a camera is not working)
OH&S issues are a major operational need addressed by CCTV
section 47E(d)
Need for remote monitoring for some sites that are unable to be manned
The goal of the surveillance is to detect, recognize or identify objects and
people in the field of view
Airports internal environment is always shifting (new signs, extensions etc) need to be able to relocate cameras at minimal cost
Surveillance system needs to be covert in some instances
Mix of environments both inside and outside
Lighting within terminals is generally not a problem. Low light conditions occur
on the tarmac (light aircraft surveillance)
section 47E(d)
Container
Examination
Facilities
(CEFS)
Detained
Goods and
Custodial
Armouries
(DGCA)
High people traffic flows
Short processing times in which to move passengers through
Need to identify a face in the crowd
Need to detect unauthorized access to secure areas
Threats to passenger safety such as unattended luggage, persons of interest
CCTV assists in OH&S issues – baggage inspection, GST refund counter
Responsive systems required to monitor incidents in real time
High level of need to ensure cameras or in good working order at all times (i.e.,
routine maintenance automated rather than manual – alarm to be triggered if
a camera is not working)
The goal of the surveillance is to detect, recognize or identify objects in the
field of view
Night time and day time surveillance - 24/7 monitoring requirement
High contrast in light between capturing images within containers and outside
of containers
Require good view of the unpack and repack activity
Surveillance system needs to be covert in some instances (so that no visible
illumination is used at night)
The goal of the surveillance is to detect, recognize or identify objects in the
field of view
Night time and day time surveillance - 24/7 monitoring requirement
section 47E(d)
section 47E(d)
Destruction of detained goods requires close surveillance to ensure any
criminal behaviour (e.g., theft) is deterred or captured on surveillance.
Surveillance system needs to be covert in some instances
Table 3 Typical Customs environments
10
4.3 Classification of Current Customs CCTV Systems
CCTV systems can be classed into four basic generations depending on the degree of digital
processing.
•
First Generation: Analog for everything - VCR for storage
•
Second Generation: Analog Switching, Digital Recording - DVR for storage
•
Third Generation: Analog Switching, IP Recording - NVR for storage
•
Fourth Generation: IP for everything - NVR for storage
The existing Customs CCTV systems in the four Customs environments can thus be
categorised as per Table 4 below. See Section 5.1.1 on page 13 for a full description of CCTV
Generations. Also refer to Mike Hogben’s (GHD) report for a description of the current
system architecture.
Second
Generation
Third Generation
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First Generation
Seaport - 32
Ports System
Fourth
Generation
Seaport - 31
Ports System
Airports
Cargo
Examination
Facility
Detained
Goods and
Custodial
Armouries
Table 4 Classification of existing Customs CCTV systems
11
4.4 Need to Digitise Infrastructure
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CCTV technologies have been steadily evolving from analog to digital over the past few
decades and Fourth Generation IP Surveillance systems is the current industry focus. Figure
1 plots the evolution of surveillance equipment from analog to IP (digital) back in the 1980s
to present. Industry analysis has found that demand for digital systems (IP and hybrids)
surpassed that of analog systems back in 20022 and predict that analog product sales would
be flat for 2009.3 As demand evolves, supply in terms of analog equipment and replacement
parts, will soon be phased out as well.
Figure 1 Transition from analog to IP (digital) cameras in world video surveillance market over the
4
period 1980 to 2010
Customs is aware of this transition towards digital and is actively reviewing the current and
future CCTV Surveillance options to avoid obscelecence. They are in the process of
migrating their systems to digital (most are hybrids with only the “Thirty Two” ports system
still analog). This report hopes to provide an overview of current and emerging CCTV
Surveillance technologies and to identify the ones most relevant to Customs operating
environments.
2
Converting an Analog CCTV System to IP-Surveillance. Axis Communications White Paper, 2002.
3
Frost & Sullivan makes bold predictions for security, IP. Security System News, 2009.
4
World Video surveillance market – Investment Analysis 2008. Frost and Sullivan, 2008.
12
5 CCTV Technology Trends
5.1 CCTV Evolution: From Analog to Digital
CCTV technologies have been steadily evolving from analog to digital over the past few
decades as seen in Figure 1. The reason for this migration is that digital technology allows
greater reliability, effectiveness and flexibility in surveillance operations, access to high
definition images, generic hardware platforms, and video analytics.
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In the past, CCTV surveillance has been characterised by analog systems that suffered from
several major short-comings, including high maintenance requirements (especially with tape
systems), costly retrofits for remote accessibility, and difficulties in integrating with other
systems. Customs experience some of these issues daily in the “Thirty-Two” ports analog
systems which have remote access at high cost, costly maintenance, storage of low quality
video on VHS tapes, and no video analytic or instantaneous playback capabilities. Even the
hybrid analog-digital systems currently in Customs airport and “Thirty-One” ports
installations suffer from some of the legacy analog drawbacks including the use of costly
fibre optics, local storage limitations, and remote access limitations.
Emerging digital systems can be designed to eliminate many such issues for Customs by
allowing remote access of video by multiple agencies, higher quality digital videos and
storage for forensic analysis and evidence, and lower cost in maintenance and expansion.
On top of that, there are other benefits including ease of use for the operators, advanced
search capabilities, and shorter training periods. Digital CCTV systems also have the
potential to increase safety and efficiency in operations, and assist in areas with lower
staffing resources through computer analytics.
5.1.1
CCTV Generations
CCTV systems can be classed into four basic generations depending on the degree of digital
processing (illustrated in Figure 2):
•
First Generation: Analog for everything - VCR for storage
•
Second Generation: Analog Switching, Digital Recording - DVR for storage
•
Third Generation: Analog Switching, IP Recording - NVR for storage
•
Fourth Generation: IP for everything - NVR for storage
13
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Figure 2 Classification of CCTV Generations from CISCO White Paper
5
First Generation (Analog System)
In analog video surveillance systems all components are analog: analog cameras, coaxial
cables for transmission, analog video matrix and switch, analog TV monitors, and video
cassette recorders (VCRs) using VHS cassette tapes. There are numerous drawbacks in using
analog systems including no simultaneous recording and feedback, slow video search, tape
5
Cisco Systems IP Network-Centric Video Surveillance. Cisco, 2009.
14
wear, tape storage, lower quality images, distance restrictions, and high maintenance costs.
Moreover, analog systems are usually based on proprietary signaling and format protocols
thus multi-vendor component interoperability is not an option without extensive and costly
customization. Customs is well aware of these limitations and have started migrating to
hybrid systems with only the Thirty-Two ports system still fully analog as of 2009.
Second and Third Generation (Hybrid Systems)
Hybrid video surveillance systems combine some analog components with digital
components. Typically, the component which benefits most from digital technology is the
storage – replacing VCRs with Digital Video Recorders (DVRs) in Second Generation systems
or Network Video Recorders (NVRs) in Third Generation systems to store video on disk
drives rather than tape.
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DVRs offer the capability of real-time simultaneous recording and playback, they search
through video faster, store with higher video quality and less loss, and can provide
convenient storage redundancy. Display can be via analog monitors or PC client systems.
DVRs still stores data locally, but can be connected to a network to provide remote access
and viewing of these data. This Second Generation model is what is currently implemented
by Customs in Airports, CEFS, and DGCA.
An NVR differs from a DVR in that the analog signals from the cameras are encoded to digital
and switched to a network using the Internet Protocol (IP). Having an IP system facilitates
remote storage, can be run on lower-cost commercial off the shelf (COTS) servers, and offers
secure and convenient multi-user remote viewing and data access. Customs has
implemented something similar for the Thirty-One ports system which has remote access
and control capabilities.
Fourth Generation (Fully Digital Systems)
The biggest trend in video surveillance is a fully digital surveillance system (also known as IPSurveillance systems). Rather than a centralized system for switching, storage, and
monitoring, the IP-Surveillance system components all connect to an IP network. Cameras
connect to the network either directly or through a video server and the data is stored on
Network Video Recorders (NVR) which can be situated anywhere on the network. IP
systems can still support analog technology (for example, analog cameras with coax
transmission, or analog monitors), but those analog inputs need to be converted to IP
protocol in a video server (Figure 3). As the older analog technology gets progressively
phased out, it can be replaced with new IP hardware which will have a wider range of
capabilities (i.e., multi-megapixel cameras, sensor fusion and integration, etc.).
15
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Figure 3 Typical IP-video network configuration with NVRs
From a Customs perspective, IP-surveillance would be a good fit as it conveniently allows
multiple national agencies that rely on CCTV video data to independently access the
information without interfering with other parties (i.e., AFP could access a fixed airport CCTV
cam and zoom into a multi-mega pixel image without other parties knowing who they are
observing). IP-based systems can also use video analytics to alert operators, either locally or
remotely, of any alarms (i.e., motion in a secure area, identification of person on a watch list,
etc.) which should lower operator resource requirements and also increase effectiveness of
detection of suspicious activity.
5.1.2
Migration to Digital
Implementing a full digital system can be achieved through a step-by-step process to replace
legacy technology over time. Having a migration plan with an end vision of a fully IP system
by a certain time horizon can effectively evolve the infrastructure from an analog system, to
a hybrid system, and finally to an IP system.
Cost-benefit and resource analysis by Customs will be required to determine which
components should be migrated to digital first. For example, it can be prohibitively
expensive to replace analog cameras and the coaxial cable infrastructure for an seaport to
adopt it to IP due to costs associated with removal of old cables and placement of new
cables with consideration for the new IP camera placements. Yet the decision to replace
VCRs with DVRs, or TV monitors with a PC and PC monitor is relatively inexpensive.
Note that hybrid systems tend to suffer from high latency (video is delayed compared to
real-time) due to multiple conversion of analog to digital. Due to frame interleaving of the
MPEG and related digital formats, each conversion from analog to digital incurs a minimum
delay of 3 frames which corresponds to a 200 ms delay. Any latency greater than 200ms
causes operators great difficulty when operating PTZ cameras. A full digital solution will
generally have lower latency than a hybrid system.
16
5.1.3
Implications & Benefits of Going Digital
The migration to digital for any long-term system is not a matter of “if”, but “when”. Digital
CCTV technology is an imminent trend that can be met through progressive system upgrades
and advanced planning for future systems.
The following sections in this report will go into more detail regarding how digital
surveillance will impact the individual component technologies, the benefits and drawbacks,
and the challenges and considerations.
5.2 Data Storage
5.2.1
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The choice of data storage medium should be made depending on the environment and
cost. The choice of local or remote storage can also be impacted by the structure of the
system, available bandwidth, and costs.
Recorders: VCR/DVR/NVR
Video Cassette Recorders (VCRs) were used to record analog video to a magnetic tape
medium. It was a single copy on a VHS cassette, and not easily sharable or searchable
(linear).
Digital Video Recorders (DVRs) are a digital recording (from either an analog or a digital
signal) to a disk which allowed random access to the data (i.e., not linear). The versatility of
DVRs is much greater than VCRs, allowing digital frame grabs, computer network
connectivity, and searching based on time, date, or even motion. Typically, when used with
analog video cameras, DVRs incorporate proprietary devices containing analog to digital
capture cards, which can be expensive. The cameras connect to the DVRs through BNC
connectors.
Network Video Recorders (NVRs) allow the direct transmission of digital data between the
camera and the recorder over a network. All the cameras connect to the NVR via a high
speed Ethernet port. It is an internet protocol (IP) based system which can be managed,
accessed, and controlled remotely allowing for greater flexibility in choice of storage and
workstation location (local, remote, multiple), and is easily scalable. The newest generation
of NVR hardware are on open platform systems, which means that they can run any IP
recording software on the market (rather than proprietary software as with analog CCTV
systems).
Digital systems applying either DVR or NVR, can offer enormous advantages over VCR
including:
•
No tape management, cataloguing, and failure issues, and no visits to remote
locations to change tapes
•
Automatic offsite backup (mainly NVR) and automatic management of storage (30
day retention) at a low cost
•
Video coding and strong encryption
17
•
Simultaneous record and playback, and high speed search, fast forward, rewind
(600x)
•
Easy extraction of video and high quality still frames
There are also some potential drawbacks:
•
Potential manipulation of video which can be a problem for court evidence. Need to
ensure that system meets standards for forensic evidence.
•
Difficult to detect tampering . Need for digital watermarking to prevent tampering.
•
Need trusted operators and good policies
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From a Custom’s perspective, the requirement to provide Australian government agencies
with forensic video evidence involves reviewing and searching the video, and providing a
digital copy which is easily facilitated by both DVRs and NVRs. NVRs also offer multiple and
remote access capabilities such that other federal agencies can be given remote access to
the video (security issues discussed in Section 5.3.4) thus freeing Custom’s agents to
continue surveillance; For example, Customs locations that are low on staff can fall back on
remote surveillance from the National Monitoring Centre in Melbourne (NMC). At the
moment, only the Thirty-One ports system facilitates remote access by the NMC and none of
the systems facilitate access by multiple agencies.
Between NVR and DVR, the trend is heading towards a NVR solution with separate video
servers which allow more flexibility in storage location (which is particularly useful for
airports with space constraints) increased reliability in storage and flexibility for future
expansion. With NVR, multiple control room solutions are possible (rather than the single
local control rooms of the 1960’s analog CCTV systems). In regards to migration, it is best to
ensure that any infrastructure being upgraded should be made IP ready so that individual
analog components (i.e. cameras, etc.) can be phased out bit by bit at they reach their end
of life.
5.2.2
Local vs. Remote Storage
Digital CCTV technologies and networked IP-Surveillance systems will allow storage of video
at the source (i.e. camera), near the source, and/or elsewhere on the network through
scalable distributed storage solutions. With a networked system, the video can be stored in
multiple locations as well (whether local or remote) which can provides redundancy which
shields against unexpected failure.
Note that typical hard disk drives in CCTV environments actively reading or writing 99% of
the time compared to a server which may be active 40% of the time or a desktop PC which
may be active just 3% of the time. This load means that disk failures are common in CCTV
systems, so it is important to specify high quality disks and have a hot swap facility such as
provided by RAID6 systems.
6
David A. Patterson, Garth Gibson, and Randy H. Katz: A Case for Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive
Disks (RAID). University of California Berkley. 1988.
18
For remote data storage, network bandwidth is the major stumbling block, particularly if
there are many cameras on the network. In such systems it makes much more sense for the
recorded video to remain local to the camera network. Local storage may have to be
performed in a high quality, high-bandwidth format such as MJPEG to maintain the forensic
nature of the recording. Such formats use too much bandwidth for the purposes of remote
viewing through leased lines where bandwidth is expensive. The trick is to realise that only
the video feeds that are viewed need physical transmission to the remote site and this can
be done using a compressed format such as H264.
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For example, in a large site with 1000 cameras perhaps only, say, 10 would need to be
viewed at any one time. These could be compressed using H264 video compression to just
20% of the bandwidth required for MJPEG. Thus remote viewing would only require 0.2% of
the bandwidth of the recording system. This can be further improved by more aggressive
compression strategies especially if the display size is less than the native resolution of the
video feed — which is common is single desktop surveillance displays
Although the overall surveillance system may have distributed network storage with
multiple local NVRs, the overall system can be made totally seamless to the operator as
there is no need to know where the video is physically stored, analogous to websites hosted
on different ISPs that can be accessed through the internet.
5.2.3
Storage Medium
With the advent of digitisation, the two major options for storage are Solid State Drives
(SSD) and Hard Disk Drives (HDD). Tape is considered to be a legacy technology. Optical
media such as DVD are mainly useful for providing video to external agencies for forensic
examination. Table 5 compares the two storage options and further details are provided
below.
Solid State Drives (SSD)
Hard Disk Drives (HDD)
Robust to shock, altitude, vibration,
and temperature variations; low
power consumption
Low cost, wide availability, and
largest storage capacity
Limitations
High cost, lower storage capacity,
limited number of erase cycles
10,000 – 1,000,0007
Lower mechanical reliability (can be
mitigated by RAID configuration)
Costs8
Flash: US$1.50 - US$3.45/GB
US$0.38/GB
Features
(c.f. DRAM: USD80.00/GB)
Usage
7
Bez, R.; Camerlenghi, E.; Modelli, A.; Visconti, A. (2003), "Introduction to flash memory", Proceedings
of the IEEE 91 (4): 489–502, 2003-04
8
Lucas Mearian, "Solid-state disk lackluster for laptops, PCs", Published 27 Aug 2008, Retrieved on 3
Nov 2009.
19
Remote, high vibration (vehicle), or
harsh environments that need local
storage; Portable devices.
Indoors & stationary
Table 5 Comparison of SSD and HDD storage
Solid State Drive (SSD)
Solid state storage is based on semiconductor technologies and is commonly used in flash
memory or memory cards. For video storage purposes, a solid-state drive (SSD) can be used
in place of a hard disk drive (HDD) using the same interfaces with PC and servers. In
comparison with HDD, SSD has the advantages of:
High mechanical reliability as there are no moving parts, which makes it robust to
shock, altitude, vibration and extreme temperatures
•
Faster start-up times and fast random access
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•
There are also disadvantages in comparison to HDD, including:
•
Higher cost: As of mid-2008, commercial HDD cost less than about US$0.38/GB,
compared to US$1.50 - US$3.45/GB for flash SSD (lower power but slower) and over
US$80.00/GB for DRAM-based SSD (higher power but faster). However, the trend is
that the prices are coming down for all storage media9.
•
Limited write/erase cycles for flash SSD, though high endurance cells can endure 1-5
million write cycles.
•
DRAM-based SSD require more power than HDD
Given its higher cost, lower storage capacity, and mechanical robustness, SSDs may be most
suitable for local back-up storage, particularly if the camera and storage are located in
remote or harsh environmental locations where regular maintenance may be an issue. Such
local back-ups can add an extra redundancy to maintain video surveillance even if the
network connection is experiencing issues (e.g., wireless links). It can also be used for
storage that is portable or is likely to move around (i.e. commonly found in ruggedized
laptops).
Hard Disk Drive (HDD)
Hard disk storage stores digitally encoded data on rotating magnetic disks. It is currently
the standard for storage in PCs and servers. Note that SSD devices are just emerging as an
alternative in the notebook market. Currently, the highest capacity HDDs are 2 TB with spin
9
Lucas Mearian, "Solid-state disk lackluster for laptops, PCs", Published 27 Aug 2008, Retrieved on 3
Nov 2009.
20
speeds ranging from 5,400 rpm for desktop systems to up to 15,000 rpm for enterprise
systems.
A common data storage scheme is to use an array of disks for redundancy known as RAID.
For CCTV applications, it is common to use RAID 1 or mirrored disks. Two disks each store
exactly the same data, at the same time, and at all times. Data is not lost as long as one disk
remains working. If the two mirrored disk sets are physically remote from each other, there
is significant protection against fire and other threats. Note that mirroring requires twice
the disk space.
The trend in HDDs over the past decade has been an exponential increase in disk space and
data access speeds. They can currently provide large storage capacities for memory
intensive storage such as digital video and audio recordings. HDDs are a widely adopted
technology with few competitors in this sector.
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Given is low cost, wide availability, and large storage capacity, HDDs is the most suitable
medium for a bulk of the video data storage into the foreseeable future.
5.3 Data Transmissions
The current trend is the progression towards a networked, IP-based surveillance system
through which video can be easily routed, stored and streamed to multiple locations. This
section looks at considerations for network structure, security, standards and ownership in
an IP-Surveillance systems in relation to Custom’s needs.
5.3.1
Data Transmission
Internet Protocol (IP)
The term Internet Protocol (IP) is typically used to refer to communication of data through a
packet-switched network using the TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
standard. The internet protocol was designed to allow computers running different
operating systems and using different communication protocols to share their information
using a common network communication language.
It is illuminating to revisit the early days of the internet and the motivation behind the
military project called the ARPAnet which led to today’s public internet. The need for internetworking was made obvious by the apparent waste of resources the isolated nature of
computer systems caused in the 1960’s.
21
"For each of these three terminals, I had three different sets of user commands. So if I
was talking online with someone at S.D.C. and I wanted to talk to someone I knew at
Berkeley or M.I.T. about this, I had to get up from the S.D.C. terminal, go over and log
into the other terminal and get in touch with them. [...] I said, it's obvious what to do
(But I don't want to do it): If you have these three terminals, there ought to be one
terminal that goes anywhere you want to go where you have interactive computing.
That idea is the ARPAnet."
—Robert W. Taylor, co-writer with Licklider of "The Computer as a Communications
Device", in an interview with the New York Times10
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It could be argued that the advent of IP communication for CCTV today is allowing isolated
CCTV systems to link with other systems in a similar manner to the early stages of the
internet. Once again this is driving equipment manufacturers away from proprietary
solutions and towards common formats and open standards.
Communication in IP networks is typically through Ethernet connections. Within buildings
this is generally carried on Category 5 (CAT 5)11 twisted pair wiring as is currently used for
both data and communications in modern structured wiring systems. CAT 5 can carry IP
over Ethernet at 100Mbps over distances of up to 100m. For longer distances and between
buildings12, IP is supported on a huge number of transmission media including long-range
single-mode13 fibre, mobile (3G), and WiFi (IEEE 802.11) wireless networks.
Some of the advantages of using IP include:
•
Digital transmission (IP) carries CCTV video virtually any distance with no loss or
error due to the regenerative nature of digital systems coupled with error control
mechanisms
•
Convenient and secure transmission of CCTV through the public internet for remote
viewing and maintenance
•
Very high levels of transmission security using well-accepted data encryption
technologies
•
Cost reduction due to using COTS computer networking components from IT
suppliers rather than specialist CCTV equipment
10
An Internet Pioneer Ponders the Next Revolution. New York Times, 20 December 1999.
11
Federal Standard 1037C - August 7, 1996: Glossary of Telecommunication Terms.
12
Fibre should be used between buildings for electrical isolation and lightning protection.
13
Single Modem fibre is used in many applications where data is sent at multi-frequency (WDM
Wave-Division-Multiplexing) so only one cable is needed to transmit many channels. Single-mode
fibre supports higher transmission rates and up to 50 times more distance than multimode. For more
information see http://www.arcelect.com/fibercable.htm
22
•
Potential to use existing structured cabling infrastructure in buildings
•
Power over Ethernet (PoE) technology uses CAT 5 cabling to carry both data and
power
•
A single CAT 5 cable provides communication both ways: carrying video data,
remote camera control and maintenance, and possibly power.
•
IP is easily integrated with other transmission methods, including wireless
technology, single mode fibre for long haul, and legacy coaxial cables using
commercially available converters
•
Additional cameras can be added to the network over time through conventional
routers and switches
Some potential disadvantages include:
14
Requires existing or new IP cabling infrastructure
•
Ethernet signals on CAT 5 cables span a similar distance to composite TV signals on
coax; they have a maximum length of 100 meters – longer distances require
switches, routers, and possibly fibre connections.
•
High network bandwidth requirements: a typical CCTV camera with resolution of
640x480 pixels and 10 frames per second (10 frame/s) in MJPEG mode requires
about 3 Mbps14. This problem is mitigated by emerging video compression
standards such as H264 which offer very high quality at low data rates. For example,
the typical CCTV camera above would require only 0.24 Mbps using H264
compression15. Also there is no need to transmit all the recorded video over the
network; only the cameras that are being physically monitored at each instant need
be transmitted.
•
Some users report that IP cameras do not operate well under low light conditions or
that there is noise in the image. This can happen, but is certainly not the case in well
designed IP surveillance systems.
•
There can be significant latency in poorly designed IP surveillance networks. The
main problem occurs when operating PTZ cameras where there may be significant
delays in response to camera movement commands. Such delays are mostly a result
of analog to digital conversion, use of inappropriate codecs, and inappropriate use
of routers (Level 3 or IP routing) rather than switches (Level 2 or ethernet switching).
The problem is much worse in hybrid digital-analog systems than in true digital
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•
Network bandwidth and video storage space calculation by JVSG, 17 January 2008
15
H264 offers 80% reduction in bandwidth with low latency. For more information, see
http://www.axis.com/products/video/about_networkvideo/compression_formats.htm
23
systems. Careful design can keep latency to less that 200ms which is quite
acceptable in practice16.
A positive trend which might make IP communication even more attractive is the Australian
Government’s commitment to improve the broadband infrastructure in Australia, setting
aside $53.2 million in the 2009 budget for the National Broadband Network in 2009-1017.
Over the next 8 years, it aims to connect 90% of all Australian homes, schools and
workplaces with broadband services with speeds up to 100 Mbits/s18. This may facilitate (at
a lower cost) communication with more remote regions which currently do not have the IP
infrastructure, and also decrease potential bandwidth issues if using their infrastructure.
Wireless CCTV
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Many IP CCTV cameras offer a wireless option that can be added by inserting a WiFi19 card
(IEEE 802.11) into the camera housing. This allows the camera to connect to the network
over a range of a hundred metres without additional cabling or special antennae. This is
very useful for nomadic and mobile cameras for covert operations and special purposes.
Note that with cheap directional antennae, standard WiFi cards can span distances of many
kms as long as there is clear line of sight between the transmitter and receiver. This
technology can be a very easy and cost-effective way to obtain video from a remote camera.
Figure 4 24dBi 2.4GHz Square Grid/Dish Antenna
Beyond a distance of 3 km, WIFI throughput may begin to decrease due to the ACK
(acknowledgement) timeout setting of the access point. The ACK timing must be optimized
for longer distances - especially over links covering dozens of kilometers20. Rain and fog can
interfere with performance but have minimal impact on shorter range links.
16
Future CCTV 2009, Invited talk, Greg Morrison, Exec Director, Technology Systems (Asia), Venetian
Macau Resort Hotel
17
BUDGET 2009: The spending mirage by Alan Kohler, 12 May 2009
18
New National Broadband Network by Senator Stephen Conroy, 7 April 2009
19
WiFi Alliance, 2009.
20
Kameswari Chebrolu, Kameswari Chebrolu, and Kameswari Chebrolu, LongDistance 802.11b Links:
Performance Measurements and Experience MobiCom’06, September 23–26, 2006, Los Angeles,
California, USA.
24
Data rates for the different versions of WIFI are given in Table 6. These data rates should be
compared to those available on the commercial mobile phone network given in Table 7.
Standard
Operating Frequency
Typical Throughput
802.11a
5 GHz
27 Mbps
802.11b
2.4 GHz
5 Mbps
802.11g
2.4 GHz
22 Mbps
802.11n
5 GHz and/or 2.4 GHz
144 Mbps
21
Table 6 WIFI data transmission standards
Operating Frequency
Typical Throughput
3G (UMTS)
0.8/1.8 GHz
2.0-14.4 Mbps
HSDPA
0.8/1.8 GHz
1.8, 3.6, 7.2, 14.4 Mbps
0.8/1.8 GHz
Up to 42 Mbps
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Standard
HSPA+ (Telstra NextG)
22
Table 7 Mobile phone data transmission standards
The Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway uses short range WIFI video feeds (802.11a) to show
the driver a view of the railway platform when he is at the station. This allows him to see
the passengers and prevent accidents.
For longer distances a convenient option is 3G wireless transmission using IP over the
standard telecommunication network. Data costs can be quite high for long term
deployment, but the mobile phone network is ideal for short term surveillance operations or
where line of sight is not available.
Security should always be considered in wireless links, but as both WIFI and 3G can be
configured to use encryption, this should not be a major impediment to deployment.
Wireless mesh networking allows the wireless cameras to form an infrastructure less camera
network by routing the video wirelessly from camera to camera as indicated in Figure 5. This
could be an attractive option to extend a network — especially if altering traditional cabling
is prohibitively expensive as may be the case in some privately operated sea ports.
21
Wireless Networking in the Developing World: A practical guide to planning and building low-cost
telecommunications infrastructure (2nd ed.). Hacker Friendly LLC. 2007. pp. 425. page 14
22
World’s first 21Mbps eHSPA/HSPA+ data “call” made in Australia, ITWire, 8 Dec 2008.
25
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Figure 5 Wireless IP camera network based on mesh networking technology
Satellite
Fixed satellite services is available for non-military purposes and is used for broadcast feeds
for television networks, as well as for telephony and data communications. This method of
communication is feasible in terms of bandwidth, but is expensive. It requires the signal be
routed through an earth-based transmission tower for both transmission and reception of
data, which introduces latency. This method of communication may be useful for
emergency situations or infrequent communication with remote cameras that are not
accessible through other methods (i.e. IP infrastructure)
Fibre
Some of Australia’s IP infrastructure is based on fibre optics, which allows for long distance
transmissions with low signal degradation. The major disadvantage of fibre is the high cost
in fibre and installation. There is typically no existing infrastructure thus cables will have to
be laid. Also, due to the long-distance method of transmission, the topology of the network
becomes more centralised as opposed to distributed, which often means even higher costs
for laying down more cables.
Two main types of optical fibre used in fibre optic communications include multi-mode
optical fibres and single-mode optical fibres. A multi-mode optical fibre has a larger core (≥
50 micrometres), allowing less precise, cheaper transmitters and receivers to connect to it as
well as cheaper connectors. However, a multi-mode fibre introduces multimode distortion,
which often limits the bandwidth and length of the link (~1km). Furthermore, because of its
higher dopant content, multimode fibres are usually expensive and exhibit higher
23
Motorola Wireless Camera Spec Sheet, by Motorola Inc, 2008.
26
attenuation. The core of a single-mode fibre is smaller (<10 micrometres) and requires more
expensive components and interconnection methods, but allows much longer, higherperformance links.
Microwave/Laser/Colour
Potential future methods of communication for wireless communication (currently not
widely adopted) include microwave and lasers. Microwave is a medium range wireless
method, but requires a spectrum licence to use that channel (higher cost). Lasers require
line of sight, but is fast, wireless and does not require a spectrum licence.
5.3.2
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To address the issue of supporting multiple cameras through fibre optic communication,
colour wavelength multiplexing24 can be used to increase the channels available in existing
fibre optic infrastructure thus increasing bandwidth. This can thus increase the number of
cameras a fibre can carry.
Open Standards in Compression Technology (H264 SVC)
A major difficulty with digital technology is the large bandwidth consumed by digital video.
Some form of digital compression is always used to allieviate this problem even if it is only
compressing the raw image frame to jpeg. These compressors are called codecs25 A number
of proprietary codecs are in use which are generally just propriatary modifications of open
codec standards for the surveillance task. Recently there has been a strong trend away from
proprietary systems towards open-systems so that different brands of cameras can
interconnect in large IP networks.
A major initiative in this area is the new BAS camera standard being forged by Bosch, Axis,
and Sony26. In June 2008, these manufacturers announced the very first cooperation in the
security industry to establish a global open standard for the interface of network video
products. This trend also extends to support of open standards for codecs — especially
H264.
24
“Wavelength-division multiplexing”, from Wikipedia. Accessed 27 June 2009.
25
Codec stands for Compressor-Decompressor
26
Axis, Bosch and Sony cooperate to standardise the interface of network video products, Sony press
release, 19 June 2008.
27
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th
Figure 6 CCTV Image of London Tube Bombers 7 of July, 2005. Note the interframe prediction
artifact that shows the metal railing in front of one of the bombers instead of behind him.
It is important to record video at the highest possible quality if it is to be used for forensic
purposes (as could always be the case). Codecs such as MPEG4 and H264 use interframe
prediction so that the current frame is often assembled from parts of earlier and possibly
later frames. This can have unfortunate consequences as seen in the famous photograph in
Figure 6 where a railing is shown in front of one of the bombers instead of behind. Such a
significant error in a forensic image could have serious consequences in a court of law.
Customs currently uses MP4 codecs extensively, mainly due to the bandwidth saving and
high quality of images. The Group of Pictures (GOP)27 structure used has a key frame
interval of 4 secs, which is fairly benign. Keyframes are stored independently of adjacent
frames and are thus suitable for forensic purposes. Customs systems use variable bit rate
encoding and is not highly compressed. These allow the codec enough processing power to
reduce the risk of prediction errors, although the risk can’t be dismissed altogether.
Where the above risks can’t be mitigated it is recommended to record in a still frame format
which uses intraframe compression only at such as JPEG, JPEG2000, or MJPEG as described
in Table 8. For remote viewing and monitoring, H264 Scalable Video Codec (SVC) is rapidly
becoming the codec of choice in surveillance applications.
Scalable Video Coding (SVC) is an extension of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video compression
standard. The objective of SVC is to enable the encoding of a high-quality video bitstream in
a scalable manner to accommodate viewing at many different resolutions. The subset
bitstream is derived by dropping packets from the larger bitstream. This allows very high
27
In MPEG encoding, a group of pictures, or GOP, specifies the order in which intra-frames and inter
frames are arranged. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Group_of_pictures
28
quality video data to be viewed at much lower resolutions on a wide range of devices. The
need for scalability arises from degradation of transmission rates (wireless or internet), or
needs for specific spatial formats, bit rates or power. Unlike other digital codecs such as
MP4, the SVC codec was specifically designed for surveillance applications.28
Codec
Bandwidth compared to baseline
MJPEG codec
JPEG
Comments
1.0
Still frame transmission,
Standard for
photography
JPEG2000
0.8
Megapixel Cameras, scalable,
easy to reconstruct at different
resolutions.
Better than JPEG for
certain images but
not widely
supported
MJPEG
1.0
Often used for surveillance
where frame rate is low and
there is large movement
between frames. Good for
forensic analysis. Good quality
for local recording.
low processor
overhead, ease of
editing, no standard
implementation
0.4
Often used for remote viewing,
not so good for forensic
applications due to interframe
artifacts
Introduces high
latency due to frame
deinterleaving
process
0.2
Best for remote viewing, not as
good for forensic applications
due to interframe artifacts
Baseline
implementation has
low latency,
0.2
Similar to H264 but designed
with multimedia and
surveillance applications in
mind. Very easy to scale
bandwidth.
Baseline
implementation has
low latency, very
easy to convert to
different resolutions
MPEG4
H264
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Application
H264 SVC
Codec of choice for
surveillance
Table 8 Codecs for Surveillance Applications
5.3.3
Bandwidth
There are numerous misconceptions in the video surveillance market regarding bandwidth
requirements of video surveillance running over a digital IP network infrastructure. The
factors which should be considered when considering bandwidth are:
Compression and DSP technology improvements
As discussed above, rapid advancements in compressing algorithms have been helpful in
reducing bandwidth requirements. For a 30 fps D1 720x480 resolution (NTSC) video camera,
28
“Scalable Video Encoding” from Wikipedia, accessed 27 June 2009.
29
the old MPEG-2 format required 4 to 5 Mbps video stream, the more recently introduced
MPEG-4 format cut the video stream down to approximately 3.5 Mbps with no discernable
loss in quality29. Other compression techniques, including H.264 SVC offers to further reduce
video bandwidth requirements even further.
Network bandwidth
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A LAN switch is a local area networking device that prevents data packet collision, and
maximizes transmission speed as well as bandwidth allocation. It can be used instead of a
network hub (which does not prevent collisions and shares bandwidth) to solve problems
associated with expanding networks. Most LAN infrastructure deployed in organisations in
the last 10 years are using at 100 Mbps switches which have an effective throughput of 80
Mbps to support 40 streams of 2 Mbps video. Larger organisations have 1000 Mbps or 1
Gigabit LAN switches which can support 400 streams of 2 Mbps video30. Such corporate
network infrastructure should meet the needs of even the largest Customs installations
(Brisbane airport anticipates around 400 cameras after expansion).
Wide area network (WAN) for remote access
WAN connectivity from remote locations may have more limited bandwidth (due to
cost/availability), and thus need to minimise consumption through measure such as on-site
recording, on-demand-only remote video streaming, or alarm/analytics-based trigger for
video transmission (refer to section 5.2.2 for further discussion on storage and streaming).
What kind of streaming is being used: multicast or unicast?
A single video camera produces a single "unicast" video stream. If multiple users want to
view the same information, rather than sending multiple copies over the network,
“multicast” technology should be used. Multicast provides a copy to users through
subscription where the network infrastructure handles the replication of the video to
multiple devices at the point closest to each subscriber, rather than replicating from the
source, thereby minimizing bandwidth over shared links.
Although in the Customs environment it is less likely that multiple people will wish to view
exactly the same video feed, this may be required in an emergency situation. A more
common scenario is that the same video may need to be viewed by multiple computer
agents. For example the same video feed may need to go to an NVR, face recognition
system, numberplate recognition systems, and camera checking system.
29
“Cisco Systems IP Network-Centric Video Surveillance”, Cisco, 2009.
30
ibid
30
5.3.4
Data Security
IP opens the possibility of interoperability with multiple stakeholders over the network; data
is no longer localised, but rather, can be accessed from around the world. Wireless
communication and networking has resulted in a need for ensuring that the data is
protected and can only be accessed by certain stakeholders. An access policy will also have
to be determined to give specified levels of user access privileges to these data.
Encryption
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For IP-surveillance, encryption can be used to prevent the unauthorised viewing of
transmitted video. While an encrypted stream may be intercepted, it has no value unless it
can be decrypted. Modern best practice cryptography is very strong and is virtually
impossible to break. There are numerous encryption methods, the details of which are out
of scope for this document, however the major factors to consider for encryption are
common; A good video encryption method should ensure that31:
•
Everyone has a unique encryption key or code.
•
The encrypted signal should be positively identified by the decoder. The decoder
should recognise the encrypted signal and only attempt to decode when fully
validated.
•
On screen status display and identification.
•
Work with any video standard.
•
Not introduce unacceptable processing latency or bandwidth constraints
Virtual Private Network
A VPN is a network constructed using public channels. VPNs rely mainly on encryption and
firewalls to ensure that only authorized users can use the network and the data cannot be
intercepted. Strong encryption prevents eavesdropping. Public key encryption allows
authentication of wireless terminal users. Other security methods include simple user names
and passwords for authentication and user server directory systems using digital
certificates.32
31
“Video Encryption” by Ovation Systems. Retrieved on 17 June 2009.
32
“Security Technology-North American Trends and Developments in Video Surveillance”, Frost &
Sullivan Technical Insights, 2004.
31
The advent of VPN has significantly reduced the risks attached to network access and is the
most commonly used method. However, with network access technologies emerging to
displace existing communications technologies, VPN remains only slightly uncontested33.
Access Policy
Access Policy multiplexing can be used to separate data with different levels of access
control. An access policy can be set to permit or deny the use of particular resources, such
as cameras recordings, by a particular entity and define acceptable methods of remotely
connecting to the internal network.
5.3.5
Open Standards in Communication and Software
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The increasing awareness and commitment to security are pushing countries to develop
more efficient command and control centre networks for border security, especially at
airports.34 As the trend moves from analog to digital (IP) CCTV systems, it is also moving
from a proprietary model where the components of the analog system including camera,
codec and software were sold as a “black box”, to an “open standard” or “open
architecture” system where components have standardized interfaces and communication
protocols (such as HTTP and RTSP) thus allowing for swappable components. In particular
open IP surveillance software, which includes the software that enables digital managing and
processing of video image surveillance in network server-based installations, are becoming
non-proprietary in nature and offer extensive scope for customization. The trend for open
standards in software has been increasing in recent years, mirroring the adaption of open
architecture systems, and is forecasted to have steady growth through to 2012 as seen in
Figure 7.
Airports, particularly in the US, are anticipating the introduction of updated digital
technologies, and thus have implemented open architecture schemes in order to
accommodate new technology as well as greater network interoperability.35 The connection
of all security initiatives to a main network and control room allows the security operators to
have greater oversight over various operations and areas. Network connection throughout
the airport is based on open architecture systems and typically using WAN or LAN IP
communications. Wireless connectivity is becoming increasingly useful for border security,
especially to communicate flexibly with emergency first responders, such as the AFP, state
police and fire department.
33
Rohan, R., “NETWORK SECURITY TACTICS: Letting telecommuters in -- Your VPN alternatives”,
SearchSecurity, 2005.
34
“World Airport Perimeter Security Markets”, Frost & Sullivan, 2006.
35
Ibid.
32
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36
Figure 7 Total Open IP Surveillance Software Market
5.3.6
Systems Ownership
The implications of using IP-Survelliance have an impact on Custom’s business model.
Currently, Customs owns everything in its surveillance systems due to proprietary
technologies which are black boxes. However, with open standards being introduced for
digital and networked systems, components can be individually managed and even
outsourced.
section 47E(d)
However, it
is not uncommon for seaport terminal operators to deploy their own CCTV systems. With
the migration to Open Standards private operators are increasingly likely to adopt open
video transmission protocols through IP and open video compression standards such as MP4
or H.264. Thus, there is a` potential for Customs to share or access private networks which
will eliminate installation and maintenance costs for Customs (though with the draw back of
less control and potentially fewer access privileges).
36
“World Internet Protocol (IP) Surveillance Markets”, Frost & Sullivan, 2006.
33
5.4 Cameras
The most common form factors for CCTV camera are dome, bullet and standard body
cameras, which can have a variety of features incorporated. This section will discuss the
latest trend of megapixel cameras in depth and give a brief overview of other available or
emerging special purpose camera features. Camera placement issues, automated camera
checking, and sensor fusion will also be mentioned in this section.
Standard body
Bullet
37
Megapixel Cameras
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5.4.1
Dome
Standard definition cameras have resolutions comparable to analog television. Only a few
video resolutions are widely supported in the industry, mostly based on the CIF (Common
Intermediate Format) standard used to specify the horizontal and vertical resolutions
specified in pixels of video signals. It was first proposed in the H.261 standard and is
commonly used in video teleconferencing systems. Table 9 gives the resolution of common
CIF standards. This is quite an old standard as if was first proposed in 1990. The 4CIF
standard is equivalent in resolution to standard television and is commonly supported by
modern DVRs which digitize analog video feeds. While a higher resolution of 16CIF is
defined, it is not supported by any analog television standard and thus is not used in
practice.
SD Format
Video Resolution
Aspect Ratio
MPixels
SQCIF
128 × 96
4:3
0.012
QCIF
176 × 144
4:3
0.025
CIF
352 × 288
4:3
0.1
4CIF
704 × 576
4:3
0.4
16CIF
1408 × 1152
4:3
1.6
Table 9 CIF standards for standard definition digital video
Good image quality and higher resolution is essential to identify objects and people as we
often need to read text (licence plate or container number recognition), or to recognize
faces.
In analog CCTV camera systems, the traditional approach to obtaining high resolution detail
while maintaining situational awareness over a wide area is to supplement fixed wide-angle
CCTV cameras with high power PTZs. The PTZ cameras can magnify the size of objects by a
factor of 50 or more.
37
“CCTV Security Camera Types”, Camera Security Now, Accessed 13 May 2009.
34
The PTZ cameras alone can be used for situational awareness when they are set to wide
angle view, but there is a significant risk in this approach. The problem is that when they are
zoomed in to observe details, they are no longer available for situational awareness.
Moreover, unless the operator returns the PTZs to a preset wide angle view, situational
awareness can be lost for hours.
This is exactly the problem that occurred in Kuala Lumpur International when the terminal
was robbed last year38. In April 2008, robbers shot and wounded six people at Malaysia's
main international airport before fleeing with $1 million. Unfortunately there is no CCTV
footage of the robbery because although there were many CCTV cameras, none of the PTZ
cameras were actually looking in the right direction at the time. The problem was that there
were no fixed CCTV cameras installed to record the overall scene. The airport is now
retrofitting the airport with a mix of fixed and PTZ cameras39.
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IP surveillance systems can support resolutions much higher than the 0.4 MPixels
represented by analog television standards. Such cameras are usually referred to megapixel
cameras and most are based on HDTV standards as provided in Table 10. Note that these socalled megapixel cameras are all IP-based as there are no analog cameras with resolutions
greater than standard definition television.
HD Format
Video
Resolutions
MPixels
Aspect Ratio
Comments
720p
1024×768,
1280×720,
1366×768
0.8, 0.9, 1.0
16:9
Often used on PC
monitors
1080i
1280×1080
1.4
Approx 16:9
Non-square pixels
1080p
1920×1080
2.1
16:9
Full HD
Table 10 Standards for high definition digital video
These megapixel cameras offer about 5 times the number of pixels of standard 4CIF and
about twice the linear resolution as illustrated in Figure 8. The linear resolution is defined by
the number of pixels per cm for a given display size. Thus for a square image with side n
pixels and area nxn pixels, the linear resolution increases as the square root of the number
of pixels. This is a worthwhile gain but the resolution improvement is only a factor of 2
equating to a PTZ with a zoom of only X2 —a useful improvement but this doesn’t change
the need for PTZs to supplement fixed cameras to gather necessary detail.
38
Sean Yoong, ”Six injured at Kuala Lumpur airport in million-dollar robbery”, The Seattle Times, 9 Apr
2008.
39
FutureCCTV, personal communication with Datuk Kamaruddin Mohd Ismail, Malaysia Airports
Holdings
35
40
Figure 8 HD resolution (left) versus SD resolution (right)
Now that analog television is being made obsolete by digital television, it is likely that 1.4
and 2.1 MPixel cameras with 16:9 aspect ratios will become the entry level formats for both
fixed and PTZ formats— there will be little support for CIF standards in the future.
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Super Megapixel Cameras and Virtual PTZs
There is however a game changing super megapixel camera technology emerging that may
largely do away with the need for PTZ cameras for within building surveillance in, say, airport
terminals. Currently these cameras record video at up to 16Mpixels at a slow frame rate of
approximately 3 fps — but both frame rates and resolution are improving continually.
Figure 9 shows a super megapixel image of an airport departure check-in area. The single
super megapixel camera gives a view of the whole scene and also provides “virtual” PTZ
views into the main window so that faces and activities can be identified. Note that unlike a
traditional PTZ, these virtual PTZ’s can be zoomed in after the video is recorded. Compare
this to a traditional analog PTZ which must be zoomed in on the person of interest in realtime or the capture opportunity is lost forever. The number of analog PTZs that can be used
to track persons of interest is thus limited to the number of control room operators as the
zooming must happen in real time.
In the super megapixel system, quality forensic evidence can be extracted well after the
event has occurred. Note that these cameras provide the wide-angle situational awareness
view as well as the virtual PTZ detail at zoom factors of about X7. Certainly this is not a
powerful zoom capability compared to many conventional PTZs operating at X30, but it does
allow detailed forensic observations to be extracted after the event has occurred. Moreover
one well positioned camera can do the job of several conventional cameras. Of course,
super megapixel cameras can be mounted as PTZs with powerful optical zooms, but then we
come back to the problem of loss of situational awareness and the risk of having poor
camera placement at the time when an unforeseen incident occurs.
40
High-definition Television. Retrieved from Wikipedia on 17 June 2009.
36
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41
Figure 9 A 16 MPixel camera viewing airport departure hall
Figure 10 shows a super megapixel camera viewing a city intersection. Once again faces and
number plates can be identified well after the event was recorded. One camera can give
complete coverage of a large area with both detailed observations and situational
awareness.
Another less obvious advantage of the technology over conventional PTZs is that many users
can share the same camera and the virtual PTZs without revealing what each user looking at.
One potential application for Customs is to enable Customs, the AFP, and airlines to all have
access to the same super megapixel cameras and without one knowing what the others are
interested in. At Brisbane airport, the customs officer said that they would share fixed
cameras, but would not share PTZs as this would reveal their interests. It would seem that
super megapixel cameras can offer a technological solution for multi-agency sharing through
the use of virtual PTZs.
An immediate objection to using this technology is the data storage requirement which can
be considerable. For this reason the full resolution 16MPixel images must be stored locally.
Even terabyte disks are quite cheap these days (AUD200 per Tb). Moreover data can
transparently be migrated to cheap offline storage and easily recovered by any user using
41
Avigilion Corporate website. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
37
hierarchical storage management (HSM)42 systems as developed for the seismic industry and
now commonly deployed to manage huge corporate data and email repositories in large
organizations. Such commercial HSM systems are readily adaptable to surveillance systems.
It is just a matter of deciding an appropriate metric for migrating data to slow storage.
Simple metrics include recording time or time of most recent access.
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Remote viewing can be done anywhere as there is no need to send the full resolution super
megapixel images. For example, If video is displaying remotely on a 1280x1080 PC screen, it
is quite impossible to display more than 1280x1080 = 0.9 MPixels per frame, regardless of
the source resolution — so all that the remote site needs is a standard video datalink to view
super megapixel data. Downsampling of the datastreams to match the remote viewing
resolution is handled transparently by the server software.
41
Figure 10 A 16 MPixel camera viewing city intersection
5.4.2
•
Other Special Purpose Features
Low light – Cameras are typically rated to be most suited to particular lighting
conditions, presented as a specification known as lux rating or minimum illumination
rating; the closer to zero the lux rating, the better the camera will perform in a low
light applications. Some low-light cameras can have sensitivities as low as 0.0009
42
Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) is a data storage technique which automatically moves
data between high-cost (flash, fast disk) and low-cost (slow disk, tape, optical) storage media. More
information available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hierarchical_storage_management
38
lux. Another option for low light is thermal imaging or supplementary artificial
lighting (visible or infrared).
High Dynamic Range - High dynamic range imaging allows for a greater dynamic
range of luminance between light and dark areas of a scene than normal digital
imaging techniques. This feature is useful for sporadically lit night scenes.
•
Thermal – Cameras can operate in the infra-red range to image temperature rather
than visible light. This feature is useful to provide another type of information that is
not visible to the human eye, and also for low-lighting conditions.
•
180/360 degree – Some cameras can provide hemisphere, or spherical views. Such
views may be useful as overview cameras to provide more context, and thus
situational awareness. The 180/360 degree cameras can be particularly useful in
busy open areas that require extensive monitoring. It avoids one of the limitations
of PTZ hotspot cameras in that those cameras typically have narrow field of view,
thus may miss something if not pointed in the right direction (refer to the KL airport
robbery story43). However, hotspot cameras typically can zoom into a scene
whereas 180/360 cannot. Thus, they can be used in combination to get both an
overview and detailed view when necessary.
•
All focus – Emerging work is looking into cameras which synthesize an all in-focus
image that is clear and sharp throughout the entire scene, as opposed to
conventional cameras with blurred images of scenes not in its plane of focus. Having
sharper images will improve forensic analysis capabilities such as for person
identification.
•
Computational Photography – An emerging feature is the combination of images
captured from different types of lenses to computationally fuse together
information about a scene. Figure 11 shows a compact wall mounted camera that
fuses 5 cameras into a single panoramic view. This is an excellent alternative to
expensive wide angle lenses to provide situational awareness in an indoor
environment.
•
Image Stabilisation – This feature makes the video more robust to vibrations to
reduce noise the in the video. It can either be through software, or hardware.
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•
43
Sean Yoong, ”Six injured at Kuala Lumpur airport in million-dollar robbery”, The Seattle Times, 9 Apr
2008.
39
5.4.3
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Figure 11 IP camera made up of 5 cell phone camera lenses. In the form of an Ethernet powered
44
box, this camera provides a 180° panoramic shot
Placement
The different features available for the above cameras will affect the camera placement.
Currently placements of cameras are done manually based on experienced installers,
common sense and similar reference sites. Some considerations manual installers must
consider are:
•
Camera placement to give both overview and also particular hotspot areas
•
Cameras placed to cover too much area will typically be useless for forensic analysis
•
Ensuring the placement is close enough to meet certain resolution criteria (e.g. using
a test image of “E” with dimensions 160x96 mm which must be greater than 10x6
pixels on the CCTV monitor)
There is emerging software to assist with optimal camera placement, including Sarnoff
Corporation’s 3D camera placement tool45 used at Superbowl 2007 which reduced the
required number of cameras by 40% with improved coverage compared to manual
placement46.
5.4.4
Automated Camera Checking
At the beginning of every shift, Customs operators at Brisbane Airport manually scan every
camera to ensure that they are operating correctly. With hundreds of cameras installed this
task takes considerable time to perform (30 mins). In IP-based CCTV systems (or hybrid
44
Scallop Imaging Corporate Site. Available at http://scallopimaging.com/product.php
45
Praetorian: Intelligent Surveillance Solutions Corporate Site. Available at
http://www.l3praetorian.com/cameraplacement/index.htm
46
Praetorian case study
40
systems), software exists to automatically scan all the cameras on a regular schedule to
check for correct operation. Often the current camera image is checked against a reference
image ensure a good match and to detect anomalies that may need human attention.
Such a system can provide automatic alerts and reports when cameras
•
are disconnected or out of focus
•
have been physically moved or tampered with
•
are providing poor image quality
•
are unable to see well due to bad weather, variable lighting or other complex
conditions.
5.4.5
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Such tools are extremely useful to optimise performance and minimize downtime. One very
useful feature is to detect when cameras are moved out of position to provide blind spots
for illicit activities. Such changes are hard to detect, especially if movement is gradual over
several days.
Sensor Fusion
With the digitization of surveillance systems, other forms of data can be relayed along the
same digital channels as the video. This enables sensor fusion capabilities, which augment
visible information from the camera with other environmental information such as audio,
thermal, wind, GPS location, etc.
An example of such fusion in a retail situation is showing the video of checkout operators
alongside the barcode reader output on the same display screen47. This same company has
also connected the PTZ camera control to the asset protection tag readers. This means that
if a person walks out of the store with a tagged asset, the alarm goes off, and the PTZ
immediately positions itself to record video of the shopper and security guard. They also use
analytics to count crowds at marketing promotions and sell these data to the suppliers for
added cash flow. There is no permanently staffed control room and all recording is gathered
automatically throughout the day.
Translating these ideas to the Customs environments, it may be worth considering
combining the X-ray inspection video with CCTV or the PACE (passport) system with CCTV of
persons at immigration. Customs may be able to sell crowd statistics gathered by analytics
to airport operators or possibly the airlines themselves and can certainly use these internally
to generate quality of service metrics.
At the seaports it would be helpful for the AIS data to be presented alongside video of the
vessel. Already many advanced interfaces combine maps and video for added context — but
the possibilities are endless . The open architecture IP network facilitates very easy reuse
and combination of disparate data sources.
47
FutureCCTV, Gao Yan Hui, Asset Protection Director, Best Buy Shanghai
41
5.5 Analytics
With advances in computer vision analytics, there is an increasing portfolio of software for
assisting and augmenting surveillance. This section provides an overview of the emerging
areas of analytics, their challenges, and the mitigation of those challenges.
The motivation for analytics is the potential to generate alarms from the CCTV feeds
themselves without the need for continual human monitoring. One simple analytic is
motion detection where the CCTV can act like a passive infrared home alarm system that
raises an alarm when movement is detected in an area under surveillance. Rather than just
simple movement, alarms can be much more sophisticated than burglar alarms. For example
fence climbing can be detected on perimeter fences. Alarms may be directional. For
example, people can be detected travelling in one direction rather than another (entering
through the exit door perhaps).
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This is the promise of analytics, the reality is that many visual alarms are unreliable and
generate so many false alarms that the systems are simply switched off. Indeed, some
cheap home alarms have the same problem. Almost none of the current systems can cope
with the simple problem of a vibrating or panning camera. However, when used correctly
the very best of the current commercial systems can operate reliably and effectively.
Analytics offer huge cost benefits through reducing monitoring costs and increasing
effectiveness when they work properly, but developing reliable alarms is a huge
technological challenge that is extremely expensive. New and improved analytics are
emerging all the time and a well-designed IP surveillance system should be fairly easily
upgraded to emerging technologies using open standards.
In the words of Angus Hamilton:
“I can see in the next 20 years everything will become automated. Once the camera is
sophisticated enough, it will profile people that we don’t really need human beings apart
from to check it out and analyse it.”
“Integrated Security Management is the way it’s all going to go. It’s all going to
multipurpose, all being analysed and put together.”
— Angus Hamilton, Director of Corporate Security, Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts, Hong
Kong, and former Assistant Commissioner of the Hong Kong Police 48
5.5.1
Integrating Video Analytics into a Monitoring Centre
Visual Alarms
With the introduction of digital video, computer vision techniques can be used to analyse
and infer events to augment surveillance by providing operators with visual alarms, i.e.
alerting operators by highlighting areas of interest in the videos being monitored. It has
been shown in the past that operators are good at confirming whether an event is a security
issue but poor at watching videos for a long time (operator monotony) which can lead to
missed events. There are also typically more camera views than operators available
48
Asian Security Review, Aug, 2007
42
(Brisbane airport has 2-3 personnel monitoring nearly 200 cameras), thus an operator
cannot be aware of all things at all times. Given the potential cost of missing an event for
border security may be fatal (for example not spotting a terrorist activity), visual alarms is a
crucial piece of analytics for future CCTV Surveillance systems.
Object detection, classification, recognition, and tracking
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There are numerous practical applications in the area of object detection, classification,
recognition and tracking. There is extensive R&D in software can detect objects (left
luggage, runway debris, people, faces) or lack of objects (asset tracking). Once detected,
further analytics can classify the objects to determine whether it is appropriate for the scene
(luggage without an associated person, box left on platform too long, vehicle speed and type
etc.) or to recognise the object from a database (nameplate recognition, face recognition,
biometrics), and alert the operators upon suspicion. Another variant is motion detection, for
areas with restricted access. These objects can also be tracked through the various video
frames and video feeds. Below are a few examples of analytics for surveillance applications
potentially of interest to Customs:
•
Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) – Available software using optical
character recognition (OCR) to extract the characters from a licence plate
•
Container Number Recognition – Available software using OCR to extract numbers
from cargo containers (typically not a flat surface)
•
Left luggage – Emerging research that detects left objects without an owner nearby
•
Portal crossing or tripwire – Available software which alerts operators for
movement in portal crossing or breaching a defined line. MAS uses this for aircraft
security after servicing.
•
Movement (no motion, no monitoring) – Secure areas can be monitored to alert
operators to movement (i.e. to ensure personel is allowed or should be there)
•
Counter Flow – Emerging software for person moving against an immigration route
•
Face detection – Detect and record face images to be reviewed later in the event of
an incident. Currently used in ATM security.
•
Face recognition – An emerging area of research which can use images of faces
detected to see if they are similar to any in a watch list, or for searching through
recorded video using face images.
•
Biometrics – Using computer vision to verify the identity of a person. Can be used
for access control or border security.
•
Person & Multicamera tracking – Emerging research that tracks people in videos
which can help in airports to follow or retrace the movements of people being
43
monitored, or people who have just arrived and thrown away their documents
Video Enhancements
Through image processing or incorporating other sensory data:
Rain and fog mitigation49 - This technology can provide an improved operator view
during rain and fog as shown in Figure 12.
•
Infrared – Near and far infrared cameras can be mixed with visible light cameras.
•
Sidescan Sonar – Sidescan sonar can image objects underwater including the hulls of
vessels.
•
Sensor Fusion – For example, Infrared and visible cameras can be combined to form
an enhanced view of low light events as shown in Figure 13.
•
Integration of Other Data Sources (AIS, Radar, LIDAR) – Figure 14 shows AIS
information overlaid on a 3D model of a container ship at Port of Brisbane.
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•
Figure 12 Rain mitigation video filter operating at the Port of Brisbane during storm.
49
NICTA research prototype at Port of Brisbane
44
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Figure 13 Feature selective fusion of IR and visible light
Figure 14 Overlay of AIS data on 3D model of container ship at Port of Brisbane.
Fast Forensic Search
In modern CCTV systems, more and more cameras are being interconnected, image
resolution is increasing, and thus data storage is growing exponentially. It is simply
impossible for a human to search for the rare events of interest in such large archives. Even
computers can rarely search video streams at a rate much faster than real-time.50 This
means that thoroughly searching, say, 8hrs of video for a certain event on 100 cameras
could take up to 800 hours or 20 weeks for a single human operator. Time can be saved by
using fast forward and rewind at speeds of up to 600x, but there is a significant risk that
short duration critical events will be missed due to frame dropping.
50
This limitation is partly because there has been little incentive for the industry to develop hardware
or software to scan video at rates greater than real-time — there is simply no demand for this from
the mainstream broadcast media market. Modern computer hardware is struggling to keep up with
25 fps. The traditional approach to high speed viewing is to drop frames, which is often unacceptable
for forensic searches.
45
Some searches are much easier to conduct as we know where and approximately when the
event occurred – this is the case when we have information gathered outside the CCTV
environment (e.g. physical evidence, witness report). Such information means that we may
know the camera number and the time frame. However there are many searches where
information must be gathered by exhaustive searching of the CCTV itself. A famous example
is the identification of the London Tube bombers after the attack of 7th of July 2005 where
thousands of hours of video had to be examined by hundreds of police.
There is a pressing need for a Google-like tool which can instantly search for events of
interest in large CCTV archives. This would require each video to be pre-labeled in real time
by the computers so that the search could be performed almost instantaneously to gather all
likely video candidates. Such technology is several years off, but is highly desirable and is
the subject of current research.
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Some attempts to label video by content are contained in the MPEG7/21 standards, but they
are not aimed at the surveillance market. However one useful feature is the support for face
recognition already in the standards. If customs wants to position itself to adopt these
emerging technologies, it must first convert to a digital backbone using open video
standards. Labelling engines will run alongside the NVRs in real-time and extract the
necessary metadata for fast indexing.
There are some commercial analytics are already emerging that follow this concept. For
example, there is motion detection software which analyses the image using many small
motion detection subwindows. Motion detection for each tile is recorded while the video is
processed. After recording, the user selects the area of interest by selecting cluster of tiles.
Instantly motion in these regions of interest is retrieved without the need to rescan the
video. This can be helpful in, say, a port where we wish to instantly find videos of all people
entering a vessel while ignoring other movements on the wharf. Although there are a very
few visual alarms that can perform motion detection from panning cameras, in general fixed
cameras should be used for computer monitoring.
Much more powerful systems being researched would allow operators to instantly search
for people by face, height, or colour of their clothing.
Visual Alarm
Estimated Timeframe
(Available Commercially and fit for purpose)
Motion Detection
Now
ANPR
Now
Face Detection
Now
Left Object
Now
Person Tracking
Now?
Container Number Recognition
Now?
CCTV Face Recognition
3 years
CCTV Fast Forensic Search
5 years
Table 11 Timeframe for Visual Alarms
46
5.5.2
Common Analytic Challenges
The biggest problem with analytics is usually false alarms rather than missed events. The
danger of this is that too many nuisance alarms will result in systems being turned off or
ignored. Visual analytics will vary depending on the environment and will require tuning. It
is best to consult an expert on the system to get the most of it.
5.5.3
Mitigating Common Analytic Challenges
For mitigating the problem of too many false alarms, some general guidelines are:
Ask for expert advice on what is possible and what is not
•
Do not rely on sales brochures. Ask users and share information
•
Consider ease of use
•
Get expert to set up your system and provide remote access
•
Use the right cameras and position well as retrofits to existing cameras are often
unsatisfactory
•
Trial the technology according to a plan agreed by stakeholders
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•
General guidelines on mitigating other environmental issues to ensure image quality (and
thus getting better analytics) include:
•
Use of fixed cameras for overview and to decrease camera shake51
•
Control lighting, image quality, and camera shake
•
Camera must be appropriately positioned, focused52 (and lenses must be clean
•
High frame rates and high resolution
•
Other types of cameras or sensors (e.g., infrared can be easier due to greater
lighting control)
51
Sarnoff image stabilisation technologies can handle panning cameras
52
Pan Focus cameras
47
5.6 Displays
5.6.1
Advanced Presentation on 2D and 3D maps
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Brisbane Airport has a system where operators click on a map of the terminal to access the
corresponding camera feed on a separate screen. This system has proved to be most useful
as the operators use the map to quickly access cameras is specific parts of the terminal.
Another useful trick is sensible block numbering of the camera numbers — the first few
digits indicate where the camera is located in the terminal.
53
Figure 15 Surveillance video stitched in real-time at Newark Airport
This concept has been taken much further in state-of-the-art presentation alternatives to
traditional split screens which are commercially available. For example, Figure 15 shows an
image where all the surveillance feeds from fixed and PTZ cameras covering the Newark
Airport tarmac are stitched together in real-time to show an integrated view of the scene.
Such a display is highly intuitive as there is now no need to memorise camera numbers at all
— you just move to the area you wish to observe and zoom in as you would in a computer
game. Figure 16 shows a variation of this technique where there are fewer cameras
available. Here the missing camera feeds are replaced by a 3D texture mapped model of the
Port of Brisbane. The fire in this image is real and the surveillance feeds comes from a
camera located at Luggage Point on the other side of the Brisbane River.
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Figure 16 Surveillance video of a real fire at the Port of Brisbane overlaid on a 3D model of the site
Finally Figure 17 shows a split screen presentation of the terminal at Jacksonville Airport.
The surveillance system is tracking a suspect through the terminal. The current position of
the suspect is shown as a moving red dot on the terminal plan in the upper part of the
screen. The current camera view of the suspect is shown in the lower part of the screen as
well as alternative camera views which appears as a popup video window when an alternate
camera view is available. The operator can switch between the cameras by clicking on the
popup. All PTZ cameras in range are automatically driven to follow the suspect without
operator intervention.
Figure 17 Tracking a suspect at Jacksonville airport. Suspect position is overlaid on a map of the
terminal. Alternate view of suspect from another camera is made available to operator through a
53
popup video.
Modern IP surveillance system can present their information in many modes as these are
just software modules that access video from the NVR in near real-time. There is no need to
53
Praetorian corporate site. 2009.
49
commit to a particular presentation method as multiple systems can run simultaneously.
Also presentation systems can be upgraded and changed over the life of the surveillance
system based on needs analysis and operator feedback.
5.6.2
16:9 Format Based on HDTV standard
Television and LCD displays are trending towards 16:9 aspect ratio, which is the standard for
High Definition Television (HDTV), thus CCTV videos should conform to this aspect ratio as
well to maximize screen utilization.
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HDTV is an innovative set of standards for television that brings roughly twice the vertical
and horizontal picture resolution of analog.54 HDTV also has a screen ratio of 16:9 (often
known as widescreen) compared with most of the traditional television sets which have a
screen ratio of 4:3.
Figure 18 HDTV widescreen 16:9 aspect ratio, compared to analog 4:3 ratio
In 2008, HDTV was the trend most discussed at Australian television and broadcasting
conferences and is the trend all around the world.55 Due to the migration to digital56 and
HDTV, 16:9 transition is happening now from both the supply and demand perspectives.
Digital television’s role in the development of the widescreen TV market can be well
illustrated by the British experience. The BBC’s move to supply digital content and support
the 16:9 output formats back in the 1990’s has spurred the uptake of HDTV sets and clearly
helped assure the consumer that widescreen is the direction, not to mention the shape, of
TV’s future (see Figure 19). As of 2008, 32% of homes in the UK can handle HD digital
54
“High Definition (HD) Technology and its Impact on Videoconferencing”, by Frost & Sullivan. 17
February 2006.
55
Peter Smart, “TV Trends in 2008”, Foxtel HD: The Full Picture.
56
Australian Government Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy
(2009). Digital Switchover. Retrieved June 2009 from http://www.digitalready.gov.au/
50
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content in the 16:9 format and this is projected to continue rising to 71% uptake in 2012.57
With the rising production, the costs have also decreased to be on par with 4:3 sets58.
Figure 19 UK share of sales of 16:9 with the introduction of digital
Computer monitors are following a similar trend with industry analysts projecting that by
2012, 16:9 penetration will reach 90% of notebook PC panels and 67% of LCD monitor
panels, as shown in Figure 20.
Figure 20 Forecast of 16:9 Panel Penetration in the Notebook PC (Left) and LCD Monitor Markets
59
(Right)
57
Jim Bottoms from specialist media analyst house, Futuresource Consulting
58
Host Broadcast Services (HBS) “Sport and HDTV in 2006”, by Francis Tellier, CEO. 17 Dec 2004.
59
DisplaySearch 16:9 Notebook PC and LCD Monitor Analysis Report
51
As the trend towards widescreen progresses, CCTV surveillance monitoring stations have
started to adopt this trend. The advantage of having 16:9 aspect ratio on CCTV is that higher
quality video can be observed on screen. Also, the increase in screen size also allows easy
viewing of multiple camera feeds simultaneously. To maximize screen utilization and
facilitate tiling, the videos should ideally be formatted to have a 16:9 aspect ratio. HDTV IP
cameras which provide mega-pixel resolution, HD compatibility, and 16:9 aspect ratio, are
emerging in the market to address this need. The first HDTV IP Camera on the market, the
Axis Q1755, introduced by Axis Communication in 2009 delivers HDTV 1080i or 720
resolution, 16:9 aspect ratio and supports both H.264 and Motion JPEG in full frame rate.60
This trend in HDTV IP cameras is likely to continue.
5.6.3
Mobile Device Integration (PDA, Phone)
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In many IP-based surveillance products, the full surveillance capabilities can be accessed
from PC or similar device connected to the internet. Thus full system capability could be
accessed from a notebook, PDA, or possibly even a smart phone. This means that the CCTV
operator is not tied to the control room, but is able to move about in the field. They can
view and replay all cameras from anywhere they wish on a mobile platform. Effectively each
guard or field operator becomes a mobile CCTV control room in their own right. There is
great potential for such technology to free up staff time and improve operational
effectiveness, especially in covert operations and for environments such as sea ports which
may not have permanently staffed control rooms.
section 47E(c) & (d)
Mobile device integration would directly enable such covert
surveillance by the officer in the field.
Moreover, visual and other alerts can be configured to send a message (SMS) to a guard
when a specified event is triggered. section 47E(c) & (d)
Figure 21 Mobile Device Integration
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60
“Meet the First HDTV IP Camera - The Axis Q1755”, by Wes on IP Camera Guru,
61
iOmniscient Corporate site. 2009.
52
5.7 Command, Control & Coordination (C3)
There is today a worldwide trend toward a greatly extended use of information and
communication technology in business, government and defense systems in order to
improve operational capabilities and cost efficiency. Command, Control & Coordination (C3)
technology must provide the capability to acquire, process, and disseminate information
across multiple agencies; in Custom’s case, to disseminate information between the AFP,
APS, ASIO and State Police. This section will highlight some of the important features and
benefits of C3.
Interoperability
With the use of IP networks, information can be processed through one or several, real or
virtual Command, Control and Coordination Centers.
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The concept is aimed to improve and extend important capabilities such as:
•
Information gathering, processing and dissemination.
•
Decision quality and speed of command, control and deployment.
•
Collaboration between different agencies and different organizational levels.
•
Flexibility in the use of a variation of emergency services and systems.
These enhanced capabilities also involve new or evolving methods for how to conduct
operations and respond to events, which may require modifications to Customs operational
procedure, both internally and externally (i.e. coordination with other federal agencies).
Remote Monitoring
The same idea of interoperability can be applied internally across different geographically
located hubs or business units. This can facilitate nation-wide coordination in tracking
targets, but primarily, its main advantage would be to alleviate resource constraints of not
having enough staff on site by reassigning monitoring tasks to remote resources. sect
ion
47E
(c)
&
(d)
In Custom’s case, remote district or national video monitoring is currently available for
Seaports using a variety of transmission methods (ISDN, ATM, BDSL or Frame Relay using
terrestrial or satellite telecommunication links). With an IP infrastructure and advanced
scalable codecs, remote monitoring becomes less expensive with bandwidth and latency
being the major considerations for network traffic. While transmission of all CCTV data to a
central location is impractical, it is quite feasible to have a combination of local storage and
remote streaming on request as discussed in the Bandwidth Section (5.3.3).
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Single Desktop Display
In the past with analog, each camera stream was connected to a television monitor.
Multiple camera streams to a single monitor required additional hardware (multiplexors) to
switch between the signals. It was also impossible to display more than one camera stream
on a television.
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With IP, all camera streams come through the same channel. The computer which receives
the video streams can display multiple feeds simultaneously in different windows on the
same screen. Computer windows in a displaying video can be resized to fit more
windows/video streams to an operator’s preference. With the increasing size of monitors
and the existence of virtual desktop software (which effectively multiplies the number of
displays an operator can control Figure 22), there is an emerging trend towards having a
single desktop display per operator. The shift is being adopted in casinos and hotels in
Macau and across the world. 62
Figure 22 Examples of virtual desktop software. Left: Spaces on Mac, Right: openSUSE 10.2's
virtual desktop
Having a single desktop display has many benefits. It requires fewer monitors, which lowers
costs and decreases space requirements; it is also more efficient for operators as they no
longer have to coordinate to share consoles or search for the correct monitor to view
amongst the many available; they have an individual monitor right in front of them. This
arrangement makes particular sense for large control centres with many operators such as
Custom’s National Monitoring Centre in Melbourne.
Scalable Situational Awareness
Situational awareness is the perception of the current situation and environmental
elements, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near
future. Situational awareness is critical to decision makers in command and control, and
emergency response. Inadequate SA has been identified as one of the primary factors in
accidents attributed to human error.63
62
Future CCTV 2009, Invited talk, Greg Morrison, Exec Director, Technology Systems (Asia), Venetian
Macau Resort Hotel
63
Hartel, C. E. J., Smith, K., & Prince, C. (1991, April). Defining aircrew coordination: Searching mishaps
for meaning. Paper presented at the 6th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, USA.
54
Situation awareness typically comprises of three elements:
•
Perception of elements in current situation
•
Comprehension of current situation
•
Projection of future status
The perception of elements in the current situation is partially informed by the available
CCTV and other sensory information from the site. Operators can use the cameras to
observe the environment and activities in order to understand the situation. This “visual”
situational awareness can be better facilitated by having the right infrastructure for example
having adequate camera coverage and high enough resolution for zooming into the image,
which can easily be facilitated by megapixel camera technology.
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Comprehension of the current situation, currently done by individuals, can be augmented
through the use of advanced displays (i.e. advanced presentation using 2D and 3D maps) to
put the scene into context, and also advanced analytics to provide a potential hypothesis on
the issue.
In a team situation, team situational awareness can be defined as “the degree to which
every team member possesses the situational awareness required for his or her
responsibilities”64. The success or failure of a team depends on the success or failure of each
of its team members. If any one of the team members has poor situational awareness, it can
lead to a critical error in performance that can undermine the success of the entire team.
This is particularly applicable to Customs in an emergency response situation where Customs
would have to coordinate with other State and Federal agencies to address the issue. Being
able to share CCTV, sensory and analytic information through an IP network infrastructure
can go a long way to establishing some common perception of the elements and
comprehension of the situation to enable a faster, more coordinated and more unified
response.
64
Endsley, M. R. (1995). Toward a theory of situation awareness in dynamic systems. Human Factors
37(1), 32-64.
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5.8 Evaluation – Performance Metrics and ROI Measures
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The UK is far more advanced than Australia in the uptake and utilisation of CCTV in many
areas. What is quite remarkable when discussing CCTV technologies with UK Police and the
National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA) in recent communication65 is how well they
model the costs and benefits of CCTV related activities. For example, DCC Graeme Gerrard
of the Cheshire Constabulary was able to say that a basic investigation using CCTV would
cost GBP1200. The Home Office was able to say that the cost of an illegal immigrant getting
off a plane at Heathrow, destroying their documents, and claiming asylum status was
GBP40,000 — they require a technology to rapidly determine which plane the passenger
arrived on. In India, the Head of Security of Reliance Petroleum, largest private company in
India, has associated costs with every security incident intercepted by CCTV and he can
demonstrate to management that the investment in CCTV is actually a source of cash and
not a sink. In Australia, the Port of Brisbane was able to say that since the introduction of
CCTV, the cost of pilferage has reduced from AUD3 million per annum to just AUD1 million
per annum.
Such statistics and facts are very persuasive when it comes to arguing for budget allocations
for improved CCTV and for building the business case for change. However collecting the
statistical data and reporting in general can be very time consuming using manual methods.
The advent of IP surveillance system offers the opportunity to automatically log and gather
such performance statistics.
Such technology has been used to great advantage by a private guarding company in
Singapore66 which looks after the security of the Mass Rapid Transit system as well as
prisons. They automate the reporting of many of the security tasks. By tightly binding CCTV
operation with the security guards using technologies such as visual alarms on CCTV, RFID,
GPS, and direct mobile communications to security guards they have been able to reduce
the number of guards and CCTV operators by 80% while achieving higher levels of
effectiveness. The system automatically collects statistics and reports on incidents
intercepted which helps demonstrate the effectiveness of the guarding service.
Another interesting trend to note is the privatisation of the security services for
government-owned services in Singapore such as transport and prisons. This private
guarding service has a central CCTV monitoring facility and monitors all remote sites via
broadband internet connections.
65
Personal Communication, Abbas Bigdeli, May, 2009.
66
OneBerry Corporate Site. 2009.
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6 The CCTV Future
The advent of digital CCTV networks has created opportunities for an increased return on
CCTV investment, both in terms of reduced costs and higher performance. Gains in video
quantity and quality will provide significantly more useful information; remote monitoring
options will provide more flexibility and assistance for local staff; whilst economies of scale
will flow from using common off-the-shelf IT equipment. Nevertheless realizing these
opportunities may demand greater levels of planning and expertise than was needed in
simpler systems of the past. Graphical planning tools will assist in deploying CCTV resources
according to risk analysis.
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Future CCTV systems will be marked by the ‘information anywhere’ paradigm. This will see
video delivered to users wherever their workplace is, such as their desktop PC or roaming
mobile phone or remote monitoring centre in another city. The internet protocol (IP) which
facilitates this paradigm shift is likely to dominate for years to come and promises far greater
and more convenient access to both CCTV and other related information from non-CCTV
systems. For example, textual, graphical or audio information from 3rd party systems can be
presented to CCTV users to provide greater context thus resulting in a more holistic
approach to business solutions. Ethernet networks transporting IP data can easily
incorporate data security and redundancy measures, providing more resilient CCTV services.
While high definition video continues to be ‘data hungry’ despite advances in video
compression, on-demand-only video streaming with on-site storage can help alleviate
bandwidth. Also, reductions in computing and telecommunication costs, helped by the
National Broadband Network initiative, will further support flexible information delivery.
We therefore recommend that IP communications should therefore underpin all Customs
CCTV design decisions.
Whilst the CCTV industry is embracing digital capture, transmission and display, there
remain compatibility problems between competing manufacturers of related products.
Various standards are being developed to standardize video data compression and control
protocols. CCTV systems that subscribe to such standards will allow a greater choice of
CCTV cameras and probably lower the total cost of CCTV ownership. This shift will have a
major impact on the industry that is still dominated by proprietary CCTV hardware
manufacturers. It is recommended that Customs keep a ‘watching brief’ on this issue to take
advantage of open standards as they become available.
Many organizations within Customs seaport and airport environments have a similar need
for visual information and are implementing their own CCTV systems. Occasionally the
needs of Customs and other CCTV operators overlap which presents opportunities to share
services and increase returns on investment. Technology today, namely IP communications,
is capable of facilitating these shared information flow, but ongoing legislative and
relationship development is needed. Consultation can occur in the interim to best position
Customs for future sharing; this extends to systems and business requirements.
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Video analytics adds value to visual information and will be increasingly important feature in
future CCTV systems. Real time alerts and correlated intelligence again increase the return
on CCTV investment by providing a greater likelihood that useable information is being
analyzed by CCTV user resources in the most efficient way. Video analytical tools is an
expanding industry and there is scope for Customs to trial ‘off the shelf’ solutions or
commission made to order applications. The benefits offered by facial recognition
technology are significant and will continue to drive research and development investment
in this area.
Further adoption of software based CCTV ‘video management systems’ is expected. These
systems epitomize the open standards approach where research is directed at enhancing the
CCTV user interface but is hardware ‘agnostic’. This gives rise to frequent design iterations
that incorporate many of the features highlighted above.
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In conclusion, digital CCTV surveillance systems based on IP networking infrastructure are
the way of the future. Not only does the investment for system migration result in lower
costs and improved performance in the long-term, it will also allow Customs to maintain its
standard of operational performance on par with the rest of the world.
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