FLORIDA SAFETY GUIDE - Technology Education

FLORIDA SAFETY GUIDE - Technology Education

©State ot Florida, Department of State, 1982

Authorization for reproduction is hereby granted to the State System of

Public Education as defined in 228.041 (1), Florida Statutes No authorization is granted for distribution or reproduction outside the State System of

Public Education without prior approval in writing.

The materials reproduced in this safety guide were selected by a committee that included Florida vocational instructors and supervisors as being the best available in terms of content and cost of acquisition. Each instructor should preview the materials prior to classroom use for content accuracy and for acceptable safety measures. Since safety procedures may vary in different locations, the Division of Vocational Education and the selection committee members do not certify that all safety measures are included in the materials.

The use of trademarks in this document is strictly for the purpose of clarity and in no way should be considered an endorsement by the Department of Education, Florida State University, or The Center for Studies in

Vocational Education.

FLORIDA

INDUSTRIAL ARTS

SAFETY GUIDE

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The Division of Vocational Education wishes to express appreciation to the many individuals who contributed to this safety guide.

Appreciation is extended to the Project Committee, which consisted of the Local Project Coordinator, Richard Hair, Department Chairman of

Industrial Arts and Industrial Education, Hillsborough High School, and the following members:

Conrad Frassa, teacher, LaVoy School, Tampa

Jerry Hamm, teacher, Conway Junior High, Orlando

John K Horn, Program Coordinator, Industrial Arts Education,

Orange County

Lowell (Tom) Hudson, Supervisor, Industrial Arts, Duval County

Jim Morris, Supervisor, Industrial Arts, Dade County

Robert Pryor, Assistant Professor, Industrial Education, Florida

International University, Miami

John Thomas, teacher, Jenkins Middle School, Palatka

James

L

Whittamore, Industrial Arts Consultant, Lee County

Thanks also to B. H. Blankenbecler, Supervisor of Industrial Arts and

Industrial Education, Hillsborough County Schools, who administered the project for the county.

Special acknowledgment is given to Robert Pryor, who wrote and revised the safety color code poster and various items in this guide.

Gratitude is expressed to Ralph Steeb, State Consultant for Industrial

Arts Education, for attending all committee meetings and for providing overall guidance and direction.

Appreciation is extended to Marvin Patterson, Project Manager, and to Thomas W. Sommer and James

R.

Vandervest of The Center for

Studies in Vocational Education, Florida State University, for their assistance in committee activities and in the production of this safety guide.

Finally, thanks are due Margaret Van Every and P V LeForge, editors; Dan Haskin, visual designer: and Debra G. Green and Gary Carroll, illustrators, all of The Center for Studies in Vocational Education, Florida

State University, for their contributions to this safety guide.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgments.

Preface.

Introduction

Safety Responsibilities

Liability

Shop Safety Standards

Practices That May Lead to Liability

State Regulations

Emergency Action

Suggested Procedure in the Event of a Serious Injury

The First Aid Kit

Eye Safety

Hazards of Solvents

Shock Hazards

Facets of a Safety Program

Qualifying on Machines

Daily Safety Operations Checklist for Students

Safety Zone Lines

Metals Safety

Plastics Safety.

Woods Safety

Hand and Portable Power Tools Safety

Graphic Arts Safety

Electricity/Electronics Safety

Welding Safety

Automotive and Power Mechanics Safety.

Annotated Bibliography

Additional Resources

Organizations

Index iv vii

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193

269

347

465

523

.631

739

749

... 775

.... 783

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23

24

26

27

35

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PREFACE

Accidents can happen in a second. They're sometimes tragic and always unexpected But they're also prevl,ltable. The key is safety, but knowing safe practices is not enough. In this age of increasingly complex machines and machine technology, one must

use

these practices and use them continuously.

Public schools should emphasize safety in vocational subjects, science, and sports. Industrial arts educators must be ever alert to the potential dangers that exist in their laboratories. It is up to teachers and administrators to develop in each student a knowledge of safety practices and an awareness of when to use these practices. This knowledge can be used not only dUring the school program, but in life and on the job as well.

Because of the importance of safety education in industrial arts laboratories, the Florida Division of Vocational Education has prepared this set of instructional materials. In addition to the

Safety Guide,

the set includes

Florida Industrial Arts

1.

A group of posters reflecting general safety attitudes and habits.

2.

Three self-contained safety books

Delleloping Shop Safety

Skills; Shop Safety Skills,

Teacher Guide; and

Shop Safety

Skills,

Student Workbook (American Association for Vocational

Instructional Materials)

3 An eye protection packet,

An Option to See: Educators

Resource Guide

(National Society for the Prevention of

Blindness).

4.

A hand tool booklet,

Proper Use and Care of Handtools,

Pliers, Screwdrivers, Wrenches, Striking and Struck Tools

(Klein Tool, Inc.).

5.

A booklet,

Safety and Heaith for industriallVocational Education

(U .S. Government Printing Office).

This manual is intended primarily for secondary school shop teachers, but industrial arts supervisors, principals, superintendents, and school board members will also find it a source of useful information.

vii

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Pages 16-18 are adapted from Health and Safety Identification Pro-

gram,

produced by Industrial Department, United Brotherhood of

Carpenters and Joiners of America, Washington, D.C., n.d.

Page 19 is adapted from Health and Safety Newsletter: "Common

Solvents and Their Hazards," produced by United Auto Workers, Detroit,

Michigan, 1977.

Pages 20-22 are adapted from Electricity Concepts: Unit

Manual,

produced by Energy Concepts, Inc., Chicago, n.d.

1:

Lab

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INTRODUCTION

Industrial arts teachers shoulder a great responsibility tor the education and weltare ot students in their classes. Although each teacher is dependent upon a hierarchy of administrators and supervisors, s(he) is nevertheless the principal organizer and director of educational experiences and activities. The content, outcome, and indeed the success or tallure of that part of the educational program resides with the teacher and the teacher alone.

But the industrial arts teacher has a responsibility that most classroom teachers do not. Because a shop teacher's basic teaching aids include machines. power tools, and electrical equipment, safety is an integral part of any industrial arts program. Isolated or unrelated lectures on safety practices are not enough. Integrating safety awareness and procedures into the total classroom instruction is a vital task.

The human instinct for self-preservation is, unfortunately, not always very strong when everyday safety is concerned. Many people fall victim to it-can't-happen-to-me attitudes. The students must be educated in the basics and specifics of safety-just as they must learn general objectives and specific tasks in training for a career.

The two main purposes of safety education are (1) to protect the student from being injured in the school shop or laccratory and (2) to develop habits, attitudes, and perceptions that will help ensure safety awareness throughout a lifetime. This manual and its accompanying materials are intended to serve as guides to help the teacher accomplish these important tasks. And because accidents will happen despite all precautions, this guide includes important information about how teachers can protect themselves from liability.

These materials do not make up a complete safety program, nor do they pretend to tell the teacher much about

how

to teach safety. Rather, general and specific rules, regulations, and practices are presented in an effort to achieve a certain minimum coverage. The teacher is encouraged to use the materials as aids in developing a comprehensive and integrated safety program. A truly effective safety program is practiced regularly and naturally as part ot the daily work.

One way to increase the effectiveness of a safety prog ram is to encourage student participation. Students can and should be actively involved in planning and presenting programs, demonstrations, and other activities. The appointment of a student "shop steward," "safety engineer," or "committee on shop safety" can be of great help in getting students interested in promoting safety rules and procedures.

The teacher should study Ihese materials before planning any laboratory safety program. There may be sections of this guide that are not applicable to all industrial arts classes. Teachers are advised to adapt this material to suit their individual needs. Instruction should be given when it is most timely and meaningful to the student, rather than by the

"shotgun" method-trying to explain everything there is to know about shop safety all at once Applicable parts of this safety guide can also be reproduced for use as handouts. In this way, students will have a ready reference tor reinforcing their knowledge when they need it most.

3

Generally, this manual consists of the following:

1.

An introductory section on general safety rules and habits. This includes several pages on liability.

2.

An introduction to safety procedures relating to the tollowing tools and machines: a.

Machines for working with metals, plastics, and woods b.

Hand and portable power tools c.

Equipment used in electricity and electronics d.

Graphic arts equipment e.

Welding equipment f.

Automotive and power mechanics tools and equipment

In addition, each section contains a safety quiz and a transparency master for each piece of equipment.

3 An appendix of professional organizations and manufacturers of equipment and supplies

4.

A list of audiovisuals

5 A bibliography of industrial arts safety-related materials

4

SAFETY RESPONSIBILITIES

The Philosophy of Safety Education

The fundamental purpose of a safety program is to prevent students from being injured. Because students lack the experience and maturity to behave with concern for their own safety, the teacher has a moral and professional responsibility to safeguard those who have been enrolled in the course. To achieve this, a safe working environment must be created and safety instruction and evaluation must be an integral part of the course work.

A good safety program also serves an economic purpose-both for the teacher and the pupil. Injuries to students may impair their future earning power by restricting their avenues for employment. This would create a hardship not only for the victim but also for his or her family. The teacher, therefore, must protect against the possibility of being sued. "Hold harmless" legislation frees him or her from liability in a shop accident unless negligence can be proved. Still, legal services may be required In a suit to establish negligence.

The Scope of Responsibility

The responsibility for safety in industrial arts programs rests with many people the school board, the administration, the parents, and the teacher. The teacher's role should not, however, be construed as a passive one, accepting whatever conditions are given. Quite the reverse. It is the teacher's duty not only to provide a safety education program, but also to keep supervisors and administrators advised of the needs of the shop and the prog ram Any unsafe conditions should be reported immediately in writing. The portion of the instructional program having unsafe conditions or equipment should be suspended until corrective action is taken. A prompt and detailed report serves as evidence of the teacher's concern and good intentions.

The Responsibility of Parents

Parents should begin safety education at home, but they should also concern themselves with the enactment of good school safety laws. An important part of this concern should be for the hiring of qualified personnel and the quality of equipment and facilities. Parents' cooperation and interest are of the utmost importance. The teacher should capitalize on the influence of parents on the development of their children and involve them in the safety programs of the school. Teachers should make sure that parents are represented on the industrial arts advisory committee.

The Responsibility of the School Board

Legally, the school board is a government agency Under a state law that became effective on January 1, 1975, all such branches of the state can be sued to recover damages for injury or loss of property, personal injury, or death caused by the negligence or wrongful act or omission of any employee while acting within the scope of employment. Because safety in industrial arts programs begins with an efficient facility, safe equipment, proper materials, and competent instructional personnel, the school board has the responsibility to provide these elements. Safety should never be subordinate to economy.

5

Because school boards may be liable for damages caused by negligence, they are authorized to purchase insurance protection. Individual teachers may buy self-insurance. These types of insurance will defray the costs of legal services or a judgment against the school or the individual.

The Responsibility of the Administration

The teacher, as the certified subject specialist and as the individual closest to the student, is the one most responsible for safety and for other aspects of the student's education. To carry out these large responsibilities, the teacher needs the unqualified support of the school administration. Such support, in fact, amounts to the main responsibility of administrators concerning shop satety: they must provide the teacher with the information, facilities, tools, and equipment needed to conduct an ongoing safety program and to create a safe working environment.

The Florida Department of Education has the responsibility of providing school districts with leadership and direction in the development of practical safety programs This leadership is expressed in guides and consultive services. The state and regional consultants for industrial arts provide technical assistance to districts and teachers

District superintendents and their administrative personnel must give their wholehearted cooperation to establishing an ongoing and viable safety program. County policies and procedures should be furnished to develop, maintain, and evaluate school safety programs. The county should also be concerned with providing special individual equipment, adequately maintained power equipment, safe facilities, and the leadership required to motivate teachers to maintain a successful safety program.

The county director or supervisor of industrial arts has the specific task of directing safety programs through teachers in shops and laboratories. Supervisors should provide guides, accident report forms, inservice education and information, equipment, maintenance procedures, and most important, direct supervision of the safety program

The Responsibility of the Teacher

Despite the role of parents, administrators, supervisors, and the school board, the main burden of responsibility for school shop safety rests on the industrial arts teacher.

A teacher's duties and powers are defined in law. In addition, the law requires that teachers exercise the care that any reasonably prudent person would exercise in a similar situation. The teacher also has a moral responsibility to protect the welfare of the students by creating a safe environment and instilling in them a safety consciousness.

Because the teacher stands

in loco parentis

(in the place of the parent), s(he) must take on some of the rights and duties of parents Thus, the teacher has the added requirement to act as a reasonable and prudent parent would

To escape any charge of negligence, it is necessary for all teachers to have a planned safety program and adequate pupil supervision.

Teachers should never exceed their authority, use poor judgment, or fail to take necessary safety precautions,

For their own safety, however, industrial arts teachers should find out if their school provides liability coverage If not, they are encouraged to investigate self-insurance, which is available through a variety of private agencies and professional organizations

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The Responsibility of the Student

The primary recipient of all safety procedures and plans is the student. But no safety program can succeed without the student bearing a great deal of responsibility for his or her own well-being. The program of safety education should cause each student to qUickly realize his or her responsibility to develop sound safety habits.

The philosophy of any safety education prog ram should be such that students will come to realize that they are responsible for their own safety, in school and out. Yet students' immaturity and lack of experience must be taken into account. A student may realize that a particular act is dangerous but may not realize the

amount

of danger or realize the consequences of the act. A good professional educator, then, must be a bit of a psychologist-able to size up students as individuals and anticipate behavior that might cause accidents. Some students might be given to horseplay, for instance, while others might be absentminded or untidy. But if a student commits an unsafe act despite being told not to, the teacher is not excused from liability. Such contributory negligence on the part of the pupil is seldom a factor in releasing a teacher from liability.

7

LIABILITY

Under the Florida Constitution, the state cannot be sued unless the legislature authorizes it. Such a law is generally referred to as

sovereign

immunity, In 1975, however, the legislature authorized individuals to bring suits against the state or its agencies in the same manner that they might sue a private individual. This waiver of immunity or acceptance of responsibility for its tort, or wrongful act, is limited to $100,000 for each person or a total of $200,000 for each occurrence,

The legislation specifically prohibits tort suits from being brought against state employees for any injuries or damages suffered as a result of any action, event, or omission of that employee while acting in the scope of his or her employment. This immunity from suit does not apply if the employee acted in bad faith, with malicious purpose, or in a manner exhibiting wanton and willful disregard of human rights, safety, or property,

If an accident happens in an industrial arts class, a tort liability suit may be brought against the teacher, the school, or the state, In a tort liability suit, however, the plaintiff must prove that s(he) is worse off than s(he) was before the accident, and that the accident was caused by negligence on the part of the defendant.

Legal negligence may be defined as the failure to observe that standard of care that a normal and prudent person would observe under the same or like ci rcumstances,

Generally speaking, then, a teacher would not be subject to liability in tort actions without wrongdoing or fault on his or her part.

Shop Safety Standards

A practical, orgoing safety program will not only result in a low accident rate but will also serve to protect the teacher from judgment in the event of an injury, By adhering at all times to the following shop safety standards, a teacher should be able to demonstrate that no negligence exists,

1, Provide adequate supervision at all times, Never leave a class unattended, If it is absolutely necessary to be out of the room, shut off power to all machines and have a qualified person watch the class for you It is a good idea to plan for this eventuality by checking with your principal or director before the need arises,

2, Behave as a reasonable and prudent

~erson would under the same or similar circumstances,

3, Develop a sound safety education program as an integral part of the course of instruction, Formulate clear, basic rules and regulations and enforce them

rigidly,

4, Give adequate instruction in the proper, safe use of all machines, tools, and equipment. Closely supervise student use of all such items to make certain your instruction has been effective, Administer periodic safety tests

5, Insist that guards be installed on all equipment to protect students from moving parts such as blades, pUlleys, and gears

These guards should meet state standards

6, Insist that eye-protection devices be worn as part of a comprehensive eye-safety program,

8

7. Provide protective clothing for special hazards and insist that this clothing be used. Regular personal clothing should be proper for the particular job or situation (ties or rings should not be worn around machinery, for instance).

8. Make sure that the facility is properly maintained. Housekeeping chores should be done daily and carefully supervised Any defective equipment should be repaired at once by the teacher or, If beyond the scope of repair by the teacher, reported in writing to the proper authority. Copies of all such reports should be kept and filed. Danger signs or "out of order" signs should be posted on defective equipment until repairs are made.

9. Keep accurate written records relative to safety instruction and to accidents. Secure written statements from witnesses to accidents.

10. Make sure that all toxic and flammable materials are clearly labeled and properly stored.

11. Develop a professional understanding of your students with regard to levels of maturity, health, background, personality, coordination, attitude, and other traits that might affect a student's behavior in class Check the cumulative records of each student as early as possible in the school year. Any physical or behavioral problems should be taken up with the proper school personnel and with parents. The teacher should be informed before any students with handicaps (epileptics, students who are hard of hearing, partially sighted students, or students with behavioral problems) are assigned to the program. Extraordinary standards of precaution should be established to protect these students.

Practices That May Lead to Liability

The above standards of safety should be carried out continuously. At the same time, there are practices that an instructor must take great care to avoid. The instructor should pay close attention to the following rules.

Failure to do so may lead to liability.

1.

Do not leave the laboratory while students are working.

2.

Do not leave a person who is not qualified to teach industrial arts in charge of the laboratory.

3.

Do not permit students who are not enrolled in the class to use laboratory equipment and tools.

4.

Do not permit students to use machines or tools for which prop-

~r instruction has not been given.

5.

Do not allow pupils to use equipment that has not been approved by the administration and the school board.

6.

Do not permit students to work in the laboratory during free periods when the facility is unsupervised.

7.

Do not allow the use of equipment by students who are prone to accidents or who possess physical handicaps that may be the cause of accidents.

8.

Do not send pupils outside the laboratory to perform activities or errands for the school, or for other departments within the school.

9

State Regulations

The Florida State Board of Education establishes rules for the operation of pUblic schools Part III, Section B, Chapter 6A-2 of the State Board of Education Rules contains the standards for existing educational facilities Subsections deal with the entire school facility in regard to such topics as electrical equipment, flammable materials, ventilation, fire safety.

storage, and illumination

Specifically, subsection 6A-2.97 contains regulations unique to industrial arts classes

6A·2.97: Safety Devices in Shops, Laboratories, and Other Process Areas

(1) Use of personal profecfion devices and other protecfive equipment is required when students and staff are exposed to the following

(a) Arc welding, heavy gas cutting, scarfing.

(b) Spot welding, brazing, or cutting.

(c) Machining of any materials causing flying chips

(d) Injurious radiations, dusts, fumes, gases, vapor mists

(e) Sledging, hammering. chipping, scaling, drilling, grinding, chiseling, wire brushing, and caulking operations where flying objects or particles may sfrike the body.

(f) Chemicals, acids, caustics, and molten metals

(2) Personal profection devices which come in contact with the skin shall be sanitized after each use,

(3) Clothing, jewelry and personal grooming of personnel in shops and labs shall not constitute a hazard.

(4) Individual equipment power shut-off, within reach of the operator, shall be provided for all working machinery. Each individual machine shall be equipped with an approved electromagnetic starter switch

(5) No safeguard, safety appliance, or safety device guarding a machine or machine part shall be removed or made ineffective except when the machine is stopped and for the purpose of immediate cleaning, repairing, or adjusting. Upon completion of repairing, cleaning or adjusting, such guard, appliance, or device shall immediately be replaced. Any shop or laboratory tool or equipment found to be unsafe shall be red-tagged and removed from service until the condition is corrected.

(6) The floors in areas where machines are used shall be kept free from waste, grease, and obstructions.

(7) Welding operations shall be located in a shielded area, and the area shall be free of combustible material and persons not wearing protective devices.

(8) Areas where toxic fumes are produced shall be properly vented to the outside.

(9) Flammable fumes or dust produced in a student occupied facility shall be mechanically exhausted to the outside with approved explosion-proof motor driven equipment with filters in place

(10) Each space equipped with unprotected gas valves accessible to students shall have an approved master cut-off readily accessible to the instructor.

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(11) Each shop or lab equipped with electrically powered machinery accessible to students shall have one or more conspicuously color-coded disconnect switches at convenient locations throughout the space.

(12) Kilns shall be properly shielded from combustibles, combustible surfaces and personnel, and shall not be located in the path of or adjacent to any means of egress, or exposed to unauthorized persons.

(13) Automotive, body and frame repair areas requiring welding and cutting shall be separated from engine overhaul and related fuel handling activities.

(14) A tire cage shall be provided when pressurizing tires on split rims

(15) Vehicle lifts shall be provided with a mechanical safety lock.

(16) Piping and working machinery with component parts shall be safety color-coded in accordance with ANSI Z531-1971.

(17) The safety color-coded chart shall be posted in a conspicuous place available to employees and students.

(18) Hazardous work and storage areas shall be identified by appropriate caution signs

(19) All equipment designed to be permanently mounted shall be securely fastened to its supporting surface.

(20) Safety zone lines shall be used on the floor area surrounding working machinery.

(21) Fume hoods shall be provided and kept in proper operating condition. Operations where flammable gas, toxic vapors or noxious odors are given off shall be performed in the fume hoods.

(22) Safety equipment such as showers and floor drains, eye wash, fire blankets and proper extinguishing equipment shall be provided, properly installed and maintained correctly. Specific Authority

229.053(1), 235.012 FS. Law Implemented 230.23(9), 230.756,

235.014(2), 235.06, 23526 FS. History-New 6-10-75, Amended

9-6-78

Emergency Action

Although serious accidents arf rare, an industrial arts instructor should always be prepared for one. The question "What will I do if an emergency occurs?" is one to which all teachers should give serious thought. School district policies and procedures regarding accidents and sickness should be discussed with the department head or principal and memorized. Plans should be made concerning communicafions, first aid, and transportation. These plans should be written down and discussed with each group of students.

Suggested Procedure in the Event 01 a Serious Injury

The first thing to do in an emergency is to send for help. An ambulance or an emergency rescue unit should be called immediately. If the injury is not serious, first aid can be given, but in no case should the victim be given medication. The instructor should fhen initiate the notification of the principal or department head. An injured student should never be left alone, however, and the teacher should never leave the class without providing supervision

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The family should be notified as soon as possible after aid has been sent for. They should contact the family doctor. If the family cannot be reached, the instructor should contact the family doctor. If neither the family nor the family doctor is available, the instructor should call a local doctor or a doctor at the hospital.

The Superintendent of Schools and the Risk Management Department must be notified of any serious injury as soon as possible after the injury occurs. Applicable accident reports should be filled out and submitted.

After the above procedures have been carried out, the teacher should take a hard and close look into the primary cause of the accident and into any contributing factors A series of accident prevention measures can then be initiated to prevent such an accident from ever happening again.

ADMINISTER

FIRST AID

EVALUATE

ACCIDENT

CAUSE

NOTIFY

ADMINISTRATION

NOTIFY PERSON

LISTED ON EMERGENCY

CONTACT CARD

TAKE

ACCIDENT

PREVENTIVE

ACTION

COMPLETE

REPORT

FORMS

/'

INTERVIEW

WITNESSES

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THE FIRST AID KIT

The American Red Cross recommends that the following supplies be available in a school first-aid cabinet

1-inch adhesive compress (2 units)

2-inch bandage compress (2 units)

3-inch bandage compress (2 units)

4-inch bandage compress (2 units)

3-inch X 3-inch plain gauze pad (1 unit) gauze roller bandage (2 units) eye-dressing packet (1 unit)

1/2 square yard plain absorbent gauze

(4 units)

24-inch

X

72-inch plain absorbent gauze (3 units) triangular bandages (4 units) tourniquet (1 unit) scissors (1 unit) tweezers (1 unit)

Instructors should be aware that there may be legal restrictions to administering first aid They are advised to study their school or district policy regarding the use of first aid before an accident occurs.

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EYE SAFETY

Protecting Eyesight

One of our most valuable possessions is our eyesight. But we take sight so much for granted and treat it so carelessly that many states have seen fit to pass special legislation to protect eyesight in schools. Florida's eye-safety law is reproduced below. Note that it is still the responsibility of the teacher to make certain that protective devices are worn where hazards exist. Any teacher who does not rigidly enforce the law in his or her shop will be liable for negligence if and when an eye injury occurs.

Sometimes (for example, when a student is pouring metals) it is advisable to wear two types of protection-spectacle-type safety glasses and a plastic face shield. Neither device alone can be relied upon to stop flying drops of molten metal.

All eye-protection devices should be periodically disinfected. First, wash all parts with soap and water, then rinse Prepare a deodorant solution that kills germs as well as fungi and either swab the device thoroughly or immerse it In the solution for ten minutes. If the device is allowed to dry in the air, the germicidal residue will retain its effectiveness for some time.

Ideally, each student should have a pair of safety glasses that s(he) can use throughout his or her school career in shop and chemistry courses. Each shop, however, must have available a sufficient type and quantity of these devices to protect the largest number of students (and visitors) who may be engaged in performing or observing the activities.

Elsewhere in this safety kit is an eye-safety packet entitled An Op-

tion to See,

produced by the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness. The packet should be used by all industrial arts teachers as part of an eye-safety instruction program.

Eye Protection Device Law

CHAPTER 67-181

House Bill No. 754

AN ACT relating to public schools; revising and amending sections

228.002, 230302(3), 231.361, 23140(1), 23245,

23309(5Xb), 236.071 (1) and 237.17, Florida Statutes

Section 5 Section 23245, Florida Statutes, is amended to read:

23245 Eye protection devices required in certain vocational and chemical laboratory courses-

(1) Eye protective devices shall be worn by students, teachers, and visitors in courses including, but not limited to, vocational or industrial arts shops or laboratories and chemistry, physics or chemical-physical laboratories, at any time at which the individual is engaged in or observing an activity or the use of hazardous substances likely to cause injury to the eyes

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(a) Activity or the use of hazardous substances likely to cause injury Jo the eye includes

1.

Working wiJh hot molten metals;

2.

Milling, sawing, turning, shaping, cutting, grinding or stamping on any solid material using power equipment.

3 Heat treatment, tempering or kiln firing of any metal or other materials;

4.

Gas or electric arc welding;

5.

Caustic or explosive materials;

6 Working wiJh hot liquids or solids including chemicals which are flammable, caustic, toxic or irritating

(2) The boards of public instruction of the several counties may furnish plano safeJy glasses or devices for students and teachers and shall furnish such equipment for all visitors to such classrooms or laboratories, or may purchase such plano safety glasses or devices in large quantities and sell them at cost to students and teachers, but shall not purchase, furnish or dispense prescription glasses or lenses.

(3) To implement and carry out the purpose of this act the boards of public instrucJion of the several counties are hereby given authority to promulgate rules and regulations to accomplish the purpose of the law

(4) "Industrial quality eye protective devices" as used in this act means devices meeting the requirements of the American standard safety code for head, eye, and respiratory protection Z2, 1-1959, promulgated by the American Standards Association, Incorporated

15

THE HAZARDS OF SOLVENTS

All solvents are poisonous. There is really no such thing as a "satety" solvent. Some solvents are worse than others, but every solvent should be treated with great suspicion.

Generally speaking, solvents can damage the body in four ways

1.

Skin Disease

2.

Irritation of Eyes, Nose, and Throat

3.

Narcotic Effect on the Nervous System

4.

Damage to Internal Organs

Skin Disease

All solvents can cause skin disease (dermatitis) by dissolving the natural protective barrier of oil on the skin. If the skin has enough direct contact with a solvent, it can turn dry and white and can develop cracks and flakes

Some solvents can also penetrate the skin and enter the bloodstream. Some solvents are noticeably irritating on contact but others cause no particular pain even while they are penetrating the skin or defatting the skin.

Irritation of Eyes, Nose, and Throat

All solvents can irritate the sensitive membranes of the eyes, nose, and throat. The airborne concentration at which this occurs varies from solvent to solvent. It appears that mixtures of solvents can cause this irritating effect at very low levels. At high enough an exposure level it becomes nearly impossible to remain in the work area where the solvent is used.

Narcotic Effect on the Nervous System

All solvents can affect the nervous system through what is known in technical terms as "narcosis" or "depression of the Central Nervous

System (CNS) " It is actually the brain itself which is affected by the solvent and causes a variety of symptoms. The symptoms caused by this are varied: irritability fatigue headaches dizziness sleepiness drunkenness nausea staggering gait unconsciousness death

Damage to Internal Organs

Many solvents have been known for years to cause damage to internal organs, primarily the kidney and liver. Recent medical research is showing that more organs are affected than previously thought. At present.

however, there appears to be considerable variation in the organs damaged by different solvents.

Liver and Kidney

The liver and kidneys are often damaged in their attempt to detoxify and eliminate the solvent. For example, the use of carbon tetrachloride In industry has been mostly stopped because of its well-known effect on the

16

liver. However, a closely-related solvent, trichloroethane, appears to not damage the kidney and only slightly damages the liver (if at all)

Cancer

Some solvents have been found to cause cancer. Benzene causes leukemia (although the very closely related solvent toluene apparently does not)

Some chlorinated solvents have been found to cause cancer in test animals and are thus presumed to cause cancer in people. These solvents are carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, and perchloroethylene. Some scientists now suspect that all chlorinated solvents might cause cancer, although methyl chloroform has been found not to cause cancer in the animals tested so far.

Peripheral Nerve Damage

New studies have indicated that solvents may also damage the

"peripheral nervous system" which is the system of nerves leading from the spinal cord to the arms and legs. The symptoms caused by this nerve damage are numbness, tingling sensations, weakness, and paralysis in the arms and legs, which is a condition known as "peripheral neuropathy"

Sensitive tests can measure the speed of the impulse along these nerves. The speed of the nerve impulse has been found to be slowed in workers exposed to some solvents, which is considered to be an indication of peripheral nervous system damage.

An epidemic of peripheral neuropathy in a fabric coating plant in

1973 was believed to be caused by methyl butyl ketone (MBK).

Both hexane and jet fuel have also been linked with this sort of nerve damage.

A study in Finland of car spray painters exposed to a mixture of toluene, xylene, butylacetate, and naphtha found this mixture to cause numbness in the hands and feet, slowed nerve impulse speed, and slowed dexterity (plus an impairment of intelligence and memory functions)

Trichloroethylene has also been found to slow the nerve impulse, although speed returned to normal several months after the exposure stopped.

Heart Attack

Several solvents have so far been found to contribute to a form of heart attack known as "arrhythmia." It appears that these solvents make the heart muscle more sensitive to adrenaline in the body. In this sensitive state, the adrenaline causes the heart to beat rapidly and irregularly, which in some cases has caused death.

Methyl chloroform, trichloroethylene, toluene, and gasoline have all been found to cause this problem.

Psychological Problems

Since one of the actions of solvents is on the brain, it can be expected that more problems result than just headaches and dizziness. Investigations have shown that many solvents can cause a variety of problems in psychological behavior which are hard to distinguish from probtems caused by everyday living Problems like fatigue, apathy, irritability, depression, nervousness, insomnia, giddiness, and mental confusion have all been noted. Intelligence and memory can also be impaired.

17

Other Health Problems

Some solvents have been found to cause ofher problems such as damage to the bone marrow and the blood-forming mechanism, and damage to the lungs. Concern has also been raised that solvents might damage the reproductive system of both men and women.

Explosion and Fire Hazard

Another hazard of solvents is the explosion and fire hazard present when the vapors are present in the air. Some solvents evaporate more qUickly than others (they have a higher "vapor pressure") and are thus more dangerous. Similarly, some solvents are more flammable than others

(they have a lower "flash point") and are more dangerous.

Regulations require that ventilation be provided in many solvent operations to control the fire and explosion hazard.

18

COMMON SOLVENTS AND THEIR HAZARDS

OSHA

TLV

~t

HealthH......

do

ALCOHOLS

methew

(wood alcohol>

200 ppm otItaBoI

Dop1'OPJ\ alcohol i

::::J:"'Pfl alcohol uty alcohol ieoamyl alcohol

AUPHATIC

HYDROCARBONS cntanell' nneta) heptanell) petroleum naphtha

Stoddard solvent plOline keroeene

Jet fuel

AROMATIC

HYDROCARBONS benzene

1000

200

400

100

100

1000

500

500

500

500

10·

50

600

100

400

100 t allin,

brom.

lu~r,

IrrliallOn.

caUieR bhlWln_ when i~ted dUll,

bnwa.

IITItalIOll s.in,

brain,

irritation d:in,

Akin,

brain, irritation brem.

irritation

.kin, brain, irritation skill. bP"Oifi

.kin, brain, peripheral nervoUA

IYBtern allin, brain

I!Ikin,

bram.

trull miJ:tute of llliphalic hydrocarbona may contain benzene llkin, bnll,..

thi.

mil:tUft of may contain benzene.

aliphatic hydrocarbone

.kin,

brom,

due miKture may contain bens.ne, lead. and ethylene dibromlde, 8 cllrcinnten.

Since mixtures vary, no TLV ill Bet.

Heart atLack ekin, brain

8km, braID, penpheral Den-QUB 8yRum toluene xylene c08llar naphtha

200-

100

100

100 • akan, brain,

bUf'r.

'&dMy.l, blood, caUMe caMer

May caWle p:netlc damap

8km, bram, Irritation, heart attack lIun, brain, blood, irritation, caWleIi rneJUllrual

8.

~roblema, rMy incrNIM! the nair.

of heart attack in, brain, lw~r, Ituhwys, blood. tNII mixtun of aromatic htdroc.rbolUl UBually cf'ntaine bensene.

IIkln, brain, iver, ILidneytl, blood

nitrobenzene

CHWRINATED

HYDROCARBONS carbon tetrachloride chloroform methylene cblonde

10·

50·

500· tetr.chloroethane

methyl chloroform

1(.1,1 tnchloroethanei ethylene dichlonde tncbloroethylene perchloroethylene

KETONES acelone methyl ethyl ketone methyl butyl ketone methyl isobutyl ketone

~ - -

-i

I

I

I

T--

1000

200

100

100

100

100·

ETHERS ethyl ether

I

400

500 ulopropyl ether

ESTEIlB ethyl formate methyl acetate ethyl acetate

I

100

200

400

250

100 utopropyl aceUi.te

amyl acetate

350

50·

5.

1 •

GLYCOLS ethylene lIycot celloeolve methyl celloeolve

200 •

25.

OTHER t:x;ntlOe car n dillulfide pyndme t-etrahydrofuran dlOaane nitromethane

100

20·

5

200

100 •

100

10

200

1

25

250

150

100 •

1 um.. bram, iiWI', ktctDeya.

c......

c.ac.r

akin, bnun. b..,..

kiclDeya.

C.OMe

CaDeef

Ilk in, brain, btood., irritation,

llUllP

.'lAl!ta.

hram, liver, ki~eY8, blood

sltln.

hraln.

{n..,-r,

heart attack

Akm brain.

IJ ...

t;r.

kIdneys, Irntatlon skm. bUlln. penpheral nervo\Ul s}'lItem, llV~r,

ltuJ.ru-ys,

C8.UBeM

cancer, heart attack akin, brain, liver,

1t1dn~, caUAe8 cancer

-----

-

_.

- - - _ . - - - - - - ~ . _ -

Ilkan, brain. imtatlon

Ilkm. brain, lrritalton skin, braan, penpheral nervO\1A l'Iy8tem, Irritation

8km, bram, Imtatlon

-

~ - -

---

_._-

- - - _

..

__

. -

-

8kln.

b....

in, ..

idtw-yIJ,

JrnlallOn

IIkln, bram, Imtatlon

-,.--_._.

- -

- - - - - - - ~ . _ - slun, bnun, Irnlatlon

8kln, braIn lrrit.atlOn

akin, braID, imlatlon dun. bralll, Imt.atlOn

8kln.

brain.

hver.

blood

~

- - - -

IIAl1", brain, ItJdn.to.Yll. blood. ImlatlOn s,l,ln, brain Altd~".

blood, :mtation.

luJ'lRS

Bltln.

braun, liver, kidneys, blood., JrTltation,

lUflRs

- -

- - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - . _ skin. bram, kidneys, ImtatlOn skin, hnl.ln, p'-'nph~ral nervou-'4 sy!ltem cauaes In&lmty and

Imlnde.

InCrt'lllieK tr.t' rii-ik of heart attack skin bnl.Jn,

It .....

r kldnt'yA bJo.-.d.

Irritation

8kln uraln, Iwf'r

Itld"ns

8km, brElln

I1v..r ludneyl\, irr1t8tlOn,

lungs,

caUM8 cancer

1'I11.in, bum, lmllltLOn

F1re/Z.plolloa

Huard

~o hi,h biIh hip hip hiP.

moderate e..treme

hi,h high high high high high high high high high moderate moder.te

none-none-none-none-nonp-hlgh-· low·· none·· high high high high o _ ~ e:ltreme extreme

~ ~ - - . _ - - - - - - - high high high high high low moderate high extreme high high high high t

Propoulll for new TLV'8 have Leen made by

OSHA. NIOSH, or tbe ACGlH

• OSHA ball additional regulatiorUI for theM chemic.ls_

• Known to be euily abeorbed through the akin

"IJel.'Ompotie8 Into phoqene by ht"at or ultraVIOlet light

See

"air conlllmlnltnlM'

NOTE:

Itahc(II indicate that the effect .. weak, or only llUSpected

In thill

General IndUAtry 8landardJl

19

SHOCK HAZARDS

Most electrical sources have a set ot terminals (usually two) which are connected to a load. The source may be a battery, a power supply, or a generator which supplies electrical energy to the load. The load converts the electrical energy to some other form of energy A light bulb converts electrical energy to light energy, a motor converts it to mechanical energy, and a soldering iron to heat energy

There is a balance between the energy supplied by the source and that used or dissipated by the load. But this balance can be upset if the source terminals make direct contact with each other. In this way the terminals are short circuited, and the source tries to deliver unlimited amounts of energy This energy appears as intense heat at the point of contact, also along the connecting wires.

Figure 1 shows an example of a simple short circuit in which the wires have touched each other. With a battery as a source, the hazard of a short is not great. But a short across electric power company lines can be extremely dangerous, and can cause intense heat, sparks, and possibly a fire.

BARE (UNINSULATEOI WI RE S

_ _

.....!/~~:--

WIRES WILL

,./

GE T HOT

LAMP (LOAO)

SHORT CIRCUIT OCCURS /

AT POINT OF WIRES

TOUCHING-NO ENERGY

GETS TO LAMP

J'

BATTERY

(SOURCE)

Figure 1, Example of a Simple Short Circuit

20

The human body is a good conductor of electricity When a person touches an electrically "live" point, electricity tries to "flow" from his or her fingers to the ground. When this happens, the person experiences an

"electric shock." Figure 2 illustrates this

Figure 2, The Uninsulated Human Body is a Good Conductor of Electricity

The possibilities of shock are reduced considerably if the person stands on a material that prevents the flow of current through it Such materials are called insulators. Wood and rubber are good insulators.

Exposed metal or wet surfaces are good conductors, so it is good practice to avoid work surfaces combining water or metal and electricity.

Figure 3 illustrates a safe laboratory arrangement The insulated floor mat prevents current from flowing through the person's body to ground. The insulated mat on top of the bench also reduces the shock hazard, especially if the bench is made of metal. Rubber-soled shoes provide some protection against shock.

Figure 3, An Insulated Human Body is Not a Good Conductor of Electricity

21

A cluttered work bench is also a shock hazard. Spilled liquids, extra test equipment, loose electrical components, and test leads are potential hazards. So are bare wires, worn or wet insulation, and metal terminals.

Improper grounding can make equipment unsafe. Use only equipment that has an adequate earth-ground connection. This means that a three-wire line is used, and one of the wires connects the metal cabinet or chassis of the equipment to the earth ground. This connection provides an electrical path tor current should the "live" connections within the unit touch the metal cabinet or chassis. If there were no ground connection, the metal surface would be "live" and would be a shock hazard

"UNSAFE"

+

@@

UNGROUNOEDJ

CABINET/CHASSIS

HAND TOUCHING

UNGROUNDED

METAL CABINET

"UNSAFE"

VOLTAGE

SHORTS TO

METAL

'NE

7

_ CA:

@

UNGROUNDED

j

CABINET/CHASSIS

TO EARTH

GROUND

"SAFE"

HAND TOUCHI NG

GROUNDED METAL

CABINET PRESENTS

MIN IMUM DANGER

VOLTAGE

_ CA:

@

SHORTS TO

METAL

INE

7

GROUNDED

~

CABINET/CHASSIS

TO EARTH

GROUND

Figure 4, Grounded and Ungrounded Metal Cabinets

Figure 4 shows the advantages of a grounded cabinet or chassis compared to an ungrounded one. A grounded metal case presents a better path for current than a person's body.

Further protection from shock and other hazards includes turning on the equipment only after the circuits have been connected. and turning it off if circuit changes are to be made. Also, follow the instructions given in thiS manual, and those given by your instructor.

22

FACETS OF A SAFETY PROGRAM

A written, comprehensive, and organized safety program is a must tor all industrial arts classes Here's a synopsis of the facets of this program that have been discussed so far.

In a safe, well-run industrial arts laboratory:

1.

Safety instruction is an integral part of all learning experiences.

2.

Written and performance tests are administered and the results filed

3.

Accidents and unsafe conditions are reported in writing.

4.

Laboratories, equipment, and tools meet state laws and regUlations.

5.

Compliance regarding safe practices is insisted upon

23

QUALIFYING ON MACHINES

Safety, of course, begins at home. Informed parents can make a vocational Instructor's job easier by instilling a safety consciousness in their children.

Vocational instructors should stress home safety in any guest lectures or recruiting activities.

An instructor's responsibility, however, begins in the shop, and a basic premise that all instructors must work from is that no student will be allowed to use the machines until s(he) demonstrates that s(he) can do so safely.

Safety instruction begins the first day of class At that time, all students should be told that safety will be part of the curriculum, given a short explanation of the color coding, and shown various protective devices such as face shields, gloves, and guard rails The instructor should then begin demonstrating the safe use of machines and tools Students should be given handouts illustrating safe operations and procedures. After the instructor's demonstration, students should be allowed to ask questions about any part of the demonstration that they are unsure of.

The next step toward qualifying on the machines is a safety exam.

Students should take a written test and an oral test, and should demonstrate that they know how to use each machine safely. This demonstration should consist of hands-on activity by the student-first with the power off (changing blades or bits, emergency stop procedures, movements of machine guards, etc.), then with the power on (making basic cuts and other procedures) The instructor should monitor each student's demonstration on an individual basis.

If a student fails any part of this exam, s(he) must go through the instructor's demonstration step again, If the student passes, s(he) will be allowed to proceed with regular Glassroom work.

24

CYCLE f'OR QUALIfTING O:\' MACHINES

START

FINISH

General Lab Safety

Orientation

Qualification Completed

(student rna y proceed with regular classroom wor k)

Pa ss

Fail~

Demonstration by Instructor and

Machine Safety Instructional

Materials Studied by the

Student

,

...

..

-

--

...

..

; '

Performance De monstration by

Stud ent

Fail P ass

Safety Exam Taken by Student

25

DAILY SAFETY OPERATIONS CHECKLIST

FOR STUDENTS

Preparation

1.

Always obtain permission from the teacher.

2.

Clear the area for work

3.

Wear proper clothing, remove Jewelry, and secure long hair.

4.

Inspect the machine (wiring, switches, guards, etc)

5 Use proper protective clothing and equipment.

Operation

1.

Disconnect the power.

2.

Make checks and adjustments.

3.

Remove adjusting wrenches or keys.

4.

Place guards in proper position

5.

Secure work and maintain proper footing.

6.

Turn power on (use caution).

7.

Do not rush or force the machine.

8.

Observe all safety zone lines

Shutdown

1.

Turn the power off

2 Wait until all parts of the machine have stopped

3 Remove your material from the machine

4.

Clean up (make sure that the power is disconnected when you are cleaning hazardous parts of the machine).

26

SAFETY ZONE LINES

Students should keep a safe distance away from any machine In opmatlon The creation of safety zones around each machine helps to ensUle the safety of onlookers. Lines demarking these zones must be painted on the floor surrounding each piece of equipment. Color options for these lines are yellow yellow and black sfriped yellow and black checkered

Only the machine operator should be within

the

safety zone lines.

Each line should be two inches wide. As a general rule of thumb, lines should be painted 36 inches from the machine on the operator's side and 24 inches on the other three sides. Allowances may be made

when

machines are located back-to-back, along a wall, or in other special positions

The

next 7 pages give suggested safety zone dimensions for common machines found in industrial arts classes

27

L

I

I

I

I

...-----r--------..,

36"

I

I

I

I

I

!

m

~36"-:

1

1

1

1_

36,,-

..,

'~f

I

1

36"

I

.~--------------~

CIRCULAR SAW

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

:

I

1

i----------r~~--------i

1

1

1

1

1

1-36" - 3 6 " ,

I

I

1

I

1

I

1

L

1

36"

I

~

I

I

:

RADIAL ARM SAW

---------------,

1

24"

12"

~:..L=t~j--36"-l

BAND SAW

~

1

1

1

1

1

r--------r-------,

24"

I

1

1

_

1

1

1

1-36"-36"--1

1

1

I

1

1 1 1

1

36"

1

t

L

J

SHAPER (WOOD) i

1

36"

~-----------------------

JOINTER

I

1

1

1

1

1

1

r-------T----l

36"

I

1

1

§

1

-24",

1

1

36"

I

1

I

1

1

I

..1

1

WOOD PLANER

28

L

r-----------T-----------,

12"

/ '

0

36" r h

0

'-1

I

36"

36"

~

,

,

,

,

1

1

1

.------T------,

12"

I

1

1

~

1

:-24" .

-24"-:

,

,

,

,

I

3 6" j

1------------...

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

DRIl.l.

PRESS

MORTISER

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

r'--- ----

12'"

'

'

,

1-24"24"-'

'

36" :

,

,

,

,

I

I

~------_

.....

,

'

JI(; SAW

:

:

1

I

L

1

i----------

il7

r----------

j

I

1-36"

1

I I

36"

I

'

3 6 " - '

1

I

1

'

:

1

~

:

U:\IIPLAI\E

1

,

1

r----------l------l

24"

I

I

1

1

L

1

1

1

!--24"-lQtWI--

ZS

I12" :

I

1

I

1

36"

J J

WOOD LATHE

29

L

I

1

1

I

:

1

I

1

1-36"

36" I

1

1

24"-1

1

'

1

36"

I

1

1

~

1

1

HACK SAW

L

r---------T----------,

12"

12"

I

1

1

1

~I

1

1

1

1

36" 1

J

J

PANEL SAW

I

1

1

1----------------,

1

1

1

I

1

:

1_36 "

1

1

1

1

36"

J

36"_1

1

I

I

J

I

1

1

1

1

1

1-24"

1

I

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

,------.------,

I

1

1

~24"_

g

12"

I f-24"-1

1

1

1

36"

I

1

I

1

1

L

1

J

DISC SANDER

36"

I

-----...

I

1

I

1

-24"_1

1

I

1

1

1

.I

1

SANDER

PAPER DRILL

L

r---------------------,

1

24"

1

1

I

1

:

12"

---4

1

- - 3 6 "

36"

J

J

1

1

1

1

1

:

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1

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r------l------,

24"

1

1

I

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 -

36 "

1

1

1

36"_1

36"

I

_

METAL SHAPER

METAL LATHE

30

1 t

24"

1

1

1

1

1

..-24" 24,,_1

1

1

:

1

I

:

1

1

36" j

._--------------------~

BAND SAW (HORIZONTAL METAL)

1

1

1

:

:

1

1

1

1

I

1

1-24"

1

I

12"

I

1

1

. • . .

-24"~

1

1

1

1

!

3 6"

!

1

BAR FOUlER

~

1

1

I

I

1

1--------------

I

36"

I

1

1

1

I

:-36"-

1

1

1

1

36"

L1

36"-1

:

J

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1

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24"

I j

~

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1

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t_,-.t....-

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:-24"--1 1--24"-:

I

1

1

I

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36"

I

1

1

1

1

1

~----------------~

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SHEET METAL BRAKE

1

1

1

1

:

1--------,--------.

l--

24"

1

1

1-24"~u-j

~~==~

- 2 4 " _ '

1

1

1

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1

1

I

1

1

1

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3(,"

: I :

1

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-----------------~

I

SQlJAIUN(; SHEARS

I

: I : i

1

I

1

3 6" j

1

~

:-24" '

~24"-:

I

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1

1

!

1

36"

: 1

1

~-----------------

I

SLIP ROLLS

:

31

r------;;---.

1

1--24"-

1

-24"-1

I

1

:

1

1

1

36"

I

I

-------------

FLOOR GRINDER

:

1

1

1

!

I

1

1

1

1

r----------

ii,~--------1

1

(

1 - 3 6 " -

1

1

1

36"

l

-36"--1

1

1

1

J

1

I

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

..

----

----.,

12"

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

L

24,,_1 :-24"••

1

1

1

1

I :

1

1

1

1

1

36"

I

J

1

1

SPOT WELDER

HORIZONTAL MILL

r-----------1------------~

12"

--36"--1L..,.--"':===-_..--J--36"---t

36"

I

~-----------------------~

SURFACE GRINDER

r-----------------l-------l

1

,--------

12"

1

1

1

1

12" 12"

1

1

1

36"

1

1

------_..1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

ARBOR PRESS

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1-36"

1

1

36"

36"_1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 1 1

1

1

36"

1

1

1

I

~--------------------

PRESS

I

32

I

I

.- - - - - - f - - - - - - - - -

12" j

:.12" 3 6 " - -....

I

I

I

I

36"

I

I

I

I

._---------------

FURNACE

I

I

I

r----.-------r

12"

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

1-24"

-24"--1

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

L

30"

L

I

J

BENCH FURNACE

I I

I

I

I

1 -

24 " -

I

" I

- 3 6 " - - j

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

36"

I

~----------------~

HEAT TREATING FUR'IIACE

I

I

I

I

I

I

r-

I

I

I

I

I

I

12"

----,

14"--1

I

I

I

I

I

I

36"

!

I

!

:

~----------------.

ELECTRICAL TEST BENCH

r---------l--------,

I

I

I

I

I

I

-24"

24"

2 4 " -

I

I

I

I

I

I

FORGE

33

~ l

I

36"

PLATEN PRf:SS

/1

:

CHASSIS STALL

---1---------

14' CAR AISLE

___l

(=:W~~_.

-------------

20'

CAR AISLE

(two-way)

-------------

I

1

I

L

1

1

r-----------,-----.

36"

1

1

1

1

1_

1

36 "

1

-36,,_1

I

I

1

0

36"

I

~

I

1

1

1

ENGINE STAND l

:

1

1

1

1

I

I

1

1---------

1

1

1_24"-'-i

-----

12"

Lr-t=~==R

12"

...

I

I

I

36"

~

:

I

1

I

1

1

I

1

BRAKE DRUM LATHE

~

..

-----,-----.,

12"

I

I

!

I

1

1

12" 12"

1

36"

L__

J

I

1

!

1

SPARK PLUG CLEANER

t

I

I

1

I

r------- ------ ...

12"

1

I

1

1

I

.-24"-

Q

24"-:

: .

1

36"

L

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1

I

1

VALVE REFACER

34

Pages 37-38 and 131-142 were adapted from Pennsylvania Industrial Arts

Safety Guide, produced by Pennsylvania Department of Education and

Industrial Arts Association of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania,

1981.

Pages 39-130 and 148 were adapted from Safety Education Handbook, produced by Kansas State Department of Education, Wichita, Kansas, 1981.

Pages 143-147 were adapted from Health and Safety Hazard Identification

Program, produced by Industrial Department, United Brotherhood of

Carpenters and Joiners of America, Washington, D. C., n.d.

36

SAFETY RULES FOR WORKING WITH METALS

1.

Keep your work area free from scraps of metal stock.

2.

Keep metal-cutting tools sharp.

3.

Make sure that hammer heads and screwdriver blades are fastened tightly to their handles.

4.

Always put a handle on a file before you use it.

5.

Grind mushroom heads and all burrs off cold chisels, center punches, and other small hand tools.

6.

Never carry tools in your pockets.

7.

Never try to hold a piece of metal in your hand while it is being machined.

Use a fixture or a clamp to hold the workpiece.

8.

Keep tools and machines clean and in good working order during use and after use.

9.

Sheetmetal is sharp.

If you are scratched or cut, aid immediately.

Don't laugh off a small injury.

may start many days after you scratch your hand.

get first

Infection

10.

A clean shop is a safe shop.

Don't "wait for George to do it.

II

11.

Wear appropriate gloves when handling hot metals.

12.

Always wear eye protection.

A sliver of metal in the eye can cause blindness.

Don't think that it can't happen to you.

Each year, there are over 64,000 eye injuries in school and industrial shops.

Don't add to this number.

13.

Get rid of waste materials properly.

14.

Put away tools and accessories.

Clutter causes accidents.

15.

Exercise caution when using portable hand tools, spot welders, electric shears, and the like.

These tools operate on at least 110 volts of electricity.

This charge can kill or cause a serious shock or burns under certain conditions.

Make sure that the power cords are in good working condition and that plugs are not broken.

Keep cords away from oil and hot surfaces.

16.

Never use electrical tools around flammable vapors or gases.

This could cause an explosion.

37

17.

Be sure that your hands are dry before using an electrical power tool.

18.

Never use measuring tools on metal while it is being machined.

19.

Always keep machine guards in place.

They were put there for your protection.

20.

Operate a machine only after you have had instruction on it.

Remember that you must know what you are doing before you start a machine.

21.

Stop a machine before oiling it.

22.

Never "feel" the surface of a metal while it is being machined.

23.

Clean chips off with a brush--never with a rag or your hand.

24.

Never allow ar~one to stand near a machine that you are operating.

25.

You can pinch your fingers with pliers or snips.

Be careful when using these tools.

26.

Files are brittle.

Handle them carefully.

They can shatter in your hands.

Always use a file with a handle.

27.

Choose the right tool for the job.

28.

Wear protective clothing when working with hot metals.

29.

Wear a face mask when there is danger of flying chips.

30.

Wear goggles when grinding metals.

38

o

1.

UPPER WHEEL COVER

2.

TENSION KNOB

3.

LAMP

4.

FENCE

5.

TABLE

6.

LOWER WHEEL COVER

7.

FOOT BRAKE

8.

WELDER SWITCH

9.

WELDER SELECTOR

10.

WELDING VISE

11.

SWITCH

12.

SPEED CONTROL

1.

A band saw shall be sO·9uarded that the saw blade shall be enclosed

(except for the working portion of the blade which is between the bottom of the guide rolls and the table).

(OSHA)

2.

A guard for the blade on the band saw shall protect the saw blade at the front and outer sides, and this portion of the guard shall be self-adjusting to raise and lower with the guide.

(OSHA)

3.

All band saws shall be provided with a tension control device to indicate proper tension.

(OSHA)

4.

Appropriate eye protection shall be worn.

5.

A pupil should secure permission from the teacher before cutting large or irregular shaped pieces.

6.

Hands and fingers shoo1d be kept in such a position that there is no danger of them slipping into the blade.

Hold the work piece on either side of the kerf line.

Use a push stick where necessary.

7.

The machine must not be left until it has completely stopped.

8.

Scrap should be removed only when the machine is stopped.

39

9.

The guide and guard should be adjusted to within 1/4 inch of the work.

10.

Properly secured and adjusted guards should be used at all times.

11.

Jewelry should be removed, loose clothing eliminated, and long hair confined.

12.

The work should be guided slowly, letting the machine do the work.

Do not force the work into the blade.

13.

Avoid backing out of a cut (kerf).

14.

Cut only stock which has a flat surface to bear against the table.

15.

The material should be held firmly.

16.

Waste must not accumulate on the saw table.

17.

If the blade breaks or comes off, step away immediately.

Shut off the power, if possible.

Notify the teacher.

18.

The floor should always be kept clean of cuttings, oil, and scrap.

19.

Sawed material must be handled with care until all burrs are removed.

20.

Chips should be cleaned off the machine with a brush, not with hands or a rag.

21.

Adjustments must never be made until the machine is stopped.

22.

The saw must always be operated at speeds in accordance with the type and thickness of the metal being cut.

23.

Give undivided attention to the job.

The operator should be the only one inside the safety zone area.

40

o

2

,

o

7

1

UPPER \'<HEEl COVER

2

TENS ION KNOB

3 l..JtMp

4

FENCE

5

TABLE

6 lowER WHEEL COVER

7

FOOT BRAKE

8

WELDER SWITCH

9

WELDER SELECTOR

10

WELDING VISE

11

SWITCH

12

SPEED CCMROL

41

J3ANn

SAw

SAFETY QuIZ tiAME

CLAss

DATE GRADE

_

_

_

(Circle true or false)

1.

The blade guard should be adjusted to about

1/4 inch from the work.

2.

The blade guides should be tightly adjusted against the blade.

3.

The teacher's permission is required before one can operate a band saw.

4.

Adjustments should be made with the power off.

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

T F 5.

Eye protection is not required when operating a band saw.

6.

One should use a brush to remove chips from the table.

,

7.

A person should not try to increase the speed of cutting by applying pressure with the hands.

8.

It is all right to leave the machine as soon as the cut has been finished.

9.

Scrap should be removed only after the blade has stopped.

10.

Material should always be held firmly.

11.

A band saw should be so guarded that the saw blade is enclosed (except for the working portion of the blade which is between the bottom of the guide rolls and the table).

12.

All band saws will have a tension control device to indicate the proper tension.

13.

A push stick should never be used on a metal band saw.

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

43

14.

15.

The operator should be the only person inside the safety zone area.

(Circle true or false)

T

F

A rag can be used to clean the table of scraps.

T F

16.

In the spaces provided, identify the parts of the band saw illustrated below:

7

8

1

2

3

4

5.

6.

_

_

_

9

10

11

44

_

CRUCIBLE FURNACE

,

1.

LID HANDLE

2.

FIRE BOX WITH CRUCIBLE

3.

FIRE BRICK

4.

SWITCH

5.

IGNITER SWITCH

6.

AIR CONTROL

7.

GAS CONTROL

8.

CLAY DRAIN PLUG

9.

LID

1.

Whenever protective equipment is provided. it shall be the duty of each pupil to use this equipment.

(OSHA)

2.

Inhaling fumes from brass. zinc. galvanized iron. or lead paint must be avoided.

3.

The furnace shall be operated only with the teacher's permission and after instruction has been received.

4.

Jewelry should be removed. loose clothing eliminated. and long hair confined.

5.

All guards must be in place and operating correctly.

6.

Proper eye protection is required.

7.

Protective clothing must be worn (coat. gloves. face shield.

shoes. and leg protectors).

8.

Metal must not be thrown or dropped into the crucible.

Tongs should be used.

9.

Metal shall never be melted or poured in an unventilated place.

The fumes may be injurious.

lD.

Moisture must be kept out of the furnace and metal when one is working with hot metals.

11.

Caution should be exercised in the foundry area.

Crucibles.

equipment, flasks. and castings may be hot.

45

12.

Flammable materials (paints, solvents, etc.) must be kept away from the foundry area.

13.

The mold is to be checked by the teacher before it is closed to make sure that it is not too damp or too dry.

14.

Molds must remain covered until they are ready for pouring.

15.

The pupil crucible.

times.

should practice lifting and pouring with a cold, empty

He/she should run through the entire procedure several

16.

The furnace should be lighted only when directed by the teacher.

Instructions should be carefully followed.

17.

Before any molding sand that has been tempered is used for making a mold, the teacher should be asked to check the moisture content.

18.

One should never pour a mold unless one is sure that the moisture content of the sand is correct.

Too much moisture in the sand will cause an explosion.

19.

Weights should be put on a flask before hot metal is poured to prevent the metal from running out on the floor.

20.

A crucible of melted metal is never to be lifted or handled unless the tongs that are used will grip it firmly and evenly.

21.

Metal should be poured slowly and kept close to the floor.

22.

If the floor is concrete, someone should be standing by to shovel foundry sand on all spills.

Concrete explodes violently when heated.

23.

It is important to remember that prior to removing the crucible the worker should shut off the

~ first, then the air.

A crucible lifter should be used to remove the crucible from the furnace.

24.

Water and wet items must be kept away from the foundry area, except for tempering the sand.

25.

In consumable pattern castinp (styrofoam), the sprue basin should be kept filled to prevent firing.

The foundry room area vent fan should be turned on.

It is also important that persons working in the area not breathe the fumes.

46

26.

Castings should be allowed to cool before breaking them out of the molds.

27.

The crucible should be completely emptied.

Solidified metal will crack the crucible when it is reheated.

28.

Each worker should know where the fire extinguisher is located before attempting to pour hot metals.

29.

No crucible furnace shall be operated unless approved safety devices (i.e .• ultraviolet or thermo controls) are attached to control the flow of gas.

30.

The furnace must be equipped with spark lighters--do not light by throwing in lighted papers.

47

CRUCIBLE FURNACE

2

7

\ o

1

LID

HANDLE

2

FIRE BOX WITH CRUCIBLE

3

FIRE BRICK

4

SWITCH

5

IGNITER SWITCH

6

AIR CONTROL

7

GAs

CONTROL

8 CLAy

DRAIN PLUG

9 LID

49

CRUCIBLE FuRNACE SAFETY QUIZ tw.e

_

CLASS _

DATE GRADE _ _

1.

Metal accidentally spilled on the floor should be kicked aside.

(Circle true or false)

T

2.

Hot metal should be poured as quickly as possible.

T

3.

Protective clothing is necessary only when T charging the crucible.

F

F

F

4.

Metal should not be thrown or dropped into T the crucible.

Tongs should always be used.

5.

If goggles are used, a face shield is not T necessary.

6.

If water comes in contact with the molten T metal, it will cause an offensive odor.

T 7.

The pupi 1 must always get the teacher's permission before lighting the furnace.

8.

When one has fi ni shed us i n£l the furnace, one should shut off the air first.

9.

Fumes from brass are not harmful.

10.

Long hair is not as dangerous in the foundry area as in other areas of the meta I 1abo

11.

Moisture may cause explosions in the foundry area.

12.

Some molten metal should be left in the crucible after pouring.

13.

The tongs should fit loosely around the crucible.

T

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

51

(Circle true or false)

14.

One should practice lifting the cold crucible from the furnace before the actual melting is done.

15.

Leg protectors are an important safety precaution.

16.

The fumes from styrofoam are not harmful.

17.

Styrofoam patterns may cause flames to shoot from the sprue hole if the basin is not kept filled.

18.

Molds should be broken out of the sand immediately after pouring.

19.

It is not always necessary for a teacher to check every mold before pouring.

20.

The crucible should be held approximately

24 inches above the floor when pouring is done.

21.

Weights are placed on the mold before pouring to ensure a good seal between the flask halves.

22.

The moisture content of the sand should be checked by the teacher.

23.

Water can be used for tempering sand.

24.

It is the pupil's duty, as well as his/her responsibility, to wear and use all safety equipment that is provided.

25.

Solvent should be kept near the foundry area so it can be used to clean the floor in case of a spill.

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

52

3

4

5

1

2

26.

In the space provi ded, i den tify the parts of the cruci b1e furnace:

0)-

,.#.

~

~~

'-~

-

@

"1-

8

6

7

8

9

53

GAS FORGE

1.

LID

2.

FIRE BRICK

3.

FIRE BOX

4.

WORK RACK

5.

AIR CONTROL

6.

BLOWER MOTOR

7.

BLOWER

8.

GAS CONTROL g.

LID HANDLE

10.

IGNITER SWITCH

1.

Obtain permission from the teacher before lighting the gas forge.

2.

Clear the area of all flammable material.

3.

Keep the area well ventilated.

4.

Wear a face shield, safety glasses, or goggles.

5.

Make sure no one but the operator is in the operator's zone.

6.

Keep the lid of the forge open when lighting it.

7.

Follow the manufacturer's sequence of directions for igniting air and gas.

8.

Always put hot articles where they will not be accidentally touched, caus; ng burns.

g.

Always keep the floor clean to avoid stumbling and falling.

10.

Wear asbestos gloves when tongs are not used.

11.

Use chalk to label hot metal that is left unattended.

It must be marked "HOT."

12.

Follow safety instructions when moving hot metal.

Warn all persons who may be in the way.

Consider all the metal around the furnace as bei ng ho t.

13.

Keep the anvil face clear of scraps and flakes of metal.

55

14.

Hammer only the metal being forged.

Strike the hammer on the face of the anvil.

15.

Stand so that the face is protected when quenching metal.

16.

Never attempt to forge flammable metals.

17.

Use the proper tongs to handle hot metal.

18.

Use only tools with safe handles and properly dressed heads.

19.

Shut off the

.~ fi rst and then the air when work wi th the forge is finished.

20.

Qu~nch the hot tongs before putting them away.

21.

Know where the fire extinguishers are located in the lab prior to starting the forge.

22.

Always keep a pail of water near the forge.

23.

No forge furnace shall be operated unless approved safety devices

(i.e., ultraviolet or thermo controls) are attached to the flow of gas.

24.

The furnace must be equipped with a spark lighter--do not light by throwing in lighted paper.

56

10

GAS FORGE

1 LID

2

FIRE BRICK

3

FIRE

OOx

4

WoRK RACK

5

AIR CONTRol

6 BL.cwtR

tm"OR

7 BLOoiER

8 GAs cONTRol

9

LID

HANDLE

10

IGNITER SWITCH

57

8

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

.GAs.-FoRGE SAFETY QUIZ

NAME"'--

CLASS,

DATE'-

_

_

_

(Circle true or false)

1 .

Tongs should be used to handle hot metal.

T

2.

The lid should be closed when lighting the forge ..

T

3.

Hot metal should be marked "HOT" with crayon.

4.

The air should be turned off first when shutting the forge down.

T

T

5.

Safety glasses are not really necessary after the T forge has been started.

6.

The handles of the tongs should be cooled before replacing them in the tool rack.

7.

The exhaust fan should be turned on before starting the forge.

T

T

8.

Hot metal should be left lying on the floor.

g.

Strike the anvil with a hammer before striking the metal being forged.

10.

11.

12.

T

T

A pail of cool drinking water should be kept near

T the forging area.

It is considered a safe practice to light the forge with a match held in the hand.

T

It is important to obtain the teacher's permission

T before using the forge.

13.

One should locate the fire extinguishers after starting the forge.

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

59

14.

A person should stand so that his/her head is not directly over the workpiece when quenching hot metal.

(Circle true or false)

T F

15.

There should always be a can of alcohol near the forge to be uSed in case of an accident

(such as fire).

T F

16.

In the spaces provided, identify the parts of the gas forge'

2

3

4

5

9

10

6

7

8

60

SOLDERING FURNACE

1.

HOOD

2.

GAS LINE PILOTS

3.

GAS VALVE

4.

HEAT SHIELD

1.

Obtain permission from the teacher before lighting the furnace for soldering.

2.

See that the area is properly ventilated.

3.

Wear eye protective devices.

4.

Light the furnace by following this procedure:

A.

Stand to one side of the furnace.

B.

Place a lighted piece of paper in the furnace if it does not have a pilot light.

C.

Turn on the gas slowly.

D.

Adjust the flame so that all the fire is confined within the furnace.

5.

Select the correct flux for the soldering job that is to be done.

6.

When using gas furnaces, keep flammables away from the area.

7.

Do not carry hot soldering coppers around in the shop.

8.

Keep the hands away from the eyes and mouth.

9.

Avoid overheating the soldering copper.

"Red" hot is too hot!

10.

Never leave hot soldering coppers unattended in the furnace.

11.

Put the hot soldering copper and other hot objects where people cannot be burned.

61

12.

Keep the soldering flux in an area where it is safe from spilling.

13.

Exercise special care when filing a hot soldering copper.

Use a vise to hold it when filing.

14.

Use care when storing the copper after use.

Improper storage can result in serious burns or a fire.

15.

Wash the hands thoroughly after using the soft solder and flux.

16.

Tin the soldering copper in a well-ventilated area.

17.

Do not touch joints that have just been soldered.

18.

Store the soldering fluxes in proper containers and in a safe place.

19.

Test any material around a soldering area before picking it up.

It may be hot.

20.

Avoid breathing the fumes from the fluxes.

21.

Coppers should be put down only on insulated. nonflammable surfaces.

22.

Do not allow molten solder to come in contact with wet or moist surfaces.

23.

When using sal ammoniac, avoid inhaling the fumes.

24.

Report any indication of gas escaping from the soldering furnace.

25.

Never immerse the hot soldering copper in water to cool it.

26.

Shut off the gas when the soldering furnace is no longer in use.

62

SOLDERING FURNACE

1

HOOD

2

GAS

LINE

PILOTS

3

GAS VALVE

4

HEAT SHIELD

63

~"

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

~

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

SoLDERING FURNACE SAFETY QUIZ

NAME _

CLASS _

DATE GRADE _

(Circle True or False)

1.

It is dangerous to use solder where parts or materials are wet or moist.

~2.

It is not harmful to breathe the gases which are produced from the soldering process.

3.

Fumes from sal ammoniac may be inhaled safely.

T

T

T

F

F

F

4.

It is not necessary or wise to heat the copper to bright red.

5.

Good ventilation in the soldering area is a must.

6.

A person should look directly into the furnace when lighting it.

7.

Eye protection is necessary only when lighting the furnace.

8.

A soldering copper should always be picked up by its handle. whether it's hot or cold.

9.

Hot soldering irons should not be laid down near combustible materials.

10.

A hot soldering copper that has to be carried should be held downward, with the carrier watching and warning others nearby.

11.

The soldering iron should be cooled after use by immersing it in water.

12.

It is not harmful to touch the mouth or eyes with the hands while soldering because fluxes are nontoxic.

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

65

(eirelf' true or faLi:)

13.

There is not need for alarm if a slight gas leak is indicat~d.

T F

14.

A firm grip must be kept on the handle whf'n filing on hot soldering copper.

T

F

15.

All fluxes are the same.

T F

16.

In the spaces provided, identify the parts of the soldet"in!) furnace;

3

.

__

. _ - " - - - -

4

2

66

GRINDER

s

I i e$

,

3

1.

MOTOR

2.

WHEEL GUARD

3.

DUST DEFLECTOR

4.

PEDESTAL

5.

SAFETY SHIELD

6.

ABRASIVE WHEEL

7.

WATER POT

8.

TOOL REST

9.

SWITCH

1.

Floor and bench-mounted grinders shall be provided with rests which are rigidly supported and readily adjustable.

Such work rests shall be kept at a distance not to ex~eed

1/8 inch from the surface of the wheel.

(OSHA)

2.

The abrasive wheel guard shall cover the spindle end nut and flange projections.

(OSHA)

3.

On bench and pedestal grinders. the safety guards shall be such that the exposure of the wheel will not exceed 90 degrees or one-fourth of the peri phery.

(OSHA)

4.

On all grinders, the driving flange shall be securely fastened to the spindle.

(OSHA)

5.

Abrasive wheels shall be mounted between flanges which shall not be less than one-third the diameter of the wheel. (OSHA)

6.

Any abrasive wheel shall be closely inspected before mounting and shall also be sounded by the user (with the ring test) to make sure it has not been damaged.

(OSHA)

7.

When bushings are used in the wheel hole on abrasive wheels, they shall not exceed the width of the wheel and shall not contact the flange.

(OSHA)

8.

Permission must be obtained from the teacher before using the grinder.

67

9.

No one but the operator should be inside the operator's zone.

10.

A face shield and safety glasses (goggles, spectacles) must be worn, and the glass safety guard on the grinder must be used.

11.

Hands must be kept away from the wheel while it is in motion.

12.

Work should be held with the hands.

The teacher should be asked for special instruction and permission to grind small pieces.

13.

Only the face of the wheel should be used.

14.

Material should be pressed against the wheel with the correct amount of pressure.

15.

The wheel must be dressed, when necessary.

16.

Work should be kept in motion across the face of the wheel.

17.

Power must be turned off after each use of the grinder.

18.

Small pieces should be held securely in a proper holder.

It is unsafe to hold small pieces in the hand, as they might get away and follow the wheel into the guard.

19.

Adjustments must not be made with the grinder running.

20.

Avoid grinding on the side of a light wheel.

Side grinding must be done only on a wheel that is designed and built for this operation.

21.

A wheel that will stand the maximum speed of the grinder must be used.

22.

Stones should not be overheated.

Cool the project in water.

This protects tools, stone, and fingers.

23.

Never grind any material except iron or steel on a grinder.

Other materials stick to the wheel.

24.

The operator should not stand directly in front of a grinding wheel when the grinder is started.

25.

Work must not be jammed into the wheel.

68

GRINDER

q)...----->!"t

1

I'bTOR

2

WHEEL GUARD

3

DuST DEFLECTOR

4

PEDESTAL

5

SAFrn

SHI ELD

6

ABRAsIVE WHEEL

7

WATER POT

8

TOOL REST

9

SwITCH

69

"I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

GRINDER SAFElY f'W.'E

QuIz

ClASS

DA1E _

_

_

(Circle true or false)

1.

The grinder should be stopped before adjusting the tool rest.

Eye protection is not always necessary.

2.

3.

A grinding wheel that is suspected of being cracked should never be used.

T

4.

It is unsafe to operate the grinder with the housing removed from around the grinding wheel.

T

5.

A face guard is not necessary when the grinder T has a glass shield.

T

T

6.

The side of the wheel is used for rough grinding.

T

7.

One should force material into the grinding wheel to remove the metal faster.

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

8.

9.

10.

A wheel that vibrates excessively should not be used.

T

The paper should always be removed from the sides of the grinding wheel.

T

It is safe to operate the grinder when another.

T person is standing nearby.

11.

A grinding wheel may be used until it is worn to

T less than half its original diameter.

12.

Pupils should leave the tool grinder without turning it off.

T

13.

The grinder should not be used if it is poorly

T lighted.

F

F

F

F

F

F

71

14.

It is possible to determine if the stone is properly dressed by touching the face of the rotating wheel with the forefinger.

15.

A· piece of scrap metal can be forced into the wheel to stop it.

(Circle true or false)

T

F

T

F

T

F

16.

One should grind only iron and steel on the grinder.

17.

Small pieces of material that are to be ground can be held in the hand during grinding.

T

F

18.

One should stand directly in front of the grinding wheel when the grinder is turned on.

19.

The metal being ground should be cooled in oil.

T

T

F

F

20.

Grinding should be concentrated on one particu-

1ar portion of the wheel face.

T

F

~-"

72

21.

In

the spaces provided,identify the parts of the grinder:

3

4

5

1

2

73

6

7

8

9

SIlRFACE GRINDER

1.

VERTICAL FEED HANDWHEEL

2.

GRINDING WHEEL

3.

WHEEL GUARD

4.

MAGNETIC CHUCK

5.

HORIZONTAL FEED HANDWHEEL

6.

CROSS FEED HANDWHEEL

7.

OFF-ON SWITCH

8.

SADDLE

9.

DUST GUARD

1.

On surface grinders, the exposed portion of the wheel shall not exceed 150 degrees.

2.

Safety guards are required to cover the spindle end nut and flange projections.

3.

Labs performing dry grinding shall provide a suitable hood or enclosures that are connected to an exhaust system.

4.

Eye protective devices shall be worn when grinding.

5.

A person must be thoroughly familiar with all the electrical and mechanical controls before operating this machine.

6.

The grinder shall not be used unless the wheel guard is in place and well secured.

7.

If a magnetic chuck is used, one should make sure it is holding the work securely before starting.

8.

The machine must be completely stopped before any adjustments are made or projects removed.

9.

If the grinding wheel chatters, the grinder should be stopped. The wheel may be loose on the spindle.

75

10.

One should make sure the work clears the wheel before starting the machine.

(Use a handwheel for the table mcvement.)

11.

A grinding wheel should never be operated at speeds exceeding those recommended by the manufacturer.

12.

Hands must be kept away from the moving parts while the automatic feed is engaged.

13.

The work table shall be kept clear of tools, rags, etc.

14.

A vise or clamp should always be used when grinding small or short pieces on a magnetic chuck.

76

SURfACE GRINDER

1

2

3

4

5

VERTICAL FEED HANDWHEEL

GRINDING WHEEL

WHEEL GUARD

r~AGNET

I C CHUCK

HORIZONTAL FEED HANDWHEEL

6

CROSS FEED HANDWHEEL

7

OFF-ON SW ITCH

8

SADDLE

9

DUST GUARD

77

I

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I

I

I

SURFACE GRINI:fR SAFETY QUIZ

riAYE

CLAss

DATE~

GRAn,'__E

_

_

_

1.

Eye protection is not needed while the surface grinder is being set up for operation.

2.

The power must always be turned off if a noise or vibration occurs.

3.

It is not necessary to check the grinding wheel for cracks at the beginning of every new job.

4.

Hands should be kept clear of the wheel while the grinder is running.

5.

No more than two people should operate the surface grinder at anyone time.

6.

According to OSHA standards, the wheel of the surface grinder should not be exposed more than 180 degrees.

7.

The surface grinder should not be operated unless the guard is positioned to cover the nut in the center of the wheel.

8.

The workpiece may be moved on a magnetic chuck while the machine is operating.

9.

A rag or shop towel Should always be kept on the table of the surface grinder.

10.

Small or short pieces of metal may have to be held in a vise when using a magnetic chuck.

(Circle true or false)

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

79

11. In the spaces provided, identify the parts of the surface grinder:

1.

2.

3.,

4.

5.

s

- -

-.

--.

_

_

_

_

_

6.

7.

8.

9.

,

_

_

_

_

80

LATHE

1 I.£G

2

Ba.r

!£<ER

3 iSllBox

4 FeED RE'>1tRSE

!£<ER

5

IlAc:K GEAR l£'<ER

6

I£.ollSTocK

7

!lAc:K

GENIS

8

C<H

PW.EY

9

HeAosrocx sPl"DoE

10

FACE PlATE

11

PI'fOl

IWGl

M£a

12 Ilfoa<

FEED

15

Toa. POST

16

~I£ST

17 FaD owa

18

PI'fOl

JS

1W.F-flIT

l£'<ER

20

TAILSTOCK SPltD..E

21

TAILSTOC' LEVER

22

TAILSTOC'

23

TAILSTOCK HAND I+£EL

24

8m<Avs

25

THlEAIl DIAL

26

RAe,

27 !.£AD

SCRE>I

13 SAmLE

14

CRoss

FEED

Jl,OU.

CRANK

1.

Wear appropriate eye protection.

2.

Roll the sleeves above the elbows and remove or fasten any loose clothing.

Especially remove necktie and jewelry.

3.

Check to see that all guards are in place.

4.

Be sure that all parts of the carriage will clear any rotating part during the full length of the cut.

5.

Do not start the lathe if there are any operating knobs or levers that are not understood.

Investigate engagement and the direction of rotation by slowly turning the lathe by hand.

6.

Make all adjustments only when the machine is at a dead stop.

7.

Remove the chuck key or wrench immediately after using.

8.

Work alone at the machine.

It should be started and stopped by only one person.

9.

Be sure that the cutting tool is set on the exact center of the work.

A tool set above center may grab the work, breaking the tool and/or throwing the work out of the lathe.

10.

Be sure of the setup--ask if uncertain.

81

11.

Place the hands on the controls or at one's sides except when filing or polishing.

12.

Keep the hands away from chips.

13.

Never try to shift the belts on the lathe while it is running.

Always turn the pulleys by hand when shifting the belt.

14.

Bring the lathe to a complete stop before reversing it.

15.

Remove the tool holder and tool post before filing or polishing.

16.

Stop the machine before attempting to measure the job.

17.

Finish by hand feed any cuts that are close to a chuck or against a shoulder.

18, Have the cutter as close to the tool post as possible when the tool holder is clamped tight.

19.

Do not hand stop a lathe chuck. AT10wit to coast to a stop.

Keep the hands away from all moving parts.

20.

Never try to operate a machine and engage in conversation at the same time.

21.

Don't walk away and leave the machine running.

22.

Do not use air for cleaning the machine.

23.

Never lay tools on the machine where they might interfere with the operation of the machine, or where they might become entangled in the work, chuck, or chips.

82

LATHE

1

2

3

LEG

BELT LEVER

GeAR

BOX

4

FEED REVERSE

LEVER

5

BACK GEAR LEVER

15

TOOL POST

6

HEADSTOCK

11 APRO'l

HAND I'tHEEL

20

TAILSTOCK SPINDlE

12

!1PRCt4 FEED

21

TAILSTOCK LEVER

13

SADDLE

14

CRoss

FEED

BALL CRANK

16

U:woLtlD REST

22

TAILSTOCK

23

TAILSTOCK HAND WHEEL

24

BErJ..iAYS

25

THREAD DIAL

7

BACK GEARS

8

CoNE PULLEY

V

FEED CHANGE

18

!1PROO

26

RACK

27 l.EAo

SCREW

9

HEADSTOCK SPINDLE

10

FACE PLATE

19

HALF-NUT LEVER

83

lAruE SAFETY

QUIZ

Nw"--

Cl1lSS,

DAT,,-E ---'GRADE"'-

_

_

_

(Circle true or false)

1.

The chuck wrench remains in the chuck when the machine is stopped.

2.

Measurements should be made while the machine is stopped.

3.

The lathe must be rotating in reverse before work is cleaned with a rag.

4.

A person should always start and stop his/her own machine.

5.

Adjustments should be made while the machine is running.

6.

It is safe to operate the lathe while wearing long sleeves.

7.

All guards should be in place before the lathe is turned on.

8.

Only tools such as a chuck key or crescent wrench should be left on the machine.

g.

It is all right to carryon short conversations while running the lathe.

.

10.

Chips may be removed with the hands only after the machine has come to a complete stop.

11.

After the switch has been turned off, the chuck may be slowed down by hand.

12.

The lathe should be at a complete stop before the direction of rotation is changed.

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

85

13.

14.

15.

16.

(Circle true or false)

A lathe should never be left unattended while it is running.

T F

After setting up the lathe. the chuck should be rotated by hand before turning on the power.

T

F

The cutting tool should be positioned just below the center of the work.

The tool post should be moved to the far right end of the lathe before filing or polishing.

T

T

F

F

17.

In the spaces provided. identify the parts of the lathe.

86

6

7

4

5

8

9

1

2

3

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

15

16

17

18

10

11

12

13

14

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

87

MI LLI NG MACH INE

1.

HEAD

2.

HAND FEED LEVER

3.

QUILL

4.

SPINDLE

5.

TABLE

6.

LONGITUDINAL FEED

7.

CROSS SLI DE

8.

CROSS FEED HAND WHEEL

9.

GUARD

10.

RAM

11.

KNEE LIFT SCREW

12. VERTI CAL LI FT CRANK

1.

A guard shall be used on the milling machine at the point of operation that exposes an operator to injury.

(OSHA)

2.

One or more methods of machine guarding shall be provided to protect the operator and other persons in the machine area from hazards.

(OSHA)

3.

Special tools shall be provided to assist the operator in order to avoid placing the hands in the danger zones.

(OSHA)

4.

Permission from the teacher must be obtained before using the milling machine.

5.

Eye protection must always be worn during setup as well as operation.

6.

Adjustments or setups shall be made only when the machine is at a dead stop.

7.

Tie, rings, watch, and other jewelry must be removed before operating the machine.

8.

Never wear loose clothing when operating the milling machine.

Roll sleeves up above the elbow.

Long hair shall be confined.

9.

Many of the attachments used on the milling machine are very heavy.

Protective-type footwear should be worn to protect the feet from falling objects.

89

10.

Hearing protectors should be used where noise exceeds the level of exposure allowed in Section 1910.95 of the OSHA regulations.

11.

Gloves should not be worn.

12.

Correctly fitting wrenches should be used on machine parts.

13.

A proper cutter must be selected.

It should also be sharp.

14.

All cutters should be handled carefully.

15.

Only a soft hammer or mallet should be used to seat work against the parallels or bottom of the vise.

16.

The job should be securely fastened.

17.

The machine must be set for an appropriate depth of cut.

18.

A person should select a feed to match the depth of cut.

19.

The handles must be disengaged when the automatic feed is to be used or the table is to be locked.

20.

A person should stand to one side of the machine when starting it.

21.

It is important that the cutter is turning in the proper direction.

22.

Work should be fed against the rotation of the cutter.

23.

When the machine is at rest, use a brush to remove chips from the work.

24.

All automatic feeds should be released.

25.

One should never reach over or near the rotating cutter.

26.

The milling machine must not be left unattended while it is in operation.

27.

When a chuck key is used, it should be removed from the chuck before the spindle is started.

(This is upon the completion of locking or unlocking.)

28.

OnlY the person operating the machine should be in the safety zone.

29. The floor around the machine should be kept clear of chips, and spilled cutting fluid should be wiped up immediately.

30.

A person should not talk to anyone while operating the machine.

31.

Only the person using the machine should turn it on and off.

90

MILLING MACHINE qr-----l~

1/

}-HHH-+-I-~

1

HEAD

2

HAND FEED LEVER

3

QuILL

4

SPINDLE

5

TABLE

6

LoNGITIJDINAL FEED

7

CRoss

SLIDE

8

CRoss

FEED HAND I'n-iEEL a

GUARD

10

Rt>l1

11

KNEE LI FT SCREW

12

VERTICAL LIFT CRANK

91

MILLIt'¥3

~CHINE SAFETY QuIZ

NAt-E

CLASS

DAlE

_

_

GRAlE~_

1.

All attachments and clamps on the milling machine should be checked for tightness before turni ng on the power.

(Circle true or false)

T

F

2.

When the milling machine cutter is revolving, the table should be cleaned.

T

3.

The striking of a mill cutter with a s tee 1 hammer

T may damage the hammer.

F

F

4.

A person who has finished using the milling machine should release all of the automatic feeds.

T

5.

On long cuts, it is permissible to leave the machine while it is on automatic feed.

T

6.

Eye protection should be worn at all times.

T

7.

The milling machine is one of the least dangerT ous machines to operate.

Therefore, it is not necessary to ask for permission every time one uses it.

8.

If the milling machine is equipped with a guard

T which interferes with a particular job or operation, it is permissible to remove it.

9.

Gloves may need to be worn while operating the milling machine (depending on the job being done).

T

10.

Long sleeves should be rolled up.

T

11.

A person should ask a friend to turn the machine

T on for him/her in order to prevent reaching over a rotating cutter.

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

93

12.

No more than three people should be in the safety zone at anyone time.

(Circle true or false)

T

F

13.

14.

Handles should be disengaged when the machine is on automatic feed.

T

No adjustments should be made while the machine

T is running.

F

F

15.

For most work in the school lab, the milling machine should be set on the highest speed.

T

F

16. In the spaces provided, identify the parts of the milling machine:

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

94

1o

9_~

11

12

_

_

_

POWER HACKSAW

1.

FEED LEVER

2.

FLYWHEEL

3.

MOTOR

4.

COOLANT RESERVOIR

5.

FRAME HANDLE

6.

BLADE TENSION KNOB

7.

VISE HANDLE

8" VISE

1

1.

Machines designed for a fixed location shall be securely anchored to preventwalkingor moving.

(OSHA)

2.

Eye protection shall be worn.

3.

Work shall be mounted only when the saw is stopped.

4.

Protruding ends of long pieces shall be supported so they will not fall and cause an injury.

5.

It is important to guard against people walking into protruding stock.

6.

Saw blades must be in good condition.

7.

The speed of the blade shall be adjusted to suit the job and blade.

8.

The project shall be secured in the vise.

9.

The blade tension should comply with the manufacturer's recommendations.

10.

The machine should be stopped for speed ajustment unless it is a varispeed machine.

11.

The saw must not be operated without all the guards.

12.

The saw should be stopped when the blade breaks.

Then the blade should be removed.

13.

The blade should be fed slowly and gradually into the work.

95

14.

A person should never attempt to saw short pieces of stock unless he/she has another piece of the same diameter in the opposite side of the jaws.

Pieces smaller than 1/4 inch should be cut manually.

15.

Stand to one side of the saw frame when the power is to be turned on.

16.

It is not advisable to bend over the saw while it is in operation.

17.

Hands should be kept away from the blade and the line of travel of moving parts.

18.

One should turn off the power after using the power hacksaw and stand by the machine until it has completely stopped.

19.

The machine and area should be cleaned with a brush.

20.

Loose clothing should not be worn when a person is running the power hacksaw.

96

POWER HACI<SA\,

1

FEED LEVER

2

FLYWHEEL

3

MOTOR

4

COOLANT RESERVOIR

5

FRAME HANDLE

6

BLADE TENSION KNOB

7

VISE HANDLE

()

()

VISE

97

PowER I:JACKSAW SAFETY I}j IZ

CLAss,

-'GAAoE'"'--

_

- - -

_ l.

Hacksaw blades are made to cut in both directions.

2.

3.

If the blade is dull and cuts slowly. apply hand pressure to make it cut faster.

The blade pressure should be reduced when sawing thin metal.

4.

Work should be mounted when the power is turned on.

5.

If the power hacksaw begins to move or jump when in use. the operator should turn the power off immediately.

(Circle true or false)

T

F

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

6.

If the base of the power hacksaw begins to move or jump. the operator should turn the power off immediately.

7.

Most hacksaw blades can be operated at the same speed.

8.

A person who is sawing long pieces of stock should have another pupil hold one end.

9.

10.

The operator should stand at the end of the saw frame when the power is turned on.

The power hacksaw must always be cleaned with a brush.

ll.

The blade should be fed slowly into the work.

T

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

99

(Circle true o~ false)

12.

On some occasions. it may be necessary to hold the material with the hand while cutting with the power hacksaw.

13.

The saw may be left unattended while it is running only if the material is greater than one-inch thick.

T

T

F

F

14.

In

the spaces provided. identify the parts of the power hacksaw:

3

4

1

2 _

_

_

5

6

7

8

_

_

_

_

100

SHAPER

1.

VERTICAL FEED

2.

RAM

3.

SWITCH

4.

HAND WHEEL

5.

COLUMN

6.

TABLE HEIGHT ADJUSTMENT

7.

AUTOMATIC FEED

8.

CLAPPER BOX

9.

TOOL AND HOLOER

10.

TOOL POST

11.

VISE

12.

TABLE

13.

TABLE SUPPORT

1.

Wear adequate eye protection.

2.

Make adjustments and measurements only when the machine is at a complete stop.

3.

Keep the hands and fingers a minimum of six inches from the cutting tool and all other moving parts.

4.

Avoid standing directly in front of or behind the ram.

5.

Make sure the machine comes to a complete stop before leaving it.

6.

Be sure the fences and guards are correctly fastened in place.

7.

Remove jewelry, eliminate loose clothing, and confine long hair.

8.

Do not put tools or tooling on any part of the machine.

9.

Never remove chips while the machine is in motion.

10.

Be sure to thoroughly understand the operation of the machine before attempting to operate it.

11.

Use a soft hammer or mallet to set work on the parallels.

12.

Secure the work firmly in the machine.

13.

Select the proper tool for the job.

101

14.

Set the m3chine for the proper depth uf the cut.

15.

Be sure thdt tile ra~ and head will clear the work and dlso

any

holding device.

16.

Check to

See that the lever is in a neutral position before starting

. the motor.

17.

Handle the cuttet' bit with care,

18.

Making too deep a cut, or not securely clampinq the work in the vise.

may result in injury,

19.

Make sure to use the correct stroke. speed. and depth of cut before using the shapel'.

20.

Make sure no one but the operator is inside the operator's zone.

21.

Clean the machine and area with a brush,

22.

Do not leave the shaper unattended while it is running.

23.

OpE-ate the machine only with the teacher's permission, and after lnstruction has been received,

102

~r·

,I

S;'IAPER

13

7

1

VERTIC4L.

FEED

2fW.t

3

SwIT01

4 HANn

WHEEL

5

COLl/ll'l

6 TABLE

HEIGhT

ADJUSTMENT

7 AUTo'1<\iIc

FEED

8

CLAPPER BOX

9

TcXJl AND HoLDER

10

TOOL

PoST

17

VISE

]2

TtlJ3LE

13

T,'l.BlE

SUPPoRT

103

2

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

SHAPER SAfETY QUIZ

CLASS

DATE'"'--

_

_

_ GRAn.....E

1.

A heavy cut may get the job done more quickly but also could be unsafe.

2.

Chips may be removed while the machine is running.

3.

Eye protection must be worn.

4.

All clearances should be checked before the ram is s~t in motion.

5.

It is permissible to stand in front of the machine while it is running.

6.

All setups should be approved by the teacher.

7.

The shaper must never be left running and unattended.

(Circle true or false)

T

F

T

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

T

F

8.

The operator can visit wit~ others while running the shapero

9.

The machine and area should always be cleaned with a brush.

T

F

10.

The lever should be in a forward position before starting the motor.

11.

Long hair that isn't confined might get caught in the shapero

12.

It's all right to lay tools on the machine.

13.

The part should be securely held in a vise.

14.

One can adjust the shaper while it is running.

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

105

15.

16.

17.

Fences and guards should be fastened tightly in place.

It's all right to stand in front of the ram.

It's all right to stand behind the ram.

(Circle true of false)

T

T

T

F

F

F

18.

In the spaces provided, identify the parts of the shaper:

2

3

4

5

6

7

_

_

_

_

_

_

10

11

12

13

8

9 _

_

_

_

_

106

SQUARING SHEAR

1.

HOLD-DOWN GUARD

2.

BACK GAUGE

3.

EXTENSION ARMS

4.

FOOT PEDAL

5.

SEE-THROUGH SAFETY GUARD

1.

Never cut excessively small pieces on a shear.

2.

Wear eye protection.

3.

Never reach behind the shear to support the metal.

This places the operator in an awkward position, subject to a fall, and also puts the operator's fingers in a blind area.

4.

Use care in handling the sheared, razor-sharp metal.

5.

Keep the foot that is not being used out from under the treadle.

6.

Feed and operate the machine from the front or the operator's pos Hion.

7.

Always keep the fingers at least four inches from the hold-down guard and blade.

8.

Operate the machine only with the teacher's permission and after instruction has been received.

9.

When squaring, always hold the metal against the squaring bar on the left.

10.

Pick up all metal scrap and place it in proper containers.

107

11.

Get help when cutting large pieces of sheet metal,

12.

Keep the floor in front of the shear clean and clear in order to avoid slipping.

13.

Guards must be in place at all times, including the holddown guard and a transparent guard in front of the holddown guard to prevent fingers from entering under the guard.

'14.

00 not attempt to cut narrow strips of metal lengthwise.

15.

Check the setup and machine before operating it.

16.

Never surpass the capacity of the machine.

17.

Regulate the pressure on the treadle according to the gauge and type of stock.

Keep the foot on the treadle to ease its return to a normal position.

" -

108

1

HOLD-DOWN GUARD

2

BACK GAIJ3E

SQUARING SHEAR

109

3 r,XTENS ION ARMS

4

FOOT PEDAL

5

SEE-THROUGH

SAFETY

QJARD

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

SQUAR I f\1G SHEAR SAFETY QUIZ

NPME.....

CLASS,

DATE~

_

· .GRADE.

_

_

(Ci rcl e :rue or False) l.

2.

For some projects, the guard can be removed.

One should feed and operate only from the treadle side of the machine.

3.

Eye protection is not required.

4.

Care in handling of sheared metal should always be observed because the edges are razor sharp.

5.

One should never reach forward enough to permit the fingers to get under the hold-down bar.

6.

It is poor practice to jump on the treadle.

T

T

7.

One should not bother the teacher for permission

T to use the shear.

8.

9.

10.

The metal should be held against the squaring bar

T on the left side when squaring it.

Guards must not be remov~d from the shear.

The shear can cut any thickness of metal.

T

T

T

T

T

T

11.

12.

13.

The shear does not require any adjustment before T operating.

One should not attemp~ to cut long, narrow strips lengthwise.

T

Both feet are needed to operate the treadle.

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

111

14. In the spaces provided, identify the parts of the squaring shear:

1

2

3

4

5 _

112

BAR FOLDER

('

@

\ <V

~

I

@

ci

l.

2.

OPERATING HANDLE

DEPTH GAUGE

3.

45

0

-90

0

STOPS

4,

DEPTH GAUGE WHEEL

5.

BASE

6.

7.

WING

8.

LOCK WHEEL

BLADE

1.

Remove jewelry, eliminate loose clothing, and confine long hair.

2.

Use proper eye protection at all times.

3.

Operate only with the teacher's permission, and after instruction has been received.

4.

Make sure all guards are in place and operating correctly.

5.

Make bends smoothly and steadily.

6.

Restore the machine lever to its proper position after each operation.

7.

Remove the sharp burrs and edges on sheet metal before fo 1di ng it.

8.

Hold the handle firmly.

9.

Keep hands clear of movable parts.

10.

Make sure that no one but the operator is inside the operator zone.

11.

Let the handle down slowly after completing a bend.

12.

Work with only one piece of metal at a time.

Never double the thickness or fold two pieces side by side.

13.

Do not force, hit, or drop levers or handles.

113

8

1

OPERATING HANDLE

2

DEP71-1 GAtGE o

0

3 45

-g]

S1tJPs

4

DEP71-1 GAtGE WHEa

5 B4sE

115

BAR FOLDER s

6

locI<

WHEEL

7

WING

8 BlADE

I

,

/

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

&iLFoLllER SAFETY QUIZ

N.AME

CLASS

DATE GRADE

_

_ l.

Sharp burrs and edges should be removed before attempting to place metal in the machine.

2.

Fingers must be kept clear of moving parts.

(Circle true or false)

T

T

T

F

F

F

3.

Two pieces of metal can be bent at the same time.

4.

If a handle becomes stuck in position, tap it lightly with a hammer.

5.

Safety glasses are not needed on this machine.

6.

No one but the operator should be in the operator zone.

7.

The handle should be held loosely.

8.

Hands must be kept clear of the moving parts of the folder.

9.

A pupil must secure the teacher's permission before using the folder.

10.

A person should make bends as fast as he/she can, so the next person can use the folder.

ll.

If a pupil needs to bend a large piece of metal, he(she may remove any safety guards that are in the way of the folder.

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

117

12.

In the spaces provided. identify the parts of the bar folder:

3

4

1

2

5

6

7

8

118

BOX AND PAN BRAKE

o

TfO

'>==~===ko~')!ffiZr.\

1.

BLADE SEGMENTS

2.

BLADE POSITION HANDLE

3.

WING HANDLE

4.

BLADE HOLDING BOLTS

5.

HEIGHT ADJUSTMENT

6.

WING HANDLE

7.

WING

1.

Never attempt to operate the brake until instruction has been given.

2.

Obtain permission from the teacher before using the brake.

3.

Wear safety glasses or goggles.

4.

Keep the fingers clear of the clamping bar and blade.

5.

Make sure no one but the operator is inside the safety zone.

6.

Fold only a single thickness of sheet metal within the capacity of the brake.

7.

Get assistance when bending large, thick material in order to avoid back strain.

8.

Hold the handle firmly.

9.

Muke sure the area in front of the brake is clear before

SWinging the wing up.

10.

Let the bar down slowly after completing a bend.

11.

In order to avoid cuts, carefully handle the sheet metal that is being formed.

12.

Keep the floor area in front of the brake clear and clean to avoid slipping.

119

BOX PlND PPlN BRPlKE

o

()

'r----.l\

7

(

)

1

BlADE SEGMENTS

2

BlADE

POS

IT1ON HMIDLE

3

WH*' HMIDLE

4

BU\DE

\-OLDlf'¥;

BOLlS

5

HEIGHI ADJUSIMEl'IT

6 WI f'¥; tW-lDLE

7

Wlf'¥;

121

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

Box

AND

~RAKE SAFEJY QUI Z

NAf.'f _

CLASS _

DATE GRADE _

(ei rcle true or fa 1se)

1.

One should always release the bar quickly after completing a bend.

2.

Safety glasses must always be worn when using the brake.

3.

The handle should be held firmly.

T

T

T

F

F

F

4.

If necessary. more than one piece of metal can be folded at a time.

.

T

5.

A person should get assistance when bending large T pieces of sheet metal.

6.

Sheet metal can cause severe cuts.

7.

When one has finished with the brake. he/she should throw the scrap metal in a neat pile on the floor.

T

T

8.

One does not have to ask the teacher's permission T in order to use this simple machine.

T 9.

No one but the operator should be inside the safety zone.

10.

The clamping bar can pinch the fingers.

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

123

11. In the spaces provided, identify the parts of the box and pan brake:

S~_(~

o

o

3

4

1

2

5

6

7

124

~~

BUFFER

1.

MOTOR

2.

WHEEL GUARD

3.

DUST CHUTE

4.

PEDESTAL

5.

SAFETY DEFLECTOR

6.

BUFFING WHEEL

7.

SWITCH

1-

2.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Buffers shall be provided with suitable hoods or enclosures that are connected to an exhaust system. (OSHA)

A pupil must obtain permission from the teacher before using the buffer.

Use both hands to hold the work securely.

3.

4.

g.

10.

11.

The teacher should be asked for special instruction and permission to buff small pieces.

A face shield and safety glasses shall be worn.

Compound should be applied sparingly.

Hands must be kept away from the wheel while it is in motion.

Work should be held below the center (horizontal axis) of the wheel as it revolves toward the operator.

Flat surfaces must be buffed from the center toward the outer edges.

Sharp edges should point downward.

Material should be pressed against the wheel with just enough pressure to cause the wheel to polish the material.

The power must be turned off after using the buffer.

125

12.

The buffer and its area should be cleaned with a brush or an air gun.

13.

One should always stand to one side of the wheel when applying compound.

14.

Gloves, rags, or part of a shop coat must never be used to hold the workpiece.

15.

Caution should be exercised to avoid burning the hands by overheating the workpiece.

16.

Jewelry should be removed, loose clothing eliminated, and long hair confined.

17.

The operator should make sure all guards are in place and operating correctly.

18.

It is important to use care when buffing around corners or openings where the wheel could grab or throw the workpiece.

19.

The area behind the buffer should always be open, and no one but the operator should be in the safety lone.

20.

One should never take one's eyes off the work even for an instant while using the buffer.

126

BUFFER

1

MOTOR

2

WHEEL GUARD

3

DUST CHUTE

4

PEDESTAL

5

SAFETY DEFLECTOR

6

BUFFING WHEEL

7

SWITCH

127

BuFFER SAFETY QUIZ

NAME

CLASS

DATE

--'GRAD~E

_

_

_

(Circle true or false) l.

A rag should be used to hold hot objects while buffing.

2.

One should always buff on the lower half of the whee 1.

3.

It is not necessary to wear eye protection if buffing compound is used.

4.

Special permission to buff small pieces must be obtained from the teacher.

5.

A person who is using the buffer should point the sharp edges of his/her work upwards.

6.

7.

A heavy coat of compound should be applied to the whee 1.

A person should stand to one side when applying compound to the wheel.

8.

9.

One should keep one's eyes on the work at all times.

The operator should lightly touch the wheel with hi s/her hand to check for the proper amount of compound.

10.

A person who is applying too much pressure when buffing around corners can cause the wheel to grab the workpiece.

Il.

No more than two people should work on the buffer at a time.

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

129

12.

In the spaces provided below, identify the parts of the buffer:

1

2

3

4

_

_

_

5

6

7

_

_

_

130

SLIP ROLL FORMING MACHINE

®

®

\

0

CD

/

@

/

®

1.

BASE

2.

ADJUSTING SCREWS

3.

FEED CRANK

4.

RELEASE HANDLE

5,

SLIP ROLL LEVER

G.

SLI P ROLL

7.

FIXED ROLLERS

1.

Remove jewelry, eliminate loose clothing, and confine long hair.

2.

Proper eye protection should be worn.

3.

The machine should be operated only with the teacher's permission and after instruction has been received.

4.

Sharp burrs and edges should be removed from sheet metal before it is rolled.

5.

Hands should be kept clear of the rollers.

6.

If the workpiece is large and unwieldy, an assistant should be used to help hold the workpiece during rolling.

7.

Only a single piece should be rolled at a time.

8.

The crank should be turned slowly.

9.

Make several passes; do not try to make the roll on a single pass.

10.

The gauge rating of the slip roll forming machine should not be exceeded.

11.

Show caution when removing a rolled piece from the slip roll.

131

0-"-

®

\

SLIP ROLL FORMING MACHINE

/ o

/

®

1.

BASE

2.

ADJUSTING SCREWS

3.

FEED CRANK

4.

RELEASE HANDLE

5.

SLIP ROLL LEVER

E.

SLI P ROLL

7,

FIXED ROLLERS

133

SLIP ROLL FORMING MACHINE SAFETY QUIZ

NAME

CLASS

DATE _ GPADE

_

_

_ l.

2.

Safety glasses are not needed when using this machine.

A pupil must secure teacher's permission before operating this machine.

3.

The operator should try to completely roll the piece on a single pass.

4.

Sharp burrs and edges should be removed before the metal is roll ed.

5.

6.

7.

Under no circumstances should a second person help place stock into the machine.

Several pieces can be roll ed at the same time.

Hands must be kept clear of the rollers.

(Ci rcl e true or false)

T F

T

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

135

®

8.

In

the spaces provided, identify the parts of the slip roll forming machine:

®

\

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

136

COMBINATION ROTARY MACHINE

®

1,

FEED CRANK

2.

THROAT

3,

DEPTH GA UGE

4.

TENSION ADJUST

5,

ROLL FORMERS

1.

Remove jewelry, eliminate loose clothing, and confine long ha i r.

2.

Use proper eye protection.

3.

Operate only with teacher's permission and after instruction has been received.

4.

Sharp edges and burrs should be removed from sheet metal before it is rolled.

5.

Keep hands clear of roll formers.

6.

Turn the feed crank smoothly.

7.

Get assistance when forming long, awkward workpieces.

8.

Do not exceed the gauge rating of the combination rotary machine.

9.

Check to be sure that roll formers have been installed properly in pairs.

10.

Only a single piece should be rolled at a time.

11.

Handle sheet metal carefully to avoid cutting yourself.

137

®

I.

FEED CRANK

2,

THROAT

3.

DEPTH GAUGE

4.

TENSION ADJUST

5.

ROLL FORMERS

139

COMBINATION ROTARY MACHINE SAFETY QUIl

NAME

CLASS

DA TE GRADE

_

_

_ l.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

A pupi 1 must secure teacher's permission before using this machine.

Because this is a hand-operated machine, it poses no threat to the operator.

Safety glasses are not needed when using this machine.

You should remove sharp burrs and edges before attempting to form stock on this machine.

Hands should be kept clear of the roll formers.

Severa 1 thicknesses of stock can be formed at the same time.

(Circle true or false)

T

F

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

141

7.

In the spaces provided, identify the parts of the combination rotary machine:

®

2

3

4

5

142

~

Metal

Al uminum

Beryllium

Cadmi um

Chromi um

Cobalt

TOXIC EFFECTS OF METALS

Uses

Building, packaging, cars, air planes, cans

Alloy with copper

Additive in brass and bronze, batteries, electroplating, solders

Cleaning metal, electroplating, alloy with iron to make stainless steel, some cements, chromium salts used in preserving wood

Aluminum and iron alloys, carbide steel, magnets

Effects

Thought to be lung disease, investigated.

reactions.

nontoxic.

Suspected of causing brain disease.

Currently being

May cause delayed asthma

Beryllium disease -- lumps in lung, usually leads to heart failure.

Can start long after exposure, poor survival rate.

Also causes allergic skin reactions.

May cause cancer.

Short term--fire hazard; nausea; headache; cough; eye, nose, throat irritation.

Long term---emphysema-like lung disease, skeletal bone problems, kidney problems.

High exposure--pneumonia-like lung disease.

Thought to be nontoxic as a dust.

Chromic acid causes skin lesions, "chrome holes" that do not heal on hands and arms and in the nose.

Mist may cause lung problems.

Some chromates can cause lung cancer, skin rashes from contact.

Short term--skin rashes and allergies.

Relatively low toxicity. Allergic lung reaction--asthma.

Long term---lung disease, may reverse after exposure stops.

Exposure Limi ts fumes--5 mg/m 3

.00001 mg/m 3

OSHA

0.05 mg/m 3 ceil.

0.04 mg/m 3 NIOSH

0.05 mg/m 3

0.001 mg/m 3 for cancer-causing types

0.1 mg/m 3

~

.".

.".

Toxic Effects of Metals, continued

Meta 1

Copper

Iron

Lead

Magnesium

Uses

Main component in bronze and brass.

Used to conduct el ectri city

Iron and steel alloys

Many uses such as lead solder, lead paint, batteries, gasoline additives

In carbon steel, ductile iron alloys. jet air planes, autos, boat, tools, machinery.

Effects

Generally considered harmless.

Main effects-metal fume fever, skin and eye irritation.

Exposure Limits

0.1 mg/m 3 for fumes, OSHA

Short term--metal fume fever.

Long term---siderosis--a nonserious lung disease where iron fumes deposit in the lung but cause no impairment.

Occurs in electric arc welders after many years exposure (10-20 years).

They can, however, block X-Rays and make them more difficult to read.

5 mg/m

3

Serious toxic effects on nervous system, reproductive system, kidney, liver. spleen, anemia, lead pasly or "wrist drop"--loss of strength in wrist and middle two fingers-first sign of nerve damage.

May eventually lead to brain damage, paralysis, and convulsions.

Reproductive system--can harm fetus, also can cause infertility in both males and females.

Diagnosis--measure blood lead level.

varies from .05

to

.2

mg/m

3 dependi ng on the industry.

Also bei ng con tes ted in courts.

Not a serious health hazard.

A fire hazard.

Short term--metal fume fever.

May cause inflammation of wounds.

OSHA 15 m9/m33

ACGIH 10 mg/m

~

.j>,

{1l

)

Toxic Effects of Metals, continued

Metal

Ma nganese

Uses

In high alloy wrought steel, batteries, and welding sticks

Mercury

Nickel

In aluminum alloys, mercury solder, electrical use

Bronze, nickel, steel alloys, plating operations

Phosphorus Bronze additive, matches, fireworks

Effects

Short term--metal fume fever and, rarely, a pneumonia lung disease.

Long term---managanese poisoning--a crippling but not fatal disease af-

~ecting the nervous system.

Apathy and sleeplessness lead to muscle and walking problems, speech disturbance, and "uncontrollable laughter".

Cripples for life.

Onset is usually delayed.

Neurological damage--tremors, shakes, psychological irritability, restlessness.

Can also cause gum disease, speech abnormal ties.

Easily penetrates skin and clothing.

Long term---kidney damage also.

Not very toxic.

"Nickel itch"--eczema-type skin reaction.

Nickel carbonyl, though, is formed when nickel is burned and is very toxic.

It starts with headache, nausea, leads to chest pain, shortness of breath, and eventually to lung disease, brain disease, and cancer of the nose and lung.

Also causes fetal deformaties.

Some forms are not toxic.

White or yellow phosphorus, though, can cause bone damage

("phossy jaw"); liver damage; pneumonia, eye, nose, and throat irritation; and skin burns.

It is also very flammable and must be kept under water to prevent fires.

Exposure Limits

1 mg/m3

0.05 mg/m 3

1 mg/m3 nickel fume.

OSHA .007 mg/m 3

ACGIH .350 mg/m 3 for nickel carbonyl yellow o.

I mg/m3

...

~

OJ

Toxic Effects of Metals, continued

Metal

Selenium

Tellurium

Thallium

Tin

Uses

Smelting by-product, hardening additive

Copper refining, alloyed with ti n, copper, s tee 1, lead, and iron

Contaminant in lead and zinc, iron additive

In aluminu~, lead, nickel, copper, and zinc alloys.

Tin coating.

Solder, babbitt

Organic tin--in paints and plastics, catalysts for urethane, polyvinyl chloride stabilizers, wood preservatives, silicone curing agents, insecticides

Effects

Creates strong garlic odor in sweat and urine.

Also causes skin burns, liver damage, stomach problems, throat irritation, tooth cavities.

Causes cancer in animals.

Selenium oxychloride--used as a solvent and resin plasticizer is very damaging to the skin.

Garlic odor in sweat, breath, and urine.

Dry metallic taste in mouth, sto',lach pains, itchy scaly skin, nausea.

Very toxic (a main component of rat poison).

Hair loss, joint and stomach eain, allergic sensitivity, and death.

Absorbed easily from skin or if swallowed.

Used in many suicides.

Not considered harmful.

Causes stannosis--a lung disease which causes no impairment but will show up on X-Rays and may confuse diagnoses.

Very irritating to skin and eyes, delayed reaction.

Serious health hazards.

Exposure Limits

0.2 mg/m 3

0.1 mg/m 3

0.1 mg/m 3

2 mg/m 3

O. 1 mg/m 3

'.

(

(

(

~

.j:>.

.....

)

Toxic Effects of Metals, continued

Metal

Titan i um

Vanadium

Uses

Aircraft, missles, tubing

Steel alloy

~inc

Soldering flux, iron alloy, galvanizing

Not toxic except for titanium chloride, which is very damaging to the skin, eyes, and lungs~

Lung damage--pneumonia or emphysema.

Skin, eye, throat irritation.

Nervous disorders, anemia.

Effects

Very irritating to skin, eyes, throat, lu~gs.

"Zinc chi11s"--metal fume fever is very common.

May cause lung damage.

Exposure Limi ts

10 mg/m3 ACGIH

15 mg/m 3 OSHA

0.1 mg/m3 fumes--OSHA

0.05 mg/m3 fumes--ACGIH

5 mg/m3--fumes

REFERENCES

Materials were selected and reviewed from the following sources and in some instances were incorporated in the production of the preceding uni t.

1.

Baldor Electric Company

2.

Bridgeport Textron Machine Division

3.

Dake Corporation

4.

DiAcro Houdville - Houdville Industries

5.

Grinding Wheel Institute

6.

K. O. Lee Company

\

7.

McEnglevan Heat Treating Mfg.

8.

NIOSH - U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

9.

Ohio Industrial Arts and Vocational Education Department

10.

OSHA - U.S. Department of Labor

11.

Pennsylvania Industrial Arts Association and Department of Education

12.

Pittsburg State University - L. Duane Griffin

13.

Powermatic Tool Company

14.

Rockwell Delta - Rockwell International

15.

Roper Whitney, Incorporated

16.

Shawnee Mission Public Schools - Bill Studwin

17.

South Bend Lathe, Incorporated

18.

Utah State Safety Guide

19.

Washington State Industrial Arts Safety Guide

20.

Wyoming State Department of Education

148

Pages 151-155 were adapted from Health and Safety Hazard Identification

Program, produced by Industrial Department, United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, Washington, D. C., n.d.

Page 157 was adapted from Pennsylvania Industrial Arts Safetx Guide, produced by Pennsylvania Department of Education and Industrlal Arts

Association of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 1981.

Pages 159-192 were adapted from Safety Education Handbook, produced by

Kansas Department of Education, Wichita, Kansas, 1981.

(

150

PLASTICS, GLUES, RESINS, AND FOAMS

By definition, a plastic is a material which is soft while being manufactured and hardens into a solid state as a finished product.

Plastics have this capacity because they consist of large molecules which link together in a chain to form a huge stable molecule.

Thus polyurethane is a chain of many urethane molecules linked together.

Resin is just another name for the soft state of the plastic.

Foams are one form of end product.

Glues are often made with a plastic base dissolved in some type of solvent.

When the solvent evaporates, the glue hardens to form a "plastic"-type material.

Plastics are generally divided into thermosetting and thermoplastic resins.

Thermoplastics can be heated up and recast in some other form again and again.

Thermosetting resins can only be cast once and cannot be remelted without destroying them.

Also all plastics contain additives, such as plasticizers, stabilizers, hardeners, filling agents, colors, flame retardants, and catalysts.

Each additive has a specific purpose.

Plasticizers make the final product more flexible.

Fillers will result in a harder, rougher plastic.

Stabilizers keep it from being easily destroyed by temperature or over time.

Catalysts cause the plastic to harden faster.

Through the use of additives, an unlimited variety of plastics can be produced.

Since there are thousands of different plastics and glues, it is impossible to discuss here all the plastics or glues you may use or be exposed to.

Instead we will discuss several of the more common ones, and if the one you use is missed, you can contact us and we will find information on it.

Polyurethane

Polyurethane has been called a "super plastic" because of its many uses.

It is used in glues, adhesives, coating materials, lacquers, foam for cushions, soles of shoes, etc.

It consists of five separate components: an isocyanate, a polyol, a catalyst, a blowing agent (for making foam mostly), and a catalyst accelerator.

When mixed together the foam is "cured" and hardens.

It can also contain surfactants (chemicals to ensure uniform foaming) and fire retardants.

The most hazardous exposures occur when it is being mixed.

This is partly because some components, like the isocyanate, become vapors quickly when mixing occurs.

The reaction creating the plastic is

"exthermic," meaning it gives off heat, increasing the production of vapor.

Also, when the foam is cut with heat, this also allows additional vapor to be released.

151

Isocyanate.

The most common isocyanate used, and also the most

toxic, is toluene di-isocyanate or TOI (also known by the trade name

Oesmodur T80).

Another common and less toxic one is methylene bis

(4-phenyl) isocyanate or MOl (trade name of Car ad ate 30).

Others include hexamethylene di-isocyanate (HMOI), napthalene di-isocyanate

(NOI), and di-isocyanate dicyclohexyl urethane.

These are much less toxic than TOI and MOl.

All the isocyanates are very irritating to the eyes, nose, throat, lungs, and skin.

They can cause coughing, breathlessness, chest pain, and in very high exposures, pneumonia and death.

In addition, TOI is famous for being a "sensitizer" of the lungs.

This means that when a worker comes into contact with it, (s)he may become allergic to it, as if s(he) were allergic to ragweed pollen but much worse.

It can cause asthma attacks when even a very small, undetectable amount is present.

That sensitized worker must be removed from all exposure and, preferably, placed in a different building since even sharing the same ventilation system with a room where TOI is being used may cause an attack.

Presumably only a small percentage of workers will become sensitized but it has been shown that the larger the exposure, the more likely it is that you will be sensitized.

High exposures can sensitize an individual on the first exposure.

Some cases exist where, for unknown reasons, a person eventually loses his or her allergy to TOI, but this is rare.

More recently, isocyanates have been shown to cause decreased lung capacity from long-term exposures.

They also are suspected of causing cancer and genetic mutations in humans based on recent experiments with bacteria.

Exposures will be particularly high if TOI is sprayed.

OSHA has set a very low exposure limit for TOI (0.02 parts TOI per million parts of air).

NIOSH would like to see that limit cut by threefourths.

Precautions to take include changing clothes to make sure

TOI is not brought home; air monitoring by the company to check for contamination levels; and cleaning up spills immediately with a combination of water, ammonia, and isopropyl alcohol.

Using premixed polymers can effectively reduce exposures.

Catalysts.

Either amine compounds or metal salts are used as catalysts to speed up curing of isocyanate resins.

Both can be absorbed through the skin.

The amines (such as morphaline, methyl morpholine,tetraethyl diamine) burn the eyes, nose, throat, skin, and lungs.

Over long periods of exposure they may cause bladder and nerve problems.

One peculiar effect is that they temporarily damage the cornea of the eye, causing hazy blue vision and halos to be seen around bright lights.

This problem can be particularly serious since it impairs night driving.

Polyols.

Are not toxic, but may cause slight skin irritation.

152

.

'~

Blowing agents.

Usually either freon or carbon dioxide are used.

Freon may cause dizziness or light-headedness.

Carbon dioxide is not hazardous except at very high levels .

Accelerators.

Are usually organic tin compounds (such as dibutyl tin).

These are severe skin and eye irritants and can cause damage to the nervous system.

Other additives.

Include silicon (a surfactant) which is an eye irritant; phosphate esters (fire retardants) which are absorbed through the skin and can cause blurred vision, headaches, nausea, cramps, and breathing problems; and solvents such as methylene chloride which cause dizziness, nausea, skin rashes, irritation, and affect the nervous system.

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

Polyvinyl chloride is one of the most commonly used plastics today.

Its component (vinyl chloride) monomer has long been known to have immediate toxic effects on the nervous system, causing lightheadedness and depression.

It also causes dulled vision and hearing, severe skin and eye irritation, and nausea.

Frostbite can occur after evaporation from the skin.

Recently, vinyl chloride has been definitely linked with a rare type of liver cancer called angiosarcoma, brain cancer, and lung cancer.

Workers cleaning vats of vinyl chloride have developed "acroosteo1ysis," or destruction of the bones in the fingers.

Vinyl chloride can be absorbed through the skin as well as inhaled.

Citric acid compounds, added to give it flexibility (as a plasticizer), can act as an anesthetic and also affect the blood pressure.

Phthalic acid compounds (such as di-2-ethylheryl phthalate), another plasticizer, has been known to cause fetal deformities when exposed to pregnant rats.

They are considered relatively nontoxic, though.

Stabilizers, including calcium, magnesium, and oils, like soybean oil, are also added but are considered nontoxic.

Organic tin compounds which are very toxic, causing eye and liver damage, are also used as stabilizers.

Barium salts, another stabilizer, are very poisonous if swallowed and also can cause a nondisab1ing lung disease called baritosis.

Epoxy Resins

Epoxy resins are used in paints, adhesives, sealing compounds, coatings for floors and roads, printed circuits, rocket nozzles, sports equipment (like skis), and machine parts.

They are very versatile because they are lightweight and do not contain any solvents.

They are, for that reason, used in aircrafts a lot to replace welding and riveting.

They often contain diluents to make them more fluid; fi·11ers, pigments; f1exibilizers; fire retardants

153

(bromine or chlorine); accelerators; and modifiers, such as phenol, urea, melamine, polyester, polyurethane, silicone, vinyl, or nylon.

Amine catalysts are used to decrease curing time.

They can cause allergic reactions.

Three, diethylene triamine (DEA), triethylene tetramine (TEA), and ethylene diamine, are known to cause sensitization and extreme allergic asthma attacks.

They are also highly alkaline and cause extensive skin corrosion.

Dne main component of epoxy resins is epichlorohydrin.

Immediate results of high exposures may be nausea, vomiting, stomach or liver pain, and difficulty in breathing.

It is extremely irritating to eyes, nose, throat, lungs, and skin.

Severe skin burns can occur several hours after contact.

Long-term exposures may cause kidney, liver, and lung damage.

It has also been declared a lung carcinogen (cancer-causing) substance in animals and possibly in humans.

Epoxy resins are generally a combination of epichlorohydrin with bisphenol A (4, 4'-isopropylidene-diphenol).

Bisphenol A is known to cause skin rashes and may cause allergic skin reactions.

It has been shown to penetrate both plastic and rubber gloves.

Because the reaction of the components is exothermic (gives off heat), fumes produced can cause respiratory problems.

Later grinding, sanding, or polishing of epoxy resins may produce dust or fumes that can have the same effects on the skin and lungs.

Acrylics

Acrylics produce glass-clear rigid plastics, such as lucite.

They are commonly used in paints.

They are skin, eye, nose, and throat irritants.

They have a very unpleasant odor.

They are made by combining a liquid and a powder.

The liquid may contain an acrylic (such as methyl methacrylate) and an initiator (such as dimethyl p-toluidine).

The powder will have more of the acrylic plus an activator (such as benzoyl peroxide).

Acrylates, like methyl methacrylate, have been shown in animal experiments to cause decreased blood pressure and heart rate, and increased breathing.

They may cause cardiac arrest.

They can cause allergic reactions in those workers who become sensitized to them.

They also may affect the development of the fetus in pregnant workers.

Benzoyl peroxide is an irritant, but may also be an explosion hazard in the powder form.

Formaldehyde

Formaldehyde is used in glues for plywood, furniture, doors, sports equipment, and general assembly work.

It is generally combined with either urea, phenol, or melamine.

Urea-formaldehyde foam is a popular insulation material.

When furfuryl alcohol is added, it may be used to make particle board.

Bakelite is a

154

combination of phenol and formaldehyde used in furniture making.

It is the mainstay of 17 industries and a raw material of 68 others.

Formaldehyde is a well-known irritant causing severe eye, nose, and throat irritation at very low levels (down to 1/30th the OSHA,

PEL, permissable exposure limit of 3 ppm).

Higher exposures (2-4 times the OSHA limit) can cause coughing, tightening of the chest, headache, and heart problems.

Exposures 10 to 20 times the OSHA limit can cause death from pneumonia-like lung disease.

It also causes severe skin rashes and may sensitize an individual, creating allergic reactions.

Most recently it has been determined that it causes nasal cancer in rats.

If present with hydrogen chloride, the two chemicals can combine to form bis-chloro-methyl-ether, a powerful human carcinogen, causing lung cancer.

As a result, the Consumer

Product Safety Commission has, in 1981, recommended that ureaformaldehyde foam be barred from use in home insulation.

Urea is an irritant but not supposed to be very toxic, being a normal part of human metabolism.

Melamine is also supposed to be less toxic than formaldehyde.

Phenol is a serious hazard for skin exposures.

It penetrates the skin rapidly and has caused gangrene and coma even from repeated exposures to dilute solutions.

It can also damage the eye severely if not rinsed out with water immediately.

Small amounts swallowed will cau;e burning in the throat, stomach pain, headache, and ultimately coma and death.

Inhalation of phenol vapors can cause damage to the lungs, liver, and kidneys.

It can be smelled at very low levels, way below the OSHA limit of five parts per million.

155

SAFETY RULES FOR WORKING WITH PLASTICS

1.

Wear proper eye protection.

2.

Never mix any two substances tooether unless you understand the reactions of the mixture.

3.

Use proper ventilation to dispel toxic vapors that may be gi ven off.

4.

Never work around open flames.

5.

Wear plastic gloves and other protective clothing that will help to guard against skin irritation.

6.

Wear protective gloves for handling hot plastics.

7.

Use a face mask and an appropriate respirator when sanding fiberglass or other plastic materials that produce hazardous dust.

8.

Keep materials with low flash points under refrigeration.

9.

Keep all guards in place when operating any plastics machine.

10.

Warning signs and protective devices should be provided at each plastics heating unit.

11.

Use only recommended materials and procedures for injection mold forming processes.

12.

Properly dispose of all flammable waste material.

13.

Certain catalytic reactions produce a great deal of heat.

They should be mixed in metal containers only.

14.

Always add catalyst to resin--never resin to catalyst.

157

HEATING OVEN

HEATING UNITS

STRIP HEATER

(

(

,

1.

VENT HOLE

2.

FAN SWITCH

3.

HEATER SWITCH

4.

TEMPERATURE CONTROLS

5.

SPRING OOOR

1.

HEATING ELEMENT

2.

Pltx>

3.

CONTROL LIGHT

4.

SWITCH

1.

Wear proper heat resistive gloves and clothing when working around the heating devices used to form plastics.

2.

Maintain proper heating ranges when using plastics heating units because uncontrolled heat can cause the plastics to burn and become a fire hazard.

3.

Wear safety glasses in the laboratory.

4.

Use caution with the electrical parts of appliances.

Don't operate the units in a damp area.

5.

Take precautions with the appliance when operation is completed because the unit will remain hot and hazardous to other persons in the laboratory.

6.

Check for clearance from the teacher before using a heating unit.

7.

Exercise extreme care when operating a strip heater because the heating element is exposed.

159

HEATING OVEN

(

( cl.....l--I'

2

~-+---t--{

3

1'T"i>-.j........(

'f

1

V8IT

HOLE

2 FAN

SWITCH

3

HEATER SWITCH

4

TEMPERATURE CONTROLS

5,

SPRING OOOR CATCH

161

STRIP HEATER

1

HEATING ELEMENT

2

PU.G

3

CoNTROL LIGKf

4

SWITCH

163

HEATING UNITS SAFETY QUIZ

fw,E _

CLASS

DATE

_

GRAD~E

_ _

1.

Unattended heating devices in the laboratory are dangerous because unsuspecting persons may touch them.

(Circle true or false)

2.

Some units will heat plastics up to the flash point.

3.

Safety glasses do not need to be worn.

4, The heating element of the strip heater is easily touched.

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

Complete the following statement:

5.

with the plastics material during the heating operation can burn the operator.

6.

In the spaces provided, identify the parts of the heating oven:

1

A.

HEATING OVEN

2

3

4

5

(

(

,

s

165

6.

In the spaces provided, identify the parts of the strip heater:

B.

STRIP HEATER

1

2

3

4

166

INJECTION MOLDER

,~

1.

HEATING CHAMBER

2.

RAM

3 ..

OIL CHAMBER

4.

AIR CHAMBER

5.

RAM OPERATING HANDLE

6.

MOLD VISE

Injection molding machines vary greatly according to size of the

"shot" injected into the mol d cavity and the actual physical size of the mac~ine.

While their functions are baslca11y the same, their safety rules differ, even though many rules are common.

The safety rules below are in reference to a small machine used in schools and industries where a small

"shot" size is needed and a high rate of production is not necessary.

3.

4.

7.

8.

1.

2.

5.

6.

Wear proper eye protective devices.

Control the heat because overheated plastics will be forced out of the molds.

Obtain permission from the teacher to operate the injection molder.

Control the ram pressure and mold clamping pressure in a range for safe operation of the molder.

Remember that the molded plastics will stay very hot for a period of time when out in the air.

Do not operate the machine if the floor around the machine is damp or wet.

Wear proper hand protection when moving the hot molds or the parts.

Caution bystanders when purging injection molding equipment.

167

9.

Keep all guards in place while operating the molder.

10.

Remember that air-operated machines are much quicker in movement than the hydraulic machines and may cause a safety hazard.

11.

Be sure the machine is up to the proper heat for the plastics material before operating the ram into the barrel.

12.

Keep your fingers out of the feed hopper.

13.

Be careful where you touch the machine; parts of the machine are extreme ly hot.

14.

Work in a ventilated area because heated plastics expel fumes.

In addition to the rules listed previously, the following rules must also be observed when using the large, commercial injection molders.

1.

Do

not remove any safety shield or device from the machine except for maintenance or mold change; replace all devices before commencing operation.

2.

3.

Do

not attempt to defeat safety devices by any means.

Do

not allow more than one operator to operate machine at the same time.

4.

Treat all molding machines with respect as even machines with very small clamp capacities can cause painful injury when carelessly operated.

5.

Shut off pump motor and turn machine mode selector switch to

"lIianual" when working in clamp area for other than ordinary part removal or loading of inserts in the mold.

6.

Check all safety devices periodically; such checks must be made at the beginning of each shift of operation or whenever changes in operation have been made.

7.

When operating, do not stand on machine base for any reason.

8.

When purging machine, always stand back and away from the nozzle.

WARNING: The existence of the second nozzle requires that extra caution be observed.

9.

Always shut off pump when working in die area to mount molds, connect water lines, etc.

168

10.

Wear asbestos gloves when handling heated barrel, nozzles. or when working with heated mold.

11.

Do not attempt to clear frozen material from nozzle by pressure alone.

Allow nozzle heater to melt the plug or heat nozzle tip with torch.

Nozzle slug will ooze out when properly heated.

If the nozzle does not pass the material using the above methods, remove the nozzle ana check the orifice for blockage by foreign material.

12.

Do not adjust limit switches. etc .• when machine is operating.

13.

Be sure that all mold mounting bolts are tight.

Retighten these and all machine bolts and nuts periodically.

14.

Heavy molds should only be handled with a properly sized hoist and eye-bolts.

15.

Do not reach up into parts chute.

16.

With the two-color rotating die, observe these precautions:

For mechanical rotation, do not use excessive clamp speeds that may cause damage to the indexing system.

For hydraulic and mechanical rotation, be sure all hydraulic lines and electrical wires are clear of mold.

169

INJECTION MOLDER

)"-~:..----®

~P~~

_ _--CD

®

1

HEATING CHAMBER

2

RAM

3

TEMPERATURE CONTROL

5

PAM OPERATING

HANDLE

4

AIR CHAMBER

6

MOLD VISE

171

INJECTION MOLDER

/3

1

STATIONARY PLATEN

2

NoZZLE ADAPTOR

3

HEATER

4

HEATER

5

BARRa

6

FEED SCREW

7

MATERIAL I{)PPER

8

SHEAR PIN

9

HvnRAl1.IC I'DTOR

10

INJECT CYLINDER

11

CooL!

NG clWlNa

12

CARRIPGE CYLINDER

13

NoN-R~N

VAL 'IE

14

NoZZLE HEATER

15

NOZZLE

173

INJECTION MOLDER

'\6-

1

SPRUE

2

SUPPORT FINS

3

HEATERS

4

FEED I-PPPER

5

INJECTION PISTON

6

TORPEOO

7

NoZZLE

8

9

VENT

ALONG PARTING LINE

roLD

10

EJECTION PINS

11

GATES

12

RLI'INERS

13

CAVITY OR PART

175

lNJECTION

~bl

DER SAFEJY QUIZ

NN'lE

CLAss

_

_

DATE GRADE _ _

(Circle true or false) l.

Wear proper eye protection.

2.

Proper hand protection need not be worn.

3.

4.

5.

You must get permission from the teacher to use the machine.

Damp floors around the machine are not a safety hazard.

All guards must be in place when using the machine.

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

6.

Parts of the machine are extremely hot.

7.

The re is no dange r to the fi nge rs from pinching when using the injection molder.

Complete the following statements:

T

T

F

F

8.

The heated plastic material is forced into the mold with pressure.

_

9.

Control of the and heat is necessary in order for plastics not to be forced from the molds.

10.

Molded plastics remain very ~ they are removed from the mold.

11.

Caution bystanders when for a period of time after the machine.

12.

operated machines are quicker in movement than hydraulic machines.

177

13.

In the spaces provided, identify the parts of the injection mol der.

INJECTION MOLDER

5.

6.

1.

2.

3.

4.

_

_

_

_

_

_

®

178

.

,

PLASTICS GRANULATOR

"

/

,/ ,L _

''1

1.

SAFETY CURTAIN

2.

FEED HOPPER

3.

BASE

4.

HINGE PIN

5.

ROTOR COVER

6.

COLLECTION DRAWER

1.

Wear eye protection when using the machine.

2.

Check plastic material for waste fragments of metal or wood before placing the material in the granulator.

3.

Turn off the main switch of the machine before placing plastic scrap through the safety curtain into the feed hopper.

4.

Keep hands clear of the feed hopper when the machine is on.

Never place hands into the feed hopper even if the machine is turned off.

5.

Never stand in front of or open the safety curtain when the machine is turned on.

6.

Use ear plugs; noise may be excessive if machine is used for long periods.

179

PLASTICS GRANULATOR

0--010

®

/..--®

fuTOR DIRECTION

1

SAFETY CURTAIN

2

FEED HOPPER

3

BASE

4

HINGE PIN

5

ROTOR COVER

6

COLLECTION DRAWER

181

PLASTICS GRANULATOR SAFETY QUIZ

NN1:, _

CLAss, _

!JATE~

_ _

_'GRAre~

_

1.

There is no need to wear safety glasses or goggles while using this machine.

2.

Scrap material may be ground without checking for impurities.

3.

When loading the feed hopper, you must be sure the main switch to the machine is turned off.

4.

You may use your hands to clear the feed hopper.

5.

Always stand to one side of the machine and not in front of the safety curtain when the machine is on.

6.

Noise is not a health factor when using this machine.

(Circle true or false)

T F

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

183

Scrap Grinder Safety Quiz(continued)

7.

Name the parts of the plastics granulator.

184

VACUUMFORMER

1.

HEATER

S~ITCH

2.

HEATER

3.

CLAMPING DEVICE

4.

MOLD SUPPORT

5.

CONTROLS TO FORM

PLASTIC

1.

2.

~ear eye protective devices.

CD

Be sure that the clamp frame is adjusted plastics.

to the thickness of the

3.

Keep the hands away from the heating units to prevent serious burns.

4.

Control the air pressure and vacuum in a manner that will not cause any hazards.

5.

Do not touch the heated plastics until they have cooled properly.

Use heat resistive gloves to unload parts.

6.

Use a safety air nozzle gun to the air only on the plastics.

30

PSI.

cool plastics, taking care to direct

Nozzle must be reduced to less than

7.

Remember that the clamp frames will be very hot after forming.

8.

Don't leave the machine unattended in the heating cycle because the sheet stock could become overheated and start a fire~

9.

Do not allow the sheet stock to come into contact with the heating element.

10.

All safety guards must be in place and functioning.

11.

Temperature and air pressure must be correctly adjusted.

12.

Do not operate the machine if the floor is damp.

13.

Always work with plastic material in a well-ventilated area.

185

VACUUMFORMER

• • •

CD

0

1

HEATER SWITCH

2

HEATER

~---~

3

CLAMPING DEVICE

4

CONTROLS TO FORM

PLASTIC

187

VACllMEORt:£R SAFETY QUIZ

N8f.'E

C!.Ass,

-----'GRADE

_

_

_

1.

The plastics materials used in sheet form could catch fire during the forming process.

2.

The frames become very hot during forming operations.

3.

Plastics materials are hot when they are lifted from the mold.

4.

Wear eye protective devices.

5.

Ventilation is not a prime concern when working with plastic materials.

(Circle true or false)

T F

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

Complete the following statements.

5.

Temperature and --Jpressure must be correctly set.

7.

The machine must not be operated when the floors are

8.

If the machine is in a heating cycle, do not

___

_

189

9.

Name the parts of the vacuum-former.

I

I

I

I r - - - - - -

1,

2,

3,

4,

_

_

_

_

190

THERMOFORMING PROCESSES

There are basically three methods of thermoforming: vacuum forming, pressure forming, and mechanical forming. r1achines used with these processes have similar safety rules.

15<'

~

/0)

~®®

5(1/

15< fAx

-0

-

Vacuum forming ;s drawing material into the mold with the aid of vacuum.

VACi,i!,J1'!

FoR!'!llKi

/0

i9'l11 v

';;l/

®

®

/

~-L.s-

-0

VACUUM

1.

RADIANT HEATER

2,

PLASTIC SHEET

3,

CLAMP

4.

FEMALE MOlD

5,

FORMED PART

-

Pressure forming ;s forcing material into a mold with the aid of pressure.

/

0)

I

®

-~

1.

MOlD COVER

2,

HOT PLASTIC SHEET

3,

FEMALE MOlD

4.

SEAL

5,

FORMED PART

1.

MALE MOlD

2,

FEMALE MOLD

3,

HOT PLASTI C SHEET

4,

FORMED PART

Mechanical forminq is forcing material betlo'Jl?en

male and female molds.

191

REFERENCES

Materials were selected and reviewed from the following sources, and in some instances were incorporated in the production of the preceding unit.

C. W. Brabender, Instruments, Inc.

Dake Corporation

Di-Acro Houdaille, Houdaille Industries Inc.

Educational Machinery Corp.

Kansas State Department of Education - Plastics for Industrial Arts

McNei 1 Akron, Inc.

Newbury Industries, Inc.

Sterling Extruder Corp.

Society of Plastics Engineers, Inc.

\ociety of Plastics Industry, Inc.

192

Pages 195-196 were adapted from Pennsylvania Industrial Arts Safety Guide, produced by Pennsylvania Department of Education and Industrial Arts

Association of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 1981-

Pages 197-268 were adapted from Safety Education Handbook, produced by

Kansas Department of Education, Wichita, Kansas, 1981.

194

SAFETY RULES FOR WORKING WITH WOOD

1.

Always keep tools and equipment in top condition.

2.

Wear eye protection when working in the shop.

3.

Follow the safety procedures recommended for each power tool.

4.

Wear tight-fitting clothing.

5.

Roll up your sleeves.

6.

Remove loose clothing and jewelry.

7.

When working with heavy pieces of wood, such as sheets of plywood and two-by-four studs, wear a sturdy pair of shces.

8.

Keep materials neatly stacked.

g.

Keep your work area clean and free from small scraps, excessive sawdust, and oil.

10.

Always remove nails from used lumber.

11.

Keep tables of machines and other work surfaces free from tools, scraps, and materials.

12.

Never try to move materials past a person who is using a power tool or machine.

13.

Never attempt to speak to or otherwise startle a person using a power tool or machine.

14.

Never start or stop a machine for someone else.

Always follow the machine operator's instructions when helping.

15.

Make sure that all hand tools are sharp and in good working order.

16.

Always carry sharp or pointed tools away from your body.

Never put them in your pockets.

17.

Never hold a small piece of wood in your fingers as you cut it.

18.

Always use the guards on machines when provided.

If a standard guard cannot be used, make use of holding and clamping devices and push sticks.

195

19.

Plan your work before you begin.

If large stock is to be cut, get help before you begin, not after you are in difficulty.

20.

Never use machines or power tools when you are tired or hurried.

Accidents often happen when someone tries to do things too fast.

21.

Make sure that a machine has come to a full stop before adjusting or oiling it or changing a blade.

22.

Always wear goggles or a face mask if there is a danger of flying chips.

23.

Get first-aid treatment for even the slightest scratch.

24.

Wear a dust respirator when sanding.

25.

Wear ear protection such as ear plugs or earmuffs when excessive noise is a problem.

26.

Know the location of the appropriate fire extinguisher to be used with wood, flammable liquids, and electrical equipment.

Class A fire--woods and paper products

Class B fire--flammable liquids

Class C fire--electrical equipment

27.

Return all finishing materials to metal containers and cabinets.

28.

Place all oily rags in an approved metal container.

29.

Use the dust collection system for stationary tools if possible.

30.

Keep your fingers and hands out of the path of sharp-edged cutting tools.

196

CIRCULAR TABLE SAW

1.

MITER GAUGE

2.

FENCE

3.

GUIDE BAR

4.

FENCE CLAMP

5.

FENCE MICRO-SET KNOB

6.

SWITCH

7.

CLEAN-OUT

8.

SAW GUARD

9.

BLADE INSERT

10.

TABLE

11 TILT SCALE

12.

RAISING HANDWHEEL

13.

TILT HANDWHEEL

14.

LOCK KNOB

1.

Circular table saws are required to be equipped with the following protective devices:

A.

A hood to completely enclose that portion of the saw above the table and material being cut.

B.

A spreader to prevent the material from squeezing the blade.

C.

Non-kickback fingers or dogs to prevent the material from being thrown back at the operator.

(OSHA)

2.

Teacher's permission should be obtained before using the table saw.

3.

All lumber must be free from loose knots. nails. paint. or pebbles.

4.

The proper saw blade should be selected and installed for the work to be done.

5.

The blade must be sharp and free of cr~cks or other defects.

6.

Adjustments should be made only when the machine is at a "dead" stop.

7.

The saw blade extension should be limited to 1/8 inch or less above the stock being cut.

Opinions may differ, so check with the teacher.

8.

All guards and other safety devices must be in their proper pas iti ans.

197

9.

A ripping fence or cutoff gauge should be used when cutting material.

10.

The teacher should be asked to approve all special setups.

11.

A clearance block must be used when a ripping fence is used as a gauge.

12.

An adequate number of proper push sticks must be available.

13.

No one but the operator should be inside the safety zone.

14.

A face shield or safety glasses shall be worn.

15.

The operator should stand to one side of the line of the saw blade.

16.

Fingers and all parts of the hands must be kept clear of path to the saw blade.

17.

The operator must stop the saw and move out of the operati~g zone before responding to anyone trying to attract h;;/her attention.

18.

The stock should be fed only as fast as the saw will freely cut.

19.

The stock should be pushed only by the operator.

A push stick should be used when rippin9 narrow pieces of stock.

198

~.

.,"",

CIRCULAR TABLE SAW

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

MITER GAUGE

FENCE

GUIDE BAR

FENCE CLAMP

FENCE MICRO-SET KNOB

SWITCH

CLEAN-OUT

8

SAW GUARD

10

9

BLADE INSERT

TABLE

11

12

13

14

TILT SCALE

RAISING HANDWHEEL

TILT HANDWHEEL

LocK KNOB

199

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CIRCUI.AR

TAB!

E SAW SAfETY QUIZ

NIoME _

CLAss _

DATE GRAD,-E_ _

True- Fa 1se:

T F 1.

The blade should not be raised more than 1/8 inch above the stock.

T F 2.

The fence and miter gauge can be used at the same time to crosscut.

T F 3.

Freehand sawing is not permitted.

T F 4.

All special setups must be checked by the teacher.

T F 5.

A person may rip a seven-foot long board by himself/herself, using the circular table saw.

T F 6.

It is best to stand directly behind the blade when ripping.

T F 7.

When ripping, a spreader is used to keep the material from pinching the blade.

T F 8.

One may reach over the saw blade to help guide the stock bei ng cut.

T F 9.

Guards shall be left on the machine at all times.

T FlO.

A person using a dado head should check to make sure all the chisel blades are pointed toward the operator.

T F 11.

A push stick should be used when one is ripping stock under three-inches wide.

T F 12.

Dull blades may be used on the circular table saw because of the speed and power of the saw.

201

11.

12.

13.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

2.

3.

4.

~1u1tiple

Choice:

______13.

A person who is operating the circular table saw should stand:

A.

to the right side of the blade

B.

to the left side of the blade

C.

directly behind the blade

D.

anywhere--it makes no difference

______14.

Crosscutti ng stock requi res the use of a:

A.

fence

B.

miter gauge

C.

stop block

D.

push stick

- -

15.

All circular table saw adjustments should be made:

A.

after the fence has been removed from the table top

B.

while the saw is in motion

C.

according to the blade being used

D.

when the saw blade is completely stopped

1.

16.

Identify the circular table saw parts indicated in the drawing:

_

14.

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

\

_

_

_

202

RADIAL SAW

1.

MITER SCALE

2.

RETURN SPRING

3.

ARM

4.

SWITCH

5.

FENCE

6.

KICKBACK GUARD

7.

ELEVATING HANDLE

8.

ARM CLAMP HANDLE

9.

MITER LATCH

10.

COLUMN

11.

SAW DUST SPOUT

12.

SELF-ADJUSTING BLADE GUARDS

1.

The upper hood shall completely enclose the upper portion of the blade down to a point that will include the end of the saw arbor.

(OSHA)

2.

Each radial saw shall be provided with non-kickback fingers or dogs.

(OSHA)

3.

An adjustable stop shall be provided to prevent tne forward travel of the blade beyond the position necessary to complete the cut in repetiti ve opera ti ons.

(OSHA)

4.

Radial saws are required to be installed in such a manner that the front end of the unlt will be slightly higher than the rear so the cutting load will return gently to the starting position when released by the operator.

A return spring should be attached to the post and the motor, which will aid in the return.

(OSHA)

5.

The blade should be set at a depth to cut not more than l/8-inch below the surface of the table.

6.

The operator should check to make sure the saw is back against the stop before turning on the power.

The blade must not be touching any wood when the power is turned on.

7.

The material to be cut must be held firmly against the table and fence.

8.

The direction of rotation of this saw blade causes it to climb into the stock and then to stall.

To avoid this, feed the saw slowly and smoothly.

203

9.

Hands and fingers should be kept at least six-inches clear of the path of the saw blade at all times.

10.

The motor should reach full speed before a cut is begun.

11.

The table should always be cleaned of scraps and dust before, during, and after use of the saw.

12.

All special setups (except for straight cutoff work) must be checked by the teacher.

13.

The operator should make sure the saw blade has stopped rotating before making any adjustments on the machine.

14.

The teacher's permission must be obtained before one attempts to use the machine.

204

RADIAL SAW

1

MITER SCALE

2

RETURN SPRING

3 ARM

4

SWITCH

5

FENCE

6

KICKBACK GUARD

7

ElEVATING HANDLE

8

~

CLAMP HANDLE

9

MITER LATCH

10

CoLl11'l

II

SAW DUST SPOUT

J2

SELF-ADJUSTING BLADE GUARDS

205

.RADIAL

NAME

ClAss

DATE

SAW

SAFETY

QuiZ

GRADE _

_

_

True-False:

T F 1.

The saw blade should be set one-half inch below the table surface.

T F 2.

This saw must be set so it will automatically return to the rear of the machine.

T F 3.

All adjustments and stops should be set before starting the saw.

T F 4.

On thick material it is permissible to remove the guards on the bottom of the blade so one can see.

T F 5.

After turning off the machine, the operator should stand by unt il the blade stops rotati ng.

T F 6.

Before moving the arm to make miter cuts, one must first raise the blade.

T F 7.

This saw can be the most dangerous machine in the shop because of its many uses.

T F 8.

Since the blade cuts into the material, it is not necessary to hold the material against the fence.

T F 9.

Curved or warped wood is not too difficult to cut on this saw.

T FlO.

The most dangerous operation on this saw is ripping wood.

T F 11.

The teacher's permission to operate this machine is needed only after the pupil makes a special setup.

T F 12.

When crosscutting, feed the saw through the stock only as fast as it will cut.

207

Multiple Choice:

______13.

The radial saw can be most safely used for:

______14.

A.

crosscutting

B.

C.

D.

ri ppi ng cutt i ng dados curved cuts

Pushing a piece of wood into a coasting blade may:

A.

damage the machine

B.

rui n the blade

C.

result in a serious accident

D.

do all of the above

______15.

One should remember that the radial arm saw pulls itself into the work. therefore:

A.

hardwood should never be cut

B.

assistance from a helper is necessary

C.

it is necessary to hold back on the handle to prevent the saw from choking

D.

none of the above are true

208

16.

Identify the parts of the radial saw indicated in the drawing:

5

6

3

4

1

2

209

7

8

9

10

11

12

BAND SAW

1.

GUIDE POST

2.

BLADE SUPPORT LOCK SCREW

3.

BLADE

4.

MITER GAGE GROOVE

5.

TABLE CLAMP

6.

ADJUSTING SCREW FOR

BLADE GUIDES

7.

LOWER WHEEL GUARD

8.

REAR BLADE GUARD

9.

TABLE

10.

UPPER BLADE GUIDE

11.

UPPER WHEEL GUARD

1.

All portions of the saw blade are required to be covered, except at the point of operation. (OSHA)

2.

The wheels of the band saw shall be completely enclosed by metal.

(OSHA)

3.

The band saw shall be equipped with a tension control device. (OSHA)

4.

A suitable guard of the in-running feed roll must be in place. (OSHA)

5.

One must obtain permission from the teacher before using the band saw for the first time.

6.

Only stock that is in good shape should be cut.

7.

All guards must be in the right place.

8.

Adjustments should be made only when the machine is at a dead stop.

9.

The upper blade guide should be set one-quarter inch or less above the work.

10.

All special setups should be checked with the teacher.

11.

Only the operator should be inside the operator's safety zone.

12.

The material must be held firmly and the fingers kept a safe distance away from the saw blade.

13.

The saw blade should be kept from twisting or binding when cutting curves.

211

14.

The machine must be allowed to come to a dead stop before the blade is backed out of a long cut.

15.

One should step away immediately if the saw blade breaks or comes off.

The power should be shut off, if possible, and the teacher notified after all movement has stopped.

16.

The power should be turned off after using and one should stand by until the machine has stopped.

17.

Scraps of wood on the table should be cleared away only after the blade stops running.

18.

If help is needed to support heavy or long work, the helper must never pull or guide the work.

The helper suppor·ts the weight; the operator runs the machine.

19.

Cylindrical stock must not be cut on the band saw.

It is likely to roll in the hands.

20.

Relief cuts must be made before cutting the outline of sharp curves.

212

'/

BAND SAW

J

1

GUIDE POST

7

LOWER WHEEL GUARD

2

BLADE SUPPORT LOCK SCREW

8

REAR BLADE GUARD

3

BLADE

4

MITER GAUGE GROOVE

5

TABLE CLAMP

9

TABLE

.

10

UPPER BLADE GUIDE

11

UPPER WHEEL GUARD

6

ADJUSTING SCREW FOR

BLADE GUIDES

213

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!lAND

SAw

SAFETY QUIZ riAM"'-.E

CLAss,

DATE _

_

_

True-False:

T F 1.

The upper blade guide should be adjusted to 1/4-inch above the stock.

T F 2.

A person who is assisting a fellow pupil should stand to the right of the blade.

T F 3.

The teeth of the band saw blade should be pointed up at the point of operation.

T F 4.

One who is cutting curves should first make relief cuts.

T F 5.

The band saw must be at a dead stop when adjustments are made.

T F 6.

The roller bearing on the guide is to prevent the blade from being pulled from the lot when backing out.

T F 7.

If a blade breaks, one needs to get a fellow pupil to stop the machine.

T

F

8.

A bench brush should be used to clean chips and dust from the table.

T

F

9.

The saw should be running at full power before cutting materi a1.

T F 10.

The opera tor's hands should never be in a direct 1ine with the blade.

Multiple Choice:

- -

11.

When starting the band saw, the operator should stand:

A.

to the right of the saw blade

8.

to the left of the saw blade

C.

in front of the saw

D.

behind the saw

215

12.

If the band saw blade should break or come off the wheels, one should:

A.

shut off the power and stand clear

B.

continue cutting

C.

move the stock away to avoid damage

D.

call another pupil

13.

If it becomes necessary to back out on a long cut, one should:

A.

try to make a sharp turn on the blade

B.

continue to push the stock forward

C.

stop the machine and back the stock off

D.

carefully back the stock away from the blade

- - -

14.

The upper saw guide of the band saw should be

~et:

A.

when the saw is coasting.

B.

tightly against the stock

C.

1/2 inch above the stock

D.

1/4 inch or less above the stock.

216

15.

Identify the parts of the band saw indicated in the following drawing:

3.

4.

5.

l.

2.

6.

10.

1l.

7.

8.

9.

217

SCROLL (JIG) SAW

(j)

~(®

1.

TENSION SLEEVE

2.

HOLD-DOWN GUARD

3.

UPPER CHUCK

4.

TABLE

5.

TABLE ADJUSTMENT KNOB

6.

SWITCH

7.

OVER ARM

8.

MOTOR g.

BASE

10.

BELT AND PULLEY GUARD

ll.

STAND

1.

Hinged saw tables shall be so constructed that the table can be firmly secured in any position and in true alignment with the saw.

(OSHA)

2.

All belts, pulleys, gears, shafts, and moving parts shall be guarded in accordance with the specific requirements in the

OSHA Handbook.

(OSHA)

3.

The teacher's permission must be obtained before using the machine.

4.

The operator should select a blade to suit the thickness of the wood and the size of the curves to be cut.

5.

The blade should first be tightened securely in the lower chuck, then in the upper chuck.

6.

The blade guide should be adjusted in line with the blade to support it while cutting.

7.

The operator should lower the hold-down or pressure foot to press lightly on the surface of the stock being cut.

8.

One can check the tension of the blade by turning the motor by hand.

If knocking is heard, stop the machine and readjust the tension.

g.

The stock should be held firmly while feeding it at a moderate rate of speed.

219

10.

Fingers and hands must be kept away from the path of the blade.

11.

Large curves should be cut first, then small details.

12.

One should not make sudden turns or sharp turns.

13.

Only stock with a flat surface should be cut.

14.

One should turn off the machine and wait until it has completely stopped before removing scraps or leaving the machine.

220

@I--;--

SCROLL (JIG) SAW

I----CD

~

1

TENSION SLEEVE

7

OVER ARM

2

HOLD-DOWN GUARD

8

MOTOR

3

UPPER CHUCK

9

BASE

4

TABLE

10

BELT AND PULLEY GUARD

5

TABLE ADJUSTMENT KNOB

11

STAND

6

SWITCH

221

SCROLL <JIG) SAW SAFETY QUIZ

NAME

CLASS

DATE GRADE_ _

True- Fa1se:

T

T

F l.

F 2.

The scroll saw can cut as small as 90

0 corners.

The pulley should be turned by hand to be sure the blade functions correctly before turning on the machine.

T F 3.

The hold-down guard must be in place to keep the material from being pulled up with the upward stroke.

The blade should be installed with the teeth pointing up.

T

F

4.

T

T

F

F

5.

6.

The tension from the upper head pulls the blade back up after the motor pulls it down.

Since the scroll saw is the easiest saw to operate, it is possible to talk to a friend while operating it.

T F 7.

Safety glasses must be worn when operating the scroll saw.

T F 8.

The pulley belt must be covered at all times when the saw is in use.

Multiple Choice:

9.

One's fingers should never be permitted to get:

A.

directly in line with the blade

8.

close to the tension sleeve

C.

near the over arm

________ 10.

All scraps and cutoff pieces should be removed only:

A.

when the machine is at a dead stop

B.

at the end of the period

C.

when installing a new blade

223

11.

Identify the parts of a scroll saw indicated in the drawing:

4

5

6

1

2

3

"

10

11

7

8

9

224

MITER BOX SAW

(MOTORIZED)

1.

SWITCH

2.

MOTOR

3.

OPERATING HANDLE

4.

TABLE

5.

MITER GAUGE

6.

BLADE GUARD

7.

FENCE

8.

BASE

®

1.

Each miter box saw shall be provided with a hood that will completely enclose the upper half of the saw, the arbor end, and the point of operation at all positions of the saw.

Its hood shall be so designed that it will automatically cover the lower portion of the blade, regardless of the position of the saw. (OSHA)

2.

A pupil must get the teacher's permission to use the saw and the teacher must check the setup before it is used.

3.

The material to be cut should be held firmly against both the table and the fence.

4.

The material must not be held by hand.

Some type of clamp should be used.

5.

The hands should never come within six inches of the cutting blade.

6.

The area should be cleaned up after the saw has been used.

225

MITER

BOX SAW

(MOTORIZED>

1

SWITCH

2

MOTOR

3

OPERATING HANDLE

4

TABLE

5

MITER GAUGE

6

BLADE

GUARD

7

FENCE

8

BASE

227

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I

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I

I

I

I

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I

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twl,,-E

CLAss,

IlATE"'-

_

_

_ ----!GRADE"'--

True-False:

T

F l.

The teacher should check the setups before a pupil turns on the machine.

T F 2.

It is usually best to work in pairs on this piece of equipment.

T F

3.

It is all right to use stop blocks on a motorized miter box saw.

T F 4.

One does not need to wear safety glasses when using this saw because it takes just a minute to complete an operation with the saw.

T F 5.

It is advisable to remove the guards on the side of the saw blade to see better what you are doing.

Multiple Choice:

6.

When operating the motorized miter box:

A.

remove tie, rings, watch, and other jewelry, and roll up the sleeves

B.

always wear safety glasses or face shield

C.

keep the guards in place and in use at all times

D.

all of the above

7.

When making any adjustments:

A.

disconnect the power

B.

unlock the pivot arm

C.

apply the brake

D.

lock the motor in an up position

229

___

~8.

Work should be held firmly against:

A.

the tabl e

B.

the fence

C.

the fence and table

D.

the pivot arm.

___

~9.

When a cut has been made:

10.

A.

release the trigger and remove the scrap from the table

B.

release the trigger and lock the motor in up position

C.

release the trigger and apply the brake

D.

release the trigger and move to the next operation

When ready to cut one should wait for the motor on the miter box:

A.

to come up to half speed

B.

to come up to full speed

C.

to reach a speed for the type of job to be done

D.

to reach any speed of the saw indicated on

11.

Give the correct names of the the drawi ng:

® 1.

_

2 .

_

(])

/ 0

5.

4.

3.

6.

7.

8.

230

PLANER (SURFACER)

1.

CHIP GUARD

2.

TABLE

3.

HANDWHEEL LOCK

4.

ELEVATING HANDWHEEL

5,

BASE

6.

FEED ROLL ADJUSTMENTS

7.

SWITCH

8.

DEPTH OF-CUT-GAUGE

9.

MOTOR

10.

VARIABLE SPEED FEED

ROLL

1.

The cutting heads must be guarded with a metal guard which has a minimum thickness of 1/16 inch, if made of sheetmetal; or a minimum of 3/16 inch, if made of cast iron.

(OSHA)

2.

Where an exhaust system is used, the guards shall form a part of the hood and shall be constructed of metal.

(OSHA)

3.

Feed rolls must be guarded by a hood or suitable guard to prevent the operator's hands from coming in contact with the in-running rolls.

4.

The stock should be checked to make sure it is clean and free from loose knots and other defects.

5.

Never surface stock smaller than 10" or the distance between the rollers plus 2 inches.

6.

Loose clothing and dangling jewelry present safety hazards.

One should avoid wearing them when operating the planer.

7, One should always stand to one side of the planer when it is in use.

8.

Adjustments should be made only when the machine is at a dead stop.

231

9.

The board to be planed must have at least one true surface.

10.

The cuts on wide boards should be limited to 1/16 inch or less.

11.

Thin stock can be planed by placing it on top of a thick-surfaced board.

12.

Only one board should be planed at anyone time.

13.

The teacher's permission should be obtained before operating the p1 aner.

232

PLANER

(SURFACER)

1

CHIP GUARD

2

TABLE

3

HANDWHEEL LOCK

4

[LEVATI rlG H.ANDWHEEL

5

BASE

'6

FEED ROLL ADJUSTMENTS

7

SWITCH

8

DEPTH-OF-CUT GAUGE

I)

MOTOR

10

VARIABLE SPEED FEED ROLL

233

PLANER (SURfACER) SAFETY QUIZ

ClAss

DATE 6RADE~

_

_

_

True- Fa 1se:

T F 1.

Wood with loose knots is dangerous and should not be run through the planer.

T F 2.

The shortest board that should be run through the machine should be two inches longer than the distance between'the rollers.

T F 3.

Grain direction is unimportant when surfacing stock.

T F 4.

One can get one's finger pinched between the board and the table when running short boards.

T F 5.

The operator should stand to one side of the stock being surfaced.

T F 6.

Painted or used wood may be cleaned up on the planer without any problems.

T F 7.

The planer will straighten out a curved or twisted board.

T F 8.

Glued joints must be scraped off before being surfaced.

T F 9.

The operator should look into the machine to check the depth of the cut on the material.

T

FlO.

Chips should be removed even if the machine is running.

Multiple Choice:

______ 11.

If the material jams or the planer fails to work properly, one should:

A.

adjust the pressure of the feed rollers

8.

readjust the depth of the cut

C.

push harder on the wood

D.

turn off the power and call the teacher

235

7.

8.

9.

5.

6.

3.

4.

1.

2.

10.,

12.

In planing most stock it is not necessary to remove more than:

A.

three turns on the adjustment wheel

B.

1/8 inch of stock per cut

C.

1/16 inch of stock per cut

D.

any amount is all right

______ 13.

Wood to be surfaced down to 3/8-inch thickness or less should be:

A.

surfaced on the edges first

B.

placed on top of a thicker board and run through the planer

C.

fed into the machine behind a piece of like thickness

D.

placed beside a piece of like thickness and run through the machine

14.

Which side of the board does the planer cut?

A.

Bottom

B.

Top

C.

Both sides at the same time

15.

Name the parts of the planer indicated in the following drawing:

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

236

JOINTER

1.

HAND-FED WIlH HORIZONTAL HEAD:

head with the knife projecting cylinder.

shall have acyl indrical cutting no more than liS-inch beyond the

2.

TABLE OPENINGS: the cl earance between the rear tabl e and cutter head shall be 1IS-inch maximum, The table throat opening (when tables are set with each other for zero cut) shall be two and one-half inches maximum.

3.

HoRIZONTAL HEAD:

shall have an automatic guard covering the head on the working side of the fence or gauge, and a guard covering the head back of the fence or gauge.

4.

VERTICAL HEAD:

shall have an exhaust hood or other guard completely enclosing the revolving head, except for a slot wide enough to perform work.

5.

Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instruction has been received.

6.

Remove jewelry, eliminate loose clothing, and confine long hair.

'7.

Make sure all guards are in place and operating correctly,

8.

Always use the proper eye protection.

9.

Make all adjustments with the power turned off.

237

10.

Use a push stick or push block when the hands would pass over or within two inches of the cutter head.

11.

Make several light cuts (1/6" to 1/8") instead of one heavy cut (1/2").

12.

Remember that the absolute minimum length of material that may be joined is twice the size of the knives-- 6" jointer, 12"; 8" jointer, 16 ".

13..

Do not adjust or move the rear or feed table without permission.

238

JOINTER

1

FENcE

TILTING lEVEL

2

FENcE

3

IN-FEED TABLE

5

4

IN-FEED TABLE ADJUSTl1'¥3 WHEa.

BAsE

6

SWITCH

7

STAND

8 FENCE

ADJUSlMENr lEVEL

9 FRONT

GlAAD

10

Our-FEED TABlE

11

Our-FEED TABLE ADJUSTING kfiEEL

239

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I

,IoINTER

twIE

SAFElY

Q.JIZ

ClAss

DATE

_

_

GRADE _ _

True-Fal se:

T

F l.

The size of the jointer is determined by the length of its knives.

T F

2.

A stock less than ten inches in length should not be joined on the power jointer.

T

F

3.

The depth of the cut is adjusted by the rear table.

T

F

4.

A push block should not be used when jointing the face.

T

F

5.

The jointer fence should be checked with aT-level.

T

F

6.

Boards that are 1/4-inch thick cannot be jointed on the jointer.

T F 7.

When jointing the edge, the rough face goes against the fence.

T F 8.

The only time that the front guard should be removed is when one is cutting·a rabbit.

T F 9.

The out-feed table is level with the cutter knives.

Multiple Choice:

_______10.

Which of the following is not a part of the jointer?

A.

base

B.

in-feed table

C.

miter gauge

D.

fence

241

Multiple Choice:

- - - ,

11-

The size of the jointer is determined by:

A.

the length of the knives-

B.

the length of the table

C.

the number of knives

D.

none of these

______12.

The depth of cut is adjusted by:

A.

the fence

B.

the rear table

C.

the guard

D.

the front table

______13.

Which of these operations cannot be done on the jointer?

A.

cutting a level

B.

cutting a rabbit

C.

cutting a dado.

D.

surfacing a board

______14.

The jointer must have. as a safety device:

A.

a front guard

B.

a rear guard

C.

a locking fence

D.

all of the above

______15.

Th~ jointer takes the place of:

A•.

B.

a rip saw a file

C.

a hand plane

D.

a tri-square

242

16.

Identify the parts of the jointer shown in the following drawing:

1

2

3

4

5

6

243

9

10

11

7

8

_

_

I

! ,

J~==_~

----=-==~~

WOOD LATHE

1• HEAD STOCK

2.

INDEXING PIN

3.

SAFETY SHIELD

4.

TOOL REST

5.

TAIL STOCK SPINDLE CLAMP

6.

TAIL STOCK

7.

TAIL STOCK HANDLE

8.

LATHE BED

9.

SWITCH

10.

MOTOR

1.

Cutting heads on wood-turning lathes. whether rotating or not.

shall be covered as completely as possible by hoods or shields.

which shall be hinged to the machine so they can be thrown back for making adjustments.

(OSHA)

2.

Lathes used for turning long pieces of wood stock. held only between two centers, shall be equipped with long, curved guards extending over the tops of the lathes in order to prevent the workpiece from being thrown out of the machine if the guards should become loose.

(OSHA)

3.

The teacher's permission must be obtained before using the lathe.

4.

One should never use stock that is cracked or has knots. checkS, or poor glue joints.

5.

All glued material must be properly cured and dry.

It must set 24 hours before it is used in the lathe.

6.

Before turning on the power, the operator should rotate the stock by hand to check that it is free.

He/she should stand to one side when the power is fi rst turned on.

.

245

7.

Rough stock is to be turned at the slowest speed on the lathe.

8.

One should increase and decrease the speed gradually because centrifugal force may break the wood or cause the material to come off the spindle.

9.

The tool rest should be adjusted as close to the material as possible when starting and should be frequently readjusted as the turning orogresses.

10.

The lathe should be started at its lowest speed.

11.

The turning tool should be held firmly with both hands while cutting.

12.

The lathe must be stopped before using the calipers to determine the diameter of the stock.

The tool rest should not be adjusted until the lathe has stopped.

13.

All large-diameter stock is turned at the slowest lathe speed.

14.

The tool rest and tool rest post should be removed when sanding, finishing, or polishing.

Abrasive paper should not be wrapped around the hands or fingers for sanding.

15.

The work should be supported with a steady rest when cutting small diameters that are a minimum of 12-inches long.

16.

Faceplate work must be securely screwed to the faceplate before it is turned.

Great care must be taken when turning to avoid cutting too deeply and striking screws.

17.

Faceplate work must be cut to a circular shape on the band saw before turning.

18.

The machine and the area around the machine must be cleaned

UP when work on the lathe is completed.

246

CD

WOOD

LATHE

1.

HEAD STOCK

2,

INDEXING PIN

3.

SAFETY SHIELD

4,

TooL REST

5.

TAll STOCK SPINDLE CLAMP

6.

T~Il

STOCK

7.

TAIL STOCK HANDLE

8.

LATHE BED

9,

SvllTCH

10.

MOTOR

®------

III

247

WOOD LATHE SAFETY QUIZ

NftME.....

CLAss,

DATE

GRADE~

_

_

_

True- Fa 1se:

T F 1.

The speed of the machine is determined by the size, shape, and kind of material being used.

T F 2.

The space between the tool rest and the work should be

1/4-

to 1/2-inch.

T F 3.

Since the lathe is equipped with a safety shield, it is not necessary to wear safety glasses.

T F 4.

Lathe tools should not be used unless they are very sharp.

T F 5.

When sanding, it is permissible to feel the smoothness while the lathe is running.

T F 6.

The tool rest and tool post should be removed when sanding.

T F 7.

Cutting tools must be held tightly and firmly against the tool rest.

T F 8.

Since the safety shield covers the spinning workpiece, loose clothing and long hair are not any problem.

T F 9.

When starting to turn a large block, i t is necessary to start at the slowest speed possible.

T FlO.

It is unsafe to turn work that is lopsided or out of balance.

T F 11.

Prior to starting the lathe, one should turn the work one complete revolution by hand.

T F 12.

Material that has been glued and clamped can be used after one hour of drying.

249

6.

7.,

8.

9,

10.

1.

2.

3.

4.

Multiple Choice;

13.

All adjustments on the lathe should be made;

A.

after the initial cuts are made

B.

with the teacher present

C.

while the machine is at a dead stop

D.

while the machine is slowly turning

For a beginning operation, one should start the lathe at:

14.

A.

a speed of 5,000 rpm

B.

a medium speed

C.

the highest speed

D.

the slowest speed

15.

The turning tool should be held:

A.

firmly against the tool rest

B.

with one hand

C.

only at the start

D.

tucked under the arm

16.

Give the correct names of the lathe parts indicated in drawing;

_

_

I

_

_

5.

_

_

_

1'10)~ -----

_

_

_

250

DRILL PRESS

DRILL

PRESS

1. MOTOR

2. PILOT WHEEL FEED

3· COLUMN

4. TABLE

5. BASE

6. BELT GUARD

7. SWITCH

8. DEPTH STOP g. QUILL

1.

All belts and pulleys shall be guarded. (OSHA)

2.

The teacher's permission must be obtained before using the drill press.

3.

The operator should make sure the table is secure and the depth adjustment set before turning on the power.

4.

The drive belt must be on the correct pulleys for the desired speed

(1200 -3000 rpm for drilling wood).

5.

One should never attempt to use a regular auger bit on the drill press or in the hand drill.

Auger bits for this machine have the lead screw cut smooth and the square tang cut off.

6.

7.

The chuck key must be removed before turning on the power.

Small pieces should be clamped in a drill vise or to the table.

8.

A shop cap should be worn or the hair tied up when working around whirling machinery.

Rings, wristwatches, and gloves should not be worn.

251

9.

The drills must be ground in balance so that they do not tend to whip the work.

10.

The operator should turn off the power and wait until the machine has come to a full stop before grabbing a piece of stock which has been caught up in the machine.

11.

One should ease up on the feed pressure before breaking through the other side in order to prevent catching and having the work jerked out of the clamps or vise.

12.

The drill should be fed slowly and raised periodically to avoid burning a bit.

13.

The table and floor should be kept clean before and after using the machine.

252

DRILL

PRESS

1

MOTOR

2

PILOT WHEEL FEED

3

COLUMN.

4

TABLE

5

BASE

6

BELT GUARD

7

SWITCH

8

DEPTH STOP

9

QUILL

253

DRILL PRESS SAFETY QUIZ

NAME

CLASS

DATE

GRADE _

True- Fa 1se:

T F 1.

It is necessary to select the proper speed.

T F 2.

The chuck key should be kept 'n the chuck at all times to prevent losing it.

T F 3.

The material to be drilled should be held in the hands.

T F 4.

Long hair must be confined by a cap or tied back.

T F 5.

Safety glasses need not be worn when using the drill press.

T f

6.

The use of a drill vise or clamps is the proper procedure to foll ow in dri 11 ing mated a1s.

T F 7.

The operator should brush off the table with the hands when leaving the machine.

T F 8.

The drill press should be unplugged when changing speed or belt position.

T f

9.

All jewelry should be removed before using the drill press.

T FlO.

Dull drill bits can burn material or grab it. and therefore should not be used.

T F 11.

It is better to use a high

~peed when drilling harder material so one can get done faster.

255

Multiple Choice:

12.

If the work is caught by the drill and starts to revolve, one should:

A.

exert more feed pressure

B.

stop the machine immediately

C.

grab it with both hands

D.

decrease the feed pressure

13.

The safest way to remove chips or cuttings from the drill press is:

A.

brush them away with the hands

B.

use an air hose

C.

blow them away

D.

use a brush

______14.

Touching or grabbing the rotating chuck with the hands is:

A.

never permissible and very dangerous

B.

done to slow down or stop the chuck

C.

safe if a rag is used to protect the hands

D.

permissible if the teacher is watching

______15.

Using the correct speed usually gets the following results:

A.

it keeps the bit from overheating

B.

it provides the proper cutting action

C.

it makes for safer working conditions

D.

it does all of the above

256

16.

Give the correct names for the parts of the drill press indicated in the following drawing:

3

4

5

1

2

6

7

8

9

257

I

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I

FINISHING MACHINES

BELT AND DISC SANDER

..,......-®

~"\

't----{'1O

.+----'eD

\---,@

2

DISC SANDER

..

1.

GUARD

2.

ABRASIVE DiSC

3,

TABLE

4.

Sw ITe"

5.

MOTOR

E.

STANO

7.

TABLE LOCK KNOB

8.

ABRASIVE BELT

9.

TRACKING KNOB

10.

TENS ION KNOB

11.

RoTATION

1.

GuARD

2.

A8RAs

I'IE DISC

3.

TABLE

4.

SwITCH

5.

P'I:rral

6.

!lAsE

7.

TABLE UlCK IOOl

1.

Belt sanding machines are required to be equipped with guards at each nip point where the sanding belt runs on to a pulley.

(OSHA)

2.

Each disc sanding machine shall have enclosed the revolving disc, except for that portion of the disc above the table.

(OSHA)

3.

7he machine must never be used without the authorized permission of the teacher.

4.

EYe protection must be worn.

5.

The clearance between the sanding disc and table or rest should not exceed 1/16 inch.

6.

One should sand small workpieces on the downside side of the spinning disc.

7.

One must not attempt to hold small pieces in the hands.

If a large number of small Pieces must be sanded, a holding jig or device should be built.

8.

All adjustments Should be made while the machine is at dead standstill.

9.

The sander should be stopped by shutting off the power.

A scrap piece of material can be used to bring the wheel to a stop.

10.

The sander should not be operated if the disc is loose.

This condition should be reported to the teacher.

11.

The material should be moved back and forth to avoid heating and burning of the disc.

12.

The operator should always check the tightness of the belt.

13.

The stock must be firmly against the stop to prevent the belt from throwing it.

14.

A push block should be used when sanding thin pieces of material.

Both hands are to be kept on the push block.

(

FINISH1NG MACHINES (BELT/DISC SANDERS) SAFETY QUIZ

NAMe _

CLAss, _

DATE....

---..l6RADE

_

True-False:

T

F

1-

There is very little danger when using these machines.

T

F

2.

The clearance between the sanding disc and the table should not exceed 1/16 inch.

T F

3.

One must sand small workpieces on the upside of the spinning disc.

T F

4.

Small pieces should be held in Some type of holding device and not in the hands.

T F

5.

After shutting off the power, the operator should use a , scrap block and stop the wheel from spinning.

T F

6.

The belt on the belt sander should be loose so it will not grab wood out of the operator's hands.

T F

7.

When sanding thin stock, a push block must be used.

T F

8.

Federal safety rules require that nip points on belt sanders be guarded.

T

F

9.

If the sanding disc becomes loose, one needs

to

press the stock against it harder.

T

F

10.

Adjustments can be made to a closer tolerance while the machines are running.

T F

11.

The stock should be moved constantly to keep from burning both the disc and the stock.

T

F

12.

When using a belt sander, a stoP should be used to keep the belt from throwing the stock.

265

Multiple Choice:

~

13.

On the disc sander, the operator should sand against the disc

A.

center

B.

upward-motion side

C.

rim

D.

downward-motion side

______ 14.

For best results, the stock should be fed into the sander

A.

with a gentle pressure

B.

at a fast speed

C.

with firm pressure

D.

at a slow speed

______ 15.

When abrasives become full of pitch, they will cause

A.

the disc to tear

B.

the material to burn

C.

the disc to come off

D.

material to be jerked from the hand

)

266

)

16.

Identify the parts of the machines in the drawings:

267

6.

7.

1.,

2.

3.

4.,

5.

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

Materials were selected and reviewed from the following sources, and in some instances were incorporated in the production of the preceding unit.

1.

OSHA - U.S. Department of Labor

2.

NIOSH· U.S. Department of Health, Ed.cation, and

Wel~are

3.

Ohio State Department of Education··lndustrial Arts and Vocational

Education Safety Guide

4.

Pennsylvania Industrial Arts Association and State Department of

Education, State Safety Guide

5.

Powennatic Tool Company

6.

Pittsburg State University· L. Duane Griffin

7.

Rockwell Delta· Rockwell International

B.

Shawnee Mission Public Schools - Bill Studyvin g.

Utah State Department of Education, State Safety Guide

10.

Washington State Department-of Education, Industrial Arts Safety

Guide

11.

Wichita Public Schools Woodwork Teachers

1) Clayton Hall· North High School

2) Don JoachiU$ • Curtis Junior High School

3) Pete Moriconi • Retired

1

4) Ken Ratcliff· Metro High School

5) Chester Shippy· West High School

12.

Wyoming State Department of Education

268

Pages 271 and 333-337 were adapted from Washington State Industrial

Arts: Safety Guide, produced by M&M Protection Consultants, Seattle,

Washington, 1980.

Pages 273-281, 285-287, 291-293, 297-299, 303-305, 309, 311, 315-317,

321-323, 327-329, and 339-346 were adapted from Safety Education

Handbook, produced by Kansas State Department of Education, Wichita,

Kansas, 1981.

Pages 283, 289, 295-296, 301-302, and 325 were adapted from Safety

Compliance Manual, produced by Indiana Curriculum Materials Center,

Bloomington, Indiana, 1975.

Page 331 was adapted from Pennsylvania Industrial Arts Safety Guide, produced by Pennsylvania Department of Education and Industrial Arts

Association of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 1981.

"

<,""'"

270

SAFETY RULES FOR PORTABLE ELECTRIC HAND TOOLS

1.

Obtain the instructor's permission before you use portable electric tools.

2.

Be sure that the tool's switch is in the Off position before you plug in the electric cord.

3.

Wear eye protection when you operate any portable electric tool.

4.

The switch on each tool's handle should be the constant pressure type.

That is, when pressure is released, power is shut off.

5.

Be sure that the tool is properly grounded--do not use it in wet areas.

6.

Do not wear loose or baggy clothing that could be caught in revolving parts.

7.

Before starting to use a tool, be sure that you have secure footing and that your work area is free of obstacles.

8.

Inspect its electric cord for breaks or exposed wires before you use a too 1.

9.

Avoid exerting excessive pressure while operating portable electric tools or they may become damaged and cause an accident.

10.

Secure all work properly before applying the tool.

11.

Inspect guards before starting, to see that they function properly.

12.

A tool is not to be used with DC current unless the name plate indicates that it is AC/DC.

271

fIaJr1'£NDATIO'lS

FOR TIf

SPfE

USE

(f

PORTABLE

H/lND

TnS

(Provided by:

Power Tools Institute, Inc.)

KNOW

YOUR POWER TOOL--Read and understand the owner's manual and the labels affixed or included in the shipping container.

Keep manuals and labels in a safe place for future reference.

2.

KEEP WORK AREA CLEAN AND WELL LI GHTED

273

GROUND ALL TOOLS UNLESS THEY

ARE DOUBLE INSULATED--

A tool with a three-prong plug must be plugged into a three-hole electric receptacle known to be grounded.

If an adapter is used to accommodate a two-hole receptacle, attach the adapter with a screw to a known ground.

4,

AVOID A DANGEROUS ENVIRONMENT--

Do not use power tools in damp, wet, or explosive atmospheres

(fumes, dust, or flammable materials).

274

5,

KEEP CHILDREN

A¥~y--All observers should be kept

at

a safe distance from work areas.

~~~

6,

BE AWARE OF POWER LI NES

AND ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS-particularly the hidden ones.

7,

BE

ALERT--Using power tools in tight work areas may put you dangerously close to cutting tools.

8,

KEEP

GUARDS

IN PLA.CE--

And in proper working order.

275

10. Do

NOT FORCE TOOLS--

Tools do a better and safer job when used in the manner for which they are designed.

11.

STORE IDLE

TOQLs--When tools are not in use, store them in a dry, locked container. Inspect tools for good working order prior to storage and before re- use.

o

12.

WEAR PROPER APPAREL-

Loose clothing, dangling jewelry, and long hair may get caught in moving parts.

13.

WHEN A TOOL IS USED OUTDOORS--

You must use an extension cord marked

"For Outdoor Use." Extension cords not in use should be stored in a dry and well-ventilated area.

276

14.

USE THE CORRECT TOOL--

Plan the work to be done and use the correct tool for the job.

15.

USE SAFETY GLASSES with side shields when working with power tools.

Use face or dust mask in dusty work areas.

This applies to all persons in the work area.

Also, safety gloves and shoes should be worn when necessary.

...

'"

.

...

~':"

...

'''.

..

:"

16.

DISCONNECT TooLS--When they are not in use (before servicing or adjusting, before changing accessories, or when storing), disconnect the power supply cord.

17.

SWITCHES--Never use a tool with a malfunctioning switch.

Have it repaired or replaced before using it.

277

19,

!Xl

f'.XJT ABUSE CORDS--Never carry a tool by its power cord or yank cord or extension cords from the receptacle.

DANGER--Kee~ power and extension cords away from excessive heat and sharp edges.

18.

!Xl

f'.XJT OVERREACH-- Kee p proper footing and balance at all times.

20,

AVOID

ACCIDENTAL STARTING--

Do

not carry plugged in tools with your finger on the is off when plugging the tool into an electrical power supply.

21.

REJ.'OVE ADJUSTING KEYS

AND WRENCHES.

Always check tools before use to see that keys and wrenches are removed before connecting the tool to its power supply.

22,

MtlINTAIN YOUR TOOLS--Follow the manufacturer's reco~nded maintenance procedures.

Keep cutting edges clean and sharp for safe operation of the tool.

Have necessary repairs made by proper service people.

278

q

ELECTRIC DRILL

1-

Geared Key Chuck

2.

Housing

3.

Insulated Tri gger Switch

4.

Pistol Grip Handle

5.

Motor Cooling Fan

6.

7.

Reduct i on Gea r

Cord Strain Reliever

1. Operate the drill only with the teacher's permission and after instruction has been received.

2. Remove jewelry, eliminate loose clothing, and confine long hair before you use the drill.

3. Always use the proper

eye

protection.

4. Unplug the drill when you change bits.

5. Make sure the switch is off and the key removed before you connect the drill to a power source.

6. Mark the hole location with a center punch (metal) or awl (wood) before you dri 11.

7. Be sure the work is tightly clamped or secured before you drill.

8. Drill with straight, even, steady pressure.

9. Use sharp, straight bits of the size intended for the machine.

10. Never try to use a square-tang auger bit in a portable drill motor.

11. Lay the coasting drill down, with the bit pointing away from you.

12.

00 not drill through cloth.

13. Always use the screwdriver attachment in such a way that it cannot injure the operator if it slips off the work.

14. Select the drilling speed that is suitable for the work being done.

279

15.

To prevent "seizing," relieve the pressure on the drill just before it breaks through a piece of metal.

16.

Never lock the switch in the On position when you are holding the portable drill in your hands.

The switch lock should be used only when the portable drill is fastened in a stand.

17.

Have a firm grip on a portable electric drill when you drill holes in metal.

280

ELECTRIC DRILL

I

1

GEARED KEY CHUCK

2

HOUSING

3

INSULATED TRIGGER

SWITCH

4

PISTOL GRIP HANDLE

5

MOTOR COOLING FAN

6

REDUCT! ON GEARS

7

CORD STRAIN RELIEVER

281

ELECTRIC DRILL SAFETY QUIZ

NAME

CLASS

DA TE _

GRADE

_

_

True or False:

1.

Eye protection is not necessary when you use a drill.

2.

Any accident or trouble should be reported to the teacher.

3.

When using a drill, it is not necessary to know how to operate all switches and controls.

4.

You should obtain the teacher's permission before operating the drill.

5.

Before you insert or change a drill bit, the plug should be connected to the electric outlet.

6.

The proper drill bit should always be selected.

7.

Before using the drill, the cord should be checked for breaks or wear.

8.

Before starting the drill, the key should be removed from the chuck.

g.

The drill should be stopped by gripping the chuck.

10.

The drill should be forced when necessary.

11.

When you lay the drill down, you should make sure the bit is pointing away from you, even when it is coasting to a stop.

12.

It is not necessary to worry about how sharp the drill bits are.

13.

Small pieces to be cut should be held in your hand.

14.

Before you start using the drill, you should clean the air coo 1i ng vents.

IS.

It is not necessary to make certain the portable drill is properly grounded through the electric cord.

283

16.

Identify the parts of an electric drill.

l.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

284

BAYONET SAW

1. Handle

2. Brushes

3. Base

4. Blade Screw

5. Blade

6. Lubricant Port

7. Guide Knob

8. Housing

9. On-Off Switch

1. Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instruction has been received.

2. Remove jewelry, eliminate loose clothing, and confine long hair before using the saw.

3. Make sure all the guards are in place and operating correctly.

4. Always use the proper eye protection.

5. Make sure the blade is the correct type for the material to be sawed, and that it is tightly clamped into· the chuck.

6. Be sure the switch is off before connecting the saw to the power source.

7. Use a vise or clamps to securely hold the materials to be cut.

8. Keep the cutting pressure constant.

Do not force the blade into the work.

9. Always hold the base firmly against the metal being cut.

10. Do not put the saw down on the bench until it has stopped.

11. Be sure to lay the tool on its side if the blade is in the tool.

12. Always disconnect the cord when repairing or adjusting the saw and when changing blades.

13. Avoid cutting curves so sharply that the blade will twist and break.

285

1

HANDLE

5

4

3

2

BRUSHES

BASE

BLADE SCREW

BLADE

287

BAYONET SAW

9

8

6

LUBR I CANT PORT

1

. GUIDE kNOB

HOUSING

ON-OFF

S~l[TCH

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I

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I

,--~

BAYONET SAW SAFETY QUIZ

NAME

CLASS

DATE

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ GRADE _

True or False:

1.

One should always select the correct blade for the work and properly secure it in the chuck.

2.

Material may be cut with a jigsaw without being clamped down.

3.

Cutting pressure does not need to be constant.

4.

Curves should not be cut so sharply that the blade will twi st.

5.

The base of the portable jigsaw or saber saw does not need to be on the work when cutting.

6.

Eye protection is not necessary with this small portable power tool.

7.

One should always obtain permission from the teacher before using the bayonet saw.

8.

Broken bayonet saw blades may be mounted upside down in order to get more use from the broken blade.

9.

Identify the parts of a bayonet saw.

3

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

8.

9.

6.

7.

289

"

CIRCULAR

SAW

1. Housing

2. Brush Holder

3. Depth Scale

4. Depth Lock Knob

5. Tilting Base

6. Tilt Lock Knob

7. Angle Scale

8. Retractable Guard

9. Saw Blade

10. Insulated Trigger Switch

11. Contoured Handle

1. Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instruction has been received.

2. Remove jewelry, eliminate loose clothing, and confine long hair before using the saw.

3. Make sure all the guards are in place and operating correctly.

4. Always use the proper eye protection.

5. Make sure that the retractable guard returns automatically to cover the blade after each cut.

6. Check the base setting for the proper depth of each cut.

7. Make sure that the power cord is clear of the blade.

8. Be sure the material to be cut is adequately supported.

9. Do not start the cut until the saw has reached its full speed.

10. Advance the saw slowly and in a straight line.

Do not twist or turn the tool.

11. Stop cutting immediately if the blade binds or the machine or material begins to smoke.

14. Do not stretch for items beyond your reach.

Keep the proper footing and balance at all times.

15. Support the material to be cut in such a way that the kerf will not close and bend the blade either during a cut or at the end of a cut.

16. Unplug the machine whenever you change blades or make adjustments.

291

CIRCULAR SAW

1

HOUSING

2

BRUSH HOLDER

3

DEPTH SCALE

4

DEPTH LOCK KNOB

5

TILTING BASE

6

TILT LOCK KNOB

7

ANGLE SCALE

8

RETRACTABLE GUARD

9

SAW BLADE

10

INSULATED TRIGGER SWITCH

11

CONTOURED HANDLE

293

CIRCULAR SAW SAFETY QUIZ

~,IAME

CLASS

DATE

GRADE

True or False:

1.

Eye protection is required when working with the portable circular saw.

2.

All trouble and accidents should be reported.

3.

It is not necessary to know how to operate the portable circular saw before using it.

4.

You must always cut off the grounding plug from the power cord, and use a two-hole outlet.

5.

You can use the portable circular saw anytime you want to.

6.

It does not matter how deep the blade is set when cutting.

7.

The saw should be turned on only after making contact with the material being sawed.

8.

If a saw stalls in heavy material, you should always turn off the switch.

9.

A circular blade is for making circular cuts.

10.

Forcing the saw always helps when cutting heavy or thick materi a1s.

Fill in the blank:

11.

Keep the away from the blade.

12.

Make sure the teeth of the blade are to the front of the saw base.

15 .

Chec k the ~~---------_ be sure they are tight.

and

, and pointed

13.

should be supported.

14 .

Sm a11 pie ces sh

0 u1d be

~_____________________ ina or to a bench top or sawhorse.

_ ad justmen t s to

295

Short Answer:

16.

Why is it dangerous to adjust a portable circular saw while the blade is in motion?

17.

Why should you always use a guide for ripping?

18.

Identify the parts of a circular saw.

II

10.

11.

7.

8.

g.

5.

6.

3.

4.

1.

2.

296

ROUTER

,.......---I.'!J

1. Brushes

2. Hous i ng

3. Micrometer Depth Adjustment

4. Gui de Knob

5. Locking Handle

6. Sub-Base

7. D-Handl e

8. Insulated Trigger Switch

9. Motor Safety Disconnect

1. Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instruction has been received.

2. Remove all jewelry, eliminate loose clothing, and confine long hair before us i n9 thi s tool.

3. Make sure all the guards are in place and operating correctly.

4. Always use the proper eye protection.

5. Be sure the switch is off before inserting the plug into the power source.

6. Be sure the collet chuck is tight, and the bit is secure.

7.

Make sure the work piece is clamped or rigidly held, and the area the router must travel is free of obstructions.

8. Hold the router with both hands.

The cutting pressure should be constant.

Do not force or jam the router into the work.

9. Make a trial cut on a piece of similar scrap material.

10. Disconnect the router from the power source when changing bits, making adjustments, or when it is not in use.

11. Feed the machine so that the leading edge of the knife is "biting in" as the router is pushed along.

12. Lay the machine down with the cutter pointing away.

Beware of the coasting machine.

297

ROUTER

1

BRUSHES

2

HOUSING

3

MICROMETER DEPTH

ADJUSTMENT

4

GUIDE KNOB

5

Loc

KING HANDLE

6

SUB-BASE

7

D-HANDLE

8

INSULATED TRIGGER

SWITCH

9

~OTOR

SAFETY DISCONNECT

299

ROUTER SAFETY QUIZ

NAME

CLASS

OA TE _

GRADE _

True or False:

1.

Eye protection is necessary when operating the portable router.

2.

Accidents need not be reported to the teacher.

3.

It is not necessary to locate and learn to operate all switches and controls before using the router.

4.

It is necessary to ask permission from the teacher before using the portable router.

5.

When using the portable router, only one hand is needed.

6.

It is not necessary to hold onto the router when it is turned on.

7.

You should always make sure the switch is in the off position before connecting the router to a power source.

8.

The air vents need not be kept clean.

Fi 11 in the blank: pointing away 9.

Always lay the router down with the from you.

10.

The cutter should be inserted at least

11.

Make adjustments only when the cutter is at a

_ inch into the chuck.

_

12.

Make certain the portable router is properly grounded through the

301

Short Answer:

13.

What safety procedure should be followed when changing cutters or making adjustments on the portable router?

14.

Why is it necessary for the fence or guide to he securely clamped?

15.

Why is it necessary to clamp the piece of work down?

16.

To have a good clean cut, how should the cutters he treated?

17.

Which way should you move the router when cutting?

18.

Identify the parts of a router.

8.

9.

6.

7.

3.

4.

5.

l.

2.

302

,

BELT SANDER

,

, 1. Dust Bag

2. D-Handl e

3.

Trigger Switch

4.

Belt Tracking Adjustment

5.

Belt

6. Belt Striker Bar

7. Housing

8. Front Handle g. Brush Holder

~

1. Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instruction has been received.

2. Remove jewelry, eliminate loose clothing, and confine long hair before using the sander.

3. Always use the proper eye protection.

4. Check to see if the belt is in good condition, is tracking properly, and is the correct grit size for the job.

5. Be sure the switch is off before connecting the sander to the power source.

6. Start the sander above the work.

Let the rear of the belt touch first; then level the sander.

Do not tilt it sideways.

7. Sand in the direction of the wood grain, moving the sander back and forth over a large area.

Do not pause in one spot.

8. Keep the electrical cord and the dust bag away from the working area.

9. Lift the sander off the work and wait until it has stopped before placing it on the bench.

10. Make sure the opening of the dust bag is clean.

In some types of sanding dust, there is a danger of spontaneous combustion if the dust is left in the bag.

11. Firmly fasten down the work to be sanded.

The sander exerts a tremendous pulling force.

303

BELT SANDER

1

DUST BAG

2

D-HANDLE

3

TRIGGER SWITCH

4

BELT TRACKING

ADJUSTMENT

5

BELT

6

BELT STRIKER BAR

7

HOUSING

8

FRONT HANDLE

9

BRUSH HOLDER

305

~

I

I

I

_ /

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

3.

4.

5.

1.

2.

BELT SANDER SAFETY QUIZ

NAME

CLASS

DATE GRADE

_

_

True or False:

1.

Because of the money and time you'll save, you should always wait until the dust bag is full before emptying it.

2.

You should not wear goggles when using the sander; they may fog up and cause y~u to make an error in your work.

3.

It is always good to use a bigger grit size than is recommended.

4.

It is sometimes best to hold the sander by the power cord and allow it to walk itself across the work piece.

5.

You should always sand against the grain.

6.

You should let the front of the belt touch the wood first; then level the sander.

7.

To make sure the belt is tracking properly, you should allow the sander to run for a few seconds without making contact with the work.

8.

Identify the parts of the belt sander.

"

8.

9.

6.

7.

307

DISC SANDER (GRINDER)

l.

2.

Auxil iary Handle

Motor

3.

Back-up Pad

4.

Brush Cap

5. Switch Locking Button

6.

Tri gger Switch

1. Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instruction has been received.

2. Remove jewelry, eliminate loose clothing, and confine long hair before using the sander.

3. Make sure all the guards are in place and operating correctly.

4. Always use the proper eye protection.

5. Be sure the switch is in the "off" pos iti on before connecti ng the sander to the power source.

6. Make sure the back-Up pad and disc are securely fastened to the tool.

Unplug the sander when changing discs.

7. Stand clear of the spark line or>spark area.

8. Sand or finish with a stroking motion.

Do not pause in one spot.

9. Do not allow the edge of the disc to touch the edge of the stock.

10. Place the sander on its back or on a rubber stand when it's not in use.

Disconnect it from the power source.

11. Some discs may be defective and fly apart at high RPMs.

Hold the sander under a bench or provide other protection when starting up a new disc.

12. Sand only on the downstroke side of the disc.

13. Do not hold small pieces of work in your hand.

14. Wear a dust mask when sanding masonry.

309

15.

Make certain the portable grinder is properly grounded through the electric cord.

16.

Keep the cord away from the grinding disc.

17.

Make certain the grinding disc is of suitable RPM rating for the grinder being used.

18.

Check grinding disc before using for cracks or breaks.

19.

The face of the disc must be free from grooves.

20.

Use face of disc only unless it is designed for grinding on the edge.

21.

If in doubt about the operation, safety, or job you are doing, always check with the teacher.

22.

Keep the portable grinder away from your body.

23.

Use the portable grinder as nearly as possible in the horizontal position.

310

DISC SANDER (GRINDER)

1

AUXILIARY HANDLE

2

MOTOR

3

BACK-UP PAD

4

BRUSH CAP

5

SWITCH LOCKING BUTTON

6

TRIGGER SWITCH

311

DISC SANDER DR GRINDER SAFETY QUIZ

NAME

[LASS

DATE

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ GRADE

_

_

_

True or False:

1.

Eye protection must always be used when operating this machine.

2.

The student must get the teacher's permission before using the disc sander or grinder.

3.

Grinding wheels with chips or cracks may still be used as long as the chips or cracks are small.

4.

The RPM rating on the grinding wheel is the slowest speed at which that wheel should be used.

5.

Grinding wheels that are loose on their mountings should not be used.

6.

One should always make certain the grinder or sander is properly grounded through the power cord.

7.

This machine is capable of catching loose clothing or hanging jewelry.

8.

It

is permissable to use a vise or other clamping devices to hold small Objects for grinding.

9.

The operator should use a stroking motion for grinding or sanding with this machine.

10.

Identify the parts of the disk sander.

1-

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

313

~,

FINISHING

SANDER

1. Handle

2. Insulated Trigger Switch

3. Paper Clamp

4. Pad

5. Paper Clamp

6. Housing

7. Front Hand Knob

1. Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instruction has been recei ved.

'

2. Remove jewelry, eliminate loose clothing, and confine long hair before using the sander.

3. Always use the proper eye protection.

4. Be sure the swit,ch is in the "off" position before connecting the sander to the power source.

5. Make sure the abrasive sheet is in good condition and properly installed on the tool.

6.

Start the tool above the work, set it down evenly, and move slowly over a wide pattern area.

7.

When you are finished sanding, do not put the sander on the workbench until it has stopped running.

8.

Never lift or carry the sander by its power cord.

9. Do not overload the sander by pushing down. Allowthe weight of the sander to supply the pressure.

10. Always keep the hands clear of the moving abrasive when operating the sander.

315

FINISHING

SANDER

1

HANDLE

2

INSULATED TRIGGER

SWITCH

3

PAPER CLAMP

4

PAD

5

PAPER CLAMP

6

HOUSING

7

FRONT HAND KNOB

317

.FINISHING SANDER SAFETY QUIZ

NAME

CLASS

DATE

GRADE

True or False:

1.

You must wear a hard hat when using a sander.

2.

Because most families have portable sanders in their homes, it is not necessary for the teacher to give instruction in the use of portable sanders.

3.

Before laying down the sander, you should wait until it has completely stopped.

4.

You must wear eye protection when using a sander.

5.

To make sure the machine is functioning properly, you should always plug in the machine while the switch is on.

6.

Because the sandpaper is dangerous to the touch-especially after sanding--you should always carry the sander by its power cord.

7.

Pressing down on the sander can shorten work times and should be done whenever possible.

8.

On simple sanding operations, it is permissable to place your hands next to the sanding action to guide the sander in a straight line.

9.

Identify the parts of the finishing sander.

l.

4.

5.

2.

3.

6.

7.

319

PLANER

1. D-Hand1 e

2. Housing

3. Brush Holder

4. Depth Adjustment

5. Front Shoe

6. Chip Deflector

7. Guard

8. Rear Shoe g. Cord Deflector s 10. Cord Strain ReI iever

11 Insulated Trigger Switch

12. Fence

1. Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instruction has been received.

2. Remove jewelry, eliminate loose clothing, and confine long hair before using the planer.

3. Make sure all the guards are in place and operating correctly.

4. Always use the proper eye protection.

5. Before connecting the planer to the power source, make sure the switch is in the "off" pos iti on.

6. Make all adjustments with the planer disconnected from the power source.

7. Place the front shoe on the work piece and start the motor.

Then moye the plane oyer the work, keeping a constant speed and pressure.

8. Keep the fence and rear shoe tightly against the work piece until the cutter has cleared the work.

g. Keep your hands on the handle and motor housing and away from the cutter head.

10. Be sure there is clearance for the motor.

11.

Do

not lay the planer down until the cutter stops rotating.

321

1

D-HANDLE

2

HOUSING

3

BRUSH HOLDER

4

DEPTH ADJUSTMENT

5

FRONT SHOE

PLANER

323

5

CHIP DEFLECTOR

7

GUARD

8

REAR SHOE

9

CORD DEFLECTOR

10

CORD STRAIN RELIEVER

11

INSULATED TRIGGER SWITCH

12

FENCE

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

PLANER SAFETY QUIZ

NAME

CLASS

DATE GRADE

_

_

True or False:

1.

It is not necessary to secure permission from the teacher before using the portable power plane.

2.

You must use only one hand when using the portable power plane.

3.

After releasing the switch, it is necessary to hold the portable power plane until the motor stops.

4.

Always disconnect the electric cord before making adjustments or changing cutters.

Fill in the blank:

5.

_ _----, power plane.

6.

Report any immediately.

or is necessary when using a to the teacher

7.

and

-cu~~~o-=~~-to operate all switches and controls before using the power plane.

8.

Make certain the portable power plane is properly through the electric cord.

Explain:

9.

Why is it necessary to have the work securely clamped and held in the best position to perform the operation?

325

3 .

-----------------------

4.

~------~-.-------------

s .

_---~--.----

----fi •

q.

10 .

----~~----------

----------------------~----~~-

326

5

17.

_----------~----------

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

8

-

AIR IMPACT WRENCH

1.

Hous ing

2. Reversing Valve

3. Bui It-in Oil er

4. 'Compressed Air Inlet

5. Output Torque Control

6. Trigger Switch

7. Exhaust Air Outlet

8. Rubber Nose Guard g. Square Drive .

1. Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instruction has been received.

2. Remove jewelry, eliminate loose clothing, and confine long hair before using this tool.

3. Always use the proper eye protection.

4. Make sure all the hoses and fittings are tightened securely before opening the outlet air valve.

5. Be sure that the recommended air line pressure is used (approximately gO to 100 P.S.I.).

6. Use only an impact socket.

7. For tightening or loosening fasteners, use the tool in short bursts to avoid the possibility of stripping a bolt.

8. To check the rotation, use the tool in short bursts.

g. When work is completed:

(a) shut off the air supply to the tool hose,

(b) vent the compressed air in the hose by squeezing the trigger, and

(c) disconnect the air tool from the air hose.

10. Store the air tool in a dry location.

327

AIR IMPACT WRENCH

-

,

I

1

HOUSING

2

REVERSING VALVE

3

BUILT-IN OiLER

4

COMPRESSED AIR INLET

5

OUTPUT TORQUE CONTROL

6

TR IGGER SW ITCH

7

EXHAUST AIR OUTLET

8

RUBBER NOSE GUARD

9

SQUARE DRIVE

329

AIR IMPACT WRENCH SAFETY QUIl

NAME

CLASS

DATE GRADE

- - - - - - -

True or False:

1.

It is safe to operate the impact wrench with one hand if the bolt or nut is not too tight.

2.

Since there are no chips, eye protection is not necessary.

3.

The sockets used must be designed for impact wrenches.

Regular sockets are not adequate.

4.

The tool should be disconnected from the air line at the end of the hose whip, not at the tool.

5.

The impact wrench must be disconnected when not in actual use.

6.

Short bursts of power should always be used when operating the too 1.

7.

Identify the parts of an air impact wrench.

1.

2.

7.

8.

9.

3.

4.

5.

O.

331

---~.

SOLDER GUN

5 l.

Handle

2.

Tri gger or Switch

3.

Indicator Light

4.

Ti p Holder

5.

Soldering Tip

1.

Always wear approved eye protection.

2.

Work in a well-ventilated area and do not inhale soldering fumes.

3.

Observe all rules for handling hot materials.

4.

00 not flip excess molten solder off the tip of a solder gun.

Wipe it off with a piece of steel wool.

5.

00 not stand in wet areas while using the solder gun.

6.

Never leave the solder gun unattended with the electrical cord plugged in.

7.

Always disconnect the cord when changing soldering tips.

8.

Soldering flux can cause burns.

Clean up flux immediately.

9.

In case of acid burns, flush immediately with water.

333

5

SOLDER GUN

«

,

/"1(/1

filM" ,

1.

HANDLE

2.

TRIGGER OR SWITCH

3.

INDICATOR LIGHT

4.

TIP

HOLDER

5.

SOLDERING

TIP

335

SOLDER GUN SAFETY QUIZ

NAME

CLASS

DA TE GRADE

_

_

_

True or False:

1.

You should wear safety goggles only if you think solder might flip in your eyes.

2.

A large, airy room would be a better place to solder than a small closed space.

3.

You should use pliers or a clamp to hold small objects while soldering.

4.

The most important thing to remember when changing soldering tips is to stand in a wet area.

5.

Excess flux should be cleaned up after the work has cooled and after you have taken a break.

6.

Identify the parts of a solder gun.

f"l7iIli/

Jl l)Ji

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

337

SOLDERING AND BRAZING OPERATION

The health hazard potential of any soldering or brazing operation depends on, among other things, the types of filler metals, fluxes, coatings, cleaning agents, gases, and base metals used.

It is important, therefore, that a person should know what materials s(he) is working with, what hazards they present, and what symptoms might be felt if s(he) comes in contact with them.

It is also important that if one begins to experience any of these symptoms, s(he) report to the school nurse or seek prompt medical advice.

The following discussion talks about some of the materials and exposure symptoms that might be encountered.

CLEANlt\G AGENTS

ACIDS--For the most part, acids used for cleaning should be diluted with water.

(IF ONE MUST DO ONE'S OWN DILUTING, THE FOLLmvING "RULE

OF THUMB" APPLIES: ALlvAYS PUT THE ACID INTO THE WATER; NEVER PUT THE

WATER INTO THE ACID.

ALSO, A FULL FACE SHIELD AND PROTECTIVE GLOVES

SHOULD BE WORN.) However, even diluted acids can cause skin burns and can generate irritating fumes.

Therefore, work with any acids should be carried out in well-ventilated areas and face shield and protective gloves should be worn.

Some specific acids that might be encountered incl ude:

1.

HYDROCHLORIC OR MURIATIC ACID--A corrosive acid, yellowish in color.

Inhalation of hydrochloric acid fumes will cause choking.

2.

SULFURIC ACID--This acid is intensely irritating to the respiratory system and the skin.

When used to remove rust, scale, and oxide from metals, it can form hydrogen, a flammable gas.

3.

PHOSPHORIC ACIDS--Although not as hazardous as sulfuric acid, exposure to phosphoric acid can result in an inflammation of the mucous membranes and also skin irritation.

4.

NITRIC ACIDS--This acid can cause severe skin burns and severe irritation of the respiratory tract.

339

ALKALIs--Alkali mixtures used in cleaning operations usually contain sodium or potassium hydroxide.

When sodium or potassium hydroxide is put into water to make a solution, it can cause the water to boil.

This causes bUbbling and splashing, so that concentrated solutions or bits of tbe solid alkalis can get on the skin or in the eyes of the person mixing the solution.

Inhalation of the fumes can irritate the tissues and membranes of the respiratory tract.

Skin contact witb these alkalis will cause irritation.

ORGANIC SOLVENTs--Organic solvents are used to remove oil and grease from the workpiece.

Most organic solvents are flammable and thus are potential fire and explosion hazards.

Exposure to the vapors of organic solvents can result in irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs; dizziness; headaches; and sensations of drunkenness.

Organic solvents containing chlorine may break down due to the heat and generate phosgene gas which, at low concentration (less than one part per million), has a sweet odor.

At about one ppm it smells like musty or new-mown hay.

Phosgene is a severe pulmonary irritant and, in high concentrations, can cause death.

Prolonged or continued skin contact with most organic solvents will remove essential skin oils which will lead to dry, cracking skin and possibly irritation and/or infection.

ULTRASONIC CLEANING--Passing an ultrasonic soundwave through a solution creates a vibratory force which breaks off particles and contaminants from small metal parts that were placed in the solution for cleaning.

If one uses ultrasound cleaning methods, s(he) should follow the manufacturer's instructions and check with the teacher or supervisor for any special protective clothing required.

SOlDERING FLUXES

Many flUXing agents are used in soldering and brazing operations.

The fluxing agent is determined by the metals to be joined.

In most cases, these fluxes give off acid or alkali fumes when heated.

Because they contain acids and/or alkalis, they can irritate the skin.

Again, conducting soldering and braZing operations in well-ventilated areas

(see the section on ventilation) and the use of protective clothing and gloves are recommended.

CoRROSIVE FLUXEs--These fluxes leave a chemically active residue after soldering.

1.

ZINC CHLORIDE--This is the main ingredient in corrosive fluxes used in the soldering of stainless steel, galvanized iron, cast iron, and aluminum.

Zinc chloride fumes can irritate the eyes, nose, and lung tissue, and skin contact with this fluxing agent can cause chemical burns.

340

2.

AMMoNIUM

CHLORIDE--The inhalation of these fumes will be irritating to respiratory passages.

3.

STANNOUS CHLORIDE--It is not considered a serious health hazard.

The fumes are irritating to respiratory passages.

4.

ACIDs--They are frequently used as ingredients with fluxes.

(See

the discussion under "Cleaning Agents.")

INTERMEDIATE FLUXEs--Lastic, benzoic, and glutamic acids frequently are used in the mild intermediate fluxes.

These organic acids can produce a mild irritation of the skin upon contact.

The fumes can be mildly irritating to respiratory passages.

NoNCORROSIVE FLUXES--Rosin dissolved in an organic solvent is the most common type of noncorrosive flux.

Typical solvents are alcohol, turpentine, or petroleum spirits--all of which are flammable.

Exposure to these solvents can result in an irritation of the respiratory passages and can cause some central nervous system effects

(see

"Organic Solvents").

Rosin dissolved in trichloroethylene --which is nonflammable-is also used.

If trichloroethylene is the solvent, special attention must be given to providing adequate ventilation when soldering with this type of flux, due to its potential for generating phosgene.

Fumes generated from the decomposition of these fluxes are irritating to respiratory passages.

BRAZING FLUXES AND ATMoSPHERES

Depending on the type of brazing and base metals used, either a flux or a controlled atmosphere may be used to promote the formation of a brazed joint.

The most hazardous braZing fluxes are the fluoborates, fluorides, potassium, and sodium hydroxide.

FLUOBORATEs--When heated, the fluoborate can release fluorine fumes which are a severe lung irritant.

Overexposure to these fumes is usually minimized, however, due to operator reaction to the sharp odor.

FLUORIDEs--These compounds are used in braZing with silver, magnesium, and aluminum-silicon filler metals." The fluoride fumes generated are severe lung irritants.

Skin contact with fluoride compounds will cause irritation.

SODIUM AND POTASSIUM HYOROXIDE--This is a fluxing ingredient used on molybdenum alloy steels.

(See

preview discussion on alkalis)

CoNTROLLED BRAZING ATMOSPHERES r commonly employed in furnace brazing, are used to prevent the formation of oxides during brazing.

Typical brazing atmospheres used are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, dissociated ammonia, and nitrogen.

To prevent a safety hazard, the work

341

should be done in a physical enclosure or by using local exhaust ventilation.

When this is done properly, they present little or no problem of toxicity.

However, some mixtures of gases may be explosive.

Therefore, before heating the furnace, the atmosphere must be flooded with the gas to remove all air.

BAsE AND

Ell

I FR rtrALs

A variety of different metals and alloys will be encountered during the soldering and brazing process.

The four metals considered the most hazardous are lead, cadmium, beryllium, and zinc.

lEAD--Lead is used in the soldering process in the form of 1eadtin and lead-silver filler metals.

When heated, lead oxide fumes are formed.

Excessive exposure to lead oxide fumes can result in lead poisoning.

The symptoms include loss of appetite, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, constipation, headache, abdominal cramps, nervousness, and insomnia.

CADMIUM--Cadmium is found in some silver and zinc solders and in some base metals.

When heated, cadmium oxide fumes can be generated.

Excessive exposure to these fumes can result in cadmium poisoning.

The symptoms include dry cough, irritation of the throat and nasal passages, tightness of the chest, and restlessness.

Cadmium has been suspected of causing cancer of the prostate.

BERYLLIUM--Beryl1ium is used in magnesium filler metals for furnace brazing, and in some aluminum brazing filler metals.

While soldering, temperatures are normally too low to generate fumes from beryllium, but the heat involved in brazing can generate beryllium fumes, which are extremely hazardous.

Short term exposure to these fumes may result in a chemical pneumonia.

Long term effects include shortness of breath and chronic cough, loss of weight, and fatigue.

NIOSH has considered beryllium to be a potential human lung carcinogen.

ZINc--Zinc is used in large amounts in zinc-cadmium and zincaluminum solders, and in some base metals.

When heated, zinc oxide fumes are generated.

Excessive exposure to freshly formed zinc oxide fumes can give one an illness called metal fume fever or "zinc chills."

Symptoms include the presence of a sweetish or metallic taste in the mouth, dryness and irritation of the throat, coughing, a feeling of weakness, fatique, and a general malaise condition similar to that of influenza.

Usually the illness disappears in a day or so with no permanent aftereffects.

The presence of zinc oxide dust, which is the end product several minutes after zinc oxide fume formation, presents little or no health problems.

~"

342

OTHER METALS--Other trace metals present in base and filler metals which give off toxic fumes include antimony, arsenic, chromium, bismuth, cobalt, nickel. selenium, thorium. vanadium, or compounds of these metals.

NIOSH has stated that arsenic is a suspected lung and lymphatic carcinogen; chromium (hexavalent) is a suspected lung carcinogen.

The amount of fumes generated from these trace metals is usually small, and hazardous concentrations are not normally found.

But soldering and brazing with filler or base metals containing these trace elements should be conducted in well-ventilated areas to be absolutely sure that hazardous concentrations do not exist.

343

SOLDERING IRONS

The traditional soldering tool is the soldering iron with a copper bit.

This bit is usually heated electrically or with a gas flame.

.:.:.:.:.:::.:

..

,::.:.:.:.:~

FLAME HEATED IRON

One of the most common hazards associated with using soldering irons is burns.

One should make sure that the soldering iron is equipped with a properly insulated holder before using it.

When not in use, the soldering iron should be placed in a fireproof holder (or back in the stove) and never ailowed to lie on the floor, chairs, or tables where it can come in contact with combustible materials or accidentally be touched by anyone.

A hot soldering iron should never be left unattended.

If it is electric, make sure it is disconnected.

EI AME-HEATED l.Bo1Is.

1.

Check the hose connections, particularly the stove connection, for gas leaks.

Also, check the connections at the cylinder valve if a "bottled" fuel gas is used. (Soap and water may be used.)

2.

Remember that gas-fired irons are not thermostatically controlled.

so care must be taken to prevent overheating of the metals, which could result in the generation of excess fumes.

EI

ECTRICALLY

~EATED lRoNs

Before using an electrically heated iron, one should make the following safety checks:

344

1.

Check the thermostatic control (if the soldering iron has one) to make sure that it is working properly, and that it is adjusted to the proper temperature.

2.

Check the lead cord for proper insulation and make sure that it is free from grease and oil.

Also, make sure that the cord is not lying in walkways where it could present a tripping hazard.

3.

Check all electric tools and extension cords.

They should be fitted wi th a three-prong plug for proper groundi ng.

4.

Store all electric soldering irons in a dry place.

Check the iron before using it to be sure it's dry .

.

-

.--

345

REFERENCES

Materials were selected and reviewed from the following sources, and in some instances were incorporated in the production of the preceding unit.

1. Sioux Tools. Inc.

2. Rockwell International Corporation

3. Pennsylvania Industrial Arts Safety Guide

Pennsylvania Department of Education

4. Frank Paxton Lumber Co.

5. Occupational Safety Manual,

Wyoming State Department of Education

6. NIOSA

7. OSHA

8. Power Tools Institute. Inc.

346

Pages 349-464 were adapted from Safety Education Handbook, produced by Kansas State Department of Education, Wichita, Kansas, 1981.

348

PLATEN

PRESS

r--!--I1

1.

H~K FOUNTAIN

2.

INK ROLLERS

3.

INK DISK

4.

PLATErI GUARD

5.

DELIVERY BOARD

6.

POWER Sl.JITCH

7.

SPEED CONTROL

8.

lMPRESSION LEVER

9.

CHASE BED

10.

PLATEN

11.

~10TOR

12.

FLY WHEEL

13.

BRAKE

1.

Operate the platen press only with the teacher's permission and after instructions have been received.

2.

Make no adjustments while the machine is running.

3.

Oil the press only when the power is turned off and the machine is at a dead stop.

4.

Apply ink to the disk only when the press is at a dead stoP.

349

5.

Remove your hands at once when the press begins to close--even if the paper is not in straight.

Use the throw-off lever to stop the machine before making any adjustments.

6.

Never reach into or below the press while it is running.

7.

Use the foot brake and turn off the machine if an emergency occurs.

8.

Do not talk to the machine operator.

This might distract his or her attention from the work and may contribute to an accident.

g.

Do not operate the machine while the teacher is out of the room.

10.

Never allow sleeves or ties to hang loosely while operating the press.

Aprons should also be securely fastened, and extreme care must be taken so that they do not come in contact with moving parts.

11.

Be certain the form is locked securely in the bed.

12.

Make sure no one else is inside the operator's zone.

13.

Set the speed of the press according to your ability to feed it.

14.

Keep flammable solvents in fireproof containers, and store oily or dirty rags in proper containers.

15.

Open ink cans carefully.

16.

Do not lift heavy forms alone.

Get help if it is needed.

17.

Store heavy forms so they will not fallon someone's feet.

18.

Avoid paper cuts by handling paper carefully.

19.

Supply all roller-tye printing machines with nip guards.

(OSHA)

350

PLATEN PRESS

(f'a..ER-oPERATED)

iL----+--I7

~

-

,

1

INK FOUNTAIN

2

INK ROLLERS

3

INK DISK

4

PLATEN GUARD

5

DELIVERY BOARD

6

POWER SWITCH

7

SPEED CONTROL

8

IMPRESSION LEVER

9

CHASE BED

10

PLATEN

11

~10TOR

12

FLY WHEEL

13

BRAKE

351

PLATEN

PRESS

(HAND LEVER-oPERATED)

--,

1

INK DISK

5

DELI VERY BOARD

2

Top

CHAS E Cl.Ai'IP

7 HAND

OPERATING LEVER

3

GRIPPER

8

BED

11

PLATEN

9

INK ROLLER

5

FEED BOARD

353

~

'-

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

PI ATEN PRESS SAFETY

Ow

z

N.AJ.1E

CLAss

DATE

GRAIE:

_

_

_

True-False:

T F 1.

It is important to avoid talking to others when feeding the press.

T F 2.

It is safe to reach into or below the press if it is running slowly.

T F 3.

One should never wear loose or dangling clothing when working near a press.

T F 4.

Oily rags used for cleaning the press should be thrown in the wastebasket.

Multiple Choice:

5.

The press should be oiled only when: (a) the power is off and the machine is at a dead stop, (b) the machine is running slowly, (c) it is noisy, (d) the ink rollers pass across the del ivery board.

6.

It is best to ink the disk when the press is: (a) operating slowly, (b) operating fast, (c) at a dead stop, (d) coasting.

7.

The speed of the press should be decided by: (a) the amount of work to be done, (b) the amount of time needed to do the work, (c) the rate of the previous operator, (d) the present operator's ability to feed the press.

8.

Talking to someone operating the press is all right: (a) only when pertaining to shop problems, (b) when the teacher is in the shop, (c) if the operator is the shop foreman, (d) never.

9.

Use the platen press: (a) anytime the teacher is in the shop, (b) only after receiving the teacher's permission, (c) anytime you need to, (d) after watching others and learning how to operate it.

355

10.

If it is necessary to leave the press for only a moment:

(a) it is safe to leave the machine running, (b) ask another pupil to operate it temporarily, (c) turn off the power and wait for the press to come to a complete stop,

(d) leave it as soon as the switch has been flipped to the

"off" position.

11.

If the type forms are quite heavy: (a) get someone to help,

(b) show your independence by lifting it alone, (c) take a chance that it won't be dropped, (d) do none of these.

12.

Before adjusting misfed stock: (a) use the throw-off lever and wait for the platen to stop, (b) slow the machine down, then reach in quickly and adjust it, (c) reach in quickly when the platen opens, (d) do none of these.

13.

Handle paper by the edges whenever possible: (a) to keep it clean, (b) to avoid paper cuts, (c) because it's easier,

(d) none of these.

14.

Write the correct name of each machine and its parts in the space provi ded.

1.

_

A.

_

2.

_

3, _

4.

5,

6,

_

_

_

9.

10.

11.

12.

7.

8.

13,

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

356

1

B.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

1.

2.

3.

4.

357

OFFSET COMPOSITION

PHOTOTYPESETTER/COMPOSER

--

1.

KEYBOARO

2.

PHOTOTYPESETTING

UNIT

3.

TYPE COMPOSING

SCREH!

4.

MACHINE ELECTRONICS

(INSIDE)

1.

Operate the composer only after the proper instruction and after receiving the teacher's permission.

2.

Advise the teacher of any machine malfunction; do not attempt repairs.

3.

Do not remove the protective cover of a composing machine and reach inside.

These machines may have high voltage circuits inside them.

4.

Use extreme care when handling type fonts as dropping them will cause breakage or scratching.

5.

When mixing chemicals for the machine processor, avoid letting them come into contact with your skin.

Wear safety glasses to prevent chemicals splashing in your eyes.

6.

Always wash your hands after processing photo paper.

7.

Avoid inhaling chemical dust or fumes when working with processing chemicals.

8.

Unplug the machine before reaching into it to clear up any paper jams.

359

PHOTOTYPESETTER

3

1 KEYBOARD

2

PHorOSETIING UNIT

3

TYPE COMPOSING SCREEN

4

MAOHINE EWECTRONICS

(INSIDE)

361

LIGHT TABLE

1.

LIGHT HOUSING

2.

GLASS TOP

3.

STORAGE SHELF

4.

LIGHT SWITCH

1.

Keep all foreign material off the glass.

2.

Keep fingers out of the cutting area when cutting a flat.

3.

Store the cutting tools, X-acto knives, and razor blades properly and keep them sharp.

4.

Do not lean, sit, or drop anything on a glass-top light table.

Use extreme care when cleaning it.

..

1.

WAX TRAY COVER

2.

WAX ROLLER UNDER

GUARD

POWER SW ITCH

3.

4.

THERMOSTAT

5.

WAX ROLLER SWITCH

1.

To avoid burns, be careful not to touch the hot parts of a waxer.

Do not move the waxer as this may spill the hot wax.

2.

Always add wax to the waxer before turning it on.

363

Ll GHI II\BL't.

o

365 l

UGHI HOUSiNG

2

GLASS lOP

3

S10RAGE SHELf

4

UGHI SWl1CH

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

OFFSET CoMPOSITION SAFETY

llAt-E

Oulr

CLAss

DATE _

_

_

True-False:

T F l.

Chemicals for the machine processor are not dangerous, so no special precaution needs to be taken when using them.

T F 2.

The composer should be unplugged before reaching into it to clear up paper jams.

T f

3.

It is safe to lean or sit on light tables and stripping tables because they have unbreakable glass tops.

T F 4.

It is safer to use a dull cutting tool than a sharp one.

T F 5.

Hands should be washed after processing photo paper.

T F

6.

A waxer has no moving parts, so ties and other dangling clothing can be worn safely.

Multiple Choice:

7.

If the composer malfunctions, do not attempt repairs unless:

(a) the teacher gives permission, (b) you know what you are doing, (c) another pupil helps you, (d) a project deadline must be met.

8.

Cutting tools. X-acto knives. and razor blades should never be: (a) dull. (b) carried in the pocket. (c) left on the light table after use. (d) all of these.

9.

When mixing chemicals for the composer processor: (a) avoid skin contact. (b) wear safety glasses. (c) avoid inhaling fumes. (d) do all of these.

10.

Add wax to the waxer: (a) before turning it on. (b) after the machine warms uP. (c) anytime it is needed. (d) none of these.

11.

To avoid burns: (a) be very careful when using the waxer.

(b) do not move the waxer unless the wax is cool. (c) both of these. (d) neither a nor b--melted wax is not hot enough to burn a person.

367

\

I

I i i

-,

12.

Write the correct name of each machine and its parts in the space provided.

0 c,

1,

2.

3.

4.

B,

1.

2.

3.

4.

2.

3.

4,

5.

A.

l.

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

368

OFFSET PRESS

1.

Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instructions have been received.

2.

Stop the preSs before adjustin~, cleaning (except when cleaner attachment is being used), oiling, and clearing of jams.

3.

Do not reach over the press during operation.

Avoid retrieving misfed sheets while the press is in operation.

4.

Watch for malfunctions on the press.

If

a malfunction is observed, the press should be shut down and the teacher informed before continuing work.

00 not attempt any repairs.

5.

Operate the press only at the speed designated by the teacher.

6.

Use caution when cleaning a moving press.

Keep the hands away from grippers and moving rollers.

7.

Do not use any tools on the press without the teacher's permission.

8.

Be sure clothing is safe for press work.

Remove or fasten any loose clothing, neckties, or jewelry.

Roll loose sleeves to the elbows.

9.

Fasten hair securely or wear a protective hair cover if the hairstyle presents a potential hazard.

10.

Keep the floor around the press clear and clean at all times.

Wipe up or pick up any spilled oil, ink, water, or paper.

11.

Avoid any unnecessary conversation when operating the press.

12.

Beware of rollers and gears.

Keep the covers and guards in place at all times.

13.

Do not leave the press while it is in operation.

14.

Keep solvents in fireproof containers and return dirty rags to the proper container after use.

15.

Supply all roller-type printing machines with nip guards. (OSHA)

369

OFFSET

PRESS

,

1.

OPERATION CONTROL LEVER

2.

MASTER CYLINDER

3.

BLANKET CYLINDER

4.

VERTICAL COpy ADJUSTING

LOCK

5.

COpy COUNTER

6.

PAPER FEED LEVER

7.

TABLE RELEASE

8.

FOUNTAIN SOLUTION TROUGH

9.

AQUAMATIC NIGHT LATCH HANDLE

10.

AQUAMATIC CONTROL

11.

AQUAMATIC LOCK-OUT LATCH

12.

INK FOUNTAIN CONTROL

13.

INK FOUNTAIN ROLLER KNOB

14.

FORM ROLLER CONTROL LEVERS

15.

HAND WHEEL

16.

MOTOR DRIVE AND VACUUM

PUMP SWITCHES

17.

RECEIVING TRAY

18.

SPEED CONTROL

19.

BUCKLE CONTROL

20.

AIR CONTROL

21.

VACUUM CONTROL

22.

PAPER ELEVATOR CRANK

23.

PAPER GUIDE CRANK

1.

REPELEX CONTROLS

2.

REPELEX FOUNTAIN ROLLER KNOB

3.

REPEL EX FORM ROLLER CONTROL

KNOB

4.

SINGLE LEVER CONTROL

5.

HANDWHEEL

6.

VACUUM AND BLOWER CONTROLS

7.

INK FORM ROLLER CONTROL

KNOBS

8.

INK FOUNTAIN ROLLER KNOB

9.

SPEED CONTROL

10.

MACHINE SWITCH

11.

VACUUM FEEDER SWITCH

12.

IMPRESSION ADJUSTMENT

370

OFFSET PRESS

1

OPERATION CONTROL

LEVER

2 r~STER CYLI NDER

3

BLANKET CYLI NDER

4

VERTICAL COpy

AIUUSTING LOCK

5

Copy COLMER

6

PAPER FEED LEVER

7

TABLE RELEASE

8

FOUNTAIN SOLUTION

TROLGH

9

AaUJlW\TIC NIGHT LATCH

HANDLE

10

AauAMATIC CONTROL

11

AQl.iAt"ATI CLOCK-OUT

LATCH

12

INK FOUNTAIN CONTROL

13

INK FOUNTAIN ROLLER KNOB

14

FORM ROLLER CONTROL LEVERS

15

HAND WHEEL

16 f'bToR DRIVE AND VACUI1'1 PI1'1P SWITCHES

17

RECEIVING TRAY

18

SPEED CONTROL

19

BUCKLE CONTROL

20

AIR CONTROL

21

VACWM CONTROL

22

PAPER ELEVATOR CRANK

23

PAPER GUIDE CRANK

@

7

371

OFFSET PRESS

1

REPELEX CONTROLS

2

REPELEX FOUNTAIN ROLLER

KNOB

3

REPELEX FORM ROLLER CONTROL

KNOB

4 SI~LE

LEVER CONTROL

5 ~EEL

6

VACW1 AND BLOfiER CONTROLS

7

INK FORM ROLLER CONTROL KNOBS

8

INK FOUNTAIN ROLLER KNOB

9

SPEED CONTROL

10 f'lAQ-IINE SWITCH

11

VACULM FEEDER SWITCH

12

IMPRESS ION ADJUSlMENT

373

OFFSET PRESS SAFETY

~

N.AME~

CLASS,

DATE.

_

_

_

True- Fa1se:

T F 1.

It is safe to reach carefully across the press when it is operating.

T F 2.

Pupils are not to use any tools on the press without the teacher's permission.

T F 3.

Final adjustments may be made while the press is running slowly.

T F 4.

Loose or dangling clothing should not be worn when one is working around the press.

T F 5.

Talking with others while running the press is allowed if the operator keeps his/her mind on what he/she is doing.

T F 6.

Gears need not be covered while the press is in operation if the operator is careful.

T F 7.

It is all right to leave the press while it is running if you return to it immediately.

Multiple Choice:

8.

Before operating the offset press, one should: (a) get the teacher's permission, (b) place all guards in position,

(c) have received instruction on how to operate it,

(d) have done all of these.

g.

Oily rags should always be placed: (a) in the wastebasket,

(b) in the scrap box, (c) in a metal self-closing can,

(d) where the next person can find them.

_ _10.

Scraps, paper, and other 1i tter: (a) may be 1eft on the floor to be swept up later, (b) should be disposed of in the wastebasket, (c) can be ignored because they do not cause a safety hazard, (d) none of these.

375

______ 11.

Before operating the offset press, one should: (a) tuck in loose clothing, (b) remove rings, watches, and other jewelry, (c) roll up long sleeves, (d) do all of these.

12.

Write the correct name of each machine and its parts in the space provided.

A.

1.

_

2.

_

o

7

6.

7.

8.

3.

4.

5.

9.

10.

11.

12.

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

___

16.

17.

18.

13.

14.

15.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

Bo _ _

-==

::========

::=======

11.

12,

~~======~

::========

377

PROOF PRESSES

ot--5]

1.

INK DISK

2.

BED

3.

TRACK

4.

IMPRESSION CYLHIDER

1.

2.

3.

FEED BOARD

HANDLE

PAPER CYLINDERS

4.

INK ROLLERS

5.

BED

6.

TRACK

1.

Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instructions have been received.

2.

Only one student is allowed to operate the proof press at anyone time.

3.

Keep your hands off the track.

4.

Leave the handle in an upright position when it's not in use.

5.

r.l~an type after proofing.

6.

After the type is cleaned, return the cleaning rags to the fireproof metal rag container and leave the area clean.

7.

Treat type cleaner with care.

It is flammable, poisonous, and nard on the skin.

8.

Before using the proof press, secure loose clothing and long hair to prevent its being pulled into the preSs.

9.

Do not use tweezers with an attached bodkin.

Bodkins are sharD and can cause injury.

10.

Pick up type or other objects that fallon the floor.

Even small items can cause one to slip and fall.

379

0

1

I

381

PROOF PRESSES

SJ

1

INK DISK

2

BED

3

T!?ACK

'I

INPRESSlON

CYLINDER

@

1

FEED

BOARD

2

HANDLE

3

PAPER

CYLINDER

4

INK

ROLLERS

5

BED

6

TRACK

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

PROOF PRESSES SAFITf QUIZ fW-lE

ClASS

&TE

G~E

_

_

__

True-False:

T F 1.

Type cleaner is both flammable and poisonous.

T F 2.

If any type falls on the floor while you are using the proof press, leave it there until the work is finished, then pick it up.

T F 3.

Loose clothing doesn't need to be tucked in before using the proof press because the press will not catch clothing.

Multiple Choice:

4.

When not in use, the handle of the proof press should be left: (a) upright, (b) down, (c) down and locked, (d) any way at a11 .

5.

After cleaning type, dirty rags should be: (a) rolled in a tight bundle, (b) thrown in a wastebasket, (c) placed in a covered metal container, (d) left on the press for the next person to use.

6.

During the operation of the proof press, the following perSons may be involved: (a) one person only, (b) the operator plus a helper chosen by the operator, (c) the operator, helper, and one other pupil observer, (d) any number of people, as long as they don't distract the ooerator.

7.

When using the proof press, the pupil should protect his/her hands by: (a) handling the brayer correctly, (b) moving the roller quickly, (c) asking another pupil to operate the roller, (d) keeping them clear of the ends of the press and the track.

383

8.

Write the correct name of the machines and each part in the spaces provided.

A.

l.

2.

3.

4.

B.

5.

6.

l.

2.

3.

4.

384

PLATEt1AKER

1.

AXLE BEARING

2.

AXLE

3.

GLASS FRAME LATCH

4.

VACUUM FRAME ASSEI1BLY

5.

VACUUM FRAME LATCH

6.

CONTROL PANEL

7.

ARC CONTROL

1.

Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instructions have been received.

2.

Do not look into the light which is used for exposing the plates.

Ultraviolet light can be harmful to the eyes.

3.

Persons wearing contact lenses must be especially careful not to look at the light as this may cause the lens to weld itself to the eye.

4.

Do not turn on the light unless the vacuum frame 1s locked down.

5.

Do not touch the photo carbons or light bulbs.

They can become very hot.

6.

Disconnect the platemaker before changing the carbons or making adjustments.

Be careful of hot carbons.

7.

Be careful not to break the glass of the vacuum frame.

To avoid this, be sure the vacuum is drained before lifting the glass lid.

8.

Be sure the exhaust fan is working and the plate area is properly vented.

9.

Handle thin metal plates with care.

They are sharp.

10.

Avoid inhaling fumes from the chemicals used to develop plates.

Use all the chemicals in a well-ventilated place.

385

PLATEMAKER

• •

1

AXLE BEARING

2

AXLE

3

GLASS FRAME LATCH

4

VACUUM

FRAME ASSEMBLY

5

VACUUM FRAME LATCH

6

CONTROL PANEL

7

ARC CONTROL

387

PLATEMAKER SAFETY

N.AME

CLAss,

Qulz.

GRADE

_

_

_

True-False:

T F 1.

The platemaker should be disconnected before changing the carbons or making adjustments.

T F 2.

Never look into the light used for exposing the plate because it may be harmful to the eyes.

T F 3.

The light may be turned on before locking down the vacuum frame.

T F 4.

Metal plates are thin and sharp and should be handled with care.

Multiple Choice:

5.

Do not touch photo carbons because:

(b) they may be hot, (c) one may get

(d) they may be dirty.

(a) they may break, fingerprints on them,

6.

7.

Be especially careful not to look at if wearing: (a) contact lenses, (b) glasses, (d) safety goggles.

the platemaker light sunglasses, (c) eye-

To avoid breaking the glass of the vacuum frame, don't raise the lid before you: (a) drain the vacuum, (b) turn off the light, (c) disconnect the platemaker, (d) do all of these.

389

8.

Write the correct name of each part of the machine in the space provided.

1.

2.

3.

4,

A.

_

_

_

_

5.

6.

7.

_

_

_

390

PAPER CUTTER

1.

MEASURING TAPE

2.

BED

3.

LEVER

4.

CLAMP WHEEL

5.

SAFETY

6.

CUTTER BLADE

7.

BACK FENCE

8.

BACK FENCE WHEEL

1.

Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instructions have been received.

2.

Make sure no one else is inside the operator's zone.

The oaper cutter is a one-person machine.

3.

Never work on the paper cutter unless safety devices are present and in working order.

4.

Before setting the back gauge, be certain the handle (lever) controlling the blade is in its proper position and the safety lock is engaged.

5.

Never raise the clamp higher than the knife blade.

6.

Limit the amount of stock to be cut at anyone time.

Do not overload.

7.

Keep hands clear of the blade at all times.

Under no circumstances should the blade ever be touched.

8.

Keep both hands on the handle (lever or levers) control1ino the blade during the cut and then return it to its proper position.

9.

Be Sure the handle (lever) contro11ino the blade is returned to its proper position before reaching for the cut stock.

10.

Check to see that the safety lock engaoes after using the cutter.

11.

Changing of the cutter knife should be done by the teacher.

12.

Allow no foreign objects to come into knife or to lie on the cutter table.

only for cutting paper.

contact with the paper cutter

Paper cutters must be used

391

PAPER CUnER

®J--++---~

1

1"EASlR

I NG TAPE

2

BED

3 lEvER

4

CLAMp

IIt-iEEL

5

SAFETY

6

ClITTER BLADE

7

BAcK

FENCE

8

BAcK

FENCE \'4-IEEL

393

/

PAPER CUTTER

SAFETY QUIZ

N.AME

CLAss

OOE

G~E

_

_

_

True- Fa 1se:

T F 1.

Use the paper cutter to cut plastic items, thin pieces of wood, etc., as well as paper.

T F 2.

Keep both hands on the handle when using the cutter.

T F 3.

Cut beyond the capacity of the paper cutter because most machines have an overload designed into them.

T F 4.

Ask a friend to help operate the paper cutter because it is a two-person job.

T F 5.

Under no circumstances should the paper cutter blade ever be touched by the pupil.

T F 6.

Clean, oil, and adjust the paper cutter while the machine is operating.

Multiple Choice:

7.

Before adjusting the paper cutter, be sure that the handle controlling the blade: (a) is locked in its proper position,

(b) is in a downward position, (c) has the clamp down, (d) has the knife down.

B.

Reach for the cut stock when:

(a) the blade is on the upward stroke, (b) the blade is on the downward stroke, (c) the handle controlling the blade has returned to its proper position, (d) the clamp is down.

g.

When operating the paper cutter, be sure to keep: (a) both hands on the handle, (b) only one hand on the handle, (c) one hand on the stock, (d) one hand on the back gauge adjuster.

10.

Use the paper cutter: (a) anytime the teacher is in the room, (b) only after the teacher's permission has been received, (c) anytime it's needed, (d) after watching others operate it.

395

11.

Write the correct name of each part in the space provided.

o

3.

4.

1.

2,

_

_

_

_

5.

6.

7.

8.

_

_

_

_

396

1

2

3

S

16

15

14

FOLDER

I

I

910 13 11

8

I

12

18

17

1.

fEED TRAY

2.

FEED TRAY SCALE

3.

GUIDE BARS

4.

AUTOfEED SHAFT

S.

AUTOFEED WHEEL

6.

STEADY WHEELS

7.

UPPER DEfLECTOR

8.

UPPER TRAY

9.

ADJUSTABLE STOP

10.

ADJUSTABLE STOP SCREW

11.

MICRO ADJUSTER

12.

STACKER WHEaS

13.

STOP ALIGNMENT SCREW

14

SPEED CONTROL

15.

HAND WHEEL

16.

"MOTOR

SWITCH (Nat Shown)

Inside of Frame

17.

RECEIVING TRAY

18.

CONVEYOR

1.

Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instructions have been received.

2.

Secure or eliminate loose clothing, long hair. and jewelry.

3.

Keep the hands away from the moving rollers in the folder.

4.

00 not attempt to remove a misfed or jammed sheet while the machine is running.

5.

Turn off the power when making changes in the folder settings for different-sized sheets of paper.

6.

Keep all tools off the tables of the folder.

7.

Be sure the electrical cord is out of the way.

8.

Report any folder malfunctions to the teacher.

397

I

I

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I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

FOLDER

1

2

FEED TRAY

FEED TRAY SCALE

3 GUIDE BARS

5

6

4 AUTOFEED SHAFT

AUTOFEED WHEEL

STEADY WHEELS

7

UPPER DEFLECTOR

8 UPPER TRAY

9

ADJUSTABLE STOP

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

ADJUSTABLE STOP SCREW

MICRO ADJUSTER

STACKER WHEELS

STOP ALIGNMENT SCREW

SPEED CONTROL

HAND WHEel

MOTOR SWITCH (Not Shown)

Inside of Frome

RECEIVING TRAY

CONVEYOR

399

fOLDER

SAFETY

Q!.!lZ.

CLASS,

DATE

_

_

_

True-False:

T F

1.

Jammed or misfed sheets may be removed while the machine is running. if it is running slowly.

T F

2.

Power should be turned off when making changes in the folder settings for different-sized sheets of paper.

T F

3.

loose clothing and long hair should be secured before operating the folder.

T F 4.

A pupil who doesn't know how to operate a folder should ask another pupil to show him/her how to do it.

T F

5.

Tools being used should be laid on the tables of the folder.

T F 6.

Fingers must be kept away from moving rollers.

7.

Write the correct name of each part of the machine in the space provided.

(see next page)

401

1

2

3

5

-~~~4~j!fif;

15 _ _+-'_1

14

5.

6.

7.

3.

4.

l.

2.

8.

9.

A.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

402

PAPER DRILL

r-'l.--{S

~++----iq

1.

PAPER GUIDE

2.

3.

4.

SPRING TENSION

LAMP

SI-IITCH

5.

MOTOR

6.

HOLLrn1 DRILL

7.

PAPER HOLDER

8.

TABLE

9.

STORAGE

10.

FOOT PEDAL

1.

Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instructions have been received.

2.

Be sure the paper guide is securely fastened before turning on the machine.

3.

Hold the paper securely against the paper guide.

4.

Be sure the fingers are clear before stepping on the foot pedal.

5.

Let the foot pedal return slowly.

6.

Be aware that the drill bit may be hot.

7.

Keep the area around your feet clear at all times.

403

PAPER DRILL

--++-----{

q

1

PAPER GUIDE

2

SPRING TENSION

3

LAMP

4

SWITCH

5

MOTOR

6

HOLLOW DRILL

7

PAPER HOLDER

8

TABLE

9

STORAGE

10

FOOT PEDAL

405

PAeER !BILL

NM1=

SAFElY

QuIZ.

UAsS,

DATE'---.:GRADE

_

_

_

True-False:

T F

1-

Be sure the paper guide is unfastened before turning on the machine.

T F 2.

Hold the paper loosely against the paper guide.

T F

3.

Allow the foot pedal to return slowly.

T

F

4.

Use of the drill bit may cause it to become hot.

5.

Write the correct name of each part of the machine in the space provided.

(see next page)

407

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

A.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

408

--J+---

,q

STAPLER

1. SPOOL OF WIRE

2. WIRE LENGTH ADJUSTMENT

3. STITCHING HEAO

4. TABLE FOR SADDLE STITCHING

5. THICKNESS CONTROL WHEEL

6. THICKNESS GAUGE

7. TRIP PEDAL

1.

Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instructions have been received.

2.

Adjust the machine only when the power is turned off.

3.

In case a staple jams in the clinchers, turn the machine off before removing the staple.

4.

Make sure that no one else is inside the operator's zone.

5.

Keep your hands away from the movable parts of the stapler, especially the head and clincher, in order to prevent driving a staple into your fingers or hands.

6.

Place your foot firmly on the lever control.

7.

When loading or unloading staples or wire, be very careful that the wire does not spring back or whip into your face or eyes.

8.

Turn off the power after using the stapler.

9.

Install a guard on all rotary staple cutters to prevent your hands from reaching into the cutting zone.

(OSHA)

409

2

1 SPOoL

OF WIR£

~IIRE

LENGTH

ADJUSTMENT

3

STITCHING HEAD

4

TABL£

FOR SADDLE

STITCHING

5

THICKNESS CONTROL WHEEL

6

THICKNESS GAUSE

7

TRIP PEDAL

411

STAPLER

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

STAPLER SAEm

NM-IE,

CLAss,

DATE

Quz.

_

_

_

True-False:

T F 1.

If a staple jams in the clinchers, it is best to reach in quickly and remove it.

T F

2.

The wire may spring back or whip into your face or eyes when you are loading staples.

T F

3.

Saving time is important, so after using the stapler, leave it turned on for the next person.

Multiple Choice:

4.

During operation of the stapler, the following persons may be involved: (a) the operator only, (b) the operator plus a helper requested by the operator, (c) the operator, a helper, and no more than one observer, (d) any number of people, as long as they don't distract the operator,

______ 5.

Use the stapler: (a) anytime the teacher is in the room,

(b) only after receiving the teacher's permission,

(c) only after the teacher has given instructions,

(d) both band c.

______ 6.

Adjust the stapling machine: (a) when it is in motion,

(b) after each staple, (c) when the power is off, (d)

(d) when the power is turned on.

413

Write the correct name of each part in the space provided.

3.

4.

1.

2.

_

_

_

5.

_

6.

7.

_

_

_

414

DARKROOM EQUIPMENT

(fAApHlc AATs!PJ..KJTOGRAPHY)

1.

There will be no horseplay in the darkroom.

2.

The ventilator fan should be turned on whenever someone is using the darkroom.

3.

The darkroom must be kept clean and the floor clear of obstructions.

4.

All spills should be wiped up immediately.

5.

Due to the low light level in the darkroom, extreme care must be taken to avoid running into objects.

Do not start working until your eyes adjust to the light.

6.

The hands must be kept away from the face while working in the darkroom.

7.

Chemical goggles, rubber gloves, and an apron should be worn when preparing chemical solutions.

8.

A person working in the darkroom should make sure of the formula and mixing procedure before handling chemicals.

9.

Contents of bottles and containers must be identified by labels; never trust your smell.

Never taste chemicals!

10.

Chemicals are to be mixed only in well-lighted places.

11.

Acid must always be added to water; never the opposite.

12.

Because of the danger of an explosion, one should never shake a bottle of strong acid or alkali.

13.

Chemicals must not be spilled on clothing as it may cause skin irritation.

14.

Tongs or rubber gloves should be used in handling film and paper during the developing process.

15.

Hands are to be carefully washed with soap and water after developing film or prints.

16.

Chemicals should not be stored in glass bottles or on high shelves where they might fall and cause injury.

17.

Many photographic chemicals are poisonous and/or caustic and should be kept out of the reach of children.

415

18.

Pupils must realize that contact with photographic chemicals may cause skin rashes, irritation, and other health problems, some of which may not be evident for months or years.

19.

Electrical equipment must not be handled with wet hands or while standing on a wet floor.

20.

A person should not touch any electrical device when working around a sink unless the device is properly grounded.

21.

All water temperature control units in darkrooms will be operated only by the teacher, not the pupils.

22.

The instructor should change burned-out safelight bulbs.

Some require special handling to be changed safely.

23.

All loose clothing and long hair must be secured when operating the color drum processor.

---

416

DARKROOM EQUIPMENT

. ' \

,

,

..

,

'.

.

.

,

,

ENLARGER

1.

REFLECTOR

2.

LAMP HOUSIIlG

3.

LAMP

4.

COIlDENSER

5.

BELLOWS

6.

NEGATIVE CARRIER

7.

LENS BOARD

8.

LENS

9.

FILTER

10.

POST

11.

VERTICAL ADJUSTMENT

1.

O~erate it only with the teacher's permission and after instructions have been received.

2.

Do not touch the enlarger with wet hands or when standing on a wet floor.

3.

Be sure all the electrical wiring is in good condition before you operate the enlarger.

4.

Change a burned-out enlarger light bulb in a well-lighted area.

5.

Be careful not to pinch your fingers in the gears when raising or lowering the enlarger head (while focusing).

6.

Be careful when handling the lens and condenser lens.

7.

Know how the timer on the enlarger operates.

Treat it as carefullY as any other electrical tool.

8.

When raising the enlarger head, check to see that there is Droper clearance overhead for the safe1ight.

9.

Before raising or lowering the enlarger head, release the brake/ locking mechanism.

10.

Make certain your head is clear of the enlarger head before raising or lowering it.

417

ENLARGER

~-------<,

1

REFLECTOR

2

3 lAMp

HOUSI NG lAMp

4

CoNDENSER

* " - - - - - - - ( 2 .

,.

I

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Itz:::)I,} .....

--------<4

I

I

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+o('[email protected]

I~~~~of-O(

[email protected]

\ I

\ f

\ I

, . . . . - - - - - { 7

l:::::l=[~~---(g

4+-....c:~ ~O('------(1)

1

1

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I

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I

II

I'

I I \

I

I

I I d

I \

I \

I \

I \

\

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5

BELLOf'IS

6

NEGATIVE CARRIER

7 lENs

BOARD

8 lENs

9

FILTER

10

POST

11

VERTICAL ADJUS1M8'IT

419

CoNTACT PRINTER

1.

FRAME

2.

3.

LIGHT SOURCE

GLASS

1.

Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instructions have been received.

2.

When loading the contact printer, be careful not to drop or break the glass.

PRoCESS

CAMERA

1-

16.

17.

18.

19.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

"

9.

VACUUM FILM HOLDER

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

BELLOWS

BELLOWS SUPPORT

QUARTZ LIGHTS

CCPYBOARD

COPYBOARD COVER LATCH

GROUND GLASS

DUAL RANGE TIMER

VACUUM CONTROL SWITCH

VACUUM PUMP

LEVELING LEGS

PERCENTAGE FOCUSING SCALES

CRANK FOR FRONT CASE

MOVEMENT

FRONT CASE LOCK

CRANK FOR COPYBOARD

MOVEMENT

COPYBOARD LOCK

LAMP ARM

LENS BOARD MOVEMENT CONTROLS

COPYBOARD POSITION LATCH

1.

Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instructions have been received.

2.

To prevent severe burns. do not touch hot process camera lights.

3.

Avoid flashing lights in other pupils' eyes.

Do not look into the lights on the camera.

4.

Exercise caution when working around the glass copyboard to be sure it is not dropped or broken.

421

I

I

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I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

CONTACT PRINTER

1

FRAME

2

LIGHT SOURCE

3

GLASS

423

Ql

1

'J

N;U\YI F1 L!'\ HOLDER

2

CoHTR0L

PJl.NEL

3 DUAL

RAN3E TU"ER

4

PERCENTAGE SCALES

5 GRoUND

GLASS

6

I-IAHDLES

COl"fBO

FOR LENS AND fJlD

~8'IT

7 B€LL(1IlS

8

\..ENS

9

SCR~ DRiVE

10

CoPYBOARD

11

Cop'(BOARD UGHT {l.tGLE

~USTM8'IT

12 lEVE.L1~

LEGS

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

425

HORIZONTAL PROCESS CAMERA

8

1

BELLOWS

2

BELLOWS SUPPORT

3

QuARTZ LI GHTS

4

CoPYBOARD

5

CoPYBOARD COVER LATCH

6

GROUND GLASS

7

I1JAL RANGE TIMER

8

VACULM COnTROL SWITCH

9

VACULM FILM HOLDER

10

VACULM PLMP

11 lEvELING LEGS

12

PERCENTAGE FOCUSING SCALES

13

CRANK FOR FROnT· CASE

14

FRONT CASE LOCK foDVEMENT

15

CRANK FOR COPYBOARD MOVEMENT

16

CoPYBOARD LOCK

17 l.ftw

ARM

18 lENSBOARD I'DVEMENT CClNTROLS

19

CoPYBOARD POSITION LATCH

427

DAAKROO'1

SAFETY

QUI Z

~WE

CLAss

DATE 6RAD-..E

_

_

_

T F 1.

Hands should be carefully washed with soap and water after a person has used chemicals.

T F 2.

Hands are to be kept away from the face when working in the darkroom.

T F 3.

Process camera lights become very hot during use.

T F 4.

Electrical devices in the darkroom should be operated with wet hands.

T F 5.

Many photographic chemicals are poisonous and/or caustic and may cause skin rashes, irritation, or other health prob1 ems.

T F 6.

Water temperature control units in the darkroom may be operated by pupils.

T F 7.

The ventilator fan should always be left turned on as long as anyone is working in the darkroom.

T F 8.

Pupils may change burned-out safe1ight bulbs.

T F 9.

All loose clothing and long hair must be secured when one is operating the color drum processor.

T FlO.

The light on the process camera is not bright enough to be dangerous to the eyes.

T F 11.

Plastic or rubber gloves will usually provide the needed protection to people who may suffer allergic skin reactions to certain photographic chemicals.

T F 12.

A person who is raising the enlarger head should check to see if there is proper clearance for the safe1ight.

T F 13.

The brake/locking mechanism should not be released before raising or lowering the enlarger head.

429

T F 14.

One snould make sure his/her head is out of the way before raisi~g or lowering the head of the enlarger.

Multiple Choice:

15.

Splashing or spilling chemicals on clothing: (a) may cause skin irritation, (b) may discolor clothing, (c) wastes chemicals, (d) does all of these.

15.

17.

When handling film and raper during developing, use:

(a) tongs, (b) rubber g nves, (c) bare hands, \d) either a or b,

(e)

either b or c.

Any liquids spilled in the darkroom should be: (a) wiped up immediately, (b) reported to the teacher, (c) left for end-ofclass cleanup, (d) left for the custodian to clean up.

18.

19.

Electrical equipment or switches must not be used: (a) with wet hands, (b) while standing on a wet floor, (c) unless wearing rubber gloves, (d) both a and b,

(e)

both band c.

When mixing acids: (a) always pour water into acid, (b) pour acid into water, (c) pour either acid into water or water into acid, (d) refrain from mixing acid and water.

20.

Identify the contents of bottles by: (a) taste, (b) smell,

(c) reading the label, (d) asking another person.

21.

After developing film or prints: (a) wash your hands thoroughly, (b) tell the teacher the work is finished, (c) continue working as usual, (d) leave things out for the next person.

22.

Always replace corks or caps on bottles when finished because this will help: (a) keep the sink area clean, (b) eliminate spillin~,

(c) keep the contents from evaporating, (d) do all of these.

23.

When preparing chemical solutions, the following protection should be worn: (a) goggles, rubc2r gloves, and apron, (b) apron and rubber gloves, (c) goggles and rubber gloves,

(d) aprcn and goggles.

24.

Never shake a bottle of strong acid or alkali because: (a) it may spill, (b) it may explode, (c) it may evaporate, (d) it may be dropped.

25.

Chemicals should never be stored: (a) in glass bottles on high shelves, (b) in plastic bottles on low shelves, (c) in glass bottles on low shelves, (d) none of the above.

430

26.

The contact printer should be used: (a) anytime the teacher is in the room, (b) anytime you need to, (c) only with the teacher's permission, (d) only after you have watched others do it.

27.

28.

When 10adin9 the contact printer, be careful not to drop or break the: (a) glass, (b) negative, (c) printing frame,

(d) none of these.

Write the correct name of each machine and its parts in the space provided.

A.

_

,

,

'

,

,

,.

,

,

I~

1. 1\\

/. J l

II

I II

"

"

I,

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4

(])

(j)

7

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

3.

4.

l.

2.

11.

B.

1.

2.

3.

_

_

_

_

431

II

1.

2,

5.

6.

3,

4.

c,

_

_

_

_

_

_

7.

10.

11.

8.

9.

12,

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

432

D.

- - - -

11.

1 2 - - - - - - -

1 3 - - - - - - -

14.~.

- - - - - - -

1 5 . - - - - - - - -

1 6 . - - - - - - - .

1 7 . - - - - - - -

1 8 . - - - - - - -

1 9 . - - - - - - - -

433

SCREEN PRINTER

1.

SCREEN

2.

SQUEEGEE

3.

FRAME

1.

Use all tools and materials in the screen printing area only with the teacher's permission and after instructions have been received.

2.

When exposing photo stencils, avoid looking directly at the exposure

1i ghts.

3.

Follow standard darkroom safety procedures when preparing materials for photo stencils.

4.

Use stencil cutting tools in approved holders and keep the cutting edges sharp.

5.

Use screen inks and cleaners only in well-ventilated areas.

Many of them give off toxic fumes.

6.

!iear appropriate eye protection when working with screen cleaners and inks.

7.

Return cleaning rags to the approved metal fireproof containers.

8.

If using a motorized screen press, be careful that your hands do not become caught under the screen or in the moving parts of the press.

g.

Clean up oils, paints, or inks that are spilled on the floor.

10.

Keep flammable liquids in approved containers and cabinets.

435

sc.REEti PRUrfER

1

SCREEN

2

SQUEEGEE

3

FRAME

437

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SCREEN PRltITER

SAFETY Qurz

N,t.:.,e....

CLASS,

IlATE~

G,RADE'__ _

_

_

True- Fa1se:

T F

1.

Many screen inks and cleaners give off toxic fumes.

T F 2.

Photo stencil exposure lights are not very bright; therefore, no special precautions need to be taken when working around such lights.

T F

3.

Special darkroom safety procedures need to be followed when preparing materials for photo stencils.

T F 4.

Flammable liquids should be stored in metal fireproof containers.

Multiple Choice:

_ _ 5.

Stencil cutting tools should be: (a) sharp, (b) used only in approved holders, (c) stored properly after use, (d) all of these.

_ _ 6.

_ _7,.

If a pupil doesn't understand a silkscreen operation, he/she should: (a) ask the teacher for help, (b) ask another pupil who knows, (c) go ahead as planned and hope it works,

(d) do none

of

these.

When working with screen inks and cleaners: (a) wear appropriate eye protection, (b) work only in a well-ventilated area, (c) wash hands after use, (d) do all of these.

_ _8.

_ _ 9.

After use, cleaning rags should be: (a) placed in metal fireproof container, (b) thrown in the wastebasket, (c) left for the next pupil to use, (d) rolled up in a neat bundle.

If oils, paints, or inks spill on the floor: (a) be careful not to slip on it until cleanup time, (b) clean it up at once,

(c) inform the teacher, (d) warn others not to step on it.

439

Write the correct name of each part in the space provided.

,

1.

2.

_

_

3., _

440

RUBBER STAMP AND GOLD STAMP PRESS

1.

CHASE

2.

BOTTOM PLATEN

3.

TOP PLATEN

4.

PREHEAT AREA

5.

PLATEN LEVERS

6.

PLATEN SPACERS

7.

SHIM PLATES

8.

COMPENSATING BLOCK

1.

Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instructions have been received.

2.

Use caution when using the heating element as it can cause severe burns.

3.

Keep the work surface clean at all times.

4.

00 not throw or drop type.

5.

Take extreme care when operating a rubber stamp press, as many parts of it get

very

hot during use.

6.

When making the stamp base, be very careful with the saw and drill.

441

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RUBBER STAMP

AND GOLD

STAMP PRESS

,

1

CHASE

2

BOTTOM PLATEN

3

Top PLATEN

4

PREHEAT AREA

5

PLATEN LEVERS

6

PLATEN SPACERS

7

SHIM PLATES

8

COMPENSATING BLOCK

443

RuBBER

NftME.

$TPMP AND GOUl

SImp

PRESS

SAfEJY

Q.u.IZ.

_

CLASS.

_

--...:GRADE.

_

True-False:

T F 1.

It is not necessary to take extra safety measures when using the rubber stamp press because it only becomes warm, not hot, during use.

T F 2.

You should be especially careful with the saw and drill that are used in making the stamp base.

Multiple Choice:

3.

Before operating the rubber stamp press or the gold stamp press, one should: (a) get the teacher's permission,

(b) ask another pupil for instructions on how to operate them, (c) have received teacher instructions on how to operate them (d) both a and c above.

4.

Keep the work area: (a) cluttered, (b) clean, (c) confined to a small corner of the shop, (d) none of these.

Write the correct name of each part in the space provided.

5

1.

_

2.

_

~3.

4.

5,

6.

7.

8.

_

_

_

_

_

_

445

FINISHING EQUIPMENT

HANrdJPERAIED PAPER

ClJIIER

.

.

.\

,

,

--.;.-

-.:.~::::.=_-

.•.

-.

_

....

_._~

..

~_:.~

.•

;

....

1.

2.

SCALE OF INCHES

KNIFE

3

3.

GUARD

4.

PAPER TABLE

1.

Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instructions

2.

Use the paper cutter with great care as tt can cause serious cuts

3.

When operating the paper cutter, keep the fingers behind the safety guard and never remove the guard.

4.

To prevent cut fingers, use the safe1ight when cutting orthochromatic film in the darkroom.

For cutting panchromatic film in total darkescent paint.

5.

6.

When using the paper cutter, cut only one sheet of paper or film at a time.

Do not use the paper cutter to cut anything except paper

7.

When finished, always close the cutting blade and fasten it with the

447

HAND-OPERATED PAPER CUTTER

.

,

.

,

.\

.,

.

- - -

._-:::

.~.:....-~

_.----~

-

1

SCALE OF INCHES

2

KNIFE

3

GUARD

4

PAPER TABLE

449

1.

POWER LIGHT(RED)

2.

ON/OFF SWITCH

3.

PRESSURE ADJUST-

MENT KNOBS

4.

SPONGE PAD

5.

HANDLE

6.

THERMOt1ETER

7.

PILOT LIGHT(AM8ER)

8.

THERMOSTAT

1.

Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instructions have been received.

2.

When using the dry mount press or tacking iron, be careful not to burn yourse If.

3.

Never test the heat of the press or tacking iron by touching them.

4.

Do not let your hands come into contact with the platen of the dry mount press. Also, do not close the press on your hands.

5.

Dry mount with the heat setting prescribed by the teacher.

6.

Do not lay the hot tacking iron down on papers or the counter top.

Return it to its proper holder after each use.

7.

When closing the platen of the dry mount press, be sure that the print and the mount are the only items under the platen.

8.

Turn off and unplug the press or tacking iron when the job is finished.

451

--

DRY MOUNT PRESS

1

POWER LIGHT (RED)

2

()JOFF SWITCH

3

PRESSURE ADJUS11'\ENT KNOBS

4

SPONGE PAD

5 HANDLE

6 T

HEP.!'O'IETER

7

PILOT LIGHT (AMBER)

8

THERfIOSTAT

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453

--:..-~

.--

--~"7--

=--

1.

POWER CORD

2.

FERROTYPE TIN

3.

THERMOSTilT

4.

CANVAS COVER

1.

Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instructions have been received.

2.

Be careful to avoid burns when using the print dryer.

Its surfaces are hot.

3.

Be sure the electrical cord to this machine is not worn and is properly grounded.

4.

Do not use this machine with wet hands or while standing on a wet floor.

455

?RIN1 UR'(ER

1 P(1llER

CORD

2

rERROiYPE TIN

457

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SPRAY

ADHESIVES

AND

FILM CLEANERS

1.

Get instructions on how to use these materials properly and safely before proceeding.

2.

Use spray adhesives and film cleaners in a well-ventilated place.

They are flammable.

3.

Avoid breathing the fumes.

There is evidence that these fumes can seriously damage one's health.

4.

Do not use these materials in areas where others will have to breathe the fumes.

5.

Treat these substances just like you would treat any other flammable material.

1.

Use all cutting tools (scissors, X-acto knives, matte knife, etc.) very carefully.

2.

Keep all cutting tools sharp since dull blades can be dangerous.

3.

Carry and store all cutting tools in a safe manner.

4.

To prevent serious cuts, never try to catch a dropped cutting tool.

459

fINISHING EQUIPMENT

SAFETY

QUIZ

NM1E"-

CLASS,

DATE GRADE

_

_

_

True-False:

T F 1.

The guard should be removed before using the paper cutter.

T F 2.

The paper cutter may also be used to cut cloth, plastic, and thin pieces of wood.

T F 3.

The tacking iron must be returned to its proper holder after use to avoid fire danger or damage to the counter.

T F 4.

The heat setting for the dry mount press is to be decided by the teacher.

T F 5.

Spray adhesives and film cleaners are flammable and special precautions should be taken when using them.

T F 6.. The print dryer becomes only slightly warm durtng use.

T F 7.

The paper cutter can cause serious cuts and pinches.

T F 8.

A person using the paper cutter should cut several pieces at one time to save energy and time.

T F 9.

The print dryer should not be used with wet hands or while standing on a wet floor.

Multiple Choice

_ _10.

For cutting panchromatic film in total darkness, the cutting edge of the paper cutter should be coated with: (a) luminescent paint, (b0 fluorescent paint, (c) latex paint,

(d) a or b above.

11.

When using spray adhesives or film cleaners, be sure to:

(a) avoid breathing the fumes, (b) store them in a metal cabinet, (c) avoid using them around sparks or flames, (d) do a11 of these.

460

_ _12.

- -

13.

_ _14.

When using the tacking iron or dry mount press, extreme care should be taken due to: (a) the weight of the equipment, (b) the style of the equipment, (c) the high temperature of the equipment, (d) none of these.

Before using the paper cutter, the pupil should: (a) put on safety glasses, (b) have the teacher's permission, (c) tie back long hair, (d) tuck in loose clothing.

When the paper cutter is not in use, the blade must be:

(a) closed and locked, (b) open and locked, (c) closed and unlocked, (d) open and unlocked.

_ _15.

_ _16.

_ _17.

_ _18.

_ _19.

_ _20.

When using the dry mount press, keep the hands away from:

(a) the base, (b) the matte, (c) the platen, (d) the mount.

To avoid burns, always draw the tacking iron away from: (a) the print edge, (b) the mount board, (c) the hand, (d) the print center.

In order to hold paper flat when using the paper cutter, use:

(a) the left hand, (b) a ruler, (c) the ri']ht hand, (d) a piece of cardboard.

When using the paper cutter, cut the following number of sheets of paper at one time: (a) one, (b) two, (c) three, (d) five.

When closing the platen of the dry mount press, the only two things under the platen should be: (a) the print and tape,

(b) the print and mount, (c) the mount and protective shield,

(d) the mount and tape.

When finished with the dry mount press or tacking iron, always:

(a) turn it off and unplug, (b) leave it plu9ged in for the next pupil, (c) unplug only, (d) turn off only.

21.

Write the correct name of each item and its parts in the space provided.

(See next page)

461

A

0

20 _

3.

4.

_

Bo

1.

·

,

.~.\

----

-~- _._-~.--"

._._--.=-:-."-~-:-:-

""

----,-

~-

-

_.'~-"o::-""-

_

_

_

_

462

C.

1-

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

5

463

REFERENCES

Materials were selected and reviewed from the following sources, and in some instances were incorporated in the production of the preceding unit.

Accident Prevention for Industrial Arts, Vocational and Technical

Education Programs.

Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and

Technical Education.

California Industrial Arts Safety Instruction Manual.

California State

Department of Education: Sacramento

Ohio Industrial Arts and Vocational Education Safety Manual.

State of

Ohio Department of Education.

Pennsylvania Industrial Arts Safety Guide.

Industrial Arts Association of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Department of Education.

Safety Planning in Graphic Communications Education.

Graphic Arts

Technical Foundation: Pennsylvania, 1979

Utah Industrial Education Safety Recommendations and UOSHA Standards.

Utah State Board of Education.

Washington State Industrial Arts Safety Guide.

Washington State Board of Education.

Wichita State University Photography Safety Instructions.

Wichita

State University: Kansas.

Wyoming Occupational Education Safety Manual.

Wyoming State Department of Education: Wyoming, 1973

A. B. Dick Company

Addressograph-Multigraph Corp.

Michael Business Machines

Nuarc Company, Inc.

Challenge Machinery Co.

Chandler

&

Price Co.

Compugraphic

Hammond Machinery Builders, Inc.

Interlake, Inc.

Photo Materials Company

Robertson Photo-Mechanix, Inc.

Screen Printing

&

Drying Machine Co.

Seal, Inc.

SSP Brown Camera, Inc.

Lowel-Light Manufacturing, Inc.

MacMillan Arts

&

Crafts, Inc.

Vivitar Corporation

464

Pages 467-468 were adapted from Vocational Safety Guide , produced by

Hillsborough County Public Schools, Tampa, Florida, 1980.

Pages 469-521 were adapted from Safety Education Handbook, produced by

Kansas State Department of Education, Wichita, Kansas, 1981.

466

~ l.

2.

Don't underestimate the potential danger of a 110 VAC circuit.

Consider all wires and terminals as live and "hot" until they are proven otherwise by a safe method of testing.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Resist the temptation to throw a switch just to see what happens.

Make wiring changes only with the power off.

Disconnect or unplug appliances and equipment before attempting repairs.

Disconnect the power cord before you touch anything behind the front panel of a transmitter.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

Do not work on live circuits except when absolutely necessary.

Never install equipment that will overload a circuit.

Do not work on live voltage circuits by yourself.

Be careful around electric arcs, because they will cause bad burns to skin and eyes.

Stand on dry, nonconductive surfaces when you work on live circuits' or use electric tools.

Do not wear metal jewelry, watches, rings, chains, etc., when you work on electrical equipment.

Remember that an involuntary reaction to electric shock can cause you to injure yourself and possibly others.

14.

Always wear safety glasses when you solder.

15.

Remove headphones before you work on equipment.

16.

Wear gloves and a face shield when you handle cathode-ray tubes.

Old

CRTs should be smashed in a large steel barrel by dropping a heavy metal rod through a hole in the top of the barrel.

Never leave CRTs sitting around as curiosities.

17.

Do not touch a metal cabinet or other grounded material to avoid electrical shock.

18.

Never bypass electrical protective devices.

19.

All electrical lines must be properly fused.

20.

Turn off power before replacing fuses.

467

21.

Locate and correct the cause of a blown fuse or tripped circuit breaker before replacing the fuse or resetting the breaker.

22.

Experimental circuits and wiring practice boards should be fused properly.

23.

All tools should have proper guards.

24.

Never attempt to use a piece of electrical equipment known to be faulty.

25.

Do not use tools with frayed or damaged cords.

Make it a habit to inspect cords, plugs, etc.

26.

Do not use meter leads with defective probes.

27.

Be sure the power is off when checking a circuit with an ohmmeter.

28.

Make it a habit to keep one hand in your pocket or behind your back when using a test probe.

29.

Use a test lamp or suitable meter for testing a circuit.

30.

Make sure capacitors are discharged before you touch them.

Experimental power suppl ies should incorporate "bleeder" resistors.

31.

Have a ground on all power tools.

32.

Mechanically ground all electric motors.

33.

Chassis of AC-DC radios should be kept clear of any grounded conductors.

Use an isolation transformer if one is available; otherwise determine polarity and reverse the plug, if necessary.

34.

Protect all electrical wires when routing them over reftigerant tubing.

35.

Make sure wire size and insulation are appropriate tor the job.

36.

Tag and lock all electrical disconnects when working on live circuits.

37.

Use the proper-sized electrical cord.

38.

Follow instructions when handling and charging storage batteries.

39.

Keep sparks and flames away from storage batteries, especially when the batteries are being charged.

468

CATHODE-RAY TUBE

1.

SCREEN

2.

CONNECTOR

3.

VACUUM (INSIDE)

1.

Cathode-ray tubes must be handled with great care.

They are an extreme implosion hazard if broken.

2.

The teacher shall always be present when pupils are handling or deactivating a cathode-ray tube.

3.

A face shield and gloves must be worn when handling cathode-ray tubes.

4.

Because of the implosion hazard the room should be cleared of people when handling cathode-ray tubes.

5.

Cathode-ray tubes store a high electrical potential.

A severe shock can occur if the tube is not properly grounded.

6.

A cathode-ray tube should be placed in a cardboard carton when it is carried.

469

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I

I

I

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CATHODE-RAY TUBE

1.

SCREEN

2.

CONNECTOR

3.

VACUUM (INSIDE)

471

CAnm=-BALIUBE SAFElY r;x lIZ

Nfl1.'E _

CLASS

DATE

_

GRAIE _ _

Read each statement carefully and record the best choice.

1.

When handling a cathode-ray tube:

A.

clear the room of people.

B.

have the teacher present.

C.

wear a face shield and gloves.

D.

do all of the above.

______ 2.

Cathode-ray tubes are dangerous because:

A.

they have a small neck.

B.

they are an extreme implosion hazard.

C.

they store a high electrical potential.

D.

they are both Band C.

______ 3.

When carrying a cathode-ray tube:

A.

the teacher should be present.

B.

the cathode-ray tube should be held by its neck.

C.

the cathode-ray tube should be placed in a cardboard carton.

D.

be sure to have both A and C.

4.

Label the parts of the cathode-ray tube in the spaces provided.

1.

2.

3.

473

CIRCUIT BOARDS AND KITS

1.

2.

3.

l

(

I

\_~

..

,~:~,~

~~t._~\

mun

u~ua ~~~~~~~~,

\ m mm\\\ r.v:

~

....___(1)

-~

CHASSIS

INDICATORS

CI RCU IT BOARD

1.

Never experiment with circuits unless you have been instructed to do so.

2.

Keep the chassis or case clear of grounded objects.

3.

Be sure all capacitors are discharged.

4.

Disconnect the power source before making adjustments to the ci rcuits.

5.

Always check the circuits with a voltmeter or test lamp to determine the values and dangers that might be encountered.

6.

Always stand on an ungrounded surface when using a circuit board or working on a kit.

7.

Use an isolation transformer when working with 117 volts AC.

475

CIRCUIT

BOARD TRAINER

1.

CHASS I S

2,

INDICATORS

3,

CIRCUIT BOARD

477

CIRCUIT BoARDS AND KITS SAEETf QUIZ

NAf.E

_

ClASS _

DATE GRADE _

Read each statement carefully and record the best choice.

______1.

When using 117 volts AC:

A.

always use an isolation transformer.

B.

always use an indicator lamp.

C.

always keep the chassis or case clear of grounded objects.

D.

do both A and C.

______ 2. For one's own protection, one should:

A.

be sure all capacitors are charged.

B.

be sure all capacitors are discharged.

C.

stand on a grounded surface.

D.

do both Band C.

______ 3. When wiring a circuit board or kit:

A.

never experiment with the circuits.

B.

never place the board or kit on an ungrounded surface.

C.

never disconnect the power source.

D.

never do both A and B.

______ 4. When making adjustments on an active circuit:

A.

stand on an ungrounded surface.

B.

disconnect the power source, when it is possible.

C.

stand on a grounded surface.

D.

do both A and B.

5. To determine the values and dangers encountered in using a

-----circuit board or assembling a kit:

A.

read the lab manual carefully.

B.

use a moistened finger.

C.

check the circuits with a test lamp or voltmeter.

D.

do both A and C.

479

6.

Label the parts of the circuit board.

\.~

...

~~

~~~

~ ~~~~

••

~ ~~~~~~~

111 \\\ \\\ \\\

(~\;~>a

®

1.

2.

3.

480

ETCHED-CIRCUIT P CBOARDS

.~--+---®

1.

FIBER PLASTIC BODY

2,

SOLDERING SOCKET

3,

COPPER CONDUCTOR

1.

Most chemicals used to make etched-circuit P C boards are flammable.

Do not use them near heat or flames.

2.

Developers such as those used on P C contact film and P C boards should be used only where there is adequate ventilation.

3.

Rubber gloves should be worn when working with any of the chemicals used to make etched-circuit P C boards.

4.

None of the chemicals used to make etched-circuit P C boards should be allowed to come in contact with the eyes, skin, or mucous membranes (inner nose or mouth).

5.

The chemicals used to make etched-circuit P C boards must not be swallowed.

They are poisonous.

6.

When using chemicals contained in spray cans, it is important not to puncture the cans or spray the chemicals directly on the skin.

481

ETCHED-CIRCUIT PC BOARD

1,

FIBER PLASTIC BODY

2.

SOLDERING SOCKET

3.

COPPER CONDUCTOR

483

.I--J.--®

®

ETCHED:C IRCUIT

NflME

UJ3oARos

SAFETY QUIZ

_

CLASS

DATE GRAIE

_

_

Read each statement carefully and record the best choice.

_ _ 1.

Most chemicals used to make an etched-circuit P C board are:

A.

stored in glass bottles.

B.

fl alllllab1e.

C.

highly caustic.

D.

both Band C.

2.

When using chemicals in spray cans:

A.

avoid direct contact with the spray.

B.

do not use them around heat or flames.

C.

do not puncture the can.

D.

observe all of the above.

_ _ 3.

When working with chemicals that are used to make etchedcircuit P C boards:

A.

work in a room with no light.

B.

keep all the windows tightly closed.

C.

protect your hands with rubber gloves.

D.

do none of the above.

_ _ 4.

If one is using a P C contact film developer or a P C board developer, one should:

A.

be sure to have adequate ventilation.

B.

keep all the windows tightly closed.

C.

work in a room with no light.

D.

do both A and C.

_ _ 5.

When making an etched-circuit P C board:

A.

never spill any of the chemicals.

B.

never swallow any of the chemicals.

C.

never inhale the fumes from the chemicals.

D.

remember both Band C.

485

6.

When working with the chemicals used to make etched-circuit

P C boards:

7.

A.

never pour them into metal containers.

B.

never allow them to be used indoors.

C.

never allow them to come into contact with the eyes, skin, or mucous membranes.

D.

Observe both Band C.

Label the parts of the etched-circuit PC board.

H H - - ®

®

1.

2.

3,

486

MULTI METER

1.

CHASS I S

2,

TEST LEADS

1.

Use the multimeter only after the proper instruction and after receiving the teacher's permission.

2.

Do not touch the metal parts of the test leads when making circuit tests.

3.

Always stand on an ungrounded surface when using a multimeter.

4.

Always connect the negative lead first when taking measurements with a multimeter.

487

MULTIMETER

1.

CHASSIS

2.

TEST LEADS

489

fiJI TIt£TER SAFEJY QUIZ

NA11f

CLASS

DATE

_

_ _ _ _ GRADE _ _

Read each statement carefully and record the best choice.

______ 1.

When making circuit measurements with a multimeter:

------

------

2.

3.

A.

zero the ohms scale first.

B.

always connect the positive lead first.

C.

do not touch the metal parts of the test,leads.

D.

do both A and C.

When using a multimeter:

A.

always connect the positive lead fi rs t.

B.

stand on an ungrounded surface.

C.

always connect the negative lead fi rs t.

D.

do both Band C.

Do not use a multimeter until:

A.

the teacher has given proper instruction in its use.

B.

the ohms scale has been zeroed.

C.

the battery has been checked.

D.

both A and B have been done.

------

4.

In the space provi ded. identify the parts of the multimeter.

1.

2,

491

2

OSCILLOSCOPE

1.

CHASSIS

~3~

___

2.

SCREEN

3.

TEST LEADS

1.

Use the oscilloscope only after proper instruction and after receiving the teacher's permission.

2.

Disconnect an oscilloscope from the circuit and power source before servicing or repairing it.

3.

Examine the power cord for defects each time the oscilloscope is used.

4.

Do not touch the metal parts of the test leads when making circuit tests.

5.

Always stand on an ungrounded surface when using an oscilloscope.

6.

Always connect the negative lead first when taking measurements with an oscilloscope.

493

OSCILLOSCOPE

1.

CHASS

I

S

2.

SCREEN

3.

TEST LEADS

495

OSCIllOSCOPE

SAFETY

QuIz

~W1:

ClASS

DATE

_

_

GRADE....._ _

Read each statement carefully and record the best choice.

______ 1.

When making circuit measurements with an oscilloscope:

A.

do not touch the metal parts of the test leads.

B.

always connect the positive lead first.

C.

always connect the negative lead first.

D.

do both A and C.

______ 2.

When using an oscilloscope:

A.

always stand on an ungrounded surface.

B.

always stand on a grounded surface.

C.

always work alone.

D.

do both A and C.

______ 3.

Do not use an oscilloscope until:

A.

the cabinet has been checked for defects.

B.

the power cord has been checked for defects.

C.

the teacher has given proper instruction in its use.

D.

both Band C have been done.

______ 4.

Before servicing or repairing an oscilloscope:

A.

see if the tube lights up.

B.

disconnect the oscilloscope from the power source.

C.

check the vertical hold.

D.

do both A and B.

5.

Label the parts of an oscilloscope.

1.

2.

3.

497

POWER SUPPLY

1

~

~

~

ill

~

'"

2

III

@@

@@

1.

CHASSIS

2.

KEY LOCK

3.

VOLTAGE CONTROL

4.

TEST LEADS

1.

Use a power supply only after proper instruction and after receiving the teacher's permission.

2.

Disconnect the power supply from the circuit and power source before servicing or repairing it.

3.

Examine the power cord for defects each time the power supply is used.

4.

Set all power supply controls to "zero"

0\'

"off" before connecting to the power source.

5.

Turn off the power supply before replacing fuses or resetting circuit breakers.

6.

Always stand on an ungrounded surface when using a power supply.

499

o

1.

2.

3.

4.

CHASSIS

kEY LOCK

VOLTAGE

C

aNTRal

TEST LEADS

501

POWER SUPPLY

3

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

.~ I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

PO'!ER

tiAME

SUPPLY SAFETY

QuIz

CLASS

!lATE

_ _ _ GRAIE

_

_

_

Read each statement carefully and record the best choice.

______ 1.

Disconnect the power supply from its power source before:

A.

adjusting the output.

B.

servicing or repairing it.

C.

replacing the fuses or resetting the circuit breakers.

D.

doing both Band C.

______ 2.

Do not use a power s upp ly un 1ess:

A.

the teacher has given proper instruction in its use.

B.

the output has been adjusted.

C.

the power cord has been examined for defects.

D.

both A and C have been done.

______ 3.

When using a power supply:

A.

always stand on an ungrounded surface.

B.

always stand on a grounded surface.

C.

always use uninsulated leads.

D.

do both Band C.

______ 4.

Before connecting the power supply to its power source:

A.

set all the controls to the correct reading.

B.

place the power source on a grounded surface.

C.

set all the controls to "zero" or "off."

D.

do both Band C.

5.

Label the parts of a power supply.

:~i;

-

~

2,

1.

~'!;

3,

@@

@@

4,

'4:

I

~

503

SIGNAL GENERATOR

1.

CHASS I S

2.

TEST LEADS

3.

FREQUENCY CONTROL

1.

Use a signal generator only after proper instruction and after receiving the teacher's permission.

2.

Disconnect the signal generator from the circuit and power source before servicing or repairing it.

3.

Examine the power cord for defects each time the signal generator is used.

4.

Do not touch the metal parts of the test leads when making circuit tests.

5.

Always stand on an ungrounded surface when using a signal generator.

505

SIGNAL GENERATOR

1.

CHASSiS

2, TEST LEP-.DS

3.

FREQUENCY CONTROL

507

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

SIGNAL GENERATOR SAFEJY QUIZ fM _

CLASS _

DATE GRAIE _ _

Read each statement carefully and record the best choice.

1.

Do not use a signal generator until:

A.

the teacher has given proper instruction in its use.

B.

the power cord has been examined for defects.

C.

it has been set for the proper frequency.

D.

both A and B have been done.

2.

Disconnect the signal generator from the power source:

A.

before setting the frequency.

B.

before making any connections.

C.

before servicing or repairing it.

D.

before doing both A and C.

_ _ 3.

When connecting a signal generator into an electrical circuit:

A.

do not touch the metal parts of the leads.

B.

place it on a grounded surface.

C.

connect the positive lead first.

D.

do both A and B.

4.

When using a signal generator:

A.

always stand on a grounded surface.

B.

always stand on an ungrounded surface.

C.

connect the positive lead first.

D.

do both Band C.

5.

In the spaces provided, label the parts of a signal generator.

i1:

1.

2.

3.

~

..

7

&

509

SIGNAL TRACER

1.

CHASSIS

2.

TEST LEADS

1.

Use a signal tracer only after proper instruction and after receiving the teacher's permission.

2.

Disconnect the signal tracer from the circuit and power source before servicing or repairing it.

3.

Examine the power cord for defects each time the signal tracer is used.

4.

Do not touch the metal parts of the test leads when making circuit tes ts.

5.

Always stand on an ungrounded surface when using a signal tracer.

6.

Always connect the negative lead first when taking measurements with a signal tracer.

511

SItNAL TPACER

\

1,

CHASSIS

2,

TEST LEADS

513

SIGNAl TRACER SAFEJY QUIZ

NArtE

ClASS

DATE

_

_

Read each statement carefully and record the best choice.

______ 1.

When making tests with a signal tracer:

2.

A.

always turn off the power source.

B.

always connect the negative lead first.

C.

always connect the positive lead first.

D.

do both A and B.

When using a signal tracer:

3.

4.

A.

always use uninsulated test leads.

B.

always examine the power cord for defects.

C.

stand on an ungrounded surface.

D.

do both Band C.

Before servicing or repairing a signal tracer:

A.

disconnect it from the circuit and power source.

B.

turn the switch off.

C.

place it on a grounded surface.

D.

do both A and C.

For one's own protection, one should not:

A.

touch the metal parts of the test leads when making circuit tests.

B.

use a signal tracer until the teacher has given proper instruction in its use.

C.

use a signal tracer on an ungrounded surface.

D.

do both A and B.

_ _ 5.

Label the parts of a signal tracer.

1.

2.

515

TRANSFORMER

1.

OUTPUT (SECONDARY)

2.

INPUT (PRIMARY)

3.

BASE

4.

TRANSFORMER

1.

Be

sure the AC input line is connected to the primary side of the transformer.

2.

Disconnect the transformer from the power source before servicing or repa i rf n9 it.

3.

Always stand on an ungrounded surface when using a transformer.

517

TRANSFORMER

4

}---+--+--+--

1 OUTPUT (SECONDARY)

2

INPUT (PRIMARY)

3

BASE

4

TRANSFORMER

519

JRANSEORflfR

SAFEJY

QuIz

~---------

CLASS _

DATE _

Read each statement carefully and record the best choice.

_ _ 1.

Before servicing or repairing a transformer:

A.

find out which winding is the primary.

B.

see if the transformer leads are color coded.

C.

disconnect the transformer from the circuit.

D.

do both A and B.

_ _ 2.

Before using a transformer:

A.

be sure the leads are color coded.

B.

be sure the AC input line is connected to the primary side of the transformer.

C.

be sure you are standing on an ungrounded surface.

D.

do both Band C.

_ _ 3.

Label the parts of the transformer in the spaces provided.

1.

2.

3.

4.

521

--"

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

~

.. I

I

I

I

"---'

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

,_ 1

",--",J

1

1

1

I

1

1

1

1

1

\

"-.../

.~

.......

\j

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

---I

~I

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

WELDING EQUIPMENT SAFETY RULES

GAs.J{ELP I NG,

Cum

NG

I

AND BRAZ I NG

1.

Oxygen cylinders in storage are required to be separated from fuel gas cylinders or other combustible materials at a minimum distance of 20 feet or by a noncombustible barrier at least five feet high.

.'.

¢:Joo

2AIn:.I".a"'-ft."DCl~

If

Ii

e

!

2.

All cylinders shall be kept away from radiators and other sources of heat.

Keep any burning substance or combustible materials away from oxygen supplies and post "No Smoking" signs in the area.

3.

All cylinders stored inside buildings must be located in a we11protected, well-ventilated, dry location at least 20 feet from highly combustible materials and away from elevators, stairs, or gangways.

They are not to be kept in unventilated enclosures such as lockers and cupboards.

525

4.

All cylinder valves must be closed when work is finished.

Where a special wrench is required it must be left in position on the stem of the valve while the cylinder is in

USe so that the fuel gas flow can be quickly turned off in case of emergency.

In the case of manifolded or coupled cylinders at least one such wrench must always be available for immediate use.

cylinder valves

............

.~

5.

All cylinders should be legibly marked to identify contents.

6.

No cylinder is permitted to stand alone without being secured with lashing or chain to prevent it from toppling over.

7.

Acetylene shall not be used at a pressure in excess of 15 psi on the line supply gauge.

8.

Indoor stor3ge of compressed gas shall be limited to total capacity of 2,000 cubic feet or 300 pounds of liquified petroleum gas.

9.

Do not leave pressure in the hoses when leaving the area.

Shut off the oxYgen and acetylene at the cylinder . .

10.

Mark empty tanks "MT ," close the valves, and replace valve caps securely.

~.

11.

Empty cylinders shall have their valves closed and the valve protection caps shall be in place.

526

12.

OxYgen cylinders or apparatus shall be kept free from oily or greasy substances and shall not be handled with oily hands or gloves.

13.

An oxygen-fuel gas welding hose showing leaks, burns, worn places, or other defects rendering it unfit for service is to be repaired or replaced.

14.

Gas cylinders shall be kept far enough away from the actual welding or cutting operation that sparks or hot slag will not reach them.

15.

Gas cylinders shall not be placed where they might become part of an electric circuit.

16.

Gas cylinders shall never be used as rollers or supports, whether full or empty, and the number and markings stamped into cylinders shall not be tampered with.

17.

Only the owner of the cylinder or person authorized by him/her shall refill a cylinder.

18.

Unless it is connected to a manifold, an oxygen cylinder shall not be used without first attaching an oxygen regulator to the cylinder valve.

19.

Gas cylinder valves shall not be tampered with nor shall any attempt be made to repair them.

527

20.

Fuel-gas cylinders shall be placed with the valve end up.

All cylinders (particularly acetylene) in use should be securely retained in an upright position to prevent accidents.

An acetylene cylinder in a horizontal position would allow the discharge of acetone through the welding or cutting torch, which would clog the mixer passages, create a fire hazard, reduce the efficiency of the flame, and contaminate the weld area.

~

Al

tA:,P

21.

Before a person connects a regulator to a cylinder valve, he/she must see that the valve is opened slightly and then closed immediately to blow off sediment in the connection.

22.

Before a regulator is removed from a cylinder valve, the valve shall be closed and the gas released from the regulator.

23.

Nothing which may damage the safety device or interfere with the quick closing of the valve shall be placed on top of an acetylene cylinder when it is in use.

24.

Fuel gas shall never be used from cylinders without reducing the pressure through a suitable regulator.

528

25.

An acetylene cylinder valve shall not be open more than one and one-half turns; preferably no more than three-fourths of a turn.

The generally recognized colors for welding hoses are: red for acetylene, green for oxygen, and black for inert gas and air.

RIGHT-HAND GREEN OXYGEN

~THREAD ~OSE

r----rr-1

0

H:::::=lr--r-~-,

,

~EFT-HAND

THREAD

/

RED

ACETYLENE HOSE

26.

When parallel lengths of oxYgen and acetylene hoses are taped together, not more than four inches out of twelve inches shall be covered by tape.

27.

Acetylene generators shall be of approved construction and shall be plainly marked with the maximum rate of acetylene in cubic feet per hour for which they are designed. and the weight and size of carbide necessary for a single charge.

529

OXYACETYLENE WELDING

SETTING-~RECAUTIQNS

1.

Before connecting a regulator to a gas cylinder, open cylinder valve momentarily (called "cracking cylinder valve") to blowout any accumulated particles of dirt, dust, etc. which may have lodged there in transit.

Do not stand in front of valve outlet when operating cylinder valve.

2.

When connecting regulators to the cylinders, make sure the connecting nuts are secured tightly to prevent leaks.

3.

The pressure adjusting out until it is loose.

the diaphragms.

screw of the regulators should be turned

This prevents the pressure from rupturin9

4.

One should always stand to one side or away from the gauge face of the regulators when opening the cylinder valves.

5.

The cylinder valves should never be opened suddenly, as the rush of high pressure may injure the regulator mechanism.

6.

When oxygen cylinders are in use, the cylinder valve should be opened all the way to prevent leaks.

7.

When acetylene cylinders are in use, the cylinder valve must not be opened over one half turn so it can be secured quickly.

8.

If the acetyl ene cyl i nder va 1ve is opera ted by a "T" handl e wrench, the "T" wrench should always be left in place while the cylinder is in use.

The cylinder can then be secured quickly in an emergency.

9.

Oxygen and acetylene hoses must never be interchanged or a fire or explosion may result.

10.

All damaged nuts or connections shall be removed from service.

531

11.

Soapy water should be used to test the equipment for leaks

(a grease-free soap is recommended).

WATER.-

12.

Oil or grease must never be allowed to come in contact with oxygen under pressure.

13.

Oxygen must never be used as a substitute for compressed air.

14.

A person who is starting to weld or cut should make certain there is no material in the area that hot slag or hot metal might ignite.

15.

The proper size tip and the proper~as pressures should always be used.

16.

Goggles should always be worn when working with a lighted torch.

17.

A clear space should be kept between the cylinders and the work.

18.

Matches must not be used for lighting torches.

USE A FRICTION LIGHTER TO LIGHT

BLOWPIPE.

You

MIGHT GET A BAD

BURN IN TRYING TO USE A MATCH.

532

19.

Acetylene must never be released where it might be the cause of a fire or explosion.

20.

Fittings must be securely connected before anyone uses the equipment.

21.

The torch and hose must not be hung on regulators or cylinder va 1ves.

22.

An oxygen regulator must never be connected to a cylinder containing combustible gas.

23.

One should not experiment with regulators or torches nor alter them in any way.

24.

All oxyacetylene operations should be under the supervision of trained and qualified personnel.

25.

Safety reverse flow-check valves must be installed on the outlet nipple of the oxygen and fuel regulators to prevent reverse flow.

r

w

NoRMAL FLOW

REvERSE FLOW STOPPED

533

HEI DING AND CUllING

1.

Special care should be exercised when working in a confined space (proper clothing, ventilation, etc.).

2.

Free oxygen must never be introduced into a confined space, as it supports and accelerates combustion.

3.

Good ventilation is necessary when welding or cutting brass, bronze, galvanized iron, etc.

4.

A suitable air line mask should be worn when cutting iron or steel coated with lead, or with paint containing lead.

5.

Particular caution should be exhibited when welding or cutting in dusty or gaseous locations.

6.

Containers that have held a flammable substance should never be cut or welded until they have been thoroughly cleaned and safeguarded.

7.

Jacketed containers or other hollow parts must be sufficiently vented before heating, welding, or cutting.

8.

Cylinders, hoses, and the operator must be protected when flame cutting.

9.

Stud ends of welding rods must not be dropp~d on floors or decks.

10.

The bushings in the castings should be remov~d before heating the castings.

11.

One should never weld or cut on bulkheads until a careful inspection of the opposite side is made and suffici~nt fire watches are ava i1 ab1e.

12.

Protective clothing should be worn be kept buttoned about the wrist.

buttoned.

at all times.

Sleeves should

Collars should be kept

534

13.

Fire-resistant gauntlet gloves should be used at all times.

14.

Front pockets and cuffs on overalls should be eliminated o

15.

The proper shade lens should be worn during all welding and cutting operations.

16.

Helmets and goggles should be checked frequently for light leaks.

cracks, and missing cover lens.

1.

Cutting or welding torches should never be used where sparks or an open flame of any kind would be a hazard.

2.

Cutting or welding work must be taken to a location where there will be no possibility of setting anything on fire.

3.

If flammable materials cannot be moved. sheet metal should be used to keep the sparks close to the work being done.

4.

A person who is welding or cutting on a wooden deck or floor should sweep it clean and wet it down before starting work.

5.

A person who is starting to cut off a piece of steel should make sure it will not drop where there is a possibility of starting a fire.

6.

When one is welding close to wooden construction it should be protected from direct heat.

7.

A person who is welding near materials that will burn should be ready to promptly put out any fire. using fire extinguishers.

water. or sand.

8.

Fires can smolder undetected.

If there is a possibility that a smoldering fire may have been started, a worker should be kept at the scene of the work for at least half an hour after the job is completed.

9.

Heavy cutting sparks sometimes fly 25 to 30 feet and hold their heat for several seconds after landing.

This is an important fact to keep in mind~

535

OXYACETYLENE WELDER

1.

CYLINDER PRESSURE GAUGE

2.

OXYGEN CYLINDER VALVE

3.

CYLINDER CAP

4.

OXYGEN CYLINDER

5.

OXYGEN HOSE

6.

ACETYLENE TORCH VALVE

7.

OXYGEN TORCH VALVE

B.

WELDING BLOWPIPE

g.

OUTLET PRESSURE GAUGE

10.

CYLINDER PRESSURE GAUGE

11.

ACETYLENE REGULATOR

12.

ACETYLENE CYLINDER VALVE

13.

ACETYLENE HOSE

14.

ACETYLENE CYLINDER

15.

SAFETY REVERSE FLOW CHECK VALVE

16.

ADJUSTING SCREW

1.

Obtain permission from the teacher to use the oxyacetylene welder.

2.

Wear safety goggles at all times when gas welding.

3.

Adjust the welder for operation in the following sequence;

A.

Inspect the regulator's adjusting screws to ensure that they are all the way out (counterclockwise).

B.

Open the oxYgen cylinder (green) valve slowly.

(When wide open, stand to one side.)

C

Open the acetylene cylinder (red) valve

(1/4

to

1/2

turn).

D.

Open the torch oxYgen valve one turn.

(1) Turn the oxygen regulator valve adjusting screw until the proper reading is obtained.

(See the chart on page

601

for the tip being used.

(2) Turn off the torch oxYgen valve.

E.

Turn the acetylene regulator adjusting screw in slowly until the correct reading is obtained for the tip being used.

4.

Have the teacher check setup before lighting the torch.

5.

Use the following procedure for lighting the torch;

537

A.

Turn the torch acetylene valve 1/16 of a turn, then ignite the acetylene gas coming from the tip with a spark lighter.

B.

Readjust the acetylene regulator adjusting Screw until the correct reading is obtained.

C.

Turn the acetylene torch valve on slowly until the flame jumps away from the tip.

Then slightly reduce the fuel supply to bring the flame back to the tip.

D.

Adjust the torch oxygen valve to obtain a neutral flame.

6.

NEVER lay down a lighted torch.

7.

NEVER use acetylene gas at a pressure greater than 15 psi.

8.

Take care not to burn the hoses.

g.

Replace goggles, hoses, and torch in their proper places and clean the area when welding is finished.

538

OXYACETYLENE WELDER

8

~~

1

CYLINLER PRESSURE GAUGE

2

OxYGEN CYLINDER VALVE

3

CYLINDER eN'

4

OxYGEN CYLI NLER

5

OxYGEN HOSE

6

JlcETYLENE TORCH VALVE

7

OxYGEN TORCH VALVE

8

WELDING BLOWPIPE

9

OUTLET PRESSIJ'E GAUGE

10

CYLINDER PRESSURE GAUGE

II

AcETYLENE REGLUTOR

J2

AcETYLENE CYLINDER VAlVE

13

AcETYLENE HOSE

14

ACETYLENE CYLINDER

15

SAFETY REVERSE FLOW CHECK VALVE

16

ADJuSTING SCREW

539

OXYACETYLENE WELDER SAFETY QUIZ

NAM: _

CLAss

DATE

.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ GRAa:

_

_

True or Fa 1se:

Circle the correct answer.

T

F l.

Gas bottles may be laid on the floor when not in use.

T

F

2.

Closed containers are not hazardous to weld or repair.

T

F 3.

The cylinder caps should be placed on all bottles when not in use.

T

F

4.

Eye protection must be worn for all welding, cutting, and chipping operations.

T

F

5.

The equipment should not be wiped down with oi ly rags.

T

F 6.

Acetylene pressure should be set at 20 psi.

In the spaces provided, identify the parts of the oxyacetylene welder: f

10

11

12

8

9

6

7

13

14

15

16

3

4

5

1

2

541

OxYGEN-ACETYl ENE WELDING SAFETY QUIZ

NilME

CLASS

~TE G~E

_

_

True or False: Circle the correct answer.

T F 1.

Oxygen and acetylene hoses may be interchanged.

T F 2.

A hose may be repaired with tape when damaged.

T F 3.

A regulator should always be attached before using oxygen from a cylinder.

Multiple Choice: Put the correct letter on the line preceding the number.

4.

Oil or grease in the presence of oxygen pressure may cause:

A.

ignition.

B.

low pressure.

C.

fl ameout.

5.

6.

Acetyl ene regulators and acetyl ene cyl i nder valve outlets have thread connections.

A.

right-handed

B.

1 eft-handed

C.

vertical

The blowpipe oxygen valve should be testing connections for leaks.

when

A.

B.

open closed

C.

removed

7.

Leaks in a blowpipe hose can be tested by immersing it in _

A.

oi 1

B.

water

C.

soapy water

543

8.

The acetylene tank valve should be opened:

A.

all the way.

B.

one hal f turn.

C.

one and one-half turns.

D.

two and one-half turns.

9.

The acetyl ene hose is always colored:

A.

b1 ue.

B.

green.

C.

red.

D.

none of these.

10.

The oxygen hose is always colored:

A.

blue.

B.

green.

C.

red.

D.

none of these.

11.

One should make sure welding equipment is:

A.

lubricated with oi1~

B.

tightened by hand.

C.

kept free of oi 1 and grease.

D.

lubricated weekly.

12.

Welding goggles are worn because they:

A.

magnify the work.

B.

protect the eyes from dust.

C.

help a person concentrate on his/her work.

D.

protect the eyes against heat. rays. and sparks.

_______ 13.

The oxygen valve adjusting screw should be turned:

A.

with a pair of pliers.

8.

three full turns.

C.

one and one-fourth turns or less.

D.

until the proper reading is obtained.

-------

14.

When lighting a welding torch. one should use:

A.

a friction torch lighter.

B.

a match.

C.

a fluid lighter.

D.

a piece of lighted oaper.

-~~

544

______ 15.

If a welding torch backfires, one should:

A.

dip the torch in water.

B.

Inspect the hose.

C.

put an "Out-of-order" sign on the equipment.

D.

close the acetylene valve.

______ 16.

One should move cylinders by:

A.

tilting and rolling them on their bottom edge.

B.

dragging or sliding them.

C.

lifting them with the valve protection caps.

D.

bouncing them.

______ 17.

When storing cylinders, they should be:

A.

kept away from heat and extreme weather changes.

B.

stored in a small, well-ventilated, dry location.

C.

kept away from highly combustible materials.

D.

all of the above.

_____18.

One should close valves:

A.

before moving.

B.

on empty cylinders.

C.

when work is finished.

D.

in all of the above.

______19.

Acetylene hose pressure should be limited to below:

A.

20 Ibs. per square inch.

B.

18 Ibs. per square inch.

C.

15 Ibs. per square inch.

D.

25 Ibs. per square inch.

20.

If a hose is damaged, one should:

A.

continue to use it.

B.

replace it.

C.

bi nd it with tape.

D.

do none of the above.

545

In response to the arc welding industry's ongoing concern for safety and the health of welders, the American Welding Society has established a new standard for warnings.

Over the next several months. welders will start seeing a new warning on Lincoln electrode and flux packages.

Following shortly will be a similar worning on power sources and wire feeders.

An example of this new warning is reproduced below:

READ AND UNDERSTAND THIS LABEL

PROTECT YOURSElF AND OTHERS

ELECTRIC SHOCK

can kill.

• Do not permit elect, 'cally live ports or electrodes to contact skin

... or your clothing or gloves if they are wet.

• Insulate yourself from work and ground.

FUMES AND GASES

can be dangerous to your health.

• Keep fumes and gases from your breathing zone and general area.

• Keep your head out of fumes.

• Use enough ventilation or exhaust

01 the arc or both.

ARC RAYS

can injure eyes and burn skin.

• Wear correct eye, ear, and body protection.

READ AND UNDERSTAND THE MANUFACTURER'S INSTRUCTIONS

AND YOUR EMPLOYER'S SAFETY PRACTICES.

See American National Standard 149.1, "Safety in Welding and CUlling", published by the American Welding Society, 2501 N.W. 7th St., Miami, Florida 33125; OSHA

Safety and Health Standards, 29 CFR 1910 available from U.S. Dept. of Labor,

Washington, D.C. 20210.

DO NOT REMOVE THIS LABEL

547

ARC WELDING SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

PROTECT YOURSELF AND OTHERS FROM POSSIBLE SERIOUS INJURY OR DEATH. READ AND UNDERSTAND

BOTH THE SPECIFIC INFORMATION GIVEN IN THE OPERATING MANUAL FOR THE WELOER AND/OR

OTHER EQUIPMENT TO BE USED AS WELL AS THE FOLLOWING GENERAL INFORMATION.

Have all installation, maintenance end repair work performed only by qualified people

2 Protect yourself Irom pOSSIble dangerous electrical shock a The electrode and work (or ground) circUits ate electrically "hoI' when the welder is on Never p;nmit contact between "hot" perts of the circuits and bare

Skin or wet clothing. Wear dry. hole-free gloves

to

insulale hands b Always insulate yourself from the work and ground uSing dry insulation when welding in damp localions, on metal floors, gratings or scaffolds, and parlicularly when in positions (such as sitting or lying) where large areas of your body can be in contact with a conductive surface c Maintain the electrode holder. work clamp. welding cable and welding machine in good. sale operating condition d Never dip the electrode holder in water lor cooling e Never simultaneously touch electrically "hot' parts

01 electrode holders connected

10 two welders because lIoltage between the two can be the tolal 01 the open circuit voltage 01 both welders

II using the welder as a power source lor mechanized welding, Ihe above precautions also apply lor the automatic electrode, electrode reel, weld1ng head, nozzle or semiautomatic welding gun

3 Keep alt equipment salety guards, covers and devices 1n position and good repair

4 Keep hands, hair, clothing and lools away Irom V-belts, gears, fans and all other moving parts when starting, operating or repairing equipment

5 When working above Iloor level, protect yourself Irom a lall should you get a shock. Never wrap the electrode cable around any part of your body

6 Arcburn may be more severe than sunburn. Therefora a Use a shield with the proper filter and cover plates to protect your eyes from sparks and the rays of the arc when welding or observing open arc welding. Filter lens should conform to ANSI

Z87

1 standards b.

Use suitable clothing to protect your skin and that of your helpers from the arc rays c. Protect othar nearby personnel with suitable nonflammable screening andior warn them not

10 watch the arc nor expose themselves to the arc rays or to hot spatter or metai

7 Droplets of molten slag and melal are thrown or lall from the welding arc Protect yourself with oil free protective garments such 85 leal her gloves, heavy shnt. cuff less trousers. high shoes and a cap over you

I hair Wear eat plugs when weldmg out of pOSlllon or In conhned places

8

Always wear salety glasses when

In a welding area Use glasses wllh side shields when near stag Chipping operations

9

RemOlle lire hazards well away hom lhe area

If thiS IS not posslule cover lhem

10 prevent lha welding sparks from starting a fire Remember lhal welding sparks and hot male rials Irom welding can easily go through small cmcks and ooenings to adlacent areas

10 When lot welding, make certain no part of the electrode circuit 's touching lhe work or ground ACCidental contact can cause overheating and create a fire hazard

11 Be sure the work cable is connected 10 the work as close to lhe welding area as practical, Work cables connected to the building framework or other locations some distance

Irom the welding area Increase the possibility 01 the welding current passing through lilting chains, crane cables or olher allerna!e circuits This can create lire hazards or overheat tilling chains or cables until they lall

12 Welding may produce lumes and gases hazardous 10 health AVOid breathing lhese lumes and gases When welding. keep your head out ollhe fume Use enough ventilation and/or exhaust at the arc 10 keep fumes and gases away Irom the breathing zone When welding on galvanized, lead or cadmium plated steel and olher metals which produce toxic fumes, even grealer care must be teken

13 Do not weld

In locations near chlorinated hydrocarbon lIapors coming from degreasing, cleaning or spraying operations. The heat and rays of the arc can react with sollIenl vapors to form phosgene, a highly tOXIC gas, and other irrilating products

14 Do nol heal, cut or weld tanks, drums or containers until the proper step!> have been taken to Insure that such procedures will not cause flammable or toxic vapors from substances inside They can cause an explOSion even though lhey have been 'cleaned For information purchase . Sale Practices lor Welding and Cutting Containers

That Have Held Combustibles', A6()'-651rom the American

Welding Society, Miami, Florida 33125

15 Vent hollow castings or conteiners before heating, culHng or welding. They may explode

16 For more detaIled safety information It is strongly recommended that you purchase a copy 01 'Safety in Welding &

Cutting ANSI Standard Z491" for $500 from the American Welding Society Miami, Florida 33125

For Elecirlcllily Power-.d Weld.r.

Additional Safety Precautions

The high voltage and rolating parts associated with lhls type of eQuipment reQUIre observance of these additional precaulions

Disconnect and lock oul all power sources bel are doing any work on the equipment

2 Make the eleetical installation in aceorda~ee wilh lhe Na tional Electrical Code and all local codes

3 Properly ground the equlpmeni

In accordance With the

National Electrical Code and the manufacturer s recommendatIOns The work or melal to be welded must also be connected 10 a good eleetncal ground

For

Engine

Powered Welder.

The reqUired fuel and rotating parts associated with 1h,!> type 01 equipment require observance of these addllional precautIOns

Whenever pOSSible turn the engme off before troubleshooting and maintenance work

2

Operate inlernal combustion engines In open Yoellventilated areas or vent the engine exhaust 'urnes 10 the outside

3 Do not add the fuel near an open Ilame or when the engine is run~ing.

Stop the engine and, If possible, ailow It to cooll0 prevent spIlled luel from igniting on contacl With hal engine parts or electrical sparks Do not soil

I fuel when tilling tank

4

To prevent accidenlally starling gasoline engines while tur'ling the engine or welding generator during maintenance work. disconnect the spark plug wires distributor cap or magneto wire as appropriate

To aVOId scalding. do not remove lhe radiator pressure rap whf'r! the C'lg,ne is hot

(ArIERICAN "IE1.DING S8CIETY)

548

ELECTRIC WELDING SAFETY

(OSHAIN

raSH) n!l

,

"

HANDY

~IRST

AID MIT

OR KEEP ON CART

~IRE

ExTINGUlSH(R

ARB'!'

:ELOINtr

£1 ll,vAILA81E

"::I~'H~'~H

_ - - -

'I:

:

D

FIRE RESiSTANT CUFHAilllS

Of!

SHIEL::JS 4ROUND WORK AREA,

PREF(RAllLr THE

I<INO

I r-SEE THROUGH

SAFETY

.: 1/ '

'7

-

cit;

~~~C~p~~LAgO~NTE~6\~~S

_ _

NO CA8t.E SPLICES

CLOSER THAN 10 FEET

TO THE WELDER

1.

Welding machine trouble shall always be checked by competent authorized electricians.

NEVER BY A PUPIL.

2.

Polarity switches shall not be operated while the machine is working under load.

These switches are to be operated only while the machine is idling.

3.

The frame or case of the welding machine (excluding engine-driven machines) is required to be grounded.

4.

Do not ground to pipelines carrying gases or flammable liquids or conduits carrying electrical conductors.

5.

If the floors have been wetted down, special precautions must be taken against electrical shock.

6.

Do not ground to a building structure remote from the weld.

The ground might lose its effectiveness over a long distance, and would present a tripping hazard.

7.

A disconnecting switch or controller is required at or near each arc weldi'lg machine.

549

8.

Cables with splices within ten feet of the holder are prohibited.

9.

Work and electrode lead cables with damaged insulation or bare conductors require replacement.

10.

Check electrode holders for loose or exposed connections.

11.

If the metal inert gas welding process is used, check for leaks in gas hoses.

12.

Do not coil or loop electrode cable around parts of your body.

13.

If workers are not required to wear appropriate goggles, noncombustible booths or screens are required to protect the workers or other persons adjacent to welding areas from welding rays.

14.

Portable welding equipment that is suspended from overhead structures is required to be equipped with safety chains or cables capable of supporting the total shock load in the event of support failure.

15.

Store electrode holders where they cannot make electrical contact with personnel, conducting objects, fuels, or compressed gas tanks.

16.

When no welding is to be done for any substantial period of time

(e. g., at 1unch or overnight), all electrodes must be removed from their holders and the machine disconnected from the power source.

17.

Never strike an arc on a compressed gas cylinder.

Keeo electrodes, electrode holders, and any other live parts away from gas cylinders.

18.

The electrode holder shall be placed on a hook when not in use.

Do not leave it on the floor.

19.

When working in an open area, a portable flash shield shall be used to protect other personnel from arc flash.

20.

Pliers (not gloves) must be used to carry hot projects.

21.

Welding cables shall be kept dry and free from grease and oil.

22.

All welding operations shall be performed within the rated capacity of the welding cables.

550

23.

All flammable and combustible materials must be removed from the welding area.

24.

One must not work in an area where combustible dust is suspended in the air.

25.

No welding or cutting should be performed on used drums, barrels, tanks, or other containers until they have been cleaned thoroughly, eliminating all flammable materials and all substances (such as greases, tars, or acids) which might produce flammable or toxic vapors when heated.

26.

All hollow spaces, cavities, or containers should be vented to permit the escape of air or gases before preheating, cutting, or welding.

27.

Do not weld on or cut pipes or other metals in contact with combustible walls, partitions, ceilings, or roofs if the work is close enough to start a fire by conducting heat through the metal.

28.

If the process being used requires open circuit (no load) voltages higher than the voltages indicated in the following table, adequate insulations must-be provided to prevent shock.

Operation

Tv

De

Manua 1

Automati c

[mechanized}

Alternating current

Direct current

80 volts

100 volts

100 volts

100 volts

551

29.

For AC weldinq under wet conditions or where perspiration is a problem, a reliable automatic control should be used to reduce the no-load voltage.

Thi s will prevent shock.

30.

Do not change the polarity switch when the machine is under load.

The arcing due to the high current can burn the switch contact surface or cause serious burns to the welder.

31.

Check to see that the welding machine has a power disconnect switch.

This allows immediate shutdown in case of emergency.

A machine should not be used unless it has such a switch.

--

552

ARC WELDER

1• AC- DC SWITCH

2.

AMPERAGE ADJUSTMENT

3.

ELECTRODE CABLE CONNECTION

4.

AMPERAGE INDICATOR

5.

ELECTRODE HOLDER

6.

ON-OFF SWITCH

7.

GROUND CABLE CONNECTION

8.

HELMET

9.

GROUND CLAMP

1.

The arc welder must be operated only with the teacher's permission and after instruction has been received.

2.

Jewelry must be removed, loose clothing eliminated, and long hair confined.

3.

All guards are to be in place and operating correctly.

4.

The proper eye protection must always be used.

5.

A welding helmet must be worn when welding.

6.

Proper ventilation must be available.

7.

Goggles must be worn when chipping slag.

B.

Others in the area must be warned prior to striking an arc.

9.

Gloves and proper clothing must be worn when welding.

10.

Closed containers should not be welded without the teacher's permission.

11.

Cables, clamps, and electrode holder should be checked to make sure they are working properly.

12.

Screens to protect others must be in place before welding is started.

553

ARC WELDER

1

AC-DC SWITCH

2

AMPERAGE ADJUSTMENT

3

ELECTRODE CABLE CONNECTION

4

AMPERAGE INDICATOR

5

ELECTRODE HOLDER

6

ON-OFF SW ITCH

7

GROUND CABLE CONNECTION

8

HELMET

9

GROUND CLAMP

555

NAME

CLASS

DATE

GRADE

True or False: l.

A person should warn anyone nearby before starting to weld.

(Circle true or false)

T

F

2.

3.

Goggles, as well as a welding hood, should be put on before starting to weld.

A closed container is dangerous to weld.

4.

Gloves are not necessary when welding.

5.

It is dangerous to weld without the proper ventilation.

6.

An electric shock is possible if you touch both the electrode and the ground at the same time.

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

557

7.

In

the spaces provided, identify the parts of the arc welder.

l.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

558

TIG (TUNGSTEN INERT GAS) WELDER

MIG (METAL INERT GAS) WELDER

1.

FLOW METER

&

REGULATOR

2.

INERT GAS SUPPLY

3.

CONTROL SYSTEM

4.

COOLANT SYSTEM

5.

WELDING MACHINE

6.

7.

WIRE REEL

WIRE FEEDER(MIG)

8.

WI RE g.

TORCH

10.

ELECTRODE (TIG)

11.

WORK

12.

GROUND

1.

Operate only with the teacher's permission and after instruction has been received.

2.

Remove jewelry, eliminate loose clothing, and confine long hair.

3.

Always use the proper eye protection.

4.

Wear additional protective welding clothing, including a helmet, long-sleeved jacket, and gloves in order to prevent burns from ultraviolet and infrared rays emitted while arc welding.

5.

For TIG or MIG welding use a helmet equipped with a minimum number twelve density shade.

6.

Be certain that any welder equipped with a high frequency stabilizing unit is installed, maintained, and used according to the recommendations of both the manufacturer and the Federal Communications Commission.

559

9.

Never touch the tungsten electrode or MIG wire while the welder is

turned on.

It is electrically "hot" and can cause a serious shock.

10.

Never use the high frequency when performing shield metal arc

(stick elpctrode) welding.

TIG (TUNGSTEN INERT GAS) WEI D1Mi

1.

Wear heavy, fire-resistant clothing, including long-sleeved shirts and leather gloves.

2.

Use a safety shield to protect the people in surrounding areas from eye damage.

3.

Use pliers or a suitable tool for handling the hot metal.

4.

Use the proper shade of glass in the welding hood to protect the operator from ultraviolet rays that might damage the eyes.

5.

Keep the area clear of inflammable liquids and foreign inflammable material and objects.

MIG (METAL INERT GAS) WElDING

1.

Make sure you use the proper equipment, such as gauges, hoses, and electrical cables, and check to see that they are in proper working order.

2.

Use the proper shielding to protect all bystanders.

3.

Weld near proper ventilation to exhaust fumes and inert gases.

4.

Wear the proper welding helmets and lenses.

5.

Wear proper personal clothing, such as gloves, leather jackets, and hair protectors.

560

TIG (TUNGSTEN INERT GAS) WELDER

MIG (METAL INERT GAS) WELDER

2)-1.·

1 FLOW METER

REGULATOR

&

2

INERT GAS SUPPLY

3 CONTROL SYSTEM

4

COOLANT SYSTEM

5 WELDING MACHINE

6

~IIRE

REEL (MIG)

7 WIRE FEEDER (MIG)

8 WIRE

9

TORCH

10

ELECTRODE <rIG)

11

WORK

12

GROUND

561

NwE

CLAss'--

DATE~

_

_

_ .....!!1wE

True or False:

1.

High frequency welding units are manufactured according to guidelines established by the Federal Communications

Commission.

2.

It is all right to do TIG or MIG welding without a welding helmet.

3.

A worker can be shocked by touching the tungsten electrode while the TIG wel der is turned on.

4.

The high frequency switch must be turned off while performing regular arc welding.

5.

Both metal arc welding and gas-shielded arc welding give off ultraviolet and infrared radiation which can burn the unprotected skin.

- 6.

Name the parts in the following illustration.

10.

11.,

12.,

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.,

7.

8.

9.

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

563

SPOT WELDERS

Spot welding is a method of joining two pieces of metal together with electric heat and mechanical pressure.

The heat is developed by the resistance of the metal to high-amperage, low-voltage current which passes through a limited area.

This is where a resistance weld is made.

Some safety suggestions for operating the spot welder follow:

1.

Before attempting to make power line connections, change tips, or make repairs, be sure the unit is completely disconnected from the power line.

2.

Always avoid contact between any part of the human body and any current-carrying part of the spot welder.

3.

Be sure the welder securely grounded.

cord for grounding breakdown.

Do not plug.

is connected to the proper voltage and

A grounding wire is provided in the power the welder in case of internal insulation cut off the grounding terminal on the cord

4.

Operate the spot welder from a separately fused circuit.

The capacity of the welder is affected by the line voltage.

If the circuit is overloaded, the performance will be reduced.

Extension cords should not be used because of the voltage drop they are apt to cause.

5.

Wear a face shield when operating a spot welding machine.

This protects the eyes and face from hot molten particles.

6.

Be sure the tongs are properly aligned and the pressure correctly adjusted before turning on the welder.

Check the alignment before the power is turned on.

If the tips are misaligned, the work to be welded will move out of place.

There is no advantage in having excessive tong pressure.

The metal to be welded should be in close contact before applying pressure on the tongs.

7.

Never apply current to the tong tips without having metal between them.

8.

Keep the tong tips dressed.

As the welder is used, the diameter of the tong tips will increase in size.

This increased diameter will require more current and a longer time setting.

For galvanized and stainless steels, the tips must be clean and properly dressed or the weld will cause excessive splatter.

565

g.

Be sure there is water flowing through water-cooled welders before using them.

If water is not flowing to cool the tips, they will be burned.

10.

Start the exhaust fan before welding galvanized metal.

The fumes given off from welding zinc-coated material may cause zinc fume fever.

SPOT WELDING CAN RELEASE SMALL QUANTITIES OF FUMES,

566

ElECTRIC WELDING

NAM:

SAFETY

QUIZ.

CLAss

.....;f.AAbE~

_

_

_

True or Fal se:

1.

One should avoid looking at the arc or flash unless equipped with the appropriate dark glasses.

2.

Helmets and welding goggles must be free of cracks or holes.

3.

It is not necessary to wear protective clothing when arc welding.

4.

It is safer and better to wear low-cut shoes, rather than boots, in any welding situation.

Multiple Choice:

1.

Rotary current-setting switches may be changed:

A.

when the machine is under full load.

B.

when the machine is idling.

C.

at any time.

______ 2.

Polarity switches may be changed:

A.

at any time.

B.

when the machine is under full load.

C.

when the machine is idling.

3.

Welding machine trouble shall be checked by:

A.

the pupi 1.

B.

an authorized electrician.

C.

anyone.

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

567

4.

Gasoline tanks will be welded in school shops:

A.

always.

B.

never.

C.

sometimes.

5.

An electric arc flash will burn:

A.

the skin and eyes.

B.

the feet.

C.

the clothing.

D.

all of the above.

6.

The ground clamp should be attached firmly to:

A.

the welder.

B.

the work.

C.

the table.

D.

both Band C.

7.

Arc ray burns should be treated as:

A.

heat rash.

B.

a minor sunburn.

C.

a scald.

D.

a severe sunburn.

8.

The cables need to be:

9.

A.

kept insulated.

B.

kept dry.

C.

free from grease and oil.

D.

all of the above.

Report to the teacher at once:

A.

if the electrode holder, ground clamp lugs, or cable gets hot.

B.

if the handle slips off the electrode holder.

C.

if there is a bare wire.

D.

if all of the above occur.

10.

When handling hot metal, use:

A.

a helmet.

8.

a pair of pliers

C.

a c-c1amp.

D.

a chipping hammer.

568

11.

The observation window in tile welding helmet is cracked.

It will:

12.

A.

allow dust to pass through it.

B.

obstruct one's view.

C.

transmit infrared and ultraviolet rays.

D.

rattle every time the helmet is flipped up.

When one has finished using the electrode holder, one should:

A.

place it on a metal workbench.

B.

clamp it on the metal frame of the workbench.

C.

rest it on the fl oor.

D.

suspend it so that it will not touch any metal.

13.

If a cable or the electrode holder overheats, one should:

A.

notify the teacher.

B.

turn the voltage down.

C.

stop welding and wait until it cools.

D.

change the electrode holder.

______14.

One should always draw the curtains on the welding booth before striking an arc in order to:

A.

protect the eyes from the infrared and ultraviolet rays.

B.

keep the work from getting cool.

C.

prevent anyone from noticing any mistakes.

D.

protect anyone nearby from the infrared and ultraviolet rays.

15.

Before leaving heated metal unattended, one should use chalk or soapstone to label it with the word "hot" because:

A.

someone may be burned if he/she touches it.

B.

other work may be placed on it.

C.

One can then tell to whom it belongs.

D.

chalk will help cool it.

569

Complete the following statements:

16.

For

eye

protection against infrared and ultraviolet rays, a person must wear a we1ding ___

17.

When chipping slag, one must wear __

18.

Arc welding should be done only behind proper screens or in a

19.

If one's skin is exposed to electric arc rays, he/she will be

20.

A~~---_-----------should be near when electric weldic9 is being done.

21.

The welding area should be well ___

570

,.:

,-_.~ ~

...

,

ON

SAFETY

'.

REGO

COMPANY

4201 W PETERSON AVE. CHICAGO.

ILL.

The remainder of this section consists of a set of safety transparencies and a script that explains them.

This script can be referred to when showing the transparencies to the class.

The drawings and script deal with all phases of welding safety.

571

"REm Sl.JWfS

(}.J

SflfETY"

(DIALOGUE foR TRANSPARENCY PRESENTATION)

POLICE YOUR WORK AREA

1.

Never place welding or cutting operations close to combustible materials (gasoline cans, paints, paper, rags, etc.).

2.

Cylinders with regulators attached should not be rolled to a new location.

Regulators should be removed and protective cylinder valve caps installed before moving the cylinders.

When cylinders are secured in a welding cart, the cylinder valves should be closed before the cart is moved.

3.

All cyl inders (particularly acetylene) in use should be securely retained in an upright position to prevent accidents.

A nonvertical acetylene cylinder in use would allow the discharge of acetone through the welding or cutting torch, clogging the mixer passages, creating a fire hazard, reducing the efficiency of the flame, and contaminating the weld area.

STORAGE OF CYLINDER VALVES

1.

Cylinders should not be stored near stair

~Iells, gangways, elevator shafts, etc. where cylinders may be knocked over or damaged by passing or falling objects.

2.

Store all gas cylinders not in use away from excessive heat sources such as stoves, furnaces, radiators, the direct rays of the sun, or open flames.

Cylinders in storage should always be securely chained to a wall or support in an upright position.

3.

Keep any burning substance or combustible materials away from oxygen supplies and post "No Smoking" si~ns.

4.

When necessary to move gas cylinders, always carefully roll them on their bottom edge, being sure that the protective shipping cap is securely in place.

Sliding, dragging, or rolling them causes excessive wall wear, which may create hazardous conditions.

5.

Do not hammer on, drop, or use gas cylinders as rollers for machinery moving purposes.

572

6.

Never directly use a hammer blow to loosen the protective transportation cap on oxygen or other types of gas cylinders.

Use a short piece of clean wood to absorb the hammer blow and prevent sparks and dangerous spa1ling of the hammer and metal cap.

7.

If a leak develops in a fuel gas cylinder that cannot be stopped by closing the valve, immediately place the cylinder outside the building and away from a possible fire source (in a location free from a wind current which might carry the gas fumes to an ignition source).

Post temporary warning signs near a leaking cylinder, notify the gas dealer immediately, and get special instructions on how to return the cylinder to the dealer.

8.

When a gas cylinder is ready for return to the supplier, be sure the cylinder valve is closed to prevent internal contamination and the shipping cap is in place to protect the cylinder valve.

Mark the cylinder "MT" in a prominent

~lace.

9.

Valve protection cylinder caps should never be used for lifting a cylinder.

Use a cradle or platform with the cylinders securely chained in place.

Do not use slings or electromagnetic lifts.

10.

Keep fuel gas cylinders separated from oxygen cylinders in storage.

Keep empty cylinders separated from full ones in storage.

FI RE PROTECT! ON

1.

Always have a fire extinguisher in good operating condition and readily available when operating welding and cutting equipment.

2.

Upon the completion of a welding, heating, or cutting operation, one should immediately (and carefully) inspect the surrounding area for smoldering embers.

At least one half hour should be allowed before leaving the area and then only after conducting another inspection.

Also, other personnel in the area should be alerted to the danger of latent fire possibilities.

DRESS PROPERLY

Always wear clean, oil-free clothing during welding and cutting operations.

Protect the hands with leather welding gloves to avoid burns from radiation and hot molten slag.

Low-cut shoes, trousers with cuffs, or open pockets in which sparks or molten slag may lodge should not be worn.

573

USE YOUR TOOLS CORRECTLY

Never use oxygen or other gases as a substitute for compressed air in the operation of air-operated tools, the blowing off of parts, or for ventilation purposes.

The only exception to this rule is where oxygen is used to blowout torch passages or welding hoses when setting up equipment that has not been used for a while.

DON'T TAMPER WITH CYLINDER SAFETY DEVICES

Never tamper with the safety devices on gas cylinders (fuse plugs, safety disc caps, etc.) or permit the torch flame to contact the cYlinders.

CRACKING OF CYLINDER VALVES

Before connecting a regulator to a gas cylinder, open the cylinder valve momentarily (this is called "cracking the cylinder valve") to blowout any accumulated particles of dirt, dust, etc. which may have lodged there in transit.

Do not stand in front of the valve outlet when operating the cylinder valve.

SECURE REGULATOR TO CYLINDER WITH PROPER WRENCH

Always use a proper fitting wrench to tighten a regulator to a cylinder or station outlet connection.

Never tighten by hand, using the regulator as a substitution for a wrench.

OPEN CYLINDER VALVE SLOWLY

1.

After attaching a regulator to a gas cylinder, one should be sure the regulator adjusting screw is fully released.

It should be backed off in a counterclockwise direction so it swivels freely before the cylinder valve is opened.

One should never stand directly in front of a regulator when turning on the cylinder valve.

2.

The cylinder valve should always be opened slowly so gas pressure will build up slowly in the regulator (this particularly applies to the oxygen cylinder).

A quick opening of the cy1 inder valve causes a buildup of heat due to the recompression of the gas.

When combined with combustible materials, ignition and fire may result.

3.

Always use a regulator to reduce the gas cylinder pressure to the operating pressures recommended by the equipment manufacturer.

574

SAFE USE OF ACETYLENE

1.

Never use acetylene in excess of 15 psig pressures.

Hazardous conditions can result beyond this point.

2.

The maximum safe rate at which acetylene may be drawn from a should never exceed 1/7 of the cylinder's capacity per hour.

greater acetylene flows, use a manifold.

cylinder

For

3.

Always leave the fuel gas cylinder valve wrench in place when the cylinder valve is open, so it can be closed quickly in an emergency.

Do not open acetylene cylinder valves more than one turn.

NEVER USE A REGULATOR FOR A GAS OTHER THAN THAT FOR WHICH IT WAS INTENDED

1.

Never attempt to adapt and use a fuel gas or inert gas regulator on an oxYgen cylinder.

A special protective device is furnished in the REGO oxYgen regulator to harmlessly dissipate the heat caused by recompression when the cylinder valve is quickly opened.

It is not furnished on fuel gas and inert gas regulators.

2.

Never use a regulator for gases other than those for which it was recommended by the manufacturer, as the diaphragm and seat materials may not be compatible with other gases.

3.

Always refer to the various gases by their proper name.

Do not refer to oxYgen as "air" or acetylene as "gas,"

PROPER OPERATING PRESSURES

Always follow the manufacturer's recommendations in setting up and operating equipment in the selection of tip size, and in fuel and oxYgen operating pressures.

BLOWING OUT WELDING HOSE

1.

Never blowout oxygen, acetylene, or other fuel gas hoses in an unventilated room or around an open flame or other ignition sources.

2.

Oxygen supports combustion.

It can "puff" a tiny spark into a roaring flame.

It can even cause oily or greasy rags to burst into flame from spontaneous combustion or cause a serious fire or explosion.

575

PRE-OPERATION SAFETY CHECK

1.

CAUTION! - Before operating the equipment, be sure all the connections are leak-tight.

Each time equipment connections are loosened and retightened, one should carefully check each connection for leaks, using clean, oil-free, soapy water.

Do not use flame for this purpose.

2.

CAUTION: - Before lighting up, momentarily (and separately) allow the oxygen and fuel gases to flow through the torch to ensure that

"mixed" gases are not present in the welding hoses.

3.

Never uSe defective, Worn, or leaky equipment.

Have it repaired promptly.

4.

If equipment is not to be used for a period of time, the cylinder valves should be closed, the hoses and regulators should be purged of fuel and oxygen, the regulator adjusting screws should be placed in a "backed-off" position, and the torch valves should be closed.

Before putting the equipment back into service, it is important to make sure the adjusting screws are released.

USE PROPER HOSE LENGTH

1.

Use as short a length of welding hose as is practical.

The longer the hose length, the higher the operating pressures required.

This also wastes gas and may be difficult to handle.

2.

Using too many hose splicers can cause an excessive loss of pressure to the torch, which may in turn cause a hazardous operating condition.

LIGHTING TORCH TIP

Never uSe a match to light a welding or cutting torch.

Always use a spark lighter.

Fingers are easily burned by the igniting gas if a match is used.

PROPER EYE PROTECTION

1.

Always wear goggles to protect your eyes from injurious light rays, sparks, and hot molten metal during welding, cutting, and heating operations.

Eye protection should comply with established federal specifications and those recommended by the welding distributor.

2.

Always protect yourself, other persons present, welding hoses, gas cylinders, and flammable materials in the area from the hot slag and sparks that come from the welding and cutting operation.

576

PROPER VENTILATION

Never perform welding, cutting, brazing, or heating operations in a poorly ventilated area.

Avoid breathing the fumes from these operations at all times, particularly when zinc, cadmium, or leadcoated metals are involved.

KEEP TI PS CLEAN

1.

Oirty, plugged, or partially plugged flame ports can cause overheating, excessive popping, and possible flashback.

2.

If one or more preheat ports are restricted on cutting tips, the unbalanced flame condition can cause pre-ignition conditions to exist.

3.

Due to the distortion of preheat flames, the restricted ports may cause the tip to overheat.

HOW TO ELIMINATE EQUIPMENT "SQUEAKS" AND "YOURSELF"

1.

Never oil or grease any part of the welding and cutting equipment, nor allOW it to come in contact with oil and grease.

This includes

(but is not limited to) gas cylinders, tools, work bench, regulators, torches, tips, and even the clothes that are worn (such as jackets, gloves, aprons, etc.).

Oxygen, under the right conditions, can react violently with oil or grease, resulting in explosions, fire, and damage or injury to property and personnel.

2.

Do not attempt to repair the regulators or torch.

Equipment which is incorrectly repaired can cause leaks and other hazardous conditions.

Consult the local REGO welding equipment distributor.

3.

All heating, welding, and cutting equipment must be maintained at an "oxygen clean" level.

This also includes tools, clothes, gloves, benches, etc.

Otherwise, oil and greas~ will be transmitted by contact from a "dirty" to a "clean" piece of equipment.

Eventually it

will

come to the oxygen regulator.

WORN WELDING HOSE - DO NOT REPAIR! - REPLACE!!!

Never repair a leaking (worn, abraded, etc.) welding hose with tape.

Always consult the local REGO supplier for advice.

Replace the hose immediately, if safe use is questionable.

577

MAINTAIN BACK-FLOW CHECK VALVES

With the check valve removed from the torch and/or regulator. place the check unit in the reverse flow position on the test hose.

Use oil-free compressed air and check the unit for leaks across the seat.

The unit should not leak at pressures above the manufactures's back-flow pressure rating.

CAUTION!-- THE NEXT CUT MADE MAY BE YOUR THROAT]

1.

Never use a welding. cutting. or heating torch on a pipe or container that has held a flammable liquid.

Explosive vapors can gather and linger in closed containers for a long period of time.

2.

The seams and inner side walls of a container may be coated with combustible materials. which can gasify with applied heat and combust (with a cutting torch flame).

BEWARE

OF

FLYING CONCRETE CHIPS]

Prevent concrete "explosion" by using a layer of sand and asbestos sheet to catch slag.

VACATION CAME EARLY THIS YEAR!

Securely support the material that is being cut or welded so it will not fall and cause damage or personal injuries.

LEAVE FILLING OF CYLINDER TO THE MANUFACTURER

Never attempt to mix gases in a cylinder or fill one empty gas cylinder from another (particularly an oxygen cylinder). The mixture of incompatible gases and/or heat caused by recompression of the gas or gases may result in ignition and fire.

578

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RECOMMENDED

SAFETY PUBLICATIONS

SAFETY-IN WELDING AND CUTIING, AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Z49.1, ISSUED BY THE AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY,2501 NORTHWEST

7th STREET MIAMI, FLORIDA 33125.

CUTIING AND WELDING PROCESSES, N.F.PA STANDARD NO. 51 B,

ISSUED 8Y THE NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION, 470

ATLANTIC AVE., BOSTON, MASS. 02210.

REGO WELDING AND CUTIING HANDBOOK, STOCK NO.

400124,

OBTAINABLE AT YOUR LOCAL REGO WELDING EOUIPMENT

.DISTRIBUTOR.

)

REFERENCES

Materials were selected and reviewed from the following sources, and in some instances were incorporated in the production of the preceding unit.

1.

Airco Welding Products

2.

American Welding Society

3.

Miller Electric Manufacturing Company

4.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health - U.S. Dept.

of Health, Education, and Welfare

5.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U. S. Department of

Labor

6.

Rego Company

7.

Rexarc Inc.

8.

University of Illinois, College of Agriculture

9.

Utah State Dept. of Ed., Industrial Education Safe Guide

10.

Victor - Welding and Cutting Division

11.

Washington State Dept. of Education, Industrial Arts Safety Guide

630

Pages 633-643 were adapted from Safety Compliance Manual, produced by Indiana Curriculum Materials Center, Bloomington, Indiana, 1975.

Pages 645-739 were adapted from Safety Education Handbook, produced by Kansas State Department of Education, Wichita, Kansas, 1981.

\ ..J

632

AUTOMOBILE AND POWER MECHANICS RULES

/

~

~.

1.

Sound the horn before driving through entrance or exit doors.

2.

Use traffic lanes, parking zones and aisles only for the purpose intended.

3.

Stand to the side rather than in front of a vehicle when guiding it into a service bay.

4.

Keep the pit floor free of grease, oil, tools, and discarded old parts.

5.

Discard all disposable or junk parts in designated places.

6.

Keep flammable liquids away from any ignition source.

7.

Clean up spillage of flammable liquids immediately.

8.

Be constantly aware of possible sources of accidental ignition.

9.

Do not dump oil or gasoline into a sewer or septic tank.

10.

Always hook up exhaust-eliminating system hoses when running engines indoors.

11.

Keep all hand tools clean.

12.

Keep all portable and stationary electrical equipment clean and free from metal filings, dust, and grease.

13.

Always wear goggles or a face shield for all operations such as chipping, grinding, sanding, drilling, welding, spray painting, or working with liquid chemicals.

14.

Always wear a filter respirator for protection from dust.

15.

While working in the shop, avoid wearing ties, long sleeves, rings, or watches with metal bands.

16.

When replacing glass, wear gloves to avoid cutting yourself.

17.

Never allow sharp objects to protrude from your hip pockets.

18.

Do not stand on a wet floor when using electric tools.

19.

Do not use power equipment without proper guards in place.

20.

Always lock the ignition and remove the key when working on the engine.

21.

Do not attempt to start an engine by pouring gasoline into the carburetor while the engine is being turned over.

633

22.

Check air hoses, couplings, and air accessories before using them.

23.

Always stand to one side when inflating tires to avoid being injured by blowouts.

24.

When removing a battery, always disconnect the battery ground cable first; when installing a battery, connect the ground cable last.

25.

Always use a battery carrier strap to remove batteries.

26.

Disconnect the battery when working in confined areas where a short or a fire may occur.

27.

Always wear a helmet or goggles when doing any welding.

28.

Do not lubricate fittings or parts of welding or torch cutting equipment.

29.

Do not do any welding near or around the vehicle's gas tank, regardless of the situation.

3D.

Use only correct procedures when removing cooling system caps.

31.

Protect your hands and face from any rush of steam and hot water by using a heavy cloth over the radiator cap.

32.

Never work under an automobile unless jack stands are in place.

33.

Inspect lifts, jacks, hoists and stands before using them.

34.

Never use lifts and hoists unless they are in excellent condition.

35.

Learn the correct procedures and capacities before using lifts, jacks, hoists, and stands.

36.

Follow the labeled weight capacity when using lifts, jacks, hoists, and stands.

37.

Never jack up a car when someone is working under it.

38.

Always support the car or truck with support stands after using a hydraul ic jack.

39.

Never use bumper jacks as stands or supports when working under a car.

40.

If the vehicle has a nonslip differential, do not put the transmission in gear while the engine is running and one rear wheel is jacked up.

41.

When using a drive-on lift, always block the wheels to prevent the vehicle from rolling.

42.

Lift the car until the wheels clear the floor, then recheck for proper positioning.

634

43.

Never walk under the lift while it is being raised.

44.

Make sure the lift safety leg or hoist safety pin is in position when the lift is fully raised.

45.

Do not allow a jack handle to stick out from under a car.

46.

Jack handles should be in the up position when not in use.

47.

Creepers should be stored in an upright position or under a work bench when not in use.

635

AUIQ~OBILE

AND POWER MECHANICS SAFETY QUIZ

NAME

CLASS

DATE

GRADE

True or False:

1.

2.

It's always safe to run an automobile in gear with one wheel jacked up.

Do not lift more than the capacity stated on lifts, jacks, hoists, and stands.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

13.

14.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

You must always be aware of the hoist capacity and procedure, although you do not always have to abide by the rules.

It is safe to work under a car that is supported with a bumper jack.

Stands should be in position before you get under a vehicle, but they are not necessary.

A jack handle can stick out from under a car as long as a red flag is placed on the handle.

Once you start lifting the car, raise it to the desired position i mmed i ate 1y.

Never walk under the lift while it is being raised.

All hoists and lifts should be checked for proper working condition about once a month.

It is not necessary to check the position of the safety leg or hoist safety pin once the lift has been fully raised.

After using a hydraulic jack, always support the car or truck with support stands.

After pulling onto a drive-on lift, you should block the wheels to prevent the vehicle from rolling.

Never jack up a car while someone is working under it.

A jack handle should be left in the down position when not in use.

637

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

There is no way that ignition could be caused accidentally while you are working on an engine.

Cleaning up all flammable liquid spillage is a good practice.

All flammable liquids should be stored in locked metal cabinet away from ignition sources.

Air hoses, couplings, and accessories do not have to be checked as often as the air compressor.

When inflating tires, you should lean over the tire so you can see if the tire seals on the rim.

The ground cable should be disconnected first when the battery is being removed and reconnected first when the battery is being installed.

You should always use a battery carrier strap when removing the battery from the vehicle.

Students should always disconnect the battery when working around flammable liquids or when a short circuit may occur.

A helmet is the only personal protection needed when welding.

Acetylene valves and gauges are never to be lubricated with oil.

It is a safe practice to weld near a vehicle's gas tank as long as you are not welding onto it.

Safety awareness is a must when you remove a radiator cap.

When opening the radiator cap, always use a heavy cloth to protect yourself.

If you run the automobile engine for less than 15 seconds, exhaust-eliminating system hoses are not necessary.

Dumping flammable liquids into a sewer is permitted.

Always stand in front of the vehicle while guiding it into a servi ce bay.

Always store tools on the pit steps.

You should sound the horn before driving through entrance or exit doors.

It is not necessary to keep hand tools clean when using them.

Wearing rings and watches does not present a safety hazard when you tune up a vehicle.

638

41.

42.

43.

44.

45.

46.

35.

36.

37.

38.

39.

40.

Wear gloves when replacing glass in a vehicle.

When working on the engine, it is permissible to leave the ignition on in order to listen to the radio.

Do not stand on a wet floor when using electric tools.

Metal filings, dust, grease, and moisture on electrical equipment not present any particular problem.

It is not dangerous to carry tools or other sharp objects in your pockets.

Before using grinders and other equipment with moving parts, protective guards should be in place.

When not in use, creepers should not be stored in an upright position.

It is not safe to pour gasoline into the carburetor while the engine is being turned over.

It is not necessary to pay attention to the marks around aisles, parking zones, and working bays.

All junk or disposable parts should be left near the spot where they were removed.

Safety glasses or goggles must always be worn in the shop.

It is not necessary for students to wear a filter respirator for protection against dust.

639

SMALL GASOLINE ENGINE OPERATION

RULES

1.

Eye protection is required for operating a small gasoline engine.

2.

Report any accident or trouble to the teacher.

3.

Locate and learn to operate all switches and controls before starting the engine.

4.

Make sure the engine is secure before operation.

7.

8.

5.

When starting a mower with a blade, make sure the mower is on the floor.

6.

Do not play around or leave unattended any engine that is running.

9.

Do not operate a small gasoline engine without proper exhaust facilities.

Do not fill the gas tank while the engine is running or is hot.

Do not make any adjustments to machinery driven by a small engine without first stopping the engine and removing the lead from spark plug.

10.

Keep gasoline in an approved safety can, away from fire or open flame.

641

SMALL GASOLINE ENGINE SAFETY QUIZ

NAME

CLASS

DATE GRADE

Explain: l.

2.

Why shoul d an engine be secured before you start it?

How should an engine be shut off?

3.

4.

Any lawn mower that has a blade on it should be started where?

Why should you not 1eave an engine unattended when it is running?

5.

How can exhaust fumes be dangerous?

How can they be removed?

6.

What may happen if you fill a gas tank while the engine is running?

7.

Tell of the danger in making adjustments on an engine or machinery while the engine is running.

8.

What are the fire regulations for storing gasoline?

True or False: g.

Eye protection is not required while you operate a small gasoline engine.

10.

You should report any accident or trouble to the nurse.

643

BATTERY CHARGER

1.

NEGATIVE CABLE

2,

ON/OFF

Sv;']

TCH

3.

AI~11ETER

DIAL

4,

POWER CORD

5,

POSITIVE CABLE

6.

CELL COVER

1. Observe eye protection rules.

Always use safety glasses when servicing a storage battery.

2. Check the battery electrolyte level before attaching charger cables.

Fill only to the recommended level.

Do not overfill.

Never use a match or lighter to check the electrolyte level.

3. Smoking is prohibited in the charging area.

4. Replace cell covers during charging.

5. Provide ample ventilation when using a charger.

6. Make sure that the battery charger is turned off and the power cord is unplugged before connecting or disconnecting the charger leads.

7. Always connect the charger cables according to the polarity of the battery; negative to negative and positive to positive.

8. Disconnect the battery ground cable before charging.

9. When connecting cables, connect the ground cable last; disconnect the ground cable first.

10. Follow the manufacturer's instructions to turn the charger on and adjust the charging rate.

A very fast charge rate is not recommended.

If the battery gases excessively, or feels warm to the touch, lower the charge rate.

645

11.

Do not stand with your face directly over the battery.

12. If sparks occur at the batterY when the charger is turned on, turn off the charger and reconnect the charger clips to improve the connection.

13. Match the voltage and manufacturer's recommended amperage charge to the dial setting on the charger.

Do not overcharge the battery.

14. If a battery explosion should occur, immediately wash any part of your body or clothing that has come into contact with acid, using plenty of water.

15. Acid spills can be neutralized with a weak ammonia solution, a bicarbonate of soda solution, or by diluting with large quantities of water, applied immediately.

646

6

BATIERY CHARGER

1,

NEGATIVE CABLE

2,

ON/OFF SWITCH

3,

AMMETER DIAL

4.

POWER CORD

5,

POSITIVE CABLE

6,

CELL COVER

647

BArrERY G-tARGER SAFETY

Glllz.

N.AJ.1E

CLASS

DATE GRAD<:...E

_

_

_

True or False: (Circle true or false)

1. Never use a match or lighter to inspect the electrolyte level of the battery.

2. When connecting the battery cables, connect the ground cable first.

T

T

F

F

3.

It is best to charge a battery very quickly so that the charger doesn't have time to damage the battery.

T

4. The cell covers must be in place during a charge.

T

5. Batteries shall be charged in an enclosed area.

T

6. Keep your face directly over the battery while charging it so that you can see the electrolyte better.

7. The battery electrolyte should be slightly overfilled during charging, so the plates will be well covered.

T

T

8. Attach the positive charger cable to the positive T battery terminal; the negative to the negative battery terminal.

T 9. If a spark occurs when the charger is turned on, turn the charger off and reconnect the cables.

10. If a battery explodes, one must immediately wash all parts of the body and clothes that might have come in contact with acid, using plenty of water.

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

649

11.

Identify

the parts of a battery charger.

Ie

40

5.

6.

650

BRAKE DRUM/ROTOR LATHE

>,

~ j

!

I

I,

1.

ARBOR

2,

WORK LIGHT

3,

CROSS FEED ENGAGING LEVER

4,

TOOL BAR CLAMP

5.

SPINDLE LOCK

5,

SPINDLE FEED ENGAGING LEVER

7.

SPINDLE FEED DIAL

8,

INFIMATIC VARIABLE FEED GEAR

BOX ASSEMBLY

9.

SPINDLE FEED HAND WHEEL

10,

CROSS FEED HAND WHEEL

11.

CROSS SLIDE LOCK

1. Observe eye protection safety rules.

2. Do not remove the belt guards or shields, or in any way change or shortcut the controls and operations.

3. The spindle feed hand wheel will not operate unless the spindle feed engaging lever is in the off position.

4. The feed speed shall be adjusted only when the spindle is turning.

5. Be sure that the drums and rotors are mounted accurately and squarely before starting a cut.

Ask the teacher to check the setup.

6. Be careful not to let any loose clothing or items of jewelry (rings, wristwatches, necklaces, etc.) get caught in the moving parts.

Remove these things if they might catch on moving machinery.

7. Do not overload the lathe.

Follow the manufacturer's recommendations.

8. Do not turn on any switch unless you are thoroughly familiar with the operation of the lathe and until you have obtained the teacher's permission.

9. Keep the floor area around the lathe clean and free from obstacles.

Do not clean the lathe or the table with compressed air.

Use a counter brush.

651

BRAKE DRUM/ROTOR LATHE

6

1

H3;-------{10

~~

I

I

I

I

,

I

1

MOOR

2

WORK LIGHT

3

CROSS FEED ENGAGING lE\~R

4 T

COL EAR

Ci...A"'P

5

Sp

I NDLE LOCK

6 Sp

I NDLE FEED ENGAG I r~G lEVER

7

SPINDLE FEED DIAL

8

INFlMATlC VARIABLE FECD GEM

BOX ASSEMBLY

9

Sp INDLE FEED i-'AND \\'HEEL

10

CROSS FEED KMJD WHEEL

11

CROSS SLIDE LOCK

653

..

"--..

BRAKE

~RoTOR l.AlliE

N.A!'1E

SAFm

QUIZ.

U-AsS

OOE

G~E

_

_

_

True or Fal se: l.

Remove belt guards and shields if they are in the way.

2.

Adjust the feed speed only when the spindle is turning.

3.

Keep loose clothing away from moving parts.

4. Eye protection is not necessary if the shield is used.

(Circle true or fa 1se)

T F

T

T

T

F

F

F

5. Se sure to step over or around any obstacles around the lathe.

6.

Do not overload the lathe.

7. Make a cut with the lathe before havi ng the teacher check the setup.

8.

Do not take time to remount a drum or rotor that is not mounted squarely because the lathe will compensate for it.

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

655

9. Identify the parts of the brake drum/rotor lathe

,

-

I i

I i

-

,

)

L

2.

3.

40

50

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

lL

656

(1"

ENGINE ANALYZER

(2~

,~

~'l

• •

"

1.

BOOM

2.

OSCILLOSCOPE

3,

LEADS

4.

MASTER SWITCH

5.

CABINET

1. Obtain the teacher's permission before using the engine analyzer.

2. The engine analyzer is top-heavy and can tip over easily.

Never move it from one place to another by yourself.

3.

The engine must be turned off while the analyzer leads are attached to it.

4. Check the leads to see that they cannot fall into the fan blades or into the engine belts.

Also, make sure that the leads do not come into contact with the exhaust manifold.

5. The engine operator must obey the instructions of only one person: the one making the tests. Instructions coming from a group of mechanics are confusing and dangerous. Instructions must be clear and understood by all mechanics.

"Crank it over" does not mean

"Start it up." "Bump it" does not mean "Pump it," etc.

6. No one is to have his/her hands resting on any part of the engine or radiator during the testing.

7. The hand brake must be on.

The transmission must be in park if the vehicle has an automatic transmission; in neutral if it has a standard transmission.

8. The shop exhaust ventilator tube must be in place with the exhaust fan turned on.

657

1

ENGINE ANALYZER

2

1.

BOOM

2.

OSCILLOSCOPE

3.

LEADS

4.

MASTER SWITCH

5.

CABINET

659

---

ENGINE klALYZER SAFETY QUIZ

NAME

CLAss

DATE

.

GRADE

_

_

_

True or False:

1. In order to avoid confusion, only one person should move the analyzer from one place to another.

(Circle true or false)

T F

2. You should make sure the analyzer leads do not make T contact with the intake manifold.

3.

If several mechanics are making the test, they must all be responsible for giving the engine operator instructions.

T

F

F

F 4. No one should rest his/her hands on the engine or T radiator during the tests.

5. One should keep the analyzer leads away from the T fan blades or fan belts.

6. The engine must be running during the analyzer hookup in order to see that the meters are working properly.

T

7. One must hook up the shop exhaust ventilation system only if the shop begins to smoke.

8. The vehicle hand brake must be applied during the test.

T

T

F

F

F

F

661

9

0

Identify the parts of the engine analyzer.

3.

4.

5.

l.

2.

• •

662

HIGH SPEED WHEEL BALANCER

5

1.

WHEEL

2.

SPINNER

3.

FLOOR JACK

4,

SAFETY STAND

5.

JACK SADDLE

1. Obtain permission from the teacher before using the balancer.

2. Observe eye safety regulations.

3. Jack up the vehicle so that the wheel being balanced is off the floor by about 2 inches.

A. Follow the jack safety instructions.

B. Locate the jack saddle directly under the part to be raised.

C. Make sure only the wheel being balanced is off the floor.

4. Set the car hand brake, if possible.

5. Check to see that the wheel turns freely.

Eliminate all friction drag on the wheel such as brakes, bearings, etc.

6. Remove any clumps of mud, dirt, or grease from the wheel rim.

Remove any gravel or other objects from the tire tread.

Use safety stands under the car if it is necessary to get under it.

7. Ask the teacher to check the installation before spinning the wheel.

8. Do not allow anyone to stand in a direct line with the spinning Wheel.

9. Do not stop the rotation of the wheel with the car brakes.

10. If the wheel vibrates excessivelY, stop spinning it and check the installation.

Also check for loose wheel bearings or lug nuts.

If everything looks satisfactory, ask the teacher to check it over.

663

5

HIGH SPEED WHEEL BALANCER

1.

WHEEL

2.

SPINNER

3.

FLOOR JACK

4.

SAFETY STAND

5.

JACK SADDLE

665

I

I

__ I

I

I

I

I

~

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

HIGH SPEED WHEE! BALANCER SAEETf QIII7

NAME _

G..Ass

11m _

_

True or False:

1. The safest place to stand and observe the balancing is in a direct line with the wheel.

(Circle true or false)

T F

T F 2. Spin the wheel to see if it needs balancing before getting the teacher to check the installation.

3. Eye safety regulations must be observed at all times.

T F

4. Never stop the wheel from rotating with the car's brakes during the balancing.

5. All four wheels must be off the floor during the balancing of one wheel.

6. Clean off the rim of the wheel before balancing it.

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

7. If the wheel vibrates excessively when you start spinning it, don't be alarmed.

Continue with the balancing.

8. Identify the parts of the high speed wheel balancer.

G)

T

1.

2.

30

4.

5.

667

CAR LIFT

2

3

1.

REAR LIFTING SADDLE

2,

FRONT LI FTI NG SADDLE

3.

TWIN POSTS

4.

LIFT CONTROLS o

I

1. Wear eye protection.

2. Obtain permission from the teacher before using the car hoist.

3. Practice using the lift controls until they become familiar.

4. Place the car directly over the lift with the rear and front wheels centered over the hoist contact points.

Release the brakes and put the transmission in neutral.

A. Stand to one side when directing the driver of the car onto the 1i ft area.

B. The driver shall not wear safety glasses with visionrestricting side shields while driving a vehicle within the shop.

c.

The driver must have the side window down and the radio turned off.

D. Only licensed drivers may drive the vehicles, and no one should drive a vehicle equipped with standard transmission if s(he) is not familiar with it.

5. Position the lifting saddles in the proper location on the vehicle, according to the type of lift being used.

6. Ask the teacher to inspect the location of the lift saddles before the car is raised.

669

7. Make sure all persons and obstructions are clear before raising or lowering the vehicle.

8. Lift the vehicle a few inches off the floor and recheck the saddle positions.

9. Regulate the control valves to raise both ends of the car at the same time if the lift is the twin-post type.

10. After the vehicle is raised to the full height, close both control valves.

Turn the air valve to its neutral position, locking the air in the tanks.

11.

The lift should be equipped with a mechanical locking device.·

MAKE

CERTAIN TI-E DEVICE IS IN PLACE WH:N THE LIFT IS UP.

(WARNING)

Ihl'T

USE TIiE LIFT IF IT:

1jerks or jumps when rai sed

2.

slowly settles down after being raised

3.

slowly ri ses, eithe r when in use or when not in use

4.

comes down very slowly

5.

blows oil out of the exhaust 1ine

6.

leaks oil at the packi ng gland

Tell the teacher if any of these problems are observed.

12.

If the vehicle has curb feelers installed, cover them or tuck them under the fender as a protection to the eyes and face.

670

13. Wh€n removing the rear axle assembly, rear springs, shackles, or transmission, support the vehicle with the pr:per stands. (Twinpost type only.)

14. Ask the teacher to check the placement of these stands.

16. Check to see that the lift saddles go completely down into the pits before the vehicle is driven off the lift.

17. Report any lift malfunction to the teacher.

671

CAR LIFT

3

1,

REAR LIFTING SADDLE

2,

FRONT LIFTING SADDLE

3,

TWIN POSTS

4.

LIFT CONTROLS

673 o

I

CAILlI FT

SAFETY

WI

Z

NAME

CLASS

DATE GRADE

_

_

_

True or False: l.

One must stand directly in front of the vehicle when directing it on the lift so that it can be carefully centered.

2. When the car is raised, place the air valve in neutra 1 to trap air in the tanks.

3.

When lifting the vehicle, raise one end at a time.

(Circle true or false)

T F

T

T

F

F

T

F

4. Check to see that the lift saddles are completelY down into their pits before driving the vehicle off the lift.

5.

It is best to raise the car completely before asking the teacher to check it.

T F

T F

6.

Use special stands to support the vehicle when removing the rear springs if the lift is a tWin-post type.

7. Drivers shall not wear safety glasses with restrictive eye shields while driving within the shop.

8. Identify the parts of the car lift.

T

F

3

I tIl

1.

2"

3.

4.

------

675

ENGINE CRANE AND HOIST

I j

~)

I---\\+L---~~)

1,

HOOK

2.

BOOM

I~~~I m-,-~5)

3,

HYDRAU LI CRAM

4,

SUPPORT STANDS

5,

PRESSURE CONTROL LEVER o

1. Obtain permission from the teacher before using a hoist or crane.

2. Place the crane or hoist directly over the object to be lifted.

3. Inspect the chain. cable, or rope each time it is used for lifting.

4. Attach the lifting device to the object, using no less than 3/8 inch diameter bolts.

Use large washers and fasten the lifting device firmly to the object so that the head of the bolt is tight against the lifting device.

5,

Double check the fastening of the chain, cable, or rope to make sure it is secure and that it cannot slip from the object being

'hoisted.

6. The load must be balanced before lifting.

7. Make sure all persons lowering the object.

time.

and obstructions are clear before ralslng or

No one is permitted under the vehicle at this

8. Keep all hands clear and raise the engine until the motor mounts are clear.

Shake the engine from side to side to see that it is free.

9. Raise the engine slowly while watching for any binding.

Do not allow the hoist control chain to drag on the vehicle, or catch on any obstructions in the engine compartment.

677

10. After the engine is free of the vehicle, either move the vehicle back or the hoist forward until the engine can be lowered to the floor.

Do not leave the load in a high position on the hoist.

11. Use care when the hoist is moved from one point to another so that it will not strike anyone or anything as it is moved.

12. Make sure that the size of the load on any crane or hoist does not exceed its rated load.

(OSHA)

13.

It is important to inspect chain slings regularly and to keep a record of individual chain inspection.

Before inspecting, clean the chains so that marks, nicks, wear, and other defects can be seen.

14. Each chain link should be inspected for twists or bends, nicks or gouges, excessive wear at bearing points, stretched links, distorted or damaged master links, coupling links, or attachments.

Each link or attachment having any of these defects must be marked with paint to plainly indicate the rejection, and it shall be eliminated from service until properly repaired.

15. When using the chain, avoid sudden jerks in lowering or lifting.

16. Make sure the load is balanced.

17. Never overload the cha in.

18. Free all twists, knots, or kinks.

Don't drop the load on the chain.

19. Chains should be oiled before prolonged storage.

20. Store chains on an A-frame in a clean dry place.

21.

Do not use the hoist chain for anything but lifting.

678

1

2

ENGINE CRANE AND HOIST

5

1,

HOOK

2,

BOOM

3.

HYDRAULIC RAM

4,

SUPPORT STANDS

5.

PRESSURE CONTROL LEVER

679

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

~

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

ENGINE CRANE AND [JOIST SAFETY

Qu.u.

NAr-£

QAss

DATE GRADE

_

_

_

True or False:

1. Attach the lifting device to the object with bolts that are no less than 1/4 inch in di ameter.

2. Keep all hands clear and raise the engine until the motor mounts are clear; then shake the engine from side to side to see if it is free.

3. Be sure that someone is under the vehicle to check the engine while it is being raised.

4. After the engine is free of the vehicle.

move the vehicle out of the way and keep the engine at eye level so that other pupils will not walk into it.

(Circle true or false)

T F

T

T

T

F

F

F

T F 5. Place the crane or hoist slightly in front of the object to be raised so that the object will swing clear when it is lifted.

6

0

Identify the parts of the engine crane and hoist.

(~

I

@

681

HYDRAULIC FLOOR JACK

3

1.

CASTERS

2.

SADDLE

3.

HANDLE

4.

CONTROL VALVE

5.

RAPID RISE FOOT PUMP

5

I. Know exactly how to operate the lifting and lowering controls of the hydraulic jack before using it.

Practice without a load on the saddle.

2. The operator must make sure that the jack used has a rating sufficient to lift and sustain the load.

3. 00 not use the jack if there is any doubt about its safe operation.

4. 00 not place the jack or stand under an inclined surface.

Always place it under a horizontal or flat surface to avoid slipping.

5. Locate the jack saddle directly under care that the lifting point is solid.

pans, fuel tank, exhaust pipes, etc.

the part to be raised.

Take

Avoid contact with the oil

6. 00 not work under any car or object that is supported by a jack alone.

Always place safety stands under the frame or wheel support systems before getting under the car.

7. Do not permit anyone to work on the vehicle while it is beinq raised or lowered.

Never raise or lower a vehicle if someone is underneath.

8. Wear eye protection.

683

9. If the jack must be left under the vehicle, the handle should be left in the raised position or positioned under the vehicle so other pupils will not bump into it.

This makes it easier to see and does not cause a tripping hazard.

10. Do not work under a raised car until the teacher's approval has been received.

11. Use only school jacks to lift the vehicles in the auto shop.

12. Operate the jack handle only while facing the load.

13. When lowering the vehicle, do so slOWly, after checking to see that all tools, drop lights, creepers, etc. are clear.

14. Each jack shall be thoroughly inspected every six months.

15. Jacks which are out of order shall be tagged accordingly and not used until repairs are made.

16. Do not continue to use a jack that malfunctions.

Report any unusual actions to the teacher.

HYDRAULIC JACK MALFUNCTIONS

1.

Jerks or jumps when raised.

2.

Slowly settles down after being raised.

3.

Slowly rises when not in use.

4.

Rises slowly when in use.

5.

Comes down very slowly.

6.

Blows oil out of the exhaust line.

7.

Leaks oil at the packing gland.

REPORT ANY OF THESE MALFUNCTIONS TO THE TEACHER AT ONCE.

684

HYDRAULIC FLOOR JACK

3

1.

CASTERS

2,

SADDLE

3.

HANDLE

4,

CONTROL VALVE

5.

RAPID RISE FOOT PUMP

685

HYDRAULIC JACKS--USE

IN

THE BoDY SHOP

The hydraulic jack is one of the most useful tools in a body shop.

But whether it is used as a frame straightener or as a simple body lift, a jack can be as dangerous as it is useful.

PULLING--When using the jack for pulling jobs, the clamp or chain may let go for several reasons: the clamp teeth may be unclean or worn; the clamp may have been fastened to undercoating rather than the metal itself; the clamp may not have been tightened enough; the metal may give way, especially when the operator is pull ing a rusted panel; the chain or clamp may break.

The following rules should be observed before starting a pulling job.

1.

Clean the teeth of clamps regularly with a wire brush.

BEFORE CLEANING

AFTER CLEANING

2.

Inspect clamps and chains for wear before use.

i f its teeth are worn.

Replace the chain if it wise damaged.

All chains should be replaced at regardless of wear.

Replace the clamp is nicked or otherregular intervals,

3.

Make sure all undercoating is removed where the clamp is attached.

4.

When the clamp is to be attached, to a rusted panel, tack weld a metal brace to the panel for support.

5.

Have the car on its wheels or bolted to mobile safety stands when pulling.

This will prevent the car from falling off the stand during the pull.

6.

Wrap the chain around a frame member several times.

This will spread the load over as many links as possible.

Make sure the chain isn't twisted.

7.

If the chain links are drawn across sharp corners, provide padding for the links so that they won't break when pressure is applied.

687

8.

Make sure the chain hook is connected to a link with a firm grip.

Test it before applying hydraulic pressure.

9.

Cover the chain and clamp with a heavy blanket before starting the pull.

They will be less likely to fly back at the operator if a slip or break occurs.

10.

Stand to either side of the jack--never behind it.

Make sure all others are clear of the jack before starting the pull.

11.

If possible, stand behind a strong acrylic plastic or safety glass shield during all but the 1i9htest Dulls.

12.

Make sure all body attachments are screwed on tightly.

Be careful not to damage the threads on the attachments.

Working on a car held up by only a hydraulic jack can lead to a serious accident.

Always use the "horses" or jack stands.

They will keep the car from falling on the operator if the jack is accidentally released.

Check and recheck all safety devices and latches on hydraulic jacks.

Don't try to bypass them.

688

HYDRAIILIC FLOOR JACK SAFETY

QW?

NPME

CLAss

DATE GRADE _

_

True or False:

(Circle true or false)

1.

It is the responsibil ity of the school to make sure that the jack being used has sufficient rating for the load.

2. Do not place the jack under an inclined surface.

T

T

F

F

3. It is considered safe to crawl under a vehicle that is supported by the jack alone if one prepareS oneself to get out of the way very quickly.

4. When lowering the vehicle to the floor, do it very quickly so no one can slip underneath before it is lowered.

T

T

F

F

5. It is permitted to use the bumper jack from the trunk of the car to raise the car if all other jacks are in use.

6. The engine oil pan is flat and therefore can be used as a contact point to lift the car.

7. You should not permit anyone to work on the car while it is being raised or lowered.

8. You must not use the jack if there is any doubt about its safe operation.

9. It is best to face away from the vehicle when raising it with the jack so that you can move away quickly.

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

10. An operator must know exactly how to operate the jack before trying to lift a vehicle.

11. It is permissible to use a jack that has been tagged "Out of order" if a person is careful in its use, and if the teacher is not looking.

T

T

F

F

689

12.

Identify the parts of the hydraulic floor jack.

5

690

AUTOMOTIVE END LIFT

1------\1

1.

HANDLE

2.

SADDLE

1. Know exactly how to operate the lifting and lowering controls of the end lift before using it.

Check with the teacher and practice without a load on the saddles.

2. The operator must make sure that the jack

'IJhjch is used has a "·atirq sufficient to lift and sustain the load.

3. Do not use the end 1ift if there is any doubt about its safe operation.

4. Position end lift saddles under the front or rear bumper and carefully locate the manufacturer's approved lifting points on the vehicle being lifted.

CAUTION!

All vehicles cannot be lifted by the bumper.

5. Slowly lift the saddles to about one inch from the lift points on the vehicle and adjust the lift so that they are in the correct location.

6. The teacher must check the posltlon of the lift if it is the first time that this type of vehicle has been lifted by the pupil.

691

7. Place the transmission in neutral and release the hand brake if the front end of the vehicle is to be raised.

8. Slowly raise the end lift saddles until contact with the vehicle is made.

9. Permit no one to work on or under the vehicle while it is being raised or lowered.

10. Raise the vehicle slowly to the height desired.

11. Place safety stands under the vehicle at the frame or the suspension supports and lower it either to the stands or to the safety stop position on the end lift.

Do not work under a car that is supported by the end lift alone.

12. When lowering the vehicle with the end lift, first raise it to release the safety stop and remove the safety stands.

13. Check to see that all tools, tool boards, creepers, drop lights, etc. are clear and that no one is working on or under the vehicle; then slowly lower it to the floor.

14. Replace the end lift in its proper place in the shop.

692

AUTOMOTIVE

END

LIFT

1.

HANDLE

2.

SADDLE

693

AuroorI\IE

tW1E

OOl.IFI SAFETY

QUIZ

CLASS

DATE

_ _ _ _ _ _ GRADE

_

_

_

True or False:

(Circle true or

false)

1. All vehicles can be lifted by their bumpers.

2. Someone must be under the vehicle while it is being raised in case something starts to slip.

3. Safety stands are not needed when an end lift is used, because it has built-in safety stops.

T

T

T

F

F

F

4. You must place the transmission in neutral and release the parking brake if the front end of the vehicle is to be raised.

5. The teacher must check the position of the saddles if it is the first time that a pupil has lifted this type of vehicle.

T

T

F

F

6. The operator must check to see that the floor area under the vehicle is clear before it is lowered to the floor.

7. Identify the parts of the automotive end lift.

T F

®

! -_ _ -\1

2 l.

2.

695

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HOT CAUSTIC TANK

~}

J

(4)

1.

HOIST

2.

CONTROL SWITCH

3,

STEAM SHUT-OFF VALVE

4,

STEAM LINE

5,

GAS LINE

6,

GAS SHUT-OFF VALVE

I

(~)

,

1. Wear a face shield, plastic or rubber gloves, long sleeves, and foot protection.

2. Permit no one near the tank during the time that objects are being placed in it or removed from it, unless the person is wearing the proper protective clothing.

3. Obtain permission from the teacher before using the caustic tank.

4. Use a suitable lifting device to raise or lower the tank lid so that live steam is not released into your face.

5. Become familiar with the hoist operation before lifting any object with it.

6. Do not place aluminum in the caustic.

7. Wash splashes on the skin immediately, using soap and water.

8. Ask the teacher to light the gas burners.

Lighting should not be done by a pupil.

9. Secure the chains with wire so that they can be located for easy hookup to the hoist when theY are being removed from the tank.

10. Remove the caustic from the objects by hosing it with hot water.

Take care not to splash the caustic on anyone.

11. Wash the caustic from any personal protective clothing that was used.

697

HOT CAUSTIC TANK

1

~-----\2

1.

HOIST

2.

CONTROL Sw ITCH

3.

STEAM SHUT-OFF VALVE

4.

STEAM LINE

5.

GAS LINE

6.

GAS SHUT-OFF VALVE

699

HOT

CAUSTIC TANK

SAfETY

QUIZ

NAME

CLASS

DATE _

GRADE _ _

_

_

True or False:

1. Use solvent to wash off any splashes of caustic that get on the skin.

2. Obtain permission from the teacher before using the caustic tank.

3. Always wear proper safety apparel when using the caustic tank.

4. An observer does not need safety apparel when near the caustic tank.

5. Do not place cast iron in the caustic tank.

6. Turn on the burners under the tank when ready to use it.

7. Lift the tank lid while standing directly in front of it.

8. Secure the lifting chains with wire so that they can be located for easy hookup to the hoist when they are being removed from the tank.

9. Hose off caustic from the objects with hot water.

10. Learn how to use the tank hoist before trying to lift heavy objects.

11. Do not place aluminum objects in the caustic tank.

(Circle true or false)

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

701

12" Identify the parts of the hot caustic tank.

(

----..:1"';,

:2:-;'

3.

4.

5.

6.

I

.

2.

702

SOLVENT TANK

1

3

4

1.

LID

2,

NOZZLES

3,

ON/OFF SWITCH

4,

TANK

1. Wear eye protection at all times.

2. Solvent will remove a11 natura 1 oi 1s from the sk in.

Hands sha 11 be washed with soap and water and thoroughly dried as soon as possible after contamination.

Persons with sensitive skin need to wear rubber or plastic gloves.

3. Be sure that the fluid nozzle is directed downward toward the reservoir before turning on the pump switch.

4. Solvent becomes very slippery when splashed on the floor.

This is especially true if water is also present.

Wipe up all spills immediately.

5. Solvent will burn.

Permit no sparks, open flames, or very hot meta 1s near it.

6. Upon completion of the use of the solvent tank, turn off the pump switch.

703

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SOLVENT TANK

1

4

3

'L..---+-~I

1.

LID

2.

NOZZLES

3.

ON/OFF SWITCH

4.

TANI(

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SOLVENT TANK SAFEJY QUIZ

NAME

CLAss

DATE GRADE

_

_

_

True or False: l.

Solvent is safe and will not burn.

2. Wipe up spills immediately because solvent makes floors slippery.

(C ire 1e true or fa 1se)

T

T

F

F

3.

Solvent is a good skin conditioner.

4. Wear eye protection at all times.

5.

The fluid nozzle should be directed upward before the pump switch is turned on.

6. Identify the parts of the solvent tank.

T

T

T

F

F

F

10

20

3.

4.

4

707

STEAM CLEANER

CD f\

, i '

V!

®

1.

SOAP SOLUTION TANK

2.

STEAM HOSE

3.

NOZZLE

4.

HANDLE

.',-0

1.

Obtain permission from the teacher before using the steam cleaner.

2. Wear protective clothing.

Face shield, gloves, rubber footwear, and a rubber apron shall be worn when handling the steam cleaning soap or the steam nozzle.

3. Work in a well-ventilated area.

4. Add soap according to the manufacturer's instructions.

5. Turn the water valve on fully.

6. When water is flowing from the steam nozzle, turn on the burner control and adjust it to the limit set by the manufacturer.

Check with the teacher if unsure of this setting.

Do not overheat the boiler tubes.

7. Permit no one else in the steam room while using the steam cleaner, unless the person is wearing protective clothing.

8. When steam is coming from the nozzle, open the soap valve and direct the steam to the object being cleaned.

Do not lay the nozzle down unless a special place to do so has been designated by the teacher.

9. Shut down the steam cleaner if any unusual noise is heard from the unit, or if steam pressure seems to rise rapidly.

Report this to the teacher.

10. Shut down the steam cleaner by turning off the gas burner control.

Wait for the steam from the nozzle to turn to water, then turn off the water valve.

Be sure that the soap valve is off.

11. Place the hose and nozzle in the proper location, then hose down the floor and dry it with a squeegee.

12. Clean the protective clothing with solvent and/or soap and water and put all articles in their proper places.

709

STEAM CLEANER

_', -'3"

.. '.

I ,

\::!!J

1.

SOAP SOLUTION

TANK

2.

STEAM HOSE

3.

NOZZLE

4.

HANDLE

711

®

STEAM CLEANER SAfETY QUIZ

tirIMs

CUss

DATE _

_

_

True or False:

1-

The water valve shall be turned on fully before turning on the burners.

2. The gas burner control must be turned on fully.

3.

Protective clothing must be worn whi 1e steam cleaning.

4.

The operator should never lay the steam nozzle down while steam is coming from it unless a special place has been designated by the teacher.

5.

If any unusual noise comes from the steam cleaner, it can be ignored because safety valves will protect the user.

6.

When turning off the steam cleaner, you should first turn off the water valve.

7. Permission must be obtained from the teacher before using the steam cleaner.

8,

Identify the parts of the steam cleaner.

(Circle true or false)

T F

T

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

(i)

®

2.

3.

4,

713

STORAGE BATTERY

5

®

'=tn,

~,

...

'''''='fr

' j

,

....

,

",~

6

7

1.

NE"ATIVE TERMI NAL POST

2,

NEGATIVE

CLM-1P

3,

POSITIVE CLAMP

4,

POSITIVE TERMINAL POST

5,

POSITIVE

CABLE

6,

YEn CAPS OR CELL COVERS

7,

BATTE.RY CASING

8,

NEGATIVE

CABLE

The automotive storage battery is one of the most potentially dangerous objects in the automotive shop.

It is filled with corrosive acid and the gases that are given off from it are extremely explosive and poisonous.

Great care must be observed in handling the battery.

Most accidents occur when batteries are jumped or charged.

1. Obtain permission from the teacher before servicing or charging a storage battery.

2. EYE PROTEcTION MUST BE QBSERVED.

Face, hand, and clothing protection shall be used.

3. Always use the proper instruments for testing a battery.

Do not short across the battery terminals.

The resulting spark could cause an explosion.

4. Avoid overfilling a battery, especially if it is soon to be charged.

5. Handle battery and acid with care.

Immediately wash any part of your body or clothing that comes into contact with acid.

Transport a battery properly by using a battery carrier.

If the cell covers have been removed, replace them before moving the battery.

6. An acid spill can be neutralized with a weak ammonia solution or with a bicarbonate of soda SOlution, or one can dilute the spill by using large quantities of water, applied immediately.

Avoid spilling or dripping electrolyte when using a hydrometer.

7. Deluge showers and eye baths should be provided adjacent to the battery charging area.

If acid gets in the eyes, flush them out immediately with a large amount of water and notify the teacher.

715

STORAGE BATTERY (CONT,)

8. Batteries should be stored and charged only in well-ventilated areas.

Do not breathe fumes from the battery.

g. All sources of ignition should be remote from the battery charging or storage area.

There must be no smoking, no lighted matches or lighters, and no sparking from tools.

10. Do not work on batteries while they are being charged or discharged.

11. Metal jewelry such as rings, bracelets, or necklaces shall not be worn around batteries.

12. A battery charger shall be connected or disconnected only when the charger is turned off and unplugged, and the vent caps are in place.

13. Remove and replace battery clamps in the correct order:

A.

B~ttery remova1--disconnect the grounded clamp first.

B. Battery instal1ation--connect the grounded battery clarno last.

14. Disconnect the ground cable while working on any rotating parts of the vehicle.

15. Never stand with your face directly over a battery being charged.

The fumes are deadly, and an explosion could spray acid into your face.

16. Do not jump a frozen battery.

716

®

STORAGE BATTERY

1.

NEGATIVE TERMINAL POST

2.

NEGATIVE CLAMP

3.

Pas IT IVE CLAMP

4.

POSITIVE TERMINAL POST

5.

POSITIVE CABLE

6.

VENT CAPS OR CELL COVERS

7.

BATTERY CASING

8.

NEGATIVE CABLE

717

STORAGE

BATIERY

SAFETY QuIZ

Nfllo1EL,.

CLASS

DATE GRADE.

_

_

_

True or False:

1. You should never stand with your face directly over a battery bei ng charged.

2.

It is all right to work on batteries while they are being charged or discharged.

3. You should place extra water in the battery during charging to compensate for the loss of water due to heat.

4. Acid spills can be neutralized by solvent.

5. Eye protection must be observed when working with a ba ttery.

6. Batteries shall be charged in a sealed area to keep deadly fumes from escaping.

7. When removing the battery from a vehicle, the ground cable shall be disconnected last.

B. A person must test a battery by shorting a pair of pliers across the terminals.

9. You must disconnect the ground cable while working on any rotating part of the drive line, such as the universal joints.

10. When attaching a battery to the vehicle, you must fasten the ground cable last.

11. If acid is splashed in the eyes, you should flush them out with plenty of water and notify the teacher.

12. The vent caps should be removed while transporting a battery.

(Circle true or false)

T F

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

719

13.

Identify the parts of the storage battery,

3.

4.

5,

1.

2.

-:J------(

7

720

AUTO TIRE CHANGER

1.

CENTER POST

2,

HOLD-DOWN CONE

3,

POSITIONING PIN

4,

TOP BEAD LOOSENING GUIDE

5,

RUBBER LUBRICANT DISPENSER

1. Removing and replacing tires on rims can be dangerous.

Do not attempt this job unless thoroughly instructed on the use of the equipment.

Always get the teacher's permission before using it.

2. Wear eye protection.

3. Each manufacturer of tire changing equipment has step-by-step procedures to follow for that particular piece of equipment.

Follow these steps. Do not take chances with shortcuts.

4. Use only the approved tools needed for the job.

5. Do not be careless.

6. If the tire does not seem to fit the rim, do not force it.

Notify the teacher that there is a problem.

7. Inspect the rims for cracks and other damage.

8. Do not attempt to weld on an inflated tire-rim assembly.

9. Magnesium rims are brittle.

Handle them with care and keep fire away from this type of rim.

721

10. Always exhaust all the air from the tire before attempting to demount it.

11. Never 1et go of a tire i ron when pryi ng.

The i ron may spri ng bac k with terrific force.

12. Do not try to remove large sections of the tire from the rim with each bite.

13. Stay well balanced.

Do not lean over the wheel or rim assembly.

14. Keep the floor area clear of debris.

Sand, gravel, or mud can cause one to slip.

15. Use a rubber lubricant to aid the removal and replacement of the tire on the rim.

16. Keep hands clear of any power-assisted tools.

lNFLATIQN OF TIRES

1. When inflating tires, use an extension hose with a clip-on chuck.

2. Keep the hands and face clear of the expanding bead.

3. Never place the fingers between the tire bead and the rim.

4. The tire bead will snap into place with a loud "pop." Be prepared for it.

5. Do not inflate a tire that has been run flat.

Remove it and inspect the rim and tire for internal damage.

6. If the tire bead does not seat in at 35 psi., deflate the tire, reposition it slightly on the rim, lubricate the bead, and reinflate.

722

AUTO TIRE CHANGER

1

CENTER POST

2

HOLD-DoWN CONE

3

POSITIONING PIN

4

Top BEAD LOOSENING GUIDE

5

RUBBER LUBRICANT DISPENSER

723

AUTO TIRE CHANGER SAFETY QUIZ

NIIME

CLASS

DATE~

__.:GRADE.

_

_

_

True or False:

1. To improve speed in mounting tires, skip some of the procedures recommended by the manufacturer.

2. If the tire does not seem to fit the rim, you should apply more rubber lubricant and force it on.

3.

It is permitted to weld on an inflated tire-rim assembly.

4. Fire is good for magnesium rims.

5. It is better to remove as large a section of the bead from the rim as can be done at one time.

6. You should never let go of a tire iron when prying the bead from the rim.

7. Some of the air must be retained in the tire when demounting it in order to protect the bead.

8. Motor oil can be used as a lubricant when mounting tires.

g. You should never place your fingers between the rim and the bead when inflating the tire.

10. If the bead snaps into place on the rim with a loud "pop" while it is being inflated, something is wrong, and the tire should be demounted.

(Circle true or false)

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

725

11.

Identify the parts of an auto tire changer.

726

TRUCK TIRE INFLATIOO CAGE

1.

CAGE

2,

TIRE

3.

BASE

J3)

4,

SPLIT RIM

5,

SIDE GUARD

1. Follow safety rules number 1 through 16 in the Auto Tire Changer

Unit.

2. IMPORTANT: Many truck and tractor tires have split rims.

Changing these tires is hazardous for inexperienced persons, especially if proper equipment is not available.

If a tire explodes, a lock ring blows off, or a hydraulic bead breaker slips, a person could be struck with instant killing force.

Always get the teacher's permission to use the truck tire changer.

3. Get help when handling large tractor tires.

They are so heavy that they can tip and fall easily, injuring the back or crushing the legs.

4. Always exhaust all the air from a single tire and from both tires of a dual assembly prior to removing any rim or wheel components, such as nuts and rim clamps.

Check the valve stem by running a piece of wire through the stem to make sure it is not plugged.

5. Use caution when removing side ring, flange, or lock ring.

Support them on the thigh and roll them slowly to the ground.

6. Do not reinflate a tire that has been run flat without first inspecting the tire, rim, and wheel assembly.

Double check the side and lock rings for damage and make sure that they are secure in the gutter before inflation.

7. A safety tire rack, cage, or equivalent protection shall be provided and used when inflating, mounting, or demounting tires installed on spl~t rims, or rims equipped with locking rings or similar devices.

727

TRUCK TIRE INFLATION CAGE

1

1.

CAGE

2.

TIRE

3,

BASE

4,

SPLIT RIM

5.

SIDE GUARD

729

TRUCK TlRLINFLATlON CAGE SAFETY QUlL

NAME.

CLASS,

DATE GRADE.

_

_

_

True or False:

1. You must get help when handling large tractor tires.

2. You must always exhaust all air from the tire before removing any rim components.

3. Split rims are dangerous because they are too heavy.

4. The best way to see if all the air is out of the tire is by sticking a wire through the tube.

5. Tires installed on split rims must always be inflated in a safety cage.

(Circle true or false)

T

T

T

T

T

6. A tire that has been run flat must be carefully inspected before it is inflated.

7. You should always obtain permission from the teacher before changing truck or tractor tires.

8. Identify the parts of the truck tire inflation cage.

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

_" 5:

3.

4.

1.

2.

5.

731

VALVE RECONDITIONER

CD

1.

LEVER

2.

VALVE CHUCK

3,

VALVE FACE GRINDING WHEEL

4.

VALVE TIP GRINDING WHEEL

5.

LIGHT

1. Wear eye protection at

all

times.

2. Obtain permission from the teacher before using the valve recond it i oner.

3. Long hair and loose clothing must be contained.

4. Keep the floor area around the machine clean, dry, and free from debris.

5. Do not grind any valve unless you are completely familiar with the machine.

Practice with a spare valve and move the controls to learn the action before turning on the machine.

6. Check and adjust the grinding angle and adjust the depth stop so the valve stem cannot be ground.

7. Make no adjustments with the grinding wheel turned on.

8. Make several light cuts rather than one heavy one.

g. If the normal sound of the grinder changes, shut it off immediately and notify the teacher. .

10. Do not allow any distractions to occur while using the grinder.

Concentrate on the job.

11. Turn the grinder off if the machine must be left eyen for only a moment.

733

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I

VALVE RECONDITIONER

5

1.

LEVER

2.

\jI\LVE. CHUCK

3.

\jI\LVE rl\CE GR1ND1NG

4.

\jALVE T1P GR1ND1NG

~HEEL

~HE.E.L

S.

LIGHT

735

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I

VALVE RECONPITIONER SAFETY QUIZ

NAME

CLASS,

DATE GRADE.

_

_

_

True or False:

1.

Do not make adjustments on the machine while the grinding wheel is turning.

2. If the normal sound of the grinder changes, hurry and finish grinding in case the machine stops.

3. Keep the floor area around the grinder clean, dry, and free of debris.

4. Keep the grinder running even if it is only left for a moment, so others will know it is still in use.

5. Long hair and .loose clothing must be conta i ned.

6. Heavy cuts are better than light ones because the grinder does not have to run so long.

7. Identify the parts of the valve reconditioner.

5

(Circle true or false)

T

F

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

F l.

2.

3.

- - - - - - - - - - - - -

4.

5.

737

REFERENCES

Materials were selected and reviewed from the following sources, and in some instances were incorporated in the production of the preceding unit.

Adams, Virgil, Auto Mechanics Teacher, Wichita High School Heights

Ammco Tools, Inc.

California State Safety Guide, "Industrial Arts Safety Instruction"

CM Chain Co., "Chain Safety"

U. S. Dept. of Labor, "General Industry Safety and Health Standards,"

OSHA #2206

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, "Instructional Guide for Auto Mechanics" and "Industrial Education Safety Instructional Guide"

Kansas State Safety Guide, "Safety Practices in the Auto, Diesel, and

Agriculture Mechanics Shops." by Janice Parr, Kansas Curriculum

Materials Dissemination Center, Pittsburg State University

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIOS, "Health and Safety Guide," U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare.

Ohio State Safety Guide, "Industrial Arts and Vocational Education

Safety"

Oklahoma State Safety Guide, "Accident Prevention for Industrial Arts,

Vocational and Technical Education Programs," Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education

Shawnee Mission Public Schools Safety Guide, "Safety Guide"

Utah State Safety Guide, "Industrial Education Safety Recommendations and OSHA Standards"

Washington State Industrial Arts Safety Guide

Wyoming State Safety Guide, "Occupational Education Safety Manual"

738

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~/

.. I

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~

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

B~ll,

Herbert, and Garner, James.

Eye Safety in Washington.

Olympia, Wash.:

Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Division of Vocational Education, 1969.

Format:

Content:

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Audience:

Teacher's guide.

Material on eye protection devices and safeguards.

Includes material on many eye-protection devices and laws relating to eye protection.

Students grades 7-14, teachers.

Essentials of Machine Guarding.

Safe Work Practices Series.

Washington,

D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 1975.

(OSHA 2227)

Format:

Content:

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Audience:

Printed pamphlet.

A discussion of all types of machine guarding.

Useful, captioned illustrations.

Teachers.

Eye Protection for Students, Teachers and Observers: A Guide for Elementary,

Secondary, Post-Secondary and Adult Classes.

Atlanta, Ga.: Georgia Department of Education, Division of Vocational Education, 1980.

Format:

Content:

Aud ience:

Programmed text.

General information pertaining to eye safety in

Georgia schools, including school board policies concerning the implementation of an eye protection program.

Students grades 7-14, teachers, administrators.

Eye Protection in Educational Institutions.

Trenton, N.J.: partment of Education, Division of Vocational Education rat i on, 1980.

New Jersey Deand Career Prepa-

Format:

Content:

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Aud i ence:

Programmed text, teacher's guide.

General information and safety charts pertaining to eye safety and eye-safety devices.

Very thorough overall content, well-designed safety charts, and useful appendix materials.

Students grades 7-14, teachers, administrators.

Firenze, Robert J., and Walters, James B.

Safety and Health for Industrial

Vocational Education NIOSH/OSHA.

Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of

Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Center for Disease

Control, July 1981.

Format: Teacher's guide.

741

Content:

Audience:

Material dealing with health programs and the characteristics of effective safety in schools.

Teachers, administrators.

Hair, Richard, and others.

Vocational Safety Guide.

Tampa, Fla.: Hillsborough County Public Schools, August 1980.

Format:

Content:

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Audience:

Teacher's guide.

Material on safety in industrial arts classes.

Very comprehensive, detailed lists of proper and safe equipment and guidelines for tool and material use.

Teachers, administrators.

Hand Tools: Selecting, Using, and Caring for Hand Tools.

Trainee's Guide.

Barrington, Ill.: Technical Publishing Co., 1973.

Format:

Content:

Programmed text, student workbook, tests, teacher's guide.

Hand tool information, including safety in the use of hand tools.

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Audience:

Presents a very complete, handsomely illustrated program on hand tools.

Students grades 7-14, teachers.

Health and Safety Resource Guide for Trades and Industry and Industrial Arts

Programs in the Maryland Educational System.

Cresaptown, Md.: Western

Maryland Vocational Resource Center, 1979.

Format:

Content:

Printed material.

General safety resource guide covering all aspects of safety.

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Audience:

Includes audiovisual aids, a complete section on resource materials, and information on teacher liability.

Students grades 7-14, teachers, administrators.

Hoerner, Thomas A., and Bettis, Mervin D.

Power Tool Safety and Operation:

~W~o~odTwTo~r~k~i~n~g~,~MTe~t~a~lw~o~r~k~i~n~gu,~M~e~t~a~ls~a~n~d~W~e~l~d~i~ng~.

Publications, 1973.

St. Paul, Minn.: Hobar

Format:

Content:

Programmed text, performance checklists, transparency masters, tests.

For each of the 24 power tools covered, there is a section on part identification, safe operational procedures, general safety practices, and completion questions.

(An instructor's guide entitled Power Tool

Safety and Operation: Instructor Packet is to be used in conjunction with this manual.)

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Audience:

A good, complete program.

Students grades 7-14, teachers.

742

.r--- ,

Power Tool Safety and Operation: Instructor Packet.

St. Paul,

Minn.: Hobar Publications, 1973 •

Format:

Content:

Instructor's guide.

Contains suggested teacher and student activities, a transparency master on part identification, and a safety exam.

(A student manual entitled Power Tool

Safety and Operation: Woodworking, Metalworking,

Metals and Welding is to be used in conjunction with this instructor's guide.)

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Audience:

A good, complete program.

Teachers.

Industrial Arts Curriculum Guide for Safety.

Hartford, Conn.: Connecticut

State Department of Education, Division of Vocational Education, Bureau of

Vocational Services, May 19B1.

Format:

Content:

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Audience:

Teacher's guide, tests, catalog of competencies and object ives.

A curriculum for industrial arts with special emphasis on safety.

A very comprehensive and detailed manual.

Includes quizzes and reproducible pictures of shop equipment.

Mentally and physically handicapped students, students grades K-14, teachers, administrators.

Jacobs, Clinton 0., and Turner, J. Howard.

Developing Shop Safety Skills.

Athens, Ga.: American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials,

1981.

Format:

Content:

Teacher's guide, student workbook, performance checklists, lab manual, cassettes, slides.

An explanation of how one can develop safety skills in a shop.

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Audience:

A very thorough and complete workbook that uses an AV set to parallel the teacher's guide and lab manual.

Students grades 7-12, teachers.

Jeffus, Larry

F.

Safety for Welders.

Albany,

N.Y.:

Delmar' Publishers, 1980.

Format:

Content:

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Audience:

Programmed text, performance checklists, teacher's guide, tests.

Good illustrated safety materials for welders.

A complete program arranged in easy-to-work-with units.

Students grades 10-14, teachers.

743

Lewis, Gaspar J.

safetf for Carpenters and Woodworkers.

Albany, N.Y.:

Delmar Publishers, 981.

Format:

Content:

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Programmed text, teacher's guide.

Good material for carpentry and woodworking classes.

Audience:

Contains detailed instructions with tests for specific tools and equipment.

Well illustrated and easy to use.

Students grades 7-14, teachers.

Mississippi State Department of Education, Division of Vocational-Technical

Education.

Eye safetf' Mississippi State, Miss.: Mississippi State

University, College

0

Education, Research and Curriculum Unit for

Vocational-Technical Education, November 1981.

Format:

Content:

Audience:

Teacher's guide.

Eye safety guide for industrial arts teachers.

Teachers.

National Safety Council.

Making Safety Work.

New York: Gregg Division!

McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1976.

Format:

Content:

Programmed text, teacher's guide, tests.

Good illustrated safety materials covering housekeeping, fire prevention, materials handling, hand tools, power tools, and making safety a habit.

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Audience:

A well-written, well-illustrated, and complete set of activities.

Students grades 7-14, teachers.

An Option to See: Educators' Resource Guide.

New York: National Society for the Prevention of Blindness, 1977.

Format:

Content:

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Audience:

Teacher's guide, tests, duplicating masters, transparencies, films.

Material on better eye safety and eye-safety instruction.

Contains transparencies and duplicating masters and a

16mm film for student orientation.

Mentally handicapped, physically handicapped, educationally disadvantaged, students grades 7-12, teachers.

Portable Power Tools:

Trainee's Guide.

Safe Practices for Care and Handling on the Job.

Barrington, Ill.: Technical Publishing Co., 1974.

Format:

Content:

Teacher's guide, performance checklists, student workbook, tests, programmed text.

Information on the safe handling of portable power tools.

744

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Aud ience:

A very complete, handsomely designed program on power tools for both student and teacher use.

Students grades 7-14, teachers.

Preventive Maintenance Workbook.

McMinnville, Tenn.: Powermatic Houdaille, n.d.

Format:

Content:

Teacher's guide.

A guide to preventive maintenance of powermatic equipment and tools.

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Audience:

Contains very detailed instructions for teaching preventive maintenance.

Teachers.

Proper Uses and Common Abuses of Wrenches and Pliers.

New York: Hand Tool

Institute, 1974.

Format:

Content:

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Pamph

1 et.

Information on hand tool use--specifically wrenches and p

1 i ers .

Cartoon characters illustrate the "dos and don'ts" of hand tool use.

Students grades 7-14, teachers.

Audience:

Pryor, Robert

O.

Safety and Maintenance.

Miami, Fla.: Florida International

University, 1981.

Format:

Content:

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Audience:

Teacher's guide and transparency masters.

Information on maintaining shop equipment.

Good transparency masters.

Students grades 7-14, teachers.

Ronan, William. Shop and Home Safety.

St. Louis, Mo.: Milliken PUblishing

Co., 1975.

Personal Safety, 1975.

Using Hand Tools, Part 1, 1975.

Using Hand Tools, Part 2, 1975.

Using Power Tools, 1975.

Format:

Content:

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Transparency masters, duplicating masters, tests.

Information on safety in the shop and at home.

Audience:

Excellent materials that can be used to implement or supplement vocational programs. The transparencies, study guides, and tests lend themselves to easy duplication.

Mentally and physically handicapped, educationally disadvantaged, students grades 7-14, teachers.

745

Safety for Industrial Education and Other Vocational Programs.

Miami, Fla.:

Dade County Public Schools, Division of Vocational and Adult Education, n.d.

Format:

Content:

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Audience:

Teacher's guide.

Rules and regulations for safe practices.

Includes safety rules, safety labels, and a sample student power tool permit.

Students grades 7-14, teachers.

Safety Guide for Industrial Education.

Commerce, Tex.: East Texas State University, Occupational Curriculum Laboratory, 1975.

Format:

Content:

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Teacher's guide with transparency masters.

Basic safety rules for using machines.

Audience:

Good transparency masters; photo-illustrated safety rules.

Students grades 7-14, teachers.

A Safety Guide for Vocational Education Programs.

Rockledge, Fla.: The

School Board of Brevard County, Vocational Education Department, 1981.

Format:

Content:

Outstand i ng

Characteristics:

Audience:

Teacher's guide.

Safety responsibilities, rules and regulations for using machines.

Safety rules for individual machines; much supplemental information.

Students grades 7-14, teachers.

Safety Steering Commlttee.

Pennsylvania Industrial Arts Safety Guide.

2d ed.

Harrisburg, Pa.: Pennsylvania Department of Education, 1981.

Format:

Content:

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Teacher's guide, tests.

Information about industrial arts safety.

Comprehensive student tests, using labeled pictures of equipment and tools; can be easily duplicated for student use; includes section on teacher liability.

Students grades 7-12, teachers, administrators.

Audience:

Washington State Industrial Arts Safety Guide.

Olympia, Wash.: Office of

Public Instruction, 1980.

Format:

Content:

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Audience:

Programmed text, teacher's guide, tests.

Safety practices, specific rules, general safety procedures, and suggested outlines.

Witty cartoons illustrate the rules and dangers of various shop machines.

Students grades 7-12, teachers.

746

Woodburn, Clint H.

Safety for the Industrial Student.

College Station, Tex.:

Texas A and MUniversity, Vocational Instructional Services, n.d.

Format:

Content:

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Audience:

Teacher's guide, student workbook, student modules, tests.

Individual units on various safety subjects.

Useful information sheets, assignment sheets, and tests.

Students grades 7-14, teachers, administrators.

Wren, James

Athens,

1982.

E., and Smith, William G.

Safety Color Coding for the Shop.

Ga.: American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials,

Format:

Content:

Outstanding

Characteristics:

Audience:

Audiovisual (slides, cassette) with teacher's guide.

Introductory material about the ANSI and OSHA standard color coding system.

The system considers nine safety colors and their use as alerting agents for shop safety.

Narrated in a brief, easy-to-understand style using excellent photos to back up the narrative.

Script can be purchased separately.

Teachers, administrators.

Should you wish to obtain any of the materials cited in this bibliography, please check with your local library for pUblishers' complete mailing addresses.

If you have any difficulty obtaining this address information, please feel free to contact FEIS, and we will be most happy to assist you.

747

Fib

EDUCATOIPS' INFORMATION SlAVICE

~_____ .

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Please list, in NUMERICAL ORDER, the document ACCESSION NUMBERS for the documents requested.

If you request a microfiche copy of a vr document, include the AIM/ ARM issue number, if possible.

Remember, some documents listed in Resources in Education (RIEl are not available on microfiche.

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748

Pages 751-773 were adapted from Safety and Health Instructional

Materials for Vocational Education:

A

State of the Art Report.

~

1981 by the Technical Education Research Center-Southwest.

Used with permission of the Center for Occupational Research and

Development, Waco, Texas.

750

INTRODUCTION

The following pages contain a listing of materials that can be used by teachers to supplement this safety package.

The materials are classified into two categories: print and nonprint materials.

Print Materials

The classification of print materials is as follows:

Posters

Leaflets

Pamphlets

Books

Cata logs

Usually a wall-mounted document providing information on a specific topic (also includes charts) .

One page of printed information usually addressing a single topic or concept (includes fliers) .

Unbound pieces of liter:ture, usually with a paper cover or no cover at all (includes booklets).

In most cases, they contain fewer than 100 pages.

Includes both soft cover and hardbound types, usually with a specified author, frequently exceeding 100 pages, and printed by a commercial publisher.

Sources of materials available from private producers.

Others Includes unique items such as ERIC printouts and newsletters.

Nonprint Materials

The other major category of existing materials is in the nonprint form.

Slide or

Filmstrip/

Tape

Classifications in the nonprint format include:

These materials have sequenced visuals and accompanying audio tapes.

Some have printed learning materials complementing the presentation.

751

16 mm Films

Video

Cassettes

The greatest number of nonprint materials exist in the 16 mm format.

Most have associated sound tracks and many are in color.

Video equipment is more expensive to purchase and maintain but has the advantage of simplicity of use and multiple monitors for remote site viewing.

It is also a common medium to which users can relate.

752

PRINT MATERIALS

THE ABC's OF FIRE PROTECTION

FORMAT: Chart

AVAILABILITY: Free

SOURCE: Walter Kidde

&

Company

DESCRIPTION: This chart provides graphical information as to classifications of extinguishing agents, classes of fires, and specifications of extinguishers.

AN ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROGRAM FOR

INDUSTRIAL ARTS AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

FORMAT: Book, 107 pages, 1978

AVAILABILITY: Sale

SOURCE: Tulsa, Oklahoma, Public Schools

DESCRIPTION: The purpose of this guide is to assist instructors and administrators in their efforts to prevent accidents and injuries in school shops and laboratories.

This guide includes the following sections: general safety requirements, program of safety instruction, and safety instructions for operation of equipment.

AN ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROGRAM FOR

SCHOOL SHOPS AND LABORATORIES

AUTHOR:

FORMAT:

Wiiliam A. Williams, Ph.D.

Book, 245 pages

AVAILABILITY: Sale

SOURCE: National Safety Council

DESCRIPTION: This guide outlines a comprehensive program of school shop and laboratory safety education.

Major topics include: organizing for safety prevention, administering the accident prevention program, implementing the accident prevention program, education and training for accident prevention.

753

ALAMO FIRE

&

SAFETY EQUIPMENT COMPANY

FORMAT: Catalog, 1979, 126 pages

AVAILABILITY: Free

SOURCE: Alamo Fire

&

Safety Equipment Company

DESCRIPTION: This is a catalog of fire and safety equipment supplied by Alamo Fire

&

Safety Equipment Company.

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR VOCATIONAL INDUSTRIAL MATERIAL

FORMAT: Catalog

AVAILABILITY: Free

SOURCE: American Association for Vocational Industrial Material

DESCRIPTION: This catalog describes courses, audiovisual aids, and cassettes developed by the American Association for

Vocational Industrial Materials.

BILSOM SIGN LANGUAGE POSTER

FORMAT: Poster

AVAILABILITY: Free

SOURCE: Bilsom International, Inc.

DESCRIPTION: This poster illustrates the following statement: If you work in a noisy place without using hearing protection, you might sooner or later have to learn sign language.

754

.-----.

DIRECTORY OF ACADEMIC PROGRAMS IN OCCUPATIONAL

SAFETY AND HEALTH

AUTHORS: William

J.

Weiss, III; Thomas C. Purcell, Ph.D.;

Mathew H. Street; and Peter A. Kendrick

Other - Directory, 116 pages, 1979

FORMAT:

AVAILABILITY: USGPO: 1979-657-061/1905

SOURCE: NIOSH

DESCRIPTION: This book is to help students, educators, guidance counselors, professional societies, employers and employees who need basic information concerning various academic programs being offered in the field of occupational safety and health.

EMPLOYMENT SAFETY AND HEALTH - INDUSTRY CHECKLIST

FORMAT: Pamphlet, 26 pages, 1973

AVAILABILITY: Commerce Clearing House, Inc.

SOURCE: OSHA

DESCRIPTION: This pamphlet lists OSHA standards, 29CFR1910, broken down into six major categories and their location in the

Employment Safety

&

Health Guide by CCH paragraph number.

Categories include: workplace standards, machines and equipment standards, materials standards, employee standards, power source standards, and process standards.

ESSENTIALS OF f1ATERIALS HANDLING

FORMAT: Pamphlet, 22 pages, 1978

AVAILABILITY: USGPO 1979-0-287-182

SOURCE: OSHA

DESCRIPTION: This pamphlet presents a summary of the basic safety procedures necessary in materials handling based on

OSHA regulations.

755

A

FEW

SOUND WORDS ABOUT HEARING PRACTICES

FORMAT: Pamphlet, 8 pages

AVAILABILITY: Free

SOURCE: Vought Corporation Systems Division (LTV)

DESCRIPTION: This booklet provides supplementary information to assist you in a better understanding of the Vought Hearing

Conservation Program.

FIBERGLASS LAYUP AND SPRAYUP

FORMAT: Pamphlet, 32 pages, 1976

AVAILABILITY: Single copy, free (NIOSH) #76-158

SOURCE: NIOSH

DESCRIPTION: This booklet identifies common problems and suggests work practices you can follow to stay safe, healthy, and on the job in the fiberglass reinforced plastics layup and sprayup industry.

Defines terms and gives information about materials worked with and good practices in handling them.

A FIVE-YE~RPROGRAM TO STIMULATE SAFETY TRAINING

AND ACTION IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

FORMAT:

AVAILABILITY :

SOURCE:

DESCRIPTION:

Proposal, 74 pages, 1979

Free

National Safety Council

This is a proposal from the National Safety Council to launch a five-year program in conjunction with the

American Vocational Association.

The program would establish teacher-student safety training programs; create safety awareness among youth; prepare a bibliography of safety materials; and generate cooperation in and support from management, labor, and federal and state government officials.

756

,---

GENERAL INDUSTRY

FORMAT: Pamphlet, 52 pages, 1975

AVAILABILITY: Single copy, free OSHA #2201

SOURCE:

USGPO 1975-029-016-00027-5

DESCRIPTION: This booklet is a digest of qeneral industry standards to aid in voluntary compliance with OSHA standards at the workplace.

HOW TO GET ALONG WITH YOUR SOLVENT

FORMAT: Pamphlet, 68 pages, 1975

AVAILABILITY: Single copy, free NIOSH

SOURCE: USGPO #76-108

DESCRIPTION: This is an illustrated safety guide for solvent handlers.

HOW TO SELECT THE RIGHT FUME HOOD

FORMAT: Pamphlet, 6 pages, 1977

AVAILABILITY: Free

SOURCE: Labconco Corp.

DESCRIPTION: This brochure discusses basic specifications and uses of various types of fume hoods.

NATIONAL DIRECTORY OF SAFETY FILMS

FORMAT: Catalog, 1978, 64 pages

AVAILABILITY: Free

SOURCE: National Safety Council

DESCRIPTION: This is a catalog of safety films supplied by the

National Safety Council.

757

SAFETY

&

HEALTH IN ARC WELDING AND

GAS WELDING AND CUTTING

FORMAT:

Booklet, 52 pages, 1978

AVAILABILITY: Single copy, free

NIOSH

SOURCE: Public Health Service, NIOSH

USGPO 1978-757.134/1731

DESCRIPTION: This booklet describes training techniques, worksite preparation, equipment check, fire protection, health hazards, personal protective equipment, welding techniques, special requirements, and first aid for welding industry.

SAFETY YELLOW - ELECTRICAL SPECIALISTS

INSURE GOOD ELECTRICAL HYGIENE

FORMAT: Poster, 1973

AVAILABILITY: Free

SOURCE: Daniel Woodhead Co.

DESCRIPTION: This poster depicts OSHA national electrical code.

SPRAY PAINTING - GOOD PRACTICES FOR EMPLOYEES

FORMAT: Booklet, 22 pages, 1976

AVAILABILITY: Single copy, free NIOSH

SOURCE: USGPO #76-178

DESCRIPTION: This booklet describes safe methods of spray painting, including operations and processes, other hazards of spray painting operations, controls of hazards, operator protection, and accident prevention.

758

II

NONPRINT MATERIALS

ANATOMY OF ELECTRIC SHOCK

FORMAT:

AVAILABILITY:

SOURCE:

DESCRIPTION:

Filmstrip, 35mm color, 12 minutes w/sound (33 1/3 rpm phono record

Loan

Travelers Film Library

Presents facts about electric shock, especially lowvoltage shocks.

Discusses ventricular fibrillation, paralysis of the respiratory system, and burns caused by different current values.

AUTOVATION

FORMAT:

Filmstr~ps and cassettes, 1978

AVAILABILITY: Rental

SOURCE: 2000 Company

DESCRIPTION: This unit is designed to motivate students to seek careers in automobile mechanics.

Shows refurbishing of classic cars and auto-body shop work, and emphasizes the motivation necessary for three occupations.

A BETTER LIFE: SAFETY ATTITUDE

FORMAT: Film, 13 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Employers Insurance of Wausau

DESCRIPTION: In high-hazard jobs, safety is a way of life--a better life.

To a victim, an accident is something unavoidable.

He or she, therefore, looks for someone else to blame.

This is an attitude problem.

We must assume responsibility for our own behavior.

Eighty-five percent of all accidents are controllable or avoidable.

Wrong attitudes foster wrong responses.

Safety is a state of mind.

Are you in control?

759

CAREERS WITH FUTURES, PIPEFITTING

FORMAT: Film, 16mm color, 20 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Brown

&

Root

DESCRIPTION: This film illustrates the art of pipe fitting in heavy construction.

It describes the skill required and shows how the workers are trained.

CHECK LIST

FORMAT: Film, l6mm color, 15 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Cummins Diesel Engine

DESCRIPTION: This film is about safety in the workplace for mechanics and automotive and mechanical personnel.

Topics covered include: chemical dip tanks, welding eye damage, examples of safety glasses, examples of horseplay, improper tool use and resulting infection, improper lifting (hernia) of engines, and safety around a dyno.

COLOR FOR SAFETY

FORMAT: Film, 16mm color, 20 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: US Bureau of Mines, #812

DESCRIPTION: This is a general film on how colors are used in industry.

It does not, however, stress the OSHA color code system.

It illustrates how the six basic colors can be used in the mining, chemical, and machinery industries.

760

DON'T LET HIM DIE

FORMAT: Film, 16mm color, 22 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Red Cross

DESCRIPTION: This film is a bit "bloody" but shows how to save a human life.

Describes procedures for dealing with ]) shock,

2) open wound bleeding, 3) stopped heart, 4) drowning.

Excellent film on how to handle people who have been in an accident or who are suffering from shock.

DON'T PUSH YOUR LUCK

FORMAT: Film, 16mm color, 13 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Travelers Film Library

DESCRIPTION: A new film of the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness.

This film points out the eye hazards in shops and plants and portrays the specific eye safety equipment for each.

DOWN TO EARTH

FORMAT: Film, 16mm color, 18 minutes, 1971

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: BNA Communications, Inc.

DESCRIPTION:

This is a film on electrical safety in construction.

It is a humorous story of "Tough Foreman" trying to make

"Joe" shape up.

In the end "Joe" is disposed of as a result of his poor safety practices.

761

EVERYTHING TO LOSE

FORMAT: Film, l6mm color, 21 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Travelers Film Library

DESCRIPTION: The consequences of ignoring plant safety rules are graphically portrayed by professional stunt men.

This film shows one character playing "Russian Roulette" the odds he accepts are not far from those accepted by the safety rule breaker.

EXTINGUISH THAT FIRE

FORMAT: Film, l6mm color, 24 minutes, 1976

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: US Information Service - Cinesound Co.

DESCRIPTION: A film showing fire extinguishers, especially the dry chemical powder type being used.

It has good coverage of how to extinguish a metal fire.

The film illustrates people using the different types of extinguishers on the various classes of fires.

FACTS ABOUT BACKS

FORMAT: Film, l6mm color, 14 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Bell Films

DESCRIPTION: This film describes how the spine and back function.

It also shows the ways that people abuse the back.

Film demonstrates proper lifting methods.

Outstanding for use in discussions of physical hazard safety.

762

FIRE - CAUSES FOR ALARM

FORMAT: Film, 16mm color, 12 1/2 minutes

AVAILABILITY; Loan

SOURCE: Association of Films, Oallas

DESCRIPTION: Film describes the dangers of various unsafe smoking habits.

It demonstrate the office extinguisher.

FIRE SAFETY

FORMAT: Audiovisual filmstrip and cassette, 1978

AVAILABILITY: Rental

SOURCE: 2000 Company

DESCRIPTION: Emphasizes the fire safety hazards in a typical school shop, class or other classroom.

Provides information on fire prevention, escape procedures, and use of fire extinguishers.

FLAMMABLE LIQUID FIRE SAFETY

FORMAT: Film, l6mm color, 20 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Travelers Film Library

DESCRIPTION: Characteristics of flammable liquids are shown so that the employee can see how hazardous situations develop.

Shows the right way to handle the liquids and the absolute importance of using safety containers and approved equipment.

763

FOR GOOD SOUND REASONS

FORMAT: F'ilm, l6mm color, 18 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: West Glen Films

DESCRIPTION: Film shows how a person working in a steel foundry for years becomes used to the noise when actually he is becoming deaf.

He develops the habit of talking loudly because of the affliction.

The film gives the sound levels of the various machines in an industrial plant.

Explains the various types of ear protection and shows instruments that can be placed on workers to determine no i se

1 eve 1s .

GRINDER, BUFFER, DR ILL PRESS AND HAND TOOL SAFETY

LATHE SAFETY

MILLING MACHINE SAFETY

FORMAT: Audiovisual

(3 parts)

AVAILABILITY: Rental

SOURCE: 2000 Company

DESCRIPTION: This audiovisual program is divided into three parts and each is described below.

Part A shows the safety hazards in a typical machine/metal shop or automobile shop.

It teaches proper use of the grinder, buffer, drill press, and hand drill.

Part B offers close-up photography of safety techniques when using the lathe.

Part C demonstrates safety techniques when using the mill ing C:3ciline.

THE HAND-TRAP TEST

FORMAT: Film, 16 mm color, 20 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Employers Insurance of Wausau

DESCRIPTION:

This fi 1m shows various hazards to hands.

It then qu i zzes the students by haY i n~ them se

1", hazardous conditions in a qivf'n sitlilltiiln.

t elY' find

764

HEY MAN, YOU'RE IT

FORMAT: Film,

16r"n color,

10 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Employers Insurance of Wausau

DESCRIPTION: A safety film on construction safety programs at the work site.

Most of the unsafe acts and accidents are caused by careless employees, and accident-prone workers are not tolerated very long on the job.

The film shows many examples of unsafe acts that are performed by workers.

HOUSEKEEPING MEANS SAFEKEEPING

FORMAT: Film,

16 mm color,

12 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE:

DESCRIPTION:

Journal Films, Inc.

- National Safety Council

This film shows the need for good housekeeping in an industrial plant.

It describes workers' indifference to keeping the work place clean.

HOW TO AVOID MUSCLE STRAINS

(Spanish Version)

FORMAT: Film,

16mm black and white,

15 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Travelers Film Library

DESCRIPTION: This film deals with the physiology of those parts of the body involved in lifting.

Shows by cartoon drawings how the muscles involved react and where they are located.

This gives the viewer a better understanding of what goes on in his or her own body when s(he) lifts and why it should be done properly and safely.

765

HOW TO WELD

FORi1AT:

~VAILABILITY:

Film, 15mm color, 13 minutes

Loan

SOURCE: Association of Films, SU-114-105

DESC?IPTION: The proper techniques to be used in welding the US steels

T-l are demonstrated, stressing the importance of using the right type of electrodes and proper level of hydrogen.

The film depicts safe ways to keep electrodes dry and away from moisture and demonstrates the type of ovens to be used to dry them out.

It gives all the safety precautions that should be taken in welding.

INTRODUCTION TO AUTO SHOP SAFETY

FOR~AT:

Audiovisual filmstrip and cassette, 1977

AVAILABILITY: Rental

SOURCE: 2000 Company

DESCRIPTION: This program presents guidelines for preventing on-thejob injuries in an automobile repair shop.

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICITY/ELECTRONICS SHOP SAFETY

FOR,"AT: Audiovisual fi Imstrips and cassettes, 1978

AVAILA8ILITY: Rental

SOURCE: 2000 Company

DESCRIPTION: Gives introductory safety guidelines for the beginning electricity or electronics shop student.

Emphasizes the safety hazards in a typical school electricity/ electronics shop.

INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHIC

~RTS

SAFETY

FORMAT: Audiovisual filmstrip and cassettes, ]973

AVAILABILITY: Rental

SOURCE: 2000 Company

DESCRIPTION: This program illustrates the safety hazards involved in a typical school print shop.

766

INTRODUCTION TO MACHINE METAL SHOP SAFETY

FOR~1AT: Audiovisual filmstrip and cassette, lQ78

AVAILABILITY: Renta1

SOURCE: 2000 Company

DESCRIPTION: This program uses close-up photography to offer instruction on tool safety in the machi ne shop,

INTRODUCTION TO WELDING SAFETY

FORMAT: Audiovisual filmstrip and cassette

AVAILABILITY: Rental

SOURCE: 2000 Company

DESCRIPTION: This unit gives an introduction to welding safety and also covers oxyacetylene welding and arc welding.

INTRODUCTION TO WOODSHOPjCARPENTRY SAFETY

FORMAT: Audiovisual, 1978

AVAILABILITY: Rental

SOURCE: 2000 Company

DESCRIPTION: Safe methods of using woodshop equipment and the hazards involved are demonstrated through close-up photography.

IT'S UP TO YOU

FORMAT: Film, l6mm color, 12 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Modern Talking Pictures

DESCRIPTION: This film is on eye protection.

767

THE MAGIC OF FIRE

FORMAT: Film, l6mm color, 18 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: US Bureau of Mines, #809

DESCRIPTION: This film is an introduction to the basic elements required to make a fire.

The film traces the beginning of oil and its by-products--gasoline, kerosene, and cleaning solvents.

It shows a laboratory test for butane, the different characteristics of natural gas vs butane, the proper containers to be used for storing or handling flammables, and the danger of lawn mowers.

MECHANICAL AIDS

FORMAT: Film, l6mm color, 12 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: BNA Communications, Inc.

DESCRIPTION: This film shows safety hazards in the construction industrY.

It describes excellent safety features of the various saws, power tools, and other equipment used on construction sites.

The film also shows how overconfidence of workers on construction sites can lead to carelessness.

THE MILLING MACHINE

FORMAT: Film, l6mm black and white

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: USOE

DESCRIPTION: The application and operation of milling machines are described in this film.

768

NEW WAY TO LIFE

FORMAT: Film, 16mm color, 10 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Travelers Film Library

DESCRIPTION: This film shows the right way to lift heavy objects. It describes the six parts of a perfect lifting unit and explains the importance of each to a properly executed lift. The film demonstrates the palmar grip; the proper position of the back, chin, arms, and feet; and the correct distribution of body weight.

A unique quality of the lifting procedure described is that it can be used in any lifting situation regardless of the size or shape of the load.

It can also be used when lowering objects, turning the body to move a load, or when two persons are working together.

OH!

MY ACHING BACK

FORMAT: Film, 16mm color, 20 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: US Bureau of Mines, #810

DESCRIPTION: Film opens with a man working on a large machine.

He lifts a large piece of metal stock wrong and collapses.

Then at the hospital a doctor, using remarkahle training aids, explains the working of the spine and the back and leg muscles.

A good simple medical explanation of the working of the spine, back, and legs in lifting is given.

It also shows proper lifting techniques.

ON EVERY HAND

FORMAT: Film, 16mm color, 12 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Employers Insurance of Wausau

DESCRIPTION:

This film shows the danger of various types of machines and equipment, and depicts examples of workers getting caught in equipment.

769

POWER HAND SAW SAFETY

FORMAT: Film, l6rrrn color, 15 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Employers Insurance of Wausau

DESCRIPTION: This film explains detailed safety procedures to be followed by skilled carpenters using power hand saws.

PRINT SHOP SAFETY

FORMAT: Filmstrip and audio tape

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Bergwal1 Productions, Inc.

DESCRIPTION: This filmstrip and audio tape describe safety procedures to be used in the operation of printing presses and other print shop equipment.

Personal protective devices are described and their proper use specified.

R.I.P. HARRY SPARKS

FORMAT: Film. 16mm color, 20 minutes, 1976

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: International Film Bureau

DESCRIPTION: An electrical safety film featuring Harry Sparks, an electrician who has been killed and returns to earth as a guardian angel whose job is keeping electrical workers from making a fatal mistake.

The film shows basic electrical hazards. how electric current flows through the body, and what electrical shocks can do to the human body.

770

SAFE AUTO BODY SHOP

FORMAT: Audiovisual, filmstrip

AVAILABILITY: Rental

SOURCE: Bergwall Productions, Inc.

DESCRIPTION: This filmstrip is useful for introducing safety practices in an auto body repair shop and the tools associated with the repair of metal and fiberglass.

Personal protective equipment and its use is also described.

Some emphasis is also placed on making workers aware of the hazards of operating auto body equipment.

SAFTITUDES

FORMAT: AUdiovisual, 4 filmstrips and 2 tapes

AVAILABILITY: Rental

SOURCE: 2000 Company

DESCRIPTION: This filmstrip/tape presentation uses stories and cartoon characters to assist students in analyzing the attitudes on safety and to stimulate discussion about attitude importance.

STOP THE FIRE BEFORE IT STARTS

FORMAT: Film, 16mm color, 14 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Journal Films

DESCRIPTION: This basic fire prevention film shows 1) fires started in welding, 2) explosive dusts igniting from sparks,

1) glues and other low flash point liquids catching on fire, and 4) flammable hydraulic fluids and the ease with which leaking lines catch on fire.

771

STRAIGHT TALK ON EYE SAFETY

FORMAT: Film, 16rrrn color, 12 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Travelers Film Library

DESCRIPTION: A hard-hitting film.

Two veteran campaigners in the battle for eye safety speak on the need for 100% eye and face protection in shops and plants and the need to teach eye safety to young people in school shops and labs.

Bill Frank, blinded in a shop accident, speaks directly to employees.

He warns them of the tragic consequences that will result from blinding accidents. of what such an accident will mean to their spouses and their kids, and delivers a fighting plea for eye protection in every shop and plant.

Jim O'Neill of the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness adds his strnng voice in support of the safety program.

Jim hits hard on the need for eye protection in industry, in school shops and labs, and in the home.

TO BE FORGED

FORMAT: Film, 16rrrn colof', 18 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Modern Talking Pictures, #2705

DESCRIPTION:

This film shows the machinery required for making tools and parts.

Also shown is the design and the various art techniques of forging -- including the metals used.

THE TRAP

FORMAT: Film, 16mm black

& white, 20 minutes, 1961

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Harvest Film Co.

DESCRIPTION:

This film illustrates worker's injuries in industry as the result of poor housekeeping and disregard of machine guards.

Also included are interviews with victims.

772

THE UNPLANNED

FORMAT:

Film, l6mm color, 20 minutes

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Employers Insurance of Wausau

DESCRIPTION: The film deals with the need for careful investigation of accidents.

The story outlines an accident in the making.

It takes place in a general machine shop and drafting office.

It is an outstanding training film because it presents flashbacks in which we are able to review the information given by each of the witnesses at the investigation.

It is an excellent opportunity for the student to fill out an "Accident Investigation Form."

WE'LL SEE TO-MORROW

FORMAT: Film, l6mm color, 10 minutes, 1971

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Gilbert Altschul Productions

DESCRIPTION: A film about a man who was very safety conscious at work, but at home he didn't use eye protection equipment and while working got a chip in his eye.

It also gives a lecture on the dangers to the eyes and shows the eye protection required in industry.

It presents shop hazards that cause eye injuries: intense light, heat, hot liquids, and flying sparks; and shows equipment that can prevent accidents.

WRONG PLACE, WRONG TIME, WRONG SHOES

FORMAT: Film, l6mm color

AVAILABILITY: Loan

SOURCE: Employers Insurance of Wausau

DESCRIPTION: 70,000 foot accidents occur each year in industry, most as the result of workers not wearing steel-toe safety shoes.

This film shows a number of accidents and how they could have been avoided.

Detailed information is given on tests that are conducted on safety shoes.

Also shown is how attractive safety shoes are being styled today, similar to dress shoes in appearance.

773

Pages 777-781 were adapted from Safety Education Handbook, produced by Kansas State Department of Education, Wichita, Kansas, 1981.

.i .. ,

776

ORGANIZATIONS

The following organildtions, comprised of professional associations and manufacturers of equipment and supplies, have submitted material to be reviewed by the writing teams of this handbook.

Their contributions to our endeavors are greatly appreciated.

Their enthusiastic response is indicative of their concern for the health and safety of pupils, school personnel, and citizens in the public sector.

A. B. Dick Company, 5700 West Touhy Avenue, Chicago, Il 60648

Ablah Hotel Supply Corp., 800 E. 11th St., Wichita, KS 67214

Addressograph Multigraph Corp., 1200 Babbitt Road, Cleveland, OH 44117

Aget Manufacturing Company, Adrian, MI 49221

Airco Welding Products, P.O. Box 486, Union, NJ 07083

American Mason Safety Tread Company, P.O. Box 310, lowell, ME 01583

American National Standards Institute, Inc., 1430 Broadway, NY 10018

American Optical Corporation, 14 Mechanic St., Southbr;dge, MA 01550

American School and Community Safety Association, 1201 Sixteenth St.,

N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036

American Society of Safety Engineers, 850 Busse Highway, Park Ridge,

IL 60068

American Technology, 2340 Susquehanna Street, Harrisburg, PA 17110

American Welding Society, 2501 Northwest 7th st., Miami, FL 33125

AMMCO-Tools, Inc. 211 COffinonwealth Avenue, North Chicago, IL 60064

AMPCO Metal, P.O. Box 37014, Cincinnati, OH 45222

APEX Safety Products, P.O. Box 250, Sanford, NC 27330

Applied Ultra Violet Tech., 1301 E. Lincoln Avenue, Goshen, IN 46526

ARCAIR, P.O. Box 406, lancaster, OH 43130

Armstrong Brothers Tool Company, 5200-5300 W. Armstrong Ave., Chicago,

IL 60646

Armstrong Cork Company, West Liberty St., Lancaster, PA 17540

ARTCO Corporation, Penn Avenue, Hatfield, PA 19440

Atlantic India Rubber Company, 571 W. Polk St., Chicago, IL 60607

Baker (J.T.) Chemical Company, 222 Red School Lane, Phillipsburg,

NJ 08865

Baldor Electric Company, Fort Smith, AR 72902

Bausch

&

&

Lomb, Box 450, Dept. 3506-B, Rochester, NY

Decker Mfg. Company, Towson, MD 21204

14613

Binks Mfg. Company, P.O. Box 66090, Chicago, IL 60666

Black

Blu-Ray, Inc., 747 Westbrook Road, Essex, CT 06426

Bona Venture Supply Company, 17 Village Square, Hazelwood, MO 63042

Bouton Company (H.L.) Buzzards Bay, MA 02532

C.W. Brabender Instruments Inc., 50 East Wesley St., P.O. Box 2127

South Hackensack, NJ 07606

777

Bradley Corp.

W142 N9101 Fountain Blvd ,

~1enomonee

Falls. WI 53051.

Brett-Guard Div. Foredom Electric Company. RR #6 Bethel. CT 06801.

Bridgeport Textron Machines Division. 500 Lindley St .• Bridgeport. CT

06606.

Brilliant Abrasive Company, 4330 Clary Blvd., Kansas City, MO 64130.

Brodhead-Garrett Company, 4560 Eas t 71 s t St.. Cl eve 1and. OH 44105.

Bruning (Charles) Company, Div. A-M Corp., 1800 West Central. Mount

Prospect, IL 60056.

Cadillac Plastic

&

Chemical Co., Box 810, Detroit, MI 48232.

CESCO Safety Products, 100 East 16th St., Kansas City, MO 64108.

Challenge Machinery Company, P.O. Box 326, Grand Haven, MI 49417.

Coi1hose Pneumatics, 201 Pond Ave., Middlesex, NJ 08846.

Columbian Vise

&

Mfg. Company. 9021 Bessemer Ave., Cleveland, OH 44104.

Columbus McKinnon Corp., Fremont Avenue, Tonawanda, NY 14150. (CM Chain

Divison)

Compugraphic 80 Industrial Way, Wilmington, MA 01887.

Cooperative Extension Service, K.S.U., Manhattan, KS 66506

D

&

M Guard Company, 889 Military Road, Buffalo, NY 14217.

Delaware Valley Safeguards Company, Leesport, PA 19533

Di-Acro Houdaille, Houdaille Industrices, Inc., Lake City, MN 55041.

Dustvent, Inc., 110 West Fay St .• Addison, IL 60101.

Dyna Technology, Inc., P.O. Box 3263, Sioux City, IA 51102.

DAKE Corporation. Grand Haven, M!

49417.

Eagle Mfg. Company, Main Street, Wellsburg, WV 26070.

Eastern Safety Equipment, 45-17 Pearson St.. Long Island City. NY 11101.

Educational Machinery Corp., Box 146, Glenville Station, Greenwich,

CT 06830.

Ellwood Safety Appliance Co., Gray Building, 225 Sixth St., Ellwood City,

PA 16117.

Energy Concepts, Inc., 3956 West Belmont Ave., Chicago, IL 60618.

Equipment Company of America, 1075 Hialeah Dr., Hialeah, FL 33010

Equipto (Gary DeWitt) 225 South Highland, Aurora, IL 60507.

ESB Inc., Safety Products Division, 2nd

&

Washington Street. Reading,

PA 19603.

Falcon Safety Products, Inc., 1065 Bristol Rd., Mountainside, NJ 07092.

Fibre-Metal Products Co .• Concordville, PA 19331.

Frank Paxton Lumber Co., 6311 St. John, Kansas City, MO 64123.

Frommelt Industries, Inc., 465 Huff St .• Dubuque, IA 52001.

General Scientific Equipment Co., P.O. Box 27309, Philadelphia, PA 19150.

Glendale Optical Company, Inc., 130 Crossways Park Drive, Woodbury,

Long Island, NY 11797.

Graymark International Inc., P.O. Box 17359, Irvine, CA 92713.

Grindin9 Wheel Institute, 712 Lakewood Center, North Cleveland, OH 44107.

Hamilton Beach, Washington, NC 27889

Harrrnond Machinery Bunders, Inc. 1604 Douglas Ave., Kalamazoo, MI 49007.

Hand Tools Institute, 707 Westchester Ave., White Plains, NY 10604.

Harper Trucks, Inc., P.O. Box 33, Wichita, KS 6720l.

HAWS Drinking Faucet Company, 4th and Page Streets, Berkeley, CA 94710.

Hickok Teaching Systems Inc., Wheeling Avenue, Wobur, MA 01801.

Homestead Industries, Box 348, Corapo1is, PA 15108.

Human Society of The United States, Washington, D.C. 20037.

Industrial Commission of Ohio, 700 West 3rd Ave., Columbus, OH 43212.

Ingersoll-Rand (Miller Falls Div.) South Deerfield, MA 01373.

Ingersoll-Rand Company (Prot Tool Div.) 2600 E. Nutwood Avenue,

Fullerton, CA 92631

Institute of Gas Technology, 3424 S. State St., Chicago, IL 60544.

Justrite Manufacturing Company, 2354 Dempster St., Des Plaines, IL 60016.

Kellogg-American, Inc., 565 Cedar Way, Oakmont, PA 15139.

Kelvin Electronics, Inc., 1900 New Highway, Farmingdale, NY 11735.

Ken Cook Company, Automated Teaching, 9929 West Silver Spring Road,

Milwaukee, WI 53225.

Kidde Belleville (Walter) 675 Main Street, Belleville, NJ 07109.

Lab-Line Instruments, Inc., 15th

&

Bloomingdale Ave., Melrose Park,

IL 60160.

Lab Safety Supply Company, P.O. Box 1368, 3430 Palmer Drive, Janesville,

WI 53545.

K.O. Lee Company, P.O. Box 970, 200 South Harrison, Aberdeen, SD 57401.

Lincoln Electric Company, 22801 St. Clair Ave., Cleveland, OH 44117.

Link Electric

&

Safety Control, P.O. Box 100, Kingston Springs, IN 37082.

Loge/Robertson Photo-Mechanic, 250 Willie Road, Des Plaines, IL 60018

Lowel-Light Mfg. Inc., 421 West 54th St., New York, NY 10019.

McEng1evan Heat Treating Mfg. Company, P.O. Box 31, Danville, IL 61832.

McGill Mfg. Company, Inc., Valparaiso, IN 46383.

McKnight

&

McKnight Publishing Co., Dept. B-3, Bloomington, IL 61701.

McNeil Akron, Inc., 96 East Crosier St., Akron. OH 74311.

Macy's, 121 S. Broadway, Wichita, KS 67202

MacMillan Arts

&

Crafts, Inc., 9645 Gerwig Land, Columbia, MD 21046.

Manufacturers Brush Company, 12501 Elmwood Ave., Cleveland, OH 44111.

Marion Health

&

Safety Inc., 9233 Ward Parkway, Kansas City, MO

Marketing Matheson, P.O. Box E, Lyndhurst, NJ 07071.

64114.

Mathewson Gas Products, 932 Paterson Plank Road, P.O. Box 85, East

Rutherford, NJ 07073.

Megatech Corp., 29 Cook Street, Billerica, MA 01866.

Met-L-Chek Company, Inc., P.O. Box 5427, Inglewood, CA 90310.

Michael Business Machines, 145 West 45th St., New York, NY 10036.

Mid-Continent Fire

&

Safety, Inc., 1641 N. Mosley, Wichita, KS 67214.

Midwest Sewinq Center. 111 Pattie. Wichita, KS 67211

Miller Equipment Divison, ESB Inc., Franklin, PA 16323.

Milwaukee Electric Tool Corp., 13135 W. Lisbon Road, Brookfield, WI 53005.

Modem School Supplies, Inc., P.O. Box 956, Hartford, CT 06101.

Morse Mfg. Company, Inc., 780 West Manlius st., East Syracuse, NY 13057.

779

National Electrical Contractors Association. Kansas Chapter, Wichita.

KS.

National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Ave .• Boston,

MA 02210.

National Society for Prevention of Blindness, 79 Madison Ave.•

New York. NY

Newbury Industries. Inc .• 10975 Kinsman Road. Newbury. OH 44065.

Nisson Corp., 930 27th Avenue, S.W .• P.O. Box 1270. Cedar Rapids.

IA 52406.

Norton Company. 2000 Plainfield Pike, Cranston. RI 02920.

NuArc Company, Inc .• 4110 West Grand Ave .• Chicago. IL 60651.

Occupational Safety

67202.

&

Health Administration, 216 N. Waco. Wichita. KS

Paragon Industries. Inc .• Box 10133. Dallas. TX 75207.

Pittsburg Industrial Teachers Service Co., P.O. Box 26, Pittsburg.

KS 66762.

Photo Materials Company. 500 N. Spaulding Ave .• Chicago, IL 60624.

Positive Safety Manufacturing Co .• 34990 Melinz Parkway, Eastlake.

OH 44094.

Power Tool Institute. Inc .• 5101 Toll View Drive. Rolling Meadows, IL.

Powermatic Houdaille. Inc .• McMinnville. TN 37110.

Protectoseal Company. 225 West Foster Ave., Bensenville.IL

60106

Proto Professional Tools. 2600 E. Nutwood Ave .• Fullerton, CA 92631.

Pitsco Inc., Pittsburg Industrial Teachers Service Company. P.O. Box

26, Pittsburg, KS 66762.

Radatron Corp .• 2424 Niagara Falls Blvd., N. Tonawanda, NY 14120.

Refrigeration Service Engineers Society, Wichita. KS.

REGO Company. 4201 West Peterson Ave., Chicago, IL 60646.

Rexarc Inc., P.O. Box 47. W. Alexandria. OH 45381.

Ridge Tool Company. 400 Clark Street. Elyria, OH 45381.

Robertson Photo-Mechanix. Inc., 1250 Touhy Ave., Elk Grove Village,

IL 60007.

Rockford Safety Equipment Company. P.O. Box 5166, 4620 Hydraulic Road,

Rockford, IL 61125.

Rockwell International. 400 N. Lexington Ave., Pittsburg, PA 15208.

Roper Whitney, Inc .• 2833 Huffman Blvd., Rockford, IL 6110l.

Rose Manufacturing Company, 2250 Tejon St., Englewood. CO 80110.

Safeguard Manufacturing Company. Pomperaug Ave., Woodbury. CT 06798.

Salisburg

&

Company. 7520 N. Long Ave., P.O. Box 1080. Skokie, IL

School Tools. Inc .• gal East 79th Street. Minneapolis. MN 55420.

60077.

Screen Printing

&

Drying Machine Company, 4434 Olive St., St. Louis.

MO 63108.

Seal, Inc .• Naugatuck. CN 06770

Sellstrom Mfg. Company. Sellstrom Industrial Park, Palatine. IL 60067

Shawnee Mission. Director of Practical Arts. 6649 Lamar. Shawnee

Mission. KS 66202.

780

Singer Safety Products, 444 North Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60611.

Sioux Tools Inc., 2901 Floyd Blvd., Sioux City, IA 51102.

Snap-on Tools Inc., Kenosha, WI 53140.

Society of Plastics Industry, Inc., 355 Lexington Ave., New York, NY

10017 .

South Bend Lathe, Inc., 400 West Sample St., South Bend, IN 46621.

Stanley Tools, New Britain, CN 06050.

SSP Brown Camera, Inc., 610 E. Judd St., P.O. Box 471, lvoodstock, IL

60098.

Stark Lumber Company, Fairfax Industrial District, Kansas City, KS 66115.

Steel Grip Safety Apparel Company, 700 Garfield St., Danville, IL 61832.

Sterling Extruder Corp., 901 Durhan Ave., S. Plainfield, NJ 07080.

Surty Manufacturing Company, Route #2, Gleason, WI 54435.

Society of Plastics Engineers, Inc., 656 West Putnam Ave., Greenwich,

CT 06830.

Three M (3M) St. Paul, MN 55101.

Toolmark Company, 6840 Shingle Creek Parkway, Minneapolis, MN 55430.

Torit Division, Donaldson Co., Inc., Box 3217 St. Paul, MN 55165.

Unimax Switch Corporation, Ives Road, Wallingford, CT 06492.

United Air Specialists, Inc., 6665 Creek Road, Cincinnati, OH 45242.

United HEW - NIOSH - 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226.

U.S. Mat and Rubber Company, Inc., 93 Pleasant St., Brockton, MA 02401.

U.S. Safety Service Company, 1535 Walnut St., Box 1237, Kansas City,

MO 64141.

Uniweld Products, Inc., P.O. Box 8427, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33310.

Universal Grinding Wheel Company, Inc., 712 Lakewood Center North,

Cleveland, OH 44107.

University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA 50613.

V and E Manufacturing Company, 766 S. Fair Oaks Ave., Pasadena, CA 91105.

Victor Equipment Company, P.O. Box 1007, Denton, TX 76201.

Vivitar, 1630 Stewart Street, Santa Monica, CA 90406.

Weller, Division of Cooper Industries, 100 Wellco Road, Easton, PA 18042.

Wells

&

Sons, North on U.S. 131, Three Rivers, MI 49093.

Western Drinking Fountains (Safety Div.) P.O. Box 47, Glen Riddle,

PA 19037.

Wilton Corporation, Machinery Division, 2400 East Devon Ave., Des Plaines,

IL 60018.

781

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INDEX

Adhesives, spray, 459-461

Air impact wrench, 327-331

Arc welder, 553-558

Auto tire changer, 721-726

Automotive end lift, 691-695

Band saw (metals), 39-44

Band saw (woods), 211-217

Bar folder, 113-118

Battery.

See Storage battery

Battery charger, 645-650

Bayonet saw, 285-289

Belt and disc sander, 259-261, 265-267

Belt sander, 303-307.

(See also Sander, belt and disc.)

Box and pan brake, 119-124

Brake, box and pan, 119-124

Brake drum, 651-656

Buffer, 125-130

Camera, process, 421, 425-433

Car lift, 669-675

Cathode-ray tube, 469-473

Caustic tank, 697-702

Circuit boards, 475-480

Circular saw, 291-296

Circular table saw, 197-202

Cleaner, steam, 709-713

Cleaners, film, 459-461

Combination rotary machine, 137-142

Composer, 359-361, 367-368

Contact printer, 421-423, 429-431

Crane.

See Engine crane and hoist

CRT, 469-473

Crucible furnace, 45-53

Cutting tools, paste-up, 459-461

Darkroom equipment, 415-433

Disc sander, 259-260, 263-267

Disc sander, portable, 309-313

Drill, electric, 279-284

Drill, paper, 403-408

Drill press, 251-257

Dry mount press, 451-453, 460-463

Electric drill, 279-284

Engine analyzer, 657-662

Engine crane and hoist, 677-681

Enlarger, 417-419

Etched-circuit PC board, 481-486

Film cleaners, 459-461

Finishing sander, 315-319

785

Folder, 397-402

Forge, gas, 55-60

Furnace, crucible, 45-53

Furnace, soldering, 61-66

Gas forge, 55-60

Generator, signal, 505-509

Gold stamp press, 441-445

Granulator, plastics, 179-184

Grinder, 67-73, 309-313

Grinder, surface, 75-80

Hacksaw, power, 95-100

Hand-operated paper cutter, 447-449, 460-462

Heating oven, 159-161, 165

High speed wheel balancer, 663-667

Hoist.

See Engine crane and hoist

Hot caustic tank, 697-702

Hydraulic floor jack, 683-690

Injection molder, 167-178

Jack, hydraulic floor, 683-690

Jig saw, 219-224

Jointer, 237-243

Lathe, 81-87

Lathe, rotor, 651-656

Lathe, wood, 245-250

Lift, automotive end, 691-695

Lift, car, 669-675

Light table, 363-368

Metal inert gas welder, 559-563, 567-570

MIG welder, 559-563, 567-570

Milling machine, 89-94

Miter box saw, 225-230

Molder, injection, 167-178

Multimeter, 487-491

Offset composition, 359-368

Offset press, 369-377

Oscilloscope, 493-497

Oxyacetylene welder, 537-545

Paper cutter, 391-396

Paper cutter, hand-operated, 447-449, 460-462

Paper drill, 403-408

PC board, 481-486

Phototypesetter, 359-361, 367-368

Planer, 231-236

Planer, portable, 321-326

Plastics granulator, 179-184

Platemaker, 385-390

786

Platen press, 349-357

Power hacksaw, 95-100

Power plane, 321-326

Power supply, 499-503

Press, dry mount, 451-453, 460-463

Press, offset, 369-377

Press, platen, 349-357

Press, proof, 379-384

Press, rubber stamp, 441-445

Print dryer, 455-457, 460-462

Printer, contact, 421-423, 429-431

Printer, screen, 435-440

Process camera, 421, 425-433

Proof press, 379-384

Radial saw, 203-209

Rotary machine, combination, 137-142

Rotor lathe, 651-656

Router, 297-302

Rubber stamp press, 441-445

Sander, belt, 303-307.

(See also Sander, belt and disc.)

Sander, belt and disc, 259-267

Sander, disc, 309-313

Sander, finishin9, 315-319

Saw, band (metals), 39-44

Saw, band (woods), 211-217

Saw, bayonet, 285-289

Saw, circular table, 197-202

Saw, circular, 291-296

Saw, miter box, 225-230

Saw, radial, 203-209

Saw, scroll, 219-224

Screen printer, 435-440

Scroll saw, 219-224

Shaper, 101-106

Signal generator, 505-509

Signal tracer, 511-515

Slip roll forming machine, 131-136

Solder gun, 333-337

Soldering furnace, 61-66

Soldering irons, 344-345

Solvent tank, 703-707

Spot welder, 565-570

Spray adhesives, 459-461

Squaring shear, 107-112

Stamp press.

See Press, rubber stamp

Stapler, 409-414

Steam cleaner, 709-713

Storage battery, 715-720

Strip heater, 159, 163-166

Surface grinder, 75-80

Surfacer.

See Planer

787

Tank, hot caustic, 697-702

Tank, solvent, 703-707

TIG welder, 559-563, 567-570

Tire changer, auto, 721-726

Tire inflation cage, truck, 727-731

Tracer, signal, 511-515

Transformer, 517-521

Truck tire inflation cage, 727-731

Tungsten inert gas welder, 559-563, 567-570

Vacuumformer, 185-190

Valve reconditioner, 733-737

Waxer, 363-368

Welder, arc, 553-558

Welder, MIG, 559-563, 567-570

Welder, oxyacetylene, 537-545

Welder, spot, 565-570

Welder, TIG, 559-563, 567-570

Wheel balancer, high speed, 663-667

Wood lathe, 245-250

Wrench, air impact, 327-331

788

State of Florida

Department of Education

Ralph D. Turlington, Commissioner of Education

Tallahassee, Florida

Affirmative actionlequal opportunity employer

Division of Vocational Education

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