studio - American Radio History
II
OCTOBER 1993
$5.00 £2.00
STUDIO
SOUND
AND BROADCAST ENGINEERING
e6s
.7-
t
he
'the
r'r
EC:':R
ING
Fostex D10; Cedar DeCrackler; ICE; Sony DMX -S6000
Future of Recording
The Medium Is The Message
Digital Video
Bit Rate Reduction Systems
10>
770144 594017
PLUS CONSOLE SYSTEMS
G
3.5" disk drives allow the use of low cost,
high capacity disks for mix data storage
El
F0,.nd
,0,1,,.-
,,,
rr
r.
rrfr r
r
Audio phase scope provides permanent
display of amplitude and phase relation-
ship of ;eft and right stereo signals
Wireless talkback system uses a PCM
encoded ' nfra -red handset
G
Plus consoles additionally provide:
REDESIGNED GROUP AND MAIN
BUFFERED MAIN OUTPUT
3.51N DISK DRIVES
MIX AMPS
DISTRIBUTION
AUDIO PHASE SCOPE
PAIR OF
WIRELESS TALKBACK SYSTEM
PUSH /PUSH SWITCHING TO MUTE
GROUP CROSS -NORMALLING
AUTOMATED SOLO
AUX MASTERS
BLACK TRIM STRIPS
PPM
SECOND MINI SPEAKER OUTPUT
METERS
VIDEO SWITCHER
LISTEN MIC POST-COMPRESSOR
G SERIES OR E SERIES EQUALISERS
OUTPUT TO PATCHBAY
SSL'S OWN LINEAR CRYSTAL,
CUE STEREO NORMALLING
OXYGEN -FREE CABLE
LED
A
METER ILLUMINATION
CHARGEABLE OPTION
International Headquarters: Begbroke, OxÑord, England OX5 1RU Tel: (0865) 842300
Darmstadt (6151) 938640 Milan
New York (212) 3151111 Los Angeles (2131 463 4444
II
I
(2) 262 24956
Tokyo (3) 54 74
FULLY-CONNECTORISED REMOTE
PATCHBAY BECOMES A NON -
Solid State Logic
Paris (1) 34 60 46 66
On consoles of 72 channels or over:
11 44
STUDIO
SOUND
AND BROADCAST ENGINEERING
Pebble Mill
refurbishment
See page 8
5
Editorial
24
pitfalls of buzz words and
the next chapter in the
evolution of the pro -audio
15.
industry
8
International News
Latest news from the world of
pro -audio -Studer secure a
contract to supply Zurich
radio station DRS; and SSL
report the sale of the first
G+ console in Japan
13
Products
Product news includes the
announcement of the CRO-12
equaliser from Apogee;
Spectral Synthesis' AutoTracks
software; and more Red units
from Focusrite
18
26
stand -alone CEDAR
sound -restoration units, the
CR DeCrackler
33
51
SRV 330 /SDE -330
units from Roland incorporate
RSS 3-D sound processing
circuitry. Dave Foister gets his
ear bent
55
Perspective
Martin Polon asks if the
advent of data reduction
systems offers us practical
digital audio or threatens to
undermine pro -audio
standards
74
Letters
developments and speculate
on their impact on the future
of audio recording
Technical support for the
Alesis ADAT, excessive editing
of classical music and
The SSL Family
problems with production
sound are just three of the
topics concerning Studio
Sound readers
83
Chiswick Reach
Studio
The unusual equipment at
Vic Keary's London studio is
attracting video shoots as well
as recording projects. Patrick
Stapley visits a London studio
where valves are in demand.
Digital Video
Bit Rate Reduction
Francis Rumsey begins an
occasional series examining
technologies which are having
an increasing influence on
pro- audio -bit reduction in
digital TV provides the
starting point
Sony DMX -S6000
L)eioys introduced by on
all- digital signal path have
caused Sony to present their
new console for postpro
rather than music recording.
Patrick Stapley investigates
desks and delays
Roland
The latest reverb and delay
:mines
SSL's 'family' approach to
product design continues
apace with the OmniMix.
Francis Rumsey attends the
christening and explores the
genealogy
Central Research Labs'
Embedded Coding system
22
73
The Future
likely technological
CRE ICE
Incorporating an identifyinc
code into audio recordings
has proven an elusive goal.
Tim Frost reports on EMI's
Why don't hi -fi sp ake-s
,und like studio monitors
and when is it safe to use
them for monitoring in the
recording studio?
Philip Newell offers an
instructive insight
of Recording
43
Hi -fi and
Monitoring
Fostex D10
John Watkinson
1
20
61
t.
Fostex' latest professional
RDAT machine boasts some
unusual facilities. Jim
Betteridge delights in putting
a pair of D I Os into edit mode
CEDAR CR1
Dave Foister tests the latest
addition to the range of
Music News
Killer Horns sample
from Albie Donnelly and
a killer Wah from
Morley star in Zenon
Schoepe's report on
music technology
Ole
98
Business
Barry Fox warns of the
dangers of confusing the
consumer market and
investigates the flexibility of
MiniDisc
3
Windows 3.1* on 486 host
computer
Rapid graphical editing
Clear user interface
Local SCSI drive fast audio
access
All crossfades calculated in
real -time
there he was, this client, for want of
a
better word, telling me, in no
from earlier that evening also needed crossfades to
Fully non-destructive,
sample accurate editing
cover the gaps. Oh well, Sleep's overrated anyway!
Up to 8 track playback w th
uncertain terms we needed a piece long ago
consigned to the bin.
I
real -time mixing
It's just something else to do in bed!
Unique Trim Window
allowing real-time
could see myself burning the
midnight oil again, desperately trying to find this
3
I
second out-take from the 2000 feet on the cutting
ageing tape deck with
room floor.
he said, "You could get
a
adjustment cf audio
I'd just replaced my
should've listened to lim!
Jog and shuttle scrub
modes
gleaming new machine when
a complete
SADiE
system for less then
AES /EBU, SPDIF and
analog I/O
that
- real -time crossfades, non -destructive
editing and so fast to
All standard sample rates
And what about the night before! I'd mixed down
a
use,
it's incredible!'
Full SMPTE limecode
support with chase and
trigger lock
couple of nifty, if a little timeconsuming crossfades,
What next!
I
need more tape,
16, 20 and 24 bit digital
audio editing
then realised had
I
more time,
a
less grey
hair
Bounce dowr
problem - all
Overdub
the edits
Reverse playback
Real -time dynamics control
Real -time EQ
Real -time digital
resampling
Real -time duration change
Real -time noise reduction
per
lormoir
.
.
.
y
;;`,.*.7
.
--
REtf Of
,
E
BRITISH INNOVATION
WCIRt-D
9tutlioBdio
8i-Video Ltd
The Old School. Stretharn
Ely. Cambridge
CB6 3LD UK
TEL +44(013`-3
FAX +44 (0)353
For
a
648888
648867
Itst of overseas distributors
contact Studio Audio
USA 8 CANADA
MANUFACTURED IN THE
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY BY
STUDIO AUDIO 8 VIDEO LTD
'
Wmdor5
3.1 is a registered trademark of Mici osott hlc.
INV
Studio Audio & Video Ltd. reserve the right to change
specific; bons without prior notice_
I_'..:.._:1.,31 MUMMER,
I¡l
I_.1 Itm1llffi1
STUDIO
SOUND
AND BROADCAST ENGINEERING
October 1993
Volume 35 Number 10
ISSN 0144 5944
EDITORIAL
Editor: Tim Goodyer
Assistant Editor: Julian Mitchell
Production Editor: Peter Stanbury
Secretary: Mary Walsh
Consultant: Sam Wise
Columnists: Barry Fox; Martin Polon
Regular Contributors: James Betteridge;
Ben Duncan; Terry Nelson; Dave Foister;
Francis Rumsey; Yasmin Hashmi; Zenon
Schoepe; Mike Lethby; Patrick Stapley
ADVERTISEMENTS
Executive Ad Manager: Steve Grice
Deputy Ad Manager: Peter Turberfield
Advertisement Production: Carmen Herbert
Secretary: Lianne Davey
CIRCULATION
Circulation and Development Manager:
Colin Enderson
Controlled Circulation Manager:
Maria Udy
Director: Doug Shuard
Publisher: Steve Haysom
EDITORIAL & ADVERTISEMENT
OFFICES
Spotlight Publications Ltd, 8th Floor, Ludgate
House, 245 Blackfriars Road, London SE 1 9UR,
UK. Tel: 071 620 3636. Fax: 071 401 8036.
NEWSTRADE DISTRIBUTION (UK)
UMD, 1 Benwell Road, London N7 7AX, UK.
Tel: 071 700 4600. Fax: 071 607 3352.
0 Spotlight Publications Ltd
1993.
All rights reserved.
Origination by Craftsmen Colour
Reproductions Ltd, Unit 1, James Street,
Maidstone, Kent ME14 2UR.
Printed in England by Riverside Press, St Ives
plc, 2 Grant Close, Gillingham Business Park,
Gillingham, Kent ME8 OQB, UK.
Studio Sound and Broadcast Engineering
incorporates Sound International and Beat
Instrumental.
Studio Sound is published monthly.
The magazine is available on a rigidly
controlled
requested basis, only to qualified personnel.
Subscription Rates:
UK annual subscription: £24.00
Overseas surface mail: £30.50/US:$89
USA airspeeded delivery: $70
Subscription Enquiries
UK: Subscription Dept, Studio Sound
Magazine, Spotlight Publications Ltd, 8th
Floor, Ludgate House, 245 Blackfriars Road,
London SE19UR.
USA: Studio Sound Magazine, 2 Park Avenue,
18th Floor, New York, NY 10016.
US Postmaster
Please send address corrections to: Studio
Sound Magazine, c/o Mercury Airfreight
International Ltd Inc, 2323 Randolph Avenue,
Avenel, New Jersey NJ 07001.
US second class postage paid at Rahway, N.J.
ABC
OFFIOFFI OF TIFF
nopil
Total average net circulation of 19,120 issues during
1992. K:8,194. Overseas: 10,926. (ABC audited)
/
I
_
11
?wed
\rw,pVr.IwW1.
gown
Buzz words and bull
New York. The 95th AES Show: Audio in the Age of Multimedia. It is a bold and a brave
title, but I have to admit that I would be a lot happier about it if multimedia was not
such a vague and abused term. Certainly, the expansion and integration of sound, vision
and computer technologies is continuing apace but -and it is a big but -the `multimedia'
tag is little more than a buzz word at this stage. The trouble with buzz words is that,
without a commonly agreed and acceptable definition (even a vague one), they are God's
gift to purveyors of bull. Take last season's buzz: 'workstation'. Before it hit pro -audio as
'digital audio workstation', it plagued the electronic keyboard market. Korg's MI Music
Workstation claimed to be everything the modern keyboard player needed. But it was not
too long before it became just another (very popular) keyboard instrument. In its darkest
moment, the workstation tag was even hung on a stand intended to prop up an
Atari ST computer...
Soon the bubble burst and people were moving rapidly away from the term while
simultaneously refining the concept. If there is one thing that moves more rapidly than
technical progress, it appears to be marketing strategies. At present, there is at least one
pro -audio equipment manufacturer with a digital audio workstation in their catalogue
worried about the detrimental effect other, less worthy, items bearing the same tag may
be having on the perception of the term. I cannot help but sympathise.
Returning to New York, multimedia and the future, we have to accept that the
pro -audio industry is changing. Advances in technology, a worldwide recession and
fundamental demographic changes are all playing a part in reshaping our industry.
But the worst single mistake we can collectively make is to talk about the 'destruction' of
the business, as so many seem resigned to do. Is it not strange that, in a business that
revels in ever -changing technology, changes in business are perceived as being so
frightening? Surely the advent of integrated media opens more doors for audio
technicians than it closes-sound is an important aspect of this progress, and audio
people have the very best audio skills to offer. The alternative to leaving the audio to
people already involved in some other aspect of the new media is for audio people to take
on other aspects of these media themselves. And for audio -only facilities to address other
is really only an extension of the CD plants which now
aspects of their production
manufacture CD -ROM and CD -I as well as 'good old' audio CDs. And doesn't the growing
importance of multichannel sound offer audio people and facilities more than two audio
channels to work on? I would call that expansion...
Of course the refining, if not defining, of terms such as 'multimedia' is certain to assist
us all in making career as well as business decisions for the future. Which is where I
came in.
There are also healthy signs for those of us who feel more comfortable with audio the
way we have come to know it. Data reduced recordings offer genuinely high -quality audio
systems and audio productions an important opportunity for the future. If consumer
formats such as MD and DCC -not to mention broadcast systems- are to be reliant on
compromised audio, it is sure to generate considerable pride in the uncompromised
article. After all, dogged defence of purist technology is one of our best talents. Surely the
ferocity of the recent debate surrounding classical recording practices is some indication
that none of the parties involved is anticipating the imminent demise of audio -only
recording. The recent reports on DAT tape have also proved as contentious as they have
difficult, and I do not see DAT being subverted into the service of video or 'multimedia'.
Certainly, Studio Sound attracted its share of legal threats over both issues -but then,
that is not unusual for a publication that is taken seriously.
As for multimedia, let us chew it up and spit it out with decent audio. And thank the
AES for helping us get on with the job.
Tim Goodyer
-it
Cover: tc electronic's M5000
5
Woiio's lEADING PRonssIoN1u
THE
AUDIO
WoIuTATIoN Now HAS fAJOR NEW
FEATURES, DRATLTICAnY IMPROVED
PERFORMANCE, AND tOWER SYSTEM PRICESI
SINCE
1991,
More Than Speed and Efficiency. The benefits of
THOUSANDS OF AUDIO PROFESSIONALS HAVE COME TO
depend upon the power and flexibility of Digidesign's
Pro Tools 2.0 go far beyond the obvious. For instance, we
Pro Tools' for audio post, music, and broadcast production.
improved Pro Tools' already acclaimed audio quality: Our new
Indeed, you'll find hits made with Pro Tools on just about any top
digital EQs are as effective and musical as they are clean. We've
movie or music chart, just about any week of the year. In many
added a host of intuitive automation, autolocation and transport
circles, Pro Tools is even considered the de facto standard of
features. Pro Tools now has a no -wait waveform overview mode.
multichannel professional audio workstations.
There's complete time -stamping. Enhanced grouping. Better
Rather than let this success go to our heads, we let it go to our
scrubbing. More session management options. Bigger, brighter,
brains. And ears. And hands.
Thanks to our new Apogee-clock -equipped SMPTE
You see, we've been thinking. And listening. And working
Slave Driver: Pro Tools 2.0 delivers ultra high -fidelity,
ultra low -jitter, ultra-easy digital synchronization in
hard. All to build something even better. Now, it's ready, and it's
playback and record, complete with varispeed.
called Pro Tools 2.0.
Two Point Oh Wow. Pro Tools 2.0
is a
faster, and more accurate VU metering. Improved MIDI sequencing
new, software -based
advanced user interface. Without any modifications or additional
and control. Extensive undo commands. In fact, Pro Tools 2.0 has
hardware, 2.0 runs with all past and present Pro Tools hardware.
dozens of new features, and scores of enhancements, for audio
If you're already familiar with Pro Tools, the first advancement
post, music, and broadcast production applications.
You MIGHT GALL THAT IMrREssnE,
you'll notice
is
that 2.0 combines full -featured recording, mixing,
There's Much More To Come. We've become the industry
signal processing, automation, along with advanced waveform
and event editing
There
is
-
leader by responding to the needs of the people who use digital
all in one, easy-to -use, integrated program.
audio. And by listening carefully to people like you, we have a
simply no other interface as fast, as powerful, as
clear vision of what a professional digital studio should offer.
flexible, and as complete.
First of all, it should offer power, flexibility, loads of features,
and excellent sound quality. It should be highly cost -effective,
AA
Are you a Pro Tools owner who has been holding
without compromising performance or quality. It should be
your breath as you read this ad ?AIl registered
owners will be offered a 2.0 Upgrade Kit,
modular, to allow each user to have the power he or she needs,
including software, new manuals, and an
instructional video. All for just S49.
THIS WAY UP
So
LOKI system
the
pas
without having to pay for unnecessary features. It should also be
breathe easily.
mew apply
opomul Digdesign
modems of the US
to It-channel I?<hannel. and 16-channel Pro Tools system gau<hannel Expansion tab non,
scare Wve
Dnser
delnm the highestdidenty mud
and Gmada, and includes shipping. Internationally, the nor
and playhackssnc
loll
m for the details).
alumni less. Sett suor Autiromed Digidedgt
MR
is Ium USk69.1ruluding express shipping. Pro
uses
Pro Tools Dealer rim details, Wilde all Pm Tools systems include
Digidesigrï sop. ®I Sound Designer IIsoftware. Ouch runs wide any ßo Poolsnnem
hmlitin'trigger sync' k
playladr,
'A 16349 Upgrade kit cost applies to
root s owners must be upstered directly [email protected] to Pe Minnie to receive the I;pnade Kit. C 1993 Digidesigt.,All fights reserved.
AVAILABLE SOON!
THE NEW PRO TOOLS POSTVIEW" OPTION
INTEGRATES FRAME- ACCURATE, FULL -SCREEN,
FULL MOTION RANDOM-ACCESS DIGITAL VIDEO*
backed up by the best customer support in the entire industry. It's
no coincidence that all of this describes Pro Tools 2.0, perfectly.
A
PACKAGE ALSO FEATURES MACHINE CONTROL*
FOR PERFORMING CHASE LOCK OF VIDEO DECKS
TO PRO TOOLS AUDIO. CALL ONE OF THE
DIGIDESIGN REPRESENTATIVES LISTED BELOW
Vision To Share. We believe that a truly professional
digital audio workstation should have a truly open architecture.
By
WITH YOUR PRO TOOLS SYSTEM. THE POSTVIEW
FOR MORE INFORMATION.
"open," we mean that you should be allowed to add
*REQUIRES SOME ADDITIONAL 777IRD -PARTY liANDWARE,
software-based power when you need it. (DINR; our amazing
Digidesign Intelligent
Noise Reduction'
system which will allow
system, is the first of many
you to "drop in" DSP
forthcoming Digidesign
and other cards from
software "plug-ins. ")
Lexicon, Apogee, and
By open, we also
other leading manufac-
mean
that your workstation
turers. No muss, no fuss.
should have powerful and
You can even automate
affordable upgrade paths.
and route your existing
(We think Pro Tools 2.0
analog and digital gear
makes this case quite
within this new, all digi-
elegantly.)
tal environment. (Of
And by open, we
%VE CALL
actually believe that your
IT
course, all past and pre-
Pø TOOLS 10
sent Pro Tools systems
will be easily and afford-
professional digital studio
should allow you to inte-
ably upgradable to be totally compatible with the Digidesign TDM
grate hardware and soft-
Digital Audio Bus.
ware from a variety of
Now that's what we mean by open.
manufacturers, and not
Make Pro Tools 2.0 Your Reality. Thanks for taking a few
just us. Which is why, in
minutes to read what we had to say. Hopefully, we've helped you
1993, we are releasing the
understand better the depth of our commitment to the people
remarkable Digidesign
who use Pro Tools today, and will be using it tomorrow.
TDM Digital Audio Bus
-
So while we call it Pro Tools 2.0, you might call it exactly what
With our TDM Digital Audio Bus Pro Tools
offers your studio an open door t
a
the future.
For more information about Pm Tools,
or
256-channel, 24 -bit
cligiclesigrs
SY(0
about upgrading to Pro Tools 2.0,
you can leach us at one
of the dealers
listed below:
APPLE CENTER GLASGOW, SCOTLAND
TEL:
041 226 3250
SOUND
(000L- GLASGOW
Ta: 041 204 2774
you need. And if so, perhaps your next call should be to us.
TEL:
SYSTEMS LTD.-LONDON
011 625 6010
DIGIDESIGN LONDON OFFICE
Ta: 0483-740 009
SYSTEMS WORKSHOP-SHROPSHIRE
IN AOSTRMIA CDNTAn:
Ta: 0691 658550
ISBMTTEL: 3-416 9688
THE SYNTHESIZER COMPANY -LONDON
TEL:
071 258 3454
TURNKEY- LONDON
TEL:
071 379 5148
IN NEW ZEALAND
PROWL TEL:
1360 WILLOW ROAD
CA
MENLO PARK
415.688.0600
48 RUE DES TOURNELLES
Coon:
4-385 4814
94025
USA
75003 PARIS
SAN FRANCISCO
CHICAGO
FRANCE
+33.1.40 27 0967
LOS ANGELES
NASHVILLE
PARIS
NEW YORK
LONDON
International News
In -brief
CD -ROM firm get Alabama bound
Microinfo's CD -ROM Division has been
appointed UK distributor for the full
range of CD -ROM based information
products and services produced by
EBSCO Publishing based in
Birmingham Alabama
,
Sound Field gets
third owner
'ti
in three years
.rl
:
AES links with One to One Mag
The AES has joined forces with Studio
Sound's sister publication One To One
to set up an audio duplication and CD
technology forum within the 96th AES
Convention in Amsterdam next year.
Celebrating the 30th anniversary of the
audio cassette, the forum will feature a
range of technical sessions presented
by authoritative speakers in the
business to what is likely to be the
largest gathering of companies
in the industry.
New man takes over at AKG
Hendrik Homan, new MD at AKG Acoustics
Due to the changes of ownership with
AKG, Mr Helmut Gunst will resign, with
full consent of the Supervisory Board of
AKG, from his posts of Chairman of the
Managing Board of AKG and President
of AKG Holding AG, at the end of
October. Mr Hendrik Homan has been
appointed Managing Director of AKG
Acoustics from the
beginning of September
AMS -Neve awards to graduates
AMS -Neve have presented their annual
awards to Tonmeister BMus graduates
from the University of Surrey. The prize
for Creative recording was awarded to
23- year -old John Hide who also
received the Jacques Levy Prize for his
final year project on the objective
assessment of digital audio systems
using perceptual models.
Apologies to Sony Classical
We would like to make it clear that Barry
Bongiovi formerly occupied the position
of General manager of the Sony label
studio facility at Sony Classical before
he joined Touchdown and not Director
of Operations as stated previously.
8
Studio Sound, October 1993
AMS -Neve have sold their
SoundField and ST250 business to
Drawmer Distribution. This follows a
review by AMS -Neve of their product
portfolio and the decision to focus
wholly on their range of editing and
mixing equipment.
AMS -Neve's MD, Mark Crabtree
commented on the sale, The merger
of AMS and Neve has obviously
produced a large and varied product
portfolio. It was felt that the new
company was therefore not in an
ideal position to give these excellent
microphones the attention they
deserve in terms of R&D and
marketing activities.
All responsibility for product
development, manufacturing,
marketing and service of the
SoundField and ST250 microphones
has been transferred to SoundField
Research Ltd, a sister company of
Drawmer Distribution Ltd.
Ken Giles, MD of Drawmer added,
SoundField is a unique product and
is the only internationally acclaimed
British microphone. We will continue
to use the patented SoundField
technology and are committed to
manufacturing and supporting the
products to the same high standards
that users have enjoyed from Calrec
and AMS-Neve.
SoundField Research.
Tel: 0924 201089. Fax: 0924 201618.
3.f"-lig{
, ,.','`a::.
ii{'ii{{
_n
..
a
Steve Mac of Skratch Music in London poses in front of his new Soundtracs Jade
48PB console. Larking Audio installed the desk in Scratch's number two studio. As
well
as producing material for
clients such as Lindy Layton and Nomad, Steve
remixes for Right Said Fred and Kenny Thomas. His own band Under Cover were
famous for their version of Baker Street by Gerry Rafferty
Codename NISKO
For some time Radio DRS in Zurich
has planned to renew their main
studios. The project was given the
codename NISKO (new information
and transmission).
After evaluation by Radio DRS,
Studer received the complete order
for the switching room, digital mixing
consoles, and the installation.
Four studios are now equipped
with one digital console each. The
connection to the central MADI
router is implemented via one pair of
fibre -optic connections each. Each of
these can simultaneously transmit up
to 56 audio channels.
The MADI switching matrix is
operated via terminals in the
different studios, that is the studio
engineer or the DJ on the mixing
console connects his studio to the
correct line and calls in audio input
lines from other studios or from other
remote locations.
An electronic logbook records
automatically all switching states.
Depending on the task, setups that
are needed later can be prepared and
instantaneously recalled with the
push of a button. The operator can
format the screen in such as way that
the display optimally satisfies his
requirements and that only that
information is displayed which he
actually needs for his production
or broadcast.
Mayor meeting for
Hotel Studios become SSL landmark
Landmark Studio in Yokohama,
Japan, a new facility owned by the
Bay City Group, has recently
installed two SL 4072 G Plus
consoles. These are the first G Plus
consoles to be
installed in
Japan.
The studios
are located in
Landmark
Tower, the
tallest building
in Japan (296m
high), and linked
to Landmark
Hall for live
recordings.
Mr Hiromi
One of two G Plus
Kuroiwa, Studio Manager commented
`Landmark Studio chose the SSL
consoles because they are very
popular both in Japan and
throughout the world. The G Plus
consoles also
have excellent
operational
features,
including the
3.5 -inch floppy
disks which
make the storage
of material very
easy. The sonic
enhancements of
G Plus are also
appreciated.'
consoles at Landmark
CD -I developers
A major compact disc interactive title
engineering development seminar
aimed at all sections of the software
community is to take place on
November 7th -9th.
The conference, sponsored by
Philips Interactive Media and the
European CD-I Association, is
designed for existing and potential
developers from a wide range of
disciplines.
Visitors should include games
companies; audio-visual producers;
developers for corporate market
applications; postproduction houses
and representatives from film,
television and record companies.
Contact Tel: +31 30 932 209.
Contracts
Spatializer
signs up with
Matsushita
Spatializer Audio Labs have
announced that they have signed
a letter of intent with Matsushita to
produce Spatializer 2- speaker 3 -D
Surround Sound audio processor
ICs for use by consumer electronics
companies worldwide, and will
underwrite the the associated
development costs.
'We are pleased to be associated
with an advancement in sound
reproduction as revolutionary as
Spatializer' commented
S. Teramoto, Director of
Matsushita's IC division, `the
potential for this new technology is
almost unlimited, and we see
markets worldwide from home
audio to multimedia computing.'
Production quantities of the new
IC are expected to be available to
manufacturers by mid -1994.
CEO Steven Gershick
commented for Spatializer Labs,
`Truly effective and affordable 3 -D
sound is now a reality for today's
audio consumer. So whether you
are enjoying a new CD or televised
broadcast recorded with our
professional system, or listening to
your favourite old album or movie
through a stereo or VCR equipped
with our consumer IC, Spatializer
adds a natural and vibrant new
sense of dimension, depth and
clarity.'
MicroSound return for veteran
Industry veteran Armin Steiner,
until recently Director of Recording
for 20th Century Fox and before that
engineer to over one hundred gold
and platinum selling records, has
returned to recording
and chosen a
MicroSound digital
audio workstation as his
main work tool.
Steiner commented
`Although there are
many viable
workstations available,
Avid and the Manchester bid
unlike some of the MIDI sequencer
or visual overload types of interfaces,
their user interface simulated
exactly how I would compose, record
and edit.
n,ioflvPSSUo
only Micro Technology
had the answer to two of
my greatest concerns.
First MicroSound was
the only workstation
that had real virtual
tracks and second,
Armin, his Gold records and MicroSound
Jean Michel Jarre tour whirls on
Western and Eastern Europe by its
end. As usual the production
parameters are immense and in fact
two separate
towers are
erected for sound
and light and the
rear of each tower
provides support
for the Meyer
MSL -3 delay
systems, 24 per
tower in the case
of the concert at
the Pontaise
football stadium
in Lusanne,
Chronologie tour -Jean Michel Jarre uses up more electricity
Switzerland.
Supplying the sound was French
PA company Dispatch, who supplied
42 SCV 246 compact enclosures per
side (designed in conjunction with
Dispatch) and distributed over four
communications, broadcasting
levels; three rows of 12 -inch arced
equipment and programming sector.
arrays plus a top array of six
Istanbul Hilton Exhibition Centre.
cabinets. There are also 16 Meyer
November 25th-28th.
UPA -1A speakers for nearfield
Coming up in 1994
coverage and a row of 24 Meyer
AES 96th Convention,
USW -650 subwoofers across the
Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
width of the stage at ground level.
February 27thMarch 2nd.
The show is mixed through a
Broadcast Asia '94, the third
Yamaha PM4000 with 48 channels
Asia -Pacific sound, film and video
with a stereo submix for a Sony
exhibition and conference will take
PCM3324A with the various effects
place 1st -4th June, at the World
and additional backing tracks coming
Trade Centre, Singapore.
from a TAC Bullet 28- channel
AV and Broadcast China '94,
console.
covering the broadcasting market in
According to Dispatch there is
all of China. China Foreign Trade
nothing special in the way of
Centre, Guangzhou. May 16th -20th.
standard.
outboard equipment
Jean Michel Jarre's Chronologie tour
kicked off in France and is due to
cover all of the major centres in
Exhibitions, conferences, courses
AES 95th Convention New York,
New York. 7th-10th October.
Vision '93. Olympia, London.
October 5th -7th.
Broadcasting Cable & Satellite
India '93, Pragati Maidan,
New Delhi. October 25th -28th.
EuroComNet '93, RAI Conference
Centre, Amsterdam,
2nd -4th November.
LD Orlando 93, Celebrating
entertainment and lighting
technology, Orlando Convention
Centre, November 12th-15th.
Communications and Broadcast
-Turkey '93, Turkey's premier
trade exhibition for the electronic
Avid Technology delivered a Media
Composer 800, at very short notice to
Stockport-based Vector TV
-Manchester Olympic Bid's
postproduction house -to cut the final
video in support of the British bid for
the 2000 Olympic Games.
Tannoy lend a hand to King Kong
Tannoy found the biggest customer
ever for its new SuperDual
loudspeakers-Universal Studios' 38ft
King Kong monster. The deal is part of
Universal's strategy of helping their
visitors to enjoy total involvement in
the movies by using the ultimate
realism. The SuperDual fits inside King
Kong's head to be the monster's voice.
AMS -Neve find answer at Oasis
Recently rated by producers as one of
the top UK postproduction houses.
Oasis Television is the first UK
company to order AMS -Neve's new
Logic 3 digital mixer. Oasis Television
has been assessing audio editing and
mixing equipment for several months
but as executive director, Tony
Cloarec explains, 'Value for money,
the integration of digital mixing and
editing and the pure power of the
system were the persuading factors.'
You've seen the film now play...
Jurassic Park, the video game which
features Dolby Surround Sound. The
Dolby system is featured on the Super
NES version of the game which was
created by Manchester's
Ocean Software.
Frank Zappa turbos his NED
Frank Zappa has installed a significant
upgrade to the Synclavier 9600
sampling, synthesis and compositional
system he owns. The new package
consists of six of the company's new
64Mb MegaRAM sample memory
cards and a custom expansion chassis
used to house 32 additional playback
voices. It makes Zappa s Synclavier
the largest, integrated sampling
system in the world.
Plus XXX open new studios
Plus XXX studios in Paris have now
opened their £1 million three -studio
complex. Apart from two Neve and one
SSL desk, it is the sole complex in
France to be completely equipped with
Genelec monitoring.
Freddie Stars for DDA
Comedian Freddie Starr has bought a
DDA AMR24 console as the
centrepiece for his private recording
studio in Berkshire, UK. The system
works together with an Otari MTR -90
24 -track recorder.
just
9
CDR'S 63 & 74 AT
COMPETITIVE PRICES.
CDR'S PRINTED WITH
CALL OR PHONE FOR
COPY OF OUR LATES
CATALOGUE AND FRE =
GIFT OFFE -
YOUR OWN LOGO.
DISTRIBUTOR OF
AMPEX
BASF
FUJI
-timiumpl,--
SM
AXELL
ONY
DK
*ACCESSORIES
*LACQUER MASTERING
DISCS & STYLI
DATA MEDIA
VIDEO TAPE ALL FORMATS
LONDONS LEADING SPECIALIST AUDIO/VIDEO
TAPE DISTRIBUTOR.
TRANSCO MASTERING SERVICES LTD.
7 SOHO SQUARE, LONDON W1V 5DD
TEL: 071 287 3563 FAX: 071 494 3583
AUDIO DESIGN
PRESENTS:
The
I'1zoIl
i\ range of
digital tools
pro ess onal consumer
digital problem solver with full copy
management
CopyRite SCMS Defeat box
Error status interface for Sony
The Masterclock Super qu
AT.
digital clock generator (AES & W/Q.
Probox 3
Probox 6
Sdif 2/ AES interfax
--'"
aqTAt oinRN1If1)N
distribution AES/E
Coaxial S/Pdif, BNC W/C
(1
in 3
Probox 7 distribution AES/EBU
(1
in 10 out)
Probox 8 distribution 2 AES /EBU
inputs - each to 5 AES /EBU outputs
Probox 9 a professional 18 -bit DAC
Probox 10 a 20 bit Sample Rate Converter
AUDIO
DESIGN
3 Horseshoe Park, Pangbourne, RG8 7JW, UK
Tel: +44 (0) 734 844545; Fax +44 (0) 734 842604
Unit
.
INTERNATIONAL NEWS
Master of
the Gentle Art
BBC Radio Two's refurbished Studio 2
Pebble Mill
bares all for R2
BBC Radio Two's primary music
recording studio in Birmingham has
been completely rebuilt by
Greenwich -based Recording
Architecture.
Pebble Mill studio two was
stripped to the bare concrete and
totally refurbished under the
direction of Senior Audio Supervisor,
Tim Green and Recording
Architecture's Roger D'Arcy.
Tim Green commented: `Recording
Architecture created a recording
space that was flexible and neutral
enough to handle everything from
music to speech and the other sound
needs of BBC Radio.'
APRS contribute
to MMC
'Music' inquiry
The APRS has been invited by the
Monopolies and Mergers
Commission to make a submission to
its inquiry into `All aspects of the
supply of recorded music in the UK'
The MMC had been asked, by the
Director General of Fair Trading, to
investigate and report the existence,
or possible existence, of a monopoly
situation in the supply of music
recordings of all types; this goes
beyond the previous hearing, by the
Parliamentary Heritage Committee,
which centred on the retail price of
compact discs.
Given its place at the heart of the
creation and supply of recorded
music, the APRS responded to the
Commission's invitation with a
submission in several parts. These
reflect the Association's character as
an umbrella organisation for a
number of sectors-the commercial
recording studio interest, the
pressing and duplication (PAD
Group) interest, the manufacturers
and distributors (Suppliers Group)
interest, and the Re -Pro (Guild of
Producers and Engineers) interest.
The Association reiterates its
serious concern that there is
virtually no margin for cutting the
rates paid to studios, duplicators,
record producers and others who
service the creative and
manufacturing processes, and that
any move to reduce retail prices
might well be counterproductive; it
also draws the Commission's
attention to the public interest
aspect of some of the practices of the
Musicians Union, and -in the record
producers section-to the issue of
royalties collected via the PPL.
The APRS submission is now
being reviewed by the members of
the Monopolies and Mergers
Commission, and representatives of
the Association will meet the MMC
panel on the 30th September. It is
understood that the panel is
receiving the views of a wide range
of music industry bodies, and will
report on this inquiry by the end of
March 1994.
APRS, 2 Windsor Square, Silver
Street, Reading, Berks RG1 2TH.
I
9
6
0
mic pre -amp /vacuum tube compressor
two ultra low noise vacuum tube mic pre -amps
with switchable phantom powering.
two vacuum tube 'soft knee' compressors.
an auxiliary instrument pre -amp with
equalisation and sufficient gain to allow 'tube
overload' sustain effects.
other machine offers this powerful
combination of features. Harnessing the 'life and
warmth' of eight active tube stages and the low
noise and reliability of solid state electronics, the
Drawmer 1960 provides the ultimate direct
interface between the sound source and the
No
recording medium.
Drawmer
DRAWMER DISTRIBUTION, CHARLOTTE ST BUSINESS CENTRE,
CHARLOTTE ST, WAKEFIELD, WEST YORKS WF I 1UH, ENGLAND.
TEL 0924 378669
FAX:
0924 290460
Tel: 0734 756218. Fax: 0734 756216.
11
THE Dx2000
DIVERSITY
RECEIVER.
TWO WAYS TO
ACHIEVE SUPERB
QUALITY SOUND.
A true dual diversity receiver housed in
which
is
little larger than
a
a
unit
pack of playing
cards. That's the new Dx 2000 diversity
receiver
-
part of the highly acclaimed
RMS 2000 range of radio microphones.
The Dx 2000's high quality sound makes it
perfect main line receiver. And because it
a
is
so small and lightweight, it can
be mounted unobtrusively on
a
camcorder,
handling the most demanding type of
ENG
work (or any situation where you need
total mobility).
The Dx 2000 delivers an impressively clean,
clear sound signal. And the benefit of
diversity (which keeps on working even at
short range). So what you get is almost
complete elimination of drop outs
-
from the
limit of range to close in.
So if you're looking for uncompromised
performance
in one
compact unit, contact us
for
a
demonstration now.
Audio Limited, 26 -28 Wendell Road,
London W12 9RT.
Tel:
081
-7431518 (2 lines) 081 -743 4352.
Fax: 081 - 746 0086.
RADIO MICROPHONE SYSTEMS
gouhd
Desíghed
In-brief
Klipsch RP-160
The Klipsch Professional KP-260 is a
compact 2 -way, trapezoidal
loudspeaker designed for solo or
cluster installation. Features include
traditional Klipsch mainstays such as
high efficiency, wide dynamic range
and high power handling capability.
Found as standard equipment are
12 fly points, providing a wide range
of mounting points. The drivers used
in the KP -260 include a die -cast
aluminium 12 -inch woofer and a
heavy duty compression driver
mounted to a 60° x 40° Tactrix
Technology horn.
Klipsch Professional Products,
PO Box 688, Rt. 4 Oakhaven,
Hope, AR 71801, USA.
Tel: +1 501 777 6751.
Fax: +1 501 777 6753.
Europe: JWM Ltd. Tel: 0637 877170.
Fax: 0637 850495.
Apogee EQ
Apogee Sound have introduced the
CRQ -12 parametric equaliser,
featuring what they call 'MultiMode'
operation. The unit has 12 fully
parametric filters, each adjustable in
three ranges (from 20Hz to 20kHz),
four shelving filters, and four
adjustable 12db/octave filters, all
configurable in three distinct modes
of operation. The modes are called
6/6, 6/12 and 12/12, and restructure
the internal signal routing to the
unit's four output level controls.
The CRQ -12 has a dynamic range
of 115dB and distortion is less than
0.003% at +21dBu.
Apogee have also introduced its
new THX Motion Picture Theatre
System, MPTS -1. Designed by the
THX division of LucasArts, the unit is
the only THX system specifically
intended for postproduction mixdown
facilities, dubbing stages, professional
screening rooms and small to
medium -size cinemas.
Employing a 12- output processor,
the unit features selectable screen
compensation filters for each of the
three main channels, and remote
selectable X curve equalisation, which
Master calender display unit
The ES -195 is a six -digit Master
Calender display. The unit is
designed to receive ESE serial time
code and display six digits of date
(Month, Day, Year) or six digits of
time (Hour, minute, second).
In addition to the front panel display,
two different time code outputs (one
ASCII and one ESE) are accessible
on rear mounted connectors.
ESE Tel: +1 310 322 2136.
Graham-Patten release video
RED 3, a
dual stereo compressor- limiter
allows switching between cinema and
video playback session.
Apogee Sound Incorporated, 1150
Industrial Ave, Petaluma,
CA 94952. Tel: +1 707 778 8887.
Fax: +1 707 778 6923.
RED 3 arrives
Focusrite Audio Engineering have
introduced RED 3, a dual stereo
compressor-limiter. The design is
derived using the circuit ideas and
the proprietary Focusrite VCA from
the ISA 1301131 dynamics processor.
RED 3 maybe switched to stereo
operation when only the lower
controls function over both channels,
ensuring accurately matched stereo
performance. In this mode an equal
amount of gain reduction is applied
according to the larger of the two
input signals, essential in mixdown
and stereo miking situations.
RED 3 features transformer
balanced inputs and outputs which
effectively blocks external noise
pickup.
Focusrite Audio Engineering,
Unit 2, Bourne End Business
Centre, Cores End Road,
Buckinghamshire, SL8 5AS, UK.
Tel: 0628 819456. Fax: 0628 819443.
Stereo for DMC
Yamaha have launched the DMC1000
STEREO digital console, designed
specifically for broadcast, film, video
production and mastering
applications. Major broadcasters,
including the BBC, made it known
that they had a requirement for a
digital mixing console with dedicated
stereo inputs to equip digital video
editing suites and audio
postproduction suites with hard disk
editing systems.
DMC1000 STEREO console
represents a significant progession
from the stereo mode status on the
standard model. Features include the
ability of any channel to be configured
to function as a single stereo input
channel or two mono channels; all
22 inputs on the DMC1000 STEREO
can be routed simultaneously to any
or all of the eight program buses and
the main stereo output bus;
MS decoding facility on all of the
eight main stereo input channels; full
dynamic automation of all mixing
console parameters includes the
MS decoding.
The DMC1000 STEREO is
available either as a physical console
or as a software update package for
existing users.
UK: HHB Communications,
73-75 Scrubs Lane, London.
To help users become more familiar
with the operational style of the
D/ESAM 800 and D/ESAM 400
Digital Edit Suite Audio Mixers,
Graham -Patten have prepared a
videocassette that demonstrates the
various features and functions
G -P
Systems.
Tel: +1 916 273 8412.
Quadratic Diffusor introduced
The Wenger Corporation has
introduced a quadratic diffuser
acoustical panel designed to
improved sound diffusion in music
rehearsal rooms and performance
environments. The new panel is a
one-dimensional quadratic residue
diffuser that effectively diffuses
sound in a frequency range of
750 to 3300 Hz.
NW10 6QU. Tel: 081 960 2144.
USA: Yamaha Corp of America, 6600
Orangethorpe, Buena Park,
CA 90620, USA. Tel: +1 714 522 9011.
Fax: +1 714 739 2680.
Spectral Tracks
Spectral Synthesis has announced the
release of AutoTracks, a new software
utility for use with their Digital
Audio Workstation products.
AutoTracks permits autorecording
and autoconforming of CMX 340,
340A, 360 or 3600 format compatible
source files. Also released is
StudioTracks 2.0. The 2.0 system is
the most powerful ever delivered by
Spectral, and adds support for
removable media, plus enhancing
editing, mixing and patching
features. All existing systems in the
field are being upgraded at no charge
to the owners, as part of Spectral's
open upgrade path concept.
Prisma is a Digital Audio
Workstation system which features
96 tracks, 12-channel real -time
mixing with dedicated multiband
Wenger's quadratic diffusor panel
Shure release new mixer
Shure has announced the availability
of the FP32A portable stereo mixer
which is similar to the previous FP32
model, yet offers over 40 new
features and improvements.
Self -noise has been reduced by
30dB to make the unit compatible
with digital recording formats and
transmission schemes; and both 48V
and 12V phantom, as well as
12V(A -B) power are available to
operate all types of condenser
microphones. Active input controls
have been added that
simultaneously lower an input's
volume level and increase its
clipping point. The FP32A measures
58mm H x 161mm D x 184mm W
and weighs only 1.6kg (without
batteries.) Shure GmbH.
Tel: +49 7131 83221.
13
PRODUCTS
COLD
HARD
DIGITAL
WORLD
BBC feedback helped in DMC Stereo's arrival. See Page 13
°i
A.'E
560
parametric EQ on each channel,
24 -bit DSP, MIDI, SMPTE, MTC and
SCSI support -all on a single PC
Y.
Bring warmth to your
recording with the new TLA
1
1J
JIr Jll
11
r
of 4 band valve EQ`
$4 Balanced mic & line in /outs
6 Phantom power (switchable)
4á Insert points for compressor or
4f
2 channels
effects (post mic amp, pre EQ).
board. The Prisma, under the control
of Spectral's new Prismatica system
software, takes advantage of the
widely distributed Windows user
interface.
Spectral Synthesis, 47 Lafayette
Circle, Suite 308, Lafayette,
CA 94549, USA.
Tel: +1 510 284 8417.
Fax: +1 510 284 8421.
Europe: Spectral Synthesis.
Tel: 0442 64205.
110/220 volt switchable
Four twin triode valves are used,
arranged as a voltage amplifier
followed by three active
EQ stag
per channel. Increasing the gain
the input stage allows the unique
overdriven valve sound to be
gradually introduced.
Suggested Retail £595 ex vat
L
2
Classic Neve EQ
also available
used class c neve eq modules
mounted in a new 1U casing.
balanced mic/line inputs, XLR
balanced outputs. Phantom
power. 110/220v switchable.
XLR
£1495 ex vat
Distributed Worldwide by: Tony larking Professional Sales. Letchworth. England. SG61UJ.
Telephone: +44 (0)462 480009 Fax. +44 (0)462 480035 Distributor enquiries welcome.
14 Studio Sound, October 1993
B&K Sound Level
Bruel & Kjaer have introduced its
new Type 2236 sound level meter
with a revolutionary shape and new
features for measurment of noise in
the workplace.
The 2236 provides facilities for an
accurate assessment of noise levels
and can be upgraded by addition of
built -in octave filters for frequency
analysis of noise sources. It can also
act as a low -cost front -end for tape
recorders, transfering signals via an
unweighted, calibrated AC output for
spectrum analysis or subjective
evaluation. Internal memory stores
results from 40 survey locations and
up to six hours of 1-second results.
A serial interface is provided for
downloading results, or for direct
connection to a PC.
Designed specifically for the UK
market, the Type 2236 has built in
standard national and international
parameters for all industrial noise
measurement tasks.
Bruel & Kja3, Harrow Weald
Lodge, 92 Uxbridge Road,
Harrow, Middlesex. HA3 6BZ.
Tel: 081 954 2366.
Fax: 081 954 9504.
AKG add a rifle
AKG Acoustics has added the
CK 68-ULS rifle microphone to the
C460 Series. The mic incorporates
two shotgun capsules by using a
divisible interference tube.
In full length format the
CK 68 -ULS can be used for medium
distance recording applications such
as film and television dialogue or
outdoor and on stage ambience
recording. With the front tube
removed the CK 68 can be used as a
short shotgun capsule suitable for
recording motion picture, television
and video close -ups, interviews in
noisy environments, etc.
Features include switchable -10dB
pre -attenuation pad and 70Hz or
150Hz 12dB /octave bass cut;
ultralinear frequency response and
electrical transfer characteristics;
minimal distortion, low current
consumption and low noise
performance.
AKG have also introduced the
DSM-7 (Digital Status Monitor), a
portable unit for checking all
significant parameters of digital
audio connections to AES -EBU and
S -PDIF standards. In situations
where connectors, digital standards
and sampling rates vary from each
PRODUCTS
other, and where cable attenuation,
signal loss and confusing harnesses
create further difficulty, the DSM-7
promises to save downtime in studios,
broadcast and live applications.
The unit comes complete with AKG
headphones, battery pack and a
carrying case.
AKG Acoustics, Brtmhildegasse 1,
Postfach 584, 1150 Wien, Austria.
Tel: +43 1 956 51 72 42.
Fax: +43 1 956 51 72 45.
UK: AKG Acoustics, Vienna Court,
Lammas Road, Godalming, Surrey.
GU7 1JG. Tel: 0483 425702.
Fax: 0483 428967.
ScreenSound v5
SSL's v5 software for the
ScreenSound combines a faster
processor and an extended range of
3M in two format
CD -R
release
3M have announced the availability
of 3M's new 63 and 74- minute format
CD Recordable media. Because the
two formats fully comply with the
Orange Bool Part II standards, the
discs will work with most
manufacturer's CD Recordable drives.
The discs are colour coded for easy
recognition by users.
`The new-line of media
demonstrates 3M's increased
committment to the future of the
CD -ROM industry. The growth and
increased accessibility to CD -R has
vast implications for application
developers and information
publishers, who want to prototype
their CD -ROMs, for business with
operational features. Jog and shuttle
low- volume distribution applications,
on the desk, Edit peel, Global edits,
and, of course, for governmental,
Autoconform and reconform of audio
library and other uses that store
are some of the new additions.
massive quanities of data,' says Rusty
Also offered is an integral random
Rosenberger, 3M Business
access video option in the form of
VisionTrack, providing up to one hour Development Manager.
3M have also announced
of random access video, with instant
availability of a 5.25 -inch 1.3 Gb
location of audio and picture to any
optical disc for use on new
frame. Reusable hard disk storage
double- density optical drives.
has none of the costs associated with
Working under codevelopment
optical media. Other features include,
agreements with Hewlett- Packard
simultaneous sound and picture
and IBM AdStar, 3M have doubled
recording; ADR countdown overlays
the rewriteable optical disc capacity
and integral machine control.
from 650Mb to 1.3Gó.
Solid State Logic, Begbroke,
The new disc doubles storage
Oxford, OX5 1RU.
Tel: 0865 842300. Fax: 0865 842118. capacity primarily through the
banded-format technique to optimise
US: Solid State Logic Inc, 320 West
46th Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY the number of recording sectors per
track. Capacity gains also were
10036. Tel: +1 212 315 1111.
achieved by increasing the linear
Fax: +1 212 315 0251.
xcellentaudf%
cification
a dear undergtanding of
what professionals want d d need
from their elu ,gip 1 í54r TLA is
all about.
Take für
ple
II:
-
and
111
t
Professional Portable 4:2 V'J Designed to meet the rigors of
on-location mixing it simply blows
the competition away with
o.
'mix' of functions and
atperb
feature
There are 4 miuline bafap =z+
XLR
and jack inputs with swit:r
mic gain, dual voltage phant.1n
powering, high pass fitte
changes on
2
channels arre
svwtching to give 2 store
P. ^d
all from just E.1295 +
vat.
Distributed Worldwide by Tony Larking Professional Sales Letchworth. England. 506 151.
Telephone: +44 (0)462 480009. Fax. +44 (0)462 480035 Distributor enquiries welcome.
B &K
revolutionise sound level meters
15
dCS deliver % kHz
dCS have launched the dcs 902 high
Ctr, St Paul, MN 55144.1000, USA.
speed A -D convertor and they claim
its the first outboard convertor of its
type to provide 88.2 and 96 kHz
sample frequencies. Based on the
architecture of the dcs 900B,
conversion is achieved by a discrete
des proprietary oversampling
convertor. Gain ranging techniques
are not used, avoiding unwanted
effects due to noise pumping.
The convertor may be operated in
either Master or Slave mode and
offers selectable output word width,
remote overload monitoring and
double speed AES -EBU, SPDIF and
SPDIF -2 digital interfaces.
Tel: +1 612 733 3477.
UK: 3M Data Storage Products
Group, 3M United Kingdom PLC,
3M House, PO Box 1, Bracknell,
Data Conversion Systems,
The Jeffreys Building, St John's
Innovation Park, Cowley Road,
Cambridge. CB4 4WS, UK. Tel:
RG12 1JU. Tel: 0344 558447.
0223 423299. Fax: 0223 423299.
dCS claim first convertor to provide 88.2 and 96kHz sample frequencies
recording density while decreasing
track spacing.
The new drive and media
technology together offer users a 40%
reduction in cost per -megabyte and a
30% improvement in the read -write
transfer rate.
3M are the world's largest supplier
of removeable magnetic recording
media and is a reading producer of
magneto -optical discs.
3M Professional AV Products, 3M
CID
11 S
HELLO OPTI FI LE
[111
Mixing is a complex business. How often could you do
with a hand or two or three ? Imagine how much
easier it would be with Optifile - the console automation system now recommended by most leading
console manufacturers.
Powerful, yet simple to operate, its like having
another engineer and production assistant constantly
at your disposal. It won't cost an arm and a leg either.
Call or fax now for details.
Australia: Arlcom ()3) 720 5711. Belgium: Eml (011) 41 5278.
Brazil: Libor (11) 34 :339. Eire: Audio Engineering 353 1 717600.
Germany: Sea 05903 78 05. Italy: Palombi (02) 254 0721.
North America: Sascom (416) 420 3946. Norway: Audiotron
(02) 35 2096. Spain: Twin Cam (03) 675 5011. Sweden:
Arva 046 320 370. Switzerland: Decibel 021 946 33 37.
International relresenlatioa
The Noma 3ervis=.. Tel
:
981 943 4949
fat
:
381 943
5155
4I1\tttU ' tnuw wwvw
INFORMATION
IN DIGITAL AUDIO
FOR THE LATEST
RECORDER
DAT
WORLDWIDE
SHORTAGE-NB
TO
TIE RESCUE!
lier of DAT technology,
Europe's leading supplier
laced to scour the
in their
is weil placed
domestic models
HHB Communications
eccomá
has
devices,
DAT
mer "DAT
Minidisc
or
its launch,
last of the "p
In the 6 years since
sonically inferior DCC
globe in search of the
consumer
industry
availability
featured
their continued
the type of suitably
established as the undisputed
machines and ensure
variety supplies of
audio
wide
a
by
with
use
for
recording
least.
for two track digital
DAT machines favoured
for the time being at
now available.
scarce. But fear not!
machines
become
have
of professional
the professionals
manufacturers replacing
But with the major
DAT ranges
with
As
HHB SECURES EXCLUSIVE
SUPPLY OF THE AIWA XD-S11013!
With a highly reinforced double construction chassis, 3 motor drive mechanism, coaxial and optical digital
interfaces and a wireless remote, Aiwa's superb XD -S1100 is perfectly configured for private studio use. And
like everything we supply, its fully backed by one of the most experienced and respected techni -departments in the business.
AIWA HHB
PRO:
THE POWER PORTABLE
TAPES
BEWARE - ALL DAT
ARE NOT THE SAME
conventional
rechargable
(15,
it's available in 6 lengths
hotline on
mins) Call
details of prices and quantity
081 960 2144 for
accepted - 24 hour delivery.
All major credit cards
92
and
features including
dry cell and
exhibits consistently lower block
error rates. What's more,
30, 48, 62,
An uncompromising list of
Although priced
competitively with
brands, HHB
DAT Tape
1
battery power,
balanced mic / line
inputs and AES /EBU
digital I/O (plus a unique nonSCMS
I
copy prohibit free SPDIF digital
the HHB1 Pro the portable of choice.
/0) make
122
HHB Communications Limited
73 -75 Scrubs Lane, London, NW 10 6QU
Tel: 081 960 2144 Fax: 081 960 1160 Telex: 923393
-.
CEDAR CR1
Launched at this year's APRS, the
cites overloaded analogue inputs,
CR1 Stereo DeCrackler joins the
overdriven microphones and digital
DC1 DeClicker in a new departure for clipping-and the degree of scratchy
CEDAR -the production of
noise found on a vinyl LP. This last
stand-alone rackmount units
should be of interest to the CD, DCC
containing the essential modules of
and MD remastering market in cases
their established audio restoration
where no playable original tape
system. These two units (physically
exists.
almost identical), can be used
I approached this review with a
individually, as a pair, or in
DAT full of transcriptions from 78s,
conjunction with a full-blown CEDAR and it will now be clear that this was
system for additional processing
not ideal test material for the CR1
power, the combination required
alone; however, the addition of a DC1
depending on the job in hand.
to remove the major clicks first
CEDAR have identified various
allowed the CR1 to tackle the
distinct tasks for which their systems remaining crackles. (CEDAR have a
have been used, and not surprisingly
tape of samples of actual jobs they
there are applications which
have undertaken which can be run
predominantly require one particular through the CR1 to show what it can
module of the software and make less do.) The biggest initial surprise was
(or no) use of the rest of the system.
the simplicity of the unit, and how
CEDAR therefore believe there is a
little adjustment is needed to produce
market for the individual modules in
the required results. I was expecting
a convenient, easy -to -use format for
some considerable complexity, with
those whose principal work does not
page upon page of options to be set
require the purchase or learning
and parameters to adjust, but in fact
curve of the complete system.
there are only three pages on the
Declicking has always been a
unit's clear, bright display, of which
fundamental part of the CEDAR
only one is needed for this operation.
process, quite distinct from the
The basic principle of the CEDAR
removal of steady -state noise, and it
system involves the splitting of the
comes as no surprise to find that
signal into two parts, one containing
other intrusions such as buzzes,
the offending noises and the other
hums, distortion and general crackle
containing the unaffected signal. The
are treated separately with a
work is then done on the first part
variation on the process. The kind of
before recombining it with the second
faults targeted by the DeCrackling
to produce the final result. The first
software include thyristor buzz and
job, therefore, is to establish the split
other stray mains-induced noises,
between these two parts, and this is
certain types of distortion-the spec
done with the Detect Level controls
Sue
00!
M.
ME
BO
distinguish between wanted and
unwanted signals. This again is best
done by ear, although in both cases
clear bargraph meters and direct
read -outs show the chosen values.
Two decrackling algorithms are
provided, with Crackle2 more
extreme than Crackle 1, and it is easy
to switch between them to hear which
is more appropriate.
That is all there is to it-two
simple adjustments -and the results
are quite dramatic. My own test
material, badly damaged though it
was, came through with all the
surface mush completely removed,
leaving only the steady hiss of the
(surprisingly low) noise floor of the
original recordings. The wanted
signal, however, survived intact, with
no apparent ill effects whatsoever.
CEDAR's own test material, with
much subtler faults, was dealt with
even more easily, and it was uncanny
to hear slightly peaky distortion and
constantly varying mains harmonics
disappear completely without
side effects.
Another surprise was how difficult
it is to misadjust the unit, even
deliberately. At one extreme it simply
does nothing, while at the other it
starts to eat into the ambient
information- reverberation,
background noise and other low-level
signals start to pump and breathe
slightly. At worst, transients can be
damaged
hi-hat loses its sparkle,
-a
CEDAR De- crackler v2.02Threshold Control
Threshold
Detect level
- 40 -100-
mi- 50
MMI
while monitoring the part which will
not be processed. When the monitored
signal contains nothing but wanted
signal (albeit sounding rather odd at
this stage) then clearly all the crackle
is being sent to the processor.
All that then remains to be done is
the setting of the Threshold
parameter, which determines the
point at which the unit will
-
Cracklel
_
OM
501
Mode
for instance -but this is so easily
avoided by correct setting that there
is no excuse for any significant
degradation.
The CR1 supports both AES -EBU
(up to 24 bits) and SPDIF digital
I -Os, complete with a digital output
attenuator in case the internal 40-bit
processing produces higher levels
than were present at the input.
Balanced and unbalanced analogue
I -Os are also provided. MIDI and
RS232 remote control facilities are
incorporated, and SMPTE sockets
anticipate future control upgrades.
Even though the CR1 costs nothing
like as much as a full -blown CEDAR
system, you will have to be pretty
serious about restoration to afford
one; those who are, however, need be
in no doubt that it will do the job. The
whole CEDAR process seems to be
chiefly associated in most people's
minds with the problems of archive
material, and it is interesting to see
its potential for other applications,
such as rescuing hum-plagued live
recordings, salvaging that one magic
take where something went briefly
into clipping- problems most
facilities will encounter from time to
time which are virtually insoluble by
conventional means.
CEDAR have suffered in the past
from problems with their image, but
this appears to be a thing of the past.
Certainly products like this, delivering
the goods in a simple, fast, unfussy
way, should win many friends.
Dave Foister
UK: HHB Communications Ltd,
73-75 Scrubs Lane, London
NW10 6QU. Tel: 081 960 2144.
Fax: 081 960 1160.
US: Independent Audio, 295 Forest
Avenue, Suite 121, Portland, Maine.
0401 -2000. Tel: +1 207 773 2424.
Fax: +1 207 773 2422.
Bypass
-20-
®L:
10
0
-
R:
10
PNPotI
CEDAR
o
In
Leal
Cedar CR1- difficult not to use well
18 Studio Sound, October 1993
to
Output nitpnYpllan
De- Crackier CR
Try a Sony DASH recorder, and you might find
that nothing else will do.
It's hardly surprising.
You'll be experiencing all the creative freedom and sound
quality of the world's most popular digital multitrack format.
And
that's before you count the studio time and budget
benefits. Sony
After you've used
DASH from Sony,
your usual multitrack
recorders
DASH
offer faster operation than any
- digital or
comparable machine
analogue. They're easy to use.
And of course, because they're
may need
some modifications.
DASH, you use less tape.
And in action?
The Sony 48-track offers
the ultimate in digital recording. There's on -board sampling, full
time -code chase synchronisation
- and
you can even bounce all
48 tracks at once.
Our 24 -track needn't cost any more than some analogue
multitrack systems. Yet with
L- °
fourteen different hardware
options, you can tailor it precisely
to your needs.
i
i
f
And at the highest level, you can actually incorporate all the
features of its 48-track big brother.
What's more, both units are fully compatible with each other,
and easyto integrate into existing analogue and digital environments.
All sounds pretty good? Just wait until you hear them.
Son Y
Broadcast
International
r
To: Marketing Communications Department, Sony Broadcast International, Jays Close, Viables,
Basingstoke, Hampshire, RG22 4SB, United Kingdom.
Please send me more information on DASH muhitracks, plus a copy of DASH World magazine.
Name
Position
Organisation
Address
Postcode
L
SS 10/93
SONY
SONY BROADCAST INTERNATIONAL EUROPEAN HEADQUARTERS, JAYS CLOSE, OAKES. BASINGSTOKE. HAMPSHIRE. RG22 4SB, UNITED KINGDOM.
SIMPLY CALL US ON. AMSTERDAM 020 6581911. ATHENS 01 2818273; BASINGSTOKE, UK 0256 483666; BEIRUT 01 582000: BRUSSELS 02-7241711: COLOGNE 0221 59660: COPENHAGEN 042 995100; DUBAI 04 313472, HELSINKI 0 50291; JEDDAH 02 6440837; LI580N
MADRID 091 536 5700, MILAN 0251538440: OSLO 02 2303530: PARIS 014945 4000: ROME O6 549 131; STOCKHOLM 08 7950800; VIENNA 0222 61050; ZURICH (SCHUEREN( 01 733 3511; CZECHOSLOVAIUA, HUNGARY,POLAND, ROMANIA,
EAST CENTRAL EUROPE (OTHERS(
- UK 0256 483294: MIDDLE EAST /NORTH AFRICA - GENEVA 022 7336350: AFRICA - UK 0256 55011. Sony is
a
registered trademark of the Sony Corporation, Japan.
- VIENNA 0222
0185T256ú:
5454240;
NEWS REVIEW
THE STUDIO
CONDENSER FOR
ENGINEERS and
ACCOUNTANTS
the system.
The first CD was produced using
an analogue prototype which proved
successful and led to the development
of a fully digital version of ICE and
the test CDs for the digital version
displayed marginal audibility with
takes the track identification data
two respondents being able to
and splits it into data bursts of
differentiate between the ICE'd and
around a second duration each which clean versions. Further investigation
are then recorded directly into the
has highlighted the need for some
audio. Insertion is done by first
software changes which are currently
cutting out a narrow frequency notch being implemented prior to the
in the audio in the 2kHz area and
production of a third assessment disc.
then adding the data as an audio
Even if expert consumers are
signal. The actual frequency of the
satisfied that ICE functions
inaudibly, CRL will need ISRC to be
insertion point is regularly altered
making it difficult to strip the data
much more widely adopted if it is to
out using a simple narrow filter. To
work effectively as a track logging
read the data, a suitably equipped
system -unless a high proportion of
personal computer is fed the analogue the tracks have ISRC codes in the
audio from which it extracts the data. first place for music general music
logging ICE will have limited use.
The data is read from several bursts
which are compared to avoid
According to Pete Rogers of the
erroneous readings.
PPL, the UK royalties collection
The data code extracted from the
agency, widespread adoption of ISRC
track can then be compared to codes
may still be few years away.
stored in a database, and the relevant
`There are some practical problems
song information displayed and
with ISRC; for example the coding for
stored to file for later analysis.
back catalogue happens when the
A notch system such as Copycode
music is first transferred to digital
has previously been ruled out because form which may not happen in the
of the sonic degradation created by
original country. The communication
the analogue filtering. According to
throughout these large international
Dr Nigel Johnson, Manager of CRL's
companies has slowed its adoption
Signal Processing Division, the
down. This irony is that the
organisation is taking the audibility
companies at the leading edge of
of ICE very seriously. We had specific putting the ISRC codes in are in fact
aims for ICE
the smaller independents.'
-ideally it should be able to survive
Although PPL are already
over FM -AM radio, satellite and
receiving computerised royalty data
cassette as well over digital formats.
created automatically by radio
It should be secure and the encoding
stations Rogers believes that the need
for powerful data collection systems
and decoding systems should be
simple to operate. But the list is
will become important in the future,
headed by inaudibility
it does not
especially if the way music is
satisfy that basic requirement then
distributed moves more towards
the system falls down completely.'
purely electronic methods.
CRL's approach deals with the
`The ISRC gives detail at a much
greater level and there will be more
audibility problems in two ways.
need with electronic delivery- it is
Since the filtering can now be
important to artists and it maybe
accomplished in the digital domain,
the sonic problems associated with
important when things are far more
steep analogue filters can be
sophisticated in marketing terms.'
overcome. But to ensure the data
In the meantime CRL are looking
at other applications for the system
bursts cannot be heard, the ICE
encoding system constantly evaluates such as marking advertising for
the masking potential of the audio
playout logging-applications that
and only inserts the data as a when
use customer-specific codes rather
than waiting for ISRC to become
the potential for masking goes above
universally adopted before the system
a preset value.
Rather than try to persuade the
can be adopted in the marketplace.
Tim Frost
industry adopt the system and then
offer it for sound quality testing by
`golden ears' groups, CRL have been
Central Research Laboratories,
Dawley Road, Hayes, Middx.
quietly distributing test CDs
UB31HH.
containing tracks with and without
Tel: 081 848 9779.
ICE data to assess the audibility of
Catching Code
AT4033 shown with optional shock mount AT8441
cc
Audio Technica is still in its infancy in the
professional market, and not having
encountered it before,
the
4033
Transformerless Capacitor Studio Microphone
came as a very pleasant surprise. Its styling is
distinctive and elegant, the finish is excellent,
and the cat's cradle, again supplied as
standard, is simple and effective and balances
the microphone very well. Everything about the
microphone looks and feels sturdy and
professional. Once again the facilities are
simple; the only switches are for the high pass
filter and the pad, and the polar pattern is
cardioid.
But the biggest surprise was the sound. On
- including a Steinway grand
- the output was virtually indistinguishable
from that of the 414 - open, transparent and
everything I tried
clean, quiet and free
of colouration.
difference was in the sensitivity
The
main
- the 4033 is
few dB more sensitive than the 414.
If this is an example of what Audio Technica
has to offer, I await further developments with
interest. A variable -pattern microphone with
the sound of the 4033 would be a very useful
addition to the arsenal indeed. As it stands,
can't imagine it will
be long before this
microphone is a
much more familiar
I
Reprinted from
STUDIO
SOUND
,ebruary 1992
s
<
audio technica,
INNOVATION
PRECISION
INTEGRITY
Tel. 0532 771441 Fax. 0532 704836
20 Studio Sound, October 1993
Over the years, the record industry
has consistently been on the look -out
for a magic bullet to stop all pirating
at a stroke. So far, however, no -one
has been able to come up with a
system that could be carried within
the audio band-not be heard and not
be easily defeated with simple
filtering. The adoption of SCMS as
practical anticopying format has been
widely accepted by the record
industry and while it does not affect
the audio performance in any way, it
works in the digital domain, and then
with only limited effectiveness.
There is a growing realisation that
a truly effective copy protection
system sets almost self-contradictory
technical requirements and is
unlikely to be designed while music
can be copied in the analogue domain.
Consequently, the industry is turning
its attention to adding coding to
music tracks so that they can at least
be effectively `watermarked' with
ownership details, This particular
ball has been set rolling with the
International Standard Recording
Code which places a unique code
which identifies the track into the
digital sub -code.
Like SCMS, this is a purely digital
implementation, and while it can be
extracted when the CD is being
played the information is lost the
moment the audio is converted into
an analogue signal.
Now the Central Research Labs
-which was formally EMI's research
division (responsible in the 1930s for
such developments as stereo and the
405 line TV system) -have developed
an effective way of placing this code
within the audio track itself so that
music can be automatically tracked
no matter whether it is being
monitored directly from a digital
source or from analogue cassette, or
off radio, satellite, or TV transmission.
This latter option could be used to
fully computerise the logging of music
delivered via electronic delivery
systems or played on the radio. The
information can be used for royalty
payments and for automatically
collecting marketing information
-checking out who is playing which
tracks when, to support the record
company's sales effort.
The ICE (Identification Coding,
Embedded) system developed by CRL
-if
FROM THOSE
WONDERFUL PEOPLE
WHO BROUGHT YOU
ANALOGUE...
DIGITAL.
People who choose Neve consoles have the soundest reason of all.
EQ.
signature
The classical sound
which has underscored success for
so many.
by
Capricorn enhances that sound
incorporating Neve design experi-
ence with the power of digital signal
processing.
The 32 bit digital processing
the
pushes
boundaries
of conven-
tional EQ, filters and dynamics to
a
new level; beyond the realm of tradi-
tional consoles.
Capricorn
ergonomics
dynamic automation
are
and
consid-
a
ered evolution from the V series and
Flying Faders. To the many operators
familiar with the quality and reliability of Neve consoles, Capricorn will
be a
natural graduation.
As a result of the processing
power, Capricorn
is
fully assignable
and configurable to the needs of the
people that use it.
Instant reset across all para-
total
meters,
deskwide
dynamic
automation and total digital signal
path give Capricorn new levels of
operational
acoustic
and
perfor-
mance; ideal for large multi -track
applications.
Capricorn.
EQ with considerably more IQ.
AMS
NEVE
o
A
S
I
E
M
E
N
S
C
O M
P
A
N Y
For more information contact:
AMS Neve Plc, Billington Road, Burnley, Lams BBII SES,
England. Telephone: (44) 282 457011. Fax: (44) 282 39542.
T
H
E
C
A
P
R
I
C
O
R
N
USA Siemens Audio Inc., Bethel, CT. Tel: (203) 744 6230.
Fax: (203) 792 7863. Hollywood, CA. Tel: (213) 461 6383.
Fax: (213) 461 1620. New York, NY. Tel: (212) 956 6464.
Fax: (IIS) 262 0848. CANADA Rupert Neve Inc., Toronto.
Tel: 416 365 3363. Fax: 416 365 1044.
Roland SR V-330 and SOE-330
Roland's RSS 3 -D 2- speaker surround
processing system has made a curious
impression on the business, with
most people being unsure how to
react to it. Understandable scepticism
about what it is supposed to do is not
helped by its price -which precludes
most of us buying a system on spec,
and means there are not many
around to evaluate.
Fortunately, that chance now
presents itself in the form of two
digital effects processors, the
SRV -330 Dimensional Space Reverb
and the SDE-330 Dimensional Space
Delay, both of which incorporate
elements of RSS technology to add
depth to their effects. Perhaps
surprisingly, a considerable degree of
control is provided over the '3 -D'
elements of the various algorithms,
allowing freedom for experiment.
The best access to the raw 3 -D
facilities is provided by the delay
unit, the SDE -330. For instance, the
Simple 3 -D Delay algorithm has
effectively a scaled -down
single-channel RSS processor on its
output, allowing full 180° control of
the horizontal position (azimuth) and
±60° of vertical positioning
(elevation). This makes it easy to
become familiar with the possibilities,
which, as anyone who has heard a
Roland RSS demo will know, can be
quite spectacular.
Horizontal movement is very
impressive, with sounds easily placed
outside the loudspeakers and starting
to move round towards the back of
the listening room. Images become
very difficult to locate as the rear is
approached, but if movement is
sustained the illusion of rotation
through the full circle is both
convincing and startling. A certain
amount of willingness to believe is
required, and the best way to destroy
the illusion is to turn your head
towards the apparent source of the
sound, but if you are prepared to sit
back and enjoy it the effect works
every time.
It is less easy to be persuaded by
the vertical motion, particularly when
the sound is located centre -front,
where all the elevation control seems
to do is alter the EQ in a 'phasy' sort
of way. Put the sound way out to one
side, however, and it can apparently
be made to swing up in an arc over
your head or down into the floor,
albeit with the strange tonal
alterations still evident.
Once this simple setup is mastered,
the more complex algorithms become
self-explanatory. Almost every
algorithm on both units has two
versions, with and without the 3 -D
prefix, and again the fullest access to
3 -D control is provided by the Delay
unit. This offers, for instance, a stereo
delay where each channel has its own
azimuth and elevation controls, an
8 -tap delay with independent
azimuth for each tap, and a pitch
shift program with four independent
delayed pitch shifters, each with
azimuth and elevation adjustment.
Used sparingly, the impact of these
setups can be very dramatic. For
instance, a single word repeated once
over your left shoulder and again over
your right can really make you jump.
Too much of this kind of thing can get
a bit fatiguing, however, and once the
novelty wears off a more subtle
approach can show the true power of
the system, adding depth and
front -back perspective to familiar
effects. At this point the SRV-330
perhaps becomes more interesting,
since the 3 -D effect, while less
obvious, brings real depth to the
reverb programs, allowing the
various halls, churches and rooms to
acquire a life and space of their own
rather than sitting in a line between
the speakers.
Most of the algorithms have only
an `amount' control for the 3 -D
effects, unlike the comprehensive
adjustments on the SDE -330, and the
3 -D effects are by and large confined
to the early reflection part of the
program, but this is enough to give
the required illusion, adding a
significant extra dimension.
None of this, of course, would be of
much use if the basic facilities were
not up to scratch. Lest anyone
assume that these units are little
more than flyers for RSS, it should be
made clear that even without the 3 -D
effects both boxes would stand up
well against the competition. The
reverbs are good, with simulations
convincingly natural, and deliberate
`effects' powerful and flexible, and the
selection of delay -chorus- flange -type
algorithms covers all the possibilities.
The range is illustrated by the
excellent and varied factory presets,
----
of which the SDE has 100 and the
SRV a mind -boggling 300, with
plenty of additional storage space for
user programs.
The controls are novel and very
intuitive in use. The Edit mode
displays three parameters at a time,
any one of which can be selected with
a soft key and adjusted with the data
entry wheel. The parameters scroll
sideways through the window,
making it much faster to find the
adjustment you want than on many
other systems, and in case you do not
like the order in which they appear in
the window, even that is
user -defmable.
I liked these units very much
indeed. Bearing in mind the price of a
full -blown RSS system, I expected a
watered -down, factory -set imitation
tacked on to some fairly basic effects,
and was pleased to be proved
completely wrong on both counts.
Between them the SRV-330 and the
SDE -330 provide everything you are
likely to need in the way of reverb
and delay, and much more besides
-and behind, above and below, come
to that.
Dave Foister
UK: Roland (UK) Ltd., Rye Close,
Ancells Business Park, Fleet,
Hampshire GU13 8UY.
Tel: 0252 816181. Fax: 0252 812692.
US: Roland Corporation,
5759 Uplander Way, Culver City,
CA 90230. Tel: +1 310 338 9974.
Fax: +1 310 338 9973.
,.
EOR
RASE
eRoland Sr-i- V-9a1=I aMEN510NAL 4ACE iEVEó
EALAN°E
PROGRAM
t LAW'
,
POW
,
E
A°2
t-33J
sweat
ear
MEMORY
BYPASS
Eorr
SYSTEM
EMT
MOE
MEMORY
BYPASS
LiACE REUERE
Roland's new signal processors offer to bring RSS into every studio
22 Studio Sound, October 1993
POVVER
POWER
The ultimate mix
GS3 withfader automation
The GS3V combines exceptional audio quality with the power of digital control
to deliver an outstanding recording console.
Equipped with the worlds most accessible fader automation which includesfull MIDI capability,
optional SMPTE synchroniser, graphic software and MMCfunction keys.
Designed with leading -edge technology and manufactured with the most exacting care to deliver
the highest standards of consistent, reliable performance GS3V is unequalled in value for money.
If you would like more information, call or write to the address below.
ALLEN
HEATH
HA Harman
International
Company
Distributed by Harman
UK,
Unit
1,
Borebamwood Industrial Park, Rowley Lane, Borebamwood, Herts WD6 5PZ.
Tek 081 -207
5050 Fax: 081 -207 4572
AMMñm ENGLAND
MMä
Killer Horns
One of the biggest problems
encountered on approaching a sample
CD of any type is what you would
expect to find on it -and it is
particularly true of a CD of horns.
Single-note chromatic blasts, fine;
stabs and shots, yes; but surely the
beauty of a horn sample set ought to
be its focus on signatures, riffs and all
those other things that no amount of
flattery, trickery and technique will
allow you recreate convincingly in
any other way. The point at which
you say, 'I think we should get some
real horn players in,' is the point at
which such a CD should step in.
The problem with such an
assembly is that most perceptions of
what such a collection should
constitute varies wildly beyond the
realms of cliché and obvious, and my
search for an out -and -out classic soul
riff on Albie Donnelly's Killer Horns
CD were in vain. But I found a lot
else of interest.
By definition it is a hard sample
set to put together because it is wide
territory to cover. The horn section
sampled here comprises Donnelly on
tenor and alto sax, Dick Hanson on
Trumpet and Flugelhorn, Steve
Crane on Trombone and Paul Owens
on baritone sax. Between them and
together they have covered the land
from Georgie Fame to The Clash.
Frankly I was surprised by the
amount of swing jazz (verging on
Dixieland in places) on the disc not to
mention some stunning pastiches of
Mexican `The bandits have raided the
village so play some trumpet as the
good guy rides in slowly to save
everyone' styles.
Listings are comprehensive, giving
keys, tempo, and a brief indication of
the instruments involved. The CD
kicks off with a stack of brass
sections, followed by solo studies on
trumpet-trombone and saxophones
including chromatics. Finally, there
are the inevitable `far outs' including
some techno bass riffs with real-time
swept boost EQ Pass. Looping a
goodly proportion of this stuff for a
sustain envelope is pretty much out of
the question but the variety of
material and interrelation of keys
means that the riffs are very usable
for beat loops.
If it is stabs you want then you got
them here in many different styles
and textures and it is worth
mentioning that Donnelly and the
gang have not just gone for
24 Studio Sound, October 1992
hernia -inducing power horns
throughout but have tempered it with
a wodge of mellow material that
really expands the applicability of the
collection. In addition to the audio CD
version of Killer Horns there is also
available a CD-ROM for Akai,
Emulator III and Ensoniq EPS 16+
and ASR. The quality is good -you
can hear mechanical noise and breath
at times-with a defined stereo image
and a consistent instrument balance.
However, there are audio artifacts in
places, clicks in others, there is a bit
too much stereo movement on some of
the solo instruments, some of the
endings are far too abrupt and gating
seems to have been used between
phrases at times. But the ambience is
pleasant, the skill and delivery of the
players is beyond doubt and the
variety of styles is extremely wide.
like Albie Donnelly's Killer Horns; it
is usable, convincing and adaptable
but just do not expect it to have
everything you need.
UK: Time and Space, PO Box 306,
Berkhampstead, Herts HP4 3EP.
Tel: 0442 870681.
I
Morley
Here is a blast from the past.
One look at a Morley pedal and the
trousers flare and the soles thicken.
My soles certainly thickened after
only brief use of the Swell- Fuzz -Wah
as the sticky-backed nonslip rubber
on the pedal top dislodged and
attached itself doggedly to just about
everything but the pedal, and the
Morley name plate, looked set to
follow quickly. However, I detected
only a minute increase in trouser
flare in the same period of use.
But a Morley pedal without
chrome? Well, this is the new model
which, while it harks back to the
principle of using the electro- optical
system of some 25 years ago for
interpreting pedal position ago now
uses an LED for the light source
rather than the small light bulb of
old. Needless to say it has done
wonders for the reliability. Four years
ago Morley were bought by the reverb
spring people Accutronics -now
called Sound Enhancements -and
their product range has improved and
expanded as a consequence.
Operation is simple. To the left of
the pedal are Drive and Tone pots
and a footswitch with LED for
Distortion. On the right is a level
control for the distortion and a
footswitch with LED for the Wah.
When Wah is not selected the pedal
acts as a Swell. In honesty the
footswitches will be a too close to the
base of the pedal for the size -10 boot
and beyond the operational skills of
the in -a -hurry brigade. But the pedal
exhibits all the smoothness that
Morley's reputation was founded on,
because you are not pushing a cog,
and because the pedal's response is
not all bunched up at one end. You
can also turn the pots with the side of
your foot.
The distortion sound is a tad fizzy
at both extremes of the Drive setting
but, as it is unlikely to be used in
isolation, a bit of help from the amp
smooths it out. The Tone is harsh
when wound up on full Drive, but is
surprisingly responsive on milder
distortion settings
centres on
1.5kHz and boosts bass, and cuts top
to the left and down to the right. The
box is capable of a very useful
`graunch' tone with a spectacular
glassiness being introduced on the
Tone pot. I tried to convince myself
that the basic lowest Drive setting
sound was not that good, and it is not
with the tone down, but open it up
and it is not half bad.
The Wah is superb. Wonderful on a
-it
clean signal and totally preposterous
on something hot. It is noticeably
sharper and broader in character
than comparable units -there is more
`vowel' to the sound and it is more
expressive due in part to the excellent
pedal feel and spread. I would not
want to say how in line this is with
the old Morleys because I honestly
cannot remember, but it sort of
sounds familiar.
Wahs are presently enjoying a
rejuvenation in interest, and a couple
of minutes with this box and the
reason becomes apparent
is so
much fun. An able Swell-Fuzz -Wah is
just so performance oriented and the
characteristic honk you can get from
setting and leaving the Wah still
takes some beating in my book.
I think I would be happier to walk on
stage and see one of these on the end
of the lead than most multieffects
units.
The Morley pedal is not cheap but
as they say, `A Morley is for life-and
not just Christmas.'
-it
Sound Enhancements, 185 Detroit
Street Cary, 1L60013, USA. Tel: +1
708 639 4646.
UK: Radius International, PO Box 3,
Basingstoke RG24 9QA.
Tel: 0256 477 222.
Music News is compiled
by Zenon Schoepe
I..
AT ANY PRICE, THIS ALL-DIGITAL
SYSTEM IS IMPRESSIVE
LJ
iIIM
tl 41
J
=
0111
i
m
emlcm
©m cm
mm
cm
ce
®
om
tot
is on o
mm
co
c®
c
CC
8 Track Digital Recorder
m C
£3403*
u-
®
[:fA
C
c
C
®L6"i10
m
G
m
C
c
.C.
L
.
E
-i"gg
G..
I
0
®
0
0
II
000
0-61
000000000
E
O C C,
..
_
O
.
II
°
®
I
::
01
el
00,000000000000
0,01
molo
m
®lolom,o
o
olaw®
c,0 ©m ooo000000m
ao
pI
00000
000
00000
6
coGc
wë
TASCAM DA -88
®
m
o
O
..
CLCLLCäL LL(1fí
ll:_R.L_LC
-C
C
CGÜC
C
L LL
L
i
[-
Ent
CCC
4L
E
.
[
C
L
1-.
L
l
L'
L
L
L-I-I
L
L'
óácitir_r_rc
-
TASCAM RC-848 Remote Control
YAMAHA DMC1000 Digital Mixing Console
£850*
£22995*
AT THIS PRICE, IT'S REMARKABLE
For around £30,000 excluding VAT, HHB can now supply a
If you're considering the installation of either or both of
channel digital recording system of quite exceptional
these revolutionary products, the dealer of choice is HHB.
quality. Yamaha's revolutionary DMC1000 is fast becoming
We're Europe's biggest supplier of digital audio equipment,
16
the industry standard all digital console
-
not surprising
I !fib
when one considers its uncompromising specification. And
in our
opinion,
a
full complement of
professional features makes Tascam's DA88
the 8 track digital recorder of choice.
HHB Communications Limited
the UK's exclusive supplier of the DMC1000 console and a
leading authorised Tascam dealer.
So for further details and a demonstration of
the Yamaha DMC1000 digital console and
Tascam DA88 digital recorder, call HHB today.
73-75 Scrubs Lane, London NW10 6QU Phone 081 960 2144 Fax 081 960 1160 Telex 923393
' Manufacturer's suggested selling price excluding
VAT
THE INTEGRATION GAME
.
3 :j ..J
..J
A pair of Fostex D10s
j
.'
offer the additional facilities of DAT editing
The Fostex D10 joins the
company's D2OB and PD2
portable as the third member
of the Fostex professional DAT
range. Despite the implication of the
model numbering, the D10 is far from
being a lower cost version of the D20
-though it has only two heads and no
time code record or sync capability, it
does have a range of other facilities that
set it apart from
the rest of
DAT -kind and put
it firmly in a class
of its own. These
facilities centre
around five
seconds of onboard
RAM and a wealth
of locate, cue and
Jim Betteridge
looks at the latest
Fostex DAT
recorder and
discovers the basis
of a cost -effective
DAT editing system
26 Studio Sound, October 1993
instant start
functions plus a
unique ability to
link with a second
D10 to allow
accurate digital editing. This link is
achieved using no more extra hardware
than a standard MIDI lead and a
method akin to 2- machine video editing.
Like the D20, the D10 is a 3U-high
rackmounted machine. A glimpse of the
rear panel reveals analogue inputs
provided at +4dB (electronically
balanced XLRs) and at -10dB
(unbalanced phonos). An adjacent
switch determines which are active.
AES -EBU digital in-outs are on XLRs
and there is also an optical digital input
and output complying with the IEC
domestic standard.
The D10 comes with a wireless
remote capable of controlling two
machines and featuring most of the
controls you would need to find and play
preprogrammed tapes. Any serious
work, including editing, requires use of
the front panel. This itself is quite
different from that of the D20. Instead of
pushing the DAT tape into an open slot,
VCR -style, a button marked OPEN -CLOSE
brings out a cassette tray into which the
tape is placed; pressing the button again
causes the tray to close. The
combination of a transparent panel
above the tray and internal lights allows
the DAT label to be read when the tray
is closed-very handy.
The transport keys are reasonably
chunky and are back-lit. Their operation
is identical to that of the D20's; STOP
toggles between Stop (constantly lit) and
Pause (flashing); the FFWD and REw
buttons toggle between five times play
speed (PLAY and WIND buttons lit) and
Fast Wind -up to an impressive 250
times play speed. Tape handling,
however, is very gentle-not only is it
ramped carefully to and from maximum
wind speed, it also automatically ramps
down when approaching the end of a
tape. Hitting STOP, however, brings it to
an almost immediate halt.
Above the WIND buttons are the ID
SEARCH buttons-forward and backward.
These are incremental and
A totally
transparent
product claim.
The benefits of the RQP3200 are
The RQP3200
as
is
one of a range of U
I
transparent as its processing. This is a
deep audio modules, designed for fitting in a
comprehensive pre -amp, compressor and
standard 19in rack unit. All the more
expander/noise gate, with balanced mic or
commonly used units are available ex-stock,
line inputs,
two -band filters /four -band
your precise needs.
equalisers plus ultra -low noise and
distortion inputs
- all
and we can design specialised units to meet
The RQP3200 module: transparent
based on proven, high -
performance with
performance circuits.
But best of all, the RQP3200
is
from
added Calrec.
Calrec, so it comes with the quality, integrity
and sophistication that's made us the choice
of broadcasters and sound studios
worldwide.
r
Please send me more information on the RQ range
Name
Company
Standard Calrec RQ modules include.
Address
Equalisers
Compressors
Limiters
Postcode
Expanders
Telephone
Microphone pre -amplifiers
Distribution amplifiers
L
J
Calrec Audio Ltd, Nutclough Mill, Hebden Bridge, West Yorkshire HX7 8EZ Tel: 0422 842159 Fax: 0422 845244
49 13 16)
RQ modules are available through these Calrec distributors. UK. HHB Communications, London (OBI -960 2I 44): Australia. Synchrotech. Sydney (02 417 5088). France: DSP, Pans (45
Germany: ProAudio Marketing, Frankfurt (069 65 80 I): Hong Kong /China: Jolly Sound Ltd (3620202/5): Japan: Nissho Electronics Corporation, Tokyo (3 3594 8444)
South Korea. Aviv Trading Company, Seoul (02 565 3565), Sweden. Estrad Musk, Stockholm (S 690 1260): Switzerland: Studioworld, Wettingen (056/27 12 33)
I
always has to be moving to hear anything, and so
you are always a jog away from where you want to
be. If you are in Play mode and you hit the STOP
button, you instantly have five seconds of audio in
RAM up to the point at which you stopped the tape;
there is no need to go through any loading process.
This is because, unlike some other machines, when
the D10 is in Play it is continually updating the
RAM -very slick. At this point you can shuttle the
five seconds at 0.1 -1 times play speed or digitally
jog it down to 10ms (or less) accuracy-and now the
audio has a full 20kHz bandwidth. Hitting the RAM
SCRUB button while in Play stops the tape transport
and gives you 2'/2seconds of audio either side of the
entry point with the same shuttle and jog facilities.
If you get to the end of the RAM and want to go
further, pressing the RAM SCRUB button again at
any point reloads it from tape and recentres it at
that point.
Instant start
cumulative-hit one once and it will go to the next
ID; hit it four times and it will proceed to the
fourth ID. Alternatively, you can punch in an ID
number using the 10 -key pad and press the PNO
LOC button to locate directly to it.
Unlike the majority of other machines, the D10
(like the D20 and PD2) supports all 799 ID
numbers allowed for in the DAT spec rather than
the usual 99. Clearly, this could be very useful
when storing lots of short recordings such as effects
or stings- jingles and so on. It is also worth noting
that it does record an ID and a PNO (program
number) -earlier models (including Sony's
DTC1000) record only an ID and derive the
number by counting incrementally from the top of
the tape.
locate to a memory point by either entering the
memory number and hitting MEM LOC or you can
punch RCL MEM, key in the relevant time value and
hit MEM Loc. These memory functions will relate to
either A-Time or R -Time, depending on which is
displayed at the time.
Reinventing
the wheel
The wheel on the D10 has two parts: the outer ring
which operates in the style of a shuttle wheel (the
further you turn it the faster the replay speed) and
the inner part which works in a video -style jog
mode. For approximate location of a position the
wheel can be used in the Search Cue mode to
actually move the tape against the heads,
producing a low quality, interpolated audio. This
The D10 display is larger and more comprehensive
allows shuttling from' /2 10 times play speed, and
than that of the D20. A button marked DISP TIME
lets you find a given point quickly, to an accuracy
allows stepping through three time-display
of a few frames. This replaces the Cue mode on the
formats: A-Time (unusually this shows DAT frames D20 in which the tape can be wound at 5 times
as well as hours, minutes and seconds); R -Time
speed with the tape against the heads to allow
(the time element of IEC standard time code); Date approximate cueing up.
Pack -this gives a continuous record in years,
For more accurate work, the onboard RAM is
months, days, hours and seconds of when the
used. In this mode the outer control shuttle
recording was made. This is part of the standard
operates to produce a normal analogue -style scrub
DAT format, although few machines currently have where the pitch varies with speed. The central dial
it implemented.
(jog) operates in the style of what Fostex are calling
In addition to two large bargraphs (28-segment,
`Digital Scrub'. The combination of these modes is
fluorescent tube), the metering has an associated
apparently a unique Fostex invention. Although
numeric display. This can be switched to show the
intended for the same purpose of accurately
current level of either channel one or channel two,
locating an edit point, this `Digital Scrub' or Jog
or to hold the highest peak level registered after
mode is quite different from the usual type which
pushing the RESET button (shown as available
generally seeks to emulate the scrubbing action of
headroom below 0dB), or to show PCM error rate
rocking an analogue tape against a replay head.
as a percentage.
Instead it repeatedly loops a single DAT frame
Independently of the 799 ID points the D10
around the current position, producing a rather
offers 99 memory locations. A location can be
unpleasant digital chattering. Though initially
memorised in a one of two ways. You can punch in
unsettling, a few minutes of experimentation
a memory number (0 -99) via the 10-key pad and
shows that it is in fact a very accurate and quick
then hit the MARK-SET key (on the fly or when
method of finding an edit point. One advantage is
stationary); or you can key in memory number,
that you hear the programme at its real pitch
followed by the desired time value, followed by
making it easier to identify a particular key sound.
hitting the MARK -SET button. Similarly, you can
Also, with scrub editing, the tape (real or virtual)
On display
28
Studio Sound, October 1993
The D1O's Instant Start facility plays the head of
the programme from RAM while the tape gets up
to speed, thereby eliminating any lag between
pressing the button and hearing the sound. It too is
smarter than the average memory start in that,
once INSTANT START is pressed, the RAM is always
kept updated when in Play mode. Thus, wherever
you stop or cue up, instant start is available. Of
course, if you wind to a new location or load a new
tape, the RAM has to reload. This it does in real
time, automatically, and its associated LED will
blink until it is ready. A button marked RAM REPEAT
automatically loops the first l'/2 seconds from the
instant start point forward. As you listen, the inner
wheel allows you to adjust the start point with lms
accuracy until it sounds right. Once you have cued,
another button marked PREVIEW allows you to hear
what the playback is going to sound like when you
hit the
PLAY
button.
The writing and use of IDs is another area in
which the D10 shines. The auto -ID facility writes a
new ID whenever the signal level drops below a
A button marked
RAM REPEAT
automatically loops
the first
1112
seconds from
the instant start
point forward. As
you listen, the
inner wheel allows
you to adjust the
start point with
lms accuracy until
it sounds right
If you
think only your eyes can play tricks on you...
1938 M.C. £scher
Study the illustration. Are the geese becoming
/ Cordon Art
with each other. In the laboratory, they work with
-
Baam
Holland
-
.AB
Rights Reserved
loudspeaker system to handle the wide dynamic
fish, the fish becoming geese, or perhaps both?
quantifiable parameters that do have a definite
range typical of the digital domain. And, finally,
Seasoned recording engineers will agree that your
impact on what you may or may not hear.
Dispersion, which determines how the system's
Distortion, which effects clarity articulation,
energy balance changes as your listening position
studio, sometimes what you think you hear isn't
imaging and, most importantly, listener fatigue.
moves off axis.
there. Other times, things you don't hear at all end
Frequency Response, which measures a
up on tape. And the longer you spend listening, the
loudspeaker's ability to uniformly reproduce
a major role in
more likely these aural illusions will occur.
sound. Potter Handling. the ability of a
years. Today, 4400 Series "A" models rely on low
eyes
and your ears can play tricks on you.
In the
The original 4400 Series monitors have played
recording and broadcast studios for
frequency transducers with Symmetrical Field
The most critical listening devices in your
studio are your own ears. They evaluate the
Geometry (SFG1 magnet structures and large
sounds that are the basis of your work, your
diameter edgewound ribbon voice coils. They
art. If your ears are deceived, your work may
incorporate new titanium dome tweeters, oriented
fall short
of its full potential. You must
to create "Left" and "Right" mirror -imaged
hear
everything, and often must listen for hours on
pairs. Refined crossover networks use
end. If your studio monitors alter sound, even
conjugate circuit topology and tight tolerance
slightly, you won't get an accurate
components to give 4400A Series monitors
representation of your work and the potential
absolutely smooth transition between
for listener fatigue is greatly increased.
transducers for perfect imaging and
unparalleled power response.
This is exactly why our engineers strive to
produce studio monitors that deliver sound
with unfailing accuracy. And, why they create
3-war lo"
Vlodetspirtarerl (6-R)
2-IFn1'8" 490111 and 3-Way 12 4a12A
104,
If you're looking for a new
pair of studio
monitors, look into the 4400A Series. We think
you'll find them to be a sight for sore ears.
components designed to work in perfect harmony
JBL
JBL PROFESSIONAL, 8500 BALBOA BOULEVARD. NORTHRIDGE,
CA
91329, USA PHONE (818)893 -8411
Unit 2, Borehamwood, Industrial Park, Rowley Lane, Borehamwood, Herts WD6 5PZ. Tel: 081.207 5050 Fax: 081.207 4572.
HA
Harman International Company
Though Fostex are
giving little away,
it is clear that
room for growth
has been provided
in the D10,
including a couple
of as yet unused
expansion slots on
the rear panel
user -definable threshold level. When you are
about to write a Start ID, the D10 again allows
you to preview the start point and adjust it with
millisecond accuracy before writing it to tape.
It also has an Auto Cue mode which, rather like a
broadcast CD player, automatically parks itself at
the start of programme when you send it to search
for an ID, If Auto Cue is selected when you load a
tape, it will automatically search that tape within
a window of a few seconds for the nearest start of
programme. This removes the fatal unreliability
out of cueing up to IDs and allows the D10 to
perform cart -like applications.
GPI and editing
standard five -pin DIN socket on the rear panel
bears the legend GPI In. GPI stands for General
Purpose Interface and relates to no particular
standard. Its current implementation allows
external control of four transport functions: Play,
Stop, FFwd and Rew; this may soon be changed to
replace the wind functions with ID search. It
works via simple contact closure making
interfacing simple -including fader start.
Next to the GPI In DIN is an identical socket
marked GPI Out. Essentially this is intended to be
used for editing between two machines, although
there is no reason why it should not be utilised to
trigger anything else looking for a contact closure.
Editing between two DIOs is very simple; the
digital output of the play machine is connected to
the digital input of the record machine. For both
machines, Memory 0 is taken to be the In point
for edit, Memory 1 to be the Out point. These
points can be set with considerable accuracy using
the various RAM -based techniques mentioned
earlier. When the record machine reaches its In
point it simultaneously drops into Record and
sends out a Play command to the play machine
(which is set to Instant Start). An extension of
editing between two DIOs is to trigger a different
type of source machine, such as an instant start
CD player or a sampler, and assemble on to a D10.
The D1O's editing capabilities were originally
presented by Fostex Japan as an effective means
of simple compilation editing. However, it has
become apparent that it can be accurate enough to
execute straightforward music edits. The smallest
A
30 Studio Sound, October 1993
increment on the RAM Scrub facility on the
review machine is 10ms. With reference to
analogue tape, that is about 0.33in at 30ips or
0.165ins at 15ips-of course, it could be less,
depending on where in the 10ms window the
leading edge of the sound is. Suffice it to say that,
assuming a definite event to cut to, I found it quite
accurate enough to execute inaudible edits.
The execution itself could not be simpler.
Having cued-up the play machine, you press its
MARK SET button and that automatically loads that
time into Memory 0 (notice you do not even have
to select Memory 0 first). Do the same for the
record machine and hit its PREVIEW button. The
record machine then automatically shuttles back
and plays past the edit point, triggering the play
machine and switching to line -in at the crucial
moment to show the effect of your edit. If you
approve, you simply hit MEM LOC on the play
machine, shortly followed by the RECORD button on
the record machine, and the edit is written to
tape. If you happen to get a D10 on trial, do allow
a good few attempts to get used to the Digital
Scrub before writing it off as inaccurate. It takes a
while to master, but once you get the hang of it, it
is very impressive.
Expansion
Though Fostex are giving little away, it is clear
that room for growth has been provided in the
D10, including a couple of as yet unused
expansion slots on the rear panel. The provision of
some form of time code/video sync facility would
not be unlikely, and a front panel switch marked
9P REMOTE suggests that a matching socket might
be on the cards for some future time. The remote
also has four buttons marked Fi, F2, F3 and F4
which, the machine's manual tells us, are left open
for future additions.
Conclusion
When the D10 was first launched it had a UK
price of £1,895 plus VAT, although this has been
reduced to an introductory level of £1,695 plus
VAT to entice those still to be convinced of the
benefits of the format. For a simple non -time-code,
2 -head DAT machine, it is still rather expensive.
But when you realise that a pair of DIOs offer a
complete DAT editing package for under £4,000
inc VAT, it becomes rather more of a bargain.
After all, most facilities require at least a couple of
DAT machines, and who would not find the
facility to execute simple edits extremely handy?
With this in mind, it is worth noting that any
other professional DAT editing system is likely to
cost you around £12,000.
No one is suggesting that the D10 could replace
a sophisticated hard -disk- editing system, but for
simple assembling jobs it is actually likely to be
faster and certainly a lot cheaper. Obvious
applications include CD compilation, voice editing
and simple music editing. And for live and
broadcast work its quick intuitive, cart -like
operation and GPI facilities (fader start and so on)
must make it very attractive.
HHB DAT TAPE
INTERNATIONAL DISTRIBUTORS
BELGIUM: AMPTEC BVBA
Tel: 011 2131458 Fax: 011 281459
Contact: George Lemmens
CANADA: STUDER REVOX
CANADA LTD
Tel: 416 510 1347 Fax: 416 510 1294
Contact: Clave Dysart
CZECH REPUBLIC: AUDIOPOLIS
Tel: 422 312 4087 Fax: 422 312 4083
Contact: Jan Adams
DENMARK: INTERSTAGE A/S
Tel: 31 62 00 26 Fax: 31 62 06 40
Contact: Finn Juul
Tel:
1
FRANCE: AUDIO SOLUTION
48 63 04 43 Fax: 1 48 63 02
011
Contact: Thierry Lamotte
GERMANY: RTW GMBH
Tel: 0221 709 1333
Fax: 0221 709 1332
Contact: Heike Klötsch / Rolf Kneisel
GREECE: KEM ELECTRONICS O.E.
Tel: 01 647 8514 Fax: 01 647 6384
Contact: Thimios Kolinkot5is
ISRAEL: MORE AUDIO
PROFESSIONAL STAGE SYSTEMS LTD
Tel: 03 6956367 Fax: 03 695007
Contact: Chanan Etzioni
ITALY: AUDIO INTERNATIONAL SRL
Tel: 02 27304401 Fax: 02 25301008
Contact: Riccardo Zunino
NETHERLANDS: MED PROFESSIONELE
ELEKTRO AKOESTIEK
Tel: 2526 87869 Fax: 2526 87362
Contact: Daan Verschonr
POLAND: STUDIO DAVE
Tel: 22 26 49 12 Fax: 2 635 5262
Contact: Bogdan Wojciechowski
PORTUGAL: AUDIO PRO
Tel: 692456 Fax: 1 690924
Contact: Paulo Ferreira
1
SPAIN: KASH PRODUCTIONS SA
Tel: 91 367 5222 / 377 0058
Fax: 91 367 5209
Contact: Jim or Carmen
SWEDEN: INERSONIC LEAB
Tel: 08 7445850 Fax: 08 184354
Contact: Mikael 5jostrand
USA: INDEPENDENT AUDIO
Tel: 207 773 2424
Fax: 207 773 2422
Contact: Fraser Jones
UK: Fostex (UK) Ltd., Unit 1, Jackson Way,
Great Western Industrial Park, Southall,
Middlesex UB2 4SA. Tel: 081 893 5111.
Fax: 081 893 5237.
US: Fostex America, 15431 Blackburn Avenue,
Norwalk, CA 90650. Tel: +1310 921 1112.
Fax: +1 310 802 1964.
HHB Communications
Limited
73 -75 Scrubs Lane London NWIO 6OU
Tel: OBI 960 2144 Fax: OBI 960 1160 Telex: 923393
ALL DAT TAPES ARE NOT THE SAME
-
HHB Communications
-
has developed a
In recommending DAT as the format for exchanging digital
technology
audio *, the European Broadcast Union also warned its
new range of DAT tape providing a consistently higher level
members that the tape itself should be chosen
of performance than conventional
with great care. Block errors, archiving
Digital Audio Tapes in a wide variety
stability
-
of professional audio applications.
even head wear are
We believe HHB DAT tape to be the
affected directly by the quality
safest choice for professional users.
and design of the tape and the
Post the coupon below and
shell in which it's housed.
we'll tell you why.
In pursuit of the highest standards of
--
excellence,
ADVANCED
MEDIA
PRODUCTS
Europe's leading
Digital Audio Tape
supplier of DAT
EBU Technical Recommenduti,c R64 -1992
For further information and full specifications of HHB Digital Audio Tape, please complete and post this coupon:
Name:
Organisation:
Address:
:
Phone:
HHB Communications Ltd ^3 -75 Scrubs Lane, London NW10 6QU, UK Phone 081 960 214-+ Fax 081 960 1160 Telex 923393
In North America: Independent Audio 295 Forest Avenue, Suite 121, Portland, Maine 04101 -2000 Phone: 207 773 2424 Fax: 207 773 2422
..
,
:
.-
.
ß.
SS 10/93
THE WAY YOU THINK ABOUT DIGITAL
IS ABOUT TO CHANGE FOREVER
FOSCeX
FOSTEX CORPORATION, 3 -2 -35 Musashiro, Akishirna, Tokyo, Japan 196. Tel. 010 81 425 45 6111
FOSTEX CORPORATION OF AMERICA, 15431 Blackburn Avenue, Norwalk CA90650, USA. Tel. 0101 310 921 1112
FOSTER (UK) Ltd. Jackson Way. Groat Western Industrial
Park Southall, Middlesex UB2 4SA Great Britain. Tel. 081 893
5111
THE FUTURE OF
SOUND RECORDING
correction strategy. It is the
combination of the medium
and the correction strategy
which gives the audible
quality. It does not really
matter from a sound quality
standpoint whether we use a
grim medium with powerful
correction or a wonderful
medium with weak correction,
although it may matter
economically. Error correction
circuitry costs money, but so
do wonderful media. A
Winchester disc cannot be
removed from its drive, so only one is
necessary and making it of high quality
is easier than making all of the tapes
which work with one recorder of high
quality. As a result tapes have more
powerful correction than discs. Another
factor is that the cost of error correction
circuitry falls with time. Thus this year's
satisfactory balance between the
medium quality and the correction
power could be unsatisfactory next year.
More than ten years after CD, no
single digital recording technology has
dominated the others, leading us to the
conclusion that no single one is best in
all circumstances. I intend to take a
good look here at why that should be,
because this may reveal a fundamental
pattern which will hold as a model on
which the future may be based. The only
factor which might invalidate the model
is the sudden discovery of some new
recording technique. It will be seen in
the sidebar on storage technologies that
digital recording only requires some
parameter to be maintained in one of
John Watkinson
examines present
developmental lines
of technology and
their likely effect
on future sound
recording equipment
Advancing technology has
transformed audio
equipment out of all
recognition in the decade
since the introduction of the compact
disc. While analogue recording fought a
valiant rearguard action, the future of
audio is now, to all intents and
purposes, digital. If anything, the pace
of technology is accelerating, making it
harder to anticipate developments. In
this look at what the next decade might
bring, we will abandon the crystal ball,
and return to basics-like physics and
human nature -to establish what
products might be ahead.
One of the strengths of digital audio
is that once converted from analogue
signals, audio becomes data which are
indistinguishable from other types of
data in that they are simply a quantity
of zeros and ones. The quality in data is
measure of the
its reliability
proportion of bits which are in error.
Even if all types of data look the same,
we can draw some distinctions between
the reliability required by different
applications. Computer data are quite
intolerant of error, whereas digital video
is remarkably tolerant. Audio comes
somewhere in between.
Real recording media have error rates
which are a function of two main factors.
The first is the recording principle
employed, that is, the physics of the
process. The second is the recording
density we are using with the process, or
the amount of data we attempt to fit in a
unit area (or volume) of the medium.
The error rate of the medium is adapted
to the allowable error rate of the
application by the use of an error
-a
two states. The examples given here
cover all of the families of physical
processes, so something different is
unlikely not least because it would have
appeared by now if it were simple
enough to be useful. Experience teaches
us not to use the word impossible, and
there is still a slim chance that
something may come along and turn
recording on its head.
The message
and the medium
Today's digital audio recording takes
place on a wide variety of media. These
include RAM, magnetic and optical disc,
stationary -head tape and rotary -head
tape. In computerland, media have
primarily been compared on three
factors. The access time, the cost per bit
and the transfer rate. Subsidiary
considerations include exchangeability,
reliability, and reaction to power loss.
Fig.la contrasts technologies in
access time terms. RAM has extremely
rapid access time because it has no
moving parts (except for electrical
charge). Magnetic discs come next
because the whole recording area is
exposed to a two -dimensional access
mechanism (rotation and radial
address). Optical discs have the same
access principle, but the pickup is
heavier and slower. Tape and film come
last in this race because they have to be
shuttled to expose the wanted area to
the pickup.
Fig.lb contrasts the cost per bit. Here
magnetic tape is supreme because it
b) Cost per bit
m
Nanosecond
RAM
Very High
Millisecond
Magnetic Disk
High
Seconds/Minutes
Optical Disk
Moderate
Seconds/Minutes
Stationary-Head Tape
Low
Seconds Minutes
Rotary-Head Tape
Very Low
Fig.1: There is no one best medium as it depends on the criterion
t:t
is such a simple medium to manufacture.
Rotary-head tape comes top because it offers higher
recording density than stationary heads allow.
Magnetic disk drives need an air film between the
disk surface and the head to eliminate wear so they
can stay on line for years at a time. This causes a
spacing loss, and limits the practical recording
density. Also the precision metal disk substrate
costs more to make than plastic film. These factors
push up the cost per bit. Optical discs are also
expensive to make because of the complex
construction. Most expensive is RAM which is
extremely intricate, with every bit having its own
wiring inside a chip.
There we have it; the best medium on one scale
is the worst on the other! Thus there is no overall
best storage technology, and this will continue to
be true in the future, because improvements will
occur to all media in parallel until physical limits
are reached.
It is worthwhile exploring these limits.
The sidebar on recording densities shows how the
storage density of any technology is determined by
the size of the bit which can be individually
created. In RAM, the size of the bit is limited by
our ability to produce sufficient resolution in the
photographic process which precedes the etching of
the RAM structure. The same is true of the size of
feature which can be resolved on an optical or
magneto -optical disc. In fact, the disc has an easier
job because it scans one bit at a time The optics of
a disc drive require only a very small field of view,
whereas the optics needed to expose the track
pattern of a chip must have a wide field of view,
and this is harder to achieve. The only way to
increase resolution is to use shorter wavelength
light. Any progress in this direction can also be
emplòyed to increase the capacity of RAM and
optical disc, maintaining the relative status quo.
In magnetic recording, the density is determined
by the wavelength along the track which can be
resolved by the head and the narrowest track
which can be followed by the mechanism. As the
area of the bit gets smaller, noise becomes a
problem, and this is opposed by the adoption of
higher coercivity media. The coercivity of current
media is nowhere near the physical limits, but is
instead limited by the availability of heads which
can apply sufficiently powerful fields to media
without themselves saturating.
Unlike optical recording, where the wave nature
of light sets a limit on density, there is no such
limit in contact magnetic recording, and magnetic
recording densities in the future may well outstrip
those on optical discs. If one considers bits per unit
volume rather than bits per unit area, magnetic
recording is already ahead. Compare the volume of
a compact disc with the volume of the tape in a
STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES COMPARED
MECHANICAL STORAGE
Presence or absence of bumps on CD
Holes in metal layer of WORM disc
1
ELECTRICAL STORAGE
1
T
Presence or absence of
charge in capacitor
State of bistable
MAGNETIC STORAGE
s
N
N
PHOTOGRAPHIC STORAGE
Opaque or transparent film
I
when time costs
money, the best
recorder may be
the one which dubs
fastest
DAT cassette. The DAT cassette has a smaller
volume but plays for longer.
In the past, the sheer data rate of digital audio
was a problem, and we were grateful to be able to
record it at all. In the future, the inevitable
increase in density offered by all media will mean
that the actual recording step becomes easy and we
will compare equipment using other criteria. One
of these will be the transfer rate. We have become
accustomed to the limitations of analogue
production equipment, where real -time operation
was the norm. Apart from half-speed vinyl disc
mastering and cassette duplication, all dubbing
was done at normal speed so that it could be
monitored. With read after write and error
correction, digital media can transfer data reliably
without human intervention; they can be designed
to monitor themselves better than we can monitor
them. Consequently, there is no longer a constraint
to use real -time transfer, and when time costs
money, the best recorder may be the one which
dubs fastest -as it is in computerland.
Although digital audio has been commonplace
for a decade, the number of products which can dub
faster than real time is small; this is a lesson the
audio industry and its manufacturers have to a
great degree not learned. The computer industry
has already learned this lesson, and may make
stunning audio products in the future before
today's audio manufacturers have discarded the
analogue tradition. In addition to media which can
operate at high speed, there will also be a need for
an audio interface standard for high -speed transfer
between units.
Another consequence of increased storage
capacity is that data reduction will no longer
appear so attractive for audio recording. It may be
just a phase we are going through. Even with
today's storage technology, phenomenal audio
capacity is quite easy to obtain. For example the
data capacity of one large size D3 digital video
cassette is the equivalent of 300 hours of 16 -bit
stereo audio at 44.1kHz! One justification for data
reduction is that it helps in faster than real -time
transfer. If for the sake of argument 4:1
compression is used, the data rate is a quarter of
the original. If the original data rate is maintained,
the audio can be transferred at 4 times real time.
The relative merits of different storage media
will not change greatly in the future, so current
computerland solutions will still be applicable.
Computer age
currently have mechanical storage; the presence or absence of features or
holes on a carrier, electrostatic storage; the presence or absence of charge in a
RAM cell, magnetic storage; the direction of a remnant magnetic field, and optical
storage; the variation in opacity or contrast of a carrier. All of the main branches
of physics are represented here, so it is difficult to conceive of a new technique.
We
34 Studio Sound, October 1993
For a long time, computers have combined storage
media in real applications to extract the best of
each. Fig.2 shows a typical computer, in which
data and instructions are sourced from RAM, as
the rapid access time allows the fastest
computation. RAM is too expensive to
r
RE
i
OCT
October 1993 sees the latest addition
to the Focusrite Red Range arrive at
Focusrite Distributors around the World
RED 3 - the ultimate limiter /compressor.
Two discrete channels or matched stereo
operation from one set of controls.
Peerless performance that can only
L
i
ER
mean classic Focusrite Analogue design.
Call your Focusrite Distributor today for a
demonstration of RED 3.
Why not ask to check out RED 1 and
RED 2 at the same time.
Call or Fax for Red Range and
dealer information.
l'
Focusrite Audio Engineering Ltd,
Unit 2, Bourne End Business Centre,
Group One
Cores End Road,
Bourne End,
Farmingdale,
Bucks SL8 5AS, England.
44 628 819456
Telephone:
44 628 819443
Facsimile:
NY 11735, USA.
+
d
80, Sea Lane,
New York,
Telephone: 516 249 1399
Tcsimil
516 753 1020
:
DISTRIBUTOR LIST
RECORDING DENSITIES COMPARED
Australasia & the Pacifio Islands
Digital Sound Systems
Unit 5B,163 Stoddard Rd
Wavelength
PO Box 27 -159, Mt. Roskill,
Auckland, New Zealand
Tel: 09- 6293133
Belgium
Trans European Music
Pontbeeklaan 41, 1731 Zellik, Belgium
Tel: (02) 466.50.10
OPTICAL PROCESSES SUCH AS
DISCS OR CHIP MASKING
ARE LIMITED BY THE WAVE
NATURE OF LIGHT
Denmark
Englund Music A/S, Denmark
Oresundsvej 148 st
DK -2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark
Tel: +45 31 55 48 12
Finland
Spot size
Englund Music Finland Oy
Muuntotie 1, SF -01510 Vantaa, Finland
Tel: +358 0 870 3730
Germany
S.E.A.
Auf dem Diek 6,
D -4448 Emsbüren, Germany
Tel: (05903) 7805
Holland
TM Audio
Zonnebaan 52
3606 CC Maarssenbroek, Holland
Tel: 030 -414070
Italy
Track width limited
by tracking accuracy
Digimedia
Via T. Gulli 54, 20147 Milano, Italy
Tel: +39 2 48702843
Bit length limited
by head design
T
Fundamental particly size
smaller than in optical media
Middle East
Empire Cassette Co
18, Maamal El Sokar Str
Garden City, Cairo, Egypt
Tel: (202) 3550403
Norway
Englund Music A/S, Norway
Box 150, N -1341 Bekkestua, Norway
Tel: +47 67 14 80 90
The density is limited by how small we can make the individual bit on the
medium. RAM bit cells are limited by the optics needed to replicate them. Optical
discs share the same restriction shown here where the wavelength of light and
the aperture of the lens determine the spot size. Driving down the wavelength
puts up the cost. Magnetic recording can have bits down to molecular size, so the
limit is in our ability to make heads which have a sufficiently small gap to replay
short wavelengths and the availability of very accurate tracking systems to allow
narrow tracks to be reproduced. In the future magnetic recording densities may
advance beyond those of optically restricted media.
Portugal
Diapasaö Instrumentos Musicais
Av Joäo XXI 45A
1000 Lisboa, Portugal
Tel: (351) -1- 805028/805203
South Africa
EMS
24 Napier Road, Richmond 2092
keep every program memory resident, hence the
use of a fast access hard disk which swaps
programs in and out of memory as needed. Again
the disk is too expensive to archive all data files,
and this is the job of the tape deck where the low
cost per bit is its strength and the slow access time
presents less of a problem.
Fig.3 shows how this approach can be applied to
solve audio problems. The computer processor is
replaced or supplanted by a DSP device (a
computer optimised for signal processing rather
than general calculation), but the general
arrangement of RAM, disc and tape is retained.
The communications ports are replaced by high
speed audio interfaces. The disc drive here would
use Winchester technology because it does not need
to be removable as there is a tape cassette for that
purpose. The disc might well use parallel transfer
36 Studio Sound, October 1993
where each head has its own circuitry and all can
move data in parallel where required. The tape
deck might use stationary heads using thin film
technology and narrow tracks requiring a tracking
servo. The adoption of stationary heads is designed
to allow operation at several speeds. Alternatively
a rotary head transport may be used which has a
single high data transfer rate, but which is
buffered by RAM and works intermittently if a
lower rate is required.
Such a general -purpose audio system is
extremely flexible, but one example of its use will
be given here. Consider that a classical recording is
to be made using a stereo pair with another couple
of spot microphones. Several takes will be made of
each piece, then each piece will be mixed and
edited by assembling from various takes.
Finally, the various pieces will be joined up
Johannesburg, PO Box 1026
Melville 2109, South Africa
Tel: +27 011 4824470
Spain
Micro Fusa
Industria,244, 08026 Barcelona, Spain
Tel: (93) 455 36 95
Sweden
Englund Music AB, Sweden
Box 3050, S -127 03 Skärholmen
Sweden
Tel: +46 8 97 09 20
USA
Nelson Associates
446 Sunnyslope Ave, Oakland,
California 94610, USA
Tel: (510) 658 4212
SOUNDSCAPE
MULThTRACK HARD DISK RECORDER
Soundscape is
a
high quality 16 bit digital audio recording and editing system, and is
capable of expanding your studio with 4/8/12/16 or up to 64 tracks. The system can
be used in a recording /composing environment and has extensive non -destructive
audio editing facilities.
nk
I,e
I
00
Sounds.
EC
p.
Backup
SBI.k
pew del,
tti
OOmD®COOED
TSINTN
INIMIIIIIMMEINI
:
al
is
P. Iv.
i
Epp
SeMnpe
p.mp
SBNk
ylev
171710e DP.
osré
Operation is from an IBM
or compatible and runs
PCTM
under Windows 3.1 TM. Software allows up to 64 virtual
tracks to be recorded in stereo, edited (non- destructive)
and digitally mixed down to four outputs. As the system is
modular, several Soundscape units can be synchronised
with full sample rate accuracy and used together giving
up to a maximum of 32 inputs and 64 outputs.
If you are looking
for
a
Hard Disk recorder /editor with
"Open" architecture that can be totally
-CEO ttf
sequencer
integrated with any WindowsTM
or editing package, is random access to the
disk, expandable beyond 8 tracks and
a.r.A:114111111
offers full "chase lock" synchronisation to
analog /video tape machines then the next
stage of the digital revolution starts here.
2U 19"
rackmounted unit.
Physical tracks:
D/A conversion:
18 bit sigma -delta 64 x
4
Sampling rate: 22.05/32/44.1/48KHz
Data format: 16 bit linear
oversampled
Host Interface: IBM -AT: parallel
via PC expansion plug -in cad (ISA).
Supports 2 x 4 track rack units.
Synchronisation: Master or Slave,
MTC with full chase lock, MIDI song
Signal processing: 24 -bit internal N.L.
Data storage: IDE hard disk 18mS,
fitted in the rack unit (not supplied),
Analogue in: 2 x RCA/cinch,
unbalanced - 10dBv / +4dBv (2 tracks in)
Back -up medium: DAT- recorder
with digital /o, or via the
i
size depends upon recording time
required, e.g. 130MB gives 25min
45sec total
3
@
44.1KHz, 1gB gives
hours 22 minutes
2nd internal IDE drive can be fitted.
A/D conversion: 16 bit sigma -delta
64 x oversampled
Analogue out: 4 x RCA/cinch,
unbalanced + 4dBv (4 tracks out)
PC (e.g. to a SCSI
Digital out:
S/PDIF
2 x
format
//
Analogue inputs and outputs,
AES /EBU Digital inputs
26 Castel) Coch View,
+
44 (0) 222 811512
I
/0
eI
//'
,/ /
/'
and outputs (XLR)
Cardiff:
/'
e'
/
SOUNDSCAPE DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY LTD
Tongwynlais,
Cardiff CF4 7LA,
United Kingdom
'
// /
/'
113dB un- weighted
Wow and Flutter: Un- measurable
Pro -Audio Option: XLR balanced
0
5
aa
P
/',
/ /'
Input S/N Ratio: > 93dB un- weighted
>
/
PC drive)
RCA/cinch,
(4 tracks out)
Output S/N Ratio:
optical
drive or any logical
Digital in: 1 x RCA/cinch,
S/PDIF format (2 tracks in)
/
//
MIDI: in, thru, out
/
/
t
c
Jeo
/ca ° , eo
/
c,,,,,`'
is,
o ,q-
yv- `d.
,,,so
mA
r0(
ye
`a
.ea p
Q
yo`
`a
J`o
tx^
oor ,GF
ò` aoF
Ga c°j
.l_
aee\ ea
o1cf
aQ
ti6
ò5
o\oo,a
oo
cA
,o
\9352'
`)c
Qo0
Q
to make an album for release. During each take,
audio from the convertors is recorded in full
bandwidth on the tape cassette in the second of two
partitions. At the same time the audio is data
reduced in the DSP, and recorded on the hard disk.
At the end of each take the data reduced file from
the disk is transferred to the first tape partition.
Along with a complete record of the console setup.
At the end of the recording session the tape
contains a full -bandwidth version of everything,
but at the beginning of the tape is a browsing file
which contains a compressed version. The tape can
be taken away and edited in a different machine, or
COMMS
CPU
RAM
brought back to this machine. Upon installing
Within reason,
digital technology
can achieve almost
anything, and the
difficulty becomes
one of knowing
what to make
DISC
TAPE
Fig.2: A typical computer mixes storage technologies to obtain the best features of
each medium without excessive cost
rather than how to
make it
THE STUDIO P I'' E- AMPLI FIER
SPA-IA
a
SUETELIEVE STUDIOS
144.40 P/I04"a4)44
E/w-STEo c#44/47Fa
of sír-PApo /i /7-Fief/lct/
-
The solution to many problems where
semi -pro equipment needs to connect
into a professional installation.
Goudsmidstraat 16
5232 BP 's- Hertogenbosch
The Netherlands
Phone: 31 (0)73 - 408400
Fax
31 (0)73 - 424880
With front panel input trimmers,
balanced XLR inputs ami outputs,
and gold plated phono sockets.
Try one out now!
Totalsystems
Tel & Fax UK (0)256 -54786
:
38
Studio Sound, October 1993
Encom!
..
.
/,t
,.,
+
t
ÿ i ..-i
't
,"
III Ill
.n,
.',ft nYl
I
.Ix1
r:.,
1
+
111'.1-;
.
71
'.
;t,°
1-41-
,r
'
J °'
....,.....
1
7
'
-1'
1°°i1it'
-' --.' -,. .
e
ti
Ì 1(
q
a11i.
1".4
f,
'l`j
.
r.
7ì:ii
'
/
The new Vienna II gives your
performance that little bit more
Individual pre -post switching on all
auxiliary sends
New input stage giving wider range and allowing
mic and line level signals to be connected via the
XLR input
Insert points on auxiliary outputs
VCA Grand Master module for extended control
of 8 VCA groups
Whether you are on the road or have a permanent
venue to fill, the Vienna II offers unrivalled
performance together with Soundcraft's impeccable
pedigree at a price which may surprise you.
The new Vienna II shares the same smooth looks
as its predecessor and has many of the same
attributes - with up to 40 input frame size,
8 groups, aux sends and effects returns together
x 8 matrix.
with optional
However, lurking inside that cool exterior are
a number of new and unique features which have
been included by popular demand:Improved EQ for tighter control over LF in
both bell and shelving mode
Fully featured stereo module giving higher
input density
I
Soundcraft
VIENNA
EUROPA
ll
VENUE II
// .111111111111
1\\\\-\
THE PA RANGE
HARMAN INTERNATIONAL INDUSTRIES LIMITED, CRANBORNE HOUSE, CRANBORNE INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, POTTERS BAR
HERTFORDSHIRE, EN6 3JN, ENGLAND. TEL 0707 665000 FAX 0707 660482
H
A Harman International Company
DELTA
p
1-o
purpose of creating a console automation file and
an edit decision list. When the final editing is
finished, the user can leave the machine and take
lunch. In his absence, the automated mix and the
EDL are executed on the full bandwidth recording
on the cassette and stored on disk. On their return,
the user can play the full- bandwidth recording
from the disk, and check that everything is as
expected. After any last minute changes, the disk
contents can be dumped back to a new cassette
which becomes a CD master. Such a device could
be assembled tomorrow from existing components.
The view of the future advanced here is that
there will be more freedom because data recording
will become easier and complex processing will be
inexpensive. Within reasdn, digital technology can
achieve almost anything, and the difficulty
becomes one of knowing what to make rather than
how to make it. This is a double -edged sword
because manufacturers are unlikely to risk a
radical product if the market is too conservative to
understand its benefits. There is still a lot of
thinking constrained by limits which were due to
analogue technology and which no longer exist.
Unless such thinking is liberated, then users are
unlikely to take advantage of the freedom of the
digital domain and they will not demand
innovative products from the manufacturers.
High -speed AES -EBU
DSP
USER
&
PANEL
MONITOR
RAM
DISC
TAPE
Fig.3: An audio computer combining storage technologies
the cassette, the data reduced file is transferred to
the disk, and the console setup is reloaded. If 4:1
compression is used, and the tape plays at 10 times
speed, this transfer occurs at 40 times speed.
However, this process need not be completed before
editing begins, because the disc controller supports
multiple access and the user can listen to the
beginning of the recording before the end is
transferred. Mixdown and editing are performed
using the compressed disk files, but only for the
a
John Watkinson is an independent
consultant in digital audio, video and
data technology. He is the author of
seven books on the subject including
the definitive The Art of Digital
Audio. He is listed in Who's Who in the
World and regularly presents papers
at conventions of learned societies.
D
CI=
Model: Stealth
v..
Model: Apex
Look to the future with
this Stealth Keyboard
The award
winning Apex
stand with its
triangular column
design combines
the ultimate in solid
stand design for strong
support and a lifetime of
performance. Crafted
from an advanced,
Impact resistant material.
C-,
W
100Ibs. Fast,
easy set-upsharp stage
support, easy
transport and set up.
Model: AP -26BPT
support with total control of
keyboard tilt and height. Both
48" and 60" width models are
available in either 2 or 3 tier
formats. All models include a durable
nylon tote bag.
leg room.
The Ultimate range
Height
Weight
Load
capacity
AFrame 60"
A-Frame 48"
3-60"
3-60"
2 -48"
1
1501bs
tier A -Frame
A- Frames offer rock -solid
and portability. The Z -28 is
a classy sit-down- height
stand for home or studio
offering plenty of
Imew
3
2 -48"
-
ofinnovaf/ve support systems are lightweight strong and virtually/ndestnictable. Contact us fora full colour brochure.
Apex
Deltex
Stealth
Z -28
46"
46"
37"
28"
19lbs
14lbs
per tier 1501bs per tier 125lbs per tier
220lbs total
Ultimate Support Systems keyboard stands
are available in single, two, and three tier
designs and in a selection of free -standing,
column and tube A-Frame formats. Sleek
and stylish with the ability to take the
pounding of on- the -road use, they are the
ultimate choice for today's professional.
50lbs per tier
100lbs total
11
%lbs
751bs
8lbs
75lbs
l..J3_TMATE
Distributed by HW International
167 -171 Willoughby Lane
Brantwood Indust. Area, London N17
Tel: 081 -808
Studio Sound, October 1993
presence.
Ultimate Support modular
Model: Z -28
Folds easily for storage
40
Aso available
is the new Deltex
Il improved 2 -tier
column stand
with a load
capacity of
2222
OSB.
axell Pro DAT is 100%
értified error free.
DAT: the digital sound from
DAT is the ideal recording medium,
offering superb audio quality with
incredibly high dynamic range
and frequency response. No hiss noise,
distortion or wow /flutter. Anc no signal
deterioration when dubbing.
Maxell Professional DAT offers superior
output, matchless reliability and stable
tape travel due to the incorporation of
several major technological advances ceramic armour coating - an unique 5 layer tape structure - and ultra precision
constructed cassette mechanism.
Maxell Pro DAT:
Unique ceramic armour coating
100'Yo certified error free
Anti -static cassette construction to
repel dust
APRS labelling
Hard case packaging.
encapsulates the metal particle and acts
as a protective suit of armour to
significantly increase the magnetic
layer's corrosion resistance and anti oxidation properties, durability and
reliability.
Output leer attar repeated tape runs
I
g
Maxell's unique ceramic armour metal
particle coating is second only to
diamond in hardness. A thin layer
-7
The audio world's expectations for
digital tape are high - and Maxell has
met them all.
For further information please contact
Maxell (UK) Limited, 3a High Street,
Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire, WD3
HR. Tel: 0923 777171 Fax: 0923 777710
1
maxell
PROFESSIONAL
00
Number of tape
11)
rub
THEY DO
MORE.
IVs rarely easy to say it all in just a few words: in fact even those words
are superfluous, since the dynamics processors COMPOSER and
INTELLIGATE® are already among the best -selling signal processors in
the world today. Whether they are working hard on stage, e.g. with
Metallica, Def Leppard, Aerosmith and others, or being put through their
paces in thousands of professional recording studios such as Lucas Arts
LA, Robert Scovill etc, With our unique Interactive Technology and the
famous Behringer quality, we have set new industry standards that are
considered sensational by the international trade press.
THEY DO IT BETTER
The COMPOSER is a high-end Compressor, Expander /Gate and Peak
Limiter. The IKA (Interactive Knee Adaption) circuitry automatically
combines the musical "soft knee" function with precise "hard knee"
characteristics without "pumping" as other compressors do. The IRC
(Interactive Ratio Control) Expander /Gate eliminates the :roublesome
"chatter' effect experienced in conventional gates and the IGC (Interactive
Gain Control) Peak Limiter guarantees 100 % protection against signal
peaks, serving as a zero attack, distortion -free gain threshold. Thus,
perfect digital compatibility is ensured. Do you know a better compressor?
Because of its UTR (Ultra Transient Response) circuitry and an attack
time of only 3 micro seconds, the INTELLIGATE® is probably the fastest
expander /gate /ducker in the world. High -performance Class A VCAs
eliminate click noise even with percussive signals and provide exceptional
audio transparency. High -precision Key Filters permit
frequency -selective keying.
Do you know a better gate?
-
THEY DO IT
BETTER.
THEY DO IT
THEY DO MORE
Behringer stands for performance without any compromise:
servo -balanced inputs and outputs, jack and XLR connectors,
hard -bypass relays, key extern and key listen functions, additional key
inputs and outputs, transformer option, backlit switches, high -precisicn
potentiometers, cut -in delay etc, etc.
Can you think of any further features?
THEY DO IT FOR LESS
And if you still believe that excellence is only achieved by spending USS
2,000, on a unit, compare Behringer products with any other product on
the market and listen to the difference. The sensational price of US$
450. -* and a full 5-year warranty and your only decision cEn be to invest
in Behringer quality. If you want more information about the COMPOSER
and INTELLIGATE or any others from the extensive Behrirger range
please feel
free to contact us or your local distributor.
-
FOR LESS.
BEHRINGER.
Your Ear Is The Judge
'Recommended list price may alter slightly within countries
çM-p
-'4¡*=E-=P.aiT--.
CERf-7
oM
SL MO>GY000 ®
CaMOPES50PlUMRE11
1
..
.m
I
o
ä
an%
1
-
7101.01.0
:MACK
t
.
S[L1iS1
1110
0Z1
BEHRINGER Specialized Studio Equipment Ltd.
Shuttlesound, 4 The Willows Centre, Willow Lane, Mitcham, Surrey CR4 4NX
Tel: +44 (0) 81 640 9600
Fax: +44 (0) 81 640 0106
:r,
wi
RUNNING IN THE FAMILY
conjunction with 38 channels
of digital mixing, with a 2channel stereo main output.
One of its key claims to fame
is that it records and replays
video using a random access
disk store which is designed
to hold up to one hour of PAL
or NTSC video. This allows
the user to cue any point in
the programme very rapidly,
eliminating the normal
spooling and lock-up time of
tape -based video machines.
OmniMix (Fig. 1) was
launched earlier this year,
due to be shipping in
September, and takes the
Scenaria concept one step further by
expanding the physical frame to
accommodate more faders, another
monitor, and a more comprehensive
control panel. It also expands the audio
capabilities of Scenaria by adding 32
submix buses which can be configured
as a hierarchical matrix for creating
Francis Rumsey
assesses the
state of SSL's
`system' approach to
high -end digital
postproduction,
including a look at
the new OmniMix
State Logic have been in
the digital audio postproduction
business for a number of years
now, and a series of products
has evolved with something of a family
likeness. Common to the members of
this family are a number of key
technologies which are worthy of
discussion because they demonstrate an
interesting attitude to system
integration, and evidence of a carefully
planned approach to the overall
development of a product line. In this
article a number of these key
Solid
surround sound submixes of different
programme elements such as dialogue,
music and effects. A patented system
called MotionTracking is provided on
every channel for panning sources
dynamically between the surround
submix buses, and a number of digital
effects are available internally. Since
OmniMix is a development of Scenaria
it is possible to upgrade a Scenaria by
adding processing and other hardware
and software.
The family therefore provides the
means of editing right through to
surround sound mixdown, and the
higher-end products are clearly
orientated towards the film world
(where large numbers of channels and
surround sound are commonly used), as
well as towards the growing television
market (where surround sound
productions are on the increase).
The random access picture playback has
also proved attractive to commercials
houses where fast turnaround of
productions is the norm.
technologies will be described, by way of
showing how the products relate to each
other, how they can be made to work
together, and some possible directions
for the future. Since all except one of the
products have been reviewed
individually, this article will avoid
concentrating on specific product features
(except the new ones), with a view to
looking at the systems aspects of design.
The digital
family
The eldest and smallest member of the
SSL family is ScreenSound, an
8- channel digital editor which presents
material to the user in the form of
separate `reels' or tracks, very much
akin to the film editing approach. The
product has basic built -in digital mixing
with automation, and is used widely for
editing and dubbing sound to picture in
film and television work. About a year
ago the second member of the family,
Scenaria, was born, this being a larger
postproduction system with more
comprehensive mixing facilities,
designed to offer 24 channels of
simultaneous reproduction from disk in
-
- -
.
..',`
.
-
_
Fig.1: OmniMix was launched this year and takes the Scenaria concept one step
further
43
Key technologies
The products outlined above rely on various
common elements, each of which is relatively
independent. The larger products are constructed
out of many of the building blocks which also work
with ScreenSound, and indeed the ScreenSound
editor is a functional part of Scenaria and
OmniMix. Networking is an important factor in the
system design, although the network is not
primarily used for carrying audio data, and the
concept of a central pool of storage resources is also
paramount. Mark Yonge, SSL's Digital Products
Manager, is adamant that the future of such
systems is in multiuser operations, and much of
the work that has gone into these products is
designed to ensure that material can be passed
between different production stages or
workstations with the minimum of organisational
confusion.
Disk drives
+ SW
Centre
Left
Stereo
Cinema "SR D"
Cinema 70mm
6- channel
Right
Left
Centre
Right
Surround -Left
Surround -Right
Sub -Woofer
Surrou{;:1
Right
:.$úrround
Left
5- Channel
Stereo
HDTV
Centre
Left
Right
Left
Centre
Audio is stored on SCSI disk drives in all of these
systems, and each disk drive stores data for eight
channels of audio. ScreenSound, therefore, accesses
one disk drive at a time, whereas Scenaria and
OmniMix are capable of dealing with three drives
to serve 24 audio source channels. The file format
and edit information are common to all systems,
making it possible for a disk written using one to
be read by another, and for access to a disk to be
transferred to another user with SoundNet.
Right
Surround -Left
Surround -Right
Surroufü
Surround
Right;`:;
Left
4- Channe] Stereo
SoundNet
SoundNet is not really a network in the
conventional sense of the word, but an assignment
switcher for SCSI storage resources such as
magnetic disks, optical discs and tape cartridges.
A large number of different storage resources may
be connected to this switcher, and the user may
assign one or more of the disks to his system
(either one or three, depending on the system)
provided that no one else is using them. In this
sense the storage resources are not truly shared,
since only one person at a time can access each one,
but the advantage is that once a user has a disk it
is always available at maximum bandwidth for as
long as required. Furthermore, it helps to keep
projects organised, since there would be a whole
new collection of system management issues to
deal with if resources were truly multiuser'.
`
Projects, desks,
reels and sounds
Dolby Stereo* Films
Dolby Surround* TV
Left
Centre
Right
Surround
*
2-channel stereo
Left
Phase -matrix-encoded
Right
Regular HiFi
Stereo TV
Left
Right
A common format of sound file lies at the bottom
level of a tree structure which is used to organise
and keep track of projects (Fig.2). Sound files are
organised into `reels' (individual edited tracks of
audio), and the reels which make up an 8- channel
block, plus their associated automation and setup
Project
(Desk)
(Desk)
Reel Reel
Desk
Reel Reel
Sound file
Reel Reel
Sound file
Reel
Sound file
Fig.2: Organisation of sound files
44 Studio Sound, October1993
Reel
Fig.3: A hierarchy of stereo formats
data are described by a `desk' file. When a desk file
is recalled in ScreenSound it reinstates an editing
project on the screen, and finds all the sound files
and reel information which contributed to the edit.
The desk file is where the tree stops for
ScreenSound, but Scenaria and OmniMix go one
step further in adding a `project' description. The
Project Manager screen contains information
coordinating a complete large -scale project,
including information about channel routing,
automation data, clip histories and so on. It allows
the user to store complete system setups for
Scenaria and OmniMix, making it possible to recall
each stored revision for any aspect of the
production. This can be particularly useful when
keeping track of a large production, where, for
example, the director may wish to make changes at
a late stage in the postproduction process. Provided
that clip histories, edits and mixes have been
stored, it will be relatively easy to go back to the
original source material which made up the tracks
concerned and re -edit, whereas in conventional film
production it is likely that the sound may have
gone through a number of premix stages. A project
refers to a number of desk files, each describing
eight reels.
The idea was to make the finest monitors in the
world
It
worked
See and hear us at the AES in New York
7 -10 October 1993
Booth # 1156
1
Dynaudio Acoustics
"The Studio"
Book Mews, Flitcroft Street
London WC2H 1DJ, UK
Tel.: (+44) 71 379 7600
Fax: ( +44) 71 497 8737
U.S. Representation:
Audio Exchange International, Inc.
727 Atlantic Ave., Suite 600
Boston, Ma. 02111
Tel.: (617)- 457-8120
Fax: (617)-457-8104
Subwoofer
Centre
Left
i
:
i
:
Surround
Right
ii
i
G
Left
Right
G
u
6- channel
Stereo
Cinema "SRD"
Cinema 70mm
Left
Centre
Right
'III
Iinnn IIuniduHl
(Option)
I
II
¡
III1
IN
1
1111
i
Imnani
II II1 l
I
Surround -Left
Surround -Right
Sub -Woofer
I
IIi:
I
III1
:
i
S-Channel Stereo
HDTV
IN
ii
i
i
i
i
91.
i
E
w
i
um
4- Channel Stereo
Dolby Stereo' Films
Dolby Surround' TV
E
Left
Centre
Right
Surround
i
E
u
u
Left
Centre
Right
Surround -Left
Surround-Right
" Phase- matrix- encoded
stereo
Regular HiFi
Stereo TV
2- channel
Left
Right
Mono
Fig.4: Hierarchical format reduction
Ethernet
While some digital audio system manufacturers
are harnessing high -speed networks to carry audio,
SSL use the relatively slow Ethernet as a control
network linking all of the functional processors in a
system. For example, in OmniMix, the Ethernet
runs between the control panels, main processor,
optical disc drive, SoundNet, ScreenSound,
VisionTrack, patchbays, and so on, as a means of
passing control commands. Each device has a
unique Ethernet address.
The only instance in which Ethernet is used to
carry audio is when a local magneto -optical (M -0)
disc drive (housed near the user, rather than in the
central machine room) is used to audition a sound
clip. Users may keep a handy library of optical
discs and listen to single mono files for auditioning
purposes only. In order to use a clip from the M -0
disc it must be transferred over Ethernet onto the
active hard disk. SSL connect the SCSI M -0 disc
onto the Ethernet using a proprietary interface,
fetchingly called SCSINet, which passes
conventional Ethernet data packets at a rate
sufficient to handle a single audio channel.
46 Studio Sound, October 1993
Enough buffering is used in the main processor to
ensure an unbroken audio output even if other
traffic is present on the network.
An example of system integration using
Ethernet and SoundNet can be seen in Scenaria
and OmniMix, where an 8-channel editor is built
into the system as a standard feature. It is really
nothing other than a separate ScreenSound
processor which resides on the Ethernet, and which
has SCSI access to the same disk drives as the
main Scenaria processor via SoundNet.
During postproduction any group of eight tracks
which forms part of the mix can be passed to the
ScreenSound for editing, at which point the hard
disk on which that material is stored is
automatically reassigned to the editor. A desk file
describes the part of the project contained on that
disk. Control is assigned to the editor by swiping
the graphics tablet pen in a particular direction, at
which point the master -slave configuration of
Ethernet control is altered so that the pen now
controls the editor. When the material has been
re-edited, a swipe of the pen back to the main
Scenario processor results in another change of the
SCSI assignment to remove the disk from the
editor, and the newly edited material is now
available on the original Scenario channels.
One multiuser installation, Post Perfect in New
York (a commercials production house), has three
Scenarios on one Ethernet, and SSL are watching
this installation with interest to determine
whether the increased traffic on the network
results in the need for some form of network zoning
or other management. One channel of audio
requires just under 1Mbit/s of bandwidth, and
Ethernet offers 10Mbit/s, although can often in
reality only carry perhaps a third of this because of
overheads in the packet structure and other
housekeeping matters. If three users were
auditioning audio files from their local M -0 discs at
the same time, together with a sprinkling of control
packets, it is conceivable that one could be running
fairly close to maximum load on the network.
Network zoning and devices such as concentrators,
though, have been used in computer networks for
many years to regulate traffic in certain sections of
the network, and to confine packets for particular
addresses to particular zones, in order to keep the
data rate within workable bounds. Such an
approach could also be applied in large audio
installations.
VisionTrack
and VisionCue
VisionTrack is SSL's random access picture store,
and along with its patented VisionCue system it
provides storage of PAL or NTSC video from RGB
analogue inputs, with almost instant access to any
cut point in the picture. Rather than buying digital
video compression technology from a third party,
SSL developed a process in house which, one must
assume, offers modest data reduction whilst
retaining good picture quality. The quality is
roughly as good as U -matic video, and offers
reasonable performance in freeze -frame, which was
one of the main design aims, since many editors
need to be able to sync sound material to lip
movements in slow motion or freeze -frame.
The video material is stored on a disk pack which
appears to be connected to the processor using
three SCSI interfaces (giving some indication of the
data rate required). The company is prepared to
say almost nothing about the video technology at
the moment.
VisionCue analyses the video data during
recording and draws a plot which graphically
describes the positions of the picture cuts. Thus
picture cut locations are not imported from a video
EDL but determined by what is happening in the
picture itself. The system looks for rapid changes in
the composition of the picture and plots a small
spike on a time line to indicate this. The user may
therefore cue to any picture cut very quickly.
Surround sound and
MotionTracking
One of the main things that OmniMix brings with
it is a large number of additional submix buses to
facilitate complex surround sound mixing.
The additional 32 buses can be configured using
SSL's so- called Hierarchical Submix Matrix (HSM),
which is a means of arranging the buses into say
4 or 5- channel groups for different surround
formats. There are all sorts of surround formats in
existence for use with picture, as illustrated in the
example shown in Fig.3, and to arrive at the lower
level formats (Fig.4) various combinations of the
channels are made by matrixing them. With
32 submix buses one could easily have music,
he Eminence Professional
Series represents an exciting
step beyond the established
Eminence loudspeaker
ranges. These precision engineered
drivers are for the discerning
professional user - the Eminence
answer to the challenge of combining
up to 600WRMs power handling with
the ability to faithfully reproduce
digital detail.
A stunning blend of unrivalled
engineering accuracy with the value
and outstanding reliability that are
the hallmarks of Eminence.
Eminence Professional Series.
PS 18 -600
CALL
18"
600WRMs
4" VOICE COIL
0924
FOR
p
BROC
44414.
EMINENCE
Eminence Speakers 381 Barnsley Road,
Wakefield, West Yorkshire WF2 6BA. England
Tel: 0924 279297 Fax: 0924 263998
Distant,
Receding
01:00:00:00
Distant,
Approachin
X
Close,
No Radial
X
Velocity
Distant,
Receding
01:00:05:00
...
... then
Approaching
Fig.5a: Motion tracking
1
Fig.6: Radial Proximity
which occurs when sounds move towards a listener
and then away. As shown in Fig.6, by calculating
the relative velocity of the source with relation to a
listener (based on the panning path) it is possible
to introduce a pitch shift digitally to simulate the
appropriate Doppler shift. This could be
exaggerated if necessary to give a more extreme
effect than the position would suggest.
Other effects like this may be possible in time, such
as EQ and level changes to simulate distance or
closeness, and doubtless the users will provide
sufficient feedback to fuel this development.
0:01:00
01:00:03:00
X
X
01:00:04:00
Fig.5b: Keyframes
Conclusion
It is interesting to look at what a `high -end'
company such as SSL are doing with digital
postproduction. There are an inordinate number of
systems at the lower end of the market which are
Fig.5e: Move
01:00:00:00
01
:00:05:00
01.00:00:00
X
01:00:04:00
01 :00:01 :00
X
01:00:03:00
X
X
01
:00:03:00
01:00:04:00
01:00:05:00
Fig.5c: Modify keyframes
dialogue and effects submixes all in 5- channel
surround, plus an overall 5- channel mix, a stereo
reduction and a number of effects returns.
To date, surround sound panning has either
meant using a combination of panpots for left -right
and front -back, or very expensive joystick panners
(of which even large film desks may have only one
or two). MotionTracking basically adds a
dynamically automated surround panner to every
source channel in OmniMix, configured for the
surround format which is currently set up by the
HSM. The panner is no longer a knob but is
depicted on one of the screens as a `room' with
loudspeakers in certain places. Using the pen and
tablet, a path may be traced on the room plan in
real time as the audio is playing, allowing the user
to hear the spatial effect of the move. As the path is
traced it is displayed visually (Fig.5a, depicting a
5- channel format in which a source is panned from
48 Studio Sound, October 1993
Fig.5f: Rotate
left, forward into the centre, then right, then over
the head to back left). As shown in Fig.5,
keyframes may be shown on the curve to indicate
the time -code points at which a certain position is
reached, and these may be altered manually so as
to ensure that a source reaches a certain position
by a certain time. Points can also be dragged,
rather as in a computer drawing package to modify
the shape of the path (Fig.5c). Figs.5d, Figs.5e
and Figs.5f show various transformations that
may be effected to turn the path around or move it,
and it is also possible to copy and paste a path to
another desk channel with a delay, so that one
sound effect could be made to follow the same path
slightly later, say.
The built -in effects processor of OmniMix offers
a variety of reverbs and delays which have been
considered important by clients, as well as a
unique means of simulating the Doppler shift
often based around PCs, and these offer incredibly
good value for money, but it is hard to imagine
dubbing a large scale multichannel film production
using a Macintosh and a mouse. SSL are right that
surround sound mixing will be an important
feature of the coming decade, in television as well
as in film, and they are probably also right that
multiuser installations will be attractive in the
sorts of markets at which they are aiming. The
company is therefore strongly placed to take a good
slice of the market, particularly if it can persuade a
notoriously Luddite band of film editors that they
can use such technology while retaining their
creative skills, and also, most importantly, while
keeping track of the immensely complex sequence
of events involved in large productions. If, with
digital postproduction, an editor cannot go back to
the rack and find the physical pieces of sound film
which he put there two days ago, he will need a
suitable electronic means of assuring him that he
has not lost things (the film editor's recurring
nightmare!). It is therefore not just bells and
whistles which will sell digital products to such
people, but the feeling of security that they
engender, and the system's capacity for organising
large projects in an understandable manner,
together with reliable backup storage.
Dr FRANCIS RUMSEY is Chairman of
the British Section of AES, and a
lecturer on Surrey University's
Tonmeister degree course in Music
and Sound Recording. He is the
author of numerous conference and
convention papers for AES, the
Institute of Acoustics and the Royal
TV Society, and six books on audio
technology including Digital Audio
Operations
Signal Processing
by Definition
O
NtNNN
WIN
111111111110MMI
11111111EME
®
a ® MOB=
¢
®
°NOee
omi.«
oan.. Nc
®®
i
0 INIDINipNIN
0 NINIOIiFMIiNI
C
¡
011160 GRAPHIC
l
*****aa.n
nrw
C
'
i o'
m
MI-'a
m
t0w.15[n
1
N.
ß
axial
©
'
..
.
!3
_
_
e
ib"r_y
e .bei e breee1..1,
yój+
.
KIARK clIMIC3
a MARK IV company
The first name with sound system designers
Klark Teknik PLC Klark Industrial Park Walter Nash Road Kidderminster Worcs DY11 7HJ
Tel: 0562 741515 Fax: 0562 745371
ORT
THE PORTABLE
AUDIO MIXER
Dreamhire
A
glance at the Dreamhire equipment
menu is enough to whet the appetite of
any recording engineer or musician.
Offering the widest range of recording
gear in Europe
8 input channels, mono
or stereo
4 auxiliaries, with returns
2 band equalizer in each
channel
Pre fader listening and
channel on switches
-
from classic valve
standards to the latest exotica.
M/S switch in each channel
Penny & Giles long scale
faders
2 stereo instruments
DC or AC powered
Weight 9.8 kg
Fits in a 19" rack
And now pioneering a whole
new generation of computer
based recording systems.
Order from our menu now.
Dreamhire 18 Chaplin Road London NW2 5PN
Telephone: 081 -451 5544 (24 hrs) Fax: 081 -451 6464
New York: (212) 691 5544 Nashville: (615) 321 5544
Tel:
P.O.Box 115 - N -1380 Heggedal - Norway
Fax: ( +47) 66 79 61 54
( +47) 66 79 77 30
Does digital audio give
you the ¡itte*
Get the measure of AES/EBU and SP
with Prism Sound instrumentation
Hand -held Digital Audio
(AES /EBU) Interface Analyzer
Measures jitter and other electrical
parameters
Displays Channel Status
ilk
Realize your dreams with
Sound
the Prism
A/D converter
1
-115dB dynamic range
Super Noise Shaping (SNS) or dither
Dynamic Range Enhancement (DRE) for 16 bit
recorders
16 or 20 bit output
Monitor loudspeaker and headphone
output
Automatic test programs
PC- hosted Audio Analyzer for
AES EBU signals
FFT analysis
24 bit signal generation
Channel Status generation,
editing, analysis
High resolution plotting
Stores results to disk
Using the Dream AD -1
you can relax and enjoy the performance.
With an extra 24dB of
dynamic range yielding
a total S/N ratio of
-115dB a generous
level of headroom
can be set without
e
ck)osu//sN/ em sin t73í' yea/Ome conhd sow,
risk of low -level
Prism Media Products Ltd.
noise or distortion. William James House, Cowley Road, Cambridge CB4
Rifs
Telephone +44 (0)223
424988
Fax
4WX. UK
+44 (0)223 425023
IN THE POST
'7777
'
u'frA1444004,0'1,14m.y_:t!
3
i'y
.t>'dYS
t}` t#
YttìäiÎ iY ìáì'itnt i °iátY{ai
T
Ç
t
`t
r."i
t°#,ií Si`:
T\5'.t't't.fi
T
T
The DMX -6000 incorporates in -line architecture, assignable processing panels and definable controls
Scheduled for commercial
release in September, Sony's
all digital DMX-S6000 console
heads a family of new mixing
desks aimed at the video post and
broadcast sectors.
The DMX-S6000 has been designed as
an all -round video postproduction
console, with additional production
applications -although Sony do not
recommend its use for music
overdubbing (see later). The console has
already been shown at the APRS and
Berlin AES shows, and a first order has
been placed by Sony Classics in
Germany to equip a remix room.
A design philosophy which has
played a significant part throughout
the console's development, has been to
retain familiarity with analogue
operation, and to make the desk as
intuitive and uncomplicated as
possible. `Central to the conception of
the DMX-S6000 has been the
understanding that digital solutions
are largely futile if they are
encumbered by a complicated interface
that only deters those who stand to
benefit,' comments Sony Broadcast
International Audio Product Manager,
Andrew Hingley. The results is a
hybrid design, combining in -line
architecture, assignable processing
panels, and some definable controls.
The console comes in four frame
sizes, providing 24, 32, 48 and
64- channel configurations. The smallest
version measures 1390 x 980 x 1010mm
(WHD), while the largest is 2670mm
wide; the remote processor rack is a
compact 20U-high in each case.
Depending on frame size, up to
56 output buses are available, which
will interface directly to different
DASH multitrack-digital audio
workstation configurations. For
example the DMX-56032 (32 outputs)
will interface to a PCM3324S via
SDIF2 (I -0), and to an 8- channel disk
editor via AES -EBU (I -0); the DMXS6064 will interface directly to a
PCM3348 and an 80- channel digital
audio workstation without duplicating
sends. All channel inputs are
AES -EBU.
The console locks to video reference
(NTSC, PAL or HDVS), word clock or
AES -EBU sync. It can also regenerate
word clock, and will follow varipitch
playback from a word synced
multitrack.
The DMX-S6000 is equipped with
four programme buses which support
operation in stereo, dual stereo, quad,
and four channel surround (3 -1). Dual
mono outputs or a stereo submix can
also be sourced from any combination of
programme outputs. Monitoring may be
in mono, stereo or quad, and monitor
mixing is available. Sony propose to
offer an 8 -bus upgrade in a year's time
to support surround formats such as
Dolby SR -D, HDTV, and their own
8- channel SDDS system; the upgrade
will be retrofittable to existing consoles
with a minimum of disruption to the
control surface.
A standard control surface can
loosely be divided into three main
areas: the I -0 section, the master
facilities, and the automation-setup
control area.
The I -0 section as mentioned adopts
the in -line approach with large and
small faders, and includes dedicated
`hard' controls for key functions like
solos, mutes and programme routing.
Each channel or
monitor path has
access to five
assignable
control panels
-EQ, dynamic
processing, pan
and track
routing, auxiliary
sends, and input
and signal path
configuration.
These panels are
placed above the
in line section,
and in the case of
the 48 and
64- channel
consoles, two sets
are provided for
ease of access.
Incorporating a
digital signal path
into a mixer has
caused Sony to
present it for postpro
work rather than
music recording.
Patrick Stapley
talks desks
and delays
5
1
saved along with moving fader-setup data to the
consoles floppy disk.
Full dynamic automation on all console
functions is something Sony are considering and
will largely be determined by customer response.
For the moment though they are pursuing the
snapshot route, and will soon be offering
crossfades between snapshots.
An inherent problem with all digital consoles is
the delay introduced by convertors and processing.
Although processing delay in the DMX -S6000
remains relatively small at 600µs, the delay from
a 20 -bit A convertor is typically 2ms. Tests
carried out in Japan have shown that some
musicians, particularly percussionists, are
sensitive to delays as small as 1.5ms during
overdubs -amazing when one considers that a
microphone placed 1 metre from a source, delays
the signal by 3ms. For this reason Sony are not
specifying the console for use in music recording
studios until more thorough research has been
conducted in this area. Other digital console
manufacturers take note!
Internal processing delays are compensated for
automatically -for example channels without EQ
are delayed to match those with EQ. The problem,
however, still exists when interfacing external
equipment. While this can be dealt with by adding
compensatory delay channel by channel, a more
elegant solution would be to utilise a scanning
system that measures external delays and adjusts
the console accordingly. Although hypothetical at
the moment, it is a function the desk is perfectly
capable of and one that Sony are examining.
As with conventional in-line designs, signal
processing elements are placed either in the
channel or the monitor path, but can, of course, be
split so that EQ is in the channel and dynamics in
the monitor, for example.
Processing
and busing
Processing is via dedicated function, serial DSP
chips that are attached to pairs of channels. This
arrangement provides sufficient power to fun all
functions on all channels; there is no need to
`ration' power, or allot processing. In fact there is
enough processing power available to permit
simultaneous DSP in both paths, and Sony are
currently developing software to allow this in the
future.
EQ is 4 -band swept with a total range from
31Hz to 17.4kHZ ( ±15dB). Each band has a three
step Q (0.7, 1.4, and 2.5), and the HF and LF
bands are switchable between Peak and Shelf. In
addition, variable low- and high -pass filters are
included operating at 12dB/octave.
The dynamics panel offers limiter- compressor
and expander -gate sections each with gain
reduction metering and key inputs. The
limiter- compressor may also be accessed by each
of the four programme outputs.
Both EQ and dynamics panels include an ALT
facility permitting an alternative setting to be
compared with existing values. The equaliser,
filters and dynamics can be sequenced in any
order and switched in -out from the Path Panel
which provides a clear indication of configuration
via a matrix of selector keys. Additional
confirmation of channel and monitor processing
selection is permanently displayed at the base of
each bargraph meter by a group of colour LEDs.
Every channel also has a 4- character
alphanumeric scribble strip which can display
source, signal status, and grouping information.
Eight auxiliary buses are provided that are
switchable in pairs to operate in stereo; all sends
have on -off and pre-post switching. The panning
section responds to the four master modes
described earlier (Stereo, 2 Stereo, 2 -2 Quad, and
3 -1 surround), and offers Left- Right, Front -Back,
and Divergence controls-currently under
development is a joystick panner.
Channel and monitor inputs are selectable from
channel, track send or track return, while large
and small faders may be sourced from the channel
path, the monitor path or the other fader. This
flexibility allows the console to be set up in a
variety of ways for recording, track bounce, mix
down (with all inputs and track returns, or track
sends used as additional auxes), and broadcast
(simultaneous live mix and multitrack recording).
Analogue inputs are controlled from a mic-line
panel placed in the assignable control area. One
panel is standard and controls four inputs; AD
convertors are not supplied as standard.
The third type of control in the I -0 section are
the definable controls positioned below each small
fader. These are two rotary encoders each with an
associated switch, which can control a variety of
functions globally allocated to them from a central
selector panel -such as, pairs of aux sends, EQ
bands, panning, input trims and so on. The facility
offers the user an alternative and more traditional
method of operation, but is obviously limited by
the number of controls.
Central facilities include aux masters, monitor
mode and source selection, studio playback source,
meter source and mode, oscillator controls and
52 Studio Sound
D
Centre section in cluu-up
routing, talkback-reverse talkback, control room
monitoring, global switching, assignable bus trim,
and so on.
Automation
The automation -setup section incorporate a gas
plasma monitor and keyboard controlling both
moving fader and snapshot automation along with
set up functions for console sample rate
(44.056kHz, 44.11(Hz, 47.952kHz, and 48kHz),
channel delay (up to 300ms per channel), insertion
point assignment (16 inserts available as
standard), group assignment (to eight centrally
placed automated group master faders), channel
copy (function selectable), and self -diagnostic
circuitry.
Moving fader automation has been adapted
from a system originally developed for Sony's
MXP-5000 digitally controlled analogue console,
which was only available in Japan. It functions for
all long throw faders and their associated mutes,
having a 12 -bit resolution and' /:-frame sampling
rate. The system operates with Read, Write,
Update, Trim and Manual modes, and includes a
Match function that returns the fader to its
previous level at a programmable rate. The
system also has a Slow mode, which allows data to
be written- updated while the VTR is operating in
slow motion, even down to frame increments. Full
off-line facilities are currently in development.
The rest of the console and interfaced external
equipment are governed by a Cue- SceneEvent -MIDI static automation system which has
also evolved from the MXP-5000. Cues are
time-code values (triggers), Scenes are console
snapshots. Events are GPI closures, and MIDI
refers to programme change. Up to 999 Cues can
trigger up to 256 Scenes, 999 Events and
256 programme changes; this information forms
an Audio EDL (Edit Decision List) and can be
Options
Two main options available for the console are
those of machine control, and a sampler -shifter
module. The machine controller looks very similar
to the automation -setup controller, having the
same type of screen and a keyboard panel. Up to
six machines can be controlled via Sony 9 -pin
(non 9 -pin machines will require a 9 -pin to
parallel interface); the system will read EDL data
and can thus use edit points for locating, auto
drop -ins and so on.
The sampler -shifter provides a ten- second
memory for every track return into the console,
enabling onboard track slipping operations. It also
provides up to 80 seconds of stereo sampling, and
has a built-in harmoniser. A possible future
addition could be reverb processing.
The UK price for the console will be in the
region of £140K for the DMX-S6024 and £240K for
the DMX- S6064.
UK: Sony Broadcast & Communications,
Jays Close, Viables, Basingstoke, Hampshire
RG22 4SB. Tel: 0256 55011. Fax: 0256 474585.
US: Sony Corporation of America,
3 Paragon Drive, Montvale, NJ 07645 -1735.
Tel: +1 201 930 1000. Fax: +1 201 930 4752.
PATRICK STAPLEY began his career
in pro audio in 1972 at London's
Abbey Road Studios where he worked
with artists as diverse as Paul
McCartney, The Damned and
Matumbi, and was involved in
quadraphonic remixes of Tubular
Bells and Dark Side of the Moon.
Patrick also ran his own production
company and worked as Falconer
Studios' Production Manager before
beginning writing for Studio Sound
in 1985.
UD Dolby SR at Bunk Junk & Genius
Our combination of classic analogue synthesizers as well
as `state of the art' Midi and software equipment has broken
some of the conventions of the more traditional studio.
"This, coupled with acoustic instruments and performance,
creates a good blend. Dolby SR on the multitracks is the
ideal format to capture the vast range of sounds our clients
create and use."
Paul Brewster - BIG
Dolby SR can be heard on the following BJG projects....
The Orb, Sabrina Johnson, Galliano, Real Thing, FFF, Dakeyne,
Mike Oldfield, Robert Fripp, Yellow Magic Orchestra.
More and more studios are realising what Dolby SR can do for them.
Call Andy Day on 0793 -842100 and find out for yourself.
Dolby Laboratories Inc
Wootton Bassett Wiltshire SN4 8QJ Tel: 0793 -842100 Fax: 0793 -842101
W0 Potrero Avenue San Francisco CA 94103 -4813 Tel: 415-558 -0200 Fax: 415 -863-1373
Dolby and the double -D symbol are trademarks of Dolby Laboratories Licensing Corporation
W93/o61
UD Dolby
Fly High Tech
Virtual
ArrayTM
Technology
World
Touring
Standard
EAW
KF850 Array
by Concert Sound
Chris DeBurgh
Earl's
Court
One Main Street
Whitinsville, MA 01588
Tel 508 -234 -6158
Fax 508- 234 -8251
In the UK: Harman Audio
Tel: (0) 753 -576 -91
1
Fax: (0) 753 -535 -306
Keary makes no apologies for belonging to the old
that I'm anti new technology, far
from it,' he says, 'I simply believe the old stuff
sounds a lot better.' The `old stuff Keary refers to is
a collection of vintage valve equipment -some dating back as
far as the 1940s-which he has recently installed into a small
West London studio. It is ironic, if not somewhat eccentric,
that as the rest of the world strives toward the all digital signal
path, Keary and a few like him are busy resurrecting the tube
and piecing together all valve studios. However, judging from
the response so far, it is an anachronism that works and to put
it bluntly, pulls in the punters.
Keary built his first studio in the mid 1950s above a
cow -shed in Hampshire which was, `fine unless you recorded
during milking time'. His professional career began at
Lansdowne Studios, which he joined at the beginning of the
1960s just as the legendary Joe Meek left to start his own
studio. Keary stayed at Lansdowne for two -and -a -half years,
gaining valuable experience as both a recording engineer and
maintenance man. He then worked for a short period at Rush
Electronics, leaving to set up a studio in London's West End
called Maximum Sound, and for this he built a console based
around the EMI REDD range. Due
to lease problems, Maximum Sound
was forced to move to new premises
in South London's Old Kent Road
where it expanded from 2- track, to
3 -track and finally to 4- track, at
which point the studio was bought
by Manfred Mann and renamed The Workhouse.
Keary's next venture took him from South to North London
where he opened Chalk Farm Studios in 1968, installing his
valve desk and a 8 -track tape machine. The studio quickly
became a favourite with reggae artists such as Dandy
Livingston (then Trojan's chief producer) who made many of his
records there including Bob and Marcia's single Young, Gifted
And Black.
`I still think that record sounds good,' reflects Keary,
`considering the only outboard gear we had at the time was a
single spring reverb. There were no delay facilities, and we
Vis
school: `It's not
E
AP
Details of the custom console
created the distinctive delay on the strings by mixing together
the sync and replay heads from the 8- track.'
With the arrival of 16 -track in 1971, Keary sold his original
console to a studio in Blackpool and built himself a larger
version (still all- valve). Chalk Farm ran for a total of 14 years
offering both studio and cutting facilities, but as Reggae's
popularity began to wane, so too did bookings, and finally in
1982 the studio closed leaving behind it a disillusioned and
disenchanted Keary.
`It was the start of drum machines and everyone becoming
very technical about things,' he recalls. I have to admit that a
lot of the fun went out of music for me then -I'd always enjoyed
recording music with feel and the buzz you get from people
CHISWICK TU B E
playing together live.'
Through the rest of the 1980s, Keary pursued a number of
freelance activities including studio maintenance, antique
dealing, disc cutting, removals, and location recording. But it
was not until the beginning of the 1990s that he once again
became involved in setting up a recording studio.
`It all came about due to a burglary. I'd got to know this chap
in Commercial Road, who'd built a studio mainly for his own
use. One night he was broken into and all the equipment was
literally stripped -out. To cut a long story short, I agreed to
install some of my gear (not the console) providing the facility
was run commercially. I must say that it surprised me just how
strong the demand for the old gear was, and a lot of people said
to me you really ought to take this a stage further and put
together an all -valve studio.'
Inspired by the reaction and threatened with further lease
problems, Keary once again gathered his equipment and moved
on; this time to a converted brewery just off the river in
Chiswick, West London. The building had been home to
various studios in the past, most recently Parsifal, but the
space Keary chose had previously been occupied by a small
16 -track called The Works. To keep a link with Commercial
Road, the new studio retained the same initials and was
christened Chiswick Reach.
The facility has an 18 x 12ft control room, a 18ft square
studio area with concrete
drum riser, and a
workshop -office which is
destined to become an
additional recording room or
lounge. So far nothing
major has been done either
structurally or cosmetically
to the original space, other
than carpeting the control
room (floor and walls), and
hanging reflective,
hardboard panels in the
studio to create a slightly
Patrick Stapley visits
Chiswick Reach Studio
in London and discovers
a shrine to valve
recording -and the man
who worships there
55
more live acoustic. The studio was originally designed by a
commercial soundproofing company, and has a certain
utilitarian feel about
perforated aluminium sheeting covers
a thick layer of mineral wool on both walls and ceiling, giving
the impression of a cold storage room.
`The room is incredibly dead, and has amazing separation.
People simply don't believe you can get any separation in a
room this size, but I've just finished recording an album with
the Blues Band (a six- piece) and the separation on that is
remarkable. On that album we started off with the room quite
live but it was all wrong for their kind of Chicago blues style.
Instead we went for that Chess sound, which is essentially very
dead with reverb added, and so removed all the reflective
panels which produced a much more authentic sound.'
To equip the studio, Keary brought together all the bits and
pieces he had collected over the years, including the valve
console (28-input; 8-bus; 16-monitor) from Chalk Farm which
he spent considerable time refurbishing.
'I spent much longer than I'd anticipated completely
overhauling the console and improving on the original design'
comments Keary. 'I also fitted some original EMI valve line
amps that I'd acquired which sound incredibly smooth and take
and awful lot of level.
One of Keary's prize possessions is Joe Meek's 'Black Box'.
'It was actually made for Joe by Racal Electronics in the
1960s. In those days Racal were a tiny outfit based in a small
workshop in Camberley, and Joe approached them to make him
some equipment. He basically gave them the design for an
Altec compressor, which they copied for him, and also an
equaliser which was based around a Pultec but with extra
flexibility. Only one of these equalisers was ever made and we
have it here -it's and excellent and quite unique piece of gear.
It introduces a little bit of phase shift and second harmonic
distortion, but this is one of the things that gives it a very
characteristic sound which is especially good on vocals. I know
that Joe regularly used it to lift vocals rather than turning up
the level-he would boost at 3kHz which pushes the voice right
up front in the track.'
it-
Another antique is a Sean Davies valve limiter made in the
1960s for IBC Studios where Keary claims it was used on early
Who tracks such as My Generation. Slightly out of place is a
Fairchild Conax treble limiter, originally used for disc cutting
but now functioning as a studio de- esser. Keary is also working
on his own designs for valve compressors.
`When I was working for Rush Electronics in 1964, I designed
some valve compressors two of which we sold to Pete
Townsend-he still uses them, and they're working pérfectly
with the original valves. I've used that basic design but added
some more modern components, but of course kept it all valve.
I hope to go into commercial production with it later this year.'
With all this original equipment, availability of the valves
themselves becomes of considerable importance.
`It's never usually a problem,' claims Keary. `There's a
company just up the road that imports a lot from places like
Eastern Germany, Russia and even Serbia where they're still
being produced in large quantities. The only time it's difficult
-and this is very rare-is when you have a microphone like a
Neumann U47 where the valves have been obsolete for years.
However, it is possible to convert the mic to work with a
different valve and adapt the power supply.
'Valve life depends entirely on the valve -for example I've
got a couple of mics that have pretty well been used on a daily
basis since 1968 and still have the original valve. Some of the
valves in the desk should be replaced every 18 months or so,
but an input valve like an EF86 will go on for years -I've
actually got some in the desk that are 20 years old and still
going strong. I periodically test all the valves in the console
and replace them as necessary.'
The selection of vintage mics at Chiswick Reach include a
Neumann valve KM54 and two original U67s, a couple of
Fi -Cord FC1200s (made by Calrec), an RCA 1001 ribbon which
came from the London Palladium and was used there during
the war, two STC 4038s, plus a couple of STC 4021 ball and
biscuits, and an old Tannoy ribbon. There are also a collection
of more modern microphones from AKG, Shure, Beyer, etc, and
at the top of the studio's shopping list is the Microtech
rack DA
recorder
There are any number of stereo DAT recorders
on the market, but if you need the true profes-
sional capability of individual 2 -track recording,
there is only one choice -the Otari DTR -90.
It really is the most professional DAT recorder. Apart from
individual channel record,you also get4 -head flexibility, a time code facility, and
a
removeable front panel for remote operation
that makes it about the easiest machine to use. And we'll back
Stirling Audio Systems Ltd
Kimberley Road
London NW6 7SF
Tel: 071 624 6000
Fax: 071 372 6370
it up
with the best after -sales support
Where else can you get such
a
in
the business.
straight deal? Call Stirling
now for your professional demo and personal quotation.
011 6146000
.44
ow times change
...
VARR.CUR. E.
1111
I
aGt
TPMIE
t
,
a0
DñEOPi'
LD .PING
P60:.
RO%IC
'PYi0E0
E4Uh3EPliLLiSEP CONIPpüi
Equalisation
that thinks and learns
from experience
Experience intelligent E6ì
BSS
Audic Ltd; Unit
5. Merlin
Centre, Acrewood Way,
Phone: (0727) 845242 Fax (0727) 845277
by
St
VARICURVEr,
Albans, Herts AL4 OJY England
an
(.EdgeTech moll/
ne nbrr of
the AKG Group
-it
Geffel 92S valve microphones.
Other valve gear includes four Levers Rich graphic
equalisers, an Associated Electronic Engineering graphic, and
an EMT plate. The studio also offers a range of non -valve
equipment such as Drawmer DS 201 B Gates, Klark Teknik
DN332 Graphic, Bel BD80, Eventide 949 Harmonizer, two
Alesis Microverbs, the esoteric Ursa Major Space Station,
Digitech DSP128, Cyclosonic panner, Gain Brains, Keepex and
so on. Monitoring is via JBL 4502s powered by Crown DC300A
amps and nearfield JBL Controls are powered by a Leak TL25
Plus. Also available is an Atari ST with Cubase, and a Fostex
4030 synchroniser for linking together multitrack machines.
Tape machines include a 3M M79 24 -track and a Brenell
Mini 8 , both made in the 1970s, and a Levers Rich E242 valve
2 -track machine circa 1967. Keary usually works at 15ips and
uses a high -level tape.
`I like to run my machines at 15ips because you get a better
bottom end at that speed. I use 3M 966 high output tape on
both multitrack and 2 -track machines, you can really load it
without any problems and I find that I don't need to use noise
reduction.
`I've also got a DAT machine, but I don't particularly like it.
We've done numerous comparisons between the Levers Rich
and DAT and the valve machine wins every time. I mixed a
recent album to both machines and at the end I got the band to
do a blind comparison-to their surprise they all preferred the
Levers Rich and found the DAT very brittle. They also couldn't
believe the machine was running at 15ips because it was so
quiet. Also long as you record with plenty of level, noise is
never a problem -the machine itself is very quiet and the
valves give out tremendous signal level without any distortion
going to tape.'
Connected to the Levers Rich machine is an ancient
varispeed box which has been nicknamed `The Blue Meany'.
`There were a few of these made to varispeed machines with
synchronous motors. In fact this one was made for the Rolling
Stones and installed at Olympic Studios where it was used on
albums like Satanic Majesty's Request. When I bought it, I was
FILE EFFECTS
o
THE BEST ATMOS CD COLLECTIO
:-
INTERIORS & EXTERIORS INDUSTRY & COMMERCE
BIRDS, ANIMALS & INSECTS
.
.
AND MORE .
.
Chiswick Reach, Lamb House, Church Street,
Chiswick, London W4 2PD. Tel: 081 995 6504
go0
Hv"
The Hollywood Edge produces the same
excellence that I fight for on all my films'
OLIVER STONE
THE PREMIERE EDITION
CITITRAX
THE EDGE EDITION
ae+
;`14fi:
-;qum_
=--
-I
THE TOP SPOT EFFECTS LIBRARY
SKYLINES & CITY SOUNDS TRAVEL & TRANSPORT
.THE ELEMENTS QUIET ROOMS 8. OTHER WORLDS
.
unaware that there was a slight design fault
runs at an
incredibly high voltage (up to 800V) which has a tendency to
leak to the outer case, and if you touch it, you can get one hell of
a belt. The problem is that you can't earth it because that
shorts the whole thing out and blows transformers. We treat it
with the greatest of respect, and try to keep our fingers firmly
on the plastic control knob!'
`I've also got a Cadey 1 -track machine which was made by a
guy called Steve Wadey about 20 years ago. It's a very peculiar
design in that the record electronics are valve, while the replay
and monitor amps are transistor and sound bloody awful. I'm
in the process of replacing all the transistor circuitry with
valves means that it will soon be possible to record here without
touching a transistor anywhere between microphone and tape.'
The studio also offers a 100 -year -old Bechstein piano (not
valve), a Hammond M102 organ with Leslie, and a Sound City
120 valve amp with a 4 x 12 cabinet.
So apart from producing an authentic vintage sound, and
cocking a snook at digital, what does Keary regard to be the
benefits of the all valve studio?
`In a nutshell, it sounds more realistic,' comes Keary's
confident reply. `There's a weird thing that happens working
with valve equipment that I've never experienced with any
other setup. The first time it happened to me was at
Lansdowne
was in the control room when somebody spoke to
me, I turned round to answer them only to discover they were
actually in the studio. The sound was so real that it fooled me.
Exactly the same thing happened here shortly after we'd
opened; I literally thought that the person talking was sitting
next to me -it's an unnerving experience, but a great indication
of how natural and true valves sound.'
At rates set at about £250 a day, Chiswick Reach has has
been very busy-in fact so busy that Keary has just taken on a
full time engineer- maintenance man who, just like the boss, is
totally crazy about valves.
CARTOON TRAX
digital sound naturally
THE PRIMARY SOURCE OF THE BEST IN DIGITAL SOUND EFFECTS
Josef Weinberger Ltd
12 --14
Mortimer Street, London
Tel: (071) 255 1829
58
Studio Sound, October 1993
W1 N 7RD
Fax: (071) 436 9616
-
Dual Domain Audio Testing
We have a System
that works. System One from Au io Preci
studios and labs, on benches and factory floors, in
stations and networks, thousands of System One Audio
test systems around the world attest to the fact that this
is the System that works. Hardware and software refined
to match the application produce both superior performance and superior reliability as demonstrated by our
three year warranty on parts and labor.
In
THE RECOGNIZED STANDARD
System One is known the world over as the recognized
audio test and measurement. Component
suppliers, manufacturers, equipment reviewers, and
end -users all rely on Audio Precision for measurement
quality they can trust.
standard
in
COMPREHENSIVE & FAST
System One is a completely integrated digital and analog audio test system. By combining all the necessary
instruments into one package System One provides
higher performance at lower cost than conventional
instruments. In addition, System One can grow with your
needs. Your initial purchase of a basic System One allows
you to add any option later.
Optional FASTTEST & FASTTRIG DSP capabilities test any
audio channel, producing 160 measurements from a
stimulus signal less than one second in duration. Options
such as input and output switchers and the DSP -based
and digital domain modules make "one-stop" audio
testing easy.
FFT
EASY TO USE
Straightforward features and stored sample audio tests
make System One easy to use. Color graphic test results
also may be copied to printers and plotters.
GO/NO -GO testing against limits and test sequencing with
automated procedures save time and repetitive
motions.
HIGH PERFORMANCE
New digital and analog technologies leave yesterdays
"good enough" performance far behind. System One
easily handles high performance challenges such as
state of the art analog preamps or digital recording
systems.
The integrated System One offers premium specifications and performance, but at no premium in price
compared to lesser test sets or equivalent separate
instruments.
Our worldwide force of Audio Precision representatives
will be pleased to provide further information and an
onsite demonstration.
Audio
.'
rf-T.. -:1
:
precision
Box 2209
Beaverton, OR 97075 -3070
P.O.
503/627- 0832,800/231 -7350
FAX: 503/641 -8906
NV, Tel: (32) 2 -466 5010 Bulgerle:
INTERNATIONAL DISTRIBUTORS: Australia: IRT Electronics Pty. Ltd., Tel: (61) 2 439 3744 Austria: ELSINCO GmbH, Tel: (43) 222 815 04 00 Belgium: Trans European Music
Czech Republic: ELSINCO Praha spol. s r.o.,
ELSINCO, h.e. Strelbishte, Tel: (359) 92 581 698 Canada: GERRAUDIO Distribution, Tel (416) 696 -2779 China, Hong Kong: A C E (Intl) Co. Ltd., Tel: (852) 424 -0387
41 Germany: RTW GmbH, Tel:(49) 221 70 91 30
45
83
66
Mesureur,
Tel:
(33)
(1)
ETS
77
13311
France:
Tel:
(358)
15
11
Finland:
Genelec
OV,
Tel:
(45)
57
Elektronik
aps,
86
Tel: (42) (2) 4702 I. 451, 452 Denmark: npn
Tel: (39) 521 -598723 Japan: TOVO
Hungary: ELSINCO KFT, Tel: (36) 112 4854 India: HINDITRON Services PVY, Tel: (91) 22 836-4560 Israel: Dan -El Technologies, Ltd., Tel: (972) 3-544-1466 Italy: Audio Links. n c..
734 1017 Netherlands: TM Audio 8.V.
Corporation, Tel: (81) 3 (5688) 6800 Korea: B &P International Co.. Ltd.. Tel: (82) 2 546-1457 Malaysia: Test Measurement 8 Engineering Sdn. Bhd., Tel: (60) 3
79
Portugal: Acutron Elettroacustica
(48)
39
69
z
o.c.,
Tel:
(22)
Polska
sp.
Poland:
ELSINCO
Tel:
(47)
9
19
03
81
Norway:
Lydconsult,
Tel: (31) 034 087 0717 New Zealand: Audio & Video Wholesalers, Tel: (64) 7 847 -3414
Tel: (27) 11 477 -1315 Spain:
LDA, Tel: (351) 1 9414087 / 9420862 Singapore: THE Systems Pte Ltd., Tel: (65) 298 -2608 Slovakia: ELSINCO Bratislava spol. s r.o., Tel: (42) (7) 784 165 South Africa: SOUNDFUSION,
Tel:
(41)
1 910 41 41 Taiwan: ACESONIC Intl Co., Ltd., Tel: (886) 2 719 2388 United
W.A.
AG,
Dr.
Gunther
(46)
31
80
36
20
Switzerland:
AB,
Tel:
Tal
&
Ton
Elektronik
(34)
1
531
-7101
Sweden:
Electronics,
S.
A.,
Tel:
Telco
Kingdom: SSE Marketing Ltd., Tel: (44) 71 387 -1262
The music show of shows.
International marketplace.
For every aspect of music,
Pop, Rock, Jazz, Classical and Contemporary.
MIDEM
/C1st
ïess
For every international music
industry professional
who's into supplying professional hardware
to suppliers and studios around the world.
And those allied professionals
who make the music industry their own
concern.
Palais
des
Festivals
Cannes - France
30"h Jan -3rd Feb 1994
It's strictly business
Midem is in the business of creating business,
in Cannes. With live television performances,
concerts and showcases. Buzzing with talent,
opportunities and the hottest deals around.
Take a stand
and create a profile for your organisation.
It's your headquarters away from home.
For more information contact: Peter Rhodes.
Advertise
Reed Midem Organisation Ltd
Be seen and heard in the Midem Preview,
Metropolis House,
Midem Daily and the Midem Guide, and
get your message across loud and clear.
22 Percy Street, London W1 P 9FF.
Tel: 071 528 0086. Fax: 071 895 0949.
Reed Midem Organisation
A member of Reed Exhibition Companies
And hurry
You may even qualify for a DTI subsidy, providing
your stand is booked by October 30th.
HEARING IS BELIEVING
B &W's 801-seen
here at Abbey Road-is one example of a hi -fi speaker that has become a pro-audio reference
the uninitiated, it must seem
strange that the loudspeakers
commonly found in recording
studios are rarely found in the
homes of anyone outside the recording
industry. It must seem equally strange
that monitoring loudspeakers are often
put down by hi -fi reviewers as lacking
that `something' that endears
loudspeakers to the hi -fi world. How can
professionals monitor on devices not
necessarily representative what the end
result will be heard on?
The answer is that pro monitors do
represent the domestic situation, but it
takes experienced ears to interpret the
representation. If this sounds like
mumbo jumbo to protect the
cognoscenti, all I can say is that I wish it
were, for it would make life easy. The
truth is not so simple, as we shall see.
To
What is right?
In the absence of an accepted reference
in hi -fi or pro audio, hi -fi loudspeakers
are used in studios for final mixdown. In
1991, I wrote an article in which I
looked at the different requirements of
the worlds of film, broadcast, classical
and rock music recording and a
complementary article outlining how the
personal priorities of different designers
could lead to the production of some very
different monitors, despite ostensibly
aiming for the same goal: objectivity.
An objective `truth' however becomes a
nebulous concept when music is created
from entirely electronic sources, where
no `real' sound or acoustic existed, and
when no complete performance of the
music is heard until mixdown.
If, for the time being, we ignore the
concept of a listening `reality', a monitor
loudspeaker is required to highlight
potential problems, indicate realistically
the frequency balance of the recorded
sound, and be capable of revealing
distortions of both linear and nonlinear
natures. Certainly during the
What are the differences
between studio monitors and
hi -fi speakers and how do
they relate to the pro studio?
Philip Newell compares
`home and away'
61
AVALON SERIES
MARILON SERIES
The 'Avalon', 'Marilon'. and
'Triton' consoles offer features,
TRITON SERIES
functions, specs and sound quality
for less cost to you than any other
console manufacturer in the world.
With the minimum of audio path,
the circuitry not only provides
tremendeous headroom and crystal
clear sound, but noise and
distortion so low that it almost
matches the quality of a straight
wire.
No matter what your
requirements, space, amount of
inputs, specs, or functions, D &R
can customize a console for you.
Call or fax the D &R Customer
Support Department and get your
free colour brochures now!
D &R Electronica b.v.
Rijnkade 15B
1382GS Weesp
The Netherlands
Phone: (00)31-2940-18014*,
Fax: (00)31-2940-16987.
D &R USA
Montgomery TX77356
Rt. 3 Box 184-A
Phone: 409 -588 -3411
Fax: 409 -588 -3299
r
1
EVERY SOUND UNDER CONTROL.
mixdown stage, `neutral' monitors should be used,
enabling signal processing and equalisation to be
applied to the programme free from the masking of
monitoring coloration.
These capabilities, although seemingly
reasonable, are by no means easy to achieve in any
single loudspeaker. If we take the points one by
one, each may appear to be the characteristics
claimed by the manufacturer of every hi -fi
loudspeaker, but in practice they are rarely
achieved in any but the most advanced units.
What makes loudspeaker design so infuriating is
that written specifications mean so little in terms
of perceived subjective qualities. Even a
universally accepted specification of tight tolerance
would produce a range of monitor performances as
wide as the range of manufacturers. The reverse
can be even more surprising: wide specification
differences produce similar perceived responses
under different conditions.
Alignment
and loudness
If we take three reputable studio designers (one of
whom is myself) specifying their own monitor
systems, three very different philosophies emerge.
One designer aims to make pressure amplitude
responses in the room as linear as possible when
octave averaged, (not /3- octave equalised). Another
produces responses around 5dB up at 100Hz with a
high frequency response extending well beyond
20kHz. Conversely, I have produced large monitors
about 4dB down at 100Hz and 12kHz. There are
valid reasons for each of these choices of
parameters as optimum for a main monitor system,
especially when related to human beings and their
1
If we take the
points one by one,
each may appear
to be the
characteristics
claimed by the
manufacturer of
every hi -fi
loudspeaker, but in
practice they are
rarely achieved in
any but the most
advanced units
listening experiences.
In the history of research into hearing, Fletcher
& Munson produced a classic set of response plots
(know as Fletcher-Munson curves). The human
aural perception system (the ear and brain), is
highly nonlinear -an absolute necessity
considering that the difference in power between
the quietest perceivable sound and the threshold of
pain is 1,000,000,000,000:1. (A billion to one in
British English; a trillion to one in America.)
Unfortunately for the loudspeaker designer, this
response does not apply equally across the entire
range of audible frequencies -hence the Fletcher Munson curves of equal loudness by frequency. As
expected from the log nature of the system, a
doubling of loudness is generally perceived from an
increase of 10dB, which at 1kHz is well borne out
by these curves. Effectively, each curve represents
the sound pressure necessary to either double or
halve the perceived loudness, as compared to the
curves below or above respectively.
From the 90dB and 100dB curves, we can
determine that sounds at 100Hz, 1kHz and 6kz will
be perceived by the average person at equal levels
of loudness. (These are averaged; no two
individuals perceive exactly the same responses,
save perhaps for identical twins). Under such
circumstances, changing the volume control setting
from whatever position necessary to produce 90dB
to that required to produce 100dB, would, in turn,
produce a general doubling of the perceived
loudness of most signals present in the audible
frequency range. If we back down the volume
control to produce 70dB, the 1kHz region will halve
by each 10dB reduction, therefore 30dB down on
100dB would produce 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 or 1/8 of the
subjective loudness at 100dB. At 100Hz, the story
is not quite the same. If we follow the 70dB
horizontal line to 100Hz, the 70dB and 100Hz
crossing point intersect, the curve which would be
between the 50dB and 60dB curves. In other
words, the 100Hz frequencies would approach the
loudness of a 55dB sound in the 'kHz region, so
the 1/8 loudness at 'kHz compared to the 100dB
level, would be perceived only at about /2o of the
perceived level at 100dB, when listening to the
100Hz sounds. At lower levels and lower
frequencies the discrepancies become even greater.
1
Multitrack editing software
XTrack version 3
makes production a pleasure
XTrack is fast
All the edit functions
(crossfade, merge,
time stretch...)
are directly accessible via
the drop down menus
00100:
12
XTrack is simple
-22
All user configuration data
(2 -16 tracks) is permanently
maintained.
enjoyable
XTrack is comprehensive
XTrack
Xtrack is also
a post- production tool
with LTC chase -lock
and RS 422 capabilities.
In addition,
the catalogue supervises
a veritable banquet of sound data
to service your creativity.
The track display is real -time
and to aid user interface,
sounds are displayed in curve
or block mode.
is
XTrack is compatible
Exclusive importers
Xtrack is a completely open
system that operates on a standard
PC platform. Xtrack includes
Musicam and is compatible
with many existing systems.
Digigram
Parc de Pré Mullet
Dielerem
38330 Montbonnot
France
Phone: 33 -76 52 47 47
Fax: 33 -76 52 18 44
Belgium: OPNS Phone: 32 -2 537 63 40. Finland: Jutel Phone: 358 -81 551 48 05. Italy: Logical tools Phone: 39 -6 657 41,2 91. Romania: Scop Phone: 40 -1 312 283 3.
Czechoslovakia: Inton Phone: 42 -2 20 66 57. Germany, Austria: Mediatron Phone: 49 -8 131 35 44. Hungary: Corg computer Phone: 36 -1 185 71 53.
Norway: Benum Phone:47- 22 14 54 60. Sweden: Protron audio Phone: 46-922 204 96. Denmark: Daemon Phone:45- 86 24 29 22. India: AV Tech Phone:91 -22 ;432454.
Great -Britain, Australia, Poland, South Africa: Digigram UK
Phone: 44- 29667777.
Portugal: Epidata
Phone:351
-61
1I2 302.
Swiss: Distronic
Phone: 41 -21 24 73 94.
63
Operational
obstacles
subjective loudness. When the additional problems
of individual human autocompensations are taken
into account, loudness contouring ceases to be a
realistic solution.
When the
additional
Unusual settings
problems of
these problems,
individual human There
which
the three designers are pursuing
different paths.
designer producing the flat
autocompensations pressure
responses, makes
very expensive
studios,
which he expects thoroughly trained
are taken into
professional staff
responsible
making their
judgments
use the systems.
account, loudness
The designer producing systems with
lift at
asserts that
use the high monitor
contouring ceases
(100dBorder
higher
subjective punch but, which not necessarily
to be a realistic
required when listening the end result.
Consequently,
solution
that if
the
bass
the punch
In `domestic' studios, where neighbours live close
by and where sound isolation is poor, a general
monitoring level of 80dB would be found to be quite
usual. In a purpose -designed commercial studio
with good sound isolation, 100dB may be a more
common reference level. Following a 50Hz line in
the Fletcher-Munson curves, we find the 80dB and
100dB equal loudness curves are separated not by
20dB as at 1kHz, but by only about 15dB.
Subjectively, the 50Hz region of the frequency
spectrum would be raised by 5dB relative to the
1kHz section as the volume control is advanced
from 80d13- 100dB.
The `loudness' switch found on some hi -fi
systems attempts to compensate for this
unevenness of human perception by raising the
highs and lows, gradually, as the overall volume
level is reduced, and vice versa. There are two
circumstances which make this process
problematical, however. The first relates to the
enormous sensitivity differences exist side by side;
ear's capacity for autocompensation', taking the
for example, an ATC SCM1O nearfield monitor has
disproportionalities into their perceptive stride as
a quoted sensitivity of around 80dB at one metre
normal, the second one relates to loudspeaker
for 1W input. The UREI 815 has a sensitivity of
sensitivity, and distance of the listener from the
103dB at one metre, for the same input. Each time
loudspeakers.
we double the input power, we increase the output
Where amplifiers are purchased as separate
(within the linear response region of the system) by
items, manufacturers can only guess at the likely
3dB. Therefore, if 1W into the SCMIO produces
sensitivity of the loudspeakers with which they will 80dB at one metre; 2W (double) produces 83dB;
be used. A guess is reasonable in the domestic
4W (double) 86dB; 8W, 89dB, 16W 92dB; 32W
world, where the bass and treble controls are
95dB; 64W 98dB; 128W 101dB and 256W, 104dB.
usually available to adjust to taste whatever
200W would thus produce around 103dB at
remains to be modified, listening distances are
1 metre, the same output as would be achieved at
typically a couple of metres and sensitivities
the same distance by 1W into the UREI 815.
around 90dB. But in the world of studio monitors,
Distance from the loudspeaker also affects
own
-
CORRELATION
for
5dB
100Hz
levels
people
120dB) in
to achieve
is
to
he concludes
he provides
lift,
will exist at lower levels, so can
be achieved with less wear and tear on the ear.
My experience is that people (including myself)
turn up the wick from time to time, come what
may. My tendency has been to produce large
monitor systems which probably will be used at
high levels, with reductions in their responses
below 100Hz and above 10kHz which to me, at high
levels, relate more closely to the perceived
responses of smaller systems which, within their
range, are more linear in the 80dB -90dB region.
It can also be seen from the Fletcher-Munson
contours, that the high frequencies decrease in
perceived loudness as the level drops. Although by
no means as pronounced as the sensitivity
reduction at low frequencies, the 120dB range of
hearing sensitivity is compressed into a 110dB
range above 6kHz or 8kHz. This again means
`
To improve audio metering
is no simple solution to
is why
The
only
in
to be
on how to
focus your attention on both key parameters of audio signals: PEAK LEVEL and PHASE
1119 DIN Version
mounted into case 1120
1134
British Scale Version
(Nordic Scale
Version: 1139)
Phase
Built -in
Correlation Meter
Peak Programme Meter for
analog + digital audio
V
RTW
uu
1n
uuuunnluumuuunn'mnuunluullmujmi
nunnuuNmnununumumunuunuunulirnuuumluunn°
I
-50-40
-30
-20
dB
5
10
.5
0
I
I
I
I
mmoi u mi
nuttuulaunmumumlmum
%
mtinilllilfllmnin dminionuuonnunnunuumilli
VO
5o
a
180
t
RTW Peakmeter & Correlator
RTW
RADIO -TECHNISCHE WERKSTÄTTEN GMBH
Telephone (221) 7 09 13 -33
Telefax (221) 7 09 13 -32
D -5000
Köln 71
W.- Germany
P.O. Box. 710654
Australia: SYNTEC INTERNATIONAL, Tel (2) 4174700
Austria: ACOUSTA ELEKTRONIK, Tel (662) 824627 Belgium/Netherlands: P.A.C., Tel (40) 510484
Canada: J-MAR
NICS LTD., Tel (416) 4219080 Denmark: SC SOUND APS, Tel (42) 998877 Finland: AV -POINT ICS AB, Tel (0) 5611366 France: SCV AUDIO, Tel (1)
48632211
Great
Britain: AUDIO DESIGN LTD., Tel (0734) 844545 Israel: H.M. ACOUSTfCA LTD, Tel (3) 5590266 Italy: AUDIO EQUIPMENT SRL, Tel (39) 2000312 Japan: SANIX CORPORATION, Tel (3)
7025315 Japan: ONKYO TOKKI (3) 32083061 Korea DAESAN INTERNATIONAL INC., Tel (2) 7368442 Norway: SIV -ING BENUM AS, Tel (22) 145460 South- Africa:
ELTRON LTD.,
Tel (11) 7870355 Sweden: AV MEDIA AB Tel (755) 65498 Switzerland: AUDIO BAUER AG, Tel (1) 4323230 Switzerland: DECIBEL SA .,Tel (21) 9463337 USA RECORDING
MEDIA
& EQUIPMENT INC. (305) 7919797
ELc i,,
,
64
Studio Sound, October 1993
www.americanradiohistory.com
Memo
40dB Reset
Looking for a disk recorder
with
a FUTURE?
1994
TBA
It isn't surprising that the oldest name in digital audio workstations has today's
1993
24 tracks from one disk
24 Simultaneous Record
Equalisation
best solutions for audio-post.
Digital Video Playback
But
it probably will surprise you to learn that if you had bought the first Fairlight
workstation 15 years ago, by now you could have upgraded affordably through
seven product models and 30 software updates all the way to today's MFX2
workstation.
MFX2
s from one disk
Scrolli ig waveforms
Frequercy Domain time
compression
Gated Recording
16 trod.
Fairlight does things differently from other manufacturers. That's because we
design from the perspective of the user, not the
most commonly available technology. For
example, you won't find a 'personal computer'
in MFX2 because professional digital audio has
different needs from word processors and
MFX
Hard Disk editing
8/16 track playback
Audio Freeze frame
16 Zoom scales
Ser es III Rev 8
Dynamic Voice
spreadsheets.
Allocation
8
tra:k disk recorder
Our ground -up design for sound includes a multi-
processor computer configuration,
a
real -time
multi- tasking operating system, scrolling
graphics (so you can see all 24 tracks of
waveforms moving all the time), and a very
fast hard disk interface that allows you to get
all 24 tracks from a single hard disk or 8 tracks
from optical. That's what MFX2 is all about, and
that's why using it is
a
Series Ill Rev 7
Fast disk transfer card
(acting of software
display
32 -bit processor added
Series
Ill Rev
6
Cue List timecode
sequencer
CAPS music sequencer
Integrated mono disk
recorder
very different experience
from all the rest.
CMI Series III
First 16 bit sampler
16 Voices
Most important of all, we designed our own editing console. That's because when
you're spending 2,500 hours behind a workstation next year, it's your staying
power that's important. Forget about staring at a cursor at the end of a mouse all
day. MFX2's console lets you edit with eyes closed if it makes you more
comfortable. Compared to a mouse, you'll find it relaxing, very fast and essential.
Scared Memory
Architecture
CMI Series IIX
HiFi sampling
M DI Implemented
Page R sequencer
Our users were the first to have "sampling" and waveform editing, and have
enjoyed an upgrade path that took them through SMPTE sequencing, and four
Australia
02 212
01 3978 5161
France
30 8 525002
Germany
Hong Kong
Italy
6111
813 7408
-
models of disk recorder, through to the world's fastest audio editor. This year
they'll
be adding 24 tracks of simultaneous recording, EQ and
CMI Series II
First Real Time
Graphics based
Music Sequencer
digital video
playback.
CMI Series
02 598 4271
Japan
03 5450 8531
Korea
02 976 4080
Netherlands
-
035 233 448
United Kingdom
-
MFX2 is the one you need to look at when you've checked out the rest.
You'll be surprised...but you shouldn't be!
071 708 0483
04 416 0290
Spain
-
USA
213 460 4884
I
First Sampling
Digital Workstation
Waveform Editing
CALL FAIRLIGHT EUROPE:
+44 763 849090
SEE US AT AES
NEW YORK ON
STAND No.371
OASAR
3
channel Fourier
synthesis
Light pen interactive
graphics
Doi CPU architecture
that as the level is reduced, we perceive less top.
Conversely, as the level is increased, we will hear
low -frequency responses as compared to
more top. My approach of reduced high and
low- frequency response when compared to many
nearfield monitors, at the same perceived level
when sat at a mixing console, will not necessarily
correspond in tonal balance. In fact, when
comparing any two loudspeaker systems for tonal
balance, it is essential that they should be
referenced at the same sound pressure level at the
listening position, otherwise the Fletcher-Munson
curves dictate that their perceived responses will
be modified. If the curves are curves of equal
loudness, then between 70 -80dB a doubling of
loudness would occur at kHz; each adjacent curve
representing what is required to double or halve
perceived loudness. However, if we look at the
response at 50Hz, the 70dB and 80dB curves are
only about 3dB or 4dB apart, which means that in
that range of low frequencies, only a 3dB or 4dB
increase is necessary to double the loudness. If we
are listening to identical pairs of loudspeakers
under circumstances where one is 10dB louder
than the other, then relatively, the louder pair will
appear to have more top and bottom, and will not
simply appear to have the same tonal balance and
greater volume.
As mentioned before, different people have
different abilities to psychologically compensate for
these differences, but to a greater or lesser degree,
they are there for all of us. All too frequently,
people are still to be found comparing small and
large monitor systems in unreasonable
circumstances. Much of today's recording is in the
hands of people who have learned their trade by
trial and error, as opposed to formal training.
I believe that this is behind much of the frequent
rejection of large studio monitor systems by many
the small
one. As you cannot generate any significant level of
very low frequencies from a small cabinet and
baffle, this must inevitably be the case. At the top
end, as tweeters need to be small for the generation
and efficient radiation of high frequencies, the
small systems are at no disadvantage. Subjectively,
less bass can be interpreted as more top, as the
brain often relates to the top as a percentage of the
overall tonal balance. A loudspeaker which is
slightly deficient in top may be perceived as bright
if it is even more lacking in bass. Earlier, we
discussed three different approaches of three
different designers to the concept of tonal balances
for large systems. If we now consider the systems
with essentially flat pressure responses from
20Hz- 18kHz, then when compared to a
conventional nearfield system (both at 80dB), we
would probably hear almost two additional octaves
of low frequencies on the large ones. As a
secondary effect, this extra power of the low
frequencies may be further interpreted as being
short on top, an idea which may be further
reinforced by the very low distortions exhibited by
such high quality systems at low levels. Very low
distortion can also suggest less top to the untrained
ear, which is a principle used in reverse by aural
exciters, some of which introduce small quantities
of harmonics to give the sensation of more
brightness, without actually turning up the top.
When the above large system is used at high
level, a significant lift is felt at both ends of the
spectrum. At no level is there any true correlation
Quad's ESL -63 began life as a domestic
hi -fi electrostatic design
current recordists.
Let us take the example of a high quality large
monitor system being compared at equal level with
a near -field system, possibly of hi -fi origin. Almost
certainly, the large systems will have an extended
-vow
between the large and small systems, but as that
particular designer insists, `Why should there be ?'
In his view, the large system, especially when
used in an acoustically dead control room, is
relating to the signal which is being sent to the
FOR THE INS
TAN
OFA PROFESSIONAL DAT RECORDER
ïT
OuTPUT
.
UTPUT
I1,'R
iAC IN
OUTPUT
SERIAL
CAUTION
.
nn...oA.nmao-n.0
PARALLEL
®J
..
00
cr-3®
P`T
CAUTION
l
GROUND
,7"-'gi7
'.PC R[CORD[R
SO
60MtJ:l
,
1.1.1147,11
J
1
9:112"1f'.
Look on the back panel of the Otari DTR -7
That's were you'll see that the Otari DTR -7 has been purpose built for professional use, with XLR -type connectors for
its AES /EBU digital /0s. Plus a host of other
professional- standard features:
SPDI: digital interface
Selectable 48/44.1/32 kHz
sampling 'requencies (auto select for digital recording)
Input signal monitoring through its inbuilt A/D and
D/A convertors.
Complete with rack mounting ears.
Start ID, Auto ID Edit and Auto Renumber functions.
Otari doesn't make HiFi DAT machines - so you don't have to
use one! Choose the professional DAT recorder from the company that's
committed to the professional audio business.
I
Stirling A udio Systems,
,
Road, London NW6 7SF
Tel:
071 624 6000
Fax: 071 372 6370
013
UlLiItlC K:nptlom
Germany IFRGI
Austria,
France
Australia
Italy
Singapore
Netherlands
AUDIO ENGINEER DIPLOMA, TONMEISTER (Producer) Course
New Zealand
X
_-
ti
Scotland
Call for FREE
brochure & studio
tour
School
of Audio Engineering
The largest international audio training college
LONDON United House, North Rd., N7 9DP. Tel: (071) 609 2653. Fax: (071) 609 6944
ADELAIDE
61 8
3760991
MELBOURNE
61 3
5344404
AMSTERDAM
31 20
6894189
AUCKLAND
BERLIN
64 9 3734712
49 30 4565137
BRISBANE
61 7
3698108
FRANKFURT
49 69 543262
KUALA
LUMPUR
HAMBURG
(49) 233676
60 3 7567212
MÜNCHEN
PARIS
49 89 675167
(331) 48 119696
PERTH
61 9
3254533
SCOTLAND
SINGAPORE
44 0236 436561
65 3342523
SYDNEY
61 2
2113711
VIENNA
43
1
3304133
recording medium. The system uses full range
monitors of high definition, low distortion and good
transient accuracy. This is to monitor what is
actually happening, and not attempting to double
as a domestic reference (the nearfield system is for
that). When monitoring on a large system, one is
listening to the whole frequency range, and at
levels which can reveal underlying problems which
may not be revealed on smaller systems.
When people rely on small monitors, they tend
to use general low frequency equalisation for its
effect on the 60Hz to 200Hz region which they can
hear -yet often what it is going on at 30Hz or 40Hz
is unacceptable when replayed on a good quality
system -professional or domestic.
Large monitors
are not there just
to sound good; in
many instances
good quality hi -fi
loudspeakers
sound more
pleasing than do
many monitors
Human aspects
of design criteria
In the majority of instances, studio designers are
called in to advise and to recommend to a client
what they consider to be the most suitable solution
to a problem. The second designer referred to,
makes more compromises to human frailty and
market realities. His belief is that people tend to
use high monitoring levels in order to achieve an
exciting punch, possibly to lift the spirits of the
musicians during recording, or possibly from time
to time or to see how the music might sound on a
large loudspeaker system. This designer believes
that higher monitoring levels are unnecessary if
the response of the large system is raised by about
5dB around 100Hz. To my ears, these monitors
sound like large hi -fi systems with the bass turned
up. Compared to nearfield systems at around 80dB,
the bass is heavy
levels over 100dB, the bass is
truly thunderous. At 100dB levels, the top also
-at
L E G E
becomes excessive. But the designer realises this
and takes it into account, making high -level
listening representative of circumstances
elsewhere. Large monitors give a punch at lower
levels, and the designer usually uses a nearfield
system of the same family for a domestic level
reference, often in further conjunction with the
ubiquitous NS10s.
My current thinking is entirely the reverse of
the above, with bass shelving around 4dB down
below 100Hz and continuing down into the
20Hz -30Hz region. The top is also rolled off above
7kHz -8kHz, though again, extending out to 22kHz.
My experience behind a mixing console tells me
that large monitors are used loud
is the nature
of the beast. I am also currently using control
N D S
-it
O F
rooms which are quite acoustically dead from the
monitoring direction. As a result of this, the room
does not add any significant characteristic
coloration to the main monitors, so the more `direct'
sound of nearfield systems is close in character to
the general nonambient sound of the larger
systems. When these large systems are used at the
expected high levels of 100dB plus, the ear's own
nonlinearities help to emphasise the bass and
treble regions in such a way that lows and highs
`missing' from the shelving and roll -off are filled in
as would be expected, giving an overall tonal
balance akin to nearfield systems running at
around 80dB. When the two systems are both
compared at the 80dB level, the shelving at lower
frequencies is partly compensated for by the
extension of the bass to lower frequencies. In other
words, though there is less of it, the extended
frequency range renders an average level of low
frequencies similar to the perceived average from
smaller systems. The advantage here is that, as
long as monitoring is taking place above 70dB, the
full frequency range will still be monitored.
Low -level
limitations
The 0dB Fletcher- Munson curve represents the
threshold of hearing. This threshold at 30Hz is
over 60dB higher than that at 1kHz. Even more
sensitive is the region between 3kHz and 4kHz
fact commonly attributed to evolutionary
survival processes. Hence, if one tries to monitor a
level of 55dB one would not be able to hear below
around 50Hz, though 3kHz could be reduced a
further 60dB and still be audible: such are the
frustrations of having ears. If we could hear
-a
I N N O V A T I O N
The Combo
Neutrik sets standards
CONNECTING THE WORLD
NEUTRIK AG
Liechtenstein
Tel 075 /29666
Fax 075 /25393
68 Studio Sound, October 1993
NEUTRIK USA INC.,
USA
Tel 908/ 901 9488
Fax 908/9019608
NEUTRIK Marketing Ltd.
United Kingdom
Tel +44/71/ 792 8188
Fax +44/71/792 8187
NEUTRIK Zürich AG
Switzerland
Tel 01 /7340400
Fax
01/ 7343891
Allow us
to introduce a console that combines
dramatic good looks with the finest in audio
specification and leading edge DSP technology to
set
a
new standard in audio performance.
It's equipped with highly developed dual
inputs on every module with fader and mute
automation, EQ and dynamics processing.
The extraordinary sonic specification
includes the unique FdB Parametric EqualiserTM
which overcomes the problems of non -linearity
in music and the ear and provides precise
of all frequencies
In
in
control
the audio spectrum.
addition, all monitors have
a
2
band
equaliser and can share the FdB Parametric
Equaliser TM with the channels.
Flexible, yes. PJre in sound - of course.
All inputs, outputs and busses are balanced
to minimise hum and
RFI
interference and all
circuits have extended bandwidth electronics to
ensure ultra -low phase distortion, clarity at high
frequencies and
a
punchy, precise low end.
Signal coherence and audio
integrity
is
ensured.
Reliability
is
designed in, problems designed
out and fidelity second to none.
Allow
Jade
us
to introduce the new Soundtracs
Production Console.
LARKING AUDIO
For more information please coli Larking Audio 0234 772244
SOUNITRàCS
Soundtracs PLC.
91
Ewell Road. Surbiton. Surrey KT6 6AH
What does
our Groove
Tubes
Model One
tube mic
sound like?
"... the Model One has the sort
of balls' that you'd expect from
such a product, with a somewhat
tighter bass and more expensive
top- end ... it is not so much a
copy of the old as a modern
version of the old."
Audio Media March 1992
"Subjectively, the mic produces
a warm. confident sound with
good top -end detail. .the
Groove Tubes MD -1 comes over
rather larger than life... "
Home & Studio Recording February 1992
For a fraction of the price
of an "old" tube mic, you
can hear for yourself what
all the fuss is about.
Groove Tubes
12865 Foothill Blvd.. Sylmar. CA 91342
(818) 361 -4500 FAX: (818) 365 -9884
GERMANY
UK
-
-
Tubebiz 49- 30-788 -1614
GT UK Ltd 44-902- 6201 -56
BENELUX - Music Partners 32- 1430 -3230
AUSTRIA - Atec 43-2234 -8708
FRANCE - C.O.M. 33 -13989 1477
SWISS - Giant 41- 3222.5275
ITALY - Produx SRL 39.2331 -5739
SWEDEN - Soundside 46-8714 -8299
NORWAY - Gulmoen Og Engh 47- 2800 -782
DENMARK - Music Partners 45- 3537 -2990
SPAIN - Paraiso 34- 6588 -9254
FINLAND - MS Audiotron 35- 80566 -6582
70 Studio Sound, October 1993
Yamaha's hi -fi NS10 design has become a worldwide close-field studio reference
10dB at 20Hz, we would probably find our senses
swamped by wind noise, distant motor cars, air
conditioning plant...
Returning to the case of the large monitors with
roll -offs, a high frequency roll -off is an old,
unwritten, industry standard. When monitoring at
high levels, it has long been considered that a lot
of top tends to be tiring and, consequently, to dull
the senses. There are various opinions as to the
reason why, but the upshot is that if having linear
top end induces engineers and producers in to
making mixes which may be short of top, it is
safer to risk a top -heavy mix by dulling the
monitors. A little extra top on a final mix is rarely
as objectionable as a disappointingly dull mix.
Conclusions
These three concepts are remarkable in their
degree of difference, yet the three designers
involved have probably, between them, worked on
the monitoring of around a thousand studios
around the world. Clearly all three have arrived at
different conclusions based on their own
experience. It may seem absurd that there can
exist a 10dB difference in the 100Hz responses
between the two extremes of the three, yet all are
successful in their own right. They all have their
followers, and all appear in studios which produce
recordings of renowned quality. It is a question of
interpretation-the interpretation of what the
large monitors are telling you.
In this article, I have purely discussed one
aspect of loudspeaker performance, axial
frequency response, and this is only one small
aspect of the whole story. Large monitor systems
are not just big hi-fi systems, they are tools which,
in the right hands, can allow an insight into what
is really being recorded, an insight to a much
greater depth than can be achieved by using small
systems alone.
Many who claim to be unable to 'get on with'
large monitor systems are frequently revealing
much, not about the inadequacies of the systems,
but about themselves. Frequently, they do not like
the large systems because those systems tell them
things which either they do not want to hear, or
which they are too inexperienced to interpret.
There are also those who say that they mix on
certain small monitors which they feel are
representative of the majority of the home
systems, but without referring to larger systems,
they are short changing the people who pay big
money to listen to music at home on a
better -than -average system.
Another problem however, is that if designers
do not widely disseminate the details of how they
intend a system to be used, then the movement of
staff from studio to studio can lead to confusion
-particularly where somebody has been
accustomed to one system philosophy and then
moves to another with an entirely different
philosophy. Again, experienced persons adjust to a
system by listening to a good recording which is
well known to them, but reason and logic are not
the main pillars of this industry.
The crux of the issue is that the endless
requests to make all large monitors sound like
NS1Os at all levels and on all music is neither
possible or desirable. If the large system were to
sound like NS1Os but with more bottom, then
there would be no need for NS1Os in a good room.
Merely switching filters into the main monitor
circuits to mimic the response of the NS1Os would,
by definition, render the two systems
indistinguishable.
Large monitors are not there just to sound good;
in many instances it must be accepted that good
quality hi -fi loudspeakers sound more pleasing on a
greater range of music than do many monitors.
But they are designed to sound pleasing on a wide
range of music, where Monitors are designed to be
as revealing as possible of as wide a range of
potential problems as possible. Hence, few
monitors find their way into domestic
environments. Obviously, the price of good
monitors also takes them out of range of the
pockets of most hi -fi enthusiasts, as does their size.
Wide responses, high damage tolerance, and high
quality do not come cheaply. Hi -fi loudspeakers for
the domestic market, and monitor system for
professional use are distinctly different animals.
The two types of reference must be used in sensible
conjunction with each other, as each one has its
strengths and weaknesses.
As can be seen from the preceding discussion,
even the `experts' cannot agree on one `best'
approach. One reason for this is that the problems
involved are so complex in their interrelationship,
and like many complex nonlinear systems, even
minimally different input data will produce
seemingly unrelated results. One cannot, however,
use this as an excuse for dispensing with large
systems. It is not a comfortable problem, but it
must be addressed; three ways of doing this are
described above. I cannot say which is the best;
probably nobody can. People have preferences, but
the broad spread of acceptance suggests that in the
right hands, each system is workable by those with
the skills and experience to use it.
N
C
E
state of the art among stereo microphones today
A
B
M
I
CONTACT
dB audio
Junction Terrace.
16 Princess St.
Kew. Victoria. Austrians. 3101
Lounemae Electronic. O..
Hollanlllalaenlle 7.
00331 Helsinki,
0
1
Imal L Company Ltd.,
-6 Tomihl.echo. Shinluku Tokyo.
Tel
Tel 90 -45 6133
TN.' 103) 8 62 1070
o
.
Studer Revo, Wien
Ga nl b H., Ludwig5L.ee
1180 Wien, Tel (1) 4 7076 09
1:1 Heynen Audio Video
De
Tel
Koehn
6. 3530
011-52 57 57
S A
Heynen B V..
Boo 10, 6590 AA Gennep
Tel. 08851 -96111
P O
75015 Pans
Sly Ing Bonur,
NV
Houmelen.
CDN Elno e Ltd
325. Rue Clement, oueel,
Lasalle. Quebec HEIR 484,
Tel 15 141 364 2118
DK
Areltec
4, rue Flrmin- Gilb1.
Tel 111 45 30 21 23
Audio Consultants Co Lid
/F,8 Luk Hop SI,. San Po Kong.
Kowloon Hong Kong.
T01 3 5136 28
145 Vlnderen. 0319
Tel 22 145 460
n
Unido. de Amar o..
.
21
TDS - Tecniche del Suono
s .rI., Vie dei Cigno. 9.
20151 Milano, Tel 33 40 03 SO
PSS G0,11.1vey
4
2400 KObennevn NV
tel 01 -35 82 15 82
m
KNmor ltd
,
16
H.arba'a
Street. Tel Aviv. Tal 03- 5610152 -4
Gresole1, 14,
06034 Barcelona.
Tel
Dr. Ing.
Schoeps GmbH
131 2
03 40 04
Tel 1561 32 18
AG
50
D
ele Ilud(RMS ab
Drottning K0.111e4 vag
76142 Norrlelle.
Tel
10)
1
70 B
75-1 46 50
(Sanibel S A.
Route de Cherdonne. -604 Puidow,,
Tel 10211 9 46 33 37
Scenic Sounds Equipment
Marketing Ltd .10 William Rd
London NWI 3EN,
Tel
071.3 8112 52
In121
Poethorn Recordings.
28th Street Din Floor.
New York City. N v 10001
Tel (212) 242 -3737
142 West
0.B. 4109 70 Fax: (07 21) 49 57 50
7500 Karlsruhe Tel.. (07 21) 94320.0
P
Schalltechnik
A /S, Boke
Oslo.
G.E.R Lda Ai. Estado.
51 -5., Dto
1700 Lisboa, Tel IN1) 60 46 77
Lemon,
PR CHINA J8C inlenomc
Aareuer.lr 69. 5200 Brugg.
Switzerland,
(03) 357 -0401
Hear To sorrow
todaY
M5000
Digital Audio Mainframe
Reverb and much, much more! Leading edge technology (at a cost half what you might
expect), engineered to deliver legendary TC Electronic quality, the M5000 is a
software -based digital signal processor capable of interfacing with your world the way
you want it to: AES /EBU, SPDIF, optical I/0; analog I/0; real time MIDI; SMPTE; serial
remote; standard RAM card slot; optional 3.5" floppy drive, SCSI interface, and LAN port;
slots for up to four totally independent true stereo DSP cards -all in a 2U 19" rack unit.
Algorithms include reverb as only TC Electronic could do it, pitch /harmony effects, and
unmatchable chorus /flange /delay effects. Other algorithms are already under development by
TC Electronic and third party programmers. Since the M5000 is software based, updating or
adding new algorithms is as simple as loading in a RAM card or floppy disk.
Thanks to its open architecture, software-based design, and over -the -top specification, the
M5000 will never be obsolete. A dream machine today, the M5000 has many futures -this
is just the beginning!
OF DENMARK
t.c. electronic
Technology for today and tomorrow.
International Head Office DENMARK: Phone:( +45) 86 26 28 00 Fax:( +45) 86 26 29 28
AUSTRALIA: (03) 428 9797 AUSTRIA: (222) 601 17 BELGIUM: (0)11 281458 CANADA: (514) 738 3000 CHILE: (2) 231 2356
ENGLAND: 0691 658 550 FINLAND: (9) 0-592 055 FRANCE: (1 ] 48 47 45 26 GERMANY: 052 313 2972
GREECE: 8837 629 HOLLAND: 30 414500 HONG KONG: 3 620202 ISRAEL: (0) 3 5441113 ITALY: (0) 2 -5084 278
JAPAN: (0) 3 332 3211 KOREA: (02) 741 -0831 NORWAY: (2) 710710 PORTUGAL: (1 ) 4754348 SINGAPORE: 748 9333
SPAIN: (93) 796 31 00 SWEDEN: ( +45) 86 26 28 00 SWITZERLAND: 093/872656
TAIWAN: 2 7192388 U.S.A.: (805) 373 -1828 Fax: [805] 379 -2648
-0
m
C/3
m
m
Mention digital audio data reduction around audio
practitioners today and you elicit opinions ranging
from approval to absolute disgust. One audio guru
went so far as to suggest reduction was like `putting
your music and anything else you hold near and dear
into a food blender and hoping for the best!' A studio
chief engineer felt that reduction is the audio
equivalent of buying filet mignon and putting it
through a grinder, adding bread crumbs and an egg,
baking for about an hour in an hot oven and serving it
to your guests. It is not filet mignon anymore
is meatloaf. More positive comments range from
restrained approval to wild enthusiasm.
But the `great truth' about reduction at this point
in time is that it must exist if we are to record,
playback or transmit audio in the digital domain and
fit it into storage formats or into transmission
`pipelines' that are size limited.
Let us face the facts: digital audio is an
extraordinarily needy format to be stored or sent as
computer bits and bytes. It takes about 10Mb of
storage space to record one minute of 2 -track digital
audio information (assuming a 16 -bit sampling rate
and uncompressed information).
To get some measure of what storage capacity is all
about, consider this: the average personal computer
performs all of its tasks and stores all of the data
pertinent to its use and all of the hundreds of files
created by its user on an 80Mb hard disk. Some users
do not fill an 80Mb disk in two years of business
usage. Yet a hard disk of this capacity would only
store eight minutes of unreduced 2- channel digital
audio. That means any storage format with less than
the (approximately) 66Mb capacity of the compact
disc cannot store one hour of playback of 2- channel
digital audio. Enter reductive coding to extend the
capacity of the consumer audio formats -DCC (digital
compact cassette) and the 130Mb capacity MiniDisc
-to the required one hour capacity.
However, the need for reduction has entered the
lexicon of the professional project and mainstream
studio as well. Reduction systems are being used for
hard disk storage, digital audio editing, original
recording, broadcast `cart' playback, transmission
between broadcast studios and transmitters, between
recording studios for postproduction and for remote
studio artist insertion on album projects.
Not all reduction is the same, however. When a
computer uses compression software to `double' hard
disk capacity, it `squeezes' the redundant information
present in data storage formats. On retrieval and
playback, the data is restored. Unless there is a
systems crash with associated difficulty in restoring
the complete file structure, the recorded information
will more or less retain its complete integrity.
Many of the digital recording formats presently
being proposed for audio use rely on data reduction
via psychoacoustic coding algorithms. These digital
filtering schemes remove those portions of the audio
signal that are theoretically inaudible to the listener.
In recent tests, any number of listening panels and
professional users have tentatively found many of the
coding schemes used by themselves with a single pass
to vary from `acceptable' to `very good'. However, the
use of several different kinds of coding systems in a
`cascade', as might happen in broadcast production
and transmission chains, or during recording studio
project work, has caused a great deal of alarm among
-it
analogue signal processing before using a reduced
digital recording scheme; the use of equalisation and
Polon
analogue signal processing after using a compressed
digital recording scheme; the impact of digital delay
and signal phase shifting in a signal chain utilising
coding schemes; DA conversion and the obverse
analogue to digital process; especially when the
conversions occur repeatedly in the signal chain
utilising compressive coding for transmission;
D A conversion and the obverse AD process
(especially when the conversions occur repeatedly in
and around the signal compressed digital audio
recorder); audio delivered for project insertion or
other studio usage via satellite, T1 telephone
company data carrier, or other transmission carriers
where compression coding schemes are used to
provide extended bandwidth; the use in completed
audio professionals.
mixes of various psychoacoustic perceptive
Among the red flags raised in testing recorded
enhancements that add warmth or 3-D imaging (and
audio processed with several reduction systems, or in
so on) when psychoacoustic coding is also employed.
beta testing of new schemes and equipment in
Now, none of this is to say that the use of reduction
complex audio environments, the following have
itself or in any of the above combinations will
fragile,
almost
brittle
caused the most concern:
necessarily produce unacceptable results. There have
transient distortion and `spreading' or `smearing' of
been some very convincing demonstrations and
high-frequency information; loss of integrity of the
applications of the technology- especially in
stereo image, including `swishing' left to right or right
transmission and with allied technologies such as
to left; intermodulation distortion on certain material
film. But there do seem to be two flies in the
and low frequency `flutter' on some sustained
proverbial ointment. Firstly, there has been a very
passages (this is clearly frequency dependent);
large body of published and anecdotal reports of
increased perceived distortion at low playback levels
problems similar to the guidelines suggested above
and -or through small speakers with questionable
when there is more than one coding pass, multiple
linearity; the presence of `beats', `clicks' and `chirps' in
coding schemes or interaction with other signal
the recorded programme material; and the insertion
processing. Secondly, most if not all of the satisfied
of an `invisible curtain' between the listener and the
users of reduced audio are professionals who have
music, reducing the perceived impact of digital
characteristically monitored the coded sound with
program dynamics.
professional monitors of large dimension driven by
In all cases noted above by many separate testers
appropriately large amplifiers.
and with a variable infinity of equipment options and
It is very important to recognise that the
hook -ups, the recognition of impairment is aural.
nonlinearity of lesser speakers seems to accentuate
The human ear remains one of the most useful tools
the possible degradations of cascaded coding errors,
to explore the impact of reduction systems since the
could shift the perceived effect of the spectral
nonlinear characteristics of psychoacoustic coding
masking and accentuate the effects of interactions
algorithms renders conventional linear audio test
with other audio signal processing equipment in the
equipment less than useful, at this stage of
studio chain. The public listen to recorded audio via
state-of- the-art test equipment development.
a range of small and frequently inexpensive listening
To model the number of potentially
devices over 75% of the time. Even when a music
signal-degrading variables in everyday audio usage of
consumer actually owns and uses a high quality home
reduction systems, requires testing various
music system in the living room, most of his or her
combinations of coding schemes and other non -coding
listening time will still be spent in a car or bedroom
equipment reaching nearly to the infinite.
with small speakers and power limited amplifiers.
Some possible areas of concern would be any
The problems with compressed sound could therefore
interaction or any combination of the following: single
be de facto magnified for the majority of the music
or repeated passes through the same compression
consuming public.
coding system; sequential passes through several
What has to be done by the audio industry at this
different coding systems; the use of equalisation and
time is to develop a reliable and scientific inquiry into
all of the variables of interaction for the various
formats. It is vital that we identify any kind of
`invisible' interactions that could render many of the
standards of the pro-audio industry defunct. It may
be that the audio business needs a coding standard
that will ensure compatibility between all equipment
which does not exhibit any noticeable degradation or
artifact creation in the audio signal. Or it may be that
if we fully identify the current problems with the
various coding and reduction schemes, we may be
able to create a clear agenda for their use But to
allow the incompatibilities to mount, is to court
disaster.
Martin
Data reduction: the
gateway to practical
digital audio
(and video) or the
undermining of
pro -audio standards?
Problems with
compressed sound
could be magnified
for the majority
of the music
consuming public
.
73
C)
m
()Get to the
heart of the
matter in:
Belgium
ELECTRONIC
Conceptual error?
Dear sir, I am disappointed in Studio Sound for the
publication of the `Microphone Preamplification'
article (Studio Sound, April 1993) by FM Acoustics'
Manuel Huber.
Although this `article' never mentions the mic
preamp that FM Acoustics manufactures, it is
obviously a promotional piece for it. The article
should have been treated as an advertisement and
labelled as such. I suppose you paid him for this
3 -page ad!
A curious side issue is this: considering the fact
that my company has manufactured a mic preamp
since 1987 called the M -1, it is an interesting
coincidence that the new FM Acoustics mic preamp
is called the ClassAmp M-1.
Mr Huber lists many alleged shortcomings of
transformers, then concludes that `Transformers
must therefore be avoided in a precision
microphone-transducer preamplifier.' Apparently
he is not familiar with Jensen Transformers;
particularly their best mic -input and line- output
models, the JT -16-B and JT -11 -BM respectively.
The Hardy M-1 mic preamp uses the JT -16-B and
JT -11 -BM transformers, and has established itself
as one of the finest preamps available. Some of the
alleged `major disadvantages' that Mr Huber
describes are insignificant, as follows:
`Limited dynamic range': since the noise floor of
the M-1 mic preamp is -129dBu (OdBu= 0.557V,
20 -20kHz bandwidth, unweighed,1500 source
termination), and the maximum output level is
+25dBu, the total dynamic range is 154dB.
The JT -16-B input transformer can handle input
levels as high as +8dBu at 20Hz and +12dBu at
30Hz and above.
`Phase errors at low and high frequencies': the
JT -16 -B has <1° of deviation from linear phase at
20kHz. The JT -11 -BM has <0.5° of deviation at
20kHz. They each have <2° of deviation from linear
phase at 20kHz.
`Frequency limitations at low frequencies':
referenced to 1kHz, the frequency response of the
JT -16-B
is -0.08dB at 20Hz.
`Limited common mode rejection': the JT-16 -B
has a CMRR of >140dB at 50/60Hz and >80dB at
10kHz. Transformers can typically handle several
hundred volts of common mode voltage, limited
only by the breakdown voltage of the windings.
Transformerless inputs, however, generally cannot
handle common mode voltages beyond the power
supply voltage of the circuitry, typically ±15 to
±24V DC. `All transformers are designed to work
optimally only when loaded with a specific load
resistance': the JT-16 -B input transformer does
require a specific load, but the load is provided by a
termination network that is carefully selected and
built into the mic preamp. The JT -11 -BM output
transformer can easily handle any load of >600e.
Mr Huber claims that `...shocking errors in
frequency response and rise time as well as
overshoot and ringing can occur'. He provides
graphs to substantiate his claims, stating that they
present a `...typical high quality audio
transformer...', yet he fails to specify the exact
model of transformer and does not provide any
74 Studio Sound, October1993
circuit details regarding the drive circuitry that
immediately precedes the transformer. Without
this information, his claims are meaningless.
Figure 2 in particular is quite suspicious.
Notice that the second square wave has about
150mV of negative offset compared to the first
square wave. The ringing at the leading edges is
different too. Even a terrible transformer would be
expected to behave the same on successive waves of
a repetitive waveform, so something is goofy with
Figure 2! I won't even speculate as to why the
notes on the graph say that the input frequency is
998.3Hz and the output frequency is 890.3Hz.
I hope that Studio Sound will avoid such
unmitigated crap in the future.
John W Hardy, President of The John Hardy
Tel:
SOUND DESIGN, Buzet
/ Fax: +322 514 4101
Contact: Raphael Bollen
Canada
SASCOM MARKETING GROUP, Quebec
Tel: +1
/
514 433 1677 Fax: +1 514 433 6865
Contact: Mark Vincent
France
COACH AUDIO SALES, Vigy
Tel: +33 8777 0000 Fax: +33 8777 0121
Contact: Alain Vanzella
/
Germany
CHARLEYS MUSIKLADEN, Ottobrunn
Tel:
+49 89 609 4947
Company, Evanson, Illinois, USA.
Manuel Huber's article `Conceptual Errors in
Microphone Preamplification' prompted critical
comment from various parties. The above letter is
an example; it has been edited for publication as
has Manuel Huber's reply.
+
+322 511 6728
/ Fax: +49 89 609 0459
Contact: Thomas Riedmeier
Holland
MENDEL SONGS, Waalwijk
Tel: +31 4160 39196 Fax: +31 4160 50687
Contact: Inge Jagt
/
Hong Kong
Manuel Huber replies
Dear sir, thank you for giving me the opportunity
to reply to the above letter(s).
It seems that these gentlemen did not read the
title of the article which reads `Conceptual Errors
in Mic Preamplification.' Intended to shed a little
light on some of the limitations of current concepts
and technology, the idea was to provoke some
thoughts on how things could be done if enough
attention was paid to relevant facts. The article is
based on years of R &D, stimulated by comments
from renowned engineers on the limitations of
current preamplifiers in recording situations.
In the interests of limiting `free PR', both Tim
Goodyer and myself took care that FM Acoustics
was not mentioned in the article and that names of
any actual products were avoided.
The background: last winter FM Acoustics asked
some of the world's leading engineers, producers
and musicians to try beta samples of
microphone- transducer preamplifier named
ClassAmp M-1. As this was not available at the
time the article appeared, Mr Hardy should
theoretically not have known about it. Could it be
that Mr Hardy felt in some way threatened by
rumours about the performance of the
ClassAmp M-1?
As was made clear in my article, there are some
applications where transformers are unavoidable
(for example wherever galvanic isolation is
required, for instance, in PA systems, mic splitters,
etc.), so there will still be demand for transformers
and transformer -based preamplifiers for years to
come. However, in situations that require the most
accurate signal preamplification-as in a recording
situation -transformers are not a requirement.
The fact that, in the last 10 years, so many
manufacturers of high quality equipment have
moved away from transformers confirms this.
If Mr Hardy really believes that the `disadvantages
of transformers are insignificant', it may be time
for him to start considering the actual reports
DIGITAL MEDIA TECHNOLOGY, Kowloon
Tel: +852 7210 343
/ Fax: +852 3666 883
Contact: Clement Choi
Italy
Varese
CONCRETE SrL,
Tel:
+39 332 222131
/ Fax: +39 332 821112
Contact: Lucio Visintini
Japan
EDGETECH (JAPAN) LTD, Tokyo
/
Tel: +81 3
52800251 Fax: +81 3 52800254
Contact: Yasuhiro Matsuoka
Korea
YOUNG NAK SO RI SA, Seoul
Tel: +822 267 8697 Fax: +822 274 2611
/
Contact: K.C. Ahn
Norway
SIGMA MUSIC,
Tel:
+47
5
951975
Bergen
/ Fax: +47 5 952230
Contact: Erling Lund
Switzerland
Q.S.E., Basel
Tel: +41 61 261
1343
/ Fax:
+41 61 261 1343
Contact: Tom Strabel
United Kingdom
QUESTED MONITORING SYSTEMS LTD
Units 4-6 Star Road, Partridge Green
Tel:
West Sussex, RH13 8RY
+44 403 711447 Fax: +44 403 710155
/
Contact: Lisa Metherell
U.S.A.
AUDIO INDEPENDANCE, Wisconsin
Tel: +1 608 767 3333 Fax: +1 608 767 3360
/
Contact: Dan Abelson
THE HEART OF THE MATTER...
When developing the Quested range of monitors we realised that
the sound quality reproduced, could only be as good as that of the
compoient parts. (Take a look on Stand 572, AES New York, or
contact any of our International Distributors.)
Quested Monitors...you can hear the difference.
QUESTED
LESIS
are the specifications mentioned by
Messrs Whitlock & Hardy really
meaningful. They are (intentionally ?)
avoiding the conditions under which
7_ __
these data are obtained: for example a
PIMP
distortion of 0.036% at 20kHz may be a
W11.1
yRCO
.
fine figure for a transformer, but at
which levels and with what load was it
.
,
.
,
,
,
,
1741103
obtained? It is not unknown that in
FAO
Era
Law,
1113
transformers, higher levels give higher
distortion.
The `suspicious Fig.2' can be
Identity crisis: does the ADAT warrant professional support? See Professional problem'
explained-perhaps by Mr Hardy's
unfamiliarity with the Neutrik Al. As
from professional users.
preamplifier no matter where it is situated' shows
can be seen, the Neutrik displays the `Input'
If transformers are used to create certain
that he did not really understand the advantages of frequency (the input to the analyser) and the
coloration, this is acceptable from an artistic
having the preamplifier as close to the microphone `Output' frequency (the output of the analyser's
standpoint. One can sympathise with producers
as possible. If the mic preamplifier is located in, or
internal generator). Because of limited speed of the
who use transformers to create `warmth' or `body'
close to, the mixing desk there are no long lines to
Neutrik's generator, an external square wave
that sometimes -for various reasons -is lacking in be driven (as the recorder is usually only a few
generator was used. The `Output' frequency on the
certain recordings. However, it is the mixdown
metres away). In such a situation, it is the
Neutrik's display indicates the internal generator's
stage and not at the first amplification stage where microphone that has to drive the long lines, not the frequency which, in this case, is of no importance
such colorations should be added. I am not alone in preamplifier. This is exactly the situation that one
as it was not used.
holding the opinion that the entire signal path to
should try to avoid.
The slight `droop' of the square wave is a
the recorder should be as neutral as possible.
Trying to play down the advantages of having
characteristic of the Neutrik's display. Looking at
Mr Whitlock's [President, Jensen
the mic preamplifier near the microphone by
the same square wave on a scope, there is no droop
Transformers -letter not reprinted] statement that simply mentioning some arbitrary dB attenuation
or offset.
`all the other benefits such as shielding, long line
levels is simplistic, especially for someone who
Mr Hardy can rest assured that we investigate
driving can be achieved by any well -designed
claims to `make the best that money can buy.' Nor
the limitations of measuring instruments and
q
..
- - T
--
SNIN0337e
01731111
>
R
OWTER
OWTE
sTRANSFORMERS
Eaa,
`a
We have designed and manufactured more than half a million transformers
during the last 50 years and have several thousand original designs.
We can supply single prototypes or quantities at very reasonable prices, with
quick despatch, quoting without delay against detailed specifications.
Sowter Transformers are in constant demand the world over, for such uses
as Microphone - matching and splitting, Line - distribution (up to 10
secondaries), bridging, input and output, to Recording, Broadcast or P.A.
Quality. Also Loudspeaker transformers and output, mains and chokes for
Valve Amplifiers, to name but a few.
We will send details of our range on request and quote for any requirement.
A. SOWTER LTD
PO BOX 36, IPSWICH 1131 2EL
E.
Tel:
76
Studio Sound, October 1993
0473 252794
Fax:
0473 236188
NO AUDIO TAPE HAS EVER
RATED SUCH INCREDIBLE
RESPONSE
"After using 996 for over 12 months, I remain ven'
impressed with its consistency and performance.
996's low noise floor makes it ideal for most
applications, even without noise reduction, and its
high level capability copes with almost anything
we throw at it without any saturation".
- Callum Malcolm, engineer and producer.
Castle Sound Studios.
"The performance is excellent. You can push it
very high indeed, i'et it still retains the clarity
neededfor CD's, combining the best of analogue
warmth with a good crisp quality - real
competition for digital".
- Craig Leon, producer.
"I've been using 3M 996 tape at 30ips without
noise reduction. and it sounds terrific. It's
analogue like analogue ought to be - with digital,
all you can do is get the level right but 996 gives
you far more control over getting the sound right.
Its the only tape I use now".
- Chris Kimsey, producer.
"3M 996 knocks the spots qffprevious- generation
analogue. Recording multi -track at 30ips, with
noise reduction, 996 lets me achieve the kind of
warmth that's ven' hard to get with digital. And the
results are as super -quiet as digital, you,just don't
know it's there - what you put on you get back".
- Hugh Padgham, producer.
Clarity, punch, excitement. 3M 996 Audio Mastering
Tape elicits a dynamic response from producers and
engineers. It provides the analogue performance they've
always wanted - the ability to record as hot as +9dB,
with a maximum output of +l4dB. A very low noise
floor , achieved by a signal -to -noise ratio of 79.5dB and
class -leading print- through of 56.5dB. 3M 996 captures
every subtlety, delivering every note just as it went
down. The highest level
of response.
3M united Kingdom PLC.
Professional Audio Videro group. 3M Houk.
Bracknell. Berkshire R(il_2 I1t' Tel 111344155X614 Fax: (0344) )4554')3
3M AUTHORISED AUDIO DEALERS:
ProTape
33 Windmill Street
London W I P H H
Tel: 1)71 323 0277
Transco Mastering Sen ices
Stanley Productions
P. F.
Wardour Street
London W I V 3TB
Tel: 071 439 0311
Simpson Court
11 South Avenue
Clydebank Business Park
Clydebank
Dumbarton G81 2NR
Tel: 041 952 8626
1
147
PMD. Magnetics
P.O. Box 19
Avenue Farm
Stratford -Upon -Avon
Warwickshire CV37 0Q1
Tel: 0789 268579
Sound & Video Services (UK) t.td.
Sharston Industrial Estate
Shentonfield Road.
Manchester M22 4RW
Tel: 1161 491 66611
Soho Square
London W'IV 5DI)
7
Tel:1171 287 3563
Magnetics
14
Orchid Fideo
The Latch House
7 Somerville Road
Andrews
Bristol BS7 9AD
Tel: 0272 245687
St
nil
PROF'ESSI(141i.
4.
t
ST2200
PßER AMPLIFIER
:
TLA Classic Nere EQ
2
used
dasiic'.evc EQ modules
mounted ira new 1L1 rasing.
XLR balarn_ec midi -e nputs XLR
balanced outpLG. Phar tom
power, swir.: -lao 'e 240/110 Volts.
From £1295 -. VAT
TLA 4:2 Pro Portable Mixer
Portable mixer fo- f Im, video and
engineerirg pro'es: ion31S.
mic/ ine Mou-s. switched
mic gain anc ph3nbm ower.
L & R XLR outputs vi-h limiters.
4 XLR
£1295 + VAT
xcellent audio specification and
a
clear
understanding of what professionals want
and need from their equipment
all
TLA ST2200. 2410 & 2600
is
what TLA
is
about.
Take for example our new Portable 4:2 Mixer.
Power Amps
Designed to meet the rigors of on- location
MOSFET amps with apticnal plug in signal processing. VGA, Active
mixing it simply blows the competition away with
Crossover, Lmiters a ^d Remote
control. ST11 CO, 1L1 75w stereo
amplifier also availale.
From £495 + VAT
a
superb 'mix' of functions and features.
There are 4 mic/line balanced
XLR
inputs with
switchable mic gain, dual voltage phantom
powering, high pass filters, phase changes on
2
channels and input switching to give 2 stereo
pairs.
And the outputs and metering options are no
TEA Mini Amp £299 + VAT
Compact, robust hig-i quality
less impressive.
power ampli er
(Maxi Amp 2
x
2 x 100 watts.
2C0 s-atts £599)
The Portable 4:2 is just one
product
in a
comprehensive and expanding range of quality
audio products.
SEE US AT
AES NEW
YORK ON
STAND
No.560
TLA Studio Furniture
A range of stylish, quality furniture
for all studio envirorrnents.
Power Amplifiers, Classic Neve EQ,
Portable Microphone Stereo Pre-amps
and exquisitely crafted studio furniture
complete the picture. - For now.
For more information and a brochure on the
range call 0462 480009.
Distributed Worldwide by: Tony Larking Professional Sales. Letchworth. England. SG6 1 W. Telephone: +44 (0)462 480009.
Fax:
+44 (0)462 480035. Distributor enquiries welcome.
LETTERS
acouscs
have the know-how to optimise the combination of
instruments to take the most meaningful
measurements.
Disregarding the motivation behind these
letters, what is disconcerting is that manufacturers
who seem to think of themselves as `leaders'
maintain such a narrow-minded attitude,
apparently succumbing to the `you hear what you
measure' syndrome. It is the listening experience
that matters. This business is about audio.
Manuel Huber, FM Acoustics, Switzerland
Professional problem
Dear sir, I was recently involved in what was
probably the biggest live recording ever to have
taken place in Portugal. The recording of six bands
at the Alvalade Stadium were made on 40 -track
digital for TV, video and possible live albums;
specialists were brought in from many countries
-in total around 100 people. The tape machines
used were five slaved ADATs plus one ADAT for
backup and stereo feeds.
My first encounter with ADATs and a BRC was
another TV recording-the whole system was a
great surprise in terms of performance. (My son is
presently working with a Sony 2234A and neither
of us feel the ADATs' signal is inferior.)
Consequently, I had no hesitation in agreeing to
use the ADATs for the Alvalade recordings.
The company making the recordings owned three
machines and another three were hired in.
The whole thing was an exciting proposition.
It is possible to record directly to unformatted
tapes but I had previously found that they can
require up to a dozen attempts to get the things
started. Also, during formatting, a tape would
occasionally stop for no apparent reason.
I therefore considered it safer to preformat my
tapes; I calculated that about 130 cassettes would
be required, which would take a daunting 30 hours
to format. In reality, I spent a couple of days at my
hotel lying in the sunshine and changing cassettes
every 45 minutes. Two such 16 -hour days were
quite a pleasant experience-after I had all the
machines functioning.
I set the equipment up in my hotel room and
found one of the machines refused to format;
at first it showed `Error 2' and sometimes `Error 5'
then it indicated that the write protect tab had
been removed from the tapes. The same tapes
formatted perfectly in another machine. Further
investigation showed that the rogue machine
refused to record even on formatted tape. It was
9pm, and there would have been nobody in the
Portuguese importer's offices but it was lunchtime
in California, so I called Alesis direct.
I explained my problem and was first told to
contact my local dealer. I explained the situation
and was asked to hold; three or four minutes later
I was informed that it was not company policy to
divulge the meaning of error messages to users.
I explained the scale of the show and the necessity
of getting the machine running as quickly as
possible. After another period on hold, I was
apologetically told that company policy specifically
denied me access to the information. I blew my top
and went on to suggest that there was nothing
further to say except that they would read about
this, along with people in over 100 other countries,
in Studio Sound.
`Don't hang up...don't hang up...' was the reply.
Exactly what followed I can't say except that I was
`pointed in the right direction' and within an hour,
had all three machines formatting splendidly.
Alesis' butt was saved by the ability of one person
to see reason.
I do have a certain amount of sympathy with
Alesis' dilemma; they have created a machine with
a truly professional performance at a price which
makes it accessible to amateurs and
semiprofessionals. Certainly, many ADATs will
find their way into the hands of nontechnical,
though professional, musicians. Yet for a system to
be professional, it needs more than the word
`professional' printed on the tape loading door.
A professional recording system needs professional
backup and service, without it, confidence in the
system will not be maintained for long by pro
users.
As a professional, and especially when involved
in the recording of large and costly events, I must
have support when it is needed. In the past I have
used professional setups like The Manor Mobile,
fitted with professional equipment with
professional support. Without doubt, the signal
path through the ADATs is equal to that of the
most professional setups, but dare I use
equipment which is priced so low as to be
accessible to the domestic user if I am going to be
treated as a domestic user when I need pro
support? I know I would receive 100% backup from
Sony, but then Sony don't have have to deal with
too many unknowledgable 3324A users.
As a further result of my discussions with
Alesis, I was told that the `301' software installed
in some ADATs I was using should not be used
with the BRC. I was also told to always use the
machine with the oldest version software as the
master in any synchronised group. The studio that
supplied the first three ADATs and the BRC I was
using had no knowledge of this.Thanks to one
helpful person I am now also aware of a potential
problem which could seriously jeopardise an
expensive live recording. Simply snipping a wire
and insulating it will disable a troublesome piece of
`idiot -proofing' which is totally unnecessary for the
pro user (though it may save the bacon of a moron).
This has been a salutary lesson for me; it has
caused me to consider many thing, and to that one
helpful person associated with Alesis I send my
respect and thanks and I suggest the management
at Alesis do the same as, without such people, I am
not sure the word `professional' should grace your
machine. Since this incident, it has come to light
that Alesis are not alone in their predicament
-there is a general problem with equipment with
`pro' performance also aimed at the domestic
market and for which pro backup is not available.
`Please return to your local dealer' is not a
professional answer to a problem.
Philip Newell, Lisbon, Portugal.
A High Quality
Microphone That
Keeps A Low Profile
The C747 comb
is
as slim
as a pencil so you can use it
wherever you need a low
profile highly sensitive
microphone.
In
lecture
halls, TV studios, concert
halls, places of worship
and theatres, the high
separation, accurate
reproduction and
neutral sound of
this professional
condenser
microphone and
of course its low
visibility, will be
appreciated.
AKG Acoustics Ltd.
Vienna Court, Lammas Road
Godolming
g
GU7 l,G Surrey
Te No. 0483 425702
Fax No. 0483 428967
79
IN JUST THIRTY MINUTES,
THIS POST -AUDIO EDITOR
By lunch
time she had recorded
forty -one spot effects,
playlists. From there, she set
LEARNED HOW TO USE
up three music loops
DIGICART /11
five background effects, and
and nine effects loops. When
FROM SQUARE ONE.
twelve music beds. She also
she was done, she handed
made twenty -two cuts, eighteen fades, and built ten
the entire job to the client -on
a
single disk.
Pretty good first session.
18740
OXNARD STREET,
PROFESSIONAL DIGITAL AUDIO
PHONE 818 342 3127
TARZANA, CALIFORNIA
FAX
818 342 4372
INTERNATIONAL DISTRIBUTION
AUSTRALIA: EAV TECHNOLOGY PTY LTC (03) 417 -1835 BRASIL INTERWAVE LTDA (021) 325 -9221 DENMARK: PSS PROFESSIONAL SOUND SYSTEMS
35- 82 -15 -82 FINLAND: STUDIOTEC (9) 0 -592 -055 FRANCE: SCV AUDIO 1-48- 63 -22 -11 GERMANY: THUM + MAHR AUDIO 02173 -780 -60 HONG KONG: JOLLY SOUND LIMITED 362 -0202
ITALY: AUDIO EQUIPMENT srl (039) 200 -0312 JAPAN: MTC JAPAN LTD 03 -5280 -0251 KOREA: SHIN KWANG AUTOMATION SYSTEM INC (02) 555 -1575 MEXICO: EMPRESAS 1L S.A..de C.V.
5 -525 -6384 JE /DIR THE NETHERLANDS: IEMKE ROOS AUDIO 8V (0) 20- 697 -2121 NEW ZEALAND: MASER BROADCAST SYSTEMS LIMITED (04) 385 -9895 NORWAY: IN -SYNC CREATIVE
SOFTWARE AS (22) 64 -14 -30 POLAND: KTI CRACOW & PARIS (33 -1) 47- 71-62 -91 PORTUGAL: VC/SGT- VALENTIM DE CARVALHO CI SA (01) 442 -8862 SINGAPORE: CROW BROADCAST
EQUIPMENT (PTE) LTD 259 -9216 SPAIN: SGT SA 1- 383 -21 -60 SRI LANKA: SOUND & VISION LTD -582 -062 SWEDEN: RMS /RADIO & MUSIKSYSTEM AB (0) 176 -146 -50 TAIWAN R.O.C.:
LINFAIR ENGINEERING & TRADING LTD 2- 321 -4454 TURKEY: SF LTD 1- 259 -5966 UNITED KINGDOM & IRELAND: PRECO BROADCAST SYSTEMS LTD (081) 644 -4447
1
LETTERS
In the post
Dear sir, having worked as a production mixer on a
freelance basis for half of my 30 -year sound career,
I am well acquainted with the observations in your
May `Production Sound' article.
Improvements in the technology of typical
location equipment has been slow until recent
times but ultimately the results committed to tape
rely on the skill of the location mixer, and the
constraints that exist any location.
The quality of release and display formats have
improved so much, Dolby SR, Hi -fi VHS and Beta,
Videodisc and NICAM, exhibit our results with
greater fidelity, but these developments rarely
encourage producers to translate this into direct
help for the location sound department.
Having spent weeks recording dialogue, for a TV
miniseries, on locations where the noise level of
waves on a nearby coral reef was around 90dBA,
I am convinced that either a `deaf ear' was turned
to the problem, or that it was presumed, without
reference to me, that I could handle it.
An obvious reality is that the hungry television
systems of the world need more and more
programmes and now with tighter budgets the
department to squeeze is the sound department,
it's simple, tell them that good results are needed
and leave them to it!
Any two -person department is hard pressed
when dealing with the tasks of: applying radio
mics, boom operating, paging radio mic receivers,
sound mixing, operating a recorder, as well as
operating a playback machine and loudspeaker or a
second boom. Yet for complex setups involving
extra cameras, sufficient camera crew are available
or flown in for the occasion.
Yes, the suggestion of an overall sound `minder'
is a good one particularly as the awareness of a
director, regarding sound, is often eclipsed by the
many other decisions and pressures that he or she
faces during shooting.
Even the introduction of new technology poses a
hurdle. Having imported a Fostex PD-2 recorder
earlier this year, I am now faced with attitudes of
`we can't afford that', rather than positive
responses that applaud the better sound quality
and the time code advantages that relate well to
AVID editing systems and modern postproduction
techniques in general.
I have worked on three totally postsynchronised
feature films and although a result of controlled
quality can be produced with actors performances
modified if needed, the depth of detail and feeling
of a location sound track is difficult to totally
recreate, even when time and budget is available.
In three weeks time I start work on a North
America series to be shot on the South Island of
New Zealand. The show shoots for five months
long time to be away from home! I asked, `How
much time have I for preproduction ?'.
The answer was short and delivered with an air
of munificence, `One day, and that includes your
travel down here!'
In this business you soon realise that good sound
is not noticed, but bad sound is, and that the most
creative part of location sound recording, is writing
-a
out your invoice.
Fond wishes to all at Studio Sound and thanks
for a balanced, informative, sensible, turned on
magazine.
Mike Westgate, Sound Ltd, Auckland,
New Zealand.
CLII to
fit
Dear sir, looking through the June 1993 issue of
Studio Sound over breakfast, I read again with
interest your Editorial (The Main Event'), about
the `honesty' of modern recordings in the light of
current technology's ability to edit and otherwise
manipulate musical material.
I suppose that one's viewpoint will depend to
some extent on the kind of music one works with
but as someone who is mostly involved in the
recording and editing of classical music, I cannot
help but be drawn to sympathise with your last
statement that, `...the only rational conclusion to
be drawn is that the purpose of the majority of
recording sessions is now to deceive the listener
rather than present them with a genuine record of
a musical event'. I might, however, substitute
`editing sessions' for `recording sessions'.
What prompts me to write is that I have nearly
finished editing (I hope) an album I recorded for a
local amateur choir. According to the play list from
my Sound Tools editing system, there are 244 edits
in a 64- minute file. This averages out to an edit
every 15 seconds. One 2- minute piece has 25 edits
in it. The raw data with extra bits (clones for pitch
shifts-never tell an amateur producer- director
that you can do this because it rarely works!) is
over 100 minutes long. Perhaps you cannot hear
the individual edits, but the cumulative effect of so
much editing must rob the music of some of its life,
even if the end product is `technically' superior.
While I acknowledge the need to edit in order to
eliminate minor imperfections an inevitable slips
which might go unnoticed in a live performance, I
find myself agreeing more and more with the folks
at Nimbus Records who, when I visited them about
ten years ago, stated: We will edit to save a
performance, not to create one.' In other words, get
your act together before you come in to record
-don't expect us to patch it up afterwards. In a
past issue of Studio Sound, Decca were quoted as
saying that there are 100 hours of editing in many
classical albums. No doubt the increased time
expected on CD as against LP and the cost of hall
rental, musicians' fees and so on can make it
difficult to allow enough time for extra rehearsal,
but perhaps we are risking less honest recordings
in our quest for technical perfection. If the
performer ends up sounding better on disc than in
real life, surely there is something wrong.
In closing, I am reminded of a story about a
famous pianist who spent many days recording and
even more days editing. During the final playback
the producer turned to him and said, `Don't you
wish you could play like that ?'
Stuart Tarbuck, Mobile Audio Recording
Vancouver, Canada.
The M -S
Microphone
for Film and TV
Production
The C 522 MS from AKG
delivers what film and TV
producers demand: perfect
sound in any studio or
outdoor situation, in speech
and music production. Three
near-coincident condenser
microphone capsules with
high sensitivity and off -axis
rejection, rugged
construction, and useful
standard accessories make
the C 522 MS an incredibly
flexible microphone for
professional use.
AKG Acoustics Ltd.
Vienna Court
Lammas Road
Godalming
GU7 1JG Surrey
Tel No. 0483 425702
Fax No. 0483 428967
81
uul!!!
14 audio consoles of tomorrow
require technology designed to enhance the
mixing rather than the labor of
?),{
engineering. Mixers will no longer be captive
to the narrow path of computer logic.
They will finally have a system with the same
reasoning as their creative
processes.
But tomorrow is here. The Harrison
SeriesTen
B
console follows your actions and
e44SA,44e0/41 style.
It is an audio system
that responds to you, rather than forcing you
to respond to it. Real time, creative mixing
is no
longer
a
dream.
Tom Edwards and
the Post -Production
Department at The
Nashville Network
selected three
Harrison SeriesTenB
consoles for their
unique ability to
track in real -time.
TNN mixes audio -tovideo on-the-fly to keep the creative edge sharp.
The SeriesTen B is flexible - not only is it ideal for
post, it has become the console of choice for demanding OB applications. Belgium Radio & Television has just added one, and Korean broadcasters
have added three - one of which is installed in an
OB van as well.
615 -331 -8
III
LESS IS
Beginning with an
examination of
digital video data
reduction, Francis
Rumsey introduces
a series of articles
addressing
technology
surrounding audio
an island, but a
component in the larger field of
information or media communications.
Although the audio engineer's work will
remain principally with sound, there is an
increasing need to be aware of what may best be
called peripheral technologies -such as video and
computer systems -since many jobs and products
today incorporate elements of these alongside
audio. Here we begin an occasional series dedicated
to demystifying these peripheral technologies,
aimed specifically at those whose primary place is
in audio and thus who may not be familiar with the
principles involved. The intention is that audio
professionals may become better informed about
issues which may affect their work, especially as
the need grows for greater diversity in the
profession.
The first article in the series deals with a topic of
increasing importance: that of bit -rate reduction
(BRR) for digital video. It precedes an article which
will examine the most recent digital video
recording formats and their audio capabilities,
since a number of these formats use video BRR.
Considerable coverage has been given in the last
few years to the principles and applications of
digital audio BRR, and parallel to these
developments have been similar ones dealing with
digital video. Video BRR is important for many of
the same reasons as audio BRR: greater economy
in storage and transmission; easing of mechanical
constraints in recorder design; efficient use of
bandwidth for broadcasting; and ease of use with
consumer media and personal computers. In fact
many of the same principles apply to video BRR as
to audio, since both rely on the removal of
redundant information from the signal, to reduce
the data rate with as little perceived effect on
quality as possible. If the reader understands some
Audio is no longer
of what has been said in previous articles on audio
BRR, then many of these concepts will be
transferable to the subject of video
being simply
necessary to review what is meant by such terms
as frequency when applied to pictures.
Although it is not intended to cover the
principles of video and its digitisation in detail, a
short summary will be given before going on to look
at ways in which the bit rate may be reduced.
-it
Picture this
A video picture, such as might be viewed on a
domestic television, is made up of horizontal lines,
created by a spot scanning the screen from top to
bottom. Each screen full of lines represents a still
frame, and television systems often use a method of
interlacing two sets of lines (each called a field) to
make up one frame, presenting one field with gaps
between the lines followed by the other filling in
the missing lines to reduce flicker (Fig.!). The field
rate is thus twice the frame rate. There are
625 lines per frame in current European systems
and 525 lines in America and Japan. The frame
rate is the number of complete still frames per
second making up the moving picture, being 25Hz
in Europe and 29.97Hz in countries such as
America and Japan. This is called `conventional
definition television' or CDTV. In computer
systems, images may be scanned and stored at a
number of different rates. High definition
television (HDTV) doubles the number of lines in
the picture in order to increase the resolution.
In audio, the term frequency relates to the pitch
of a sound, being the repetition rate of the
waveform. The human ear is most sensitive to
Fig.1: Example of interlaced scan
Horizontal scan
Fig.2: A picture can be considered as an array of pixels or picture elements with a
horizontal and vertical dimension. Spatial frequency refers to the rate of change o
an image in either direction
middle frequencies around the 3-4kHz region, and
becomes increasingly less sensitive towards both
extremes of the spectrum. If the high frequency
response of an audio signal is reduced it becomes
less `bright' sounding, and more `muffled'. In video,
the term frequency relates to the rate of change of
visual information, but there are two dimensions in
a still frame since the picture may be considered as
an array of points or pixels (Fig.2) in the
horizontal and vertical dimensions, thus the
concept exists of `spatial frequency'. There is also
the concept of `temporal frequency' which relates to
the way in which the image changes over
successive frames, as time passes. A high spatial
frequency may be imagined as the fine detail in a
picture, where picture elements change from light
to dark in close succession, whereas a low
frequency may be considered as a coarser pattern
(Fig.3). The human eye is less sensitive to high
frequency visual information than to low
frequencies.
In analogue video, the horizontal dimension
(a line) may be considered as a continuum of
graduated shades from light to dark (in the
monochrome sense), but the vertical dimension is
effectively sampled (although not quantised) by the
line structure. Digital video superimposes a
sampling pattern on the horizontal dimension also,
allocating a binary value to each pixel in the
matrix, depending on its brightness. To represent
colour, three video signals are normally required
-red, green and blue (RGB video) -from which
other colours and white may be formulated, but
these are often combined in such a way as to
produce a luminance (brightness) signal (Y) made
up of an appropriate combination of R, G and B,
and two `colour difference' signals, namely R -Y (Cr)
and B-Y (Cb), from which R, G and B may be
reconstituted by matrixing them with Y. Cr and Cb
can get away with a considerably lower bandwidth
than Y, because the eye is much less sensitive to
reduced colour bandwidth than it is to reduced
luminance bandwidth. This colour difference
format is often called `component video' when
referring to recording and transmission systems.
The term `composite video' refers to a system in
which the colour difference components have been
modulated onto a subcarrier and combined with
the luminance signal, creating one waveform in
which the colour information is spectrally
interleaved with the luminance.
Digital video
The CCIR 601 standard determined a basic
sampling frequency for component video of
AES
Booth
No. 851
PROVEN IN ACTION BY THE WORLD'S ELITE
Just as the F14 can be adapted for both
low and high speed operation by reconfiguring
F2
Touring System can be adapted tor short
or long throw
applications
by
reconfiguring
its driver module layout.
its wing shape so the Martin Audio
MAFTIP AUDIO
F2 SYSTEM
A HARD ACT TO FOLLOW
Martin Audio Ltd.
19
Lincoln Road, Cressex Industrial Estate High Wycombe, Bucling;lamshire, England HP12 3RD. Tel: +44 (0) 494 535312 Fax:
Martin America. 22930 Miller Road, Chicago Heights, !lino s 60411. Tel:
+
-1 708 758 0652 Fax:
+
1
708 158 0717
-f 44
(0) 494 47:8669
B
A
Fig.3: Image A has a higher horizontal frequency than image B
for 6251ines/50Hz. For HDTV, the bit rate for
studio quality pictures is over 1000Mbit/s (1Gbit/s).
Thus the data rate of digital video exceeds that of
digital audio by between 200 and over 1000 times.
3.375MHz which can be used in various multiples
for luminance and colour signals. The so- called
4:2:2 format for video sampling uses four times
3.375MHz (13.5MHz) for the luminance
component, and twice it for the colour difference
Reducing
the bit rate
signals (reduced bandwidth). The same sampling
frequency is used for both 525 lines/59.94Hz
TV systems as for 625 lines/50Hz formats, since it
is a multiple of the line frequency of both, thus
simplifying the design of machines designed to
work with both formats.
Composite video is normally sampled at a
different rate of four times the colour subcarrier
frequency, thus resulting in different rates for
525 -line and 625 -line video. This is due to the need
to decode the colour information digitally, and
simplifies the design of the required filters.
Typically, digital video samples are quantised to
either 8 or 10 -bit resolution-considerably lower
than the 16 to 20 -bit resolution used in audio. This
is because the signal -to -noise ratio required for
high video quality is not as great as that required
for audio.
The bit rate which therefore results from a 4:2:2
component digital video signal of either standard,
sampled to 10 -bit accuracy, is therefore 270MbitJs.
For composite video it is rather lower: 152Mbit /s
There is good reason to consider reducing this bit
rate for certain applications because of the
economies which may result, and also because of
the need to transmit digital video (either CDTV or
HDTV) in a limited bandspace. There is also a
growing interest in using digital video in consumer
products such as the various CD formats, and there
is great potential in having digital video at a bit
rate low enough to be handled and stored by
personal computers. As with audio data reduction,
video data reduction is a business where virtually
any compression factor is possible-but it rather
depends on what you are prepared to put up with
in terms of final quality!
To give a few examples: using MPEG BRR (bit
rate reduction) it is now possible to represent what
the interactive media industry calls full motion
.
.
Two TWIN movements and two PPM9 boards give simultaneous monitoring of A/B on red and green
and M/S on white and yellow pointers. Under licence from the BBC.
* PPM10 In- vision PPM and Charts * Twin Twin pointer PPM and Charts * Twin Twin Rack and Box
Units * Broadcast Monitor Receiver 150kHz -30MHz * Advanced Active Aerial * 10 Outlet Distribution
Amplifier 4 * Peak Deviation Meter * PPM5 hybrid, PPM9 Microprocessor and PPM8 IEC /DIN - 50 / +6dB
drives and movements * Broadcast Stereo Coders * Stereo Variable Emphasis Limiter 3 *
SURREY
86
ELECTRONICS
Studio Sound, October 1993
LTD, The Forge,
Tel: 0483 275997
Lucks
*
Green,
Cranleigh, Surrey GU6 7BG
Fax 0483 276477
achievement.
Although the MPEG group has standardised the
very low bit rate versions of picture compression
which will be used by the consumer CD industry
and others, it is still working on the algorithms
which may be used to code high -quality
conventional definition TV pictures at rates
between 2 and 10MbitJs, and the BBC have
As with audio data
reduction, video
data reduction is a
TWIN TWIN PPM
e
video (FMV) at a bit rate as low as 1.2Mbit/s, which
is very similar to the rate required for full
resolution audio. This represents a compression
factor of over 100 times from the full composite
data rate for PAL TV, and it is used to store
conventional definition video onto CD -I for
domestic distribution. Granted, the picture quality
is only passable, but it stands comparison with
VHS video.
It has also been shown that HDTV signals may
be reduced in bit rate to around 70Mbit/s with
acceptably high picture quality for the majority of
viewers, and tests have shown that it would be
possible to carry digital HDTV in a conventional
8MHz broadcast channel (as used for current
analogue TV broadcasts) using a suitable
modulation method, which is indeed an
business where
virtually any
compression factor
is possible
Capture a Sigma...
.
...and the DASS 100 goes FREE!
Revolutionary
capabilities
including
DSP
one release you just can't
afford to miss.
This
is
Segment -Based
EQ,
gain and
pan settings.
Buy the Soundstation Sigma
- an
awesomely powerful package of
digital audio editing and
processing features and you'll
also become the proud owner of
a DASS 100 multifunction
interface that will free you of
your digital audio transfer and
routing problems.
optical drive. It's the perfect
blend of total control and
optimum flexibility, with
instant response, single page
touch -screen and dedicated "no
guesswork" controls.
-
iewritable
optical disk
A
provides
'background
mode' backup
and portable
media.
DASS 100
mdtifunction
digital audio
interface and
sampling
frequency
converter keeps
signals digital.
The Sigma is tailor -made for
either 8 or 16 channel audio
production with up to 16 hours
of hard disk storage and built -in
DIGITAL AUDIO RESEARCH
Add the support of a DASS 100
unique in providing functions
for digital transfers, mastering,
and synchronisation and
you'll have the keys to
-
-
unlock greater
quality, productivityand creative
flexibility.
DIGITAL AUDIO RESEARCH LIMITED
2
Sihrrglade Business Park, Ltathcncead Road,
Chessington, Surrey KT9 2QL, England.
Tel +44 (0)372 742848: Fax +44 (0)372 743532.
I
`I
Please call me to discuss this offer.
Name
Please send me a quotation on this special promotion.
Company
Address
I
am interested in seeing a demonstration of the Sigma
and DASS 100.
Country
Telephone
Position
.'ostcode
3usiness Activity
SS 10/93
W_
W
CC
U
U
LLJ
In
Discrete
cosine
transform
Buffering
and
framing
Entropy
coding
Requantiser
out
Control path to adjust data rate
Fig.4: Block diagram of a single video BRR encoder
Make the best of your mixing
console:
automate it.
Uptown's
moving fader
automation lets
you upgrade your
existing mixing
BATTERY STUDIOS
LONDON
console, preserving your
investment. It boosts your
productivity and gives free rein to
your creativity.
Uptown
faders are
s
well- proven in
many of the
s
most respected
?°
studios and sound
facilities around the
world, where quality
and reliability are
essential.
To find out more about Uptown
upgrades and your nearest distributor,
call us.
WORLD
Audiomation Systems Ltd, UK
Tel (0)480 812846
Fax (0)480 812280
USA Audiomation Inc
Tel (508) 443 8053
Fax (508) 443 4844
88 Studio Sound, October 1993
recently shown HDTV pictures compressed using a
similar algorithm at a rate of 25Mbitls. Even at
such a low rate, the picture quality was in no way
unwatchable, but showed clear artifacts of the
BRR process.
So how is this rate reduction achieved and what
is the difference between MPEG and JPEG?
The following will give a basic overview.
Video BRR
principles
A block diagram of a simple coder for reducing the
bit rate of digital video is shown in Fig.4. It shows
only some of the techniques described below, and
indicates the possibility for introducing some
control feedback to the quantiser in order to keep
the output bit rate constant.
The DCT
Most approaches to video BRR divide the picture
up into groups of pixels, changing it from a line
structure into a block structure (Fig.5). A common
block size is 8 x 8 pixels, although systems using
other possibilities such as 16 x 16 or 8 x 4 are in
evidence. This block structure may often be seen in
still pictures which have been data reduced if they
are magnified considerably, or if a very high
compression factor has been used. The sample
values corresponding to the pixels represent their
amplitudes (or brightness in a monochrome
picture). The block is then subjected to a discrete
cosine transform (DCT) as in many audio BRR
systems, which results in a frequency domain
representation of the block, whose sample values
now represent the relative strengths of different
spatial frequencies in the block, both horizontal
and vertical. This is an efficient approach to BRR
in itself since many of the spatial frequency
components will be near zero in the typical picture
block, with only a few of significant amplitude
which will be stored or transmitted.
To give an example, a block with a finely
detailed black and white pattern would result in a
high frequency component at the pattern repetition
frequency after the DCT process. Most other
components would be zero. Applying an inverse
DCT would restore the original spatial amplitudes
of the pixels. If one were to remove the zero or near
zero samples in the frequency domain, then
perform the inverse DCT, the reconstituted
STUDER Mixing Consoles
Mixing ergonomics, economics & technology
In an audio environment, STUDER
signifies expertise, professionalism
and mastery in console technology.
STUDER has an established and
enviable reputation for producing
modular mixing consoles; with
excellent specifications and proven
operational history; to cover the
entire spectrum of mixing
applications.
We design and manufacture
mixing consoles to meet with the
explicit demands of both mobile
applications and fixed installations;
on -air, sound reinforcement, music
production, drama and dubbing
studios - Consoles which span the
range from; analog to hybrid
analog/digital; to complete digital
signal processing systems - with or
without dynamic automation.
The STUDER look and feel
t
lilt
C1
n6g
I
anquaqr.
Recall By Channel
Input 16
:
advt snap
Ar.liun
l
11
1'aqt
ONLINE
23:59:59.22!I
3
--_-
AUX
DIRECT
ts7
P
GA
E
5/6 l
FILTER
INI IN
_
MAIN PAN
PAN
SPREAD
Zoom View
1 Auto Mode i.._Ì Only pots in use
LI
J}J Link Desk
Console Display
Accuracy
Low
i7
Auto Mode
F6
0 Mid
L)
High
Zoom View
By Fun
STUDER
PROFESSIONAL AUDIO EQUIPMENT
a Division of STUDER REVOX AC, Althardstrasse 30, CH -8105 Regensdorf, Switzerland
870 75 1, Telefax +41 840 47 37
Telephone +41
STUDER,
1
1
Subsidiaries:
Austria: +43 1 470 76 09/10
U.K.: +44 81 953 35 33
France: +33 453 35 858
Germany: Berlin +49 30 72 40 88
1
1
3 3465 2211
Singapore: +65 250 72 22
Canada: +1 416 510 1347
USA: Nashville +1 615 391 3399
San Francisco +1 415 326 7030
Japan: +81
Original picture
block formatted
w_
w
CC
JQ
Transformed coefficients
representing frequency
components present in
8 x 8 block
Original pixel array
of 8 x 8 representing
sample amplitudes
C)
U
w
DCT
'111011'-
Fig.5: Block formatting and DCT results in an array of coefficients representing spectral components
picture would probably look almost identical to the
original. Even without any requantisation this
technique can result in a significant reduction in
the amount of information required to represent a
block.
Psychovisual model
Since the eye is less sensitive to high frequency
information and to colour information it is possible
to allow more noise in both these regions than in
the low frequency luminance information. Thus the
spectral coefficients produced by the DCT may be
weighted and requantised according to a table
which is based on the visibility of noise. These
weighting and quantisation parameters may be
varied to control the average bit rate of the audio
signal, which would otherwise vary considerably
from block to block.
Entropy coding
The spectral coefficients, thus requantised, may be
subjected to a variable length or Huffmann coding
process which assigns a binary code of a certain
length to each sample. Based on an analysis of
which bit patterns occur most often in typical TV
pictures it is possible to assign the shortest codes to
the most common patterns, and the longest to the
least common, thus introducing a further saving in
i.,
po
90
Nobody said that broadcasting was going to be an
easy life. Particularly on connectors and cables.
So our 7000 series broadcasting connectors are
engineered in the UK to take the worst you can throw at
them. And still deliver outstanding professional quality
transmission, without breaking the bank.
Main body parts are precision die -cast meta
with generous sized solder buckets for excellent
connectivity.
A unique colour coded tab system
provides instant identification.
r. reti
There's also a complete range of
16 mg Aqó
6- to 32 -way screened stage boxes using
See us on
Gotham multicore cable for superb noise rejection.
Stand 1240
Get the hard facts about the 7000 series connectors.
and the whole range of Deltron's DGS Pro-Audio
broadcasting equipment. Call Deltron today.
Because it's tough out there.
Deltron, London, England
Telephone: 44 81 -965 5000
%AMC
Studio Sound, October 1993
Fax: 44 81 -965 6130
data rate.
Frame coding
In addition to the aforementioned methods, it is
also possible to achieve even greater reductions in
the bit rate by analysing the temporal aspects of
the moving picture, attempting to predict how the
picture changes over a number of frames. This is
called interframe coding. When coding is simply
performed within the field or frame itself, the
process is called intrafield or intraframe coding.
Which of these methods is appropriate depends on
the type of data reduction process in use, the
application, and often there is some analysis of
which will provide the greatest reduction in bit
rate after variable length coding, allowing the
system to switch to the most suitable `on the fly'.
iThe interframe mode relies on attempting to
predict the sample values in the block, based on
the same block or a motion -compensated version of
it in the previous frame, performing the DCT only
on the error or difference between the predicted
+-0a,70
O
+m
MQJXm
.¡O[
jXÓC70ó
UwCrnM Dw
+
Ñ
¢
Ó°MdT
rUó+
WNxmNQ
Úí(J.(0m
0
m ry N
Q
MC7MpN+(Np
m °o°O
m Q M "2 Q
~
'.
+gMg¢W
QW
m-mNQ
X
N
J ñÑ m
NMF-+ÑÓ
mm
;:r
CO
.ON MM
corT
.MnmQ
NO
amZro
+N_
X
F
U°°c..QmN
ÑmÑ,m
n
mc°.,nn*m¡
+M V
V
Ñ
+4
+NrnnW +m
w áp?
W
nOQm
Ñ °¢
+
Ñ
(Dm
Qmm
N- ávMjQ
mgrn
+nrn..QQ+
N+TÑ+XN
J VQ n p Ó
mZo.M
tiTpñMQ
Nn?MS
K4.-0cj+
M
N
- + ry
N 0m ^r
itl
+ZÑímná¢
mnp
xQ
cot.,
+(0Ñ..
NC NMrn
Ññl(°O+m Q Q+ n M
NmO Ñm
ÑQÑM
QQm{+
N
(0
Q -ß
++Q
n
lnm
rM
Q
¢mz,ó4
7-ÑÑ¡Q
áNñn
O M -M
.
Q oo Ñ
O Nm
ó
m
+
mMQpp m -N
N +nmQ
N.NÑUO
+
m¢p
ówX+QZ
Ux=¢
v¢tri
D~
q0
°vm
NÑNr_
MCC
0
M Ó g.
Mn
UndQm
Q+O
M+c0
+M
iii+>2>0
UmaN-g
O:Z+M=
O
Q
M
= á
,g
WOO
dm_äMO
OMOW Om
n
Ñ _
W +Q
Y dN
and the actual sample values. Basing the
prediction on the same (co- sited) block in the
previous frame will only be useful if the picture is
static. If it is moving then it will be necessary to
predict the direction in which a block (representing
a picture element) is moving, by making searches
in each direction and comparing the current frame
to the previous frame, attempting to find the best
match with the current frame's block.
A displacement vector can then be determined, and
transmitted along with the coded picture
coefficients, so that it may be used by the decoder
to form a similar motion -compensated prediction.
Such motion compensated interfield coding
requires that a simple intrafield mode is used every
so often for each block, in order that prediction
errors do not accumulate. In some computer -based
systems, such as Apple's QuickTime video
compressor, a similar approach is used, called
`frame differencing', whereby only the differences
between successive frames are coded, it being
possible to set the distance between `key frames'
which are full frames rather than difference
coefficients. The less frequently these `key frames'
are stored, the poorer the picture quality.
Interframe coding does not always result in savings
in the bit rate, since not all images move in a
predictable way, and backgrounds may be
The Moving
Picture Experts
Group have still to
finalise algorithms
for higher bit rate
CDTV and for
HDTV
VITALIZER
The Vitalizer is a psycho- acoustic tool that transports the art of equalization into a new dimension.
confusing, and in such cases intraframe coding is
more appropriate.
Ingeniously designed by SPL to
compatible with the way
the human ear erceives sound,
Skip field
be
A technique also used in some
it will enhance any part of the sound spectrum
WITHOUT forcing compromise elsewhere.
"Cttualizes sound
in
Sound On Sound
" .-dispensable in fine -tuning my
".have found nothing
",is
"'
is one high
y
mixes".
Audio Media
"
be
sorry to see it go back".
quality, great sounding unit
.
All of these techniques applied to a typical video
signal will tend to result in a bit rate which varies
Studio Sound
considerably with time unless something is done to
keep it constant. In computer still- picture storage
applications it may not matter that the disk space
taken up by one picture is different from another,
but in most transmission and storage applications
it is necessary to have a constant bit rate. This may
be achieved by buffering the output of the coder
using memory from which data is clocked out at a
constant rate. The fullness of the buffer can be
used to control the requantiser or coefficient
weighting earlier in the chain, adjusting the
accuracy of requantisation of the DCT coefficients
to suit the required bit rate at that instant.
Alternatively a form of forward prediction may be
used to estimate the entropy of the final coded
signal, and this used to control the quantiser to
maintain a constant data rate.
Mix Magazine
studio whether for broadcast, music /jingles or video /film
best such device
7here
Buffering
which could not easily he sweetened
post production can find uses for the Vitalizer".
"7he
LJ
way none of my existing equalisers
a
comes close to matching".
with it, and I shall
nonlinear video
editors involves coding only every other field of the
picture, repeating the first field with a small
vertical shift to create the second field of each
frame on replay. This clearly halves the amount of
data to be stored but also halves the vertical
resolution of the picture. It can be adequate for
deriving a picture for off-line editing, but would not
be used for broadcast quality video.
are
a
I
Radio And Production
have had the pleasure of using".
Home Studio & Recording
number of valid uses and the Vitalizer can fulfil them all".
Professional Sounds
Where others tweak, excite and waffle, the Vitalizer
uniquely unlocks the true potential of your mix
with outstanding clarity.
It is simply an equalizer without equal.
Manufactured by
MPEG or JPEG?
As mentioned above, the Moving Picture Experts
Group have standardised algorithms for very low
bit rate picture coding, for consumer applications,
but have still to finalise algorithms for higher bit
rate CDTV and for HDTV. MPEG -style coding may
:
SASCOM
MARKETING
UP
INTERNATIONAL MARKETING: THE HOME SERVICE +44 (81) 943 4949. FOR DETAILS ON YOUR US DEALER CALL: 905 -420 3946
92 Studio Sound, October 1993
involve prediction and frame difference techniques
such as those described above, and thus is most
appropriate for transmission or replay of video
programme material where the picture sequence
.. wvvwvv\\
`\\\\
\\\\\\
_
`
`\,\\\`\\\+\
\
/
\\\\\\\\\+\\\\\\
35'
\+\\
Whatever your situation
Sennheiser
MKH 80
the MKH family ensure
accuracy and intelligibility
in all
aspects of recording.
2 kHz
4 kHz
;
studio
condenser
microphone
Superb studio performance and the ultimate in
flexibility: the MKH 80 variable pattern studio
condenser microphone extends the outstanding
quality of the Sennheiser MKH range.
The MKH 80 features exceptionally low noise,
a
wide range of audio control and
a
high
dynamic range plus switchable pre- attenuation,
HF
lift and
LF cut to compensate
8 kHz
16 kHz
for proximity
effects, and LED indicator for exact orientation.
any recording situation.
ALL THE MICROPHONES
YOU'LL EVER NEED.
SENKHEISER
Sennheiser UK Ltd, Freepost, Loudwater, High Wyconbe, Buckinghamshire, HP10 8BR. Telephone 0628 850811. Fax 0628 850958
ïEN'
-
is presented in a time continuum and in the
forward direction, as opposed to studio recording or
storage where slow motion, shuttle, reverse and
still frame modes may be required. It is possible
that a programme coded using MPEG-style
techniques would give poor performance in some of
these modes when compared with the JPEG (Joint
Picture Experts Group) algorithm which was
defined slightly earlier and relies entirely on
intraframe coding methods.
JPEG was intended originally for high quality
still frame pictures, and is used widely in computer
graphics and multimedia applications for
compressing 24 -bit still images. It is possible to
trade off compression factor against picture
quality, and the compression process can either be
carried out relatively slowly using an off -the -shelf
software package, or quickly using dedicated
hardware such as the C -Cube JPEG compression
chip, which is fast enough to compress images at
FMV frame rates for computer applications.
JPEG -like algorithms are used in professional
digital video recording systems such as Sony's new
Digital Betacam, (at a relatively mild compression
factor of 2:1) because of the performance in the
operational modes mentioned above. JPEG is also
used in off-line nonlinear video editors such as
The introduction of
cheap digital video
compression for
desktop computers
is resulting in a
sea - change
Avid's MediaComposer.
The future
As with audio BRR, digital video is now entering
a phase where acceptable trade -offs must be
The New MTA Series 980 Console
Designed for track laying and mixing
(minimum 62 line inputs with eq.)
Full 4 band eq. on inputs and monitors
Manufactured by a company with over
25 years experience in console design
Superb audio performance and musical eq.
VCA or moving fader automation available
Excellent value for money
Malcolm Toft Associates Limited
The Old Farmhouse, 27 Ash Hill Road, Hampshire GU12 6AD
Telephone: 0252 318700
Facsimile: 0252 345546
determined between bit rate and quality.
The degree of reduction will be determined by the
application, and there will probably be few
situations in which full-bandwidth pictures will be
either stored or transmitted. This will be especially
true once HDTV becomes more of a reality, since
BRR is really the only way of ensuring
cost -effective links, transmission and recording.
The introduction of cheap digital video
compression for desktop computers is resulting in a
sea -change in the way that video programmes are
edited, since the cost of purchasing the equipment
is dropping very quickly compared with high -end
products. Editing decisions are increasingly made
off-line using such equipment, using on -line
equipment to assemble the final programme, but
the time is coming very shortly when
broadcast-quality pictures (whatever that means
these days) will be available from nonlinear
equipment, using BRR, possibly obviating the need
for a separate on -line assembly of the programme.
It is also interesting to notice the increasing
number of products integrating compressed digital
video and linear digital audio editing, offering the
ultimate cost -effective postproduction station.
Clearly, though, none of this cheap desktop video
technology will instantly make anyone who can
purchase an Apple Macintosh into a world- beating
video editor and audio dubbing mixer, just as DTP
did not automatically turn everyone into
world- beating typesetters but for those with the
necessary skills, the introduction of digital
compression technology is certainly lowering the
costs involved in many areas of programme
production.
Dr FRANCIS RUMSEY is Chairman of
the British Section of AES, and a
lecturer on Surrey University's
Tonmeister degree course in Music
and Sound Recording. He is the
"author of numerous conference and
convention papers for AES, the
Institute of Acoustics and the Royal
TV Society, and six books on audio
technology including Digital Audio
Operations and MIDI Systems and
Control
ADVERTISERS INDEX
AUDIO LTD
APHEX
AUDIO DESIGN
AUDIO PRECISION
AUDIO TECHNIA
AUDIOMTN SYS
12
OBC
10
59
20
88
79 &81
AKG
AMS /NEVE
21
BSS
57
BEHRINGER
CALREC
D +R ELEC
DOLBY
DREAMHIRE
DYNAUDIO
DIGIDESIGN
42
27
62
53
50
45
6 +7
DAR
87
DIGIGRAM
63
54
EAW
76
SOWTER
47
EMINENCE SPKRS
FAIRLIGHT
65
FUTTERS
90
FOCUSRITE
35
FOSTEX
32
91
GENELEC
82
GLW
70
GROOVE TUBES
40
HW INTERNATIONAL
HAYDEN
IBC
HARMAN
23 +29
17,25,30 +31
HHB
E A
HOME SERVICE
KLARK TECHNIC
MIDEM
MOGAMI
MAXELL
MALCOLM TOFT
MARTIN AUDIO
NEUTRIK
PRISM
QUESTED
RTW
SOETELIEVE
SSI
16
49
60
95
41
45
85
68
50
75
64
38
IFC
39 +95
SOUNDCRAFT
4
STUDIO AUDIO VIDEO
86
SURREY
71
SCHOEPS
19
SONY
89
STUDER
56 +66
STIRLING
92
SPL
SAE
67
93
SENNHEISER
37
SOUNDSCAPE
TONY LARKING 14,15 +78
72
TC ELECTRONICS
38
TOTAL SYS
TRANSCO
JOSEF WEINBERGER
360 SYSTEMS
3M
10
58
80
70
Soundcraft
INTERNATIONAL SALES
Soundcraft
SPIRIT
mbi
Due to our continued success we are currently
looking for individuals with a strong pro audio or MI
background to work within the Sales Divisions at
Soundcraft.
YOU DON'THAVETO
TIE A KNOT IN IT...
The prime function of the roles is to manage
Soundcraft's distribution and continue the
expansion of our market share worldwide.
...to remember the name of the world's best
audio cable. Still, it's good to know that
Mogami's unique construction not only
makes it so flexible, but also makes it easier
and quicker to wire a complete installation.
Mogami sounds better too! So, with a wide
range, from multicore :o patchcords - all
designed to be better Mogami is the cable
for every application.
04
--
* Commercial awareness
* Understanding of products and applications
* Experience of sales in an international environment
0116246000
Stirling Audio Systems Ltd., Kimberley Road, London NW6 7SF
Tel: 071 624 6000
:
e Experience of distributor management
-
1mosami
Applicants should be highly motivated. self starters
looking to make a career move into the fast lane
and able to demonstrate the following
Fax: 071 372 6370
Please send written details to: HELEN THOMAS
Soundcraft Electronics Ltd.. Cranbornc Road
Potters Eau. Herts. EN6 3JN
Tel: 0707 665((x) Fax: 0707 66()482
H
A I larman International Company
CLASSIFIEDS
ERYICES
Please call Peter Turberfield for
Rates & Details 44 (0) 71 620 3636
THE COMPLETE
The attention of advertisers is drawn to The Business
Advertisements (Disclosure) Order 1977 ",, which
requires that, all advertisements by persons who seek
to sell goods in the course of business must make that
SERVICE.....
fact clear.
All job advertisements are bound by the Sex
Discrimination Act 1975.
Advertisement copy must be clearly printed in block
capitals or typewritten and addressed to: Peter
-
Audio hard disk. Demonstration
of product and feedback of
market information fr.,m customers.
International
travel. Operational
experience in post production /dubbing advantageous.
D- I- R- E -C -T
Compact Discs
Digital Cassette Duplication
Full Pre -Mastering
1630 with 32 Bit DSP
Editing, PQ Coding
Restoration De Click
One off CDR's
Copy Masters
Print /Reprographics
Free Quotations
Turberfield, Studio Sound, Spotlight Publications
Limited, 8th Floor, Ludgate House, 245 Blackfriars
Road, London SE1 9UR.
EAST MIDLANDS AUDIO
STUDER REVOX
NEW AND USED SALES
SERVICE
SPARES
-
REGIONAL
SALES MANAGER
£30 - 35k
To join highly succossful manufacturer. Management of overseas
distributors.
it
with us
We make the hits
Make
APPROVED CONVERSIONS
STUDER A62 B62 SPARES
STUDER A80 EIGHT TRACK
STUDER A80 SIXTEEN TRACK
STUDER A812 TWO TRACK 4SP
STUDER A810 TWO TRACK 4SP
STUDER B67TWO TRACK 3SP
STUDER C37 STEREO VALVE
STUDER A710CASSETTE DECK
REVOX B77 HS TWO TRACK
REVOX PR99 BV TWO TRACK
REVOX A700 TWO TRACK 3SP
STUDER B62 STEREO
REVOX C221 PRO CD PLAYER
REVOX Cl 15 PRO CASSETTE
REVOX B77 MK II NS/HS
REVOX PRIM MK III
REVOX C270 TWO TRACK
REVOX C274 FOUR CH
REVOX C278 EIGHT CH
REVOX MB16 16th BROADCAST
REVOX C279 SIX INTO TWO
REVOX MK1 NF MONITORS
REVOX A77 HIGH SPEED
STUDER D730 PRO CD
STUDER D740 CDR
ALL PLUS V.A.T
PRODUCT SPECIALIST
£18 -25k
MANAGER
£30 - 35k
R & D
Degree in Electronics plus project
management and team leadership
£2,000.00
£5,000.00
£5,500.00
£4,000.00
£1,000.00
£800.00
£550.00
£700.00
£1,500.00
design and development
laboratory. Fast moving and
expanding company.
in
MARKET LEADERS
081 -446 3218 LONDON
UK SALES MANAGER
0480 461880 CAMBRIDGE
c.£30k
£800.00
£600.00
£870.00
£830.00
£1,600.00
£2,240.00
£2865.00
£1,800.00
£2,565.00
£5390.00
£1790.00
£222.00
£450.00
£2265.00
£3553.00
efinitA±C,i
VAT.
HORIZONTAL PRODUCTIONS
081 -348 7258
Electronics or equivalent
knowledge plus fault finding
experience on pro-audio recording
equipment. Knowledge of DAT also
Real time & high speed loop bin duplication,
HNC
printing & packaging. Blanks wound to length
TEL: 061 -973 1884
relevant.
jbs records
MUSIC and SPEECH
MAINTENANCE ENGINEER
c. £12.5k + Off
REAL- TIME!HIGHER -SPEED Quality Cassette Duplication and
Blanks from 1 -1000. Computer printed Labels.
Solo,
reel, Sony Betarnax or R -DAT recording.
Fast Security Delivery service.
FILTERBOND LTD, jbs records div, FREEPOST
19 SADLERS WAY, HERTFORD, SG14 2BR 0992 -500101
/"
Leading Lcndon sound recording
studio. Fault finding experience
essential.
FOR ALL YOUR RECORDING NEEDS
FAIRLIGHT SERIES III
Priced from £6,500 +
SERVICE ENGINEER
£12 - 15k
THE CASSETTE DUPLICATING SPECIALISTS
TEL: 0246 275479
FAX: 0246 550421
Three available, all 16-channel, 14MB RAM,
excellent condition, various revisions and
configurations. All documentation, many spares,
peripherals, and SIX MONTH WARRANTY.
Major manufacturer. Lead a small
team
involved in direct and
distributor sales.
AMPEX - BASF - MAXELL - JVC
AUTHORISED NATIONAL DISTRIBUTOR
Interested
Spools, boxes, blades, splicing and leader tape. Custom wound
cassettes CI -120, labels, library cases and cards. Bulk audio
C -Os, cases, pancake. Broadcast cartridges.
ShentontInd.
ld R
Sharston
Estate
Manchester M22 4RN
T77
i" i
neoad
¡
,;OUNII
/1rßá"] VIDEO SERVICE t3
Tel: 061 -491 6660
FOR QUALITY, PRICE AND SERVICE
Digital and analogue editing.
mastering. Duplicating darn
format including
One-off CDs from £19.90
PRIVATE SALE: Saturn 824, vgc, £9,000;
Soundtracs CP6800 32 -chan, Patchbay, Multicores,
50 patchcords, £6,000; Klark- Teknik DN780, £1,000;
DN360, £700; DN410, £600; Orban 674A EQ £650;
2 Omniphonics S100 amps, £600. Tel: 0272 421400.
Also CD testing, custom wound
blanks and voice -over recording.
Ref SS591, 13a Hamilton Way
London N3 IAN
Tel: 081 -346 0033
Fax: 081 -346 0530
Compact Discs from 8Op
Blank Tape wound to length
e DAT Blanks & Copies from f2.88
Realtime & Loop Bin Duplication
RI AMPEX & ZONAL Studio Tapes
MI
?
Contact Mike Jones,
BCP, Unit 9b, Illtec 2, Wade Road,
Basingstoke, Hants, RG24 8NE.
Tel: 0256 470704 Fax: 0256 844054
B)
PROFESSIONALS
LOCK-
TANNOY,
WOOD, etc. New, used
and vintage speakers,
cabinets, parts bought,
sold
serviced.
and
Authorised
DCA.ST &
COMMUNICATIONS
Tannoy
specialist. LOCKWOOD
AUDIO, Phone 081-207
4472; Fax 081 -207 5283.
CASSETTE DUPLICATION
Second to
None.
-
Simon
Stable
Promotions. Lyrec Loopbin. On -body printing.
Shrink -wrapping. Blanks
wound to length. Sample
tape available. Tel: 0869
252831.
IN
[
EUROPE AUDIO RENT
the no.
1
pro audio rent on the continent
We rent out analog and digital multitracks (4-816-24 tracks), consoles, mics and all modern
outboard equipment. Also samplers, soundmodules, DAT (with timecode), U -matic, synchronizers.
New: Sony 33245
PHONE HOLLAND (31)
-
ring for our competitive prices
3465.70670
OR
FAX
(31) 3465.72707
SELECTA SOUND 0708-453424
-
used good quality Wow and Flutter
Analyser, Auto Nulling Audio DFM and Audio Wave
Analyser.
WANTED
NEW TAPE HEADS SUPPLIED FOR MOST
MAKES, TAPE HEAD RE- LAPPING/
RE-PROFILING. Same day turn round. Head
TECHNICS SV260A Pro Portable DAT. 48kHz, mic
limiter, XLR in, Photo/SPDIF Out. New head, 3
technology, 11 Britannia Way, Stanwell, Staines,
Middx. Tel: 0784 256046.
battery packs, PSU /Charger. Case, strap and manual.
Pristine condition. £1,050 ovno. Tim (0634) 706719.
©
nick ryan
Harrison MR3 36 channels. auto, 1985,
4040E, 36 mono & 4 stereo, VU's 1988
Neve VR 60-48, Flying Faders, 1991,
Trident Vector 56 fitted 48, Optifile, 1990,
Amek 2520, 40 channels, 1988,
DDA AMR24 36 fitted 28, Mastermix II,
TAC Scorpion 24.16, patch, 1989
Mitsubishi X-850's & 880's,
Sony 3324's classic & A,
SSL
Sounds
incorporated
Fax: +44 (0)892 863485
+44 (0)892 861099
Monitors, Eastlake, Westlake, Quested, etc
Amek Mozart, 56 channels, auto, 1992
DDA DCD232, 56 channels
£18,250
CALL
CALL
£44,000
£27,500
£22,500
£2,800
CALL
CALL
CALL
£47,000
£33,000
TAC Magnum, 40 channels, midi- muting
Studer A800 mklll with SSL interface
Trident 80c, 32 channels, auto,
SSL 4056,E computer & Total Recall
Soundtracs Quartz, 48 channels
Studer A80 mkll 24 track with autolocater
Soundcraft 760 mklll, remote & autolocater
MCI JH24,
Lexicon PCM70, V. 3.01
£12,750
£14,500
£24,000
CALL
CALL
£7,300
£5,250
£6,250
£1,095
CALL
CALL
CALL
Amplifiers, various
Microphones, various,
Outboard,
TC, AMS,
Focusrite,
Buying and Selling quality professional equipment throughout Europe
CONSOLES
TAPE RECORDERS - Continued
SSL 6000e 48 frame 48 mono channels hued. RH Patchbay. VU Meters. 'G' Senes computer. Total Recall.
No Producer desk. Manufactured 1986, very good condition
L72,500
2. Neve 51 series 48 mono channels. VU Meters. Patchbay. 4 band EQ. Phase Meters. Parametric E/Q
3. Studer A80 Mk3 24 track with autolocater and home -made rem
4. Mitsubishi X850 32 track with locators, 4 years old
5. Orari MX80 32/24 track recorder
6. Sony 5001 2 track with centre track time code
7. Studer A80 Mkt Narrowhody 24 track, no remotes or autolocater
8. Sony 3324 24 track. 4 years old, remote.
9. Orari MTR 90 Mkt 24 track, no remotes..
10. Ampex ATR 100 (4" 2 track
1.
L39,500
old, in good clean condMon ... _., í30,000
4. Neve VR 60 Input 60 mono fated Flying fader and automation PPM Meters. Remote patch. Automation
fitted 7 months old. Manufactured 1989, in perfect condition
Price on application
5. AMEK 2520 40 input with Mastermix II Patchbay and stand. 3 years old
£28,500
6. Trident TSM with C -mix automation 40 frame with 32 fitted (gold con)..
£15,500
7. MCI 5110 D Series 32 channels with patch and 1H50 Automation
£15,000
8. SSL 4000B 48 frame with 40 mono channels fitted VU Metering 32 track recording. Phase meter. New
short faders fitted. E series computer. Tape remotes SMPTE Reader and generator. Built 1978
3. Soundcraft 3200 with patch 36 frame + 32 Input. 3 years
AMEK 2000 36 Input console with pamhbay and Alison Auto
I0. Soundcraft 1600 24/16 with patchbay stand and PSU auto
I. Trident Vector 56 channel 48 mono fitted with Evamix auto
I2. Soundcraft Reims new 32/24 with Midi Mutes
9.
I
Offers In the region of £30,000
£7,500
Offers
Offers
Offers
DIGITAL REVERBS
I. AMS RMXI6 revert
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
£1,950
£4,500
£3,250
£1,850
£3,150
£995
£2,150
£1,695
£625
Lexicon 4801
Lexicon 224XL
AMS RMXI6 revert
Lexicon 300
Lexicon PCM 70
Lexicon 224 revert, 4.1 software
Klark Teknik DN780
Korg SRV 3000
TAPE RECORDERS
I. Studer A820 Mk3 24 track, remote no locater, No SR Dolby
2 x Otari MTR9011 24 track with locater and remote
£18,500
Each L12,500
2.
WE ARE CONSTANTLY ON THE LOOKOUT FOR USED EQUIPMENT...
NOTICE
We also act for studios as selling agents let us handle the hassle of getting rid of unwanted
items. it does not malter where you are in the world. why not drop us a line listing your
equipment or ring us on the numbers below for the best rates We assure you of our best
attention and service plus the utmost conftdentiahty at all times
£8,750
£26,000
£14,500
£2,000
Offers
L24,000
...........
Offers
£2,000
EFFECTS
I. Eventide H3000 Harmonizer
2. AMS 1580S 6.5 x 1.6 stereo Harmoniser declitch.....
3. Ralend 808 Midi and 727
4. Urel LA4 Compressors, 2 Units
5. Universal Audio LA4 Compressors.
6. Symetrex 544 Quad gates
2
£1,950
£1,650
Offers
£515
L525
£175
Units
Offers
7. Auphex Dominater
8. Roland SOX 80 SMPTE
9. Auphes Aural exiter
10. Roland SBX80 SMPTE
Midi Synchronizer
L625
£295
Midi Sync Box
£495
I. Akai MPC 60 with extra memory
Roland Dimension 'D'
13. Bel 2600s delay line and sampler
14. Auphex Compeller
15. Allison Research Kepex gates with PSU units ooh
16. Audio and Design Scamp rack with 4x gates, 4x e/g and PSU
17. JBL/Urel Compressors 7110
18. 2 x BSS DPR 402 compressors. limiter. de-esser
19. AMS Tape phase simulator /chorus
20. Roland SVR2000 digital revert
21. Akai 5110 10 meg + S1000 Ex 10 no
r mega.
22. Korg Sdd 3300 Triple delay
£1,450
£525
£750
£600
I
12.
Offers
£250
Offers
£550
L275
£325
Offers
I
£450
FOR A COMPLETE STOCK LIST WRITE OR
RING TONY BAYLEY ON
0565 -830005
GREYLANDS STUDIOS, MERESIDE ROAD, MERE, KNUTSFORD, CHESHIRE WA16 6QQ. TELEFAX: 0565-830405. TELEX: 666597 NAUDIOG
LARKING
PROFESSIONAL SALES LIMITED
ENGLAND'S LARGEST STOCKIST OF
USED
PRO -AUDIO EQUIPMENT
For
Tel:
a
complete new and used equipment list contact Tony Larking
Worldwide Delivery Service
+44 (0)462 480009
.
Fax:
+4 (0)462 480035
(Visitors strictly by appointment only)
K.
a
Larpost Mock., of new
n
used pro Sudio wr,wonitot
Cony larking professional sales T
i
subvert John Donne, 'no
industry is an island'-so if
the consumer electronics
companies can spark
enthusiasm for new audio and video
formats, consumers will buy more
music and movie software. And if the
consumers spend more money, things
look up for the studio business.
On the other hand, if the new formats
fail, then people will be more likely to
spend their spare cash on holidays or
t the Berlin International
Audio and Video Fair,
Sony announced that they
To
video games.
The recent International Audio
and Video Fair in Berlin-traditional
launch pad for new electronics in
Europe -left a clear and depressing
impression: the people selling these
new formats are selling boxes. They
do not understand the technology or
the key issues like compatibility.
Worse still, they do not see how their
ignorance is creating confusion which
encourages the buying public to `wait
and see'.
Repeatedly at the Berlin IFA, large
companies held press conferences
without having anyone on hand to
answer technical questions. Take
interactive multimedia (the great
white hope for home entertainment):
if you set aside the shoot-'em-up
games platforms sold, or promised for
sale, by Sega, Nintendo, Commodore
and Atari, the field narrows to CD -I,
developed by Philips and supposedly
backed by Panasonic, and 3D0,
developed in California and most
definitely backed by Panasonic. CD -I
is already on sale and 3D0 is
promised for sale this winter.
The two systems are wholly
incompatible, although both players
will play audio CDs, CD +G discs (that
have simple graphics buried in the
audio subcodes) and Photo CDs.
There is now a digital video
compression standard, MPEG -1, for
putting 74 minutes of full- motion
video (FMV) on a CD. This winter,
Philips will start selling a plug -in
MPEG adaptor which allows a CD
player play back FMV discs. 3D0
promises a similar adaptor.
Philips, Panasonic, Sony and JVC
recently agreed a new White Book
standard for Video CD, or Digital
Video CD with MPEG FMV, but
without the control codes which a
CDI player uses to provide full
interactivity. Video CD is a `linear'
format, like a video tape -you play it
and watch it from start to finish.
Video CD follows the CD -ROM XA
`Bridge' standard, like a Photo CD.
This allows a Video CD to play on a
personal computer equipped with
CD -ROM drive and an FMV decoder,
I
98 Studio Sound, October 1993
Barry Fox
Confusion in consumer
electronics and the many
talents of MiniDisc
or a new generation of Video CD
player which is broadly similar to an
audio -only CD player but has a
built -in FMV decoder.
Because the CD is a ROM XA disc,
it has a Yellow Book data flag in the
bit stream. This flag will (or should)
mute all the outputs of an audio-only
CD player to prevent speaker
damage. This kills the idea of using
an add-on FMV decoder to make
Video CDs play back on a
conventional CD player equipped
with a digital output.
Nimbus have suggested that this
problem can be solved very simply, by
making the Video CD follow the Red
Book standard -not have a data
flag-but this would stop the Video
CD playing on a CD player or ROM
drive, as both are designed to treat
and Red Book disc as a music disc.
These machines would try to decode
the FMV data on an unflagged Video
CD as audio data -and fail.
Also, the White Book now specifies
control codes for VCR -like functions
such as fast search and freeze -frame.
Consequently, the FMV decoder must
feed control signals back to the CD
player drive. There is no input for
these control signals on any existing
audio-only CD player.
Words cannot describe the
confusion which has swept the audio
and video world over this scenario.
And it all stems from the clumsy
wording of a joint statement put out
in late June by Philips, JVC, Sony
and Matsushita (parent of
Panasonic). This statement on the
White Book promised playback of
Video CDs on `modified CD players
(with a digital data output) with an
add -on Video CD box'.
I
What was meant was that there
will be a future generation of audio
CD players, built slightly differently,
to play either Red Book audio CDs or
Yellow Book Video CDs when
connected by a digital output to a
video decoder. What people very
reasonably understood it to say was
that Video CDs will play on existing
Red Book audio-only CD players that
already have a digital output and
which may be connected to an add -on
video decoder.
Confusion has piled on top of
confusion. Just as we thought
everything would finally be clarified
by statements to be made in Berlin,
the same four companies put out
another statement which repeated
the error, this time without even the
word `modified':
It read: `Video CD discs can be
played on... CD players (with a
digital data output) with an add-on
Video CD adaptor.'
The bottom line, which the four
largest electronics companies in the
world seem incapable of drawing is
that there will be at least two types of
FMV CD. One will be a CD I/FMV
disc which plays back with full
interactivity on CD players when
equipped with an FMV decoder.
These discs will not play on other
players. The other version will be a
White Book linear digital video CD;
this will have very limited
interactivity but will play on CD
players with FMV adaptors, on
personal computers with CD -ROM
drives and FMV adaptors and on a
new generation of Linear Video CD
player which will work with both Red
Book audio CDs and White Book
I
I
Video CDs.
will soon be offering
recordable MiniDisc as an alternative
to NAB carts. This makes good sense
because radio stations are already
using solid state carts and floppy disk
carts. MD would beat both on counts
of cost -effectiveness and playing
time-with at least an hour on a
single MD disc which retails in the
UK consumer market for around £10.
Likewise, JVC now suggest that MD
would make the ideal tool for
recording dictation or conferences,
giving rapid and indexed access.
It is unclear yet whether Cart MD
will use the same ATRAC reduction
system as consumer MiniDisc, or
whether it will use an upgraded
system. In Berlin, Sony continued to
plug the now -standard company line
that the sound quality available from
consumer MD `approaches CD'. SO
MD is not a threat to CD but is quite
good enough for listening to music on
the move. Consumer MD quality
would thus be well suited to
broadcast carts.
But Sony may wish to create a new
standard to help keep the price of cart
discs higher than that of consumer
discs, much as Kodak split the
writable CD market to keep the price
of audio CD blanks above that of
Photo CD blanks. In both cases,
polymer dye write -once Photo CDs
and magneto -optical MDs, the low
priced option is a lost leader.
A panel of Sony top brass in Berlin
included Norio Ohga, Sony's
president, Michael Schulhof, Head of
Sony Music and Ron Sommer, Head
of Sony's operation in Europe.
`The real future of tape is definitely
a disc,' said Sommer. Schulhof then
screened a lengthy selection of video
music clips. The sound was very
nasty -well below MD quality. But
Schulhof proudly announced, `you
have just witnessed an amazing
example of the power of technology...
digital quality sound... the optical
disc experience'.
Had Sony sync'd up an MD player
with time-coded video tape? If so,
what on earth went wrong? And why
no apology for the awful quality?
In fact, the nasty sound was
coming from the analogue track of a
2
Betacam SP videotape.
If Messrs Ohga & Schulhof want
ó
support for their efforts to reshape
z
the future of tape as MiniDisc, it
would help to show a little more
cc
interest in sound quality.
-J
14411.1,t
;O., ,
.,..
".,?. :,';,,
1,10/71,011,.,_, ..
got.
,.,,,,,
or the first time, DENON is offering
professional users the choice of drawer or
cartridge loading in the latest two CD players
from the company.
While the CD cartridge has become very
popular, and not just with broadcasters, or
for jingles, some users still prefer drawer
loading. Now DENON is able to offer the
choice, in machines designed and built for
professionals.
Features include:
Playback of recorded CD's
(even without TOC)
End of track preview
Instant start - cues to signal
DENON
Digital output
Parallel remote control
RS422 interface
Fader start option
Single track or continuous play modes
Automatic re-cue after single track play
Narrow body
For more information and to arrange a demonstration
contact Hayden Pro-Audio
A TOUGH
DECISIONDN-961 FA
OR
DN-951 FA7
Hayden
Pro Audio
HAYDEN HOUSE
CHILTERN HILL
CHALFONT ST PETER
BUCKS SL9 9UG
TEL (0753) 888447
FAX (0753) 880109
Improving the way the world sounds.
Aphex
Professional
Audio Products
for recording,
broadcasting,
sound
installations and
live performance:
> Compellor° the
"intelligent"
Compressor /Leveler
> DominatorTM
Multiband Precision
Peak Processor
DigicoderTm FM
Stereo Generator
i
',ma
ExpressorTM
14
simply the world's
finest gate.
Modular Signal
Processing
Amplifiers
> Audio Level Interface
> VCAs
> Aural Exciters°
AP
-
ARGENTINA -AG Electronica; AUSTRALIA-East Coast Audio; AUSTRIA -AKG Acoustics; BELGIUM Trans -European Music;
CANADA -Erikson Pro Audio; CZECHOSLOVAKIA -Audiopolis Studio Systems; DENMARK -SC Sound; EGYPT-Alpha Audio;
FINLAND- Nores; FRANCE-C ineco; GERMANY-AKG Acoustics; GREECE -()mikron.; HOLLAND -TM Audio; HONG KONG -Ace;
HUNGARY- ATEC; INDIA -Pro Sound; INDONESIA-I9' Multi Audio I'erkasa; ISRAEL-Sontrunics; ITALY -Audio Equipment;
JAPAN- Otaritec; KOREA -Young Nak So Ri Sa; MEXICO-Audioacustica y Electronica; NEW ZEALAND-Maser Broadcast Systems;
NORWAY -Audiotron; PERU -AI3BA Trading; POLAND-Europe Sound System; RUSSIA -MS -MAX; SAUDI ARABIA- Halwani Audio;
SINGAPORE -Auvi Private; SOUTH AFRICA-Tru -Fi Electronics; SPAIN -Lexon; SWEDEN -LEAB; SWITZERLAND-A.rdio Tech;
TAIWAN- Advancetek; U.K.-Stirling Audio
Apt
-IEX
SYSTEMS
Audiophile Signal Processing
11068 Randall Street, Sun Valley, CA 91352 U.S.A
1
(818) 767 -2929
All trademarks are property of Aphex Systems Ltd.
Aural Exciter, Compellor, Digicoder, Dominator and Expressor are covered by U.S. and foreign patents issued or pending.
©Aphex Systems
_
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement