Journal Template - International Journal of Computer Science and

Journal Template - International Journal of Computer Science and
International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics
IJCSBI.ORG
Comparative Study of WLAN,
WPAN, WiMAX Technologies
Prof. Mangesh M. Ghonge
Assistant Professor
Jagadambha College of Engineering & Technology
Yavatmal-445001
Prof. Suraj G. Gupta
Assistant Professor
Jawaharlal Darda Institute of Engineering & Technology
Yavatmal-445001
ABSTRACT
Today wireless communication systems can be classified in two groups. The first group
technology provides low data rate and mobility while the other one provides high data rate
and bandwidth with small coverage. Cellular systems and Broadband Wireless Access
technologies can be given as proper examples respectively. In this paper, WLAN, WPAN
and WiMAX technologies are introduced and comparative study in terms of peak data
rate, bandwidth, multiple access techniques, mobility, coverage, standardization, and
market penetration are presented.
Keywords
WLAN, WPAN, WiMAX.
1. INTRODUCTION
Wireless broadband technologies promise to make all kinds of information
available anywhere, anytime, at a low cost, to a large portion of the
population. From the end user perspective the new technologies provide the
necessary means to make life more convenient by creating differentiated and
personalized services. In the last decade we were primarily used to
accessing people via voice, but there are of course other forms of
communication like gestures, facial expressions, images and even moving
pictures. Today we increasingly need user devices wireless for mobility and
flexibility with total coverage for small light and affordable terminals than
ever. Evolving of circuit switched networks towards packet switched
technology high data rates is acquired and this evolution has opened new
opportunities. 2.5 and 3G networks provide high mobility for the packet
domain users. On the other hand the development of the technology has
opened a new era like WLAN, WPAN and WiMAX communication.
Therefore the merging IP based services provide broadband data access in
fixed, mobile and nomadic environments supporting voice, video and data
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traffic with high speed, high capacity and low cost per bit. In this paper
WLAN, WPAN and WiMAX Technologies introduced and comparative
analysis is done.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
WLAN technologies were first available in late 1990, when vendors
initiated introducing products that operated within the 900 MHz frequency
band. These solutions, which used non-standard, proprietary designs,
provided data transfer rates of approximately 1Mbps. It was considerably
slower than the 10 Mbps speed provided by most wired LANs at that time.
In 1992, sellers began selling WLAN products that used the 2.4GHz band.
Even if these products provided higher data transfer rates than 900 MHz
band products they were expensive provided comparatively low data rates,
were prone to radio interference and were often designed to use proprietary
radio frequency technologies. The Institute of Electrical and Electronic
Engineers started the IEEE 802.11 project in 1990 with the objective to
develop a MAC and PHY layer specification for wireless connectivity for
fixed, portable and moving stations within an area.
3. IEEE 802.11 WLAN/WI-FI
Wireless LAN (WLAN, also known as Wi-Fi) is a set of low tier, terrestrial,
network technologies for data communication. The WLAN standard
operates on the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Industrial, Science and Medical (ISM)
frequency bands. It is specified by the IEEE 802.11 standard and it comes in
many different variations like IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n. The application of
WLAN has been most visible in the consumer market where most portable
computers support at least one of the variations. In the present study, we
overview on different standard in table-1 and four WLAN standards were
preferred for comparison that are IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11b, IEEE
802.11g and IEEE 802.11n because these standards are very much popular
among the users. It is noted that all 802.11 standards used Ethernet protocol
and Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) for
path sharing [1][12][9].
Standards are a set of specifications that all manufacturers must follow in
order for their products to be compatible. This is important to insure
interoperability between devices in the market. Standards may provide some
optional requirements that individual manufacturers may or may not
implement in their products.
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4. OVERVIEW ON IEEE802.11 WLAN STANDARD
Table 1. List of Concurrent and Future IEEE Standard of WLAN/ WiFi.[2][6][7][9][10]
Sr.
No.
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
9
10
11
12
13
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
IEEE 802.11
Standard
IEEE
802.11a
IEEE
802.11b
IEEE
802.11c
IEEE
802.11d
IEEE
802.11e
IEEE
802.11F
IEEE
802.11g
IEEE
802.11h
IEEE
802.11i
IEEE
802.11j
IEEE
802.11k
IEEE
802.11n
IEEE
802.11p
IEEE
802.11r
IEEE
802.11s
IEEE 802.
11t
IEEE
802.11u
IEEE
802.11v
IEEE
802.11w
IEEE
802.11x
IEEE
802.11y
IEEE
802.11z
IEEE
802.11aa:
IEEE
802.11ad
Year of
Release
Comments
Speed 54 Mbits and 5 GHz band
1999
Enhancements to 802.11 to support 5.5 and 11 Mbits speed
1999
Bridge operation procedures; included in the IEEE 802.11D
standard
International (country-to-country) roaming extensions
2001
2001
Enhancements: QoS, including packet bursting
2005
Inter-Access Point Protocol, Withdrawn February 2006
2003
54 Mbits, 2.4 GHz standard (backwards compatible with b)
2003
Spectrum Managed
compatibility
Enhanced security
2004
2004
802.11a
(5
GHz)
for
European
Extensions for Japan
2004
Radio resource measurement enhancements
2008
Higher throughput improvements using Multiple In Multiple
Out
WAVE-Wireless Access for the Vehicular Environment
2009
2010
Fast BSS transition (FT) (
2008
Mesh Networking, Extended Service Set (ESS)
July 2011
February
2011
February
2011
September
2009
Define recommended practice for evolution of 802.11wireless
performance.
Improvements related to Hot Spots and 3rd party authorization
of clients, e.g. Cellular network offload
Wireless network management
Protected Management Frames
Extensible authentication network for enhancement of security
-
3650–3700 MHz Operation in the U.S.
2008
September
2010
June 2012
December
2012
Extensions to Direct Link Setup (DLS) (September 2010)
Robust streaming of Audio Video Transport Streams
Very High Throughput 60 GHz
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26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
IEEE
802.11ae
IEEE
802.11ac:
IEEE
802.11af:
IEEE
802.11ah:
IEEE
802.11ai:
IEEE
802.11mc:
IEEE
802.11aj:
IEEE
802.11aq
IEEE
802.11ak
March
2012
Prioritization of Management Frames
February
2014
June 2014
January
2016
February
2015
March
2015
October
2016
Sub 1 GHz sensor network, smart metering.
Fast Initial Link Setup
Maintenance of the standard
China Millimeter Wave :
May 2015
-
In process
Very High Throughput <6 GHz, potential improvements over
802.11n: better modulation scheme (expected ~10% throughput
increase), wider channels (estimate in future time 80 to 160
MHz), multi user MIMO
TV Whitespace ()
Pre-association Discovery
General Link
4.1 IEEE 802.11a
Ratification of 802.11a took place in 1999. The 802.11a standard uses the 5
GHz spectrum and has a maximum theoretical 54 Mbps data rate. Like in
802.11g, as signal strength weakens due to increased distance, attenuation
(signal loss) through obstacles or high noise in the frequency band, the data
rate automatically adjusts to lower rates (54/48/36/24/12/9/6 Mbps) to
maintain the connection. The 5 GHz spectrum has higher attenuation (more
signal loss) than lower frequencies, such as 2.4 GHz used in 802.11b/g
standards. Penetrating walls provide poorer performance than with 2.4 GHz.
Products with 802.11a are typically found in large corporate networks or
with wireless Internet service providers in outdoor backbone networks [9]
[12].
4.2 IEEE 802.11b
In 1995, the Federal Communications Commission had allocated several
bands of wireless spectrum for use without a license. The FCC stipulated
that the use of spread spectrum technology would be required in any
devices. In 1990, the IEEE began exploring a standard. In 1997 the 802.11
standard was ratified and is now obsolete. Then in July 1999 the 802.11b
standard was ratified. The 802.11 standard provides a maximum theoretical
11 Megabits per second (Mbps) data rate in the 2.4 GHz Industrial,
Scientific and Medical (ISM) band [9][12].
4.3 IEEE 802.11g
In 2003, the IEEE ratified the 802.11g standard with a maximum theoretical
data rate of 54 megabits per second (Mbps) in the 2.4 GHz ISM band. As
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signal strength weakens due to increased distance, attenuation (signal loss)
through obstacles or high noise in the frequency band, the data rate
automatically adjusts to lower rates (54/48/36/24/12/9/6 Mbps) to maintain
the connection. When both 802.11b and 802.11g clients are connected to an
802.11g router, the 802.11g clients will have a lower data rate. Many routers
provide the option of allowing mixed 802.11b/g clients or they may be set to
either 802.11b or 802.11g clients only. To illustrate 54 Mbps, if you have
DSL or cable modem service, the data rate offered typically falls from 768
Kbps (less than 1 Mbps) to 6 Mbps. Thus 802.11g offers an attractive data
rate for the majority of users. The 802.11g standard is backwards
compatible with the 802.11b standard. Today 802.11g is still the most
commonly deployed standard [9][12].
4.4 IEEE 802.11n
In January, 2004 the IEEE 802.11 task group initiated work. There have
been numerous draft specifications, delays and lack of agreement among
committee members. Yes, even in the process of standards development,
politics are involved. The Proposed amendment has now been pushed back
to early 2010. It should be noted it has been delayed many times already.
Thus 802.11n is only in draft status. Therefore, it is possible that changes
could be made to the specifications prior to final ratification.
The goal of 802.11n is to significantly increase the data throughput rate.
While there are a number of technical changes, one important change is the
addition of multiple‐input multiple‐output (MIMO) and spatial
multiplexing. Multiple antennas are used in MIMO, which use multiple
radios and thus more electrical power. 802.11n will operate on both 2.4 GHz
(802.11b/b) and 5 GHz (802.11a) bands. This will require significant site
planning when installing 802.11n devices. The 802.11n specifications
provide both 20 MHz and 40 MHz channel options versus 20 MHz channels
in 802.11a and 802.11b/g standards. By bonding two adjacent 20 MHz
channels, 802.11n can provide double the data rate in utilization of 40 MHz
channels.
However, 40 MHz in the 2.4 GHz band will result in interference and is not
recommended nor likely which inhibits data throughput in the 2.4 GHz
band. It is recommended to use 20 MHz channels in the 2.4 GHz spectrum
like 802.11b/g utilizes. For best results of 802.11n, the 5 GHz spectrum will
be the best option. Deployment of 802.11n will take some planning effort in
frequency and channel selection. Some 5 GHz channels must have dynamic
frequency selection (DFS) technology implemented in order to utilize those
particular channels [12][8][9].
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Here, we compared IEEE 802.11 a/b/g/n standard of WLAN/ Wi-Fi we use
some basic characteristics like Operating frequency, Modulation technique,
Data rate (Mbps), Slot time (µs), Preamble, Throughput, Speed, Indoor
Range, Outdoor Range, Multiple Access, Channel Bandwidth, Half/ Full
duplex, Number of spatial streams, Mode of operation Ad-hoc,
Infrastructure, VANET, FEC Rate, License/Unlicensed.
Table 2. Comparison overview of WLAN /Wi-Fi IEEE Standard 802.11 a/ b/ g /n
[1][3][4][5][9][11]
IEEE 802.11a
Operating
frequency
5 GHz UNII/ISM
bands
Modulation
technique
BPSK, QPSK, 16-,
64-QAM , OFDM
IEEE
802.11
b
2.4 GHz
ISM band
QPSK ,
DBPSK,
DQPSK,
CCK, DSSS
IEEE 802.11g
IEEE
802.11n
2.4 GHz ISM band
2.4 - 5 GHz
BPSK, QPSK, 16-,
64-QAM , OFDM
64-QAM,
Alamouti,
OFDM,CC
K, DSSS
Data rate (Mbps)
6,9,12,18,24,36,48,
54
1, 2, 5.5,
11
1, 2, 5.5, 11,
6,9,12,18,24,36,48,
54
7.2, 14.4,
21.7, 28.9,
43.3, 57.8,
65, 72.2,
15, 30, 45,
60, 90, 120,
135, 150
Slot time (µs)
9
20
20,(9 optional)
Less than 9
Preamble
OFDM
Long /
short
(optional)
Long/ Short/
OFDM
HT PHY
for 2.4 and
5 GHz
Throughput
23 Mbits
4.3 Mbits
19 Mbits
74 Mbits
Speed
54 Mbits
11 Mbits
54 Mbits
248 Mbits
Indoor Range
35 Mtrs
38 Mtrs
38 Mtrs
70 Mrs.
Outdoor Range
120 Mrs.
140 Mrs.
140 Mrs.
250 Mrs.
Multiple Access
CSMA/CA
CSMA/C
A
CSMA/CA
CSMA/CA
Channel
Bandwidth
20 MHz
20, 25
MHz
20 MHz
20 or 40
MHz
Half/ Full duplex
Half
Half
Half
Full duplex
Number of spatial
streams
1
1
1
1,2,3or 4
Ad-hoc(mode of
operation)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Infrastructure
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
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VANET
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
FEC Rate
1/2,2/3,3/4
NA
1/2,2/3,3/4
3/4, 2/3 and
5/6
Licensed/Unlicens
ed
Unlicensed
Unlicense
d
Unlicensed
Unlicensed
4.5 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN)
Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) technologies have fueled the
development as well as the wide proliferation of wireless personal devices
(e.g. PDAs, Bluetooth headset, PSP, and etc). Yet, the popularity of these
wireless devices has resulted in many forms of frequency spectrum clash
amongst the different wireless technologies. To understand the performance
of these wireless devices in different interference situations, it is
increasingly important to study the coexistence issue amongst the existing
wireless technologies. Various wireless technologies have been developed
for WPAN purposes. A WPAN could serve to interconnect all the ordinary
computing and communicating devices that many people have on their desk
or carry with them today; or it could serve a more specialized purpose such
as allowing the surgeon and other team members to communicate during an
operation. The technology for WPANs is in its infancy and is undergoing
rapid development. Proposed operating frequencies are around 2.4 GHz in
digital modes. The objective is to facilitate seamless operation among home
or business devices and systems. Wireless PAN is based on the standard
IEEE 802.15. In this paper, we concentrate on the three most famous IEEE
standard 802.15.1, 802.15.3, and 802.15.4 we overview on these standard
pads compare on the basis of basic characteristic, application, limitation and
their use.
4.6 IEEE 802.15 .1 is a working group of the Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers (IEEE) IEEE 802 standards committee which
specifies Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) standards. It includes
seven task groups. IEEE 802.15.1 [16] is a WPAN standard based on the
Bluetooth v1.1 specification, which is a short-range radio technology
operating in the unlicensed 2.4GHz ISM frequency band. The original goal
of Bluetooth was to replace the numerous proprietary cables to provide a
universal interface for devices to communicate with each other. However, it
soon became to use Bluetooth technology to interconnect various Bluetooth
devices to form so-called personal area networks, and facilitate more
creative ways of exchanging data. Low cost and smaller footprint of
Bluetooth chips consequently met with high demands [9][10][11][14].
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4.7 IEEE 802.15.3 [17] is designed to facilitate High-Rate Wireless
Personal Area Networks (HR-WPAN) for fixed, portable and moving
devices within a personal operating space. The main purpose of IEEE
802.15.3 is to provide low cost, low complexity, low power consumption,
and high data rate connectivity for wireless personal devices. Thus, it is
designed to support at least 11Mbps data rate within at least 10 meters
range2. The IEEE 802.15.3 standard is operated in 2.4GHz ISM frequency
band. Unlike IEEE 802.15.1, which employs FHSS on PHY layer, IEEE
802.15.3 uses Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS), and it does not
allow changes of operating channels once a connection is initiated
[9][10][11][14].
4.8 IEEE 802.15.4 [18] addresses the needs of Low-Rate Wireless Personal
Area Networks (LR-WPAN). While other WLAN (e.g. IEEE 802.11.a/b/g )
and WPAN (e.g. IEEE 802.15.1 and 802.15.3) technologies focus on
providing high data throughput over wireless ad hoc networks, IEEE
802.15.4 is designed to facilitate those wireless networks, which are mostly
static, large, and consuming small bandwidth and power. Therefore, the
IEEE 802.15.4 technology is anticipated to enable various applications in
the fields of home networking, automotive networks, industrial networks,
interactive toys and remote metering [9][10][11][14].
Here we compared different standard of WPAN on the basis of the basic
characteristic like Topic, Operational Spectrum, Physical Layer Detail,
Channel Access, Maximum Data Rate, Modulation Technique, Coverage,
Approximate Range, Power Level Issues, Interference, Price, Security, rcv
Bandwidth, Number of Channels, Applications, Mode of operation (Ad hoc,
Infrastructure, VANET ), License/Unlicensed, QoS needs.
Table 3. Comparison of IEEE standard of WPAN [3][5][13][12] [9][10][11][14].
IEEE Standard
Topic
Operational
Spectrum
802.15.1
Bluetooth
2.4 GHz ISM band
Physical Layer
Detail
FHSS 1600 hops per
second
Channel Access
Master-Slave
Polling, Time
Division
Duplex(TDD)
Maximum Data
Rate
Up to 1 Mbps(0.72)
/ 3Mbps
802.15.3
High rate WPAN
2.402-2.480 GHz ISM
band
Uncoded QPSK, Trellis
Coded QPSK or
16/32/64-QAM scheme
CSMA-CA and
Guaranteed Time
Slot(GTS) in a Super
frame Structure
11-55 Mbps/ 110Mbits
802.15.4
Low rate WPAN
2.4 GHz and
868/915Mhz
DSSS with BPSK or
MSK
(O-QPSK)
CSMA-CA and
Guaranteed Time
Slot(GTS) in a Super
frame Structure
868 MHz -20,915
MHz- 40 MHz, 2.4
GHz-250 Kbps, 40
kbps
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8DPSK, DQPSK,
_/4-DQPSK, GFSK,
AFH
<10 m
QPSK, DQPSK,
16/32/64QAM
BPSK, OQPSK, ASK,
DSSS, PSSS
<10m
<20m
100m
10m
75m
Power Level Issues
1mA-60mA
<80mA
Interference
Price
Present
Low(<$10)
Less Secure. User
the SAFER +
encryption at
baseband layer.
Relies on higher
layer security
1MHz
Present
Medium
Modulation
Technique
Coverage
Approximate
Range
Security
rcv Bandwidth
Number of
Channels
Applications
Ad hoc
Infrastructure
VANET
License/Unlicense
d
QoS needs
Very low current
drain(20- 50 µA)
Present
Very low
Very high level of
security including, piracy,
encryption and digital
service certificate
Security features in
development
15MHz
2MHz
79
5
16
WPAN
Yes
No
Yes
HR-WPAN
Yes
No
Yes
LR-WPAN
Yes
No
Yes
Unlicensed
Unlicensed
Unlicensed
QoS suitable for
voice application
Very high QoS
Relaxed needs for data
rate and QoS
4.9 Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX)
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a wireless
communications standard designed to provide 30 to 40 megabit-per-second
data rates, with the 2011 update providing up to 1 Gbit/s for fixed stations.
The name "WiMAX" was created by the WiMAX Forum, which was
formed in June 2001 to promote conformity and interoperability of the
standard. The forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology
enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an
alternative to cable and DSL". IEEE 802.16 stands for WiMAX (Worldwide
Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a trademark for a family of
telecommunications protocols that provide fixed and mobile Internet access.
The 2005 WiMAX revision provided bit rates up to 40 Mbit/s with the 2011
update up to 1 Gbit/s for fixed stations. It supports the frequency bands in
the range between 2 GHz and 11 GHz, specifies a metropolitan area
networking protocol that will enable a wireless alternative for cable, DSL
and T1 level services for last mile broadband access, as well as providing
backhaul for 801.11 hotspots.
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WiMAX allows for infrastructure growth in underserved markets and is
today considered the most cost-effective means of delivering secure and
reliable bandwidth capable of supporting business critical, realtime
applications to the enterprise, institutions and municipalities. It has proven
itself on the global stage as a very effective last mile solution. In the United
States though, licensed spectrum availability and equipment limitations have
held up early WiMAX adoption. In fact, while there are currently 1.2+
million WiMAX subscribers worldwide, only about 11,000 of those are
from the United States. Future growth in this market will be driven by
wireless ISPs like Clear wire who intends to cover 120-million covered
POPs in 80 markets with WiMAX by the end of 2010. Growth will also be
driven by the availability of the 3.65-GHz spectrum that the FCC opened up
this past year. In this paper, we compared some IEEE Standard 802.16a,
802.16d, 802.16e, 802.16m on the basis of basic characteristic, Application,
Limitation and their used.[2][19]
Table 4. Different IEEE Standard under 802.16 Standard [19].
Standard
Description
Status
802.16-2001
Fixed Broadband Wireless Access (10–66 GHz)
Superseded
802.16.2-2001
Recommended practice for coexistence
Superseded
802.16c-2002
System profiles for 10–66 GHz
Superseded
802.16a-2003
Physical layer and MAC definitions for 2–11 GHz
Superseded
P802.16b
License-exempt frequencies (Project withdrawn)
Withdrawn
P802.16d
Maintenance and System profiles for 2–11 GHz (Project
merged into 802.16-2004)
Merged
802.16-2004
Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access System
(rollup of 802.16-2001, 802.16a, 802.16c and P802.16d)
Superseded
P802.16.2a
Coexistence with 2–11 GHz and 23.5–43.5 GHz (Project
merged into 802.16.2-2004)
Merged
802.16.2-2004
Recommended practice for coexistence (Maintenance and
rollup of 802.16.2-2001 and P802.16.2a)
Current
802.16f-2005
Management Information Base (MIB) for 802.16-2004
Superseded
802.162004/Cor12005
Corrections for fixed operations (co-published with 802.16e2005)
Superseded
802.16e-2005
Mobile Broadband Wireless Access System
Superseded
802.16k-2007
Bridging of 802.16 (an amendment to IEEE 802.1D)
Current
802.16g-2007
Management Plane Procedures and Services
Superseded
P802.16i
Mobile Management Information Base (Project merged into
802.16-2009)
Merged
802.16-2009
Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless
Access
System
Current
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(rollup of 802.16-2004, 802.16-2004/Cor 1, 802.16e,
802.16f, 802.16g and P802.16i)
802.16j-2009
Multihop relay
Current
802.16h-2010
Improved Coexistence Mechanisms for License-Exempt
Operation
Current
802.16m2011
Advanced Air Interface with data rates of 100 Mbit/s mobile
and 1 Gbit/s fixed. Also known as Mobile WiMAX Release
2 or Wireless MAN-Advanced. Aiming at fulfilling the ITUR IMT-Advanced requirements on 4G systems.
Current
P802.16n
Higher Reliability Networks
In Progress
P802.16p
Enhancements to Support Machine-to-Machine Applications
In Progress
Here our comparison of WiMAX Standard on basis of Spectrum
Bandwidth, Propagation, Throughput, Modulation, Usage/ Mobility, Range,
Mode of Network (Ad-hoc, Infrastructure, VANET), License/Unlicensed
Table 5. Comparison of Different WiMAX Standard 802.16a/ d/ e/ m
[2][3][5][9][10][11][20].
MobileWiM
AX2.0
WiMAX
Fixed WiMAX
802.16 a
802.16d
Mobile WiMAX
802.16e
Spectrum
Bandwidth
10-66 GHz
2-11GHz
2-6GHz
Sub 6 GHz
Propagation
LOS
NLOS
NLOS
NLOS
Throughput
up to 134
Mbps
up to 75 Mbps
up to15 /30 Mbps
Over
300Mbps
Channelizati
on
28 MHz
20 MHz
5 MHz/10 MHz
100 MHz
Modulation
QPSK,
16QAM
256 subcarriers
OFDMBPSK,QPSK,16
QAM,64QAM
OFDMA,QPSK,16QA
M,64QAM, 256QAM
(optional)
64QAM
Usage/
Mobility
WMAN
Fixed
WMAN Fixed
WMAN Portable
WMAN
Portable
Range
Typical 46 miles
Typical 4-6 miles
Typical 1-3 miles
Typical 1-3
miles
Ad-hoc
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Infrastructure
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
VANET
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Licensed/Unl
icensed
Unlicensed
Unlicensed
2.3, 2.5, 3.5, 3.7, and
5.8 GHz- Licensed
Unlicensed
802.16m
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Finally in this paper, we compared the Different technology WLAN/Wi-Fi,
WPAN, WiMax on the basis of IEEE Standard, Operating Frequency,
Bandwidth, Data rate, Multiple Access, Coverage, Range, Mode of
Network, Target Market.
Table 6. Comparison of WLAN, WPAN, WiMAX [1][3][4][5][9]
[10][11][12][13][14][20].
WLAN/Wi-Fi
WPAN
WiMax Fixed/Mobile
IEEE Standard
802.11
802.15
802.16
Operating
Frequency
2.4- 5 GHz
2.4GHz
10-66 GHz
Bandwidth
20MHz
15 MHZ
5-6 GHz
Data rate
1-150 Mbps
40 kbps- 110
Mbps
15,30,75,134,over300Mbps
Multiple
Access
CSMA/CA
CSMA-CA
OFDM/OFDMA
Coverage
Small
Small
Low
Range
250 m
10- 75 m
1-6 mile
Mode of
Network
Ad-hoc, Infrastructure
and VANET
Ad-hoc and
VANET
Ad-hoc, Infrastructure and
VANET
Target Market
Home/ Enterprise
Home/
Enterprise
Home/ Enterprise
5. CONCLUSION
This paper has presented a description of the most prominent developing
wireless access networks. Detailed technical comparative analysis between
WLAN, WPAN, WiMAX wireless networks that provide an alternative
solution to the problem of information access in remote inaccessible areas
where wired networks are not cost effective have been looked into. This
work has proved that the WiMAX standard goal is not to replace Wi-Fi in
its applications, but rather to supplement it in order to form a wireless
network web.
REFERENCES
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Study”, Indian Journal of Engineering Vol 2,No. 5, March 2013.
[3] Jan Magne Tjensvold, “Comparison of the IEEE 802.11, 802.15.1, 802.15.4 and
802.15.6 wireless standards”, September 18, 2007
ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 3, No. 1. JULY 2013
12
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[10] IEEE Std 802.15.4-2011, Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs).
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[12] Ling-Jyh Chen, Tony Sun, Mario Gerla, “Modeling Channel Conflict Probabilities
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[13] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.15
[14] “IEEE 802.15 wpan task group 1 (tg1),” http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/TG1.html.
[15] “IEEE 802.15 wpan task group 3 (tg3),” http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/TG3.html.
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