Wowza Media Server® 2 - iptv

Wowza Media Server® 2 - iptv
Wowza Media Server® 2
User’s Guide
Wowza Media Server 2:
User’s Guide
®
Version: 2.2.4
Copyright  2006 – 2011 Wowza Media Systems, Inc.
http://www.wowzamedia.com
Copyright © 2006 - 2011 Wowza Media Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Third-Party Information
This document contains links to third-party websites that are not under the control of Wowza Media Systems,
Inc. (“Wowza”) and Wowza is not responsible for the content on any linked site. If you access a third-party
website mentioned in this document, then you do so at your own risk. Wowza provides these links only as a
convenience, and the inclusion of any link does not imply that Wowza endorses or accepts any responsibility
for the content on third-party sites.
This document refers to third party software that is not licensed, sold, distributed or otherwise endorsed by
Wowza. Please ensure that any and all use of Wowza software and third party software is properly licensed.
Trademarks
Wowza, Wowza Media Systems, Wowza Media Server and related logos are trademarks of Wowza Media
Systems, Inc., and may be registered in the United States or in other jurisdictions including internationally.
Adobe and Flash are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated, and may be registered in the
United States or in other jurisdictions including internationally.
Silverlight is either a registered trademark or a trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or
other countries.
QuickTime, iPhone, iPad and iPod are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Apple, Inc. in the United
States and/or other countries.
Other product names, logos, designs, titles, words, or phrases mentioned may be trademarks, service marks or
trade names of other entities and may be registered in certain jurisdictions including internationally.
Third Party Copyright Notices
Log4j and Mina: Copyright © 2006 The Apache Software Foundation
Java ID3 Tag Library and JLayer 1.0 (classic): Copyright © 1991, 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Java Service Wrapper: Copyright © 1999, 2006 Tanuki Software, Inc.
Bouncy Castle Crypto API: Copyright © 2000 – 2008, The Legion Of The Bouncy Castle
Table of Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................. 5
Real-Time Messaging Protocol (Adobe Flash Player) ....................................................................... 5
Flash HTTP Streaming (Adobe Flash Player) ................................................................................... 6
Apple HTTP Live Streaming (iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, QuickTime and more) ................................ 7
Microsoft Smooth Streaming (Microsoft Silverlight) ........................................................................... 7
Real-Time Streaming Protocols (QuickTime, VLC, 3GPP Devices, Set-top Boxes) ......................... 8
Video and Audio Streaming, Recording and Chat ............................................................................. 8
Extending the Server ......................................................................................................................... 9
Adobe Flash Player Features ............................................................................................................ 9
Server Architecture ............................................................................................................................ 9
Wowza Media Server 2 Editions ...................................................................................................... 10
Server Installation ..................................................................................................... 11
Before Installation ............................................................................................................................ 11
Installing the Server ......................................................................................................................... 12
Starting and Stopping the Server ..................................................................................................... 14
Entering a New Serial Number ........................................................................................................ 16
Ports Used For Streaming ............................................................................................................... 17
Server Configuration and Tuning ..................................................................................................... 17
Application Configuration ......................................................................................... 20
Applications and Application Instances (Application.xml) ................................................................ 20
URL Formats.................................................................................................................................... 21
Stream Types................................................................................................................................... 22
HTTPStreamers and LiveStreamPacketizers .................................................................................. 23
Modules ........................................................................................................................................... 24
Properties......................................................................................................................................... 24
Media Types .................................................................................................................................... 25
Content Storage ............................................................................................................................... 25
Streaming Tutorials................................................................................................... 27
How to play a video on demand file ................................................................................................. 27
How to publish and play a live stream (RTMP or RTSP/RTP based encoder) ................................ 27
How to publish and play a live stream (MPEG-TS based encoder) ................................................. 27
How to publish and play a live stream (native RTP encoder with SDP file) ..................................... 28
How to re-stream video from an IP camera ..................................................................................... 28
How to re-stream audio from SHOUTcast/Icecast ........................................................................... 28
How to setup video chat application ................................................................................................ 28
How to setup video recording application ........................................................................................ 28
Advanced Configuration Topics ............................................................................... 29
MediaCasters, Stream Manager and StartupStreams.xml .............................................................. 29
Live Stream Repeater (Multiple Server Live Streaming) ................................................................. 30
Live Stream Recording .................................................................................................................... 34
Server-side Publishing (Stream and Publisher classes) .................................................................. 34
Dynamic Load Balancing ................................................................................................................. 35
Media Security (SecureToken, authentication and encryption) ....................................................... 35
Push Publishing ............................................................................................................................... 35
MediaCache ..................................................................................................................................... 35
Adobe Flash Streaming and Scripting ...................................................................... 36
Streaming Basics ............................................................................................................................. 36
Pre-built Media Players .................................................................................................................... 37
Bi-directional Remote Procedure Calls ............................................................................................ 38
Remote Shared Objects .................................................................................................................. 39
Server-side Modules and Extensions ....................................................................... 41
Sever-side Modules ......................................................................................................................... 41
HTTPProviders ................................................................................................................................ 42
Built-in Server-side Modules ............................................................................................................ 43
Built-in HTTPProviders .................................................................................................................... 46
Extending Wowza Server Using Java ....................................................................... 48
Custom Module Classes .................................................................................................................. 48
HTTPProvider Classes .................................................................................................................... 56
Event Listeners ................................................................................................................................ 57
Server Administration ............................................................................................... 61
Configuring SSL and RTMPS .......................................................................................................... 61
Logging ............................................................................................................................................ 63
Run Server as Named User ............................................................................................................. 68
Server Management Console and Monitoring .......................................................... 70
Local Management Using JConsole ................................................................................................ 70
Remote JMX Interface Configuration ............................................................................................... 71
Remote Management ...................................................................................................................... 76
Object Overview............................................................................................................................... 77
Virtual Hosting .......................................................................................................... 79
Configuration Files ........................................................................................................................... 79
Typical Configuration ....................................................................................................................... 80
Examples & AddOn Packages .................................................................................. 84
SimpleVideoStreaming .................................................................................................................... 84
LiveVideoStreaming ......................................................................................................................... 84
VideoChat ........................................................................................................................................ 85
VideoRecording ............................................................................................................................... 85
TextChat .......................................................................................................................................... 85
SHOUTcast ...................................................................................................................................... 85
RemoteSharedObjects..................................................................................................................... 85
ServerSideModules ......................................................................................................................... 85
MediaSecurity .................................................................................................................................. 86
BWChecker ...................................................................................................................................... 86
LoadBalancer ................................................................................................................................... 86
U S E R ’ S
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1
Chapter
Introduction
What is Wowza Media Server 2?
W
owza Media Server 2 is high-performance, extensible and fully interactive media
streaming software platform that provides live and on-demand streaming, chat and
remote recording capabilities to a wide variety of media player technologies. Wowza
Server can deliver content to many popular media players such as Adobe’s® Flash® Player,
Microsoft’s Silverlight® player, Apple’s iPhone®, iPad™ and iPod® touch and Apple’s
QuickTime® player, among others. Wowza Media Server 2 includes support for many streaming
protocols including the Real-Time Messaging Protocol (RTMP), Microsoft Smooth Streaming,
Apple HTTP Live Streaming, Real-Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), Flash HTTP Streaming
protocol, Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP), MPEG2 Transport Streams (MPEG-TS) and
more. It is an alternative to the Adobe Flash Media Server products (FMIS and FMSS), Apple
Streaming Server (Darwin), Microsoft IIS (Internet Information Services) and other media
servers.
For the most up to date information, tutorials and tips, visit the support section of
http://www.wowzamedia.com at:
Support & Forums
To get started quickly with Wowza Media Server 2, see the Quick Start Guide included with the
Wowza Media Server 2 software installer and also available online at:
Quick Start Guide
Real-Time Messaging Protocol (Adobe Flash Player)
Wowza Media Server 2 communicates with the Adobe Flash player using the Real-Time
Messaging Protocol (RTMP). Wowza Server can deliver multi-bitrate live and on-demand media,
data and remote procedure call information to and from the Flash player using RTMP. It
supports media streaming as well as other features such as: shared objects, video recording, video
chat, remote procedure calls and more. Wowza Media Server 2 supports all video and audio
formats that the Flash player supports:
Copyright © 2006 - 2011 Wowza Media Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Video




H.264
VP6
SorensonSpark
Screen Shared codec
Audio




AAC, AAC Low Complexity (AAC LC), AAC High Efficiency v1 and v2 (HE-AAC)
MP3
Speex
NellyMoser ASAO
Wowza Server supports five variants of the protocol: RTMP, RTMPE (encrypted RTMP),
RTMPT (tunneling), RTMPTE (encrypted RTMPT) and RTMPS (RTMPT over SSL). RTMP is
the base protocol and is the most efficient and fastest of the five variants. RTMPT is a tunneling
variant of the RTMP protocol that can be used to tunnel through firewalls that employ stateful
packet inspection. RTMPE and RTMPTE are encrypted variants of the RTMP and RTMPT
protocols that secure the data being transmitted between the Flash player and Wowza Media
Server. Wowza Server includes bi-directional support for Action Message Format (AMF) AMF3
and AMF0 for data serialization (AMF3 was introduced in Flash Player 9 and ActionScript 3.0).
Flash HTTP Streaming (Adobe Flash Player)
Wowza Media Server 2 can stream multi-bitrate live and video on demand content to Flash player
10.1 or greater using the Flash HTTP Streaming protocol. Flash HTTP Streaming is a chunk
based streaming protocol that uses HTTP for delivery. All media chunking and packaging
necessary to deliver a stream using this protocol is performed by Wowza Server. Flash HTTP
Streaming is referred to in the Wowza Server documentation and configuration files as San Jose
Streaming. When streaming video on demand content, Wowza Server supports MP4 files
(QuickTime container) and MP3 files (FLV files are not supported at this time). As of the writing
of this document Wowza Server supports the following video and audio codecs when using this
streaming protocol:
Video




H.264
VP6 (live only)
SorensonSpark (live only)
Screen Shared codec (live only)
Copyright © 2006 - 2011 Wowza Media Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Audio




AAC, AAC Low Complexity (AAC LC), AAC High Efficiency v1 and v2 (HE-AAC)
MP3
Speex (live only)
NellyMoser ASAO (live only)
Apple HTTP Live Streaming (iPhone, iPad, iPod touch,
QuickTime and more)
Wowza Media Server 2 can stream multi-bitrate live and video on demand H.264, AAC and MP3
content to iOS based devices ( iPhone/iPad/iPod touch iOS version 3.0 or greater), QuickTime
player (version 10 or greater), Safari browser (version 4.0 or greater) and other devices such as the
Roku set-top box using the Apple HTTP Live Streaming protocol. Apple HTTP Live Streaming
is a chunk based streaming protocol that uses HTTP for delivery. All media chunking and
packaging necessary to deliver a stream using this protocol is performed by Wowza Server.
Wowza Server supports the encrypted version of the Apple HTTP Live Streaming protocol
which uses a 128-bit version of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES-128). Apple HTTP
Live Streaming is referred to in the Wowza Server documentation and configuration files as
Cupertino Streaming. As of the writing of this document the iPhone, iPad and iPod touch
devices support the following media formats:
Video

H.264


AAC, AAC Low Complexity (AAC LC), High Efficiency AAC v1 (HE-AAC)
MP3
Audio
Microsoft Smooth Streaming (Microsoft Silverlight)
Wowza Media Server 2 can stream multi-bitrate live and video on demand H.264, AAC and MP3
content to the Microsoft Silverlight player, Windows Phone 7 devices and other devices using the
Smooth Streaming protocol. Microsoft Silverlight is a cross-browser, cross-platform technology
that exists on many personal computing devices. Smooth Streaming is a chunk based streaming
protocol that uses HTTP for delivery. All media chunking and packaging necessary to deliver a
stream using this protocol is performed by Wowza Server so there is no need for an IIS 7 server.
The following media formats can be used when streaming to the Silverlight player using Wowza
Server:
Video

H.264
Copyright © 2006 - 2011 Wowza Media Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Audio


AAC, AAC Low Complexity (AAC LC), AAC High Efficiency v1 and v2 (HE-AAC)
MP3
Real-Time Streaming Protocols (QuickTime, VLC, 3GPP
Devices, Set-top Boxes)
Wowza Media Server 2 can stream live H.264, AAC and MP3 content to players and devices that
support the Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) and
MPEG2 Transport Stream protocol (MPEG-TS). This includes players and devices such as
QuickTime Player, VideoLAN VLC player, set-top boxes and 3GPP devices. Wowza Server can
also accept incoming streams from encoding devices that use these same protocols. Wowza
Server supports RTP and MPEG-TS in and out over UDP as well as Multicast. In addition,
Wowza Server supports interleaved RTSP/RTP (RTP over the RTSP TCP connection) and
RTSP/RTP tunneling (RTSP/RTP over HTTP) which enables RTSP/RTP to be delivered in
network environments that do not allow UDP transmission.
Wowza Server supports the following RTSP, RTP and MPEG-TS specifications:
RTSP
RTP: H.264
RTP: AAC
RTP: MP3
RTP: Speex
MPEG-TS
MPEG-TS over RTP
rfc2326
rfc3984, QuickTime Generic RTP Payload Format
rfc3640, rfc3016, ISO/IEC 14496-3
rfc2250
rfc5574
ISO/IEC 13818-1
rfc2038
Video and Audio Streaming, Recording and Chat
Wowza Media Server 2 can stream live and video on demand content to many different player
technologies. Wowza Media Server 2 supports the following video on demand file formats: FLV
(Flash Video - .flv), MP4 (QuickTime container - .mp4, .f4v, .mov, .m4v, .mp4a, .3gp, and .3g2)
and MP3 content (.mp3). Wowza Server can accept live video and audio streams from encoders
that support the following protocols; RTMP, RTSP/RTP, native RTP and MPEG-TS. Wowza
Server can record any incoming live stream to either the Flash Video (FLV) or MP4 (QuickTime
container) format.
Wowza Media Server 2 can be used to re-stream SHOUTcast and Icecast (MP3, AAC and
AAC+) audio streams as well as IP Camera streams (H.264, AAC and MP3) to the supported
player technologies. Wowza Server will maintain a single connection back to the original source
stream while delivering the stream to multiple players. Wowza Server is also able to forward the
embedded SHOUTcast and Icecast metadata such as song title and artist to the Adobe Flash
player client as metadata. The SHOUTcast example that ships with Wowza Server illustrates
these capabilities.
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Wowza Media Server 2 can deliver two-way video, audio and text chat to the Adobe Flash player.
This feature can be leveraged to deliver video conferencing applications or two-way messaging
applications.
Extending the Server
Wowza Media Server 2 is built using Java technology. The server can be extended by writing
custom Java classes that are dynamically loaded at runtime. Server extensions (also referred to as
modules) run at the full speed of the server. The server includes a rich API to interact with and
control the streaming process. Wowza Server ships with several example server extensions. See
the chapter Extending Wowza Server Using Java for more detailed information and the
support section of http://www.wowzamedia.com for code examples.
Adobe Flash Player Features
Wowza Media Server 2 includes support for two Adobe Flash specific features; Remote Shared
Objects (RSO) and bi-directional remote procedure calls. Remote Shared Objects are an
extension of ActionScript objects that enables the synchronization of shared object data between
Flash players on the same or different client machines. Shared data is synchronized by the Wowza
Server server through an event based synchronization method. RSO’s can also be persisted on
the server to maintain data across sessions.
Bi-directional remote procedures calls are a way for ActionScript code running in the Flash player
to invoke methods and pass data to Wowza Server. Wowza Server can in turn invoke methods
and pass data to the Flash player. This enables rich client/server applications to be built using the
Flash player and Wowza Server. These features are available when using the RTMP protocol.
Server Architecture
Wowza Media Server 2 is a pure Java server. It is written in Java and can be extended dynamically
using custom Java classes. Wowza Server can be deployed in any environment that supports the
Java 6 virtual machine or later. Wowza Server is fully 64-bit compliant. It is architected to be
highly multi-threaded and can take full advantage of multi-core hardware. All logging is done
using the log4j logging component and utilizes the W3C Extended Common Log Format
(ECLF).
Wowza Media Server 2 was architected from the ground up to handle multiple streaming
protocols. The server side API is designed to make it easy to control the streaming process of
each of the supported streaming protocols and player technologies. Streaming is controlled
through the creation and configuration of a streaming application. A single application can be
configured to simultaneously deliver live or video on demand content to multiple player
technologies.
Wowza Media Server 2 includes the ability to share a single server using a virtual hosting
configuration. Virtual hosts can be configured with their own system resource and streaming
limitations.
Copyright © 2006 - 2011 Wowza Media Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Wowza Media Server 2 Editions
Wowza Media Server 2 comes in five editions: Developer, Evaluation, Software Subscription,
Perpetual and Wowza Media Server 2 for Amazon EC2.
Developer edition
Evaluation edition
Subscription and
Perpetual editions
Wowza Media Server 2
for Amazon EC2 edition
The Developer and the Subscription/Perpetual editions differ
only in the number of concurrent connections the server can
handle (10 and unlimited respectively), streaming time duration
limits on selected protocols (limited and unlimited respectively),
and licensing rights (see the Wowza EULA for more
information); all other functionality is exactly the same
The Evaluation edition provides the same functionality as the
Subscription/Perpetual editions but is limited to 30 days of use
and other restrictions apply as described in the Evaluation EULA
Addendum
Subscription and Perpetual editions differ only by licensing terms
(see the Wowza EULA for more information); all other functionality
is exactly the same.
The Wowza Media Server 2 for Amazon EC2 edition provides the
same functionality as the Subscription/Perpetual editions but under
different licensing terms (see the Wowza EULA and the Wowza
Media Server 2 for Amazon EC2 EULA, respectively, for more
information). The Wowza Media Server 2 for Amazon EC2 edition
is a pre-configured version of Wowza Media Server 2 running in the
Amazon Elastic Computing Cloud (EC2) environment (see the
following web page for more information:
http://www.wowzamedia.com/ec2.php).
Copyright © 2006 - 2011 Wowza Media Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
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2
Chapter
Server Installation
How do I install Wowza Media Server 2?
W
owza Media Server 2 is a small and powerful Java server. Below are the instructions
needed to choose the correct version of Java and install and run Wowza Server.
Before Installation
Wowza Media Server 2 is a Java 6 (aka 1.6) application. To run, it requires the installation of a
Java 6 or greater runtime environment (JRE). To develop server side applications, a Java
Development Kit (JDK) version 6 or later is required. The server also implements a Java
Management Extensions (JMX) interface that can be used to manage and monitor the server.
One of the more popular JMX consoles is JConsole, which ships with the JDK.
So what does this all mean? If you are developing server side applications or are going to monitor
a local or remote Wowza Server, you need to install Java Development Kit version 6 (aka 1.6) or
greater. If you are simply deploying Wowza Server for production use, then you need only install
a Java runtime environment version 6 (aka 1.6) or greater. We recommend installing the most
recent version of the Java JDK or JRE for your platform.
Note
We suggest that you deploy Wowza Media Server 2 under the most recent version of either the
Java Development Kit (JDK) or Java Runtime Environment (JRE) available on your platform.
On the Windows platform the Java Runtime Environment does not include the server runtime
environment (which is explained in the tuning instructions). This environment is included with
the Java Development Kit. For this reason when running on Windows, we suggest installing the
JDK.
Once you have your Java environment installed and configured, you can validate that it is correct
by opening a command prompt (command shell) and entering the command java –version. If
correctly installed and configured, it will return a version number that is equal to or greater than
1.6.
Copyright © 2006 - 2011 Wowza Media Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Note
The Support section of the Wowza Media Systems website contains additional information and
links to help with obtaining the correct Java environment and tools for your platform. You can
visit this site at: http://www.wowzamedia.com/forums.
Note
Wowza Media Server 2 on the Windows platform uses the JAVA_HOME environment variable
to determine the location of the Java environment under which to run. If you have problems
starting Wowza Server on Windows, double check to be sure the JAVA_HOME variable is
pointing to a Java 6 (aka 1.6) or greater Java environment. When making changes or upgrades to
your Java environment that may affect the installation path, be sure to update the JAVA_HOME
variable to point to the new location. The JAVA_HOME variable should point to the base folder
of the Java installation. This is the folder that contains the bin folder.
Installing the Server
On the Windows and Mac OS X platforms Wowza Media Server 2 is installed using an installer.
On Linux, Solaris and other Unix based platforms, the software is installed using a self extracting
binary installer. These are available for download at:
http://www.wowzamedia.com/store.html
Windows
To install Wowza Media Server 2 on Windows, double-click the installer file and follow the
instructions on the screen. During the installation process you will be asked to enter the product
serial number. You cannot proceed with the installation until you have entered a valid serial
number. There is information below on how to change your serial number if you need to
upgrade your server license. Files will be installed to the following location:
/Program Files (x86)/Wowza Media Systems/Wowza Media Server 2.2.4
Here you will find documentation server application files and folders,
bin, conf, content, examples, lib and logs
To uninstall, choose Uninstall Wowza Media Server from the Start>Programs>Wowza
Media Server 2.2.4 menu.
Mac OS X
To install Wowza Media Server 2 on Mac OS X, mount the disk image (double-click .dmg) file,
double-click the installer package (.pkg) file and follow the instructions on the screen. Files will be
installed to the following locations.
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/Applications/Wowza Media Server 2.2.4
/Library/WowzaMediaServer
/Library/LaunchDaemons
- server startup/shutdown scripts
& documentation
- server application files and
folders: applications, bin, conf,
content, examples, lib and logs
- background service script
com.wowza.WowzaMediaServer.plist
/Library/Receipts
- installer receipt file
WowzaMediaServer-2.2.4preview7.pkg
The first time you run the server in standalone mode you will be asked to enter your serial
number. The serial number is stored in the file /Library/WowzaMediaServer/conf/
Server.license. There is information below on how to change your serial number if you need to
upgrade your server license.
To uninstall, throw the following folders and files into the trash.
folder:
/Applications/Wowza Media Server 2.2.4
folder:
/Library/WowzaMediaServer-2.2.4
symlink: /Library/WowzaMediaServer
file:
/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.wowza.WowzaMediaServer.plist
file:
/Library/Receipts/WowzaMediaServer-2.2.4.pkg
Linux
To install on Linux systems follow the steps below:
Red Hat Package Manager Systems
sudo chmod +x WowzaMediaServer-2.2.4.rpm.bin
sudo ./WowzaMediaServer-2.2.4.rpm.bin
To uninstall:
sudo rpm –e WowzaMediaServer-2.2.4
Debian Package Manager Systems
sudo chmod +x WowzaMediaServer-2.2.4.deb.bin
sudo ./WowzaMediaServer-2.2.4.deb.bin
To uninstall:
sudo dpkg –-purge wowzamediaserver
You will be asked to agree to the End User License Agreement. The package manager will
extract and install the files in the /usr/local/WowzaMediaServer-2.2.4 directory. The server
will be installed as the root user. The first time you run the server in standalone mode you will be
asked to enter your serial number. The serial number is stored in the file
Copyright © 2006 - 2011 Wowza Media Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
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/usr/local/WowzaMediaServer/conf/Server.license. There is information below on how to
change your serial number if you need to upgrade your server license.
Other Linux and Unix Systems
To install the server on other Linux and Unix based systems, such as Solaris, open a terminal
window. Download WowzaMediaServer-2.2.4.tar.bin to any directory, and execute the self
extracting installer:
sudo chmod +x WowzaMediaServer-2.2.4.tar.bin
sudo ./WowzaMediaServer-2.2.4.tar.bin
You will be asked to agree to the End User License Agreement. The self-extracting installer
will install the files in the /usr/local/WowzaMediaServer-2.2.4 directory. The server will be
installed as the root user. The first time you run the server in standalone mode you will be asked
to enter your serial number. The serial number is stored in the file
/usr/local/WowzaMediaServer/conf/Server.license. There is information below on how to
change your serial number if you need to upgrade your server license.
To uninstall:
cd /usr/local
rm –rf WowzaMediaServer-2.2.4
Starting and Stopping the Server
Windows: Standalone
On Windows, Wowza Media Server 2 can be started in standalone mode from the Start menu:
All Programs>Wowza Media Server 2.2.4>Wowza Startup/Shutdown.
The server can also be started from a DOS command prompt. To do this, open a DOS
command prompt and execute the following commands:
cd %WMSAPP_HOME%\bin
startup.bat
Windows: Service
To start the server as a Windows service, from the Windows Start menu, enter Services into the
search field. A list of search results will be displayed - select Services from the results. Scroll down
the list until you locate the Wowza Media Server entry. Next, right click on the entry and select
Start from the context menu. To stop the server select Stop from the same context menu. To
configure the service to run each time Windows restarts, select Properties from the right click
context menu, set Startup type to Automatic and click the OK button to close the dialog.
Copyright © 2006 - 2011 Wowza Media Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Note
By default the Windows service is running under the Local System Account. This can limit how
Wowza Media Server 2 can interact with the underlying operating system. For example you might
not be able to connect to Wowza Server using JConsole/JMX or you may have issues streaming
content from UNC paths. To address these issues, modify the service to run as a named user in
the Log On tab of the service properties dialog.
Mac OSX: Standalone
On Mac OS X the server can be started in standalone mode either by invoking it from the Server
Startup script in /Applications/Wowza Media Server 2.2.4 or by opening a Terminal
window and entering the following commands:
cd /Library/WowzaMediaServer/bin
./startup.sh
Mac OSX: Service
To start the server as a Mac OS X launchd service, open a Terminal window and enter:
sudo launchctl load -w /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.wowza.WowzaMediaServer.plist
To stop the service, enter:
sudo launchctl unload -w /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.wowza.WowzaMediaServer.plist
Linux: Standalone
To start the server in standalone mode on Linux, open a command shell then enter the following
commands:
cd /usr/local/WowzaMediaServer/bin
./startup.sh
To stop the server enter:
./shutdown.sh
Linux: Service
To start the server as a Linux service, open a command prompt and enter one of these two
commands (it differs based on your Linux distribution):
Copyright © 2006 - 2011 Wowza Media Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
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/sbin/service WowzaMediaServer start
or
/etc/init.d/WowzaMediaServer start
To stop the service, enter one of these two commands:
/sbin/service WowzaMediaServer stop
or
/etc/init.d/WowzaMediaServer stop
Note
The method of running init.d based services may be different on different Linux distributions.
Please consult your Linux manual if these instructions do not apply to your Linux distribution.
Note
The Linux services script subsystem does not use the full $PATH definition to determine the
location of Linux commands. It uses what is known as the init path. This can lead to an issue on
Linux distributions where the default installation location for Java cannot be found by applying
the init path. See this support article for more information:
http://www.wowzamedia.com/docredirect.php?doc=tipsJavaInstall
Entering a New Serial Number
Wowza Media Server 2 stores serial number information in the following file (on each of the
platforms):
%WMSCONFIG_HOME%\conf\Server.license
/Library/WowzaMediaServer/conf/Server.license
/usr/local/WowzaMediaServer/conf/Server.license
- Windows
- Mac OS X
- Linux/Unix
To change the serial number, edit this file using a text editor and enter the new serial number.
Upon next launch of the standalone server, the last four digits of the serial number will be
displayed in the console window.
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Ports Used For Streaming
Before streaming with Wowza Media Server 2, it is important that you open the following ports
on your firewall. The table below represents the defaults ports Wowza Server uses for streaming.
All of these port numbers are configurable through the configuration files described later in this
document.
TCP 1935
UDP 6970-9999
TCP 8084-8085
TCP 8086
RTMP/RTMPT/RTMPE/RTSP-interleaved Streaming
RTP UDP Streaming
JMX/JConsole Monitoring and Administration
Administration
By default Wowza Media Server 2 is configured to only use TCP port 1935 for streaming. You
may want to configure additional ports for streaming such as TCP port 80 for HTTP or RTMPT
or TCP port 554 for RTSP streaming. To add an additional port using a text editor, edit [installdir]/conf/VHost.xml and duplicate the <HostPort> entry for port 1935 (be sure to get the
entire XML section starting with <HostPort> and ending with </HostPort>) and change the
<Port> value to the desired port. Wowza Server cannot share ports with other programs or
services. So be sure there are no other programs or services running that share the added ports.
Below is a table of common ports used for streaming:
TCP 80 RTMPT, Smooth Streaming, Cupertino Streaming, San Jose Streaming
TCP 443 RTMPS
TCP 554 RTSP
Server Configuration and Tuning
Wowza Media Server 2 is configured through a set of XML, configuration and properties files in
the [install-dir]/conf folder. These configuration files are read during server startup. The
configuration files can be directly edited using a standard text editor. Below is a brief explanation
of each of the configuration files:
Server Configuration Files
Server.xml
VHosts.xml
log4j.properties
- General Server configuration
- Define virtual hosts
- Logging configuration
Virtual Host Configuration Files
Authentication.xml
HTTPStreamers.xml
LiveStreamPacketizers.xml
MediaCasters.xml
MediaReaders.xml
MediaWriters.xml
MP3Tags.xml
RTP.xml
- RTSP and HTTP authentication configuration
- Cupertino, Smooth and San Jose Streaming configuration
- HTTP packetization configuration
- MediaCaster (SHOUTcast, Live Repeater…) configuration
- File format reader configuration
- File format writer configuration
- MP3 ID3 tag naming
- RTP and MPEG-TS packetization configuration
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StartupStreams.xml
Streams.xml
VHost.xml
- Streams started at virtual host startup
- Stream type configuration
- Virtual host configuration
Application Configuration Files
Application.xml
- Application configuration
The Configuration Reference document that accompanies this User’s Guide contains detail
information on each of these configuration files.
The settings associated with the Java runtime environment, such as the command used to invoke
Java and the maximum Java heap size, are controlled through a set of scripts and configuration
files. The location of these files differs depending on platform and the method used to invoke the
server. Below is a description of each of these files.
bin\ setenv.bat (Windows)
The bin\setenv.bat is invoked when the server is started from the command line. The most
important settings in this file are:
set _EXECJAVA=java
set JAVA_OPTS="-Xmx768M"
command
# Command used to invoke java
# Command line options for java
bin\WowzaMediaServer-Service.conf (Windows)
The bin\WowzaMediaServer-Service.conf is the configuration file used when the server is
invoked as a Windows service. The most important settings in this file are:
wrapper.java.command=java # Command used to invoke java
wrapper.java.initmemory=3 # Initial Java Heap Size (in MB)
wrapper.java.maxmemory=768
# Maximum Java Heap Size (in
MB)
/Library/WowzaMediaServer/bin/setenv.sh (Mac OS X)
The bin/setenv.sh is invoked when the server is started in standalone and service mode. The
most important settings in this file are:
_EXECJAVA=java
# Command used to invoke java
JAVA_OPTS="-Xmx768M" # Command line options for java command
/usr/local/WowzaMediaServer/bin/setenv.sh (Linux)
The bin/setenv.sh is invoked when the server is started in standalone mode. The most important
settings in this file are:
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_EXECJAVA=java
# Command used to invoke java
JAVA_OPTS="-Xmx768M" # Command line options for java command
Note
It is very import that Wowza Server be tuned properly so that it can take best advantage of the
available hardware resources. The default tuning of the server is sufficient for application
development, but it not ideal for productions use. Without proper tuning, the server under
medium to heavy load will run out of resources and will stop working properly. See the General
Tuning Guide support article online at:
http://www.wowzamedia.com/docredirect.php?doc=performanceGeneralTuning
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3
Chapter
Application Configuration
How do I create and configure an application for streaming?
A
ll streaming in Wowza Media Server 2 is controlled through the creation and configuration
of an application. An application is defined simply by creating a folder in the [installdir]/applications folder. For example, to create a new application named
myapplication, create the folder:
[install-dir]/applications/myapplication
A single application can be configured to deliver a live or video on demand stream to the Adobe
Flash player, the Silverlight player, an Apple iOS devices (iPhone, iPad or iPod touch, Roku settop box) and an RTSP/RTP based player at the same time. The Quick Start Guide contains
basic tutorials with the step by step instructions on how to configure an application for the more
common streaming tasks. The remainder of this chapter will cover the details of application
configuration. For more detailed configuration information see the Configuration Reference
document that accompanies this document.
Applications and Application Instances (Application.xml)
As seen above, an application is created by creating a named folder in [install-dir]/application.
The name of the application is the name of the folder. An Application.xml file defines the
configuration for a given application. An application instance is an instantiation of an application
and provides a name space and context for streaming. An application instance is started
dynamically and a single application may have multiple named application instances all running at
the same time. If no name is specified for an application instance then the default name
_definst_ is used. In many streaming scenarios, a single application instance is used perapplication and the name is never referenced and defaults to _definst_. Multiple application
instances are more commonly used in video chat and video conferencing scenarios where you
need to create multiple rooms for streaming. In this case, an application instance is used to
separate streaming into rooms. Each room is a separate application instance and provides
separation and a name space for each room.
Application configuration is defined in an Application.xml file. When an application instance is
loaded, it looks in the following two locations for an Application.xml file (where [application]
is the application name):
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[install-dir]/conf/[application]/Application.xml
[install-dir]/conf/Application.xml
The first Application.xml file located will be used.
Note
It is a common mistake to put the Application.xml file in the [installdir]/applications/[appplication] folder. All configuration files for Wowza Server and its
applications should be located in the [install-dir]/conf folder.
URL Formats
All streaming in Wowza Server is initiated with a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). The
application and application instance names are specified as part of the streaming URL. The URL
format used for streaming whether it be for the Flash player, Silverlight, RTSP/RTP or the
iPhone all follow a similar format:
[protocol]://[address]:[port]/[application]/[appInstance]/[streamName]/[post-fix]
Where:
[protocol]:
[address]:
[port]:
[application]
[appInstance]
[streamName]
[post-fix]
-
streaming protocol (rtmp, rtsp, http …)
address of the server running Wowza Server
port number to use for streaming (1935 is the default)
application name
application instance name
stream name and prefix
option information specific to player technology
In most streaming scenarios, if the stream name does not contain any path elements and the
default application instance name is to be used, the URL can be shortened to:
[protocol]://[address]:[port]/[application]/[streamName]
Below are example URLs for the different player technologies. This example assumes we are
streaming the live video with the stream name myStream using the application name live.
Adobe Flash Player (RTMP):
Server: rtmp://mycompany.com/live
Stream: myStream
Adobe Flash Player (Flash HTTP – San Jose Streaming):
http://mycompany.com:1935/live/myStream/manifest.f4m
Apple iPhone, iPad or iPod touch (Cupertino Streaming):
http://mycompany.com:1935/live/myStream/playlist.m3u8
Microsoft Silverlight (Smooth Streaming):
http://mycompany.com:1935/live/myStream/Manifest
RTSP/RTP:
rtsp://mycompany.com:1935/live/myStream
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Now is probably a good time to take a quick look at the default Application.xml file. Use a text
editor to edit the default Application.xml file. The rest of this chapter covers the more
commonly configured items in this file.
Stream Types
Wowza Media Server 2 uses named stream types to control the different types of streaming (live,
video on demand, chat, remote recording…). Stream types are configured using the
Streams/StreamType property in Application.xml. Stream types are defined in [installdir]/conf/Streams.xml. Below is a list of the stream types and their uses:
Stream Type
default
file
record
live
live-lowlatency
live-record
live-record-lowlatency
shoutcast
shoutcast-record
liverepeater-origin
liverepeater-origin-record
liverepeater-edge
liverepeater-edge-lowlatency
liverepeater-edge-origin
rtp-live
rtp-live-lowlatency
rtp-live-record
rtp-live-record-lowlatency
Use
Video on demand
Video on demand
Video recording
Publish and play live video content (best for one-to-many
streaming of live events)
Publish and play live video content (best for one-to-one or
one-to-few video/audio chat applications)
Same as live in addition content will be recorded
Same as live-lowlatency in addition content will be recorded
Audio re-streaming of a SHOUTcast/Icecast MP3 or AAC+
audio stream
Same as shoutcast in addition content will be recorded
Publish and play live video content across multiple Wowza
Media Server servers in an origin/edge configuration (use to
configure origin application)
Same as liverepeater-origin in addition content will be
recorded
Publish and play live video content across multiple Wowza
Servers in an origin/edge configuration (use to configure edge
application)
Publish and play live video content across multiple Wowza
Servers in an origin/edge configuration (use to configure edge
application when latency is important)
Publish and play live video content across multiple Wowza
Servers in an origin/edge/edge configuration (use to
configure an middle-edge application)
Re-streaming of an RTSP/RTP, native RTP or MPEG-TS
stream
Re-streaming of an RTSP/RTP, native RTP or MPEG-TS
stream when latency is important)
Same as rtp-live in addition content will be recorded
Same as rtp-live-lowlatency in addition content will be
recorded
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Each stream type exposes properties that are used for tuning of the stream type. For example, the
stream type definition for live and live-lowlatency only differ in the tuning which is
accomplished through the stream properties. Properties defined in [installdir]/conf/Streams.xml for a given stream type can be overridden on a per-application basis by
defining new values in the Streams/Properties container in Application.xml. For example, to
change the flushInterval of the live-lowlatency stream type the <Streams> section of the
Application.xml should look like this:
<Streams>
<StreamType>live-lowlatency</StreamType>
<StorageDir>${com.wowza.wms.context.VHostConfigHome}/content</StorageDir>
<KeyDir>${com.wowza.wms.context.VHostConfigHome}/keys</KeyDir>
<LiveStreamPacketizers></LiveStreamPacketizers>
<Properties>
<Property>
<Name>flushInterval</Name>
<Value>30</Value>
<Type>Integer</Type>
</Property>
</Properties>
</Streams>
HTTPStreamers and LiveStreamPacketizers
The <HTTPStreamers> setting in Application.xml controls if the streams in the defined
application (live or video on demand) are made available for playback to the iPhone/iPad/iPod
touch and Microsoft Silverlight players. HTTPStreamers can contain none, one or more the
following values (separated by commas): cupertinostreaming, smoothstreaming,
sanjosestreaming. If the cupertinostreaming value is present then the stream is available for
playback by the iPhone, iPad and iPod touch (as well as with an appropriate version of
QuickTime/Safari on Mac OS). If the smoothstreaming is present then the stream is available
for playback by Microsoft Silverlight.
The <LiveStreamPacketizers> setting works in a similar fashion but only applies to live
streams. It controls how live streams are packetized for delivery to the the HTTP streaming
technologies. LiveStreamPacketizers can contain none, one or more of the following values
(separated by commas):
LiveStreamPacketizers
cupertinostreamingpacketizer
smoothstreamingpacketizer
sanjosestreamingpacketizer
cupertinostreamingrepeater
smoothstreamingrepeater
sanjosestreamingrepeater
Description
Cupertino: iPhone, iPad and iPod touch
Smooth: Microsoft Silverlight
San Jose: Flash HTTP
Cupertino: Live stream repeater for iPhone/iPad/iPod touch
Smooth: Live stream repeater for Microsoft Silverlight
San Jose: Live stream repeater for Flash HTTP
You would set the packetizer with a repeater value when using the server in an Origin/Edge
configuration. This is described later in this document in the section titled Live Stream Repeater
(Multiple Server Live Streaming).
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Modules
Modules are Java classes that are loaded dynamically when an application instance is loaded and
provide an application’s functionality. In Application.xml, the <Modules> list defines an order
dependent list of the modules to be loaded for a given application. Many AddOn Packages
provide additional functionality through the use of modules. The details of modules are discussed
in the Server-side Modules chapter.
A basic module definition looks like this:
<Module>
<Name>base</Name>
<Description>Base</Description>
<Class>com.wowza.wms.module.ModuleCore</Class>
</Module>
Each module must have a unique name. The <Description> information is for providing a
detailed description of the module and is not used in any operations. The <Class> item is the
full path to the Java class that is providing the module’s functionality. In general new modules are
always added to the end of the <Modules> list. The Java class that makes up a server-side
module is most often bound into a .jar file that is copied to the [install-dir]/lib folder. The
Wowza Server comes with many modules that can be added to the <Modules> list to provide
additional functionality. See the Built-in Modules section for a complete list. You can also use
the Wowza IDE to develop your own custom modules to provide additional functionality. See
the Extending Wowza Server Using Java chapter for more information.
Note
The Wowza Integrated Development Environment (Wowza IDE) is a free tool available for
download at:
http://www.wowzamedia.com/ide.html
Properties
The default Application.xml file contains several different <Properties> containers that can be
used to add or override property values within Wowza Server. Properties are a list of name/value
pairs that provide a means for tuning and modifying the default configuration of the Wowza
Server. Properties can also be used server-side as a means to pass data to custom modules from
Application.xml. You will see in this document, the support section of
http://www.wowzamedia.com and the Quick Start Guide references to individual properties.
There currently is not a comprehensive document that lists all the available properties. A property
definition has the following form:
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<Property>
<Name>[name]</Name>
<Value>[value]</Value>
<Type>[type]</Type>
</Property>
Where <Name> is the property name, <Value> is the property value and <Type> is the
property type. Valid property types are: String, Integer, Boolean, Double and Long. It is
important when tuning the server to be sure to add properties to the correct container. The
instructions for tuning will always specify which <Properties> container a property should be
added to for tuning.
Media Types
Media types are not configured in Application.xml but are an important part of streaming.
Wowza Media Server 2 supports many different media types. Wowza Server can read the
following media or file types: FLV (Flash Video - .flv), MP4 (QuickTime container - .mp4, .f4v,
.mov, .m4v, .mp4a, .3gp, .3g2 …), MP3 content (.mp3) and SMIL (Synchronized Multimedia
Integration Language - .smil). Media types are specified through a prefix to the stream name. For
example to play the MP4 file mycoolvideo.mov use the stream name mp4:mycoolvideo.mov
where mp4: is the media type prefix. The default media type prefix if none is specified is flv:.
Below is the table of the supported media type prefixes:
Media type prefix
flv:
mp4:
mp3:
id3:
smil:
Description
Flash Video (default if no prefix specified)
QuickTime container
MP3 file
MP3 file (return only ID3 tag information)
Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language
The media type prefix is also used to control the file container used to record live video. If when
publishing video the media type prefix mp4: is specified, then the content will be recorded to an
MP4 (QuickTime) container. If the media type prefix flv: or no prefix is specified an FLV or
Flash Video container fill be used. Only H.264, AAC and MP3 content can be recorded to an
MP4 container.
Content Storage
By default Wowza Media Server 2 is setup to stream video on demand content and record to the
[install-dir]/content folder. You can easily change this behavior by editing an application’s
Application.xml file and changing the value of Streams/StorageDir. For example to setup an
Application to use an application specific content folder you might change this value to:
${com.wowza.wms.context.VHostConfigHome}/applications/ ${com.wowza.wms.context.Application}/content
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Using this setting content will be streamed from the [installdir]/applications/[application]/content folder where [application] is the application’s name.
The Streams/StorageDir field supports the following variables:
${com.wowza.wms.AppHome}
- Application home directory
${com.wowza.wms.ConfigHome}
- Configuration home directory
${com.wowza.wms.context.VHost}
- Virtual host name
${com.wowza.wms.context.VHostConfigHome}
- Virtual host config directory
${com.wowza.wms.context.Application}
- Application name
${com.wowza.wms.context.ApplicationInstance} - Application instance name
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4
Chapter
Streaming Tutorials
Where do I get step-by-step instructions?
T
he support section of the Wowza Media Systems site contains tutorials that include step by
step instructions for common streaming scenarios. These instructions cover how to setup
up streaming to the common player technologies such as the Flash player, Silverlight
player, iOS devices and mobile devices. Below is a brief description of each of the streaming
scenarios with a link to the online tutorial:
How to play a video on demand file
This tutorial describes how to stream video on demand files.
How to play a video on demand file
How to publish and play a live stream (RTMP or RTSP/RTP based encoder)
This tutorial describes how to publish and play a live stream when using an encoder that supports
either the Real-time Messaging Protocol (RTMP) or the RTSP Announce Method. Examples of
encoders that support RTMP publishing are: Telestream Wirecast, On2 Flix Live and Orban
Opticodec. Examples of encoders that support the RTSP Announce Method are: Telestream
Wirecast and QuickTime Broadcaster.
How to publish and play a live stream (RTMP or RTSP/RTP based encoder)
How to publish and play a live stream (MPEG-TS based encoder)
This tutorial describes how to publish and play a live stream when using an encoder that supports
MPEG2 Transport Streams (MPEG-TS). Examples of encoder vendors that sell products that
support MPEG-TS publishing are: HaiVision, Digital Rapids and ViewCast.
How to publish and play a live stream (MPEG-TS based encoder)
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How to publish and play a live stream (native RTP encoder with SDP file)
This tutorial describes how to publish and play a live stream when using an encoder that supports
Real-time Transport Protocol (native RTP). Examples of encoder vendors that sell products that
support native RTP publishing are: HaiVision, Digital Rapids, ViewCast and Telestream.
How to publish and play a live stream (native RTP encoder with SDP file)
How to re-stream video from an IP camera
This tutorial describes how to re-stream and play a live stream from an IP camera.
How to re-stream video from an IP camera
How to re-stream audio from SHOUTcast/Icecast
This tutorial describes how to re-stream and play a live SHOUTcast or Icecast audio stream.
How to re-stream audio from SHOUTcast/Icecast
How to setup video chat application
This tutorial describes how to setup an application for video chat using the Adobe Flash player.
How to setup video chat application
How to setup video recording application
This tutorial describes how to setup an application for video recording using the Adobe Flash
player.
How to setup video recording application
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5
Chapter
Advanced Configuration Topics
How do I take advantage of Wowza Server’s features?
T
his chapter covers more advanced streaming topics. Some of the functionality discussed is
provided by AddOn Packages. AddOn Packages are downloadable packages that include
server extensions along with documentation for adding more advanced features to Wowza
Media Server 2. Because of this several of these advanced topics will include a brief overview
with a link to the AddOn Package. A list of available AddOn packages can be found here:
AddOn Packages
MediaCasters, Stream Manager and StartupStreams.xml
Wowza Media Server 2 includes a system for re-streaming called MediaCaster. The MediaCaster
system is used for re-streaming IP Camera streams (RTSP/RTP streams), SHOUTcast/Icecast
streams and native RTP encoders. The MediaCaster system pulls a stream from a stream source
and makes it available for streaming to the different player technologies supported by Wowza
Server. This system works on demand - when the first request comes in for a given stream a
connection is made to the source stream and the stream is made available to the player. When the
last viewer of the stream stops watching a given stream the MediaCaster system waits for a
timeout period. If no other players request the stream, then the stream is stopped and the stream
is no longer available for streaming until another request comes in for the streams.
This methodology works great for the Adobe Flash player (RTMP) and RTSP/RTP streaming
where there is no need for advanced packetization. For HTTP Streamers such as Cupertino,
Smooth Streaming and Flash HTTP streaming the pull model does not work. The iOS devices
require about 30 seconds of video to be pre-packetized before they can begin playback. Microsoft
Silverlight requires three times the key frame duration. For this reason it is necessary to start the
stream prior to the stream being ready for streaming to these player technologies. There are two
methodologies for starting a stream that uses the MediaCaster system and keeping it running;
Stream Manager and the StartupStreams.xml.
The Stream Manager is a web based tool for starting and stopping MediaCaster streams on the
fly that is built into Wowza Media Server 2. To startup the Stream Manager do the following:
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1. Edit [install-dir]/conf/admin.password and enter a new line with a username and
password. For example to add the username myuser with the password mypassword
the contents of this file should look like:
# Admin password file (format
[username][space][password])
#username password
myuser mypassword
2. Open a web browser and enter the URL:
http://[wowza-ip-address]:8086/streammanager
To start a stream, click on the [start-receiving-stream] link under the application to which you
want to startup the stream, select the MediaCaster type, type in the stream name and click, OK.
To stop a stream, click the [stop-receiving-stream] link next to stream name. You can reset a
stream by clicking on the [reset-receiving-stream] link.
The second method for starting MediaCaster streams is using the StartupStreams.xml file.
Stream entries in this file are automatically started when the server is started (or more specifically
when a virtual host is started). The StartupStreams.xml is a list of application, media caster
types and stream names. The format of a single entry is:
<StartupStream>
<Application>live</Application>
<MediaCasterType>rtp</MediaCasterType>
<StreamName>rtsp://192.168.1.7:554/mycoolstream.sdp</Str
eamName>
</StartupStream>
There are also several server-side methods that can be used to start and stop streams using the
MediaCaster system. See the server-side API documentation for the following two methods:
IApplicationInstance.startMediaCasterStream(…);
IApplicationInstance.stopMediaCasterStreams(…);
Live Stream Repeater (Multiple Server Live Streaming)
The following example illustrates a suggested configuration and implementation for delivering a
live media event across multiple Wowza Media Server 2 servers. We will walk through the
configuration and deployment of the live stream repeater. The live stream repeater uses multiple
Wowza Servers in an origin and edge configuration to deliver live media content across multiple
servers. The encoded media content will be delivered to the origin server in the same manner as
if you were delivering the content to a single Wowza Server. The player will request the content
from an edge server and the edge server will maintain a single connection per-unique stream to
the origin. Origin and edge configuration is an application level configuration. A single Wowza
Server instance can be configured as an origin for one application and an edge for another.
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For this example we will setup a single origin server using the application name liverepeater.
Here are the steps to configure the origin server:
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1. Create a folder named [install-dir]/applications/liveorigin.
2. Create a folder named [install-dir]/conf/liveorigin and copy the file [installdir]/conf/Application.xml into this new folder.
3. Edit the newly copied Application.xml file and make the following changes:
a. Change the Streams/StreamType to liverepeater-origin
b. Change the LiveStreamPacketizers to:
cupertinostreamingpacketizer,smoothstreamingpacketizer,sanjosestreamingpacketizer
Next, configure each of the edge servers as follows:
1. Create a folder named [install-dir]/applications/liveedge.
2. Create a folder named [install-dir]/conf/liveedge and copy the file [installdir]/conf/Application.xml into this new folder.
3. Edit the newly copied Application.xml file and make the following changes:
a. Change the Streams/StreamType to liverepeater-edge (you can use the
liverepeater-edge-lowlatency stream type if low latency is important, this will
add extra load to the server).
b. Change the LiveStreamPacketizers to:
cupertinostreamingrepeater,smoothstreamingrepeater,sanjosestreamingrepeater
c. Uncomment the Repeater/OriginURL section and set OriginURL to rtmp
URL of the origin server. For example if the origin server uses the domain name
origin.mycompany.com, this value should be set to:
<Repeater>
<OriginURL>rtmp://origin.mycompany.com/liveorigin</OriginURL>
<QueryString></QueryString>
</Repeater>
For this example let’s assume the origin server uses the domain name origin.mycompany.com
and that there are 3 edge servers with the domain names edge1.mycompany.com,
edge2.mycompany.com, edge3.mycompany.com. Let’s also assume that we are going to use
the stream name mycoolevent. The URLs for the players are as follows (assuming we are
streaming off of edge1):
Adobe Flash Player (RTMP):
Server: rtmp://edge1.mycompany.com/liveedge
Stream: mycoolevent
Adobe Flash Player (Flash HTTP – San Jose):
http://edge1.mycompany.com:1935/liveedge/mycoolevent/manifest.f4m
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Apple iPhone, iPad or iPod touch (Cupertino):
http://edge1.mycompany.com:1935/liveedge/mycoolevent/playlist.m3u8
Microsoft Silverlight (Smooth):
http://edge1.mycompany.com:1935/liveedge/mycoolevent/Manifest
RTSP/RTP:
rtsp://edge1.mycompany.com:1935/liveedge/mycoolevent
It is possible to configure more than one origin server to provide a hot backup in case the main
origin server goes down. Let’s say the failover origin server has the domain name
origin2.mycompany.com. Assuming it is configured in the same manner as the main origin
server, you would set the following Repeater/OriginURL in each of the edge’s Applications.xml
files:
<Repeater>
<OriginURL>rtmp://origin.mycompany.com/liveedge|rtmp://origin2.mycompany.com/liveedge</OriginURL>
<QueryString></QueryString>
</Repeater>
Basically it’s the two connection URLs concatenated together with the pipe ( | ) character. The
edge servers will first try to connect to the first origin server, if this fails they will attempt to
connect to the second origin server.
This example assumes you are using an encoder in which the stream name is a simple name and
not a URL. If you are using an encoder such as an MPEG-TS encoder in which the stream name
is not a simple stream name, then you can use .stream files on the origin to hide the complex
stream names. For example if your complex stream name on the origin is udp://0.0.0.0:10000,
use a text editor to create a file in the [install-dir]/content folder with the name
mycoolevent.stream and set the contents to udp://0.0.0.0:10000. You then use
mycoolevent.stream in place of mycoolevent in the URLs above to play the stream.
Note
The Media Security AddOn Package describes how to secure the connection between the origin
and edge machines using SecureToken.
Note
If you are streaming to an iOS device, Microsoft Silverlight player or are using Flash HTTP to
stream to Flash and are using a non-push based encoder (native RTP or MPEG-TS) then you will
need to use the Stream Manager to start and keep the stream running on the origin. The streams
do not need to be kept running on the edges.
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Note
To provide load balancing between the edge servers you can use the dynamic load balancing
system referenced in the Dynamic Load Balancing section.
Live Stream Recording
The VideoRecording example that ships with Wowza Media Server 2 is a specialized way of
remote recording of a live stream when using the Adobe Flash player. It uses the record stream
type and special capabilities built into the Flash player to control the recording process. If you
simply want to record an incoming live stream from an encoder, then there are two more general
purpose methods to accomplish this; use one of the *-record stream types (such as live-record)
or use the LiveStreamRecord AddOn package.
The *-record stream types are the simplest method but give you the least amount of control. If
you use this method the entire duration of the published stream will be recorded. If the encoder
starts and stops, the file will be versioned with a version number and a new file will start. You can
control the container format used (FLV or MP4) by specifying a stream name prefix in the
encoder. If the prefix FLV: is specified, then the stream will be recorded to an FLV container. If
the prefix is mp4:, then the stream will be recorded to an MP4 (QuickTime) container.
Remember that an MP4 container can only record H.264, AAC and MP3 media data. If you are
recording using the Flash player the FLV container is the only option.
Another option is the LiveStreamRecord AddOn package. This package gives you more
control over the recording process. The package includes a server side module that can be used
to control the recording process (the source code is included). You can control when the
recording starts and stops, the file name and location and the container format as well as other
small details. The package is available for download here:
http://www.wowzamedia.com/docredirect.php?doc=addOnLiveStreamRecord
Server-side Publishing (Stream and Publisher classes)
Wowza Media Server 2 includes two methods for doing server-side publishing; the Stream class
and the Publisher class. The Stream class is a high level server-side API for mixing live and video
on demand content on the fly into a single destination stream. It provides the ability to do
television style publishing. It also includes a package that enables creation of a server-side XML
based playlist. For more information regarding the Stream class see this support article:
http://www.wowzamedia.com/docredirect.php?doc=usefulCodeStreamClass
The Publisher class is a low level publishing API to provide the ability to inject raw compressed
video and audio frames into Wowza Server to create a custom live stream. This API is quite new
so at this time we do not have a lot of documentation and examples. We hope to have more
information as the feature matures. See the Publisher classes server-side API (Javadoc
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documentation) for the current detailed documentation. There is also an audio example which
walks through the process of publishing Speex data to a stream in this support article:
http://www.wowzamedia.com/docredirect.php?doc=usefulCodePublisherClass
Dynamic Load Balancing
The Dynamic Load Balancing AddOn package provides a method for dynamically load balancing
between multiple Wowza Server edge servers. The edge servers communicate with one or more
load balancing Wowza Servers. You can then connect to the load balancing server to get the
currently least loaded edge server. You can download the package from this support article:
http://www.wowzamedia.com/docredirect.php?doc=addOnDynamicLoadBalancing
Media Security (SecureToken, authentication and encryption)
The MediaSecurity AddOn Package provides a set of server-side modules and methodologies for
protecting streaming to the different player technologies. It includes a detailed tutorial for
protecting streaming using SecureToken, authentication and encryption. You can download the
package from this support article:
http://www.wowzamedia.com/docredirect.php?doc=addOnMediaSecurity
Push Publishing
The Push Publishing AddOn Package provides an API for pushing streams from a Wowza Media
Server to a remote Wowza Media Server, Flash Media Server or CDN (Content Delviery
Network). You can request this package from this support article:
http://www.wowzamedia.com/docredirect.php?doc=addOnPushPublishing
MediaCache
The MediaCache AddOn package is a read through caching mechanism for video on demand
streaming. Similar to the live repeater technology aimed at increasing the scalability of live
streaming, the MediaCache technology is a means of scaling video on demand streaming. You can
request this package from this support article:
http://www.wowzamedia.com/docredirect.php?doc=addOnMediaCache
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6
Chapter
Adobe Flash Streaming and Scripting
What can I do with Wowza Server and the Adobe Flash player?
W
owza Media Server 2 includes additional features that are only applicable to the Adobe
Flash player when using the RTMP protocol (or any of the variants). When using
Wowza Server with the Adobe Flash player, Wowza Server is much more then just a
streaming server - it is an application server. It provides features such as shared objects, video
chat, remote recording and bi-directional remote procedures calls. This chapter covers all of these
topics.
Streaming Basics
We will start with the most basic code needed to play a live or video on demand stream in Flash.
Let’s assume we have followed the instructions in the How to play a video on demand file
tutorial in the Quick Start Guide and we have an application with the name vod that is setup for
video on demand streaming. Do the following in Adobe Flash CS3 or CS4:
1. Create a new Flash File with ActionScript 3.0 support.
2. Select Library from the Window menu to open the library palette.
3. Right click in the library palette and select New Video…, enter symbol name video and
click OK to create the video object.
4. Drag the video item from the library to the stage, then in the properties palette give it an
instance name of video1.
5. Select the menu item Window->Actions from the menu and select Scene 1 in the
Actions items list.
6. Enter the following code:
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var nc:NetConnection = new NetConnection();
var ns:NetStream = null;
function ncOnStatus(infoObject:NetStatusEvent)
{
trace("ncOnStatus: "+infoObject.info.code);
if (infoObject.info.code == "NetConnection.Connect.Success")
{
trace("Connection established");
ns = new NetStream(nc);
ns.bufferTime = 3;
video1.attachNetStream(ns);
ns.play("mp4:Extremists.m4v");
}
}
nc.addEventListener(NetStatusEvent.NET_STATUS, ncOnStatus);
nc.connect("rtmp://localhost/vod");
7. Select Control->Test Movie from the menu.
You should be streaming the Extremists.m4v example file. This is the most basic ActionScript
3.0 code needed for live or video on demand playback. If you quickly inspect the code, you can
see how simple it is. We create a NetConnection object for streaming, add an event listener so
that we get notified when the connection to Wowza Server is established, and when we are
notified of a successful connection, we create a NetStream object and begin playback of the
stream.
The SimpleVideoStreaming and LiveVideoStreaming example players that ship with Wowza
Server take this example a little further. These example players support progress bars, pause, stop
and full screen. Inspecting the code for these two examples is a good next step for learning how
to stream. The VideoChat and VideoRecording examples are a great starting point to learn how
to publish video and audio using the built-in Camera and Microphone objects.
Pre-built Media Players
Building your own custom player with advanced functionality can be a daunting task. Another
option is to use pre-built Flash video players. There are many options. We are going to cover a
few of the more popular options: Adobe FLVPlayback component, JW Player, FlowPlayer and
the Adobe Media Playback player.
The Adobe FLVPlayback component is a pre-built video player component that you can add to
your own Flash project. It includes features such as play, pause, seek, stop and fullscreen. It
comes with Adobe Flash CS3, CS4 and CS5. From time to time the component is updated. It is
best to keep your Adobe Flash software up to date to be sure you are running the most recent
version. The nice thing about this component is that it can be integrated into your own custom
Flash code.
JW Player is pre-built Flash based player offered by Long Tail Video. It includes a rich set of
features such as playlists, skinning and ad serving. It is fully supported and there is a commercial
option. It also includes a built-in version of the Wowza SecureToken security mechanism. You
can download it from here:
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http://www.longtailvideo.com
There are instructions on how to use it with Wowza Server in these support articles:
http://www.wowzamedia.com/docredirect.php?doc=usefulCodeJWPlayerLatest
http://www.wowzamedia.com/docredirect.php?doc=usefulCodeJWTokenLatest
Another option is FlowPlayer which is an open source pre-built Flash based player. It includes a
rich set of features similar to JW Player. It also includes a built-in version of the Wowza
SecureToken. You can download it from here:
http://flowplayer.org
There are instructions on how to use it with Wowza Server in this support article:
http://www.wowzamedia.com/docredirect.php?doc=usefulCodeFlowPlayerLatest
Another option is the Adobe Media Playback player. This player supports both RTMP streaming
as well as Flash HTTP streaming (San Jose Streaming). The player is built on the Open Software
Media Framework (OSMF) and is hosted by Adobe. There are instructions on how to use it with
Wowza Server in this support article:
http://www.wowzamedia.com/docredirect.php?doc=usefulCodeAdobeMediaPlaybackLatest
Bi-directional Remote Procedure Calls
Wowza Media Server 2 supports bi-direction remote procedure calls to and from the Adobe Flash
player. What this means is from the Flash player you can call a server-side Java method and pass
data to the Wowza Server and from the Wowza Server you can call a client-side ActionScript
method and pass data to the Flash player. This is very useful when building Rich Internet
Applications.
Calls from the Flash player to Wowza Server are performed using the following method:
NetConnection.call(methodName, resultObj, params…)
For example, to call the server-side method doSomething and pass two parameters value1 and
value2 and receive a single return value, the ActioniScript 3.0 client-side code looks like this (we
will cover the server-side code for this method later in this document):
function onMethodResult(returnVal:String):Void
{
trace("onMethodResult: "+returnVal);
}
nc.call("doSomething", new Responder(onMethodResult), value1,
value2);
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Receiving method calls from Wowza Server are done by adding handler methods/functions to
the client object that is attached to the NetConenction object. For example, to add the handler
method onSomethingHappended that receives two string parameters value1 and value2, the
ActionScript 3.0 code looks like this:
var clientObj:Object = new Object();
clientObj.onSomethingHappened(value1:String,
value2:String):Void
{
trace("onSomethingHappened: "+value1+":"+value2);
}
nc.client = clientObj;
We will go into more detail on the programming model in the chapter; Extending Wowza
Server Using Java.
Remote Shared Objects
Wowza Media Server 2 supports Adobe Flash remote shared objects. Remote shared objects are
a means for sharing data between Wowza Server and multiple Flash players. Each Flash player
that subscribes to a shared object will be notified of updates to the shared object data. Shared
object data can be changed client-side by a Flash player or server-side through the Wowza Server
ISharedObject API. Below is an example of the ActionScript 3.0 code needed to create a remote
shared object and set a value:
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var nc:NetConnection = new NetConnection();
var test_so:SharedObject = null;
var timer:Timer = null;
function ncOnStatus(infoObject:NetStatusEvent)
{
trace("ncOnStatus: "+infoObject.info.code);
if (infoObject.info.code == "NetConnection.Connect.Success")
{
test_so = SharedObject.getRemote("test", nc.uri);
test_so.addEventListener(SyncEvent.SYNC, syncEventHandler);
test_so.connect(nc);
timer = new Timer(1000, 1);
timer.addEventListener(TimerEvent.TIMER, setSOProperty);
timer.start();
}
}
function syncEventHandler(ev:SyncEvent)
{
trace("syncEventHandler");
var infoObj:Object = ev.changeList;
for (var i = 0; i < infoObj.length; i++)
{
var info:Object = infoObj[i];
if (info.name != undefined)
trace(" "+info.name+"="+test_so.data[info.name]);
else
trace(" [action]="+info.code);
}
}
function setSOProperty(ev:TimerEvent):void
{
test_so.setProperty("testName", "testValue");
}
nc.addEventListener(NetStatusEvent.NET_STATUS, ncOnStatus);
nc.connect("rtmp://localhost/vod");
The RemoteSharedObjects example that ships with Wowza Server is a more complete remote
shared object example. We will go into more detail on the programming model in the chapter;
Extending Wowza Server Using Java.
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7
Chapter
Server-side Modules and Extensions
What is a server-side module and what server-side functionality ships with
Wowza Media Server 2?
M
uch of the functionality delivered by Wowza Media Server 2 is done through server-side
modules and HTTPProviders. Server-side modules are Java classes that are configured
on a per-application basis and are loaded at application instance startup and provide
much of the functionality needed to control the streaming process. HTTPProviders are Java
classes that are configured on a per-virtual host basis and are light-weight HTTP servers that can
be used to query server information. In this chapter we discuss each of these methods of
extending Wowza Server and the built-in Java classes that are immediately available for use. In
the next chapter we discuss how to create your own server-side extensions.
Sever-side Modules
Server-side modules are Java classes that are configured on a per-application basis and are
dynamically loaded at application instance startup. For the most part, server-side modules
provide remote methods that are callable from the Adobe Flash player. It is these methods that
provide the play, publish, seek, pause and resume functionality needed to control the Flash player
streaming process. Server-side modules can also be used to control iPhone/iPad/iPod touch,
Microsoft Silverlight, Flash HTTP (San Jose) and RTSP/RTP streaming process as well. The
details of how the API works are in the next chapter.
Server-side modules are configured by adding <Module> entries to the <Modules> list in an
application’s Application.xml file. The default <Modules> list looks like this:
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<Modules>
<Module>
<Name>base</Name>
<Description>Base</Description>
<Class>com.wowza.wms.module.ModuleCore</Class>
</Module>
<Module>
<Name>properties</Name>
<Description>Properties</Description>
<Class>com.wowza.wms.module.ModuleProperties</Class>
</Module>
<Module>
<Name>logging</Name>
<Description>Client Logging</Description>
<Class>com.wowza.wms.module.ModuleClientLogging</Class>
</Module>
<Module>
<Name>flvplayback</Name>
<Description>FLVPlayback</Description>
<Class>com.wowza.wms.module.ModuleFLVPlayback</Class>
</Module>
</Modules>
Each of these modules is described in detail in the Built-in Server-side Module section below.
Creating custom server-side modules is covered in the next chapter.
HTTPProviders
HTTPProviders are mini HTTP servers that can be used to extend the functionality of Wowza
Server and are configured on a per-port basis in [install-dir]/conf/VHost.xml. An individual
HTTPProvider can be username and password protected. Multiple HTTPProviders can be
attached to a single port and the HTTPProvider is selected based on request filter. An example
HTTPProvider configuration looks like this:
<HTTPProvider>
<BaseClass>com.wowza.wms.http.streammanager.HTTPStreamManager</BaseClass>
<RequestFilters>streammanager*</RequestFilters>
<AuthenticationMethod>admin-digest</AuthenticationMethod>
</HTTPProvider>
The BaseClass property is the full path to the class that implements the IHTTPProvider
interface. The RequestFilters is a pipe ( | ) separated list of filters that control when this
provider will be invoked based on the HTTP request path. For example, this above request filter
will only be invoked if the path portion of the HTTP request URL starts with streammanager.
The AuthenticationMethod is the authentication method used to control access to this
HTTPProvider. Valid values are admin-digest and none. The admin-digest authentication
method uses digest authentication (a challenge/response system to authenticate user – passwords
are never sent in clear text) to control access to the HTTPProvider. The usernames and
passwords for admin-digest authentication are stored in the file [installdir]/conf/admin.password. The none method allows all access.
Creating custom HTTPProviders is covered in the next chapter.
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Built-in Server-side Modules
Below is a list of each of the built-in server-side modules along with a brief description of the
functionality that is provided. For detailed information on each of the methods provided in a
module see the server-side API reference.
ModuleCore – (com.wowza.module.ModuleCore)
The ModuleCore module represents the server-side implementation of the Adobe Flash
NetConnection, NetStream and SharedObject objects. It is required that this module be
included by all applications for the server to operate properly. This module contains several
additional server side methods that are highlighted here:
Function call
setStreamType(streamType:String);
getStreamType();
setRepeaterOriginUrl(originUrl:String);
getRepeaterOriginUrl();
getStreamLength(streamName:String);
getStreamLength(streamNames:Array);
Description
Returns and sets the default stream
type for this client connection.
Returns and sets the live stream
repeater origin URL to use for this
connection.
For video on demand streaming it
returns the duration of the stream in
seconds. If an array of stream
names is passed in an array of
durations is returned.
getClientID();
Returns the client ID for this client
connection.
getReferrer();
Get the referrer from the
onConnect method.
getPageUrl();
Get the pageUrl from the
onConnect method.
getVersion();
Returns the server name and
version.
getLastStreamId();
Returns the ID number of the last
NetStream object that was created
by this client.
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FCSubscribe(streamName, [mediaCasterType]);
FCUnSubscribe(streamName);
When using the live stream repeater
to lock and unlock a stream on the
edge during streaming. This
method is useful when doing
dynamic streaming to lock all bitrate
renditions of a live stream on an
edge server to be sure they are
available when a switch is made
between bitrate renditions.
FCPublish(streamName);
FCUnpublish(streamName);
Called to tell the Wowza Server a
new stream is being published.
ModuleProperties - (com.wowza.module.ModuleProperties)
The ModuleProperties module gives the Flash player client code access to application specific
properties (name, value pairs) that are attached to the objects in the server object hierarchy.
Function call
setApplicationProperty(name:String,
value:String);
getApplicationProperty(name:String);
setAppInstanceProperty(name:String,
value:String);
getAppInstanceProperty(name:String);
setClientProperty(name:String,
value:String);
getClientProperty(name:String);
setStreamProperty(streamId:Number,
value:String);
getStreamProperty(streamId:Number);
Description
Returns and sets properties attached
to this client’s Application object.
Returns and sets properties attached
to this client’s Application Instance
object.
Returns and sets properties attached
to this client’s object.
Returns and sets properties attached
to a NetStream object. NetStream
objects are identified by StreamId
which can be returned to the client
by making a call to
getLastStreamId() directly following
a call to “new NetStream(nc)”.
ModuleClientLogging (com.wowza.module.ModuleClientLogging)
The ModuleClientLogging module enables client side logging to the server.
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logDebug(logStr:String);
logInfo(logStr:String);
logWarn(logStr:String);
logError(logStr:String);
The following call from the Flash player client:
nc.call("logDebug", null, "log this string");
Is the same as a server side call to:
getLogger().debug("log this string");
ModuleFastPlay - (com.wowza.module.ModuleFastPlay)
The ModuleFastPlay enables fast forward, fast rewind and slow motion play back of static flash
video. Fast play is configured by making a call to netStream.call(“setFastPlay”, null, multiplier,
fps, direction) before each call to netStream.play, netStream.pause(false), netStream.seek. To turn
off fast play simply make a call to netStream.play, netStream.pause(false), netStream.seek without
first making a call to setFastPlay.
setFastPlay(multiplier:Number, fps:Number, direction: Number);
multiplier
the speed at which to play the movie. To play a movie at 4x normal speed, set this
value to 4.0. To play a movie in slow motion, set this value to a value less than one. For example
to playback at quarter speed, set this value to 0.25.
fps
the frames per second for the resultant video stream. During fast play the server
will discard video frames as needed to try to maintain this frame rate. For slow motion
(multipliers less than 1) this value is ignored.
Note
Fast play does not work properly with H.264/HE-AAC content.
Note
Remember that Flash video is made up of a series of key-frames and progressive-frames (D and P
frames). During the fast play process the server is going to throw out mostly progressive-frames
in favor of key-frames. Key-frames tend to be much larger than progressive-frame. Because of
this you will want to specify a frames-per-second rate that is significantly lower than the movie’s
frame rate to maintain a reasonable bandwidth. So for a movie that normally plays at 30 fps a
setting of 10fps is about right for fast play.
direction
the direction of play. A value of 1 for forward and -1 for reverse.
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During fast play the time value returned by NetStream.time needs to be shifted and scaled to
reflect the current playback position in the movie. Each time fast play is initiated, the NetStream
object receives an onStatus(statusObj) event. Wowza Media Server has extended the statusObj to
include information about the current fast play settings. The following properties have been
added to the statusObj:
isFastPlay
boolean that is true if fast play is on and false if not.
fastPlayMultiplier the multiplier specified in the call to setFastPlay.
fastPlayDirection the direction specified in the call to setFastPlay
fastPlayOffset
the offset used to calculate the true location in the video stream.
With this information you can calculate the current playback position by executing the following
calculation:
var inc:Number;
var time:Number;
inc = ((NetStream.time*1000)fastPlayOffset)*fastPlayMultiplier;
time = (fastPlayOffset + (fastPlayDirection>0?inc:-inc))/1000;
Note
The following support article includes an example Flash player that has been fast play enabled:
http://www.wowzamedia.com/docredirect.php?doc=usefulCodeFastPlayFlash
Note
When using the file or default stream type, fast play is not supported when a media playlist
contains more than one entry.
ModuleFLVPlayback - (com.wowza.module.ModuleFLVPlayback)
The ModuleFLVPlayback module is required by the FLVPlayback component. This module
must be added to any application that is going to use the FLVPlayback component.
Built-in HTTPProviders
Below is a list of each of the built-in HTTPProviders along with a brief description.
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HTTPServerVersion - (com.wowza.wms.http.HTTPServerVersion)
HTTPServerVersion returns the Wowza Server version and build number. It is the default
HTTPProvider on port 1935.
HTTPCrossdomain - (com.wowza.wms.http.HTTPCrossdomain)
HTTPCrossdomain serves up the Adobe Flash crossdomain.xml file when present in [installdir]/conf folder.
HTTPClientAccessPolicy (com.wowza.wms.http.HTTPClientAccessPolicy)
HTTPClientAccessPolicy serves up the Microsoft Silverlight clientaccesspolicy.xml file when
present in [install-dir]/conf folder.
HTTPStreamManager (com.wowza.wms.http.HTTPStreamManager)
HTTPStreamManager is the Stream Manager HTTPProvider that is available through
administrative port 8086 (http://[wowza-ip-address]:8086/streammanager).
HTTPServerInfoXML (com.wowza.wms.http.HTTPServerInfoXML)
HTTPServerInfoXML return detailed server and connection information in XML format and is
available through administrative port 8086 (http://[wowza-ip-address]:8086/serverinfo).
HTTPConnectionInfo (com.wowza.wms.http.HTTPConnectionInfo)
HTTPConnectionInfo return detailed connection information in XML format and is available
through administrative port 8086 (http://[wowza-ip-address]:8086/connectioninfo).
HTTPConnectionCountsXML (com.wowza.wms.http.HTTPConnectionCountsXML)
HTTPConnectionCountsXML return connection information in XML format and is available
through administrative port 8086 (http://[wowza-ip-address]:8086/connectioncounts).
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8
Chapter
Extending Wowza Server Using Java
How do I extend the Wowza Server server?
W
owza Media Server 2 can easily be extended by writing Java classes that are loaded
dynamically by the server. There are several integration points that can be used to
extend the server; custom server-side modules, HTTPProviders and listeners. We will
explore each of these integration points and provide a quick example. We provide a free
integrated development environment called the Wowza IDE that can be used to extend the
functionality of the server. You can download it from here:
http://www.wowzamedia.com/ide.html
It is probably best to download and install the Wowza IDE first before reading this chapter. The
included documentation will walk you through the creation of your first custom server-side
module. It will point you back to this chapter for more information. Consult the Server-side
API Guide for detailed information on the available APIs. There is also a wealth of knowledge
and code snippets online in the support section of http://www.wowzamedia.com.
Custom Module Classes
Server-side modules are Java classes that are configured on a per-application basis and are
dynamically created at application instance startup. Typically, module classes are bound into .jar
files that are located in the [install-dir]/lib folder. Modules can leverage any available 3rd party
libraries or built-in Java functionality as long as the dependent .jar files are copied into the
[install-dir]/lib folder. Modules are added to an application configuration by adding a
<Module> entry to the <Modules> list in the application’s Application.xml file.
Let’s start by creating our first module. It will have two methods onAppStart and
doSomething. The onAppStart method is an event method and the doSomething method is a
custom method. The details of event methods and custom methods will be discussed later.
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package com.mycompany.module;
import
import
import
import
com.wowza.wms.module.*;
com.wowza.wms.client.*;
com.wowza.wms.amf.*;
com.wowza.wms.request.*;
public class MyModule extends ModuleBase
{
public void onAppStart(IApplicationInstance appInstance)
{
getLogger().info("onAppStart");
}
public void doSomething(IClient client, RequestFunction function,
AMFDataList params)
{
getLogger().info("doSomething");
}
}
Next, to add this module to an application configuration, edit Application.xml for the
application and add the following <Module> entry for this module to the end of the
<Modules> list:
<Module>
<Name>MyModule</Name>
<Description>This is MyModule</Description>
<Class>com.mycompany.module.MyModule</Class>
</Module>
Each module must have a <Name> that is unique in that <Modules> list. The
<Description> information is for providing a detailed description of the module and is not used
in any operations. The <Class> item is the full path to the Java class that is providing the
module’s functionality. We combine the package path in the first line of the module to the class
name to form the class path.
Event Methods
Event methods are invoked by the server based on events that occur during server processing.
Event methods apply to all types of streaming Adobe Flash, Microsoft Silverlight,
iPhone/iPad/iPod touch and RTSP. Event methods are defined by the following interfaces:
IModuleOnApp
IModuleOnConnect
IModuleOnStream
IModuleOnHTTPSession
IModuleOnRTPSession
IModuleOnHTTPCupertinoStreamingSession
IModuleOnHTTPSmoothStreamingSession
IModuleOnHTTPSanJoseStreamingSession
IModuleOnHTTPCupertinoEncryption
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All event methods defined in all modules are invoked when an event occurs. What this means is
that if two modules implement the onAppStart event method, then both modules onAppStart
methods will be invoked when a new application instance is created. Module methods are
invoked starting at the top of the <Modules> list defined in Application.xml. So the first
<Modules> entry in the list will be called first and it will work its way down to the last item in
the list. Below are each of the event method interfaces and their corresponding event methods.
IModuleOnApp
public void onAppStart(IApplicationInstance appInstance);
public void onAppStop(IApplicationInstance appInstance);
onAppStart: Invoked when an application instance is started
onAppStop: Invoked when an application instance is stopped
IModuleOnConnect
public void onConnect(IClient client,
RequestFunction function, AMFDataList params);
public void onDisconnect(IClient client);
public void onConnectAccept(IClient client);
public void onConnectReject(IClient client);
onConnect: Invoked when a Flash player connects to an application instance
onDisconnected: Invoked when a Flash player disconnect from an application instance
onConnectAccept: Invoked when a Flash player connection is accepted
onConnectReject: Invoked when a Flash player connection is refused
IModuleOnStream
public void onStreamCreate(IMediaStream stream);
public void onStreamDestroy(IMediaStream stream);
onStreamCreate: Invoked when a new IMediaStream object is created
onStreamDestroy: Invoked when a IMediaStream object is closed
Note
The onStreamCreate event method is invoked before play or publish has been called for this
IMediaStream object. For this reason the IMediaStream object does not have a name. See the
IMediaStreamActionNotify2 interface to implement a server listener that is invoked when actions
occur on this IMediaStream object.
IModuleOnHTTPSession
public void onHTTPSessionCreate(IHTTPStreamerSession httpSession);
public void onHTTPSessionDestroy(IHTTPStreamerSession httpSession);
onHTTPSessionCreate: Invoked when HTTP streaming session(Cupertino or Smooth) created
onHTTPSessionDestroy: Invoked when HTTP streaming session(Cupertino or Smooth) closed
IModuleOnRTPSession
public void onRTPSessionCreate(RTPSession rtpSession);
public void onRTPSessionDestroy(RTPSession rtpSession);
onRTPSessionCreate: Invoked when RTP session created
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onRTPSessionDestroy: Invoked when RTP session closed
IModuleOnHTTPCupertinoStreamingSession
public void onHTTPCupertinoStreamingSessionCreate(
HTTPStreamerSessionCupertino httpCupertinoStreamingSession);
public void onHTTPCupertinoStreamingSessionDestroy(
HTTPStreamerSessionCupertino httpCupertinoStreamingSession);
onHTTPCupertinoStreamingSessionCreate: Invoked when Cupertino session created
onHTTPCupertinoStreamingSessionDestroy: Invoked when Cupertino session closed
IModuleOnHTTPSmoothStreamingSession
public void onHTTPSmoothStreamingSessionCreate(
HTTPStreamerSessionSmoothStreamer httpSmoothStreamingSession);
public void onHTTPSmoothStreamingSessionDestroy(
HTTPStreamerSessionSmoothStreamer httpSmoothStreamingSession);
onHTTPSmoothStreamingSessionCreate: Invoked when Smooth session created
onHTTPSmoothStreamingSessionDestroy: Invoked when Smooth session closed
IModuleOnHTTPSanJoseStreamingSession
public void onHTTPSanJoseStreamingSessionCreate(
HTTPStreamerSessionSanJoseStreamer httpSanJoseStreamingSession);
public void onHTTPSanJoseStreamingSessionDestroy(
HTTPStreamerSessionSanJoseStreamer httpSanJoseStreamingSession);
onHTTPSanJoseStreamingSessionCreate: Invoked when Smooth session created
onHTTPSanJoseStreamingSessionDestroy: Invoked when Smooth session closed
IModuleOnHTTPCupertinoEncryption
public void onHTTPCupertinoEncryptionKeyRequest(
HTTPStreamerSessionCupertino httpSession, IHTTPRequest req,
IHTTPResponse resp);
public void onHTTPCupertinoEncryptionKeyCreateVOD(
HTTPStreamerSessionCupertino httpSession, byte[] encKey);
public void onHTTPCupertinoEncryptionKeyCreateLive(
IApplicationInstance appInstance, String streamName, byte[] encKey);
onHTTPCupertinoEncryptionKeyRequest: Invoked when encryption key request is made for Cupertino
streaming
onHTTPCupertinoEncryptionKeyCreateVOD: Invoked when encryption key is created for video on
demand stream
onHTTPCupertinoEncryptionKeyCreateLive: Invoked when encryption key is created for live stream
Custom Methods
Custom methods are public mehods that you wish to expose to the Adobe Flash player through
calls to the client-side interface NetConnection.call() or are calls that are part of the
NetConnection or NetStream command set. For example play and publish are defined in
ModuleCore as custom methods. These methods must be public and must have the following
argument signature (IClient, RequestFunction, AMFDataList params). Only public methods with
this signature will be available to be called from the Flash player.
Processing for custom methods is different than that of event methods. When a given method
such as play is invoked from the Flash player, only the last module in the <Modules> list that
defines that custom method will be invoked. For example, the ModuleCore module defines the
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method play which is invoked when NetStream.play(streamName) is called from the Flash player.
If you create your own custom module that defines the method play and add it to the
<Modules> list after the ModuleCore module, then your play method will be invoked rather
than the play method defined in ModuleCore. If in your implementation of play, you wish to
invoke the play method of the next module up the list that precedes your module, you call
this.invokePrevious(client, function, params). Wowza Server will search up the module list
and find the next module that implements the play method and it will invoke that method. This
is similar to traditional object orientated sub-classing. Each implementation of a method in the
<Modules> list can perform an operation based on the invocation of a given method and can
choose to pass control to the next module that implement that method above them in the
<Modules> list.
For example, if in your implementation of play you wish to check the stream name of calls made
to NetStream.play(streamName). If the stream name starts with goodstream/ you wish to
append the phrase _good to the stream name and call this.invokePrevious(client, function,
params). All other connections will be disconnected. The code looks like this:
package com.mycompany.module;
import
import
import
import
com.wowza.wms.module.*;
com.wowza.wms.client.*;
com.wowza.wms.amf.*;
com.wowza.wms.request.*;
public class MyModule extends ModuleBase
{
public void play(IClient client, RequestFunction function, AMFDataList params)
{
boolean disconnect = false;
if (params.get(PARAM1).getType() == AMFData.DATA_TYPE_STRING)
{
String playName = params.getString(PARAM1);
if (playName.startsWith("goodstream/"))
{
playName += "_good";
params.set(PARAM1, new AMFDataItem(playName));
}
else
disconnect = true;
}
if (disconnect)
client.setShutdownClient(true);
else
this.invokePrevious(client, function, params);
}
}
onCall
The onCall method is a catch-all for any methods that are undefined by custom methods. The
interface for this method is defined in the IModuleOnCall interface class. The onCall method
functions the same as an event method in that all onCall methods defined in all modules will be
called. Example:
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package com.mycompany.module;
import
import
import
import
com.wowza.wms.module.*;
com.wowza.wms.client.*;
com.wowza.wms.amf.*;
com.wowza.wms.request.*;
public class MyModule extends ModuleBase implements
IModuleOnCall
{
public void onCall(String handlerName, IClient client,
RequestFunction function, AMFDataList params)
{
getLogger().info("onCall: "+handlerName);
}
}
Adobe Flash Player and Custom Methods
Parameters passed from the Adobe Flash player client to Wowza Server need to be marshaled to
Java primitive and object types. The com.wowza.wms.module.ModuleBase class includes a
number of helper functions and constants for converting the parameter values. For more
complex types, the com.wowza.wms.amf package contains an API for object conversion.
Consult the server API javadocs and the Server Side Coding example for more detailed
information. Below is a simple example of converting three incoming parameters:
package com.mycompany.module;
import
import
import
import
com.wowza.wms.module.*;
com.wowza.wms.client.*;
com.wowza.wms.amf.*;
com.wowza.wms.request.*;
public class MyModule extends ModuleBase
{
public void myFunction(IClient client,
RequestFunction function, AMFDataList params)
{
String param1 = getParamString(params, PARAM1);
int param2 = getParamInt(params, PARAM2);
boolean param3 = getParamBoolean(params, PARAM3);
}
}
A custom method called from the Adobe Flash player may return a single result value. This value
must be converted to an Action Message Format (AMF) object to be understood by the Flash
player. These value types can include simple types like strings, integers and booleans as well as
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more complex types like objects, arrays or arrays of objects. The
com.wowza.wms.module.ModuleBase class includes a number of helper functions for returning
simple types. For more complex types, the com.wowza.wms.amf package contains an API for
object creation and conversion. Consult the server API javadocs and the Server Side Coding
example for more detailed information. Below is a simple example of three methods returning
simple value types:
package com.mycompany.module;
import
import
import
import
com.wowza.wms.module.*;
com.wowza.wms.client.*;
com.wowza.wms.amf.*;
com.wowza.wms.request.*;
public class MyModule extends ModuleBase
{
public void myFunctionString(IClient client,
RequestFunction function, AMFDataList params)
{
sendResult(client, params, "Hello World");
}
public void myFunctionInt(IClient client,
RequestFunction function, AMFDataList params)
{
sendResult(client, params, 536);
}
public void myFunctionBoolean(IClient client,
RequestFunction function, AMFDataList params)
{
sendResult(client, params, true);
}
}
Adobe Flash Player and Server to Client Calls
A custom method can call a function in Adobe Flash player directly by invoking the IClient.call()
method. The client call can return a single variable that will be received by the server by creating a
result object that implements the com.mycompany.module.IModuleCallResult interface. The
IClient.call() method has two forms:
public abstract void call(String handlerName);
public abstract void call(String handlerName,
IModuleCallResult resultObj, Object ... params);
Methods on the client side are made available to the server by attaching them to the
NetConnection object. Below is sample ActionScript 3.0 client-side code:
var nc:NetConnection = new NetConnection();
var clientObj:Object = new Object();
clientObj.serverToClientMethod = function(param1, param2)
{
return "Hello World";
}
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nc.client = clientObj;
nc.connect("rtmp://wms.mycompany.com/mymodules");
To call this client-side method from the server, the custom method looks like this:
package com.mycompany.module;
import
import
import
import
com.wowza.wms.module.*;
com.wowza.wms.client.*;
com.wowza.wms.amf.*;
com.wowza.wms.request.*;
class MyResult implements IModuleCallResult
{
public onResult(IClient client,
RequestFunction function, AMFDataList params)
{
String returnValue = getParamString(params, PARAM1);
getLogger().info("got Result: "+ returnValue);
}
}
public class MyModule extends ModuleBase
{
public void myFunction(IClient client,
RequestFunction function, AMFDataList params)
{
client.call("serverToClientMethod", new MyResult(),
"param1: value", 1.5);
}
}
Logging
A custom method can get access to the server’s logging interface using the getLogger() helper
method that is implemented by the com.wowza.wms.module.ModuleBase base class. Log
messages are written to the log files by using one of the following four methods:
getLogger().debug(logStr);
getLogger().info(logStr);
getLogger().warn(logStr);
getLogger().error(logStr);
Java Management Extensions (JMX)
All modules instantiated for a given application instance will be made available through the Java
Management Extension’s (JMX) Interface. The path to the modules section in the MBean
interface is:
WowzaMediaServer/VHosts/[vHostName]/Applications/[applicationN
ame]/
ApplicationInstance/[applicationInstanceName]/Modules
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All public methods and properties (wrapped in Java Bean get/set methods) will be made available
through the Instance object found within each module definition. If you want to exclude a
method or property from the JMX interface, import the com.wowza.util.NoMBean class and
add the @NoMBean annotation to your method definition. So what this means is that your
custom modules are instantly made available through the Wowza Server administration interface
without any additional programming. All property values can be inspected, properties with
get[property-name] accessors can be changed and methods with simple Java types can be
invoked through JConsole or VisualVM.
HTTPProvider Classes
HTTPProviders are Java classes that are mini Java servlets that can be used to add an HTTP
interface to Wowza Server. They are configured on a per-port basis in [installdir]/conf/VHost.xml (configuration is covered in the previous chapter). Below is a simple
HTTPProvider that returns the server version:
package com.mycompany.wms.http;
import java.io.*;
import
import
import
import
com.wowza.wms.server.*;
com.wowza.wms.stream.*;
com.wowza.wms.vhost.*;
com.wowza.wms.http.*;
public class HTTPServerVersion extends HTTProvider2Base
{
public void onHTTPRequest(IVHost vhost, IHTTPRequest req, IHTTPResponse resp)
{
if (!doHTTPAuthentication(vhost, req, resp))
return;
String version = MediaStreamBase.p+" ";
version += ReleaseInfo.getVersion();
version += " build"+ReleaseInfo.getBuildNumber();
String retStr = "<html><head><title>";
retStr += version;
retStr += "</title></head><body>"+version+"</body></html>";
try
{
OutputStream out = resp.getOutputStream();
byte[] outBytes = retStr.getBytes();
out.write(outBytes);
}
catch (Exception e)
{
System.out.println("HTMLServerVersion: "+e.toString());
}
}
}
Much of the functionality of HTTPProviders is encapsulated in the HTTProvider2Base base
class. Your HTTPProvider, if it extends this class, only needs to implement the onHTTPRequest
method. Below are a few interesting code snippets to aid in HTTPProvider development:
Get HTTP request URL
String path = super.getPath(req, false);
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Get HTTP request header value
String headerValue = req.getHeader(headerName);
Set HTTP response header value
resp.setHeader(headerName, headerValue);
Set HTTP response status
resp.setResponseCode(404);
There are several more complex and interesting examples of HTTPProviders in the support
section of www.wowzamedia.com.
Event Listeners
There are many points within the Wowza Media Server 2 object hierarchy where event listeners
can be added. Event listeners are classes that implement a notifier interface and are notified of
specifc events within the server. For example you can inject a server listener that gets notified of
server startup, initialization and shutdown or an application instance listener that is notified each
time an application instance is started or stopped. Below are specifics on the more interesting and
useful listener interfaces:
Server Listener (IServerNotify2)
Sever listeners are notified of the life cycle of the server and are a great place to invoke and attach
functionality that you would like to make avaible while Wowza Server is running. Examples are
web services or SOAP interface and a web server or HTTP interface. Below is a simple server
listener:
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package com.mycompany.wms;
import com.wowza.wms.server.*;
public class MyServerListener implements IServerNotify2
{
public void onServerCreate(IServer server)
{
System.out.println("onServerCreate");
}
public void onServerConfigLoaded(IServer server)
{
System.out.println("onServerConfigLoaded");
}
public void onServerInit(IServer server)
{
System.out.println("onServerInit");
}
public void onServerShutdownStart(IServer server)
{
System.out.println("onServerShutdownStart");
}
public void onServerShutdownComplete(IServer server)
{
System.out.println("onServerShutdownComplete");
}
}
Once compiled, bound into a .jar file and placed in the [install-dir]/lib folder, this server listener
can be invoked by adding an entry to the <ServerListeners> list in [installdir]/conf/Server.xml:
<ServerListener>
<BaseClass>com.mycompany.wms.MyServerListener</BaseClass>
</ServerListener>
Virtual Host Listener (IServerNotify2)
Virtual host listeners are notified of the life cycle of virtual host. Below is a simple virtual listener:
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package com.mycompany.wms;
import
import
import
import
com.wowza.wms.amf.*;
com.wowza.wms.client.*;
com.wowza.wms.request.*;
com.wowza.wms.vhost.*;
public class MyVHostListener implements IVHostNotify
{
public void onVHostCreate(IVHost vhost)
{
System.out.println("onVHostCreate: "+vhost.getName());
}
public void onVHostInit(IVHost vhost)
{
System.out.println("onVHostInit: "+vhost.getName());
}
public void onVHostShutdownStart(IVHost vhost)
{
System.out.println("onVHostShutdownStart: "+vhost.getName());
}
public void onVHostShutdownComplete(IVHost vhost)
{
System.out.println("onVHostShutdownComplete: "+vhost.getName());
}
public void onVHostClientConnect(IVHost vhost, IClient inClient,
RequestFunction function, AMFDataList params)
{
System.out.println("onVHostClientConnect: "+vhost.getName());
}
}
Once compiled, bound into a .jar file and placed in the [install-dir]/lib folder this virtual host
listener can be invoked by adding an entry to the <VHostListeners> list in [installdir]/conf/Server.xml:
<VHostListener>
<BaseClass>com.mycompany.wms.MyVHostListener</BaseClass>
</VHostListener>
MediaStream Listeners (IMediaStreamActionNotify2)
MediaStream listeners receive play, publish, pause… events for an Adobe Flash MediaStream
object. Below is a simple MediaStream listener:
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package com.mycompany.wms;
import com.wowza.wms.amf.*;
import com.wowza.wms.stream.*;
public class MyMediaStreamListener implements IMediaStreamActionNotify2
{
public void onMetaData(IMediaStream stream, AMFPacket metaDataPacket)
{
System.out.println("onMetaData");
}
public void onPauseRaw(IMediaStream stream, boolean isPause,
double location)
{
System.out.println("onPauseRaw");
}
public void onPause(IMediaStream stream, boolean isPause,
double location)
{
System.out.println("onPause");
}
public void onPlay(IMediaStream stream, String streamName,
double playStart, double playLen, int playReset)
{
System.out.println("onPlay");
}
public void onPublish(IMediaStream stream, String streamName,
boolean isRecord, boolean isAppend)
{
System.out.println("onPublish");
}
public void onSeek(IMediaStream stream, double location)
{
System.out.println("onSeek");
}
public void onStop(IMediaStream stream)
{
System.out.println("onStop");
}
public void onUnPublish(IMediaStream stream, String streamName,
boolean isRecord, boolean isAppend)
{
System.out.println("onUnPublish");
}
}
Once compiled, bound into a .jar file and placed in the [install-dir]/lib folder, this MediaStream
listener can be invoked by creating an instance of this object and attaching it to an IMediaStream
object. You might do this in an onStreamCreate event method like this:
public void onStreamCreate(IMediaStream stream)
{
stream.addClientListener(new MyMediaStreamListener());
}
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9
Chapter
Server Administration
How do I setup, manage, and deploy Wowza Media Server 2?
W
owza Media Server 2 is a small and powerful Java server. It is configured through a set
of XML files. The server can be run standalone from a command shell or installed as a
system service. Running the server standalone is best for developing Wowza Server
custom applications since the server can be started and stopped quickly and server log messages
can be seen immediately in the console window. Running the server as a system service is most
often used for server deployment where the server needs to continue to run even after you log off
the machine or be automatically started when the server is rebooted.
Configuring SSL and RTMPS
Wowza Media Server 2 supports Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and RTMPS (RTMP over SSL)
streaming protection. SSL is a technology which allows web browsers and web servers to
communicate over a secured connection. This means that the data being sent and received is
encrypted in both directions. You can get an SSL certificate from a certificate authority or you
can create a certficiate your self. The instructions below will walk you through the steps to create
a self signed SSL certificate for use with Wowza Server. If you would like to obtain an SSL
certificate from a certificate authority follow the steps in this support article:
http://www.wowzamedia.com/docredirect.php?doc=tutorialsSSLCA
Below are the steps to create a self-signed SSL certificate using the keytool application that comes
with the Java JDK. To get started, install the Java JDK and be sure the bin folder of your JDK
installation has been added to your PATH variable. If the PATH variable is configured correctly,
you should be able to open a command prompt and execute the command keytool. This should
return the command reference for the keytool command. Once you have the keytool command
up and running, proceed to the following steps to create a self-signed SSL certificate:
1. Open a command prompt and change directory to [install-dir]/conf
2. Execute the following command:
keytool -genkey -alias wowza -keyalg RSA -keystore ssl.mycompany.com.cert
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3. You will then be prompted to answer several questions. Below are sample responses
assuming the domain name that you wish this certificate to be tied to is
ssl.mycompany.com:
[Enter keystore password]
password
[What is your first and last name]
ssl.mycompany.com
[What is the name of your organizational unit]
Web Department
[What is the name of your organization]
My Company Name
[What is the name of your City or Locality]
Cincinnati
[What is the name of your State or Province]
Ohio
[What is the two-letter country code for this unit]
US
[Enter key password for <password>]
password
Once complete, you will see a file named ssl.mycompany.com.cert in the [install-dir]/conf
folder. This is the certificate file. To configure TCP port to use this certificate, edit [installdir]/conf/VHost.xml and make the following changes:
1. Uncomment the <HostPort> definition for port 443 that is just following the comment
<!-- 443 with SSL --> (be sure to remove the comment before <HostPort> and after
</HostPort>).
2. Set the value SSLConfig/KeyStorePath to:
${com.wowza.wms.context.VHostConfigHome}/conf/ssl.mycompany.com.cert
3. Set the SSLConfig/KeyStorePassword to key store password entered above.
TCP port 443 is now protected by SSL and RTMPS. You will need to setup a domain name
entry for the domain chosen above and all communications using port 443 will need to done
using SSL or RTMPS and the domain name specified in the certificate.
Self-signed certificates (this not does not apply to certificates from certificate authorities) do not
work on the Mac (OSX) when using Adobe Flash to stream over RTMPS without first installing
the certificate in the Keychain and setting its trust level to Always Trust. To extract the certificate
and install in the OSX Keychain, do the following:
1. Extract the certificate from the keystore using the following command and copy the
ssl.mycompany.com.crt file to the Mac:
keytool -export -alias wowza -file ssl.mycompany.com.crt -keystore
ssl.mycompany.com.cert
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2. Open the Applications > Utilities > Keychain Access utility and select the
Certificates category
3. Drag and drop the ssl.mycompany.com.crt onto this utility
4. Right click on the ssl.mycompany.com entry in the list and select Get Info
5. Open the Trust section of the info dialog and set When using this certificate to
Always Trust
These steps need to be followed on any machine that is going to use RTMPS to play a stream that
is protected using a self-signed certificate. Obviously this is not the preferred way to stream using
RTMPS. It is better to obtain a signed certificate from a trusted certificate authority. With a
trusted certificate these additional steps are not necessary.
There are two methods of doing RTMPS streaming when using the Adobe Flash player. The
default method leverages tunneling (RTMPT over SSL) which can be slow and causes additional
server load. The second method is RTMP over SSL which performs better. You can enable this
mode by setting the NetConnection.proxyType to “best” before calling
NetConnection.connect. The code looks like this:
var nc:NetConnection = new NetConnection();
nc.proxyType = “best”;
nc.connect(“rtmps://ssl.mycompany.com/myapplication”);
Logging
Wowza Media Server 2 uses the apache.org log4j library as its logging implementation. The log4j
logging system provides ample functionality for log formatting, log rolling and log retrieval for
most applications. By default, Wowza Server is configured to log basic information to the server
console and detailed information in the W3C Extended Common Log Format (ECLF) to a log
file. The log files are written to the following folder:
[install-dir]/logs
Wowza Media Server logging can generate the following logging fields:
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date
time
tz
x-event
x-category
x-severity
x-status
x-ctx
x-comment
x-vhost
x-app
x-appinst
x-duration
s-ip
s-port
s-uri
c-ip
c-proto
c-referrer
c-user-agent
c-client-id
cs-bytes
sc-bytes
x-stream-id
x-spos
cs-stream-bytes
sc-stream-bytes
x-sname
x-sname-query
x-file-name
x-file-ext
x-file-size
x-file-length
x-suri
x-suri-stem
x-suri-query
cs-uri-stem
cs-uri-query
Date of log event
Time of log event
Time zone of log event
Log event (see table below)
Log event category (server, vhost, application, session, stream)
Log event severity (DEBUG, INFO, WARN, ERROR, FATAL)
Status of log event (see table below)
Extra data about the context of the log event
Extra comment about the log event
Name of the virtual host from which the event was generated
Name of the application from which the event was generated
Name of the application instance from which the event was generated
Time in seconds that this event occurred within the lifetime of the
x-category object
IP address on which the server received this event
Port number on which the server received this event
Full connection string on which the server received this event
Client connection IP address
Client connection protocol (rtmp, rtmpe, rtmpt(HTTP-1.1),
rtmpte(HTTP-1.1), rtmps(HTTP-1.1), http (cupertino), http (smooth))
URL of the Flash movie that initiated the connection to the server
Version of the Flash client that initiated the connection to the server
Client ID number assigned by the server to the connection
Total number of bytes transferred from client to server (accumulative)
Total number of bytes transferred from server to client (accumulative)
Stream ID number assigned by server to the stream object
Position in milliseconds within the media stream
Total number of bytes transferred from client to server for stream xstream-id (accumulative)
Total number of bytes transferred from server to client for stream xstream-id (accumulative)
Name of stream x-stream-id
Query parameters of stream x-stream-id
Full file path of stream x-stream-id
File extension of stream x-stream-id
File size in bytes of stream x-stream-id
File length in seconds of stream x-stream-id
Full connection string for stream x-stream-id (including query
parameters)
Full connection string for stream x-stream-id (excluding query
parameters)
Query parameter for connection string
Full connection string for stream x-stream-id (excluding query
parameters)
Query parameter for stream x-stream-id
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Wowza Media Server generates the following logging events:
comment
server-start
server-stop
vhost-start
vhost-stop
app-start
app-stop
connect-pending
connect
connect-burst
disconnect
play
pause
unpause
seek
setstreamtype
setbuffertime
stop
create
destroy
publish
unpublish
record
recordstop
announce
Comment
Server start
Server shutdown
Virtual host start
Virtual host shutdown
Application instance start
Application instance shutdown
Connection pending approval by application and license manager
Connection result
Connection accepted in burst zone
Client (session) disconnected from server
Play has started
Play has paused
Play has unpaused /resumed
Seek has occurred
Client call to netConnection.call(“setStreamType”, null, “[streamtype]”);
Client call to NetStream.setBufferTime(secs) logged in milliseconds
Play has stopped on a stream
Media or data stream created
Media or data stream destroyed
Start stream publishing
Stop stream publishing
Start stream recording
Stop stream recording
RTSP Session Description Protocol (SDP) ANNOUNCE
Wowza Media Server generates the following logging status values:
100
200
302
400
401
413
500
Pending or waiting (for approval)
Success
Rejected by application with redirect information
Bad request
Rejected by application
Rejected by license manager
Internal error
Wowza Server logging is configured in the conf/log4j.properties properties file. There are many
logging configuration options made available by the log4j logging system. The remainder of this
section will cover the basic options for enabling and disabling different logging fields, events and
categories. Below is an example of a basic log4j.properties file for Wowza Server.
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log4j.rootCategory=INFO, stdout, serverAccess, serverError
# Console appender
log4j.appender.stdout=org.apache.log4j.ConsoleAppender
log4j.appender.stdout.layout=com.wowza.wms.logging.ECLFPatternLayout
log4j.appender.stdout.layout.Fields=x-severity,x-category,x-event,x-ctx,x-comment
log4j.appender.stdout.layout.OutputHeader=false
log4j.appender.stdout.layout.QuoteFields=false
log4j.appender.stdout.layout.Delimeter=space
# Access appender
log4j.appender.serverAccess=org.apache.log4j.DailyRollingFileAppender
log4j.appender.serverAccess.DatePattern='.'yyyy-MM-dd
log4j.appender.serverAccess.File=${com.wowza.wms.ConfigHome}/logs/wowzamediaserver_access.log
log4j.appender.serverAccess.layout=com.wowza.wms.logging.ECLFPatternLayout
log4j.appender.serverAccess.layout.Fields=x-severity,x-category,x-event;date,time,c-client-id,c-ip,c-port,csbytes,sc-bytes,x-duration,x-sname,x-stream-id,sc-stream-bytes,cs-stream-bytes,x-file-size,x-file-length,xctx,x-comment
log4j.appender.serverAccess.layout.OutputHeader=true
log4j.appender.serverAccess.layout.QuoteFields=false
log4j.appender.serverAccess.layout.Delimeter=tab
# Error appender
log4j.appender.serverError=org.apache.log4j.DailyRollingFileAppender
log4j.appender.serverError.DatePattern='.'yyyy-MM-dd
log4j.appender.serverError.File=${com.wowza.wms.ConfigHome}/logs/wowzamediaserver_error.log
log4j.appender.serverError.layout=com.wowza.wms.logging.ECLFPatternLayout
log4j.appender.serverError.layout.Fields=x-severity,x-category,x-event;date,time,c-client-id,c-ip,c-port,csbytes,sc-bytes,x-duration,x-sname,x-stream-id,sc-stream-bytes,cs-stream-bytes,x-file-size,x-file-length,xctx,x-comment
log4j.appender.serverError.layout.OutputHeader=true
log4j.appender.serverError.layout.QuoteFields=false
log4j.appender.serverError.layout.Delimeter=tab
log4j.appender.serverError.Threshold=WARN
Note
Always use forward slashes when referring to file paths (even on the Windows platform).
The first statement in this file sets the logging level to INFO and defines three appenders; stdout,
serverAccess, serverError. Setting the logging level to INFO configures the logging mechanism
such that it will only log events with a severity of INFO or greater. The logging severity in
ascending order is: DEBUG, INFO, WARN, ERROR and FATAL. To log all events set the
logging level to DEBUG.
Next, we configure each of the appenders. The important properties in this section are:
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Field
OutputHeader
QuoteFields
Delimiter
CategoryInclude
CategoryExclude
EventInclude
EventExclude
Comma delimited list of fields to log
Boolean value (true/false) that instructs the logging system to write out a
W3C Extended Common Log Format header each time the server is
started.
Boolean value (true/false) that instructs the logging system to surround
all field data in double quotes
The delimiter character to use between field values. Valid values are tab,
space or the actual delimiter character.
Comma separated list of logging categories. Only log events with the
specified categories will be logged.
Comma separated list of logging categories. Only log events whose
category is not in this list will be logged.
Comma separated list of logging events. Only log events with the
specified event name will be logged.
Comma separated list of logging categories. Only log events whose event
name is not in this list will be logged.
These properties allow you to control the way the log information is formatted and filtered. For
more detailed information on how to configure the log4j specific properties such as log file rolling
and additional log appender types, visit the apache.org website at http://logging.apache.org/log4j.
Wowza Media Server 2 can also be configured to generate logs on a per-virtual host and perapplication basis. These configurations are included but commented out at the bottom of the
default [install-dir]/conf/log4j.properties file. The first commented out section includes
configuration for per-application logging. The second commented out section includes
configuration for per-virtual host logging. To turn either of these features on, simply remove the
comments (# sign at the beginning of each of the lines) from the section. The per-virtual host
logging will generate log files using the following directory structure:
[install-dir]/logs/[vhost]/wowzamediaserver_access.log
[install-dir]/logs/[vhost]/wowzamediaserver_error.log
[install-dir]/logs/[vhost]/wowzamediaserver_stats.log
The per-application logging will generate log files using the following directory structure:
[installdir]/logs/[vhost]/[application]/wowzamediaserver_access.log
[installdir]/logs/[vhost]/[application]/wowzamediaserver_error.log
[installdir]/logs/[vhost]/[application]/wowzamediaserver_stats.log
This method of log file generation can be very useful if you plan on offering the Wowza Media
Server 2 as a shared service to several customers.
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Logging to a Database
Wowza Media Server 2 can be configured to log information to a database. This is a very useful
feature if you wish to get real-time statistics. See this online support article for detailed
instructions:
http://www.wowzamedia.com/docredirect.php?doc=usefulCodeLogDatabase
Run Server as Named User
The default installation of Wowza Media Server 2 on Linux and Mac OS X will install and run the
server as the root user. If you would like to run the server as a user other than root, you can
follow these instructions to create a new user and configure the server to run as that new user.
Note
For security reasons, most Linux and Unix distributions do not allow user’s other than the root
user to bind to port numbers less than 1024. If you plan on running Wowza Server on a lowered
numbered ports such as 80 (HTTP), 443 (RTMPS, HTTPS) and/or 554 (RTSP) then the server
will need to continue to run as the root user.
Linux
First, we are going to create a new user and group named wowza.
groupadd wowza
useradd -g wowza wowza
passwd wowza
Next, we are going to change ownership and permissions on Wowza Server installation files.
cd /usr/local
chown wowza:wowza WowzaMediaServer
chown –R wowza:wowza WowzaMediaServer-2.2.4
chmod –R 775 WowzaMediaServer-2.2.4
rm –f /var/run/WowzaMediaServer.pid
rm –f /var/run/WowzaMediaServer.lock
Finally, we are going to change the command that is used to start the server so that it is run as the
new wowza user. Change directory to the /usr/local/WowzaMediaServer/bin directory.
Edit the standalone startup script startup.sh and prepend sudo –u wowza to the 24th line. It
should now be:
sudo –u wowza $_EXECJAVA $JAVA_OPTS -Dcom.wowza.wms.AppHome=
"$WMSAPP_HOME" -Dcom.wowza.wms.ConfigHome=
"$WMSCONFIG_HOME" -cp
$WMSAPP_HOME/bin/wms-bootstrap.jar
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com.wowza.wms.bootstrap.Bootstrap start
You will also need to edit the service startup script wms.sh and make the same change to line 24.
Now both the standalone startup script and the service startup script will start the server as the
user wowza.
Mac OS X
First, we are going to create a new user named wowza. Open the Accounts systems preferences
panel. Unlock the add user functionality by clicking on the lock icon in the lower left hand corner
of the panel (you will be asked to enter your administrative password). Click the + button below
the list of users to add a new user. Enter the following values and click the Create Account
button:
Name:
Short Name:
Passord:
Verify:
wowza
wowza
[enter a password]
[enter a password]
Next, we are going to change the permissions on Wowza Server installation files. Open a
Terminal window and enter the following commands:
cd /Library
sudo chown wowza:admin WowzaMediaServer
sudo chown –R wowza:admin WowzaMediaServer-2.2.4
Finally, we are going to change the command that is used to start the server so that it is run as the
new wowza user. Change directory to the /Library/WowzaMediaServer/bin directory. Edit
the standalone startup script startup.sh and prepend sudo –u wowza to the 24th line. It should
now be:
sudo –u wowza $_EXECJAVA $JAVA_OPTS -Dcom.wowza.wms.AppHome=
"$WMSAPP_HOME" -Dcom.wowza.wms.ConfigHome=
"$WMSCONFIG_HOME" -cp
$WMSAPP_HOME/bin/wms-bootstrap.jar
com.wowza.wms.bootstrap.Bootstrap start
Now when you start the server in standalone and service mode it will run as user wowza. You
can verify this by executing the ps –ja command in a Terminal window while the server is
running.
Note
For more up to date security information visit the Server-Side Modules and Code Samples
section at http://www.wowzamedia.com/forums/.
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10
Chapter
Server Management Console
and Monitoring
How do I manage and monitor Wowza Media Server 2?
W
owza Media Server 2 can be managed and monitored through a Java Management
Extensions (JMX) interface. JMX is a standards-based technology for exposing
components of a Java application through a unified object interface. This interface can
then be consumed by open source and commercial monitoring tools such as HP OpenView,
OpenNMS (http://www.opennms.org), JConsole and VisualVM (http://visualvm.dev.java.net).
Note
Most Java Runtime Environment (JRE or JVM) vendors require that you install the full Java
Development Kit (JDK) to get the JConsole management and monitoring application. Please
consult your vendor’s documentation.
Note
A good place to learn more about the Java Management Extension (JMX) standard is from the
Oracle website (http://download.oracle.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/guides/jmx/).
Local Management Using JConsole
Wowza Server exposes a rich set of objects for monitoring the server. The Java virtual machine
also exposes a set of JMX objects that can be used to monitor the virtual machine. The easiest
way to view these objects is by using the JConsole applet that ships with the Java Development
Kit (JDK) of most popular VMs. This tool is usually located in the bin folder of your Java JDK
installation. By default the startup.bat and startup.sh are configured to expose the JMX object
interface to a locally running copy of JConsole. To view the JMX interface, first start Wowza
Media Server (either by running it as a service or standalone from a command prompt). Next, run
JConsole. In JConsole you should see a list of the currently running Java virtual machines that are
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exposing a JMX interface. Wowza Server will be listed as
com.wowza.wms.bootstrap.Bootstrap start. Select this item and click the Connect button.
Note
On Windows, for security reasons, local monitoring and management is only supported if your
default Windows temporary directory is on a file system that supports setting permissions on files
and directories (for example, on an NTFS file system). It is not supported on a FAT file system
that provides insufficient access controls. The workaround is to setup remote monitoring. See
the Remote Management section below, to learn how to configure the remote JMX interface.
From here you can explore the different tab panels that are part of JConsole. Wowza Media
Server 2 management objects are located under the MBean tab in the WowzaMediaServer
group. The JMX objects are organized based on the configured virtual hosts, applications and
applications instances. Monitoring objects will be created and deleted on the fly as applications,
application instances, client connections and streams are created and deleted from the server.
Remote JMX Interface Configuration
By default the startup and service scripts are configured to only expose the JMX interface to a
locally running monitoring application. You can also configure a remote JMX interface for
monitoring Wowza Server from a remote computer. Both the JVM and Wowza Server include
remote JMX interfaces. It is only necessary to configure one of these remote interfaces to enable
remote monitoring. It is suggested that you use the Wowza Server remote interface since it is
more easily configured and can be properly exposed through hardware or software based
firewalls. The following two sections describe the configuration process.
Wowza Media Server built-in JMX interface configuration
The remote JMX interface built into Wowza Media Server 2 can be configured through the
JMXRemoteConfiguration and AdminInterface sections of the [installdir]/conf/Server.xml file. This section contains the following settings:
JMXRemoteConfiguration - Enable, IpAddress,
RMIServerHostName, RMIConnectionPort, RMIRegistryPort
The Enable setting is a boolean value that can either be true or false and is the main switch to
turn on and off the remote JMX interface. The default value is false. Setting this value to true
(with no further modifications to the other settings), will turn on the remote JMX interface with
authentication. The default username/password is admin/admin and the URL for invocation in
JConsole or VisualVM is:
service:jmx:rmi://localhost:8084/jndi/rmi://localhost:8085/jmx
rmi
The IpAddress and RMIServerHostName work together to properly expose the JMX interface
to the network. In general, the IpAddress should be set to the internal ip address of the server
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running Wowza Media Server and RMIServerHostName should be set to the external ip
address or domain name of the machine. For example, if the server running Wowza Server is
behind a network translated ip address (NAT) such that the internal ip address of the server is
192.168.1.7 and the external ip address is 40.128.7.4, the two settings should be as follows:
<IpAddress>192.168.1.7</IpAddress>
<RMIServerHostName>40.128.7.4</RMIServerHostName>
With this configuration you would use the following URL to connect to the JMX interface:
service:jmx:rmi://40.128.7.4:8084/jndi/rmi://40.128.7.4:8085/j
mxrmi
The RMIConnectionPort and RMIRegistryPort settings control the TCP ports used to expose
the RMI connection and RMI registry interfaces. These values only need to be changed if Wowza
Server reports port conflicts upon startup. The default values for these settings are 8084 and 8085
respectively. The RMIConnectionPort corresponds to the first port number in the connection
URL and the RMIRegistryPort to the second.
The IpAddress, RMIConnectionPort and RMIRegistryPort effect the connection URL in the
following way:
service:jmx:rmi://[ RMIServerHostName]:[RMIConnectionPort]/jndi/rmi://[RMIServerHostName]:[RMIRegistryPort]/jmxrmi
If the remote JMX interface is enabled, Wowza Server upon startup will log the URL of the
currently configured JMX interface. This is probably the most reliable way to determine the JMX
URL to use to connect to the server.
To enable remote JMX monitoring through software or hardware based firewalls, open TCP
communication for the two ports defined by the RMIConnectionPort and RMIRegistryPort
settings.
JMXRemoteConfiguration - Authenticate, PasswordFile,
AccessFile
The Authenticate setting is a boolean value that can either be true or false and is the main
switch to turn on and off remote JMX interface authentication. The PasswordFile and
AccessFile settings are the full path to the JMX password and access files.
The password file is a text file with one line per user. Each line contains a username followed by a
space followed by a password. The access file contains one line per user. Each line contains a
username followed one of two access permission identifiers; readwrite or readonly. A sample
password file jmxremote.password and sample access file jmxremote.access can be found in
the conf directory of the installation. These files define three named users:
admin (password admin)
monitorRole (password admin)
controlRol (password admin)
– access readwrite
- access readonly
- access readwrite
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Note
Some Java Runtime Environments require that both the password and access files have read only
privileges. On Linux, this can be achieved by setting the permissions on both files to 600.
chmod 600 conf/jmxremote.access
chmod 600 conf/jmxremote.password
JMXRemoteConfiguration - SSLSecure
The SSLSecure setting is a boolean value that can either be true or false and is the switch to turn
on and off remote JMX interface over SSL. SSL configuration can get quite involved. The
following online documentation describes the process for enabling SSL with JMX:
http://download.oracle.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/guides/management/agent.html#gdemv
.
AdminInterface/ObjectList
The AdminInterface/ObjectList setting is a comma separated list of object types that you wish
to expose through the JMX interface. This list can contain any number of the following items:
Server
VHost
VHostItem
Application
ApplicationInstance
Module
MediaCaster
Client
MediaStream
SharedObject
Acceptor
IdleWorker
-
Server level connection and performance info and notifications
Information about currently running virtual hosts
Details of currently configured virtual hosts
Application level connection and performance info
Application Instance level connection and connection info
Details of currently loaded modules
Details of media caster objects (ie, live stream repeater)
Details of each connected Flash session
Details of each individual server side NetStream object
Details of currently loaded shared objects
Details of currently running host ports or TCP ports
Details of currently running idle workers
Exposing Client, MediaStream and/or SharedObject information can add significant load to
the server and to the JMX interface. You will most likely want to turn off this level of detail for
deployed solutions.
JVM built-in JMX interface configuration
The remote JMX interface built into the Java Virtual Machine can be configured through the
Wowza Media Server start scripts. The following scripts in the bin folder can be edited to enable
remote JMX monitoring
startup.bat
WowzaMediaServer-Service.conf
startup.sh
wms.sh
– Windows standalone startup script
- Windows service config script
- Linux/Mac OS X standalone startup
script
- Linux/Mac OS X service startup script
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Each of these scripts contain commented out configuration parameters that can be used to
configure the remote interface. A detailed description of the process for configuring the remote
interface can be found at
http://download.oracle.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/guides/management/agent.html.
Below are the settings that are used to configure remote connections.
-Djava.rmi.server.hostname=192.168.1.7
-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.port=1099
-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl=false
-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate=true
Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.password.file=jmxremote.password
-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.access.file=jmxremote.access
-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.port=[port-number]
The remote port that the JMX service will listen on, for remote connections. Be sure to open up
this port on any firewalls between the server and the remote client.
-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl=[true,false]
Boolean value that turns on or off remote SSL connections. Default is true. If set to true, you
must properly install and configure server side digital certificates. A detailed description of the
procedure for installing and configuring digital certificates can be found at:
http://download.oracle.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/guides/management/agent.html#gdemv
.
-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate=[true,false]
-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.password.file=[path-topassword-file]
-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.access.file=[path-to-accessfile]
These three settings control remote JMX authentication. To turn off authentication set
com.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate to false. To enable authentication set
com.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate to true and configure the password and access files
as defined below.
The password file is a text file with one line per user. Each line contains a username followed by a
space followed by a password. The access file contains one line per user. Each line contains a
username followed by one of two access permission identifiers; readwrite or readonly. A
sample password file jmxremote.password and sample access file jmxremote.access can be
found in the conf directory of the installation. These files define three named users:
admin (password admin)
monitorRole (password admin)
controlRol (password admin)
– access readwrite
- access readonly
- access readwrite
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Before configuring your server for authentication, you will want to change the default usernames
and passwords.
Many virtual machines require that these files have read-only file permissions. On Windows the
file must be located outside the C:\Program File folder and the file permissions can be set using
the cacls command. To setup authentication on Windows, do the following:
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1. Create a folder at the root of your C: drive named WowzaMediaServerJMX.
2. Copy the [install-dir]/conf/jmxremote.access and [installdir]/conf/jmxremote.password into this new folder.
3. Open a DOS command shell, change directory to C:\WowzaMediaServerJMX, and
run the following cacls command on the two files:
cacls jmxremote.password /P [username]:R
cacls jmxremote.access /P [username]:R
Where [username] is the user running the java process or service.
4. Update the jmxremote settings to reflect the new location:
-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.password.file=C:\WowzaMediaServerJMX\jmxremote.password
-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.access.file=C:\WowzaMediaServerJMX\jmxremote.access
On Linux and Mac OS X there is no need to move the files from their default location. Simply
change the file permissions using chmod. Below is an example:
chmod 600 jmxremote.password
chmod 600 jmxremote.access
-Djava.rmi.server.hostname=[hostname/ip-address]
Server host name or ip address. This setting is often required if the server either has multiple ip
addresses or if the hostname for the server resolves to different ip address based on how the
server is being accessed (inside and outside a firewall or router space).
Note
When running Wowza Media Server 2 as a Windows service, the JMX interface will not be
available unless the service is running as a named user. To configure the service to run as a
named user, go to Settings>Control Panel>Administrative Tools>Services and right click on
the Wowza Media Server service and select Properties. Next, click on the Log On tab, change
the Log on as radio to This account and enter a user name and password for a local user.
Remote Management
Remote Management Using JConsole
JConsole can also be used to monitor a remote Wowza Server. Once you configured the remote
JMX interface as described above, run JConsole. Enter the remote JMX interface URL into the
Remote Process field. The default remote JMX interface URL for the Wowza Media Server 2
built-in JMX interface is:
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service:jmx:rmi://localhost:8084/jndi/rmi://localhost:8085/jmx
rmi
The default remote JMX interface URL for the JVM built-in JMX interface is:
service:jmx:rmi:///jndi/rmi://localhost:1099/jmxrmi
Finally, enter your user name and password into the provided fields and click the Connect
button. You should now be connected to the remote server and able to view the JMX hierarchy.
Remote Management Using VisualVM
Another great tool for monitoring Wowza Media Server 2 over JMX is VisualVM. VisualVM can
be downloaded from the following location:
http://visualvm.dev.java.net
Once you get it installed and running, it is best to install the MBean plugin. To do this select the
Plugins command from the Tools menu. In the Available Plugins tab put a check mark next
to the VisualVM-MBean plugin and click the Install button. Once you get this plugin installed
it will provide similar information to JConsole. You can select Add JMX Connection from the
File menu to add your Wowza Media Server 2 to the Applications list.
Object Overview
This section describes the more important top level objects that can be used to monitor the
server’s performance and uptime. This section will not cover each and every object that is
exposed by the server. These objects are available under the WowzaMediaServer object in the
MBean section of JConsole and VisualVM.
Server
The server object contains information about when the server was started and how long it has
been running.
VHosts
The VHosts collection includes information on each of the running virtual hosts. From here you
get access to each of the running applications and applications instances. At each level of the
hierarchy (Server, VHost, Application, ApplicationInstance) you can get detailed information on
number of connections (Connections object) and the input/output performance (IOPerformance
object).
IOPerformance
The Server exposes IOPerformance objects at many different levels of the object hierarchy.
These objects can be used to monitor server performance and throughput at that section of the
server. For example the IOPerformance object under a particular VHost will display the
throughput of that particular virtual host.
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Connections
The Server exposes Connections objects at many different levels of the object hierarchy. These
objects can be used to monitor client connections to that section of the server. For example the
Connections object under a particular Application object will display the current clients connected
to that particular Application.
VHost/[vHostName] - HandlerThreadPool, TransportThreadPool
The HandlerThreadPool and TransportThreadPool objects expose information about each of the
worker thread pools that are owned by each of the virtual hosts. You can use this object to
monitor thread usage and load.
ServerNotifications
The ServerNotifications object publishes notification events pertaining to the connection limits
and connection bursting capabilities of Wowza Media Server. Wowza Media Server 2 can
generate the following notification events:
com.wowza.wms.connect.WarningServerLicenseLimit
com.wowza.wms.connect.ErrorServerLicenseLimit
com.wowza.wms.connect.WarningVHostLimit
- connection accepted in
bursting zone (warning)
- connection refused due
due to license limit
- connection refused due
to virtual host limit
The body of the JMX notification message is a string with information about the virtual host,
application, application instance, client id, ip address and referrer that generated the event.
Notification events can be viewed in JConsole by navigating to the MBean tab, opening the
WowzaMediaServer group and selecting the ServerNotification object. Next, select the
Notifications tab and click the Subscribe button. All events will display as new rows in the
Notifications list. Only events that occur after you subscribe to the notifications will be
displayed.
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11
Chapter
Virtual Hosting
How do I let multiple users share my Wowza Server server?
W
owza Media Server 2 can be configured to run multiple virtual host environments. Each
of these virtual host environments has its own set of configuration files, application
folders and log files. This enables a single server to serve multiple users in separate
environments. By default the server is configured with a single virtual host named
_defaultVHost_.
Configuration Files
Below is a description of the VHosts.xml file in the conf directory that is used to define a virtual
host.
VHosts.xml
The VHosts.xml configuration file is used to define each of the virtual host environments. Below
is a description of each of the items that are required to define a virtual host.
VHosts/VHost/Name
The name of the virtual host.
VHosts/VHost/ConfigDir
The configuration directory for the virtual host. The contents of this directory will be described
below.
VHosts/VHost/ConnectionLimit
The maximum number of simultaneous connections this virtual host can support. If this value is
zero the virtual host can have an unlimited number of simultaneous connections.
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Typical Configuration
Let’s jump in and look at a typical VHosts.xml file for a virtual host environment that contains
two virtual hosts: vhost1 and vhost2.
<Root>
<VHosts>
<VHost>
<Name>vhost1</Name>
<ConfigDir>/home/vhosts/vhost1</ConfigDir>
<ConnectionLimit>0</ConnectionLimit>
</VHost>
<VHost>
<Name>vhost2</Name>
<ConfigDir>/home/vhosts/vhost2</ConfigDir>
<ConnectionLimit>0</ConnectionLimit>
</VHost>
</VHosts>
</Root>
The directory structure for these two virtual hosts would be the following:
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[/home/vhosts]
[vhost1]
[applications]
[conf]
Application.xml
Authentication.xml
HTTPStreamers.xml
LiveStreamPacketizers.xml
MediaCasters.xml
MediaReaders.xml
MediaWriters.xml
MP3Tags.xml
RTP.xml
StartupStreams.xml
Streams.xml
VHost.xml
admin.password
publish.password
[content]
[keys]
[logs]
[vhost2]
[applications]
[conf]
Application.xml
Authentication.xml
HTTPStreamers.xml
LiveStreamPacketizers.xml
MediaCasters.xml
MediaReaders.xml
MediaWriters.xml
MP3Tags.xml
RTP.xml
StartupStreams.xml
Streams.xml
VHost.xml
admin.password
publish.password
[content]
[keys]
[logs]
Note
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See the logging section for instructions on how to configure per virtual host logging.
The process for virtual host configuration is very simple. Virtual hosts are defined in the
VHosts.xml file in the conf directory. Each virtual host gets its own configuration directory
structure that contains an application, conf and logs directory. Each virtual host gets its own set
of configuration files.
It is very important to note that Wowza Server only supports ip-address/port based virtual
hosting and does not support domain named based virtual hosting. What this means is that in
VHost.xml each virtual host must define HostPort entries with unique ip-address and port
combinations that do not conflict with other virtual hosts defined on a given server. The
following combinations represent valid vhost port configurations:
vhost1:
<HostPort>
<IpAddress>192.168.1.2</IpAddress>
<Port>1935</Port>
<HostPort>
vhost2:
<HostPort>
<IpAddress>192.168.1.2</IpAddress>
<Port>1936</Port>
<HostPort>
Or
vhost1:
<HostPort>
<IpAddress>192.168.1.2</IpAddress>
<Port>1935</Port>
<HostPort>
vhost2:
<HostPort>
<IpAddress>192.168.1.3</IpAddress>
<Port>1935</Port>
<HostPort>
Through the JMX interface and the VHosts.xml configuration file, virtual hosts can be added,
modified and deleted on the fly without stopping and restarting the server. The virtual host
operations can be accessed through JConsole. First, with the server running, start JConsole and
select the MBean tab. Open the WowzaMediaServer group and select the Server object. The
virtual host operations are found under the Operations tab. There are three operations of
interest:
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startVHost
stopVHost
reloadVHostConfig
configuration file
- start an individual vhost by name
- stop an individual vhost by name
- reload the VHosts.xml
To add a new virtual host without restarting the server, edit VHosts.xml, add a new virtual host
definition, then copy and configure a new set of configuration files as described above. Next,
open JConsole and navigate to the Server object and click the reloadVHostConfig to reload the
VHosts.xml file. Finally, enter the name of the new virtual host into the text entry box next to
the startVHost button and click the button. The new virtual host will be started immediately.
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12
Chapter
Examples & AddOn Packages
What do each of these examples do and where do I get AddOn Packages?
W
owza Media Server 2 ships with many examples that highlight the functionality of the
server. This chapter describes each of these examples. All Adobe Flash examples are
implemented using ActionScript 3.0. For most Flash examples, there is also an
ActionScript 2.0 implementation provided in the clientAS2 folder and an Adobe Flex version in
the examples clientFlex folder. Older Flash players may only support ActionScript 2.0.
Wowza Media Systems also provide several AddOn Packages that extend and enhance the
functionality of Wowza Media Server. An up to date list of AddOn Packages can found here:
AddOn Packages
Note
In the root folder of each example is a README.txt that contains any extra installation steps that
are necessary to make the example function. To view the examples, navigate to [wowza-installdir]/examples
SimpleVideoStreaming
This example includes a video on demand player for Adobe Flash and Microsoft Silverlight. It
includes source code for Adobe Flash CS3 or greater, Adobe Flex 3 or greater, Microsoft
Silverlight 3 or greater and an Open Source Media Framework (OSMF) based Flash player. It
utilizes the default stream type.
LiveVideoStreaming
This is an Adobe Flash example that illustrates how to setup and playback live video. It includes
source code for Adobe Flash CS3 or greater, Adobe Flex 3 or greater, Microsoft Silverlight 3 or
greater and an Open Source Media Framework (OSMF) based Flash player. It utilizes the live
and rtp-live stream types.
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VideoChat
This is an Adobe Flash example that illustrates how to implement video chat between two users.
It utilizes the live-lowlatency stream type and uses the Camera and Microphone objects to obtain
video and audio content. The example can either stream video and audio data between two client
connections or loop the data back to itself.
VideoRecording
This is an Adobe Flash example that illustrates how to implement client to server video recording.
It utilizes the record stream type and uses the Camera and Microphone objects to obtain video
and audio content.
TextChat
This is an Adobe Flash example that illustrates how to implement a simple text chat application. It
utilizes the default stream type.
SHOUTcast
This is an Adobe Flash example that illustrates how re-stream SHOUTcast MP3 or AAC+ audio
data through Wowza Media Server 2. It utilizes the shoutcast stream type.
RemoteSharedObjects
This is an Adobe Flash example that illustrates the basics of remote shared objects. It implements
the basic remote shared object interface and the onSync event handler to highlight how data is
synchronized between client connections. To see the data synchronization in action, try opening
two instances of the example. While you make changes in one instance you will see the data
update in the other.
ServerSideModules
This example is referenced by the Wowza IDE: User’s Guide and is a good starting point to learn
how to create your first custom server side module.
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MediaSecurity
Wowza Media Systems provides a media security package that includes SecureToken and RTMP
Authentication functionality as well as a document that covers other methods of securing Wowza
Media Server 2. To obtain the latest version of this package, visit the following Wowza Media
Server support article:
http://www.wowzamedia.com/docredirect.php?doc=addOnMediaSecurity
BWChecker
This is an Adobe Flash example that provides a means for testing the bandwidth between
individual Flash client connections and Wowza Media Server 2. It includes both a debugging tool
that can be used to interactively test bandwidth as well as Flash code that you can embed into
your Flash application.
LoadBalancer
Wowza Media Systems provides a dynamic load balancing package that you can add to the
Wowza Media Server 2. To obtain the latest version of this package, visit the following Wowza
Media Server support article:
http://www.wowzamedia.com/docredirect.php?doc=addOnDynamicLoadBalancing
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