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RELATING RECD DING ART
TO
iECCRDINC SCIENCE
www.americanradiohistory.com
TO RECORJIN3 EQUIDMENT
IR
t
EXPAND YOUR HORIZONS
To reach the stars in this business you need two things, talent and
exceptionally good equipment. The AMEK 2500 is State of the Art design
and technology respected worldwide. In the past 12 months alone, we've
placed consoles in Los Angeles, Dallas, New York, Nashville, London. Frankfort, Munich, Paris, Milan, Tokyo, Sidney, Guatemala City, and Johannesberg.
When you have a great piece of equipment, word gets around. The
"2500" has become an industry standard. It's everything you want in a
master recording console, and...with the recent strength of the U.S. dollar
versus the British pound, it's currently at a price that's even better than
you expected. But why not find out for yourself? You can get all the specifications and information with just a phone call to one of our dealers...
They'll be happy to help you "EXPAND YOUR HORIZONS."
AMEK
DEALERS:
AMEK SYSTEMS AND CONTROLS, LTD.
EVERYTHING AUDIO
Islington Mill. lames Street
Salford M3 SHW, England
Phone 001 -834 6747 Telex 668127
16055 Ventura Boulevard, Suite 1001
Encino, California 91436
Phone (213) 995- 4175Teles 051485
www.americanradiohistory.com
WESTBROOK AUDIO. INC.
1836 Judd Court, Suite 336
Dallas. Texas 75243
Phone 1214) 699 -1203
1
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www.americanradiohistory.com
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www.americanradiohistory.com
"Obsolete" will never apply to Mitsubishi
Digital Audio Equipment.
Mitsubishi means flexibil_ty.
We've designed
-
ou-S systems with
you, your budgets, and the future of
the Entire recording industry in mind.
Mitsubishi Digital Audio Systems let
you start out with basic masterirg
equipment and build your system as
the need develops. The equipment
you buy today is state-of- the -art and
is designed to accommodate any
improvements the future may br ng.
For instance, we've already greatly
improved the abilities of our
2-channel recorders capabilities.
Why choose Mitsubishi?
Selection.
We are one of the few companies
that can offer uncompromised quality
and flexibility in such a wide rangr
of PCM equipment. From 2- channel
mastering to 32-charnel recorders.
to advanced electron_c editors,
Mitsubishi makes them all with the
quality that you demand at very
realisti: prices.
Fixed Head Design.
All Mitsubishi Recorders use a
fixed head design. We believe
this is the link betweer
analog and digital recording.
The fixed head design
makes engineering as
simple as analog, allows
simultaneous sound
monitoring, and is
much more reliable
than the cassette
rotary head format.
The fixed head design
even allows for razor blade
editing, as well as sophisticated
electronic editing.
Also, the fixed head design allows
for a flat frequency response of up to
23 kHz (optionally) and has a more
practical design than otter systems.
And, of course it's highl,' compatible
with the CD digital audit disks that
will be available in audio stores in
the United States next year.
System Design.
We will come to you anywhere in
North America, allow you to test and
evaluate this recording equipment in
your own studio, and custom design
TI-E CONSOLE "PPE X80A
THE TRANSPORTABLE X8C
Mitsubishi PCM system for your
specific needs. ImmediEte delivery is
available on most models. Leasing
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rent systems directly for short term
projects.
a
Come See and Hear the
Mitsubishi Digital Audio
Systems.
Stop by our booth at the AES Show
and talk to our designees and system
analysts. We'll be in room 699 at the
Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York,
from Octcbcr 30th to November 2nd.
If you can't make it to the AES show,
call Lou Dblllenger or Sonny
Kawakam_, at 800- 323 -4216 or
312 -982 -9232 (within Illinois), for
more detailed information about
Mitsubishi Digital Audio Systems.
Mitsubishi can't be beat for sound,
price, versatility, or servie.
Don't even consider another PCM
system 'til you've seen and heard
Mitsubishi.
MITSUBISHI
AUDIO SYSTEMS
DIGITAL
EXPERIENCE the 3rd dimension in sound.
7045 North Ridgeway Avenue, Lincolnwood, IL 60645
For additional information circle
=1
www.americanradiohistory.com
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www.americanradiohistory.com
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the
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SCAM
Neve Computer Assisted Mixing System
Capitol Records
First NECAM in North America
A &R Recording
Automated Sound
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Electric Lady
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Goodnight L.A.
Pinewood Studios
Queen Village
RCA Records
Ronnie Milsap
RPM Sound
Rumbo Recorders
Skaggs Video
Soundcastle
Sound City
Sound Labs
Sound Stage Studio
Studio 55
The Hit Factory
Hollywood Sound
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Motown/Hitsville
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Phil Ramone
Pierce Arrow Recorders
United Sound
United Western
Universal Recording
The Village Recorder
Waterstreet
CBS Records
Latest
NECAM in New York
Still Number One
keep it that way! Neve introduced the NECAM Computer Assisted Mixing System in 1976,
to be immediately accepted by the recording industry as the only practical computer assisted mixdown system
available. And in 1931, 5 years later, NECAM is not only maintaining but rather advancing its lead on the
competition with the recent introduction of NECAM II. Ask the artists, the producers, the mixing engineers.
Most of the top professionals in our industry agree NECAM is still the only practical automation system around.
And determined to
And
it is fully compatible with video sound production facilities. Advance with
NECAM, and
join the Neve world of Excellence.
Some of the unique NECAM features:
Exclusive instinctive update Store and recall up to 999 mixes Time independent Full auto locate to anywhere
on the tape by 999 point memory
Compatible studio to studio SMPTE time code based No multiple pass delay
Merge mixes/tracks Unlimited grouping Auto -mute on wind/rewind Auto pre -roll Up to 64 circuits
with 999 programmable events for trigger of external effects and functions Programmable
roll-back and repeat Memorized track muting
N Neve
Rupert Neve Incorporated Berkshire Industrial Park, Bethel, Connecticut 06801 Tel: (203)744 -6230 Telex: 969638
Rupert Neve Incorporated 7533 Sunset Blvd., Hollywood, California 90046 Tel: (213)874 -8124 Telex: 194942
Rupert Neve Incorporated P.O. Box 120907, Nashville, Tennessee 37212 Tel: (615)385 -2090
Rupert Neve of Canada. Ltd. 2721 Rena Road, Malton, Ontario L4T 31(1, Canada Tel: (416)677 -6611 Telex: 983502
Neve Electronics International, Ltd. Cambridge House, Melbourn, Royston, Hertfordshire, SG8 6ALI England Tel: (0763)60776
Rupert Neve GmbH 6100 Darmstadt Bismarckstrasse 114, West Germany Tel: (06151)81764
October
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R-e/p
7
-
RE00/47/
fNO/NffR
Ri?DUCfR'
magazine to
-RECORDING
STUDIO
exclusively serve the
and CONCERT SOUND
industries
those whose work involves the
engineering and production of commercially
marketable product for:
Records and Tape
Film
Live Performance
Video and Broadcast
the
...
---
ART ...
the magazine produced to relate recording
to recording SCIENCE ... to recording
EQUIPMENT.
s
sa.N111118
®
i
MARTIN GALLAY
Editor /Publisher
MEL LAMBERT
Editor at Large
ROBERT CARR
Feature Writer
Consulting Editors
PETER BUTT ... Technical Operations
MARTIN POLON ... Video
DOUGLAS HOWLAND ... Broadcast
STEVEN BARNETT ... Film
HOLLY FERGUSON
Staff Illustrator
Advertising Service
PATTY COLLINS
Manager
Circulation /Subscription
SANDY ST. CLAIRE
Manager
-
-
- Contents -
o
Volume
12
Production Viewpoint
The Production and Musical Perspective of HUMBERTO GATICA
by Robert Carr
-
page 56
by John Eargle
-
page 68
by Gary Davis
-
page 72
-
page 84
-
page 88
-
Audio Systems Engineering
TIME DOMAIN IN MONITOR LOUDSPEAKERS
Blauert and Laws Criteria Applied
Concert Sound Reinforcement
-
THE CHICAGOFEST
A Unique Musical Festival
Computing in Audio
... Second to None
-
USING MINICOMPUTERS FOR AUDIO SYSTEM ANALYSIS
by Chris Foreman
Radio Production Techniques
-
THE KING BISCUIT FLOWER HOUR
Recording and Producing for Broadcast Syndication
by Paul Lehrman
-
Audio/Video Recording
THE GREENE-CROWE MOBILE
Audio Requirements for Remote TV Production
Audio /Video Perspectives
Recording and Studio Techniques
by Winn Schwartau
by Martin Polon
--
page 100
page 100
by Robert Carr
-
page 112
-
page 124
-
RECORDING ACOUSTIC GUITAR
Studio Operations
-
ELECTRONICS, TROUBLESHOOTING AND MAINTENANCE
for the Less Than Technical Studio Personnel
by Ethan Winer
"RECORDING Engineer/Producer"
(USPS 768 -840)
a year by GALLAY
COMMUNICATIONS, INC., 1850 Whitley
Avenue, Hollywood, California 90028, and is
sent to qualified recipients in the United States.
One year (six issues) subscriptions may be
purchased at the following rates:
United States (Surface Mail)
$15.00
United States (First Class)
$20.00
Canada
$20.00
Foreign
$25.00
(Foreign subscriptions payable in U.S. funds
only by bank or money order.)
is
published six times
Digital Recording
-
EDITING WITH THE SONY ROTARY-HEAD SYSTEM
by Rick Plushner
EDITING WITH THE MITSUBISHI STATIONARY -HEAD SYSTEM
by Lou Dollenger
-
page 134
page 134
-
The Business Side of Production
SUCCESSFULLY NEGOTIATING THE
RECORD PRODUCER'S AGREEMENT
- Departments
...
-A
- - NewsNew
Products Advertiser's
Studio Update Index - The Cover Thomas Warkentin,
by Neville L. Johnson
page 144
and Daniel Webb Lang
Flight into 2000
Views: Studio Ultra
and Beyond, by Jim Shifflett
page 12;
Production Microphone Techniques, by Jack Douglas page 26; State of the Direct -to -Disk
Tower of Power on Sheffield Labs, by Larry Brown
page 44 Cl
page 156
11
Classified
RECORDING Engineer /Producer is not
responsible for any claim by any person based
on the publication by RECORDING Engineer/ Producer of material submitted for publication.
Material appearing in RECORDING
Engineer /Producer may not be reproduced
without the written consent of the publisher.
-
page 177
page 190
page 174
page 190
Original illustration by
a Venice, California -based graphic artist whose
work has appeared in Star Trek
The Motion Picture, and Heavy Metal. A fictitious tour of
Studio Ultra, an audio/video recording facility of the next century, appears on page 12.
-
R -e /p RETAIL SALES DISTRIBUTORS
R -e /p may be purchased from the following
Copies of the latest issue of
_
9
Controlled Circulation Postage
paid at
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Postmaster: Send form 3579
Address correction to:
RECORDING Engineer/Producer
P.O. Box 2449
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(213) 467 -1111
R -e /p 8
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October 1981
Number 5
October
dealers:
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Hollywood, California
WORLD BOOK AND NEWS,Cahuenga Blvd. at Hollywood Blvd.
OP-AMP BOOKS, 1033 N. Sycamore Avenue
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Westminister, California
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San Francisco, California
SOUND GENESIS, 2001 Bryant Street
Seattle, Washington
PRO AUDIO /SEATTLE, 11057 8th St. NE
INSTITUTE OF AUDIO RESEARCH, 64 University Place
New York, New York
MARTIN AUDIO VIDEO, 42:3 West 55th Street
St. Louis, Missouri
ANTECH LABS, 8144 Big Bend Boulevard
Atlanta, Georgia
METRO MUSIC CENTER, 3100 Roswell Road NW
Minneapolis, Minnesota
AUDIO PERFECTION, 7401 Lyndale Ave South
Vancouver, BC, Canada
BILL LEWIS MUSIC LTD 3607 W. Broadway
FUTURE FILM DEVELOPMENTS, 36/38 Lexington Street
London, England
Hamburg, West Germany
SAITEN & SEITEN, Gartnerstr 109
Tokyo, Japan
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FARRELL MUSIC CO., 506 Pittwater Road, Brookvale, NSW
Details of the R -e/p retail sales program are available by writing:
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1981
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LONDON
NEW YORK
COPENHAGEN
U.K. & Europe
Solid State Logic
Churchfields
Stonesfield, Oxford
England OX7 2PQ
(099 389) 8282
Telex 837400
.b.
sbn
status
status
NASHVILLE
LOS ANGELES
STOCKHOLM
Naves
BERLIN
MUNICH
TOKYO
MONTREAL
HAMBURG
TRONDHEIM
Solid State Logk
Master Studio Systems
For additional information circle #4
www.americanradiohistory.com
DETROIT
1
MEXICO CITY
NAPLES
MILAN
fdorth & South America
Musicworks International
2352 Wisconsin Avenue
Washington. D.C.
U. S. A. 20007
(202) 333 -1500
Telex 440519
October
1981
R -e/p 11
-A
Burbank
Honolulu
We won't
Montreux
promise
the world,
but we will deliver
what we promise!
Now installing the SM 3
Two-way
monitor system.
And we've recently delivered for these clients:
Kuangchi Program Service
Taipei
(1
studio)
Paradise Studios
Sydney (1 studio)
Wing Hang Records
Hong Kong
(1
studio)
Fantasy Records
Berkeley
(1
studio,
1
disk room)
Osmond Entertainment
Orem
(1
studio)
South Coast Studios
Austin
(1
studio)
Warehouse Recording
New York City
(1
studio)
CBS /Sony Studios
Tokyo (12 studios)
Nightwind Studios
Honolulu (2 studios)
Sugar
Hill
Englewood
Records
(1
studio)
Donny Osmond
Provo
(1
studio)
CBS /Sony Records
Roppongi (2 studios)
Chick Corea
Mad Hatter Studios
Contec Television
Hong Kong (2 studios)
un
six continents some 304 studios altogether.
SIERRA/EASTLAKE
621 South Glenwood Place
Burbank, California 91506
(213) 843 -8115 Telex: 691138
R-e /p 12
October
-
View of the Future
wall, and fills one quarter of the room.
Each side of the stage is flanked with a
25 -foot diagonal video screen. On
ceiling- mounted tracks, suspended
from telescoping shafts, are three what
appear to be automated cameras. The
rest of the room seats about 3,000 on an
Here it is your chance to travel into
incline, and is an indoor cross between a
the imaginary future of recording modern opera house and a television
studios.
studio.
The elevator's back -lit liquid crystal
From where I have entered at one end
display says "Penthouse
Studio of the balcony I am able to see two sets
Ultra." I've been through the ground of sliding pneumatic glass doors. One
floor offices to reach this private
set is open with a young woman
elevator. The doors open silently. I step standing before it, looking my way. I
out into the usual plush carpet, wood guess correctly; she is my guide, Helene.
paneling and stone -walled reception She waves for me to come up that way.
area. So far, nothing is too different;
The two sets of doors, which form an
there's a generous use of micro- air lock, are an entrance to a small
processor technology, CRTs and hallway leading up a ramp, I presume,
magnetic files.
into the control room.
The receptionist smiles and tells me I
"Hi, I'm Jim, are you Helene ?," I ask.
am expected, to go through the door
"Yes," she replies. "I'm glad you're on
down the hall, and enter the door time. We have only 30 minutes before an
labeled Studio 4. I approach the door
overdub session begins."
indicated, and it slides back to reveal a
We ascend the ramp into the control
long, deeply carpeted hallway floors, room. The room is big with a 13 -foot
walls and ceiling
and dimly lit. ceiling. A three -foot high stage
Traversing the hall I pass several dominates the floor. On the stage rises a
alcoves with life -size, moving holo- pedestal supporting a 25 -foot long and
graphic images of artists that have 3 -foot deep curved console. Behind the
recorded here.
console to either side are two more of
Ahhh, here it is: Studio 4. The door those comfortable looking contoured
slips into the wall and I walk on to a couches. Directly in front of the console
balcony 30 feet above the floor in a large is a video screen, on each side of which
round room. A glass wall seals the are speaker panels. Flanking this whole
balcony from the studio. Traveling half arrangement are two more video
the circumference of the room, the screens.
balcony is filled with contoured couches
"I'm sure glad you got me here early,"
and coffee tables.
I say, as we walk up the gentle slope to
I am looking down into the studio
the console.
which for all the world reminds me of
"Since you hadn't seen a studio like
the ultimate, intimate concert environ- this I wanted to have time to answer
ment. A five-foot high stage on the
some of your questions," Helen offers.
opposite side has been built into the
"O.K., I count 40 faders on the
console. How many tracks can this
the author
room record, and where are the tape
Jim Shifflett, as a ten -year veteran of the
machines?"
record industry, has to his credit indepen"This is a 1024 track console and
edent productions for United Artists/Blue
there are no tape machines; it's all
Note, Mercury Record Company, and
stored by the console," Helene explains.
RCA. As a recording mixing engineer his
"This `console,' as you call it, is one
credits include five Sylvers' albums for
terminal of a computer which is located
MGM, and numerous other albums for
in another area of the complex. The
United Artists /Blue Note, Casablanca,
central processing unit cruises at 500
RCA, Motown, Solar, Capital, Atlantic,
million instructions per second, with
Elektra, and Curtom Records. He has
100 megabytes static RAM and 10
worked as a sound reinforcement
trillion bytes of bubble storage.
Typically no more than 200 tracks are
engineer. And in Los Angeles, he has
experience working in every major studio,
used. However, the engineer can request
and a few "not -so- major."
that more memory be assigned for a
Flight into 2000
... and Beyond
STUDIO ULTRA
from: Jim Shifflett
Vortech Studios
Los Angeles, California
A
-
-
-
-
-
-
Currently, he owns and operates his
own computer software business, and is
also President of Vortech Studios, a
company that plans to build a state-of -theart audio /video room in New York City, to
be known as Lyntech International.
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
special project.
"There are, in addition to the CPU,
over 1,000 32 -bit microprocessors in the
console. In other words this is a
distributed processing system. The
console stores all processing information about the program as well as the
SS wNIP
NIP
b
PROFESSIONALISM,
NOT JUST BELLS AND
WHISTLES.
I WANT
THAT'S WHY I
DEMAND MCI.
=II
MP 1111111
NVraell IS
010 OS
WO
MI
ao0.
Straightforward. That's the kind of
person Donny Osmond is, and that's the
quality he demands in recording equipment. He gets it with his fully
equipped MCI recordirg studio located in
the audio /video Osmor d Entertainment
Center in Orem, Utah. Sensible design.
Clean sound. And the kind of versatiity no
other recording equipment at any pr ce
can beat.
MCI. Not always the most expens
but always the best.
M\V. \1'
1400 W. Commercial Boulevard, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33309 USA. Telephone: (305) 491 -0825. Telex: 514362 MCI FTL
For additional information circle #5
www.americanradiohistory.com
rwnsooi -coos 8
STUDIO ULTRA
music. There is no outboard equipment,
since all the signal processing is done
by the computer through the console,
and is user /software definable."
"Let's look at the signal processing
chain," Helene continues, taking
obvious pleasure in the technology.
"The analog or digital signal input is
first scanned to determine whether or
not it is digital. If it isn't the input is
routed through an analog-to- digital
converter. The ADC has a sampling
rate of 100 kHz."
I'm intrigued. "That seems to indicate
that there are analog as well as digital
microphones, right?"
"Yes, Jim, there are still analog
dynamic and condenser microphones
around."
"Helene, what's your favorite
microphone?"
I
ask.
"Right now I am hooked on the
PZDM, or Pressure Zone Digital
Microphone. I use it for vocals, strings,
pianos, acoustic guitars, and so on.
However, I still prefer some dynamics
for certain sounds. On one level you
could argue that it's all the same, since
at some point the physical energy must
be converted to digital. But there is
often a qualitative difference between
analog -to- digital converters in a
microphone and those in this console;
the latter being better. That is why,
generally speaking, only condenser
microphones have become digital.
"Alright, back to the signal chain.
Next is the level guard, which tests level
information from a portion of a 32 -bit
word. That word also carries frequency and time -domain information. To the
console, a signal is either present, not
present, or in overload. This status is
representedby a two section (red /green)
indicator. No signal or Signal Too Low
conditions are represented by neither
section being lit. Signal Present lights
the green section, and Signal Overload
the red. This indicator replaces the level
meters you're probably used to.
"The signal now goes to the
processing section for equalization,
limiting, noise gateing, attenuating,
special effects, etc. After this, the signal
is split and sent to the monitor section
and, if `in record,' to a buffer RAM and
on to bubble storage."
"Tell me how 40 faders represent 1024
discreet channels?" I query.
Helene's eyes sparkle as she mentally
organizes her next explanation; they
seem a natural extension of that sleek
mushroom of metal and glittering
lights glowing at her fingertips.
"The way the console is programmed
right now," she offers, running her
hands across the front of the desk, "the
first 32 positions are sub -group faders;
any number of channels from 1 to 32
can be assigned to them. The next seven
faders are designated group masters.
They group any combination or all of
the sub -group faders. The last fader is
the group master fader, and It controls
all of the group masters. Generally, I
don't assign more than 32 tracks to a
sub -group, simply because there are
only 32 physical positions."
Visually checking my comprehension, Helene continues, "See this button
with `CALL' next to it ?"
"Yes, but hold your thought and tell
me about all the inscriptions on the
console," I ask.
"No problem. You've noticed the
back -lighted LCDs. They are used for
all labeling, since all the functions are
software definable. Let's say on
channel #130 I need equalization, a
noise gate and limiting. I would first
look at the two LCDs right above the
fader on each position to see which one
was the sub-group master for that
channel. Then ... "
"Wait a minute, Helene," I interject,
"would you break that down ?"
"Of course. Look at sub-group fader
#10. Right above the fader and below
the two rectangular buttons labeled
`ASSIGN' and `CALL,' do you see the
two LCDs?
"The LCD on the left, under the
ASSIGN button, tells you the lowest
... continued on page 18
-
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The LM -1 Drum Computer
a
-
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* Real Drum Sounds digital recordings
stored in computer memory
* 100 Drumbeats all programmable in
real time
* Easy to understand and operate,
requires no technical knowledge
* Drums: bass, snare, hi hat, cabasa,
12
*
*
R-e /p 14
tambourine, two toms, two congas,
cowbell, clave, and hand claps!
All drums tunable in pitch
13 input Stereo Mixer
October
* Separate Outputs
* Versatile editing
* Automatic
error correction in
* Programmed data may be stored on
programming
tape to be loaded back in later
* "Human" Rhythm Feel made possible * cassette
May be synced to tape
by special timing circuitry.
free demo record and the name of
* Able to program (lams, rol build -ups, For
your local dealer, call or write today:
open and closed hi hat, etc.
* Programmable dynamics
* Any time signature possible.
* Plays Entire Song (intro, verse, chorus,
fills, ending, etc.)
LINN ELECTRONICS, INC.
* All programmed parts remain in
4000 West Magnolia
See us at AES,
memory when power is off.
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* Readout of speed in beats -per- minute (213)
841 -1945
Is,
a
inn
1981
For additional information circle #6
www.americanradiohistory.com
Sound Workshop on the right to bear ARMS.
When Sound Workshop introduced its computer automation system several years ago, we named it ARMS
tongue in cheek acronym for the Auto -Recall Mix down System. At that time, recording industry use of
console computer automation was focussed on the
multitrack mixdown process and a system designed
to aid that process would thereby provide additional
"arms" for the engineer.
Technology has continued to evolve since that time,
and so has the idea of using a computer to do more
than just assist in the mixing process. One can spend
more than a quarter of a million dollars for a computerized recording console nowadays. And the computer
in that board will eliminate the use of pencil and paper
forever by allowing the "recall" of virtually all of the
console set -up information. A definite advantage in the
creative process, but the price tag can be forbidding
(even when you consider the money saved on pencil
and paper).
Sound Workshop is not presently building consoles in
the highest price brackets. We have concentrated our
expertise on designing and building cost -effective professional console systems that in many ways outperform their more expensive counterparts. The Series 30
shown here provides a perfect example of what we do.
Aid we have maintained this same approach regarding console automation.
Although ARMS was specifically designed to aid the
recording engineer during complex mixdown situations
it actually functions throughout the recording process
by providing computer control/assistance to a number
of mechanical operations previously done manually,
with the help of other engineers, or not at all. ARMS
Automation includes the following functions:
Automated control of channel levels (Level Write)
Independent automated control of channel on /off
status (Mute Write)
Full In -Place Solo System
Total integration of all automated functions into all
group structures
Super -Group
The most vital aspect of ARMS Automation is its ability
to control the on /off status of each input channel totally
independent from its control of channel level information. Even if ARMS was used just to turn channels on
and off without writing level information (i.e. having the
system control the actual "mix," normally the stated
purpose of automation), a number of mechanical operations common to nearly all mixdown sessions would
be eliminated. These include: noise gating; erasing
unwanted sections on the multitrack master; selecting
proper tracks from duplicate performances; switching
-a
R
11
between "time shared" tracks; changing EQ, Echo,
Panning etc. during specific "sections."
Another major asset of ARMS Automation is its computer- controlled sub -group system named Super Group. Super-Group permits all grouping functions to
be controlled by the computer, eliminating previously
awkward systems of group selection, modification
and visual confirmation. Conventional systems require
the user to scan each input module's thumbwheel
switch (or digital display) to determine which inputs
belong to a given group, an often cumbersome process on today's larger consoles. With Super- Group,
the user merely pushes the button on any channel and
all members of that group light up- instant visual
group confirmation! Other Super -Group features
include:
Solo Dim Allows all channels except the one (or
ones) soloed to be attenuated by any preset amount.
Negative Grouping Allows instant selection of a
group consisting of all channels except those
selected.
Grand Master Any fader may be established as
the console Grand Master.
Local Control Any Group master car be changed
over to local channel control without affecting the
group level.
ARMS Automation is available in the Sound Workshop
Series 30 and Series 40 recording consoles. The exceptional performance and practical value of these
consoles can be confirmed by sitting behind one of
them or by consulting with a studio who owns one.
Twenty -four track automated consoles from Sound
Workshop start at less than $25,000.
Sound Workshop's ARMS Automation is genuinely innovative and amazingly cost -effective. Much more than
just a mixdown aid, it provides a variety of functions not
found in other systems regardless of cost. And Sound
disc Workshop will soon be introducing DISKMIX' "
based storage system designed to augment ARMS
with the capability to store and merge a number of
mixes while providing off-line editing, computer control
and storage of session documentation.
Just a part of your right to bear ARMS.
-a
g:"
sound workshop
-
Sound Workshop Professional Audio Products, Inc.
1324 Motor Parkway, Hauppauge, New York 11788
(516) 582 -6210 Telex 649230.
I
.
ti
;
.
r
!
For additional information circle #7
www.americanradiohistory.com
5tí11 The Best Investment
In A Professional
Two Channel Tape Machine.
The Otan MX-50506
There's a very simple, straightforward reason the MX -5050B has become the world's best -selling professional tape recorder: value. If you
were to ignore all of the production
features, dismiss the six year track
record for unsurpassed reliability, you
would still discover that the "B" is the
best performing machine for your
money. When you shop around you'll
find out that it's easy to spend a little
less or a lot more, but very difficult to
justify to yourself that you are getting
more. When you compare other
machines, spec' by spec', you'll begin to see why there's more value in
putting your money into an Otani.
Spec's of course, don't tell the whole
story. But, it's a damn good place to
start your serious comparisons.
To experience the full potential,
and thus the value of any product
you purposely put it to the test. After a
few hours in the studio or on location,
you can become painfully aware of
the differences between a professional machine and those with a Hi -Fi
heritage. Because Otari's only business is to serve the dedicated audio
professional, you won't find cosmetic
facelifts every couple of years; or,
dredged -up product from another
era that's labeled "Pro." At Otani we
improve each product by subtle engineering refinements that make the
basic product that much better
without fanfare and expensive model
changes that you end up paying for.
And the "B" is the embodiment of this
philosophy. It's been around for three
years (5050 Series, 6 years) and we
plan you'll keep it around a lot
longer. If you're a knowledgeable
audio person who already owns an
Otani you'll know what we're talking
about. If you're not, then it is well
worth your time to review the Performance and Feature facts we've
-
detailed
in this ad. If you're in the
market for a fully professional, superreliable two -track, the time you
spend to acquaint yourself with the
"B" just might mean the difference
between spending your money on a
machine that will do for now -or
deciding to make the investment in a
basic creative tool that will pay you
back handsomely in the years to
come.
THE
FACTS: FEATURES.
Three switchable speed pairs: 15/71
or 71/2/33/4 ips (automatic
equalization).
NAB /IEC selectable equalization.
Selectable +4 or -10 dBm output.
D.C. servo capstan motor with ±7%
varispeed control.
Selective reproduce for overdubbing.
Four heads '/z track erase, record,
reproduce, 1/4 track reproduce
plug-in assembly.
Noise -free punch -in /outs; transport
remote (optional).
Built -in test oscillator.
Front panel adjustable bias and
equalization.
Choice of three alignment levels: 185,
250 & 320 nWb /m.
Dump edit and tape lifter defeat;
precision aligned; and indexed
:
splicing block.
Zero memory return.
101/2" reel capacity, XLR connectors.
Large, illuminated V U. meters with
.
adjustable peak- reading
L.E.D.
indicators.
THE FACTS:
Independent Mic /Line mixing
(20 dB pad).
PERFORMANCE.
Overall Signal -to- Noise: 66 dB
unweighted @ 520 nWb /m, 30 Hz
to 18kHz.
Dynamic Range: 72 dB unweighted:
30 Hz to 18 kHz.
Headroom: +24 dB. Maximum
output: +28 dBm.
Overall Frequency Response: 30 Hz
to 22 kHz ±2.0 dB (15 ips @ +4
THE
FACTS: PRICE.
$2,295.00 Suggested Professional Net.
Your nearest Otani qualified professional audio dealer has The New
Workhorse in stock. Check -out for
Playback Frequency Response: 31.5
Hz to 20 kHz ±2.0 dB (15 ips @ +4
yourself why you should place your
money on the MX- 5050B. If your dealer
shows you anything but an Otani, tell
him, "No thanks, I'm only interested in
making a sound investment."
Call us for the name of your nearest
dealer.
dBm).
Distortion: less than 0.7 %,
The New Workhorse
dBm).
1
kHz @
250 nWb /m,
Crosstalk: greater than 55 dB, kHz,
adjacent tracks.
Wow and Flutter: less than 0.05%
1
(15 ips).
Rewind Time: 90 seconds for 2500
feet.
www.americanradiohistory.com
0172211.
OTARI CORPORATION
2 Davis Drive
Belmont, CA 94002
(415) 592 -8311
© Otani Corp., 1981
r'
iHUC6t.5f2
I-44146,
October 1981
For additional information circle
:18
www.americanradiohistory.com
R-e/p 17
- continued from
page 14
..
.
STUDIO ULTRA
channel in the group, while the one on
the right under the CALL button tells
you the highest."
"O.K., I get it. Since 130 falls between
107 and 140, then it's in sub-group #10."
"Right," Helen says, pushing the
CALL button on sub -group fader #10.
The CALL button on 10 begins to flash.
The LCD under the ASSIGN button
now displays 116; a yellow LED just
over the ASSIGN and CALL buttons
lights up on the first 20 positions. The
CRT informs us in one -inch letters
"SUB-GROUP 10," and under that
there is a numbered list starting at 107
and going to 140. A quick glance tells
me it's a track assignment sheet.
"What we have here is that the
console now is representing the subgroup labeled 10. From left to right you
have positions 107 through 140. The
flashing CALL button indicates it's the
sub -group master. The yellow LEDs
indicate that the faders represent
individual tracks rather than subgroups. I'll now depress the ASSIGN
button."
As she did so, it too began to flash.
"And using this combination of
alphanumeric and dedicated keys,
depress the keys labeled: `LOW EQ;"`_;'
'A.' I now depress the ASSIGN button a
second time; it will cease to flash. You
now have the LCD above the top pair of
knobs reading `L /EQ,' and the LCDs
next to the knobs read `FREQ /0' and
`DB /0.' What range the LOW EQ
operates in has already been defined,
but it could be changed if it were
necessary.
"If I had only typed `EQ' and hit
ASSIGN," Helene continues, "the
console would put four bands of
parametric EQ on 130. Suppose I want
EQ on all channels of the sub -group. I
depress the CALL button, which
returns the console to the subgroup /group master configuration.
Now, when I depress the ASSIGN
button, whatever I do happens to the
whole subgroup."
"And the same goes for the group
masters and master group?" I ask.
"Yes. Likewise, the same procedure
for a noise gate, limiter or aux sends,
there being 12 pairs of knobs labeled A
through L per position."
"If
I
understand you correctly,
Helene, the CALL button on each
position allows the console to represent
one of the groups, for ease in making
changes such as balance, pan, EQ,
sends, whatever."
"Well Jim, you're a quick study. Any
more questions ?"
"Yes, thousands," I reply, "but,
sticking with the console, what sort of
recording assignments are typical ?"
THE NEW CONCEPT
IN DISC MASTERING
The Image Recovery System Master Series
is a new stereo signal processor that "opens
up" and spreads the image, creating greater
width and depth perception. The Master
Series subjectively increases high frequency
response and recovers lost ambiance, "bright-
"The long and short of it is simply
that all inputs are retained discreetly,"
Helene explains. "That way in
mixdown you can totally re- balance or
an instrument or section. Or
leave it alone if you've got it right."
I was becoming totally enthralled
with the console's immense flexibility.
And Helene's.
"What advantages are there from
your standpoint ?" I ask.
"I would say that one advantage is
`practical' total recall. I'm sure you
remember the first automated consoles
that had recall of fader levels, with
some having EQ and pan recall. While
these early consoles were not adequate
for mix recall, they did make mixing
with 24 to 40 track consoles a breeze.
Then with the entrance of computer re- equalize
interfaced peripherals and non -
mechanical digital faders, the foundation was laid for this console."
Helene caressed the console with
affection. "This console is an audio
imagination machine. How I can
manipulate sound is limited only by
what I can conceive, and have the
patience and discipline to execute."
"So the delays and ambient effects
are generated by the console?" I query.
"Yes," Helene continues. "All special
frequency- and /or time-domain change
parameters are software programs. You
can, create your own, of course, and
store it in the system or store it on a
control card. Would you like to see one ?"
ening" the sound without frequency tailoring.
The Master Series creates a remarkable
psychoacoustic effect that can be encoded
on disc and requires no decoding to be ap
predated on any stereo playback system.
The Master Series adds the extra "edge
so often looked for in mastering. Records
acquire an extraordinary new dimension that
simply must be heard to be appreciated. Join
us and share the experience.
IMAGE RECOVERO S 51T.M
MASTER SERIES
CONTROL
Image Recovery System
Master Series
Contact Tom Nist at 213/462 -8940, P.O. Box 1566, Hollywood, CA 90028 or
504/943 -7105, P.O. Box 3429, New Orleans, LA 70177
For additional information circle #9
www.americanradiohistory.com
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.
AMPEX MM-1Z00.
WHERE GREAT STUDIOS START.
Select your multitrack recorder as carefully as the other
facets of your studio. Select the Ampex MM -1200.
Because it's the one multitrack recorder that can go
through every change your studio goes through on its
way to greatness. And still be as economical and easy
to operate as the first great day you got it.
Growth without growing pains. With the MM-1200,
you'll seldom be faced with a situation you can't solve.
Because the MM-1200 comes prewired to make upgrading from 8 to 16, or 16 to 24 -track operation simple and
swift. And if adding channels won't solve your problem,
the MM-1200's versatility will. Mastering, live sound rein-
forcement, double system sound, video sweetening
or film and TV production /post production are all jobs
that the MM-1200 can handle. Built -in single point
search -to -cue, elevated record level capability, 16" reel
capacity and fast start times also help you grow.
Performance you can depend on. The MM -1200 has
proven itself under some of the most adverse conditions.
The massive, stable top plate comes aligned and stays
aligned ... through repeated sessions in the comforts of
the studio, or on remote locations.
Ampex keeps your options open. The list of optional
accessories for the MM -1200 is the longest in the busi-
ness. You can add multi -point search -to-cue and store
20 cue locations. This time -saving tape handling acces-
sory provides tape time readout, cue poirr readout,
"on- the -fly" cueing and more. Other accessories include
the PURC'" Record Insert Controller, Search -ToCue Remote Control, and MSQ -100 Synchronizer for jobs
that require more than 24 tracks. Contact your Ampex
sales representative for complete details.
AMPEX MAKES IT EXCITING
Ampex Corporatior, Audio-Video Systems Division
Broadway, Redwood City, CA 94063 415/367 -2011
401
October
For additional information circle #10
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e/p 19
"Yes, this slice of plastic uses a bubble
memory with a capacity of 2.5
megabytes," she explains.
"You've hooked me with that; how is
it used ?"
"To put the control card into the
system, you type `EXIT' and hit
STUDIO ULTRA
Helene reaches down into a pocket in
the side of her pants, and removes what
appears to be a plastic card about the
thickness of a credit card and the size of
a cassette. She hands it to me.
"That's a control card ?" I demand.
The card in my hand is made of
polished, seamless plastic. One edge is
rimmed with blue. There is writing on
one side which says "Parthenon Series
2000" and, under that, "Helene Doric."
`ENTER, "' Helene says, moving
towards the board. "Now, no matter
what mode the system is in, the console
will continue to do that. But the CRT
and keyboard are now dedicated to the
identification and entering of the card,
and loading its information. The
system is actually doing it in the
background. The screen will now
prompt with `IDENTIFICATION
NUMBER.' I type in my 7 -digit number,
and press `ENTER'." As Helene
completes this, a 7 -inch wide by 3 -inch
high panel swings up and out of sight
inside the console, right under the CRT.
It reveals two slots sized to receive two
of the cards. Helene hands me her card.
"Does it matter which way I put it
in ?"
"Yes, the printed side is up, the blue
edge goes in first. When you feel it pull,
let go. Either slot."
I slipped the card into the left slot and
slowly pushed. It took hold about a
quarter of the distance in. The card
disappeared until it was flush with the
top surface, and a blue light came on
under the slot. The panel revolved shut
again and I realized it was dark smoked
plastic, which allowed the blue light
behind to be visible.
I gave a slow whistle of appreciation.
The CRT now displays a menu. Helene
hits the key marked "CONT" and turns
to face her student.
"I can now modify the primary
parameters of all functions." "They are
automatically loaded when the system
powers up. Basically the control card
unlocks the system and stores
changes."
"This is real nice, but what does it all
sound like," I query, wishing to make
most of the time available during my
visit.
"Pull up a chair and I'll show you.
First I'll call up a music program which
has already been stored in this system. I
should explain that this console and
related system is an intelligent terminal
for a central system. All music
programs relating to the upcoming
session were loaded in to this system by
the office. At the end of a session, the
central system interrogates this
system, stores the changes and any
mixes, and erases the music programs
in it."
"Well, how would you get a copy of
what you did ?"
"Sheet music and audio -visual
/
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1..441
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+
Helene.
She pushes a button marked PLAY,
located in a section that looks just like
the old tape transport remote controls.
/i° o
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oro
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transmitted via phone," explains
OrXc°
%r /aap91/406
CNeutrik
records can be picked up at the office, or
idpa
o/
/hJy/
a/
Then she slips her fingers into the slight
recess of the group masters. The console
becomes animated by lights. The LED
attenuation indicators beside the faders
light, and seem to grow in time with her
motion. The speakers come to life and I
am immediately impressed with high energy performed, transparent, large image, high-definition sound. The
music wraps around one with "live"
warmth.
"Jeez, what kind of speakers are
these? They sound like high -level
electrostats," I offer.
"The speakers are called 'Plasmatrons' and they operate by hydromag-
netic principals. Roughly what
Liechtenstein CNeutrik, 1980
happens is the speaker takes in air from
the room, forces it through a negative
.
R -e /p 20
October
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
continued on page 24
-
The new UREI Series "A" Time -Aligned' °'
monitor systems and their equals, the UREI
Lis:ening Amplifiers.
For the purest sounds you've ever heard,
audition the critically engineered and listener proven
UREI proles
sional monitoring systems.
UREI: The NEW
Monitoring Standard
Now available
with your choice of three accurate Time Aligned' monitors and four sonically
superb power amplifiers.
From small intimate listening situations to
the most spacious environments...from studio control rooms to massive sound reinforcement, the solution to critical music
reproduction for the audio professional is
awaiting your evaluation at your authorized
UREI dealer.
Evaluate the combined technology of a
total UREI monitoring system and you will
know and appreciate why your peers have
made UREI the new monitoring standard.
f
'Time-Align is a Trademark of E.M. Long Assoc., Oakland, CA.
All relbrenced Trademarks are properly of, or licensed by,
United Recording Electronics Industries, a URC Company.
O
.. U From One Pro To Another
United Recording Electronics Industries, a URC Company
8460 San Fernando Road, Sun Valley, California 91352
(213)767 -1000 Telex: 65-1389 UREI SNVY
Worldwide: Gotham Export Corporation, New York
Canada: E. S. Gould Marketing, Montreal
See ¡our professional audio products dealer for full technical
information.
October 198/
www.americanradiohistory.com
X-r
p 71
ready to move up
to a specialized mixer,you'r¢ ready for Ramsa.
If you're
The Sound
Reinforcement
Specialist:
Ramsa WR-8716
,
\'`
When your sound says you re
Iprofessional but your mixer
doesn't. When you're wasting
your subtlety and style on
"make -do 'boards When
you're creating compromises
instead of clear-cut distinctions. Then you're ready for
Ramsa- the new mixers that
are specialized so you won't
have to compromise.
The WR-8716 is a fully
modular sound reinforcement console with 16 input
modules, 4 group modules,
and 2 masters. It features 16
input pre -fader solo buttons.
4 group modules with pre fader insertion patch points
and lockable post -fader solo
buttons. There are 6 illuminated VU meters with peak
LED's for easy outdoor
....
www.americanradiohistory.com
.
reading and a separate
stereo variable frequency EQ
for monitor sends. Pan pot
controls allow panning to the
left or right masters while
level controls permit 16 x 6
board operation. The left and
right direct channel assign
function lets you bypass the
group modules for individual
sources. Portable operation
is a snap with easy access
connectors.
And the WR -8716 features
plastic conductive faders
for greater reliability and
smooth, low -noise operation,
external power supply for
light weight, and switchable
48V DC phantom power
for condenser mics.
The WR -8816 recording
console includes the same
modular construction, input
modules, power supplies, and
faders as the WR -8716 plus
many important recording
advantages. Like direct outputs for 4, 8, or 16 track recording and peak- reading
LED meters that let you monitor any 4 out of 24 signals
with clear, quick response.
You'll command a variable
frequency EQ section with
3 frequency settings for the
high and low frequencies
plus continuously variable
midrange. Stereo echo send
replaces the separate mono
controls you'll find on competitive boards. And you get
two independent stereo
monitor controls -one for
musician's headphones, one
for control room monitors
a special feature for any
mixer in this class. And there
are other important features
-
like low noise electronically
balanced mic inputs with
new high -speed IC's, 1;E
switchable post -fader solo
controls and XLR -type flic
connectors.
Ramla offers a full lige of
specialty mixers includ rig
the more compact WR -.210
recording mixer and WR 13C
sound reinorcement mixer.
So don't hold down your
professional sound, cal
(201) 348-7470, becacse
you're react' for Ramsa
PROFESSIONAL AUDIO DI L'/SION
Oc:ober
For additional information circle #13
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R-e/p 23
continued from page 20 ..
.
vieIew
STUDIO ULTRA
ionization process, and then up a six inch diameter, four -foot, fine wire mesh
cylinder with a positive charge.
Oscillations in the power level and of
the charge causes the air column to
contract and expand what is referred to
as `the minimum mass diaphram. "'
"That sure gets the job done! Can I see
something on the screens?"
"Sure. Watch the center screen."
Helene reaches over to her right and
lightly taps several keys, causing the
screen to burst into color. The image is a
male singer's head, floating in front of
me, while the scene behind him is
racing back to a point directly to the
rear of his head. An implosion of color
with tremendous depth results. The
colors are rich and vibrant. The depth is
breathtaking, and so is the sound.
She has raised the level of the mix and
a guitar solo seems to be trailing off into
a huge open space, as if we are
physically leaving it in the distance.
The head explodes into a thousand
pieces, emitting colors of all hues as the
music climaxes on a pregnant pause for
the last chord. The explosion resolves
into a shot of the stage with three guitar
players and the singer floating down in
slow motion from a leap whose
beginning I didn't see. They come to the
floor gently as leaves. Upon contact the
chord strikes and normal motion
returns. There's the roar and scream of
their fans. A long shot of the stage from
the audience exists momentarily, then
video and audio are extinguished.
"How did you like it?" Helene asks.
"It knocks me out. Was it all done
here? Is it always done with an
audience? The depth in the video was so
realistic; is this some sort of 3-D
process ?"
"Whoa, slow down a bit. Yes, it was
all done here. There's a computer video
control room below this room. It has a
corresponding ability to manipulate
video. And, like this room, it stores its
program information in bubble
memory. There is total communication
between the video effects- editor-
switcher and this console.
"You see," Helene continues, "We get
a rough mix with this console accessing
the corresponding video memory, and
displaying it on the three screens before
you. Meanwhile the video people are
getting some sense of additional
program effects and sequencing, with
their switcher accessing the audio
memory. Then this console is slaved to
the video switcher. Both rooms watch
and listen to the edited playback. Then
the fine tuning of the program begins.
The final work of art will take days to
create, sometimes weeks.
"As to your second question: Yes, it's
almost always done with an audience.
Primarily this is done to achieve the
psychic energy interaction between an
artist and his audience. The artist
rehearses his concert for at least 30
days. He or she then comes here and
records the entire concert two times in
front of two different audiences. The
rest of the acts on a particular program
do the same thing. Each audience sees
only one artist. The best performances
of each artist are joined with additional
special effects, and put on the market as
a package."
"That makes a lot sense," I offer.
"The process has been optimized on all
levels to be a catalyst from a very high
intensity performance."
"Artists always seem to give more in
front of an audience," Helene assents.
"It's something special to capture."
"You've got to tell me about the
video," I demand.
"Wait a minute, I thought your angle
was the evolution of audio recording ?"
"It is, but just give me an idea of how
it's done. After all, at this point in time
there is no longer the separation in
presentations."
"O.K., I'm trapped," acknowledges
Helene. "Are you familiar with concepts
in holography ?"
"Yes, but I could use a refresher
course," I confess.
"Using coherent light generated by a
laser, the beam is split in two; one side is
bounced off the subject and then
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October
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1981
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October
1981
R -e/p 25
be here. The rest of each section will be
generated by the console voicing
STUDIO ULTRA
illuminates a photographic plate. The
other beam goes to the plate directly.
There results on the photographic plate
an interference pattern which, when
developed and illuminated from behind
by coherent light, reproduces the
subject in 3 -D.
"The only difference now," she
continues, "is that the photographic
plate has been replaced: in the first
instance by a TV camera, and in the
second by an `electronic negative.' All
program information is stored in
`bubbles. "'
"Fantastic, an electronic negative," I
enthuse. "The session coming up, is
that going to be played on the two
keyboard instrument next to the
console ?"
"No, it won't be, but it could have been
executed that way. The keyboards are
part of the console, and are known as
the voice control section. They can be
used to generate any sound or
instrument of a particular kind, or to
generate as many as 32 different
voicings per pass."
"For example, the overdub session
coming up will be for strings. Only the
first chair for each section will actually
section, by using the first chair to key a
cluster of doubles with varying delays
and textures."
"Sort of the ultimate in auto -double
tracking," I offer.
"Yes. And it's possible technically to
change the notes and timing of a
performance after or even while it's
being stored."
I have to ask the obvious next
question: "How much does this room
cost to use ?"
"This audio plus video studio goes for
$1,600.00 per hour plus the charge for
seating, which is from $25 to $50 per
person depending on the drawing power
of the artist. Of course, the hourly
charge is lower for overdub sessions."
"What form does the final product
come in ?" I query.
"The broadcast networks air excerpts
from the concerts as advertisements, as
well as portions from different concerts
to form a new concert. This is then sold
and /or broadcast. When you desire a
copy, you call the station that played
the advertisement. They, in turn, will
display an index of programs on your
Information System, and you make the
selection. The choice is then loaded into
your system's memory for storages on
any medium, and credits are taken out
of your bank account."
I hear the swoosh of pneumatic doors
and voices; the session was about to
begin.
"Helene, my last question. What year
is this ?"
"It can be any year you like. From this
moment, forward or back in time, it's
possible for you."
ISIS VIEWS ON
PRODUCTION MICROPHONE
'I'ECIINIQUES
by Jack Douglas
People frequently ask me how I get
drum sounds, bass sounds, guitar
sounds or whatever, so I'm glad to have
an opportunity to express my opinions
on these matters, as well as pass along
some techniques I've discovered over
the last decade.
Actually, I don't really think there is a
"Jack Douglas Sound." I can recognize
a Roy Thomas Baker style from my
kitchen, even if the record is playing
two rooms away. Mike Chapman's style
is also very distinctive. However, I've
-
-
the author
1)espite his working with a variety of
artists over the last decade
-
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including Patti Smith, The Knack,
Graham Parker, Aerosmith, Cheap
Trick and Ronnie Montrose Jack
Douglas is probably best known for
his co- production work on Double
Fantasy with John Lennon and Yoko
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Introducing the
JBL Bi-Radial
Studio Monitors.
No one has to tell you how important
flat frequency response is in a studio monitor. But if you judge a monitor's performance by its on -axis response curve,
you're only getting part of the story.
Most conventional monitors tend to
narrow their dispersion as frequency
increases. So while their on -axis response
may be flat, their off -axis response can
roll off dramatically, literally locking
you into the on -axis "sweet spot: Even
worse, drastic changes in the horn's
directivity contribute significantly to
horn colorations.
Polar response ofa typical two -way coaxial
At JBL, we've been investigating the
relationship between on and off axis
frequency response for several years.
The result is a new generation of studio
monitors that provide flat response over
an exceptionally wide range of horizontal and vertical angles. The sweet
spot and its traditional restrictions are
essentially eliminated.
Polar response of a 4430 studio monitor.
studio monitor.
TYPICAL
HORIZONTAL
JBL 4430
HORIZONTAL
TYPICAL
VERTICAL
JBL 4430
VERTICAL
www.americanradiohistory.com
The Bi- Radial Horn
The key to this improved performant
lies in the unique geometry of the
monitors' Bi- Radial horn Developed
with the aid of the latest computer
design and analysis techniques, the hors
provides constant coverage from its cross
over point of 1000 Hz to beyond 16 kHz
The Bi- Radial compound flare configu -!
ration maintains precise control of the
horn's wide 100° x 100° coverage angle.
Since this angle is identical to the cover
age angle of the low frequency driver a
crossover, the transition from driver to
driver appears seamless and the monitor
present a fully coherent sound source.
And the BiRadial horn's
performance
advantages aren't
limited to just
beamwidth control. The horn's
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for instance, dramatically reduces
second harmonic
distortion and its
shallow depth
allows for optimal
acoustic alignment
of the drivers. This
alignment lets the
Acoustic alignment
monitors fall well
ofdrivers (4430)
below the Blauert
and Laws criteria
for minimum audible time delay discrepancies.
The practical benefits of the Bi- Radial
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response and remarkably stable stereo
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range of listening positions. The design
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equalization will be required to match
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But while the Bi- Radial horn offers
outstanding performance, it's only part
of the new monitors' total package.
xtended Response in a
wo -Way Design
Coupled to the horn is a new cotnession driver that combines high
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Mended bandwidth and smooth, peake response. The driver features an
uminum diaphragm with a unique
ree- dimensional, diamond - pattern
rroun& Both stronger and more
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rround provides outstanding high
equency response, uniform diaphragm
)ntrol, and maximum unit -to -unit
:rformance consistency.
JBL.c diamond suspension diaphragm
combines performance
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To ensure smooth response to the
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monitors also incorporate the latest in
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JBL's unique Symmetrical Field Geometry (SFG) design to reduce second
harmonic distortion to inconsequential
levels. Additionally, the speakers utilize
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for maximum excursion linearity, and
complete freedom from dynamic instabilities for tight, controlled transient
response.
Blending the Elements
The Dividing Network
Challenge
-
Tailored to the acoustical characteristics of the Bi- Radial monitors' high and
low frequency drivers, the dividing
network provides the smoothest possible
response over the widest bandwidth
while restricting any anomalies to an
extremely narrow band. During the
network's development, JBL engineers
paid considerable attention to on -axis,
off -axis, and total power response. As a
result, the electrical characteristics of the
network are optimized for flat response
Symmetrical mcg?r_tic field ofJBL
SFG design greatly reduces distort:on.
over the monitors' full coverage angle.
The network Aso provides equalization of the compression driver for flat
power response output. This equalization is in two stages with separate adjustments for midrange and high frequencies.
Judge For Yourself
Of course, the only way to really judge
monitor is to listen for yourself.
So before you invest in new monitors,
ask your local JBL professional products
dealer for a Bi- Radial monitor demonstration. And consider all the angles.
a studio
1.
www.americanradiohistory.com
Patent applied for.
Specifications
4430
Frequency response
(+
3
35
16,000 Hz
-
4435
30
16,000 Hz
-
dB)
Power Capacity
(Continuous Program)
300 W
375 W
Sensitivity
93 dB
96 dB
(1W,lm)
Nominal Impedance
Dispersion Angle
(
100° x 100°
-6 dB)
Crossover Frequency
I
Network Controls
;1BL
Available in
Ohms
8
kHz
Ohms
8
100° x 100°
1
kHz
Mid Frequency Level
High Frequency Level
Switchable Bi- Amplification
James
Professional
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Montreal, Ouebec.
B.
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Northridge, California 91329 U.S.A.
B- 4430/35 8 -81
Printed in U.S.A.
www.americanradiohistory.com
;JBL /ha
12 FEET
180
-
-
°
OUT_
OF PHASE
continued from page 26
PRODUCTION MICROPHONE
TECHNIQUES
by Jack Douglas
always admired George Martin, who
was, and still is, a very versatile
producer. Some people say that the
Beatles' sound was down to George
Martin, but that's not true. If you listen
to the work he's done with other artists,
you'll find that they don't resemble the
Beatles at all. George created that
particular sound for the Beatles from
the Beatles; he creates sound from the
band he's working with. Even though
George is a strong producer, it's not his
personality that takes over. I've had the
pleasure of working with him on the
Sgt. Pepper movie soundtrack. We co-
produced "Come Together" for
Aerosmith, and I had the chance to talk
to him about this very point.
I've always thought that if I was
going to produce records, I would want
that same versatility. I like to think my
records change from one artist to the
next, and to do that requires a
willingness to try what may seem like
radically new ideas. As the producer,
you must be open to change.
This article explains some of the
things I've done, but they're only
examples that have come from my own
experimenting. I present them here in
the hope that such techniques will offer
a starting point for your own curiosity
and desire to find new methods and
effects.
From experience I've found that an
engineer can easily spend all day
moving one microphone around in an
effort to obtain a specific sound. He
ends up adding EQ, and doing a lot of
work that he really doesn't have to do.
Or, in the case of the purist, he moves
that same mike around all day, decides
that's not the one, and starts the whole
process all over again with another
mike
only to find that it's just as
inappropriate.
The alternative is to go with
-
something that will cause the
cancellation you want naturally, and
get the sound a lot faster, instead of
spending all day with just the guitar, for
example.
I very rarely use a solitary microphone on guitar or bass. I generally use
three in close, and bus them to one
track. Then I start changing the phase
relationships between the mikes in
order to get phase cancellation, because
there may be a cancellation in there
that I really like. I find I can get
extremely varied sounds without using
any EQ, simply by utilizing the phase
relationships to make big "V's" or
notches in the resultant frequency
signal.
At first glance, you may think that
manipulating the phase of three
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microphones would be particularly
difficult, but three mikes are actually
easier to work with than two. When you
have three, one should be positioned
dead -on center, and the others placed
outside the first one on either side. We
that know the center mike is going to
remain pretty constant no matter what
we do with the other two. That's the
main sound we go after. The central
mike may be some kind of condenser,
such as a Neumann U87, but it depends
on how much level is coming from the
guitar or bass amplifier. Although too
much level can collapse the capsule,
most applications are relatively safe.
And, if you throw in the pad, the sound
-
SOUND LEAKAGE INTO
VOCAL MICROPHONE
(EXAMPLE: FRANKIE MILLER'S
ALBUM DOUBLE TROUBLE)
is not too bad.
Now the pair of mikes outside the
condenser start to phase with each
other. They can be pulled back a little to
let the center mike dominate. Dynamic
mikes work well in these two outer
positions, especially when they're both
equidistant from the center mike. By
way of an example, the one on the right
may be a Sennheiser MD -421, while a
Shure SM -57 could be perfect on the left.
Older Sony mikes, like the C -37, are
another great choice for the center,
because they're really warm sounding.
The Sennheisers and Shures are
brighter, and more brittle sounding,
... continued overleaf
-
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www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e/ p 31
FRONT VIEW
PRODUCTION MICROPHONE
TECHNIQUES
whereas the C -37 will give you a warm,
fat sound.
Positioned quite a ways back in the
room (approximately 10 to 15 feet) I'll
have another U87, but this choice will
depend on amp level, type of speaker,
and the size of the room. I can
manipulate the phase -of this microphone, and blend its sound with the
other three close mikes. All four are
brought up on separate channels and
bussed to a single track.
Still farther back in the studio
between 20 and 30 feet from the amp
I'll use a shotgun, or some other kind of
exotic mike, pointed off to the side of the
room maybe towards the glass of the
booth, or even straight up. This mike
captures ambient sound that will
enable me to match up an overdub with
the basic tracks. Since your basic tracks
will have a certain amount of room
sound on them, when you add a closemiked overdub, the part sounds cold
compared to the basics. By recording
the most distant microphone on a
separate track from the other four
mikes, the overdub can be made to
--
-
In
sound much more real.
During the mix, you place the guitar
at any given pan location as you
normally would. Then the separate
ambient track is moved over towards
the drums. This places guitar ambience
behind the drummer, and affords the
illusion that guitar and drums were
recorded at the same time.
I'll also use this technique with a bass
overdub, but very seldom with any
keyboard instruments. Keyboards are
naturally not loud instruments
at
least not in relation to a rock and roll
band. In the studio, you very rarely hear
a really loud piano or synthesizer
getting into the drum mikes. You'll hear
bass and guitar leakage on the drum
tracks, but the guy sitting at the piano is
more likely to have sounds leak into his
mike, rather than vice versa.
If it's a keyboard overdub, I usually
try to create the illusion of the drum kit
leaking into the grand, rather than the
other way around. If I'm working with
electric keyboards, I'll record them with
some kind of effect to bring it into the
track. But again, that's not the type of
instrument you hear bleeding into the
trap set.
In regards to the size of amp you may
be recording with, keep in mind that
larger amps, such as Marshalls, were
made to come to life quite a distance
from the speakers. You have to give the
speakers a chance to breath, especially
in the lower frequency range. If your
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room is not too large, you have to
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Smaller amps, however, will give you
that depth up close. I'd use the same
multiple mike set -up described above,
because what I'm looking for are the
dips and peaks I'll get from the phasing.
Once I have roughly the sound I'm
looking for,
I may look towards
processing the instrument in the booth.
Before the remix session starts, I have
six busses assigned to various pieces of
... continued on page 36
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R -e /p 32
October
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EXPERIENCE THE NEW M24 AT AES/NEW YORK, OCT 30-NOV 2. STANDS T1-2
October
For additional information circle #20
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e /p 35
GLASS DOOR
PRODUCTION MICROPHONE
TECHNIQUES
continued from page 32 ..
-
-
outboard gear. By the time I've walked
into the booth, the assistant will have
taped the board, and marked all the
returns along with the bus that's
feeding it. All I have to do during the
session is assign via the board where I
want these things to go. Then I can
bring them back, and mix them into my
track.
For example: let's say that I want a
little flanging to cut through the middle
of a sound. Instead of patching the
flange to every tape track, I'll just send
over some kind of combination to the
flanger, control the input very carefully
so as not to overload it, and return only
what I want of the effect signal to the
mix. That way it ties in inconspicuously, and becomes the sound. It doesn't
sound like it's been obviously flanged; it
tends to be natural.
I may use a limiter across the entire
bus, or some type of Pultec. Or I might
take another bus, run it through a series
of events, and bring it up on another
channel. Another possibility is to mix
all of the guitar mikes together and
super- compress them. While I've got the
normal sound going down the bus, I'll
bring this tight, super- compressed
sound that's breathing with compression up into the mix as well. I'm really
creating an illusion. There might be all
sorts of strange things going on inside a
sound
perhaps lots of delay
but
when it comes back up in the mix, it
sounds natural.
-
-
Guitar and Vocal Effects
Some examples of tricks with guitars
What
isywoÌiáte
brou
het...
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MICROPHONE PLACEMENT FOR
TWO -PART GUITAR LEADS ON
"I'M LOSING YOU ", BY
JOHN LENNON
can be found on the Double Fantasy
album. The rhythm guitar on "Dear
Yoko" is tied to five tracks of harmonica
playing the same rhythm as the guitar.
But not only did they play the same
rhythm, we also gated the harmonicas
to the guitar through a series of noise
gates. In turn, the guitar was gated to
the gated harmonicas. It sounds like a
breathing guitar, because the whole
thing really pumps.
The acoustic guitar on "Starting
Over" was the big Gibson, capoed so
that it was all played up high and open.
In front of the hole there was an 87 in
close, a Sony C -22 on the side of the body
down by the strap peg, and another 87
four or five feet back, all mikes being
bussed to one track.
Occasionally I'll set three microphones up for the vocalist, too. The
artist may choose to sing the verse on
one, move over an sing the chorus on
another, and then the bridge only on the
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R -e/p 36
October
1981
For additional information circle #21
www.americanradiohistory.com
TRACK PLACEMENT
TRACK #1
TRACK #2
HUGH GUITAR EARL GUITAR
MIX OF THREE MIX OF THREE
MIKES
MIKES
J
FACING
GLASS
third. It can be an old Altec 639
"Birdcage," an RCA 44, or an 87. We
may want warm, close sound for the
verse, and then all of a sudden a
brighter sound to cut through the
difference in his headphones, and know
how to handle the performance
accordingly. Here, too, I may place a
shotgun in the room to capture the
ambience.
Many times the artist will do an ad
lib, and such tracks are much more
effective if they sound like they were
done by someone in the band while the
tape was rolling. Close -miked ad libs
have a contrived aura about them. At
the end of "Dear Yoko" on Double
Fantasy, John Lennon says, "Next
time you come by, don't sell a cow. Stay
awhile ... " That was recorded by an
ambient mike.
John's vocal on "Starting Over" is
slightly phased electronically with an
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www.americanradiohistory.com
(AVAILABLE IN 1. TOS
MODULE WIDTHS.)
PRODUCTION MICROPHONE
TECHNIQUES
Eventide Flanger. In the part of the
song where the vocal flies up in the
center, we chose old- fashioned two machine flanging. Incidently, the drum
fill coming out of that tacit or non playing section never took place at the
date; it was all edited together from bits
and pieces of drum fills, then double tracked with real drums.
Yoko's vocal on "Kiss, Kiss, Kiss" is a
good example of what can be done with
a super amount of limiting. There's a
lead vocal up high in the center, as well
as additional vocals panned far left and
far right, which are actually lovemaking in Japanese. I put her in a
house so she couldn't see anybody. She
did the part in a whisper; it was so quiet
she could barely be heard, and an
excessive amount of limiting was
necessary to pick it up. Of course, all
sorts of breath and lip sounds also
became amplified.
Now, in order to get that part big
enough to come out over the track, I
limited it again, and panned it to the
center. Since I had two tracks of vocal, I
would alternate the two by moving the
respective faders up and down. When
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R -e. p 38
October
An effect I like on the trap set is to
tape a pair of Sennheiser Binaural
microphones to the drummer's
headphones. Through the binaurals I
can hear exactly what the drummer
would hear while playing the kit
without his headphones. I'll route the
binaurals to a pair of separate tracks.
When he does a crash or drum fill
around the kit, the drummer moves his
head and the perspective changes; the
pan in the monitors changes as his head
turns.
During the mix, I can pull some
aspect of the drums out, and replace it
immediately with the sound of the
Binaural mike, even if it's just for the
chorus. Then I'll zip the binauarals out,
and bring the other tracks back in. As
you're listening through headphones,
you suddenly start spinning, because
the drummer's doing a fill and turning
his head; you get the physical
movement in the 'phones.
I've also tried 87's over the top of the
vocalist's head to pick up head tones. It
works!
Outboard Effects
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PROFESSIONAL MIXING CONSOLE
Extremely low noise
one track would get too loud, the second
limiter would grab it and put it low in
the center about even with the ones
panned to the extremes. It gave the
effect of a third voice jumping up in the
middle of your head. This is all in
addition to the primary lead vocal
positioned higher in the center.
I've always liked to bring things out
beyond reality in a mix, and I use
limiters to do that. I can continue to
increase the volume of a given track
with the knowledge that the meters will
never pin, and I don't have to have the
entire mix at -3 VU, in order to get the
solo to be +2. Bus limiting is especially
effective, because I can keep pushing a
solo up until I run out of fader. It'll keep
getting louder, but will flatten out and
force other instruments to move back,
thereby creating the illusion of the lead
instrument taking over.
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
One piece of outboard equipment I
keep coming back to is the Publison
DHM89, which is made in France. I
discovered it about a year back, and
finally learned how to operate the
device about six months ago. Unfortunately, the instructions are in pigeon
English, and it took a while to figure out
the machine.
Basically, the Publison will do just
about everything. It is stereo, and has
combiners built into it so that either
channel can feed the other. It's an
amazingly clean DDL that sounds like
tape; it'll even make things sound
backwards. You can use it as a tape
delay, flanger, phaser, octave instrument, or pitch shifter. I'm waiting to get
a keyboard controller for it.
Putting delays perfectly in time with
the track is a snap. I can run the snare
drum into the Publison to define the
... continued on page 42
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MUCH
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CHOICE.
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in between- they've got you covered with a
choice that can fill your need. Covered in sound
that's loud, clear, and dependable.
Each system is designed and built so that
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have to think about them. All you've got to do is
decide which one is best for you.
Multiple enclosure systems: S6215HT-3
& S6115HT -1. The S6215HT-3 consists of the
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JA3882(B) woofers), the 6115H mid -range horn
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tweeter (with three Yamaha JA4281B's).
The S6115HT -1 system consists of the S6115
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woofer), the 6115H horn, and the 6115T-1 single
tweeter (with a Yamaha JA4281B).
The bass reflex enclosures have computer generated Thiele -Small aligned designs to give
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In the mid -range horn enclosure, the
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All the cabinets are made of 9 -ply 3/4"
maple. All joints are lock- mitered and glue blocked. All hardware on the rear panels is
recessed. All handles are also recessed and are
located at balance points for easy handling. And
all the enclosures (except
the single tweeter)
are the same width
for compatibility in stacking and interconnecting
in any combination.
It all adds up to heavy -duty, roadworthy
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Single enclosure systems: S4115H,
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S4115H is a two -way, ruggedly constructed, full range system. The low frequency section (with
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consists of a Yamaha JA4201 combination radial
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The S0410H is an efficient 2 -way system with
four 10" JA2511 woofers and a JA4204
combination short horn and driver in a
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particular system offers what we feel is surely the
best sound of any column-type system on the
market. Regardless of price.
The S0112T speaker system utilizes two
woofers (a 12" Yamaha JA3061 and a 10" JA2507 )
and four 2" Yamaha JA0554 tweeters in a
portable bass reflex cabinet.
The 50110T utilizes a 10" Yamaha JA2511
woofer and a JA0556 tweeter in a heavy -duty
ported enclosure offering high sensitivity and
very compact size.
The 52115H stage monitor system uses the
same components as the S4115H in a low- profile
enclosure. The 100 watt RMS power rating
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All the single - enclosure systems are ruggedly
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That's the lineup of professional
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Or better yet, visit your Yamaha
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YAMAHA
October
For additional information circle 425
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e /p 41
- continued from page
38
..
.
SENNHEISER BINAURAL
MIKE TAPED TO
DRUMMER'S HEADPHONES
LOOR TOM
U87
PRODUCTION MICROPHONE
TECHNIQUES
time, take the snare out, and replace it
with whatever I want. If I want to go
half time, or double time, one switch will
do it. I can set one side half time, the
other double time, and bring up each
effect on separate faders. I can add a
double to it, or make strange rhythms
out of it, like paradiddles or anything I
want. But that's just on the delay side of
it. Within the same machine, I can
flange the delays, or flange the delays
and add a slight pitch variation. Now I
have delayed paradiddles that are
phased, and the Publison will bring the
end one up in pitch. The machine is a
real adventure.
On Karen Lawrence's Girl's Night
Out album, the background vocals for
"I Won't Stop" give the feeling of being
under water; in fact they were processed
through a Publison.
Vocal doubling doesn't always have
to be done in the same octave. Doubling
in octaves can do magic tricks
especially in the lower octaves. I attach
that double to the original lead or
background vocal track, but at a much
lower volume. It makes for a really
strange coloring.
-
KM-84
C-22
(BENEATH
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MIKE PLACEMENT FOR BRUCE GARY'S
DRUMS ON "SHE LIKES THE BEAT"
BY THE BEAT
In the case of the upper octave, where,
of course, hardly anybody can sing, I
use the Publison DDL. If I were to solo
the track, you'd say, "Oh great! A
Chipmonks' record." But you have to
remember that it's perfectly aligned
with the real vocal. When you add it to
the mix, it sounds more like somebody
with a harmonic on their vocal. You
don't hear the chipmonk; you hear a
lower octave and a harmonic on top.
Keyboard Effects
The song "Watching the Wheels" was
a good exercise in working with
keyboards. When I received a demo of
the song, it was up-tempo, and very
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R -e/p 42
U87
OVERHEAD
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OVERHEAD
1981
For additional information circle #26
www.americanradiohistory.com
.
continued overleaf
-
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IN all 1111111111112 --r:e
7°
y&ÿ4
J
October
www.americanradiohistory.com
198 1
R -e /p 43
PRODUCTION MICROPHONE
TECHNIQUES
Dylanesque. I wanted it to have the
feeling of wheels spinning around, and
suggested that a perfect instrument for
the chorus would be a hammer
dulcimer: an instument that sits on the
ground, and is played with little
mallets.
Most of "Watching the Wheels" is two
keyboards played by John Lennon and
George Small. John's Yamaha electric
grand piano is mixed slightly left and
right of center. George's acoustic grand
is surrounding the electric, and playing
either in unison, or a backbeat to it.
Then there's a Prophet synthesizer that
comes in at the end of the chorus, and
which is set up like a tacky piano. The
whole phrase, "I just had to let it go!" is
the hammer dulcimer. It comes in as the
other instruments fall away a bit, and
takes over just about where the range of
the Prophet leaves off.
"Beautiful Boy" is orchestrated with
steel drums doubled by an Oberheim
synthesized version of steel drums.
String parts were all synthesized by a
computer -operated Oberheim; there are
no real strings anywhere on the entire
Double Fantasy album. The rich and
thick synthesized strings were
augmented with acoustic piano. We
removed the attack of the piano notes,
but kept the rest of the envelope by
manipulating the faders on the console.
I love to take synthetic sounds and
augment them with organic instruments, or vise versa. The result is
always something new that neither
sounds completely organic or completely synthetic.
I find that if I can free myself from too
much conventional thinking, I'm
always surprised at the possibilities
available to me, and it makes every day
in the studio an adventure. I hope these
examples stimulate your imagination
as the people I've worked with have
stimulated mine.
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TOWER OF POWER
ON SHEFFIELD LABS
by Larry Brown
Ever since engineering the first
Sheffield Lab direct -to -disk, I've looked
forward to making them an album
whose musical excitement matched
their sonic quality. Finding a band to
pull this off, and which also had the
ability to cope with the perils of directto -disk recording, wasn't easy.
However, after hearing Tower Of Power
perform live, I knew this was the band.
The next thing to do was to try and get
all the parties involved as excited as I
was about the project. I contacted Doug
Sax of Sheffield Records, while Spencer
Proffer (my partner at the Pasha Music
House) called Ron Kramer, the band's
manager. "Yes," came the reply, the
band was interested, and a trip to hear
them with Doug and Lincloln Mayorga
convinced the label.
The only remaining question was
whether or not Sheffield's console was
sufficently large and flexible to handle
the band. As an engineer used to the
convenience and ease of operation of a
modern 24 -track board, my initial
reaction to Sheffield's console was:
"You've got to be kidding!" At the time,
engineer Steve Haselton was in the
In 1968
-Larry
the author Brown served as
engineer for the first modern direct
disk record, Lincoln Mayorga and
Distinguished Colleagues, for
;rya
: 150E Series
Wireless
Intercom
System
HM Electronics, Inc. 6151 Fairmount Ave., San Diego, CA 92120 (714)280 -6050 TELEX:697 -122
R -e, p 44
October
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
Sheffield Lab. Again in 1971 Larry
engineered Sheffield's second release,
The Missing Linc. Over the last
several years Larry Brown's reputation has grown, not only as an
engineer- producer, but as one of the
finest drummers in Los Angeles, an
excellent keyboard player, as well as a
composer.
In 1977 Larry designed and built
The Pasha Music House, in Hollywood, California, which comprises
two, state -of- the -art 24 -track rooms.
Over the last four years, he has
recorded many feature acts.
I,
NI=^
titer
-.
!.111
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very careful pre -planning it could be
done.
A starting date of June 22, 1981, was
set, and within a week I was on a plane
to Lake Tahoe, Nevada, to begin preproduction with the band at Harrahs
Club. During a direct -to -disk recording
the engineer is performing along with
the musicians, so I had to be familiar
with their music and arrangements.
Two shows a night and 10 days later I
felt like the 12th band member.
Picking songs to record from the
Tower's large repertoire wasn't easy,
and with only 15 minutes or less of
music per side (for optimum fidelity and
level on the disk) the task was harder.
Six songs were chosen for their musical
and sonic content, and I headed back to
"Tower Of Power"
Direct-to -Disk
process of building their new 32 -input
console, but couldn't have it ready until
January of '82. Which meant that I'd
have to use their two highly- modified
Quantum Audio Lab QM -8 boards.
They certainly sound great, but what a
cluge to mix on.
Sheffield Lab's philosophy in
building their board was: Sonîcs first;
Convenience and Cosmetics second.
This meant ..
NO board solos
extra relays
meant signal degredation
NO board EQ
the EQ in the
console was not up to Sheffield's
standards, and therefore not used
NO grouping
NO patch bay
all patching was
done on XLR connectors behind the
board
ONE cue system mono only for
rehearsal; stereo bus for cutting
ONE echo send
--
.
-
-
L.A.
The Tube Microphones
At first glance one's impression of the
Sheffield line-level, transformerless
tube mike is that it looks like an old
lamp fixture, or a high school Electric
Shop #1 reject. But who cares about
looks when something sounds this
good. Doug Sax gave me a double -tube
model to take back to Pasha Studios for
trials. Mike Sanders, Pasha's head of
maintenance and my assistant
engineer on the project, and myself
tested the mike against a U87, C414,
M49, C251, and the new Milab LC25.
The 87, 414 and 49 were not even in the
ballpark. The AKG C251 had similar
-
-
-
-
characteristic (the Sheffield mike
and the C251 both use an AKG
C12 capsule), but wasn't as
"open." The LC25, a Milab trans formerless line -level, solid -state
model, was the closest to Sheffield's mike, but sounded a bit
more noisy and, like the 251, not
as open. Sheffield's mike, a joint
development with AKG, was designed by Sherwood Sax, and
specs out at within 0.2 dB from 15
Hz to 17 kHz, with total harmonic
The Sheffield
Microphone
distortion of less than 0.009%
from 20 Hz to 20 kHz at +10 dBm output.
It has a signal-to -noise ratio greater
than 116 dB, including capsule noise.
Knowing that I had 13 of these marvellous mikes to work with (plus two stereo
M -S models of the same design) was a
big plus.
The QM -8 console
or rather,
Sheffield's modified version of it has
only 16 inputs on which to mix 12
players and six singers. At best it would
be tight, but we decided that with some
-
The Recording Studio
My first look and listen to Sheffield's
studio on the MGM lot in Los Angeles
came during the making of Amanda
McBroom's second LP, West Of Oz,
another direct-to -disk with Bill Schnee
engineering. The large 67- by 97 -foot
studio with its 33 -foot high ceiling
sounded exquisite on Amanda's soft,
pop and country music. But how would
it sound with Tower Of Power's high
energy unleashed in it? I'd have my
answer soon.
The day before the first session, Mike
continued on page 49
-
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October
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Q
7,
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Hi
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KEYBOARD
VOCAL
PERC
- continued from page
R
AMBIENOOM
HAND
CONGAS
.
"Tower Of Power-
Direct-to-Disk
Sanders, Doug Sax, Steve Haselton and
myself met at MGM to set up the room.
The goal sound -wise was to capture
Tower Of Power's energy and realism in
this large, live room. The band was set
up exactly as they performed live, using
the corner of the studio closest to the
control room. This gave us some visual
contact, and the full length of the room
to work with for ambience.
GUITAR
VOCAL
ALL MIKES CUSTOM
SHEFFIELD/AKG MODELS
UNLESS OTHERWISE MARKED
® M -S STEREO
2
MGM CONTROL ROOM
USED AS AN ISOLATION
BOOTH FOR VOCALS
ó
ó
Directly adjacent to the control room
on the MGM lot is the lathe room.
Looking much like an isolation booth
with its glass window, this room
contains Sheffield's four manual
Neumann lathes, linked in tandem with
a servo -drive designed by Ed Hukoveh.
The Neumann SX -74 cutter heads
driven by Mastering Lab cutting amps
80 FEET
ROOM LAYOUT
FOR TOWER OF POWER
DIRECT -TO -DISK
SESSION
®®
SHEFFIELD'S CONTROL ROOM
are the last stage of Sheffield's
consisting of two Sheffield Lab
physically time -aligned speakers
recording chain. This esoteric system is
600 -ohm matched throughout, and
starts with a line -level mike or line -level
direct box into a fader at O dBm,
followed by a solid -state buffer (the only
solid -state device in the chain) for gain
recovery.
The next stage is a passive noninverting summing network, followed
by two tube line amps that directly feed
the four lathe cutting amps. There are
four additional isolated feeds, three of
which went to back -up tape machines,
and the fourth into the monitor system
driven by Mastering Lab amplifiers.
For one to say that the recording
chain and monitors are sonically pure
and accurate is an understatement.
While testing two identical Sheffield
mikes, we were able to hear the
difference between a Switchcraft and
Cannon female XLR. Now that's
accuracy!
Since the lacquers could not be played
until they had been processed, our
playbacks for performance evaluation
would have to be done from tape. The
MAL BUFFES
amplifier designed
two - charnel buffer
dual
a
is
with studio
444
Model
Our
-pro equipment
semi
and
to interface consumer
package eliminates groundself-contained
uses in anVersatile,
oblems. Dozens of
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imp
ing, level and
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For
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RTS.
device, call or write
.
LEVEL TO
BALANCED LINE
AA
Ths
EL
_
POW EI
444
BUFFER AMPLIFIER
T
nIrdrri
PUTS
OD LINE LEVE
ABALANE
The Lathes and Recording Chain
ROOM SIZE ABOUT 100
1
1
N
s
Mike Placement
As few mikes as possible were used for
the session, in order to maintain
perspectives and placement of the band
members, and also eliminate the phase
problem of heavy multi-miking. Only
two mikes were used for drums: a stereo
M -S overhead, and a kick mike. The
other stereo M -S mike covered the horn
section. Four more mikes were needed to
record Victor Feldman's large array of
percussion. However, due to the lack of
console inputs, these had to be selected
two at a time via A/B switches.
Keyboards used the same set -up, the
two mikes on the Hammond B -3's Leslie
Cabinet being the same two faders as
the Fender Rhodes electric piano taken
direct through two line -level direct
boxes. The Sequential Circuits Prophet
V and String Ensemble synthesizers
were also taken direct, but simultaneously ran through an amplifier in the
room to maintain ambience. One mike
on guitar and DI bass completed the
instrument miking. Which left us with
five mikes, and three open inputs.
Michael Jeffries sang lead on all but
one tune, a blues sung by guitarist Willy
Fulton. Mikes on Michael and Willy
were routed to one fader via an A/B
switch. The background singer's two
mikes were placed on the last two
faders. On side two of the album, Willy's
mike and a mike for keyboardist
Chester Thompson were submixed with
the background mikes.
For room ambience two mikes were
hung approximately 30 feet in the air,
and about 70 feet from the band. Since
all 16 inputs had now been assigned, the
room mikes were patched into two of the
console's four echo returns, with an
EMT stereo 140 plate appearing on the
other two returns.
ROOM
AMBIENCE
t
FII
B
LO GNO
HI
LO
-
r-
INPUTS
IHF LINE LEVEL
(HI-FI LEVEL)
BB
O
lag
BUFFER AMPLIFIER
MODEL 444 DUAL
OUTPUTS
A
AA
o
-1
HÉVEEL
IHLINE
INPLJTS
BALANCEO LINE LEVEL
r- B-T
A
LO GNO HI
LO
roraerarrel
O
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RTS SVFTFMF BURBANK,
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1100 W.
October
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e, p 49
The .,audio setup
at MGM, prior
to the
first session
-
"Tower Of Power-
Direct-to-Disk
machines used were an old Scully 280
and an Ampex ATR-102, half -inch twotrack running Scotch 226 tape. A
Mitsubishi X -80 digital recorder was
also run for later evaluation.
The Sessions
When I arrived at MGM for the first of
our +1...?e days of recording, lathe
operators Mike Reese and Lois Walker
were already hard at work calibrating
ot
the equipment and checking the
lacquers. Their job on the session was
extremely difficult. Since the album
would be recorded in real time, no
preview head or computers could be
used, which meant that all four lathes
would have to be operated manually.
Lincoln Mayorga planned to be in the
control room giving musical cues to me
and to the lathe operators through a
Clear Corn system. This system also
went out to the studio area, where MGM
stage manager Dave McDonald would
provide the band with their visual
starting cue.
The band members arrived and Doug
Sax ran down the recording schedule,
explained the recording process, and
then gave them his deluxe tour of the
studio.
My first matter of business was
getting sounds and, since no recording
would take place at either of today's
three-hour sessions, the pressure was
off. Starting with drummer Mark
Sanders, I opened the stereo overhead
faders. His kit sounded fantastic! Why,
I wondered, have I wasted so much time
in the past with multiple drum miking,
when this single stereo mike sounds so
balanced, and open. The kick drum
needed a little work, however. Opting to
use one of the seven available UREI
Model 500 equalizers, and changing
mikes to a Sennheiser MD -421, brought
it around.
Several of bassist Vito San Filippo's
instruments were tried before deciding
on his Fender Precision. Since he
hammers, the R&B style of playing
bass where the strings are hit as well
as plucked
Mastering Lab modified
LA -2A limiter was patched in to help
- -a
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October
1981
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(214) 352 -3811
.
II
"Tower Of Power"
Direct-to -Disk
contain levels. Another Model 500
equalizer was used to add a little top to
his bass. Our keyboard setup needed
only minor mike placement modifications, and no additional EQ. The
Sheffield mike proved to be a little too
good for the guitar amp; here again we
changed to a Sennheiser MD -421.
The trickiest mike placement was the
horns. Our initial setup, with the brass
on a riser behind the saxes, sounded too
thin, and proved awkward for the
soloists who had to move up to marks on
the floor for their solos. After some
juggling we decided on a "V"
placement, with brass on the right and
reeds on the left. This not only sounded
best, but was also easy to work with for
solos. The problem now was the 125+ dB
levels coming off these six guys. With
the placement fixed, the only solution
was mike padding, which was achieved
by adding a capacitor across the
capsule.
The stereo horn mike provided the
basic drum ambience for the record, but
the drums proximity to the left side of
the horn section caused an imbalance.
A large rolling baffle was placed
is the only voltage controlled analog delay capable of producing
The A/DA Stereo Tapped Delay (STD -1)
different delays simultaneously, making it the most
powerful time processor avaik3ble for "stereo' flanging, doubling. and multi-voice chorus effects.
Conventional delays take one input signal and
produce one output signal at one delay length. When
a signal enters the STD-1, it is delayed, then tapped at
six different non -harmonically related points ranging
from 1.3 to 55.5 ms. This produces six variations of the
signal, each capable of being assigned and mixed
into two output channels. The non -harmonically
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while other units at best, are multiples of some fixed
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The extensive delay section produces a 1- 5x continuously variable delay range from each tap. The
delay time can be swept at rates varying from .1 to 25
seconds. As the Sweep rate is increased, the Sweep
range automatically tapers so you perceive a change
in rate only. without an accompanying change in
six
R -e/p 52
O
1111111111111111111111111111111111111I
between the drums and the horns for
isolation.
The second session began with the
arrival of our percussionist and
background singers. Again with some
minor placement adjustments our
original percussion setup worked fine.
As soon as we cracked the background
vocal mikes, however, it became
blatantly clear that three human voices
were no competition for these six horns
plus rhythm. While I rehearsed parts
with the background singers, the two
background mikes and Michael
Jeffrie's lead mike were moved into
-
MGM's control room
which was
being re- modeled at the time
and
placed between the ladders and the 2 by
4's. Our rundowns towards the end of
the session showed that this makeshift
isolation booth would work fine. This
had been our first chance to hear
everyone together, and while we knew
that we were in the ballpark, we still
had our work cut out for us the next day.
On Tuesday afternoon we began
running side one in its entirety. Our
situation here was different than on
-
previous multi -mike albums that
Sheffield had recorded, in that the band
was ready to go from the moment they
walked in, and we were the ones that
needed rehearsing. Our level, pans and
switching moves had to be practised,
and here the band proved that patience
was truly a virtue. They became human
multi -track and played the sections we
range as is common with other units. (You're not
forced to compensate by backing off the C.V. Mix
when you increase the Sweep speed). Further, the
Sweep Modulation control superimposes a higher frequency sweep pattern over the regular sweep. This
allows effects like a vibrato sweep to sweeps which
appear to move randomly like sample and hold on
synthesizers.
The regeneration section has been carefully tailored to achieve mechanical to natural sounding
ambiences by providing separate Level, High Cut
equalization. and Tap select controls that can be
switched in or out from the front panel or remotely via
the rear panel jack. The Level control determines the
decay time at long delays (up to 15 seconds), and
the amount of resonance at short delays (up to X12
dB). Since a reverbant signal primarily consists of bass
and lower midrange frequencies, the High Cut feature
in the STD -1 reduces the high- frequency content in the
program material as it recirculates through the system
for a more natural sounding echo. At longer delay
October 1981
For additional information circle #34
www.americanradiohistory.com
The four tandem lathes prior to the first session
needed over and over. We marked the
percussion and keyboard instruments
changes on the written score from
which Lincoln would cue. Mike Sanders
helped on the A/B switching, as well as
some pan moves, so that I could
concentrate on balance and performance.
It was during this session that we cut
our first lacquer. Once the band was
ready, output of the board was turned
down and Mike Reese announced
"stand-by" as test cuts were made on
each of the four lathes. When he was
satisfied that all lacquers were okay, he
would announce "coming in" and begin
to cut the lead -in grooves. This is when
the palms get really damp, because any
error from here on would blow four
lacquers and any performance on them.
Once the lead -in grooves had been cut,
times, echoes can be textured from a hard reverb to a
soft spacious drone. At short delay times, the
resonance can be shaped from a sharp "metallic
ringing" sound to "boomy" bass peaking.
All these features working independently and in
conjunction, allow such effects as high flanging, low
flanging, voice doubling, multi -voice chorusing, echo,
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Studio Monitors
Power Amplifiers
Microphones
Headphones
"Tower Of Power-
Direct-To-Disk
we would hear "go," the board pots were
open, the band cued, and we were off on
side one. It wasn't until we finished the
side that Sax bothered to tell us that we
ran long and, if used, the last minute of
music would be under the record's label!
We trimmed some time out of the solos
and tried again.
This time an over -energetic bass note
lifted the cutter halfway through the
side. With only a few minutes left in the
session, we gave the band an early
dinner break and Doug and myself used
the time to evaluate the blown lacquers.
This was also our first chance to
compare the disk against tape. It proved
to be a real treat to hear the energy, sock
and fine detail the disk preserved. If
ever I had a doubt of direct -disk versus
tape it was erased forever.
Tuesday's second session was
devoted totally to side two. We worked
out the mechanics and started
rehearsing. By the third hour of the
session we were ready to try for a
keeper. This yielded us our first good
lacquer. Once the lacquers passed Mike
Reese's visual inspection, a messenger
would deliver two of them to KM
Records, and the remaining two to
Sheffield Lab Matrix for processing
within the hour. Lacquers were split up
so that if either plant had a problem in
processing, the performance would still
be preserved. With one set of lacquers in
the bath, and both sides well- rehearsed,
we were ready for Wednesday.
Now or Never .. .
This was our last day of recording.
Even though we had a good lacquer on
Playback! ... Inset: The mixing position
side two, it was by no means what any
of us felt to be the definitive
performance. So, deciding to stick with
the side, we started the day's recording.
We did one run through to re -fresh
everyone, then lacquers were loaded on
to the lathes. "Coming in ... Go." The
band was cued, and the first song
counted off. "Stop, stop! Somebody just
walked into the iso booth," piped singer
Michael Jeffries. Apparently nobody
had told the MGM workers that we were
using their control room today. With
their crew now alerted the lathes were
re- loaded.
The next pass gave us our first
lacquers of the day. The band asked for
a playback. By the time all 15 musicians
and singers had squeezed themselves
into the control room, listened to the 15
minutes of music and discussed the
performance, a half hour had passed.
The take was good, but we all knew that
we could do better. And we did. The next
pass was spot -on. With thumbs up from
the lathe operators, and smiles on
w
Acknowledgment
My thanks go to assistant engineer
Mike Sanders, who provided me with a
great deal of assistance and information regarding the technical aspects of
the Tower Of Power session.
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October
everyones faces, we had half the album
completed.
The second session started with
everyone's spirit and confidence at a
new high. We immediately went to
lacquer even though the band hadn't
played side one since Tuesday morning.
This performance wasn't exactly the
tightest, so we re- loaded the lathes and
with no playback went right into
another take. The next pass was magic;
Tower Of Power truly lived up to their
reputation. A nod from the lathe room
assuring us of four good lacquers sent
champagne corks flying.
Within three days and less than
eighteen hours of studio time, we sat
toasting our finished album, which was
already on its way to be plated.
peak a n d Rms
See us in Booth T -5
at the N.Y. AES Show
R -e/p 54
-
For additional information circle #36
www.americanradiohistory.com
Seattle, WA 98121 (206) 624 -5012
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Acoustic Products gor the Audio Industry
Photography by: Kathy Cotter
The Production and Musical Perspectives of
..
.
by Robert
Carr
At the age of 16, Humberto Gatica came to the United States from his native Chile, looking for
the freedom to get a good job, work hard, make some money, and live a comfortable life. Little
did he expect that a chance visit to MGM Recording Studios would lead him to, literally, such a
golden opportunity. Humberto began work at the studios as a go -fer and janitor, and within
nine short years has accumulated 22 Gold and Platinum record credits as an engineer. Artists
he has worked with include Hall and Oates, Kenny Rogers, Alice Cooper, Average White Band,
Leo Sayer, Lou Rawls, Denise Williams, Ella Fitzgerald and, most recently, The Tubes.
H e
p (Robert Carr): Working with so
many different producers, do you prefer
ones that used to be musicians, as
opposed to producers who may have
been record executives, arrangers, or
even engineers?
Humberto Gatica: I work with a lot of
different people, but David Foster is the
person with whom I do most of my work.
I like what he does and we work pretty
good together. He's an incredible
musician, and his attitude in terms of
making a record is similar to mine.
Generally, you can tell right away
where the producer is at by a couple of
directions he will give you. There are a
lot of producers that are always waiting
for what you can give them. I like to get
to know them right away in terms of
what they're after; I want to make sure
they are pleased, but I also have to make
sure I do it the way I want, and there is a
way that you can have both. My case is
R -e/p 56
October 1981
a little different, because I'm leaning
towards production. There is no way
that I can sit down behind the board,
never say a word, and only carry out my
technical role. I always get involved
when it's the right time to open my
mouth.
Most of the people that I work with
already know where I'm coming from
and they ask me what I think. Or many
times I like to find out: "What is the
concept you have for this song? What
kind of mix do you want to hear ?" I
don't want to be there for 10 hours, and
then find out that's not what they want
to hear.
No, it doesn't make any difference
whether or not a producer has a
musician background, or is an arranger
or record company executive. I really
respect and believe in people that are
making music by instinct. There are a
lot of successful producers that have a
www.americanradiohistory.com
very limited music knowledge, but they
have this way of knowing about feel,
what kind of groove, what kind of tempo
they want to establish. A creative
guitarist may play a perfect lick or a line
just once, but an aware producer will
catch it, and say, "He only did it one
time in the song, but now when we do
horns, I want to catch that line and
make it a hook."
Or maybe the band is just doing a
rundown of the take, and somehow the
tempo takes a different direction. I say,
"Wait a minute! We have got something! What if we put this section here,
and this part there .
" Studio
musicians are always so creative, so
fast! They know exactly what you are
trying to say, and many producers are
so successful just doing that.
Then you have the other guy that is
real musical. Everything is based on
chords, the structure, how important it
.
.
When he was only 16, Mick built a
studio in his basement, which later became
PCI Recording of Rochester, New York. In
1971, he met another Rochester resident
named Chuck Mangione. The two have
worked together ever since. Mick spent a
year at Act One Studios in Buffalo, then
returned to PCI, before his association with
Mangione brought him to L.A. in 1975. Since
then, he's been an independent engineer,
working with people like Peter Mclan, Cher
and Lani Hall.
ON GEOGRAPHY
The difference used to be that there
were different players, different producers,
different artists recording in different cities.
The records out of New York were a little
more hard -hitting, energetic kind of records.
The records that came out of L.A. were a
little smoother. Stylistically, there was a
difference. Now, they're moving around,
recording different parts of albums in
different places. can't tell anymore. Half the
time, see a lot of the people know from
rhythm sections in New York out here. And
when I've been in New York, I've seen a
lot of friends from out here there. So you can
very easily be fooled into thinking something
is done where it isn't :'
I
I
I
ON STEREOTYPING
The first year was here, had to work
on a lot of demos for people for practically
nothing to demonstrate that could record
something else besides what Chuck did,
because that would give me a very limited
I
I
I
amount of work. It took a little while to get
out of that. So had to give away a lot of time
to prove it:'
I
ON HONESTY
"I don't like second -guessing. mean,
'Yes, well, will the public like this? Will they
love this ?' can't tell. And think that really
few producers really can tell in advance if
the public is going to love the record or not.
think the best thing you can do from
everybody's standpoint- artist, producer,
musicians -make an honest record that
everybody involved with loves:'
I
I
I
I
ON SPECIAL EFFECTS
"I really haven't heard anything new
for quite a while. think that was mostly all
explored by George Martin and the Beatles
in the '60s. Now, it's refinements on that,
putting different things together, you know.
don't think that have heard a new effect
in years -a new specific sound :'
I
I
I
ON TAPE
"3M's new formulations came out first,
usually. As a matter of fact, know that,
because 206 came out before 406 did. 250
came out before 456 did. 3M's been a leader
with new formulations on tape.... think 3M
is ahead. The difference in audio is minimal.
The difference in durability is great. After
several hundred passes through the
machine, 250 still has more oxide left on it,
which is a big advantage. I'm not plugging
the tape to get the ad. really am using it,
finding it more rugged. That's my main point'
I
I
I
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should be
better.
- the more sophisticated the
rrrrrrrrrrrrrrmrrRmn
DI
RHODES
Boss
_..i-DI
Chorus
R-e /p (Robert Carr): He is thinking
strictly in terms of theory.
Humberto Gatica: Right! To me the
average person who buys records is not
into music technology. Take an average
16- year -old, who hears a record on the
radio and says: "Man, I love that
record." If I asked him why he bought
the record, he's not going to tell me, for
example, "I love those chord changes!"
He isn't going to care about it. All he
cares about is that the record feels good,
and sounds good. Believe me, kids know
when a record sounds good.
YAMAHA
ELECTRIC
PIANO
I
á
BASIC ROOM LAYOUT
°0
FOR "TALK TO YA LATER"
BY THE TUBES
STUDIO: GOODNIGHT L.A.,
á
LOS ANGELES
Drum Making
Kicks: U -47 FET
Toms: C452
Snare: SM -57
Hi -Hat: C452
0/Heads: M -49 Tube
U-47®
U-47®
FET
FET
R -e/p (Robert Carr): After working with
all of these different kinds of producers,
is there one thing that sticks out in your
mind as really getting on your nerves?
A technique or something producers do
that annoys you, and which you make
sure doesn't happen when you move
into production?
Humberto Gatica: Yes. Overproducing. There are producers who use every
trick possible in order to obtain success
with a particular record or song. For
example, they say to you "Let's make
this piano part sound like a Doobie
Brothers record." Or, "I want the drums
to sound like this particular record."
They bring in various records, tapes
and cassettes, and you say to yourself,
"Wait a minute, what does he want ?"
You can create confusion by trying to
make a record using a mixture of
different records. I don't like to do that. I
like the original.
I believe music should be simple.
There are kinds of music where you can
use as many tracks as you want and a
lot of instrumentation, and it works.
There are people who have that formula
down pat. A good example of a band
and are
which has that formula
is Earth, Wind and Fire.
successful
I have a lot of respect for their sound. I
think it has always been one of the top
R &B sounds I've ever heard. Quincy
Jones Productions is another one: very
creative, and so is the sound. If you
study the structure of both Earth, Wind
and Fire and Quincy Jones' instrumental and rhythm parts it all blends
together. Somehow, they achieve a wall
of sound, and yet within that sound is
transparence. That works great!
Sometimes I run into records that
pretend to be that way. They use really
heavy instrumentation: for example,
three different guitar parts, two or three
keyboards, synthesizer parts, strings,
horns, background, lead vocal, and
percussion. Some of these records are
simple at first, then little by little you fill
the stereo spectrum with overdubbs,
and you wonder to yourself,` `Where in
the world am I going to place all of these
things! ?"
I have always been really concerned
about clarity in my records. I do
-
-
anything and everything that's
possible to achieve that clarity,
CONTROL
ROOM
transparence and punch. But sometimes you have no choice, because there
is so much going on, and only so much
you can put up front.
On the other hand, if you place things
way back in the mix without any
clarity, you create another problem. For
example, you may have this piece of
music in which the string parts are very
important. But if you don't hear them
very well, somehow you're going to
affect a synthesizer part that's being
played against the strings. As a result,
it's going to sound like it is out of
balance. The same thing with
background, or the horn parts, or the
guitar.
There is nothing I like more than
when you do a basic rhythm track with
four or five pieces and rough vocals.
Then you can do a pretty decent rough
mix, and it already starts to sound like a
finished record; you can tell this is a
great tune. But a lot of producers
become insecure and add too many
overdubs. All they tend to get in their
mind is the musical part; they're not
thinking about the final mixdown.
Then he says to you, "How come the
record isn't as punchy as so- and -so
record ?" Well, the record he's referring
to only has about five elements playing.
Right there you immediately have
limitations.
In order to make up for this lack of
space in the mix, you use tricks: you EQ
instruments, you blend things together,
or you pan them in a way that gives the
illusion that the sound isn't so big. It's
the apparent level you get on tape, and
the way you surround anything, that
gives you the illusion that the mix is
very big and broad.
R-e /p: Do you mix visually, or by feel?
HG: When I mix, I literally create a
picture in my mind; I see things like
placement, and depth.
R -e/ p: Do you consciously try to balance
on the left, for example,
the right?
create my balance, and
the rhythm part should
to put this instrument
against another, to create maybe one
solid rhythm part. But then if you want
to separate them aurally in the mix, you
can. It's a marriage of the individual
parts into one flowing piece.
Also, I begin to use EQ to emphasize a
part, if that's what's needed. Or if the
part is too broad or too big, I begin to
reduce it a little bit so that I can make it
much louder in one place, without
taking too much space, and being
distracting. You have to be so careful
that none of the little parts are going to
draw your attention away from the
whole piece.
I'm a very emotional type of person in
a way. When it comes to mixes, I do it
the way I feel. I'm not saying that if I'm
in a bad mood, the record comes out bad.
I just don't like to always be the same. If
you take the last 10 albums that I've
done, there is a consistent overall
one instrument
against one on
HG: I begin to
determine how
blend. I begin
concept. But there are also very
different and individual types of
approach, in order to match the specific
musical concept. If it's a rock album, I
have a lot of ways to get into a "punch"
concept. If the album is real clean and
tight, the approach I use is different.
And if it is an R&B project, the choice of
EQ will be different. I record vocals in
ways that match the type of music by
choosing mikes that emphasize the
particular characteristics of whatever
style we're working with. For example, I
don't want to have a beautiful concept
album with some strange heavy digital
effect on the vocals.
had much experience
with automation systems?
HG: I used to be against computers
R -e /p 59
October 1981
R -e/p: Have you
-
.
www.americanradiohistory.com
automation
- because there's a natural
feel that you put into a mix when you
know you have to do a pass. You have to
perform in the pass; whether or not the
mix is right or wrong, you find out very
soon. I would rather have someone like
the second help me. I'll say, "Look, you
do these movements in the chorus when
I tell you," or, "Write down the numbers
from the locator here, so we know when
to make the moves. You take care of this
row of faders." I would rather have
another human hand helping me move
one thing or another in and out. The
results have always been great.
When we did The Tubes album, we
went to a studio called Studio 55. They
have a Neve console with Necam
automation, which I believe is one of the
best; I have used all the other ones since
then. That was my first experience with
automation on a project. The project
was very involved and took a lot of
hours to mix; those very creative
instrumental overdubs required more
time.
I found out that I had to be aware of
how far I was pushing the automation
in terms of how many passes we'd do.
People can get totally crazy doing pass
after pass. "Let's fix the hi-hat in one
pass; let's do the bass drum in the next
pass." And so on. I know people who
make a pass for every instrument! They
want to move the bass volume up and
down as the song goes on. They do the
same thing with the bass drum.
When you hear the final mixes, they
sound fairly electronic, because you
don't have any actual feel
any
human movement. Well, you do have
human movement, but it ends up
sounding electronic; everything is so
precise that you begin to lose a lot.
When the drums are played, I don't care
-
what anybody says, there are variations in the accents.
R -e/p: The emotional expression.
HG: That's the power of the record!
That's what makes the take feel good.
But with the computer, you can lose that
%le ViQUaP Pe:cefttioa
îN.ß
When Humberto Gatica sits down behind a board to begin a mix, he has an explicit
picture in his mind's eye of where he wants everything to go. It's not necessarily the same
picture every time, because he reacts to the song, and the song dictates the final choices.
Gatica visualizes the components of a mix in
terms of three -dimensional space. For example:
if the lead vocal has too much echo, its resultant
depth could interfere with whatever is behind it.
It's analagous to a man standing in a crowd:
when he takes a step backward he may walk on
somebody's feet, or bump into them. It's the
same, visually and aurally, in a mix. Parts require
a height, width, and depth, in order to take on a
living quality. Generally the longer the effect,
like echo, delay and reverb, the farther back the part goes. Height is controlled by the
range of frequencies from low to high, and width by the panning spread.
This kind of "mixing picture" can be a tremendous help for not only saving time when
doing your own mixes, but also for analyzing and graphing other engineer's mixes.
Here are Humberto Gatica's impressions, approach, and philosophies when dealing
with a sample mix:
"Let's consider the bass first; it rings, but not to the extent that it will make things
muddy. The bass sits right in the center of the stereo soundfield
it rings, travels back,
and disappears. I visualize the bass as being round and tight at the same time, and it's
important to be able to hear the weight. There are so many bass sounds that vary
according to the type of pickups, or the brand of strings. If I know a player well, I'll request
that he begin a session with a new set of strings, or with a specific bass that I know he has. I
usually boost the signal about 2 dB at 1.5 kHz, and a couple of dB at 100 Hz, as well as cut 2
or 3 dB around 12 kHz to get rid of some hiss.
"A concentrated, punchy bass drum sound also goes in the middle, along with the snare
that sits right on top of the kick. These are the three most important elements in a good
mix; they are the first impression someone gets when they tune into the song. If these
sounds are poor, the first impression is bad, and psychologically the overall sound will be
discounted.
"I like to use a Shure SM -57 on the top of the snare, and another 57 out -of -phase at the
bottom. When mixed together and equalized, this sound becomes my main snare track. In
addition, I'll use a third microphone
an AKG C452E with a 10 dB pad
pointed at the
top of the snare, and recorded on a separate track. I'll experiment with the EQ (I usually
add a lot of mid-range about 4 or 5 kHz), and blend that with my main snare sound. This
isn't a strict rule. Occasionally the C452 will become the primary tone, and the pair of
Shures will enhance the overall quality.
"The hi-hat is placed off to the right side. The toms and cymbals are panned across the
stereo field as though I were looking at the set on stage from the audience.
.. continued overleaf
-
-
-
-
R -e/p 60
October
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
so easily. Anyway, I've found that you
can still get the feel if you just go for one
pass; just set up your mix with the
computer, and then kind of put the
computer away like it's not there at all.
If it doesn't feel right, do it again, but try
to keep the number of passes to a
minimum. From my personal experience, there is always a limitation on
everything.
Sometimes the mix is not quite right.
You may have been mislead by the
producer, or you may have mislead
yourself. I would rather spend as much
energy as I can put in, during one day,
and do it. If it feels right to the end of the
day, that's great. If not, I would rather
come back later
maybe at the end of
the final album mixdown. Then it's
easier to say, "I can do better, and I
know why. I listened to the track at
home, and this is the problem."
-
R-e /p: You have a fresh attitude that
way.
HG: Certainly. But when you begin to
use the computer, there's a tendency to
just keep doing it. There you are for 20
hours doing pass after pass. You come
back the next day, and it's the same
song. You get burned. You don't feel it
anymore; you have a mix that doesn't
mean anything. Everything is so well
planned that you lose the feeling. It's
like a vocal take that you sing over and
over. There has got to be a time when
you say, "Look, I've lost it. I don't even
know what I'm singing anymore." It's
the same with anything: mixing and
playing.
R -e /p: Having been involved with a lot
of varied projects, is there one room that
you seem to keep coming back to?
HG: I used to do a lot of work at Sunset
Sound in Hollywood. I found it was a
very easy place in which to work, and to
get the sounds I wanted. Acoustically,
there is a little bit of magic in that room.
I've done approximately 35 to 40
albums at Sunset 2, which used to be a
beauty salon. It's a square room, and
fairly live, but there's something about
it that gives me this sound consistency
on anything I record there; any sound I
want I can get in that room.
The board is fairly small, and looks
like a toy to me. When I first saw it I
said, "What ?! You guys make records on
this ?" The board was designed by
Sunset Industries, which is a division of
Sunset Sound, and has 32 inputs and 12
outs. It has very few transformers in it,
and gives me a very punchy, clean
sound. I take tapes out of there and, no
matter where I go, they always sound
the same way.
Usually when you start moving tapes
around to other studios, the room
acoustics, machines and electronics are
different. But what happens is that the
tapes sound just exactly the same way I
heard them at Sunset: the same amount
of top end; the same bottom; clean
separation between the instruments.
...
continued overleaf
-
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a(0 i.io
DRUMS: JEFF PECARO
R -e/p: Is Sunset 2 a live -end/dead -end
C
`r.7
type of room?
HG: This is literally one square room,
with some absorbers on the wall that
are like doors. You can open and close
them to either deaden the room or liven
it up. I experimented with the room by
moving the drums from one side of the
room to the other, in order to find the
specific place where I can really take the
most advantage of the instrument in
terms of clarity.
When I go to a new room, I usually
depend on seconds to tell me where
other engineers generally record their
drum kits, so I have a point of reference.
Once I'm happy with the drum location,
I request a platform. I've always been
into keeping the drums away from the
floor.
R -e/p: An enclosed platform
R -e/p: Do you ever have a problem with
resonance in the space beneath the
riser?
ABRAHAM
LAB ORIEL
CONTROL
ROOM
BASIC ROOM LAYOUT FOR IS IS YOU ?"
FROM LEE RITENOUR'S ALBUM RIT
STUDIO: MONTEREY STUDIOS, CALIFORNIA
HG: Actually, when you put the drums
right down on the floor, there is a lot of
low- frequency waves travelling along
the floor, too. Even though you can
cover the bass guitar amp, or build a
little house around it, those bass notes
can still interfere with the bass drum.
Or many times the toms will start to
Wiez
vibrate when the drummer is doing this
number. [Gatica starts beating out a
straight quarter -note bass drum
rhythm with his foot.] Or the bass drum
can leak into the piano or guitar.
All that stuff begins to get picked up
in the mikes, especially when I'm using
12 or 13 on a kit. Using a platform gives
the low frequencies a chance to kind of
travel down and spread out in a way
that never reaches the other instruments, or open mikes.
Sometimes we put carpet not on, but
around the platform, so the bass never
gets picked up by the other instruments
at all.
R -e /p: It gives the instrument a chance
to couple with the room, and the sound
grows.
HG: Exactly. You can really notice that
quality on violins; all strings, in fact.
The concept can be applied to drums
and other instruments. We often put
amplifiers on top of chairs, so they
"breath" more. You begin to get more
room sound, and a cleaner result, as
opposed to miking something on the
floor. I like to do that even when I mike
close things.
EVENTIDE EFFECT
BACKING
VOCALS 1
R -e/p:
20 or 45 MS
LEAD
NSTRUMENTS
,_
LEAD
INSTRUMENTS
BACKING
VOCALS 2
BACKING
VOCALS I
CYMBALS
RHODES TOMS
RHYTHM
GUITAR
LEVEL 44
LEVEL 40
I would think that raising the
drummer would also be great from a
psychological point of view; it would
make him feel like he's performing.
HG: That's very true. It makes him feel
like he is in control, and everybody can
see him. Eye contact is very important,
and I find the platform works fine.
CYMBALS
HARD LEFT
TOMS
/
DEPTH OF MIX
STEREOPAN
ACOUSTIC
PIANO ¡LOW)
MI.XAT
LEVEL
HARD RIGHT
LEVEL
RD
41
NOTE: FRINGING FROM
AN INSTRUMENT SIGNIFIES
THE USE OF AN EFFECT
R -e p 62
RHODES
KEYBOARDS:
DAVID FOSTER
FREQUENCY
or 25 MS.
BACKING
VOCALS
DI
BASS:
-
GUITAR
Tube
VOCAL
BOOTH
"Background vocals are two distinct signals. l can achieve the effect of a full wall of sound
by running them through a stereo Eventide H949 Harmonizer. The vocal track on the left is
set a little flat at 99.60b pitch shift, and the signal on the right has a slight delay of 20 or 21
milliseconds. This creates the illusion that they are connected by a solid line, yet you can
hear them as two separate tracks. It makes the vocal very `thick'.
"1 hear the lead vocal being right in the center of the mix, and up front, but it must have a
depth to it. What helps me the most with that aspect is the EMT 250 Digital Reverb. I can
dial in a very short reverb time so that it sounds like a perfect resonance in a normal room
a natural room sound. On top of that, I use a short echo. Actually, there is plenty of
echo, but it disappears very fast. Occasionally, I'll use the Lexicon DDL for that. I want just
RHYTHM
M -49
ONE FOOT RISER
74 ?/iQUal PertuectiQa d
99.6, FLAT PITCH
0/Heads:
GUITAR:
LEE RITENOUR
that's
hollow underneath?
HG: It's open at the sides and bottom,
and about four feet high. That way the
drummer is above everybody, looking
down. It really helps.
Drum Miking
Kick: MD -421
Toms: C452
Snare: SM -57
Hi -Hat: C452
D October 1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
R -e/p: On the recent Bernie Taupin
album you acted as engineer and
producer. Is that what you plan on
doing in the future? Or would you hire
an outside engineer to handle the
technical chores?
HG: No, there are two aspects that I
want to handle when I move into
production. One would be to lay down
the basic tracks, and establish the
sound pretty close to the way I want it to
be. And the second is mix it. For the rest
THE
CASTLE
NASHVILLE, TN.
2U1I1/Dí//i////iIfFIfAV
DESIGNED AND EQUIPPED BY
STUDIO SUPPLYCOMPANY
NASHVWLE, TN.
For additional information circle #41
www.americanradiohistory.com
October 1981
E R -e /p 63
74 %Judi'-aPe/zee/woo
-
Weez
enough echo for some depth
third dimension
but not enough where it will run into
the background vocals that are making the line behind it.
"Sometimes the lead vocal and backgrounds end up just a little too close to each other.
That placement is good if I want to make the vocals blend for a group sound. But if I want to
separate them to make two distint parts, I increase the delay time to 25 milliseconds on the
left, and 45 milliseconds on the right for the vocals in back. In essence, it's like telling th,
singers to step back a few paces, and sing their part from there. There's a slight additiona
ambient kind of sound on the track that detaches the two vocal parts.
"One thing you have to take into consideration is the definition of their enunciation. That
can be taken care of by playing with the EQ, and making the part cleaner. The farther back
anything goes, the more mushy it becomes. I like distance and clarity together. Less lows
and more highs seems to achieve that.
"Even though I have a strong background in the technical aspects of recording, I am not
a technical engineer or producer. I like to do things by instinct. I know how to use the
equipment, and what the limitations are, but I'm not crazy about using effects all the time.
pull them out only for specific reasons. Using outboard gear wisely, and only when it's
effective for the record, is one of the secrets of a good mix.
"There are several songs on The Tubes' album where two background harmony
- sections are singing at the same time; `Let's Make Some Noise' is one
case. By placing the
first set of background vocals way in the back, as we discussed previously, the second
section can sit right in between the lead singer and the distant vocalists. Choose the right
`short- amount' of echo for that middle spacing, and maybe utilize another stereo
Harmonizer for the fullness, but omit the delay. Contrasting effects or combinations of
effects aids in defining a part's space in the mix.
"The second set should also be a bit tighter towards the center, but not so much as to
squeeze the lead vocalist. He needs room on either side to breath, just as he would in real
life. In the absence of a second vocal section, that same area is often a good location for
percussion, horn lines, or a synth line. It's pretty flexible.
"If there is a sustained string or synthesizer part, I picture that as a long, smooth line way
in the back. The effect requires a very long echo or digital delay.
"Acoustic piano works well up front
dry
with no effects
and positioned as though it
were being viewed from the audience. I mike the
piano towards the center with two mikes about
one -foot apart, and about one -foot above the
strings. The bass microphone is angled approximately 30 degrees, while the treble mike is facing
straight down. This technique gives me the capability of spreading the piano out across the
entire front of the stereo spectrum. I'll pan only
the acoustic and strings to the 7:00 and 5:00 o'clock positions; any tighter and the acoustic
piano will start to sound mono. (The mikes are only a foot apart.) By their very nature, the
strings need the space.
"The mono Fender Rhodes signal is also spread, and set right on top of the acoustic, but
not to the extreme left and right; the setting is more like 9:00 and 3:00 o'clock. For contrast,
I'll run the right side through a Boss Chorus effect. The same effect on the left would be
masked by the attack of the high acoustic notes. The Boss Chorus seems to stand out
better against the bass side of the acoustic grand.
"Rhythm guitar fills the space about 9:00 and 3:00 o'clock. A lead guitar, sax, or synth fits
well just to the left or right of center
never in the middle. That's only a personal
preference. I like to keep the lead instrument at least a short distance from the bass and
central drums.
"Many times the producer will say, `Let me hear such and such an instrument louder.'
The simple thing to do is to crank up the volume. It's not necessarily the best way,
however, especially when the track sheet lists everything in the studio.
"I EQ the trouble parts so that they sound hot by boosting the mid -range (5 to 7 kHz) a
couple of dBs. That tends to create the illusion of loudness within a small space. For
example: a guitar that takes up a lot of space can be reduced in level at the fader, but
compensated in audible or apparent level by boosting the mid-range. The result is a thinner
guitar that still jumps out of the mix.
"Boosting the low frequency, on the other hand, does increase the line level as well as the
audible level. By adding 8 dB at 100 Hz, a snare drum level will increase incredibly. Another
.4 dB at 10 kHz creates a real tight, aggressive sound with a lot of impact. The fader has to
come down. The 100 Hz setting is for tone and volume, 10 kHz the attack. In this case, I'd
probably give it two more dB around 5 kHz to keep the overall sound consistent. It's really
all a matter of taste.
"I've worked with a number of producers who look at the board and tell me the settings
ion't look right. I try to remind them that where the knobs are doesn't mean a thing. If the
music sounds right, and feels right, it is right."
-
-
-
R-e;'p 64
October
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
..
of the recording there is a number of
very talented second engineers who
never get the chance to work independently. I would just call one of them and
say, "Look, overdub this thing for me. I
don't want to worry about it."
Of course, I will always be aware of
what kind of sound I want to hear. The
advantage an engineer has when he
produces and engineers himself, is that
he bypasses that middle communication with an engineer. You can do
things fast. If I'm producing, let's say, a
rock and roll band, I know what kind of
vocal sounds I want to hear when I get
to mixdown. I know what kind of drum
sounds I want when I'm playing the
track, and how much room I'm going to
use. It's easy for an engineer /producer
to get those sounds without spending
quite a few hours trying to understand
what the producer hears in his head.
I always think about how the record is
going to sound when I sit and listen in
my house. I want that record to sound so
clean and well balanced that it's
incredible. I relate to how it is going to
sound on an average stereo system.
R -e /p: Did you use that criteria with the
single, "Is It you ?" from Lee Ritenour's
album Rit.
HG: With that I think "Radio." "Is it
You ?" was one of the most R&B
orientated tunes on the album.
Basically the rest of the album was done
for the home, but now FM radio is as
popular as AM. FM and home systems
is what its all about. But for this single
I was thinking about just regular
straight-ahead AM radio, and a lot of
air play.
R -e/p: What does
that concept translate
into, in terms of what you did on the
record from an engineering standpoint?
What did you do with "Is It You ?" as
opposed to the rest of the songs on the
album?
HG: I brought instruments more upfront. Things on AM radio tend to get
lost if they are placed to the extreme left
and right. For this single I kept things
tighter, because I didn't want to lose the
unique guitar parts that form the
hookline. The guitars are played
together with a flugel horn. I brought
those really close together, and created
kind of one sound within. But always
making sure that Lee's guitar was on
top.
Many times I boost the upper end a
little bit for radio. You begin to
approach things with a little bit hotter
EQ, so you always make sure they
sound nice and clean. Possibly my car
has a good sound system, but somebody
else may have a VW with just one
speaker that's very funky. You balance
things so that they sound good even on
bad speakers.
For instance, echo gets lost on the
radio. If fact, considerable amounts of
echo sometimes gets totally lost.
Actually, when it goes on to the record,
echo begins to sound a little bit different
A work of art should be rewarded
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Introducing the Scotty Award.
The Scotty Award is an original oil portrait
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as the honor it represents. And it represents
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Just to qualify, you have to master on Scotch®
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But these select few will not be the only ones
who win. A $5000 music scholarship will be
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Who will the first Scotty Award winners be?
That's up to you. We're now accepting nominat ons
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So contact your 3M Field Representat ve for
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"Scotch" is a registered
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For additional information circle 442
www.americanradiohistory.com
October
1981
O
R-e%p.65
"I use the 'EXR' in every tacit of recording."
"The `EXR' is an integral part of my sound. I won't
work without it."
Mark Wolfson
Smokey Robinsons' engineer/
"Being With You" album
Howard Wolen
Smokey Robinsons' engineer/
"Being With You" album
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R -e /p 66
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from the way you had it in the studio.
You learn to compensate.
There are people that mix records
exclusively for radio. When they go in
the cutting room, they add overall EQ
for radio. Again, a good example of that
approach is Earth, Wind and Fire. Their
concept of mixdown is based on how
good it is going to sound on the radio.
plays in stereo
through two amplifiers. Do you tend to
collapse the stereo guitar, too? A lot of
times if you try and reduce a stereo
spread to mono, it just doesn't work at
R -ep: Ritenour often
all.
HG: No, but you can do a lot of tricks.
For instance, Lee has a stereo guitar.
What I do sometimes during mixing is
to use just a bit of digital delay that
returns left and right to the console in
other words, one DDL send and stereo
returns. You can do the same thing with
this new Eventide H949 Harmonizer. I
have a specific setting where I can give
the illusion that whatever is on the right
side seems to appear on the left side as
well. I set up a real close delay to the
-
R -e/ p: Can you be more explicit in terms
of what kind of reverb or echo settings
do you use, for example, with the guitar,
in order to get that feel?
HG: The new H949 Harmonizer has two
sections of delays that run from 6.5 to
200 milliseconds. One side is totally
delay, and the other is a pitch control,
which also has several choices of delay.
You can have the pitch go up or down,
and then put delay on it, so that it
sounds like it's real far away.
What I did with Lee's guitar was to set
the pitch side to 99.6% just a little bit
flat. On the other side I use approximately a 20 millisecond delay time.
What I create is the illusion of a litttle
bit left and right movement, like a shift
from one side to the other one. But very
smooth. The only way you can tell it's
happening is to hear just the output of
that particular effect.
If I put the bass guitar through such
an effect, you begin to hear that the bass
has been drastically shifted from left to
-
right.
instrument is panned, and create a line.
So instead of two separate
sounds, like a call and echo, you have a
very short delay time that gives the
illusion of the sound actually traveling
from one side to the other. But the sound
not as two
appears continuous
distinct sounds?
HG: The sound can travel very fast, and
is always thick, or I should say stereo.
R -e/p:
-
just have the sound
panned left and right, or do you have it
actually left, center, and right?
HG: On Lee's guitar I always have it
panned hard dead left and right,
because of that delay effect that I put on
it. The amount of delay is so small that
it is hardly noticeable. It just sounds
like one thick stereo guitar, as if the
guitar is actually on three tracks: left
and right, and a little bit in the center.
So it will never get lost.
While mixing, you check how it is
going to sound when you collapse the
balance to mono. When you flip into
mono you lose echo immediately. So you
have to always be aware of the effect
and check things like that. But it gives
you a pretty good idea of how things are
going to sound when eventually they're
played on the radio, or a single- speaker
system. There are many cars out there
that have FM that comes out of only one
speaker.
So right away when I hear the word
"single," my approach is a little
different. If there are five potential
singles like that, I will put the same care
into all five of them. It doesn't mean
they'll be treated any differently from
the other tracks on an album, but I add a
little bit of detail that perhaps no one
will ever notice; such embellishments
are meant to make the mix work when
played on an average system.
people doing here? What are these
people doing spending all this money ?"
When you really know that this record
is never going to make it! I'm getting
tired of being in studios where people
waste money. I want to be more
creative, and I know that I can still do
my engineering; I'll still do it.
There's one stage in the recording
process that can become a little boring:
overdubbing. I don't like to spend 10
hours in a day doing a guitar solo! Or
background parts, where people are
searching for different parts, and there
I am just babysitting the fader for 10
hours at a stretch. First of all, it costs a
lot of money for producers to have a guy
sitting there in the control room. Many
times I like to just get away, unless it's
something that I really want to be a part
of from top to bottom, and not let one
little thing go.
Many times I work into a project
where I'll say: "I'll cut the basic tracks
for you, and I'll mix it. But I'm going to
have this other fellow do the overdubs
for me." I still supervise the overdubs,
and give them input on how I want to
hear the horns or lead vocal. I still have
input during the overdubbing. There
are a few producers that work with me
that way. So I'm not burned out from
doing two months of overdubs, and I
can be more creative during the
mixdown.
opposite side from which that
R -e/p: Do you
I feel that I have a good
instinct for making records, and it's the
only way I can be in control of what I
want to hear. Many times while doing
sessions you wonder, "What are these
creative.
Overdubbing?
.. the one stage in the
recording process that's a
little boring ... 1 don't enjoy
babysitting a fader 10 hours a
day in the studio! 99
R -e/p: Do you always use
that effect on
bass?
HG: No. I pick the bass because it is the
most consistent instrument to balance
my effect; that's what I use to establish
my left and right, and make sure the
Harmonizer is working properly, since
the bass plays a lot of sustained notes. I
use it as a reference, and then take the
bass out of the effect.
Many times I use this effect on guitars
and background vocals. It gives them a
nice hi -fi quality. And, by using this
particular effect on background vocals,
you can create a consistent and broad
sound.
R -e /p: You have been doing engineering
for nine years now. Is the reason that
you are moving into producing because
you feel there is no real room for growth
in straight engineering?
HG: No. I used to think that way, but I
have noticed that within me there is a
sense of always wanting to be more
R -e/p: On the .Rit album you worked
with a Linn Drum Machine. How easy
was it to work with, or do you prefer a
live drummer ... ?
HG: There's nothing like having a real
drummer in the studio. My impression
is that the Linn is one of the best drum
machines around. It's extremely clean
and flexible because it is possible to
record everything separately.
I could pick from the album
which tracks were live percussion, and
which were drum machine.
HG: Right, that's because the Linn was
taken direct. Here you have this
machine that can do anything you
want. There are endless possibilities.
The Linn is perfect for writing songs,
and for experimenting with different
feels.
The only problem that I've experienced so far with the Linn drum
machine is that it's so tight and
mechanical, that you become used to
hearing the consistency on a demo tape.
Then when you begin to cut basic
tracks, you gain the natural feel of the
drummer, but usually you lose some of
that consistency in tempo that you've
been hearing on the demo tape.
R -e/p:
October 1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
I
wouldn't use it for more than two or
three cuts on an album; it gets a little bit
too stiff after a while.
R-e/p 67
Hz is due both to irregular amplitude response, and to
network characteristics.
In the case of the time -compensated Altec 604, we note
that the acoustic centers of high- and low- frequency
sections are precisely aligned. The small bumps at 500 Hz
and just above 2000 Hz are likely due to irregular
amplitude response in these areas. Below 250 Hz, all the
group delay curves show a marked increase in delay. This
is due to the inherent low- frequency roll -off of the
systems.
In the design of the JBL 4430 (and 4435), the step in the
group delay curve was used to advantage: it made
possible an optimization of vertical off-axis response for
listeners located on or above the normal axis. Details of
this offset are shown in Figure 2, and the resulting
normalized response curves in Figure 3. Because these
systems are not coaxial, there are bound to be certain
vertical off-axis angles that will exhibit phase
cancellations. As the curves in Figure 3 for 10° and 20°
upward show, smooth response can be maintained over a
wide vertical area because of the time offset.
If one accepts the Blauert and Laws data, then time domain alignment takes its place in the general design
equation as a variable to be balanced along with flat
axial response, smooth power response and a concern for
proper driver protection.
Figure
References
1). J. Blauert P. Laws, "Group Delay Distortions in
Electroacoustical Systems," Journal of the Acoustical
Society of America, Vol. 63, pp. 1478 -1483 (May 1978).
r
PHASE RETARDED
SLIGHTLY AT CROSSOVER
TO SHIFT UP
NULL AXIS
en -20
h
WAVEFRONTS
IN
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++
\
Figure
3
Vertical Off -axis Response
30°
down
30
HIGH- FREQUENCY
WAVEFRONTS
0
up
2
a= ARCSIN(AZ 2d,)
2o =ARC BETWEEN NULLS
A=WAVELENGTH AT CROSSOVER
d,= CENTER -TO- CENTER SPACING
LOW -FREQUENCY
WAVEFRONTS
Horizontal Off -axis Response
(normalized to on -axis)
111111111111111111111111111111111l..
20°
up
0'
10
..111.1.111111111111111111111111111111111
10°
up
10°
(normalized to on-axis)
1111111111111111111111111111111111.
0°
20
nto._. ignim-_i!om
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1000
2000
5000
10000
October
500
20000
Freg ency
Frequency in Hz
R -e/p 70
Y.
r..t..
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
In Hz
1000
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Frequency Response
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Output Impedance
.0018% (Test Equipment Residual)
.0018% (Test Equipment Residual)
104 dB below +4dBv
20 Hz to 20kHz, ± .5dB, + 18dBv
Balanced, 10k ohms, Unbalanced,
100k ohms
Less than 1 ohm, typically .3 ohm
3750 Airport Road
Ogden, Utah 84403
(807) 392 -7531
*Specification unweighted, 20 Hz to 20kHz.
Spectra Sound is a wholly
owned subsidiary of Spectra Sonics.
October
For additional information circle #45
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
0
R -e/p 71
literature. The city cooperated by
providing a security force of up to 540
Chicago Police at peak times (making
ChicagoFest's police force the 15th
largest of any in the U.S.). With added
private security guards, things ran very
smoothly, despite the 150,000 cups of
beer sold to the crowds each day.
Simultaneous Performances on
Nearby Stages Posed Challenges
About a dozen stages were located on
the pier itself. Each day, from noon to
midnight, the stages were booked solid
with various performers or groups.
There were also 13 radio stations on the
pier, most in outdoor gazebos with
sound systems "broadcasting" to the
nearby crowds. Naturally each act
wanted its sound to be plenty loud, and
the relatively close proximity of all
these sound systems made it a real
challenge to please the fans, while
avoiding cacophony.
With three exceptions, the sound
systems were provided by one
contractor, who used various setups to
satisfy the different coverage requirements and different types of music
being performed. This article would be
too long and repetitive if we were to
detail each and every stage's sound
system. Table 1 lists the various stages
and approximate coverage areas.
The pier layout shown in Figure 1
illustrates the difficulty of obtaining
adequate coverage without getting too
by Gary Davis
Cabaret
Blues
Jazz
Itook off for the second city knowing
virtually nothing of ChicagoFest. I
imagined that it would consist of a large
stage with maybe 25,000 to 50,000
people listening to afternoon jazz or
rock music at some lush green park.
My conception could not have been less
correct.
ChicagoFest was billed by its
promoters as the country's largest
musical festival, which is undoubtedly
so. The event spans twelve days, with
between 350 and 450 acts playing on
14 different stages located along Lake
Michigan's huge Navy Pier. Over a million people participated in this fourth
year (125,000 plus on Saturday, August
1, the day of R -ep's visit). Audiences
were to consume $3.3 million worth of
food and drink, sold by major brewing
and soft drink sponsors, as well as 70
R -e /p 72
October 1981
Chicago -area restaurants that set up
portable kitchens. In fact, of nearly
8,000 people working at the Festival,
approximately 7,000 were vendor
personnel. These statistics are offered
to communicate the vastness of the
Festival, which in turn is helpful in
understanding the scope of the
planning and production required to
stage the event.
The Navy Pier is over % of a mile long
by 350 feet wide by two stories high
(actually three stories, counting the roof
stages). An adjacent land area
accommodates the 18,000 seat main
stage, ticket booths, and a handful of
additional concessions. The City of
Chicago not only sponsored the
festival, but its Mayor also got top
billing. "Mayor Byrne's ChicagoFest"
was displayed on all the posters and
www.americanradiohistory.com
Indoor
Variety
Main Stage
Children's Area
Stage
Location of
Major Stages
on Navy Pier
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R -e/p 74
October
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1981
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distribution systems
and complete studio
wiring packages.
Table
1:
General Description of ChicagoFest Stages
Coverage Area
Dimensions
(Approx)
Sq. Feet
Est. Size
Audience
Blues
100'x154'
15,40(1
3,000
O
Country
Site
much sound overlap between stages.
Not detailed on the diagram are most of
the radio station gazebos, which were
located primarily along the pier's
central corridor, mixed among food
vendors.
Sound reinforcement systems for
most of the stages were engineered by
Bridgewater Custom Sound, a local
contractor hired by Festivals Incorpo-
100'x154'
15,400
3,000
0
Jazz
100'x154'
15,400
3,000
0
Rock- Around-The -Dock
100'x154'
15,400
3,000
0
Rock -On- The -Roof
220'x75'
16,500
2,000
O
Comedy
120'x60'
7,200
1,200
I
Cabaret
120'x60'
7,200
1,200
I
Childrens
100'x50'
5,000
250
O
Gazebos
100'x50'
5,000
250
O
Variety
130'x140'
18,200
2,500
I
Senior Citizens
180'x75'
13,500
1,200
I
275'x from
75,000
18,000
0
Main
144' to 385'
rated, who produce ChicagoFest.
Bridgewater handles Bose, E -V /Tapco,
Audio Technica, and Biamp, the
equipment used predominently at
ChicagoFest. Sound for the Main Stage
and Rock -on- the -Roof stages was
handled by dB Sound, Inc, Chicago,
another local contractor. Bruce Gordon
of dB Sound says that at the time he had
four major systems on tour (with REO
Speedwagon, Heart, Kansas and the
UNESCO Music Festival), so his
company sublet a lot of equipment from
TFA (Los Angeles) for the Main Stage.
CHICAGOFEST FINANCES
Because economics of the Chicago Fest may be of interest to engineers and
producers, we gathered the following
basic statistics. The 1981 production
budget was $5 million, of which $1 million
went toward entertainment. Only a part of
these funds came from the gate; 180,000
one -day tickets were sold at $4 each, the
remainder being sold at the gate for $6 a
day.
The balance of the income came from a
number of sponsors, including several
brewing and soft drink companies
(Augsburger, Hamms, Miller, Olympia,
Pepsi Cola, and RC Cola), who each paid
up to $75,000 to sponsor a stage. Coca Cola paid for half a million brochures,
and Chrysler Corporation donated a
dozen new cars to transport VIPs (the
cars were later raffled to raise more
funds). The Festival collected
*
=
Blues, Jazz and Country
-TheThree
Identical Stages
Blues, Country and Jazz stages
were all lined up on "ground level"
along the east side of the pier. The three
stages were about 380 feet apart, with
only a 200 -foot buffer zone between
audience seating areas. Making
coverage particularly tricky, the
seating consisted of ballpark -like
bleachers that rose up to one story
above the stage; close
bleachers was the wall
building's upper story
reflective surface. (Doors
wall also led to an indoor
behind the
of the pier
a hard,
in this rear
arcade area,
-
BASS
AMP
Indoor
where additional fill speakers were used
Outdoor;
The Rock -Around- the -Dock stage was
handled by Southern Thunder Sound.
I
=
during major performances.)
Each of the systems used for these
three stages consisted of a Tapco 7416
mixing console, Biamp Systems 270A
or Tapco 2230 third -octave graphic
equalizer, 26 Bose 802 speakers with one
channel of Bose 802 -E equalizer per
mix, seven Bose 1800 power amplifiers,
and an assortment of Audio -Technica
and E -V microphones (Figures 2 and 3).
No compression or limiting was used.
All lines were balanced, with rubber jacketed multi -pair snakes being used to
connect stage mikes to the mixer. The
on -stage mike cables were Pro Sound
Lifelines, a type Jay Bridgewater says
he doesn't mind paying extra for,
because the Switchcraft ends are potted
I,
GUITAR
AMP
SAX
FLUTE
II
CLARINET
fr
HOUSE
SIDE
FILL
HOUSE
SIDE
FILL
11:121
POWER AMPS
LEAD VOCAL
111:2
Ka
MAIN
SIDEFILL
SIOE FILL
POWER AMPS
KZ
Ka
Ell
Ell Ell
1:13
E3
Xa
HOUSE STACK
a
commission of 20% on the estimated $3.3
million in food sales, and of course there
was a sizeable income from food and
hotel taxes on the out -of -town visitors.
(The Chicago Convention & Tourism
Bureau cites the ChicagoFest as having
raised August to their #1 tourism month.)
The city says it will use the profits to
finance a needed $250,000 refurbishing
of the Navy Pier; ironically, this may
mean the Festival must move elsewhere
next year amid the pier's reconstruction.
Major promotion was also provided by
the 13 radio stations that had booths and
did many live remotes from the Fest. In
addition, local TV stations did a handful
of remotes as well.
O
Ifa
Ka
KZ
,BOO
Elll
Ka
MAIN HOUSE STACK
Figure 2: Jazz Stage Layout,
TAGE
KES
APPROK 75 FEET
ULTI PAIR
SN
REAR OF
SEATING
AREA
RIGHT HOUSE
STACK
SAME AS LEFT)
BOSE
TAPCO /BIAMP
RIGHT
MAIN
THIRD- OCTAVE
ILIM
SPEAKER
ECUALIZER
ECE3
TAPCO 7415
MIMING
TO STAGE LEFT
®w®Y
RIGHT HOUSE SIDE
(SAME AS LEFT)
1800
CONSOLE
CM
11111:1113
CASS
En El
m
m
1131
_.4,800
Ell
CM CM
EEO
Ell
STAGE MONITOR
CHANNEL A
1
I
STAGE MONITOR
i
CHANNEL 8
SPEAKER STACKS
FILL SPEAKERS
IN PAVILLION
Figure 3: Sound System block diagram for Jazz Stage.
October 1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
R -e /p 75
octave EQ and Bose EQ to about 12
additional Bose 802's powered by three
Bose 1800 amplifiers.
It should be pointed out that, as a
condition in the performer's contracts,
no group was allowed to bring its own
sound system. In some instances,
however, groups did specify certain
effects devices, etc. As a result, each
sound system provided at the Fest had
to be suitable for use by a variety of acts.
in epoxy and covered with shrink
tubing, making them very resistant to
abuse and moisture. (It has been known
to rain in Chicago.)
The 16 -in /stereo -out Tapco board
provided a mono house mix, the second
output being reserved as a spare. The
mix was fed from the back -row mixer up
to on -stage amps, two main stacks of 12
speakers each, plus two audience side -
fill speakers. Two- channel stage
monitoring was accomplished using the
monitor bus plus the effects bus of the
Tapco board, connected via thirdConcert -Sound Loudspeakers
and Amplifiers for ChicagoFest
Could Bose's direct /reflecting home
stereo speakers even be considered for
an out -of -doors music festival?
Obviously not, but the company does
have another line of professional
products.
The Bose 802 speaker does not utilize
the direct /reflecting principle. Instead,
eight full- range, 41/2-inch cone -type
drivers are mounted in a ducted -port
enclosure of mica -filled structural foam
construction with integral stacking
grooves. Single unit dispersion is 120°
horizontally by 100° vertically; stacking
four units narrows the vertical pattern to
40 The speakers have snap -off covers
that also serve as a stand when it is used
as a slant monitor. Sensitivity is 98 dB
from 1 watt at meter in the mid -band,
falling off to 89 dB if rated from 40 Hz to
16 kHz. Rated at 160 watts continuous
sinewave (300 watts program power), the
80Z requires that an 802 -E equalizer be
used ahead of the power amp to broaden
the frequency response. (The EQ has a
+13 dB peak at 70 Hz, and a gradual rise
above 800 Hz to an 18 kHz, +17 dB peak.)
The Model 1800 power amp is a 2channel, rackmount unit rated at 400
watts continuous average (RMS) per
channel into 4ohms. It features 14 output
devices per side, modular circuitry, LED
peak output displays, dual fans in its
transit case, turn -on delay, and current
limiting protection. ChicagoFest was
done largely with modular setups of a
Model 1800 driving four 802's: two 802's
in parallel per channel. Only one 802 -E
equalizer was required per mix.
Used for a small cabaret stage during
ChicagoFest was the Bose PM -2
Powermixer, a six -mike plus one-line
input /dual -mono output mixer, which
includes a built -in Model 1800 amplifier,
802 -E speaker equalizer, and three -band
ParaGraph parametric EQ. Its mating
Model EX -6 six -channel expander was
also used.
1
R -e /p 76
The Jazz /Blues/Country Systems
Much to this author's surprise, sound
coverage was excellent throughout the
seating and standing area for each of
these three stages, there being minimal
overlap of adjacent sound systems.
According to producers Lou Volpano
and David Asher, of Festivals
Incorporated, in past years it had
proved difficult to obtain adequate
coverage using horn -loaded systems;
unless, that is, they were willing to
accept spill into the adjacent areas.
Valpano and Asher were very pleased
with the coverage that Bridgewater
obtained using Bose 802's, which are
full-range direct- radiating speakers.
Volpano also was reported to be pleased
with the compact stacks, which allowed
an extra 16 feet of useable stage with a
correspondingly wider view angle.
Their light weight
37.5 pounds per
speaker
required far less rigging.
Because setup of the entire Fest took the
union crews (at about $1,000 per hour)
just two days, and they tore it down in
six hours, Festivals, Inc. enjoyed a
significant cost savings.
Regarding the system's frequency
response and dispersion specifications,
Jay Bridgewater says that during
initial setup before the Fest, an Ivie IE30 real-time analyzer was used to adjust
the third -octave graphic equalizers for
flat system response between 80 Hz and
1 kHz. The EQ was attennuated by 12
dB on the 63, 50 and 40 Hz bands,
creating an 80 -Hz cut -off to eliminate
possible non -musical stage noise from
the mix. Also, a 3 dB per octave roll -off
was set above 1 kHz. The Bose
equalizers, used to flatten the frequency
response of the Bose speakers, followed
the graphics.
Using the IE -30 analyzer and
-
-
pumping broadband pink noise
through the system, Bridgewater and
Bose personnel measured the frequency
response and SPL at the mixer's
position (last row of seating area), and
all along that row. They claim that the
measured response was flat to within 5
dB from 80 Hz to 10 kHz, not only at the
mixer, but across a 102° included angle
from stage center. (This performance
should not be equated to a polar
dispersion specification, because
Bridgewater walked the analyzer in a
straight line parallel to the stage front,
not in an arc, thereby increasing the
distance near the edges of the measured
area. Polar response was probably a dB
or so better than the figures quoted
above.) While we were unable to confirm
October 1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
Mixing Booth for Rock -Around -the Dock Stagy
these figures
having no test
equipment with us the Bridgewater/
Bose claims do seem realistic based on
careful listening assessments during
various concerts.
Sound levels were measured both
with broadband pink noise, and during
actual performances. The Ivie's SPL
meter was used in three modes "slow
scan," "fast scan," and "peak scan"
corresponding to long -term average,
short -term average, and instantaneous
sound -pressure levels. Pink noise
measurements were made after turning
the gain up to the onset of power amp
clipping, and then backing off about 1
dB. By comparing peak to slow scan
SPLs of pink noise, one can obtain a
reasonable idea of the headroom
available. By comparing these same
numbers during actual performance,
one can assess how much headroom
was actually used (or how much
clipping was acceptable).
In practice, the pink noise and live
show figures given in Table 2 were
--
- -
Table 2: Measured
Sound Levels At The
Mixing Board (Last Row)
dB SPL, Pink Noise
Stage
Slow
Fast Peak
118
103
108
Jazz
Country
Blues
Stage
Jazz
103
103
108
108
118
118
dB SPL, Live Show
Slow Fast Peak
103
103
105
Country
Blues
108
108
108
118
118
119
identical on all but the Blues Stage,
where the presence of more guitar
amplifiers, etc., raised the levels a dB or
so.
The measurements indicated that
there was between 10 and 15 dB of
-
headroom
plenty for a live performance sound reinforcement
system. Again, these measurements
could not be verified without test gear.
However, observations made during
actual performances
which varied
from The Neville Brothers, to Asleep at
the Wheel, and Lionel Hampton
appear to support such claims. For the
most part, distortion was low and the
sound natural. An occasional raucus
peak could be detected; investigation
revealed that the person operating the
mixer had reached down and tweaked
the graphic equalizers. Union stage-
-
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out the consoles are. I've
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At Audio Engineering Associates, our sales engineers will help you find
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1029 North Allen Avenue / Pasadena, CA 91104/(213) 798 -9127
www.americanradiohistory.com
hands were hired to operate the mixing
boards, not Bridgewater personnel. As
a result, there was no uniform
philosophy of how to do the mixing. In
one instance, terrible clipping occurred
the mixer had turned the mike pre amp gain way up and pulled down the
fader, obviously misunderstanding the
gain structure of the board. During our
two days at the festival it was observed
that most of the union mixers made use
of only moderate channel EQ on the
Tapco boards, a good practice in our
opinion. While the mixers did a good job
overall, the stagehands might have
benefitted from a crash course in
operating the equipment.
-
set up. For example, initial setup of the
Jazz, Blues, Country, Rock -on- the -Roof,
and Variety Stages all began at 8 am;
they were cabled and ready in time for a
noon stage call.
Although the performance of the
Jazz, Blues and Country systems left
little to be desired, it was felt that the
Rock -on- the -Roof system should be
capable of even higher SPL, since the
audience area was larger. This was the
primary reason for bi- amplifying, not
because of frequency response considerations. In fact, calculations showed
that sound for the Rock Stage could
have been achieved just as well using
only 802's, but that it would have
required about three times as many
speakers, plus the amps to drive them.
The roof system also used a Tapco
said it liked about the Bose systems was
their compact size, and the fact that a
non -biamplified or tri -amplified system
is less complex and therefore easier to
Look
to
Lake
R -e /p 78
October
1981
bi- amplification. Bottom end was
handled by horn-loaded bass bins fitted
with Gauss 18 -inch woofers, and driven
by older BGW Model 1000 amplifiers. A
Tapco CPX crossover had been set for a
250 -Hz, 12 dB per octave transition to
two stacks of 12 Bose 802 cabinets. (For
longer throw these 802's were stacked
six high by two wide, rather than four
high by three wide as with the
previously described stages.) The
interesting aspect, however, is that a
Tapco octave -band EQ was inserted
after the crossover's high-frequency
output, just ahead of the Bose 802 -E
STAGE SPEAKER AND AMP STACK
(DUPLICATED ON OTHER SIDE OF STAGE)
BOSE
POWER A
PS
1800
OVERALL
24 dB /Octave
BIAMP
THIRD- OCTAVE
GRAPHIC EO
FROM
270A
1800
TAPCO
OCTAVE
GRAPHIC
NM
HIGH
MAIN MIX
TAPCO CONSOLE
The Rock-On- The -Roof System
One of the aspects that Festivals, Inc.
mixer and Biamp EQ plus a separate
stage monitor board with Crown amps
and JBL speakers in dB Sound monitor
cabinets (Figure 4). There was an
interesting variation in the method of
250HZ/12 dB per
Octave
TAPCO
ELECTRONIC
CROSSOVER
Lo
802E
1800
BOSE SPEAKER EO
1000
802
802
802
802
802
802
802
802
802
802
802
802
BASS BINS
DUAL
GAUSS
8 -INCH
BGW POWER
AMPS
1000
DUAL
GAUSS
18 -INCH
Figure 4: Partial block diagram
of the speaker /amplifier setup for the Rock -on- the -Roof Stage.
For Professional Recording Consoles. No one can shape sound and put
it together quite like the British...Masters of the recording console. Come
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LAKE SYSTEMS
55 Chapel St., Newton, MA 02160 (617) 244 -6881
CORPORATION
For additional information circle #172
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While the system frequency response
was comparable to the non -biamplified
systems, coverage was somewhat more
narrow (but so was the audience area).
The only problem proved to be slap echo
off the back wall, something that would
have been very difficult to eliminate
without flying the speakers
difficult
option, but one that the contractors may
try next time.
Table 3: Measured Sound Levels
t Rock -On -The -Roof Mixing Board
(About 120' from the stage.)
dB SPL, Pink Noise
Slow
Fast
Peak
100
107
120
-a
dB SPL, Live Show
Slow
Fast
Peak
97
104
117
speaker equalizer. All bands on the
graphic below 250 Hz were rolled off
fully.
The net effect of the crossover and
graphic EQ was to create a two-pole low pass filter at 250 Hz (12 dB per octave),
and a four -pole high -pass filter (24 dB
per octave). Such an arrangement not
only resulted in the desired frequency
response, but it also avoided overdriving the Bose EQ (which could have
happened had it and the octave -band
graphic been reversed in the signal
path).
It can be seen from Table 3 that, while
the measurement distance was 60%
greater than that of the Jazz /Blues/
Country systems, pink noise SPLs were
comparable; one might expect a 4 or 5
dB fall off due the increased distance,
but in fact the peak SPL was a few dB
higher. This demonstrates the added
level and headroom obtained by means
of bi- amplification. (The live readings,
by the way, were taken during a
performance of the band The Buckinghams.)
The same equipment complement
Stages out of doors was used indoors for
the Variety Stage, which handled
everything from Woody Herman to
Second City, Tom Paxton and Bob
Gibson, and even a Jamaican Limbo
performance. The sound indoors was
acceptable, considering the abominable
acoustics of the room: circular in shape
with a domed ceiling and nothing but
hard concrete, plaster or glass surfaces.
SPL at the mixing hoard, situated about
Table 4: Measured Sound Levels
At The Variety Mixing Board
(About 50' from the stage.)
dB SPL, Pink Noise
Fast
Peak
Slow
Slow
123
dB SPL, Live Show
92
performances, however, levels usually
were lower, probably due to the nature
of the music, and to the fact that many
people were sitting around at tables
eating and talking. Consequently, the
mixer possibly felt that it was
appropriate to pull down the master a
-
that served the Jazz, Blues and Country
113
shown in Table 4. During the
few dB.
-
Variety Stage
The Jazz /Blues /Country
System Used Indoors
108
stage, measured 5 dB
above the same system outdoors, as
50 feet from the
Fast
Peak
98
111
The Main Stage
Playing to an Audience of 18,000
Situated in an amphitheater -like
setup on the mainland, next to the pier,
the Main Stage featured completely
separate main house and stage monitor
systems, fed from on -stage splitter
boxes using Jensen transformers. The
main mixing booth was on an elevated
platform about half way back in the
audience, while stage monitor mixing
was done behind the speaker stacks to
one side of the stage. The booth
contained the following hardware:
Two Midas 40- input/8 -bus boards,
interconnected
Two dbx Model 160 compressor limiters
One dbx Model 162 stereo compressor limiter
Two Biamp Model 270A third octave equalizers
Lexicon Model 102 stereo digital
delay line
Advanced Audio Designs D -250 delay
TO MEETALLYOUR NEEDS,WE HAD TO
CREATE OUR OWN COMPETITION.
Year after year, other manufacturers tried to build
audio power amps that were at least as powerful,
at least as reliable, at least as sonically accurate
as the Crown DC300A.
None of them fully succeeded.
Year after year the DC300A was
your first choice.
to meet all your needs. Some, but not all.
So we created the PSA -2, with on -board computers
that enable the amp to engineer itself to meet the
demands of varying load and signal, with lots of
reliable power.
And then we created the even newer
PS -400 with the cost -effective, high
performance Multi-Mode 'M circuit,
and your choice of affordable options.
But audio engineering was
changing; becoming better,
more knowledgeable, more
sophisticated.
When we looked
at your future, it
was apparent
the DC300A
couldn't continue
And now you have
the easiest kind of
choice. Crown.
Crown. Or Crown.
Write for the
Crown professional
amp Info-Pac.
...WHEN YOU'RE READY FOR REAL!
1718 W. Mishawaka Road,
Elkhart, IN 46517, (219) 294 -5571
October
For additional information circle #49
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e/p 79
MXR Flanger /Doubler
Two MXR Auto Flangers
Two MXR Auto Phasers
Symetrix CL -100 compressor -
limiter
Furman RV -1 reverb unit
Quad -Eight RV -10 reverb
Patch bay
The eight busses from the pair of
Midas consoles served as subgroups for
vocals, keyboards, strings, horns,
drums, percussion, instruments
(primarily guitar), and effects; all eight
were also subject to a grand master
fader.
The main speakers, crossover and
amplifier stacks, which were divided
into two stacks, comprised:
36 JBL 6233 power amplifiers
Four Crown PSA -2 power amplifiers
Two Wow Sound 4 -way electronic
crossovers
Two H/H S500D power amps
48 R&R Case speaker cabinets
The R&R cabinets consisted of the
following:
Bass -only Bin containing two JBL E140 15 -inch drivers in a front-loaded,
sealed-back horn, supplied by TFA.
Bass /Mid Bin containing two JBL E140 15 -inch drivers in a front-loaded,
sealed-back horn; Rlus two JBL 2482
drivers, one each on short -throw and
long -throw 90° McCauley horns,
supplied by dB Sound.
Mid /High Bin containing two JBL E130 12 -inch drivers in a front-loaded,
sealed-back horn; a JBL 2440 or 2441
driver on a 2350 horn; and two JBL 2420
tweeters, supplied by TFA.
Arranged in two huge speaker stacks
of 24 bins each, all the units had been
concealed behind black scrim on either
side of the stage.
The main stage monitor equipment
included:
Midas 24 by 10 monitor mixing board
Four Crown DC -300A power amps
Four Crown D -150 power amps
Crown PSA -2 power amp
Gallien- Kruger 100 -15B power amp,
with built -in crossover
Ashley SC -22 electronic crossover
Eight Biamp Model 270A third octave equalizers
Two Biamp octave-band equalizers
Clear -Com intercom
Approximately 16 R&R Case monitor
speakers, each consisting of a JBL E130 woofer, an Emilar or JBL 2482
driver, a 90° McCauley horn with slant
(OTTTS)
electro-medio systems, inc.
HarrisonHi Distributor
Complete System Design and Installation
Automation Specialist
Acoustic Analysis
Western
U.S,
contact Dan Gwynne
90048 (213) 653 -4931
8257 Beverly Blvd., L.A., Ca.
Recording Systems for the Entertainment Ind nstries
R -e /p 80
0 October 1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
plate lens, or a 90° radial horn, and a
JBL 2220 tweeter.
Main Stage acts included: Chaka
Khan, Teddy Pendergrass, The
Reddings, John Prine and Steve
Goodman, Chicago, Lee Ritenour,
Bobby Vinton, The Lennon Sisters,
Aretha Franklin, The Four Tops, Air
Supply, Jim Photoglo, Cheap Trick,
Cold Chisel, The Commodores, .38
Special, The Dregs, Crystal Gayle,
Rodney Crowell, Mickey Gilley-Johnny
Less and the Urban Cowboy Band, and
Hank Williams Jr. Obviously, not all of
the equipment was used for each act.
Stage Layout for the Bobbie Vinton
performance is shown in Figure 5.
AC
Power Distribution
-
The Largest Single Obstacle to
Achieving a Good Sound
The Navy Pier had three -phase power
buried in.along its length. Distribution
to the various stages was handled by a
single union electrician, which caused
some delays. All the lighting was
loaded on phases A and B, phase C
being reserved for the sound reinforcement and stage sound equipment
practice Jay Bridgewater recommends
to minimize problems. Unfortunately,
-a
there remained large potential
differences in the AC grounding,
leading to hums and buzzes after initial
setup.
Bridgewater sank ground rods locally
at each stage, and tied the stage's sound
system to that ground. Ground -lift
adaptors were then used systematically
to isolate shields. Somehow logic did
not prevail and the systematic approach didn't work, so a cut-and -try
method was used. Eventually things
quieted down. After noticing the large
neon lights just above those brewersponsored stages, observers were
impressed that there was no accompanying buzz!
dB Sound used its own AC distribution system on the Main Stage, which
normally would tend to simplify
grounding. Unfortunately, this stage
had the worst problems with hum and
buzz. For one thing, the 225 KVA power.
transformer supplying the entire pier
was located about 30 feet from stage
center. In addition, nearby TV Channel
Five's transmitter was bathing the
stage in RF. The average hum /RF field
on stage had a 25- to 30 -volt field
strength, according to dB Sound's
Bruce Gordon. Despite valiant efforts at
isolation and ground manipulation,
there remained a noticeable hum
whenever the performing group would
pause; when they were playing, their
music masked the noise.
This is not intended as a criticism of
dB Sound, however. The Main system
was massive, far more complex than
any of the others at the Fest, and was
comprised of much equipment that was
not normally part of the company's
sound system. During a performance by
Chicago, the audience was largely
unaware of the buzz; in fact, the musical
experience was so powerful that even
this author was swept away and
ignored his analytical role for a time.
30 FEET FROM 225 KVA
POWER TRANSFORMER
MIKE
SPLITTER
VIBES AND
PERCUSSION
Reliability
RISER
The ChicagoFest sound contract
specified that the sound reinforcement
contractor would be billed back for all
charges in the event of a show having to
be cancelled because of sound system
failure. The liability amounted to tens
of thousands of dollars for many
individual acts. Needless to say,
reliability and back -up were essential.
Luckily, there were no catastrophic
equipment failures at the Fest. To
thwart the effects of rain and morning
moisture, a lot of plastic sheeting
covered the gear overnight and hair
dryers were used when that didn't work.
With over 150 microphones and 400
mike cables, Jay Bridgewater refused to
jeopardize the million dollar entertainment lineup by using cheaper cables.
He, as well as Festivals Inc, was pleased
by the equipment reliability. Also, the
RISER
CLARINETS
modular concept, using similar
ACCORDION
r-N
MONITOR
D
O
x
EJ
® VOCALS
MIKE
SPLITTER
MONITOR
MIXER
-
equipment wherever possible, made it
easier to provide backup. In fact, an
entire sound system had to be
assembled at the last minute, because of
an oversight in the original contract.
The contractors were able to do the job
using spares, and by "borrowing"
temporarily from other systems.
Bridgewater also made sure repair
personnel and equipment were on the
SAXES AND
SIX DRUM MIKES
AMP RACKS
n
AMP RACKS
Illl
LEAD VOCALS
MONITOR
ey
MONITOR
A
HOUSE SPEAKER STACK ISIDE
FILL
t
BLACK
SCRIM
$
El
MONITOR
t
SLANT MONITORS
A
-
HOUSE SPEAKER STACK
l
v
f
\BLACK
SCRIM
Figure 5: Main Stage layout for Bobby Vinton performance.
premises at all times.
walking 50 yards and hearing the live
What Does The Future Hold?
An unusual phenomenon was
observed at this year's ChicagoFest: a
number of festival goers gathered
around the speakers adjacent to one or
another radio station's gazebo, and
listened for hours to canned music from
on- the -air broadcasts
instead of
-
acts! (Could it be the disco influence is
perverting our youthful listeners ?)
What if this trend grows? Will our
future music festivals consist of
recorded acts, perhaps with an
occasional live act to fill the intermissions while the l)J cleans a stylus or
eats lunch? Here's hoping that it never
comes to pass.
DDD
WE'RE EXPANDING
THE PZM CHALLENGE:
Now, PZMTM technology is available in two new Crown clip -on
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These PZM mikes sound better than the
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They're durable - the only clip -on mikes, in fact,
with a full three year warranty.
The base plate of the PZM -2LV rotates on the clip.
No matter where it's worn, the cord can be comfortably
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transducer housing is mounted directly to the clip,
for a minimum profile.
Both mikes are the product of thorough, careful Crown
research. That's your assurance that these clip -on PZM mikes will
improve "on- camera" and interview applications just as standard
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Challenge yourself. Try PZM. Write or call today for your free
PZM clip -on Info -Pac. Includes the latest issue of PZMemo,
complete product data and a dealer list.
!:WHEN YOU'RE READY FOR
REAL!
1718 W. Mishawaka Rd.,
Elkhart,
IN 46517, (219) 294-5571
October
For additional information circle #51
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
[1
R -e p 81
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October
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e,ïp 83
u
I
berant soundfields are equal in
intensity). Key 1; press ENTER.
T60 is Reverb Time. Key 2; press
®
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ENTER.
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Using Minicomputers for Audio System Analysis
by Chris Foreman, Comm, unity Light
While travelling in Japan last summer,
received one of the new Sharp PC -1211
Pocket Computers as a gift. It was the
beginning of a love affair. spent the entire
9 -hour flight back from Tokyo learning
how to operate this fascinating
instrument
quite a feat since the
instruction manual was written entirely in
I
I
-
--
Japanese! Fortunately, Radio Shack is
now importing the PC -1211
as the
Model TRS -80 Pocket Computer
and
obtained a copy of the appropriate
English -language manual.
The PC-1 21 1 /TRS -80 Pocket Computer
accepts programs written in a version of
Microsoft BASIC, results being displayed
on a 24- character LCD readout. Program
and data memory are shared with a total of
1,424 program "steps," or 1 78 memories.
Apparently, that amounts to about 1.9
kbytes of memory; sufficient for some
quite respectable programs. Programs
and data may be recorded on a standard
audio cassette - recorder with an optional
adapter. (Rumor has it that an Odd -on
printer will be available in the near future.)
The advantages of a computer like this
over a hand -held calculator is that it has a
much larger display, prints results, and
gives prompts in words as well as
numbers. These aspects make a well written program usable by someone who
understands very little about the machine.
I'm not selling this computer, by the way,
just explaining its benefits as an
introduction to my programming
philosophy!
I
Sound System Analysis
With the capabilities of this new tool in
mind, set the following goals for a Sound
System Analysis program, goals which
became the program's main features:
1) Qualitative Analysis. The program
had to help the user answer three of these
I
four basic questions about sound
systems:
a) Is the system loud enough? (The
Electrical Power Required formula helps
answer this question.)
b) Can everybody hear? (This question is
primarily concerned with loudspeaker
coverage patterns and is not answered in
the program.)
c) Can everybody understand? (The
Critical Distance, Reverb Time and
ALCONS programs help answer this
question.)
d) Will the system feed back? (The
R -e/p 84
&
Sound, Philadelphia, Pa.
PAG /NAG program helps to answer this
question.)
Incidentally, it is my belief that if you can
answer those four questions, you know
most of what you need to know about a
sound reinforcement system!
2) Interaction. The Program had to
interact with the user, through the
display, in such a way as to allow
maximum flexibility. Existing sound
system "design" programs lead the user
through the design process as if it was a
one -way street. wanted my program to
allow the user to make decisions,
I
backtrack, and branch easily from one part
of the program to another.
3) Data Input. Some programs force the
user to re -enter data each time it is
needed.
wanted to be able to re -use
existing data over and over again, reentering the data only if it changed in
value. In addition, the program could not
be allowed to alter data indiscriminately,
but could only suggest changes in values
which the user could accept or reject.
4) Prompts. wanted to take maximum
advantage of the 24- character display on
the PC -1211 pocket computer, by using
high information- content input and
output prompts.
was only moderately
successful on this last goal. After being as
clever and miserly as possible about my
usage of program and data memory, still
used up all but 25 steps of program
memory (out of a possible 1,424), and had
to abbreviate some prompts. Fortunately, I
was able to use common sound -system
abbreviations so that most users will be
able to follow the program easily.
Those readers with access to a larger
computer running BASIC may wish to
implement this program. With larger
memory space,
would expand the
prompts and modifythe PRINT and PAUSE
statements to take advantage of a
CRT /printer combination.
I
I
I
I
I
How To Use The Programs
1) Load the program into the computer.
("PRO" mode on the PC -1211)
2) Type RUN; press ENTER. ("RUN"
mode on the PC -1211)
3) The display will show a "menu" of
available programs. Select the desired
program by keying the program number,
and pressing ENTER.
The abbreviations are as follows:
DC is Critical Distance (that
distance where direct and rever-
October 1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
Electrical Power Required
(how large an amplifier is needed
for a required SPL at the farthest
listener). Key 3; press ENTER.
AL is Articulation Loss of
Consonants ( ALCONS), a program
to estimate whether or not the
farthest listener will be able to
understand the spoken sound from
the system. Key 4; press ENTER.
PN is PAG /NAG, a program to
calculate Potential and Needed
Acoustic Gain (in other words, will
the sound system feed back). Key 6;
press ENTER.
Explanation Of Prompts
Each program requests needed
information using abbreviated prompts.
Abbreviations are standard for the audio
industry and should be easy to remember.
Program constants assume Imperial
(English), not metric, units.
If you enter a given variable in one
program, the computer remembers that
variable until you change it. Thus, if you
enter a value of Q in the DC program, you
do not have to re -enter the value of Q in
the T60 program, unless it needs to be
changed. When a program asks for a
variable that you have already entered,
simply press ENTER without keying a
number.
DC Program Prompts
Q is the Q of the loudspeaker; programs
use this single value of Q for all
calculations.
S is the total surface area for the room,
in square feet.
ABAR is the average absorption
coefficient for the room.
T60 Program Prompts
V is the total volume of the room in cubic
feet.
S and ABAR are explained in the DC
Program Prompts section.
If you knowT60 but do not know ABAR,
key 0 for ABAR; the program will ask for
T60 and calculate a Sabine ABAR.
When calculating T60, the program
asks for your decision on Sabine (key 24;
press ENTER), or Norris Eyring (key 25;
press ENTER) formulas.
EPR Program Prompts
This program branches to the DC
program to gain certain variables needed
for the calculations. Thus, a value of DC
will be displayed first.
SPL is the SPL Level you require at the
farthest listener (at D2). Since the
program adds 10 dB of headroom, you
should key the nominal SPL level
required.
D2 is the distance from the loudspeaker
to the farthest listener, in feet.
SENS is the 1-watt/4-foot sensitivity of
the loudspeaker cluster in dB SPL.
PWR is the available power (size of
power amplifier you intend to supply). In
most cases you should use the power
capacity of the loudspeaker, rather than
After finding the
% ALCONS,
the
program calculates the value of certain
variables that will make ALCONS exactly
equal to 15 %. Press ENTER after each
display to calculate the next variable.
the power amplifier size in this
PAG /NAG Program Prompts
calculation, since the maximum SPL is
usually limited by this power capacity
before it is limited by amplifier size.
The final SPL= value is the nominal SPL
(10 dB headroom above this level) that can
DS is the distance from the talker to the
microphone, in feet.
be
heard at D2 using the entered PWR
level.
ALCONS Program Prompts
Q, D2, T60 and V are explained above.
the total number of loudspeakers
producing the same level as the
N is
loudspeaker pointed at the farthest
listener. For example, if there are three
horns in the system, all producing the
same level, and only one horn is pointed at
the farthest listener, then N equals 3. If
there are four horns, two of which are
pointed at the farthest listener, the
situation is equivalent to two horns with
one pointed at the farthest listener. As a
result, N equals 2. If the horns are not
producing the same level, or there are
multiple different loudspeakers with
multiple different levels pointed in lots of
different directions, finding N can be a
complex calculation. The program does
not aid you in finding N.
D1 is the distance from the microphone
to the loudspeaker, in feet.
D2 is the distance from the loudspeaker
to the farthest listener, in feet.
DO is the distance from the talker to the
farthest listener, in feet.
NOM is the Number of Open
Microphones; that is, the maximum
number of microphones all in use at the
same time.
EAD is the Equivalent Acoustic
Distance. This is the distance the farthest
listener will think he is away from the
talker when the sound system is in use.
Other variables are as described earlier.
Like ALCONS, the PAG /NAG program
prints a value of PAG and NAG, then
calculates the values of several variables
for PAG equal to NAG. Press ENTER after
each display to calculate the next variable.
When PAG is much less than NAG, it may
not be possible to find a value of Dl large
enough to make PAG equal to NAG. In this
case, the program sets D1 equal to 45 feet,
and displays the actual values of both PAG
and NAG. When PAG is much greater
than NAG, a very large value of D2 is
possible. In this case, the program allows
D2 to reach a maximum value of DO.
Running the Programs
The following points should be noted:
1) After each program, the computer
returns to the Select Program Routine.
You may branch to a new program or
choose to re -run the previous program by
keying the appropriate number, and
pressing ENTER.
2) The program rounds off variables to
the second decimal place before
displaying them. However, the exact
numerical value (before rounding) is
always used for calculations.
Typical Input Values and
Expected Results
When working with any new computer
program, it can be very useful to have
some idea of the expected results
expecially if you intend to use a modified
version of the listing to program, for
example, an Apple, Commodore PET, Atari
or Tandy TRS -80 personal computer. To
help eliminate any "buggs" from your
program the following list of inputs and
expected results are provided:
I. Critical Distance
Input: Q = 5.0
S = 42,500 square feet
ABAR = 0.206
Output: DC = 29.51 feet
-
D1GWAL
REVERBERATION
Sophisticated microprogrammed parallel processing of 16 bit
data with 28 bit internal data paths, coupled with full 18kHz
bandwidth guarantee the DMX 15R outstanding performance.
Full control of 9 programs with up to 99 non -volatile memories
and simultaneous display of all key reverberation parameters
make the DMX 15R simple to understand and operate.
AIM
111'7-
ENGLAND
Advanced Music Systems,
Worsthorne Village,
Burnley, England.
Telephone: [0282] 36943
Telex 63108
U.S.A.
Quintek Distribution Inc.,
4721 Laurel Canyon Boulevard,
Suite 209, North Hollywood,
California 91607.
Telephone:[213] 980 -5717
October
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e/p 85
Using
MINICOMPUTERS
for
AUDIO SYSTEM
ANALYSIS
2. Reverberation Time
Input: V
= 500,000 cubic feet
42,500 square feet
ABAR = 0.206
S =
=
5.0
PROGRAM LISTING
1:PAUSE"SELECT PROGRAM":
INPUT "DC=1T60=2EPR=3AL=4PN=
6?";F:GOT0100*F
2:END
10:D=INT(D*100+0.5)/100:RETURN
100:PAUSE"DC":GOSUBI 10:GOT01
105:END
10:INPUT"Q?' ;Q,"S?'";S " ABAR?" ;A
120:D=N/ ((Q*S*A*)/(16*rr)):C=D:
GOSUB10
130:PRINT"DC='";D:RETURN
200: PAU S E"T60": N P UT"V?"; V
205: F=.049*V
210:INPUT"S?";S
220:INPUT"ABAR?(O=UNKNOWN)";A:
IF A=0 INPUT"T60?";T:
A=F/(S*T):D=A:GOSUB10:PRINT
"ABAR=";D:GOT01
230:INPUT"SABINE(24),N-E(25)?
";D:GOT010*D
240:T=F/(S*A):GOTO 260
250:T=F/(-S*LN(1-A))
260:D=T:GOSUB10:PRINT"T60=";D:
1
I
GOTO1
270:END
300PAUS E"EPR":GOSUB 10
310:INPUT"SPL?'";L
320:INPUT"D2?":I
330:INPUT"SENS?";K
1
340:F=10*LOG(((C/4)A2+1)/
((C/I)A2+1))
350: D=10A((L+10-K+F)/ 10):GOS U B
10:PRINT'"EPR='";D
3 60: I N PUT'"PW R?"; E: E=10* LOG E
370: D=E-10+K-F GOS U B 10: PR N T
"S PL="; D: GOT01
I
:
380:END
400: PAU S E"ALCO N S": N PUT"Q?"; Q
410:INPUT"D2?";I
420:INPUT"T60?";T
430:I N PUT"V?"; V
440:INPUT"N?";J
450:F=Q:GOSUB490:PRINT"%AL=";D
460:F=15:GOSUB490:GOSUB510:PRINT
"Q="; D
470:F=T:GOSUB500:GOSUB510:
PRINT"D2=";D
480:F=1:GOSUB500:GOSUB510:PRINT
I
"T60="; D: G OTO 1
Output: EPR = .41 watts
Input: PWR = 15 watts (using the
1
example of an Altec 288 driver on a 90degree radial horn)
Output: SPL = 95.27 dBA
4. Articulation Loss of Consonants
Input: Q = 5.0
D2 = 90.0 feet
With Sabine,
Output: T60 = 2.80 seconds
With Norris -Eyring:
Output: T60 = 2.50 seconds
3. Electrical Power Required
Input: Q
S = 42,500 square feet
ABAR = 0.206
A value of DC = 29.51 feet will be
displayed.
Input: SPL = 85.0 dBA
D2 = 90.0 feet
S = 110.5 dBA (at 1- watt /4 -foot)
(If specifications for your chosen
drivers are given in dBA SPL levels for 1watt/1- meter, subtract 1.75 dBA to
compute the corresponding 4 -foot value.)
490:D=(656*1A2*T02*J)/(F*V):
GOT010
500:DN/ ((15*V*Q)/(656*FA2*J)):
GOT010
510:PAUSE"FOR 15% ALCONS":
RETURN
520:END
600:PAUSE'"PAG NAG"
610:GOSUB110
620:INPUT"DS?";B
630:INPUT"D1?";H
640:I N PUT" D2?";
650:INPUT"DO?";O
660:INPUT"NOM?";M
670:INPUT"EAD?";R
680:U=(C/B)A2+1:W=(C/H)A2+1:
I
X=(C/I)A2+1
690:Y(C/O)A2+1:Z=(C/RA2+1
700:D=10*LOG((U*X)/(Y*W*M))-6:
GOSUB10:P=D
710:D=10*LOG(Z/Y):GOSUB10:N=D
720:PRINT"PAG=,';P;" NAG='";N
730:F=X:GOSUB850:PRINT"MAX
DS=' ;D
740:GOSUB880:IFD>1 GOT0770
750:F=(C/45)A2+1:GOSUB860:
D=10*LOGD-6
760:GOSUB10:PRINT"D1=45,P-N
=";D:GOT0790
770:GOSUB880:D=C/N./ (D-1)
780:GOSUB10:PRINT"MIN D1=";D
790:F=U:GOSUB870:IFD>1 GOT0820
800: D=10* LOG (( U* Y)/(Z* W* M)-6
810:GOSUB1O:PRINT"D2=' ;O;",P-N
=";D:GOT0830
820:F=U:GOSUB850:PRINT"MAX
D2="; D
830:D=(U*X)/(100.6*Z*W)
840:GOSUB10:PRINT"MAX NOM=";D:
GOTO1
(D-1):
850:GOSUB870:D=C/
GOT010
860:D=((U*X)/(Z*F*M)):RETURN
870:D=(W*Z*M*10A.6)/F:RETURN
880:F=10A.6:GOT0860
890:END
"t"
Note: The symbol
has been used in
place of the conventional A or power
expression.
T60
V =
N =
= 2.8 seconds
500,000 cubic feet
(microphone)
1
Output: %LOSS = 16.66
The Program then provides the
following combination of parameters for
15% Loss of Consonants:
Q = 5.55
or /D2
85.39 feet
2.66 seconds
If the program is re -run with the same
input values, except that Q now equals
7.0, ALC will output a %LOSS of 11.9.
Since Q has been increased, the values for
15% articulation loss will also be changed
to:
Q = 5.55
or /D2 = 101.3 feet
or/T60 = 3.14 seconds
6. Potential Acoustic Gain /Needed
Acoustic Gain
Input: Q = 5.0
S = 42,500 square feet
ABAR = 0.206
DS = 1.5 feet
D1 = 40 feet
D2 = 90 feet
DO = 125 feet
NOM = 3 mikes
EAD = 8 feet
Output: PAG = 13.44 dB
=
or/T60
=
11.41 dB
= 1.9 feet (for PAG =NAG)
MIN D1 = 24.39 feet (for PAG =NAG)
D2 = 125,PAG -NAG = +1.82 dB
(This indicates that there are certain
cases where D2 can be changed to
improve the PAG -NAG value
remember that for no feedback, PAG must
be less than or equal to NAG
and make
it more positive. For example, if the system
is to be run in a larger hall, the speakers
could be taken farther out into the
NAG
=
MAX DS
-
auditorium.)
MAX NOM = 4.79 mikes
(Which tells us that the system can be
run with as many as four open
microphones without feedback problems.)
By way of a second PAG /NAG example,
consider the following:
Input: Q, S, ABAR, D1, D2, DO, etc as
before, plus
DS = 2.5 feet, which indicates that
the person talking has moved farther from
the microphone position.
Output: PAG = 9.20 dB
NAG
=
1
1
.41 dB
(Now PAG is less than NAG, indicating
feedback.)
MAX DS = 1.9 feet
D1 = 45, PAG -NAG = -2.06 dB
(So moving the speakers further away
from the mikes will not cure the feedback
problem.)
MAX D2 = 30.77 feet
(But moving the farthest listener
towards the speaker could improve
matters.)
MAX NOM = 1.73
(That is, close off two of the three
microphones being used.)
DOD
R -e/p 86
October 1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
-
VARIABLE ASSIGNMENTS
These are the variables used internal to
the programs and their relationship to the
prompts:
A = "A -BAR"
(average absorption
coefficient)
Out!
B =D,
(Critical Distance)
C =D,
D= WORKING VARIABLE
E= Maximum
F=
Electrical Power
WORKING VARIABLE
(Equivalent Acoustic Distance)
G =EAD
H =D,
=D:
J =n (same
1
n +1
as
used
Get the Iron
in
some
programs)
K= Sensitivity
of driver
L= Desired SPL at D
M=NOM (Number of Open Mikes)
N =NAG (Needed Acoustic Gain)
SCHOEPS
Gets the transformer
Out of the microphone.
0 =D
(Potential Acoustic Gain)
(Directivity factor)
R =EAD (Equivalent Acoustic Distance)
S =S (Surface Area)
T =Tfi (Reverberation Time)
U= f(D,), an internal function of D,
V= Volume of Room
W= f(D,), an internal function of D,
X=f(D :), an internal function of D:
Y= f(Do), an internal function of D,
Z= f(EAD), an internal function of EAD
P =PAG
Q =Q
EQUATIONS USED
WITHIN PROGRAM
These are the accepted sound system
"design" equations (I prefer the term
"analysis ") obtained from Sound System
Engineering, by Don and Carolyn Davis,
manipulated to fit the PC -1211 more
efficiently. The constant 656 in the
ALCONS equation is a metric to English
conversion of the constant 200 used by
Peutz.
Critical Distance
DC =\,/(QSá / 167)
where á=ABAR, the average absorption
constant.
With all the efforts to eliminate
transformers from the signal path it's
only natural to start with tranformerless
microphones and SCHOEPS is the
natural choice. For the successful
recordist Schoeps offers:
* unique single diaphragm construction
*very low output impedance
* interchangeable capsules for a variety
of applications
* ultra clean, quiet performance, proven
in digital recording.
Reverberation Time
SCHOEPS:
Sabine:
T,,,
0.049V /Sá
Norris- Eyring:
Tf
0.049V -SLn (1 á)
the natural choice
/
-CONTACT-
Electrical Power Required
EPR = 10 sn
where
F =
\,
-
10 LOG
and f(x)
=
[
f(4) /f(D:)]
(DC /x)
: +
1
Articulation Loss of Consonants
%AL,,,,, = 656 (D,): (Tho) N /QV
Potential Acoustic Gain
PAG= 10LOG [(f(D0f(D2)) /(f(D0)f(D,NOM)]
Wes Dooley
(213) 798 -9127
Jerry Bruck
Audio Engineering Associates
1029 N. Allen Ave.
Pasadena, CA 91104
Posthorn Recordings
142 W. 26th St. 10th floor
New York City, N.Y. 10001
(212) 242 -3737
-6
Needed Acoustic Gain
NAG = 10 LOG [f(EAD) /f(Do)]
Meet Jörg Wuttke, Schoeps' Chief Engineer
Booth T -24 New York, AES convention
October
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e/p 87
by Paul Lehrman
Recording and Producing for Broadcast Syndication
The King
ast February, the
King Biscuit Flower
/four celebrated its
cigth anniversary of presenting
live rock concerts to FM -radio audiences across the country. The very
first program of what eventually
was to become the most widely syndicated show in FM -radio history,
featured the Mahavishnu Orchestra,
Blood, Sweat & Tears, and a then
obscure folk- rocker by the name of
Bruce Springsteen. That show, produced by two young men named Bob
Meyrowitz and Peter Kauff, aired
on a painstakingly put -together
network of 25 FM rock stations.
Today, Kauff and Meyrowitz oversee
a large staff of producers, engineers,
=Wilt Flower Hour
salespeople, and office workers located
in the MCA building on New York's
Park Avenue. D.I.R. Broadcasting, as
the company is now known, not only
produces "The Biscuit," which is
currently syndicated to some 300
show produced in the Thirties at a small
AM station in West Helen, Arkansas,
with legendary blues singer Sonny Boy
Williamson. That show, sponsored by
continent via the ABC American FM
Network, but is also responsible for The
Silver Eagle, a bi- weekly 90- minute
country show that airs on 400 stations;
Schaefer Rock City, 90 minutes of live
rock music broadcast every month on a
dozen or so eastern stations; the annual
Rock Radio Awards; and Supergroups
in Concert, a semi -annual, two-hour live
rock show beamed to hundreds of
stations both in the U.S. and abroad.
The Biscuit borrowed its name from a
independent radio production and
King Biscuit Flour, bore little
resemblance to what is, today, probably
stations every week across the the most technically sophisticated
syndication company in the country.
The Production Staff
Producing chores for the various
shows are now handled by Bob
Kaminsky and Paul Zullo. Kaminsky,
who is director of production, joined the
company in 1979 after working in
record, radio, TV, and film production,
and as an A&R representative for A &M
Records. Zullo, whose title is operations
vice- president, worked with D.I.R. in
subscriber station relations for four
years, before moving over to The Biscuit
producer's chair early this year.
Post -production engineering is the
responsibility of D.I.R. chief engineer
Tim Mulligan, who also joined the staff
in 1979. Mulligan was a free -lancer,
working for a number of studios, and
had done quite a few D.I.R. projects
before the company had its own
production studio.
"When we built our own facility,"
says Zullo, "Tim was the obvious choice
to run it. He knew completely what we
were doing."
Although both producers act as talent
coordinators for the shows
negotiating with artists, record companies,
managers, and the myriad other forces
involved in recording a live concert
the two men's styles are very different.
Kaminsky loves mixing music and has
a heavy technical background, so he
takes an active role in that end of
things, while Zullo concentrates on the
role of the diplomat, ironing out
problems as they occur, and leaving the
chores of operating the hardware to the
studio or remote engineers contracted
for each program.
-
-
D.I.R. Broadcasting (King Biscuit Flower Hour) live broadcast of Schaefer Rock City at
the now defunct CBS 30th Street Studio. Sitting left: CBS engineer, Don Puluse.
Standing: Tim Mulligan, D.LR. chief engineer. Sitting right: Bob Kaminsky, D.I.R.
director of production.
R -e /p 88
October
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
... continued overleaf -
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^.
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All EVM's are conservatively ra odou2O0oonönLoms
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EVM's are the ideal speaker for eited and horn-type
enclosures.They are also featured in Electo-Voice'E
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enclosure builder's plans are alEo available for cLstcm
construction, and each EVM da sheet contains -he
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For these and other reasons, not the least cf which is
an unmatched record of reliabilij, EVM's have 3een
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October
For additiona information circle #55
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
o
R-erp 89
The
KIltiilg I:;IlseuuIlt
Flower Hour
D.I.R. operates on a barter system
which, when the company first started,
was unique in radio. The cost of
producing the shows is made up by
selling time to national accounts, such
as Pioneer, Honda, and Miller beer,
whose spots are included as part of the
programs sent out to the member
stations. The stations themselves are
given time, in turn, to sell to their local
advertisers. That time usually goes for
premium prices, since it is not
uncommon for a local station's rating to
double when The Biscuit airs. The
programs are now sent out on disks.
Stations are authorized to play the
disks once, and then are required to
return them to D.I.R. Violations of the
agreement occur occasionally, but the
company takes swift action to prevent
abuse from becoming rampant.
Acts that are recorded for the
programs, and their record companies,
generally give permission for D.I.R. to
record their live shows at no charge.
After a broadcast, according to D.I.R.,
there is almost invariably an increase
in record sales of the artist. The tapes
themselves, both multi- tracks and firstgeneration mixes, are made available to
the artists after the programs are
produced. Quite a few of the acts,
including the Bee Gees, Rolling Stones,
Rod Stewart, and Emerson, Lake &
Palmer, have used the tapes to make
live albums.
A King Biscuit Flower Hour starts,
logically enough, at a live performance.
Some of the best remote units in the
country
Wally Heider's from Los
Angeles, Fanta Professional Services
out of Nashville, or New York's Record
Plant Mobile are hired by D.I.R. to
record the concerts. Where the tapes are
mixed is dependent on a number of
factors. The company tries to find a
studio that the artists or their producer
are familiar with, and can get to
conveniently. Tapes are edited, and
announcements and commercials are
added, in D.I.R.'s own production
studios. They are then sent to the
Master Cutting Room at the Record
Plant, where the tapes are mastered
onto disk.
-
-
Stage View at Orpheum Theater, Boston
The Concert Venue
On a spring evening, the Record
Plant mobile unit is parked at the end of
an alley that the city fathers of Boston
laughingly call a street, dead -ending at
the entrance of the Orpheum Theater.
The bill tonight is Pat Travers and
Rainbow, with a local trio, the John
Butcher Axis, serving as the warm -up
act. Both Travers' and Rainbow's sets
will be recorded. While the Travers set
will be put in the can for a while,
Rainbow's set is scheduled to air in less
than a month.
Originally, tonight's show was the
only one scheduled, but ticket demand
required the addition of another show,
which happened last night. Sound and
lights were provided by Showco, Inc.,
out of Dallas, Texas.
"Showco came in yesterday and left
their set-up from last night," explains
Record Plant mobile- recording director
and chief engineer David Hewitt. "So
we're using their mikes. We're putting
our splitter box on stage, however,
before their board and their pre- amps."
Under less restricted circumstances,
the Record Plant might want to
substitute some of its own mike
collection for the tougher but often less than- ideal- for-recording Showco mikes,
but the situation makes that impractical.
The custom-built stage splitter box
transformers made by Deane
Jensen, with, in addition to two
secondary windings, a bridge off the
primary. The bridge, which is in effect a
hard -wired connection to the microphone, is what is fed to the truck. In this
uses
way the truck, with its carefully
regulated and redundant power
supplies, can provide phantom
powering for those mikes on stage that
require it.
"These transformers," explains
Hewitt, "were the first ever designed
expressly for splitting mike lines. They
present a higher impedance to the board
than, for example, the old UTC
transformers, and the consoles like
that. The insertion and line losses are
about 1.5 dB, as opposed to the usual 3 to
4 dB." [A more detailed discussion of
such a system can be found on page 122
of the October 1980 issue of R -e/
Ed.]
Even though the cable length from
the stage to the truck is as much as 400
feet, the mike signals are still hot
enough that some of them, especially
those facing the guitar amps, need line
pads. Every pair in the splitter box has
its own ground lift, as do the
Countryman phantom -powered active
DI boxes, which carry the signals from
the keyboards, the on -stage effects
units, and the bass.
"There isn't a single stock item on the
truck," says Hewitt. The snakes are
custom -made, using Belden dual -foil
shield, with separate cables for mike -,
line -, and video-level signals being
bundled together to form the snake. The
whole cable assembly connects to the
truck with a 144 -pin A-MP Quick -Latch
p-
www.americanradiohistory.com
gold -pin connector.
Twenty -four track recording is
handled by a pair of Ampex MM -1200
machines. On this "shoot," the tape -op
and logging functions will be handled
by David "dB" Brown.
"The logging is crucial," says Brown,
"because tapes change hands so much.
We also keep reels up on both machines
all the time, so that we can go from one
to the other while the band is between
songs. That way, we don't run out of
tape, and we don't have to do any 2-inch
splicing."
The Ampex machines have no remote
control, "to prevent accidents," and the
"search" button can be disabled by a
toggle switch hidden under the front
panel for the same reason. A lamp that
operates the servo on the feed reel
usually hidden under the head cover
has been fitted with a lens so that the
engineer can easily see if it has burned
out. Also, servos have been installed on
the take -up side. Test points and status
lights for the power supplies have been
wired to the top panel of each machine,
--
making fault diagnosis infinitely
faster. The most visible modification is
a custom -made puck, which is recessed
above and below the 2 -inch tape path.
"We found that it prevents the tape
from slipping," says Brown. "With the
stock puck, we discovered that
sometimes it's the capstan itself, not the
tape, that drives it."
Recording is done on Ampex 456
Grand Master, at 15 IPS without noise
reduction, using a 250 nWb /m reference
level.
"For this kind of music," says
producer Paul Zullo, "there is just no
advantage to recording at 30, and any
noise reduction would just be an
unnecessary complication. If we were
recording a lot of acoustic instruments,
it would be different matter."
Adds David Brown: "Anyway, this
tape has a better low end at 15."
The recording console is a custom 32input job, based on API modular
electronics. An auxiliary panel is
available that can add another 16
inputs. There are eight VCA sub masters, each one equipped with a
"kill" switch, which can come in very
handy when the unit is doing TV or
multiple -stage work, such as the Bee
Gee's UNICEF Benefit Concert. Each
input channel features an API 10 -band
graphic equalizer, and an easily set
mike peak -level lamp.
Set in the front of the trailer are a pair
of Westlake monitors in vertical
cabinets, with the "duck lips" mounted
in the center. They use custom
crossovers, and are soon to be fitted
with TAD elements. Power is provided
by Crown amps, fed through White
third- octave EQ. A pair of Auratones
sits on top of the console. Also up front,
behind glass doors, are distribution
amps for live broadcasts, and the
various power supplies.
"The truck is wired for 100 amps, but
we typically use only 37," says Hewitt.
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www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e/p 91
r/itb The
:;
King I:;Ils(uIlt
Flower Hour
-
?%;
Spaced around the walls are AC outlets,
some of which are decorated with little
green dots.
"Those are hospital -grade connectors," explains Brown. "They use them
for respirators and other life-saving
devices. They have little grips inside of
them, so that the plugs can't be knocked
out. They also have isolated grounds."
In addition to the 24 -track machines,
there is an Ampex AG -440 2/4 -track
deck, which is being used tonight to
tape the monitor mix. Zullo will take
that rough tape back to his office to help
him decide which songs to use, and in
what order, for the final product. Three
cassette decks are mounted over the 2track, which will be kept running all
night. The cassettes will be given to the
artists after the show so that they can
mull over their performances as well.
An NAD receiver serves as a line amp
for monitoring the cassettes, as well as
for off-the -air monitoring during live
broadcasts.
Between the speakers are two large
Sony video monitors: one color, the
other black and white.
"The union crews love color," laughs
Hewitt. "They think we're not
professional if we don't have it!" On
stage is a Panasonic color camera, at
stage left, covering the drums. Just in
front of the Panasonic is a small Sony
black- and-white camera, mounted on a
standard AKG mike stand, focussing
on center stage and the keyboard
platform.
The only other standard studio gear
in the truck, besides lockers and
cabinets full of mikes and cables,
comprises a rack of UREI LA -3As and
1176s, ganged in stereo pairs.
"We modified the slopes and the gain
structure on the LA -3s to make them act
like LA -2As," says Hewitt. Indeed, the
front plates have several strange
markings and non-standard switches.
Phil Gitoner and "Kooster" McAllister make up the other half of the Record
Plant's crew tonight, and they will be
positioned on stage, near the monitor
mixer, while the music is playing.
"It just happens that that's the way it
worked out for tonight," notes Hewitt.
"Actually, everybody is capable of
David Hewitt (left) and "Kooster"
McAllister of the Record Plant road crew
sMP UPI .r
40. 4os
eta
w
handling anyone else's job: first
engineer, tape -op, maintenance, stage
manager, or driver."
The umbilical chord that connects the
stage crew with the truck is probably
the most impressive piece of gear on
board. It is a two -way intercom, built by
a New York engineer named John
Chester, and marketed under the name
Chaos. It's a noise -cancelling unit with
outstanding fidelity and intelligibility.
On stage, the system is monitored with
Beyer headphones, which render the
signal completely comprehensible even
under typical stage conditions of over
120 dB SPL. Headphones are available
in the truck, but most of the monitoring
is done through Auratones mounted
near both engineers' stations. Attention
is gained through call lights and, if the
system fails, the recording console has
a panic button which sets off the truck's
alarm system.
The alarm itself features a built -in
microwave transmitter, and beepers are
in the possession of every member of the
crew, 24 hours a day. If the call button
fails, or if the stage crew is away from
their station, the panic button gets them
to report in a hurry.
While Hewitt is showing us the truck,
a strange creature named Brian, who
says he is a member of the house staff,
comes in, completely covered from head
to toe with black dust. All that can be
seen of his face is a big smile and, after a
few words with Hewitt, he disappears
into the bowels of the theater. Seeing
our puzzled expression, Hewitt
explains: "There is no direct access
from the stage to this street the fire
exit goes out to another alley. The snake
had to be run up the first seven rows of
the audience, and then under the raised
side seats and out a corner at the front of
the building. Brian had to crawl
underneath the floor to run it for us.
We'll make sure he gets taken care of
later."
-
Setting Up for the Show
Because of the show the previous
night, there will be no chance for a
sound check, and Hewitt and his crew
will pretty much have to wing it. Each
of the mike lines is checked out, and
grounds are lifted and added as
necessary.
"Our biggest enemies are hum and
buzz," grins McAllister, as he and
Gitoner run back and forth from the
stage to the truck. The Record Plant has
installed six mikes for audience sound,
a crucial factor for live recordings, and
which will also provide large amounts
of hall ambience. Two Shure SM -81s are
mounted on the balcony, facing the
upper reaches of the hall, and two more
hang down from the edge of the
balcony. Two AKG 452s with the short
shotgun CK9 capsules are on the stage,
pointing at the first four rows of the
audience.
Bob Kaminsky, D.I.R.'s other
resident producer, explains that putting
audience mikes in the best place often
www.americanradiohistory.com
results in someone possibly stealing
them, so compromises have to be made.
Although there are none here tonight,
Kaminsky professes a great fondness
for PZMs as audience mikes.
"We camouflage them," he says, "so
people don't know what they are.
Sometimes we dress them up as
sprinklers, sometimes we put little
`Danger: Radio -active' signs on them.
That usually keeps people away!"
Meanwhile, Paul Zullo, who is
producing tonight's program, is
keeping a low profile. He sees his job as
"taking care of diplomatic problems
keeping the bands, their producers, the
PA crew, and the house staff happy.
With this truck and this recording crew,
however, we rarely have any problems."
One problem tonight is a pile of
garbage that is beginning to accumulate outside one end of the truck, as a
janitor from one of the office buildings
on the block puts out the day's rubbish.
Zullo confers with the gentleman, they
-
talk about the Boston Celtics'
championship drive, and an agreement
is reached regarding how and when
both the garbage and the truck will be
removed.
Bob Kaminsky explains the producer's job with a little more detail:
"You have to walk in and not be
ambiguous. Most of the time you're in a
new place where you don't know
anybody, so you have to talk to people.
Make sure that the union crews know
exactly what we're doing. Talk to the
roadies, the monitor mixers and, of
course, the soundman. He is the most
abused guy in the business, but he can
be your best friend. He knows the band,
and he knows their idiosyncracies and
their musical cues, as well as where all
the plugs are.
"Above all, though, you have to talk
Track Sheet for Rainbow Concert
Record Plant Mobile, May 1981
1)
Stage right Kick
2) Stage left Kick
3) Snare
4) Hi -hat
5) Rack Toms
6) Floor Toms
7) Overhead
8) Overhead
9) Gong
10) Leslie Cabinet
11) Yamaha CS -80 synthesizer
12) Yamaha keyboard mixer
13) Lead Vocal
14) Bass vocal
15) Keyboard vocal
16) Guitar Mike #1
17) Guitar Mike #2
18) Rhythm Guitar
19) Taurus bass pedals and
Moog keyboard mixer
20) Bass direct
21) Bass Mike
22) Audience Near
23) Audience Far
24) Audience Far
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For additional information circle #57
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1981
R-e/p 93
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10 dB gain reduction on a 4:1
slope through one of the UREI 1176's.
When Travers switches from guitar to
Farfisa organ, all of a sudden the sound
is awful. It seems that he decided to plug
the organ into his guitar amps, through
all sorts of high- impedance effects
devices, without using any direct feeds.
The resultant distortion is horrendous.
About halfway through the set, some
kids in the balcony notice the audience
mikes, and start screaming Travers'
name into them. McAllister, from
onstage, notices the problem too, but he
reports that there is no way that he and
Gitoner are going to be able to
about
The
King IIlseuIlt
Flower Hour
with the band. Let them know you're on
their side. You're screwing around with
someone's dreams, after all, so you have
to make it clear to them that you want
them to sound the best they can. Don't
let them feel that you're challenging
them, or trying to force your own ideas
across. Before I do a show with any
artist, I take the time to listen to their
records, so that I can create a sound
that's pleasing to them. If you show
them that you care, and give them an
environment where they can work, then
they can relax and make music.
"The last thing you want the band to
worry about is the recording process.
For example, I like to use DI boxes on
guitars, so that even if the amp or mike
fails, I'll still have a track I can
reconstruct in the mix. I also like to
have a back -up mike on the kick drum.
Snare you can recover from ambience,
hi -hat, or overhead mikes, but not a
kick. Showing them that you have backup and insurance systems helps them to
feel confident and at ease."
reposition the mikes amidst this
seething mass of hard -rock fanatics.
The only potential problem that Hewitt
has been warned about in advance
involves a synthesizer track, which is
being played back on a Sony cassette
deck fed into the house -mixing board.
The track serves also as a guide track
for the musicians, and Hewitt handles it
perfectly. Townsend Wessinger,
Showco's chief engineer, warned the
crew early in the day that the track
would stop in the middle of the song,
"Crash and Burn."
"It's not a malfunction," he assured
everyone. "That's the way the song
goes."
During the break between the bands,
the stage crews frantically set up for
Rainbow, while Hewitt resets the board
and Brown puts the Travers tapes
away, cues up two fresh 14 -inch reels of
tape, puts down tones, and tweaks the
machines.
"I don't really Know why I bother," he
sighs. "No matter how much we bump
around on the road in this thing, the
Ampex machines never change."
A meter on one of the 24-tracks,
however, is stuck, and so Brown hooks
up a small outboard meter to it and lays
it next to his intercom speaker.
"If the army really wanted to get
things done," someone remarks as we
watch the stage crew work on the video
monitors, "they'd hire rock -and -roll
roadies instead of soldiers."
"The real problem," someone else
answers, "is that they pay their guys
The Concert Taping
The first opportunity tonight for any
kind of sound check comes during the
brief set of the warm-up band, a
Hendrix -style power trio. Hewitt is
rapidly moving faders and EQ settings,
patching in compressors, and doublechecking lines. Although he is working
at an incredible pace, Hewitt, who was
at the board for the very first King
Biscuit Flower Hour, is a portrait in
cool.
When Pat Travers and his band take
the stage, everything is as ready as can
be. During the first song, Travers'
guitar, which is hooked into a Schaffer
wireless system, keeps cutting out,
threatening to make the entire set a
disaster, but soon the glitches
disappear. Hewitt continues to add
limiting to the bass, finally settling for
MICROPHONE PLOT FOR RAINBOW
CONCERT AT ORPHEUM THEATER,
BOSTON, MAY 1981
/GONG
® C45VCK1
MD-421
MD-421
MD-421
MD-421
GVir
MD-421
KEYBOARDS
The set, with its impressive lighting
effects, smoke bombs, and loud, loud
music, goes fairly smoothly. When the
band announces that the show is being
taped for The Biscuit, the crowd roars
its approval. The set, however, is not
without its moments of concern.
The keyboard set -up consists of a
Hammond organ, Yamaha CS -80
synthesizer, ARP Odyssey, two
Minimoogs, a set of Taurus bass pedals,
and an optical- disk -reading device
called an Orchestron. The Leslie
Cabinet has its own mikes, and the
Record Plant did manage to draw a
direct from the CS -80. Everything else,
however, is being fed through two high impedance mixers
a Yamaha and a
Moog
and going down on two tracks
The hassle is that the Orchestron, a
delicate instrument even to have in a
studio, is making lots of strange noises.
-
-
Hewitt buzzes McAllister on stage.
receives the reply: "The roadies say it's
been trashed for a while, but he just
likes to use it anyway." Fortunately, the
keyboard player doesn't use it too much.
Another small problem emerges
when Hewitt solos one of the two directs.
from the bass. The sound is thin, and
terribly distorted. Again, McAllister
has the explanation: "It looks like they
hooked the DI box right up to the output
of a Crown DC300; no pads or nothing,"
he says over the din. "I'm surprised L
hasn't started to melt yet!"
After the last encore, Zullo pulls the
last of the beer out of the refrigerator at
the back of the truck (a testament to his
skills as a producer: buying beer in
downtown Boston after 5 p.m. is a trick
centuries) and, withing minutes, th?
tapes are packed, the equipment lockers
secured, the snake wound, and th?
Record Plant mobile crew ready to head
for their hotel.
"We park the truck out front," Hewitt
explains, "usually in a loading zone.
Most places we go, when the police see
something this big, they figure we must
know what we're doing, so they don't
bother us."
54Be
RHYTHM
GUITAR
at the board.
that has eluded the natives for
C451/CK1
MD-421
with money, while our guys get paid in;
well you know with what, the trappings
of rock-'n -roll, and the chance to be in
close contact with all those incredibly
famous people. Now that's how you
motivate someone!"
Soon, the house PA is playing the
soundtrack from The Wizard of Oz, and
as a tape loop repeats Judy Garland
moaning the word "Rainbow," the
crowd goes nuts. The lights come up,
and the band breaks into a heavy -metal
version of "Over the Rainbow," as
Hewitt once again shifts into high gear
e
SM -57
SM -57
SM-57
SM-58
VOCALS
e
LESLIE
® SM-58
www.americanradiohistory.com
The Mixdown Session
Exactly one week and 12 hours later,
Paul Zullo picks up the Rainbow tapes
at the Record Plant's Manhattan
headquarters, where Phil Gitoner has
broken them down on to 10'/2-inch reels.
We are on our way today out to Syosset,
R -e /p 95
October 1981
The
King IlscuIlt
Flower lieur
I:;
Long Island, to meet with Rainbow's
bassist/producer, Roger Glover, and
mix the tapes. Once we break out of
midtown traffic, the drive takes about
25 minutes. Zullo spends the large
amount of time he's in his car listening
to a rather spectacular Alpine /Braun
stereo system, for which he has yet to
figure out how best to mount the
speakers. He puts on a tape of the Greg
Kihn Band that he recorded a few weeks
previous, and proudly says that this
tape too may well end up as a live album
release.
Kingdom Sound Studios is located on
the ground floor of a sprawling
industrial park, among whose other
tenants is the Harris Electronics
Company. It is a one-room studio, with
a well- equipped video lounge, lots of
vending machines, and the usual
framed record jackets on the wall. Chief
engineer Clay Hutchinson, once Gloria
Gaynor's guitar player, opened the
studio five years ago as a 16 -track
house, and expanded it to 24 -track
about 15 months later. The studio also
has a production comany, in partnership with Meco Monardo, producer of
the very successful Star Wars Disco and
its successors.
Unlike many suburban studios, the
bulk of Kingdom's work is albums.
"Very little of our time is spent doing
jingles." confides Hutchinson, "and
those we produce ourselves." Several
film scores are also among the studio's
credits, and artists that have made
albums here include Blue Oyster Cult,
Jimmy Ruffin, and the Roches, with
producers like Robin Gibb and Roy
Halee.
Rainbow's Richie Blackmore lives a
few miles east of the studio and,
according to fellow band member Roger
Glover, "he was fed up with having to
drive into the city every time we wanted
to work." So the band discovered
Kingdom. With two albums, one of
which has gone Gold, recorded and
mixed here, Rainbow has effectively put
the studio on the map.
"The whole area empties out at 5:00,"
Chief Engineer Clay Hutchinson at
Kingdom Sound's Harrison console
says Hutchinson, "and we like that.
There's no noise, nobody bothering us,
but we're still in the middle of town."
Kingdom is very happy being a one room facility, but there are plans to
build a second, completely separate
studio, perhaps in another part of the
building.
"Our clients like the fact that they're
the only ones here," says studio
manager Nancy Sirianni. "It keeps
them from feeling like they're in some
kind of factory, with lots of other people
doing other things around them."
The studio features a Harrison
console, with Allison Research 65K
automation, which won't be used on
this mix because there are no spare tape
tracks for the automation data. The
outboard equipment rack is very
comprehensive, and includes such
goodies as a pair of Audio & Design
F760 Compex compressor -limiters,
three Eventide Harmonizers, two
Lexicon Prime Time DDLs, and 24
channels of API 560 graphic EQ, as well
as four Orban parametrics. There is a
wide variety of reverb units, including
EMT plate and Gold -foil, Lexicon Model
224 digital, and an AKG BX20. Tape
machines are 3M M79 24- and 2- tracks,
along with Studer and Ampex 2- tracks.
Monitors are Big Reds, with the
ubiquitous Auratones on sliding
platforms sitting on the console. A pair
of JBL 4311 speakers, separated by
baffles, is set up in the studio, facing a
pair of Neumann U87s
standard
practice for Glover and Hutchinson in
achieving a good, ambient sound.
The control room is completely wired
for quad, and all that is necessary to do
a four-channel mix, which Hutchinson
did for Blue Oyster Cult and Black
Sabbath's Black and Blue film, is to
hang the extra two speakers.
Hutchinson takes out the audience
tracks during the body of the songs and
replaces them in the mix with the signal
from the pair of U87s mounted in the
studio.
"I need a more controlled ambience
than I can get from those tracks," he
explains. "But, of course, I put them
back in at the beginnings and ends, and
whenever the tune calls for audience
participation."
He uses a little plate reverb on the
voice, and runs the guitar through an
Eventide DDL to get a stereo effect. The
mike on the bass amp sounds a little far
away, so Hutchinson opts for the one
good direct track, which he fattens out a
-
little.
"Things tend to be mushy and sloppy
on a live performance tape," says Roger
Glover, "so my purpose in the mix is to
try to clarify things a bit, and to dip
down the really bad mistakes a little.
Rock and roll is not supposed to be
perfect, and as long as they're not too
obnoxious, I can let a lot of things go. It
shows we're human."
Hutchinson has remixed a lot of
remote recordings, but still, he says,
"I'm surprised that this 24 -track tape
www.americanradiohistory.com
came out as well as it did. Everything
seemed to be very much in order, and
there were no problems at all that we
had any trouble fixing.
"The sound has got to be more punchy
than the kind of lush stuff that we put
on a record," he continues. "On records
we add a lot of top and bottom. A live
radio show should be more raucous. Of
course, it usually comes across that way
anyway. That feeling was inherent in
the tracks here, so we just take
advantage of it."
According to Paul Zullo, "Once we get
the basic mix down, we can pretty much
let the tape run. Of course, we make
adjustments from song to song,
depending on what instruments are
being used, but after we've gotten a
good basic sound, nothing really
changes much."
The five mixes go down smoothly in
two sessions, a total of about 13 hours.
Zullo then takes the tapes back to
Manhattan, where they will be put
through final assembly into an hourlong show.
Post- production
Meanwhile, back at D.I.R. Broadcasting's Manhattan office and studios,
Bob Kaminsky is putting the finishing
touches on an upcoming Silver Eagle
program, along with D.I.R.'s chief
engineer, Tim Mulligan. The show is
quite an impressive one, as it features
George Jones, Johnny Paycheck, The
Marshall Tucker Band, and Linda
Ronstadt, recorded at several different
locations.
Kaminsky takes a somewhat
different approach to the way audience
mikes are used in the mix.
"I think most live albums are
recorded well, but mixed improperly,"
he says. "Either there's too little
audience or too much. Often, when the
mixing engineer brings up the audience
at the end of a track, it sounds like the
Nurnburg rally. I use four tracks: left
and right near the stage, and left and
right far. Having set the level of the far
mikes early in the mix right after I've
gotten the basic sounds down I leave
them there. When I need more audience,
I bring the near mikes up. The stereo
image is compromised a little that way,
but it preserves the perspective, which I
try to make 15th row, center.
"I will use a little artificial ambience
sometimes, but never on the whole
band. I may put a little warmth or color
on the lead vocal, or a DDL on
background vocals. Sometimes, of
course, it's not possible, but for the most
part I use what's already on the tape.
That's why recording neatly and
accurately is so important."
Although there are a few differences,
the Silver Eagle is edited much the same
-
-
way as The Biscuit. One major
difference is that Kaminsky, who
involves himself very actively in the
technical side of production, does the
mixes for 75% of the Silver Eagle shows
himself.
...
continued overleaf
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Lucy's accomplice at AUDIOFORCE is Sid
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800 847 -4123
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AUDIOFORCE, Inc. 38 W. 26th St. New
York, N.Y. 10010
October
For additional information circle #59
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e/p 97
The
King I:iscuIIt
Flower Hour
"I've done mixes in Florida, Toronto,
Nashville, New England, New York;
just about everywhere," he says. "I
always bring a familiar record or tape
with me so that I can hear the room I'm
going to be working in. I like to use JBL
4311s, RORs, UREI 813s, and Aura tones, and just about any place now has
at least a pair of one of those monitors."
D.I.R.'s studio indeed has both JBL
and Auratone loudspeakers. The small
monitors are used generally at a low
level to simulate a real radio, while the
4311s are used to examine mistakes and
edits. Larry Kenny, an announcer for
WKHK, New York's first country FM
station (formerly a non-profit jazz
station, WRVR), is in the small
announcer's booth that doubles as a
closet, reading the copy he and
Kaminsky have written. Kenny's voice
is recorded flat through an AKG H17
mike, and is equalized on playback to
match the flavor of the show.
"We record bridges for every possible
combination and order of acts,"
Kaminsky explains, "and I'll time the
various sequences and reassemble them
later." A typical show requires about
five hours of post -production work in
this studio, which is usually accomplished in one day.
The 2 -track master is copied and, on
occasion, re- equalized at this stage.
Most of the music that finds its way on
to the final tape is spliced directly from
this second -generation tape, but some
segues have to be mixed again and then
spliced onto the beginnings and ends of
numbers.
"Seventy perent of the time we cut
down the space between songs by
splicing applause to applause," says
Kaminsky. "After 300 shows, [engineer]
Tim Mulligan usually manages to get it
right the first time; he just doesn't miss.
If we can't do it that way in a rough cut,
then we'll mix in a separate applause
tape that we've derived from the
original recording."
Two MCI JH -110 stereo recorders are
located along the back wall of the
production studio, together with a pair
of vintage Ampex 300s with brand -new
AutoTec electronics. On one of the
Ampex machines is a small reel with
the program ID the sound of the horn
of the bus that gave the program Silver
Eagle its name. Also on that reel are a
few bars of the "Orange Blossom
Special," as played by George Jones'
band.
"We use an instrumental tape from
the live show as a music bed,"
Kaminsky explains. "Every act does at
least one. If it's not that tune, it's `Rocky
Top' or Wildwood Flower. "'
-
Used recording equipment
uípment
is a better buy.
And the best buys are at Sye Mitchell Sound.
LOWER PRICES: We're not a dealer,
we're a broker. Without all the high
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You see, we don't have money tied
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don't have to inflate our equipment
prices with a lot of overhead. We
simply don't have that overhead.
That's why YOU SAVE MONEY with
Sye Mitchell Sound.
LARGER SELECTION: We currently
offer over two million dollars worth of
used recording gear, including 43 consoles and 45 multitrack tape machines.
We're not limited to just a few brands;
we have consoles, tape machines,
microphones, and outboard gear
from every major manufacturer. And
we're constantly searching for more.
BETTER SERVICE: Buying from us is
easy. We arrange for shipping and
R -e /p 98
insurance, and handle other details
for you. And if you're not sure which
gear is right for you, call us for help.
We'll gladly make recommendations
tailored to your needs and budget.
More services: We put together
complete studio equipment packages,
from 8 track to 24 track. We do custom
installations and wiring. We can even
help with your studio design.
EQUIPMENT LIST: Our regularly published used equipment list
will be sent free upon request. Call or
write today.
FREE
SOUND COMPANY, INC.
22301 Cass Avenue
Woodland Hills, California 91364
(213) 348 -4977
SYE MITCHELL
All equipment available for inspection
Financing available
We ship anywhere in the world
No order too small
Also available: Rare TUBE microphones,
mastering equipment, video, and support gear.
October 1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
IlkOSIA%;611
41141k1
Producers Bob Kaminsky (left) and Paul Zc
The console is a Quad -Eight, with 12input capability, although only eight
modules are wired. Unlike many
broadcast production boards, the input
modules do not have stereo pots, but
rather each channel is controlled
separately.
"It's no problem operating two faders
at a time," says Mulligan, "and this
way we get the flexibility we need if
balances have to be changed, or if the
two channels from any one source have
to be equalized differently."
The only other equipment in the room
is a rack of Kenwood and Pioneer
cassette decks.
"I can't tell you how happy I was
when we got those in," says Zullo. "We
use the tapes for legal clearances, for
pre-editing and, of course, for our cars.
It saves us a tremendous amount of time
to be able to just whip out four cassette
copies."
With all of the work that D.I.R. is now
handling, the company recently found
it necessary to build a second
production room, based around aTEAC
Tascam Model 10 console.
Tape us: Disk Syndication
Up until early last year, the King
Biscuit Flower Hour was sent out to
radio stations on high -speed duplicated
tapes.
"When the company first started
out," Kaminsky explains, "it seemed
the logical way to do things. In the last
few years, however, both musicians and
audiences have become more aware of
sound, and tapes just didn't come out
good enough. Now, our show sounds as
good, or better, than most live record
albums."
"With as many copies going out as we
have," offers Zullo, "it makes more
sense as well to do it on records,
particularly considering the costs of
raw tape and shipping."
"Besides," adds Kaminsky, "disk
jockeys and program directors respond
better to disks. They're used to handling
records, and are much more comfortable with them than with tapes."
Joe Brescio, cutting engineer at the
Record Plant's Master Cutting Room, is
responsible for all of the disk mastering
for D.I.R. Brescio used to be a staff
engineer at Bell Sound in New York,
and worked on several of the early
Biscuit shows. He has been cutting
them since January, 1980, and he now
handles the Silver Eagles as well.
"We don't do these masters much
differently from the way we do any
other album," Brescio says. "Everything else we do is also played on the
radio, so the sound doesn't change
much. We do tend to be a little
conservative on the cutting levels,
though, by about 1 or 2 dB. That's
because we do no reference acetates,
and usually get no second chances. My
lacquer goes right out to the metal shop,
and D.I.R. doesn't even get to hear it
until the disks are on their way to the
stations, so if there are any cutting
problems, they may not show up until
it's too late. We're even more careful if
we have to put more than 20 minutes on
a side."
The King Biscuit Flower Hour is
pressed on three sides of two disks,
plating being handled by Mastercraft
in New York, and pressing by Donora
Manufacturing, in Holtsville, Long
Island.
"They use a one -step process,"
Brescio explains. "The stamper is
peeled right off of the master lacquer. It
saves a lot of time, and the fidelity is a
little better than the usual three -step.
They can get away with it because
they're only pressing a few hundred
copies, so there's no problem with
stamper life."
Brescio's mastering suite uses a
Neumann VMS -70 lathe with an SX -74
cutter head. He monitors with the same
OMNIMOUNT
IT HANGS TOUGH...
But you can
push it around.
We think good looks and good use go together. The
Omnimount System has a handsome technical look. Its
design follows inevitably from the work it has to do.
Which is: To hang your speakers strong and solid, in
an infinity of positions. Not only speakers, but television monitors, security cameras, lighting- and more.
Omnimount is of industrial quality, built to last a long
time. A key to its remarkable performance is the ball
joint design. The ball is moulded of an ebonite polymer
compound, with excellent memory- return and it is
just about indestructible.
The ball is bonded to the thick-walled carbon steel tube
in the same way that heavy duty motor mounts are
bonded. The clamp/flange is made of356-T6 aluminum
alloy. The ball -and-clamp unit decouples electricity and
helps absorb vibration. The Omnimount System ends up
so stable, it is even used in moving vehicles.
You can mount Omnimount on the wall or ceiling.
It does its job with extraordinary flexibility, not limited
to the usual "pan and tilt" functions.
Little things mean a lot, too, with Omnimount. For
example, the leads can dress -down right through
the tube for a neat and clean installation.
Omnimount is one of a kind. You'll know why when
you use it. With Omnimount, you can focus speakers so
that a balanced stereo image is directed to
any point within a wide listening area.
The sound stays where it belongs
and goes where it belongs- in
splendid acoustic isolation.
Omnimount looks great of itself
when you can see it. Its job is not really to
be seen, but to make whatever you put on
it look and work its best, as if
magically in
mid air,
;
speakers as the Record Plant's
stationary and mobile studios:
Westlakes, JBL 4311s and Auratones.
The speakers in his room are powered
by Crowns, but Brescio says that the
company is gradually switching over to
Brystons.
He also has an ITI stereo parametric
equalizer, which he uses, he says, about
50% of the time. "Sometimes the tapes
that we get aren't exactly right for air.
They may not be bright enough, or
there's not enough bottom, or the vocals
are buried. That sometimes happens
when the band finds itself having to
mix in an unfamiliar studio, and they're
out on the road and can't wait until they
get home. We can fix all of that here," he
says proudly.
4'v
'
5.0
040
Towards The Future
3.0
In its continuing quest for technological perfection, D.I.R. Broadcasting
has ordered from AT&T its own satellite
transponder. Such a system will
simplify distribution of both live -
concert and recorded programs,
although it won't change radically the
way the company does business for
quite some time.
A move to the sky would be a first for
an independent radio syndicator, but
being the first with a revolutionary idea
in radio broadcasting is nothing new to
D.I.R. Considering the company's
current track record, it's a safe bet that
it will be done right. No doubt the
makers of the King Biscuit Flower Hour
will have many more surprises for us,
for quite a few years to come.
'
Post Office Box 2789
Los Angeles, California 90068
(213) 876.4355
SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT
TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOIICE.
i
-
The long
photograph
is Model
100WA. 2/3
actual
i i.
.
PATENT PENDING
size.
Maximum
recommended
.oad is 70 lbs. The
Pro User net price
is S49.95. We have
a full-line brochure
that is yours for the
asking. Please ask.
See us (and how Omnimount works) at the AES Show, Suite 700F, Waldorf Astoria
R -e/p 99
October 1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
Photography by: William E. Eastabrook
AUDIO REQUIREMENTS FOR REMOTE TV PRODUCTION
-
The Greene-Crowe 2751 Mobile
by Winn Schwartau
Audio /Video Perspectives
by Martin Polon
THE DIGITAL DISK CONSUMER MARKETPLACE
The Audio Profession is a business just like
any other. It must have quality products to
sell to its consumers. Ultimately, these
consumers are those who listen to music in
their homes. For all of the professional
standards found in today's audio recording
environment, stereo sound quality is only as
good as the records sold over the counter to
the home listener.
For better or worse, with excessive
stamping cycles, re -used vinyl, and shrink
wrapping, the LP record has unwittingly
become the weakest link in the cycle of audio
recording production distribution and
listening. Despite the presence of half -speed
cutting, custom pressings or international
pressing with virgin vinyl, etc, the quality of
mass market records is marred by distortion,
missing channels, untrackable disks, and so
on. Worse still, audio media coverage and
industry discussions seem to exploit what is
wrong with the LP record.
The technology explosion of the Eighties
has yielded an alternative in the form of the
plastic digital disk. The plastic LP record, like
R -e /p 100
the videodisk, has a number of advantages:
ease of manufacturing, inexpensive raw
materials, simplicity of packaging, suitability
for mass market distribution, and relative
ease of handling. The digital disk retains all
the features of the LP record, and adds the
absolute of repeatable fidelity to the original
recording, with virtually no audible noise or
distortion.
There are three sytems in primary
contention for the digital -disk consumer
marketplace. In all cases, a conventional
audio signal is delivered to the home stereo
via the particular digital audio disk (DAD)
player, all digital -to- analog conversion being
accomplished internally. None of the
presently proposed digital -disk systems are
compatible with other DAD units, or with
videodisk systems or, for obvious reasons, a
conventional record player.
The system that appears to be emerging as
a standard for digitized audio is the Compact
Disc (CD). Measuring 4.7 inches in diameter,
the metallized plastic disk with its protective
... continued overleaf
-
October 1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
Today, why would anyone faced
with 1981 inflation dollars and a
deflated record industry, invest over
two million dollars in a remote truck?
That was the first question I asked Ed
Greene, of Greene Crowe and Co, as
we sat in a dressing room behind the
Mandrell Sister's Stage 8 at the
Sunset-Gower Studios in Hollywood,
California.
"We forsaw the requirement for a
truck with not only expanded video
facilities, but one for which equal
emphasis would be placed on high quality sound to satisfy the production needs of the Eighties." But Ed
couldn't hide the grin. "It was a
challenge," he says.
Challenge may be an understatement when defining this portable
television studio on wheels, which
has already completed several
successful remote stints, as well as
being booked almost a full season in
advance. It is a monumental
achievement to have
... continued overleaf
-
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Discover the best sounding 12"
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Assembled in the hands of veteran
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applications, with a usable range of
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smooth extended frequency response
and high power handling establish the
TM -1201 as a hallmark in the
evolution of sound.
Evolutionary in itself, with a lighter,
more rigid material than currently
used in the field, the polymer graphite
cone has true pistonic motion
throughout its specified range, with
none of the peaks and valleys
associated with cone break -up or
doubling. In addition, a high power 4"
voice coil with edgewound copper
conductors better utilizes the flux
within the magnetic gap to increase
acoustic conversion efficiency. A
corrugated cloth surround, for extreme
linearity in high power applications,
and a rugged 6 -spoke die -cast
aluminum frame assures both durable
and reliable performance.
Conquer the peaks and valleys of
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The evolution of sound
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(201) 440 -8234 Telex: 133484 PIONERUSA MOON
Detailed specifications and performance
data available upon request.
October
For additional information circle #62
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e /p 101
The First
OfAudio Processing
111B Dual Spring Feierb
The most cost- effect vE spring reverb on the marcet
245E Stereo Syn-1-es zer
Convincing pseudDs :eteo from any mono source
418A Stereo ConpresswrlLimiter
Smooth, undeterta .le level and high frequency control in
recording and b-oadcast
526A Dynamic Sibilance Controller
Clean, inaudible d_ ess ng of vocals with consistent
action regardless
622B Parametric Equalker
An exceptionally iersat e EQ which has becc me the
standard in stjcios, troadcast, and road shams
672A/674 Equalize's
A Parametric EQ with graphic corrt-ols, including variable
high and low -pass filters usable as an electronic crossover
(mono or stereo;
Orban Pro Audio P-oducts are sold through a worldwide
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oben
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645 Bryant Street
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(415) 957 -1067
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For additional information circle #63
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--i4UD/0/V/DEO
Audio /Video Perspectives .
THE DIGITAL DISK
CONSUMER MARKETPLACE
transparent plastic coating is a joint venture
.
.
KECOM
AUDIO REQUIREMENTS FOR
REMOTE TV PRODUCTION
of Philips BV, Eindhoven, The Netherlands,
and Sony Corporation of Japan.
The Compact Disc is manually placed in a
solid -state laser player the size of a cigar box.
Utilizing a 44.1 kHz sampling rate, the
Compact Disc's pulse -code modulation is
read by an optical laser beam, and configured
to analog audio via 16-bit D -to -A converters.
The CD System, first shown to the world
by Philips in 1977, has progressed with a
shorter gestation period than any other high
-
technology playback system, such as VCRs
or videodisk players. Sony's involvement has
transferred technology gains made with
professional PCM audio recording, to the
modulation and error correction of the 60minute per side stereophonic Compact Disc.
The counter- clockwise rotation of the disk in
playback could also provide a secondary
format for 30 minutes- per -side, four -channel
(quad or surround- sound) audio, with at least
90 dB signal -to -noise ratio. The Philips-Sony
Compact Disc has some similarities to the
Philips -MCA laser videodisk (LVD).
Many Japanese and American manufact-
urers are reportedly preparing to
manufacture audio disk players for the
Philips -Sony CD format, including Pioneer,
Mitsubishi Electric, Sharp, JVC, Denon,
Toshiba, Hitachi, Kenwood, AKAI, Sansui,
TEAC, Clarion, Warner Pioneer, Audio -
Technica, Fostex, Dynavector, and
Marantz.
Another potential system for digital audio
use is the mini -disk (MD) from AEG Telefunken of West Germany. The mini -disk
is only 5 inches in diameter, and uses a piezoelectric stylus to play grooved disks, in a
system with marked similarities to the RCA
capacitive (CED) videodisk. Like the RCA
CED, these conventional plastic disks can be
stamped by standard record pressing
equipment. The five -inch mini -disk provides
one-hour playing time per side. A protective
caddy is supplied for the disk, the complete
package being inserted into the player. The
AEG -Telefunken player removes the disk for
playback internally, and is similar in
operation to the RCA Videodisk caddy
system. Also like the RCA system, the AEG
Telefunken disk can carry still -store video
information on the third of the digital disk not
used for audio. This stationary video
capability could provide record and artist
information, similar to album notes, for
viewing on the home television screen.
The third major system for digital audio
does not use a small disk; in fact, it doesn't
use a disk at all. The Soundstream unit,
proposed by DRC- Soundstream of Wilton,
Connecticut, is radically different from the
other three systems, since it uses a stationary
3- by 5 -inch card that has been photographically screened using conventional darkroom
techniques. The card, once placed in a small
player, is scanned with an optical reader that
moves over the photograph -card. The
system, developed by one of the "fathers" of
digital recording, Dr. Thomas Stockham,
would have very low software cost, by using
what is basically an optical system as the
carrier of the digital information.
The fourth system for digital audio is from
Matsushita s 51% owned affiliate, Victor
Corporation of Japan (JVC). The audio high-
begun physical construction of the
truck only last Fall, and be on the road
and recording by this August.
Greene and his co- conspirators, Nick
Vanoff and Gene Crowe, have planned
for every contingency that might be
encountered on a fully -fledged
audio/video remote. Many of the
systems integrated into this truck
represent an industry first for many
audio/video operators in the United
States.
"I was also being selfish," Ed offers.
"In my experience there really was no
other remote facility that was capable
of handling audio for the types of shows
I was doing. I'm basically a record
mixer who has drifted over to TV. And
conventional video trucks just aren't
equipped to handle the complexities of
modern -day TV sound."
Ed certainly speaks from experience
on that point. His remote days began in
college, operating a school radio
station, which further nurtured a basic
love and respect for high- quality sound.
In the early Sixties, when audio was
considered a step -child of electronics,
the general philosophy of radio and TV
broadcasters alike regarding audio
was: "Just get it on the air, with little
concern for quality." Ed took an
approach that was diametrically
opposite to that philosophy, and felt
that the quality of TV sound, was
important to the medium. He later
owned and operated a 40 -input remote
truck around Washington D.C. during
the Sixties, as well as working in his
own studio.
He continued making records
through the Seventies, when he
relocated to California and was asked
occasionally to represent the artists
with whom he'd worked when they
came to do a TV show.
"Actually, I was acting as just a
consultant." Ed recalled, "I wouldn't
tell them how to do their job just let the
technical director or audio man know
what made the performer comfortable,
and what he was used to with mikes,
monitors, and such."
His trial by fire came a few years ago
when working with Frank Sinatra.
While in the studio mixing an album for
Sinatra, Ed was asked to handle sound
for an upcoming TV special, Old Blue
Eyes Is Back. (R -e/p, October 1973,
Page 15ff.) With that project under his
belt, more television work came his
way, and soon much of his time was
spent doing shows rather than albums.
His credits include not only Award
Shows, but countless Donnie and Marie
Osmond shows, HBO and Showtime
specials, Rock Concert, Disney
extravaganzas, and many single- artist
specials.
www.americanradiohistory.com
Special Demands of
The Audio /Video Marriage
As Ed's television recording experience grew, he began to realize that the
nature of TV recording differed from
record remote dates. For some shows, a
second audio truck would have to be
hired, then hooked up to the first truck
to handle the numerous microphones
and tielines required for a complex
shoot. Apparently, several others
agreed with him; most notably,
producer Nick Vanoff, now principal
partner and financial architect of
Greene -Crowe and Company, and Gene
Crowe, now director of systems
engineering. Vanoff and Crowe shared
Ed's belief that with the growth of TV,
and the successful emergence of
audio /video as a unified medium, a
facility was needed that paid equal
attention and detail to both aspects of
the audio /video marriage. Rather than
have a jumbled collection of small
mixers lashed together for mixing
sound, a dedicated recording area with
as sophisticated equipment as that
found in a studio should be housed
within the same facility as the video
package.
And so it was that just over a year ago
that Gene Crowe began discussions
with Gerstenslager Manufacturing of
Wooster, Ohio, about their plans. The
partners wanted something special
from the custom truck firm, and
something special was what they got.
Truck Layout
The final truck design is nothing
short of awesome. When Gene Crowe
drew up the initial designs for the truck,
he realized that in order to create the
amount of work area required, certain
departures from the norm would be
necessary.
Imagine a 45 foot long semi sitting in
front of a concert hall. Suddenly the
right side begins to bulge. It continues
expanding, until the whirring of motors
stops. The semi has grown another 100
square feet of useable work area inside
the truck. When the date is over, the
truck shrinks itself and is back on the
road. The telescoped area is actually
Detail of Telescoping
Trailer Extension
Audio /Video Perspectives
THE DIGITAL DISK
CONSUMER MARKETPLACE
.
density (AHD) system adds a PCM decoder
to the JVC VHD (Video High Density)
videodisk player, thereby allowing the same
unit to play back both video and audio disks.
This groovless system uses capacitive
tracing and pick -up without direct contact.
Audio and video information is stored in
micro "pits" inside of grooveless tracks. The
disk is 10.2 inches in diameter, and made of
standard electroconductive plastic.
Normally kept in a plastic protective case,
the disk is removed by the player. Since the
basic player is a videodisk unit, it offers
various play, search and repeat features.
Pressing of the AHD format is done initially
with a laser and a glass master, producing the
tracks and pits; conventional metal
sputtering techniques then convert the
master to a pressing mother. Disks
themselves are then produced in the
standard fashion.
The one -hour per side AHD system can
provide up to four channels of audio with a 90
dB dynamic range. If one channel is not used
for audio, it can provide still-frame video
pictures to accompany the sound portions of
the AHD disk.
A fifth system
if one could be considered
a full system
would be the use of a Pioneer
LaserDisc video unit with an attachment for
the CBS CX noise- reduction decoding.
Optical Programming Associates has a
special Ray Charles concert ready for
release, and which was recorded with CX
encoding.
All of the digital disk systems offer high fidelity response with very low signal
degradation. The systems have noise figures
around the 90 dB range.They all offer special
features such as still photos via video, or
video record notes, or search and repeat
features. In effect, the systems are noiseless
and almost distortion -free. DAD units
practically eliminate wow, flutter and any sign
of stereo inter-channel crosstalk. The
improvement in dynamic range over
conventional records may prove to be 50%
greater; up to the high 90 dBs.
All present audio digital disk systems have
a reciprocal technology in the video disk.
DAD systems, like their video cousins, are
not compatible in the least, although JVC's
system does provide the option of one player
being available for audio as well as video
playback.
Initially, the high price of players will offset
technical advantages over conventional LP
records. DAD players are expected to retail
in 1983 for between $500 and $800, prices
being highest at initial introduction. The disks
themselves are expected to be priced in the
$10 to $15 range at introduction. But the
--
manufacturing engineering wizardry of
Japan is expected to cut the price as sales
and production rise. All of the Japanese
consumer electronic manufacturers see the
digital disk as a rejuvenation of the audio
business. For some Japanese companies like
Sanyo, Toshiba, and auto manufacturing
giant Mitsubishi, it is felt that the digital disk
will pave the way for new prominence in
home audio.
Crucial to a lowering of price is the
combining of all electronics on to several
multi -purpose chip sets for the DAD players.
The high prices of necessary on -board digital-
R -e/p 104
October
OUTBOARDS
PATCH BAY
J1
(THIRTY- THREEI
VIDEO MONITORS
AUDITRONICS
48/24 CONSOLE
a
2
SVO
TRACKS
I
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SUBCONSOLE
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AUDIO
24- TRACK
/
-
STAIRS
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MIXER
PRODUCTION
ENTRANCE
1
PA
IC, COW
m
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CONTROL ROOM
IUD/0/V
PRODUCER
AUDIO RFQUIREMENTS FOR
REMOTE TV PRODUCTION
located within the video -production
section of the truck. On part of the wall
will be five DC10 airplane seats for the
lighting director and other production
people during the shoot. The rest of the
telescoped wall holds a maintenance
shop, materials and work spaces in the
machine room.
Additional space is a luxury in any
truck, but here the environment created
around the telescope is unique to
remotes. You feel as though you are in a
fairly large TV production studio. The
normally cramped conditions of a
remote truck are completely gone, and
there is plenty of room to walk from area
to area on board the rolling studio.
The truck has been divided roughly
into three discreet operating areas. The
largest space is taken up by the racks of
video equipment: computer -controlled
6
TAPE
STORE
2
VTR
41
3
VO
VIDEO
n
/OEO-
M2
s
VIDEO TAPE
POWER
'
\
2
3.4 6
VCRs(
l
ENGINEERING ENTRANCE
SHOP
camera setup, with memory files to
return to pre-set conditions, video tape
machines, (B- as well as C- format), and
video cassette recorders, plus a tape
library and maintenance area. In
addition, the sophisticated fire
-
-
CONSOLE CHOICE FOR TELEVISION AUDIO
The Auditronics Model 750 console
selected by Ed Greene for the Greene -Crowe
Mobile features 48 input channels equipped
with three-band sweep EQ, and routing to 24
track outputs. A total of six auxiliary send
busses are provided: two foldbacks, one of
which is switch -selectable pre- or post- channel
fader, or pre- monitor; and four effects sends
configured via internal PCB jumpers as two
pairs, pre- and post -channel fader. Each of the
48 channel faders is equipped with a VCA
control element, which can be operated under
local control, or slaved via DC- control to one
of nine sub -master faders.
To improve visual monitoring of console
functions during complex television shoots,
Ed Greene had specified that metering on the
Auditronics console be arranged with the 24
bus VU meters located on the left, and the
stereo and mono, plus four auxiliary send
meters to the right. In addition, illumination of
the main program meters has been increased
to make them more prominent in low lighting
conditions. Ed also specified switchable line -in
and -out selection for the bus meters, to
facilitate easier checking of off -tape recording
levels.
During a complex shoot, the long-throw
Penny & Giles channel fader and rotary
monitor pots can be swapped, enabling more
precise control of the main stereo or mono
mix sent to the video tape machines located in
the rear section of the truck, or as required
during a live TV date. The Model 750 console
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
-
protection system and main power
distribution for the truck are housed
within this section.
The second area, connected by a glass
sliding door for improved visual
communication, is where production
decisions are made and executed. A wall
of over 30 color and monochrome
monitors for the cameras, VTR returns
and switcher positions hang above the
main video switcher
that imposing
control panel which handles a large
number of incoming video signals, and
fades, switches, wipes, or keyes them
into the final video picture feed to the
VTRs. The constant bustle in this room
directors talking to camera men,
lighting talking to color correction,
script consultants cueing the switcher,
the producer calling the stage manager
requires not only the Patience of Job,
but also a sophisticated communication
system.
has been laid with the nine DC- controlled subgroups located between 36 input faders to the
left, and 12 to the right. A stereo module
housing the pair of master stereo program
faders and mono rotary controls is situated
just above the central sub -master bank, for
easier access.
Important additional modifications specified
by Ed Greene for the Auditronics console
include a redesigned output stage, for which
an extra transformer winding has been
inserted in the feedback loop to reduce phase
shift caused by high -level, low- frequency
signals; extra patchpoints in each program
output module for inserting outboard
compressor -limiters or similar effects, so that
bus levels can be monitored after rather than
before such devices; a variable -trim output
level control on each module that features a
calibrated ( +4 dBm) position for normal
applications; an extremely comprehensive
patchbay, comprising two sections of six, 6 X
28 fields, with numerous multiple access
points to stereo and bus outputs via
distribution and buffer amplifiers; a bank of
A/B microphone switches mounted above the
console, to simplify set changes during a
shoot; and a back -up power supply
permanently connected in parallel with the
main PSU through diode isolators
in the
rare event of the main supply failing, the backup is already on line, thus preventing any
disruption in operations.
-
The audio room, although extremely
compact, is laid out much like any
recording studio might be expected to
look. However, there are a couple of
obvious differences. The patch bay, for
example, is huge. Not to mention a wall
of submixers for extra incoming
microphones. A lot of action goes on in
this room, and the area has been
configured to be operated by two people:
the production mixer, and a machine
operator.
Here too, good communications is a
must. Not only do the mixer and
operator have to talk to production and
director, but there may be five or more
audio assistants (A2's), a PA operator,
monitor mixer, boommen and, well,
maybe more than that. With everyone
trying to tape a complicated show and
stay in touch with one another
throughout the shoot, communications
among everyone must be simple and
reliable.
"To help out in this respect, I sort of
`borrowed' an idea from the BBC," Ed
acknowledges. "Instead of having to
listen to all communications come out of
one speaker, several small PL speakers
are mounted in the corners of the room.
Output from production would be on
one, our private PL on another, and so
on. That way you can hear what you're
mixing, and still keep a handle on what
everyone else is doing without getting
too distracted.
"I have one additional speaker," Ed
continued, pointing right in front of
him. "A squalk box. If I lower the level
on my PL communications, and they
really have to get my attention, they
can always reach me through this
speaker."
The boommen, who handle the long
microphone booms or fishpoles, and
keep the mikes out of the camera eye,
listen to something different. They
receive the audio PL in one ear,
production PL in another, and their
own microphone signal down the
middle of their headsets.
The Audio Department
The Greene -Crowe truck's audio
systems are nothing short of amazing,
and actually surpass the capabilities of
many recording studios. One -hundred
and ninety -two microphone lines come
directly into the truck (although there
are provisions for more if needed), and
get routed through switchers to either
the 48 -input custom Auditronics Model
700 console, or to a bank of sub -mixes
located in back.
"The Bee Gees once taped a show on
46 -track with safeties," Ed recalls, "so
continued on page 108
.
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Maximum flexibility, minimum hassles. That's what
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Case Full of Features
On location, you've got to be prepared for anything. With The location mixer you are, with its
8 x 2 configuration, four mix busses, solo /PFL
A Flight
(selectable pre- or post -fade), stereo echo
send /return, and transformer balanced inputs for
total isolation. Every channel is mic /line selectable,
with three band EQ plus sweepable midrange and
low cut switch. Powered by C- cells, NICADS (with
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Just Grab It And Go
The location mixer is built to last, in a self-contained, weatherproof, heavy -duty flight case,
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All these features, all this quality costs you just
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your hands on The location mixer, you won't go
on location without it.
& tlatone
Inc.
38 W. 26th St.
New York, N.Y. 10010
October 1981
For additional information circle #64
www.americanradiohistory.com
R -e /p 105
-
FAS AUDIO SERVICES
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Sales o Rentals o Service
R -e /p 106
October
1981
For additional information circle #65
www.americanradiohistory.com
IesT rAIL
L.J I
I_1
I
e
LI
I
i I Co
I
rs I_
0
1=
I% L.
The Travis Fader
revolutionary new fader
design featuring no moving
parts at all is the genius of the
industry. A microcomputer
This
connected to each fader
creates an uncanny, real stic
"feel" that users report
increases a sense of direct
communication with the
music.
Infra -red light bridge
technology tracks your finger
and sends exact digital level
data to the attenutator and to
the Datalog computer. An LED
cursor alongside each fader
gives visual level indication the
same way the old knob ofd,
and when the Datalog
computer is doing the mi> all
your moves are faithfully
reproduced, exactly. Its quite a
sight. Two preset level
memories and a fader
Solo/Mute are enormously
useful features. Track
assignments can be typed into
the alphanumeric readouabove each fader and wt-en
your finger enters the field it
switches to exact dBm values.
After a few moments with -he
Travis Fader you won't miss the
old knob at all.
The Digital Attenuator
The Sphere Digital Attenuator
(Goodbye VCA!) represents a
significant advance in digital
control of analog signal. The
Attenuator receives an 8-lot
level word from either the
Fader or the Datalog computer
and switches level changes as
fine as .375 dB. There are 230
discrete steps. Attenuator
signal- to-noise is better than
100 dB and it contributes
irtually no distortion at all. The
Attenuator has been under
development and testing at
Sphere for more than a yecr
and has wide application
prospects for video editing
suites and automated live
shows in addition to recording
and broadcast studio consoles.
The Sphere Digital Attenuator
represents a major advance for
our industry.
Retrofit
Attenuator and
Datalog Automation are all
available on new Sphere
consoles, but that's not all.
Datalog retrofit packages are
also available for any console
now in service. If your present
console is VCA then the
Attenuator replaces it and the
DC fader ... and getting rid of
the active VCA will improve
The Fader,
system noise significantly. If
your console is mounted with
audio faders the package
replaces them and converts
your old console into the most
modern engineering tool. And
you will be pleasantly surprised
at how reasonable the cost is,
especially considering what an
advantage your room will have
for attracting new business.
Engineers and Producers love
it. So will you.
J'pheis
Datalog Automation
Sphere Datalog console
automation represents the best
of both worlds: its
sophistcation is second to
none and, thanks to The Fader
and Digital Attenutator it
achieves true elegance in its
system simplicity, The Dotalog
system s a series of additive
"Levels' beginning with the
basic computer and
commcnd panel for simple
and very cost effecitve
automation. Level II gets SMP-E
code and dual floppy disk
capabiities including butt
splice mix editing. Level Ill
represents "the finest money
can buy:" extensive inter-mix
editing, machine shuttle
operations and client irwoicing
and record keeping.
Beyond this lies STATUS
... the ultimate in
console logging systems. Every
knob, pan and switch on the
entire console can be retrieved
from memory. Quite simply
there is no automation _system
available that offers so much
for your money.
DATALOG
ELECTRONICS, INC.
THE GREAT AMERICAN CONSOLE COMPANY
20201A Prairie Street
. Chatsworth, CA 91311
For
(213) 349-4747
Ociober
circle #66
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R-e/g. 107
- continued from page 105.
-741/0/0/V
.
/DEO-
Audio /Video Perspectives .
THE DIGITAL DISK
CONSUMER MARKETPLACE
.
.
to-analog converters is expected to come
down from $200 to $10 as quantities rise. Use
of hybrid IC technology with thin -film resistor
networks and laser trimming will allow the
extensive use of the converters in DAD
players. The cost problem is partly a function
of the 164bit units used to provide the 6 dB
per bit dynamic range. Large scale
intergration of circuits, plus economies in
semiconductor lasers and lens optics, will
also contribute to lowering the price of the
players. It is possible, if the demand justifies
the change in parts cost, to consider a digital
player in 1985 for under $250.
The irony of digital disk is that the record
companies may be responsible for
squelching the very boom they so
desperately need. The key to mass adoption
of digital disk will be a standard, with only one
player dominant. Unlike videodisk, that
seems a likely possibility, especially with the
digital audio group conference of 47
manufacturers (mostly Japanese) leaning
towards the Philips -Sony CD format.
However, establishing a standard over the
LP record with its tens of millions of players
out in the hinterlands, will require large scale
availability of software. Most record
companies show signs of wanting to wait until
digital disk sales become presentable; but
that won't come to pass without the large
scale presence of software. The price of the
software may not migrate downwards as
radically, but the per- minute price will be
about equal to an LP record, given the longer
playing time of the digital disk.
Digital records will come initially from
CBS /Sony (with over 100 projected titles),
Polygram (a Philips holding), and
Nippon/Columbia, with others involved in
the manufacturing of hardware expected to
join.
The real test of digital disk's staying power
and potential value to the professional
recording studio will be when the major
record companies join the "bit" wagon, and
convert from analog to digital.
AUDIO REQUIREMENTS FOR
REMOTE TV PRODUCTION
our truck now has the capability to plug
in four 24 -track machines."
Other than mere size restrictions,
equipment selection for the truck is
more difficult than it would be for a
studio. Being on the road so much, and
subjected to more abuse than in a fixed
location, long -term reliability is of
absolute prime importance. Also, in the
field you're subject to more diverse
operational requirements than in a
studio.
The Auditronics console, which is
fitted with TransAmp mike pre -amps,
The Video Control Room
must be able to not only record 24 or
more tracks, but also provide quality
cumbersome re-routing task can be
mono and stereo mixed feeds to the handled easily.
video section. Not to mention the need
Otari MTR -90 multi- tracks were
for possible broadcast feeds, and extras chosen for their compact size, staggered
for anyone else who might decide at a turn-on of record bias and erase signal,
moment's notice that they require and internal VSO facility. Outboard
audio.
equipment is just as prevalent as that
"Console manufacturers often lose found in a conventional control room.
touch with operating conditions in the The one missing link in a facility as
battlefield," Ed concedes. "We proposed complete as this, however, was console
some changes for our Auditronics automation. Ed feels that, "right now, I
board, that are now going into the other don't see that automation is of any
production models."
practical benefit."
The patch bay is about as custom as
The truck's physical dimensions put
you can get. Sitting on a wall adjacent the mixing console quite close to the
to the console
and, being vertical, side wall of the audio control room. To
completely coffee -proofed
over 1,800 overcome this problem, special
patch points enable re- routing of every monitors had to be found. And, as the
conceivable signal path. All 192 mike nature of the problem suggests, a near
lines, 96 tracks of tape- machine ins and field audio monitoring system by E.M.
outs, distribution amp feeds throughout Long was installed.
the truck and to the outside world, bus
insert patching, and a multitude of time The Shoot
code and sync signals, permeate the
More critical than the number of
bay. Although everything is normalled mikes, the quantity of set changes, or
for "routine" operation, the most the nature of the hall or music, is the
-
-
NOTICE: TO DEVELOPERS OF CUSTOM PROJECTS
ONE -OF -A -KIND
ELECT. BLACK BOX APPLICATIONS, PROTOTYPE
AUDIO /VIDEO CONSOLES FOR MASS PRODUCTION, NO -COMPROMISE PORTABLE UNITS, RACK MOUNT
CABINET AND TABLES, ETC.
-
CONSULTING ON INITIAL CONCEPTS.
SCALED DETAILED DESIGN PLANS & SPECIFICATIONS
MACHINING OF PARTS, FINAL CONSTRUCTION, WIRING & TESTING.
NL-10
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LET US HELP YOU WITH YOUR AUDIO /VIDEO PACKAGING NEEDS
R -e /p 108
October
1981
For additional information circle #67
www.americanradiohistory.com
-
actual planning that goes into a
combined audio /video shoot. Disasters
can be common if insufficient planning
or pre -production happens before the
shoot. Concept meetings for a show
may come as much as six months before
the taping itself. A quality production
company will begin preparations as
soon as possible by having pre-
production meetings, when the
producers, and director, plus the audio,
house sound, video, and lighting people,
can all get their ideas and concepts for
the final show into a cohesive whole.
For a complicated shoot, such as an
Awards Show, or large multi -orchestral
TV special, for which upwards of 200
mikes may be required, there may be a
day or so of set up, before bringing on
the actors or musicians.
In this case Greene -Crowe might send
a cabling crew along a day in advance
to lay out the wiring necessary for the
dozens of onstage, offstage, down stage,
upstage, hand-held, wireless transmit-
casual observer might notice a couple of
immediate differences. First, the board
can be color coded. Second, the mixer
spends more time looking at a TV
monitor, than the banks of equalizers,
echo knobs and effects devices.
"After all, you're mixing to match the
picture," Ed explains. "You have to help
create an illusion, so that what you're
looking at and listening to can translate
to a home TV."
If done correctly, the audio elements
can augment a video picture, or be
disastrous if they don't. It can be truly
unnerving to see a close-up of a steel
guitar playing, and hear a saxophone.
Which is why accurate scripts are so
necessary to a TV sound mixer: he will
THEYNo
ters, receivers, monitors, mikes,
speakers, and all the rest. When the
truck arrives at the location, the sound
crew just plugs in multi -pin connectors,
and audio is ready to go.
The back of the truck opens up into a
large audio central panel, where all the
signal inputs and outputs are located.
Mike lines appear in bunches of 48 per
connector, with both a video return for
monitor, PL for communications, and
spare returns for future expansion. All
DA feeds and returns for broadcast and
house sound are located here as well. In
fact, there's even a telephone block, so
connections may be made directly into a
phone or intercom system.
"This type of show is exactly what the
truck is built for!" Ed beamed.
follow the show and camera calls to
anticipate the next move. Ed feels that
in this way, and only in this way, can
audio /video media communicate a total
experience.
"That's also why I endeavor to
memorize fader positions on the
console," Ed continued. "You don't
have time to think, `Move the piano up,'
read the input strip, `piano,' and then
move it by that time the piano lick is
over. I always have to know where the
piano is: right here."
"It's never been a problem for me
though, and I'll continue to do it that
way. Besides, in a typical shoot
hopefully you will be moving only a few
elements, and that's where I use the
-
other modular signal
90
With
ri
Sees*
is as rugged as the dbx 0processing
tive
f
e
win
steners
scr
THE
SURVIVE for positive retention.
Wide, double -sided
TORTURES
tacts on interchangeable modules. A
-wired mother board that eliminates
OF THEthe pre
need for soldering. A heavy -duty
frame built
All in a
RA
CKpower supply.
every 900 Series module detough as a truck. Best of
con-
51/4"
all,
livers the kind of performance and reliability you expect
from dbx. See your dbx Pro dealer or write for information.
With F -900 frame. Also compatible with most older-model dbx frames.
Audio Requirements
The logistics of recording over 200
mikes and many set changes is an
exercise in planning and disciplined
execution. Mike lines and routing
systems must be thoroughly tested, of
course, the machines set up and,
perhaps most importantly, verification
made of good quality SMPTE code on
the multi-track safety.
Multi-track safety? As mentioned
above, production requirements are
somewhat different for TV audio than
for a remote or studio record date. Video
tape machines at the other end of the
truck will receive either a mono or stereo
mix of the program material. This mix
will generally be done on the long-throw
board faders, while other controls will
feed a mix to the multi- track. Since the
multi-track tape may or may not be used
but usually is it will be referred to
as a "safety "; it's layed down just in
case. Increasingly though, production
companies are being enlightened to the
necessity of high -quality sound. As a
result, audio post -production of shows is
often more complex than mixing a
record, plus the important fact that
you're mixing to picture.
While the shoot is in progress, a
-
"
"
Model902 $325. *"
De -esser
Model 941 $260. ""
Type II Noise
Reduction (encode)
Model942 $270.
Type II Noise
Reduction (decode)
Model 411 $310.
Type I Noise
Reduction
Model903 $325. **
Compressor /Limiter
Model904 $325. *
Model905 $340."
Parametric EQ
-
*
Noise Gate
Model 906
$720."
Flanger
*Manufacturer's suggested retail price.
dbx, Incorporated, Professional Products Division,
71 Chapel St., Newton, Mass. 02195 U.S.A.
Tel. (617) 964-3210, Telex: 92 -2522. Distributed in
Canada by BSR (Canada) Ltd., Rexdale, Ontario.
dbx
October
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e /p 109
--r4a/0/{i/DEO
show. So, if you can live with a little less
monitor and a little less PA, we'll be in
great shape.' It usually works if you ask
them, instead of telling them."
All in all, the process of recording
sound for a TV show is not a great deal
/N
ZNLECOP
AUDIO REQUIREMENTS FOR
REMOTE TV PRODUCTION
VCAs as masters. I try to put the
essential elements of the final mix right
in front of me."
Having recorded rock 'n' roll for as
many years as it has been around, Ed
Greene has noticed a distinct change in
attitude among musicians. That
change has made the recording of loud
music that much easier, even if in an
acoustic nightmare.
"We all disliked rock `n' roll years ago
because it was so disorganized," he
says. "Today a successful group has to
have its act together. Having wellorganized road people can be the key to
successful television. By having good
stage people talk to the roadie and
asking him, `What do you have, and
what do you need ?' things are pretty
straight after that."
Occasionally, when shooting a show
like Rock Concert, for example, which
Ed had been doing for many years now,
a group will come in and try to blow
everyone away with sheer volume.
"I have a speech for them," Ed offers.
"I walk up to the stage and say: `We all
want you to be as comfortable as
possible while playing. But this time,
the main object is to get a great TV
different from conventional live
sessions. Basically, you're laying down
tracks for possible later mixdown and
overdub, and also sending a finished
production mix to the VTRs. The
Greene-Crowe truck, however, has so
many features in its audio room that a
separate foldback mix could also be
provided, without taxing the engineer
too much.
Problems with Miking
Microphone placement though, can
tax an engineer. For a Rock Concert,
seeing the microphones isn't that bad,
so long as they're neatly dressed, and
the lead singer doesn't trip over the
cables
not too tough an assignment.
But on a TV Special, where staging and
light comes first, and directors and
producers get bent out of shape from
seeing a microphone on the TV screen,
just impractical; for example, consider a
singer who may be doing a dance
number as well. Radio microphones are
often the answer to these tricky
problems. By using one of the many
commercially -available radio mikes,
and deftly mounting the transmitter
and antenna around the performer's
body, an acceptable signal may be had.
Often this will result on a large shoot
with having an array of radio receivers,
which have to be watched by one man,
while the taping of the mikes to the
performers is done by another. (For a
full rundown on the varied application
of radio mikes, see Zen and the Art of
Using Wireless Microphones, by Dale
Scott, April 1981 R -e/p, page 62 Ed.)
-
Entry for the 192 Microphone
Lines, and more if needed
-
there are other solutions. Many
microphones are handheld on "fish poles," and carried around to follow an
actor during a scene. Booms, too, can be
wheeled around a set and used to pick
up discreetly the voices or special effects
of the action.
In other cases, however, having a
microphone follow an actor's motion is
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October
stereo or mono."
The pressure on an engineer to do it
right will also begin to fall back on the
musicians, as a trend towards "Doing it
Live" in the field, or as an ensemble in
the studio, continues to gain momentum. The tendency to mike every
instrument in a band especially the
drums may be receding, as a return to
the techniques of the Fifties and Sixties
and group miking for more natural
sounding records.
"It's nice to use fewer microphones
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Talent: Mixer /Musician
"I guess I'm not aware of any
conscious difference in the way I mix for
record or TV," Ed says. "But somehow I
change technique for the medium."
Having years of mixing behind him in
both media, Ed observes that "a good
seasoned mixer is going to have to
accommodate to a wide variety of
mediums: TV, record and so on. I think
that the accommodation becomes
natural after so long.
"I like live work. I especially like live
`live' work, where you don't have a
second chance. It's additional pressure
on the engineer to have to try to get it all
right; bring all the instruments into a
proper balance, and go for a straight
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and have the musicians balance
themselves," Ed pointed out. "If you
want an orchestra to sound like an
orchestra, you have to start out in the
hall. A trumpet section has to sound like
a trumpet section. It can't be four guys,
who all are great players, blowing their
brains out, but not sounding as a
section. I sincerely hope that other
mixers are forcing the musicians to play
like an orchestra, rather than isolated
elements."
Is It All Worth It?
Every mixer who has listened to his
mix on the air has said to himself at one
time or another: "That's not my mix.
What happened ?" And, invariably, the
network or local station is blamed. Even
when the engineer tries to "mix for air,"
the sound coming out over the TV
speakers can sometimes be different
than what's coming off the master tape.
"Broadcasters shouldn't over -process
the sound," Ed declares emphatically.
There are some stations, he says, where
the audio goes through unattended
control rooms that have poor consoles
and heavy processing on the audio
program at all time.
Some of our broadcasting techniques
and attitudes seem to be destructive,
compared to the BBC in England, for
example.
"I sat in a London hotel and watched
some local programming," Ed continued. "The picture and sound were
extraordinary." Perhaps the attitudes
of our broadcasters warrant that our
system standards be made the brunt of
international technical jokes. NTSC,
our standard for color broadcasting,
has been disparagingly retitled, "Never
Twice the Same Color."
"The weakest link in the entire audio
chain happens at the local station," Ed
feels. "The amount of signal processing
gear that's inserted at the larger
stations is unbelievable. When the FCC
goes over `Proof of Performance' checks
on a station's equipment, I understand
that it never includes the butboárd
just the
equipment and console
transmitter and antenna. There may be
equalizers, gates, limiters and such on
the line, but they've been omitted from
their tests."
In addition, systems are available
that can actually prevent the degradation of signals throughout long distance audio chains. One such system
-
is referred to as VANDA Loop (Video
and Audio), operated by the telephone
company, which digitizes the audio and
video signal. Cable and satellite signals
are already all digitized, with very
minimal signal loss. Such systems are
currently being used by networks; it's
now up to the local stations to recognize
the need for quality.
Even though long- distance satellite
transmission may be fine, and cable
quality is improving all the time, some
current production techniques that lead
The Video
Transmission
Section
up to the final broadcast do not enhance
the audio image, with up to 12
generations of analog transfer
occurring before transmission.
"But it's worth it," Ed Greene
concluded. "I love the challenge of
trying to achieve high -quality audio
that is properly married to an exciting
picture. Our truck is a totally integrated
unit that can provide the finest quality
audio and video programs. Its state -ofthe -art audio and video equipment will
let us respond to the challenges of the
future, as high- quality programming
for television becomes more and more
important."
WE'RE PLANNING FOR YOUR FUTURE
Throughout our involvement with a client, planning is
stressed -right from the time of initial contact. Careful
planning can minimize costly delays, help anticipate future
needs, and allow the project to run efficiently.
This approach has already worked for our clients around
the world: Allangrove Builders, London; CannellHeumann & Associates, Los Angeles; Discos Gas,
Mexico City; Kenny Rogers' Lion Share Studios, Los
Lakeside Associates, Inc. was formed to provide very
particular services to a very specialized industry -the
entertainment industry.
The experience gained in over twenty-two years
involvement in just about every aspect of sound recording,
video, sound reinforcement, management, and acoustic and
electronic design provides an insight vital to the development
of an entertainment facility. This insight enables us to
integrate the diverse elements whose proper execution are
necessary to the success of any project.
Angeles; Pierce Arrow Recorders, Chicago; Premore,
Inc., Los Angeles; Producers Color Service, Detroit;
Select Sound Studio, Buffalo; Star Studio, Milwaukee;
Sunwood Studio, Reno; The Fort, Los Angeles;
Thunder Road Studios, Calgary; West Wind Records,
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Whatever the size of your project, Lakeside's experience will
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LAKESIDE Li
Design for Acoustical Performance/Electronic Systems Design and Installation /Product Development and Evaluation /Construction/Business Consulting
October 1981
For additional information circle #70
www.americanradiohistory.com
R -e /p 111
-
by Robert Carr
The invaluable sources for much of the information in this article regarding strummed acoustic instruments are pictured above.
JOHN ZENDER (upper-left) is an instrument technician, having plied that art for the past eleven years at McCabe's Guitar
Shop in Santa Monica, California. (McCabe's has been a popular meeting and showplace for talent such as Arlo Guthrie, Pete
Seeger, Kenny Rankin, and John Fahey.) In 1963, he built his first 5- string banjo. John's official title is Administrator of the
McCabe's music school, where he teaches guitar, mandolin, and banjo.
In addition to being a renowned international soloist, LAURINDO ALMEIDA (center-top) was a member of the Los
Angeles studio scene as a classical and jazz guitarist for 25 years. (He says he knew it was time to leave when he was asked to
hook his guitar up to a wah -wah pedal!) He has continued his solo career, and does regular concert tours and recordings with
his group, The LA Four, featuring Bud Shank, Ray Brown, and Jeff Hamilton.
JIMMY STEWART (upper -right) is a versatile studio guitarist who has done sessions for producers like Tommy LaPuma,
Creed Taylor, Bob James, and Gary McFarlane, and is currently celebrating his 10th year as columnist for Guitar Player
magazine, Most recently, Jimmy opened his own 16 -track recording facility in Los Angeles. He also writes for R-e /p.
DANNY WALLIN (lower-left) is in charge of the film- scoring division at the Record Plant, Los Angeles. His list of credits
as engineer includes the films Gloria, The Black Hole, Wolfen, A Star Is Born, and Altered States.
VAL GARAY (lower-right) is probably best known for his work as engineer with producer Peter Asher's clients, Linda
Ronstadt and James Taylor. Val's current energies are focused on his Record One Recording Studio, in Sherman Oaks,
California, and producing and engineering the highly successful Kim Carnes.
Recording Acoustic Guitar
acoustic string instruments
are fundamentally the same.
Tensioned strings are set in
motion, and the bridge across which the
strings are stretched transmits those
vibrations to a relatively large area
called a soundboard. That area is forced
into oscillation, and amplified by a
resonator to produce sound that hopefully can be called music. From that
point on the similarity between acoustic
string instruments ends, and the possible permutations of design produce
the wonderous array of guitars, mandolins, dulcimers, banjos, and whatever
other strummed inventions some creative mind can come up with. (Violins and
R -e /p 112
October 1981
All
the rest of the bowed orchestral strings
work on the same principle, but their
general function in most music, and the
method with which they're recorded, are
sufficiently unique to warrant a separate treatment in some future issue.)
The strummed instruments can be
divided into two catagories: those with
arched tops, and those with flat tops. Or
you can choose to divide them into those
instruments with or without tailpieces.
Or ones with steel strings and ones with
nylon or gut. How about F -hole versus
0-hole; small body versus large body;
natural material or man -made; what
kind of bracing pattern ... stop!
www.americanradiohistory.com
As can be seen, any kind of classification process gets crazy really fast, so
again, generalizations are going to
have to be the rule of thumb. I'll stick
with just the basic design variations,
and how they affect tone generation.
For any detailed discussion or analysis
of acoustic strummed musical instruments, please refer to the bibliography
to be found at the end of this article.
Fundamentals of Acoustic Guitars
Bear in mind that the guitar's fundamental frequencies range from a low of
about 90 Hz, to a high of around 1 kHz;
taking into account the harmonics
... continued overleaf
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Recording Acoustic Guitar
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October
to over 3 kHz.
Once the strings are set in motion,
how they sound is governed first by
where they terminate at the bridge or
at the tailpiece. Traditionally, a
-
classical guitar has strings that fasten
at the pin bridge, and the bridge itself is
attached to the top. As the string is
played, there is a twisting moment or
force applied to the bridge, which tends
to rock forward towards the sound hole.
The whole top is free to vibrate. The tone
is typically increased in the bass and
treble, and reduced in the mid -range.
If a tailpiece is employed, the bridge is
essentially held in place by string
pressure, which primarily is focused
downward. Although this may seem the
optimum choice in terms of reduced
pressure on the bridge and guitar top,
the tailpiece limits the number of
directions in which the top can vibrate;
there is an absence of the forward
rocking moment. Tailpiece guitars and
mandolins are perfect for jazz, rhythm,
and straight -four orchestra comping,
because the sound is a very heavy,
cutting mid -range, with a roll -off in the
treble and bass regions.
Vibrations are conducted next to the
soundboard, where they obtain more of
their characteristic shape. Different
parts of the guitar top vibrate to specific
frequencies.
"A flat top guitar has bracing that's
fairly carefully thought out," says
McCabes's instrument technician John
Zender. "So the treble side of the top is
stiffer than the bass side. The treble side
of the bridge and the area surrounding
Figure
1
.\
\>
it is what vibrates when you play high
notes. The bass side has less stiff
bracing, and the whole top reinforces
the lower frequencies."
Braces serve two functions: firstly, to
transmit energy across the soundboard
to the appropriate areas; and secondly,
to provide strength. Six nylon strings
collectively pull about 90 pounds of
pressure, while a set of medium gauge
steel strings on, for example, a Martin
25.375 -inch scale guitar is about 200
pounds. The bracing running parallel to
the strings offers strength, while braces
running perpendicular to the strings
distribute energy.
Symmetrical Torres bracing (Figure
1) is a standard for classical guitars.
Whether or not the bracing changes
from one side to the other for steel string
guitars depends on the manufacturer;
some Gibsons, for example, have
symmetrical bracing. The stiffness of
the double -X pattern (Figure
Figure 2
g o
Ill
11111/
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
2)
increases the treble and reduces the
bass. Martin and many other guitar
makers have adopted an asymmetrical
arrangement (Figure 3). Tuning of the
bracing is done by shaving down the
thickness; the thinner the supports, the
deeper the sound and the louder the
guitar.
Gibson's theory for arched top Fholes instruments is to make the wood
in the middle of the soundboard
thickest, and progressively get thinner
down to about '/ -inch from the outside
edge, which is the point of minimum
thickness. According to Zender, the
center plate then vibrates as a unit, and
the thin part of the top acts as a speaker
compliance. In this system for arched
top guitars and mandolins, the top and
back are usually shaped the same way,
and both vibrate as plates
type of
construction which is a derivative of the
violin design.
Taken a step further, the mandolin is
dealing with specific resonances.
"The main mandolin to be copied is
the Lloyd Lore F -5 made between 1922
and 1924," says John Zender. "Those
were tuned so that the cavity resonance
was one pitch an A and the top and
back plate resonances were C# and D,
respectively. It made the open A and D
notes extremely bright and clear. They
didn't seem to be excessively loud in
relation to the others, because there was
coupling between the cavity and the top
and back plates; you could still hear the
notes in between. If you graphed all the
notes on an oscilloscope with a
-a
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Recording Acoustic Guitar
transducer, the points of maximum
output were the A and D notes. Those
are the middle strings, and that's where
players and designers wanted it the
loudest."
Being an engineer, Lore was proud of
the fact that his mandolins could
produce harmonics into something like
the 8th octave well above the audible
hearing range. Likewise, the Lloyd Lore
L-5 guitar also had F- holes, and was
designed to create very high harmonics
for a penetrating sound (a la jazz
guitarist Eddie Lang).
In the Thirties and Forties, the guitar
-
supplanted banjo in large ensemble
situations. It was made bigger, and
therefore louder, with a shift to the more
contemporary mid -range emphasis we
know today. Round -hole instruments,
on the other hand, are skewed much
more towards the bass. They don't have
the cutting power characteristic of the
arch top, F -hole instrument.
A familiar comment about acoustic
guitars, and rosewood Martins in
particular, kept turning up. Veteran
studio musician Jimmy Stewart finds
that "The Martin, which I've had set up
for finger picking with lighter gauge
strings, always gives me too much bass
response. In person I want that, but
sometimes it's a problem to record."
These guitars were originally used as
backup and foundation for loud lead
instruments, like banjos and mandolins, in bluegrass and country music. As
the distance between audience and
performer increased, the bass tended to
fall away, and the over-emphasized
lower frequencies were required to make
the distant balance more even.
Film -sound engineer Danny Wallin
has noticed that "there's a bass proximity effect similar to what you
would experience with a microphone.
To obtain a good acoustic guitar sound,
I like to get away from or outside that
field, so I don't have to roll off so much
bottom that I start affecting the `color'
of the instrument. I realize I'm going to
have to take off a little bottom
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sometimes, depending on the instrument. If I get back a little bit, I don't
have to take out quite so much."
Wallin prefers using Neumann U -87
and M -49 tube condenser mikes almost
exclusively, because the transient
response is so clean. Any type of
coloration that a tube mike produces is
all even -order rather than odd -order
harmonics from a transistor type. That
difference, he feels, translates into a
warmer, more musical sound.
"Everybody misuses those [tube]
mikes," says Wallin. "If you look at the
curve on them, and what happens to
them from the sound pressure, you see
they only lose a dB at about 6 feet."
Wallin hangs the microphone upside
down and about 18 inches in front of the
guitar resonator, so that the mike is
looking at the guitar right between the
helmholtz hole and the bridge, which
helps eliminate some of the big, low frequency bump.
"The positioning is not real critical,"
he continues, "because the pattern is
pretty broad on those mikes. I may roll
off a little of the bottom at 50 Hz, and I
like a couple dB bump at 1.5 kHz and up
the octave at 3 kHz. The Dylan record,
`Knock, Knock, Knocking on Heaven's
Door,' was done like that
all
spontaneous, live recording and the
guitars are really pretty on the record.
"For the project I'm working on now
Best Little Whore House in Texas
we have +4 dB at 1.5 kHz, and +4 dB at 3
kHz. It gives a nice, `pingy' edge to it.
That's a real mild curve. The 18 -inch
distance gives the sound a chance to
develop without getting a lot of low
frequency."
Sometimes Wallin will move the mike
back even further, depending on the
sound he wants for a motion picture. He
may put two mikes on the guitar: one 18
inches away, and another six feet back.
The phase is kept the same for both
microphones. It may be a scene in
which he doesn't want as much
presence on the instrument, and the two
sources can be mixed for the desired
--
-
-
effect.
"The guitar is an intimate instrument," Wallin offers. "You can't be
miking it eight feet away. The intimacy
is something you have to capture; you
can't be too far away, or too close.
There's an ideal spot where the
instrument sounds like what it is. I
think you have fewer options with the
guitar; it is what it is. You can make it
sharper for an effect but, the fact is, the
acoustic guitar has a particular sound
to it. It's not like an electric guitar where
you can distort the sound, and just go
crazy with it. For rock records,
engineers will usually get it real thin
sounding; they'll cut the bottom end,
along with a lot of upper boost, for a
kind of `strummy' sound that cuts
through all the other instruments. I look
upon the acoustic guitar as a particular
entity, and I try to be as true to that as I
can."
... continued overleaf
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1981
slot 31 C
R -e /p 117
microphone mounted in a piece of foam
rubber, which, in turn, is positioned just
inside and below the 0-hole of his
classical guitar. An XLR connector has
been installed in the tail of the guitar
(Figure 4). He doesn't use an amplifier,
but plugs the instrument directly into
the house PA system wherever he is
performing.
"I use just a little amplification so I
can survive the drums and bass,"
continues Almeida. "I have only the
ECM -50, and that does it for me. It gives
me the most accurate representation of
a gut or nylon string guitar that I've
ever heard. For recording, however, I
still prefer external miking."
Using Pick -ups
Recording Acoustic Guitar
The Classical Acoustic Guitar
One breed of guitarist particularly
unyielding about an accurate reproduction of their instruments are
classical guitarists. Laurindo Almeida
is one of a handful of classical /jazz
players whose name is practically a
household word. As he points out:
"Quite a few of the old masters are
purists, and will never accept
amplification of their guitars. The
master, Mr. Segovia, is one classical
guitarist who can pack large concert
halls like The Dorothy Chandler
Pavilion in Los Angeles. For anyone
sitting too far from the stage, the sound
becomes almost inaudible. With 3,000
people breathing at the same time, there
is enough room noise to cover up the
performance."
After many years of recording
sessions and live dates, Almeida was
anxious to find a better way to reinforce
the sound of his instrument.
"I've been playing through a
microphone all my life," he says. "When
you have to do that, you must lean into
the microphone. You can't move away,
or else no one will hear you. It's very
restrictive. Then I found out that I could
use a microphone inside my guitar, and
it was a blessing. Now I can move
around, and loosen myself up if I've
been sitting for a while, but the sound is
still there. The microphone goes where I
go."
Almeida has a Sony ECM -50 lavalier
Figure 4: Laurindo Almeida's custom
guitar with built-in lavalier mike
R -e /p 118
October
In general, the idea of employing
pick -ups for acoustic guitars does not
meet with overwhelming favor among
the professionals we interviewed,
although a couple of designs seemed to
be acceptable if they were used in
conjunction with a microphone.
Piezo crystal pickups can be installed
under the strings and in the bridge,
such as with the Ovation design, or on
top or beneath the soundboard or
bridge. Magnetic -bar pickups, similar
to those on electric guitars, may be
clipped into the 0-hole. (These work
poorly or not at all on classical guitars,
because the composition of the strings
is nylon or gut.)
According to John Zender: "The
entire instrument vibrates. For that
reason, a pick-up could be placed just
about anywhere on the guitar, and what
you get will sound pretty good. Or I
should say it's recognizable as guitar
music. Probably the best location is
inside the guitar, directly under the
bridge. As far as picking up some freeair circulation, you tend to get the best
response right by one of the sound
holes, but slightly off center."
Jimmy Stewart has a comprehensive
collection of acoustic guitars Martin,
Guild, Ovation, Takemine, Framus,
Aria
as any serious session player
should.
"The Ovation is a cold sound," he
feels, "but a lot of guys use them. I still
can't get used to them. They can be
recorded direct from the internal
pickups, and blended with a good
smooth mike with some highs. If I'm
playing a fusion type of line
like a
fast, Al DiMeola -style
that blend of
the two signals works well in the studio.
If we're making a record for the
commercial market, we want a sound
that's high and tight, because that's
what's 'in' now. But we may want to
also use a little ambience to give the
track some life."
Danny Wallin has a somewhat more
traditional approach towards the value
of pickups.
"I never really found a good one," he
says. "All those contact -type microphones are very artificial sounding. It's
not how you hear the instrument;
nobody has their ear glued to the guitar
-
-
-
-
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
body. Bar pickups need a lot of
headroom, because there's so much
energy produced when you put one
inside a helmholtz. There's the real
possibility of a mike inside starting to
clip if you don't have enough
headroom."
Engineer /producer Val Garay isn't
happy with the sound of most internal
amplification devices either, but he has
had some positive experiences. Being
such a well -known guitar player singer, James Taylor is approached by
just about everyone who has an idea,
and Garay has had the opportunity to
try them all.
"A few of the devices are great," he
concedes, "like the thin piece of round
metal that sticks inside the guitar under
the bridge. It's just a simple transducer,
but it sounds amazingly real. Unfortunately, none of them are commercially
available. The new, 'hot' set-up is the
Takemine 6- and 12- string guitar. They
have pickups in them that sound about
as real as anything I've heard."
Occasionally Val Garay does use a
new stereo pickup designed by Frap.
"I use one part on each side of the
bridge on the outside," he says. "I stick
it to the sloping area with beeswax. I
have both sides of the bridge miked, but
I don't get stereo so much as a way to
equal out the bass and treble strings. I
never use something like that just by
itself, though. I use an acoustic
microphone to give the track more body
and clarity of a real guitar. The Frap
provides the bulk of the note. That way I
don't have to depend on the outside
mikes as much, and I can avoid some of
the vocal leakage."
Vocal/Guitar Separation
Which brings up an interesting point.
How much can be done if an artist
prefers to sing and play guitar at the
same time. James Taylor is one such
artist, and the concern is to isolate the
vocal from the guitar mike, and the
guitar from the live vocal. If there is
ever a need for a punch -in, both tracks
would have to be re- recorded to match
the leakage. Trying to match guitar
sounds two weeks after the initial track
is next to impossible.
"I don't care if you write everything
down, and photograph it, which we've
done," says Garay. "The atmosphere,
different set of strings, or anything can
change the sound. It's too much to
document. With James Taylor I tend to
have to sacrifice some of the acoustical
purity for the sake of isolation. Even
though people think of the guitar as an
integral part of his music which it is
in the sense of arrangement and chord
they often don't hear it
structure
through the bulk of the song. People
don't realize that. James has a familiar
style of playing that 'Fire- and -Rain'
hammered lick he's famous for. When it
pops in and out of a song, the listener
-
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-
subconsciously hears that through the
whole tune. In actuality, on many songs
it's eaten up by the power of the band.
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digital technology has advanced so
The instrument and musician have to
be in tune. Jimmy Stewart has been
simulate better room sound with a DDL
than by mixing in room ambience from
a mike. Personally, I've always been a
fan of making something sound as real
as I can from an acoustic point of view,
and then `bending' it. I prefer working
with a big, fat, bent sound, as opposed to
something that's just bent."
recording since the late Fifties, and
credits his success and longevity to
developing and refining a recording
sense.
"I have a mini -studio in my house,
and that's the way I practice," he
explains. "I use earphones, run through
a mixer and echo, and record it on a 4-
much, an engineer can actually
/
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Recording Acoustic Guitar
"We don't concentrate as hard on an
acoustic guitar sound with him from the
point of pure, esthetic acoustic sound, as
much as we do for the character of his
playing versus no leakage. We have to
sacrifice."
James Taylor is a finger- picker, so
most of his parts are bass lines against
picked chords. Over the years, they've
found guitars that have the tone to the
bass strings without the boom.
"The sound is thinner than you would
imagine some fat strummed guitar,"
continues Garay, "but James never
strums it. When it does get thinner in
terms of a picked sound, it doesn't get as
much thin as it does clearer. There is
only so much size to a picked sound, and
when you start taking bottom end away
from it, it only affects the bass strings,
and only to a small degree."
For the first album he ever made with
Taylor,entitled JT, Garay designed a
plexiglass shield shaped like a upsidedown U, and positioned it over the top
and two sides of the guitar mike. The
shield was held in place by a shaft
connected to a boom stand. The vocal
mike was set up above the shield, and
the shield extended right up to the
guitar body. (There's a picture of the
arrangement inside the JT album
jacket.)
The microphones that Garay used
were a Sony ECM -50 clipped to the
soundhole, and an AKG C12A far
enough from the guitar so the musician
has room to play.
"I've tried distant miking," explains
Garay. "If you have an acoustic guitar
player isolated in a room, the farther
away you get the microphone, the more
you open up the sound, and the bigger it
will seem. A microphone hears what
you hear. If I'm talking to you here [4
feet away], you hear my voice in one
perspective. If I talk in your ear, it's a
totally different perspective. It's the
same thing with a mike it hears what
you put in front of it.
"It depends on the kind of effect
you're looking for. For a real present,
`in- your -face' kind of sound, you get
close to the source. However, since
-
R -e /p 120
-
Mike Technique Some Tips
Val Garay believes that 50% of the
secret to becoming a successful
engineer is learning proper miking
technique; all the sounds are possible
through positioning. If there isn't
enough bottom end, for example, the
microphone is in the wrong place; the
boost shouldn't have to be added with
an equalizer. To prove his point, he
recorded an entire Linda Ronstadt
album, Prisoner In Disguise, without
once touching the low frequency EQ.
"Peter Asher [Rondstadt's producer]
was very tolerant," he remembers. "If
we didn't have the right sound, I'd move
the microphone until we got it. It took a
lot of moving, but it worked. It's such a
nebulous technique that every situation
takes the same amount of research;
there are no short cuts. Ultimately, I
always try to record that way anyway,
but not to the point where I cannot add 2
dB at 50 Hz. That's where you really
have to scratch your head. It really
taught me a lot about mike technique."
Realistically, such an approach will
work only if the instruments being
recorded are in top shape, and already
produce almost the sound you want to
hear. If a guitar isn't bright or full
enough, there's a deficiency that should
be corrected
such as replacing old
or the instrument should be
strings
replaced with another closer the
appropriate timbre. For some reason,
many engineers don't think in those
terms.
Garay relates an experience he had
while at a concert being given by his
artist Kim Carnes: "When I hooked up
with them in Houston, the sound of the
snare was unbelievably dull and
mushy. I asked the engineer what the
matter was, and he told me, 'I don't
know! I've got all the top -end added to it
- -
that I can!'.
"I walked up on the stage, and the
snare sounded dull and mushy. I told
the drummer to change the head, and
tune the drum. As soon as he did that,
the snare sounded great, and cracked
where it was supposed to. Now why
wouldn't someone take the time to listen
to the drum on stage, when they found
that it didn't sound good through the
P.A.?
"If something sounds weird to me in
the control room, the first thing I do is
walk out and see what the instrument
sounds like in the studio. Who knows
what's happening out there? The mike
may be bad; the amp could have blown
up; it may not be a good guitar, drum, or
whatever."
0 October 1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
track and cassette. Strings and
technique are important to the tone of
an instrument. The only way a
musician can really know how his
instruments sound is to record them.
That's how he must develop his sound,
and have it down cold. Then it's up to
the engineer to capture it and,
hopefully, add to it."
Too often, getting those sounds
becomes a touchy situation. Good
communication and attitude can be the
key to defusing a potentially explosive
atmosphere before it gets serious.
Laurindo Almeida's philosophy is to
"always let the engineer do his thing
without interference. I know I'd get mad
if he told me how to play my guitar.
Engineers usually just ask me to play
while they find the correct microphone
and settings. Then they ask me how I
like it, and we go on from there. I know
they've worked as hard at learning their
business as I have at learning how to
play the guitar. It's important to
remember and show that respect."
Stewart echoes such thoughts: "There
are two things I try to stay away from
when I'm recording. I try to avoid
asking questions, because that opens up
the conversation, and gets us too much
away from our work. And I never tell
anyone that I'm working with
professionally what to do. Playing
takes a great deal of concentration. I
can't affort to take my creative energy
and put it into the engineer's head to do
his job. I do need to communicate,
however, and I do that with nonthreatening statements such as, `Hey,
that sounds good, but can we try this ?'
Never do I take the attitude, `I'm telling
you this works, Jack!' You just don't do
that and maintain a positive creative,
environment."
Cue Monitoring
The cue system always seems to be
the ultimate
another sore spot
headache of making records. The
problem, of course, is that the process
entails reducing something from life
size to become part of an ensemble in an
-
inch -and -a -half speaker. Almeida
describes his impression of working
with headphones as follows: "Playing
the guitar with headphones on is the
same sensation as playing with a
tremendous fever. Let me explain.
While playing a series of concerts in
New Zealand, my eyes, my nose, ears,
mouth, everything became infected
with a terrible headcold; my temperature was 103 degrees. When I sat down
to play, every note that came out
sounded like a double note to me.
It will discourse
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The latest Klark -Teknik
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For additional information circle a77
NY 11735,
www.americanradiohistory.com
HMO aEHil1K
sRUntI science
and attached speakers on the outside of
the ashtrays. He finally decided on
installing four individual earphone
cues in his studio. It breaks down to the
lead vocalist in one, the keyboard
player who always need to hear more
keyboard in the second channel, and
the rest of the band split between the
last pair. So far, the balances have been
--
equitable, and complaints at
a
minimum.
Other Acoustic Instruments
Before bringing this discussion of
acoustic string instruments to a
ITIA10-1
r)
!Y Ild
Recording Acoustic Guitar
-
Although I knew the pieces
I had
been doing the concerts for six months
I still had the funny sensation that,
for example, a middle -C sounded like a
B -flat, or C -flat. I have exactly the same
sensation when using earphones. I
have to take one side off to hear myself,
and I hear the orchestra or other
instruments through the remaining
headphone."
Many times the acoustic guitar plays
a strummed background part that is
meant to add primarily fullness to the
track. In those cases, the part being laid
down can be difficult to hear. Even if the
guitar is playing fills, it has just as
great a tendency to be covered up by
other electric instruments, or the drums.
"I like to have the instrument panned
as it will be in the basic rhythm track,"
says Jimmy Stewart. "That means if
the guitar is going to be soft left, and in
the hole near the kick drum, that's the
way I'd like to hear it in the 'phones.
You can't be totally obsessed with the
monitor mix; the studio may not be
capable of it. If the studio does have
some flexibility, again I suggest things
in a non-threatening way: `Can you pan
me to the far left, because I'm having a
masking problem with the keyboard
who's in the same frequency range.'
"Basically, placing all the instruments in the center is going to cause a
lot of masking problems, especially for
acoustic guitar. I need a place in the
frequency spectrum where I can hear
-
myself. Unfortunately, not every
session is ideal. I've done takes with the
bass out -of-sync with the drums and my
part. Sometimes the pressures of time
and money are too great, and even
under those conditions you don't want
to slip and make somebody else look
bad. That's a professionalism that
comes from experience."
At Record One Studio, Val Garay has
tried just about everything to make
artists happy when it comes to
monitoring their performance. He put
speakers in front of Linda Ronstadt to
avoid using headphones. With James
Taylor, he fastened bottomless
ashtrays to a set of earphone hangers,
R -e/p 122 D
v%L.I''
conclusion, some attention must be
focused on miking techniques for the
less prevalent members of this musical
family. Banjos, for instance, scare less
experienced engineers by their strange
sight and sound.
The banjo body is just a stretched
head much like a drum head. Tone
production is a little different from that
of a guitar, because of the extremely
thin membrane that's vibrating. Sound
comes off the front and back of the head,
and is shaped primarily by two factors:
head tension, and whether or not a
resonator is used.
As the head is tightened, notes start
to ring more, and become brighter
sounding. A tympani is a good analogy
the tighter the head, the higher the
resonant frequency. The banjo behaves
according to the same principle.
The resonator, or wooden back,
reflects vibrations back toward the
front, in a similar way to the action of a
loudspeaker enclosure. The presence of
a resonator produces a deeper sound
than does its absence. Whether or not
it's used is a matter of musical style.
To quote John Zender, "Old, stringband style, which was played from
about the 1890's to the Thirties, called
for a strumming approach to the music.
The banjo wasn't as loud, but the
increased pressure from strumming
overcame any volume insufficiencies.
Earl Scruggs originated the Bluegrass
or three -finger picking method around
1945. The back was added so that the
individual notes could compete with the
loud guitars and bass. The added
fullness of the resonator reinforced the
penetrating power, and the banjo cut
through the rest of the ensemble."
-
For miking, Val Garay recommends
clipping an ECM -50 lavalier on the
bridge, with the C12A or a Vega S -10 as
the outside microphone. These latter
mikes should be placed a few inches
from the strings, as with an acoustic
guitar. In fact, he would handle
mandolin and dulcimer (ECM -50
fastened at the soundhole) in a like
manner.
Danny Wallin, too, carries over his
acoustic guitar technique to the other
strings. For banjo: "The Neumann tube
condenser works fine on the sharp
transients. As a matter of fact, that
particular effect is what I'm looking for
when I'm recording it with a big
orchestra, and sometimes I boost that
October 1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
treble just to give it a little more edge so
it stands out. I don't worry about the
bottom end; I just take off enough lows
to get rid of room rumble."
The Mixdown Session
Once the parts are captured on tape,
the final step is mixing. Placement of
the guitar, as does everything else,
depends on the concept of the overall
piece.
"I don't approach a mix in the normal
way," Val Garay offers. "Fortunately, I
have an innate sense of balance that I
don't really think about. I hear the
tracks during the mix, and just know
where to put them. It's an intuitive
feeling. I feel a pressure when the
balance is right, and the odd thing is
parts that people would never expect to
balance often do.
"Let's say there's a strong guitar part
on the left side, and no guitar on the
right. Oddly enough, the hi -hat on the
right seems to balance it somehow.
With the rest of the drums in the center,
the feel is right.
"A doubled or stereo rhythm part is
another matter. I never put a rhythm
part soft left or soft right; they are either
in the middle or hard. That's what gives
you a real stereo effect. If you locate
present, moving parts out on the sides,
that's what gives the mix width. Pulling
them in just shrinks the mix. For other
instruments, there are no rules.
Remember: No Guts! No Glory!"
There's one final comment that
should be included in any discussion of
miking acoustic guitars. If a client
comes to you with the intention of
recording a guitar or banjo that has
poor intonation or fingerboard action,
keep one thing in mind that may be of
some help to him or her. Seldom are
precise adjustments completed at the
factory before shipment and sale.
Guitar manufacturers have no idea for
what purpose their products will be used
once they're purchased; variations in
desirable string height and weight,
style of playing, and musical requirements stretch over too wide a range for
the companies to spend the time
customizing each item. Fine tuning is
left up to the local craftsmen, who can
translate a player's needs into the
proper refinements, and the result will
be the perfect guitar, banjo, or mandolin
that's easy to record.
Why should an engineer or studio
owner know or care about this?
Everything you know about a musician's desires and feelings will make you
you that much more valuable to him,
and that's the best way to get to the top
of his list of favorite places to record.
Bibliography
Guitar Electronics, by Donald Brosnac,
1980; dB Music Company, P.O. Box 953,
Ojai, California 93023
An Introduction to Scientific Guitar
Design, Donald Brosnac, 1978; Bold
Strummer Ltd, 1 Webb Road, Westport,
Connecticut, 06880 (203) 226 -8230.
TDK
SUPER AVILYN NOW
MAKES OPEN REEL
GO TWICE AS FAR.
doubt you've heard of Super Avilyn before. It's the remarkable formulation that goes into TDK's outstanding SA and SA -X audio cassettes and
Super Avilyn videocassettes. Now TDK's advanced Super Avilyn technology
has been applied to open reel.
It's called Super Avilyn EE (Extra Efficiency) open reel. SA was specially
developed for use with the new open reel decks with the Extra Efficiency
EQ /bias setting. On these decks, this brand new formulation actually lets
you record and play back at half the normal speed. And keep all the full,
brilliant sound the finest open reel delivers. Which means that you get
twice as much music from a single reel of tape as you could before.
This is due to the Super Avilyn high density formulation. It offers higher
MOL and lower bias noise; virtually double the coercivity of standard ferric
No
oxide tapes.
TDK, the company that's redefined the standards of recording tape,
now brings you twice as much as you expected. You'd expect nothing less
from TDK.
``,'1981
TDK Electronics Corp.
October
For additional information circle #78
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e /p 123
A NEW
concept in
MICROPHONES
I'm Carl Countryman and I'm so excited about
the EM -101 must tell you why no other microI
phone offers you such fantastic performance
and why the EM -101 is the most versitile mike
you can own!
125 dB DYNAMIC RANGE
terms of raw performance alone, the EM -101
is in a class by itself. The 25 dB noise level of the
EM -101 is one of the lowest in the industry. With
the EM -101 you can hear sounds in a quiet room
that you can't hear with your own ears, yet it
easily handles 150 dB sound levels without
distortion or pad switching. That's over 300
times the threshold of pain! The EM -101 will
completely eliminate microphone overload..
In
LABORATORY FLAT RESPONSE
The EM -101 is GUARANTEED to have an incredibly flat frequency response; within 1.5dB of
perfection over the entire audible range from
20Hz to 15kHz and we back that guarantee by
shipping each EM -101 with it's own individual
computer verified frequency response curve.
Listening tests cannot distinguish the EM -101
from precision laboratory microphones costing
TEN times more!
VERSITILITY
The EM -101 is about the size and shape of a stick
of Dentyne chewing gum and has a non- reflective, black surface. It is also the most perfectly
non directional microphone you can buy for
recording or sound reinforcement. That makes it
the ideal choice for stage, TV, motion picture, or
conference work where variations in quality
caused by motion and position around the microphone must be minimized. Unlike conventional microphones or "plate mounted" microphones, the EM -101's unique flat design allows it
to be placed as close to the surface as desired to
take full advantage of this traditional microphone placement technique.
FEEDBACK AND LEAKAGE REDUCTION
The unique design of the EM -101 makes it almost
completely insensitive to conducted vibration
so it can be placed directly on or even inside an
instrument where the sound level is high and
you will obtain remarkably improved rejection
of unwanted sound and reduction of feedback.
Because PA systems feed back on response
peaks, the EM -101's ultra flat response allows
you to use more gain without feedback and will
reduce or even eliminate the need to notch filter
or equalize a system.
A Practical Approach To
Electronics
Troubleshooting
Maintenance
For Less Than Technical Studio Personnel
by Ethan Winer
The Recording Center, Inc.
East Norwalk, Connecticut
Before continuing our discussion
of electronic components and
troubleshooting, I'd like to suggest another use for the humcancelling filter described in the August
issue of R -e/ p. During the normal course
of routine preventative maintenance in
any studio, it's always a good idea to
check not only the frequency response
of the entire chain, but also the total
harmonic distortion from mike -in to
final line -out.
While it can be taken for granted that
distortion and frequency response are
generally dictated by design, and as
such will not "drift" in the usual sense
(excepting, of course, tape-recorder
adjustments), it's entirely possible for a
component to degenerate somewhere in
a console, or perhaps in a piece of
outboard gear. And it can be difficult to
hear one or two percent distortion in a
casual listening test. Unfortunately, a
conventional distortion analyzer is a
relatively expensive piece of test
equipment, and would be sitting unused
on the shelf for most of the time.
I suppose by now you're wondering
what the cheap solution is going to be
this time. Well, it's the old imitation
notch filter trick again, only this one is
even simpler than the device shown in
the last issue, since the bandpass filter
portion can be eliminated entirely. In
fact, you won't need to build any
circuitry at all if you have either a high quality digital delay, or an analog
phase shifter with known low
distortion.
Again, we're not talking about super-
YOU MUST TRY THE EM -101
want you to have the experience of using a
microphone with performance that rivals the
human ear! I'm convinced that once you hear a
truly accurate, uncolored microphone in your
facility, with your kind of program material, for
the affordably low price of $234.50 U.S. you will
never want to be without one!
Please call Countryman Associates or your favorite professional sound dealer to arrange a no
risk trial of the incredible EM -101 microphone.
critical lab measurements; merely a
quick way to verify that nothing is
seriously wrong. You can use this
method either by ear (great for assisting
in recorder bias adjustment), or with a
voltmeter for actual THD readings in
percent. If you use the phase shifter
shown in Figure 1 with a good
voltmeter, this should yield resolution
below 0.05 %.
Traditionally, harmonic distortion is
evaluated by applying a pure sinewave
at the frequency of interest to the input
of the device to be tested. The output is
then sent to a notch filter that removes
this frequency, and the remaining
harmonics, noise, and other nasties
generated within the device are
measured with a voltmeter, and
expressed as a percentage of the total
signal. For example, if an amplifier is
putting out 10 volts at 1 kHz, and after
filtering the 1 kHz tone you measure 0.1
volt of remaining signal, the distortion
will be said to be 1 %. It's as simple as
that, although in this case the tone will
be cancelled by phase shifting and
recombining in the console, instead of
using a notch filter. By the way, if you
do have a "Little Dipper" or some other
filter capable of producing suitably
sharp notches, of course you can use
that instead, by measuring the signal
before and after filtering.
This method will not be practical for
testing intermodulation (IM) distortion,
but THD and IM generally go hand in
hand. If you can achieve better than
0.1% THD, chances are good that the IM
... continued overleaf -
I
C
"COUNTRYMAN
ASSOCIATES INC
417 STANFORD AVE- REDWOOD CITY, CA 94063 (4151364-9988
R -e/p 124
October
Values
20 -200 Hz
0.27 mFd
200 -2k Hz 0.027 mFd
2 -20 kHz 0.0027 mFd
1981
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October
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R -e /p 125
Hosed
For Less Than
Technical
Studio Personnel
will be acceptable also. Well, enough
about that
let's continue with our
"layman's" guide to electronic
components.
...
TRANSFORMERS
A lot of people have been talking
about transformers recently, and the
evil things they can do to an audio
signal. Certainly, a balanced input or
output can be implemented electronically, and it is true that often lower
distortion and better frequency
response can be achieved in this
manner. But there are some cases where
a transformer is the only safe way to go,
and the better ones available really are
pretty darn good. Of course, all of this
has nothing to do with the facts about
how they work.
A transformer is constructed of two or
more insulated coils of wire placed in
close proximity. For audio, these coils
are wound on a single iron core often
one around the other- which enhances
the coupling between them. Since we
know that a coil of wire wound over iron
-
produces a magnetic field when
electricity is applied, it's not too difficult
to see how this principle can also
operate in reverse. When the iron is
magnetized by electricity applied to one
coil, a corresponding voltage will
appear in the other coil as long as it is
coupled to the same piece of iron.
Unfortunately, the input voltage must
be constantly changing for the device to
work properly, although increasing the
amount of iron employed will help
extend the low-frequency response.
Naturally, this precludes the use of
transformers for DC applications, or
when really low frequencies are
involved.
Probably the most common use for a
transformer is to increase or decrease
voltages, though don't confuse this with
amplification or an increase in actual
power. For example, if a transformer is
being used to double an audio voltage
applied to its input or primary winding,
then only half of the original current
will be available from the output or
secondary. The amount of amps
multiplied by volts equals power in
watts, and you never get anything for
-
free.
What makes a transformer so
attractive for audio applications is that
there is absolutely no electrical
connection between the two windings,
thereby eliminating all sorts of
grounding and safety problems.
Windings don't have to be insulated
from each other, however, and a good
R -e /p 126
October 1981
example of this type of transformer
would be the light dimmers most often
found in recording studios.
Solid -state dimmers available for the
home, while substantially lower in cost,
are generally shunned for studio use
because of the hum and buzz that they
can radiate. Therefore, a variable
transformer configured very much like
a potentiometer is a more attractive
choice. Isolation is not an important
requirement here, and the transformer's improved efficiency makes it much
more suitable for high -power loads than
a variable resistor.
The ratio of the input to output
voltage of a transformer is directly
proportional to the number of turns in
each of the coils. If 10 volts is applied to
a primary consisting of 100 turns, a
secondary of 200 turns will produce 20
volts, while one of 30 turns would
provide 3 volts. The ratio of input to
output impedance, however, is related
to the square of the turns ratio. For
example, our transformer with its 2:1
voltage increase will provide a 4:1
impedance increase, since 22 =4. And
likewise, a 5:1 voltage increase will
yield a 25:1 impedance increase. The
same applies in reverse, of course, and
the 3:1 decrease in voltage provides a 9:1
decrease in impedance.
TRANSISTORS
When we discussed the diode last time
around, it was pointed out that when
less than +0.6 volts is applied across its
silicon junction, the device behaves like
an open circuit. And, as the 600 millivolt
threshold is approached, the diode's
resistance will begin to decrease,
drawing more and more current in the
process. If you try to apply more than
0.7 volts or so across a diode in the
forward direction (anode more positive),
you will risk blowing it up.
The closest mechanical analogy I can
think of would be that of a dog on a
leash tied to a tree. The dog could travel,
say, 6 feet from the tree with little
interference, although as it approached
this distance the leash would begin to
pull. Sure, a few more inches is possible
due to stretching, though if the dog
could make it to 7 feet, the leash would
undoubtedly snap.
Internally, a diode consists of a piece
of "P" stuff stuck to a piece of "N" stuff
with wires coming out of each end, and
this behavior is something that just
happens, so you might as well accept it.
It is important to clarify the characteristics of a diode first, since a transistor
comprises two of these PN junctions in
a sandwich arrangement.
The elements of a transistor are the
base, collector, and emitter, and the two
available types are PNP and NPN
similar in all respects except for their
opposite polarities. The real beauty of
the transistor though, is its ability to
provide gain or, more specifically,
current control. A small current flowing
in the base-emitter junction can control
a much larger current from a battery
-
-
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-
or power supply passing through the
collector to the emitter.
The amplifying circuit shown in
Figure 2 will increase a small input
current to a much larger value,
depending on the transistor's gain, or
"Beta." Resistors need to be inserted
where shown to allow the input and
output current variations to be
converted into corresponding voltage
changes. Remember, the voltage from
base to emitter will be near 0.6 volts
most of the time, even though the
current flowing through this junction
may be varying widely. This particular
circuit inverts the polarity of the input
voltage, since the voltage at the output
decreases as the input goes up.
However, it is the change in output
voltage that's important here.
A small amount of energy controlling
a much larger amount shouldn't be too
abstract an idea: this concept could be
equated to controlling hundreds of
pounds of water pressure in a pipe by
turning a faucet or a valve. Your foot on
a gas pedal would be another example,
and a cowboy opening the gate to the
corral yet another. In Europe, vacuum
tubes are called "valves," precisely
because of the similarities in operation.
In some applications, an increase in
voltage may not always be required,
while an increase in available current
may be. The output of a semi-pro tape
deck or console may be entirely
adequate in level, but if you need long
cabling to reach the patch -bay, or the
ability to drive 600 -ohm loads, it will be
necessary to increase the output current
capability. A circuit that posseses a
relatively high input impedance, and
which can boost the available output
current is shown in Figure 3. This
circuit is referred to as an emitter
follower, because its output closely
follows the input, not counting the fixed
600 mV offset.
FIELD -EFFECT TRANSISTORS
The field- effect transistor, or FET, is a
very different device and its operation is
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temperature. This means that large
signals will not be amplified by the
same amount as small signals, which
causes distortion; and thermal
To
dependancy can make your studio
synthesizer drift in pitch as it warms
For Less Than
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Studio Personnel
probably closer to a vacuum tube than
to a normal junction transistor. Instead
of base, collector, and emitter, we now
have a gate, source, and drain. (And, as
if that wasn't enough, don't forget that
tubes have a grid, plate, and cathode!)
But in all of these cases, the idea is
pretty much the same and, with the
FET, the gate is exactly that.
During normal operation an FET's
gate is reverse biased, as opposed to
forward for a junction transistor. What
this means is that the gate will not
begin to conduct and draw current,
since it is going in the other direction.
None the less, a voltage applied to the
gate will control a current flowing from
source to drain, and with virtually no
loading on any preceding stage.
Because of this extremely high input
impedance, an FET can be very
valuable for certain applications, such
as an active direct box or in a condenser
microphone. One common configuration is shown in Figure 4, and is known
up.
Enter Negative Feedback
Make believe that you're about to
cook a frozen dinner
you would go
over to the oven and set the thermostat
for maybe 400 degrees. The heating
coils will begin to glow and remain on
until the correct temperature has been
reached, at which time they will be
turned off. After a few minutes, as the
oven begins to cool, the coils again will
be activated, thus maintaining a
-
constant temperature. The thermostat
is acting here as a stabilizing device
and, although its response time is
extremely slow, it still represents a
classic case of negative feedback in
action. Similar mechanical analogies
can be found inside the tank of a toilet,
and in those gadgets for your car where
you don't have to hold down the gas
pedal. Without feedback from the
speedometer, the car would slow down
whenever you went up a hill, and
without a cutoff valve, you could never
trust your toilet not to overflow.
A transistor can benefit from
negative feedback in a similar fashion,
since this will enable its input to have
some idea of what's happening at the
output. This technique works only if the
transistor has more inherent gain than
it is being asked to furnish in the circuit.
(Just like the car must have the reserve
power to maintain speed up the hill,
whether you use an automatic speed
regulator or not.) Even constructive
criticism could be considered to be a
form of negative feedback
since if
enough people were to write in
complaining about these ridiculous
analogies, I would probably stop using
them. But seriously, these are all
legitimate examples of negative
feedback, even if they may seem a bit
farfetched at times.
is its differential input, which means
that signals don't necessarily need to be
referred to ground. An op-amp has two
inputs, and it is the voltage difference
between them that is amplified,
although it certainly isn't uncommon
for one of these inputs to be connected to
ground.
As with the transistor and FET, the
most basic circuit for an op -amp is a
follower, which is shown in Figure 5. To
IN
OUT
Figure
5
understand its operation, start by
assuming that both inputs and the
output are sitting at zero volts. If you
increase the plus input to, say, 1 volt,
the output will begin to go positive in
response (notice that the output is also
connected to the minus input). If the
output tries to go above the 1 volt input,
this overvoltage will force the minus
input to turn it down. Therefore,
negative feedback stabilizes the circuit
by making the two inputs equal, or very
nearly equal.
An amplifier with a gain of more than
unity can be constructed by placing a
voltage divider in the feedback path, as
shown in Figure 6. If the two resistors
-
as a source follower. (Sound familiar ?)
Again, the voltage gain is unity,
although the impedance transformation is incredibly large.
Another important use for an FET is
as a voltage -variable resistor. Since an
FET's drain to source resistance can
vary from more than a hundred
megohms down to a few dozen ohms for
some types, it is often found in limiters
as the gain- controlling element; the
audio signal, however, must be kept
small to minimize distortion.
Some other amplifying junction
devices include the silicon -controlled
rectifier, or SCR, which is useful as a
switch, and the unijunction transistor,
which is often found in timing circuits.
There are some serious shortcomings
when using any single transistor as an
amplifier, however, as we are about to
discover.
Two of the major problems with a
simple one-transistor amplifier are the
transistor's inherent non -linearity, and
the variation in its gain with
R -e /p 128
OP -AMPS
A complete story on the internal
workings of an op-amp is far beyond
what we're doing here. Fortunately,
that deep an understanding is not really
necessary in order to have fun building
things. As long as you're willing to
accept a few facts about its behavior,
you can simply treat the op-amp as
simply another electronic component.
An op -amp is capable of extremely
large amounts of amplification,
although in most cases this available
gain is reduced to a more manageable
amount by the application of negative
feedback. By having the op -amp
provide more gain than needed, and
then "throwing away" the excess, the
performance of the entire circuit can be
made to be more predictable, as we've
seen in previous examples. Another
advantage of an operational amplifier
October 1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
are of equal value, then a 6 dB loss will
be incurred back to the minus input, and
the output will need to go 6 dB higher in
order to maintain stabilization. As RI
gets smaller with regard to R2, the
circuit's gain will continue to increase
until, of course, the op -amp runs out
of poop. But remember, the actual output voltage is always derived from the
power supply, and is merely controlled
by the input signal.
Aside from stabilizing gain, negative
feedback also has the beneficial effect of
-
reducing distortion and flattening
frequency response. Again, this is
because the op -amp is able to constantly
assess how closely the output resembles
the input, and apply a correction if
necessary. This also gives an op-amp
the ability to ignore large amounts of
hum that may be present on its power
supply.
The main advantage of the non inverting amplifier just discussed, aside
from maintaining signal polarity, is the
very high input impedance achieved
-
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R -e/p 129
For Less Than
Technical
Studio Personnel
typically many megohms. Another type
of amplifier circuit, called inverting for
obvious reasons, is shown in Figure 7,
and which has its own unique
advantages. The circuit's operation is
really the same as the non-inverting
amp, since the minus input is still
connected to the output through a
voltage divider. The only real difference
is that the input and ground have been
transposed, making things go in the
opposite direction. Note that the
feedback is still negative, only the
direction of the output is inverted.
We have observed that in any linear
op -amp circuit, the output will do
whatever it has to in order to maintain a
minimal difference between its two
inputs. This creates an interesting
situation when using the inverting
circuit shown in Figure 7, since the
impedance at the minus input will be
very low
closely approaching zero.
Therefore, the input impedance of the
complete circuit will always be equal to
Rl and, for the summing amp in Figure
8, the impedance at each input will be
equal to its own resistor.
-
One major advantage of the inverting
amplifier is the high degree of isolation
between inputs in a multiple -input
configuration, because each input
resistor appears to be simply grounded.
In a mixer, this will ensure that raising
the level of the kick drum in the mix
won't have any effect on the level of the
remaining tracks. Remember, the
minus input looks like ground because
the plus input is grounded, and this
summing junction is often referred to as
"virtual ground."
The gain for any input is equal to the
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feedback resistor divided by the input
resistor; the same as in Figure 7. This
equality between the plus and minus
inputs makes possible a very simple test
that will enable you to determine
whether an op -amp
inverting or not
is working. Simply measure the
voltage at each input, and if the two
differ by more than a few millivolts,
chances are you've got a dud. Of course,
any of the other components could
cause the circuit to fail but, in general,
resistors and capacitors are less subject
to sudden death than their active
counterparts.
In all of the op-amp circuits shown so
far, linear operation has been achieved
through negative feedback. (A linear
circuit could be roughly described as
one in which the output resembles the
input.) There are some cases, however,
that use positive feedback, and still
others where feedback isn't used at all.
The hookup shown in Figure 9 is
called a comparator, and utilizes the full
gain potential of the op -amp. The input
-
-
voltage in this example will he
IN
OUT
Figure 9
"compared" to ground, and when it is
more positive the output will go to full
supply voltage, which could light an
LED or activate a relay. When the input
is more negative, the output will be full
negative, extinguishing the light or
whatever. Since the open loop gain (no
feedback) for most op -amps is around
100 dB at low frequencies, an input
difference as small as 0.0015 volt will be
sufficient for the output to reach full
potential. It is a simple matter to
compare the input to any other
reference voltage as well, using a
voltage divider on the minus input.
Swap inputs, and the output will go the
other way.
The only problem this circuit may run
into is when the input voltage and the
reference voltage are very close
together. The output may appear to
wander around rather than stay firmly
up or down, or in some cases it may even
oscillate. One common cure for this
problem involves a slight amount of
positive feedback, and is known as
"hysteresis," after a similar, natural
phenomenon found in magnetic
materials. A common mechanical
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application of hysteresis can be found
by returning once more to the earlier
thermostat example.
In all thermostats used for home
heating, there is an allowed temperature "window" of a few degrees width. If
you set the temperature to, say, 70
degrees, the furnace won't come on until
the room dips to 69. Once on, the furnace
will continue to run ùntil the
temperature reaches 71, and so on. This
prevents the furnace from constantly
oscillating on and off as the room
temperature hovers near the selected
setting. Mechanically, this positive
feedback is accomplished with a
magnet and a bi -metal spring, though
the net result is the same as with the opamp circuits shown in Figure 10.
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Typically, Rl will be much smaller
than R2 for comparator stabilizing
purposes, and the positive feedback is
used to influence the reference level up
or down slightly each time the output
changes state. It is interesting to note
that the input impedance of circuit #10B
is equal to Rl plus R2 since, in this case,
the plus input is not a virtual ground.
Other applications of positive feet back
are found in oscillators and in active
filters, although there is usually some
negative feedback in these circuits as
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TROUBLESHOOTING
You know, I never have to invent
imaginary breakdowns to relate in
these pages, since the Recording Center
repair files are rich with actual case
histories. This issue is no exception.
One particular amusing incident
occurred over a defective cue box in the
studio. This young lady literally walked
in off the street one day with a pair of
singles in her hand, wanting to know if
I could remove the lead vocal and
substitute her own singing in its place.
She had never even been in a studio
before, and had no idea whether this
was possible. After explaining that his
could be done with varying degrees of
success
by combining the two
channels out of phase, we tried each of
the cuts for acceptability. In each case,
the lead vocal completely cancelled, but
as you might imagine, some reverb still
remained. There was also a touch of a
funny rasp on vocal peaks that broke
through from time to time but, overall, it
seemed to be working well enough.
Dropping the low end on one channel
before combining restored the cancelled
bass instruments, and this mix was
- -
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October
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1981
R -e /p 131
á
finished the session. But I was still out, and I still wasn't sure that it was
going nuts trying to figure it out.
even in the recorder, since power is
Hours later, it hit me that the problem distributed similarly in my console. I
could only be a broken ground wire in finally did track it down to the MCI
the cue box causing the left and right recorder, but the voltmeter approach
earphones to be connected in series. was looking pretty hopeless. I couldn't
Instead of getting a normal mono mix even fire up the supply on my
For Less Than
as you might imagine, the phones were workbench, because it received its AC
Technical
now connected from hot to hot, input through special connectors from
Studio Personnel responding only to the difference the main transport.
signal. The same thing I was doing to
Actually, this one turned out to be
then sent through a stereo synthesizer the record was happening to the pretty easy, thanks to a useful, though
back into the console. (See R -e/p, June talkback mike, since it feeds both painfully obvious, technique. With the
1979 issue.) Yet another cute applicachannels equally. The music, however, power off, simply wiggle every
tion for out -of-phase mixing!
didn't cancel due to the stereo component on the printed-circuit board
After taking great pains to assure synthesizer.
to be sure they are soldered securely.
Nancy that she would be able to hear
Any technician will tell you that the Tug on every wire as well, since a shiny
the record and also hear herself, as well worst problems to fix are the solder blob could still be hiding a bad
as talk to me, I set her up in the vocal intermittents, since invariably they connection underneath. Almost
booth. Though she was singing along disappear the moment you remove the immediately, I discovered a transistor
with the track, she obviously couldn't cover screws. Nothing is as frustrating with one lead loose, though it certainly
hear a thing that I was saying, which as yanking a piece of heavy gear out of looked okay. A close examinatidn
was confirmed by going out into the the rack and setting it up on the bench, revealed that the lead went through the
room. So I gave her a new pair of phones only to find everything behaving as it hole, and it was indeed covered with
and tried again. When that didn't work, should. And, of course, the less solder, only the solder hadn't adhered
I plugged in yet another pair right in the
frequently the malfunction occurs, the properly. A five-power jeweler's loupe
control room, just to make sure it wasn't harder it is to find.
can be a great help when inspecting
the talkback mike that was causing the
About once every three months or so a tiny parts, and it doesn't cost too much.
problem and, of course, it wasn't.
low but quite audible hum would appear
With intermittents in audio compoMind you, this poor kid had no idea of on channels 9 through 16 of our nents, you may want to tug and wiggle
what was going on, though come to multitrack, and stay exactly until the with the power on and the device
think of it, neither did I. I mean, how the session was cancelled. As the last connected, though you should keep the
heck could she be hearing the music musician was going out the door, I monitors down. I have a plastic probe I
loud and clear, while my voice was would try swapping power supplies in use for this purpose, which is definitely
being mysteriously cancelled? I moved the recorder to see if the hum appeared safer than a screwdriver. Listen for
the whole set-up out to the main studio elsewhere. But the problem always crackles and scraping sounds as you
where the 'phones were working, and disappeared as soon as I got my meter tug and tap the parts, and if you hit a
loose one, you'll know it.
I was fixing the PA head we use in my
band one time, trying to figure out why
FREE GIFT!!
there was no reverb. Since we didn't
have a schematic, about all I could do
was to look for loose connections, and
maybe check the transistors. As I
Tired of shopping around for electronic supplies?
tugged on a big fat mylar capacitor, one
With our comprehensive stock of over 130 lines, we are in the
lead suddenly broke off flush at the
body and, sure enough, it was connected
market to be your major supplier!!
by a wire to the reverb return control.
The manufacturer should have secured
it better, since the leads were fairly thin
NiPRfCJS/ON
for a cap of that physical size, and
SGL WABER
v Beau Prod .ts
alpha Ey BecholkHce I IoY NpAH CAN FLUKE
I
obviously couldn't take the strain.
Speaking of checking transistors,
MO GA M I
ITT
there is a handy test you can do with a
TRI
ELDENl7
meter, even if you have no idea how the
particular circuit works. Where a linear
op -amp always has a zero -volt
a""""I5T
difference between its plus and minus
inputs, a transistor almost always has a
0.6 volt difference between its base and
emitter when functioning properly.
Even if you have no idea which lead is
which, or even if its a PNP or NPN, look
for that 0.6 volt difference. While this
may not be the last word in troubleshooting techniques, it will enable you
to quickly check a lot of transistors
Call us today for a copy of our line card. To show our
without a schematic.
appreciation we will also include a useful FREE GIFT.
Also, if you spot a 10 ohm, 'A -watt
resistor with, say, 50 volts across it, you
can be sure it has bit the dust. Check the
YALE RADIO ELECTRIC CO., INC.
voltage across any electrolytic caps as
6616 Sunset Blvd.
well, to be sure the plus terminal is more
Hollywood, California 90028
In California Call:
positive than the minus. If it's not,
Call Toll Free:
check the other circuit components and
` (213) 465 -0650
(800) 421 -4144
change the capacitor, or at least check it
0.111111111V
Cullti
R -e /p 132
POMONp ELECTRONICS
October 1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
with an ohmeter.
Most of the relay failures I've seen
have been caused by contact problems
when handling low -level signals, but it
is also possible to encounter mechanical
troubles. In earlier tape transport
designs, relays were used to perform
simple logic functions, such as a latch,
so you don't have to hold the record
button down continuously, for example.
There are four of these relays in my old
Ampex four -track, and when the brakes
failed to engage, this was where I
looked.
A friend with a lot of experience with
relays suggested that magnetization
could be the problem, since whatever
was sticking could only be relieved by
tapping the deck plate firmly. So we put
a strip of half-inch splicing tape as a
spacer over the ends of all the
electromagnets, to help enable them to
let go. Demagnetizing the whole relay
would have been a better solution, but
frankly we didn't think of it. It didn't
matter anyway, since the sticking still
remained.
Similar to a relay is the solenoid,
which in this Ampex applies the actual
brake pressure; sure enough, the pieces
here were magnetized. All that was
required was to tighten the darn release
spring, though it took me months to
figure this out.
It is understandable when a
manufacturer uses a relay in certain
common
situations, since an FET
-a
-
controls to make them work, or if they
make a scratchy sound as you turn
them, chances are a shot of this spray
will help. It is imperative to get the
spray on to the contacts of switches and
the actual element of a potentiometer;
simply spraying the shaft from the
resistance can create unacceptable front will prove futile. As long as you're
losses, and its non -linearity can cause taking the pot apart to spray it, you
distortion. There is no excuse, however, should first clean the insides with a Qfor using a relay to do turn -on/turn -off tip and alcohol to remove any dust and
muting, expecially if the relay is used in gunk.
Dirty contacts are not the only cause
series to interrupt the audio.
Though I love my Otani MX-5050B, I of scratchy sounding pots, since a leaky
have had to remove and bypass the capacitor in the circuit will make
muting relay in both of the units I own, exactly the same sound. I can't count
because the right channel kept the times that I have installed a new
dropping out unexpectedly. I mean, give potentiometer, only to have the noise
remain. A capacitor (often electrolytic)
me a break. If you have to use a relay, at
least it should be used to short the is used to block DC from reaching the
output, so when the contacts fail, the controls in many circuits, and if it fails
audio will remain and only the muting turning the knob will modulate that DC
level, producing the familiar "dirty -pot"
feature will be lost.
sound. Fortunately, this is an easy
to
in
parallel
FETs
three
uses
dbx
short the output of their Model 160 problem to spot using a voltmeter on the
limiters, which not only seems more potentiometer's terminals.
In the next issue, an outboard tape
reliable to me, but has got to cost them
linearizer will be described that you can
less to boot. Well, enough about relays, I
how about switches and use to lower the distortion in your
promise
recorders, if they are not already so
pots?
No discussion of do- it- yourself equipped. This is based on pre maintenance would be complete distorting the audio in a manner
without a mention of contact spray. I opposite to the way tape distorts. Also to
generally use "Super Trol Aid," which be included will be a complete
description of test equipment that is
is made by Chemtronics, although I'm
sure there are other types that will work used for audio circuits, as well as some
just as well. If you have to twiddle with methods for using them.
solid-state substitute may not always
be adequate. For example, an FET
would be great for sel -sync switching of
the record and play heads, except for the
high- frequency, high -level bias current
that would pass through it when
recording. Here, the FET's finite "on"
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R -e/p 133
October 1981
For additional information circle #87
Belmont, Mass. 02178
USA
www.americanradiohistory.com
v8oa0 LdvPö
The Sony System
The Mitsubishi System
by Rick Plushner
by Lou Dollenger
Digital Audio Division
Professional Digital Audio Division
Sony Corporation of America
Mitsubishi Electric Sales America, Inc.
Since digital editing is an aspect of the relatively new
digital audio industry, many engineers are unfamiliar with
the actual procedures involved. Editing of digital audio tapes
is being accomplished today through various techniques,
depending on the format chosen. The Sony PCM system has
been used successfully on hundreds of album projects,
notable recent releases including Stevie Wonder's Hotter
Than July, Bruce Springsteen's The River, and Barbra
Streisand's Guilty. This article will deal specifically with the
Sony PCM system and the DAE -1100 digital audio editor, to
provide a step -by-step guide to the editing process.
Already digital audio has had a profound effect on the
recording and broadcast industries; as each AES
Convention arrives the influence is felt to a greater and
greater degree. During this period of transition we are
witnessing the development of the digital components that
will eventually comprise a totally digital recording chain,
from digital microphone to digital master. And, in the near
future, we will even have true digital playback in the home.
The advantages of digital recording are already well
established throughout the industry. Pulse Code
Modulation, the conversion of audio information to digital
code, provides a significant increase in dynamic range and
signal -to -noise ratio; elimination of wow, flutter, and
modulation noise; and reproduction of the stereo image with
no phase problems. The master tape is absolutely preserved,
suffers no degradation of signal, and can be duplicated an
unlimited number of times.
A further advantage of digital recording is the new
creativity allowed in the editing process. Editing with the
Sony system is a purely electronic operation. Since it is a rerecording process, master tapes are never altered. Original
recordings are combined in a sequential fashion, and
assembled on a new master. Since digital -to- digital
recording produces indentical transfers, there is no change
in the qualities of the recorded material. Edits can be made
without fear of damaging the original tapes, and the ensuing
headache of splicing back in those tiny slivers of tape
following an incorrect analog edit. The ability to preview
edits is also provided, to ensure critical adjustments can be
made until the edit points are virtually undetectable.
Electronic editing allows cross -fading of material in
addition to butt-editing. Volume levels can also be varied at
edit points, a feature not possible to achieve with analog
editing.
... continued on page 140
'
-
The Sony DAE -1100 Digital Audio Editor
..
.
The editing of tapes produced on the Mitsubishi two channel digital audio recorders is accomplished in two
different, yet related ways. A choice of both manual and
automatic methods is offered that takes full advantage of
Electronic Crossfade techniques, a necessary procedure
when editing material in the digital domain. The simplest
method is razor -blade splicing, a method used successfully
on analog recordings for many years. A new and more
flexible method uses the XE -1 Electronic Editor, available
late this year. Both methods will be discussed in detail, but
first a condensed technical primer on the Mitsubishi PCM
Format will be helpful in understanding just how flexible
and precise these two editing methods are.
Dramatic improvements to audio recording techniques
were felt to be possible using digital technology in the early
Seventies. Simultaneously, a number of designers the world
over began to investigate different ways to apply PCM
(Pulse-Code Modulation) techniques to the digitization of
audio signals, among them Dr. Kunimaro Tanaka, head of
the Mitsubishi Electric PCM Design Group, and winner of
the Ohm Award for the X -80 recorder design. Using data
garnered from Japan's space efforts, the search for a reliable
and practical digital audio format began and was
demonstrated in the first prototype of the current X -80
recorder, which was shown to members of Nippon
Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) and the Audio
Engineering Society in 1974.
The Path to Digital
In its earliest years, analog recording used a number of
different formats
among them wire, disk, and tape. With
the possible exception of today's costly and limited edition
direct -to- disks, many of these signal storage methods were
found to be impractical. Analog recording relies on the direct
recording of an audio signal in the form of residual magnetic
patterns on tape. Inherent drawbacks to this method are
tape -related noise, intermodulation distortion, and the non linearity of the playback signal. PCM recording methods do
not record the signal directly, but convert the sampled
analog signal to a digital one using 16 -bit linear A/D
converters.
As has been pointed out before, advantages of PCM
recording are therefore: unmeasurably low wow and flutter,
ultra -low distortion (less than 0.05 %); a dynamic range,
signal -to -noise ratio and channel separation of more than 90
dB; undegraded generation when copying; and wide flat
-
... continued overleaf -
.
Engineer Steve Toby (Fantasy Studios) performing a manual
edit on the Mitsubishi X-80 Digital Recorder
www.americanradiohistory.com
;owo
YOUGO
g
G?
A
FOR
SO
You'd like the outstanding sonics of digital recording for your next project. Problem
is,buying a system is expensive,and it could
be outdated before you even finish. Using
another studio is out because that studio/
artist/producer relationship is not established in one session. What do you do?
Call us. We're Digital Services and we can
provide what you want in equipment and
expertise at a price that won't peak out your
budget. Through us, any studio anywhere
can offer digital capabilities to their clients
with our highly reliable Sony PCM digital
system. Digital recording, mixing, editing,
and mastering is only as far as your phone.
And, because the system is SMPTE time
coded, we can do digital audio for video synchronization and simulcasting. Whatever
your project, we'll help you keep first generation quality audio all the way through.After
all, our middle name is Service. Now, how
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RECORDING
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October
For additional information circle #88
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e /p 135
oveoo &ANN)
The Mitsubishi System
frequency response (10 Hz to 23 kHz
with the X -80 and X -80A recorders).
All the devices in the Mitsubishi
Electric PCM format use a 50.4 kHz
sampling rate
higher than most
digital formats to provide response to
23 kHz. In addition, the 50.4 kHz rate is
easily divisible (an 8:7 ratio) down to the
proposed C -DAD consumer digital
playback and video standards. With a
small modification to the X -80 and X-
--
80A recorders, linear frequency
response from 10 Hz to 23 kHz is
available
well beyond that of any
other format and the demonstrated
range of human hearing. Therefore a
50.4 kHz sampling frequency and 16 -bit
linear conversion (necessary for 97.76
dB dynamic range) are two cornerstones of the Mitsubishi Electric PCM
format; the fixed -head tape recorder
-
design being the third.
Fixed- Versus
Rotary -Head Designs
Dr. Tanaka investigated two storage
devices that lent themselves to the
recording of digital data rotary -head
(helical -scan) videorecorders, and fixed -
-
head (open -reel) tape recorders
- and
found the latter to have more
advantages. The videocassette recorder
applications were felt to be better used
for consumer PCM recording, and a 14bit system was developed for that
market.
For professional recording it was
decided that the fixed -head system
OININIIIMM11111111'
operation and maintenance. In
lllil111 /111
I11
1'II'I1111111
11114111111111111
addition, the open -reel transport was
simpler to manufacture than its rotaryhead counterpart, and could be sold for
much less. Finally, only open-reel tapes
could be used with the traditional razor blade editing method, sparing every
single user the expense of an outboard
electronic editor, thus speeding the
acceptance of digital recording
methods. Additional criteria sought in
the Mitsubishi design were improved
tape and operation economy, and
excellent human engineering features.
The first generation of Mitsubishi
Recorders were designed with this
razor -blade splicing in mind but, as we
move into the future of digital
recording, the full and extraordinary
possibilities of automatic electronic
editing may be realized. The portable X80 and console- mounted X -80A digital
recorders both offer razor -blade editing
capability, and may also be used with
the optional XE -1 Electronic Editor.
Adding fully automatic electronic
editing to digital recording not only
increases the tape editor's creative
powers, but opens the doors to a new
range of technical possibilities.
111111'11'1111111611'1E111
Electronic Editing
Every edit performed to digital
signals must
be
electronic. Figure
1
MITSUBISHI DIGITAL RECORDERS
The two -channel X -80 recorder is a two -section stacking portable unit, while the X -80A is
housed in a console that allows slightly improved transport access and the addition of two
monitor loudspeakers. Both units use a new high- density magnetic tape, which is available from
Ampex Corporation as #466 and from 3M as #265, and offer a one -hour record time on ,,,4-inch
tape at a speed of 15 inches per second. There are 10 tracks across the tape width: one SMPTE
code track, six PCM data tracks, two parity tracks, and one analog mono cue track. The two
parity tracks offer a unique error -correction scheme, whereby both the data and the parity
tracks are correctable. The correction is also two -dimensional, allowing for a very high margin of
error. LEDs on the edit circuit board provide self- diagnosis, and in the record or play modes give
a real -time indication of both the level of error- correction being performed, and the condition of
the tape.
Error Correction
Powerful error -correctability is necessary to combat tape dropouts. Four cascading levels of
correction are performed automatically on the Mitsubishi system. Since the data is first
interleaved over many tracks
and therefore available from many different places on the tape
simultaneously
recovery method that exactly duplicates the "lost" data allows one or two
tracks of error to be corrected completely. This is the first level. Should errors arise on between
three and five tracks for seven if they fall on certain tracks), a method of concealment called
"Interpolation" is used: surrounding error -free data is detected, and an average voltage inserted
over the error. The third level of correction is used where errors are massive
usually when
tape is seriously damaged and here a mute is performed if errors simultaneously exceed five
-
-a
-
-
tracks.
Standard virgin tape rarely yields more than one single track error per minute, so both typical
and atypical dropout problems are effectively handled. Computer simulation studies have
shown that with Mitsubishi PCM format recorders, the need to interpolate data should arise
about once every year, and that audible misoperation should occur about once every 10,000
years of continuous use
what we like to call a "manageable" level!
The X -800 32- channel PCM recorder uses a similar configuration of error- correction on one
inch tape at a speed of 30 IPS. Here there are 44 tracks: 32 PCM data tracks, eight shared -parity
tracks, two analog cue tracks, one SMPTE code track, and one auxiliary digital channel that can
be used for the storage of computer- mixing data, among other things. A punch -in head used in
combination with a sophisticated autolocator unit allows automatic or manual overdubbing, and
when used with the XE -1 and X-80, both manual and automatic editing.
-
-
R -e /p 136
October
fiiiiiil
offered numerous advantages: the
design was well proven over many
years of analog recording; and studio
engineers were familiar with its design,
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
t1111I1iii.iii,iiï i nil
1111
,1111
',
1111111111.
Waveform at Splice (ltiith Cross -Fade)
Waveform at Splice (Wthout Cross -Fade)
Figure
1:
Waveform showing superiority
of cross -fade at splice.
shows the abrupt discontinuity of the
editpoint waveform where no electronic
crossfade is used. Analog recording
methods use a series of oblique tape cuts
to accomplish this fade, but this is not
possible with the PCM coded signal,
and an electronically -performed
crossfade is necessary. The simplest
way to edit digital tapes is with the
electronic crossfade circuitry internal to
the X -80 and X-80A recorders. The
method is identical to the analog
editing procedure with two important
additions: the use of editing gloves; and
the butt splice.
Each tape track contains more than
23 kilobits of data per inch; the
contamination of this data by dirt and
hand oils tends to cause the error correction circuitry to interpolate data,
more often than duplicate it. Cotton
editing gloves ensure that the recorded
data is kept in its most pristine form
(refer to page 134). A glance at the LEDs
will immediately tell the editor just how
effective he is being in this area.
Secondly, only a vertical butt splice
may be used, and a small gap in the
splice accommodates the detection of
the edit by the crossfade circuitry. This
method of manual electronic editing is
the simplest and least expensive, and
may only be performed on the X -80 and
X-80A recorders
allowing even those
studios on a modest budget to consider
entering the digital era.
Although the edit seems to correspond to a physical cut in analog tapes, it
is actually electronic. The ideal
editpoint is located by monitoring the
analog cue track, and scrubbing or
rocking the tape across the head, and
then marking the exact editpoint with a
new flourescent marker. (Grease pencils
tend to cause undue tape contamination
and headwear.) Location of the edit
-
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o
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made them our first choice."
Syncro Sound Studios, Boston MA Steve Berkowitz, Operating Director
"A long lasting friendship has helped our business to expand, keeping us on
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Soundtrack, Boston MA Rob Cavicchio, President
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c K
Bruce Macomber, President
Reel Time Productions, Cambridge MA
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For additional information circle #89
www.americanradiohistory.com
©o iGoJ di i
The Mitsubishi System
CONTROL
CONTROL
point may be done manually or, when
used with a unique feature of the
transport, by using the servomotors,
which are activated when the idler arms
CONTROL
X- 80 /80A
are touched (thus minimizing the
chance of data damage).
PCM DATA
SLAVE
CONTROL
Once the edit points are marked, the
tape is removed from the path, placed
on the splice block (Figure 3), and
vertical cuts made. The trailing portion
is then joined with the other using a new
thin splice tape (for optimum tape /head
contact), and trimmed. The tape is
again monitored, but on the digital
output for edit accuracy. Should the edit
need to be modified for any reason, the
splicing tape may be removed and
trimmed as necessary.
X- 80 /X -80A
PCM DATA
SLAVE
D,
XE -1
X- 80,X -80A
EDITOR
MASTER
PCM DATA
X- 80 /X -80A
SLAVE
PCM DATA
TAPE ü1
TAPE
(
Figure
When the circuitry detects an
interruption of the sync signal caused
by cutting the tape, a 2.5 millisecond
electronic crossfade is applied while the
data is in the buffer data memory.
Normally the loss of sync -phase would
require additional lockup time, but here
a special "Dummy -Pulse Selection
Method" selects the ideal sync -phase
relationship from the many available
ones, and the edit occurs smoothly.
Very recently a dramatic improvement
was made to the analog track's output,
allowing an increase from 34 to 70 dB
signal -to -noise ratio.
Automatic Editing
For those studios feeling that fully
automatic electronic editing is
necessary today, Mitsubishi has
designed the XE -1 Electronic Editor
(Figure 4). This unit offers freely
selectable crossfade duration between 5
and 100 milliseconds. The editor
R-e/p 138
October
5
performs an edit automatically by
using an internal SMPTE generatorreader, and the recorder's code tracks.
In addition, a host of new and flexible
features are available to the creative
editor. The XE -1 may be used to control
two, three, or four X -80 Series recorders
for editing fùnctions (Figure 5), or two
recorders for live four -channel sync
recording. Full autolocation facilities
also enable the editing of tapes
produced on the X -800 multitrack
recorder.
The XE -1 unit is housed in a desk, but
the processing section may be rack mounted, and the keypad and CRT
display relocated to a more convenient
area. The CRT monitor displays up to
five separate event addresses, and an
internal NiCd backup battery stores
these, and up to 20 take times, for six
months. Output connectors are
provided to allow visual monitoring of
the editpoint waveform on any
oscilloscope having an external trigger
feature
a helpful addition to sound
monitoring.
This combination is designed to fully
exploit the XE -1's editing precision of
833 microseconds (equivalent to 10% of
tape thickness), and again offers an
operation closely tied to standard
practices. In circumstances where an
edit may be improved by resetting the
recording level, a digital fader is
provided to alter these levels from +6 dB,
to minus infinity.
When working with the XE -1,
material is monitored from the analog
tracks at the actual read (playback)
head, unlike the small bit digital
window memory of some rotary-head
systems. This is again very precise, and
an exact indication of the actual signal.
On playback, edit points are selected
and a crossfade duration chosen. (The
point may be modified by a minimum
-
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
tt 2
1
I
A
I
BI
al bi
TAPE P3
2
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c
3
!EDITED TAPE' A
'
step -shift key that alters sub -SMPTE
codes.) In the rehearsal mode, an area
from five seconds before the editpoint to
anywhere after may be previewed, and
again changed as necessary.
Once the proper editpoints, levels,
and crossfade durations are known, the
XE -1 is commanded to perform the edit
and does this function automatically.
In addition, there is only a one-second
start time to lockup, unlike the 5 to 10
seconds required on videocassette
recorders. Whether digital edits are
performed automatically or manually
should be left to the user; only on the
Mitsubishi system is there such a
choice.
Multitrack Editing
Manual splicing of the one -inch tapes
produced by the X -800 multi -track
recorder is not yet reliable, although
methods are currently being explored to
offer this choice here as well. A physical
phenomenon of curling is encounted on
the 0.88 mil base tape to a much greater
extent on one -inch tapes than on the
quarter -inch
which reduces the
optimum tape /head contact required
-
for physical editing. Also, the
alignment of 44 tracks by hand may
require a machined splice to be
effective. We doubt that users will want
to tamper with this data in its original
unmixed form, as safety copies require
another recorder.
continued overleaf
PCM
X.800
DATA.
32- CHANNEL
PCM
DATA
CONTROL
Figure 6
X-80ïX-80A
4--
CONTROL
XE-1 EDITOR
-
LLWP
PROFESSIONAL AUDIO
5447 TELEGRAPH
AVE.
OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA
94609
PHONE (415) 652 -1553
fiooph ne/
fpeolkcerrf
Turntable/
Audio -Technica
AKG
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Auratone
Beyer
Bose
AKG
Audio -Technica
QRK
Countryman
Calibration Standard Instruments
Shure
Edcor
Cerwin -Vega
SM
Electro -Voice
Cetec -Gauss
Eastern Acoustic Works
Stanton
Technics /Panasonic
Electro -Voice
Emilar
Coble. Covet E
Nady -Nasty Systems
Neumann
Sennheiser
Sescom
ESS Pro
Shure
Sony
Harbinger Audio
Heppner
JBL
Northwest Sound
Renkus-Heinz
Shure
UREI
Yamaha
r ®urne rgeiln(orrcement rflixerrr
Audioarts Engineering
Audy
Biamp
Bose
Shure
Soundcraft
Tangent
Tapco
Yamaha
Koss
Audioarts Engineering
Sennheiser
Sony
Orange County Electronics
Sound Workshop
Tapco
Teac /Tascam
UREI
White
Yamaha
Amplli file(w
AB Systems
BGW
Biamp
Bose
Cerwin -Vega
Crest Audio
Tapco
Yamaha
CottWwd9ey
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Holdup-lake
Anvil Cases
Atlas Sound
Cases, Inc.
Lifelines
Monster Cable
Neumann
Neutrik
Sescom
Switchcraft
Teri Cquilpnernnl
AKG
Audio -Technica
Beyer
Edcor
P19fitoll rnOrroceif,iff19
Biamp
DBX
Delta -Lab Research
Eventide
EXR
Furman
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Lexicon
Mic Mix -Master Room
MXR
E
f
DBX
Gotham Audio
IVIE
Sennheiser
Sound Technology
UREI
White
ecoídlin9 £ pkoducU©n Coniellet
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Soundcraft
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Teac /Tascam
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Machine/
Sony
Soundcraf t
Teac /Tascam
Technics /Panasonic
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Ampex
Audio-Technica
Edit -All
Maxell
Scotch
TD K
Teac /Tascam
Authorized Factory Service Available on all Product Lines
October
For additional information circle #90
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e/p 139
Dógáaa0 CdSPSAg
The Mitsubishi System
Simply
The Best!
True stereo
4:1
sweep VCO
Stereo flanging
Double & Triple
Tracking
Chorusing
Reverb
Spatial
Manipulation
95db typical
20-15kHz at all
delay lengths
252 mS
standard
Long delays
(up to 2 sec.)
with memory
module
incorporates a large search dial for
selecting edit points with an ease
surpassing that of analog editing.
Editing techniques already familiar to
engineers have been translated to the
Editing is accomplished by using the
automatic punch -in and punch-out electronic medium, making the
abilities of the X -800, one XE -1 editor, transition to digital editing a simple
and one or two X -80 Series recorders one.
(Figure 6). This ping-pong editing
Location of edit points is achieved
method allows very precise edits, and with SMPTE time code recorded on the
again the choice of performing these original tapes. The DAE -1100 has
edits manually or automatically.
SMPTE readers for the recorder
on
One can see that the Mitsubishi PCM which the edited and sequenced master
format digital editing systems offer is assembled
and the player(s) from
many advantages over other analog which the master is created. A code
and digital methods. The format was generator is also incorporated in the
chosen from the beginning to move editor for the initial laying down of time
easily into the recording and broadcast code prior to an editing session.
studio, and mesh well with existing
Once an edit point is selected,
standards and practices. The Mitsu- rehearsal editing is possible. If changes
bishi PCM format was recently adopted are desired, the edit point can be shifted
by AEG -Telefunken for European in millisecond increments up to one
installations, and soon will become minute in either direction. Lighted
essential to the making of high -quality buttons flash in sequence on the editor's
PCM recordings
especially in the keyboard, and the editing operation is
light of recent C -DAD developments. conducted by simply following the
The Philips Compact digital audio disk ordered sequence.
will assure that consumer playback of
The DAE -1100 maintains an edit
actual digital signals will appear next accuracy of 90 microseconds, which is
year. This formidable combination of far more precise than can be achieved
manual and electronic editing is an with a conventional razor blade. It also
important and essential commitment to features advanced cross -fading
the future of professional audio adjustments, with selectable fade times
recording.
that permit the elimination of signal
-
-
-
continued from page 134..
.
Dagaa JJ gAaaaag
The Sony System
level differences between source
programs at the edit points. In addition,
the editor features a level control for
each of the source programs, to adjust
the source level within a +6 dB to minus infinity range. These controls can also
be used to produce fade -in and fade -out
effects.
The Editing Procedure:
A Step -by -Step Guide
The finished and edited master tape
will be assembled from previously
You can
pay
less
DAE -1100 Digital Audio Editor
The DAE -1100 is used in conjunction
with either two or three BVU -200B
broadcast standard U -Matic VTRs,
since the digitally -processed material is
recorded on videotape. The editing or
assembling of digital audio tapes with
the Sony system is very similar to the
process of video editing.
Designed for use with Sony's
professional PCM -1610, PCM -1600, and
PCM -100 audio processors, the DAE 1100 provides fully electronic control of
the tape -to -tape editing process (Figure
1 above). The editor's main microprocessor unit is rack -mounted, and operated
with a remote -control keyboard that can
be installed anywhere to accommodate
functional studio requirements.
The editor has numerous features to
make editing accurate, as well as
convenient. The remote-control panel
(or more) for
digital delay,
but you can't
buy any better.
Compare features,
performance, &
warranty and
find out for
yourself why top
artists and studios
insist upon
Q
Del taLab
DeltaLab Research, Inc
Industrial Aveune
Chelmsford, MA 01824
Tel (617)256 -9034
Telex951205
Canadian Distributor
Heins Audio
Developments. Inc.
Markham. Ontario,
Canada (416)495 -0688
27
R-e/p 140
October
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
recorded digital audio tapes. The
equipment necessary for the operation
includes the PCM processor, editor, and
videotape recorders (Figure 2). One of
the VTRs is designated the "recorder"
machine, and either one or two VTRs
the "player" machines. The procedure
is the same with either one or two
players, the operation being somewhat
speedier with two.
Digitally- encoded audio information,
stored on 3/4-inch videocassettes, is
placed in the player machine. A blank
cassette is placed in the recorder
machine, and will receive the edited and
sequenced material. Both tapes have
been previously striped with standard
SMPTE time code, either drop -frame or
full- frame, according to individual
requirements.
While the recorded material is
monitored, and an edit point reached,
the desired material is being transferred to the recording machine. The
engineer goes slightly past the edit
"out" point, and is then ready to make
an edit.
The recorder machine is then played
back, starting where the edit point
FOR
PROFESSIONAL
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CASSETTE
RECORDER.
THE TASCAM 122 STUDIO
Tascara. Now we've designed Performance plus a combination of features makes the
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TASCA
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SER EIS
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'Dolby and dbx are registered trademarks.
For additional information circle #91
www.americanradiohistory.com
ANALOG MONITOR OUTPUT
Player B
i
Player A
Recorder
PCM 1610
/
PCM-1600
PCM-100
BVU-2008
VIDEO
VIDEO
2
DIGITAL I/O
O
VIDEO
Lu
W
°
'°
Figure 2: Schematic of a digital
audio editing system, comprising
a PCM encoder/decoder, three
U -Matic videocassette machines
(two playback and one record),
and a central control unit.
I
DAE-1100
(Processor)
KEY /O
I
DAE-1100
(keyboard)
DáBár - 0 EcJIMA8
The Sony System
comes up. When the edit point is heard,
the engineer pushes the "out- point"
button, which is flashing on the
keyboard. At the moment that this
button is pushed, the editor transfers
into digital memory six seconds of
music three seconds on either side of
the edit point. The recorder machine,
which was playing automatically, goes
to the appropriate point on tape in
readiness for the performance of the
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Nothing else even comes
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Edit Point
Available Cross -Fade Times
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SURPRISE!
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KIMBER KABLE
actual edit.
There is now a six -second "window"
of music stored in digital memory, in
which the exact edit point has to be
found. This six -second segment is
played back from digital memory (not
off the tape itself) either at full- or half speed, or by manually turning the
search dial in a fashion parallel to the
"rocking of the reels" on an analog tape
recorder. With the same familiar
technique, the edit point is determined
from the digital memory. When the
point is found, the "out- point" button is
pushed again, and the exact location
placed into the editor's memory. The
next step is to determine the "in" point
of the subsequent sequence of
information from the player side. The
procedure is the same as previously
described for finding the "out" point of
the first sequence.
When these steps have been
performed it's time to preview the edit.
Before initiating the preview, the
engineer selects from 10 different
digital cross -fade times, ranging from 1
to 99 milliseconds. Any and all of these
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crossfades can be previewed as many
times as desired before committing to
the edit. A 15- millisecond crossfade
time is approximately equal to the
standard 45- degree splice used for
analog tape editing.
As an additional feature, in the
preview mode the volume level can be
digitally adjusted from the player to the
recorder. Levels can be matched,
boosted by as much as 6 dB, or the editor
used as a digital attenuator for gradual
fade out. All of these adjustments are
made in the preview mode, before
actually committing to the recorded
edit.
If, during the preview of an edit, it is
found that the in or out points need to be
shifted in either direction, this can
easily be accomplished by the use of the
editor keyboard's time-shift mode. "In"
or "out" points can be shifted
independently from as little as one
millisecond to as much as one minute in
either direction. After such fine tuning,
the edit points can also be previewed.
After the exact edit points have been
selected in the preview mode, an auto edit button is pushed and the machines
automatically roll back to the preselected point. A selection of a 5, 10, or
30 second pre -roll can be made to the
edit spot, facilitating very rapid editing,
or the ability to listen to the edit in a
larger musical context.
After an edit is performed, the
R -e /p 142
October
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
COMPACT DISC
DIGITAL MIC
recorder is allowed to continue
recording information from the player
side until the next edit out -point is
reached. This process is then repeated
and, continuing in this fashion, a
completed and sequenced album is
produced on the recorder side.
The editor also offers the ability to
write a user bit code on the tape, which
can be used for logging the date of the
recording, or any information for
various reference purposes. The user bit
code can be retrieved by simply
pressing a button on the appropriate
section of the editor keyboard.
The SMPTE time code written on to
all tapes in combination with the
selected in and out points provides a
complete editing log of the session. In
digital audio editing, as with video
editing, a log of edit points is a
necessary and valuable tool. The
editing process begins with listening to
the tapes and logging the SMPTE time
code numbers that correspond directly
to the desired edit locations. When an
editing session takes place, a list of all
edit points is available that can be
found with the automatic location
devices built into the DAE -1100. When
an album is edited and sequenced, the
accompanying list of edit points can be
filed for easy reference at a later date,
should any changes be desired for
further uses of the recorded material.
The Edited Digital Master
The edited and sequenced master
digital tape is now ready to be mastered
to analog disk, or transferred in the
future to the compact digital disk for
home digital playback. The analog disk
that's produced from the master tape
with a PCM -1610 or -1600 processor is of
extremely high quality. The specifications are similar to those achieved with
direct-to -disk mastering in terms of the
final analog lacquer characteristics.
The digital master tape is taken to the
disk mastering facility along with the
PCM processor and two BVU -200B
VTRs. At this point, the disk -mastering
engineer sets up the EQ for the analog
disk. When the EQ is determined, a
digitally equalized master is prepared
for the production of the analog disk. A
digital -to- digital dub is made through
the equalization console at the disk mastering facility. Because it is
digitally encoded, the digitally
equalized master will not change from
day to day or year to year. Every new set
of lacquers cut from this tape will be
absolutely identical to the original
record release.
With conventional analog master
tapes, the EQ is determined for disk
mastering and the lacquers cut. At a
later date it may be necessary to cut
additional lacquers for continued
production of the record. Disk
-
mastering engineers realize that the EQ
of an analog master tape is subject to
transient
change as time goes by
response weakens and bass response
softens and that various equalization
-
-
DIGITAL AUDIO
DIGITAL MIXER
..11
0
PRESS
LASER
CUTTING
MACHINE
MULTI- CHANNEL
DIGITAL AUDIO
RECORDER
DIGITAL AUDIO
r'u','
PROCESSOR
DIGITAL
DIGITAL AUDIO
MUSICAL
INSTRUMENT
VTR
i
PROCESSOR
DIGITAL AUDIO
EDITOR
DIGITAL MIXER
VTR
DIGITAL
ELECTRONIC
EFFECTOR
EDITING
Figure 3: The all-digital recording system of the future will enable a signal, once digitized at the microphone or signal source, to remain in the digital domain through to the
final pressing of the final Compact Digital Audio Disk.
levels have to be re- adjusted to
approximate the sound of the original
release. This is often done without the
advantage of having the producer or the
artist in attendance. Drawbacks are
obvious.
With a digitally -equalized master,
lacquers will always be identical,
regardless of whether they are prepared
a day later, a year later, or 10 years after
the original cutting session. Identical
analog disks made from the digital
master will always be assured.
As for the future, production of a
compact digital disk from the master
tape will be a direct digital -to-digital
transfer, with no signal alteration
whatsoever; audio information encoded
on the compact disk will be identical to
that found on the original master
(Figure 3). There will be no transcoding,
and the compact disk will be capable of
16 -bit digital reproduction that is
identical to the master tape in every
respect. And, of course, as the years go
by, every compact disk produced will
remain identical to the original release.
izj:
A1164%
I
THE
POR UBE AUDI
-
=
-
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TIPMENT
ION
4011r.
CONSOLES
TAPE MACHINES
OUTBOARD EQUIPMENT
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BUY
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11120 MERCHANTMAN PLACE
LOS GATOS, CA. 95030
RICHMOND B.C. V7E -4R3
(408) 395 -2448
P.O. BOX 1678
October 1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
R -e /p 143
Beyond The Studio Glass
-
eg°tiatin9 The
Successfully
,,5 Agreement
Produce
Record
__-
by Neville L. Johnson
and Daniel Webb Lang
EDITORIAL NOTE
The readers' attention is drawn to the
fact that this article is concerned with a
"prototype" record producer's agreement. It is recommended that a record
producer engaged to produce
a
recording should seek the advice of
counsel before embarking upon the
project.
A TYPICAL RECORD
PRODUCER'S CONTRACT
The accompanying sidebar to this
article constitutes a "prototype" record
producer's contract, which contains
provisions typically found in record
producer's contracts of major record
companies such as Capitol, Warner
Brothers, Atlantic, MCA, Motown,
A &M and CBS. You should familiarize
yourself with the general language of
the prototype contract, because
agreements like this are the foundation
of the relationship between the record
producer and his employer, and the
starting point from which negotiations
commence in all protypical situations
discussed in this article.
The basic areas
which subsequently will be discussed at length
covered in the prototype record
producer's contract are:
-
-
-
continued overleaf
-
the authors
Daniel Webb Lang practices with the
Century City (Los Angeles) law firm of
Wyman, Bautzer, Rothman, Kuchel &
Silbert. Neville L. Johnson practices
law in Los Angeles, California. They
are co- authors of the definitive work on
California law applicable to talent
agents, personal managers and the
entertainment unions.
R -e /p 144
El
October
1981
PROTOTYPE RECORD PRODUCER CONTRACT
Agreement made this
of Record Company).
1.
_day of
19
between (Name of Producer) ( "you ") and (Name
PRODUCING ENGAGEMENT
A. You will render your exclusive services as a producer of Master Recordings of performances
by
( "Artist "). Said engagement will terminate automatically upon any termination
of the
agreement between us and the Artist (or any other party), pursuant to which such recordings are
to be made.
B. You will produce Master Recordings sufficient to constitute one (1) Album or the equivalent.
If you produce additional recordings by the Artist, such further services will be deemed performed
pursuant to this agreement.
C. We may designate other producers for recording sessions with the Artist, and you shall have
no rights hereunder with respect to the Master Recordings produced at such recording sessions.
2. RECORDING PROCEDURE
A. You will follow the procedure set forth below:
1. Prior to the commencement of recording in each instance you shall obtain our approval of
each of the following, in order, before proceeding further: (a) selection of material, including the
number of Compositions, to be recorded; (b) specification of accompaniment, arrangement and
copying services; (c) selection of dates of recording and studios where recording is to take place,
including the cost of recording therein the scheduling and booking of all studio time will be done
by us; and (d) a proposed budget on our then current Recording Authorization budget form
(which you will fill out and submit to us at least 14 days before the planned commencement of
recording).
2. You shall notify the appropriate local of the AF of M in advance of each recording session.
3. You shall timely supply us with all of the information we need in order to comply with any
obligations we may have, including any payments in connection with the making of, and to prepare
to release phonograph records derived from, such Master Recordings.
4. You shall submit to us fully edited Master Recordings, satisfactory for our manufacture and
sale of phonograph records, and Deliver to us all original and duplicate Master Recordings of the
material recorded, together with all necessary licenses and appropriate permissions.
B. Nothing in this agreement shall obligate us to continue or permit the continuation of any
recording session or project, even if previously approved hereunder, if we reasonably anticipate
that the Recording Costs will exceed those specified in the approved budget, or that the Master
Recordings being produced will not be satisfactory.
3. RECORDING COSTS
We will pay all Recording costs specifically approved by us for the Master Recordings, which
such costs shall constitute Advances against the royalties payable with respect to the services of
the Artist. Any Recording Costs in excess of the amount approved by us will be your sole
responsibility, and will be promptly paid by you (or reimbursed by you if paid by us).
4. GRANT OF RIGHTS
All Master Recordings produced shall be produced by you on our behalf, and all records and
reproductions made therefrom together with the performances embodied therein, and all rights
thereto shall, from inception of their creation, be entirely our property in perpetuity, throughout
the world, free of any claim whatsoever by you or by any persons deriving rights from you
-
1981 by Daniel Webb Lang and
Neville L. Johnson. All rights reserved.
www.americanradiohistory.com
Are you tired of spending
6 digit figures every year for
new recording hardware,
because you don't have...
updatability?
UPDATABILITY isa u -ique
So unique that you won't
in any dictionary.
word.
find it
supe, for sound now and in the
future. Technological
de./eopments are inevitable.
As -hey occur you simply plug
them in. Yes, the .C.C. 3000
UPDATABILITY is the I.C.C. 3000
Modular Audio Control Console Audio Control Console may
bet last console you will
The I.C.C. 3000 Audio Control
ev3r cuy!
Console is functionally
the
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Hearing is believing!
market. Each function has
modular
C has put together a
been separated n-o
library of recording demonbuilding blocks. This allows for
I
stration tapes to exhibit
the sonic qua ity of our technology.' Thes.e tapes will to
played at the A.E.S. convention daily. Shculd your firm not
experience tt-e I.C.C. 3000
Audio Conto Console first
hand, we w II loan you a two
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original master.
Contact I.C.C. for availabiity.
After all, 'hearing is believing'!
Call or write:
I.C.C.
P.O. Box 862
Provo, Utah 84603
(801) 377 -9044
Patents Pending
See us in demo room 627
Fcr additional information circle #95
www.americanradiohistory.com
October 198.
R -e/p 145
PROTOTYPE RECORD PRODUCER CONTRACT
A. The
ment
record producer's engage-
The record producer agrees that he
will produce a number of recordings of
an artist which will contain a certain
number of minutes of recorded music.
Record companies, independent
production companies, distributed
labels and artists are the usual parties
engaging the services of the record
producer. (Unless otherwise noted, our
use of the term the "record company"
will include the "major" record
companies as well as an independent
production company, a distributed
label, or an artist that might employ a
record producer.)
B.
Recording procedure
The record producer agrees that he
will perform certain tasks in producing
the artist, and that such tasks will be
performed in a certain sequence. The
tasks and the sequence in the prototype
record producer's contract are: selection
of material, recording dates, studios,
musicians, vocalists, copyists and
arrangers; preparation of a budget for
the project; supervision of the sessions;
preparation of union reports; and
delivery of recordings.
C. Recording costs
All items which will be recording
costs, such as costs of tape, studios,
musicians and musical equipment, are
listed. All other costs "customarily"
thought of as recording costs in the
industry are also included.
The record producer agrees that he
will prepare and submit a recording
budget to the record company for
approval. The record producer agrees
that if actual recording costs exceed the
approved budget, the record company
may deduct the "excess recording
costs" from advances or royalties
payable to the record producer, or
require the record producer to repay the
excess. (The negotiation of the record
producer's responsibility for excess
recording costs is discussed in section
B.2. under the "Services Required of
Record Producers" heading later in this
article.)
D. Grant of rights
The record producer acknowledges
that the record company owns the
"results and proceeds of the record
producer's services," i.e. the recordings
produced by the record producer and all
of the sounds on such recordings. The
record producer acknowledges, in
addition, that the record company owns
the exclusive copyright in such
recordings as the record producer's
"employee for hire." The practical effect
of this acknowledgment is to prevent
any "recapture" of the copyright which
could be available under U.S. copyright
law to the record producer 35 years after
R -e/p 146
October 1981
including, all rights of copyright and the right to renew such copyright (it being agreed that for this
purpose you are deemed our employee- for -hire). We shall have the right to use the Master
Recordings throughout the world or any part thereof in any manner we see fit, including, without
limitation:
A. The right to manufacture, advertise, sell, lease, license or otherwise use or dispose of the
Master Recordings and records (in any speed, size or format whatsoever) embodying any of the
performances Delivered to us hereunder, in any or all fields of use upon such terms and conditions
as we may approve or to refrain therefrom;
B. The sole and exclusive right in perpetuity in and to all performances recorded hereunder, all
Master Recordings, records or other reproductions of the performances embodied in the Master
Recordings, and the right to use the same in any manner and by any method now or hereafter
known;
C. The sole and exclusive right to publicly perform the records and to permit the public
performance thereof by means of radio and television broadcast or otherwise;
D. The right to release derivatives of any one or more of the Master Recordings on any medium
or device now or hereafter known, under any name, trademark or label;
E. The exclusive and perpetual ownership of all duplicates of the Master Recordings, tapes and
other physical devices embodying performances made at recording sessions hereunder and
records manufactured therefrom, and the right to use and control the same and the performances
embodied therein.
5. NAME AND LIKENESS
We shall have the worldwide right in perpetuity to use and to permit others to use your name
(both legal and professional), likeness, other identification and biographical material in connection
with the Master Recordings hereunder, the records derived therefrom and our record business
and products. We shall give you appropriate production credit on album cover liner notes of
records embodying solely Master Recordings hereunder.
6. ROYALTIES
Conditioned upon your full and faithful performance of this contract, you shall be paid in respect
of the sale or other exploitation by us or our licensees of records embodying the Master
Recordings recorded hereunder, the following royalties:
A. In respect of records sold in the United States, in the form of disks and pre- recorded tapes
(including reel -to -reel tapes, cartridges and cassettes) or other recorded devices (other than
disks), we shall pay you a royalty at the rate of 3% of the suggested retail list price ( "srlp ") from time
to time of such records; and in respect of records sold by our licensees in the United States in the
form of pre-recorded tapes or other recorded devices (other than disks), we shall pay you a royalty
at the rate of half (1/2) of the aforementioned royalty rate based upon the srlp from time to time of
such records.
B. In respect of records sold outside of the United States, we shall pay you a royalty at the rate of
11/2% of the srlp (or the price of records generally regarded as the equivalent thereof)
from time to
time of such records in the country of manufacture, sale, import, or export, as we shall be paid.
C. Notwithstanding any of the foregoing, the royalty rate, as calculated in accordance with the
foregoing provisions, in respect of the sale of records:
1. Sold through any direct mail or mail order distribution method (including record
club
distribution), shall be half (1/2) of the otherwise applicable royalty rate;
the release of the record, or 40 years
after its recording, whichever occurs
first.
The record producer agrees that the
record company has the right to use the
name, likeness and biography of the
record producer to sell and advertise
records manufactured from the
recordings produced by the producer,
and for other business purposes.
E. Advances
The record producer agrees to the
amount of the "advance" or "flat fee"
payment, if any, that will be paid to the
record producer for the services he will
render in producing recordings.
F. Royalties
The record producer agrees to the
royalty rates that will be payable to him
for sales of the artist's records
manufactured from recordings produced by him, and the manner in which
such royalties will be defined, computed
and paid.
G. Royalty accountings
The record producer agrees to terms
on which the record company will
account to him for royalties.
H. Mechanical licenses
The record producer agrees to obtain
mechanical, i.e., publishing, licenses for
www.americanradiohistory.com
the compositions to be produced by him.
The licenses usually provide that the
record company will not have to pay
more than 23/4 cents per composition, 5
cents for all the compositions on a
single, and 271/2 cents for all the
compositions on an album. If those
amounts are exceeded, the record
company may deduct the amount of
such excess from the royalties
(phonograph and mechanical), or
advances against such royalties,
payable to the record producer.
I. Other provisions
The record producer agrees in other
provisions of the record producers's
contract that the record company may:
1) hold the producer financially
responsible if the record company is
sued because materials furnished or
selected by the record producer for the
recordings infringe on the rights of
others;
2) seek injunctive relief should the
record producer breach any provisions
of the record producer contract;
3) require the record producer to pay
for, and protect the record company
from, any breaches of the record
producer's contract;
4) suspend the term of the record
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ADDRESS
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S SOUND
T TECHNOLOGY
L
STATE.
PHONE
Department
8010103
producer's
Agreement
PROTOTYPE RECORD PRODUCER CONTRACT
On a mid -priced record line shall be three -quarters ( %), and on a low- priced record line shall
be half (1/2), of the otherwise applicable royalty rate;
3. Sold for use as premiums or in connection with any other product or service shall be half
(1/2) of the otherwise applicable royalty rate, and based upon the price received by us for such
records sold by us or upon the price utilized by our licensees;
4. Sold to the United States Government, and sold to educational institutions or libraries,
shall be half (1/2) of the otherwise applicable royalty rate.
D. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the royalty rate in respect of Master Recordings licensed by
us for record use and for all other types of use (other than record use) on a flat -fee basis, and
licensed by us for use on records sold through the mail and/or through retail stores in conjunction
with special radio or television advertisements (including K -Tel type records) shall be an amount
equal to 10% of the net flat fee or royalty, as the case may be, received by us in respect of each such
use.
E. Notwithstanding any of the foregoing, no royalties shall be payable on records furnished as
free or bonus records to participants in any record club or other direct mail distribution method;
distributed for promotional purposes to radio stations, television stations or networks, record
reviewers or other customary recipients of promotional records; distributed as "promotional
sampler" records; sold as scrap or "cut- outs" and furnished on a so- called "no-charge" basis or
sold at less than 50% of their regular wholesale price.
F. Notwithstanding any of the foregoing, royalties in respect of records sold at a discount
(except for records sold at less than 50% of their regular wholesale price, for which no royalties are
payable hereunder) shall be reduced in the same proportion as the regular wholesale price of such
records is reduced on such sales.
G. Notwithstanding any of the foregoing:
1. For purposes of computing royalties there shall be deducted from the srlp (or other
applicable price, if any, upon which royalties are calculated) of records hereunder an amount
equal to:
(a) any excise, sales, value added, or comparable or similar taxes; and
(b) 10% thereof for 45 rpm single records packaged in color or other special printed sleeves,
and for long-playing or extended -play records in disk form packaged in our standard "singlefold"
album jackets without any special elements (such as, but not limited to, inserts or attachments);
121/2% thereof for all other long playing or extended play records in disk form; and 20% thereof for
reel -to -reel tapes, cartridges, cassettes or other recorded devices (other than disks).
2. Royalties shall be computed and paid upon 90% of net sales for which payment has been
received; provided, that if any licensee distributing records hereunder through mail order
distribution (including record clubs) shall compute and pay royalties to us in respect of such
records on less than 90% of net sales, your royalties hereunder with respect to such records shall
be computed and paid on the same percentage of sales.
H. Notwithstanding any of the foregoing:
1. The royalty payable to you hereunder with respect to any record embodying Master
Recordings hereunder together with other master recordings shall be prorated as the number of
selections contained on the Master Recordings hereunder which are embodied on such record
bears to the total number of selections embodied on such record; and
2. In the event any of the Master Recordings are produced by you, jointly or separately, with
any other producer, or if any other producer shall perform additional services with respect to any
of the Master Recordings produced hereunder, then the royalty payable to you hereunder with
respect to such Master Recordings shall be reduced by the royalty payable by us to such other
producer; and
3. No royalties shall be payable to you hereunder unless and until all Recording Costs for the
Master Recordings shall have been recouped by us pursuant to our recording contract with the
Artist at the "net" Artist's royalty rate, i.e. the royalty rate payable to Artist under our recording
contract with Artist less the royalty rate payable to you hereunder. Upon such recoupment by us
of said Recording Costs, we shall credit to your royalty account for payment, at the next regular
accounting date hereunder, all royalties earned by you hereunder retroactively to the first record
2.
producer contract because of an act of
God, sickness or other incapacity of, or
breach by, the record producer;
5) substitute other record producers
for the record producer on the project at
any time;
6) use other record producers to
change or alter the recordings produced
by the record producer;
7) re -mix, re -edit or re- sequence the
recordings produced by the record
producer; and
8) combine the music in recordings
produced by the record producer with
the music in recordings produced by
other record producers.
THE PRODUCER'S
ENGAGEMENT
A.
Engagement of the record
producer's services
The person(s) who or entity which
employs the record producer may be
significant to the record producer.
Suppose a record producer is hired by an
artist to produce an artist's album. The
artist agrees, in a written contract, that
the record producer will receive a
production credit on the label and liner
of the album. Will the record producer
receive the production credit as agreed?
Maybe. It is the record company which
must agree in a contract to print the
credit on the label and liner of the
album. It is not bound by the written
contract between the record producer
and the artist to print the credit. The
moral: get the record company or third
party who must perform the obligation
to agree to do so in writing.
Scope of the engagement
1. Producers, co- producers,
13.
associate producers, executive
producers and staff producers
The record producer may be engaged
as the sole producer of an artist; as a coproducer, jointly producing an artist; as
an associate producer, assisting
another producer; as an executive
producer, "deal- making" and reviewing
the work of another record producer; or
as a staff producer, producing artists as
an employee of a record company.
2. Exclusivity of services
The record producer may agree to
render his services "exclusively" while
producing the project, or agree that
during the "term of the agreement" the
record producer's services will be
"exclusive."
An "exclusive" engagement will
preclude the record producer from
producing two or more records at the
same time. If two projects are scheduled
at or near the same time, it is preferable
that the record company which first
contracts with the record producer
agree to a priority or "first-call" on the
record producer's services.
R -e /p 148
October 1981
sold.
7. ROYALTY
ACCOUNTINGS
A. We will compute royalties payable to you hereunder as of June 30th and December 31st for
each preceding 6 -month period during which records as to which royalties are payable hereunder
are sold, and will render a statement and pay such royalties, less any unrecouped Advances or
charges under this agreement or under any other agreement between you and us or any of our
affiliates, prior to each succeeding September 30th and March 31st, respectively.
B. Royalties for records sold for distribution outside of the USA ( "foreign sales ") shall be
computed in the national currency in which we are paid, and shall be paid to you at the same rate of
exchange at which we are paid. For accounting purposes, foreign sales shall be deemed to occur in
the same semi -annual accounting periods in which our licensees account to us therefor. If we are
unable to receive payment for such sales in USA dollars in the USA, royalties therefor shall not be
credited to your account during the continuance of such inability. We will, however, at your
request and if we are able to do so, deposit such royalties to your credit in such foreign currency in
a foreign depository, at your expense.
C. At any time within six months after any royalty statement is due you hereunder you shall
have the right to give us written notice of your intention to examine our books and records with
respect to such statement. Such examination shall be commenced within 30 days after the date of
such notice, at your sole cost and expense, by any certified public accountant or attorney
designated by you, provided he is not then engaged in an outstanding examination of our books
and records. Such examination shall be made during our usual business hours at the place where
we maintain the books and records which relate to you, and which are necessary to verify the
accuracy of the statements(s) specified in your notice to us.
... continued overleaf www.americanradiohistory.com
C. Product requirements
1. Number of recordings
The record producer may agree to
produce recordings "as requested" or
"sufficient to constitute one album or
the equivalent." If the record producer
agrees to produce an album, a minimum
and maximum number of recordings,
usually no less than eight or more than
10, and a minimum and maximum
number of minutes of music, usually no
less than 30 or more than 40, is usually
required. These limits define the record
producer's producing obligation, and
should be requested if not included in
the record producer's contract.
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2. Additional recordings
The record producer may agree to
produce additional recordings of an
artist for a project at the record
company's request.
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If the record producer produces
recordings of an artist for a subsequent
project, however, the record company
may consider such recordings to be
additional recordings for the first
three -way.
project, rather than recordings
produced for the subsequent project.
This prevents negotiation of the
amount of the royalty to be paid for the
record producer's services on the
subsequent project. Additional recordings should be defined therefore as the
recordings of the artist being produced
for a particular project. The obligation
of the record producer to record any
additional recordings for a project
should terminate not later than six
months after the date the record
producer commenced his services on the
project. A time limit on the record
producer's obligation to record
additional recordings also minimizes
interference with other commitments.
3. Additional records
(a) Record company option
The record producer may agree that
the record company can option the
services of the record producer for
another project at a later date, and for
an agreed to royalty.
The record producer should avoid
granting an option, because it gives the
record company the right to obtain the
services of the record producer before
the success of an earlier record produced
by the record producer or the future
success of the record producer can be
taken into account in the negotiation
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5701 Grays Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19143
process.
If the record producer is willing or
must grant an option to the record
company, however, the advance (if any)
and royalty which would be payable if
the option is exercised should be more
than the advance and royalty payable
for the project of the artist the record
producer is currently producing for the
record company.
The record producer may be hindered
in scheduling other professional
engagements if he grants the record
company an option, unless safeguards
on the exercise of the option are
negotiated by the record producer.
Thus, the option should be exercisable
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R-e /p 149
only within a specific period of time
following the completion of and only for
the project immediately following the
project of the artist produced by the
record producer. Sufficient advance
notice of the commencement date
should be given so that the record
producer may schedule his other
professional commitments. The option
recordings should be recordable only if
the commencement date of recording
follows the date of exercise of the option
within a specific period of time.
(b) Record producer option
The record producer may also wish to
option the right to produce the next
record of an artist. The option for an
additional record gives the record
producer the opportunity to capitalize
upon the success of a project, or an artist
whose star is rising.
A record company will want to avoid
granting the record producer an option
because it restricts the record
company's freedom of choice. The
record company will be obligated to use
the record producer for an artist's next
record, even if it does not wish the
record producer to produce that artist's
record. Moreover, the advance, if any,
and royalty payable for the option
recordings will not take into account the
failure of a prior record produced by the
record producer, or the subsequent
"track record" of the record producer.
If the record company is willing or
must grant an option to the record
producer to produce the next record of
an artist, the advance, if any, and
royalty which would be payable if the
option is exercised, should be no less
than the advance and royalty payable
for the project of the artist the record
producer is currently producing for the
record company.
A record company may condition the
record producer's right to exercise any
option it may grant to produce the next
record of an artist on the sales success of
the record of that artist produced by the
record producer. The sales figure
selected should be a reasonable
estimate of the sales potential of the
record, given the sales success of that
artist's prior records. The record
producer may negotiate for a higher
advance and royalty for the option
recordings, as long as the amounts are
reasonable for the sales success level
which triggers the record producer's
right to exercise his option.
The record producer may be hindered
in the scheduling of his other
professional engagements if the record
company grants him an option unless
safeguards, similar to those discussed
in the section of record company
options, are negotiated. Thus, another
... continued overleaf
R-e/p 150 0 October 1981
-
U. Your sole light to inspect our books and records shall be as set forth above, and we shall
have no obligation to produce such books and records more than once with respect to each
statement rendered to you, or any records that do not specifically show sales or gratis
distributions of phonograph records as to which royalties are payable hereunder.
E. Unless notice shall have been given to us as provided in paragraph 7C hereof, each royalty
statement rendered to you shall be final, conclusive and binding on you and shall constitute an
account stated. You shall be foreclosed from maintaining any action, claim or proceeding against
us with respect to any statement or accounting due hereunder unless such action, claim or
proceeding is commenced against us in a court of competent jurisdiction within one year after the
due date of such statement or accounting.
8.
MECHANICAL LICENSES
A. The mechanical licenses for the Compositions produced pursuant to this agreement shall be
in the general form utilized by the Harry Fox Agency, Inc., or otherwise acceptable to us.
Compositions which are written or composed, in whole or in part, by you or by any person, firm or
corporation associated or affiliated with you ( "Controlled Composition ") shall be licensed to us at
the rates below, and such licenses shall provide that royalties shall only be payable with respect to
records on which royalties are payable pursuant to paragraph 6 hereof:
1. $0.0275 per Controlled Composition;
2. Notwithstanding subparagraph 1, the maximum copyright royalty rate which we will be
required to pay in respect of an Album produced hereunder, regardless of the number of
Compositions contained thereon, shall be $0.2750. Without limiting our rights, if the aggregate
copyright royalty rate for said Album shall exceed $0.2750, such excess may be deducted from
any and all sums due you hereunder including royalties payable for Controlled Compositions.
3. Notwithstanding subparagraph 1, the royalty rate with respect to records derived from
Master Recordings sold in the United States through record clubs or similar sales plans or devices
by our licensees or which have a srlp which is at least 80 or less per Album than the srlp used for
top line records released by us or our licensees shall be three -quarters 04) of said rate, and
arranged versions of public domain compositions which are claimed by you shall be licensed at half
(1/2) of said rate.
4. Accountings for such royalties shall be rendered quarter -annually, within 45 days after the
end of each calendar quarter.
5. Any assignment made of the ownership of copyright in, or right to license the use of any
Controlled Compositions shall be made subject to the provisions hereof.
9. WARRANTIES; REPRESENTATIONS; RESTRICTIONS; INDEMNITIES
You hereby warrant, represent, and agree that:
A. You are under no disability, restriction, or prohibition with respect to your right to grant the
rights granted by you to us hereunder, and to produce each and every selection produced
hereunder. No selection produced by you hereunder is or shall be subject to any restrictions of
any other agreement to which you are or have been party or by which you are otherwise bound.
B. During the term of this contract you shall become and remain a member in good standing of
any appropriate labor union(s) with which we may at any time have an agreement lawfully
requiring such union membership.
C. No Controlled Compositions nor any other selections, materials, ideas, or other properties
furnished or selected by you and contained in or used in connection with the Master Recordings or
the packaging or advertising for records hereunder will violate or infringe upon any common law
or statutory right of any person.
D. No contract or agreement of any kind is presently in existence which would interfere in any
manner with the performance of this agreement by you.
E. You will not:
(i) using the endeavors of Artist produce any selection recorded hereunder for the purpose of
making records for anyone other than us for five consecutive years after the date of this
agreement or the delivery of a recording to us, but in no event more than six consecutive years
after the date of this agreement; and
(ii) using the endeavors of any other artist produce any selection recorded hereunder for the
purpose of making records for anyone other than us: (a) for 18 months after the date of recording
hereunder; or (b) for 1 year after the release of a recording by us, whichever is earlier.
F. You hereby indemnify us from all damages, liabilities, costs, losses and expenses (including
legal costs and attorneys' fees) ( "damages ") arising out of or connected with any claim, demand,
or action by a third party which is inconsistent with any of the warranties, representations, or
covenants made by you in this contract. You agree to reimburse us, on demand, for any payment
made by us at any time with respect to any damages to which the foregoing indemnity applies.
Pending the determination of any claim, we shall have the right to withhold payment of any monies
due you hereunder in an amount reasonably related to the amount of such claim, and our
estimated attorneys' fee in connection therewith.
G. Your services hereunder are of a special, unique and intellectual character which gives them
peculiar value. In the event of a breach by you hereof, we will be caused irreparable injury. In such
event, we shall be entitled to injunctive relief and/or damages, in addition to our other rights or
remedies.
10.
SUSPENSION: TERMINATION
A. We shall have the right, at our election, to suspend the running of the term of this contract
and our obligations hereunder upon written notice to you if for any reason whatsoever your ability
to perform as a producer shall become impaired ( "incapacity "), or if you shall refuse, neglect, or be
unable to comply with any of your obligations hereunder ( "default "), or if as a result of an act of
"force majeure," we are hampered in the recording, manufacture, distribution, or sale of
phonograph records, or our normal business operations become commercially impractical. Such
suspension shall be for the duration of any such event or contingency, and the term hereof shall be
automatically extended by such number of days as equal the total number of days of any such
suspension.
continued overleaf
...
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B. In the event of your incapacity or default, we shall have the right, without limiting our other
rights or remedies, to terminate this contract upon written notice to you, and shall thereby be
relieved of any and all obligations hereunder.
11. DEFINITIONS
As used in this contract, "record" or "phonograph record" shall mean any device, known or
unknown, on or by which sound may be recorded for later transmission to listeners, whether
embodying sound alone, or sound synchronized with or accompanied by visual images, including
disks or tapes of any speed or size; "Master Recording" shall mean any original recording of
sound, whether embodying sound alone or sound synchronized with or accompanied by visual
images, which may be used in the recording, production, and/or manufacture of records, together
with any derivatives thereof (other than records); "selection" shall mean a single musical
composition, medley, poem, story, or similar work; "Advance" shall mean the amount recoupable
by us from royalties to be paid to you or on your behalf pursuant to this or any other agreement
between you and us or any of our affiliates; "Recording Costs "shall mean all union scale payments
required to be made to the Artist, as well as all payments made by us to you (including Advances),
and any other individuals rendering services in connection with the recording of the Master
Recordings, made by us pursuant to any applicable law or regulation or any applicable collective
bargaining agreement between us and any union or guild (including payroll taxes and payments to
union pension and welfare funds), all amounts paid or incurred by us for studio or hall rentals,
tape, engineering, editing, instrument rental and cartage, mastering, transportation,
accommodations, immigration clearances, so- called "per diems," together with any and all other
amounts paid or incurred by us for the recording of the Master Recordings; "Delivery to us" shall
mean delivery for mastering to a studio designated or approved by us, of fully mixed, leadered,
sequenced and equalized 15 IPS master tapes in proper form for the production of the parts
necessary to manufacture records therefrom, and delivery to us of all consents, approvals,
information, credits and other material required by us to release records embodying such Master
Recordings and to manufacture album covers or other packaging therefor; "Album" shall mean
one or more 12 -inch 33 -1/3 rpm records, embodying not less than eight nor more than 12 Master
Recordings, and not less than 35 nor more than 45 minutes of music; "mid- priced record line "and
"low-priced record line" shall mean a record line or label the records of which bear a srlp in the
country in question, respectively, in excess of 66 -2/3% and less than 80 %, and 66 -2/3% or less of
the srlp in such country of top-line records on which recordings of the majority of our artists are
initially released in such country; "net royalty" shall mean the gross royalty received by us in
respect of record sales, less an amount equal to any monies required to be paid by us to the AF of
M SPTF or MPTF, or any similar fund, to the copyright proprietors of the musical compositions
embodied in such records; and "net sales" shall mean gross sales less returns and credits of any
nature.
12. ADVANCES
A. Conditioned upon your full and faithful performance of this contract, we shall pay to you, as
an advance recoupable by us from any and all royalties payable by us to you hereunder, the sum of
$15,000, payable half (1/2) upon the commencement of recording, and half (1/2) after your delivery to
us, of the Master Recordings.
B. If you produce additional Master Recordings hereunder, the amount of the Advance under
subparagraph 12A will be $1,500.00 per recording (but not more than $15,000.00 in connection
with any Album), and it will be payable within 30 days after the Delivery to us of all the Master
Recordings to be produced in connection with the Album or other recording project concerned.
13. ASSIGNMENT
We shall have the right, at our election, to assign any of our right hereunder, in whole or in part,
to any person, firm, or corporation. You shall not have the right to assign any or your rights
hereunder.
14. NOTICES
All notices to be given, and all statements and payments to be sent, to you an all notices to be
given to us hereunder, shall be addressed to you and to us at the addresses set forth on page 1
hereof. All notices shall be in writing.
15. MISCELLANEOUS
A. This contract sets forth the entire understanding of the parties relating to the subject matter
hereof. No waiver or default hereunder shall affect your or our respective rights thereafter. If any
provision of this contract shall be held void, no other provision shall be affected as a result thereof.
B. We shall not be deemed to be in breach of any of our obligations hereunder unless and until
you shall have given us specific written notice by certified or registered mail, return receipt
requested, of the nature of such breach and we shall have failed to cure such breach within 30 days
after our receipt of such written notice.
C. Nothing herein contained shall constitute a partnership or a joint venture between you and
us.
D. The provisions of any applicable collective bargaining agreement between us and any labor
organization which are required by the terms of such agreement to be included in this contract
shall be deemed incorporated herein as if such provisions were expressly set forth in this contract.
E. The prevailing party shall be entitled to recover from the other its attorneys' fees and costs in
connection with any action, suit, or proceeding in this contract.
F. This contract shall be governed by the laws of the State of
G. This contract shall not become effective until signed by you and countersigned by a duly
authorized officer of our company.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have hereunto set their hands the day and year
first above written.
RECORD COMPANY
,a
By
Agreed to and Accepted:
(PRODUCER)
R -e /p 152
October
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
record of the artist for whom the option
is granted should not be recordable prior
to the date on which the record
producer's right to produce the option
record will arise. The record producer
should have reasonable advance notice
of the commencement date of the
sessions for the option recordings, so
that he can re- schedule his other
professional commitments, if necessary, in order to exercise the option. The
recording sessions should commence
within a specific period of time
following the record producer's exercise
of the option. If the recording sessions
do not commence within such time, the
record producer should be paid his
advance and a royalty, even if he is
unable to produce the project because of
another commitment.
If the specified sales criteria are met,
and the record producer cannot or does
not decide to produce the follow up
record of an artist, he should
nonetheless receive an "override"
royalty. We think "one or two points" of
the suggested retail list price of the
records sold on the follow -up record of
the artist would be fair in most cases.
This override should be mandatory in
any situation where the sales criteria
are met, but the record company or
artist does not wish to retain the
services of the record producer.
4. Rendition of other services
The record producer may be a
musician, arranger, vocalist, engineer,
session leader or writer, as well as a
record producer. Such additional
services, if rendered, should be
compensated for in addition to the
royalties and advances to be paid to the
record producer for his services as a
record producer.
5. Termination of record prod-
ucer if artist or project terminated
The record producer must be wary of
situations where either the artist's
recording contract, or the project being
produced by the record producer, is
terminated by the record company. In
such cases, the record producer may not
be paid an advance or royalties.
The record producer's contract should
provide that the record producer should
be paid the entire advance, if any,
specified unless the termination of the
artist's recording cóntract or the project
is due to the fault of the record producer.
Moreover, if the project is terminated
and thereafter reinstated, the record
producer should have the right to
produce the artist, and should be paid
another advance.
SERVICES REQUIRED
OF A RECORD PRODUCER
A. Selection of compositions, dates,
studio, musicians, accompaniment,
arrangements, copying services,
and supervision of sessions
The record producer's contract will
typically reserve to the record company
the right to select any or all the
"creative elements" mentioned in the
heading. It is important that the record
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producer negotiate a right to participate
in the selection process of the creative
elements, because the right combination of creative elements is essential to
the creation of good recordings.
The record company will usually
agree that the creative elements will be
subject to the mutual approval of the
record company, artist, and the record
producer, or, at a minimum, that the
record producer will be involved in their
selection. In other words, the record
company may agree that the record
producer and the artist will select the
creative elements subject to the
approval of the record company, or that
the record company will select the
creative elements subject to the
approval of the record producer and the
artist.
B.
Preparation of the budget
recording
1. Significance of the
budget
The recording budget is the projection
of the aggregate cost of making an
artist's record. Therefore, the record
producer must take great care to
prepare a budget which accurately
reflects his needs in the studio. The
record producer should prepare a
budget even when the record producer's
contract does not specifically provide
that a budget be prepared and approved
by the record company as to amount.
While the record producer will be
constrained by the maximum amounts
allowed by the record company for the
production of recordings for a project
under an artist's recording contract,
preparing a budget will enable him to
determine whether or not the record he
envisions for an artist can be produced
for the amount of money which the
record company has allocated for the
project. Indeed, a key ingredient in the
success of any project is the record
producer's understanding of the
financial constraints under which the
project is operating. Furthermore, the
creative process can be boosted by the
record producer's planning of the
project. Unfortunately, it is not
uncommon to see the finished
recordings suffer due to inadequate
overdubbing or sweetening, or mixes
being rushed because basic tracks took
too long to complete.
2. Over- budget responsibility
The responsibility of the record
producer for excess recording costs
underscores the importance of preparing a budget in advance of recording. Of
course, no person, be he a record
producer or palm reader, can predict
with absolute certainty that a budget
will cover all the costs of recording a
particular artist. This is particularly
true in the case of a new artist when the
R -e/p 154 D October 1981
producer's, artist's or record company's
concept of an artist's "sound" is not
finalized, and may require a change of
direction during the course of recording.
Thus, most record companies will agree
that that record producer is responsible
only for excess recording costs over
110% of the approved budget.
The record producer may negotiate
with the record company to agree that
he bear no responsibility for excess
recording costs, but most record
companies refuse to make such a
concession. Moreover, some record
companies, when they believe a record
producer is responsible for the excess
costs, withhold any remaining
payments to the record producer,
whether or not the record producer's
contract authorizes the withholding.
The record company may recognize
that the record producer is not the only
person involved in the project
responsible for budget over -runs. An
artist or the record company itself may
bear some responsibility. Thus, some
record companies will agree to make a
good faith evaluation of the reasons for
the excess, and apportion the excess
recording costs between the responsible
parties.
Excess recording costs should be
calculated only for the recording project
as a whole, and not on a master-bymaster basis. Thus, if there are 10
recordings to be produced, and if the
record producer exceeds 1 /10th of the
budget with respect to a particular
recording, he should not be held to have
exceeded the budget if the overall cost of
recording all 10 recordings is within the
approved amount.
One of the most significant areas of
over -budget recording costs is multiple scale payments to musicians. "Double scale," and "triple- scale" payments
may be appropriate, but must be
carefully monitored.
If there is more than one record
producer initially involved in a project,
the record producer's contract should
make provision for apportionment of
excess recording costs. An apportionment provision should always be
considered, even in instances where the
recordings are initially produced by one
producer only, because the record
company frequently reserves the right
to use other record producers on the
recordings or the project, who may be
responsible for the excess recording
costs.
If a record producer is headed toward
an overbudget situation, he should stop
recording and talk it over with the
record company. The fact that the
record producer advises the record
company of the potential for excess
recording costs, however, will not
insulate him from responsibility for the
excess if he exceeds the existing
approved budget, even in situations
where the record company authorizes
the excess recording costs.
The record company executives
responsible for the record producer's
www.americanradiohistory.com
employment are accountable to their
superiors for expenditures supposedly
under their control. Inevitably, such
executives are likely to hire record
producers who are financially circumspect in the recording studio.
3. Union reports/ late fees
The American Federation of Musicians ( "AF of M ") and the Amerian
Federation of Television and Radio
Artists ( "AF'I'RA ") each require that
certain forms must be filed for every
recording session. These forms must be
filed within a certain number of hours
after each recording session. It is the
responsibility of the record producer to
file these forms on behalf of the record
company. If, for any reason, the record
producer fails to file such forms or any
other payroll forms on time, and a
penalty is assessed, the record company
will require the record producer to
reimburse the record company for such
penalty, or deduct the amount from any
royalties or advances against royalties
payable to the record producer pursuant
to the record producer's contract.
4. Recording Costs
Paragraph 11 of the prototype record
producer's contract sets forth
a
definition of recording costs. Usually,
royalties are not payable to a record
producer until "recording costs" are
"recouped" by the artist. Thus, the
record producer must determine what
costs, if any, should not be included as
recording costs recoupable against the
artist, but instead should be borne
solely by the record company. Here are
some costs we like to exclude from the
definition of recording costs in a record
producer's contract:
(a) Mastering costs
Mastering is the first metal part from
which records are ultimately pressed,
and therefore is a cost of manufacturing
records rather than producing recordings. Some record companies refuse to
delete "mastering" from the definition
of recording costs. The record producer
may then request that mastering costs
be limited to "remastering" costs if the
recordings produced by him are not
technically satisfactory.
Some record companies will agree
that mastering is not a recording cost,
but only if the mastering is performed
by the record company's engineers at its
usual mastering facility.
(b) "Per record" royalties
That is those payments made to the
AF of M Music Performance Trust Fund
and Special Payments Fund, and
AFTRA Contingent Scale. All record
companies have agreements with
unions and guilds which require that
payments be made to such unions and
guilds based on a percentage of the
aggregate sales of records. The AF of
M's Music Performance Trust Fund and
Special Payments Fund, and AFTRA's
contingent scale payments to background singers, are the most significant
of the "per record royalties." These
payments are more in the nature of
overhead costs than recording costs,
because they result from the sale of
records and not from the production of
recordings. The AF of M's Music
Performance Trust Fund, for example,
was created in 1948 pursuant to
agreements with the record companies
to counteract the decrease in the
number of live music performances
stemming from the widespread use of
phonograph records.
(c) Advances to the record producer
If an advance paid to the record
producer is recouped against the record
producer's royalties, it should not be
also also recouped as a recording cost
against the artist's royalties. If an
advance is recouped twice, it diminishes
the royalties payable to the record
producer, and postpones the time at
which such royalties will become
payable. (See the next installment of
this article for a full discussion of
recoupment of record producer
advances.)
C. The delivery requirement
1. Tape standards
The record producer will be required
to deliver fully mixed, leadered,
sequenced, and equalized 15 IPS master
tapes ready for mastering (unless the
record producer is mastering). Such
tapes must be in "proper form" for the
production of the parts necessary to
manufacture phonograph records, and
must be "technically satisfactory,"
"commercially satisfactory," or
"satisfactory" to the record company.
"Technically satisfactory" means
that the tapes be produced and recorded
in accordance with the then current
technical standards of the record
industry, or the particular record
company involved. A master tape is not
"technically satisfactory," for example,
if there is audible distortion or noise, or
if a bass drum track is not accurately
synchronized with the other musical
tracks. "Commercially satisfactory"
and "satisfactory" means that the
record company thinks that if records
are manufactured from the tapes, such
records will sell.
Tape standards are an important
item of negotiation. If the required
standard is other than "technical," the
record producer may be subjected to the
arbitrary tastes of the record company's
A&R (Artists and Repertoire) department, regardless of the technical
quality of the tapes. If, for example, the
A &R department does not think that
the tapes contain songs that will sell
records, the record producer has failed
to "deliver" commercially satisfactory
tapes, and therefore has not fulfilled his
obligations under the record producer's
contract. This means that the record
producer may not be entitled to any
compensation or credit for his services,
since he "failed" to perform at a level of
satisfaction acceptable to the record
company.
Applying the standards of "commercial satisfaction" to the record producer
is unfair for two reasons. First, the
interests which the record company
seeks to protect with such standards are
that the record produced will, in some
way, reflect popular musical taste, and
be a serious attempt to produce a record
of the highest artistic and professional
quality.
Popular taste is not entirely within
the record producer's control. The
record producer does not, for example,
have complete control over the musical
compositions to be recorded. Often, he is
limited to musical compositions which
are written by an artist. Moreover, the
record producer does not have complete
control over the instrumentation,
arrangement, or musicians to be
utilized on a project. Artists are often
self-contained musical units who have
their own views about how their
recordings should sound. A record
producer may help execute an artist's
"sound" in the studio, but not
necessarily create it.
The record company can argue that
the record producer frequently supplies
the arrangements, instrumentation
and musicians for the recordings, and
that, accordingly, the record producer,
as the "director" of the entire
"recording picture," must bear the
responsibility for the sound of a record.
In truth, a recording is a joint artistic
venture between the record company,
an artist, and the record producer.
Often, the record company has final
approval of the compositions and all
other creative elements. It also
determines how much monies will be
spent on the recordings. An artist, too,
plays a significant role in the recording
of his performances.
Second, the commerciality of a tape is
a largely subjective determination once
it is determined that a tape is
technically acceptable. If a record
producer produces a record that
constitutes a musical break with the
artist's past work, the tape may
nevertheless be a bona fide artistic and
professional effort, regardless of
whether or not it is commercial. General
principles of contract law and the laws
of the marketplace are adequate to
protect the record company in such
circumstances. If the record producer
produces a tape of totally unmarketable
sounds, such as chickens clucking, the
requirement of good faith, inherent to
all contractual relationships, would not
be met and the record company, without
resort to standards of acceptance, could
reject the tape as failing to meet the
requirements of the record producer's
contract. Moreover, a record producer
who cannot deliver "good" records will
not long be gainfully employed.
However, it is not uncommon for top
record producers, with several
"Platinum" records, to be sent back into
the recording studio to modify their
work. Even seasoned professionals
benefit from an objective evaluation of
their endeavors.
2. Other materials required
In addition to delivering recordings,
the record producer is required to deliver
"consents, approvals, credit information and other material necessary for
the record company to release the
phonograph records." "Consents and
approvals" generally must be obtained
for musicians and vocalists who are
parties to exclusive recording contracts,
and who are requested by the record
producer or the artist being produced by
the record producer to perform at the
sessions. "Credits" must be supplied for
session persons, engineers, other
producers, record companies who
permit their exclusive recording artists
to perform on the recordings, authors,
publishing companies and performing
rights societies.
Often, the record producer delivers
recordings to the record company
unaware that there are other materials
that must be accumulated and delivered
before he will be deemed to have
fulfilled his obligations under the
record producer's contract. Whether or
not it is appropriate to require the record
producer to obtain these materials will
vary with the situation. The artist may
have greater access to such materials
than the record producer, and it may be
more appropriate for the artist to be
responsible for supplying the materials
to the record company. In addition, the
record company obtains the materials
itself. The gathering of the pertinent
information and materials for the
credits is usually accomplished by the
collective efforts of the record producer,
artist and record company.
3. Re- recording
As mentioned, a record producer's
contract will require the record producer
to re- record any recording until a tape is
delivered which meets technically
satisfactory, commercially satisfactory
or satisfactory standards. If the record
producer is required to re- record a
recording on a tape rejected by the
record company as unsatisfactory, the
timing of the record company's request
that he fulfill such requirement may
conflict with his other professional
commitments. The record producer's
contract should therefore provide that
any requested re- recording will be
subject to the record producer's other
professional commitments, unless such
request is made within a certain
number of days following the delivery
of the tapes (as opposed to all the other
materials that may be required under
the record producer's contract) to the
record company. Moreover, it should
also provide that any per diem expenses
or other monies allocated to the record
producer for his living and traveling
expenses during the initial period of
recording will be paid to him on the
same terms that applied during the
initial period of recording.
The next installment of this
article, to be published in a
forthcoming issue of R -e/p, will be
concerned with the ways in which a
record producer can ensure that he
is fully compensated for his
services on a recording project.
October
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e/p 155
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October 1981
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according to R. David McLaughlin,
Product Line Manager for Crown
International. The PXT is a small nickel plated metal tube (3% -inch diameter by flinches) with male and
female XLR
connections, and contains electronic
circuitry to provide power needed by the
mike to raise the level of the capsule
output. The unit requires a phantom
supply from the mixer.
"The PXT," McLaughlin added, "can
;
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.
"What's Your Budget"
Knowing your budget is your first step. At
Westbrook Audio, Inc. we design and equip
full audio facilities within your budget requirements. In a sea of audio confusion, consult
with a company second to none in complete
services. Large facility or small, you get the
most for your money al Westbrook Audio.
111111111111111
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Pictured: Star Track Recording Studio,
Tulsa, Oklahoma.
tr
4
11836 Judd Court
Suite 336 Dallas, Texas
For additional information circle #103
www.americanradiohistory.com
75243 (214) 699-1203
Gctober 1981 L R-e p
159
Finally
it's here
the
PROFESSIONAL
AUDIO
BUYERS GUIDE'
provide a `handle' on PZMTM mikes for
mounting to mike stands." The PXT will
be available as the power supply furnished
with the purchase of a PZMicrophone, or
as an additional accessory.
CROWN INTERNATIONAL, INC.
1718 W. MISHAWAKA ROAD
ELKHART, IN 46517
(219) 294 -5571
For additional information circle #105
NEW DRUM BAG AND
STAND DAMPER FROM
ALPHA ACOUSTICS
Designed to fit over the front and rear
skins of a kick drum, the Drum Bag
features a zippered cover for the front skin
to enable a mike to be positioned anywhere
within the drum, while the rear cover is
provided with a cut -out for the beater.
dynamic processor combining noise gate,
compressing, limiting, and de- essing
functions in a single unit; a high resolution LEI) bargraph meter; an auto
panner; a stereo synthesizer; an auxiliary
insert unit to interface and power external
effects, a patch bay; an output amplifier;
an electronic crossover; and a full -range
analog time processor, featuring phasing,
flanging, reverb, echo and chorus, as well
as ADT and other effects.
Professional user prices for the axrac
modules start at $150.00.
Audio Envelope Systems will be
exhibiting and demonstrating production
units of the axrac system at the upcoming
AES Show in New York.
AUDIO ENVELOPE
SYSTEMS, INC.
414 S. MILL AVENUE #108
TEMPE, AZ 85281
(602) 829 -0301
Have at your finaertios information on
professional audio products by 4i{G,
Altec, Anvil, Atlas, Beyer, Biamp, BDse,
Conquest Sound, Crown, DBX, D141,
Electro- Voice, JBL, Klipsch,
Neumann, Otan, Revox, Sesoom, Shure,
Sony, Tapco, Tascam, TEAC. Yamaha,
and many more.
BE INFORMED! The PROFESSIONAL
AUDIO BUYERS GUIDE" incl,tdes
thousands of products from over 70
major manufacturers of speakers, mixers,
amplifiers, microphones, recorders,
equalizers, analyzers, and more.
Order your copy today for only
$15.95. Call with your VISA or
MasterCard number or send your
check to:
I9®
1
C
IIuhlishinc
P.O. Box 4139, Thousand Oaks, CA 91359
213/991 -3400
Ask about our special dealer, bookstore, and educational quantity
prices.
Name
Organization
Address
City, State, Zip
Send
Professional Audio Buyers
Guides' at $15.95 each.
Enclosed is my check for $
Charge to my VISA/MasterCard (ciscie one)
account number
Expiration date
Mail to SIE Publishing, P.O. Box 4139,
Thousand Oaks, CA 91359
PG 1
2.3456789
R -e,
p 160
O
October
For additional information circle #107
Both covers are fabricated from the
same quilted, sound- absorbent material
used in the well -known Piano Bag, and
come complete with elasticated edges and
eyelets for attaching to the outside of a
kick drum. The present units, which retail
for $175.00, accommodate a 22 -inch drum;
other sizes will be available in the near
future.
The Stand Damper fits all professional
music stands, and is held in place with
elastic straps. Retailing for $15.00 each,
discounts are offered for quantity orders:
$162.00 per dozen, and $300.00 for two
STUDER INTRODUCES
A8OVU TWO -TRACK IN
HALF -INCH FORMAT
Previously, only the A8ORC version had
been offered by Studer in this format. By
employing the wider tape format, and thus
increasing track width, the Studer A8OVU
1/2-inch is said to significantly improve
signal -to -noise ratio. At an operating level
of 510 nWb /m, the weighted SNR of this
new machine measures better than -75 dB.
Also, the ' /cinch heads, designed and
manufactured by Studer, are said to
deliver excellent low-frequency response.
dozen.
ALPHA ACOUSTICS, LTD.
P.O. BOX 7520
BURBANK, CA 91505
(213) 760 -1139
For additional information circle #106
NEW MODULAR SIGNAL
PROCESSING SYSTEM FROM
AUDIO ENVELOPE SYSTEMS
The axrac system mounts into any
standard 19 -inch equipment rack, and
^
offers a full complement of modules. All
modules, being switchable to optimize
impedences and levels, operate at line- or
instrument -level to match any situation,
be it stage, studio or sound reinforcement.
The basic axrac ar -9PF nine -position
powered rack frame provides mounting for
the equivalent of eight single -width
modules, plus powering for up to two racks
of modules, or 17 single modules.
Modular components included in the
first phase of the axrac system are: a pre amp; sweep equalizer; graphic equalizer;
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
In addition, the A8OVU '/z -inch two track incorporates Studer's new trans formerless line output amplifiers. This
new plug -in card employs a Triac-
protected, DC- coupled output stage
utilizing four power transistors. It may be
driven into varying loads (long cable runs,
etc.) with no signal degradation.
Frequency response for the amp card is 14
Hz to 50 kHz ( +0/ -1 dB), and THD
measures less than 0.01% at 1 kHz with +24
dBm output.
Suggested list price for the Studer
The Telex 300
duplicating system.
Versatile, expandable,
dependable
3.
You can bank on it!
coast-to -coast dealer net-
Building Block
System: A modest
through
work.
ment gets you
started whether in
Now Long Life Heads at No Extra Cost:
Cassette slaves with new long life
heads last 10 times longer than conventional heads, reducing downtime and
replacement cost.
A
capital invest-
cassette -to-
cassette,reel-tocassette, reel -to -reel, in two or four
channels. Start with a basic unit and
later add modules to suit your growing
requirement.
Modular Electronics: Individual plug -in
modular electronics permit fast easy
service and minimum downtime. Since
the system is made in the U.S.A., parts
and service are readily available,
a
also has available desk top
cassette copiers.
Telex
r
1
1
1
Telex Communication Inc. AV Department.
9600 Aldrich Ave. So., Minneapolis, MN 55420
Please send me more information.
1
1
TELEX
TELEX COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
9600 Aldrich Ave So Minneapolis. MN 55420 U S A.
Europe: 22. rue de la Légion- d'Honneur, 93200 St. Denis. France
Name
1
1
Title
1
Organization
1
Address
1
City
1
.
1
1
State
Zip
Telephone
Best time to contact
October
For additional information circle #108
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e/p 161
64
^Oll P1odct5
inch two-track recorder is
A80VU
$10,500.
STUDER REVOX AMERICA, INC.
1425 ELMHILL PIKE
NASHVILLE, TN 37210
(615) 254 -5651
NEW RANGE OF
EFFECTS UNITS FROM
SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS
The Model 500, Pro -FX is described as
the first integrated signal- processing
(effects) system that offers the convenience of a modular rackmount design, with
the flexibility and control of full
programmability. Engineers and studio
musicians can now consolidate all their
effects and mixing into one package, and
have instant control over sound changes.
The main frame includes a system
controller and space for six effects
modules. The controller also provides
power and program control for up to three
additional expansion chassis for a total of
30 effects modules.
All control settings on each 500 Series
module may be stored and recalled (up to
a(- .,
-'
-_
ti.
.
control, an optional footswitch permits
instant switching to any of the 64
programs, and includes a display of the
current program.
The first 500 Series modules available
will include a Model 510 phase shifter, 512
distortion /sustainer, 514 mixer, 516
parametric equalizer, and 518 reverb.
SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS, INC.
3051 NORTH FIRST STREET
SAN JOSE, CA 95134
(408) 946 -5240
For additional information circle #109
l'..4_=
programs), allowing immediate access
to all combinations of effects. For remote
.
For additional information circle #111
SPHERE UNVEILS
TRAVIS FADER AND
DIGITAL ATTENUATOR
These two elements form the basis for
Sphere Electronics' Datalog Automation
System, which places the analog signal
wholly under digital control. The
company claims that this new development accomplishes the best of both
worlds: the actual audio signal never gets
converted to digital, thereby retaining the
"warmth" (and harmonics) that the latest
generation of analog tape machines are
capable of reproducing.
The Travis Fader is basically a digital
encoding device that features no moving
parts at all. Infra -red light bridge
technology feeds a 6500 Series microcomputer that can receive and process
information from four fader units. Level
changes are accomplished by placing a
digit (finger tip) anywhere in the shallow
fader trough, and moving it up or down. A
row of LEDs next to the fader tracks
"level" and is analogous to "knob
position."
The Sphere Digital Attenuator is a
resistive ladder, CMOS switching device
that controls the analog signal with 224
discrete, perfectly repeatable digital steps.
No distortion or noise is said to be
introduced by this essentially passive
circuitry. The attenuator is designed to
either replace current VCAs or plug
directly into the audio signal, thereby
making SMPTE time code automation
available for consoles in service today on a
field- installed, retrofit basis.
Sphere Datalog Automation is described
as being as sophisticated as any on the
market today and more; it is also described
as one of the simplest. The combination of
digital fader and attenuator eliminates all
problems associated with interfacing and
manipulating analog VCAs.
The Travis Fader, Attenuator and
Datalog Automation will all be on display
at the forthcoming New York AES Show;
booth T 30 -31.
SPHERE ELECTRONICS, INC.
20201 -A PRAIRIE STREET
CHATSWORTH, CA 91311
(213) 349 -4747
PM-411 MIXE
For additional information circle #112
E -V /TAPCO
High -Performance Electronics
AC Line or Battery Power for Condenser Microphones
A -B and Phantom Power
features
you a myriad of useful
Our new little mixer gives package. Call or write for our
-use
in a convenient easy -to
detailed product brochure.
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INPUTS
TX: 194855
CA 91506 213/843 -7022
CHESTNUT ST BURBANK,
,
ono
INTRODUCES
TWO NEW EQUALIZERS
The 2210 is a dual- channel octave-band
graphic equalizer that has been designed
for economy without sacrificing quality,
OMS
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
according to Jim Loppnow, E -V /TAPCO's
market development manager. "Each
channel offers the user a full 12 dB of boost
or cut in separate frequency bands. In
addition, all the sliders are center detented
at the 0 dB or flat position. Each channel
has its own output gain control, a feature
usually associated with equalizers costing
much more."
"The 2230 is TAPCO's first third -octave
equalizer and is loaded with user -related
benefits," continued Loppnow. It offers 27
bands of equalization from 40 Hz to 16
kHz, with 12 dB of boost or cut on standard
ISO center frequencies. "This new unit
also has true combining filter action
which not only increases the accuracy of
the equalization, but, because it reduces
interaction between individual EQ filters,
MAXI Q...a new breed... a real tiger
*Extraordinary 7 octave sweep on each band * Infinite cut = notch filter /cutoff filter * "Q" adjusts
shelving slope 4 to 28dB /octave, and peaking bandwidth from .3 to 3 octaves * Exclusive TUNE MODE for
precise aural tuning * 13 point clip monitor...input gain control * Non -interactive feedforward filters *
* Superior noise, distortion, slew rate *
/,
j/
VALLEY
VALLEY
PEOPLE
MILE
SALA"
PLOP!".
INC.
Nashville, rn., USA
What do you want from a
peripheral equalizer?
Smooth clean modification of freof course,
quency response
that's basic. Often times, though,
you turn to outboard EQ because
you really want to do a number on
the sound....make it roar. That's
what MAXI Q is all about
it has teeth.
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At first, MAXI Q might look a bit like other equalizers,
but look closer. Consider its enormous 7 octave frequency range on each of three bands...the ultimate
overlap. Great for swept phasing effects, or for bringing
all three sections together to fix trouble.
Notice MAXI Q is continuously variable to infinity cut
(typically 35dB) in all modes. Notch out or cut off unwanted parts of the spectrum.
Unlike other parametrics, MAXI Q gives you adjustable Q not only in the peaking mode (.3 to 3 octaves) but
also in the shelving modes, where the slope is variable
from 4 to 28dB /octave. At the steeper slopes, we designed in some pretty radical frequency/phase relationships
for the times when you want "bite" in no uncertain
terms.
Even the basic geometry is unique. Most parametrics
use the parallel filter approach. Inexpensive, yes, but
hindered by interaction and error when the bands are
tuned to similar frequencies. We chose a more elaborate
series approach, using non-reciprocal feedforward
filters. The result...no interaction, more EQ available
(42dB) and a more selective rejection of undesired
frequencies.
Our exclusive TUNE MODE is a boon to setting up. It
allows you to hear only what is being added to, or subtracted from, the program, without hearing the program itself.
Add to this, a 13 point overload detection system, an input gain control for level optimization, .01% distortion,
90dB SN, a 13V /us slew rate, balanced inputs and selective bypass of each band.
When you plug MAXI Q into your VALLEY PEOPLE processing package you'll know you've
got a real tiger on your hands. If you're not already into the VALLEY PEOPLE 800 series processing equipment, you owe it to yourself to check it out. MAXI Q now joins our very successful
KEPEX II keyable expander /gate and the renowned GAIN BRAIN II limiter /compressor /ducker
thus forming the processing group preferred by the most critical professionals.
VALLEY PEOPLE, INC.
P.O. Box 40306
2820 Erica Place
Nashville, Tenn. 37204
615-383 -4737
TELEX 558610 VAL PEOPLE NAS
a
merger of Allison Research & Valley Audio
October
For additional information circle #113
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e,p 163
^l.Jll
Though these producers and artists may
be happy with the sound and the rates,
rodvcI5
they are still frustrated with the
also increases the effective amount of
control available." Switchable high and
low -pass filters are also built into the 2230.
Both of these new units have recessed
controls, and come equipped with
plexiglass security covers to protect
against accidental changes in the control
settings.
Suggested prices of the 2210 and 2230
are $319.00 and ìb429.00 respectively. Each
unit may be rack mounted in a standard
EIA -sized rack.
E -V TAPCO
3810 148TH AVENUE N.E.
REDMONT, WA 98052
(206) 883 -3510
For additional information circle #114
NEW THREE -WAY STUDIO
MONITOR FROM ALTEC
The Model 9813 Studio Monitor is
designed for all applications requiring
precise frequency response, low distortion
and exceptional dynamic range. 'l'he
three -way monitor incorporates various
fruits of Altec research and development,
such as the Mantaray" constant
directivity horn, Tangerine" radial phase
plug, and LTZ (lead -zirconate- titanate)
UHF driver. The monitor also employs the
Altec automatic Power Control System,
which absorbs overloads without turning
off the speaker.
With a power rating of 40 watts
(continuous pink noise, 20 Hz to 20 kHz)
and frequency response of 60 I lz to 20 kHz
within 2.5 dB, the Altec 9813 is said to
deliver natural, detailed sound from a
space- conserving package (25(2 by 151/2 by
13'2 inches). The system enclosure is
crafted of tropical Endriana wood,
harvested from special South Pacific
island reserves, another Altec first.
ALTEC CORPORATION
1515 S. MANCHESTER
ANAHEIM, CA 92803
(213) 774 -2900
For additional information circle #116
SOUND WORKSHOP UNVEILS
DISKMIX AUTOMATION SYSTEM
Commenting on the new development,
Michael Tapes, Sound Workshop
president, stated: "Many studios are faced
with the problem of replacing their present
consoles due to the lack of storage
capabilities inherent in their automation
systems. And they are in a quandary
because in better economic times,
producers were able to work in studios
with disk -based systems. Now that money
is tight, these producers are turning to
smaller rooms with lower rate cards.
limitations of tape -based systems.
"So studios are faced with trying to
fulfill these creative demands by brute
force, or by investing in a new console
designed to accomodate mass mix data
storage on disk."
"What we saw as the answer to this
problem is an add -on system that would
interface with any of the major tape -based
automation systems. Since we had
already developed the system that later
became MCI JH-50 Automation
the
most widely -used worldwide
we felt
right at home introducing the next big step
in less -than- mega -buck' automation."
'l'he DISKMIX system consists of a rack mount cabinet housing a proprietary dual processor computer system, along with
dual floppy disk drives. A separate
intelligent terminal controls the system.
Interface is provided for a color TV
monitor. "The best part of the DISCMIX
concept," continued Tapes, "is that the
present automation system remains intact
and operates with no changes. And
interface to the present console system is
simple, fast and requires no alterations to
the regular automation."
Facilities will be provided for the
multiple storage of mixes, off-line merging
and editing of individual mixes and the
storage of session and console documentation.
The new DISCMIX system can be seen
at the upcoming AES Show in New York.
SOUND WORKSHOP, INC.
1324 MOTOR PARKWAY
HAUPPAUGE, NY 11788
(516) 582 -6210
- -
For additional information circle #117
NEW ECHO /DIGITAL
EFFECTS UNIT FROM
IMAGINEARING AUDIO
The Echo /Digital Recorder is computer controlled, key- operated, and said to open
800 -421 -4144*
YOUR DIRECT LINE TO THE
BEST BUYS ON TEST EQUIPMENT
Global Specialties
Corporation
DYNASCAN
CORPORATION
BECKMAN
FLUKE
control.
KEITHLEY
s cao«alon
-
VIZ
m TRIPLETT
Best Prices
Large Inventory
Fast Service
Give us a call
We've got it all
The optional REM/ 1 remote keypad
control provides keypad control from a
remote location up to 100 feet from the
unit. With this unique feature the
Echo /Digital recorder can be controlled
from the stage and /or from the sound
mixer during live performances.
YALE RADIO ELECTRIC CO., INC.
MasterCard
6616 Sunset Blvd.
Hollywood, California 90028
*In California please call (213) 465 -0650
R -e p 164
October
a new world of capabilities in the studio
and on- stage. With the EDR an engineer
can select Echo or Reverse Echo (in times
from 1.1 milliseconds to 16.777 seconds),
Echo Hold, Echo Reverse Hold, Record (up
to 16.777 seconds), Playback continuous
forward or reverse (without tape), record
live Sound-on -sound or Multi- track; all
from the EDR keypad or from a remote
IMAGINEARING AUDIO
5558 S.E. INTERNATIONAL WAY
MII.WAUKIE, OR 97222
J
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
(503) 653 -5927
For additional information circle #118
CREATE
AN ORIGINAL
A custom designed sound system allows a degree of freedom and a level of
performance that is sometimes not possible with a conventional system design. The
advantage lies in the ability to match a system to its architectural environment, in terms of
mechanical, acoustical, and aesthetic performance.
Peavey now offers a complete line of System Designed ComponentsTM to enable the
serious musical craftsman to custom design and build his own sound system enclosures.
Our ECS SeriesTM of equalized crossover systems, CH SeriesTM constant directivity
horns, 22Ar" compression drivers, and Black Widow® Super StructureTM cone type
transducers represent state -of- the -art technology, and when mounted in optimally designed
enclosures will provide smooth, extended frequency response and extremely high power
handling with high system efficiency and reliability.
For all details, write today for a free brochure on our advanced line of System
Designed ComponentsTM to Peavey Electronics Corporation, Department P -5, 711 A Street,
Meridian, Mississippi 39301.
For additional information circle #119
www.americanradiohistory.com
ACOUSTILOG ANNOUNCES
SPEAKER PROTECTION
DEVICE
RENKUS -HEINZ INTRODUCES
TWO CONCERT -SOUND
SPEAKER SYSTEMS
The SMS 1582 Stage Monitor and the
FRS 1582 Full Range Speaker System
both feature the SSH 820 exponential
horn, new SSD 3301 2 -inch throat high frequency compression driver, and a 15inch low- frequency speaker. The systems
are compact, carpeted and built to
withstand rugged road use. They can be
used in passive or bi -amp mode.
RENKUS- HEINZ, INC.
17851AB SKY PARK CIRCLE
IRVINE, CA 92714
(714) 540 -3154
For additional information circle #120
The POP -110 stereo speaker protector is
claimed to solve the problems with
previous protectors, namely slow reaction
time, signal degradation, and unreliable
threshold stability.
The new unit uses a proprietary peak
threshold sensing circuit and unique
circuitry, with no active components in the
signal path until a potentially destructive
transient comes along. Then, the POP -110
quickly mutes the send to the monitor amp
and resets within 1 second. If the overload
continues, the process repeats.
The POP -110, which has a professional
user price of $295.00, can be seen at the
upcoming New York AES Convention.
ACOUSTILOG, INC.
19 MERCER STREET
NEW YORK, NY 10013
(212) 925 -1365
For additional information circle #122
WRIGHT UNVEILS
SR -1 AND TSR -2
CONDENSER MIKES
The SR -1 has a conventional transformer coupled output stage, while the
TSR -2 has a solid-state output stage. Both
microphones have a 100 -ohm output
impedance, and the solid -state version 12
dB more gain. A switchable 6/12 dB pad
and plug -in battery supply are available
as accessory items.
Both microphones are supplied with a
windscreen and a unique foam rubber
shock mount and holder.
a
better idea in program monitoring.
We've combined the
best aspects of the
traditional VU meter
and the precision of the
European Programme
meter. The result is a
meter that meets the
UK /EBU standard for
Inovonics, Inc.
Send for copy of
503-8 Vandell Way
Campbell, CA 95008
Telephone
(408) 374-8300
R -e/p 166
October
response to program
peaks while maintaining
a more conventional
and artistically desirable "syllabic" response
to music and speech.
preprint.
AES
Get the complete package for $122.00, or our
VU-conversion option
for $69.00.Ouantity
discounts are available.
For further information, contact:
0
Professional net user price of the SR -1 is
$440.00, and the TSR-2 is $600.00.
WRIGHT MICROPHONES
2093 FAULKNER ROAD N.E.
ATLANTA, GA 30324
(404) 321 -3886
For additional information circle #123
ALTEC INTRODUCES
ADVANCED POWER AMP
The Model 1270 Stereo power amplifier
harnesses 800+ watts of "super amp" brute
strength to state -of- the -art computer
protection circuitry. Two channels may be
operated independently or in bridged
configuration with less than 0.05% THD,
while delivering more than 250 watts into
8 -ohm loads, or more than 400 watts per
channel into 4 ohms.
The Model 1270 is designed to protect
itself and the acoustic elements it drives.
Each channel is provided with an error
computer that monitors and compares
input and output signals, detecting output
anomalies such as excessive voltage or
current levels, excessive slew rate, etc.
Amplifier output is continuously
monitored to guard against excessive
current drain. An instantaneous VI limiter
restricts output to 400 VA for a 45° phase
shift.
Protection against excessive operating
temperature is offered through logic
circuitry that automatically overrides low speed fan operation, locking fan to highspeed mode until temperature is reduced.
A time delay relay operation protects the
load being driven from transients during
startup and shutdown. The load is
similarly protected from amplifier failure,
such as DC voltage at the out -put.
ALTEC CORPORATION
1515 S MANCHESTER
ANAHEIM, CA 92803
(714) 774 -2900
For additional information circle #124
SC -88 FOUR -WAY
CROSSOVER FROM ASHLY
The newly introduced stereo four -way
electronic crossover features inputs and
outputs that can be used balanced or
unbalanced; peak overload warning
lights; continuously variable crossover
frequency; and high-current output stages
to drive long cable runs.
A unique feature is the "roll-off" control,
which acts as a band of equalization
centered at the crossover point. This
allows adjustment for flattest frequency
See us at AES
Booth 209
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
fik
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-4
MTR -10
Series
Professional Two and Four Channel
Production /Mastering Recorders
Offered in two professional formats, 1" two channel and 1/2" four -channel, Otari's MTR -10
Series have been engineered to offer the
professional the most advanced features and
performance from state -of -the- art electronics
and mechanical design. The MTR -10 Series
yield a new level of performance for audio
and video post- production
applications.
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M X- 5050 -B
All -New Compact Professional Recorder
All proven features of the pace- setting MX-5050,
such as front adjustable bias and record EQ,
selective reproduce, edit and cue, test oscillator, plus:
new:
new:
new:
new:
new.
new:
TTL /IC logic for noise free punch -in
and punch -out.
Three speeds in field selectable speed
pairs of 15/71/2 or 7Y2/33/4 ips.
24 dBm headroom, 28 dBm output.
Dc capstan servo standard, with ±7%
speed control in record and reproduce.
Peak reading LED's plus standard
VU meter.
Return to zero memory feature for
mix-down.
Available,
in St.Louis, only at Antech Labs.
If the equipment is studio quality you can expect to find it
8144 BIG BEND BLVD
CALL TOLL FREE
ST LOUIS. MO 63119
IN MISSOURI: 800-392 -1905
..
ST.
LOUIS
OUTSIDE MISSOURI 800 -325 -1960
For additional information circle #125
www.americanradiohistory.com
at .o
314 -962 -5656
.r1(1
p
-
-(
)
_
response in the crossover region.
Distortion is less than 0.05 %, and noise
less than -90 dBV at unity gain.
All Ashly crossovers are housed in a
rugged steel 19-inch rack mount enclosure,
and are constructed using a plug -in ribbon
cable interconnect system to provide
excellent reliability and ease of servicing.
ASHLY AUDIO, INC.
100 FERNWOOD AVENUE
ROCHESTER, NY 14621
(716) 544-5191
For additional information circle #126
IMAGE RECOVERY SYSTEM
UNVEILED BY
OUTER EAR INC.
Outer Ear's Image Recovery system is a
stereo signal processor designed for use in
disk mastering. It is said to "open -up" and
spread the stereo image, creating greater
width and depth perception. The Master
Series subjectively increases high
frequency response.
Specifications:
Input: Switchable, balanced /unbalanced from 600 Ohms to 20 K Ohms
Output: Active balanced, less than 100
Ohms
Headroom: 26 dBm balanced, 20 dBm,
unweighted
Signal to Noise: Less than 90 dBm,
unweighted
Distortion: Less than 0.01% (harmonic or
'ntermodulation)
Frequency Response: DC
-
100 kHz,
within 0.05 dBm
Unit Dimensions: 3 -3/16 inches by
inches by 141/2 inches
Weight: 30 pounds.
OUTER EAR INC.
P.O. BOX 1566
HOLLYWOOD, CA 90028
(213) 462 -8940
flat
19
For additional information circle #127
STEREO TAPPED DELAY UNIT
UNVEILED BY A /DA
'l'he STD-1 is a voltage- controlled analog
delay with six taps, which can each be
assigned to one of two output channels.
Each delay tap is non -harmonically
related to the other taps, and when
combined is said to simulate natural
random doubling and a myraid of chorus
effects without the need for six separate
delay lines. The extensive control section
for the delay time includes capabilities for
mixing fixed delay, slow sweeps, and a
-
`r- .!Ioú
.
When Audio Professionals
Talk Analyzers & Equalizers,
One Name Keeps Com ing Up
..
.
higher frequency sweep modulation, to
generate a wide variety of special effects.
The regeneration circuit allows for
selection of feedback from one of three
taps, with variable gain and high -cut to
simulate a wide range of acoustic
"liveness" and ambiences. All of these
features working independently and in
conjunction, enable such effects as high
flanging, low flanging, chorusing, voice
doubling, multi-voice choruses, echo,
reverberation, and machine gun reverb
all at full bandwidth and in stereo.
The STD-1 has a delay range of 1.3 to 55
milliseconds, with regeneration decay
time up to 20 seconds. The unit occupies
one standard rack space, and features an
8 -step LED headroom indicator.
-
A /DA
2316 FOURTH STREET
BERKELEY, CA 94710
(415) 548 -1311
For additional information circle #129
K -CHECK CABLE
TESTER
FROM NEUTRIK
The unit consists of a test finger, battery
compartment (containing a 5.6V mercury
battery), an LED -display and a female
XLR -type connector. Each red LED is
keyed to a corresponding contact in the
female connector. Connection between the
test finger and any contact in the female
connector will cause the appropriate red
LED to light. Connection between the test
finger and the shell (housing) of the female
connector (or any connector plugged into
it) will cause the green (ground) LED to
light. If connection is made to two or more
contacts in the female connector, LEDs
will light for each contact involved.
:.
}i'lt
it
--
If a cable does not have a male XLR -type
connector, the accessory test lead can be
used to make contact between one of the
female connector's contacts and the
contacts on the cable. This test lead also
enables the K -Check to be used as a
general -purpose continuity tester. For
cables with female XLR -type or 'A -inch
phone plugs on both ends, adapters (NAM 8 and NAM -9 respectively) are available
for faster testing.
NEUTRIK PRODUCTS
77 SELLECK STREET
STAMFORD, CT 06902
(203) 348 -2121
For additional information circle #130
TWO NEW PORTABLE
instruments incorporated
P.O. BOX 698
R -e /p 168
October
AUSTIN, TEXAS 78767
512/892 -0752
MICRPHONE MIXERS
FROM SHURE BROTHERS
Designed primarily for use in studios
and remote broadcast setups as a single,
complete, compact console, or as an add on mixer for expanding existing facilities,
the M267 provides a wide frequency
response, and low noise and distortion.
Each of the Unit's four balanced
microphone inputs has its own volume
control, low -cut filter switch, and line /mic
switch. Active gain controls eliminate the
need for input attenuators, and each input
is wired to provide simplex power for
condenser microphones.
... continued overleaf -
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
0011
NEW
H aie Y
1)*
heard suc
0°
NSW
COtt
heas d it,
aV en' t eX¡t¡n,
fy'rOu r an
io
e
y Ou
aC,eXper
e
ere
The Auditronlics Engineering Staff
has developed a new output circuit
which is exclusively ours *. Now standard
on all 700 Model Consoles, this new circuit
gives you transformerless specifications
and operation WITH A TRANSFORMER!
Now you can have the quality and transparency of a transformerless circuit with
the total isolation and decoupling of a
transformer!
Now, no more distortion and phase shift at
the low frequencies, no more problems
because your console cannot completely
decouple from its outboard equipment.
Patent Applied For
The audible difference is very noticeable
in the low frequencies a cleaner, tighter,
"beefier" sound, creating unbelievable
definition on drums and the percussive
instruments.
SPECIFICATIONS ARE
20 Hz
30 Hz
50 Hz
100 Hz to 20 KHz
IM Distortion
---
(%
distortion THD):
.02
.007
.005
.0045
.008%
All measurements at +24 dBm output
- 600
ohms.
Come up to Auditronics.. "THE CONSOLE YOU CAN'T HEAR"
CI OU<,Jit1
O1
1ics. i1
It,/.
33
9000LD1350wTeexME3MPHbIS.TN38118
October
For additional information circle #131
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e /p 169
CI
[IOCJ\iJ
soft shift effect to an ultra fast "stereo
vibrato" effect. Audio & Design have
developed a pan control circuit that cures
the 6 dB loss as the two channels pan
across the center
serious problem with
some of the other pan effects units on the
market.
In AUTO mode the Panscan pans
continously; in the TRIGGER mode
panning can be triggered either manually
by the front -panel pushbutton, or by the
unique ADR "beat count" circuitry. This
senses and counts the beat transients
direct from either the input signal, or from
a secondary key signal from an external
source. The count is displayed by a 10element bar graph.
At any time during a pan the audio
image may be held by an "image freeze'
switch. When released, the pan will
-a
Similar in design to the M267, the M268
mixer is designed for general -purpose use
primarily with sound reinforcement, tape
recording and audio -visual systems.
Both the M267 and M268 are small,
rugged, lightweight units, designed for
compact installation or convenient
portability. An optional rack mounting is
available for both models.
Suggested professional user price of the
M267 is $395.00; the M268 is $250.00.
SHURE BROTHERS INC.
222 HARTREY AVENUE
EVANSTON, IL 60204
For additional information circle #132
AUDIO & DESIGN LAUNCHES
PANSCAN EFFECTS UNIT
Utilising either a stereo (two -channel) or
mono input and, a stereo (two- channel)
output, the Panscan will pan the audio
image at varying speeds from a very slow
continue in its original pattern
dbx NOISE REDUCTION
DECODE CHIPS ANNOUNCED
Two 0.1 -inch thick chips which measure
0.75- by 0.2 -inch have been introduced to
Additional controls include a variable
"image width" and "image center offset."
The new unit can be seen at the
forthcoming New York AES Show.
AUDIO & DESIGN
RECORDING, INC.
P.O. BOX 786
BREMER'l'ON, WA 98310
(206) 275 -5009
For additional information circle #133
replace the discrete circuitry for the
voltage- controlled amplifier (top photo)
and RMS detector, which comprise the
system. Each of the wired units measures
21/2- by 2- by 0.9 -inch.
According to dbx executive vice
president, Zaki Abdun -Nabi, the
availability of the integrated circuit will
profoundly affect the company's recently
instituted licensing program which
represents a growth area for dbx. "The
extraordinary noise reduction capability
combined with disk decode capability, at a
lower licensing cost than Dolby, has
already attracted a number of Japanese
Suntronics introduces
the NEW Tascam Model 16 Mixer
.SU \iR ICCS
In the continuing development of
Suntronics and TASCAM, we are
proud to announce the Model 16
Mixer
the newest mixer available
from TASCAM.
-
THE MULTITRACK STORE
This mixer has been updated from
the Model 15 with the following
features:
band sweepable E.Q.
High slew rate chips
Phantom supply
16 switchable meters
Mic phase reversal
Stereo mixdown
Mater Metering
Master metering
Hi and lo pass filters
4
Model 16 input
module options:
8 x 8 @ $6,900*
16 x 8 @ $10,500
24 x 8 @ $12,900
Model 16 Mixer
1620 West Foothill Blvd.
Upland, CA 91786
R -e /p 170
(714) 985 -0701
985 -5307
October 1981
*Model 16 -S* 8 x 8 is
available from Suntronics
Multitrack Stores Only!
7760 Balboa Blvd.
Van Nuys, CA 91406
(213) 781 -2537
781 -2604
For additional information circle #135
www.americanradiohistory.com
Special AES package price on the
Model 16 -S* (8 x 8) and 80 -8 8 -track
recorder
-
$10,500.
7560 Garden Grove Blvd.
Westminster, CA 92683
(714) 898 -6368
898 -9036
From
the
414
eumann
lection
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$e_
Thirty -five years ago
Neuma nns U 47 revolutionized
the audio world.
For the to st twerty years,
the equal'i famous U 87
has been the standard /N\
of the kidusry.
And coming cn
strong :s the U
a railestorre in capsule
and amplikrr technology
that's already become
favorite ¿r-i1ng performers arid
eers.
sound
Everyone invoiv °d in ne
sound 3r-A- .action of hit records,
major moticn pialres ani
broadcast and te.evsion shows,
recognizes Neumann as the top
of t=ie 1115x.
Now we're also helping
your bottc rn line with a sizable
reducti 3n 3 prices. Write or
call today to our new brochure
and a 1_sting of tze dealers
near you.
89-
-
t
F
-1
O CORPO RATION
741 Washirgtnr 5:., NY,NY W014 (212, 741 -7911
Wert Ctuas-t Offlcr: (213) 874-L-444
GmbH
Au lio Et pert (- eorg T eumann Fr
P.O. Box 1180,'10C Heibrorn_
AUC+
C.
west Germany
GA-19
October
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R-erp 171
enhanced stereo imagery, while two 12inch drivers are said to produce
outstanding bass performance.
Hot voice coil technology, critical design
parameters, and only the finest quality
roc
cassette deck manufacturers," he said.
"The development now of an integrated
circuit which not only provides improved
performance at reduced cost, but also
decodes dbx disks, is a great advantage.
Up to the present time," explained Mr.
Abdun -Nabi, "dbx licensees have been
working with discrete circuitry. The new
chips will cut present licensee manufacturing costs. The reduced cost is also
expected to attract other manufacturers."
dbx, INC.
components enable the Buckingham
71 CHAPEL STREET
NEWTON, MA 02195
(619) 964 -3210
For additional information circle #136
JBL MODEL 2421
HIGH FREQUENCY
COMPRESSION DRIVER
The new one -inch throat high- frequency
compression driver, designed with the
benefit of laser holography, features a
diaphragm that incorporates JBL's
patented three- dimensional diamond surround technology, first featured in the
2441 driver.
Offering exceptionally high power
capacity, wide dynamic range and flat
response, the 2421 is said to be ideal for
sound reinforcement systems and custom
studio monitors. For maximum flexibility
in system design, the unit is offered in two
impedance ratings: the 2421A at 8 ohms,
and the 2921B at 16 ohms. Both drivers
have a power capacity of 60 W continuous
program at 800 Hz, 12 dB per octave slope,
and 100 W continuous program at 1.6 kHz
or higher, 18 dB per octave slope.
Sensitivity is a quoted 110 dB 1 W. 1
meter, and frequency range 800 Hz to 20
kHz. The Model 242 measures 5'1/4-inches in
diameter, 378- inches deep, and weighs 11
pounds.
JAMES B. LANSING SOUND, INC.
8500 BALBOA BLVD.
NORTHRIDGE, CA 91329
(213) 893 -8411
For additional nformation circle #137
TANNOY ANNOUNCES
M2000 BUCKINGHAM MONITOR
The massively constructed, ported
cabinet houses a three -way speaker
system: high- and mid -frequencies are
handled by a dual concentric unit, for
The Logical Multitrack Recording Console Built To
Withstand the Demands of Modern Recording Studios,
Today and Tomorrow
The Model 3000 24 -track console is totally modular in design, ncluding the
mainframe, to provide expansion to a fully automated `.6- inpt;- system.
It is the first completely balanced, transformerless console in the industry.
A
unique mixdown mode allows the buses to operate as effects or grouping
buses, depending or user's choice.
Other features such as master status
switching, 4 -band equalization and
`
automute add üo the exceptional flex ibility, audio qual-ty arid performance
reliability of the Mode 3000.
Come see for yourself ,at the Fal AES
Show. Booth 0.,7A, Oct. 30 tD Nov. 2.
We are also introducing the New Modet
2200.
Monitor to handle peak power inputs of up
to 1000W, which is capable of producing
peak SPL at 1 metre of 124 dB.
The Buckingham Monitor can be
operated as either a passive or active (biamped) system. When used passively the
in -built crossover switches provide
individual control over four frequency
bands from 150 Hz to 20 kHz, offering
flexible response adjustment.
For optimum performance the unit can
be quickly converted to bi -amped
operation, thanks to an easy- change
connection panel that has been designed
for use in either the active or passive mode.
The Tannoy X05000 external crossover is
available for bi- amping, offering
additional features of time delay
compensation and parametric equalisation.
TANNOY PRODUCTS LIMITED
P.O. BOX 220
SLOUGH SL2 3XA
ENGLAND
02813 -86493
or in the U.S.,
BGW SYSTEMS, INC.
13130 S YUCON AVENUE
HAWTHORNE, CA 90250
(213) 973 -8090
For additional information circle #138
FOSTEX ANNOUNCES
MODEL 3050 DIGITAL DELAY
Delay or echo time is selectable in 10
steps from 0.13 to 270 milliseconds.
Modulation width can be adjusted to a
maximum ratio of 1:4, providing excellent
flanging /chorus effects and double
tracking.
Modulation can be externally controlled
by feeding a control signal into the
"external " jack.
11._
40 Landsdowne Street. Cambridge, MA 02139, (6'
R -e /p 172
October
7)
354 -1144
The 3050 has separate output level
controls for both "dry" signal (unaffected
sound) and the effect, so they can be
adjusted for the optimum output blend.
LED indicators on the Fostex 3050
indicate signal present, normal and limit.
Suggested retail price: $450.00.
FOSTEX CORP. OF AMERICA
15431 BLACKBURN AVENUE
NORWALK, CA 90650
(213) 921 -1112
For additional information circle #139
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
Electro -Voice ST350B tweeter in a
specially designed crossover network,
with solid-state tweeter protection.
Units are available in two versions: the
TA-12A utility enclosure with a black
finish (professional user price: $395); or the
TA -12B Bag EndTM enclosure featuring
dark brown oiled Finland Birch plywood
($495).
MODULAR SOUND
SYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. BOX 488
BARRINGTON, IL 60010
(312) 382-4550
MODULAR SOUNC SYSTEMS
TA -12 COMPACT
FLOOR MONITOR
Highly intelligible reproduction is said
to make the TA -12 well suited for many
applications ranging from rock and roll to
speech or acoustical instrument reinforcement. The system utilizes an E -12 Bag
EndTM 12 -inch loudspeaker, and an
For additional information circle #141
BOSE ENHANCES CAPABILITY
OF MODEL PM -2 POWERMIXER
The Model SB -2 Series Box is a simple,
low -cost way for PM -2 Powermixer users
to obtain the extra projection and bass
response of stacked pairs of Bose 802
Loudspeakers. The unit plugs directly into
the output jacks of the PM -2, and alllows
impedance-corrected connection of two to
four pairs of 802 speakers without the need
for any additional amplifier power.
Suggested retail price: $38.00.
BOSE CORPORATION
100 THE MOUNTAIN ROAD
FRAMINGHAM, MA 01701
(617) 879-7330
For additional information circle #142
is crucial for
your studio's success, and
smooth opetatior_ takes
careful planning.
\X-2're experienced in
rSmooth operation
designing,
equi3ping,
marry Fasman,
produceriurranger,
working behirnd a Soundcraft
Seres 1624 mixing cjnsole recently
supplied by AVG Systems. His credits include
Melissa Manche -ter's "Don't Cry Out Lewd; " Air
Supply's "Every Woman in the World, " and Diana
Ross' Its My Turn."
Studio Design
e
t
interfacine- and mainta:ning the leading multi -ftrak
recording facilities in the Jpper
Midwest. \Vheth-2r it's a patch
corc or a co_nplet2 nstal.ation,
ca _l the AVG location nearest
you for the best support to
complement your system needs.
AVC
SYSTEMS
INCORPORATED
eo le behind the people behind the sound.
pi i
1517 E. Lake St.
II
i
Minreapo is, MN 55407 (612) ^29 -8305
1i
i
I
7116 W. Higgins Ave. Chicago, IL 60656 (1;12) 733 -6010
For additional information circle #143
www.americanradiohistory.com
-e /p BACK ISSUES AVAILABLE
Limited Quantity
While They Last!
R
February 1975
April 1975
Classified
-
RATES
$65.00 Per Column Inch
(2'/'
x 1")
-
One -inch minimum, payable in advance. Four inches maximum. Space
over four inches will be charged for
at regular display advertising rates.
BOOKS
Volume
Volume
6,
6,
No
No
February 1976
August 1976
Volume
Volume
7,
7,
No.
No. 4
June 1977
October 1977
December 1977
Volume
Volume
Volume
8,
8,
8,
No. 3
No. 5
No. 6
February 1978
April 1978
June 1978
December 1978
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
9,
9,
9,
9,
No.
No. 2
No 3
No. 6
SOUND RECORDING
by John Eargle
JME Associates
The best book on the technical side of recording
1
2
thoroughly recommended
1
1
April 1979
June 1979
August 1979
December 1979
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
10,
10.
10,
10,
February 1980
April 1980
June 1980
August 1980
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
11, No. 1
11, No. 2
11, No. 3
11, No. 4
11, No. 5
11, No 6
October 1980
December 1980
HOW TO START A RECORD
OR INDEPENDENT
PRODUCTION COMPANY
by Attorney Walter Hurst
Illustrated. 46 Chapters. Many Forms
$10.00 Paper; $15.00 Hardcover
Seven Arts Press, Inc. Code R
P.O. Box 649
Hollywood CA 90028
-
No.
No.
No.
No.
February 1981
April 1981
June 1981
August 1981
2
3
4
6
Volume 12, No.
Volume 12, No. 2
Volume 12, No. 3
Volume 12, No. 4
$3.00 each
Mail orders to: R -e /p
P.O. Box 2449 Hollywood, CA 90028
Foreign orders payable in U.S. funds only
by bank check or money order. Foreign
checks requiring collection lees paid by Reif.) will not be accepted.
1
please mention that you saw It In Recording Engineer/Producer
Studio Sound
355 Pages, Illustrated with 232 tables,
curves, schematic diagrams, photographs, and cutaway views of equipment.
S27 95 each Hardbound
R -e /p Books
P. O. Box 2449
Hollywood, CA 90028
theory and working
information and emphasis on
practical uses
"MICROPHONES
HOW
-
THEY WORK AND HOW
TO USE THEM"
by Martin Clifford
224 Pages
97 Illustrations
$10.95 Hardbound; $7.95 Paperback
Postpaid
R -e /p Books
P.O. Box 2449 Hollywood CA 90028
-
HANDBOOK OF
MULTICHANNEL RECORDING
by F. Alton Everest
320 pages
201 illustrations
The book that covers it all .. .
a comprehensive guide to ail facets of
multitrack recording ... acoustics
construction ... studio design .
equipment ... techniques ... and
much, much morel
Paperback: $9.95
R-e/p Books
-
-
.
.
WITHOUT
SACRIFICING
RESPONSE.
by Diane Sward Rapaport
trusty guide through the thickets
awaiting the ambitious young band or
mini -record mogul ... "
John Rockwell
"A
-
New York Times
"Without question the best book on the
subject: definitive, down to earth and
practical."
Len Chandler & John Braheny
Alternative Chorus, L.A.
-
$11.50
R-e/p Books
SENNHEISER
ELECTRONIC CORPORATION
West 37th Street. New York. NY 10018
(212) 239-0190
Manufacturing Plant: Bissendorf /Hannover, West Germany
D
October
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
Hollywood, CA 90028
"THE PLATINUM RAINBOW"
is available from
R -e/p BOOKS
P.O. Box 2449
Hollywood, CA 90028
"THE PLATINUM RAINBOW"
will be shipped postpaid upon receipt of
$11.00 (U.S.)
in check or money order.
The Platinum Rainbow (How To
Succeed In The Music Business Without
Selling Your Soul) by Grammy Award
winning record producer Bob Monaco
and syndicated music columnist James
Riordan. Complete sections on
producing and engineering including
the practical aspects of pursuing a
career. Also contains a complete
DIRECTORY of the music business
including studios and engineering
schools.
R -e/p 174
Hollywood, CA 90028
HOW TO MAKE AND SELL
YOUR OWN RECORD
P.O. Box 2449
Our remarkable MD 431 lets
performers work with amplification
as loud as they wish -up to
6 dB over other microphones- without
feedback. And without sacrificing
the clarity of full, rich response.
10
.
-
-
P.O. Box 2449
FEEDBACK
PROTECTION.
.
.
BOOKS ..
.
HOW DO YOU
MEASURE TAPE
TENSION?
HOW TO BUILD A SMALL BUDGET
RECORDING STUDIO
FROM SCRATCH
... with 12 Tested Designs
by F. Alton Everest
Solt Cover - 326 Pages
$9.95 Postpaid
R -e /p Books
P.O. Box 2449 Hollywood, CA 90028
"The book logically progresses from the
basics in the first chapters
"
it is likely that it will become a
primary reference source for recording
engineers, producers and, perhaps,
..."
.
.
If something SOUNDS FISHY it
may be your fish scale approach to
measuring tension.
.
knowledgeable musicians."
the new
Tentel Tape Tension
is designed to diagnose problems in your
The
Gage
BASIC DISK MASTERING
by Larry Boden
-
52 Pages
magnetic
-
- Soft Cover - Perfect Bound $12.50 (US) Postage Paid
now available from:
equipment.
.
BOX 3043
GLENDALE, CA 91201
The
tension while your
in operation, so you can "see" how your transport is
TENTELOMETER® measures
tape
transport is
handling your tape; high tension causing premature head and tape
wear, low tension causing loss of high frequencies, or oscillations
EQUIPMENT WANTED
causing wow and flutter. Send for the Tentel "Tape Tips Guide'.
WE HAVE BUYERS
For Multitrack Recorders
Consoles Outboard
The T2- H20-ML sells for
$245
Mics
Gear
Summit Audio
1
P.O. Box 1678 Los Gatos,
CA 95030 (408) 395 -2448
E NTE L
-
complete.
1506 Dell Avenue
Campbell, CA 95008
(408) 379-1881
Toll Free 800 538 -6894 (ex. CA)
THE NEW
STUDIOS for SALE
APSI MODEL 2200
## FOR SALE ##
Recording Studio fully equipped,
Appearing Soon ...On Stage,
In Theafres, In Concert...
attractive, prime operating condition.
Philadelphia area.
Write: Box ST1
c/o
tape
Virtually all recorder manufacturers use and recommend the TENTELOMETER ®
for use with their equipment
R -e /p
The Model 2200 console offers unexcelled signal quality for stage
monitor and house mixing.
Rugged, fully expandable, the standard Model 2200 features a
I2 -bus, 10 discrete, stereo combination. Many other optiors available
including multitrack recording.
Adaptable, expandable, loads of options, unexcelled signal quaky...
all at a price that will surprise you!
You will have to see the Model 2200 to believe it. Come visit us at the
Fall AES Show, Booth #87A, October 30 to November 2.
P.O. Box 2449, Hollywood CA90028
-
-
FOR SALE
Multi-track Recording Studio. 8 -4-2
Track, Hammond- Piano -EMT Echo, etc.
Lease 6 years.
$75,000
CALL: (213) 626 -5319
or (213) 939 -2390
Post Office Box 71013
Los Angeles, CA 90071
We will also be showing our Model 3000 Multitrack Recording Console.
§§ FOR SALE §§
Entire Studio: OTARI 7308 8- track /1inch Tape 15/30 IPS; NEOTEK Series
16x8 Mixer Console, phantom -power
added; AMPEX AG- 440 -B -2 Recorder for
I
mastering with
2
-track
&
4 -track
playback heads; two ASHLEY SC -50
Limiters; Echo Plate; Amplifiers;
Speakers; Mikes; Cables; Racks; 10 Rolls
-inch tape.
All Must Go! ALL NEW.
$19,000 firm Ron Hammer
(816) 531 -4397
1
please mention
.
.
.
YOU SAW IT IN R -E/P
,..
AUDIO PROCESSING SYSTEMS, INC
40 Landsdowne Street, Cambridge, MA 02139. (617) 3541144
October
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
D
R -e /p 175
EQUIPMENT FOR SALE
CONSOLES
KITS & WIRED
AMPLIFIERS
MIC., EO, ACN,LINE,
TAPE, DISC, POWER
OSCILLATORS
AUDIO, TAPE RIAS
ROWER
1033 N. S CAMOREI AVE.
LOS ANGELES, CA. 90031
(213) 934 -3561
For additional information circle #147
FOR SALE **
noise -reduction
unit with remote.
**
Dolby
CALL: (214) 521 -8738
or (213) 556 -2458
N.Y. Res: (212) 435- 7322/Ext. 5
FOR SALE
Two 3M M79 two- track, 15/30 IPS with
latest signal mods. $4,500 ea. or best
offer. Two UREI LA -3A, $350.00 ea. Two
APSI #559 graphic EQ, 500.00 ea. Two
MXR Flangers and one Phaser, $250.00
ea. Two API #550-A EQ $300.00 ea.
Call Bob at:
PROFESSIONAL AUDIO SERVICES
(213) 843 -6320
Shop for pro audio from N.Y.'s leader, no
matter where you live! Use the Harvey Pro
Hot Line. (800) 223 -2642 (except N.Y.,
Ak., & Hi.). Expert advice, in -depth parts
dept.,
3/4"
video systems available.
Broadest selection such as Otani, EXR,
Ampex, Tascam and more. Write or call
for price or product info:
Harvey Professional Products Division
25 W. 45th Street
New York, NY 10036
(212) 921 -5920
FOR SALE
MCI JH -114 24 -track recorder. Auto -
locator II. Four years old; good
condition.
Ampex
16 -track head stack. Also,
440C 2- track, 21/2 years old,
excellent condition.
(312) 495 -2241
FOR SALE
ELECTRON TUBES: Broadcast quality
video, industrial, special -purpose and
receiving, including S.O.T.A. microphone tubes and Nuvistors at super
competitive prices. Our GS -6072 and
GS -6267 are specially curve -traced and
computer analyzed for highest linear
gain and lowest noise, and feature gold
contacts. Rare factory -sealed.
Telefunken AC -701Ks in stock
Some VF -14s on special order
Fabled 12AX7Bs back in stock
ALLEGRO SOUND
15015 Ventura Boulevard
Sherman Oaks, CA 91403
CALL: (213) 766 -9101, 9am PST
R -e/p 176
October
Auditronics
18.16
501
Day
MIDAS CONSOLES
40 x 8 x 2 PrO3 /PrO5
PRICED FOR IMMEDIATE SALE
(213) 391 -0952
(201) 227 -5878
EVENINGS
$$ FOR RENT $$
Midas Consoles
x 8 x 2 PrO4 only
JIM GAMBLE ASSOCIATES
HC40 -24
Call: (213) 391 -0952
or, (201) 227 -5878
EVENINGS
40
"
FOR SALE '*
Scully Model 100 -16 track s/n 200. One
owner since new; plenty of spare parts.
Mint Condition. $12,500.00, including
full remote control.
Call Bob or Bubba on:
$11,750
$5,250
$12,750
$26,750
Call GREG:
Night -
FOR SALE
(813) 939 -0330
(813) 549 -1485
$$ FOR SALE $$
INTERFACE CUSTOM CONSOLE 16
input 16/4 outputs. 100B modules, 3 -way
9 -point EQ, 4 -inch VU for each input,
complete wiring harness for 16 -track
machine hookup, beautiful Formica
cabinet
$3,400
Hammond B -3 and Leslie
$3,200
(904) 576 -8868
EMPLOYMENT
HELP WANTED
Experienced shop foreman wanted for
large sound and video contractor in
Colorado. Send resume to:
LVW Electronics
2400 Naegele Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80904
(303) 471 -8430
(512) 690-8888
RQIIcIbIQ Music
The Finest in Professional Audio
PROFESSIONAL AUDIO EQUIPMENT
** For Sale **
MCI JH -16 16 -track AL
MCI JH -110A 2 -track
VSO and Memory
Package
$$ FOR SALE $$
Blank Audio and Video Cassettes:
Direct from manufacturer: Below
Wholesale! Any length cassettes. Four
different qualities to chose from. Bulk
& Reel Mastertape: from 1/4-inch to 2inch. Cassette Duplication also
available. Brochure.
ANDOL AUDIO PRODUCTS, INC.
Dept. REP
4212 14th AVENUE
BROOKLYN, NY 11219
TOLL FREE: 1 -800- 221 -6578
M -16
With Service to Back it Up!
Crown, JBL, Tascam /Teat, Yamaha,
Biamp, Technics, Orban, Gauss,
Eventide, Neumann, AKG, Sennheiser,
Beyer, Sony, Shure, Otani, MXR, RTS,
Revox, Cetec -Vega, E -V, Omni -Craft,
Symetrix, Sescom, Ursa Major.
Whirlwind, Audio -Technica, Ampex
(704) 375 -8662
1001 S. Independence Blvd.
Charlotte, N.C. 28202
FOR SALE
-
AMPEX, OTARI, SCULLY
In stock,
all major professional lines; top dollar
trade -ins; write or call for prices.
PROFESSIONAL AUDIO VIDEO
CORP
384 GRAND STREET
PATERSON, NJ 07505
(201) 523 -3333
HELP WANTED
Audio /Design Engineer position
available, large company in Central
Florida area. Send resume and salary
requirements to:
P.O. BOX 813
Orlando, FL 32802
RECORDING EQUIPMENT
SALES HELP WANTED
The continuing expansion of Audiotechniques' New York City offices has
created several career opportunities for
sales personnel with experience in
recording studio, broadcast, and PA
equipment sales. These positions offer
salary, generous commissions, full
benefits including pension. If you are
interested in joining one of the oldest
best known professional audio
equipment firms in the US, please send a
resume in complete confidence to
Michael B. Faulkner, Vice President.
Audiotechniques, Inc.
1619 Broadway 4th Floor
and
New York, NY 10019
Compress/Limit /De-Ess and Noise Gate/Key /Duck
-Two Channels/Push Button Stereo /Independent Tracking-
The CLX -2 is the most versatile two channel compressor /limiter /expander
you have ever seen. We use the BEST Voltage Controlled Amplifier available;
the EGC -101 and the latest Feed Forward design technology to produce the
most natural and musical sounding compression and noise gating obtainable
at any price. Knee type compression switchable in or out.
Price: $595.00
Write for a 24 page brochure on our full product line and a demo record.
Send $1 to: LT Sound, Dept. REX,
PO Box 338,
Stone Mountain, GA 30086
Phone: (404) 493 -1258
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
Northeast:
PRESENCE STUDIOS (West Haven, Ct.) has upgraded to 16-track with an XEDIT 16R recorder with dbx. Monitors are JBL
4311's, Cizek Model Ii's with MG -27 sub -woofers, and Auratones, powered by Crown D 150 and Haller DH -200 amps. Outboard effects
include Ecoplate reverb, Lexicon Prime Time DDL, dbx compressors and noise -gates, a Sound Workshop 262 and EXR Exciter. Jon
Russell is the owner /chief engineer, and Bill Murphy the staff producer/engineer. 17 Enfield St., West Haven, CT06516. (203) 397 -8682.
VALLEY RECORDERS (Red Hook, N.Y.) has opened a new 16 -track facility featuring an APSI 26/24 console and an Ampe ' MM:
1100 multitrack. William C. Brafford supervised the control room modifications; James Barker is studio manager. 12 Saint John Street,
Red Hook, NY 12571. (914) 758 -5167.
SORCERER SOUND (NYC) has added three more Kepex II's, two Gain Brain II's, two Pultec Equalizers, a clavinet, a Mesa
Boogie amp, and a Prophet V synthesizer to its list of hardware. 19 Mercer St., New York, NY 100I3. (212) 925-1365.
-
-
NORTHEAST ACTIVITY
UNIQUE
SIGMA SOUND STUDIOS (Philadelphia, Pa.) Gamble and Huff George St., Wallingford, CT 06492. (203) 265 -0010.
have f nished albums for Teddy Pendergrass and Patti LaBelle, RECORDING STUDIO (NYC) has seen producer Tammy
Sigma's president Joe Tarsia engineering. The Jones Girls are Cappello and Richie Havens recording Cappello's composition, "A
recording with producer Dexter Wansel and engineer Peter Part Of You," for a film. Also J. Silver has completed their single with
Humphreys. Producers McFadden and Whitehead have finished Bobby Nathan engineering. 70I Seventh Ave., New York, NY 10036.
RBY RECORDING STUDIO (Southbury, Ct.)
Melba Moor's EMI release with engineer Dirk Devlin, and Instant (212) 398 -0574.
Funk completed a single produced by Bunny Sigler and engineered reports Whatever Music finishing an EP. Also, a film score for Get Out
Alive, produced by The Hartford Fire Insurance Company, has been
by Arthur Stoppe. 212 North Twelfth St., Philadelphia, PA 19107.
BLUE ROCK RECORDING STUDIO (NYC) completed by composer /arranger Bill Horwitz. RD 1 Main St.,
(215) 561 -3660.
At BAYSIDE SOUND
Southbury, CT 06488. (203) 264 -3666.
finds Rupert Holmes producing his new album with Bill Stein
engineering. Garland Jeffreys is recording a live LP, produced by STUDIOS (Bayside, N.Y.) producer Jimmy Miller completed The
Dick Wingate and Bob Clearmountain, assisted by Michael Hero's first single; producer /writer Elliot Chiprut is working on new
Ewasko. The Swollen Monkeys are doing an album with producer projects; and Johnny Thunders producing a single by The Knots. All
Hal Wilner and engineer Vince McGarrie, while Helen Keane is the sessions were engineered by studio manager David Eng. Box 129,
AURA SONIC REMOTE
producing Joni Shirra with Dave Matthews arranging. New York, Bayside, NY 11361. (212) 225 -4292.
NY.
KAJEM RECORDING STUDIOS (Gladwyne, Pa.) is RECORDING (Flushing, N.Y.) mixed the live performance tapes for
an EP by Marilyn and the Movie Stars at The Sound Works. Remote
doing overdubs on The Pedestrians' album, co-produced by the band
is also producing/engineering two other EP's for Square Mode
with engineers Joe Alexander and Dave Connor. Vocal overdubs
are proceeding for Janis McClain's second album, with Milton Records: one by The Remote Men; and a disk with five songs by
Tenant producing and Mitch Goldfarb engineering. 1400 Mill Creek various artists. 140 -02 Poplar Ave., Flushing, NY 11355. (212) 886THE RECORDING CENTER (Norwalk, C-.) in
At TROD NOSSEL
6500.
Rd., Gladwyne, PA 19035. (215) 649 -3813.
RECORDING STUDIOS (Wallingford, Ct.) Plan 9 are recording an conjunction with Rob Carlson Creative Services, has produced ó jingle
At
EP for Bomp; Margaret Thatcher and The Supply Side is cutting a for the state of Rhode Island. Norwalk, CT. (203) 853 -3433.
continued overleafself -produced EP; and The Shwiffs, have been mixing an album. 10
...
SEE TES
REEL
EXCITEMENT
IN
NEW YORK.
It's new,
it's from Ampex,
and it's in
the Basildon Room at AES.
AMPEX
TOOLS FOR TOMORROW
October
For additional information circle #149
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e /p 177
SORCERER SOUND (NYC) Steve D'Acquisito has booked all the
full moons for the upcoming year for his music projects with Albert
Basslin and Christian Genest. Tony Digradi has been mixing his
Gramavision album, Lunar Eclipse, with Alec Head engineering, and
Joe "King" Carasco and the Crowns in from Texas remixing their
latest with Tony Ferguson producing. 19 Mercer St., New York, NY
10013. (212) 925 -1365.
BERNARD FOX RECORDING (NYC)
supplied remote facilities for Earthling's appearances at The
Underground and Peppermint Lounge; Bernard Fox engineered for
the Japanese band. Other remotes included dates by Richie Havens
at The Savoy for producer David Plainer. Mixing for videodisk release
will begin this fall at the Fox Studios. 928 Broadway, New York, NY
10010. (212) 228 -4740.
At GREENE STREET RECORDING
I
(NYC) Rhyze is completing an LP for 20th Century with producers
Paul Kyser and Raymond Esponosi, and engineer Roddy Hue
assisted by Frank Scilingo. Also in the studio, Baird Hersey is
producing the new act FX for Bent; engineering by Jim Jordon, Joe
Arnold and Amy Mitrani. 112 Greene St., NYC, NY 10012. (212) 2264278.
At SIGMA SOUND STUDIOS (NYC) Jimmy Simpson
and engineer John Potoker remixed Miles Davis' recordings of
"Shout" and "Man with a Horn" for CBS, while John Loungo and
engineer Jay Mark are overdubing/mixing the single "Zulu," by The
Quick. Also in is Revelation, doing two songs for Handshake, with.
producers Dunn Pearson and Bruce Gray; engineers Michael
Hutchinson and Jim Dougherty. 1697 Broadway, N.Y., NY 10019.
(212) 582 -5055.
Southeast:
CRITERIA RECORDING STUDIOS (Miami, Fl.) has installed a new MCI JH -532LM transformerless console with JH -50
automation in Studio C. 1755 NE 149th St., Miami, FL 33181. (305) 947 -5611.
MORRISOUND RECORDING (Tampa, FI.) has opened a new 24-track studio, featuring a Sound Works ?op Series 30 console
with VCA sub -grouping, interfaced with an Otari MTR -90 24 -track recorder and UREI monitors. Instruments inc "ude a Yamaha grand
piano, Hammond organ, Fender Rhodes, and Wurlitzer electric piano. A mobile unit is also offered, equipped with an Otari 8 -track
machine fed by a 24 -in/8 -out console. The studio is owned and operated by Tom, Laurel, and Tim Morris. 5'20 North Florida Ave.,
Tampa, FL 33603. (813) 238-0226.
-
-
SOUTHEAST ACTIVITY
RECORDING STUDIOS (Washington, D.C.), in
Whyley engineering. Mark Williams completed mixes for
conjunction with the JVC Cutting Center of Los Angeles, has
Sugarcreek's live LP on Beaver , and producer Loonis McGlohon is
completed the first in- studio digital recording in the nation's capitol,
doing tracks with Eileen Farrell engineered by David Floyd. 1018
using a JVC DAS Series 90 System. Omega president Bob Yesbeck
Central Aue., Charlotte, NC 28204. (704) 377 4596.
BEE JAY
engineered the album for Tim Eyermann and the East Coast
RECORDING STUDIOS (Orlando, Fl.) is recording Doc Holliday's
Offering. Larry Boden of the JVC Cutting Center handled digital
A&M album engineered by staffer Andy de Ganahl assisted by Dana
editing and mastering. 10518 Connecticut Av., Kensington, MD 20795.
Cornock, and produced by Tom Allom. Carolina finished three
(301) 9464686.
At REFLECTION SOUND STUDIOS
tunes for CBS, produced by band member Jon Phelps. 5000Eggleston
(Charlotte, N.C.) Ted Daryl] is producing Rick Bowles for Polygram,
Aue., Orlando, FL 32810. (305) 293 -1781.
At CRITERIA
with engineering by Ron Carran and Steve Haigler, while Eric
RECORDING STUDIOS (Miami, FI.) Fire Flight is recording an LP
Aucoin is producing the PTL Family Album for PTL Records, Bob
with Carl Beaver producing, and Bruce Her sal engineering. Also,
OMEGA
Now More Than Ever A Cut Above The Rest
Tandem
VMS80 Neumann
cutting instruments
and
Half Inch 2 track
Studer Preview
Decks
Ililic
actenng
6550
W.
Sunset Blvd., Hollywood, CA 90028
Telephone: (213) 466-1323
John Golden, Manager
R -e /p 178
October
1981
For additional information circle #150
www.americanradiohistory.com
9
Rigg is doing an album for Full Moon/Warner; Andy Johns and Marty
Cohen producing. 1755 NE 149th St., Miami, FL 33181. (305) 947TRIIAD RECORDING STUDIOS (Ft. Lauderdale, Fl.) is
5611.
recording an album by Truc of America, a rock comedy show band;
engineering by Michael Laskow, Vincent Oliveri, and Robert
Corti. Also, singer/songwiter Marc Levy is adding strings to new
material, and The Crystal Caine Band is finishing vocal work on their
LP. 5075 NE Thirteenth Aue., Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33334. (305) 771-
At ALPHA RECORDING STUDIOS (RichmonI, Va.)
Single Bullet Theory are recording for Mad Dog Productions.
STRAWBERRY JAMM (West Columbia, S.C.)
Richmond, VA.
reports Johnny Hilton, Rob Crosby, and Steve White wrapping
1431.
production on "Paper Mill Blues." Also, Prescoop Productions' John
Presley and Ricky Cooper completed mixdown of a music bed of
their compositions for live accompaniment on the Job Man Ccravan.
3964 Apian Way, West Columbia, SC 29169. (803) 356 -4540.
South Central:
MUSIC CITY MUSIC HALL (Nashville) took delivery of
a new Studer A -80VU MI< Ill 24 -track recorder and a Studer A-80VU
half-inch, two-track unit. Both machines feature transformerless amplifiers. 25 Music Square East, Nashville, TN 37203. (615) 244-1060.
SHOE PRODUCTIONS (Memphis, Tn.) has updated its Studio B with a new Otari MTR -90 24-track recorder and an M-24 Dolby
rack. 485 North Hollywood, P.O. Box 12025, Memphis, TN 38112. (901) 458 -4496.
DEL SOL RECORDING STUDIO (Alice, Tex.) is a new 16 -track recording facility featuring a TEAC Tascam 85 -16 mulitrack
interfaced with a Tascam 16-/8 -out Model 15 console. Monitors are by JBL powered by Crown amps, while signal processing gear ircludes
units by UREI, Delta Lab, and Orban. Studio design and installation were handled by ASI Pro Audio of San Antonio, Texas. 1401 South
Reynolds, Alice, TX 78332. (512) 664 -0224.
WOODLAND SOUND STUDIOS (Nashville) has aquired a Studer half -inch two -track recorder for mixdown. The .tudio's
mastering department installed half -inch, two -track machines recently, and mastered the latest recordings by Jimmy Buffett, Tammy
Wynette, and Ronnie Milsap. Nashville, TN.
ACTIVITY - SOUTHCENTRALJohnson
REELSOUND RECORDING COMPANY (Manchaca, Texas) has
completed location dates of two concerts with Ted Nugent; Dancer
McCullough was producing with Malcom H. Harper, Jr.
engineering. The mobile unit was also present for live work produced by
Al Kooper, Chet Hanson, and Joe Ely for Free Flow Productions at
The Tornado Jam; Bob Edwards engineered. P.O. Box 280,
At MUSCLE SHOALS
Manchaca, TX 78652. (512) 472 -3325.
SOUND STUDIOS (Sheffield, Alabama) Glenn Frey is working on a
solo album with engineer Steve Melton assisted by Mary Beth
McLemore, while Barry Beckett is wrapping up Delbert
McClinton's album for MSS/Capitol with Greg Hamm and
McLemore at the board, assisted by Peter Greene. Also, Jimmy
and Beckett are overdubbing/mixing Levon Helm's
MSS/Capitol project. 1000 Alabama Avenue, P.O. Box 915, Sheffield,
SHOE PRODUCTIONS (Memphis,
AL 35660. (205) 381 -2060.
Tennessee) has completed Debra DeJean's debut albi_m on
Handshake, co- produced and engineered by Carl Marsh aid Bo
Bohannon, as well as a project by The Minglewood Band fa RCA
Canada, produced by Donald "Duck ". Also, Kilo,is workinç on an
album with Andy Black engineering the self -produced projt. 485
North Hollywood, P.O. Box 12025, Memphis, TN 38112. (901) 458 4496.
SOUND EMPORIUM STUDIOS (Nashville) hEs seen
Nancy Brooks laying down tracks to songs co- produced by dr -mmer
continued on next page
-
...
SEE TIlE
REEL
EXCITEMENT
IN
NEW YORK.
It's new,
it's from Ampex,
and it's in
the Basildon Room at AES.
AMPEX
TOOLS FOR TOMORROW
October
For additional information circle #151
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e/p 179
ai--4----,411Ft°
Clyde Brooks and Ralph Childs of Ambient Productions; Howard
Steele engineering. Larry Butler and engineer Billy Sherrill
recorded Diane Pfeifer for an upcoming EMI /Capitol project. Also,
The Joe English Band has been laying tracks with producer English
and John Rosasco; David Henson mixed the sessions. 3312 Long
Boulevard, Nashville, TN 37203. (615) 269-5289.
At MUSIC
CITY MUSIC HALL (Nashville) Jim Stafford, Rex Allen, and Sue
Powell are cutting tracks for the syndicated TV series Nashville on the
Road, with Jerry Whitehurst producing and Bill Harris engineering,
while R.C. Bannon and Louise Mandrell are finishing up their first
album for RCA with producer Tom Collins. Also, Loretta Lynn is
cutting a new MCA album with producer Owen Bradley and engineer
Bill Vandevort. 25 Music Square East, Nashville, TN 37203. (515) 2441060.
DIGITAL SERVICES /RECORDING (Houston,, Texas)
reports handling the first digitally -recorded pop/rock album made in
Texas. Live dates by Dr. Rockit and the Sisters of Mercy were
recorded at Rockefeller's in that city. The live mix on the Sony PCM1610 digital processor was handled by John Moran, assisted by
Chuck Fitzpatrick. 1001 River Oaks Bank Tower, 2001 Kirby Drive,
Houston, TX 77019. (713) 520 -0201.
Midwest:
T.J. SOUND PRODUCTIONS (Warren, Michigan) has opened a new 8 -track studio with equipment including a TEAC Tascam
80-8 recorder, Tascam M -35 console, dbx noise reduction and compression, UREI equalizer, and mikes by Shure, Sennheiser, and Audio
Technica. 27040 Ryan Road, Warren, MI 48092.
UNIVERSAL RECORDING CORPORATION (Chicago, Illinois) reports that September 30 marks the 20th anniversary of
studio president Murray Allen's affiliation with the company. The operation currently features a SMPTE interlocked video sweetening
room and full video productionn capability in Studio A, as well as a 3M 32 -track digital mastering system interfaced with a Neve NECAM
mixing console. 46 East Walton Street, Chicago, IL 60611. (312) 642-6465.
FIRE IN THE LAKES (Minneapolis, Minnesota) has relocated to a new 8 -track studio which will feature a Neotek Series I console
feeding an Otani MX -7800 one -inch recorder. Other hardware will include an Otani MX- 5050B, Altec and JBL monitors, mikes by AKG,
Shure, Electro- Voice, and Beyer, and a full complement of ancillary equipment. Completion is scheduled for the first of the coming year.
2301 East Hennepin Avenue, Minneapolis, MN 55413. (612) 331 -4650.
- MIDWEST ACTIVITY -THE
CHICAGO RECORDING (Chicago, Illinois) is finishing up sessions
for soul singer Barbara Acklin for her Chi -Sound single produced by
Gene Chandler and Willie Henderson, engineered by Phil
Bonanno. Also using the facility was the Christian hard -rock group,
The Ressurection Band, recording for Light Records, while NathanCoates tracked their album Heartbeat, with Andy Watermann
producing/engineering. 528 North Michigan, Chicago, IL 60611. (312)
822-9333.
UNIVERSITY RECORDING (Columbus, Ohio) is
recording The Rich Kids, John Lyon, The Motorboats Venture,
The Bombadairers, Mad Max, Axis, and Melvin McGary. All the
dates engineered by David Sheward, with Tom Howard assisting.
1896 North High Street, Columbus, OH 43210. (614) 291-
-
MOUNTAIN
BONNEVILLE PRODUCTIONS (Salt Lake City, Utah) Music
Studio "C" has been booking by Brian Chatter for his album with
producer Shel Talmy, while Phil Davis is producing the next release
by Sonja Eddings, engineered by Jeff Ostler. Mike Mclean
completed producing a new project with Judd Maher for
Bonneville Records, while mixing was completed for the score of the TV
special, Mr. Kruger's Christmas. Salt Lake City, Utah.
COM-
RECORDING
CONNECTION (Beachwood,
Carol Hensel's Dancersize album, with
producers RogeT Hatfield and Joey Porello, and Dale Peters
engineering. Jonah Koslen is recording for an album project, and
Scott Read finished his latest album with producer Arnie Rosenberg.
7800.
Ohio)
is
recordin tracks for
The Connection's Roadmaster 1124 -track mobile will be handl ng Billy
Squire's appearance at the Santa Monica Civic for The Source. The
truck will then go to The Blossom Music Center to record the Michael
Stanley Band and Donnie Iris, and a live broadcast Halloween
concert with The Moody Blues, also for The Source- 23330
Commerce Park Road, Beachwood, OH 44122. (216) 464 -4141.
-
ACTIVITY
MERCIAL SOUND STUDIO (Las Vegas, Nevada) finds Diana
Ross producing her album with engineer Scott Spain. The studio is
also recording The Fifth Dimension with Tony Camillo producing
for Venture Productions, Barney Perkins engineering. Paul Anka
has done pre -recorded tracks for his world tour, Bob Lentini
engineering. 2010 East Charleston Boulevard, Las Vegas, NV 89104
(702) 384 -1212.
DiOns-. Iona'
MAIO
HOLLYWOOD SOUND S)YS EMS
(213)466 -2416
N
Audio Support for Recording, Broadcast,
Film, Live Events, Concerts
Warranty Speaker Fe- Coning
R -e /p 180
October 1981
For additional information circle #152
www.americanradiohistory.com
Southern California:
CONWAY RECORDING STUDIO (Hollywood) aquired a 24-track Studer A -80-MK Ill, and a pair of A -80 half -inch, two-track
machines. Other additions include EMT 250 reverb and 24 channels of Dolby in a TTM mainframe. 655 North Saint Andrews Place,
Hollywood, CA 90004. (213) 463 -2175.
HERITAGE STUDIOS(Los Angeles) has updated by adding an AMEK 2000 Series 2500 36 -in/24 -out automated console. The
board features four -band parametric EQ on each input channel, as announced by studio manager, Murry Wecht. 1209 North Western
Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90029. (213) 466 -3244.
INTERNATIONAL AUTOMATED MEDIA (Irivine) named Paul Freeman, who previously owned Overland Studios, to a
production and engineering position. Current activities include in- studio work with vocalists, Lisa Mareno and gospel artist, Jayn
Porter. 17422 Murphy Aue, Irvine, CA 92714. (714) 751 -2015.
GARDEN RAKE STUDIO (San Fernando Valley), owned by producer Jay Graydon, has been completed, and features an MCI
console with automation, linked to an MCI JH -114 24 -track machine. Designed by Gary Starr and constructed by Rudi Breuer, it
features a live echo chamber. Outboard hardware comprises units by Yamaha, Lexicon, Eventide, dbx and UREI.
-
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SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACTIVITY
At GROUP IV RECORDING (Hollywood) Norman
Clark.
WESTLAKE AUDIO (Los Angeles) reports Dave Mason is doing
Granz is producing a Count Basie album for Pablo using 3M's Digital
overdubs and mixes for a video and radio program, Neil Marshall
System, engineering by Dennis Sands. Other activity includes Basil
producing and Michael Braustein engineering assisted by Ed
Poledouris soundtrack scoring for the film Fire on the Mountain, with
Cherney, while Madeline Kane is doing overdubs and mixes with
Sands engineering. Also, Paul Aronoff and Greg Orloff are mixing for
producer Georgio Moreder and engineer Brian Reeves. Recording
George Englund's film My Strange Uncle. 1541 North Wilcox,
is James Ingram, doing a solo album for Warners, with producer
ARTISAN SOUND
Hollywood, CA 90028. (213) 466 -6444.
Quincy Jones and engineer Bruce Swedien; and Randy Goodrum,
RECORDERS (Hollywood) finds Greg Fulginiti mastering for
doing tracks with Elliott Shiner producing/engineering. 7265 Santa
THE
Electra's Eddie Rabbitt with David Malloy producing; for Steve
Monica Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90046. (213) 851 -9800.
Martin and Warner's with Bill McEuen producing; and for Sarah
PASHA MUSIC HIOUSE (Hollywood) reports The Plimsouls are
Vaughn and Count Basie, and Milt Jackson with producer Eric
recording tracks with producer Jeffry Rich, while Carmine Appice
Miller for Pablo. Singles were cut for Pat Benatar and Rick
and Larry Brown are co- producing Rod Stewart sessions. Brown is
Springfield with producer Keith Olsen, and REO Speedwagon with
engineer with producer Spencer Proffer editing single selections from
producer Kevin Beamish. 160G North Wilcox Avenue, Hollywood,
Billy Thorpe's Pasha Records LP, Stimulation, while Randy Bishop is
MAMA JO'S RECORDING
CA 90028. (213) 843 -8096.
producing tracks for his first Pasha release, Dangerous, with engineer
Duane Baron. 5615 Melrose Avenue, Hollywood, CA 90038. (213) STUDIO (North Hollywood) is recording Richie Furay's LP with
RUSK SOUND STUDIOS (Hollywood) is David Diggs co- producing with the artist; Jack Puig is engneering,
466 -3507.
Gene Meros assisting. Puig is also mixing Amy Grant's live LP
recording/mixing a project for Atlantic artist Stevie Woods produced
.. continued overleaf
by Jack White, engineered by Juergen Koppers and David
-
There came a Sound like the Rolling of Thunder
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Mailing Address: P.O. Box 212 Station ") Calgary. Alberta. Canada. T2A
Studio Location: 2748 -37th Ave. N .. Calgary, Alberta, Canada
www.americanradiohistory.com
I
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produced by Brown Bannister with Michael Blanton. 8321
Lankershim Boulevard, North Hollywood, CA 91605. (213) 9820305.
SKYLIGHT EXCHANGE (Granada Hills, California)
reports producer Steven Richardson has signed to produce the score
for David Fortney's film, Maya; recording sessions will take place at
Skylight. Also, singer/ song writer Grey Singing Horse is finishing
tracks for his LP. In addition, Tuppelo is recording/mixing four tunes
with producer Bill Marin. P.O. Box 3173, Granada Hills, CA 91344.
(213) 363 -8151.
KENDON RECORDERS (Burbank) finds
producer Leon Sylvers supervising overdubs and mixing The
Sylvers for Solar, with engineer Jim Shifflett in Studio 2; Steve
Hodge is mixing in Studio 1. Also in is Johnny "Guitar" Watson and
producer Michael Zager to record tracks for A&M with staffers
Mallory Earl and Bob Winard in Studio D. Producer McKinley
Jackson has mixed The Jones Girls for Philadelphia International,
with Barney Perkins and Mack Sackett handling engineering. 619
South Glenwood Place, Burbank, CA 91506.
REALIFE
PRODUCTIONS (Agoura) finds producer Bill Cumo tracking for
Rue Morgan, while Screen Gems artist Jack Conrad is working on a
single with engineer Bruce Jackson engineering. The Wheels, is also
using Realife under Jackson's guidance. P.O. Box 356, Agoura, Ca
91301. (213) 889 -1318.
SOUNDCASTLE RECORDING (Los
Angeles) Kasim Sutton is doing overdubs for a solo album on EMI
America; Bruce Fairbairn producing with engineers Joe
Chiccarrelli and Mitch Gibson. Poco is finishing their latest LP for
MCA, with John Mills at the console and David Marquette assisting.
Weather Report is also in, overdubing/mixing for a CBS album, with
Joe Zawinul producing and Brian Risner engineering. 2840 Rowena
Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90039. (213) 665 -5201.
SALTY DOG
RECORDING (Van Nuys) reports The Crusaders, in doing
overdubs with Joe Cocker, engineered by Galen Senogles. Bill
Motley is producing the second Boys Town Gang album with David
Coe engineering, Also in is Bill Champlin doing overdubs for his
project with Gerry Lentz engineering, and M.I.I. Inc. producing
Hero's album sessions. 14511 Delano, Van Nuys, CA 91411. (213) 9949973.
DIRK DALTON RECORDERS (Santa Monica) is
recording Jimmy Photoglo's 20th Century LP, Fool In Loue With
You, with producer Brian Neary and engineer Dirk Dalton. Barry
Manilow is producing his next album with Dalton engineering. Also
booking time is David Shire for Columbia Pictures. 3015 Ocean Park
Boulevard, Santa Monica, CA 90405. (213) 450 -2288.
MYSTIC
SOUND SERVICES (Hollywood) finds The Sheiks of Shake in
doing a 45, while Ysef Rahmen is producing sessions with Bill
Streitfield, and Beverly Gardner is working on a gospel project.
Wasted Youth finished their LP in the studio, as did Los Bahos
Group. 6277 Selma Au., Hollywood, CA. (213) 464 -9667.
Northern California:
FANTASY RECORDS STUDIOS (Berkeley) has aquired two Mitsubishi PCM digital audio recorders. An X -80 fixed -head'
recorder will remain at Fantasy's mastering facility, while a portable X -80 recorder will be available for additional in -house mastering and
rentals. A DDL -1 delay system completes the Mitsubishi mastering package. According to studio manager Roy Segal, "Digital is the
perfect way to highlight the benefits of recording at our studios. Berkeley, CA.
TRANSPARENT RECORDINGS (San Francisco) announces the aquisition of a Studer Model 169 mixing console for use
primarily in live on- location recording. 883 Golden gate Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94102. (415) 563 -6164.
ANGEL VOICE RECORDING (San Jose) has opened its new recording facility. The studio offers 1,520 square feet of recording
area with a 17 -foot ceiling, a 48 square foot control room, and a client lounge. The booth features a new 32 -track Sphere console feeding an
Ampex MM -1200 24 -track recorder and an Ampex ATR -100 mastering machine. Interior acoustic design was handled by Dennis Rice.
Company president T.A. Price also announced the appointment of Vince Sanchez to the position of chief engineer. 2500 Senter Road,
San Jose, CA 95111. (408) 292.7930.
AKG
design objective of our new
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And, this is just one of the many unique design features you'll find exclusively in our
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Once your AKG dealer puts all the advanced
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(203) 348-2121
a
R -e /p 182
October 1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
AKG Akustische und Kino /Gerate GmbH,
Auster
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2032 PRODUCTIONS (San Francisco), a keyboard oriented 16 -track studio, has aquired a Linn LM -1 digital drum machine,
which is also available for outside rental. A Sound Workshop Series 30 console is interfaced with such signal processing gear as an
Eventide H949 Harmonizer, and a Lexicon Model 93 DDL. 2032 Scott Street, San Francisco, CA 94115. (415) 929-8085.
-
-
NORTHERN CALIFORNIA ACTIVITY
with producer Umlah Saday. 2500 Center Road, San Jose, CA 95111.
FANTASY RECORDS STUDIOS (Berkeley) received their
DIFFERENT FUR RECORDING (San
(408) 292 -7930.
first Ampex Golden Reel Award for its part in the production of
Francisco) is recording tracks for Explosives, produced by Stu Cook,
Journey's gold album, Captured; specifically the studio single, "Party's
formerly of Creedence, with engineering handled by Stacy Baird
Over." Journey's new album Escape, was recorded entirely at Fantasy.
assisted by Howard Johnston. Another former CCR member, Doug
At HARBOUR SOUND (Sausalito) Con Funk
Berkeley, CA.
Clifford, has been in the studio recording a project. The Tubes also
Shun recorded overdubs for a Polygram /Mercury project, engineered
have been recording a track for their Capitol Records video
by Nancy Evans and Dana Chappelle. Brian Linsley is producing
presentation. 3470 Nineteenth Street, San Francisco, CA 94110. (415)
his own demo with Chappelle at the board, while The Silvertones and
At RUSSIAN HILL RECORDING (San Francisco)
864 -1967.
producer Eric Jacobson are cutting a demo project with engineer
Pamela Rose and The Eights recorded four singles, produced by
Paul Stubblebine. 301 Harbor Drive, Sausalito, CA
Richard Greene with Neil Schwartz and Sam Lehmer engineering;
THE AUTOMATT (San Francisco) finds Gene
94965.
Chrome Dinette recorded five tunes for a new demo project, with
Sarazan in Studio A recording with Jim Gordon and Allen Pasqua;
Schwartz engineering; Gary Brookem, formerly of Procol Harum and
Billy Cross producing, Ken Kessie and Wayne Lewisengineering. In
currently a member of The Eric Clam on Band, recorded a solo album
Studio B. Con Funk Shun is producing their album for Mercury, with
for Polygram, with engineers Jack Leahy and Sam Lehmer; and'Jon
engineer Leslie Ann Jones assisted by Dave Frazer, while down the
Hendricks and Family are recording an album for Muse with Greene
hall in Studio C, Nicolas, Glover, and Wray are laying down tracks
at the board, Mamie Moore assisting. 1520 Pacific Avenue, San
with producer Terry Garthwaite. 827 Folsom Street, San Francisco,
PEARL'S PLACE
Francisco, CA 94109. (415) 4744520.
At BAY SOUND REPRODUCCA 94107. (415) 777-2930.
(Fremont) recorded their first album tracks at the medium security
TION (Oakland) Super Strings are doing piano and string overdubs
prison, Duel Vocational Institution, in Tracy. Prisoner recorded eight
for their demo tape, with violinist Joe Weed producing and Glen Oey
songs working on eight -track in a makeshift control room. Dave
and Gene Mick at the board. Five Yorkshire Drive, Oakland, Ca
Humrick engineered, with Joey Horten assisting. 4163 Doane Street,
HEAVENLY RECORDING STUDIOS
94618. (415) 655 -4885.
At F ANE
Fremont, CA 94538. (415) 651 -7187.
( Sacramento) had Doobie Brother Cornelius Bumpus mixing tracks
PRODUCTIONS STUDIO (Santa Cruz) The Garcia Brothers
for his solo album with engineer Larry Lauzon, while Ebony Express
wrapped up their latest album for Bulls Eye, with producer /engineer
is recording with producer Ike Paggett. In addition, Ray Pyle is
Tom Anderson; The Secretes finished their single for Secrete Sound
engineering a album by The Pontiax. 1020 35th Avenue, Sacramento,
Productions with Pete Carlson engineering; The People are
ANGEL VOICE RECORDING
CA 95822. (916) 428 -5888.
recording overdubs for a new ULC Records LP engineered by Fane
(San Jose) has been recording Pablo Telles, author of Suauecito, as he
Opperman; and Earl Nightingale is booking time for his syndicompletes pre -production on a new LP with Vince Sanchez
cated radio show Our Changing World, Carlson engineering.
engineering. Pat Kelly has also been doing overdubs for his album on
115 -B Harvey West BI., Santa Cruz, CA 95060. (408) 425 -0152.
Rock Candy, while Sadaka has completed mixing an LP for Teresa
El
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JVC delivers the realism and quality that other systems merely promise. Most digital systems fall short of
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JVC offers the most cost -effective, practical approach to professional digital recording. Save $5,000
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Another plus -the entire system can be carried in a
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has something every other manufacturer of digital audio recorders wants -happy customers! You'll
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October
For additional information circle #155
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e/p 183
591A!alp"9HKE°,lS?
-
NORTHWEST ACTIVITY -SEA -WEST RECORIDNG STUDIOS (Honolulu, Hawaii) reports CBS /Holland. Also in the studio, Sonya is cutting an album for RCA.
that mainland rock group TKO is completing their second album with On the personnel front, Kit Ebersback has joined the staff as an inRick Keefer producing and mixing, while Danny Mirrnr from Holland house arranger and recording engineer. P.O. Box 30186, Honolulu, HI
is doing an LP of Elvis Presley medlies with the original Jordanaires for
96820. (808) 293 -1800.
Canada:
EVOLUTION 2000 SOUND STUDIO (Brampton, Ontario) announces the expansion of its facilities with the addition of a
Soundcraft Series 3B 24/24 mixing console, an MCI transformerless JH -110B two-track mastering machine, and additional processing
equipment. The studio has also updated its mobile unit, and now offers 24 -track location recording. Eugene Schneider is the studio
president. 334 Rutherford Road South, Unit 14, Brampton, Ontario, L6W 3P5. (416) 453 -4626.
MUSHROOM STUDIOS (Vancouver) announces the appointment of Lindsay Kidd to the position of chief engineer. Kidd
began his career in 1971 as an assistant engineer with Decca Records in London, England, and by 1974 was a staff engineer at Morgan
Studios, working with such artists as Rod Stewart, Black Sabbath, Queen and Jethro Tull. In 1978, he moved to Montreal as chief engineer
at Listen Audio, recording dates with Toulouse, Walter Rossi, and Michael Pagliaro. Turning free -lance, Kidd worked at numerous studios
in eastern Canada, and taught recording at The Trebas Institute of Recording Arts before joining Mushroom. 1234
West Sixth Avenue,
Vancouver, V6H 1A5. (604) 734 -1217.
THE WAXWORKS RECORDING STUDIO (Saint Jacobs, Ontario) has completed renovations with the addition of an
automated MCI JH -600 series console interfaced with a new Stephens 24 -track recorder with QII Autolocator. P.O. Box 299, Albert
Street, Saint Jacobs, Ontario, NOB 2N0. (519) 664 -3311.
-
CANADA ACTIVITY
Saint Jacobs, Ontario, NOB 2NO. (519) 664 -3311.
MUSHROOM
STUDIOS (Vancouver) finds Long John Baldry in to record his
upcoming Capitol LP produced by the Vancouver -based team of Bill
Henderson and Brian MacLeod. The sessions are being engineered
by Rolf Hennemann. Loverboy is also utilizing the facility for their
next album. 1234 West Sixth Avenue, Vancouver, Canada, V6H 1A5.
PHASE I STUDIO (Toronto) reports Chilliwack is in producing
tracks with Long John Baldry. Toronto, Canada.
THE
WAXWORKS RECORDING STUDIO (Saint Jacobs, Ontario)
recently played host to Ronnie Hawkins in tracking some tunes, and
to Rick Curtis working on an album for Freedom Records. Other
dates include sessions for Major Hooples Boarding House for Axe
Records, and for the new band Glider. P.O. Box 299, Albert Street,
(604) 734-1217.
Great Britain:
EELPIE
1 (London, England) is the name of Pete Townshend's new
audio/video complex at the Boathouse in Twickenham. The
control room features a 40 -input Solid State Logic Master Studio System, complete with a Primary Studio Computer, which handles all
title, track, cue, and mix listings, and Total Recall, which allows the set -up of every control on each input /output module to be memorized
RUDI BREUER
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Frank Zappa Los Angeles, New Studio
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R -e/p 184
D
October
1981
For additional information circle #156
www.americanradiohistory.com
and recalled. Sound monitors include UREI 815s and Auratones. Video monitors are interfaced with the Primary Computer, Total Recall
Computer, the studo's visual monitoring facilities, and the video -tape recording operation. The facility
also features an overdub room and a conservatory with a window into the control booth. The studio
itself can be converted from sound -only to video -tape recording by simply pulling back a wall of
acoustic screens. A shutter at the back of the control room can be opened to provide a view of the
River Thames. Townshend is currently working on his next solo LP. Twickenham, London, England.
BATTERY STUDIOS (London, England) has opened a newly- constructed studio with the
control room centered around a Solid State Logic Master Studio System interfaced with a Studer A -80
MK -III multitrack recorder, and two A -80R two- tracks. A Studer A-68 amp powers the UREI 813
monitors included in a design by acoustics consultant Keith Slaughter. The new AC /DC album is
already slated for mixdown in the new facility. Willesden, London, England.
Eelpie Studio. London
AUDIO /VIDEO UPDATE
Eastern Activity:
E.J.STEWART, INC. (Primos, Pennsylvania) celebrated the upgrading of their mobile units with the taping of a concert by Kool
and the Gang using four cameras and three VTRs at Six Flaggs Great Adventure Amusement Park, in Jackson, New Jersey. Editing for
this concert program as well as other events taped at Great Adventure was completed in Stewart's facility using a CMX 340X, Sony one
inch VTRs, a Grass Valley 1600-7K switcher, and the Grass Valley Mark II digital video effects system. 525 Mildred Avenue, Primos, PA
-
19018. (215) 626 -6500.
SCENE THREE (Nashville) has just completed three projects for RCA recording artists Sylvia, Razzy Bailey, and Alabama.
Executive producer for RCA, Jerry Flowers, will use the projects for promotion of each artist, as well as for promotion of their current
albums. The first two pieces were shot on one -inch video in the studio, with both Sylvia and Bailey performing three cuts from their latest
albums, one being an interpretive visual production of the song. Director/cinematographer Marc Bell and producer Kitty Moan were
instrumental in development of the concepts. Editing for the pieces was completed by Terry Climer in Scene Three's post -production
facility, which includes a CMX 340X editing system, a two- channel Squeezoom, and Neve audio console. The 30- second spot produced for
Alabama will be used in promotion of their latest album, and allowed Climer to use the Squeezoom to accentuate the balance between the
performers in concert and their recordings. 1813 Eighth Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37203. (615) 385-2820.
and broadcast
DEMO -VOX SOUND STUDIO (Brooklyn, New York) has recently expanded to include video production
h
placement for its clients. The company has created a new division, D -V -X International, and, with the purchase of -inch and 1-inch
video recorders and edi:ors, expects to focus on both commercials and industrial shooting. Demo -Vox president Frank G rassi will act as
creative director of the video division, and just completed directing a three -camera "live -on- tape" studio shoot to promote Lomar
Productions' album, G.!. Sweethearts, a salute to the female vocal groups of yesteryear. 1038 Bay Ridge Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11219.
(212) 680-7234.
NATIONAL VIDEO AND RECORDING STUDIOS (New York City) has completed post- production on three, one -hour
Your master tape deserves
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Quality consc ous producers, artists, and recording engineers know the JVC Cutting
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6363 Sunse: Blvd., Suite 500, Hollywood, CA 90028
(213) 467 -1166
A
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October
For additional information circle #157
www.americanradiohistory.com
1981
R -e/p 185
programs in the series, The Song Writer, produced by Sonny Fox Productions for CBS Cable. The programs spotlight Broadway
composers discussing and performing songs from their hit shows. Special effect for the opening segments were created with National's
Grass Valley Mark II Digital Video Effects unit. Senior mixer Dick Mack utilized National's unique Vidi Mag System, a sprocket- driven
video tape process developed to facilitate high-speed audio editing and mixing. The system is similar to the double system handling
techniques used for over 50 years in motion picture post- production. The three programs are entitled An Evening With ... , and are
devoted to the music of Burton Lane (Finian's Rainbow), Sheldon Harnick (Fiddler On The Roof), and Charles Strouse (Annie). Sonny
Fox produced, while Roger Englander was senior producer for CBS Cable. New York, NY.
ALPHA AUDIO RECORDING CORPORATION (Richmond, Virginia) has expanded its
four -studio, multitrack facilities to include video lock -up. The new system consists of multiple SMPTE
time code based synchronizers controlled by a computer to sync video cassette recorders to 24 -track
machines, as well as to separate audio source machines. This will allow sond effects, music, and syncsound elements to be resolved and time -justified. The computer- assisted operation and multiple
synchronized machines make frame-accurate audio editing and insertion quick and easy. Sync -sound
can be resolved using this system, eliminating the need for magnetic film stock transfers. Video elements can be viewed in real -time, slow-motion, or frame -by -frame on a 19 -inch Sony Trinitron monitor
with superimposed time code display. Several post-production jobs have already been completed,
including King's Dominion What's New '81. and a 12- minute animated film. 2049 West Broad Street, Alpha engineer Bobby Tulloh,
Richmond, Virginia 23220. (804) 358 -3852.
Martin Agency producer Betsy Barnum
ELECTRONIC ARTS INTERMIX (New York City) will be distributing for consumer purchase a number of experimental video
works, including Ontogenesis by Janice Tanake, the winner in the Experimental category of The National Video Festival, held at the
Kennedy Center in Washington, D.C. Tanaka's work has been described as a video poem with intense sound and visual imagery, which
combine "a stunning montage meditation on the nature of contemporary American experience." The piece is in the tradition of Nam June
Paik, and was described by critic Gene Youngblood as being "of the highest calibre, displaying a visual brilliance and poetic resonance
characteristic of a master's work." Along with the 51/2- minute Ontogenesis, the new EAI catalog will include Duality Duplicity (1980, 6
minutes), Manpower (1980, 61/2 minutes), Beaver Valley (1980, 6'/ minutes), and Mute (1981, 2 minutes). 84 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY
t
10011. (212) 989.2316.
When BULLET RECORDING (Nashville) opens for business this fall, according to its owners, it will be the first U.S. facility to
offer simultaneous 46-track state -of-the -art audio and three- camera, one -inch video recording under one roof. The primary audio/video
facility, Studio A, was designed by George Augspurger and architect Jack Edwards, and measures 46- by 40 -foot with a 26 -foot
ceiling.
Its audio control booth is centered around two Studer A -800 24-track recorders, and a Solid State Logic Master Studio System console
equipped with full plasma metering and Total recall computer. An Audio Kinetics Q -Lock SMPTE timecode unit keeps everything in sync,
while audio mastering is handled by Studer A -80 decks in both half- and quarter -inch formats. Twin live echo chambers are located beneath
the floor, with other reverb going from EMT 251 and Lexicon 224 digital units to an EMT 240 gold foil unit. Outboards are by AMS, UREI,
Aphex, Eventide, Marshall, RCA, and Roland, while audio monitoring is handled by UREI Time -Aligned 815 units. The video production
tRadio
1982
studio
for professionals
supplies
14 Different Types!
In
Cut the high cost of studio
supplies in 1982.
Our "Special Order" flyers
offer the same great
supplies you'd find in our
Stock!
And Priced Right Toc!
5,000 sq. ft. store.
Ampex tape, Tascam
Equipment, XEDIT & ANNIS,
RAMSA Mixers, MCI
REEL TO REEL TAPE
Ampex, 3M. All grades.
On reels or hubs.
t
'
World Famous Sescom - Ml-Series
Transformers
for Professional Audio Applications
Send for your FREE 1980 Catalog
5E5
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Qs PNU.Nona
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October
flyer.
FEATURING FINE STUDIO EOUIPMENT
312/298-5300
Des Plaines. IL 60016
15
R -e/p 186
FREE
Competitive!
Shipped from Stock!
Ask for our recording supplies catalog.
P.atesslonai Saune
.a.
CASSETTES, C- 10 -C -90
With Agfa, TDK tape.
LEADER & SPLICING TAPE
EMPTY REELS & BOXES
All widths, sizes.
Recorders & Consoles, Mics
by Audio Technica,
Neumann, PZM, Master
Room Reverbs, Lexicon,
Orban.
Write or phone to get your
1981
For additional information circle #159
www.americanradiohistory.com
(206) 367 -6800
11057 8th N.E., Seattle, WA 98125
suite, tocated on a balcony over the audio booth and overlooking the studio, is equipped with a triple re -entry switcher, three Sony BVH
1100A VTRs, and a 3/4 -inch off -line editing suite. For basic TV audio, a 12-input mixer feeds a stereo signal to the VTRs. In the studio, over
175 kilowatts of lighting is available for use with the three Sony BVP -330A Plumbicon cameras. An elaborate track installation offers an 86foot cyc system featuring a white sharkstooth, a blue chromakey, and a velour blackout, all of which disappear when not needed.
Immediately adjacent to this room is Studio B, equipped with a Harrison automated 28-in /24 -out console, and Studer 24- and 2-track
recorders. Bullet's Studio C, located across town, is a basic 24 -track facility with such upstairs amenities as a full kitchen and a hot tub.
Randy Holland is Bullet's president, while Piers Plaskitt, formerly with Apple and Trident studios in London, and Celebrations Studios
in New York, is the studio manager. Technical operations at the $1.5 million dollar complex will be handled by chief engineer, Scott
Hendricks, formerly a staff engineer at Glaser Sound Studio in Nashville. 49 Music Square West, Nashville, TN37203. (615) 327 -4621.
Central Activity:
RICHARD KIDD PRODUCTIONS (Dallas, Texas) announces the formation of RKP Entertainment to produce and distribute
new and original programming for cable television. According to Theresa Bach, director of program development, RKP has already
completed two 60- minute music specials, Delbert McClinton, and Clarence Gatemouth Brown, each featuring live performances by these
artists combined with personal interviews. RKP's staff is presently developing several program series with production slated to begin in
January of 1982 utilizing their in -house studio facilities. 2800 Routh, Suite 212, Dallas, TX 75201. (214) 748-5744.
UNIVERSAL RECORDING COMPANY (Chicago, Illinois) played host to On Track Productions and 1,800 music fans for the
video taping of a documentary on the Windy City's local rock scene. The 75- minute piece is targeted for national cable television sale, and
featured, in alphabetical order, Bohemia, Garrison, The Marquis, Phil `n' the Blanks, and Screamin' Rachael and Remote.
Previously taped material, including interview segments and local club appearances, will be edited in with the sequences captured at
Universal. On Track Productions, Inc. is an independent television company owned by partners Brian Boyer, Tom Pabich, and David
Webb. The production utilized Universal's video equipped facility, recently unveiled by studio owner Murray Allen. 46 East Walton
Street, Chicago, IL 60611. (312) 642 -6465.
OMEGA AUDIO (Dallas, Texas) was on hand with its remote unit to provide 24 -track recording with SMPTE time code for the
television shoot of Mickey Gilley's first annual picnic, featuring Shelly West and David Frizzel, Ernest Tubb, Faron Young, and
Johnny Lee. Engineering for Omega were Paul Christensen and Russel Hearn, while video was supplied by Clearwater Video of
Dallas. Other television activity include the video taping of Delbert McClinton at Star Fest in Dallas. Omega also supplied facilities to mix
the show to picture with their BTX interlock system. Christensen and Hearn were again behind the board with video handled by Video
Production Services of Kansas City. 2805 Clover Valley Drive, Garland (Dallas), TX 75043. (214) 226 -7179.
Western Activity:
HOUSTON RECORDING (Sonoma, California) has moved its 24 -track remote recording truck to the San Francisco Bay Area of
Northern California. Specializing in multitrack recording for video, the unit features an MCI JH -636 automated console equipped with 72
...
continued overleaf
-
rm/Akrs
EVERYTHING
IN TAPE
DUPLICATION
FREE!
Pro-Line Guide
1981
A comprehensive 64 pg. color guide to all
Carvin Pro -Line equipment including illustra
tions, technical information and specifica
tions with Special Direct Prices.
Carvin's new products for the 80's include;
double neck guitars, modular power amps up
to 700w RMS. Recording and road mixing
boards, JBL Pro speakers, bi-channel tube
guitar amps, Parts, plus much, much more.
As we introduce you to the finest Pro Equipment available, you'll appreciate Carvin's
policy of selling Direct for exceptional values.
Write:CARVIN Dept. RP80,155 Industrial Ave.,
Escondido,CA 92025 Phone: (714)747-1710
CARVIN FREE CATALOG
Name
technicians and first -rate equipment duplicate to your specifications. Any quantity. Custom jobs.
Label printing. Drop ship or individually mail (gummed labels and
list, please). Competitive prices and
fast turn -around time.
Call or write us for your next
tape duplication job.
m
F'M
SPECTRUM
FIDELITY
MAGNETICS
City
Phone (717)295-9275
Zip
RP80
it9e9/71
The Acoustic Chamber Synthesizer
Totally new design approach
The sound of a live acoustic chamber
Natural sound, even on percussion
Self- contained rack mount unit
Full two -channel stereo
IUiO
I1 II
49 Glenwood Avenue
Lancaster, PA 17602
Address
State
Here's a one -stop shop which
specializes in duplicating 8-tracks
and cassettes. Highly trained
XL-706
\II
I
I
www.americanradiohistory.com
I
I(
\ I'
-.I
,121
AVAILABLE FROM:
Suntronics Multitrack Stores
1620 West Foothill Blvd.
Upland, CA 91786
(714) 985-0701
985 -5307
7760 Balboa Blvd.
Van Nuys, CA 91406
(213) 781 -2537
781 -2604
October
For additional Information circle #162
I
7560 Garden Grove Blvd.
Westminster, CA 92683
(714) 898-6368
898-9036
1981
R -e/p 187
mike inputs, 3M tape machines, JBL monitors, and closed circuit video monitoring. In addition, in conjunction with Audio Video
Resources of San Francisco, the company now offers 32 -track digital recording for remote work. 2355 Sobre Vista Road, Sonoma, CA
95476. (707) 996 -8881.
COMPACT VIDEO (Burbank, California) announces the introduction of the first commercially -available High Definition
Television. According to company president Robert E. Seidenglanz, "We have developed the first operational system for High Definition
Television, which more than doubles the apparent resolution of the usual television image. " The HDT process is called ImageVision` ", and
employs 655 scan lines per frame rather than the ordinary 525. Another advantage of the process is a transcoding stage that enables
shooting of video at 24 frames -per- second, the speed of projected motion pictures. This will enable movies to be shot electronically, and
then transferred to film for release with much higher quality than ever before. A new post -production facility has also been opened by the
corporation in New York, offering video, sound, and satellite services. The operation will be headed by
the company's service group vice-president, Emory M. Cohen, who named Robert Watt as manager
of the entire East Coast operation. The facility will also offerlmageVision to East Coast clients.
2813 West Alameda Avenue, Burbank, CA 91505. (213) 843 -3232.
INTERNATIONAL AUTOMATED MEDIA (Irvine, California) announces the addition of
full video post -production services following the addition of video production capability to the audio
studio. According to the company's founder and president, Jerry Shirar, the new facility is under the
supervision of Jim Rose, and features 3/4 -inch on -line and /or off -line editing capability. Rose is the
founder of Post Production Services, a company recently relocated from Ventura to IAM's Irvine
headquarters. Rose began his career in 1958, and has been involved in the post- production of many
video shows, including Sonny and Cher, Tony Orlando and Dawn, and The Lawrence Welk
Show, and served from 1979 to 1980 as the post -production supervisor of one of the largest video
¡AM, Irvine
houses in Hollywood. 17422 Murphy Auenue, Irvine, CA 92714. (714) 751 -2015.
CFI VIDEO (Hollywood) has completed installation of a fully computerized one -inch, on -line
editing suite, according to vice -president Tom Bruehl. The facility offers five one -inch Sony BVH -1100
A Type C VTRs with high -speed search, freeze frame, and slow motion in forward and reverse; a
7- channel Quantum Audio Labs stereo mixer; a Quantel DPE -5000 special effects system driven by a
CFI Video custom -designed software; a CDL -480 switcher featuring multiple rotary wipe patterns, and
downstream keyer; a Mach 1 editing system with full "look- ahead" custom software, 1000 -edit capability, and floppy -disk storage; and Ampex ATR -104 slaved audio recorder with double system editing
capability; a two channel compositor; four black and white and two color cameras for insert, graphics,
and Chromakey; a 3/4 -inch JVC 6600 VTR with remote control and joy stick. Custom computer control
has been added for the first three units. Edit I complements CFI's two operational two -inch editing
CH Video, Hollywood
suites and its 3/4 -inch off-line editing bay. The company also recently added a Rank Cintel telecine
system to go with its Fernseh telecine unit. 959 Seward Street, Hollywood CA 90038. (213) 462 -3161.
Jensen transformers
i
By
The Best
Direct Box Transformer
is Now Twice as Good.
the JE -DB -E
Use the Highest Quality
, o(
Unsurpassed Audio Quality
Twice the level handling at
critical low frequencies,
( +19 dBv @ 20 Hz).
Half the distortion; less than
0.15°iá @ 20 Hz, decreasing by
V2 for each octave higher.
Very wide bandwidth for a clean
top end ( -3 dB @ 70 kHz).
Two Faraday shields fight hum in
the mixer and amp.; Mu metal
case for 30 dB magnetic shielding;
each shield has separate lead.
transformers I
By REICHENBACH ENGINEERING
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Transformers for your
High Quality
Power Amplifier
JE-11P-1 Type
Plug -in Transformers for
popular octal pin -outs
Models compatible with Altec, Ampex,
BGW and other amplifiers.
Immediate availability.
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Proven Reliability
Every transformer fully tested.
Write or call for information,
including a schematic to build your
own direct box.
10735 BURBANK BOULEVARD
N. HOLLYWOOD, CA 91601
(213) 876-0059
Vi.it,ne
R -e/p 188
by anoumtment only - Closed Fridays)
October
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Built -in custom RC network to yield
best transient response, bandwidth and
distortion when used with intended
power amplifier.
69 kHz bandwidth with <2% overshoot
(depending on amplifier).
At worst -case frequency of 20 Hz,
handles levels up to +18 dBv (re:0.775V)
and '0.045% THD below saturation.
PROVEN RELIABILITY
RESTORATION
Every transformer fully tested.
refurb
15904 Strathern St.1123 Van Nuys,
Phone: (213) 994-6602
UNSURPASSED AUDIO QUALITY
CA
91406
10735 BURBANK BOULEVARD
N. HOLLYWOOD, CA 91601
(213) 876 -0059
(Visitors by appointment only
1981
For additional information circle #165
www.americanradiohistory.com
- Closed Fridays)
0¡_f(8W1
jiLD-r
REALIFE PRODUCTIONS (Agoura, California) is described as a new full service audio/video facility featuring 16 -track audio
recording and a complete multicamera %2- and 3/4 -inch video operation. The audio studio is equipped with TEAC Tascam 16- and two-track
recorders, a 24-channel Biamp console and dbx noise reduction. Outboards include MICMIX Master -Room XL -305 reverb and Lexicon
Prime Time digital delay, dbx compressors and limiters, an EXR Exciter, and dbx 900 Series noise gates. Mikes are by Neumann, AKG,
Shure, Crown PMZ, and Sennheiser, while the instrument list offers a Kawai grand piano, a Hammond B -3 organ with two Leslies, and Les
Paul, Stratocastor, and Sting Ray Bass guitars. The video room offers Panasonic 3/4 -inch on -line editing, Panasonic and JVC color
monitors, JVC S -1000 color video cameras, and Panasonic I/2- and % -inch tape VTRs. Studio owners Bruce Jackson and Dusty Ebsen
are both currently in shooting for Rockfile, a future release of Theta Cable, which will combine major recording artists Pat Benetar, The
Tubes, and Vickie Carnes. P.O. Box 356, Agoura, CA 91301. (213) 889 -1318.
CHRONICLE PRODUCTIONS (San Francisco, California) announces the availability of full audio sweetening, dialogue
replacement, and live music scoring with time code interlocked video. "Since its inception, Chronicle Productions has been committed to
the highest quality of picture and sound production," said Ken Hobbs, director of sales and marketing. "The expansion of these services
through an arrangement with Fantasy Studios is the next logical step in fulfilling that commitment." "Our arrangement with Fantasy
allows us to provide personal production coordination of our clients' work through all phases of sweetening," said CP's director of
production Stephen Smith. Sixteen- and 24 -track studios with Dolby and extensive sound effects will be offered. In addition, a producer
can be supplied with a stereo mix for Use in other than the broadcast medium. 1001 Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94109. (415)
561 -8663.
ALCON VIDEO /FILM PRODUCTIONS (San Francisco, California) has opened its new production and post -production
facility equipped with 3/4 -inch on -line editing, complemented by one -inch mastering. Partners in the venture are Richard Poggioli, Jayne
Morris, Jim Cassedy, Ken Fay, and Steve Gamble. Film production is also offered. San Francisco, CA.
CHATON RECORDINGS (Scottsdale, Arizona) has taken delivery of a 25 -foot Beach -craft motorhome packed with audio gear
ready for synchronization with video. Long range planning by the studio points towards stereo television, as the truck is equipped with a
BTX Shadow synchronizer and a BTX Model 5400 reader /writer, allowing for interlock with collaborating television units. Other
equipment includes a 250 -foot neopreme cable for truck to auditorium lines, a Soundcraft Series 800 console interfaced with an Otari
MTR -90 multitrack machine, three video monitors, and radio links with the location audio and video crews. The truck is also available for
standard audio location recording. 5625 Nauni Valley Drive, Scottsdale, AZ 85253. (602) 991 -2802.
Overseas Activity:
THE SOUTH AFRICAN BROADCASTING CORPORATION (South Africa) will soon be taking delivery of 11 Audio -Kinetics
Q -LOCK 3.10 SMPTE/EBU time -code synchronizers. Each three -machine system will offer complete transport control of a video master
and two audio slave machines. The built -in time code generator can be locked to incoming video or external time code for accurate time
code regeneration.
LONDON WEEKEND TELEVISION (London, England) recently purchased from Audio -Kinetics a new Q -LOCK 3.10
synchronizer, bringing the total number of systems in use at the company's facility to five.
Noise Suppression
Power
Protection
AUDIO-VIDEO
SPECIALTIES
RENT
THE ADAMS -SMITH TS -605 -B
TAPE SYNCHRONIZER
APHEX
BY NOVA SYSTEMS
This patented signal processor
enhances the natural overtones present
in a musical program to give you back
tha' "live" presence.
Input /Outputs are RCA high impedance
unbalanced connectors.
TYPICAL APPLICATIONS:
Model PS -1
The PS -1 is a power line conditioning unit
designed to protect audio equipment from
high voltage transients and RFinterferenc.e.
Three noun lamps indicate relative phasing
of the line. neutral and ground connections.
A latching relay helps to avoid amprspeaker
damage due to power up transients generated
after a temporary lus of power. Ask your
local music dealer for more details.
Linear & Digital
Systems, Inc.
Marco Lane, Centerville, OH
45459
(513)439 -1758
48
Master and 2 slaves
24 or 30 frames per sec
Accurate to 1 /100 frame
Interfaces to almost any deck
SPECIAL
** *INTRODUCTORY OFFER * **
$1,000 PER WEEK includes:
Recording Studio
Sound Reinforcement
Live Theatre
Movie Theatre
Concert Sound
High End Audio Consumer
available from Suntronics
Multitrack Stores Only!
1620 West Foothill Blvd.
Upland, CA 91786
(714) 985 -0701
985 -5307
Delivery
/
UNTRiS((UlllC
Checkout
All interface cables
7760 Balboa Blvd.
Van Nuys, CA 91406
Pick up
(213) 991-4952
(213) 781 -2537
781 -2604
October
For additional information circle #168
www.americanradiohistory.com
7560 Garden Grove Blvd.
Westminster, CA 92683
(714) 898 -6368
898 -9036
1981
R -e /p 189
better maximum output in the high frequency spectrum than Scotch 206 /207
tapes. In addition, Scotch 226 has
improved print- through and output
STUDER AND OTARI MACHINES
NOW BIASED FOR
SCOTCH 226 TAPE
When no other type is requested, all
Studer B67,
A -80 and A -800 Series
machines and Otani MTR -10 recorders are
now optimum biased for Scotch 226 audio
tape and packed with a reel of the tape,
reports Henry Ovadia, OEM Market
Development Manager, 3M's Magnetic
Audio /Video Products Division. Scotch
226 tape, when used at 15 IPS, is said to
deliver 3 dB greater maximum output in
the low-frequency spectrum, and 2 dB
properties. The tape offers 2 dB better
signal -to -print properties than existing
high output/low noise mastering tapes.
MITSUBISHI DIGITAL AUDIO
RECORDERS NOW AVAILABLE ON
DIRECT RENTAL BASIS
Lou Dollenger, PCM sales manager
headquartered in Lincolnwood, Illinois,
said the X -80 recorder presently is the least
expensive of any digital recorder and the
most practical because of its razor blade
editing capability. With the recent
announcement of Mitsubishi's agreement
THIS ISSUE OF R -e /p IS SPONSORED BY THE FOLLOWING LIST OF ADVERTISERS
A &R Record Manufacturing Co.
AVC Systems, Inc.
Advanced Music Systems
Agfa -Gevaert
42
173
85
AKG Acoustics
Allen & Heath /Brenell
Alpha Acoustic Control Ltd.
Alpha Audio
Altec Corporation
Ampex Corporation
Analog Digital Associates
Antech Labs.
Aphex Systems Ltd
Audio Engineering Associates
Audio Envelope Systems
Audio & Design Recording
Audioforce, Inc
Audio Industries Corp.
Audio Kinetics
Audiomarketing, Ltd
Audio Processing Systems, Inc
Audio Technica US
182
Auditronics
Audio -Video Specialties
Brystonvermont
Rudi Breuer
Carvin Manufacturing Co.
Clear -Com
Community Light & Sound, Inc.
Crown International
Countryman Associates
dbx, Inc
Datatronix, Inc.
DeltaLab Research
Digital Services
EXR Corporation
Earthtone, Inc
Eastlake /Sierra
Electro -Media Systems
Electro- Voice, Inc.
Eventide Clockworks
Everything Audio
FAS Audio Services
Flanner's Pro Audio
Gotham Audio Corp.
HM Electronics, Inc.
Hardy Company
Hollywood Sound
Industrial Tape Applications /ITAM
International Consoles Corp.
Inovonics, Inc.
JBL
JVC Cutting Center
Jensen Transformers
K -Disc Mastering
Klark -Teknik
LT Sound
Lake Systems
Lakeside Audio
Leo's Professional Audio
October
34-35
115
55
129
19,177,179
52
167
115
77,87
151
37
97
25
10
31
172,175
113
169
189
69
184
187
149
149
79,81
124
109,116
130
140
135
66
105
12
80
89
24
3-4
106
33
171
44
114
180
35
145
166
27-30
183,185
188
178
121
176
78
111
Lexicon, Inc
Linear and Digital Systems, Inc.
Linn Electronics, Inc
MCI
MXR Pro Audio
Magnetic Reference Labs
Martin Audio
R -e /p 190
g
139
39
189
14
13
91
36
74
MICMIX Audio
Midas Audio Systems
Mike Shop
Milam Audio
Sye Mitchell Sound Company
Mitsubishi Digital Audio
Neotek
Neotek West
Neutrik Professional Products
Rupert Neve, Inc.
Noise Limited
Omnicraft, Inc
Omnimount Systems
Orban Associates
Otani Corporation
Outer Ear, Inc
Panasonic RAMSA
Panasonic Technics
Peavey Electronics
Pioneer Electronics
Polyline Corp
Pro Audio Systems
Professional Audio Services
Professional Recording & Sound
Project Synthesis Intl
Quad -Eight Electronics
Quantum Audio
RKB Industrial, Inc.
RTS Systems, Inc.
Restoration
Rumbo Recorders
Saki Magnetics
Sennheiser Electronic Corp.
SESCOM, Inc.
Shure Brothers
Snow Bound Sound
Solid State Logic
Soundcraft Electronics
Sound Genesis
Sound Investments
Sound Technology
Sound Workshop
Speck Electronics
Spectra Sound
Spectrum Fidelity Magnetics
Sphere Electronics
Studer ReVox /America
Studio Supply Company
Studio Technologies
Summit Audio
Suntronics
Symetrix
TDK
TEAC /Tascam
Telex Communications
Tentel
3M Companies
Thunder Road Studios
UREI
Ú87,U89
URSA Major
Valley People
Westbrook Audio
Westlake Audio
White Instruments
Yale Radio Electric Company
Yamaha International
51
45
131
47-48
98
5
117
53
20
6-7
108
131
99
102
16 -17,94
18
22-23
127
165
101
186
186
26
137
156
43
38
142
49,162
188
58
110
174
186
192
50
11
73
119
160
147
15,93
32
71
187
107
191
63
46
43
153,170,187,189
54
123
141
161
175
57,65
181
21
171
133
103
159
82 -83
168
132,164
40-41
1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
with AEG Telefunken, West Germany,
digital mastering of Mitsubishi PCM
tapes is now possible in Japan and
Europe, as well as the United States.
Rates for the rentals are: $1,000 a week,
with a two -week minimum, plus air freight
and digital tape costs; tape is available
from Ampex and 3 -M, Dollenger pointed
out. He advised three -to four -week
advance notice to rent the equipment.
SOUNDWORKSHOP APPOINTS
WESTLAKE AUDIO AS DEALER
FOR L.A. AND S. CALIFORNIA
Negotiations between the two còmpanies were finalized in Los Angeles during
September by Glenn Phoenix, president of
Westlake.Audio, and Emil Handke, sales
manager for Sound Workshop.
MARTIN AUDIO VIDEO
APPOINTED NORTHEAST
DEALER
FOR HARRISON SYSTEMS
Commenting on the appointment,
Martin general manager Courtney
Spencer said, "Harrison has clearly
become a major factor in the console
market over the last several years, while
Martin has established itself as one of the
two or three largest professional dealers in
the country. The addition of Harrison
gives us a very credible world class console
to top our range of products, and in return
Martin gives Harrison an outlet in the
northeast with substantial technical,
financial, and marketing resources."
The MR -3 is the newest of the products
in the Harrison line. Recognising that
most studio owners like to see a piece of
capital equipment "in the flesh" before
committing to buy, Martin has just
completed installation of a full -size MR -3
console in their demonstration studio.
Says Spencer, "In our demo room, our
customers are offered an unusual
opportunity to not only see the console, but
actually use it in a relaxed environment.
Our MR -3 is part of a functioning control
room, complete with Otani MTR -90
multitrack, UREI Time AlignedTM
monitors and a wide selection of reverb
and signal processing equipment. We
encourage our customers to bring their
own multitrack tapes and take some time
to hear what the board can do."
VIDEO CASSETTE RECORDER
SALES SOAR TO RECORD LEVEL
Total U.S. market sales to retailers of
home video cassette recorders increased
sharply in September, 1981, over the same
month a year ago, according to the
Marketing Services Department of the
Electronic Industries Association's
Consumer Electronics Group.
Home sales to retailers in September
were 153,680 units, an increase of 63.9
percent over sales of 93,747 in the same
month last year. Sales in the first nine
months of 1981 climbed to 883,729 units,
up 81.4 percent for the same period of 1980.
In contrast, sales of color television
receiver retailers in September amounted
to 1,260,244 units, off 0.8 percent from
1,270,003 units sold in the identical month
a year ago, while monochrome television
sales in September, amounted to 538,998
units, a decline of 32.7 percent sold in the
ninth month last year.
In the Swiss :raditior of meticulous precision and matchless craftsmanship,
the STUDER A800 represents the ultimate achievement in multichannel tape recording.
It is a s}stem designed and engineered to complement the competent profess_r.r_al.
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INIMITABLE QUALITY-IMPECCABLE PERFORMANCE
UNQUESTIONABLY STUDER!
The A800 embodies ell the te.h ical sophistication and t_1t dnis synrab'_liy you Expect from STUDER; a computy whose -È.
1
onymous
wit_
reianility and functicnal innava:ion. Forexámole, the
A800 was the first machine to utilize mis ru- processor ontrzl of Eli
crit_cal transport and electronic tune t.cns, and empoys STUDER d?
veloped servo -controls over both tape tension and capstan speeds.
The total MOI) system includes a remote command unit :ordaining a total-fonction audio remote ccn:rol, a 20 address memory
auto-Exanor, the Tape Lock System 200C Programmer, capstan aariabli
speed centred and SMITE code channel remote selecto-, a I under
micro -.. oces.or control.
And as .tsu..il with STUDER eq:ripmenrt, the A800 incl.-ides no
unnecessary =eatures; it daesn-t tel( you what you don't need to know.
STUDER has Established a rnudt't-ack record, having pioneered
most o= the fucctiinal innavat_ve feetcres found in n ultitack recorder-,s :oday. STUDER remains the standard -se ter bot the entire
industry producing a steady succession of :eclanolo icai rrea:
thr 3uglls.
The A800 is another one.
UNQUEST:0NABLY STUDER!
R EVOX
Studer Revox America. nc. 1425 Eln- Fill Pike, Nashvi le, TN 37210 615) 254 -5651
Offices Los Angeles (213) 780-42:34 New York ;212) 255-4462'Canada Stucar Revox Canada Ltd.
For additio1.11 in'orn'a ion circle u170
www.americanradiohistory.com
C).
,her
I?
r p
19
1
Twice again: Shure sets
the standard for the industry!
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MASTE=I
Introducing two new microphone mixers
Ten years ago -with the
introcuct on of the
M67 and MS8 -Shure set the standards of
:he industry for compact, polaple micro-
phone mixers. Shure is now introducing two
new mixers with featu-es and imprcverients
tha- will mace them the new industry standards.
M267
M268
For Professional Broadcasting
For PLbIic Address and Paging
BoW T`, and Radio -in the studio and for
remote oroadk:ast applications.
hctels. schools, churcies, commurity
centers, iosoitals, etc.
For Professional Recorcing
For the Serious Tape Recorcing
In
Enthusiast
As an Add -On Mixer for
Expanding Current Equipment
With all these new features:
For Professional Sound
Reinforcement
For more complex puolic address
systems.
With a I these new features:
Sw tchable, fast- attac< mi-er
LED peak indicator
All ñputs switchable for rnic or line
Sirr plex power
Graater F-eadphone paner
Bui t -in battery supply
_ocrer noise
Reduced distortion
.and all of tie famous ME7 original features
I
..
.
Lower noise
Dramatic reduction ii distortic
M x bus
Automatic muting circuit
SimFle.< power
famous M68 original fe -uurE s.
and all o-
to
Both new models include the same ruggedness
anc reliability that have made the M67 3rd ME8
the too- seling mixers in the industry.
For complete iiformation on the r/267 and M268 send in for a ce:ailec product brochure (ask for AL669).
The Sound of the Professionals`
lì
SF--HURE
1R
Shure Brothers, I1C., 222 FartreyAvenue, Evanston, IL 60204
In Canada: A. C. Sirrmoics & Sons Liniled
Manufactures of high fideli :v components microphones, sound systems and related circuitry.
R -e p 192
October
1981
F3' additional nformation circle e- 71
www.americanradiohistory.com
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