804-0032-000 (Crescent A100).book
Crescent A100 User Guide
Table of Contents
1: Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
RS232 Serial Port 3
LED 3
Radar-Simulated Pulse Output 3
CAN 4
RS232 Serial Port 4
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Cable Interface 6
Extension Power/Data Cable 7
Crescent A100 Placement 8
Mounting the Crescent A100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Powering the Crescent A100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Connecting the Crescent A100 to External Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Environmental Considerations 17
2: GPS Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
GPS Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
GPS Operation 20
i
Table of Contents
Differential Operation 21
Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
A: Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
B: Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
D: Crescent A100 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
E: Surface Mount Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
ii
1: INSTALLATION
Features
Installation
Mounting the Crescent A100
Powering the Crescent A100
Connecting Crescent A100 to External Devices
1: Installation
INTRODUCTION
Congratulations on buying Hemisphere GPS’ new Crescent A100.
The Crescent A100 is a smart antenna that tracks GPS and SBAS
(WAAS and EGNOS) signals. This chapter provides information on
the following:
•
Features
•
Installation
•
Mounting the Crescent A100
•
Powering the Crescent A100
•
Connecting the Crescent A100 to external devices
2
Crescent A100 User Guide
FEATURES
The Crescent A100 has several new features that will enhance your
product’s performance. The main features are:
•
2 RS232 serial ports
•
LED
•
Radar-simulated pulse output
•
CAN communication
RS232 Serial Port
The RS232 serial is used for NMEA 0183, Hemisphere GPS interface
protocol, RTCM SC-104 and upgrading firmware. See the general
GPS technical reference at www.hemispheregps.com for more
detailed information.
LED
The Crescent A100 uses one tri-colored LED:
•
Red indicates the power is on
•
Amber indicates a GPS lock
•
Flashing green indicates DGPS is being acquired
•
Green indicates a DGPS solution
Radar-Simulated Pulse Output
The radar-simulated pulse output provides accurate ground speed.
The Crescent A100 uses pin 12 for the speed out pin. Pin 12 will
output a square wave with a 50% duty cycle. The frequency of the
3
1: Installation
square wave varies directly with speed. 94 Hz represents a speed
of 1 meter per second, or a 28.65 pulse per foot traveled.
Note: Pin 12 does not have any form of isolation or surge
protection. If you wish to utilize the Speed Radar Pulse
output, you are STRONGLY encouraged to incorporate some
form of isolation circuitry into your supporting hardware.
CAN
The Crescent A100 features Controller Area Network (CAN) to
handle communication between CAN-based devices.
The Crescent A100 supports a selection of NMEA 2000 messages
that can be broadcast on a CAN bus. Table 1-1 provides a listing of
the NMEA 2000 commands that are used.
Table 1-1: NMEA 2000 commands
PGN 129029
GNSSPositionData
PGN 129025
GNSSPositionRapidupdate
PGN 129026
NMEACogSogData
4
Crescent A100 User Guide
INSTALLATION
The Crescent A100 is a smart antenna that tracks GPS and SBAS
(WAAS and EGNOS). It utilizes Hemisphere GPS’ exclusive
COAST™ technology during differential outages. The Crescent
A100 is also capable of using Hemisphere GPS’
e-Dif® and L-Dif® technology
10
1
8
9
2
12
11
3
7
6
4
5
Figure 1-1. Deutsche connector socket numbering
Table 1-2 provides the Deutsche connector’s pin-outs.
Table 1-2: Deutsche connector’s pin-outs
Pin-Out
Function
1
Manual mark in
2
TxB
3
RxB
4
CAN high
5
Signal Ground
5
1: Installation
Table 1-2: Deutsche connector’s pin-outs
Pin-Out
Function
6
TxA
7
One PPS
8
RxA
9
CAN low
10
Power in (12 V)
11
Power ground
12
Speed out
Cable Interface
The cable options include:
•
DB9 serial
•
Speed
•
CAN
•
Power
Additional extension cables may be purchased, as necessary, for other
installations. This allows the Crescent A100 to be quickly and easily
moved form one installation to another. If an extension cable is
damaged in the field, it can be replaced without returning the complete
Crescent A100 system.
Other power cables are available as accessories to fit a wide variety
of applications. See Appendix E for a list of Crescent A100
accessories.
6
Crescent A100 User Guide
Extension Power/Data Cable
The Crescent A100 system is quickly installed with one of the
various extension cables. The location of the extension cable
should be made with the following requirements in mind:
•
Power leads at the “Y” end must reach a power source.
•
The data connector communication port must reach to
connect to a data storage device or guidance system.
When choosing a route for the Crescent A100 extension cable:
•
Avoid running cables in areas of excessive heat
•
Keep cables away from corrosive chemicals
•
Do not run the extension cable through door or window
jams
•
Keep the cables away from rotating machinery
•
Do not bend excessively or crimp the cables
•
Avoid placing tension on the cables
•
Remove unwanted slack from the extension cable at the
receiver end
•
Secure along the cable route using plastic wraps
Warning: Improperly installed cables near machinery can
be dangerous.
Crescent A100 Placement
Placement of the Crescent A100 is crucial to the system’s
operation. The GPS engine inside the Crescent A100 computes a
position based upon measurements from each satellite to the
internal GPS antenna unit. Mount the Crescent A100 on your point
of interest. When choosing a location to mount the antenna, please
7
1: Installation
make certain that there is an unobstructed view of the sky
available to the Crescent A100 smart antenna. This will ensure that
GPS satellites are not masked by obstructions, which can
potentially reduce system performance. To place the Crescent
A100:
1.
Mount the Crescent A100 on, or as close to, the center of your
point of measurement.
2.
Position the Crescent A100 as high as possible.
Figure 1-2 on page 9 shows the ideal location to place the
Crescent A100 on a vehicle.
8
Crescent A100 User Guide
Figure 1-2. Crescent A100 placement on a vehicle
9
1: Installation
MOUNTING
THE
CRESCENT A100
The Crescent A100 can be mounted in several ways:
•
Magnetic mount
•
Surface mount
•
Pole mount
Magnetic Mount
The magnetic mount can be screwed into the bottom of the
Crescent A100 and mounts to metal surfaces. A metal disc and
foam adhesive are included with each magnetic mount. If there are
no metal surfaces, use the foam adhesive to bond the metal disc to
the desired mounting location. To use the metal disc and foam
adhesive:
1.
Clean and dry the mounting surface on the vehicle.
2.
Remove the backing from one side of the foam adhesive and
press the metal plate onto the mounting surface on the
vehicle.
3.
Remove the backing from the other side of the foam adhesive
and press the metal plate onto the mounting surface on the
vehicle.
4.
Apply firm pressure to ensure good adhesion.
10
Crescent A100 User Guide
5.
Place the Crescent A100 on top of the metal disc. (See Figure
1-3 for the magnetic mounted Crescent A100.)
Figure 1-3. Magnetic mounted Crescent A100
Surface Mount
As an alternative to the magnetic mount, the Crescent A100 is
easily attached to the surface with four machine screws
(no. 8-32). To surface mount the Crescent A100:
1.
Photocopy, or remove, Appendix E and use its line drawing as
a template to plan the mounting hole locations.
2.
Mark the mounting hole centers, as necessary, on the
mounting surface.
3.
Place the Crescent A100 antenna over the marks to ensure
that the planned hole centers agree with the true hole centers,
then adjust.
4.
Use a center punch on the hole centers in order to guide the
drill bit.
5.
Drill the mounting holes with a 3/16 inch bit appropriate for the
surface mount.
11
1: Installation
6.
Place the Crescent A100 over the mounting holes and insert
the mounting screws through the bottom of the mounting
surface and into the antenna.
Warning: Install the Crescent A100 only hand-tight.
Damage resulting from overtightening the Crescent A100 is
not covered by warranty.
Pole Mount
The center thread of the Crescent A100 is 5/8 inches for
compatibility with a survey pole (not included).
12
Crescent A100 User Guide
POWERING
THE
CRESCENT A100
To power the Crescent A100:
Connect the Crescent to a 12 volt DC source with a power
connector. Choosing the right power connector will depend on
your specific installation requirements.
Note: We suggest that a weather-tight connection and
connector be used if the connection will be located outside.
The power cable with the cigarette lighter adapter is ideal for
use in a vehicle. Other power cables are available as
accessories to fit a wide variety of applications. See
Appendix D for a list of Crescent A100 accessories.
Warning: Be careful not to provide a voltage higher than
the input range. This will damage the antenna.
The Crescent A100 accepts an input voltage between 7 and 36
VDC via the cable. For best performance, the supplied power
should be continuous and clean. Refer to Table B-1: Power
specifications in the Appendix for power requirements.
Warning: Do not apply a voltage higher than 36 VDC. This
will damage the receiver and void the warranty.
The Crescent A100 features reverse polarity protection to
prevent excessive damage if the power leads are accidentally
reversed.
With the application of power, the Crescent A100 will
automatically proceed through an internal start-up sequence,
however it will be ready to communicate immediately.
13
1: Installation
Note: The first start-up can take from 5 to 15 minutes
depending on your location. This may vary depending where
you are in the world.
Note: The Crescent A100 can take up to five minutes for a
full ionoshperic map to be received from SBAS. Optimum
accuracy will be obtained once the Crescent A100 is
processing corrected positions using complete ionospheric
information.
14
Crescent A100 User Guide
CONNECTING THE CRESCENT A100
TO EXTERNAL DEVICES
The serial ports of the Crescent A100 operates at the RS-232C
interface level to communicate with external data loggers,
navigation systems and other devices. The serial ports are
accessible via the extension cable that features a DB9 female data
connector. The serial ports are also used for firmware updates.
Note: For successful communication, the baud rate of the
Crescent A100 serial ports must be set to match that of the
devices to which they are connected.
Figure 1-5 displays the numbering for the extension cable’s DB-9
socket connector (female). The associated numbering for the plug
connector (male) is a mirror reflection of the scheme shown in
figure 1-4.
Figure 1-4. DB-9 socket numbering
Table 1-3 provides the pin configuration for communication
through the serial ports.
Note: Depending on the optional cable selected, other pins
on the serial ports may be active.
15
1: Installation
Table 1-3: Extension cable pin-out, DB-9
Pin number
Description
2
Transmit Crescent A100 NMEA 0183, binary
and RTCM
3
Receive Crescent A100 NMEA 0183, binary
and RTCM input
5
Signal ground
Factory parameters
Tables 1-4 to 1-6 identify the default Crescent A100 configuration.
Table 1-4: DGPS
Application 1
SBAS (WAAS, EGNOS, etc.)
Application 2
e-Dif (unsubscribed)
Table 1-5: Serial port settings
Serial port
Baud
Rate
Data
bits
Parity
Stop
bit
Interface
level
Serial port
A and B
4800
9600
19200
57600
8
None
1
RS-232C
Table 1-6: GPS message output options
GPS message
Update
rate
Max DGPS
age
Elevation
mask
Hemisphere GPS Binary
NMEA 0183
NMEA 2000 (CAN)
From
1 Hz to
20 Hz
259,200
seconds
5°
16
Crescent A100 User Guide
The CAN port will automatically output the NMEA 2000 messages
according to Table 1-7.
Table 1-7: NMEA 2000 commands
NMEA 2000 message
Updates rates
GNNSPositionData
1 Hz
GNNSPositionRapidUpdate
20 Hz with updates based on the
subscribed rate (i.e. every other
message will be a copy of the
previous on a 10 Hz receiever)
NMEACogSogData
20 Hz with updates based on the
subscribed rates (i.e. every other
messages will be a copy of the
previous on a 10 Hz receiver)
Custom Configuring the Crescent A100
All aspects of the Crescent A100 may be configured through the
serial port with the use of Hemisphere GPS commands. The user
can configure the following items:
•
Selecting one of the two on-board applications
•
Selecting the baud rate
•
Choosing which NMEA 0183 data message to output on the
dual serial ports and the update rate of each message
Note: The changes you make to the Crescent A100 will not
be saved to the memory for subsequent power-up unless a
save command is issued.
17
Note: Contact your local Hemisphere GPS dealer for more
information regarding the use of Hemisphere GPS
commands and customized configuration.
Environmental Considerations
The Crescent A100 is designed to withstand various outdoor
environments. However, there are specific environmental limits
that you should meet when storing and using the Crescent A100.
See Table B-4: environmental specifications in Appendix B.
2: GPS OVERVIEW
GPS Operation
Differential Operation
2: GPS Overview
GPS OVERVIEW
This chapter describes the various modes of operation and
features of your Crescent A100 receiver and internal sensors.
For your convenience, both the GPS and differential correction
of the Crescent A100 are pre-configured. The receiver will work
out of the box, and for most applications, little user set up is
necessary. When powered for the first time, the Crescent A100
will perform a “cold start,” which involves acquiring the
available GPS satellites in view and the SBAS differential
service.
GPS Operation
The GPS engine is always operating, regardless of the DGPS
mode of operation. The following sections describe the general
operation of the Crescent A100’s internal GPS engine.
Automatic Tracking
The GPS engine within the Crescent A100 automatically
searches for GPS satellites, acquires the signals and manages
the navigation information required for positioning and
tracking. This is a hands-free mode of operation.
Receiver Performance
The Crescent A100 works by finding four or more GPS satellites
in the visible sky and uses the information those satellites
provide to compute an appropriate position (typically within
2-3 meters). Since there is some error in the GPS data
calculations, the Crescent A100 also tracks a differential
correction. The Crescent A100 uses these corrections to
improve its position to less than 1 meter (see
Table B-5: GPS sensor specifications in the appendix).
20
Crescent A100
There are two main aspects of GPS receiver performance:
•
Positioning
•
Satellite acquisition quality
When the Crescent A100 is properly positioned on your
vehicle, the satellites transmit coded information to the
antenna in a specific frequency that allows the receiver to
calculate a range to each satellite. GPS is essentially a timing
system. The ranges are calculated by timing how long it takes
for the GPS signal to reach the GPS antenna.
To calculate the geographic location, the GPS receiver uses a
complex algorithm incorporating satellite locations and ranges
to each satellite. Reception of any four or more of these signals
allows a GPS receiver to compute 3-dimensional coordinates.
Differential Operation
The Radio Technical Commission of Marine services (RTCM)
has a differential service intended for correction services. This
includes the Space Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS), such
as the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) and the
European Geo-stationary Navigation Overlay System (EGNOS).
The Crescent A100 is compatible with each of these differential
services in addition to Hemisphere GPS’ patented e-Dif.
SBAS
A SBAS enabled Crescent A100 operates automatically
anywhere within the coverage areas of the WAAS, EGNOS or
other SBAS programs.
The basics
WAAS is a free service of the FAA that allows regular GPS
positions to be improved to a DGPS level of accuracy. Tests
21
2: GPS Overview
using a Crescent A100 have shown better than one-meter
accuracy. WAAS is available everywhere in the U.S., including
Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. It can also be picked up in
some of the border areas of Mexico and Canada. There are no
subscription charges incurred when using WAAS.
EGNOS is a similar service that is available in Europe and
Western Russia.
Automatic SBAS Tracking
The Crescent A100 will automatically scan and track the
satellite signals. This automatic tracking allows you to focus on
other aspects of differential operation without the need to tune
the receiver. The Crescent A100 features two-channel SBAS
tracking that provides an enhanced ability to maintain a lock
on a SBAS satellite when more than one satellite is in view.
This redundant tracking approach results in more consistent
tracking of a SBAS signal when in an area where signal
blockage of a satellite is possible.
e-Dif
A Crescent A100 that is equipped with Hemisphere GPS’ e-Dif
capabilities can operate anywhere in the world where normal
GPS signals can be viewed. e-Dif can be used anywhere on the
globe where a GPS lock can be achieved.
Hemisphere GPS developed e-Dif for our customers who are
not able to receive other types of differential signals due to
location or budget.
e-Dif requires a subscription. Once the Hemisphere GPS e-Dif
capable Crescent A100 computes a differential correction. The
user can operate for unlimited time and provide good relative
accuracy. Alternatively, the operator can regularly update e-Dif
to maintain absolute accuracy (typically less than 1 meter over
40 minutes.)
22
APPENDIX
Troubleshooting
Crescent A100 Specifications
Network
Crescent A100 accessories
Surface mount template
Appendix
A: Troubleshooting
Table A-1 provides a checklist to troubleshoot common
problems and their solutions for the Crescent A100.
Table A-1: Troubleshooting
Problem
Possible solution
Receiver fails to
power
•
Verify polarity of power leads
•
Check integrity of power cable
connections
•
Check power input voltage
(7 - 36 VDC)
•
Check current restrictions imposed
by power source (maximum is
250 mA)
•
Check receiver power status (LED)
•
Check integrity and connectivity of
power and data cable connections
•
The volume of data requested to be
output by the Crescent A100 could
be higher than what the current
baud rate supports. Try using
19,200, or higher, as the baud rate
for all devices.
•
Check integrity of cable connections
•
Verify Crescent A100’s unobstructed
view of the sky
No data from
Crescent A100
No GPS lock
24
Crescent A100
Table A-1: Troubleshooting
Problem
Possible solution
No SBAS lock
•
Check integrity of cable connections
•
Verify Crescent A100’s unobstructed
view of the sky
•
Check SBAS visibility map
25
Appendix
B: Specifications
Table B-1 to B-5 provides the power, mechanical,
communication, environmental and DGPS specifications for the
Crescent A100.
Table B-1: Power specifications
Item
Specification
Input voltage
7 - 36 VDC
Power consumption
< 2 W @ 12 VDC (typical)
Current Consumption
150 mA @ 12 VDC (typical)
Power connector
Cable mount environmentally sealed
Table B-2: Mechanical specifications
Item
Specification
Height
54.7 mm (2.2”)
Width
129.5 mm (5.1”)
Weight
0.66 kg (1.45 pounds)
Mounting Options
Magnetic mount
Fixed mount - low or high pole
26
Crescent A100
Table B-3: Communication specifications
Item
Description
Serial ports
2 full duplex RS232
CAN
NMEA 2000 broadcast
Pulse output
1 PPS (HCMOS, active high, rising
edge sync)
Baud rates
4800 - 57600
Differential correction
I/O protocol
RTCM SC-104
Data I/O protocol
NMEA 0183, SLX binary and NMEA
2000
Ground speed output
Range: 0.8 - >322 Km/h
(0.5 - >200 mph)
Signal: Opto-isolated pulse out
Frequency Conversion: 94 Hz/m/s
(28.65 pulse per foot traveled)
Event mark output
HCMOS, active low, falling edge
sync, 10 k-ohm, 10 pF load
Table B-4: Environmental specifications
Item
Specification
Operating temperature
-30° C to +70° C
(-22° F to +158° C)
Storage temperature
-40° C to +85° C
(-40° F to +185° F)
Humidity
100%
27
Appendix
Table B-4: Environmental specifications
Item
Specification
Enclosure
Waterproof and dust proof
Compliance
FCC, CE
Shock
IEC 68-2-27
Vibration
ISO 16750-1
EMI certification
FCC part 15, E-Mark
Table B-5: GPS sensor specifications
Item
Specification
Receiver type
L1, C/A code with carrier phase
smoothing (Patented COAST
technology during differential signal
outage)
Channels
12-channel, parallel tracking
(10-channel when tracking SBAS)
Update rate
1 - 20 Hz positions
Horizontal accuracy
•
< 0.6 m 95% confidence
(DGPS) *
•
< 2.5 m 95% confidence
(autonomous) **
Differential Options
SBAS, e-Dif, L-Dif
SBAS Tracking
2-channel, parallel tracking
Start up time
60 s (no almanac and RTC)
Satellite Reaquisition
<1s
28
Crescent A100
* Depends on multipath environment, number of satellites in
view, satellite geometry, baseline length (for local services)
and ionspheric activity
**Depends on multipath environment, number of satellites in
view, satellite geometry and ionspheric activity
29
Appendix
D: Crescent A100 Accessories
Tables D-1 to D-4 provides the available accessories for the
Crescent A100.
Table D-1: Crescent A100
Part Number
Item
804-0032
Crescent A100 receiver
Table D-2: Crescent A100 documentation accessories
Part Number
Documentation
875-1063
Crescent A100 owner’s manual
875-0066
Warranty
Table D-3: Crescent A100 cable accessories
Part Number
Cables
051-0129
Cable, Crescent A100 power, single port
DB9, 3 meters (10 feet)
051-0130
Cable: Crescent A100 power, dual port
DB-9, 3 meters (10 feet)
051-0132
Cable: Guidance console port, single port
DB9, 5 meters (15 feet)
051-0133
Cable adaptor converts 051-0132 guidance
console port to a speed port
30
Crescent A100
Table D-3: Crescent A100 cable accessories
Part Number
Cables
051-0134
Cable adaptor converts 051-0132 guidance
console port to a console port and speed
port
051-0136
Cable adaptor converts 051-0132 guidance
console port to DB9 and speed port
054-0035
Cable: power to battery clips, 1 m (3 ft)
054-0034
Cable: power cigarette lighter adapter
extension .91 m (3 ft)
054-0037
Cable: power to AC adapter, 1.83 M (6 ft)
054-0038
Cable: power cable, .91 m (3 ft) extension
Table D-4: Crescent A100 mounting accessories
Part number
Mounting accessories
478-0002
Base magnetic mount
601-0003
Zinc disc
683-0001
Foam pad
31
Appendix
This page is intentionally left blank
32
Crescent A100
E: Surface Mount Template
The following template should be used to plan for the location
of the mounting holes used when surface mounting the
Crescent A100.
Figure E-1. Crescent A100 Surface mounting template
33
Crescent A100
35
Appendix
36
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