The Engineer`s Guide to Industrial Wireless Measurement

The Engineer`s Guide to Industrial Wireless Measurement
The Engineer’s
Guide to
Industrial Wireless
Measurement
2014 EDITI O N
Why Wireless?
Wireless Standard
Security, Reliability and Co-Existence
Wireless Project Introduction
Installation Guidelines
Host System Integration
Factory Acceptance Test
Project Documentation for Wireless Instruments
Wireless Spectrum Governance
Product Specification & Application
Proven Result
Appendix
Frequently Asked Questions
The Engineer’s
Guide to
Industrial Wireless
Measurement
2014 EDITI O N
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This Wireless Guide is a result of a joint effort between Emerson team and customers from various parts
of the world. Firstly, I would like to express my gratitude to the following individuals who provided
invaluable feedback on this guide.
Kritsada Thammasiri | Thailand
Lead Facilities Engineer ( ISA )
Satiesh Muniandy | Malaysia
Control System Engineer
Dr. Yong Chin Hieng | Brunei
Head of Engineering Design,
Brunei Shell Petroleum Company Sdn. Bhd.
Chakorn Kraivichien | Thailand
E&I Maintenance Manager
A special acknowledgement to Emmy Lim, Marketing Manager, Emerson Process Management,
Rosemount Wireless Group, who oversee the entire content development of this guide. She has spent
enormous effort to ensure the content is built in a way that is appealing to readers from various levels.
I would also like to specially thank the other core team members of this project namely Glen Goi,
Daniel C Carlson, Ryan Leino , Scott Pries, Scott Nelson, Michelle Weimert, Ulf Johannesson, Andreas Hessel,
Emmy Moschopoulou, Lena Hansson, Peta Glenister, Marianne Williams, Paul Schmeling, Michael Oliver,
and Sven Hendrickson in Rosemount Group who spent significant time to provide content to the guide.
Also, I would like to thank the Rosemount Pressure team: Anshuman Prasad, Abhishek Prakash,
Tan Lai Soon and Edward Goh for initially conceiving the entire Wireless Cookbook idea which this Guide
is based upon.
Next, I would also thank my other colleagues who contributed to the ideas, content and feedback to
various chapters of this Guide: Tim Twining, Melissa Ruths, Jonathan Li, Rob Garston, Jonas Berge,
Caroline Wan, Harish Atmakury and Wally Baker.
Also, I want to thank Cornfield Design Communication for their expertise and patience in helping us to
develop this Guide. Last but not least, I would like to thank all the unnamed contributor to this Guide and
all the Rosemount Wireless users.
Ho Howe Tian
Business Development Manager,
Rosemount Wireless,
Emerson Process Management
Table of Contents
1. Why Wireless?
11
1.1
Wireless Offers OPEX Savings
1.2
IEC 62591 (WirelessHART) Reduces Project Cost,
Time & Complexity
14
1.3
IEC 62591 (WirelessHART) Makes Projects Scalable
15
1.4
IEC 62591 (WirelessHART) Is A Proven Technology
15
1.5
Applications for Plant and Process Information
17
1.6
Applications for Workforce Productivity
18
1.7
Applications for Business and Plant Management
19
2. Wireless Standard
2.1
Wireless Portfolio
2.1.1
2.1.2
Wireless Technologies for Field Networks
Wireless Technologies for Plant Networks
12
21
22
22
22
2.2
WirelessHART Standard
22
2.3
WirelessHART Architecture
2.3.1
Physical Layer
2.3.2
Data Link Layer
23
2.4
Network Layer and Transport Layer
25
2.5
Application Layer
25
2.6
Security Architecture
2.6.1References
25
3. Security, Reliability and Co-Existence
27
3.1Security
3.1.1
Data Protection 3.1.2
Network Protection
28
3.2Reliability
30
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
Managing Power Thru Efficient Data Synchronization and
Smart Updates
MESH Network and Redundancy
Management of Network thru the Gateway 3.3Co-Existence
23
24
26
28
29
30
30
31
31
Table of Contents
4. Wireless Project Introduction
4. 1
Definitions
4.2Acronyms
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
33
34
35
Project Concepts
4.3.1Pre-FEED
35
4.3.2
Technology Evaluation
4.3.3FEED
4.3.4
Detailed Engineering
4.3.5
Factory Acceptance Test
4.3.6Installation
4.3.7Commissioning
35
36
37
38
39
40
40
Document Requirements
40
4.4.1Drawings
4.4.2
ISA Documentation
4.4.3
Control Narrative 4.4.4
Instrument Index/Database
4.4.5
Instrument Data Sheets
4.4.6
Material Requisitions
4.4.7
Manufacturer Documentation
4.4.8
Project Management
40
40
41
41
41
41
41
41
Field Device Requirements 42
4.5.1
Support for WirelessHART Functionality
4.5.2
Device Diagnostics
4.5.3
Field Device Power
4.5.4
Field Device Security
4.5.5Approvals
4.5.6Accessibility
42
42
42
43
44
44
Ancillary Device Requirements
4.6.1Gateways
4.6.2
Wireless Repeaters
4.6.3
WirelessHART Adapters
44
45
45
5. Installation Guidelines
44
47
5.1
Wireless Project Overview
5.2
WirelessHART Field Network Design
48
48
5.3
Design Resources
48
5.4
Designing Effective Device Range
51
5.5
Applying Network Design Recommendations
53
5.6
Minimizing Downstream Messages for Wireless
Output Control Devices
54
5.7
Spare Capacity and Expansion
54
5.8Fortifying
54
Table of Contents
6. Host System Integration
57
6.1
Use of Standard Protocols
58
6.2
Wireless Host System
58
6.3
Host Integration
59
6.4Interoperability
60
6.5
Host System Support for WirelessHART Functionality
60
6.6
Configuration Tools
60
6.7
Control System Graphics
60
6.8
Node Addressing and Naming Conventions
61
6.9
Alarms and Alerts
61
6.10 Maintenance Station
61
6.11Historian
61
7. Factory Acceptance Test
63
7.1Introduction
64
7.2
64
Factory Staging
7.3Assumptions
64
7.4
Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) Requirements
64
7.5
FAT Procedure
64
7.6
Site Installation Guidelines
65
8. Project Documentation for Wireless Instruments
69
8.1
User Defined Fields
70
8.2
Filtered Views
70
8.3
Creating Instrument Types
71
8.4
Loop Drawings
73
8.5
Gateway Cable Block Drawings
73
8.6
SPI Specification Sheets
74
8.7
Drawings in SPL – Smart Plant Layout
74
8.8
Documenting Security Information
74
9. Wireless Spectrum Governance
75
9.1
Wireless Spectrum Coexistence
76
9.2
Wireless Spectrum Governance
77
Table of Contents
10. Product Specification & Application
10.1 Smart Wireless Gateway 1420
79
80
10.2 Smart Wireless Gateway 1410
82
10.3 Rosemount 702 Wireless Discrete Transmitter
84
10.4 Rosemount 708 Wireless Acoustic Transmitter
87
10.5 Rosemount 3051S Wireless Series of Instrumentation
89
10.6 Rosemount 3051S DP Flow and DP Level Technologies
90
10.7 Rosemount 3051 Wireless Pressure Transmitter
92
10.8 Rosemount 3051 DP Flow and DP Level Technologies
93
10.9 Rosemount 2051 Wireless Pressure Transmitter
94
10.10 Rosemount 2051 DP Flow and DP Level Technologies
95
10.11 Rosemount 1199 Submersible Seal
96
10.12 Rosemount Smart Wireless THUM Adapter
100
10.13 Rosemount Pressure Multivariable Transmitter with
THUM Adapter
101
10.14 Rosemount Pressure Multivariable Transmitter with
THUM Adapter
102
10.15 Rosemount 848 Wireless Multi Input Temperature Transmitter
104
10.16 Rosemount 648 Wireless Temperature Transmitter
105
10.17 Rosemount 248 Wireless Temperature Transmitter
106
10.18 Rosemount 2160 Vibrating Fork Liquid Level Switch
108
10.19 Rosemount 3308 Wireless Guided Wave Radar
111
10.20 Smart Wireless THUM™ Adapter for Rosemount
113
10.21 Smart Wireless for Rosemount Tank Gauging Applications
117
11. Proven Result
111.1Chemical
117
120
11.2 Food and Bevarage
138
11.3 Life Science
145
11.4 Oil and Gas
147
11.5Power
188
11.6 Pulp and Paper
195
11.7Refinery
199
11.8 Steels and Mining
220
Table of Contents
12 .Appendix
227
12.1 Choosing the Wireless Standard
228
12.2 Wireless Network Topologies
236
12.3 Same Familiar Tools for Wireless
244
12.4 Cisco Emerson Coexistence Paper
247
12.5 WirelessHART Third-Party System Integration
252
12.6 Site Modernization User Guide
257
13. Frequently Asked Questions
277
Table of Contents
1
Why Wireless?
TO P I C PA G E
1.1
Wireless Offers OPEX Savings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2
IEC 62591 (WirelessHART)
Reduces Project Cost, Time &
Complexity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.3
IEC 62591 (WirelessHART)
Makes Projects Scalable.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.4
IEC 62591 (WirelessHART)
Is A Proven Technology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.5
Applications for Plant and
Process Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.6
Applications for Workforce
Productivity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.7
Applications for Business and
Plant Management.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1 – Why Wireless?
1.
Why Wireless?
1.1
Why Wireless?
A single event such as an unplanned shutdown can
impact several business performance metrics.
An unplanned shutdown directly reduces throughput
and capacity utilization. Startups & shutdowns
consume energy and increase the energy intensity of
the plant.
While wireless technology has been around for
over 100 years, the Process Industry has been
incorporating wireless measurements into their
operations for about 5 years. In a short period of
time, wireless technology (specifically, IEC 62591
(WirelessHART) has been incorporated into Process
operations to solve some of their toughest problems.
The following section discusses the opportunities
and benefits that wireless technology provides to
EPC’s and the Process Industry.
1.1.1
Repairs and start up costs impact maintenance
index and operating expense cash. Higher costs and
lower throughput impact return of capital, income
and margin. In addition, there may be unwanted
emissions and safety incidents.
Improvement to many key business performance
measures can be directly tied to energy efficiency,
equipment performance and environmental or
safety issues.
Wireless Offers OPEX Savings
Plants face many critical business challenges ranging
from production issues such as reliability, efficiency,
throughput and safety & environmental to the higher
level challenges related to personnel and financial
results. These challenges are not specific to wireless
customers, but exist at every site.
Safety
Slow Response to
Safety Shower
Efficiency, Throughput
Fouled Heat Exchanger,
Heater, Furnace
Reliability
Unplanned Shutdown,
Pump, Motor, Fan or
Compressor Failure
Environmental
Fine for Unrecorded Release
Environment, Safety
Spill From Overfilled Tank
12
1 – Why Wireless?
In many cases these unplanned shutdowns are
unavoidable due to the lack of timely and actionable
information. This could be because this information
wasn’t identified during the plant design as critical to
operation. In addition, generating this information
might be cost prohibitive due to structural or physical
constraints such as height, obstacles or moving
equipment. Often, plant personnel are gathering
information manually, which interferes with work
they could be doing to improve performance.
By automating the collection of data, wireless
eliminates manual information gathering and unlocks
tremendous amounts of information which helps
reduce costly shutdowns. It may be through an early
warning to a reliability engineer that a bearing in an
essential motor is failing, a notification to the Utilities
Manager about hot and cold spots in the furnace
or a notification that the temperature in the heat
exchanger is drifting.
Reliability engineer is alerted that
a motor may be experiencing early
signs of bearing failure. Switch to
backup motor before failure.
Safety showers are monitored
continuously and video is used to
watch the area. HSE is automatically
alerted to an incident.
Hot and cold spots are detected in
the furnace and utilities manager is
notified. Operator is notified that the
temperature in the heat exchanger
is drifting and notifies maintenance
before shutdown required.
Outlet water temperature
is measured and operator
is alerted before excess is
discharged.
Tanks have a secondary
measurement that alerts for
high conditions. Ground is also
monitored for leakage and alerts
are sent immediately to the control
room to stop large spillage.
13
1 – Why Wireless?
Wireless enables the right information to get to the
right users when they need it. Many of these users
may be people such as reliability engineers or quality
or safety engineers who may not traditionally be
impacted by controls instrumentation, but they have
real pains that wireless can solve. They may need
information real time or just on-demand in the
control system, or in a separate application specific
to their job. Or this could replace information that is
being logged manually – freeing up field operators to
focus on more critical tasks. They key is that lack of
information is no longer a barrier to achieving
business results. Emerson offers our Smart Wireless
technology to help unlock the information that
users need.
The technology that is being installed in plants
today has more features and greater capabilities.
Plants are becoming larger: petrochemical plants are
giving way to petrochemical COMPLEXES. This make
a lot of business sense because the waste of one
process is fuel or feedstock for the next. We see the
operation becoming more complex because of plant
interdependencies. On the people side, the process
industry has a record number of people at retirement
age and as these people are leaving they are taking
a WEALTH of experience with them. In many cases,
these jobs aren’t being backfilled. This is leading to
today’s workers being stretched to cover more
and more.
In developing parts of the world, plants are being
built where there may be little or no ready trained
work force. These plants are being built in some very
remote parts of the world where many experienced
people don’t want to go. The result of this is a
knowledge and experience void, with more going
out, less coming in. And this is a global phenomenon.
All of us are being asked to do more with less.
During project execution, various contingencies
often tend to cause delays and lead to slippages in
plant start up date. These contingencies are: late
modifications, late package vendor data, constant
changes to I/O database, adding instrumentation,
moving instrumentation, changing instrumentation
type and human error and simple mistakes.
Before wireless, most users had either 4-20mA data,
data collected manually on operator rounds or no
information on their process or equipment. Many
of the diagnostics available in their HART devices is
unused because their host systems cannot support
it. The biggest use case that we’re seeing for wireless
is the case where no data is currently available
and these blind spots are causing pains within the
organization. With wireless, we can add new data
points very cost effectively or get the intelligence
of your existing field devices including diagnostics,
alarms, and high value functionality like statistical
process monitoring back into your control system or
historians and asset management systems.
1.1.2
Typical Project Schedule
Wireless Reduces Project Cost,
Time & Complexity
The process industry is being squeezed from many
directions. And much of it is people driven. The
challenges of the past such as global competition,
optimizing production, regulatory compliance are
all still there, but the people challenge has come into
focus as key for running a safe, reliable and highly
productive plant.
Project schedule extended due to various delays
14
1 – Why Wireless?
1.1.3
With wired systems, a significant amount of
equipment is needed and work must be done to
design and install the equipment. All this equipment
such as controllers, I/O, marshalling cabinets,
junction boxes and wired devices significantly add to
the complexity of the project.
Wireless Makes Projects Scalable
As the project scope changes, even if the original
design allowed a margin for additional requirements,
it can quickly run out of capacity. Junction boxes
only allow a certain number of connections; changes
to equipment can quickly use up capacity that was
designed-in, which then causes problems.
Emerson’s Smart Wireless Gateway 1420 allow for up
to 100 points. If additional points are needed, simply
add additional Smart Wireless Gateways.
1.1.4
Wired
Wireless
Simpler
to
modify
Installation
effort
Wireless Is A Proven Technology
With over 1 billion hours of operating experience,
on 8700+ networks and tens of thousands of
devices in both offshore and onshore applications,
Emerson’s Smart Wireless Networks have gained
rapid acceptance in the industry and are a trusted
technology of choice.
Installation
effort
Figure 1.1.2a – Wireless reduces cost, time and complexity!
Wireless systems do not require I/O, marshalling
cabinets or junction boxes. This saves a significant
amount of time on design and installation, and if any
changes are needed, they do not require a re-do of
wiring in a “rats-nest” set up.
Junction boxes limits
scope expansion
capability
In past technology shifts, it wasn’t the technology
itself (such as microprocessors or digital
communications) that drove the shift; it was
applications that took advantage of the technology
to deliver value. Similarly, the adoption of wireless
technology will be driven by the ability to more easily
and cost-effectively extend and manage the flow of
information around the plant.
Wireless offers limitless
scope expansion
15
1 – Why Wireless?
• Workers can access desktop applications and
perform tasks wherever they are – including
viewing and responding to alarms from the field
Wireless technology is not a complete replacement
for wires, at least not for a while. But it is already
enabling new tools that give you the freedom to
solve problems you could not cost-effectively address
in the purely wired world. The possibilities are
limitless. Imagine a plant where...
• The locations of personnel and physical assets in
the plant are tracked at all times
• You can broadcast messages to specific groups of
workers wherever they are
• Safety relief valve emissions are monitored for
more effective regulatory compliance
• Security systems track and ensure authorized plant
access
• Safety showers are monitored 24/7 so help can be
dispatched immediately
• Video systems not only patrol the fence line, but
keep a cost-effective eye on the process
• Wireless vibration sensors give you a real-time
indication of equipment reliability every day, not
just once a month/quarter/turnaround
• Corrosion in equipment and piping is monitored
by wireless sensors
• The status of previously unmonitored plant
equipment such as on-off valves is known and
historized in real time, providing a safer, more
productive operating environment
Many of these applications are possible today
without wireless technologies, but wiring costs or
technical limitations make them impractical. Costeffective and easy-to-integrate wireless technology
can overcome these barriers, enabling you to gain
better insight into your plant – and ultimately make
your workforce more productive.
• Operators don’t have to make “clipboard rounds”
to collect data
• Diagnostics in all HART devices – including those
that couldn’t be accessed before – are available for
asset management
16
1 – Why Wireless?
Maximizing the benefits of wireless technology
will come from putting it to work in multiple
applications. These opportunities typically fall into
three categories:
Wireless technology removes the barriers
of traditional wired solutions and gives you
unprecedented access to data that was previously
out of economic or technical reach. Imagine, for
example, the benefits of additional temperature
measurements to detect “cool spots” in steam
lines, or the advantages gained by cost-effectively
instrumenting a remote tank farm.
1.Plant and process information, including
extended plant and asset information, stranded
diagnostics, and extending the “walls” of the Plant
2.Workforce productivity, including remote and
mobile operations and maintenance, automated
work flow management, and mobile worker
communications
This access to additional data includes not only
process measurements, but instrument and
equipment information as well.
3.Business and plant management, including
physical plant security, video monitoring and
surveillance, and people and asset tracking
1.2
Wireless Applications
1.2.1
Applications for Plant and Process
Information
For example, millions of smart HART-based devices
in the field today have some level of diagnostics
capability. Unfortunately, many plants don’t have
the infrastructure to receive HART data into the
appropriate system. Since only a fraction of these
devices are digitally monitored, the potential gain
from accessing such “stranded” diagnostics is
significant.
The more you know about the process, physical
assets, and overall operations of your plant, the safer
and more profitable your business can become.
More (and better) measurements mean more
opportunities for reducing operational costs and
improving quality, throughput, and availability.
With wireless technology, the data doesn’t have to
be stranded anymore. Existing wired HART devices
can be upgraded with a wireless adapter to transmit
diagnostics information back to the control room
or maintenance shop, where appropriate personnel
can take corrective action as needed. Process control
signals continue to be communicated over the wired
connection.
In addition, new environmental and safety
requirements have been established after many of
today’s facilities were built, and plants have struggled
to get access to measurement and diagnostic
information that could ease compliance.
This access to additional data includes not only
process measurements, but instrument and
equipment information as well. For example, millions
of smart HART-based devices in the field today have
some level of diagnostics capability. Unfortunately,
many plants don’t have the infrastructure to receive
HART data into the appropriate system.
So, why aren’t more plants “measuring up”?
Too often, the cost or difficulty of adding new
measurements has outweighed the perceived
benefits. With traditional wired technologies,
distance or complexity can make connecting the
measurement point to a control system, asset
management system, maintenance system, or data
historian impractical or cost-prohibitive.
Since only a fraction of these devices are digitally
monitored, the potential gain from accessing
such “stranded” diagnostics is significant. With
wireless technology, the data doesn’t have to be
stranded anymore. Existing wired HART devices can
be upgraded with a wireless adapter to transmit
diagnostics information back to the control room
or maintenance shop, where appropriate personnel
can take corrective action as needed. Process control
signals continue to be communicated over the wired
connection.
17
1 – Why Wireless?
Capabilities like these open the door to a broad
range of applications – from monitoring pressure
relief valves and stacks continuously to avoid
environmental excursions and the ensuing fines,
to monitoring corrosion in pipelines and vessels or
vibration in mechanical equipment. And with safety
always a top concern in plants, knowing the real time
status of more plant equipment is critical.
For example, although technology has enabled
operators to perform many of their control and
monitoring duties from the comfort and safety of
the control room, there are still times when they
have to go out into the field. Some companies
routinely have their operators make rounds to see
firsthand how the plant is running. By providing
remote access to control and asset-management
systems, a ruggedized wireless PC can greatly
enhance the efficiency of these people as they will
be able to immediately relate what they see to
what is happening to the process and take quick
corrective action.
The possibilities are almost limitless. All you have to
do is think of all the things you’ve always wanted to
measure but couldn’t justify the investment. Chances
are that now you can.
1.2.2
Applications for Workforce
Productivity
When operators are in the field, there may be no
one in the control room watching for alarms. But
with wireless access points throughout the plant,
operators can use these PCs or similar tools to access
critical process information, historical data, graphics,
and other key functions that normally reside in the
control room or elsewhere in the plant. That includes
viewing and acknowledging alarms from wherever
operators are.
In an era when an aging workforce and loss of
experience are among the most pressing business
problems process manufacturers face, wireless
technology provides a means to empower nextgeneration plant workers just as cell phones and
PDAs have empowered the mobile business
person today.
Even during normal operations, it’s not uncommon
for a large plant to have hundreds of people working
throughout the plant, often far from their control
rooms, maintenance shops, or offices. The new
wave of wireless tools will dramatically improve the
productivity of these people by providing instant
access to information that they otherwise would have
had to cover considerable distance to get to, or take
valuable time from other plant personnel to find out.
New wireless technologies can also improve worker
communications. While many plant workers already
use an older wireless technology – walkie-talkies – for
short-range communications in the field, combining
a plant-wide wireless broadband network with
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology can
extend communication reach as well as enabling
“smart” communications. For example, you could
broadcast messages to specific teams based on
the IP address of each worker’s radio. Often when
customers evaluate traditional hardwired PA systems
they realize that such systems cost a lot more than
putting in a wireless infrastructure that allows
18
1 – Why Wireless?
Wireless allows affordable access to information for
better insight into what’s happening, especially for
safety and security. For example, it’s easy and costeffective to add wireless cameras where it would be
too difficult, costly, or risky to trench or wire.
VoIP communications. The other advantage of this
wireless approach is that you now have a platform
that allows you to implement other applications that
require a Wi-Fi coverage.
Many plants are already using wireless technologies
to improve security. Wireless closed-circuit television
cameras and RFID-equipped access badges enable
intelligent security monitoring and control – from
restricting access to specific areas based on levels
of security, to tracking attempts to violate security
protocols and helping security managers identify
potential vulnerabilities and improve systems.
Wireless applications can also enable you to monitor
hazardous applications in order to reduce risk to
plant personnel.
Maintenance workers can also benefit from these
applications. Wireless tools such as handheld
communicators allow these workers to access
maintenance work orders, instructions, and other
information on the spot, and to immediately track or
report inspections, tests, and repairs.
Wireless location technologies allow you to quickly
find and track inventory and valuable assets – even
workers -- moving inside and outside the plant. Time
spent looking for assets can be dramatically reduced,
which can have significant benefits during major
turnarounds, emergencies, and new construction
projects. Being able to quickly locate each worker
also offers safety and productivity benefits.
To be deployed in the process industry, however,
applications like these must address issues such as
harsh, industrial environments, high RF interference,
bandwidth allocation, and sharing the airspace with
higher priority control information from wireless field
networks.
1.2.3
Applications for Business and
Plant Management
Wireless applications such as personnel and asset
tracking, as well as wireless video surveillance for
security and safety, have changed the way offices,
hospitals, warehouses and retail stores operate.
These applications can also solve business needs
inside process environments, such as improving
safety and security.
19
2
Wireless Standard
TO P I C PA G E
2.1
Wireless Portfolio.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.2
WirelessHART Standard.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.3
WirelessHART Architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.4References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2 – Wireless Standard
2.
Wireless Standard
2.1
Wireless Portfolio
Bandwidth – Short, high priority communications
Security/Reliability – must coexist and perform
in dynamic, harsh plant environmentPower
Management – Intrinsically safe power solutions
optimized for user & process safety lasting at least
5 years
Wireless portfolio can be classified into two areas
• For plant and process information applications.
Wireless field network products are based on the
WirelessHART standard, approved in September
2007. This standard was developed under the
guidance of the HART Communication Foundation
(HCF) through the combined, cooperative efforts
of HCF member companies, leaders in wireless
technology and the input of industry users.
Standards – IEC-approved WirelessHART (802.15.4)
is driven by Process community
2.1.2
Wireless Technologies for Plant
Networks
• For workforce productivity and plant and
business management applications. At the
wireless plant network level, the architecture
uses commercial standards such as IEEE 802.11
Wi-Fi, the emerging 802.11s Wi-Fi mesh standard,
and 802.16 WiMAX to leverage the advantages
of these readily available, widely supported
technologies.
The approach should be based wholly on open
standards so you can choose standards-based
solutions without being tied to a specific technology
or Vendor.
2.1.1
Wireless plant networks have requirements that are
unique and different from wireless field networks.
Plant networks implement applications like video,
voice and people or asset tracking. Requirements
include:
Wireless Technologies for Field
Networks
Bandwidth – High; multiple applications must share
the service
Security/Reliability – Industrial security and robust
coexistence are essential
Power Management – Devices can be line powered
or recharged daily
Standards – Driven by IT community (802.11,
WIMAX...)
2.2
Wireless Field Networks have specific requirements
which are different from those of a Plant Network.
Field Networks are focused on process applications
like measurement or sensing, process control and
diagnostics. Requirements include:
WirelessHART Standard
Conceptually, WirelessHART networks are one special
type of wireless sensor network. Although it bears
many similarities with other wireless standards, such
as ISA100.11a, WIA-PA (China Standard), Bluetooth
[2], ZigBee [10], and Wi-Fi [4], WirelessHART
differentiates itself from them in many other aspects.
Process Applications – sensing, condition
monitoring, control and diagnostics
22
2 – Wireless Standard
By changing the communication channel
pseudorandomly, WirelessHART can limit the
damage to minimum. Just like ZigBee, Wi-Fi does not
support channel hopping either. In addition, power
consumption is not a concern for Wi-Fi. Thus, Wi-Fi is
not a good fit for industrial environment as well.
Wireless sensor network has received extensive
study recently [13, 18, 17, 21, 22, 12]. Different from
generic wireless sensor networks which assume that
sensors are deployed randomly and abundantly, the
deployment of WirelessHART network is deliberate
and has only limited redundancy. In a generic sensor
network, many sensors may be deployed in the same
area and perform the same function. However, in a
WirelessHART network, sensors are usually attached
to field devices to collect specific environmental data,
such as flow speeds, fluid levels, or temperatures.
A reading from a sensor is not necessarily
replaceable by that from the nearby sensors. More
importantly, generic wireless sensor networks are
self-configurable and have no strict requirements
on timing and communication reliability. To meet
the requirements of wireless industrial applications,
WirelessHART uses a central network manager to
provide routing and communication schedules. Thus
WirelessHART is essentially a centralized wireless
network. WirelessHART, Bluetooth and ZigBee
share a very obvious feature: they all operate in
the unrestricted 2.4GHz ISM radio band, which is
available nearly globally.
It is noteworthy that ISA SP100 [7] committee is
also working on wireless standards for industrial
applications. However, the standard is yet to
be published.
2.3
WirelessHART Architecture
Figure 2.3a illustrates the architecture of the
WirelessHART protocol stack according to the OSI
7-layer communication model. As shown in this
figure, WirelessHART protocol stack includes five
layers: physical layer, data link layer 1, network
layer, transport layer and application layer.
In addition, a central network manager [19] is
introduced to manage the routing and arbitrate
the communication schedule.
On the other hand, they distinguish from each other
in many other aspects. Both WirelessHART and
Bluetooth support time slots and channel hopping.
However, Bluetooth is targeted at Personal Area
Networks (PAN), whose range is usually set to 10
meters. Furthermore, Bluetooth only supports
startype network topology, and one master can
only have up to 7 slaves. These limitations make
it awkward to apply Bluetooth in large industrial
control systems. In contrast, WirelessHART supports
mesh networking directly. The topology of a
WirelessHART network can be a star, a cluster or a
mesh, thus providing much better scalability.
Figure 2.3a – Architecture of HART Communication Protocol
Both WirelessHART and ZigBee are based on the
IEEE 802.15.4 physical layer. While ZigBee uses the
existing IEEE 802.15.4 MAC, WirelessHART goes
one step further to define its own MAC protocol.
WirelessHART introduces channel hopping and
channel blacklisting into the MAC layer, while ZigBee
can only utilize Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
(DSSS) provided by IEEE 802.15.4. Thus, if a noise is
persistent, which is not unusual in industrial fields,
the performance of a ZigBee network might
degrade severely.
2.3.1
Physical Layer
The WirelessHART physical layer is based mostly on
the IEEE STD 802.15.4-2006 2.4GHz DSSS physical
layer [5]. This layer defines radio characteristics, such
as the signaling method, signal strength, and device
sensitivity. Just as IEEE 802.15.4 [5], WirelessHART
operates in the 2400-2483.5MHz license-free
ISM band with a data rate of up to 250 kbits/s. Its
channels are numbered from 11 to 26, with a 5MHz
gap between two adjacent channels.
23
2 – Wireless Standard
2.3.2
Data Link Layer
The actual channel number is used as an index into
the active channel table to get the physical channel
number. Since the ASN is increasing constantly, the
same channel offset may be mapped to different
physical channels in different slots. Thus we provide
channel diversity and enhance thecommunication
reliability. Figure 2.3.2a describes the overall design
of the data dink layer which consists of six major
modules as described in the follow subsections.
One distinct feature of WirelessHART is the
timesynchronized data link layer. WirelessHART
defines a strict 10ms time slot and utilizes TDMA
technology to provide collision free and deterministic
communications. The concept of superframe is
introduced to group a sequence of consecutive time
slots. Note a superframe is periodical, with the total
length of the member slots as the period.
2.3.2.1Interfaces
All superframes in a WirelessHART network start from
the ASN(absolution slot number) 0, the time when
the network is first created. Each superframe then
repeats itself along the time based on its period.
The interface between the MAC and PHY layer
describes the service primitives provided by the
physical layer, and the interface between the MAC
and NETWORK layer defines the service primitives
provided to the network layer.
In WirelessHART, a transaction in a time slot is
described by a vector: {frame id, index, type, src addr,
dst addr, channel offset} where frame id identifies
the specific superframe; index is the index of the slot
in the superframe; type indicates the type of the
slot (transmit/receive/idle); src add and dst addr are
the addresses of the source device and destination
device, respectively; channel offset provides the
logical channel to be used in the transaction. To finetune the channel usage, WirelessHART introduces
the idea of channel blacklisting. Channels affected by
consistent interferences could be put in the black list.
In this way, the network administrator can disable
the use of those channels in the black list totally.
2.3.2.2
Interface Timer
Timer is a fundamental module in WirelessHART.
It provides accurate timing to ensure the correct
operating of the system. One significant challenge
we met during the implementation is how to design
the timer module and keep those 10ms time slots
in synchronization. The specific timing requirement
inside a WirelessHART time slot is depicted in
Figure 2.3.2.2a and the implementation issues are
addressed in Section 4.
Figure 2.3.2.2a – WirelessHART Slot Timing
2.3.2.3
Communication Tables
Each network device maintains a collection of tables
in the data link layer. The superframe table and link
table store communication configurations created
by the network manager; the neighbor table is a list
of neighbor nodes that the device can reach directly
and the graph table is used to collaborate with the
network layer and record routing information.
Figure 2.3.2a – WirelessHART Data Link Layer Architecture
To support channel hopping, each device maintains
an active channel table. Due to channel blacklisting,
the table may have less than 16 entries. For a
given slot and channel offset, the actual channel is
determined from the formula:
2.3.2.4
Link Scheduler
The functionality of the link scheduler is to
determine the next slot to be serviced based on the
communication schedule in the superframe table
and link table. The scheduler is complicated by such
factors as transaction priorities, the link changes,
ActualChannel = (ChannelOffset + ASN) % NumChannels
24
2 – Wireless Standard
that connects host applications with field devices,
and (4) A network manager that is responsible for
configuring the network, scheduling and managing
communication between WirelessHART devices.
To support the mesh communication technology,
each WirelessHART device is required to be able to
forward packets on behalf of other devices. There are
two routing protocols defined in WirelessHART:
and the enabling and disabling of superframes. Every
event that can affect link scheduling will cause the
link schedule to be re-assessed.
2.3.2.5
Message Handling Module
The message handling module buffers the packets
from the network layer and physical layer separately.
2.3.2.6
State Machine
• Graph Routing: A graph is a collection of paths
that connect network nodes. The paths in each
graph is explicitly created by the network manager
and downloaded to each individual network
device. To send a packet, the source device writes
a specific graph ID (determined by the destination)
in the network header. All network devices on the
way to the destination must be pre-configured
with graph information that specifies the
neighbors to which the packets may be forwarded.
The state machine in the data link layer consists of
three primary components: the TDMA state machine,
the XMIT and RECV engines. The TDMA state
machine is responsible for executing the transaction
in a slot and adjusting the timer clock. The XMIT
and RECV engine deal with the hardware directly,
which send and receive a packet over the transceiver,
respectively.
2.3.3
Network Layer and
Transport Layer
• Source Routing: Source Routing is a supplement
of the graph routing aiming at network
diagnostics. To send a packet to its destination, the
source device includes in the header an ordered
list of devices through which the packet must
travel. As the packet is routed, each routing device
utilizes the next network device address in the list
to determine the next hop until the destination
device is reached.
The network layer and transport layer cooperate
to provide secure and reliable end-to-end
communication for network devices.
2.3.4
Application Layer
The application layer is the topmost layer in
WirelessHART. It defines various device commands,
responses, data types and status reporting.
In WirelessHART, the communication between
the devices and gateway is based on commands
and responses. The application layer is responsible
for parsing the message content, extracting
the command number, executing the specified
command, and generating responses.
2.3.5
Security Architecture
WirelessHART is a secure network system. Both
the MAC layer and network layer provide security
services. The MAC layer provides hop-to-hop data
integrity by using MIC. Both the sender and receiver
use the CCM* mode together with AES-128 as the
underlying block cypher to generate and compare
the MIC.
Figure 2.4a – WirelessHART Mesh Networking
As shown in Figure 2.4a, the basic elements of a
typical WirelessHART network include: (1) Field
Devices that are attached to the plant process,
(2) Handheld which is a portable WirelessHARTenabled computer used to configure devices, run
diagnostics, and perform calibrations, (3) A gateway
25
2 – Wireless Standard
2.4References
The network layer employs various keys to provide
confidentiality and data integrity for end-to-end
connections. Four types of keys are defined in the
security architecture:
1. 1321xEVK Product Summary. http://www.
freescale.com/webapp/sps/site/prod_summary.
jsp?code=1321xEVK%.
2. Bluetooth. http://www.bluetooth.com.
3. HART Communication. http://www.hartcomm2.
org/index.html.
4. IEEE 802.11 Task Group. http://grouper.ieee.org/
groups/802/11/.
5. IEEE 802.15.4 WPAN Task Group. http://www.
ieee802.org/15/pub/TG4.html.
6. Implementation of aes in c/c++ and assembler.
http://fp.gladman.plus.com/cryptography_
technology/rijndael/index.htm.
7. ISA100: Wireless Systems for Automation.
http://www.isa.org/MSTemplate.
cfm?MicrositeID=1134&CommitteeID=6891.
8. WINA. http://www.wina.org/.
9. WirelessHART Demo. http://www.cs.utexas.
edu/˜cdj/WhEpmDemo.mpg.
10. ZigBee Alliance. http://www.zigbee.org.
11. F. P. 197. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).
U.S. DoC/NIST, November 2001.
12. K. Akkaya and M. Younis. A survey of routing
protocols in wireless sensor networks, 2005.
13. I. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and
E. Cayirci. A survey on sensor networks. In IEEE
Communication Magazine, August 2002.
14. T. Blevins, G. McMillan, W. Wojsznis, and M.
Brown. Advanced Control Unleashed: Plant
Performance Management for Optimum Benefit.
ISA Press, 2002.
15. D. Caro. Wireless Networks for Industrial
Automation. ISA Press, 2004.
16. M. Dworkin. Recommendation for Block
Cipher Modes of Operation: The CCM Mode for
Authentication and Confidentiality. NIST Special
Publication 800-38C, May 2004.
17. J. Edgar H. Callaway and E. H. Callaway. Wireless
Sensor Networks: Architectures and Protocols.
CRC Press, August 2003.
18. R. B. Jose A. Gutierrez, Edgar H. Callaway. IEEE
802.15.4 Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area
Networks: Enabling Wireless Sensor Networks.
IEEE, April 2003.
19. J. Song, S. Han, A. K. Mok, D. Chen, M. Lucas, and
M. Nixon. A study of process data transmission
scheduling in wireless mesh networks. In ISA
EXPO Technical Conference, Oct. 2007.
20. J. Song, A. K. Mok, D. Chen, M. Nixon, T. Blevins,
and W.Wojsznis. Improving pid control with
unreliable communications. In ISA EXPO
Technical Conference, 2006.
21. J. Stankovic, T. Abdelzaher, C. Lu, L. Sha, and J.
Hou. Realtime communication and coordination
in embedded sensor networks, 2003.
22. W. Ye, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin. An energyefficient mac protocol for wireless sensor
networks, 2002.
• Public Keys which are used to generate MICs on
the MAC layer by the joining devices.
• Network Keys which are shared by all network
devices and used by existing devices in the
network to generate MAC MIC’s.
• Join Keys that are unique to each network
device and is used during the joining process to
authenticate the joining device with the network
manager.
• Session Keys that are generated by the network
manager and is unique for each end-to-end
connection between two network devices.
It provides end-to-end confidentiality and
data integrity.
Figure 2.6a – Keying Model
Figure 2.6a describes the usage of these keys under
two different scenarios: 1) a new network device
wants to join the network and 2) an existing network
device is communicating with the network manager.
In the first scenario, the joining device will use the
public key to generate the MIC on MAC layer and use
the join key to generate the network layer MIC and
encrypt the join request. After the joining device is
authenticated, the network manager will create a
session key for the device and thus establish a secure
session between them.
In the second scenario, on the MAC layer, the
DLPDU is authenticated with the network key; on
the network layer, the packet is authenticated and
encrypted by the session key.
(Source : Jianping Song, Song Han, Aloysius K. Mok, Deji Chen, Mike Lucas, Mark Nixon and Wally Pratt. IEEE Real-Time and Embedded
Technology and Applications Symposium: WirelessHART: Applying Wireless Technology in Real-Time Industrial Process Control)
26
3
Security, Reliability &
Co-Existence
TO P I C PA G E
3.1Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.2Reliability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.3Co-Existence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3 – Security, Reliability & Co-Existence
3.
Security, Reliability &
Co-Existence
3.1Security
WirelessHART security features include :
• Security is “built-in” and cannot be disabled
Wireless instrumentation has been available for
some time in a single vendor format. Having
identified HART as a good basis for a wireless
instrument network and that an ISM band offers
a simply installation method (no license required
and standard radios available). Major instrument
vendors and organisations such as the HCF (HART
Communication Foundation) carried out customer
surveys and not surprisingly (they were the same
customers) each received the same top three
requirements.
• Utilizes Standard AES-128 bit encryption
• Ease of use (automatic functions)
• Only the final device can decrypt and utilize
the data
WirelessHART networks have two main categories:
• Data Protection (Confidentiality, Integrity)
• Network Protection (Availability)
Make it Secure
Every one is aware of security these days and it was
not surprising this was a top requirement. Not only
do we need to encrypt data to stop someone reading
it and making a financial benefit but we need to
authenticate the data to make sure it has not been
changed since transmission.
Make it Reliable
Experience with wireless commodity product (WiFi
– Blue tooth – mobile phones) has shown some
wireless applications do not provide the availability
required in process plant. We need a network which
can monitor itself and repair problematic pathways
automatically and in good time.
3.1.1
Data Protection
1)Authenticate Instruments
The WirelessHART sensor network provides:
A 128-bit Join Encryption Key is used to keep
data sent and received during the joining process
private
• The Join Key also serves as authentication to the
security manager that the device belongs to the
network
Make it Resistant To Interference
Concerns that radio frequency interference between
wireless solutions could affect the reliability of
essential communications. An open, standardsbased wireless architecture from Emerson Process
Management and Cisco Systems addresses these
concerns by using mesh network technology
and other methods to provide high levels of
communication reliability at both the field-network
and plant-network levels.
• The Join Key is treated separately from the other
keys to enhance security
• Join Keys can either be unique to each device or
common to a given WirelessHART network
28
3 – Security, Reliability & Co-Existence
3.1.2
Network Protection
1)Denial of Service
• Saturate the network with– Join Requests data
• Join request ignored for unidentified /
unauthorized devices
• The Network manager has a list of authorized
instruments
• Need to be authorized device
• A counter logs failed join requests – and alert
site security if there is increasing number of join
failures
2)Encrypt Messages
The WirelessHART sensor network provides endto-end AES-128 bit encryption from the source to
the consumer with Individual session keys.
3)Check Message integrity
•The WirelessHART sensor network provides
message Integrity checking
• Checks data sent over the wireless network has
not been altered
• Add an Message Integrity Code (MIC) to each
packet
2)Replay Attack
• Keep the network busy handling data
• Read data and repeat it onto the network
• The message is ignored since the Counter at the
network layer is time slot dependant
• The replay has to happen in the same time slot
(10msec)
• The receiving device checks the MIC to confirm
the contents of the packet have not been altered
• Allows you to be sure messages are not altered
by external agents
29
3 – Security, Reliability & Co-Existence
3.2Reliability
99.9% reliability is achieved by:
• Managing power thru efficient data sending and
smart updates
• Build redundant paths thru MESH Network
• Management of Network thru the Gateway
3.2.1
Managing Power Thru Efficient
Data Synchronization and Smart
Updates
To achieve an efficient communications protocol
each of the network instruments must have a
common sense of time to avoid data collisions
and synchronise transmission and receipt of data.
Timely access to the network is achieved by dividing
time into slots and distributing these time slots to
individual instruments.
3)Clone an instrument
• Clone an authorized instrument and join the
network
• This is prevented since the Gateway can rotate
the join key regularly
• Clone may have correct UID and TAG but cannot
know new join key
With time synchronisation each instrument is aware
of the sequence of channels used during the channel
hopping procedure ensuring that the transmitting
and receiving instruments are not only time
synchronised but frequency synchronised too.
WirelessHART has other technologies to optimise
power usage – such as condition reporting (send an
alarm when it is tripped) and smart reporting (alter
data rate based upon condition). So that you can
optimize the data sending according to your process.
3.2.2
MESH Network and Redundancy
The mesh network provides the most robust
topology for a wireless network as there are multiple
redundant pathways to get data from source to
destination – reliability is one of the top concerns for
process industries.
30
3 – Security, Reliability & Co-Existence
1)Self-Building Mesh
• Simplified commissioning
• Automatic features
– Time Slot allocation
–
Path selection
WirelessHART devices also report the condition
of their power supply so that if they are battery
powered the battery can be replaced before it is
exhausted.
2)Self-Healing Mesh
• Redundant communication paths (no ACK from
message)
• More instruments = more redundant pathways
3.3Co-Existence
Using an Unlicensed band (ISM) means that there is
no need to license the radio on the plant – however
you have to co-exist with others. Compromise
between being a good neighbour or good worker.
WiHART has several co-existence strategies:
• Channel assessment. Sample a channel before you
use it to make sure no one else is transmitting at
the same time
• Send short messages (10 m sec) so less chance of
a collision
• Channel hop on each message to reduce risk of
a collision
• Black list a channel known to be used by others for
long periods.
3.2.3
Management of Network thru the
Gateway
The Network Manager in the Gateway builds and
maintains the MESH network. It identifies the best
paths and manages distribution of slot time access
(WirelessHART divides each second into 10msec
slots) Slot access depends upon the required process
value refresh rate and other access (alarm reporting –
configuration changes)
31
4
Wireless Project
Introduction
TO P I C PA G E
4. 1 Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.2Acronyms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.3
Project Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.4
Document Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4.5
Field Device Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.6
Ancillary Device Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4 – Wireless Project Introduction
4.
Wireless Project
Introduction
WirelessHART is a global IEC-approved standard
(62591) that specifies an interoperable selforganizing mesh technology in which field devices
form wireless networks that dynamically mitigate
obstacles in the process environment. This
architecture creates a cost-effective automation
alternative that does not require wiring and other
supporting infrastructure. WirelessHART field
networks (WFN) communicate data back to host
systems with reliability demonstrated in the field in
excess of 99% and are capable of both control and
monitoring applications.
Gateway
Host System
Any system accepting data
produced by the WirelessHART
Field Network (WFN). This
could be a DCS, PLC, RTU, Data,
Historian, asset management
software, etc.
Join Key
A common Join Key may be
used among all devices on a
given network, or each device
may have a unique join key.
(Note: When displayed in hexadecimal
format via a browser or handheld,
this results in a 32 character
hexadecimal field).
Network ID
Definitions
Terminology
Ancillary
Device
Definition
A 128 bit security key used
to authenticate wireless field
devices when joining the
network, including encryption
of the join request.
The similarities between WirelessHART and HART
allow wireless devices to leverage the training of
existing process organizations, minimizing change
and extending the benefits of automation to end
users who previously could not justify the costs
associated with typical wired capital projects. This
opportunity and long-term benefit justifies the
addition of new end users including maintenance,
safety, environmental, and reliability, in the FEED
(Front-End Engineering and Design) of new projects.
Additionally, by removing many of the physical
constraints of wiring and power (as well as reduced
weight), wireless networks provide new flexibility in
project execution.
4. 1
Terminology
An integer between 0 and
36863 that distinguishes one
WirelessHART network from
another. Each gateway at a
facility or location should be
programmed with a unique
Network ID. All authenticated
wireless field devices with
the same Network ID will
communicate on the same
network and gateway.
The user specified interval at
which a wireless field device
will detect a measurement and
transmit the measurement to
the gateway (i.e. sample rate).
The update rate has the largest
impact on battery life due to
the powering of the device
sensor.
Definition
Any device that does not
contain a measuring sensor
or output to the process for
actuation.
Enables communication
between wireless field
devices and host applications
connected to an Ethernet,
Serial, or other existing
plant communications
network; management of
the wireless field network;
and management of network
security. Conceptually, the
gateway is the wireless version
of marshaling panels and
junction boxes. The gateway
functionality may also exist in
native WirelessHart I/O cards
with field radios.
Update Rate
34
Update rate is independent of
radio transmissions required
for mesh peer-to-peer
communication, “hopping” via
multiple devices to transmit
a measurement back to the
gateway, and downstream
communications from the host
system to the wireless field
device. 4 – Wireless Project Introduction
Terminology
Definition
Wireless
Adapter
Enables an existing 4-20
mA, HART-enabled field
device to become wireless.
Adapters allow the existing
4-20 mA signal to operate
simultaneously with the digital
wireless signal.
Wireless
Field
Field device enabled with a
WirelessHART radio and Devices
software or an existing installed
HART-enabled field device
with an attached WirelessHART
adapter.
Wireless
Field
Wireless
Repeater
A self-organized network of
wireless field devices that
Network automatically mitigate
physical and RF obstacles in
the process environment to
provide necessary bandwidth
for communicating process and
device information in a secure
and reliable way.
Any wireless field device used
to strengthen a wireless field
network (by adding additional
communication paths) or
expand the total area covered
by a given mesh network.
AMS
Asset Management Systemw
CSSP
Control Systems Security
Program
DCS
Distributed Control System
DD
Device Descriptor
DSSS
Direct-Sequence Spread
Spectrum
FAT
Factory Acceptance Test
FEED
Front End Engineering and
Design
HMI
Human Machine Interface
LOS
Line of Sight
NFP
National Fire Protection
Association
PFD
Process Flow Diagram
P&ID
Piping and Instrument Design
PLC
Programmable Logic Controller
RF
Radio Frequency
RSSI
Received Signal Strength
Indicator
SIT
Site Integration Test
SPI
Serial Peripheral Interface
SPL
Smart Plant Layout
TSMP
Time Synchronized Mesh
Protocol
TSSI
Temporal Single-System
Interpretation
UDF
User Define Fields
WFN
WirelessHART Field Network
Project Concepts
4.3.1Pre-FEED
4.2Acronyms
Description
Description
4.3
Abbreviation
Abbreviation
During the Pre-FEED phase, consideration must be
given to available technologies and an assessment
made as to the applicability to the specific project
and application. It is during this Pre-FEED phase that
WirelessHART should be considered as a candidate
technology, along with other protocols including
HART, Foundation Fieldbus, and Profibus.
During the Pre-FEED phase, spectrum approvals for
the end-user and any intermediary locations should
be verified. Refer to Chapter 9 Wireless Spectrum
Governance for more details.
An integrated approach should be used for
incorporating wireless into a project. Wireless should
be merged with the established procedures for a
wired project.
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4 – Wireless Project Introduction
The key consideration is to use the right field device
technology for the right application and expand
consideration for possibly new end user communities
during the FEED process.
• Benefits of flexibility in project execution –
example: ease of moving or adding I/O points
during construction to cost effectively manage
onsite changes
Right Technology for Right Application
The economics of installing field wiring has primarily
limited the benefits of automation to process control
and safety applications with additional points added
over the life of the plant to resolve critical problems.
Since WirelessHART does not require wires for
communication or power, the financial hurdle rate
that determines if a point is automated or not is
redefined.
WirelessHART is designed for both control and
monitoring applications. Most current use cases
emphasize monitoring applications due to
conservative adoption of technology to meets the
needs of a conservative industry. The use of wireless
control applications is continuing to evolve with
the introduction of discrete output devices for
performing simple control functions. The table below
provides a high level summary for selection of the
right protocol when factoring in loop criticality; cost
to engineer and implement; and location of field
devices relative main process areas and host systems.
Special consideration should be given to understand
the automation needs of new process plants to
ensure they meet stricter safety, environmental,
reliability and performance criteria. Below are a few
examples:
• Many new plants are designed to operate with
fewer personnel. Upgrading simple gauges to
wireless field devices can automate the manual
collection of data from the field in order to
increase worker productivity and reduce exposure
to hazardous environments.
• Many existing facilities have been modified in
order to meet emerging environmental regulation.
Real time monitoring of volatile organic compound
release (VOC) from pressure safety valves and the
conductivity and temperature of effluent waters
can ensure environmental compliance.
Figure 4.3.1a – Selecting the Right Protocol
4.3.2
Technology Evaluation
• Remote monitoring of safety showers and gas
detectors during construction and operation can
provide new levels of safety response.
The project should establish design rules to
define which measurement and control points
are WirelessHART appropriate in order to enable
consistent and efficient engineering for subsequent
project phases.
• New environmental regulation often requires
redundant monitoring systems on assets like tanks
that were not required in the past. WirelessHART
can provide a cost effective, reliable secondary
communication method and monitoring method.
The technical authority will make a decision to use
wireless based on the following high level criteria:
• Monitoring of steam traps and heat exchangers
can provide real time information for minimizing
plant energy consumption.
• Economic Assessment
• Potential applications
• Potential operational savings
Cost effective field information accessible via
WirelessHART field devices enables non-traditional
end users of automation to be considered in the
FEED and Design Phases. A designer should be aware
of initiatives for safety, environmental protection,
energy consumption, and reliability in addition to the
traditional considerations for process automation.
• Potential benefit of new measurements providing
additional process insight
• Benefits of adding measurement not previously
considered feasible for inclusion in the automation
system due to economics or practicality –
example: monitored safety showers
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4 – Wireless Project Introduction
For example, the process design engineer can use a
set of criteria such as the simplified table in Figure
4.3.3a to identify candidate wireless applications.
WirelessHART provides a unified infrastructure for
extending the benefits of automation to multiple
plant initiatives without the need for multiple forms
of I/O infrastructure.
Ideally, Candidate WirelessHART applications are
identified during the early process design phase
during FEED. This could be during Process Flow
Diagram (PFD) and Piping and Instrument Design
(P&ID) Diagram development. However, if an early
decision is not taken this should not preclude the use
of the technology later in the project.
4.3.3FEED
Key deliverables exist for wireless in the FEED, for
example: cost estimating, design guidelines, and
specifications.
Cost Estimation
Vendors of WirelessHART field devices may have
cost calculators and capital project studies that can
be referenced and compared to support the cost
justification of wireless into a project or an all wireless
project. For a large capital project, wireless can
reduce capital costs by switching wired monitoring
points to wireless.
Figure 4.3.3a – Example Criteria
Design Engineers should assess and incorporate the
following factors in their project cost estimating
calculation model:
The basis for design should be shared amongst
all stakeholders so that other technical design
authorities can identify potential wireless
applications and benefit from the installed wireless
infrastructure. Furthermore, this process ensures
consistent implementation across all design
authorities and allows for an efficient decision
process to use wireless.
• Reduced engineering costs (including drawing
and documentation, and Factory Acceptance Test
(FAT))
• Reduced labor (field installation, commissioning,
supervision)
• Reduced materials (terminations, junction boxes,
wiring, cable trays/conduit/trunking, power
supplies, and control system components)
Points to consider when setting guidelines:
• Determine which categories of points are eligible
to be wireless: safety, control, monitoring, and
local indication.
• Reduced cost of change order management
(including adding, removing, and moving field
devices)
• Determine if new users are eligible for automation:
process efficiency, maintenance, reliability, asset
protection, health/safety/environmental, and
energy management.
• Reduced project execution time (including
commissioning of wireless field device
simultaneously with construction)
• Determine percent spares required and necessary
spare capacity.
• I/O capacity management (each WirelessHART
gateway essentially provides spare I/O capacity)
• Factor in distance considerations between
gateways and wireless field devices. Distance
considerations are elaborated on in Chapter 5,
Installation Guidelines.
Design Guidelines for WirelessHART
During the FEED process, all project stakeholders
should be made aware of the capability and benefits
of WirelessHART so that design engineers can identify
potential candidate applications. The project should
develop a wireless design and circulate to all project
stakeholders.
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4 – Wireless Project Introduction
points may be excluded from wireless eligibility
because the required update rate exceeds either the
desired life of the battery or the capability of the field
device.
Specifications
Specifications for WirelessHART field devices
are mostly the same as wired HART devices. See
Appendix B WirelessHART vs. Wired Hart Comparison
for key differences. HART instrumentation
specifications are the foundation for WirelessHART
specifications. The fundamental differences with
regards to the ISA-20 specifications are output
signal, power supply, update rate, protection type/
enclosure. Specifications not included in this short list
are either included with the IEC 62591 WirelessHART
standard, small deviations from HART that require
optional attention for the specification process, or
are unique to a field device vendor.
Typical safety and control update rates may require
1 second or faster. There is a trade-off for wireless
devices between update rate and battery life; the
faster the update rate, the lower the battery life
will be. The current recommendation is that an
application should have a time constant satisfied by
an update rate that supports a battery life of multiple
years for reduced maintenance. However, faster
update rates can be considered if the wireless device
will be powered externally, an energy harvesting
device, or if battery maintenance is not a concern for
that application.
Figure 4.3.3b is a comparison of fundamental
differences in the specifications1:
1.Values in table are typical and representative.
2.The trend with wireless field device vendors has
been to provide intrinsically safe protection.
Figure 4.3.3b – Key Differences Between Wired and WirelessHART
This difference is noted in the best interest of the
reader to support due diligence.
IEC 62591 WirelessHART is an international standard
for wireless process devices. The standard includes
advanced provisions for security, protocol, and other
features and therefore specification of such attributes
covered in the standard are not necessary.
Additionally, it is recommended that the update
rate of the measurement be three times faster the
process time constant. As an example, a typical
update rate for measuring temperature changes with
a sensor inside a thermowell can be 16 seconds or
longer given how much time is required for heat to
penetrate the thermowell.
Appendix A provides example specifications for a
WirelessHART gateway and wireless adapter that can
be generically specified as transceivers/receivers.
4.3.4
Database Field for Wireless Network Assignment
Detailed Engineering
Each wireless field device must be assigned to a
specific gateway that manages a specific wireless
field network. There must be a corresponding field
that indicates the association of the field devices to
the gateway. Without this information, the wireless
field device will not be able to receive the proper
security information to join the intended wireless
field network nor the proper integration into the host
system from the gateway.
During the detailed engineering phase of a project,
the engineer must account for WirelessHART devices
per the guidelines established in the FEED, add
wireless specific fields to the project database, and
conduct wireless field network design procedures to
ensure best practices are implemented.
Sort the Points
Using the wireless guidelines established in the FEED,
the design engineer should do a sort of all points in
the project database to identify which are eligible to
be wireless. For example, if monitoring is deemed
to be an eligible category, these points should be
sorted from the control and other points. Afterwards,
further requirements of the field devices can be
applied. For example, some control and monitoring
Each gateway will manage its own wireless field
network and can have an assigned HART Tag like
any HART device. Each wireless field network in a
plant must have a unique Network ID to prevent
devices from attempting to join the wrong network.
In order to ensure the desired security level is
achieved, a decision must be made whether to use
a common join key for all devices in a given field
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4 – Wireless Project Introduction
network, or unique join keys for each field device.
The combination of these two parameters provides
identification and authentication down to the field
device. Below are examples of a gateway HART TAG,
Network ID and Common Device Join Key.
points in a project with fewer devices. For example,
several vendors have a multiplexed WirelessHART
temperature device that reduces costs.
Network Design
Once wireless candidate devices have been identified
in the instrument database the field network design
can begin. Ideally wireless points should be organized
by process unit and by subsection of process unit
as typically depicted in a master drawing. This
information can be used to determine the number
of gateways required. Additional gateways can be
added to ensure spare I/O capacity per guidelines or
other project requirements. From here, the gateways
should be logically distributed throughout the
process unit like marshaling panels. Wireless field
devices should then be assigned according to which
gateway is closest or by which gateway is assigned to
the process unit subsection in which the field devices
reside. Once this is complete, network design best
practices should be checked to ensure the network
will be reliable. This will be covered in detail in the
WirelessHART Field Network Design Guidelines.
The Join Key is the most important parameter for
implementing security. A user can know the Gateway
HART TAG and the Network ID for the network the
gateway manages, but without a Join Key, a wireless
field device cannot join the network. The design
engineer should be sensitive to the security policies
of the design firm and the security policies of the
future owner/operator and, as a minimum, treat the
Join Key with the same sensitivities as a password
for a server to a DCS or database. For this reason,
storing the join key as a field in a design database is
not prudent.
Figure 4.3.4a – Definitions of Network Parameters When Using
a Common Join Key
Drawings should be created per existing standards.
In most instances, a wireless field device is treated
identically to a wired HART device. Most drawings
do not indicate wires or the type of communication
protocol, thus nothing unique needs to be done
for wireless field devices. The section on Ancillary
Device Requirements provides examples unique
to WirelessHART such as gateways and wireless
adapters. Fundamentally, it will be up to the design
engineer to adhere to or provide a consistent
convention that meets the needs of the contractor
and the owner operator as is true for wired HART
projects.
The Join Key is the most important parameter for
implementing security. A user can know the Gateway
HART TAG and the Network ID for the network the
gateway manages, but without a Join Key, a wireless
field device cannot join the network. The design
engineer should be sensitive to the security policies
of the design firm and the security policies of the
future owner/operator and, as a minimum, treat the
Join Key with the same sensitivities as a password
for a server to a DCS or database. For this reason,
storing the join key as a field in a design database is
not prudent.
Existing HMI (human-machine interface) design
guidelines for integration also apply to wireless with
no change required since data points connected
from the gateway into the host system are managed
like any other source of data.
Fields should be added to the project database
to indicate that a field device is wireless and its
association with a gateway using the gateway
HART TAG or other labeling convention. Parameters
required to be managed confidentially should be
controlled in a secure means in alignment with
established security policies. Staff members with IT
security or process security responsibilities are well
suited to provide consultation into the handling of
sensitive information.
4.3.5
Factory Acceptance Test
Factory Acceptance Tests require establishing a
connection between the Gateway and the Host
Systems. WirelessHART gateways typically have
standard output communication protocols that
directly connect to any host system. The design team
should keep a library of these integration options for
reference.
Finally, the design engineer should be aware of
available WirelessHART devices. Many come with
multiple inputs that can satisfy the total number of
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4 – Wireless Project Introduction
4.3.6Installation
be commissioned to the gateway to ensure proper
connectivity independently of verifying integration
into the host system.
In general, WirelessHART device are installed
exactly like wired HART devices. Emphasis should
always be placed on making the best possible
process connection for accurate measurement.
The self-organizing mesh technology in WirelessHART
enables wireless field devices to self-route through
the process environment and reroute when
the environment changes. Always consult the
instruction manual of the WirelessHART device for
specific considerations. This is covered in detail in
WirelessHART Field Network Design Guidelines.
A wireless loop check can confirm connectivity from
the wireless field device through the gateway to
the host system. Interaction with the process and
the WirelessHART device can confirm the device is
operational.
4.4
Document Requirements
4.4.1Drawings
WirelessHART adapters are typically installed on an
existing HART enabled device or somewhere along
its 4-20 mA loop. Always consult the manual of the
WirelessHART adapter for specific considerations.
Every project will require the establishment of
local standards for implementing consistent
documentation.
See Documenting in Intergraph SPI 2009 for a
complete treatment of documentation.
WirelessHART gateways are typically placed 6 feet
(2 meters) above the process infrastructure (typically
above cable trays) and located in the process unit
where the maximum number of direct connections
with wireless field devices can be achieved. Gateways
may have an integrated or remote antenna for
installation flexibility.
4.4.2
ISA Documentation
The American National Standard document ANSI/
ISA-5.1-2009: Instrumentation Symbols and
Identification, approved on September 2009,
provides basic guidelines for wireless instrumentation
and signals.
WirelessHART repeaters are typically mounted
6 feet (2 meters) above the process infrastructure
and should be located in areas of the wireless
network that need additional connectivity.
Key points:
1.There is no difference in the symbol between
a HART, FF, and a WirelessHART device. An
instrument is an instrument.
It is recommended to install the gateway first in
order to allow host system integration and wireless
field device installation and commissioning to
commence in parallel. Wireless field devices can
be commissioned as soon as process connections
are in place and a device is joined to a network.
Once the wireless device is activated with proper
configuration, update rate, and security provisions
for Network ID and Join Key, it will form a network
that compensates for the current condition of the
process unit and will adapt as the unit is built.
The project manager can have wireless device
installation occur in parallel with construction to
maximize project time buffers or pull in the project
completion date.
2.The line style for indicating a wireless signal is a zig
zag and not a dash.
Below is an image from the ISA-5.1 document
showing some comparative examples. Please
reference ISA-5.1 for complete details.
4.3.7Commissioning
WirelessHART gateways segment the commissioning
process. Since gateways connect the wireless field
devices to the host system, WirelessHART devices can
Figure 4.4.2a – ISA 5.1 Wireless Drawing
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4 – Wireless Project Introduction
4.4.8
3.The implementation of WirelessHART requires far
fewer components, making drawings simpler.
4.4.3
Wireless enables simplified subcontractor scope
management. Packages can be easily tested and
commissioned separately, requiring only minimal
integration and testing to occur. Additionally
the subcontractors will also benefit from fewer
components and engineering. Tender contracts
should be amended to recognize reduced complexity
and eliminated work.
Control Narrative
Define in the FEED phase and ensure this is
implemented with design guidelines.
4.4.4
Instrument Index/Database
See Documenting in Integraph SPI 2009 for
recommendations for additional fields not typically
included in wired HART specifications.
4.4.5
Project Scheduling
1.Review schedules to recognize:
Instrument Data Sheets
• Limited infrastructure installation and hence
reduced material and installation scope
Use standard data sheets created for wired HART
devices. Update the following fields to reflect
WirelessHART:
Specification Field Typical Value Update rate 1, 2,4, 8, 16, 32, 64+ Power Supply Intrinsically safe, field
replaceable battery • Remove some electrical and instrumentation
checkout processes
2.Amend contracts to reflect simplified installation
handover processes
3.Simplify installation schedule management
4.Reduce material coordination management and
simplified construction schedule
Communication Type IEC 62591 WirelessHART • Eliminated scheduling and expediting associated
with marshaling cabinets
No special ISA or other specification sheets are
required as the same sheets can be used to specify
HART, FOUNDATION Fieldbus, or WirelessHART.
See Appendix A for a specification sheet example for
a WirelessHART gateway
4.4.6
5.Schedule should reflect eliminated activities and
simplified FAT, SAT and SIT (site integration test)
on areas where wireless has been extensively
deployed
Responsibility and Skills Matrix
Material Requisitions
• Amend Roles and Responsibility matrix to reflect
reduced/eliminated responsibilities
Given the need for security and RF emissions,
vendors must acquire approvals for importation to
the country of end-use for compliance with local
spectrum regulation and encryption regulation. The
vendor can verify whether importation compliance
exists for any given country.
• Ensure engagement of all project stakeholders/
sub-contractor so that wireless can be applied
efficiently to improve schedule and material costs
Managing Project Variations
The batteries are commonly made using a high
energy compound using Lithium Thionyl Chloride.
The Material Safety Data Sheet or equivalent should
always be available as well as awareness of any
shipping restriction; notably most countries do not
allow the transportation of lithium batteries on
passenger aircraft.
4.4.7
Project Management
Subcontractor Scope Management
For project change orders and other late design
changes, wireless should be considered as the
primary solution unless other design considerations
exist. Using wireless will result in the fewest changes
to the documentation, I/O layout and other detailed
design as well as faster commissioning since you
can move wireless devices without having to also reengineer the wiring.
Manufacturer Documentation
Every WirelessHART device should have the proper
documentation, including manual, as would be
expected with a wired HART device.
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4 – Wireless Project Introduction
4.5
Field Device Requirements
4.5.1
Support for WirelessHART
Functionality
service denied may indicate a device has an update
rate that is too fast for the network capability or
the network conditions. With gateways capable
of holding 100 devices or more, clear indication of
device availability is crucial.
All WirelessHART devices support methods to allow
remote access to device configuration, backwards
compatibility with existing field communicators, full
implementation of WirelessHART security provisions,
and WirelessHART interoperability.
4.5.2
Additionally, gateways should be able to detect,
regardless of host system integration, the
connectedness of a wireless field device. This
information should be continually updated and
indicate if a device is not connected for network
or device reasons. Simple device states should be
made available for integration into the host system
regardless of output protocol from the gateway to
indicate online/offline status.
Device Diagnostics
HART Diagnostics
WirelessHART devices contain similar or a subset all
of the diagnostics of wired HART devices. Expect
configurable alarms and alerts for both the process,
the device, and the battery. Diagnostics information
should be available through HART commands as well
as accessible through Device Descriptions (DD) either
locally through a field communicator or remotely
using asset management software.
4.5.3
Field Device Power
Wireless field devices may have one of three power
options: battery, energy harvesting (including solar),
or line power and there may be several options with
in each category.
Wireless Field Device Network Diagnostics
Every WirelessHART field device should have
diagnostics that indicate if a device is connected to a
network or not.
Batteries
The most common will be the use of a battery for low
power field devices due to ease of deployment. Most
vendors will use battery cells incorporating Lithium
Thionyl Chloride chemistry since it has the highest
energy density, longest shelf life, and widest working
temperatures that are commercially viable. Although
typical cells look like battery cells for consumer
electronics, precautions should be taken to ensure
batteries are safely transported and introduced
into the process environment. Refer to vendor
documentation for safe handling practices.
Wireless Field Device Power Diagnostics
Wireless field devices may have one of three power
options: battery, energy harvesting (including solar),
or line power. Batteries will have a life determined
by the update rate of the wireless field device,
network routing for other wireless field devices, and
efficiencies of the sensor and electronics. Typically,
the primary consumer of power is the process sensor
and electronics in the wireless field device. Using the
WirelessHART radio or acting as a repeater for other
WirelessHART field devices requires minimal power.
Wireless field devices report their battery voltage and
have integrated low voltage alarms such that the user
can either schedule maintenance or take a corrective
action.
Below are requirements for batteries:
• Batteries cells should be assembled by a
manufacturer into a battery module to ensure safe
handling and transportation.
• Battery module should prevent a depleted cell
being introduced in circuit with a charged cell,
which can cause unintended electrical currents
and heat.
Gateway Network Diagnostics
• Battery module should provide ease of
replacement. Battery replacement should take
minimal time and training.
Gateway network diagnostics should indicate
whether field devices are connected and functioning
properly, and if devices are missing from the
network. In order to be connected properly, proper
bandwidth must be allocated based on the update
rate of the device. A device connected but with
• Battery module should be intrinsically safe and
not require removal of the wireless field device for
replacement.
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4 – Wireless Project Introduction
• Energy harvesting device should be mounted such
that it is not negatively impacted by changes in
the season, process conditions, and according the
vendor recommendations.
• Battery module should prevent intended and
unintended short-circuiting that could lead to heat
or spark.
• Battery module should be designed for the
process environment with mechanical properties
that provide drop protection and operation
over normal process temperatures expected for
devices.
• Energy device should be intrinsically safe and
installation should follow local practices for low
voltage wiring.
• Energy harvester should have the means for
the user to know the state of the device via the
wireless field device.
• Battery modules should come with necessary
Material Safety Data Sheets (or equivalent)
and warnings and be disposable per local
governmental regulation.
• The lifetime and maintenance of rechargeable
batteries should be understood and incorporated
into a maintenance routine.
• Battery module should not be capable of
connecting to consumer electronics or nondesigned applications to prevent a high-capacity
supply from being connected to incompatible
electrical systems.
Wired Power
A wired power option for wireless field devices is
an emerging option from vendors since the cost of
local power can be less than the cost of a control
signal wire with power or a power module. Some
WirelessHART Adapters may harvest power off of
the 4-20 mA loop to wired HART device. Some
applications with high power sensors may need to
be wireless to meet a communications specification,
but require more power than a battery or energy
harvester can provide.
• Battery modules should be applicable to several
WirelessHART field devices to maximize inventory
management efficiencies in the local warehouse
for spare parts.
The design engineers of the wireless field network
and end users should use update rates that maximize
the life of the battery module and minimize
maintenance.
Below are the requirements for a wired power option:
Energy Harvesting
• WirelessHART adapters harvesting power from
the 4-20 mA signal of the wired device should not
affect the 4-20 mA signal during normal operation
or failure mode.
Vendors may provide energy harvesting options
as alternatives to batteries that may include solar,
thermal, vibration, and wind solutions. Current
energy conversion techniques for thermal and
vibration are relatively inefficient. In many cases,
energy harvesting solutions also utilize rechargeable
batteries to maintain constant back-up power supply.
Today’s rechargeable batteries have a life expectancy
of only several years during which they can maintain
a full charge and are often sensitive to temperature
change for supplying power and recharging
• Low voltage powered wireless devices (<30 VDC)
should be capable of operating over a range of
voltages – example: 8-28V using standard low
voltage wiring practices.
• Wired powered option may require the use of
Intrinsically Safe barriers between the DC voltage
source and the wireless field device.
Below are requirements for energy harvesters:
4.5.4
• Energy harvesting device should have a designed
connection to the wireless field device.
Security is a new consideration for wireless field
devices that is driven by an increased focus on the
protection of critical infrastructure by governments
and other security authorities.
• Energy harvesting device should have means for
providing multiple days of back-up power in the
event the energy source is discontinued for
several days.
Field Device Security
Below are the requirements for wireless field device
security:
• Wireless devices should be compliant with all
WirelessHART security provisions including correct
usage of Network ID and Join Key.
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4 – Wireless Project Introduction
• The user or unintended user should not be able to
physically or digitally read the Join Key from the
wireless device. The Join Key(s) should be treated
as confidential and subject to the requirements of
any local security policy.
• WirelessHART adapters shall extend the benefits
of a WirelessHART network to wired HART devices
that may or may not be operated on a 4-20 mA
loop.
• The wireless device should be receptive to security
changes initiated by the gateway, including
Network ID, Join Key, and the network, session,
and broadcast keys that validate packets sent
through the network and prevent tampering and
eavesdropping.
4.6
Ancillary Device Requirements
An ancillary device is defined as any device that
does not contain a measuring sensor or output to
the process for actuation. These include wireless
gateways, local indicators, wireless repeaters and/or
WirelessHART adapters.
• The gateway and any management program
connected to the WirelessHART network through
the gateway should protect all security parameters
according to a local security policy.
4.6.1Gateways
The gateway enables communication between
wireless field devices and host systems connected
to an Ethernet, serial, or other existing plant
communications network. WirelessHART
manufacturers have typically chosen to integrate the
network manager, security manager and access point
functionalities into one product. Conceptually, the
gateway is the wireless version of marshaling panels
and junction boxes.
• Wireless field devices should not have a TCP/IP
address in order implement a layered security
policy. The exception is the gateway with a TCP/IP
connection to the host system via a firewall.
4.5.5Approvals
Every WirelessHART device must have the appropriate
hazardous area approval to meet the conditions of
the process environment as well as the appropriate
spectrum and encryption approvals. Spectrum
and encryption of wireless signals are regulated by
government agencies, such as the FCC in the United
States. Typically, verifying with the WirelessHART
device manufacturer that the device has proper
approval for importation into the country of usage
is sufficient. Spectrum and encryption approval are
a procurement issue and do not represent a design
parameter like a hazardous area approval.
4.5.6Accessibility
WirelessHART devices are subject to the same
mechanical and electrical specifications as wired
HART devices is they operate in the same process
environments.
Figure 4.6.1a – Gateway System Architecture
Below are general requirements for WirelessHART
field devices:
Below are the requirements for a WirelessHART
gateway:
• WirelessHART devices shall be locally accessible
with HART field communicators that support wired
and WirelessHART devices.
• The gateway should provide an easy to manage
solution for enabling gateway, network
management, and security management
functionality
• WirelessHART devices shall be manageable with
remote asset management systems that access the
WirelessHART device via the gateway and through
the WirelessHART network.
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4 – Wireless Project Introduction
• Provide wireless communications for HART devices
which are not natively wireless.
• Gateway should have controlled access for a
security policy. Gateway should have multiple user
accounts with differing access to critical security
and configuration parameters such that there can
be secure network administration.
• Enable device information to be accessed
by multiple users who may not have direct
access to the control system. In this scenario,
the 4-20 mA signal is sent to the control room
while the WirelessHART signal is used to access
parametric and diagnostics data by maintenance
or other personnel.
Gateway should have multiple output protocols to
ensure integration to a range of host applications.
In any given process facility, there can several
types of DCS, PLC, and data historians requiring
multiple protocols. Multiple output protocols allow
convenient connectivity with a standard gateway.
• Act as a wireless repeater.
Below are the WirelessHART Adapter specifications:
• The gateway should support multiple connections
and, in effect, act like a server. Typical
WirelessHART applications require data to be sent
to multiple host applications in order to provide
data to multiple end users.
• Adapter should not affect the 4-20 mA signals
under normal operation or in failure mode.
• Adapter should operate like any other
WirelessHART field device in the WirelessHART field
network.
• The gateway should support the secure transfer of
all protocols over an Ethernet connection through
a robust encryption process.
• Adapter should have a HART Tag.
• Adapter should pass through the wired HART
device process variable as well as remote access for
configuration and calibration.
• Gateway should be interoperable and support the
network management of WirelessHART devices
from multiple vendors.
4.6.2
• Adapter should employ the same security
functions and methods as a standard WirelessHART
device.
Wireless Repeaters
There are no special requirements for a WirelessHART
repeater. If a repeater is a WirelessHART device with
a configurable update rate, then minimizing the
update rate shall maximize the life of the battery
module without impacting the network reliability.
If a vendor chooses to develop a WirelessHART device
for the specific purpose of acting as a repeater,
then that repeating device should be managed
like any other WirelessHART device and subject
to all the specifications of a WirelessHART device.
WirelessHART adapters can be used effectively as
repeaters if local power or a wired HART device is
available.
4.6.3
WirelessHART Adapters
WirelessHART adapters connect to wired HART
devices that are not inherently wireless and provide
parallel communication paths through the 4-20 mA
loop and the WirelessHART field network. There are
four main use cases for WirelessHART adapters:
• Access HART diagnostics that are not accessible
due to limitations of the host system which may
not detect the HART signal on the the 4-20 mA
loop.
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Installation Guidelines
TO P I C PA G E
5.1
WirelessHART Field Network Design.. . . . . . . . . 48
5.2
Design Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
5.3
Designing Effective Device Range. . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5.4
Applying Network Design
Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
5.5
Minimizing Downstream Messages for
Wireless Output Control Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
5.6
Spare Capacity and Expansion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
5.7Fortifying. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
5 – Installation Guidelines
5.
Installation Guidelines
– Update rates need for wireless devices
– Capacity of gateway
The WirelessHART network specification enables
a reliable, secure, and scalable architecture.
Contrary to legacy systems and point-to-point
wireless networks, WirelessHART is a truly scalable
automation technology that gets more robust as
more devices are added to an existing network.
Design guidelines support the deployment of small
networks with less than 10 WirelessHART devices
for monitoring and control, as well as installations
supporting thousands of devices.
• Design – Apply design rules to ensure optimum
connectivity.
• Fortify – Identify and correct any potential
weaknesses in the network design.
The three basic steps apply for all process
environments in all industries, although the context
may vary slightly depending on the physical structure
of the process environment. The basic steps also
apply regardless of the vendor of the WirelessHART
device. Since WirelessHART networks become
stronger the more devices are added, the Scope step
is the most critical for high density applications.
This section includes recommendations to support
the long-term, sustainable adoption of wireless
applications including WirelessHART as well as Wi-Fi,
Wi-Max, and more.
WirelessHART is designed for both control and
monitoring. WirelessHART is the most appropriate
communications protocol for many monitoring and
some control applications when considering the
overall cost and technical considerations. In general,
control with WirelessHART is appropriate for most
cases of open loop control that would require manual
interaction with the process and some cases of
supervisory control for set point manipulation and
process optimization. Applications for closed loop
regulatory control of a critical loop may be evaluated
case by case.
The best practices for network design are applicable
for networks operating with mix of WirelessHART
devices for monitoring and control with update rates
from 4 seconds to 3600 seconds (60 minutes).
Please see the section Designing for Control for
additional considerations when including 1 second
update rates.
A site survey is not normally required or even possible
in the case of a Greenfield site.
WirelessHART is built upon the HART standard;
therefore minimum differences exist between
the usages of wired and wireless devices. The
minimal need for wires also means there are fewer
engineering details to manage and fewer engineering
parameters to introduce. This section provides a
thorough discussion of WirelessHART Field Network
Design.
5.2
Contact your respective WirelessHART vendor for
automated design tools to aid:
• Network Design
• Gateway Capacity Planning
• Device Type Availability and Battery Life Estimation
The following can be applied to small projects
requiring a single gateway or a large project requiring
several gateways.
5.1
Design Resources
The same design rules that govern the segmentation
of wired HART networks apply to WirelessHART. From
a very simple perspective, all process facilities have
an architecture that organizes the infrastructure as
well as the automation and the people. WirelessHART
not only self-organizes to the process environment,
but also to this inherent organization of the process
facility. For example, the process facility shown in
Figure 5.3a is organized into 7 process units that are
separated by roads.
WirelessHART Field Network
Design
There are three key steps for designing a network:
• Scope – Decide if you need to divide wireless
field networks by process unit or subsection of a
process unit. Factors include: o Number of devices
in the process unit
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5 – Installation Guidelines
Figure 5.3a – Example process Facility
If the process facility is not an outdoor production
environment, there is still a natural organization that
should be used for scoping networks. For example,
power plants and biopharmaceutical manufacturing
facilities are typically completely enclosed with
multiple floors. One option is to scope WirelessHART
field networks to a floor. If there are 7 floors, then
there are potentially seven WirelessHART networks.
•Aligns WirelessHART tagging convention with
wired HART tagging convention.
•Aligns WirelessHART documentation practices with
the process unit and support device location.
If you know device A is on Network A and in
process unit A, then one should not look in process
unit B to find device A.
• Aligns work processes of managing WirelessHART
device life cycles with wired HART life cycles
including organizational responsibilities.
The benefits of scoping a WirelessHART field network
to a process unit are:
• Aligns the data flow from the WirelessHART device
through the gateway to the Host System with
existing data architecture.
• Sets reasonable expectations for range between
WirelessHART devices. Most process units do not
have a footprint greater than a few hundred feet
(<0.2km) by a few hundred feet (<0.2km).
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5 – Installation Guidelines
3.Determine the capacity of the gateway
determined by the maximum update rate to be
used in the network. Be conservative and assume
all devices are operating at the same, fastest
update rate network for the purpose of estimation.
Example output: 100 WirelessHART devices per
gateway if all devices are updating every 8 seconds
or slower and the gateway can support 100
devices at 8 seconds.
While scoping the number of networks and gateway
placement, the design engineer should factor in
considerations for gateway capacity and spare
capacity. At a minimum, each process unit should
have its own gateway with spare capacity for
problem solving in real time. If a project is small and
application focused, then typically a single gateway is
required if the total number of points is less than the
capacity of the gateway. If the project is large or has
wireless field devices with update rates faster than 4
seconds, then following is the process of determining
the total number of gateways and modifying the
scope of a network.
a. Note that some gateway vendors have
advanced capacity planners that can provide
detailed capacity estimate based on the
required updates of individual update rates.
WirelessHART networks can support a mix of
device types and update rates. The method
outlined here is a simple method that
determines max capacity with very limited
design information.
1.Filter the Instrument Index List by process unit
and determine how many I/O points are in
each process unit that are wireless so that the
WirelessHART networks can be segmented by
process unit.
4.Determine and apply any guidelines on spare
capacity. If the design rules for the project state
I/O components should have 40% spare capacity,
then note this value for the following calculation.
a.For example, out of 700 total I/O points, let’s
assume process unit A has 154 wireless points
requiring 154 WirelessHART devices. We need
to determine how many gateways are needed.
Note that some WirelessHART devices support
more than 1 wireless point and so there may
be instances when fewer devices are required
to satisfy the number of measurement points.
A key example is a WirelessHART temperature
transmitter where 2 or more temperature
elements are used as inputs.
5.Use the following calculation to determine the
number of gateways needed:
For the example above, three gateways are
needed.
2.Identify the necessary update rate of each
WirelessHART device to meet the specifications of
the application as well as battery life.
This formula can be entered into Microsoft Excel.
a.Typical WirelessHART devices can update from
1 per second to once per hour.
6.Scope the number of required gateways into
subsections of the process unit. If more than one
gateway is needed per process unit, then the
design engineer should segment the networks
such that the gateways are distributed in the
field like marshaling panels and junction boxes.
In Figure 5.3b, the master drawing, the process
unit has 16 subsections labeled L-2 through L-17
that should be logically segmented for coverage
by gateways. Not every gateway needs to have
the same number of wireless points. If redundant
gateways are to be used, then double the number
of gateways based on the output from the above
formula.
b.Update rate should be 3-4 times faster than the
time constant of the process for monitoring and
open loop control applications.
c. Update rate should be 4-10 times faster than
the time constant of the process for regulatory
closed loop control and some types of
supervisory control.
d.The faster the update rate, the shorter the
battery life. Use an update rate that meets
the needs of the application, but does not
oversample in order to maximize battery life.
e.Update rates faster than 4 seconds can impact
the total number of wireless devices that can be
put on a gateway. Consult the specification of
the gateway vendor for additional constraints
and consultation.
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5 – Installation Guidelines
Do not place all gateways in the same location
just because connecting into the host system is
convenient. The next section on network design will
show this is inefficient and can lead to unreliable
networks in the long term. The gateway should be
centralized to the field network to maximize the
number of connections to wireless devices.
WirelessHART networks can be logically aligned with
existing documentation and automation engineering
practices following this procedure. Key things to remember:
• Scoping is the most important design rule. Use it
to ensure wireless capacity, long term scalability,
high reliability, and alignment of WirelessHART
devices and management with existing process
facility, organization, and work practices.
Figure 5.3b. Example Process with 3 WirelessHART Networks and
good gateway placement
•Every WirelessHART gateway in a facility must have
a unique Network ID to properly segment the
WirelessHART field networks.
This example shows three WirelessHART gateways
supporting three WirelessHART networks in the
same process. This is analogous to having three
FOUNDATION Fieldbus segments in the same process
unit. In this example, the process unit subsections
were grouped horizontally instead of vertically to
minimize the distance of the process unit. A key
consideration is that the gateways, regardless of
manufacturer should always be in the process space
for which they supply I/O capacity.
• The output from the scoping phase should be
a scaled drawing showing the relative locations
of assets and processes to be automated and
potential integration points for the WirelessHART
gateways.
5.3
Below is an image of what not to do: Designing Effective Device
Range
The following design rules are intended to be
very conservative and are based on real-world
deployments of WirelessHART field networks.
The effective range of a device is the typical linear
distance between WirelessHART field devices when
in the presence of process infrastructure. Typically,
if WirelessHART devices have no obstructions
between them, have clear line of sight (LOS),
and are mounted at least 6 feet (2 meters) above
the ground, then the effective range with 10 mW/
10 dBi of power is approximately 750 feet (228 m).
Obstructions decrease the effective range.
Most process environments have high concentrations
of metal that reflect RF signals in a non-predictable
manner bouncing the signal off of the metal of
the surrounding environment. The path of an
RF signal could easily be 750 feet (230m) even
though the neighboring device separation is only
100 feet (31m) away.
Figure 5.3c. Example Process with 3 WirelessHART Networks and
poor gateway placement
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5 – Installation Guidelines
the gateway, but power efficient “hops” through
neighboring devices closer to the gateway ensure
reliable, extended range.
Below are three basic classifications for effective
range in the process environment:
• Heavy Obstruction – 100 ft. (30 m). This is the
typical heavy density plant environment. Cannot
drive a truck or equipment through.
The effective range is used to test the validity of
network design by applying the following
design rules.
• Medium Obstruction – 250 ft (76 m). This is the
less light process areas, lots of space between
equipment and infrastructure.
There are 4 fundamental, recommended network
design rules.
• Light Obstruction – 500 ft (152 m). Typical of
tank farms. Despite tanks being big obstructions
themselves, lots of space between and above
makes for good RF propagation.
1.Rule of 5 minimum – Every WirelessHART network
should have a minimum of 5 WirelessHART devices
within effective range of the gateway. Networks
will work properly with less than 5 WirelessHART
devices but will not benefit from the intrinsic
redundancy of a self-organizing mesh network
and may require repeaters. In a well formed, well
designed network, new WirelessHART devices
can be added to the interior or perimeter of the
network without affecting operation or extensive
consideration for design.
• Clear Line of Site – 750 ft (228 m). The antenna
for the device is mounted above obstructions
and the angle of the terrain change is less than
5 degrees. Some WirelessHART vendors provide
options and techniques for obtaining even further
distances for long distance applications.
These values are practical guidelines and are
subject to change in different types of process
environments. Conditions that significantly reduce
effective range are:
Figure 5.4a is a simple design examples process
unit and 4 WirelessHART devices have been placed
with a gateway on a scaled process drawing. The
red circle around the gateway represents the
effective range of the gateway. We see in this
example, the Rule of 5 Minimum is broken in that
there are only 4 devices within effective range of
the gateway. This network will likely perform to
specification, but it is optimal to fortify for long
term scalability and reliability by adding more
devices.
• Mounting field devices close to the ground, below
ground, or under water. The RF signal is absorbed
and does not propagate.
• Mounting field devices inside or outside of a
building relative to the main network and gateway.
RF signals do not propagate well through concrete,
wood, etc. Typically, if there are wireless devices
nearby on the other side of the enclosure, no
special design rules are needed. If there is a high
volume of WirelessHART devices isolated from
the network by a enclosure, consider scoping a
network inside of the facility. Small, fiberglass
instrument and device enclosures often deployed
in very dirty or harsh environments show minimal
impact on propagation of RF signal and can be
used. Large Hoffman-style metal enclosures will
prevent RF signals and are not recommended
without additional engineering considerations.
The low power nature of WirelessHART devices
allow operation for several years without replacing a
battery module, but also limit the output power of
the radio and maximum range. Because WirlessHART
devices can communicate through each other to
send messages to the gateway, the self-organizing
mesh naturally extends the range beyond that
of its own radio. For example, a wireless device
may be several hundred feet or meters away from
Figure 5.4a – Example Process with Rule of 5 broken
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5 – Installation Guidelines
4.Rule of Maximum Distance – Wireless devices
with update rates faster than two seconds should
be within 2 times the effective range of wireless
devices from the gateway. This rule maximizes
speed of response for monitor and control
applications requiring high-speed updates.
2.Rule of 3 – Every WirelessHART device should have
a minimum of 3 neighbors with in effective range.
This ensures there will be at least 2 connections
and the potential for connections to change
with time.
Continuing on from the previous example,
we fortified the network by adding another
field device within the effective range of the
gateway and added another device as another
measurement point. Now the red circle represents
the effective range of the WirelessHART device
that does not have 3 neighbors. For reliability, it is
essential for every WirelessHART to have 2 paths
during operation to ensure a path of redundancy
and diversity. The Rule of 3 when designing
ensures concentration of devices.
5.4
Applying Network Design
Recommendations
WirelessHART devices are located according to their
process connection. Only an approximate location
is required for location on the scaled drawing since
the self-organizing mesh technology will adapt to
conditions as they exist and change from the point of
installation. The design rules ensure a concentration
of WirelessHART devices for ample paths between
the devices. This allows the self-organizing mesh to
optimize networking in a dynamic environment.
When the Rule of 3 is broken, it can be fortified
by adding more devices. As networks grow, Rule
of 5 minimum and Rule of 3 become irrelevant as
there are many devices in the process space. Rule of
Percentages becomes dominant for large networks
to ensure there is ample bandwidth for all devices in
the network. Below is an example of when Rule of
Percentages is broken.
Figure 5.4b – Example Process with Rule of 3 broken
3.Rule of Percentages – Every WirelessHART
network with greater than 5 devices should have
a minimum of 25% of devices within effective
range of the gateway to ensure proper bandwidth
and eliminate pinch points. WirelessHART
networks can work with as little as 10%, and
actual implementation may yield less than 25%,
but experience shows this is a practical number.
Example, a 100 device network implies 25 within
effective range of the gateway.
Figure 5.5a – Example Process with Rule of percentage is Broken
a.Networks with greater than 20% of wireless
devices with update rates faster than 2 seconds
should increase the percentage of devices with
in effective range of the gateway from 25%
to 50%.
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5 – Installation Guidelines
A deviation from the rule of percentages can be
resolved in several different ways. Below are three
options to fortify this network design, each with its
own consideration:
The update rate of the wireless control device
determines how fast the host system receives
notification the control command was received
and executed.
1.Add more devices within the effective range of the
gateway. While this is a good solution, there may
not be more points of value within effective range
of the gateway.
5.6
During a typical project there is often a requirement
to provide installed spare hardware (marshaling,
I/O cards, terminations) and additional spare space.
Typically these figures could vary between 20-30%.
The consideration when designing with wireless is
different as no cabinetry marshaling, I/O cards, and
terminations are required. Additional gateways can
be added to the network to increase capacity.
2.Move the gateway into a more central location
relative to the distribution of WirelessHART
instrumentation. In this case, there may not be a
convenient host system integration point at the
center of the network.
3.Add another gateway. This increases overall
capacity for the process unit, addresses the needs
of that specific concentration of field devices, and
ensures long-term, trouble-free scalability. There
may still be the issue with convenient host system
integration point as with option 2.
5.7Fortifying
It is recommended to stress test the network design
by altering the effective range of devices in order to
identify potential weaknesses in the network design.
To stress test the network, reduce the effective range
of the devices in 10% increments.
The addition consideration provided in this text
ensures higher path stability that can be confirmed
once the network is deployed. Most WirelessHART
vendors provide the means to verify after installation.
5.5
Spare Capacity and Expansion
For example, suppose an effective range of
250 feet (76m) was used for initial design. Reducing
effective range by increments of 25 feet (8m) (10%)
could reveal where the weak spots will exist. It is the
discretion of the network designer to determine
what level the network will be stressed; there is a
limit of diminishing return.
Minimizing Downstream
Messages for Wireless Output
Control Devices
Digital control signals sent from a host system to
a wireless output control device via the gateway
require a downstream message. In order to minimize
the time for the downstream message to arrive at
the wireless control device, downstream messages
initiated by non-control applications should be
minimized. Maximum downstream message
time form gateway to wireless control device is
independent of the update rate and should be no
more than 30 seconds when network design best
practices are followed.
The example shown in Figure 5.8a reveals that one
WirelessHART device fails the Rule of 3 under a 20%
stress test of the effective range. Effective range is set
to 250 feet (76m) for the design test on the left and
200 feet (61m) for the stress test on the right.
The self-organizing mesh technology allows for more
WirelessHART field devices to be added to a network
for the purposes of automation, and provides the
means for simple design correction also exist.
A stress failure can be fortified by moving the
gateway location, adding a new gateway to segment
the network, adding more devices or adding
repeaters.
Techniques for limiting miscellaneous downstream
messages:
• Limit remote configuration of wireless devices
when control is in service.
• Limit device scans by asset management software.
Repeaters are an alternative to support the
fortification of a network. Instead of another
WirelessHART device with a specific measurement
purpose, any WirelessHART device can be used
specifically for the purposes of providing more
connection within the network.
• Limit other actions that require a remote poll and
response from the wireless field device.
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5 – Installation Guidelines
Figure 5.8a – Example Process: Standard Design (Left). Stress-Tested (Right)
55
6
Host System Integration
TO P I C PA G E
6.1
Wireless Host System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
6.2
Host Integration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
6.3Interoperability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
6.4
Host System Support for
WirelessHART Functionality.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
6.5
Configuration Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
6.6
Control System Graphics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
6.7
Node Addressing and Naming
Conventions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
6.8
Alarms and Alerts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
6.9
Maintenance Station. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
6.10Historian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
6 – Host System Integration
6.
Host System Integration
For WirelessHART networks that support users in
different roles, the potential exists for each end
user to have their own application for collecting
and analyzing data. For users who manually collect
data, WirelessHART provides the missing piece to
automation.
Standard protocols should be used to ensure the
most cost effective installation – examples include
OPC, Modbus TCP, Modbus RTU, HART IP, etc.
The WirelessHART gateway should convert data from
the WirelessHART field network into the desired
protocol and physical layer needed for integration
into the host system.
6.1
For long term scalability, where there may be 1000’s
to 10,000’s of WirelessHART devices in a single plant.
It is important to have a coordinated effort and
standard process to enable end users with different
roles and responsibilities to share the I/O capacity
of gateways. Representatives from maintenance,
utilities, operations, health/safety/environmental,
and asset management can share WirelessHART
network resources.
Wireless Host System
Data from WirelessHART field networks can be
integrated into any existing host system. However
many wireless automation applications are not
for control or process monitoring and may not be
required to be accessed by the DCS or PLC system.
This information may be useful to non-control room
based personnel including reliability engineers,
maintenance personnel, and energy engineers.
Careful consideration should be observed for
determining which information should be placed on
control operations screens to prevent the dilution of
critical information.
An architecture to consider is a centralized historian
and centralized asset management program shown
in Figure 6.2b. In this scenario, multiple gateways
are connected on the same Ethernet network
and server. The data from multiple WirelessHART
networks is sent to a centralized historian that can
then be connected to the applications for each of
the end users. In this way, host system resources can
be shared, all WirelessHART instruments can report
to the same asset management solution, uniform
security policies can be enforced, and end users can
see WirelessHART data in applications specific to
their roles.
For example, suppose a wireless field network is
used to replace a manual inspection round where
a maintenance technician manually collects
temperature and vibration data from a series of
pumps and then manually enter the collected data
into a data historian. Using WirelessHART, Figure
6.2a shows one possible way the gateway can
be integrated into the application, in this case a
historian, for the automated collection of data.
Developing a host system integration and data
management strategy is essential to maximizing
return on investment for wireless that is adopted on
a large scale. Successful implementation means that
Figure 6.2a – Gateway Integration Into Host System
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6 – Host System Integration
Figure 6.2b – Gateway Information Integrated Into Many Applications
data is going to the right people and being turned
into information for action. Often times, multiple
users will see the same data, but in the context of
their applications. This also means that every time a
new WirelessHART device is introduced to the plant,
host system and integration issues do not need to be
solved again and again.
the host are process variables (PV, SV, TV, QV), time
stamps (if using OPC), and overall device status.
Diagnostic information is typically passed to an asset
management system via Ethernet. Check with the
gateway vendor for compatible asset management
packages.
Often, existing host systems can be a combination
of legacy DCS and PLC components and modern
data management solutions such as data historians.
WirelessHART gateways should support multiple
connections into multiple host systems over multiple
protocols. This enables WirelessHART networks to
support modernization of an existing host system.
For example, suppose the existing DCS has no spare
capacity and can only receive the 4-20 mA signal
from wired HART devices.
WirelessHART is truly scalable; WirelessHART devices
can be added to a network without disrupting
operation and more gateways can be added to
increase I/O capacity. This ability allows automation
to be added and expanded to solve problems
without large project budgets once wireless
network infrastructure is in place. For example,
a WirelessHART device can be connected in minutes,
configured in minutes, and integrated in minutes
if a host system strategy is in place.
6.2
A WirelessHART network could be connected to the
DCS to bypass the need for more Analog Input Cards
to receive more process variables, while in parallel,
HART diagnostics flow to an asset management
program from existing wired HART devices with
WirelessHART adapters. This type of modernization
project could enable incremental modernization
with an older host system and when the scheduled
turnaround occurs to upgrade the DCS, the existing
WirelessHART networks would transition to the
new host system (see Figure 6.3a for an example
transitional architecture).
Host Integration
Integration of data originating from the wireless
gateway into a host control system is normally
performed in one of two ways - through native
connectivity directly to the host system or using
standard protocols such as Modbus or OPC.
For native connectivity including vendor specific
I/O cards, contact the host vendor.
OPC and Modbus are non-proprietary protocols
and use standard data exchange and integration
techniques to map data from the gateway into the
host control system. Typical data that is mapped to
A key output from working with host system
administrators is an integration strategy to
incorporate a plant-wide wireless infrastructure.
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6 – Host System Integration
Figure 6.3a – Using WirelessHART Gateway to Bridge Information From Non-HART Host System
6.5
If doing a small application, a key output is the
physical locations of where to connect the gateways.
These will be needed for the network design process.
WirelessHART devices are based on the HART
protocol; therefore, existing HART Field
Communicators will work for configuration of the
field devices. Field Communicators will require
the proper device descriptor for configuration,
which is the same for any other new HART device,
wired or wireless. Host system configuration will
be dependent on the host system. HART vendors
with asset management software may extend the
benefits of remote management from wired HART to
WirelessHART devices connected to the gateway.
Key Outputs for Network Design:
• Identifying a host system administrator and
system integrator who supports integration of
WirelessHART data into the host system.
• Potential physical connection points for
WirelessHART gateways.
6.3Interoperability
Converting WirelessHART data from the gateway into
standard protocols like Modbus and OPC ensures
interoperability of all WirelessHART networks with
all host systems. Host systems based on proprietary
protocols will be more difficult to implement,
maintain, and expand.
6.4
Configuration Tools
6.6
Control System Graphics
Not all data collected from the WirelessHART field
network belongs on the operator screen as part
of control system graphics. The risk is that nonpertinent information distracts the operator from
critical information.
Host System Support for
WirelessHART Functionality
The host system integration should be configured
such that data from a WirelessHART field network
is delivered to the proper end-user even though
network resources are shared. To give some
examples:
A WirelessHART gateway typically performs
all management of the WirelessHART network
and manages communications to and from the
WirelessHART field devices. The host system should
not require any special software to support the
WirelessHART field network.
• Data collected on consumption of power from
rotating equipment should go to the utilities
manager.
60
6 – Host System Integration
• Data collected on vibration spectrums of rotating
equipment should go to asset management.
Diagnostics between the gateway and the host
system will depend on the host system and the
gateway.
• Data collected on temperature alarms for rotating
equipment should go to operators in a nonobtrusive way and to the reliability manager.
6.10Historian
Properly defining an integration strategy will ensure
an efficient collection of data from WirelessHART
network and dissemination to proper end-users.
Many end users not typically receptive of the benefits
of automation have application specific databases
into which data is manually collected and uploaded.
With the ability to integrate WirelessHART data using
standard interface protocols, these existing end-user
specific databases can be automatically populated.
6.7
Historic Data collection can be treated the same as
any conventional source (e.g. OSIsoft PI or any DCS
historian package).
Node Addressing and Naming
Conventions
A WirelessHART device should follow naming
conventions of wired HART devices.
6.8
Alarms and Alerts
Alarms and alerts should be directed to the
appropriate end-user and their associated application
and software. Alarm and alert dissemination should
be reflective of the end user and their responsibility.
6.9
Maintenance Station
WirelessHART devices provide internal diagnostics
and process variables like any wired HART device.
Additional local diagnostics for network connectivity
should be accessible locally via a HART Field
Communicator with the correct Device Descriptor for
the WirelessHART field device.
The WirelessHART gateway should also provide
additional diagnostics for network performance.
The data from WirelessHART devices will not
propagate to the host system if the data is deemed
questionable from either a HART diagnostic or due
to an extended delay in reception at the gateway
from the WirelessHART field device. The gateway can
notify the host system if communication problems
exist. Additionally, the gateway is responsible for
WirelessHART network management and network
diagnostics.
61
7
Factory Acceptance Test
TO P I C PA G E
7.1
Factory Staging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
7.2Assumptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
7.3
Factory Acceptance Test (FAT)
Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
7.4
FAT Procedure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
7.5
Site Installation Guidelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
7 – Factory Acceptance Test
7.
Factory Acceptance
Testing
• Device Descriptor (DD) for all field devices in
any asset management solution is tested. This
ensures the correct DD is installed and valid. This is
especially important for WirelessHART devices that
are new to the market.
The key deliverable of a factory acceptance test
(FAT) is the integration of data from WirelessHART
instruments into the host system via the gateway.
The scope of the FAT should be agreed with the end
user. Typically only a subset of the field devices and
gateways to be installed is used during the FAT.
7.1
7.4
Factory Staging
The following are basic requirements for factory
staging:
As per IEC 62381 standards on factory acceptance
testing, general guidance as described for testing of
bus interfaces and subsystems shall apply. A subset
of instruments (at least one of each type) shall be
connected to the gateway as a proof of concept
demonstration of integrated system functionality.
This test should ideally verify the connectivity of the
field device to the gateway and from the gateway to
the host systems.
• A sample of all applications, gateways and
WirelessHART devices is present.
• Approved test plan, test procedure and test
acceptance criteria.
• HART Field Communicator and user interface to
the WirelessHART Gateway.
7.2Assumptions
Where physical devices will not be tested at the
factory, emulation of the interface will be performed
if required.
Below are assumptions for the FAT:
• Network topology testing is covered as part of the
Site Acceptance Test.
Below is a high level procedure for performing a FAT:
• WirelessHART network design does not need
to be tested at the factory if network design
recommendations are implemented. The
conservative nature and ability to fortify the
network upon installation with repeaters ensures
high confidence of reliable operation.
7.3
FAT Procedure
Since there are no physical IO modules, software
testing is performed by simulation of I/O at the
processor level. This level of simulation is adequate
to verify the application software within the host
control system.
1.Power the gateway
2.Add one of each type of WirelessHART device to
the network and verify proper connectivity.
All gateway fields for data from the WirelessHART
device should be properly populated.
3.Create first physical connection to the first
required host system application.
Factory Acceptance Test (FAT)
Requirements
4.Verify connectivity between the gateway and the
host system application.
The following are key requirements of a factory
acceptance test:
5.Integrate necessary data from each sample
WirelessHART device into the Host System
Application.
• Physical connection between the gateway and
the host system is verified. Can the gateway be
accessed from the host system with the proper
security policy in place?
a.Optional additional procedure is to change
process variables in the WirelessHART device
through direct stimulation or through
simulation. All devices, once properly connected
to the gateway, should integrate identically over
protocols like Modbus and OPC.
• Protocol connection between the gateway and
the application that resides on the host system is
verified. Can the data seen in the gateway be seen
in the application? Can the standard parameters
be properly mapped?
6.Repeat steps 4-6 while adding host system
connections to the gateway until all expected
• Gateway can support all necessary connections to
all required applications with appropriate timing.
64
7 – Factory Acceptance Test
Lightning Protection
connections the gateway are complete.
7.Test integration into an asset management
solution if applicable.
The installation manuals of all WirelessHART devices
should be consulted prior to installation.
a.Verify each WirelessHART device can be
properly accessed and configured via the asset
management solution.
In general, WirelessHART devices should not be the
tallest feature in the plant to maximize protection
against lightning.
8.Add any additional procedures to verify control
narratives and monitoring narratives.
Ensure adequate protection is provided between the
WirelessHART gateways and host system connection
as a lightning strike could damage more than just the
WirelessHART gateway. Redundant gateways should
never be co-located to provide diversity of location
in the event a single WirelessHART gateway is struck
by lightning.
7.5
Site Installation Guidelines
Installation practices for WirelessHART devices follow
very closely the installation practices of wired HART
instruments. Since there are no wires, WirelessHART
devices can be installed as soon as the asset or
infrastructure is in place and secure.
In general, wireless devices may provide better
protection of the system than wired, as the energy
from a lightning strike will not be able to travel
through the wiring and cause potential damage to
other components.
Network Installations
Always install the gateway first so that integration
and field network installation and commissioning can
occur in parallel.
Standards such as NFPA 780 provide classification
for zones of protection from lightning as well as
techniques for proper implementation.
Field devices can be commissioned into the gateway
and then commissioned into the host system
application.
Wireless Connection Test Procedure
Before beginning the wireless connection test
procedure, verify the WirelessHART device has
basic connectivity to the network either through
the gateway interface, a local user interface on
the device, or a local connection via a HART Field
Communicator. If the device is not joining the
network within a reasonable time period, verify the
presence of power and the use of proper Network ID
and Join Key. This assumes the gateway is installed
properly, powered and accessible, that the network
is designed per best practices, and that there are
devices to which the new device being commissioned
can connect.
In general, WirelessHART devices are installed per the
practices of wired HART devices. Always consult the
product manual.
WirelessHART devices close to the gateway should
always be installed and commissioned first to ensure
connections for potential devices that cannot directly
connect to the gateway. This is the easiest way to
establish the self-organizing mesh.
WirelessHART devices can be installed in close
proximity to each other without causing interference.
The self-organizing mesh scheduling of WirelessHART
ensures devices in close proximity to each other are
silent, talking to each other, or talking on different RF
channels when other devices are communicating.
1.Wait a minimum of at least 1 hour from initial
powering of the WirelessHART device before
performing the wireless connection test
procedure. This dwell time ensures the device
has had time to make several connections for
self-organization. Multiple devices can be tested at
the same time, and since they rely on each other,
it is optimal to have as many on the network as
possible for initial connection testing.
If a WirelessHART gateway antenna or WirelessHART
device antenna is to be mounted near a high power
antenna of another wireless source, then the antenna
should be mounted at least 3 feet (approximately
1 meter) above or below to minimize potential
interference.
65
7 – Factory Acceptance Test
Network Checkout Procedure
2.Verify that network diagnostics indicate the device
has proper bandwidth. The gateway should have
an indication.
Below are basic steps for checking out a network.
Allow a minimum of 4 hours for the network to
elf-organize (24 hours is preferred):
3.Verify each device has a minimum of two
neighbors. The gateway should have an indication.
1.Verify that all devices connected pass the wireless
connectivity test. The gateway should have an
indication.
4.Verify device reliability is 99% or greater. Statistics
may need to be reset and recertified to remove
any anomalies incurred during start up and not
indicative of long term performance. Allow at least
1 hour for the network to gather new network
statistics.
2.Verify a minimum of 15% of devices are directly
connected to the gateway. The design parameter
is 25%; the minimum acceptable is 10%. Networks
with more than 20% of devices with update rates
faster than 2 seconds or wireless control devices
have a design parameter of 50% and 40% should be
connected after installation. The gateway should
have an indication.
5.Verify sensor configuration per the loop sheet or
other form indicating designed configuration.
6.Perform any necessary zero trims for sensors.
7.Repeat for each device in the network.
3.Verify overall network reliability is greater than
99%. The gateway should have an indication.
If a device does not pass the wireless connection test,
then follow these basic steps:
Loop Checkout / Site Integration Tests
1.Wait until entire network is built and operating for
24 hours before considering further action. This
will give the gateway time to maximize its selforganization for best communication. If 24 hours
is too long to wait, allow a minimum of 4 hours.
Once WirelessHART devices are connected to
the gateway and the network is checked out,
the loop checkout may not be necessary in the
traditional sense.
Wireless connection testing verifies each field device
has the proper configuration. Since there are no
wires to get confused and swapped, there is no
need to do the traditional loop check. Alternative
loop checks could be to ensure each field devices is
reporting to the correct gateway and each gateway
is connected into the correct host system. Traditional
applications of sensor stimulus can be performed
for confidence, but are less valuable in a pure digital
architecture if there is complete assurance a field
device was commissioned with the correct tag and
configuration.
2.For the non-compliant device, verify proper path
stability and RSSI values. Path stabilities should be
greater than 60% and RSSI should be greater than
-75 dBm. Wireless control devices and devices with
update rates faster than 2 seconds should have a
path stability of 70% or greater. If all the devices
on the network have very low path stabilities, but
high values for RSSI, this could be an indication of
broadband interference.
3.Look at the location of the non-compliant device in
the network. Verify there is not a broken network
design rule or an unexpected installation resulting
in poor RF signal propagation.
Bench Simulation Testing
Each WirelessHART field device is compliant with
the IEC 62591 protocol which has provisions for
simulation. Each device can be put into a simulation
mode. Bench simulation testing should also verify
that all HART Field Communicators have the proper
configuration and device descriptors (DDs) for
accessing the local user interface of field device when
in the field.
a.Add repeaters if necessary to fortify the network
if the device is isolated from the network with
poor connections.
4.Verify the device has proper power and is working
properly as a sensor.
5.Verify the device update rate is not faster than the
fastest allowed by the gateway.
a.Either reduce the update rate of the field device
or increase the fastest allowed update rate on
the gateway.
66
7 – Factory Acceptance Test
Provision of Spares
Below are the recommended spares to have onsite:
• Spare lightning arrestor components for gateways,
if lightning protection is used.
• Spare gateways should be kept according to spares
policy for host system equipment (e.g. I/O cards).
Configurations for gateways should be convenient
for rapid replacement if necessary.
• Spare battery modules
• Spare field devices as determined by the policy for
wired field devices. Consideration should be given
for additional devices to be used as repeaters if
necessary.
Removal of Redundant Equipment
Repeaters used temporarily to fortify a network can
be removed and reused if the WirelessHART network
grows to a point where repeaters are no longer
needed.
Maintenance Practices
Maintain each WirelessHART device per the manual
for the device.
The network will self organize and provide alerts for
changes requiring intervention. The gateway should
have an indication of performance issues in the
network or field devices.
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8
Project Documentation
for Wireless Instruments
TO P I C PA G E
8.1
User Defined Fields. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
8.2
Filtered Views. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
8.3
Creating Instrument Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
8.4
Loop Drawings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
8.5
Gateway Cable Block Drawings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
8.6
SPI Specification Sheets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
8.7
Drawings in SPL – Smart Plant Layout. . . . . . . 74
8.8
Documenting Security Information. . . . . . . . . . 74
8 – Project Documentation for Wireless Instruments
8.
Project Documentation
for Wireless Instruments
Explanation of fields:
WirelessHART devices can be fully documented in
Intergraph SPI with minimal customization. Below is
an example of how to document WirelessHART in a
logical, linear order and assumes the reader is skilled
in working with Intergraph SPI. This is just an example
to illustrate the methodology. Ultimately it is the
responsibility of project management to create and
reinforce the application of standards and guidelines
within the project environment.
Figure 8.1b – Definitions for WirelessHART SPI User Defined Fields
8.1
User Defined Fields
Field Type refers to the type of value that can be
entered for the value of the UDF. In the case of all the
WirelessHART parameters, these are all just CHAR
(or characters, also meaning text). Likewise, the
Length refers to the max length that can be entered
into the field.
The first step is to create user defined fields that allow
for the accounting of WirelessHART engineering
parameters that are necessary for defining if a point
is wireless and how that point will be connected to a
network.
If the user chooses, SPI rules can be created such that
these custom fields only appear for points that are
HART or checked to be WirelessHART. This minimizes
exposure to non-pertinent information for nonWirelessHART devices.
The following global User Defined Fields should be
created:
8.2
Filtered Views
A custom view of the Instrument Index will be useful
for applying design guidelines for selecting what
instruments are to be wireless as well as seeing the
organization of networks. Below is a sample view
leveraging the User Defined Fields shown in the
previous section.
The “Criticality” and “Update rate” should be
foundations for any engineering guidelines that
determine whether a device is WirelessHART.
Some low criticality loops may have update rates
faster than 4 seconds, and should be included with
the design guidelines. Because WirelessHART devices
primarily run on batteries, WirelessHART may not be
suited for all fast update rate applications.
Figure 8.1a – SPI User Defined Fields (UDF) For WirelessHART
At a high level, using the “Criticality” and “Update
Rate”, engineers can determine whether a device
should be WirelessHART. If wireless, the device will
need to be associated with a gateway. If a device can
only be specified as a wired HART device and requires
a WirelessHART adapter, then the “WirelessHART
Adapter” tag information should be defined.
70
8 – Project Documentation for Wireless Instruments
Figure 8.2a – Custom View Of SPI’s WirelessHART User Defined Fields
The first step is to create a new device with a new
description. In this example, we have created a
WirelessHART flow transmitter. Please note that if the
device will be specified as a wired HART device with a
WirelessHART adapter, no new instrument types are
necessary.
Every WirelessHART field network should be validated
against network design best practices. “Network
Design Layout” provides a reference field to link to
the drawing on which network design best practices
were checked.
8.3
Creating Instrument Types
Early in the process, symbols and instrument
types should be defined and a WirelessHART
instrument library should be developed. Below the
basic modifications to a HART device to create a
WirelessHART instrument type is illustrated.
Figure 8.3b – Defining A New WirelessHART Instrument In SPI
Figure 8.3a – Defining WirelessHART Instrument Type In SPI
71
8 – Project Documentation for Wireless Instruments
Nothing needs to change on the general tab. Be sure
to leverage that the device is a HART AI or a HART
AO so that all of the basic parameters of HART apply.
Manage the wiring, or lack of wiring separately.
The fact that WirelessHART is based on HART allows
leverage these pre-defined variables.
Figure 8.3d – Assigning Symbols In SPI
Basic symbols can be created in SPI using the editing
tools. Below are examples for WirelessHART field
devices and a WirelessHART gateway. The zig-zig
symbol shown below is defined by ISA. For more
documentation, nothing special is required since
signaling is typically not well indicated. For autogenerated documents, it may be useful to include the
update rate by referencing the User Defined Field,
although this is not an absolute requirement. Most
importantly, the project management team decides
on a symbol convention and remains consistent
throughout the project.
Figure 8.3c – Defining Wiring Types In SPI
Check the box to include the wiring. If this box is
not checked when SPI generates loop drawings,
the device cannot be added to loop drawings.
This also allows for flexibility for different wiring
configurations, to be defined elsewhere. Examples
include wiring WirelessHART adapters in series with
the loop and line power for WirelessHART devices.
This process should be repeated for each unique
WirelessHART instrument type.
WirelessHART Gateway symbol:
There are only two instrument types that are
unique to WirelessHART and could be considered
ancillary - the WirelessHART gateway and the
WirelessHART adapter. To create these instrument
types, it is recommended to use the symbols
YG for a WirelessHART gateway and YO for a
WirelessHART adapter.
WirelessHART Device symbol:
Once the instrument type is defined, the device
panel properties can be modified to include reference
symbols. It is recommended to assign symbols for
both the Enhanced SmartLoop and the Cable Block
Drawing.
72
8 – Project Documentation for Wireless Instruments
WirelessHART devices can be connected to a
WirelessHART gateway using the User Defined
Field. This type of drawing does not show the path
through the WirelessHART network, but does show
the relationship of the WirelessHART device and the
WirelessHART gateway: Below is an example from the
ISA-5.1 document, page 118.
Shared display, shared control and wireless
instrumenation:
FRC
+
01
FV
01
+
FV
01
+
Figure 8.3e – ISA 5.1 Drawing Example
Figure 8.4a – Filtered View of WirelessHART Tags
Please note that inclusion of update rates and the
wireless signal symbol are optional. The authors of
this document found the practice of including such
information supportive of adopting and managing
the unique attributes of WirelessHART.
8.4
8.5
Gateway Cable Block Drawings
A useful drawing to create is a Gateway Cable
Block Drawing showing the gateway power and
communication connections. All WirelessHART
gateways, regardless of vendor, should have
uninterruptable power supplies to maximize system
reliability.
Loop Drawings
Given that WirelessHART field devices do not require
signal cabling, the documentation of the equivalent
of wireless loop drawing is very simple to create.
The key information is to relate each wireless
field device to the respective gateway. It is
recommended that a basic wireless loop drawing
show the traditional tag information as well as the
WirelessHART User Defined Fields. This way, it is very
clear to see which wireless devices are associated to
which WirelessHART gateway. Currently, Intergraph
SPI 2009 does not have the means to implement
this in a specific drawing, thus it is recommended
to use the Instrumentation Index showing the
WirelessHART User Defined Fields. In the image
below, a comprehensive list of WirelessHART devices
are shown associated to different gateways.
Figure 8.5a – Gateway Cable Block Diagram
An additional drawing to consider, possible with a
Cable Block Diagram, would be to show all gateways
assigned to an area on the same document for
convenience.
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8 – Project Documentation for Wireless Instruments
8.6
SPI Specification Sheets
WirelessHART gateways should be located like per
the network design guidelines.
Existing specification sheets can be used to indicate
WirelessHART devices. Key fields to change are listed
in the table below:
Specification Field
Typical Value
Update Rate
4, 8, 16, 32, 64+
Power Supply
Intrinsically safe, field
replaceable battery
Communication Type
WirelessHART
8.8
The WirelessHART security parameters of Network
ID and Device Join Key(s) should not be a part
of a wireless loop drawing or in the SPI design
environment. These are security parameters used
to protect the network and should be managed per
a local security policy implemented by the Owner/
Operator. The Network ID and Device Join Key(s)
are not required for the design. The wireless loop
drawing associates the WirelessHART device with
the WirelessHART gateway tags. Separately, secure
documents containing WirelessHART security
provisioning including the WirelessHART gateway tag
can be used to cross reference the Network ID and
Join Key(s). Remember, all Network IDs and common
Device Join Keys (if used) should be unique for every
gateway and every WirelessHART field network.
This type of security management is similar to the
management of security information for control
systems and servers.
Since WirelessHART is derived from wired HART,
other specification fields should be completed as if it
is a wired HART device.
8.7
Documenting Security
Information
Drawings in SPL – Smart Plant
Layout
WirelessHART devices should be installed as
their wired HART counterparts. Therefore, all
WirelessHART devices can be indicated in drawings
without deviation from the practices used for wired
HART devices.
Figure 8.8a – WirelessHART Instrument Specification Sheet
74
9
Wireless Spectrum
Governance
TO P I C PA G E
9.1
Wireless Spectrum Coexistence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
9.2
Wireless Spectrum Governance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
9 – Wireless Spectrum Governance
9.
Wireless Spectrum
Governance
9.1
Wireless Spectrum
Coexistence
• Spatial diversity – self-organizing mesh
networks can hop on different paths that may be
exposed to different RF conditions. WirelessHART
self-organizes paths through the process
environment that mitigate RF obstacles the same
way as it does for physical obstacles.
Wireless applications have been deployed in the
process industry for over 40 years. In any process
facility, applications using RF signals including
personnel communications, RF ID systems,
ad hoc systems, and cell phones exist. The essential
ingredients to making wireless automation
feasible were solving the problems of power to
enable devices to operate on batteries for multiple
years; self-mitigating RF obstacles in the process
environment so expert wireless knowledge was not a
requirement for adoption; and coexisting with other
RF systems.
• Channel hopping – WirelessHART devices use
15 RF channels within the 2.4 GHz ISM band.
Pseudo-random channel hopping ensures that
interference on one or several channels does not
preclude reliable communications.
• DSSS coding – allows transmissions to be
modulated with unique encoding for the purposes
of jamming resistance, channel sharing, and
improved signal/noise level. DSSS coding extends
radio receiver sensitivity through digital signal
processing.
• Time Synchronized Mesh Protocol (TSMP) –
provides synchronized time slots and schedules
coordinated network communication in order to
preserve battery life and reduce interference.
WirelessHART operates in the 2.4 GHz Industrial,
Scientific, and Medical (ISM) radio band that
typically operates from 2.400-2.4835 GHz.
The exact frequency limitations and RF output
power levels may be slightly different from country
to country. WirelessHART employs limitations that
allow for universal operation in almost all countries
with exceptions being noted for specific products
by device manufacturers. The ISM radio bands are
license-free, but products utilizing the ISM band
require approval from governmental regulating
agencies. These approvals are typically obtained
by the WirelessHART vendor. Since vendors for
multiple applications can use the same spectrum,
WirelessHART must be able to successfully coexist.
• Low duty cycle – bandwidth utilization by any
single device in the network is very low (4mS per
transmission max.)
In addition to these inherent coexistence features,
it is still beneficial to have some form of wireless
governance. WirelessHART devices can be interfered
with, but only under severe conditions that likely will
disrupt any wireless application operating in the
2.4 GHz ISM band, such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth.
A key example is broadband interference.
Many legacy wireless systems are very high power.
As an example, consider a personnel communication
system using high power two-way radios operating
in the 800 MHz licensed frequency band. Although
the system is legal and operating according to
specifications, it can emit broadband interference
that spans several GHz outside its licensed band.
This broadband interference then affects devices
in other RF bands by reducing their signal-to-noise
ratio. The simple solution is to place a passive band
pass filter on all such systems so that they only emit
significant RF energy in the spectrum licensed for
usage. See the illustrative diagram below showing
broadband interference before and after the
implementation of a passive band pass filter.
WirelessHART uses multiple techniques to ensure
coexistence with other wireless applications:
• Network segmentation – allows thousands of
WirelessHART devices to exist in the same physical
space, provided each network has a unique
Network ID.
• Spectrum isolation – wireless applications
operating in different portions of the RF spectrum
do not “hear ” each other and thus do not interfere
with each other.
• Low power – WirelessHART field devices are
typically very low power relative to handheld
personnel communicators, Wi-Fi devices, and
RFID readers. This helps prevent WirelessHART
interference with these high power applications.
76
9 – Wireless Spectrum Governance
Systems employing 802.11n Wi-Fi standard may
emit in-band interference if operating a non-802.11n
application in the 2.4 GHz ISM radio band. Relative to
802.11b or 802.11g which use a single Wi-Fi channel
(typically 1, 6, or 11 in North America), 802.11n
devices may aggregate multiple channels to enable
increased bandwidth for demanding applications
such as bulk data transfer, security cameras, and
streaming video. Most 802.11n devices can be
operated in either the 2.4GHz ISM band or the
5.8 GHz ISM band. Operation in the 5.8 GHz band
applies the principle of spectrum isolation and comes
with the additional advantage that 5.8 GHz RF signals
can transfer information much faster than 2.4 GHz RF
signals due to much faster modulation rates.
Another RF standard is Wi-Max, which operates in
the 2.3 GHz, or 2.5 GHz, or 3.5 GHz radio bands.
Although these bands do not overlap the 2.4 GHz
ISM band, they can also emit broadband interference
and there are no provisions in the Wi-Max standard
to adopt or enforce the usage of band pass filters
in either clients or Access Points. The high power of
Wi-Max has the potential to interfere with all wireless
applications specifically designed for operation in
the 2.4 GHz ISM band. Deployment of Wi-Max clients
should be restricted in or near the process facility.
Installing passive band pass filters on each segment
of a Wi-Max cell tower will further mitigate potential
interference problems.
Figure 9.1.a – Effect of Installing A Band-Pass Filter
9.2
Wireless Spectrum
Governance
Most government agencies make the licensing of
high power radios public information since there
is the potential to interfere with private and public
entities other than the licensee. If a facility has
licensed radios, efforts should be made to verify
band-pass filters are in place on high powered
systems in all RF bands. Most regulations were
created before the advent of low-power systems,
including Wi-Fi, and future consideration was not
given to coexistence of low power with high power
systems. Other countries are also likely have a similar
type of searchable database.
Aside from managing potential broadband
interference sources, wireless governance follows
a basic process. Below is a summary of key
considerations for wireless governance:
• A local wireless governance policy should serve
the purpose of documenting all wireless sources in
and near a plant and enforcing best practices for
wireless coexistence.
• Enforce proper installation and compliance with
regulation for all wireless applications with regards
to power levels, spectrum usage, and encryption in
accordance with government regulation.
Installing passive band pass filters is straight forward
and typically only requires insertion of the filter in
series with existing RF cabling and proper resealing
of RF connections. All existing wireless systems will
benefit by the installation including Wi-Fi.
• Provide guidelines for wireless applications
spectrum usage.
– Limit 802.11n applications to 5.8 GHz ISM radio
band or restrict channel aggregation in the
2.4 GHz ISM band.
77
9 – Wireless Spectrum Governance
– Use band pass filters on all high-power RF
sources nearby.
– Put high speed, high bandwidth wireless
applications such as security cameras, in the
5.8 GHz radio band.
– Ensure all RF coaxial cables are properly installed
with weather sealant tape or comparable
methods to mitigate reduction in performance
due to exposure to environmental elements.
• Support proper segmentation of WirelessHART
networks.
– Every network in the process facility should have
a unique Network ID and Join Keys.
–
WirelessHart networks can overlap in the same
physical space without causing interference
problems with each other. Gateway antennas
should be installed at least 1 meter apart.
– GW antenna’s should be installed at least 1m
from Wi-Fi access Points.
78
10
Product Specification &
Application
TO P I C PA G E
10.1 Smart Wireless Gateway 1420. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
10.2 Smart Wireless Gateway 1410.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
10.3 Rosemount 702 Wireless Discrete
Transmitter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
10.4 Rosemount 708 Wireless Acoustic
Transmitter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
10.5 Rosemount 3051S Wireless Series of
Instrumentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
10.6 Rosemount 3051S DP Flow and
DP Level Technologies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
10.7 Rosemount 3051 Wireless Pressure
Transmitter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
10.8 Rosemount 3051 DP Flow and
DP Level Technologies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
10.9 Rosemount 2051 Wireless Pressure
Transmitter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
10.10 Rosemount 2051 DP Flow and
DP Level Technologies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
10.11 Rosemount 1199 Submersible Seal. . . . . . . . . . . 96
10.12 Rosemount Smart Wireless
THUM Adapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
10.13 Rosemount Pressure Multivariable
Transmitter with THUM Adapter.............101
10.14 Rosemount Pressure Multivariable
Transmitter with THUM Adapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
10.15 Rosemount 848 Wireless Multi Input
Temperature Transmitter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
10.16 Rosemount 648 Wireless
Temperature Transmitter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
10.17 Rosemount 248 Wireless
Temperature Transmitter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
10.18 Rosemount 2160 Vibrating Fork
Liquid Level Switch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
10.19 Rosemount 3308 Wireless
Guided Wave Radar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
10.20Smart Wireless THUM™ Adapter
for Rosemount. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
10.21Smart Wireless for Rosemount Tank
Gauging Applications.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
10 – Product Specification & Application
10.
Product Specification & Application
10.1
Smart Wireless Gateway 1420
Gain real-time process information with greater than 99% wireless
data reliability
• The Smart Wireless Gateway automatically manages wireless communications in
constantly changing environments
• Native integration with DeltaV and Ovation automation systems provides simple
and fast commissioning for wireless field networks
• Connect to data historians, legacy host systems, and other applications through
Ethernet, Modbus, Serial, OPC, EtherNet/IP, and HART outputs
Guarantee system availability with redundant Smart Wireless Gateways
• Never lose the wireless network with hot standby capability and automatic fault
detection
• Smart Wireless Gateways function as a single system, eliminating the need for
duplicate host integration
• One click configuration and plug-and-play architecture
Model
Product Description
1420
Smart Wireless Gateway
Power Input
Standard
A
Standard
24 VDC Nominal (10.5-30 VDC)
Ethernet Communications - Physical Connection
Standard
1
2
Standard
Ethernet
Dual Ethernet
Wireless Update Rate, Operating Frequency, and Protocol
Standard
A3
Standard
User Configurable Update Rate, 2.4 GHz DSSS, WirelessHART
Serial Communication
Standard
N
None
A
Modbus RTU via RS485
Standard
Ethernet Communication - Data Protocols
Standard
2
Webserver, Modbus TCP/IP, AMS Ready, HART-IP
4
Webserver, Modbus TCP/IP, AMS Ready, HART-IP, OPC
5
DeltaV Ready
6
Ovation Ready
8
Webserver, EtherNet/IP, AMS Ready, HART-IP
9
Webserver, EtherNet/IP, Modbus TCP/IP, AMS Ready, HART-IP
Antenna Options
Approvals
80
Standard
10 – Product Specification & Application
Options (Include with selected model number)
Power Input
Standard
N5
FM Division 2, Non-incendive
N6
N6 CSA Division 2, Non-incendive
N1
ATEX Type n
ND
ATEX Dust
N7
IECEx Type n
NF
IECEx Dust
KD
FM & CSA Division 2, Non-incendive and ATEX Type n
N3
China Type n
N4
Standard
TIIS Type n
Redundancy Options
Standard
RD
Standard
Gateway Redundancy
Smart Wireless Gateway Ordering Information
The Standard offering represents the most common options. The starred options ( ) should be selected for
best delivery.
__The Expanded offering is subject to additional delivery lead time.
Adapters
Standard
J1
Standard
CM 20 Conduit Adapters
J2
PG 13.5 Conduit Adapters
J3
3/4 NPT Conduit Adapters
Antenna Options
Standard
WL2
Remote Antenna Kit, 50 ft. (15.2 m) cable, Lightning Arrestor
WL3
Remote Antenna Kit, 20 ft. (6.1 m) and 30 ft. (9.1 m) cables, Lightning Arrestor
WL4
Remote Antenna Kit, 10 ft. (3.0 m) and 40 ft. (12.2 m) cables, Lightning Arrestor
WN2
High-Gain, Remote Antenna Kit, 25 ft. (7.6m) cable, Lightning Arrestor
Expanded
Typical Model Number: 1420 A 2 A3 A 2 N5
(1) Single active 10/100 baseT Ethernet port with RJ45 connector.
(2) Additional ports disabled.
(3) Dual active 10/100 baseT Ethernet ports with RJ45 connectors.
(4) Multiple active ports have separate IP addresses, firewall isolation, and no packet forwarding.
(5) Convertible to RS232 via adaptor, not included with Gateway.
(6) Includes Webserver, Modbus TCP, AMS Ready, HART-IP, and OPC.
(7) Requires the selection of Dual Ethernet option code 2.
(8) Not available with DeltaV Ready option code 5.
(9) Not available with EtherNet/IP option codes 8 and 9
(10) The WL2, WL3, WL4, and WN2 options require minor assembly.
(11) Not available in all countries.
81
Standard
10 – Product Specification & Application
10.2
Smart Wireless Gateway 1410
• Gateway connects wireless self-organizing networks with any host system
• Easy configuration and management of self-organizing networks
• Easy integration into control systems and data applications through serial and
Ethernet connections
• Seamless integration into AMS Device Manager and OvationTM system
• Greater than 99% reliability with industry proven security
• 25 device limit remote applications
Model
Product Description
1410
Smart Wireless Gateway, 2.4 GHz DSSS, WirelessHART, Webserver, AMS Ready, HART IP
Wireless Configuration
Standard
A
Standard
25 Device Network (10.5-30 VDC)
Ethernet Communications - Physical Connection
Standard
1
Single Ethernet Connection
2
Dual Ethernet Connection
Standard
Serial Communication
Standard
N
A
Standard
None
Modbus RTU via RS485
Ethernet Communication - Data Protocols
Standard
D1
Standard
Modbus TCP/IP
D2
OPC
D3
EtherNet/IP
D4
Modbus TCP/IP, OPC
D5
EtherNet/IP, Modbus TCP/IP
D6
EtherNet/IP, OPC
E2
Ovation Ready
E3
Webserver Only
Antenna Options
Standard
WX2
Basic Antenna
WL2
SMA-to-N-Type Adapter Cable, and Remote Antenna Kit
WN2
SMA-to-N-Type Adapter Cable, and High-Gain Remote Antenna Kit
Product Certifications
Standard
Approvals
Exceptions
82
Standard
10 – Product Specification & Application
Antenna Options
Standard
WX2
Standard
Basic Antenna
WL2
SMA-to-N-Type Adapter Cable, and Remote Antenna Kit
WN2
SMA-to-N-Type Adapter Cable, and High-Gain Remote Antenna Kit
Product Certifications
Standard
Standard
No Approvals
NA
Smart Wireless Gateway Ordering Information
The Standard offering represents the most common options. The starred options ( ) should be selected for
best delivery.
__The Expanded offering is subject to additional delivery lead time.
Options (Include with selected model number)
Host Integration
Standard
H6
H9
Standard
Allen Bradley
Other
Oil and Gas Options
Standard
G
Oil and Gas Monitor Page
Typical Model Number: 1410 A 2 A D5 WX2 NA
(1) Single active 10/100 baseT Ethernet port with RJ45 connector.
(2) Additional ports disabled.
(3) Dual active 10/100 baseT Ethernet ports with RJ45 connectors.
(4) Multiple active ports have separate IP addresses, firewall isolation, and no packet forwarding.
(5) Convertible to RS232 via adapter, not included with Gateway.
(6) Selection of Dual Ethernet option code 2 is recommended.
(7) Requires (A) Modbus RTU via RS-485 Communication protocol.
(8) The WL2 and WN2 options require minor assembly.
(9) Not available in all countries.
(10) Support documentation included in the package.
83
Standard
10 – Product Specification & Application
10.3
Rosemount 702 Wireless Discrete Transmitter
The Rosemount 702 Wireless Discrete Transmitter takes a variety of non-powered switch
types such as pressure, flow and level switches as input. It has single or dual channel capacity
which cost-effectively enables access to discrete points that are not connected to the control
system due to wiring costs and lack of I ⁄ O.
• An installation-ready solution that provides dual channel, discrete input, discrete output,
or leak detection input options
• Discrete single or dual switch input with logic for limit contact and opposing contact
applications
• Momentary inputs are continuously measured between wireless updates
• Dual channels are each configurable for discrete input or discrete output
Specification Overview
702 Wireless Discrete Transmitter
Base Model
Application Type
Measurement Type
• Discrete I/O
702
On/OFF Pump, ON/OFF Valve
Leak Detection, Safety Shower Monitoring
Discrete Dual Input (Dry Contact), Detects Momentary Inputs and Counts
Discrete Dual Input or Output
Liquid Hydrocarbon Detection (For use with TraceTek Fast Fuel Sensor or
TraceTek sensing cable)
IEC 62591 (WirelessHART)
Transmitter Output
Radio Frequency Power Output
from Antenna
Mounting
External (WK option) antenna:
Maximum of 10 mW (10 dBm) EIRP
Extended Range, External (WM option) antenna:
Maximum of 18 mW (12.5 dBm) EIRP
High Gain, Remote (WN option) antenna:
Maximum of 40 mW (16 dBm) EIRP
Transmitters may be attached directly to switch, brackets also
permit remote mounting.
N/A
Rangedown
10 years at 1 min. update rate
Power Module Life
1 sec. to 60min.
Update Rate
Housing Style/ Material/
Conduit Entry Size
Wireless Options Operating
Frequency and Protocol
Housing - Low-copper aluminum, or stainless steel
User configuration Update Rate with 2.4GHz DSSS, IEC 62591 (WirelessHART)
Omnidirectional Wireless
Antenna
•WK1
•WM1
Expanded:
•WN1
External Antenna
Extended Range, External Antenna
High-Gain, Remote Antenna*
Smart Power
•1
Adapter for Black Power Module
(I.S. Power Module sold separately)
Display
The optional integral LCD can display discrete state and diagnostic information.
Display updates at each wireless update.
For more information, please refer to the Product data sheet (PDS)
84
10 – Product Specification & Application
Specification Overview
702 Wireless Discrete Transmitter
Product Certification
• I1
• I5
• I6
• I7
• IU
• IY
• N5
• N6
• NA
I1: ATEX Intrinsic Safety
I5: FM Intrinsically Safe, Division 2
I6: CSA Intrinsically Safe
I7: IECEx Intrinsic Safety
IU: ATEX Intrinsic Safety for Zone 2
IY: IECEx Intrinsic Safety for Zone 2
N5: FM Division 2, Non-Incendive
N6: CSA Division2, Non-Incendive
NA: No Approval
For more information, please refer to the Product data sheet (PDS)
85
10 – Product Specification & Application
Wireless Float Switch Solution
Proven Result References
The advent of wireless communications allows
process plant managers to save up to 90% on
installation cost compared with wired technologies.
More data can be collected at central Without an
overfill protection system, potential overflow may
occur, which may cause safety and environmental
issues. Furthermore, the cost of installing wired
instrumentation to all tanks in the tank farm is very
high.
• Customers Are Solving Real Plant Problems:
Lion Oil (p.181)
• Refinery Initiates Tank Overfill Protection
and Optimization of Pre-Heaters with Smart
Wireless (p.209)
For more proven results:
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/
brands/rosemount/Documentation-andDrawings/Proven-Results/Pages/index.
aspx#metals
Using the Rosemount 702 Wireless Discrete
Transmitter signal high and low level alarms tanks on
remote tanks.
Wireless Safety Shower and Eyewash
Monitoring
Eye wash and safety showers are commonly installed
in chemical plants, refineries, factories, and any
work areas where there is any risk or eye and/or
face damages due to the presence of corrosive
or irritating materials. Using the Rosemount 702
Wireless Discrete Transmitter and TopWorx GO
Switches monitor your safety shower and eyewash
stations remotely.
• Improve Safety and Response Time
• Safety in Remote Locations
• Improve Incident Reporting
• Reduced Installation and Maintenance Cost
Wireless Liquid Hydrocarbon Leak Detection
for Tank Farm
Wireless liquid hydrocarbon leak detection is done
by integrating Rosemount’s 702 Wireless Discrete
Transmitter and Pentair’s TraceTek sensor cable or
fast fuel sensors. These two technologies make it
easy for operators to quickly and inexpensively add
leak detection and monitoring to their operations to
comply with government regulations and ensure that
valuable hydrocarbons are not wasted. Distant tanks,
pipelines and valves can now be monitored without
the need to run expensive signal wires back to the
control room.
86
10 – Product Specification & Application
10.4
Rosemount 708 Wireless Acoustic Transmitter
The Rosemount 708 Wireless Acoustic Transmitter provides acoustic event
detection including steam trap failures and pressure relief valve upsets. The
transmitter communicates acoustic noise and temperature measurements as
well as device and event status via the WirelessHART network for integration
into host systems, data historians or energy management software.
Virtually maintenance-free performance
Deploy the wireless acoustic transmitter to realize a decade of virtually
maintenance-free performance.
• 10-year Power Module life • 10-year stability Specification Overview
708 Wireless Acoustic Transmitter
Base Model
708
Steam Trap Monitoring
Pressure Relief / Safety Valve Monitoring
Application Type
Measurement Type
Acoustic Noise (Counts)
Temperature (°F/°C)
Transmitter Output
IEC 62591 (WirelessHART)
35kHz – 45 kHz
Acoustic Frequency
Machined 316L SST
Wave Guide
Radio Frequency Power Output
from
Internal (WP option) antenna:
Maximum of 10 mW (10 dBm) EIRP
Antenna
Mounting
• Non intrusive
Transmitters are directly attached to process piping using two stainless steel
mounting bands.
N/A
Rangedown
10 years at 1 min. update rate
Power Module Life
1 sec. to 60min.
Update Rate
High threshold alert
Process Alerts
P: Engineered Polymer
Housing Style/ Material/ Conduit
Entry Size
Wireless options/ Operating
Frequency and Protocol
Omnidirectional Wireless Antenna
WA3: User configuration Update Rate with 2.4GHz
WP5: Internal Antenna, Compatible with Green Power Module
(I.S. Power Module Sold Separately)
Product Certification
• I1
• I5
• I6
• I7
I1: ATEX Intrinsic Safety
I5: FM Intrinsically Safe, Division 2
I6: CSA Intrinsically Safe
I7: IECEx Intrinsic Safety
N/A
Display Type
For more information, please refer to the Product data sheet (PDS)
87
10 – Product Specification & Application
Poorly maintained steam traps can lead to;
Ensuring my plant operates in an environmentally
responsible way is important
Safety / Equipment Failure
“Releases of volatile organic chemicals from PRVs can
result in steep regulatory fines and is bad PR for our
organization. I need to make sure my plant operates
in an environmentally-responsible manner and
adheres to all regulatory requirements.”
• Water in piping can result in water (steam)
hammer, pressure transients, and erosion
corrosion of piping
• Plant personnel and equipment are placed at risk
Reduced Thermodynamic Efficiency
• Water on heat transfer surfaces results in
decreased thermal performance, product
throughput and quality
Energy / Steam Loss
• Failed high value steam traps can cost $10k - $25k/
yr in lost steam
Keep your operation running safely and smoothly
and reduce your environmental impact by having
constant visibility to all your critical PRVs
The Rosemount 708 Wireless Acoustic
Transmitter
• Gives you real-time visibility to PRV conditions
• Provides time stamped data
• Helps reduce your environmental impact
• Is fast and easy to install and maintain
The Rosemount 708 Wireless Acoustic
Transmitter
• Gives you real-time visibility to all your critical
steam traps
• Provides information that enables you to make
good decisions
• Is fast and easy to install and maintain
• Is proven technology that’s easy to use
Proven Result References
• Productivity Improvement with Wireless Steam
Trap Monitoring (p.140)
• Barking Power Lowers Steam Costs, Improves
Efficiency with Wireless Acoustic Monitoring
(p.188)
When pressure relief valves (PRVs) open, they can
release pollutants, causing potentially massive
regulatory fines and putting your staff and
community at risk.
• Petrochemical Company in South Africa
Saves Energy and Improves Productivity with
Emerson’s Smart Wireless Acoustic Solutions
(p.203)
Visual inspections for PRV releases are time
consuming for your staff and don’t tell you exactly
when a release occurred.
For more proven results:
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/
brands/rosemount/Documentation-andDrawings/Proven-Results/Sort-by-Technology/
Pages/index.aspx#wireless
Limited visibility to pressure relief valve releases
“A PRV release can be disruptive and dangerous.
I need a better way to monitor for releases so that I
can respond quickly and identify the root cause to
prevent future releases.”
88
10 – Product Specification & Application
10.5
Rosemount 3051S Wireless Series of Instrumentation
Emerson’s Smart Wireless solutions eliminate blind spots that previously were too difficult or
expensive to instrument. Promising a decade of maintenance-free operation, the Rosemount
3051S Wireless offering allows you to cost effectively implement wireless with confidence. Virtually Maintenance-Free Performance
Deploy wireless pressure, flow and level solutions with SmartPower™ to realize a decade of
virtually maintenance-free performance.
• 10-year Power Module life • 10-year stability • 12-year limited warranty
Specification Overview
Base Model
3051S Scalable Pressure Transmitter
3051S1 Ultra
Application Type
• Pressure (P)
• Differential Pressure (DP)
• DP Flow (Flow)
• DP Level (Level)
3051S3 Ultra for Flow
P, DP, Flow, Level
Measurement Type
• Differential (D)
• Gage (G)
• Absolute (A)
Transmitter Output
3051S2 Classic
D, G, A
• 4-20mA with digital signal based on HART protocol
• Foundation Fieldbus protocol
• WirelessHART
Reference Accuracy
±0.025% of span
±0.055% of span
±0.04% of span
Total Performance
±0.1% of span
±0.15% of span
±0.15% of span
Long Term Stability
10 Yrs
5 Yrs
10 Yrs
Warranty
12 Yrs
5 Yrs
12 Yrs
Rangedown
200:1
100:1
200:1
10 years at 1 min. update rate
Power Module Life
1 sec. to 60min.
Update Rate
4 Configurable Alerts
Process Alerts
Housing Style/ Material/ Conduit
Entry Size
•5A
•5J
5A: Wireless PlantWeb Hsg/ Aluminum/1/2-14 NPT
5J: Wireless PlantWeb Hsg/ SST/ 1/2-14 NPT
Wireless Options/
Operating Frequency and Protocol
WA3: User configuration Update Rate with 2.4GHz DSSS,
IEC 62591 (Wireless HART)
Omnidirectional Wireless Antenna
•WK
•WM
• WN
WK: External Antenna (Std Lead-time)
WM: Extended Range; External Antenna (Std Lead-time)
WN: High-Gain, Remote Antenna (Expanded Lead-time)
Smart Power
•1
Adapter for Black Power Module
(I.S. Power Module sold separately)
Product Certification
•I1
•I5
•I6
•I7
I1: ATEX Intrinsic Safety
I5: FM Intrinsically Safe, Division 2
I6: CSA Intrinsically Safe
I7: IECEx Intrinsic Safety
M5 Plant Web LCD Display
Display Type
For more information, please refer to the Product data sheet (PDS)
89
10 – Product Specification & Application
10.6
Rosemount 3051S DP Flow and DP Level Technologies
Innovative, Integrated DP Flowmeters
• Fully assembled & leak-tested for out-of-the-box installation
• Lower installed costs by replacing 10 devices with one integrated flowmeter
• Reduce straight pipe requirements, lower permanent pressure loss, and
achieve accurate measurement in small line sizes
• Measure up to 14:1 flow turndown with % of reading performance
Proven, Reliable, and innovative DP Level Technologies
• Connect to virtually any process with a comprehensive offering of process
connections, fill fluids, direct mount or capillary connections, and materials
• Quantify and optimize total system performance with QZ option
• Achieve success on tall vessels and distillation towers with Electronic
Remote Sensor digital architecture
•Optimize level measurement with cost efficient Tuned-System Assemblies
Specification Overview
Base Model
DP Flow
DP Level
3051SFA
3051SFC
3051SFP
3051SAL_C
Application Type
• Pressure (P)
• Differential Pressure (DP)
• DP Flow (Flow)
• DP Level (Level )
• Temperature (T) for DP Flow
P, DP, T
Flow
P, DP, T
Flow
P, DP, T
Flow
P, DP,
Level
Measurement Type
• Differential (D)
• Gage (G)
• Absolute (A)
• Temperature (T) for DP Flow
D, G, A, T
D, G, A, T
D, G, A, T
D, G, A
Transmitter Output
IEC 62591
(WirelessHART)
IEC 62591
(WirelessHART)
IEC 62591
(WirelessHART)
IEC 62591
(WirelessHART)
Reference Accuracy
• MV: Multivariable
• SV: Single variable
MV-Ultra: 0.8% &
Classic: 1.15%
SV-Ultra: 0.95%,
Classic: 1.40%
& Ultra for
Flow: 0.8%
MV-Ultra:
0.75% &
Classic: 1.1%
SV-Ultra: 0.9%,
Classic: 1.4%
& Ultra for
Flow: 0.75%
MV-Ultra:
0.95% &
Classic: 1.25%
SV-Ultra: 1.05%,
Classic: 1.50%
& Ultra for
Flow: 0.95%
±0.065%
of span
For all Beta ratio, refer to PDS
Use toolkit
Long Term Stability
• MV: Multivariable
• SV: Single variable
MV-Ultra: 10Yrs & Classic: 5Yrs
SV-Ultra & Ultra for Flow: 10Yrs, Classic: 5Yrs
10 Yrs
5 Yrs
Warranty
• MV: Multivariable
• SV: Single variable
MV-Ultra: 12Yrs & Classic: 1Yr
SV-Ultra & Ultra for Flow: 12Yrs, Classic: 1Yr
12 Yrs
1 Yr
Range down
• MV: Multivariable
• SV: Single variable
MV-Ultra: 14:1 & Classic: 8:1
SV-Ultra & Classic: 8:1
Ultra for Flow: 14:1
100:1
Total Performance
For more information, please refer to the Product data sheet (PDS)
90
10 – Product Specification & Application
Specification Overview
Base Model
DP Flow
3051SFA
3051SFC
4 Configurable Alerts
Process Alerts
Omnidirectional Wireless
Antenna
•WK
•WM
3051SAL_C
1 sec. to 60min.
Update Rate
Wireless Options/ Operating
Frequency and Protocol
3051SFP
10 years at 1 min. update rate
Power Module Life
Housing Style/ Material/
Conduit Entry Size
•5A
•5J
DP Level
5A: Wireless PlantWeb Housing/ Aluminum/ 1/2-14 NPT
5J: Wireless PlantWeb Housing/ SST/ 1/2-14 NPT
WA3: User configuration Update Rate with 2.4GHz DSSS, IEC 62591 (WirelessHART)
WK: External Antenna (Std Lead-time)
WM: Extended Range; External Antenna (Std Lead-time)
Smart Power
•1
Adapter for Black Power Module
(I.S. Power Module sold separately)
Product Certification
• I1
• I5
• I6
• I7
I1: ATEX Intrinsic Safety
I5: FM Intrinsically Safe, Division 2
I6: CSA Intrinsically Safe
I7: IECEx Intrinsic Safety
M5 Plant Web LCD Display
Display Type
For more information, please refer to the Product data sheet (PDS)
91
10 – Product Specification & Application
10.7
Rosemount 3051 Wireless Pressure Transmitter
3051 Proven best-in-class performance, reliability and safet
• Meet your toughest environmental conditions with the IP66/67, NEMA 4X
lightweight engineered polymer housing
• Address all your application needs with calibrated spans from 3 in H2O to
10,000 PSI (7.5 mbar to 689 mbar)
• Better Monitor your process and assets with 0.04% reference accuracy and
0.15% total performance error
• Extend calibration intervals with 5-year guaranteed stability
Maximize Installation Flexibility with Coplanar Platform
• Improve reliability and performance with integrated DP Flowmeters, DP Level and manifolds
• Reduce installation time and cost with factory assembled and configured pressure, level,
and flow solutions.
Specification Overview
3051 Pressure Transmitter
Application Type
• Pressure (P)
• Differential Pressure (DP)
• DP Flow (Flow) and DP Level (Level)
P, DP, Flow, Level
Measurement Type
• Differential (D)
• Gage (G)
• Absolute (A)
G, A, D (Not available on inline platforms)
Transmitter Output
IEC 62591 (WirelessHART)
Reference Accuracy
±0.04% of span
Total Performance
±0.12% of span
Long Term Stability
up to 5 Yrs
Warranty
12 Months
150:1
Rangedown
10 years at 1 min. update rate
Power Module Life
1 sec. to 60min.
Update Rate
Process Alerts
4 Configurable Alerts
Housing Style/ Material/ Conduit Entry Size
P: Engineered Polymer
Wireless Transmit Rate, Operating
Frequency and Protocol
WA3: User configuration Update Rate with 2.4GHz
Omnidirectional Wireless Antenna
WP5: Internal Antenna, Compatible with Green Power Module
(I.S. Power Module Sold Separately)
Product Certification
•I1
•I5
•I6
•I7
I1: ATEX Intrinsic Safety
I5: FM Intrinsically Safe, Division 2
I6: CSA Intrinsically Safe
I7: IECEx Intrinsic Safety
DZ: Digital Zero Trim
Configuration buttons
M5 Plant Web LCD Display
Display Type
For more information, please refer to the Product data sheet (PDS)
92
10 – Product Specification & Application
10.8
Rosemount 3051 DP Flow and DP Level Technologies
Innovative, Integrated DP Flowmeters
• Fully assembled, configured, and leak tested for out-of-the-box installation
• Reduce straight pipe requirements, lower permanent pressure loss and achieve accurate measurement in
small line sizes
• Up to 1.65% volumetric flow accuracy at 8:1 turndown
Proven, Reliable and Innovative DP Level Technologies
• Connect to virtually any process with a comprehensive offering of process connections, fill fluids, direct
mount or capillary connections and materials
• Quantify and optimize total system performance with QZ option
• Operate at higher temperature and in vacuum applications
• Optimize level measurement with cost efficient Tuned-System™ Assemblies
Specification Overview
Base Model
DP Flow
3051CFA
Application Type
• Differential Pressure (DP)
• DP Flow (Flow)
• DP Level (Level)
• Temperature (T) for DP Flow
Measurement Type
• Differential (D)
• Gage (G)
3051CFP
3051L
DP, Flow
DP, Level
D
D, G
IEC 62591 (WirelessHART)
Transmitter Output
Reference Accuracy
DP Level
3051CFC
±1.75% of
Flow Rate at 8:1
flow turndown
±1.60% of
Flow Rate at 8:1
flow turndown
±1.75% of
Flow Rate at 8:1
flow turndown
±0.075% of span
For spans less
than 10:1
Total Performance
For all Beta ratio, refer to PDS
Use toolkit
Long Term Stability
±0.125% of URL for 5 years
±50 °F (28 °C) temperature changes, and up to
1000 psi (6.9 MPa) line pressure.
N.A.
12 Months
Warranty
Refer Reference Accuracy
Rangedown
10 years at 1 min. update rate
Power Module Life
1 sec. to 60min.
Update Rate
Process Alerts
4 Configurable Alerts
Housing Style/ Material/
Conduit Entry Size
P: Engineered Polymer
Wireless Transmit Rate,
Operating Frequency and
Protocol
WA3: User Configurable Transmit Rate, 2.4GHz WirelessHART
Antenna and SmartPower
WP5: Internal Antenna, Compatible with Green Power Module
(I.S. Power Module Sold Separately)
Product Certification
•I1
•I5
•I6
• I7
I1: ATEX Intrinsic Safety
I5: FM Intrinsically Safe, Division 2
I6: CSA Intrinsically Safe
I7: IECEx Intrinsic Safety
DZ: Digital Zero Trim
Configuration buttons
M5 Plant Web LCD Display
Display Type
For more information, please refer to the Product data sheet (PDS)
93
10 – Product Specification & Application
10.9
Rosemount 2051 Wireless Pressure Transmitter
2051 industry leading capabilities extended to IEC 62591
(WirelessHART)
• Best in Class performance with up to 0.05% high accuracy option
• Rangeability of 100:1
• Cost effectively implement wireless on the industry’s most proven platform
• Eliminate wiring design and construction complexities to lower costs by 40-60%
Innovative, Integrated DP Flowmeters
• Fully assembled and leak tested for out-of-the-box installation
• Reduce straight pipe requirements, lower permanent pressure loss, and achieve
accurate measurement in small line sizes
• Up to 2.00% volumetric flow accuracy at 5:1 turndown
Specification Overview
2051 Pressure Transmitter
Application Type
• Pressure (P)
• Differential Pressure (DP)
• Flow (DP Flow) and Level (DP Level)
P, DP, Flow, Level
Measurement Type
• Differential (D)
• Gage (G)
• Absolute (A)
G, A, D (Not available on inline platforms)
Transmitter Output
IEC 62591 (WirelessHART)
Reference Accuracy
±0.075% of span
Total Performance
N.A.
Long Term Stability
2 Yrs
12 Months
Warranty
100:1
Rangedown
10 years at 1 min. update rate
Power Module Life
1 sec. to 60min.
Update Rate
N.A.
Process Alerts
Housing Style/ Material/
Conduit Entry Size
P: Engineered Polymer
Wireless Transmit Rate, Operating Frequency
and Protocol
Omnidirectional Wireless Antenna
WA3: User configuration Update Rate with 2.4GHz
WP5: Internal Antenna, Compatible with Green Power Module
(I.S. Power Module Sold Separately)
Product Certification
•I1
•I5
•I6
•I7
I1: ATEX Intrinsic Safety
I5: FM Intrinsically Safe, Division 2
I6: CSA Intrinsically Safe
I7: IECEx Intrinsic Safety
Configuration buttons
DZ: Digital Zero Trim
Display Type
M5 Plant Web LCD Display
For more information, please refer to the Product data sheet (PDS)
94
10 – Product Specification & Application
10.10
Rosemount 2051 DP Flow and DP Level Technologies
Innovative, Integrated DP Flowmeters
• Fully assembled, configured, and leak tested for out-of-the-box installation
• Reduce straight pipe requirements, lower permanent pressure loss and achieve accurate measurement in
small line sizes
• Up to 1.65% volumetric flow accuracy at 8:1 turndown
Proven, Reliable and Innovative DP Level Technologies
• Connect to virtually any process with a comprehensive offering of process connections, fill fluids, direct
mount or capillary connections and materials
• Quantify and optimize total system performance with QZ option
• Operate at higher temperatures and in vacuum applications
• Optimize level measurement with cost efficient Tuned-System™ assemblies
Specification Overview
Base Model
DP Flow
2051CFA
Application Type
• Differential Pressure (DP)
• DP Flow (Flow)
• DP Level (Level)
Measurement Type
• Differential (D)
• Gage (G)
2051CFP
2051L
DP, Flow
DP, Level
D
D, G
IEC 62591 (WirelessHART)
Transmitter Output
Reference Accuracy
DP Level
2051CFC
±2.25% of
Flow Rate at 5:1
flow turndown
±2.25% of
Flow Rate at 5:1
flow turndown
±2% of
Flow Rate at 5:1
flow turndown
±0.075% of span
For spans less
than 10:1
Total Performance
For all Beta ratio, refer to PDS
Use toolkit
Long Term Stability
±0.125% of URL for 5 years
±50 °F (28 °C) temperature changes, and up to 1000 psi
(6.9 MPa) line pressure.
N.A.
12 Months
Warranty
Refer Reference Accuracy
Rangedown
10 years at 1 min. update rate
Power Module Life
1 sec. to 60min.
Update Rate
N.A.
Process Alerts
Housing Style/ Material/
Conduit Entry Size
P: Engineered Polymer
Wireless Transmit Rate,
Operating Frequency and
Protocol
WA3: User Configurable Transmit Rate, 2.4GHz WirelessHART
Antenna and SmartPower
WP5: Internal Antenna, Compatible with Green Power Module
(I.S. Power Module Sold Separately)
Product Certification
•I1
•I5
•I6
•I7
I1: ATEX Intrinsic Safety
I5: FM Intrinsically Safe, Division 2
I6: CSA Intrinsically Safe
I7: IECEx Intrinsic Safety
DZ: Digital Zero Trim
Configuration Buttons
M5 Plant Web LCD Display
Display Type
For more information, please refer to the Product data sheet (PDS)
95
10 – Product Specification & Application
10.11
Rosemount 1199 Submersible Seal
New diaphragm uses proven seal technology
• Based on reliable and easy to use pressure based level technology
• Ideal for smaller top-down tank connections, from 1 1/2 NPT threaded connections to
2-3 inch flanged connections (DN 50 to DN 100)
• Intended for vented and open tank applications
Self compensates for changes in temperature
• Fill fluid and process fluid expand and contract at a similar rate
System construction
• Flanged or threaded connection
• Capillary up to 30ft (~9m) with SST or PVC coated armor
• Seal and bellows available with SST
Attaches to any 3051S, 3051 inline transmitter for a
simple top-down drop-in level measurement
Transmitter
Attach-to Code
3051S_TG
B11
3051TG, 2051TG, 2088G
S1
Model
Product Description
1199
Seal Systems
Connection Type
Seal System
Seal Location
All In-Line Transmitters (3051S_TG, 3051TG, 2051TG, 2088G)
W
All Welded
Seal Fill Fluid
One Seal System
High Side of Transmitter
Specific Gravity at
77 °F (25 °C)
Temperature Limits(1)
Standard
Standard
Standard
D
Silicone 200
0.93
-49 to 401 °F
(-45 to 205 °C)
G
Glycerin and Water
1.13
5 to 203 °F
(-15 to 95 °C)
Seal Connection Type / Capillary ID, Description
Standard
Standard
B
0.03-in. (0.711 mm) ID
C
0.04-in. (1.092 mm) ID
E
0.03-in. (0.711 mm) ID, PVC Coated with Closed End
F
0.04-in. (1.092 mm) ID, PVC Coated with Closed End
96
10 – Product Specification & Application
Measurement Length(2)
Standard
Standard
1
1.7 ft (0.5 m)
51
2.3 ft (0.7 m)
52
3.9 ft (1.2 m)
5
5.7 ft (1.7 m)
54
7.2 ft (2.2 m)
55
8.9 ft (2.7 m)
10
10.7 ft (3.2 m)
57
12.1 ft (3.7 m)
58
13.8 ft (4.2 m)
15
15.7 ft (4.7 m)
59
17 ft (5.2 m)
60
20.3 ft (6.2 m)
20
20.7 ft (6.3 m)
61
23.6 ft (7.2 m)
25
25.7 ft (7.8 m)
62
26.9 ft (8.2 m)
63
30.2 ft (9.2 m)
30
30.7 ft (9.3 m)
Industry Standard
Standard
Standard
A
ASME B16.5/ANSI B1.20.1 (American National Standards Institute/American Society of
Mechanical Engineers)
D
EN 1092-1 (European Standard)
J
JIS B2238
Process Connection Style
Standard
Standard
TSM
Threaded Submersible Seal
FSM
Flanged Submersible Seal
Expanded
Expanded
Process Connection Size
Standard
Standard
Threaded (TSM)
ANSI B1.20.1
4
1 1/2 - 11.5 NPT
ISO 7-1, DIN 2999, BS 21 (BS EN 10226-1), JIS B0203
-
97
10 – Product Specification & Application
Expanded
Expanded
Flanged (FSM)
JIS B2238
ASME B16.5 /
HG20615
EN 1092-1 /
GOST 12815-80 /
HG20592
4
40 A
1 1/2 in.
-
G
50 A
2 in.
DN 50
7
80 A
3 in.
-
J
-
-
DN 80
9
100 A
-
DN 100
F
-
-
DN 40
Pressure Rating
Standard
Standard
Threaded (TSM)
ANSI B1.20.1
0
ISO 7-1, DIN 2999, BS 21 (BS EN 10226-1), JIS B0203
60 psi
4.13 bar
Flanged (FSM)
JIS B2238
ASME B16.5 /
HG20615
EN 1092-1 /
GOST 12815-80 /
HG20592
1
10K
Class 150
-
2
20K
Class 300
-
4
40K
Class 600
-
G
-
-
PN 40
E
-
-
PN 10 / 16
Diaphragm, Upper Housing, Flange Material
Diaphragm
Upper Housing
Flange
Standard
DG00
321 SST
Standard
316 SST
316 SST
Process Filter
Standard
0
No Filter
1
1/4 in. NPT Screen Insert
Standard
98
10 – Product Specification & Application
Oil and Gas Automation
Rotating Equipment
• Tubing, casing and bradenhead
• Injection flow rates
• Measure lube oil pressure
Measure and maintain lube oil pressure to prevent
damage or failure of critical assets such as pumps,
compressors, conveyors and other rotating assets.
Automate O&G fields faster and gain insight to
remote operations. Reduce maintenance headaches,
spend less time on site and reduce the risk of
environmental fines while maximizing production
output. Ensure wellhead integrity and optimize
injection rates.
Tank Inventory
• Measure tank levels
Track and manage inventories levels ensure optimal
scheduling of incoming deliveries. Protect against
overfill or under fill. Avoid material shortages or
unnecessary resupply trips.
Pressure Gauge Replacement
• Manual operator rounds
• Asset monitoring
Reduce operator rounds to improve productivity.
Improve personnel safety by reducing exposure to
hazardous gases and extreme weather. Automate
data collection to proactively detect abnormal
situations in real time for troublesome assets.
Proven Result References
• AkzoNobel Improves Storage Tank Heating
Control (p.120)
• FH Tank Storage Meets Latest Safety
Requirements (p.128)
• Petrochemical Plant Drives Energy Efficiency
(p.130)
• Silicone Manufacturer Improves Energy Costs
(p.132)
• Coogee Chemicals Prevents Breaksdowns and
Lost Production (p.135)
• Sun Chemical Improve Product Quality and
Meet Air Permit Requirements (p.136)
• Atlas Pipeline Improves Production Efficiency
(p.147)
• Offshore Oil Platform Mitigates Risk (p.152)
• Oil Producer Reduces Production Loss (p.160)
• Oil Production Company Reduces Steam
Injection Costs (p.162)
• Pipeline Company Eliminates Risk of
Environmental Fines (p.166)
• Pipeline Company Reduces Environmental Risk
and Project Costs (p.168)
• PXP Improves Oilfield Operation (p.170)
• RWE Maximizes Gas Storage Capacity and
Improves Efficiency and Safety (p.174)
• Timely Compliance to State Regulation Made
Possible (p.179)
• San Diego Gas & Electric Improve Operations
and Safety (p.186)
• Lime Kiln Throughput Improves (p.197)
• Refinery Improved Product Quality and
Throughput (p.199)
• Refinery Improves Availability of Coking Unit
(p.205)
• Refinery Improves Environemental Compliance
(p.207)
• Refinery Monitors Junction Box Pressure
(p.212)
Plant Utility Monitoring
• Steam and Gas
• Compressed Air
•Water
Monitor flow and pressure in compressed air, steam
and water systems to benchmark energy usage,
identify energy saving opportunities throughout the
plant and provide accurate internal billing.
Heat Exchangers
• Inlet and outlet flow rates and pressure to calculate
efficiency
Fouling of tubes reduces efficiency and increases
energy usage and cost. Early detection of fouling
allows for planned, preventative maintenance rather
than reactive. Detect and correct heat exchanger
fouling to ensure efficient heat transfer and lower
energy costs.
Filters for Pumps, Turbines, Compressors
• Measure DP across filters and strainers
Prevent plugged filters, protect rotating equipment
from debris, and maintain efficiency.
Environmental Compliance
• Emissions flow
• Tank overspill protection
Monitor and record emissions (SO2, CO2, NOX)
to comply with government regulations with
automated reporting. Minimize emissions or
potential tank overfills.
99
10 – Product Specification & Application
10.12
Rosemount Smart Wireless THUM Adapter
IEC 62591 (WirelessHARTTM)
• Self-organizing, Adaptive Mesh Routing
• Industry standard radio with Channel hopping
• Standard IEEE 802.15.4 radios
• 2.4Ghz ISM band sliced into 16 radio-channels
• Self-healing Network
• Seamless Integration to existing hosts
Device Specification
• The THUM adapter is connected into a powered 4-20mA loop, powering itself
by scavenging power.
• Approvals: FM, CSA, ATEX, IECEx
• Input: Either 2- or 4-wire HART 5.0 device
• Allow any HART Device to be on WirelessHART TM Network
•SmartPowerTM: Power scavenging technology (no battery required)
Base Model
775 Smart Wireless THUM Adaptor
Any 2- or 4-wire HART powered device
Input
Transmitter Output
IEC 62591 (WirelessHART)
Warranty
18 months from Delivery
User selectable, 1 sec. to 60min.
Update Rate
4 Configurable Alerts
Process Alerts
Housing Type
• D (Standard Delivery)
• E (Expanded Delivery)
• D: Aluminum (Nema 4X & IP66)
• E: SST
Mounting Connection
•1
•2
• 1: 1/2 - 14NPT
• 2: M20-Conduit Adaptor
Wireless Options/
Operating Frequency and Protocol
•WA3
User configuration Update Rate with 2.4GHz
DSSS, IEC 62591 (WirelessHART)
Omnidirectional Wireless Antenna
•WK9
Long range, Integral Antenna, Power Scavenging
Product Certification
•NA
•I5
•I6
•I1
•N1
•I7
•N7
•I2
•N2
•I3
•IP
•IW
•IM
NA: No Approval
I5: FM Intrinsically Safe, Division 2
I6: CSA Intrinsically Safe
I1: ATEX Intrinsic Safety
N1: ATEX Type N
I7: IECEx Intrinsic Safety
N7: IECEx Type n
I2: INMETRO Intrinsic Safety
N2: INMETRO Type n
I3: China Intrinsic Safety
IW: India (CCOE) Intrinsic Safety
IM: GOST (Russia) Intrinsically Safe
For more information, please refer to the Product data sheet (PDS)
100
10 – Product Specification & Application
10.13
Rosemount Pressure Multivariable Transmitter with THUM Adapter
Easy to Use
Only need access to a Smart Wireless Gateway
Easy to Integrate
All Smart Wireless field network devices integrate directly into existing automation architecture without the
need for upfront engineering, site surveys or additional software
Easy Access
Gain access to additional process variables while conserving control system inputs
For more information, please refer to the Product data sheet (PDS)
101
10 – Product Specification & Application
10.14
Rosemount Pressure Multivariable Transmitter with
THUM Adapter
Specification Overview
Base Model
DP Level [3051S ERS]
3051SAM +
THUM
Application Type
• Pressure (P)
• Differential Pressure (DP)
• Flow (DP Flow)
• Level (DP Level)
• Temperature (T) for DP Flow
Measurement Type
• Differential (D)
• Gage (G)
• Temperature (T) for DP Flow
3051SAL +
THUM
P, DP, Level
G, A
G, A
Total Performance (3051S by
performance class)
•S1
•S2
•S3
Long Term Stability
• MV: Multivariable
• SV: Single variable (3051S by
performance class)
•S1
•S2
•S3
Warranty
• MV: Multivariable
• SV: Single variable (3051S by
performance class)
•S1
•S2
•S3
Adv. Diag. suite
3051SMV +
THUM
3051S1/ 2/ 3
P, DP, T, Flow
P, DP, Flow, Level
D, G, A, T
D, G, A
IEC 62591 (WirelessHART)
Transmitter Output
Reference Accuracy
• MV: Multivariable (DP Flow)
• SV: Single variable (DP Flow)
(3051S by performance class)
•S1
•S2
•S3
DP Flow
Ultra:
±0.025% of span
Classic:
±0.055% of span
Ultra:
±0.1% of Span
Classic:
±0.15% of span
Ultra & Classic:
±0.065% of span
• MV - Ultra for
Flow & Classic:
0.04%
• SV - Ultra:
0.025%,
Classic: 0.055%
& Ultra for
Flow: 0.04%
• S1: ±0.025% of
span
• S2: ±0.055% of
span
• S2: ±0.04% of
span
Use toolkit
• Applies to DP
Measurement
only
• Ultra: ±0.1%
of span; Classic
& Classic MV:
±0.15% of span
• Ultra for Flow:
±0.15% of span
• S1: ±0.1% of
span
• S2: ±0.15% of
span
• S3: ±0.15% of
span
N.A.
• MV: Ultra:
10Yrs & Classic:
5Yrs
• SV: Ultra &
Ultra for Flow:
10Yrs, Classic:
5Yrs
• S1: 10 Yrs
• S2: 5 Yrs
• S3: 10 Yrs
12 Yrs
1 Yr
• MV: Ultra:
12Yrs & Classic:
5Yrs
• SV: Ultra &
Ultra for Flow:
12Yrs, Classic:
5Yrs
• S1: 12 Yrs
• S2: 5 Yrs
• S3: 12 Yrs
10 Yrs
5 Yrs
12 Yrs
1 Yr
102
10 – Product Specification & Application
Specification Overview
Base Model
Rangedown
• MV: Multivariable
• SV: Single variable (3051S by
performance class)
•S1
•S2
•S3
DP Level [3051S ERS]
3051SAM +
THUM
DP Flow
Adv. Diag. suite
3051SAL +
THUM
3051SMV +
THUM
3051S1/ 2/ 3
100:1
• MV: Ultra:
200:1 & Classic:
100:1
• SV: Ultra &
Ultra for Flow:
200:1, Classic:
100:1
200:1
100:1
Display Type
M5 Plant Web LCD Display
Update Rate
User selectable, 1 sec. to 60min.
4 Configurable Alerts
Process Alerts
Housing Style
• Plantweb Hsg (1A/ 1B/ 1J/ 1K)
• Junction Box Hsg (2A/ 2B/ 2J)
• Junction Box Hsg for remote
display and interface (2E/ 2F/
2M)
• S1 - 200:1
• S2 - 100:1
• S3 - 200:1
Housing Style: Material (Conduit Entry Size)
1A/ 2A/ 2E: Aluminum (1/2-14 NPT)
1B/ 2B/ 2F : Aluminum (M20 X 1.5)
1J/ 2J/ 2M: SST (1/2-14 NPT)
1K : SST (M20 X 1.5)
Mounting Connection for
THUM
•1
•2
• 1: 1/2 - 14NPT
• 2: M20-Conduit Adaptor
Wireless Options/
Operating Frequency and
Protocol
•WA3
User configuration Update Rate with 2.4GHz DSSS, IEC 62591 (Wireless HART)
Omnidirectional Wireless
Antenna
•WK9
Long range, Integral Antenna, Power Scavenging
Product Certification
•NA
•I5
•I6
•I1
•N1
•I7
•N7
•I2
•N2
•I3
•IP
•IW
•IM
NA: No Approval
I5: FM Intrinsically Safe, Division 2
I6: CSA Intrinsically Safe
I1: ATEX Intrinsic Safety
N1: ATEX Type N
I7: IECEx Intrinsic Safety
N7: IECEx Type n
I2: INMETRO Intrinsic Safety
N2: INMETRO Type n
I3: China Intrinsic Safety
IW: India (CCOE) Intrinsic Safety
IM: GOST (Russia) Intrinsically Safe
For more information, please refer to the Product data sheet (PDS)
103
10 – Product Specification & Application
10.15
Rosemount 848 Wireless Multi Input Temperature Transmitter
A Wireless Solution for High Density Temperature Measurement
The 848T Wireless Temperature Transmitter measures up to four independently
configurable temperature providing users access to multiple measurement points
with a single transmitter. Costs per point are dramatically reduced through the use
of smart wireless networks, with the same reliability and security of wired solutions.
• Four independently configurable inputs including RTD, thermocouple, ohm,
voltage and 4 - 20 mA signals
• Eight user configurable alerts for advanced measurement monitoring
• Efficient wireless network utilization by sending all four sensor readings in one
transmitted message
• Type 4x, IP66 housings allows for installation in harsh process environments
• Ambient temperature compensation reduces measurement error in harsh
applications, especially for wide fluctuations of ambient temperature
Specification Overview
Sensor Input Configuration
848 Temperature Transmitter
4 independent measurements configurable to the following input types:
Thermocouple, RTD, 0-1000 mV, 0-10 V, ohm, and 4-20 mA
Transmitter Output
IEC 62591 (WirelessHART)
Reference Accuracy
±0.30 °C (Pt 100 @ 20°C)
Long Term Stability
±0.15% of output reading or 0.15 °C (whichever is greater) for 2 years
12 Months
Warranty
10 years at 1 min. update rate
Power Module Life
4 sec. to 60min.
Update Rate
8 Configurable Alerts
Process Alerts
Housing Style/ Material/
Conduit Entry Size
D: Aluminum Dual Compartment Housing
Wireless Transmit Rate,
Operating Frequency and Protocol
WA3: User configuration Update Rate with 2.4GHz
Omnidirectional Wireless Antenna
WK1: External Antenna
WM1: Extended Range External Antenna
Product Certification
•I5
•N5
•I6
•I1
•I7
•I4
•N6
I5: FM Intrinsically Safe, Non-Incendive, and Dust Ignition-proof
N5: FM Non-Incendive and Dust Ignition-proof
I6: CSA Intrinsically Safe
I1: ATEX Intrinsic Safety
I7: IECEx Intrinsic Safety
I4: TIIS Intrinsic Safety
N6: CSA Class I, Division 2
Display Type
NA
Sensor Trim
NA
For more information, please refer to the Product data sheet (PDS)
104
10 – Product Specification & Application
10.16
Rosemount 648 Wireless Temperature Transmitter
A Smart Wireless Solution for Single Point Temperature
Measurements
The industry-leading Rosemount 648 Wireless Temperature Transmitter delivers
unmatched field reliability and performance as a wireless measurement solution. The 648 Wireless is ideal for high performance applications, helping you achieve
optimal efficiency with Best-in-Class product specifications and capabilities. • Accepts wide variety of sensor inputs for flexibility to meet application
requirements
• Transmitter-Sensor Matching improves measurement accuracy by 75%
• 4 user-configurable alerts for increased process insight
• Large, easy to read LCD display
• Long Range and Extended Range Antenna options
• Dual-compartment housing provides high reliability in humid, corrosive and
EMI/RFI environments
Specification Overview
648 Temperature Transmitter
Thermocouple, RTD, millivolt, and ohm
Sensor Input Configuration
IEC 62591 (WirelessHART)
Transmitter Output
Reference Accuracy
±0.225 °C (Pt 100 @ 20°C)
Long Term Stability
±0.15% of output reading or 0.15 °C (whichever is greater) for 2 years
12 Months
Warranty
10 years at 1 min. update rate
Power Module Life
1 sec. to 60min.
Update Rate
4 Configurable Alerts
Process Alerts
D: Aluminum Dual Compartment Housing
E: SST Dual Compartment Housing
Housing Style/ Material/
Conduit Entry Size
Wireless Transmit Rate, Operating
Frequency and Protocol
WA3: User configuration Update Rate with 2.4GHz
Omnidirectional Wireless Antenna
WK1: External Antenna
WM1: Extended Range External Antenna
Product Certification
•I5
•N5
•I6
•I1
•I7
•I4
•I3
I5: FM Intrinsically Safe, Non-Incendive, and Dust Ignition-proof
N5: FM Non-Incendive and Dust Ignition-proof
I6: CSA Intrinsically Safe
I1: ATEX Intrinsic Safety
I7: IECEx Intrinsic Safety
I4: TIIS Intrinsic Safety
I3: China Intrinsic Safety
Display Type
M5:LCD Display
Sensor Trim
C2: Transmitter-Sensor Matching
For more information, please refer to the Product data sheet (PDS)
105
10 – Product Specification & Application
10.17
Rosemount 248 Wireless Temperature Transmitter
A Smart Wireless Solution for Single Point Temperature
Measurements
The Rosemount 248 Wireless temperature transmitter offers a cost effective
solution for wireless process monitoring. The standard design of the 248 Wireless
helps you optimize plant efficiency and increase measurement reliability with
industry-proven capabilities and specifications. • Accepts wide variety of sensor inputs and mounting options for flexibility to
meet application requirements
• Dual-compartment housing provides high reliability in humid, corrosive and
EMI/RFI environments
• Ambient temperature compensation enhances transmitter performance
Specification Overview
248 Temperature Transmitter
Thermocouple, RTD, millivolt, and ohm
Sensor Input Configuration
IEC 62591 (WirelessHART)
Transmitter Output
Reference Accuracy
±0.45 °C (Pt 100 @ 20°C)
Long Term Stability
±0.15% of output reading or 0.15 °C (whichever is greater)
for 2 years
12 Months
Warranty
10 years at 1 min. update rate
Power Module Life
1 sec. to 60min.
Update Rate
NA
Process Alerts
Housing Style/ Material/
Conduit Entry Size
D: Aluminum Dual Compartment Housing
Wireless Transmit Rate,
Operating Frequency and Protocol
WA3: User configuration Update Rate with 2.4GHz
Omnidirectional Wireless Antenna
WK1: External Antenna
Product Certification
•I5
•N5
•I6
•I1
•I7
i5: FM Intrinsically Safe, Non-Incendive, and Dust Ignition-proof
N5: FM Non-Incendive and Dust Ignition-proof
I6: CSA Intrinsically Safe
I1: ATEX Intrinsic Safety
I7: IECEx Intrinsic Safety
Display Type
NA
Sensor Trim
NA
For more information, please refer to the Product data sheet (PDS)
106
10 – Product Specification & Application
Monitor Heat Exchanger Temperature
Profile
Other Potential for Temperature Pipe Clamp
+ Wireless Applications
• Measure inlet and outlet temperatures
•On-shore
– Pipe Lines
– Pipe Heating system
– Well Heads
– Flow lines
– Underground pipe lines
• Calculate heat exchanger efficiency and adjust to
improve energy usage
• Minimize maintenance costs and optimize cleaning
schedules to prevent fouling
• Increase production with increased heat exchange
Monitor Motors for Pumps, Fans, Dryers, or
Compressors
• Bearing temperature is indicator of potential
failure
•Off-shore
– Flare control
– Fire water control
– Well Heads
– Flow lines
• Keep motors operating within specifications to
extend life
Proven Result References
• Minimize maintenance costs and downtime by
preventing unexpected failures
• Chemical Manufacturer Improves Safety and
Reduces Costs with Smart Wireless Solution
(p.126)
Boiler Tube Surface Temperature for Fatigue
Management Analysis
• Petrochemical Plant Drives Energy Efficiency
with Smart Wireless DP Flowmeters and
Temperature Transmitters (p.130)
• Minimize boiler shutdowns due to tube ruptures
• Emerson’s Smart Wireless Products Prevent
Breakdowns and Lost Production on Rotating
Reactor at Coogee Chemicals (p.135)
• Reduced boiler operating and maintenance costs
• Profile furnace temperature to improve energy
usage
• Reduce operating costs
• Food Manufacturer’s Regular Maintenance Cost
and Production Downtime Reduced by Wireless
Solution (p.138)
Tank Monitoring
• Temperature Technologies Provide New
Insights to Improve Safety, Productivity at
American Crystal Sugar (p.142)
• Profiles for accurate determination of density,
volume and mass
• Atlas Pipeline Improves Production Efficiency at
Natural Gas Processing Facility (p.147)
Reactor Temperature Profile
• Offshore Oil Platform Mitigates Risk of Reduced
Production in Flowing Oil Wells and Pipelines
with Timely Process Data (p.152)
• Identify hot spots & channeling to improve
efficiency and prevent catalyst damage
• Pipeline Company Eliminates Risk of
Environmental Fines with Smart Wireless
(p.166)
Distillation Column Temperature Profile
• Optimize separation and product quality
• RWE Gas Storage Uses Wireless Technology to
Maximize Gas Storage Capacity and Improve
Efficiency and Safety (p.174)
107
10 – Product Specification & Application
10.18
Rosemount 2160 Vibrating Fork Liquid Level Switch
Reliable Performance In Demanding Applications
WirelessHART vibrating fork liquid level switch combines Emerson’s wireless expertise with
the Rosemount 2100 series vibrating short fork technology. It has all the same features
as the wired level switches in the Rosemount 2100 series, but without the complication
and cost of wiring. Features include a complete range of process connections, aluminum
housing, a choice of wetted parts materials, dry-to-wet and wet-to-dry switching functions,
extended fork lengths, and hazardous area approvals. Industry best practice is to fit a
level switch with a continuous level transmitter to act as emergency shutdown switch- for
example fit a 2160 with a 3308.
The Rosemount 2160 continuously performs instrument health diagnostics of the fork and
sensor. These diagnostics can detect external damage to the forks, internal damage to the
sensor, excessive corrosion and over-temperature. The 2160 can withstand temperatures
from -94 °F (-70 °C) up to 500 °F (260 °C) and pressures to 1450 psig (100 bar g).
Specification Overview
2160 Wireless Vibrating Fork
Base Model
2160
Application Type
• Overfill protection
• High/ Low level alarm
• Pump control or limit detection
Switching Point
The switch point varies with
different liquid densities.
Material Frequency Changes
0.5 in. (13 mm) from fork tip if mounted vertically.
0.5 in. (13 mm) from the fork edge if mounted horizontally.
Radio Frequency Power Output
from Antenna
Maximum of 10 mW (10 dBm) EIRP
Mounting Horizontal/ Vertical
Rotatable housing allows correct alignment of both the forks and the
omnidirectional antenna for optimal signal and best viewing position of the LCD
integral display.
Minimum Extended Length
Process Connection
Minimum Extended Length
¾-in threaded
3.8 in. (95mm)
1-in. Threaded
3.7 in. (94 mm)
Flanged
3.5 in (89 mm)
Tri-Clamp
1 sec. to 60min.
Update Rate
DRY/ WET
Process Alerts
Housing:Low-copper alumunium
Cover O-Ring:Silicone
Housing Style/ Material/
Conduit Entry Size
Wireless Options/ Operating
Frequency and Protocol
User configuration Update Rate with 2.4GHz DSSS, IEC 62591 (Wireless HART)
Omnidirectional Wireless
Antenna
Smart Power
•1
4.1 in (105mm)
10 years at 1 min. update rate
Power Module Life
Internal Antenna
Adapter for Black Power Module (I.S. Power Module sold separately)
108
10 – Product Specification & Application
Specification Overview
Adjustable Switching Delay
2160 Wireless Vibrating Fork
User configurable 1-3600s for turbulent applications
~1400 Hz
Operating Frequency
≥ 500 kg/m³
Minimum Process Media Density
0,2 to 10000 cP
Viscosity
±0,039 in. (± 1 mm)
Switch Hysteresis
-14,5 to 1450 psi
Process Pressure Limits
(-1 to 100 bar)
-94 to 500°F
Process Temperature Limits
(-70 to 260°C)
-40 to 176°F
Ambient Temperature Limits
Fork Material
(-40 to 80°C)
316/316L SST; Alloy C, Alloy C-276;
hand polished option available (Ra < 0,4 µm)
3.5 in to 118.1 in (89 to 3000 mm)
Fork Length
Electronic Switching Output
WirelessHART
Hazardous Areas Approvals
ATEX IS, FM IS, CSA IS, IECEX IS, NEPSI IS
DIBt/WHG overfill protection
Other Approvals
Advanced Diagnostic/ self check
LCD Display
Built in diagnostics continually check electronic and mechanical health.
The optional five-digit integral LCD can indicate a sequence of up to four process
variables (dry/wet, electronics temperature, frequency, supply voltage) and
diagnostic information
‘Locate device’ function allows easy visual identification of instrument during
commissioning and inspection
Aiming previously inaccessible environments, where cost or practical constraints
with using wired technology prevented 2100 use. Suitable for both monitoring and
critical control applications
Virtually all liquids, including coating and aerated liquids, slurries, hygienic
applications and hazardous areas
Other Information of Interest
Long power module lifetime, even with fast update rates
(10 years at 60seconds, over 1 year at 1second)
Simple installation requires no calibration
Fast Drip fork design gives quicker response time, especially with viscous liquids.
Rapid wet-to-dry time for highly responsive switching
For more information, please refer to the Product data sheet (PDS)
109
10 – Product Specification & Application
Overfill Protection
Proven Result References
Spillage caused by overfilling can be hazardous
to people and the environment, resulting in lost
product and potentially high clean up costs.
• HPCL Bagru Jaipur Terminal Achieves Pump
Protection and Increased Safety with Wireless
Level Switch (p.216)
• BP Oil Implements Rosemount 2160 Wireless
Switches for Floating Roof Tilt Detection
(p.218)
Hi-Hi and Lo-Lo Level Detection
Maximum and minimum level detection in tanks
containing different types of liquids are ideal
applications. It is common practice to have an
independent high level alarm switch as a backup to
an installed level device in case of primary failure.
For more proven results:
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/
brands/rosemount/Documentation-andDrawings/Proven-Results/Pages/index.
aspx#metals
Pump Protection or Empty Pipe Detection
With the fork projecting only 2 in. (50 mm)
(dependant on connection type), the 2160 can be
installed in small diameter pipes. Short forks mean
minimum intrusion on the wetside and allow for
simple, low cost installation at any angle into tanks
or pipes.
Pump Control (Limit Detection)
Batch processing tanks often contain stirrers and
agitators to ensure mixing and product ‘fluidity’.
The standard user-selectable time delay, from 0 to
3600 seconds, virtually eliminates the risk of false
switching from splashing.
Extreme Temperature Applications
The 2160E is designed for extreme temperatures
and is suitable for continuous operation within the
temperature range of – 94 to 500 °F
(–70 to 260 °C).
Hygienic Applications
With the highly polished forks option providing a
surface finish (Ra) better than 0.4 μm, the 2160
meets the most stringent hygienic requirements
used in food and beverage, and pharmaceutical
applications. Manufactured in stainless steel, the
2160 is robust enough to easily withstand steam
cleaning (CIP) routines.
110
10 – Product Specification & Application
10.19
Rosemount 3308 Wireless Guided Wave Radar
• Accurate, direct level measurement virtually unaffected by process conditions
• Minimized maintenance with no moving parts and no re-calibration required
• Fewer process penetrations and reduced installation costs with a
MultiVariable™ level and interface transmitter
• Versatile and easy-to-use transmitter with field proven reliability
• High application flexibility with a wide range of process connections and
accessories
Specification Overview
3308 Wireless Guided Wave Radar
Base Model
3308
Continuous Level & Interface Level
Application Type
(Time Domain Reflectometry - TDR)
Transmitter Output
IEC 62591 (WirelessHART)
Reference Accuracy
±0.25 in. (6 mm)
Repeatability
±0.08 in. (2 mm)
Maximum Measuring Range
33 ft (10 m)
Minimum Dielectric Constant
2.0 up to 33 ft (10 m)
-40 to 302 F (-40 to 150 C)
Min/max Temperature
Min/max Pressure
-14 to 580 psig (-1 to 40 bar)
Power Module Life
9 years at 1 min. update rate
4sec. to 60min.
Update Rate
Signal Quality Alert
(Enhanced Diagnostics for e.g. coated probes)
High Level Alerts
Low Level Alerts
User-Defined Alert
Process Alerts
Housing Style/ Material/ Conduit Entry
Size
•D1
•E1
Wireless Options/ Operating
Frequency and Protocol
• WA3
D1: Wireless Dual Compartment Housing, Aluminum
(with plugged ½-14 NPT conduits)
E1: Wireless Dual Compartment Housing, Stainless steel
(with plugged ½-14 NPT conduits)
WA3: User configuration Update Rate with 2.4GHz DSSS, IEC 62591
(WirelessHART)
WK: External Antenna
WN: High Gain, Remote Antenna
(Not CE Approved)
Omnidirectional Wireless Antenna
•WK
•WN
Smart Power
•1
1: Adapter for Black Power Module
(I.S. Power Module sold separately)
Product Certification
•I1
•I5
•I6
•I7
I1: ATEX Intrinsic Safety
I5: FM Intrinsically Safe, Division 2
I6: CSA Intrinsically Safe
I7: IECEx Intrinsic Safety
Display Type
•M5
M5: Plant Web LCD Display
For more information, please refer to the Product data sheet (PDS)
111
10 – Product Specification & Application
Production Tanks
Waste Tanks and Sump Pits
The Rosemount 3308 Series transmitter is ideal for
production tanks that contain oil, gas condensate
or water.
The Rosemount 3308 Series transmitter is a good
choice for waste tanks and underground tanks, such
as sump pits.
Storage and Buffer Tanks
For more proven results:
The Rosemount 3308 Series transmitter is ideal for
shorter storage or buffer tanks that for example
contain oil, condensate, water, or chemicals.
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/
brands/rosemount/Documentation-andDrawings/Proven-Results/Pages/index.
aspx#metals
Separator Tanks and Chambers
The Rosemount 3308 Series transmitter can
measure both level and interface level in for example
chamber and separator applications.
112
10 – Product Specification & Application
10.20
Smart Wireless THUM™ Adapter for Rosemount
Process Level Transmitter Applications
Introduction
The Smart Wireless THUM Adapter is used to wirelessly communicate HART®
data acquired from a Rosemount Process Level transmitter using a selforganizing WirelessHART™ network.
The THUM Adapter which consists of a radio transmitter, receiver,
microprocessor and antenna, allows you to wirelessly transmit HART
measurement and diagnostic information.
This document provides information and special considerations for using
the THUM Adapter with the following Rosemount Process Level HART
Transmitters:
• Rosemount 3100 Series Ultrasonic Level Transmitter
• Rosemount 3300 Series Guided Wave Radar Level and Interface Transmitter
• Rosemount 5300 Series High Performance Guided Wave Radar Level and Interface Transmitter
• Rosemount 5400 Series 2-Wire Radar Level Transmitter
• Rosemount 5600 Series 4-Wire Radar Level Transmitter Product Certifications and Barrier (Associated Apparatus)
Requirements
The THUM Adapter is only for intrinsically safe (IS) approvals, e.g. model codes I1, I5, I6, and I7. As the THUM
Adapter and Rosemount Process Level transmitter are ordered separately, the customer must ensure that these
are ordered with the same IS approval (model code).
The user must perform an IS investigation and verify that the entity (output) parameters of the Barrier
(Associated Apparatus) comply with the entity (input) parameters of the connected THUM Adapter and
Rosemount Process Level transmitter. The entity parameters are specified in the respective QIGs as well as on
the respective Control (Installation) Drawings. The Control (Installation) Drawings can be found in e.g. the
Reference Manuals, see section “Documentation” for document reference numbers. The requirements on the
Control (Installation) Drawings must be followed when installing the equipment.
113
10 – Product Specification & Application
For more information, please refer to the Product data sheet (PDS)
114
10 – Product Specification & Application
Technical Requirements
During normal operation, or in fault condition,
the THUM Adapter will cause a maximum drop of
2.5 volts in the connected loop. It is important to
ensure that the power supply can provide at least 2.5
volts more than the minimum input voltage of the
transmitter to make sure it works properly with the
THUM Adapter installed.
Minimum input voltage (UI) for Rosemount
Process Level transmitters with THUM Adapter
Transmitter
Minimum input voltage (UI)
Rosemount 3100
14.5 V dc
Rosemount 3300
13.5 V dc
Rosemount 5300
18.5 V dc
Rosemount 5400
18.5 V dc
Rosemount 5600
22.5 V dc
Reading the echo curve using a WirelessHART network will take
longer time compared to wired HART.
The voltage drop caused by the THUM Adapter
across the loop is linear from 2.25 volts at 3.5 mA
to 1.2 volts at 25 mA, but does not affect the 4–20
mA signal on the loop. Under fault conditions, the
maximum voltage drop is 2.5 volts.
Some applications may have heavy vibrations close to
the maximum specification according to the product
documentation for the transmitter. This may include
vessels with heavy agitation, rapid fluid movement,
or in cases where external equipment may induce
vibrations. In these cases, the effects of vibration may
become excessive for additional items attached to
top-mounted devices. If this is likely,
In order for the THUM Adapter to function properly
there must be at least 250 Ohms resistance in the
loop.
remote mounting of the THUM Adapter is
recommended. This applies to the following
Rosemount Process Level transmitters:
See the Reference Manuals and Product Data
Sheets for more information about the minimum
input voltage for each transmitter. For Document
Reference numbers, see section “Documentation”.
• Rosemount 5400 with Process Seal Antenna
Remote Mounting Kit
The THUM Remote Mounting Kit is also
recommended for the Rosemount 5600 Series due to
the THUM Adapter Radio Frequency performance.
The THUM Remote Mounting Kit can be used when
direct mounting of the THUM Adapter on the
transmitter isn’t feasible or advisable. This may be in
situations where the wireless communication from
the transmitter is obstructed, where direct mounting
is physically difficult, or in certain transmitter
configurations. Also, for retrofit installations where
wireless communication from the transmitter may
be obstructed, the remote mounting kit should be
considered.
• Rosemount 5400 with SST Transmitter Head
Housing
• Rosemount 3100 Series
The THUM Remote Mounting Kit part number is
00775-9000-0001.
When choosing an installation location and position
for the THUM Adapter, take into account access to
the device. If possible, the THUM Adapter should be
positioned vertically, either straight up or straight
down, and it should be approximately 3 ft. (1 m) from
any large structure, building, or conductive surface
to allow for clear communication to other devices. If
the THUM Adapter is mounted horizontally, wireless
communication range may be decreased.
115
10 – Product Specification & Application
Configuration And Troubleshooting
Rosemount 5600 Series 4-Wire
The THUM Adapter can route any HART command
to the Rosemount Process Level transmitters.
When using the AMS® Device Manager, this allows
for configuration commands to be sent to the
transmitter.
Installation
For the Rosemount 5300/5400 Series, the echo
curve can be read and used for configuration and
troubleshooting through AMS(1).
The Rosemount 5600 Series must be used with the
THUM Remote Mounting Kit and it may only be
connected to the primary output (model code 5A,
5B, 5C, and 5D). 4-wire wiring diagrams for active
or passive device output can be found in the THUM
QIG, see section “Documentation” for document
reference number.
Transmitter Software Version
The Smart Wireless THUM Adapter has been
designed and tested to work with all HART Rev. 5
devices or later which covers a span of about 20 years
of installed devices in the field. In particular, the
THUM Adapter has been tested and verified using the
following software revisions:
Transmitter
Recommended
software version
Rosemount 3100
3.2 or higher
Rosemount 3300
12 or higher
Rosemount 5300
1A4 or higher
Rosemount 5400
1C2 or higher
Rosemount 5600
3A4 or higher
Proven Result References
• FH Tank Storage Meets Latest Safety
Requirements Using Smart Wireless Differential
Pressure and Radar Transmitters (p.128)
• Oil & Gas Distributor Improves Inventory
Management with Wireless Level Measurement
(p.156)
The standalone PC configuration software tools
Rosemount Radar Master (RRM) and Rosemount
Configuration Tool (RCT) support primary/
secondary master mode, which allows RRM and
RCT to communicate with the transmitter in parallel
with the THUM Adapter (wired connection). RRM
and RCT are used for advanced configuration and
troubleshooting such as recording echo curve frames
to file.
For more proven results:
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/
brands/rosemount/Documentation-andDrawings/Proven-Results/Pages/index.
aspx#metals
116
10 – Product Specification & Application
10.21
Smart Wireless for Rosemount Tank Gauging Applications
During the operational lifetime of tank storage
facilities there are a number of different phases, from
expansion and upgrading to general maintenance
and repair. With each phase comes change and
along with change the need for flexibility. A Smart
Wireless tank gauging solution maximizes safety and
operational performance. It is suitable for bulk liquid
storage plants since:
When you want to reduce cost and complexity:
• Tanks are often built in clusters
• High antenna positions mean you normally have
line-of-sight
• It works well for both short and long distances
When installation or replacement of field wiring is
a safety concern:
When is wireless a logical choice?
When distances and topological conditions are
challenging:
It enables you to connect to tanks that were
previously isolated, divided by water, roads or other
infrastructure related objects.
Replacing or maintaining field cables that are
outdated or in poor condition can be expensive. The
use of wireless instruments means less installation
work and wiring as well as fewer junction boxes and
conduits.No detailed site surveys are required, and
you reduce engineering and drawing work.
Risk is reduced by delivering data to the control room
without any unnecessary hazardous excavation or
cable installation.
When redundant communication is required:
A wireless interface can easily be added to new or
installed wired radar level gauges. Combining wired
communication, via a Field Communication Unit,
and Smart Wireless, via a Gateway, provides a safe
and cost-efficient way to meet requirements for full
communication redundancy, with two independent
data paths to the host/DCS.
117
10 – Product Specification & Application
The use of Smart Wireless for the tank gauging data
means the existing field cabling can be used for other
purposes. For example, when you need to get both
tank gauging data and a high level alarm signal back
to the control room, but only have one single set of
wiring available to the tank. The high level SIL relay
signal from the Tank Hub is connected to the existing
wiring and the complete tank gauging data is sent via
a wireless connection.
When existing tank instrumentation needs
modernizing:
Existing tank gauging systems using old technology
can have their limitations. Emulation technology
enables seamless integration of new tank
instrumentation in a control room infrastructure
from other vendors. Add Smart Wireless and gain full
capacity that:
• Works in parallel with the wired emulation
protocol
• Gives more measurement data and advanced
diagnostics
• Enables remote radar gauge configuration and
calibration functionality
• Offers new and modern protocols to host/DCS
system
When time is critical:
Expansion, upgrading and maintenance projects take
time but Smart Wireless tank gauging is a plug-andplay solution when resources are scarce, deadlines
are tight, and you want to minimize downtime and
get a quick start-up.
The THUM adapter for Tank Gauging can be
configured via:
•TankMaster
• AMS Wireless Configurator
• Field Communicator
Rosemount 2410 Tank Hub
Rosemount 2410 is handling communication
between the field devices and the control room, and
it is available in two versions, for single or multiple
tanks. In a wireless network, it is connected to a
Smart Wireless THUM Adapter. It also feeds power to
the units on the Tankbus, collects and calculates tank
data, such as average temperature, observed density
and strapping table based volume.
The Tank Hub has a model code for the wireless
option (Model Code W), and together with the THUM
adapter it enables the following features:
• Support for up to 10 tanks
• Up to 16 transmitter variables @ 8-16 seconds
update rate (update rate configurable between
1–3600 seconds. The typical value is 16 seconds
which is suitable for most tank shapes and filling
rates. The flexible range enables adjustment to
requirements from other WirelessHART devices
joining the same network.)
• Supports Wireless in combination with wired
emulation or TRL2 interface
• Wireless + SIL 2 or SIL 3 relay output
•Display:
- 2230 Graphical Field Display
- 2410 Tank Hub display
Proven Result References
• Wired and Wireless Communication Makes the
System More Reliable (p.134)
• Altintel improves safety with Smart Wireless
(p.150)
•Tüpra Refinery improves reliability with Smart
Wireless (p.154)
• Akim Tek tank terminal reduced start-up time
(p.158)
• IPLOM Refinery Gets Highest Level Accuracy
(p.164)
• Swedish refinery expands wireless Tank (p.176)
• Wireless Adds Advanced Diagnostics and
Configuration (p.182)
• SIOT Italy Introduces Wireless Radar for Pipe
Transportation of Crude (p.183)
Smart Wireless THUM Adapter in a Tank
Gauging System
The Smart Wireless THUM Adapter acts as a wireless
data link between the level gauge and a Smart
Wireless Gateway in a WirelessHART network. The
THUM Adapter is connected to the 2410 Tank Hub or
a TankRadar Rex or a TankRadar Pro level gauge.
The THUM adapter is supplied with a mounting kit
which allows it to be installed away from the radar
gauge, at the best possible tank roof position. The
THUM Adapter is assembled to a connection box.
118
11
Proven Result
TO P I C PA G E
11.1Chemical. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
11.2 Food and Bevarage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
11.3 Life Science. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
11.4 Oil and Gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
11.5Power. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
11.6 Pulp and Paper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
11.7Refinery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
11.8 Steels and Mining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
11 – Proven Result
11.
Proven Result
11.1Chemical
CHEMICALS
AkzoNobel Improves Storage Tank Heating Control and
Gas Vent Monitoring Using Smart Wireless technology
RESULTS
•
•
•
•
•
Ensured final product met customer requirements
Lowered operating costs by significantly reducing steam consumption
Improved operator efficiency by eliminating need for manual readings
Saved approximately €180,000 related to cabling and DCS changes
Reduced cost of implementing future measurement points
APPLICATION
Storage tank heating control, gas venting pipe monitoring
CUSTOMER
AkzoNobel – Ghlin (Mons), Belgium
CHALLENGE
Existing manual measurement and control methods were
unsatisfactory for maintaining the temperature of fatty nitriles and
amines in the 40 tanks where they were stored before shipment to
customers. Too much steam was sometimes used to heat the materials,
and a number of customers complained that delivered product was
too hot.
In addition, corporate guidelines and new environmental legislation
required monitoring and controlling all gas emissions. Existing
procedures for detecting potential problems required an operator
to make regular trips into the field to take ‘snap-shot’ readings
from pressure gauges on the tank farm’s venting conduits. This was
time-consuming and failed to provide continuous and immediate
information.
Additional thermal measurements were required from within same
the venting conduits to help prevent potential fires arising from high
temperatures. An important issue was the short timeframe available to
install new devices to obtain these additional measurements.
All three applications would benefit from automated measurement
or control technology, but a lack of cable infrastructure, shortage of
available I/O, and tight budget constraints made traditional wired
solutions impractical.
For more information:
www.EmersonProcess.com/QBR
120
“We were particularly
impressed by the number
and range of existing
implementations of Smart
Wireless around the world.
Emerson’s experience was
far in front of other vendors,
and this experience gave us
great confidence with our own
application.”
Nicolas Delfosse
Process Engineer
Surface Chemistry AkzoNobel
11 – Proven Result
CHEMICALS
SOLUTION
AkzoNobel met these challenges by installing Emerson’s Smart
Wireless technology, which is based on the IEC 62591 (WirelessHART®)
standard. This solution removed the need to install new cable
infrastructure. No modification of the existing control system was
required. Wireless data is fed, via a gateway, directly into the DCS using
Modbus communications - without consuming any I/O.
Four Emerson Rosemount® WirelessHART temperature transmitters
were installed to control the temperature on a number of tanks.
Measurement data is transmitted every minute to the DCS, which
controls a simple On/Off steam valve. Temperature can now be
maintained using this wireless closed-loop control. Operators simply
insert the product type and quantity into the DCS and the appropriate
heating and temperature levels are already preconfigured. Automating
this process has allowed operators to focus on higher value tasks. Much
tighter control has reduced steam consumption, lowering operating
costs, while helping to ensure that customers receive product at the
right temperature.
Within the gas venting application ten Rosemount WirelessHART
pressure transmitters have replaced the manually read gauges.
The resulting continuous pressure data has enabled AkzoNobel
to meet corporate and government legislation. Blockages can be
identified immediately and quickly solved by flushing the vents. Three
Rosemount WirelessHART temperature transmitters provide the
required thermal data and will raise an alert should levels rise above
preset limits. Automating the measurements has further improved
operator efficiency.
AkzoNobel estimate overall savings from adopting a wireless solution
instead of installing cabling and making changes to the DCS to be
approximately €180,000. The wireless network has also created an
opportunity for installation savings every time a device is added in the
future. AkzoNobel now intends to upgrade the temperature gauges on
all 40 storage tanks. The company is also considering using the existing
wireless network for tank overspill protection, monitoring condensate
levels within a drain switch system and even monitoring valve position
to ensure against tank filling errors.
“Wireless offered the
opportunity to add new
devices to the network quickly
and at little cost compared to
wired devices. Adding devices
is so simple that I would
describe the Emerson Smart
Wireless solution as `plug and
play.”
Nicolas Delfosse
Process Engineer Surface Chemistry
AkzoNobel
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
121
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
CHEMICALS
EMERSON 702 WIRELESS
Bitumen Tank Farm Mitigates Risk of Overspill and
Increases Plant Safety with Wireless Discrete Transmitters
RESULTS
• Reduced risk of overfill during tank filling
• Mitigated risk on plant personnel safety
• Reduced project cost and difficulty of installation
APPLICATION
Tank overfill level alarm
APPLICATION CHARACTERISTICS
Aging plant without prior automation solution
CUSTOMER
Asphalt plant in China
CHALLENGE
Bitumen is largely used as a construction product. It is supplied and
stored as hot liquid at temperatures ranging from 150 °C to 230 °C
(302 °F to 446 °F). Care is needed for safe handling of bitumen to
avoid accidents. The project manager of this bitumen plant wanted an
automated solution for monitoring tank level to ensure plant safety
during filling as tank status was not visible to engineers on site or at the
control room.
The bitumen plant is aging and has no appropriate solution installed
for overfill protection for individual tanks in the tank farm. There are
no means to signal high-high and low-low alarms of liquid in bitumen
tanks.
Without an overfill protection system, potential overflow may occur,
which may cause safety and environmental issues. Furthermore, the
cost of installing wired instrumentation to all tanks in the tank farm is
very high. Aside from the capital needed, man-hours to complete the
project could affect plant operation.
The wireless solution was easy
to setup, cost-effective, and
provided the much needed
alarm automation especially
for this bitumen plant, which
has many existing cables that
are risky to remove and had
been operating for years.
A Rosemount 702 Wireless Discrete Transmitter
installed on top of a bitumen tank provides
overspill protection.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2012 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
122
11 – Proven Result
CHEMICALS
SOLUTION
The plant installed 28 Rosemount 702 Wireless Discrete Transmitters
connected to 41 third party RF capacitance switches on the bitumen
tanks. This combination provided wireless high-high and low-low
alarms, saving on cost of wires, junction boxes, and I/O cards. Since
the 702 transmitter has dual channel capacity, many of the tanks had
only one device for both high and low level alarms, further saving on
installation costs. Connecting the alarm signal to the control room via
OPC is a Smart Wireless Gateway. Its web interface allowed engineers
in the control room to configure the network by navigating a web
browser, while the Gateway’s universal integration provided the HMI
operators on-site, tank level information via Modbus RTU. The wireless
solution was easy to setup, cost-effective, and provided the much
needed alarm automation especially for this bitumen plant, which has
many existing cables that are risky to remove and had been operating
for years. No wires also meant it required less preparation such as
scaffolding and excavation, reducing project cost. Lastly, the risk of
overspill and risk on personnel safety was greatly reduced.
A Smart Wireless Gateway mana
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Chemical Industry
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/industries/Chemical/Pages/
index.aspx
Rosemount 702 Wireless Discrete Transmitter
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/
Wireless/702-Discrete/Pages/index.aspx
Rosemount 702 Wireless Discrete Transmitter
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0300-4702, Rev AB
123
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
BULK CHEMICAL
SMART WIRELESS
Bulk Chemicals Manufacturer Improves Product Quality
with Reduced Capital Cost by Using Smart Wireless
RESULTS
• Mitigated product quality risk
• Reduced operating costs
• Lowered installation and material costs
APPLICATION
Cold box temperature monitoring
CUSTOMER
Bulk chemicals manufacturer in the United States
CHALLENGE
This bulk chemicals manufacturer was having problems maintaining
temperature of the cold box. The cold box is used as a holding vessel to
maintain product temperature before moving to the next process.
The temperature of the cold box was being measured with a simple
thermocouple that was wired directly back to the DCS thermocouple
input card. The direct measurement caused excessive temperature
drift, which led to measurement unreliability.
The unreliable cold box temperature measurement presented a
significant risk to product quality. Operations personnel did not trust
the measurement and were constantly concerned about producing
off-spec product and other downstream problems. Special field trips
by operators to look at the local cold box temperature readings added
to operating costs. The customer could not justify the capital costs
needed in material and installation for more reliable temperature
monitoring on the cold box.
This wireless high density
temperature transmitter was
centrally located, allowing
for a reliable and low cost
solution for the temperature
measurement.
SOLUTION
This customer’s problem was solved with a Rosemount 848T Wireless
Temperature Transmitter. This high density temperature transmitter
was centrally located, allowing for a reliable and low cost solution for
the temperature measurement. The 848T eliminated the measurement
drift the customer previously experienced by eliminating the direct
wiring practice. The Smart Wireless self-organizing network eliminated
the costs associated with new wiring and additional conduit.
The best core technology, implementation practices, and field
intelligence built into the Smart Wireless solution provided a positive
business impact to this customer.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2009 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
124
The Rosemount 848T Wireless
11 – Proven Result
BULK CHEMICAL
The Rosemount 848T Wireless Temperature Transmitter allowed this
bulk chemicals manufacturer to mitigate the risk of off spec product
and downstream manufacturing problems. By providing reliable and
continuous measurement of cold box temperatures, operating costs
were reduced because special trips to the field were eliminated. These
positive business benefits were realized at a reduced material and
installation cost, compared to a wired solution.
RESOURCES
Emerson’s Smart Wireless
http://www.emersonprocess.com/smartwireless/
Rosemount Temperature
http://www.emersonprocess.com/rosemount/products/temperature/
index.html
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0100-4848, Rev AA
125
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
CHEMICAL
SMART WIRELESS
Chemical Manufacturer Improves Safety and
Reduces Costs with Smart Wireless Solution
RESULTS
• $15,000 in reduced operations and maintenance costs
• Increased plant safety
• Early detection of temperature excursions
APPLICATION
Railcar chemical storage temperature
CUSTOMER
Croda Inc., Mill Hall, PA
CHALLENGE
Croda Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Croda International Plc, a
U.K.-based manufacturer and worldwide supplier of oleo and industrial
chemicals. The Mill Hall plant had a problem monitoring rising
temperatures in railcars containing chemicals. Normally, three railcars
are remotely located on-site. Since the railcars are frequently moved,
hard wiring of temperature sensors was not practical. Employees had to
climb to the top of each car once a day to check the temperatures and
record each reading. This was a time-consuming procedure that during
wet or icy conditions presented a fall potential.
SOLUTION
Emerson Process Management successfully applied a Smart Wireless
solution. No matter where the railcars may be positioned at the Mill
Hall plant, a wireless temperature transmitter on each car sends
minute-by-minute temperature readings to a central host. Croda
uses this information to improve the performance and safety of their
facility. In this way, Emerson’s wireless system contributes to overall
plant safety, making operators aware of any unexpected temperature
rise, while saving the company about $15,000 per year in reduced
maintenance.
The wireless temperature transmitters are quickly and easily installed
atop a railcar upon its arrival at the site, and they remain there until the
car is about to be removed. The wireless communications pass through
a Smart Wireless Gateway (receiver) and on to the plant’s DeltaV™
control system.
While the operators watch for rising temperatures, transmitter
performance and diagnostics are simultaneously checked by Emerson’s
AMS® Suite: Intelligent Device Manager.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2008 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
126
“Emerson’s wireless solution
not only saves us time and
money, since plant personnel
no longer have to monitor
those railcars daily; it has also
greatly enhanced the overall
safety of the plant and our
personnel.”
Denny Fetters
Instrument and Electrical Designer
11 – Proven Result
CHEMICAL
According to Denny Fetters, Instrument and Electrical Designer for
Croda, “Emerson’s wireless solution not only saves us time and money,
since plant personnel no longer have to monitor those railcars daily;
it has also greatly enhanced the overall safety of the plant and our
personnel. We are pleased with the performance of the Rosemount
transmitters and Emerson’s self-organizing mesh network. No matter
where a railcar is positioned on-site, the quality of the transmission
is unaffected, and the signals integrate seamlessly into our control
system.”
“We are pleased with
the performance of the
Rosemount transmitters and
Emerson’s self-organizing
mesh network. No matter
where a railcar is positioned
on-site, the quality of the
transmission is unaffected
and the signals integrate
seamlessly into our control
system.”
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0400-4180, Rev AA
127
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
CHEMICAL
EMERSON SMART WIRELESS
FH Tank Storage Meets Latest Safety Requirements Using
Smart Wireless Differential Pressure and Radar Transmitters
RESULTS
•
•
•
•
Met latest environmental and safety requirements
Estimated installation savings of €50,000 - €100,000
Reduced delivery uncertainty
Increased personnel safety
APPLICATION
Overspill protection of tanks at petrochemical storage terminal
CUSTOMER
FH Tank Storage AB - Kalmar, South-East Sweden
CHALLENGE
To meet the latest environmental and safety requirements, overspill
protection was required on existing tanks storing solvents, petrol, and a
range of chemicals. Previously there was no instrumentation in place.
Level measurements were performed manually, with operators
climbing on tanks roofs. There was a risk of potential injury, especially
during winter when temperatures fall to -20 °C (-4 °F). FH Tank Storage
wanted to automate these measurements and remove any potential
human error when recording, calculating, and listing tank levels on a
white board. Some tanks are over 200m from the main control room
and new cable infrastructure was required. This would have involved
extensive groundwork at a cost of between €50,000 - €100,000. While
these works were being completed, fuel tanker traffic around the
site would have been seriously disrupted. The storage tanks varied in
size and a number of the larger tanks have floating roofs. Minimizing
the number of types of level devices was preferred to enable easier
maintenance and reduced inventory.
“Emerson’s wireless solution
not only saves us time and
money, since plant personnel
no longer have to monitor
those railcars daily; it has also
greatly enhanced the overall
safety of the plant and our
personnel.”
Denny Fetters
Instrument and Electrical Designer
SOLUTION
Emerson’s PlantWeb digital architecture, with a plant wide Smart
Wireless network based on the IEC 62591 (WirelessHART®) standard,
DeltaV™ automation system, and Rosemount® level and pressure
transmitters has been installed and provides both the automated tank
storage level monitoring and overspill protection.
Fourteen Rosemount 3051S wireless differential pressure transmitters
have been deployed on smaller size tanks and 15 Rosemount 5402 non
contacting radars on larger tanks. Smart Wireless THUM™ Adapters are
connected to each of the radars to transmit the data via the wireless
network. The Rosemount 5402 devices are able to cope with very large
tanks and floating roofs. A Rosemount 848T wireless temperature
transmitter with four inputs connecting four temperature sensors has
also been installed to provide continuous temperature information for
four tanks.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2011 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
128
Wireless 3051S differential pressure transmitters
automate 14 of the solvents, petrol, and
chemical tanks. Both level technologies
eliminate manual entry errors and improve
safety.
11 – Proven Result
CHEMICAL
Measurement data is transmitted back to Emerson’s DeltaV digital
automation system in the main control room. A large screen provides
operators with visualisation of all the tanks, tank levels and any
high level alarms or instrumentation failures. Emerson’s AMS Suite
predictive maintenance software is used to monitor the health of both
the wireless network and the individual wireless transmitters. This
improves the efficiency of maintenance staff by identifying faults and
reducing the number of trips into the field.
FH Tank Storage has ordered 15 Rosemount radars and THUM Adapters
to automate 15 more tanks. Rosemount radar devices and THUMs
are also expected to provide the level measurements and overspill
protection for five tanks currently under construction.
“Emerson’s Rosemount level, pressure and temperature transmitters,
and Smart Wireless network have enabled us to implement a cost
effective automated measurement system,” concluded Lars Ferm, Site
Manager, FH Tank Storage.
Rosemount 5402 non-contacting radar
measurement devices with Smart Wireless
THUM’s were placed on large tanks and
over floating roofs to automate tank level
measurements and overspill protection.
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Oil and Gas Industry
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/industries/oil-gas/Pages/
OilandGas.aspx
Rosemount Wireless Products
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/
Wireless/Pages/index.aspx
Rosemount Non-Contacting Radar 5400 Series
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/Level/
Noncontacting-Radar/5400-Series/Pages/index.aspx
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0900-4802, Rev AA
129
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
PETROCHEMICALS
EMERSON SMART WIRELESS
Petrochemical Plant Drives Energy Efficiency with Smart
Wireless DP Flowmeters and Temperature Transmitters
RESULTS
•
•
•
•
Higher efficiency
Lower operations costs
Lower capital costs
Fast, easy installation
APPLICATION
Natural gas flow to a gas metering grid
CUSTOMER
Petrochemical plant in India producing Linear Alkali Benzene (LAB)
CHALLENGE
Energy efficiency is an important operations consideration in the
process industries. Reducing energy cost is an imperative in today’s
environment. Operations personnel wanted to measure the plant’s
consumption of natural gas and have tighter control over the gas
metering grid to drive efficiency and reduce operating cost.
To achieve this target, gas flow needed to be measured at the
steam source and temperature measured at the gas metering grid
respectively. The plant’s layout resulted in some challenging physical
limitations. For instance at the heater and boiler system, a traditional
orifice plate could not be installed due to limited straight run
availability. At the gas metering grid, it was not economical to layout
cables to wire the temperature transmitter to the central control room.
Furthermore, there were no available empty slots for additional analog
input (AI) cards at the Distributed Control System or DCS, preventing
additional data integration into the DCS without a capital expenditure.
Without means to measure process parameters, engineers were unable
to have tighter control of the process. They could not tell if the boiler
and heater were consuming too much gas, resulting in an inefficient
process and increased energy cost. Installing traditional measurement
devices would incur high project cost and could affect the production
schedule due to the need for pipe preparation and wire trenching.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2012 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
130
The wireless solution brought
critical operations data such
as flow rate, gage pressure
and process temperature, to
the control room enabling
engineers to tighten and
improve process efficiency.
Wireless gas flow measurement with Rosemount
3051SFC and THUM was easily integrated into
the plant DCS.
11 – Proven Result
PETROCHEMICALS
SOLUTION
The plant called on Emerson Smart Wireless capabilities to address
the project limitations. Six Rosemount 3051SFC Conditioning Orifice
Flowmeters with THUM adapters were installed to measure gas flow
into the boiler and heater systems. The 3051SFC requires a shorter
straight pipe run with its Conditioning Orifice Technology. It also has
fewer leak points as it eliminates impulse lines, and is leak tested at the
factory to ensure fast and easy installation between existing flanges.
For the gas metering grid, two Rosemount 648 Wireless Temperature
Transmitters were installed. This provided immediate temperature
measurement without worrying about wiring costs. These field
devices were wirelessly integrated to the existing DCS through a Smart
Wireless Gateway.
The wireless solution brought data such as flow rate, gage pressure and
process temperature to the control room which is critical to operations.
This made gas consumption visible to the process engineers enabling
them to make adjustments and make the process more efficient. The
ease of installation also made the project easier to execute. And lastly,
with the wireless network in place, the plant now has more flexibility to
explore other measurement points.
A Rosemount 648 Wireless installed in the Gas
Metering Grid.
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Chemical Industry
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/industries/Chemical/Pages/
index.aspx
Emerson Smart Wireless
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/plantweb/wireless/Pages/
WirelessHomePage-Flash.aspx
Rosemount Conditioning Orifice Flowmeters
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/Flow/
DP-Flow-Products/Conditioning-Orifice-Flowmeter/Pages/index.aspx
Rosemount Temperature
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/
Temperature/Pages/index.aspx
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-1000-4802, Rev AB
131
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
SPECIALTY CHEMICALS
ROSEMOUNT 3051SF
Silicone Manufacturer Improves Energy Costs
with Wireless Flowmeters
RESULTS
• Improves energy cost management
• Reduced operation and maintenance costs
• Increased the safety of plant personnel
APPLICATION
365 °F (185 °C) saturated steam flow measurement at -20 °F (-29 °C)
ambient temperature
CUSTOMER
A large silicone manufacturer in the North Eastern US
The Rosemount 3051SF
Wireless Flowmeters allowed
the customer to better account
for steam usage within the
plant.
CHALLENGE
This silicone manufacturer had challenges trying to keep their process
units accountable for the steam usage within the plant. The company
needed to better understand their steam usage to know if there were
leaks or other waste in their system.
The silicone manufacturer needed to make six flow measurements
on steam distribution lines that were located throughout their
facility. Unreliable insertion vortex and turbine meters were not
providing reliable steam flow measurement and constantly required
maintenance. These meters would frequently fail and needed to
be replaced. The measurement points are located outside in a cold
environment, requiring the manufacturer to consider the use of
heat tracing or other measures to safeguard the measurement
instrument from freezing. Not having reliable steam flow measurement
constrained their ability to effectively manage their energy costs by
process unit. Furthermore, the unreliable measurement instruments
increased maintenance problems that required frequent replacement
of flowmeters at high installation costs. Replacing these flowmeters
required maintenance personnel to climb scaffolding to reach the
installations in icy and dangerous locations.
SOLUTION
The silicone manufacturer purchased four 3051SFC Compact Orifice
Wireless Flowmeters and two 3051SFA Annubar Wireless Flowmeters.
The wireless technology enabled them to install the flowmeters
without the need for wiring. They utilized new top mounting
installation recommendations for DP Flowmeters in steam service.
By direct mounting the transmitter above the pipe, the installation
eliminated impulse lines and utilized the heat of the process to
safeguard the installation from freezing. This eliminated the need for
costly heat tracing.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2010 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
132
Figure 1. Rosemount 3051SF Wireless
Flowmeters
11 – Proven Result
SPECIALTY CHEMICALS
Utilizing reliable wireless flowmeter technology enabled the plastics
manufacturer to understand their steam usage in the plant. In addition,
they saved $40K in wiring costs by using wireless technology and
eliminated the frequent maintenance and replacement of the unreliable
flowmeters. They were also able to achieve a safer work environment
for their maintenance personnel as they were not required to frequently
troubleshoot failures in hazardous conditions.
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Chemical Industry
http://www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/chemical/
Emerson Smart Wireless
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/plantweb/wireless/Pages/
WirelessHomePage.aspx
Rosemount Annubar Flowmeters
http://www.rosemount.com/Flow/DP-Flow-Products/AnnubarFlowmeters/Pages/index.aspx
Rosemount Compact Orifice Flowmeters
http://www.rosemount.com/Flow/DP-Flow-Products/Compact-OrificeFlowmeter/Pages/index.aspx
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-3100-4801, Rev CA
133
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
CHEMICAL
EMERSON SMART WIRELESS
Wired and Wireless Communication Makes the
System More Reliable
RESULTS
•
•
•
•
Saved project cost and time
Increased tank operational availability
Reduced safety and environmental risks
Lowered operating and maintenance cost
APPLICATION
Tank Gauging
CUSTOMER
A Singapore-based world-class manufacturer develops and markets
quality additives that improve the performance of fuels and
lubricants, with its products sold to more than 15 countries in Asia
and distributed to worldwide markets.
CHALLENGE
Existing old “float and tape” mechanical tank gauging system
requires more frequently maintenance, upgrading to radar
technology with existing aging cable may face an intermittent
communication, laying new cabling increases project cost and causes
long project schedule due to construction work.
SOLUTION
A Rosemount Raptor 2-IN-1 radar with one mechanical opening saves
cost on tank modification but delivers redundant level measurement.
Wired and wireless communication makes the system more reliable,
and increase the safety and maximize the throughput.
Wireless communication provides another access for servicing of
tank gauging system, minimizing the interference to operation.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2013 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
134
11 – Proven Result
SMART WIRELESS APPLICATIONS
Emerson’s Smart Wireless Products Prevent Breakdowns and
Lost Production on Rotating Reactor at Coogee Chemicals
BENEFITS
• Smart Wireless transmitters replaced wired instruments on plant’s
rotating chemical reactor that failed frequently
• Control of the process and product quality are greatly improved
• Productivity has increased substantially
CHALLENGE
Coogee Chemicals in Australia produces a wide range of industrial,
agricultural and mineral processing chemicals. Obtaining accurate
pressure and temperature data from inside the plant’s rotating reactor
is very important to maintaining process control, but wired instruments
were not dependable in this environment. The failure of seals on the
slip-rings connecting wires to the rotating equipment allowed the entry
of moisture into the instruments. Unreliable temperature and pressure
measurements resulted in poor control of the reactor, which had to be
shut down two or three times a week.
SOLUTION
The installation at Coogee Chemicals consists of two wireless
instruments mounted on one end of a rotating chemical reactor and
transmitting pressure and temperature data continuously to a nearby
Smart Wireless Gateway. The data is passed from the gateway via
Modbus communications to the programmable logic controller (PLC)
controlling the process. More reliable inputs enable the PLC to improve
both process control and product quality.
RESULTS
Emerson Process Management’s Smart Wireless instruments mounted
on a rotating reactor are credited with delivering reliable pressure and
temperature measurements to prevent frequent reactor breakdowns
and lost production time. Control of the process and product quality
are greatly improved as a result, and productivity has increased
substantially since the wireless instruments were installed in late 2007.
For more information:
www.EmersonProcess.com/SmartWireless
135
“The Smart Wireless solution
provides a means of obtaining
accurate pressure and
temperature measurements
from the moving vessel
without having to connect
wires to the measurement
devices. Wireless delivers
reliability where it wasn’t
available before.”
Noel Shrubsall
Electrical Project Officer
11 – Proven Result
SMART WIRELESS APPLICATIONS
Emerson’s Smart Wireless Technology Enables Sun Chemical
to Improve Product Quality, Meet Air Permit Requirements
RESULTS
• Smart Wireless enables easy compliance with environmental
regulations
• Robust network of Rosemount® DP wireless transmitters reduces
product rejects
• Smart Wireless was easily installed and integrated with the
company’s PLC
CHALLENGE
Sun Chemical, the world’s largest producer of printing inks and
pigments, needed a way to improve ink quality and collect additional
data in compliance with its air permit classification at its Kankakee,
Ill., facility.
SOLUTION
Sun Chemical is using Emerson’s Rosemount® wireless DP
transmitters and a Smart Wireless Gateway to deliver reliable,
continuous process data from two applications to its PLC.
In the first application, the devices measure differential pressure
on filter housings used in ink production. The pressure changes as
the filters become clogged with particles. Alarms sent to operators
signal when filters should be changed. Periodic staff rounds to check
gauges on the filter housing and record the data manually are no
longer necessary.
The second application enabled Sun Chemical to be compliant with
a modified air permit classification by quickly establishing a costeffective monitoring network to measure vapor stream from solvent
vent condensers at multiple locations on roofs across the facility.
Running conduit for a wired network would have been physically
difficult and more expensive.
For more information:
www.EmersonProcess.com/SmartWireless
136
“With these points spanning
the entire site, the multiple
roof elevations, and special
electrical classifications, a
wired solution would have
been a challenge. Emerson’s
‘peer to peer’ communication
between the wireless
instruments gave us a robust
solution.”
John Dwyer
Process Engineer, Sun Chemical
11 – Proven Result
SMART WIRELESS APPLICATIONS
RESULTS
Smart Wireless helps Sun Chemicals prevent over-pressurizing
the filter housing, which enables them to provide better
quality ink to customers, and save thousands of dollars in
eliminating material rejects.
With points spanning the entire site, the multiple roof
elevations, and special electrical classifications, a wired
solution would have been a challenge. But, Emerson’s ‘peer to
peer’ communication between the wireless instruments gave
Sun Chemical a robust solution, and the network becomes
more secure and reliable as more instruments are added.
Sun Chemical easily installed the Smart Wireless technology
and Emerson helped to integrate the network with the
company’s PLC. The self-organizing network has been
operating without problem since commissioning. Now that
the network is established and more monitoring points are
available, the plant can easily fulfill its desire to pick up more
process monitoring data.
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
137
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
11.2
Food and Bevarage
FOOD & BEVERAGE
EMERSON 648 WIRELESS
Food Manufacturer’s Regular Maintenance Cost and
Production Downtime Reduced by Wireless Solution
RESULTS
•
•
•
•
•
Increased roaster availability
Faster roaster startup
Higher production throughput
Improved quality
10,000 USD saved in maintenance costs
APPLICATION
Temperature measurement of product inside a rotating roaster
APPLICATION CHARACTERISTICS
Roaster rotating at 30 to 35 rpm
CUSTOMER
Food Manufacturing Company in Asia
CHALLENGE
Accurate and reliable temperature measurement is important
in maintaining quality of roasted products. The Instrumentation
Engineer of this food manufacturing plant wanted to eliminate regular
maintenance of the slip ring assembly used to measure product
temperature inside a rotating roaster. Reducing downtime due to
maintenance would mean increased roaster availability and thus
increased production throughput.
Two thermocouples wired into a slip ring assembly were used to
measure the surface temperature of the rotating roaster. The slip ring
converts the temperature reading into resistance and sends it to a
Distributed Control System or DCS. Due to high temperature and high
humidity of the roasting process, the slip ring contacts began to oxidize
sending out erratic readings.
Without accurate temperature measurement, the product would get
over-roasted and affect quality. In addition, a fire could potentially
occur due to unchecked high process temperature once the slip ring
assembly oxidizes. To mitigate this risk, the roaster needed to be turned
off so a replacement assembly could be installed. Since it takes about
four production days to finish surveying the roaster and mold a new slip
ring assembly, frequent oxidation of the slip rings not only increased
maintenance cost, but lost four days of production as well.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2012 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
138
The Rosemount 648 Wireless
Temperature Transmitter
enabled an estimated savings
of 10,000 USD by eliminating
the need to maintain a
slip ring assembly prone to
oxidation.
11 – Proven Result
FOOD & BEVERAGE
SOLUTION
The Instrumentation Engineer replaced the slip ring assembly with a
Rosemount 648 Wireless Temperature Transmitter. This eliminated
the need to use a slip ring assembly which was prone to oxidation. The
existing thermocouples were connected to the wireless transmitter,
which transmits surface temperature measurements to a Smart Wireless
Gateway. The wireless network is then integrated into a DCS with OPC to
allow data tracking to maintain product quality. The Rosemount 648’s
Transmitter-Sensor Matching feature eliminates sensor interchangeability
error, improving accuracy of measurement for better quality control.
By replacing the slip ring assembly with a Rosemount 648 wireless
solution, the plant was able to save an estimated 10,000 USD on
maintenance cost. They were also able to improve production
throughput as the roaster downtime due to maintenance of the slip ring
assembly was eliminated. And with a robust and accurate temperature
measurement integrated into a DCS, product quality can be easily
monitored and maintained.
Rotating roaster drum with a Rosemount 648
Wireless Temperature Transmitter
RESOURCES
Emerson Food and Beverage Industry
http://www.emersonprocess.com/foodandbeverage/
Emerson 648 Wireless Temperature Transmitter
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/
Temperature/Single-Point-Measurement/648-Wireless/Pages/index.aspx
Rosemount 648 Wireless Temperature
Transmitter
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0300-4648, Rev AB
139
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
FOOD & BEVERAGE
EMERSON SMART WIRELESS
Productivity Improvement with Wireless Steam
Trap Monitoring
RESULTS
• Reduced energy use by minimizing steam blow-through and/or
blocked flow
• Improved productivity by eliminating preventative maintenance (PM)
activities on steam traps
• Reduced mechanical/asset failures by minimizing water-hammering
APPLICATION
Steam trap wireless monitoring
CUSTOMER
Major Food Manufacturer in the Southeast United States
CHALLENGE
A major food manufacturer in the United States drives innovation in all
areas of their business, while maintaining the highest quality in their
products, services, and relationships. For the food product’s plant in the
southeast, innovation extends to process instrumentation and control. “We
are always looking to improve energy use,” said the Project Engineer who
provides project and maintenance services in the utility area of this plant.
“This is a large plant with multiple product lines which are run as individual
business units from a cost perspective. We want to know the energy use for
each business unit over time, and compare them. In that way, we can make
continuous improvements to the areas that need it the most.”
Steam traps were identified as one culprit of energy loss. When a steam
trap fails open, steam is not completely consumed and is blown directly
into the condensate return system, where it may be lost to the atmosphere
in an “open system.” It also can raise the pressure in the condensate
system, inhibiting the discharge of other traps, causing system-wide
inefficiencies. If it fails closed, the system will flood, causing a loss of
heat transfer and subsequent loss of production. Steam trap failures also
increase the potential for water-hammer that may lead to equipment
damage and downtime.
In an effort to prevent steam trap failures, a preventative maintenance
schedule was developed. With close to 100 traps in the plant, PM could
only be performed once per year. It takes the maintenance crew at least
one hour per unit to check the steam traps, when done properly, so
maintenance labor on the traps was 100 hours annually.
“When I heard about the acoustic transmitter from Emerson, I wanted to
try it out,” the customer said. “We were looking for automatic, on-line
monitoring of steam trap performance and real-time alerts to minimize
preventative maintenance (PM) requirements and minimize energy losses.
This new innovation from Emerson seemed like a good fit, and we were
glad to test it.”
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2011 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
140
“We found 22% of our traps
needed to be replaced during
our last PM check. By installing
wireless acoustic transmitters,
the plant will prevent steam
loss with early detection of
steam trap failure. Not only
will this minimize energy loss,
but it will free up maintenance
to focus their time and
attention on things that need
to be fixed, to further improve
our productivity.”
Project Engineer
Major Food Manufacturer in the U.S.
11 – Proven Result
FOOD & BEVERAGE
SOLUTION
A self-organizing, wireless network with wireless 3051S DP flowmeters had already
been installed to monitor compressed air flow to the various business units in the
plant, to understand the electrical energy use. Adding the non-intrusive wireless
acoustic measurement device was easy, and saved a lot of money in installation cost.
“Wireless greatly reduces installation cost,” said the customer, “and we use those
savings to purchase more instrumentation to extend utility monitoring in our plant.”
For steam trap monitoring, nine 708 Rosemount Wireless Acoustic Transmitters (with
integrated sensors that mount externally) were installed on steam lines throughout the
plant and integrated into the existing Smart Wireless Gateway, which communicates
to a plant host. The steam traps range from thermostatic (TT) to float and thermostatic
(FT) to simple bucket traps, and the acoustic transmitters work equally well on all of
them. One application is even a steam driven pump, where the acoustics of the pump
are being monitored to give early indication of problems. The network was easy to
expand, and the new transmitters just strengthened the mesh. They have a lot of
concrete between the transmitters and the gateway, and high EMF, but the wireless
communications are strong and reliable.
The 708 transmitter, with an industry-leading combination of temperature
measurement and acoustic “listening,” gives unparalleled visibility into steam trap
states. “Manual monitoring of temperature did not give us enough information to
conclusively target a steam trap for replacement when we saw water-hammering,” the
project engineer continued. “But when we installed the wireless acoustic transmitter,
we could tell immediately which steam trap was stuck.” It was quickly fixed, and a trend
of the new trap showed normal acoustics and temperature.
Now the plant has real time alerts for each of the nine steam traps with wireless
acoustic transmitters. Some are in “wash down” areas, and one is in a high humidity
environment. All are communicating reliably. Because of the design of this device, the
customer can “set and forget” each of the acoustic transmitters, and eliminate manual
PM activities.
“We found 22% of our traps needed to be replaced during our last PM check. By
installing wireless acoustic transmitters, the plant will prevent steam loss with early
detection of steam trap failure. Not only will this minimize energy loss, but it will free
up maintenance to focus their time and attention on things that need to be fixed, to
further improve our productivity,” concluded the customer.
The 708 Rosemount Wireless
Acoustic Transmitter features
integrated sensors that mount
externally to make installation
fast, inexpensive, and nonintrusive to the process.
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Food and Beverage Industry
http://www.emersonprocess.com/foodandbeverage/
Rosemount 708 Wireless Acoustic Transmitter
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/Wireless/708-Acoustic/
Pages/index.aspx
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0400-4728, Rev AA
141
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
FOOD & BEVERAGE
EMERSON SMART WIRELESS
Temperature Technologies Provide New Insights to
Improve Safety, Productivity at American Crystal Sugar
RESULTS
•
•
•
•
•
Improved plant safety
Greater visibility in hazardous areas
2.5% reduction in operations time for higher operator productivity
Improved pond management
Ready for new upcoming EPA reporting requirements
APPLICATION
Monitor bearing temperature and motor current in Weibull Bins
(sugar silos) and conveyor system to prevent ignition point; remote
monitoring of settling ponds.
CUSTOMER
American Crystal Sugar (ACS), East Grand Forks, MN
CHALLENGE
Sugar dust in safety equipment caused a small explosion at a sugar
refinery near Savannah, GA. Just eleven days earlier, a similar but bigger
blast killed nine workers at a Port Wentworth, GA plant according to
a federal investigator. Alerted to the potential danger of sugar dust,
American Crystal Sugar (ACS) proactively searched for ways to prevent
a similar accident in its plants. The company looked to measure
abnormal situations where field equipment could become potential
ignition points in hazardous areas, including hazardous dust in the Class
II Div 1 & 2 Group G.
“We first identified equipment and devices that were potential ignition
points,” said Gary Phelps, Electronic Control Technician for ACS. “We
were looking for devices that were not ignition sources under normal
conditions, but had the potential to become ignition sources under
abnormal situations.” Bearings and motors in the sugar silos where
sugar dust was in the greatest concentration were the first to be
identified, as were misaligned conveyors that delivered the sugar from
the silos to the sugar handling area.
“We identified the bearings on the sugar conveyor system as well as the
misaligned conveyors, as both could heat up and potentially introduce
an ignition point,” said Jay Sorum, also an Electronic Control Technician
for ACS. “Even sealed bearings can fail, and create an ignition point.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2012 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
142
Rub blocks provide an indication when the
conveyor is even slightly out of alignment. A
conveyor out of alignment can be a potential
ignition source.
Sugar silos at ACS in EGF have a rotating bridge
that made wired instrumentation impossible to
implement.
11 – Proven Result
FOOD & BEVERAGE
Conveyor belts, too, have the potential if they become even slightly
misaligned.” The challenge was installing an instrument network that had
high reliability and performance with a low installed cost. In the sugar
silos, an additional challenge was introduced. “The sugar silos are about
75 feet high and 100 feet across,” said Phelps. “A rotating bridge spans
the top, and a tube down the center holds the motor where some of the
bearing temperature and motor amp measurements needed to be made.
There are also two screws on the floor of the silo with motors that require
temperature measurements. Conventional instrumentation proposed a
huge challenge in this area.” It was also a challenge for wireless, as the silos
are made of a heavy gauge stainless steel with an additional metal skin for
insulation.
SOLUTION
“We evaluated three technologies to determine the best course to improve
safety at our plant,” said Sorum. “The first was a conventional (4-20 mA)
wired system, but it was too expensive to wire each instrument point to
point.” It also was not an option for the Weibull Bins because of the rotating
bridge. The second solution was a wired bus. A bus solution would minimize
home run wiring and lower the installed cost of the instruments while
providing high performance and reliability. The third technology was a
wireless network. This was considered mainly for the silos because of the
rotating bridge.
Conveyor System
“We determined that FOUNDATION™ fieldbus provided the highest
performance and reliability at the lowest installed cost,” said Phelps. “Since
one 848T FOUNDATION fieldbus Temperature Transmitter could handle
all eight measurement points on a conveyor, we were able to handle 72
temperature points with only 9 transmitters.” One 848T was installed for
each of the nine conveyor belts, with each transmitter reading four bearing
temperatures and four “rub block” temperatures. These points were
integrated via fieldbus into the DeltaV control system to provide automatic
detection, trending, and alarming of temperature, rate of change, and
temperature delta for the operators. Integrating logic for the rub block
temperature alarms was easy with the DeltaV tools. A function block
template was used to design the complex logic and copied for all ignition
points. Troubleshooting the logic was simple, as making a change to the
template changed the function blocks for all ignition points.
Sugar Silos
Since the three Weibull Bins (sugar silos) had rotating equipment, a mixed
solution of both WirelessHART® and wired instrumentation was installed.
Each of the three silos had one Smart Wireless Gateway with four 648 (single
point) Wireless Temperature Transmitters installed; two measuring bearing
temperatures on motors and two measuring motor amps. Since the output
of the motors is milliampere and the 648 transmitters read millivolts, it was
a simple solution to put a 5ohm resister in the loop to get a millivolt output
from each of the motors that the transmitters could read. Within each silo
the four instruments formed a “communication mesh” that communicated
with the Gateway. Since the outside of each silo was made of a heavy gauge
stainless steel (with a thin metal skin and insulation), a remote antenna was
placed inside the silo on the central rotating tube. This antenna was wired
through the tube to the Gateway located on the outside of each silo. Each of
the three gateways was hard wired back with ethernet to the DeltaV control
system, where it was seamlessly integrated as “native I/O,” and information
was made available for trending and alarming. Installation time was
minimized and commissioning was easy with the AMS Device Manager. “The
AMS Device Manager was invaluable during installation and commissioning
of the wireless and fieldbus instruments. Having one location to manage the
devices saved a lot of time, as the instruments are spread all over the plant.”
© 2012 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
143
Each of the nine conveyor belts had four
bearing temperature measurements and four
rub block temperature measurements that
were handled by one 848T FOUNDATION™
Fieldbus High Density Temperature
Transmitter.
One 848T Wireless Temperature Transmitter
can handle up to 4 inputs including 4-20mA,
mV, Thermocouple, RTD, or ohm. The
field hardened enclosures and intrinsically
safe Power Module makes it ideal for this
hazardous environment.
Four 648 (single point) Smart Wireless
Temperature Transmitters were placed inside
the silos to measure bearing temperatures
and motor currents.
11 – Proven Result
FOOD & BEVERAGE
Pond Management
ACS extended the use of Emerson’s Smart Wireless technology to integrate
non-critical points into the control room as well. Remote pond measurements
were collected regularly to manually record pond levels, pH, ORP, dissolved
oxygen, temperature and discharge flow rate. These conventionally wired
devices were too expensive to bring back to the control room since the ponds
were three quarters of a mile away or more. ACS realized the 848T had a wireless
option as well as fieldbus, and could accept four inputs from any combination of
RTD, thermocouple, ohm, millivolt and 4-20 mA signals. The analytical devices,
ultrasonic flow devices, magmeters, and all other measurements from each of
the 9 ponds were locally wired to the Wireless 848T Temperature transmitter and
sent back to a Gateway and integrated into the control room environment where
they could be automatically recorded, trended and reported. Two 702 discrete
transmitters, acting as range extenders, were installed on 15 foot poles 0.54 miles
from the furthest pond. The intent was to place the second device in series closer
to the instrument mesh, but the network was able to communicate reliably at
that distance. The second instrument therefore acts as a backup range extender
to further improve communication reliability.
Now wireless data is automatically collected at one minute intervals instead
of twice weekly by operators. This rich information has helped ACS manage
their ponds more closely, to make final treatment more efficient. It has also
set the stage for new upcoming EPA reporting requirements, like proving the
plant is meeting the new dissolved oxygen standard. Overall, the combination
of WirelessHART and FOUNDATION fieldbus provided the most cost-effective
solution for both critical and non-critical applications. The additional instruments
widened the operator view into both hazardous and remote areas of the plant,
and enabled engineering to improve plant safety. Operators spend their time
more productively with fewer trips out to remote areas, and the plant is set up
for new EPA reporting requirements. The Emerson solution has proven to be so
valuable that ACS has installed it in all five sugar plants in the region.
A remote antenna on the center
rotating shaft inside the sugar silo
allows the wireless instruments to
communicate with the Smart Wireless
Gateway located outside each silo.
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Food & Beverage Industry
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-us/plantweb/customerproven/pages/
FoodBeverage.aspx
Rosemount 848T Temperature Solutions
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/Temperature/
High-Density-Measurement/Pages/index.aspx
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0400-4848, Rev AB
144
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
11.3
Life Science
PHARMACEUTICAL
Emerson’s Smart Wireless Technology
Monitors Water Usage at GlaxoSmithKline
RESULTS
• Able to clearly identify water usage for different areas of the plant
• Significant cost of new power and data cables avoided
• Easy and inexpensive to add additional measurement devices without
the need for new cabling
APPLICATION
Monitoring mains and potable (drinking) water usage
CUSTOMER
GlaxoSmithKline – Cork, Ireland
CHALLENGE
The Cork site is a strategic manufacturing plant that produces a
range of bulk active ingredients for use in the formulation of
prescription drugs. The existing water storage facility was too small
and had no measurement instrumentation in place. Two new storage
tanks were installed along with a new pipework infrastructure. The
tanks are located around 300 metres from the main control room
and there was no existing cabling in place. A wired installation would
have required new power and data cables to be buried in trenches.
By adopting a wireless solution, these significant costs could be
avoided. However there was no line of sight between the location of
the transmitters and the ideal position for a gateway.
SOLUTION
GlaxoSmithKline selected Emerson’s Smart Wireless self-organising
technology, which does not require line of sight. If there is an
obstruction, transmissions are simply re-routed along the mesh
network until a clear path to the Smart Wireless Gateway is found.
Ten Smart Wireless devices were installed including six Rosemount
pressure transmitters, two Rosemount flow transmitters and two
Rosemount level transmitters. The Smart Wireless technology
integrates seamlessly with the existing automation equipment.
For more information:
www.EmersonProcess.com/QBR
145
“Whenever we look to
improve the plant with new
equipment, we are always
looking to minimise capital
expenditure and Smart
Wireless can help achieve
lower costs”
Emmett Martin
Site Services & Automation Manager
GlaxoSmithKline
11 – Proven Result
PHARMACEUTICAL
Flow data is transmitted every 30 seconds and pressure and level data
every 300 seconds to a Smart Wireless Gateway strategically positioned
on the control room roof. This is connected using a serial connection to
the existing DeltaV™ system that controls the plant utilities. From here
the flow and pressure measurements are sent to a data historian and
are available to plant operators for regular monitoring and reporting.
The new data obtained has enabled GlaxoSmithKline to clearly identify
water usage for different areas of the plant, providing a far better
understanding of the costs. GlaxoSmithKline is now in a position to
identify changes and which processes they relate to.
The new wireless infrastructure makes it very easy and cost effective to
add additional measurement devices without the need for new cabling.
GlaxoSmithKline are already looking at installing a wireless level device
that will be added to the existing network.
“We are more than satisfied
with the solution, which is
proving to be reliable with
no signal loss. Based on a
successful implementation, at
some point in the future we
are perhaps, looking towards
a plant with no wires.”
Emmett Martin
Site Services & Automation Manager
GlaxoSmithKline
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
146
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
11.4
Oil and Gas
NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION
SMART WIRELESS
Atlas Pipeline Improves Production Efficiency at
Natural Gas Processing Facility
RESULTS
•
•
•
•
Improved gas production efficiency
Minimized process upsets and plant shutdowns
42% reduction in operator time
Saved $725K on installation costs
CUSTOMER
Atlas Pipeline Partners L.P. is a full service midstream company
providing reliable gas gathering, compression, processing and
treating services to its customers.
CHALLENGE
In west Texas, Atlas Pipeline Partners built a new gas processing plant
adjacent to an old plant to keep safety and production efficiency as
high as possible, as the old plant was too old to refurbish. However,
the capital investment was minimized by utilizing viable tanks,
compressors, stabilizers and cooling towers in the old plant and
integrating them with processing equipment in the new plant. A
problem arose in bringing measurement and control points into the
new control room, because the old vessels were now hundreds of
yards away.
A wired solution was expensive. The assets are hundreds of yards from
the control room, and trenching was not an option because accurate
piping diagrams were not available due to the age of the plant.
The operators were making rounds and manually reading stabilizer
pressures and temperatures, compressor status, and cooling tower
levels as well as inlet vessel and tank levels. It took two hours to read
and record all 75 gauges, and this had to be done four to five times
a day to give operators the best chance of finding a problem before
it upset the process. Not only was this time consuming, the high
frequency of operator rounds still did not provide adequate warning
for operators to take corrective action. Problems like compressor
failures and poor inlet vessel level control were causing process upsets
and impacting production, with some issues causing shutdowns.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2013 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
147
“The application gave us a
centralized location to view
our total plant process. Our
operators do not have to
make rounds to learn about
potential problems. They can
more efficiently operate the
plant by seeing changes and
problems when they occur.
Wayne Wauson
I&E and Field Supervisor
11 – Proven Result
NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION
SOLUTION
Atlas quickly realized that assets from the old plant had to be integrated
into the control room, as manual monitoring was not providing the
efficiency and productivity needed. To avoid the cost of wires and cable
trays, a Smart Wireless network from Emerson was installed with 75
measurement points and three Smart Wireless gateways. “Wireless was
our only way to do this project,” said Wayne Wauson, I&E and Field
Supervisor at Atlas. “Without it we would have spent three times as
much, and the project would have been dragged out for months.” The
instruments included 55 wireless Rosemount 3051S pressure and DP
level transmitters, 5 wireless Rosemount 648 temperature transmitters,
2 Emerson THUMS connected to Radar gauges and 18 discrete
transmitters connected to compressors to report status, as well as
other various devices.
The first gateway communicates to about 34 instruments. The
second gateway communicates with 24 devices. The third gateway,
communicates up to 1200 feet away with the remainder of the
instruments.
Startup took only a day. “Most of the instruments were installed and
communicating in a matter of minutes,” said Wauson. “There were a
few issues that took a little longer, but overall it was easy and seamless
and took about a day to have them all communicating and showing up
on DeltaV™.” DeltaV is the digital automation system that monitors
and controls critical plant processes. Operators are able to view process
information from wireless devices in the same way as any of the wired
field instruments. Maintaining the wireless instruments also has the
same look and feel. AMSTM Suite: Intelligent Device Manager predictive
maintenance software was integrated into the control network, so the
plant can proactively maintain both wireless and wired field devices
from both plants in the control room, including the Fisher® valves.
Now operators only go to the old plant in response to alarms from
DeltaV, and even then they know exactly which vessel or asset
needs maintenance. The wireless network has eliminated 8-10
hours of operator rounds per day, giving operators 42% more time
to accomplish more productive tasks. “The application gave us a
centralized location to view our total plant process,” said Wauson.
“Our operators no longer have to make rounds to learn about potential
problems. They can more efficiently operate the plant by seeing
changes and problems when they occur, and by taking immediate
action.”
Real-time information from the wireless network has improved
operator response time, resulting in higher gas production efficiency.
Operators are spending their time more productively and process
upsets have been minimized. “The Emerson Wireless solution works as
advertised,” concluded Wauson. “We installed a device and could see
it on the DeltaV in a matter of minutes. We are only using one-fifth of
the capacity of the wireless gateways, so we can add instruments to
the network with minimal cost and effort. The Emerson solution is truly
plug and play, not plug and pray.”
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2013 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
148
Three Smart Wireless Gateways communicate
to 75 wireless devices up to 1500 feet away.
11 – Proven Result
NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Oil and Gas Industry
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/industries/oil-gas/Pages/
OilandGas.aspx
Emerson’s Smart Wireless THUM™ Adapter
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/Wireless/
THUM-Adapter/Pages/index.aspx
Rosemount 3051 Pressure Transmitters
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/Pressure/
Pressure-Transmitters/3051-Pressure-Transmitters/Pages/index.aspx
Rosemount 648 Wireless Temperature Transmitter
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/
Temperature/Single-Point-Measurement/648-Wireless/Pages/index.aspx
Rosemount 3051S Wireless Solutions
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/Pressure/
Pressure-Transmitters/3051S-Wireless/Pages/index.aspx
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0700-4802, Rev AA
149
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
WIRELESS TANKRADAR REX
Altintel Improves Safety with
Smart Wireless
RESULTS
•
•
•
•
Improved safety
Minimized cost for cabling
Quick installation and commissioning
Easy to expand
“Safety is a must! That is why
we spend money on state-ofthe arttank gauging.”
APPLICATION
Wireless tank gauging system for storage terminals.
CUSTOMER
Altintel, is strategically located in the Izmit area, close to Istanbul. This
seaport terminal is one of the largest for liquid chemical and petroleum
storage in Turkey, with 51 storage tanks, 60.000 m3 in total. Examples
of stored products are pharmaceutical liquids, paints, plastics, and also
hydrocarbons such as 95/98 gasoline, asphalt, diesel, and naphtha.
The tank gauging system at Altintel is used for inventory control and
when filling the tanks.
Íbrahim Ünlü
Terminal Manager, Altintel
CHALLENGE
When 9 more tanks were taken into operation in January 2011, there
were a number of things to consider:
The stored products are extremely hazardous liquid chemicals. Any
installed cable is a risk factor. Hydrocarbons need air to be flammable,
but handling hydrocarbon oxides like certain solvents, ketones,
alcohols, glycols, esthers and monomers, which already contain
oxygen, are even more hazardous since a static electricity discharge is
enough to cause a flame. The cable infrastructure documentation for
the plant is also missing, so it would have been extremely hard to dig.
Every time a road machine has been used at Altintel, wires have been
damaged. Another challenge is energy power fluctuation. Although
the terminal uses a UPS (Uninterruptable Power Supply) system, they
experience frequent energy cut-downs.
Mr. Íbrahim Ünlü, stresses the importance
of having a strong company safety culture,
with Health, Safety, Security and Environment
(HSSE) in focus.
Tank Gauging
150
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
SOLUTION
Altintel decided to expand their tank gauging system from Emerson with
Smart Wireless for the additional tanks. This choice was mainly made
due to safety and practical reasons, but was also based on their previous
product and supplier relationship trust.
At Altintel, each of the 41 tanks within the Emerson system is equipped
with level, and temperature instrumentation, TankMaster, and
TankMaster.net.
Each wireless node consists of a TankRadar Rex parabolic antenna radar
level gauge, installed together with the wireless antenna unit, the
THUM Adapter, and a multiple spot temperature sensor with 6 PT-100
elements.
Field data is sent via the wireless network to the Smart Wireless Gateway,
which is the network manager. The gateway provides an interface
between field devices and the TankMaster inventory management
software or host / DCS systems. TankMaster is used for net volume
calculations, reporting, alarm handling etc.
Altintel is under customs control. By using TankMaster.net government
officials can follow transferred and stored volumes to be ensured there is
no black market for the valuable liquids.
Emerson Smart Wireless Solution
Emerson’s Smart Wireless solution is based on IEC 62591
(WirelessHART), the industry standard for wireless field networks.
A WirelessHART device can transmit its own data as well as relay
information from other devices in the network. The self-organizing mesh
network automatically finds the best way around any fixed or temporary
obstacle. Nodes can identify a network, join it, and self-organize into
dynamic communication paths. Reliability actually increases when the
network expands – the more devices, the more communication paths!
When using automatic tank gauging there is
no need for anyone to go on top of the tank.
The risk is high, especially during a transfer,
when the static electricity in the tank can be as
much as 35.000 V. It is a great advantage to
watch from a distance.
RESOURCES
Rosemount TankRadar Rex Technical Description, 703010En
Smart Wireless Tank Gauging from Emerson Brochure, 201026En
www.rosemount-tg.com
Technical details are subject to change without prior notice.
Liquids are landed by tankers at the Altintel
jetty, and further pumped into the storage
tanks. 50-70 trucks are loaded daily, to
provide Altintel’s 2200 customers with their
product blend.
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
Tank Gauging
© Rosemount Tank Radar AB. November 2011. Ref.no: 155030En, Rev AA
151
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
ROSEMOUNT SMART WIRELESS
Offshore Oil Platform Mitigates Risk of Reduced Production
in Flowing Oil Wells and Pipelines with Timely Process Data
RESULTS
• Mitigated risk of reduced production in flowing wells and flowing
pipelines
• Increased workers safety
• Decreased operations and maintenance costs of offshore facility
APPLICATION
Remote monitoring of flowing oil wells and flowing pipelines
APPLICATION CHARACTERISTICS
Unmanned offshore platform without electric power supply
CUSTOMER
An offshore platform in the Gulf of Mexico
CHALLENGE
This petroleum company needed to remotely monitor well performance
and platform operating conditions in one of its unmanned offshore
installations. Well performance monitoring is very important in order to
maintain production targets and to improve the decision making process
for reservoir exploitation. It is ideal to have the process data delivered
cost-effectively and in real time.
There are several challenges present in the project. First is infrastructure
limitation such as power availability. Without an electric power supply,
process conditions can only be monitored through chart recorders.
Second is thermowell preparation in the flowing pipelines. Pipeline
temperature measurement is used to monitor presence of parafin
build-up which may impact production and flow. There are ten flowing
pipelines with one temperature and pressure measurement point
each. These pipelines have no existing thermowell insertion points and
drilling one will incur cost and delay the production. Third is process
data timeliness and availability. Each day they are sending workers to the
platform via helicopter to manually gather process data from the chart
recorders. The platform is about 100 km (62 miles) from the onshore
control center. It takes an approximate 4-6 hours before process data can
reach the management team in the onshore operation center.
With process information delayed, decision making was affected. This
risked reduced oil production in the flowing well and flowing pipelines
as proper adjustment to efficiently operate oil exploitation was not
timely. This delay may also increase maintenance cost as they cannot
immediately adjust unstable process and platform conditions that may
lead to damages in infrastructure. Add also the cost of transporting
workers daily to the platform to gather data which increases operating
cost and the risk of an accident during personnel transport.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2011 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
152
The innovative solution
provided the petroleum
company valuable process
data, giving way to a deeper
visibility on production
processes, enhancing
operation decision.
Schematic diagram of the offshore wireless
network connected to the onshore control
system via WiMax.
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
SOLUTION
The petroleum company tapped on Emerson Process Management’s
Smart Wireless solution to solve the inherent challenges of the project.
The non-intrusive Rosemount Pipe Clamp RTD Sensor measures pipe
surface temperature in the flowing lines. Pipe intrusion was not needed
anymore, saving on installation time and cost, while the Rosemount
3051S Wireless Pressure Transmitter was used to wirelessly measure
flowing pipeline pressure. These field devices send the data to a Smart
Wireless Gateway which is then connected to a WiMax base station.
This solar-powered base station connects the SCADA system in the
onshore operation center and the field devices in the offshore platform.
Emerson Process Management provided all means to integrate
information from the two facilities.
This innovative solution provided the petroleum company valuable
process data. It gave way to a deeper visibility on production processes
and enhanced operation decision making, mitigating the risk of
reduced oil production. In addition, their personnel do not need to fly
to the offshore platform to manually gather process data, reducing risk
of accidents during transport. Finally, the timely adjustment, brought
about by real time process data, enabled maintenance and operating
cost savings.
The non-intrusive Rosemount Pipe Clamp RTD
Sensor measures pipe surface temperature in
the flowing lines.
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Oil and Gas Industry
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/industries/oil-gas/Pages/
OilandGas.aspx
Rosemount Pipe Clamp RTD Sensor
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/
Temperature/AIS-Sensors/Pipe-Clamp-Sensor/Pages/index.aspx
Rosemount 3051S Wireless
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/
Pressure/Pressure-Transmitters/3051S-Wireless/Pages/index.aspx
The Rosemount 3051S Wireless Pressure
Transmitter used to wirelessly measure flowing
pipeline pressure.
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0800-4802, Rev AA
153
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
WIRELESS TANKRADAR REX
Tüpra Refinery Improves Reliability with
Smart Wireless
RESULTS
• Improved tank gauging system for critical oil movement tanks
• Minimized cost for cabling, conduits, and cable trays.
Quick installation and commissioning
• No risk of operational disturbances due to excavation work
• Future proof – easy to add instrumentation
• Data from other instrumentation can also be sent via the
wireless network
APPLICATION
Wireless tank gauging system including a batch calculation function for
product transfers.
CUSTOMER
Tüpra Izmir, a leading petroleum refinery company in Turkey.
CHALLENGE
Tüpra sometimes experienced communication problems and incorrect
readings from some of their storage tanks, equipped with non-Emerson
instrumentation, because of damage to cables during excavation in the
field. It was not always easy to get support personnel coming to the site
in reasonable time. A decision was made to initiate an upgrade project.
The cable infrastructure and junction box situation were old and not up
to standard, so Tüpra considered laying new cables.
However, excavation work can be problematic and risky. If a cable
is cut, it may result in an operation disruption for several tanks. In
addition it is hard to dig in the area. The tank farm infrastructure, with
piping and roads, is complex and the geological conditions are tough.
“By using the Emerson Smart
Wireless solution we can
minimize costs for cabling,
cable trenches, conduits, and
cable trays.”
Ali Erener
Project Chief Engineer
SOLUTION
Tüpra tested the wireless tank gauging system on 21 tanks. After the
evaluation period, the refinery decided to go for an extended Smart
Wireless tank gauging system from Emerson to minimize installation
costs, including cabling, cable trenches, conduits, cable trays and man
hours. This order comprised 85 more tanks, including radar gauges to
be used for level measurements in the critical oil movement tanks.
Within the refinery there is also a lubeoil facility. All 44 tanks have wired
TankRadar Rex parabolic antenna gauges in successful operation since
2007. This wired tank gauging system from Emerson was a strong
reference when the decision was made to upgrade the other tanks in
the plant, since the system has proven to be very reliable, and accurate.
Tank Gauging
154
More than 100 tanks at the Tüpras refinery
will be equipped with Smart Wireless
devices from Emerson. Each radar level
gauge is connected with a wireless THUM
Adapter, which transmits wireless data
within the network.
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
The refinery first considered using the emulation feature within the
TankRadar Rex level gauge, but when taking practical and installation
considerations into the upgrade budget, Tüpra decided to try a wireless
alternative.
The wireless solution has the same benefits as a wired system, but has
practical advantages, and is easy to set up.
Going wireless also gives the flexibility to add more devices in the future
– not only for level and temperature measurements, but also for tank
water control and nitrogen pressure control at tanks which are far from
the control room, as well as other applications. Flow, and valve position
data can also be distributed within the wireless system.
In the wireless field network each tank is a node. At Tüpra , it includes a
TankRadar Rex radar level gauge installed together with an antenna unit,
the THUM Adapter, and a multiple spot temperature sensor.
Temperature and level data is sent via the wireless network to the Smart
Wireless Gateway, which is the network manager. The gateway provides
an interface between field devices and the TankMaster inventory
management software or host / DCS systems.
TankMaster is used for net volume calculations, reporting, alarm
handling etc. During the test period, the TankMaster software was
upgraded to include batch calculation for product transfers.
Emerson Smart Wireless Solution
Emerson’s Smart Wireless solution is based on IEC 62591
(WirelessHART), the industry standard for wireless field networks.
A WirelessHART device can transmit its own data as well as relay
information from other devices in the network. The self-organizing mesh
network automatically finds the best way around any fixed or temporary
obstacle. Nodes can identify a network, join it, and self-organize into
dynamic communication paths. Reliability actually increases when the
network expands – the more devices, the more communication paths!
Mr. Mustafa Atalay, Operations
Superintendent at Tüpras, demonstrates the
TankRadar Rex radar level gauge.
RESOURCES
Rosemount TankRadar Rex Technical Description, 703010En
Smart Wireless Tank Gauging from Emerson Brochure, 201026En
www.rosemount-tg.com
Technical details are subject to change without prior notice.
Mr. Ílker Karada , operation chief of oil
movement learns about the batch
functionality within the TankMaster
inventory management software.
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
Tank Gauging
© Rosemount Tank Radar AB. November 2011. Ref.no: 155010En, Rev AA
155
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
DISTRIBUTION & UTILIZATION
ROSEMOUNT 775 THUM
Oil & Gas Distributor Improves Inventory
Management with Wireless Level Measurement
RESULTS
• Increased visibility of tank level measurement
• Lowered risk of tank overfill
• Reduced safety risk to plant personnel
Rosemount THUM wireless
adapter increases visibility to
feedstock levels.
APPLICATION
Volumetric measurement of ethanol storage tanks
CUSTOMER
Oil and gas distributor in the United States
CHALLENGE
Site personnel had to manually approximate the ethanol level in
storage tanks with a stick. The company needed to better monitor
ethanol levels to reduce the risk of spills.
The oil and gas distributor had no automated way to measure
ethanol level in their storage tanks. In addition, the distributor had no
capabilities to integrate a level signal into a control system at this site.
The manual gauging process was unreliable leading to a risk of spills.
The manual measurement method also exposed personnel to the fuel
twice per day. In addition, climbing the tank to take the measurement
was dangerous in winter months. Manual measurements took
approximately a half hour per point, which in turn took at least two
hours per day.
SOLUTION
Two Smart Wireless THUM™ Adapters were coupled with Rosemount
3300 Level Transmitters to wirelessly transmit volumetric
measurement. Since there was not a control system to easily view
the information, the measurement information was sent directly to
a computer through the Smart Wireless Gateway. The distributor
now has visibility to read the volumetric measurement of the ethanol
storage tanks more frequently and more accurately than before. This
was accomplished without the need to run new signal wires.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2010 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
156
Figure 1. Installed Rosemount Smart Wireless
THUM Adapter
11 – Proven Result
DISTRIBUTION & UTILIZATION
The customer can now prevent overfilling the tank, thus eliminating the
risk of spills. Site personnel are more efficient due to elimination of manual
measurements. Project costs were minimized by eliminating the need to
run new wires. Finally, safety is improved due to elimination of slips and falls
during manual measurement, and reduced exposure to ethanol.
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Oil & Gas Industry
http://www.emersonprocess.com/rosemount/industry/oil_gas/index.html
Emerson Smart Wireless
http://www.emersonprocess.com/rosemount/smartwireless/index.html
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0100-4075, Rev AA
157
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
WIRELESS TANKRADAR REX
Akim Tek Tank Terminal Reduced Start-Up Time
with a Smart Wireless Tank Gauging System
RESULTS
•
•
•
•
Safe and reliable communication
Minimized installation cost, including major cable savings
No excavation or digging
Engineering and commissioning time savings
APPLICATION
Wireless tank gauging for terminal storage tanks.
CUSTOMER
Akim Tek Güvercinlik in Turkey, is a privately owned tank terminal,
and a subcontractor of BP. This terminal has a strategic geographical
location, close to main roads and the railway. It is the only terminal in
Ankara, and the oldest in Turkey being built in 1946. It stores mainly
gas and diesel.
An average of 700-750 m3 of oil products comes every day by train
from the Atas Refinery in Mersin – 7 days per week. There are three
product line connections from the train unloading to the main
terminal. Stored products are then loaded onto trucks to supply gas
stations all over central Turkey.
“If you are going to use
radar, use Rosemount Tank
Gauging. Accuracy is very
high, and there are no special
maintenance requirements.
Products are excellent, and the
technical support capability
is great”
Mr. Haydar Cömert
Terminal Manager Akim Tek
CHALLENGE
The terminal had been inactive for nearly 15 years, when the decision
was taken to resume operation. The field cabling from the storage
tanks to the control room was obsolete.
Digging in the area where the terminal is situated is difficult since it is
very rocky. The fact that the terminal is divided into two parts, with
separating walls, adds complexity to any infrastructure work. The sole
cost for new cabling would have been approximately $ 30.000.
There were also project requirements for an early start-up, in the
middle of winter, when the weather conditions, with rain, snow and
frost, would have been harsh for installation work.
SOLUTION
When it was time to update the system, Smart Wireless radar
technology from Emerson was selected.
Mr. Haydar Cömert, terminal manager at Akim Tek, had previous
experience of the wired Rosemount Tank Radar system. Compared
to mechanical systems he finds that radar enables the terminal to
confidently fill the tanks to a higher level.
Tank Gauging
158
Mr. Cömert with the THUM Adapter
antenna unit which sends data within the
wireless field network.
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
The Akim Tek management preferred the Smart Wireless Solution due to
both economical and practical reasons.
The main reason was time savings and to have a system up and running
quickly. However, the savings Akim Tek had with the wireless installation
was $ 20.000, which is close to 70% compared to a wired system.
Each of the 15 tanks is equipped with a TankRadar Rex level gauge with a
Smart Wireless THUM Adapter, and a multiple spot temperature sensor.
Field network data is sent to the control room via the Smart Wireless
Gateway.
TankMaster and TankMaster.net provide an operator interface for tank
inventory management.
Akim Tek also uses flow rate data calculated by TankMaster to control the
critical pump functions.
Emerson Smart Wireless Solution
Emerson’s Smart Wireless solution is based on IEC 62591
(WirelessHART), the industry standard for wireless field networks.
A WirelessHART device can transmit its own data as well as relay
information from other devices in the network. The self-organizing mesh
network automatically finds the best way around any fixed or temporary
obstacle. Nodes can identify a network, join it, and self-organize into
dynamic communication paths. Reliability actually increases when the
network expands – the more devices, the more communication paths!
TankRadar Rex radar level gauge installed with
the Smart Wireless THUM Adapter antenna unit.
RESOURCES
Rosemount TankRadar Rex Technical Description, 703010En
Smart Wireless Tank Gauging from Emerson Brochure, 201026En
www.rosemount-tg.com
Technical details are subject to change without prior notice.
The wireless tank gauging system from
Emerson fulfills the high requirements of
the Akim Tek team. The system has been up and
running since December 2010/January 2011.
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
Tank Gauging
© Rosemount Tank Radar AB. November 2011. Ref.no: 155020En, Rev AA
159
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
ONSHORE PRODUCTION
SMART WIRELESS
Oil Producer Reduces Production Loss with Smart
Wireless Technology
RESULTS
• Reduced production loss through increased visibility of well
production
• Reduced operations and maintenance costs
• Decreased health, safety, and environmental risks
Smart Wireless allowed this
customer to be more proactive
in production management
and decrease production loss.
APPLICATION
Gross oil production flow monitoring
CUSTOMER
Independent oil and gas producer
CHALLENGE
Being able to measure the gross oil production at a site is extremely
important to understanding the performance of a given well. This
customer used portable meter skids to measure well performance on
a monthly or semi-annual basis. When the skid was not onsite, the
last tested measurement was assumed until the portable meter skid
returned to the site. Because the flow measurement was assumed, the
company was guessing that the well was performing at the same level
during the duration the skid was not on location.
Other than the routine portable skid measurement, no measurement
was made at these sites because of the costs associated with installing
measurement points. Labor and infrastructure costs including RTU’s,
cabling, batteries, and radios made it cost prohibitive to replace the
portable skids system.
By not having measurement on the well site, this company could not
quickly identify where production problems were arising. This resulted
in reactive operations, lower well production, and increased safety
risks.
SOLUTION
The customer installed a Smart Wireless self-organizing network from
Emerson Process Management. The Rosemount 3051S Wireless
Pressure Transmitter and Rosemount 648 Wireless Temperature
Transmitter were installed for gross oil monitoring. Smart Wireless
allowed the client to keep track of individual well production at all
times.
The self-organizing network provided greater than 99% data reliability
so that well problems could be identified near real-time. Extended
range communication of up to a half mile provided a stronger network
with many devices communicating into a gateway from multiple wells.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2008 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
160
The Rosemount 3051S Wireless Pressure
Transmitter Installed
11 – Proven Result
ONSHORE PRODUCTION
Communication reliability is only as strong as the reliability of the
devices and the quality of data they provide. The Rosemount 3051S
Wireless Pressure Transmitter and Rosemount 648 Wireless Temperature
Transmitter lead the industry in both reliability and performance, making
them ideal for this remote oilfield application.
By using the Smart Wireless solution, gross production levels could now
be monitored near real-time for well production management to prevent
production loss. Skid rental costs were eliminated, as were the safety and
environmental risks associated with skid relocation such as driving, spills,
lifting, and working with high pressure lines.
Capital costs to install the Smart Wireless network were also much
less than if the customer chose the traditional architecture with RTUs,
batteries, and radios. For this application, a Smart Wireless architecture
eliminated all the infrastructure and wiring normally associated with
oilfield automation.
RESOURCES
Emerson Smart Wireless
http://www.emersonprocess.com/rosemount/smartwireless/index.html
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0100-4802, Rev AA
161
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
ONSHORE PRODUCTION
EMERSON SMART WIRELESS
Oil Production Company Reduces Steam Injection
Costs and Increases Production
RESULTS
• Reduced operations and maintenance cost
• Reduced steam cost
• Increased production
This company expects savings
and higher production to pay
for the entire project in just a
few months.
APPLICATION
Steam Injection Metering and Data Acquisition
CUSTOMER
Oil and Gas Company in California
CHALLENGE
An oil and gas company was manually monitoring 147 steam injection
wells in an oil field in the western United States. Steam usage needed
to be monitored in order to avoid oversteaming, which could cause
producing well damage, or understeaming, which could result in
reduced production.
Steam injection was monitored using chart recorders. This approach
had a number of disadvantages. First, operations personnel needed to
visit each of the 147 injection wells every day and manually take steam
readings. Accuracy of the readings was suspect as the chart recorders
were difficult to accurately read, and data entry errors could occur.
In addition, the chart recorder at each injection well needed to be
calibrated every 3 months. Finally, only one reading per day was made
to each injection well. If oversteaming or understeaming occurred the
problem could go undetected for almost a full day.
Operations and maintenance costs were high due to the need to drive
to and read steam usage at 147 wells a day, and perform almost 600
chart recorder calibrations each year. Next the customer experienced
excess steam costs due to oversteaming. Steam costs can represent
up to 75% of a producer’s cost. In addition, oversteaming can damage
producing wells leading to hundreds of thousands of dollars in needed
repair costs. Finally, understeaming can result in reduced production
from individual wells and the field.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2012 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
162
11 – Proven Result
ONSHORE PRODUCTION
SOLUTION
The customer replaced the chart recorders on each injection well with
Rosemount 3051S WirelessHART™ Pressure Transmitters. At each injection
well, one transmitter was placed upstream of a calibrated choke, and one
downstream. Almost 300 transmitters were installed on the 147 injection
wells. Installation was fast and easy. Existing pressure gages were removed,
and the pressure transmitter threaded onto the gage connection. The use
of wireless communications also eliminated the need to attach signal wires
to the devices. Four Emerson Smart Wireless Gateways were connected to
industrial broadband radios to transmit the steam injection readings to the
control room about 1 mile from the field. This solution gave the company
personnel access to steamflow readings continuously instead of only
once per day. In addition, deviation limits for steamflow were set. Now if a
deviation occurs operators are notified immediately.
Operations and maintenance costs were immediately reduced by
eliminating trips to each of the 147 injection wells each day. In addition,
maintenance costs were reduced by changing the calibration schedule
from 4 times per year for every chart recorder to once every 5 years for
each wireless transmitter. Operators are notified immediately if steam
injection deviates from desired levels, so oversteaming and understeaming
can be detected and corrected quickly. Also, when a well is “done”, or
saturated with steam, operators will know immediately and can redirect
steam to other wells. These capabilities will reduce steam cost and increase
production.
The customer expects savings and higher production to pay for the entire
project in just a few months.
Rosemount 3051S WirelessHART™
Pressure Transmitter.
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Oil & Gas Industry
http://www.emersonprocess.com/rosemount/industry/oil_gas/index.html
Emerson Smart Wireless
http://www.emersonprocess.com/rosemount/smartwireless/index.html
Rosemount 3051S Transmitters
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/Pressure/
Pressure-Transmitters/3051S-Series-of-Instrumentation/Pages/index.aspx
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0500-4180, Rev AB
163
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
WIRELESS TANKRADAR REX
IPLOM Refinery Gets Highest Level Accuracy Using
Emerson’s Wireless Tank Gauging System
RESULTS
• Improved accuracy using hybrid system instead of HTG
• Increased flexibility for future modifications – easy to expand refinery
network and include remotely located tanks
• Reduced maintenance
• Quick installation and commissioning
• Easy to send data from other instrumentation over the wireless network
APPLICATION
The refinery produces and stores premium quality petroleum products,
such as diesel, virgin naphta, fuel oil, crude and bitumen. IPLOM
originally used an HTG system for fiscal purposes, and to utilize tank
storage to its maximum capacity.
CUSTOMER
IPLOM is a privately owned Italian refinery, relying on their main
competitive strength – flexible production. It is located in Busalla,
18 km from their additional tank storage facility at the harbor of
Genova. The refinery has a strategic location, right by the A7 highway,
near several big cities in Northern Italy, and also close the Swiss border.
It is in direct connection with the port, where oil arrives by tanker ships.
This oil is either sent to the Fegino depot or straight to the refinery. One
pipe in each direction transports products between the two locations.
IPLOM produces 7000 tons of products per day – 50% is delivered to
domestic and international end customers via road/rail, the rest is
distributed via the dense Italian pipeline system. The total storage
capacity is approximately 240.000 m3, 50 tanks in Busalla, and 12 in
Fegino. There is a mixture of floating roof tanks and fixed roof tanks.
“I believed in wireless
transmission, and the
technology has been proven
in our most strategic
measurement system”
Mr. Cristiano Cicardi
Instrument and Maintenance
Coordinator IPLOM Refinery
CHALLENGE
The refinery had an old HTG system, accurate for mass but not equally
good for volume, which is the fiscal trade unit of today. This system was
not supported anymore. In addition, it required periodical checking,
heat tracing and insulation. The level value required for volume
calculations was indirectly received via two pressure transmitters. The
accuracy and stability of the level value was not satisfactory due to
temperature drift. Except the need for improved level measurement
performance, another challenge was to access signals from the whole
storage area.
If IPLOM could get better level and volume measurements, the
company would be able to control and operate their tanks more
efficiently. With an increased Low to High level range, they would also
gain more space for product blends.
Tank Gauging
164
The wireless system has proved very reliable
despite long distances and obstacles like
towers and distillation columns in the LineofSight view.
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
SOLUTION
In 2011, IPLOM looked for an alternative to ensure high precision level
measurements, and decided to try the Emerson’s Smart Wireless
Solution. Nine tanks were equipped with TankRadar Rex, one 3920
horn antenna gauge or one 3930 parabolic antenna gauge per tank,
depending on nozzle availability.
Each gauge is connected to a Smart Wireless THUM Adapter which
transmits data over the wireless network to a Smart Wireless Gateway,
which communicates with their Yokogawa DCS system via Modbus
TCP/IP .
Wiring and access to power were already in place, so the main reasons
for going wireless was a quick and easy installation procedure, and the
future flexibility to add tanks and measurement data from other devices,
such as flow and temperature transmitters.
The experience so far has been very good. IPLOM receives virtually
maintenance free, accurate and reliable level measurements. Eight more
tanks are now in the process for the next upgrade phase.
Emerson Smart Wireless Solution
Emerson’s Smart Wireless solution is based on IEC 62591
(WirelessHART), the industry standard for wireless field networks.
A WirelessHART device can transmit its own data as well as relay
information from other devices in the network. The self-organizing mesh
network automatically finds the best way around any fixed or temporary
obstacle. Nodes can identify a network, join it, and self-organize into
dynamic communication paths. Reliability actually increases when the
network expands – the more devices, the more communication paths!
The tanks in Busalla are grouped in several
clusters, spread over a large area, with the
A7 highway as a divider. The refinery plans
to gradually equip all tanks in the different
locations with wireless level gauges.
RESOURCES
Rosemount TankRadar Rex Technical Description, 703010En
Smart Wireless Tank Gauging from Emerson Brochure, 201026En
www.rosemount-tg.com/wireless
Technical details are subject to change without prior notice.
TankRadar Rex installed with a Smart
Wireless THUM Adapter.
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
Tank Gauging
© Rosemount Tank Radar AB. December 2012. Ref.no: 155060En, Rev AA
165
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS DISTRIBUTION & UTILIZATION
ROSEMOUNT SMART WIRELESS
Pipeline Company Eliminates Risk of Environmental
Fines with Smart Wireless
RESULTS
• Eliminated risk of environmental fines
• Avoided risk of shutdown
• Minimized capital costs
Smart Wireless transmitters
eliminated long wire runs
back to the control room
and enabled the customer
to quickly comply with
regulations.
APPLICATION
Engine Exhaust Temperature and Pressure Monitoring
APPLICATION CHARACTERISTICS
800-1000 °F (430 – 540 °C)
CUSTOMER
Gas transmission customer in the United States
CHALLENGE
This customer was not compliant with local state environmental
emission regulations for some of their existing natural gas compressors.
These regulations were set in place to control the amount of carbon
dioxide and nitrogen oxide released into the atmosphere from natural
gas fired reciprocating internal combustion engines (RICE).
The customer did not have the necessary measurements to be
compliant with the state regulation. The customer was required to
record the exhaust temperature and the differential pressure across
the exhaust catalyst to ensure it remained within the operating limits.
Signal wiring between the compressor station and the control room
was not available. Conduit would need to be run 500 ft. (152 m)
and trenching would need to be done under a road to connect the
compressor stations to the control room. Lastly, there was a shortage
of qualified electricians in the area to implement a wired solution.
This customer faced several negative business impacts by not having
the necessary measurements. These included fines and ultimately
a risk of compressors being shut down if they did not demonstrate
compliance with the regulation. To become compliant, their
automation staff faced high capital costs associated with instrument
installation such as trenching, conduit, cable trays, and labor.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2012 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
166
Figure 1. Rosemount 848T Wireless High Density
Temperature Transmitter
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS DISTRIBUTION & UTILIZATION
SOLUTION
This customer’s challenge of being non-compliant with local environmental
regulations was solved with Rosemount 848T Wireless High Density
Temperature Transmitter and the Rosemount 3051S Wireless Pressure
Transmitter. The 848T measured exhaust temperatures from multiple
compressors and the 3051S measured the differential pressure of the
catalyst. The Smart Wireless transmitters and a single Smart Wireless
Gateway communicated between three gas treating and compression
facilities separated by 500 ft. (152 m). Wireless communication eliminated
trenching under a road and wiring conduit back to a centrally located
control room. IEC 62591(WirelessHART® Protocol) self-organizing network
enabled easy and seamless integration for quick regulatory compliance.
This customer experienced several positive business results by
implementing Smart Wireless instruments at their gas treating and
compression station. They eliminated the risk of environmental fines by
complying with local RICE regulations. Operations personnel avoided the
risk of shutting down natural gas compressors and not meeting projected
gas transmission volumes. Finally, capital costs were greatly reduced by
eliminating the trenching, conduit, cable trays, and labor associated with
wired instruments.
Figure 2. Rosemount 3051S Wireless
Pressure Transmitter
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Oil & Gas Industry
http://www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/oilgas/index.asp
Rosemount 848T Wireless Temperature Transmitter
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/
Temperature/High-Density-Measurement/848T-Wireless/Pages/index.aspx
Rosemount 3051S Wireless Series of Instrumentation
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/Pressure/
Pressure-Transmitters/3051S-Wireless/Pages/index.aspx
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0200-4075, Rev AA
167
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
TERMINALS AND STORAGE
ROSEMOUNT 3051S
Pipeline Company Reduces Environmental Risk and
Saves on Project Cost with Smart Wireless Technology
RESULTS
• Reduced environmental risk from oil leak
• Reduced project capital cost
• Reduced project schedule
An estimated 30,000 USD in
project cost was saved and in
addition, with two gateways
already installed the company
is well positioned to add
wireless measurement devices
at a low incremental cost.
APPLICATION
Pipeline leak detection
CHARACTERISTICS
The pipeline is located under a river
CUSTOMER
A pipeline company in the US
CHALLENGE
This pipeline company has two terminals, one on each side of a major
river system. These terminals were set up to receive liquids from
natural gas wells and transfer liquids via pipelines that extended under
the river. Maintaining the river’s water quality is very important. The
pipeline company needed a cost effective solution to eliminate the risk
of undetected catastrophic pipeline leaks.
To detect a catastrophic leak, the line pressure on both sides of the
river needed to be measured and compared. If the measured pressures
deviate from an expected value, there is evidence of a pipeline leak and
the operators can immediately shut down the pipeline. The river is 1 ½
miles wide at this point making wired solutions very expensive.
The leak detection system was vital to the terminal operation due to
the risk of liquids leaking into the river. A leak could lead to various
negative impacts such as fines, clean up costs, product lost and others.
Moreover, wiring the pressure readings would increase the cost of the
project and lead to implementation delays.
Rosemount 3051S Wireless Pressure Transmitter
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2010 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
168
11 – Proven Result
TERMINALS AND STORAGE
SOLUTION
A total of four Rosemount 3051S Wireless Pressure Transmitters
were needed to create the leak detection system for the user. The
application consisted of two pipelines that each had a pump located on
both sides of the river. Wireless Pressure Transmitters were installed to
measure the pressure on both sides of the river for each pipeline. The
measurement was then transmitted wirelessly to two wireless gateways
located on each side of the river. This made the pressure readings
accessible to both terminals. Shutdown systems were configured to
stop the pumps if a user defined deviation in pressure was detected.
The system is currently online and operating as expected. No oil leaks
have occurred to date. Emerson’s wireless solution eliminated the need
to run communication lines to the transmitter resulting in significant
cost savings over traditional installation practices. Finally, the system
was implemented several weeks ahead of schedule, bringing timely
environmental protection to a major river system.
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Oil and Gas Industry
http://www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/oilgas/
Rosemount 3051S Series of Instrumentation
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/
Pressure/Pressure-Transmitters/3015S-Wireless/Pages/index.aspx
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-3600-4801, Rev AA
169
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
ROSEMOUNT 3051S WIRELESS & ROSEMOUNT 8800 MULTIVARIABLE
PXP Improves Oilfield Operation by Optimizing Steam
Injection with Emerson Smart Wireless
RESULTS
•
•
•
•
•
Increased production
Optimized steam-to-oil ratios
Reduced cut liners at a cost of $90k to $500K each
Reduced instrumentation maintenance and calibration
Higher operator productivity and better response times to field
problems
• Improved reservoir modeling
APPLICATION
Oilfield surveillance of remote production and injection wells
CUSTOMER
Plains Exploration & Production Company (PXP) is an independent oil
and gas company.
CHALLENGE
Thermal energy is commonly used in oil extraction to stimulate
production. Thermal energy is also the greatest cost of oil production
for many tertiary recovery projects. The heat injected in the form of
steam commonly accounts for 40 to 65 percent of a producer’s costs
and is responsible for much of the revenue derived from production of
a well. On the Hopkins lease property 35 miles north east of Bakersfield
in California, there are close to 171 producing wells.The wells are
concentrated in a one square mile area, producing approximately 3,200
barrels of oil per day. This field also has 120 steam injection wells, each
of which heat and push oil toward a pattern of producing wells. In order
to meet the production goal and optimize SOR (steam to oil ratio), it is
critical to measure injected steam rate, total injected steam, and water
and oil production to optimize the effect of thermal stimulation on
production.
Because there was no power or communications in the vicinity of the
wells, the field was monitored by mechanical chart recorders and
operator trips to as many wells as possible in a day. The daily readings
by operators were summarized once a day. The data was then sent to
the office in Bakersfield where it was used to make business decisions.
“This technology has opened
up new possibilities for us.
We plan to continue utilizing
wireless technology to
improve our oil production,
improve our cost position,
and make our people more
productive.”
Michael Fischback
Facilities Engineer
Cut liners from over-injection of steam is one of
the hazards of poor steam injection control
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2011 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
170
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
Manual monitoring methods were not the most effective method to
prevent over-injection of steam that caused breakthrough and cut
liners in producing wells. Cut liners would take a well out of production
for months at a time, losing an average of around 20 barrels per day.
If a new liner could be installed, the cost of repairing the damage was
roughly $90,000. If there was a dogleg in the well, however, it would
have to be idled and a new well would have to be drilled, for a total cost
as high as $500,000. The company was averaging 10 cut liners per year.
Furthermore, for each month each well was not producing because of a
cut liner, an average of 600 barrels of production was foregone.
Manual monitoring methods also led to under-injection, which meant
foregone production. Part of the problem was lack of timely
information. With 120 wells to visit the operators could, at most, get
one data point per well per day. The data then had to be manually
entered into a database quickly and accurately. Even if the data was
accurately gathered and entered, the data collection rate of once per
day led to lag time in responding to issues that impacted costs and
production.
Another part of the problem was the technology itself. The accuracy of
metering with an orifice and a chart recorder was a concern. For one
thing, PXP was dependent on a contractor to provide the proper
coefficient for the orifice plate to get an accurate flow reading. For
another, they had to be sure the orifice was installed properly and
remained intact. Finally, the charts had to be read accurately, with the
chart recorder properly calibrated (a task done every three months)
with no plugged tubing.
3051S WirelessHART pressure transmitters on a
dual injection stream well.
SOLUTION
Steam Injection Wells
PXP looked at wireless technology to provide real-time information to
optimize steam injection rate. The mesh technology from Emerson
combined with ProSoft Ethernet radios provided a robust, reliable
solution across the one square mile property. PXP chose the Emerson
wireless solution because of the security built into the network and
the reliability of the robust, self-organizing mesh that is easy to install
and expand. The solution from Emerson opened a new pathway to
capture realtime, accurate, and nearly maintenance-free well test data.
“When weighted against what was to be gained from this project, the
$750K total project cost, including installation services and customized
user interface software, seemed quite reasonable given the project’s
payback”, said Michael Fischback, Project Facilities Engineer, PXP.
The solution began with a pilot project to test the technology on four
injection wells. Ten 3051S WirelessHART™ pressure transmitters were
purchased and installed; one on the upstream side of a fixed bean
choke to calculate flow rate (upstream pressure and bore size from
the fixed bean choke determine the flow rate) and another on the
downstream side to help with troubleshooting. Two wells were dualstream, utilizing a single upstream transmitter.
A Smart Wireless Gateway, where process variables as well as process
and instrument diagnostics are converted to Modbus TCP/IP data, was
installed as well. A ProSoft Technology 802.11 industrial broadband
radio provided a backhaul network, or a robust wireless network for
long distances, to connect the gateway to an industrial PC in the office
a mile away.
00830-3800-4801, Rev AA
171
3051S WirelessHART monitoring of steam
pressure upstream of the choke bean is used to
calculate steam injection rate; meeting steamto-oil ratios is key in reservoir management.
Downstream measurements help troubleshoot
downhole issues.
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
Once communications were established and tested, the first step was
complete. However, the company still had to find a convenient way to
make the real-time wellhead data accessible company-wide so that
it could be stored, trended and analyzed to solve problems before
production could be impacted. The customer also wanted to test the
performance of the instruments. A 3rd party was brought in to test the
true steam injection levels and compare them with the chart recorders
and the new high performance 3051S wireless pressure transmitters.
“We found the steam measurements using the pressure transmitters
from Emerson to be ten times more accurate, on average, than the
chart recorders,” said Fischback. “It is even more accurate when we
know the steam quality”. Other advantages to using the (3051S)
wireless transmitters were further explained, “They come factory
calibrated and only need to be recalibrated every 10 years instead of
3 months (as with the chart recorders), they give early notification
of downhole issues, we eliminated human error in entering data, we
increased the efficiency of our operation concerning trips to the field,
we have increased efficiency of our data management, and better
accuracy has led to better modeling of our operation.” That means PXP
is not over-injecting wells, which leads to cut liners, and are not losing
production from under-injection of steam into the viscous oil.
Once Emerson wireless technology proved it could handle the sparse
distribution of transmitters on the large area that incorporated the four
wells (spaced 150 feet apart and located 0.25 miles from the nearest
gateway), PXP rolled out the bulk of the project, implementing a total
of 249 WirelessHART transmitters and 4 WirelessHART gateways on 120
wells across an area of one square mile. Three industrial radios provide
the backhaul to reliably communicate data to the office a mile away.
Deployment of the wireless technology was made easy with Emerson’s
AMS Suite. Emerson’s highly engineered tools take the complexity of
configuration, installation, and startup out of the user’s hands. “Users
can set up instrument mesh networks quickly. Out of a project cost of
$750,000, only $10,000 was spent on installation,” said Fischback.
Oil Production Wells
The project paid for itself in months. With this success, PXP continued
to invest in wireless by adding twenty seven 8800 MultiVariable™
Vortex meters with WirelessHART THUMS to the network to measure
the mixture of oil and water out of the producing wells. These lowmaintenance devices update production data for operators every
minute on every well instead of once a day only on those wells that are
in test. Therefore, they are no longer blind to what the majority of the
wells which are not in test are doing. Now operators get flow rate, flow
total, and temperature for each of the wells. The temperature is used
to determine how hot the production is emerging to indicate not only
that steam is reaching the well, but to provide further field intelligence
on whether the pattern injection wells are being over- or underinjected. For diagnostics, the shedder bar frequency is also monitored.
This provides intelligence to the operators if any process disruptions
are affecting the meter, so maintenance can remedy the problem and
minimize the impact on production.
00830-3800-4801, Rev AA
172
Customized software utilizes field intelligence
from the wireless devices so steam injection
rates can be monitored continuously and
compared to the targets.
A ball trap connected to a turbine meter was
used to measure oil flow from one of seven
producing oil wells on any given header. A
Rosemount 8800 MultiVariable vortex meter
with a WirelessHART THUM now provides a
low-maintenance option that gives continuous,
one-minute updates for each individual well.
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
Customer Impact
Operators can now monitor wellhead status, respond to alarms immediately if
parameters deviate from pre-determined limits, and problem solve by analyzing
data on historical trends. Overall, operations have improved their productivity
with better response times and smarter decision-making. This has led to
improved productivity of the field, since operators can prioritize wells that
need attention and visually monitor the others simply by driving by and looking
for steam or oil leaks. This has translated to improved SOR or steam-to-oil
ratios. The number of cut liners has been reduced, which has further increased
profitability.
The results for Field Operations are reduced maintenance and calibration,
elimination of manual data collection and manual entry, more effective use of
vehicles, quicker response times to field problems and better prioritization of
daily activities. Production Engineering experienced fewer lost wells to steam
cutting, and live data at their fingertips leads to better decisions. Operators
have additional time to “pump” the wells (onsite testing) to make them more
productive. Reservoir Engineering has a more accurate reservoir model, target
steam rates are being achieved, and they are no longer reliant on the field for
data. The Corporate Data System Management group has data fed automatically
from the field now with no interface to a data clerk. This has increased accuracy
by eliminating human error. It has also enriched the information being sent from
the field as more data can now be gathered by the field instruments.
“This technology has opened up new possibilities for us,” concluded Fischback.
“We plan to continue utilizing wireless technology to improve our oil
production, improve our cost position, and make our people more productive.”
“When weighted against
what was to be gained
from this project, the
$750K total project cost,
including installation
services and customized
user interface software,
seemed quite reasonable
given the project’s
payback.”
Michael Fischback
Project Facilities Engineer,
PXP
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Oil and Gas Industry
http://www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/oilgas/
Rosemount Smart Wireless
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/Wireless/Pages/
index.aspx
Rosemount 3051S
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/Pressure/
Pressure-Transmitters/3051S-Series-of-Instrumentation/Pages/index.aspx
Rosemount Vortex Flowmeters
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/Flow/VortexFlowmeters/8800-MultiVariable/Pages/index.aspx
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-3800-4801, Rev AA
173
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
SMART WIRELESS
RWE Gas Storage Uses Wireless Technology to Maximize
Gas Storage Capacity and Improve Efficiency and Safety
RESULTS
•
•
•
•
Running closer to capacity
No downtime, saving $250,000/day in lost revenue
Installation costs reduced by 20% compared with a wired solution
Maintenance costs reduced by 10%
APPLICATION
Upgrading instrumentation for managing underground natural gas storage
CUSTOMER
RWE Gas Storage, Dolní Dunajovice, is part of the RWE Group and is the
biggest underground gas storage operator in the Czech Republic, operating
six facilities with a total capacity of almost 3 billion cubic meters.
CHALLENGE
RWE Gas Storage was looking to maximize the capacity of its Dolní
Dunajovice underground gas storage facility in the Czech Republic. To
achieve this, existing measurements needed to be automated to give
operators greater visibility into the process and to increase personnel
efficiency by reducing manual rounds. New online pressure, temperature
and level measurements were required, as well as access to diagnostic data
from existing control valves.
“We needed to upgrade our existing instrumentation and add additional
measurements, but with just two short windows of opportunity each
year and no available existing cabling infrastructure, it was impossible to
complete the work within the scheduled two-week downtime,” said Pavel
Šilinger, Energy Manager, RWE Gas Storage s.r.o. “Extending the downtime
would cost RWE an estimated $250,000 a day in lost income.”
RWE needed a solution that did not require installation of new cabling
and allowed a longer period for the upgrade to be completed.
“Emerson’s wireless solution
takes only a quarter of the
time to install, and saves
around 20% of the cost of a
cabled installation.”
Pavel Šilinger
Energy Manager
RWE Gas Storage s.r.o.
SOLUTION
RWE selected Emerson’s Smart Wireless technology, which is well-proven,
reliable, and both quick and easy to install and commission. Unlike a wired
solution, Smart Wireless didn’t require RWE to install new I/O cards in the
control host. Smart Wireless Gateways were simply added to the existing
Modbus network to make data from the wireless transmitters available
within the existing control system. This meant that the plant could continue
to operate while new instruments were being installed, removing the need
for the upgrade to be completed within the allotted two-week downtime.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2013 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
174
Emerson Smart Wireless networks were installed
to span the entire 50,000-square-meter facility.
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
Five separate Smart Wireless networks were installed to span the entire
50,000-squaremeter facility. More than 100 new wireless transmitters were
installed, predominantly Emerson’s Rosemount® wireless pressure and
temperature transmitters. A number of Rosemount Guided Wave Radar
level transmitters and Fisher® control valves were also connected using
Emerson’s THUM™ Adapters. RWE also uses Emerson’s AMS Suite predictive
maintenance software to monitor wireless network performance and provide
device diagnostics.
“Emerson’s wireless solution takes only a quarter of the time to install, and
saves around 20% of the cost of a cabled installation,” continued Šilinger.
“The availability of HART® data, including diagnostics from new and existing
devices, was another significant reason for selecting Smart Wireless and is
helping us to improve plant maintenance procedures.”
In fact, remote online access to diagnostic information has reduced
maintenance costs by 10% per year, and enables operators to identify
potential instrument problems earlier and correct them before poor
measurements affect the process. Access to online data has also reduced
the number of trips into the field, helping to reduce operator rounds and
improve the safety of equipment and workers.
On-line measurements have increased visibility into the process, enabling
the plant to improve control and run closer to capacity. Wireless technology
saved RWE around 20% on the cost of installation and commissioning
compared to a wired alternative. The total saving is much higher when the
potential lost income of $250,000/day for extended downtime is taken into
account.
Based on the successful implementation of wireless technology at the Dolní
Dunajovice site, RWE plans to implement Emerson’s Smart Wireless at all of
its underground storage facilities in the Czech Republic.
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Oil and Gas Industries
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/EN-US/INDUSTRIES/OIL-GAS/Pages/
OilandGas.aspx
Rosemount 3051S Wireless Series of Instrumentation
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/Pressure/
Pressure-Transmitters/3051S-Wireless/Pages/index.aspx
“Based on the success of
this project, RWE plans
to implement Emerson’s
Smart Wireless at all of
its underground storage
facilities in the Czech
Republic.”
Pavel Šilinger
Energy Manager
RWE Gas Storage s.r.o.
Emerson Smart Wireless Gateways were
simply added to the existing Modbus
network to make data from the wireless
transmitters available within the existing
control system.
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-4500-4801, Rev AB
175
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
WIRELESS TANKRADAR REX
Swedish Refinery Expands Wireless Tank Gauging
System by Installing Pervasive Field Network
RESULTS
•
•
•
•
Fast and reliable communication
Minimized engineering time and installation cost
Quick and easy installation
Direct remote access to wireless field network
APPLICATION
St1 uses Rosemount Tank Gauging equipment from Emerson
for inventory measurements in liquid storage tanks. The plant
has a mixture of wired and wireless equipment for level and
temperature measurements. Their wireless tank gauging system is
complemented with a wireless link between the field network and
the control room.
CUSTOMER
St1, a Swedish petroleum refinery, located in the Gothenburg
harbor area.
CHALLENGE
Initially, there was no direct access from the control room to the
Smart Wireless Gateway, which collects tank data from the wireless
field network.
To be able to monitor the wireless network status, and configure
the devices, instrument technicians had to go into field and
investigate. Work permits, and keys were required for entering the
locked facility, where the PC connected to the gateway is situated.
SOLUTION
To improve access to the wireless network, St1 added a wireless
connection from the control room to the gateway via the Wi-Fi
based Pervasive Field Network (PFN) solution from Emerson.
St1 chose the wireless alternative for cost reasons, and because
installation of both the field network and PFN is quick and easy.
The PFN link at St1 includes three industrial Hotspot Units, all
of which are installed indoors. Each of these is connected to a
remotely installed outdoor panel antenna.
It is also possible to install a Hotspot Unit outdoors.
Tank Gauging
176
“It is like walking around in
the tank farm, doing it from
your office! All measurement
points are centralized – Gas/
oil leakage, level, and tank
temperature.”
Curt Åkesson
Instrument Engineer, St1
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
1. One Hotspot Unit is connected to the gateway, and a remotely
installed directional panel antenna.
2. Another Hotspot Unit serves as a repeater to achieve line-of-sight.
It is connected to two remotely installed panel antennas, one
receiving and one transmitting, to be able to relay data.
3. The third Hotspot Unit is installed in the control room area. It is
also connected to a remotely installed panel antenna. In addition,
it is equipped with an integrated antenna to create a Wi-Fi zone.
This enables the operator to access the wireless network from
any place in the control room, via a laptop, equipped with AMS
Wireless Configurator, AMS Wireless SNAP-ON, and/or TankMaster.
Emerson Smart Wireless Solution
Emerson’s Smart Wireless solution is based on IEC 62591
(WirelessHART), the emerging industry standard for wireless field
networks.
A WirelessHART device can transmit its own data as well as relay
information from other devices in the network. The self-organizing
mesh network automatically finds the best way around any fixed
or temporary obstacle. Nodes can identify a network, join it, and
self-organize into dynamic communication paths. Reliability actually
increases when the network expands – the more devices, the more
communication paths!
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Tank Gauging
177
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
RESOURCES
Rosemount TankRadar Rex Technical Description, 703010En
Smart Wireless Tank Gauging from Emerson Brochure, 201026En
Technical details are subject to change without prior notice.
AMS Wireless SNAP-ON gives you a graphical
overview of the tank farm, the devices in the
network, and their status.
Data from the Rex gauge is sent to the
control room via PFN.
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
Tank Gauging
© Rosemount Tank Radar AB. First Edition. November 2011. Ref.no: 155040En
178
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION
ROSEMOUNT 2051 & SMART WIRELESS
Timely Compliance to State Regulation Made
Possible By Smart Wireless Solution
RESULTS
•
•
•
•
Achieved state regulatory compliance on time
Minimized environmental impact
Lowered installation costs
Reduced project time
APPLICATION
Remote monitoring of outlet gas pressures from four district regulators
at a company property
APPLICATION CHARACTERISTICS
• Devices are 150 ft. (46 m) from the communication’s building
• SCADA System is about 60 miles (97 km) from the site
The Smart Wireless Solution
enabled the natural gas LDC to
meet regulatory requirements
on time in an extreme
environment.
CUSTOMER
Unitil Corporation / Northern Utilities
CHALLENGE
The site required a quick installation solution to comply with state
regulatory standards. The outlet pressures of the four district regulator
stations at this site needed to be monitored by the SCADA System. The
existing RTU and communications were in the DAC building which was
150 feet away from the 4 regulator stations. The DAC building was also
separated from the four stations by a busy driveway, which was shared
with an LPGA trucking Company.
Digging was a complicated and expensive option and overhead wires
could not be used. In order to comply with a state regulatory mandate,
the additional pressure data from this site was necessary. A monitoring
solution had to be implemented quickly. Installation of conduit and
cabling would have required trenching in hazmat soil, which would
have been difficult to implement in the winter months. In addition to
a potentially difficult installation, this project needed to be completed
prior to the end of the calendar year to be in compliance.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2012 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
179
Rosemount 2051 Pressure Transmitters with
Smart Wireless THUM Adapter
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
SOLUTION
A Smart Wireless solution was put in place quickly and without the need to
hard wire the additional measurement points which eliminated the need for
trenching. Rosemount 2051 Pressure Transmitters with Smart Wireless THUM
adapters attached were installed along with a Smart Wireless Gateway in one
day’s time, and the pressure data was sent wirelessly to the Smart Wireless
Gateway. After the Gateway was configured, it was connected directly to the
existing frame relay communications line existing in the DAC building. From
there, the data was easily integrated into the existing SCADA Host System.
The entire System was tested and tuned in three days. Now all of the required
data is consistently received by the SCADA System, displayed on control
screens, and logged into a historical database.
The equipment was installed by Unitil’s regulator group and Dan Joubert of
SCADA Network Services performed activation of the Emerson Smart wireless
system and integration of the data into the SCADA System.
The wireless solution reduced project cost and time, and overcame the
logistical challenge of trenching in hazmat soil and winter construction costs.
The customer now has pressure data for these four regulator stations in their
SCADA System and no longer relies on paper chart recorders at this site.
This important information, now in the SCADA System, allows Unitil’s Gas
Controllers the ability to perform quicker troubleshooting of the equipment
on site and provide faster response to their customers with changing system
conditions. The data is also captured in the SCADA historian, where it provides
a permanent record and helps the Engineering group plan and develop for
future system needs. Another important advantage is growth, as Unitil now
has the ability to transmit additional data from other areas on this site using
the existing Smart Wireless Gateway System.
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Oil and Gas Industry
http://www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/oilgas/
Emerson’s Smart Wireless THUM™ Adapter
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/Wireless/
THUM-Adapter/Pages/index.aspx
Rosemount 2051 Pressure Transmitters
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/Pressure/
Pressure-Transmitters/2051-Pressure-Transmitters/Pages/index.aspx
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0600-4802, Rev AB
180
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
SMART WIRELESS
Customers Are Solving Real Plant Problems:
Lion Oil
RESULTS
•
•
•
•
$60K installed cost savings over wired solution
$20K in operational cost savings
Data sent to company’s DeltaV control system
Operators alerted when safety showers used
APPLICATION
Safety Shower Monitoring
CUSTOMER
A Lion Oil markets a wide range of petroleum products that range from
multiple grades of gasoline and ethanol blended gasolines, to ultra-low
sulfur diesel, solvents, propanes, and asphalt products.
CHALLENGE
The customer requires to monitor safety shower use in areas over 1,600
feet from the control room at its El Dorado, Ark., facility. Wired Solution is
not considered because of it’s long distance.
SOLUTION
The company installed three wireless Rosemount® 702 discrete switches
on safety showers in three remote areas. The switches alert operators
when a shower has been turned on so they can send help. Another
wireless discrete switch was installed on the UPS (uninterruptible power
supply) for the radio tower because of the great distance from the control
room. Due to the large distances involved in all the measurements,
two additional wireless Rosemount® temperature transmitters were
installed as signal repeaters. All fourteen devices form a self-organizing
field network and transmit their signals to a Smart Wireless Gateway.
The gateway sends the reliable data to the facility’s DeltaV™ digital
automation control system.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2013 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
181
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
SMART WIRELESS
Wireless Adds Advanced Diagnostics and
Configuration
RESULTS
•
•
•
•
Lowered operating and maintenance cost
Reduced safety and environmental risk
Increased tank utilization
Reduced unscheduled tank shutdown.
APPLICATION
Tank Gauging
CUSTOMER
A local GAS company S.E.Asia, manufacturing and distributing of
industrial and medical gases and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG),
operates 16 LPG storage plants in the country and supplies cooking
gas to households.
CHALLENGE
Some of old plants are operating with other brand tank
gauging system and servo type of level gauges, requiring more
maintenance work and high inventory of spares. Customer plans to
upgrade the servo to radar level gauge, but radar gauge must be
integrated to existing tank gauging system and concerns of limited
data information.
SOLUTION
A radar gauge with emulation and wireless is proposed to solve the
customer pain.
A radar gauge with emulation is to replace an old servo type of level
gauge, which can be seamlessly integrated to existing tank gauging
system through wired connection and provides level measurement
and average temperature with multi-spot temperature sensor.
A radar gauge wireless communication with wireless gateway
provides additional communication channel to access all diagnosis
data for servicing and troubleshooting of radar gauge, making
maintenance personal much easier to carry out the service.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2013 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
182
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
WIRELESS TANKRADAR REX
SIOT Italy Introduces Wireless Radar from Emerson for
Pipe Transportation of Crude for the Heart of Europe
RESULTS
• Improved custody transfer efficiency for critical oil movement business
• Increased flexibility for future modifications – easy to add
instrumentation
• Minimized cost for cabling, conduits, and cable trays
• Quick installation and commissioning, with no risk of operational
disturbances due to excavation work
• Easier access to data from other instrumentation
APPLICATION
Custody transfer crude oil pipeline transportation using level and
temperature measurements for volume calculations. These readings
are used to calculate official values for fiscal transfers. Online blending
operations are facilitated via level rate measurements from the same
system.
CUSTOMER
SIOT (Società Italiana per l’Oleodotto Transalpino S.p.A.) is the Italian
branch of TAL (Transalpine Pipeline), strategically located close to
the Adriatic harbor of Trieste and several Mid-European countries. It
comprises a tank storage terminal and port facilities.
CHALLENGE
Every year more than 400 vessels bring an average of 35 million tons of
crude oil—worth approximately 13-14 billion Euros—to the SIOT Marine
Terminal mostly from Africa, the Middle East, Russia and Venezuela.
The 100 different grades of crude oil are stored in 32 floating-roof tanks
and then pumped pure or in-line blended to be transported through a
753 km pipeline to any of eight refineries in Germany, Austria, and the
Czech Republic.
SIOT had a good experience with its existing Saab (now Emerson) radarbased tank gauging system installed in 1993. The problem was that it
was getting old and replacement parts were not easily available.
Furthermore, the existing cabling to the tanks dated back to the 1960s
and was not suitable for modern data communication. At the time the
cabling was installed, there were no regulations regarding installation
within cable trays, so the cabling’s shielding was worn out. Additionally,
the location of the cabling created a risk of communication cross-talk.
The cost of new signal cabling, however, was estimated at about
1 million Euro.
Accurate tank level measurement is critical for custody transfer pipe
transportation, so the customer looked to Emerson for a reliable,
costeffective alternative.
Tank Gauging
183
“Since oil movement is the
core business of our company,
we want the most reliable and
safe system for just-in-time
delivery to refineries.”
Massimo Diminich
Technical Assets Manager SIOT Italy
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
SOLUTION
Since SIOT was satisfied with the reliability of its old radar system over
the past two decades, Emerson suggested the company stay with the
technology, but with a modern upgrade—wireless capabilities.
The high cost for investing in new signal cabling made Emerson’s Smart
Wireless technology economically attractive, and, thanks to the robust,
simple and elegant one-layer network architecture that surpassed
other options on the market, SIOT eventually selected the Emerson
Smart Wireless technology.
For each tank, the existing level gauge was replaced by a wireless
Rosemount TankRadar Rex gauge equipped with a 12-in. still-pipe array
antenna positioned on the same nozzle.
The Rex gauge uses a Smart Wireless THUM Adapter which, in turn,
sends tank level and temperature data over the wireless network to
a pair of redundant Smart Wireless Gateways located indoors in the
control center.
“We wanted the highest reliability out of the entire system, so we
added redundant gateways to the wireless network”, said Mr. Diminich.
The Gateway antennas were installed at the control center roof via a
15 m cable. Communication between Gateways and the DCS system is
handled via the Modbus protocol.
Four tanks were included in a pilot test network installed in October
2011. Before putting the system into full operation, the company
wanted to make sure the new wireless system would be as accurate,
fast and reliable as the legacy wired system. SIOT also wanted to
analyze the network with the following considerations:
• Extreme weather conditions in the area, with strong bora winds and
heavy rain
• Tank sizes range between 20-80 m in diameter, and distances
between tanks can reach up to 300 m
• SIOT had a bad experience with a previous non-Emerson wireless
system at their marine terminal
The test went well, so SIOT is now confident about Smart Wireless and
Emerson as a supplier, and will expand the network to the other 28
tanks.
Diminich said SIOT appreciates the flexibility of the open WirelessHARTbased system. The network can easily be expanded to other tanks by
adding new equipment. Additionally, the wireless system enabled each
tank to be connected to a fire alarm system that utilizes the wireless
network. With Smart Wireless, data from nearby equipment—such
as gas detectors and switches, which are powered but have no signal
lines—can be seamlessly integrated into the network, opening up
numerous possibilities for future modifications.
Tank Gauging
184
The TankRadar Rex gauge from Emerson is
connected to a Smart Wireless THUM Adapter
antenna unit (mounted on the vertical pipe
above the tank).
11 – Proven Result
OIL & GAS
Emerson Smart Wireless Solution
Emerson’s Smart Wireless solution is based on IEC 62591
(WirelessHART), the industry standard for wireless field networks.
Technical details are subject to change without prior notice.
“Installation was quick and easy,” said Massimo
Diminich, Technical Assets Manager, SIOT Italy.
“The test turned out as fantastic as expected
despite the worst bora in years stressing the
system during commissioning.”
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
Tank Gauging
© Rosemount Tank Radar AB. First Edition. November 2011. Ref.no: 155040En
185
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
OIL AND GAS
Emerson’s Smart Wireless Helps San Diego Gas & Electric
Improve Operations and Safety as Well as Extend Asset Life
RESULTS
• Integrates with the plant’s Ovation® expert control system providing
additional insight to field information
• Protects against pump damage valued at $20,000 per pump
• Lengthens motor life, saving $15,000-$20,000 per motor every 5 years
• Eliminated wire and cable costs, saving $5,000-$8,000 per device
• Installed each device in 1 hour versus an estimated 2 weeks to run
cable for a single wired monitor
CHALLENGE
San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) is a regulated public utility that
provides energy service to 3.4 million consumers throughout San
Diego and South Orange County.
SDG&E wanted to implement a wireless architecture throughout the
Palomar combined cycle plant in order to access data that was
previously unattainable through traditional wired solutions. The
wireless data would be used in various efficiency calculations at the
plant. Project goals included:
• Straightforward project implementation by plant personnel
• Achieve cost savings versus traditional wired applications
• Improve Operational efficiencies
• Enhance plant safety and asset protection
SOLUTION
Five applications of Emerson’s WirelessHART™ network at the Palomar
Energy Center use Rosemount® wireless transmitters communicating
with a single Smart Wireless Gateway to collect new, continuous data
for SDG&E.
The wireless network is integrated into Emerson’s Ovation expert
control system, providing access to additional plant and process data
for control and asset optimization, which translates into operational
efficiencies and performance improvements.
For more information:
www.EmersonProcess.com/SmartWireless
186
“Emerson Smart Wireless is
very easy, very reliable. We
used wireless for the ease of
installation; we did not have to
run any power or instrument
wiring resulting in cost
savings. Another great benefit
was the fact that we could
install the devices ourselves
instead of hiring contractors.
The ability to do it ourselves in
a fraction of the time delivered
big savings.”
Steve Lyons
Instrument Technician
San Diego Gas & Electric, Palomar
Energy Center
11 – Proven Result
OIL AND GAS
RESULTS
SDG&E has increased its cooling water throughput with the help of realtime cooling riser data delivered by Rosemount wireless temperature
transmitters. This data is used in efficiency calculations to verify that
cooling fans are running at correct speeds. Confirmation of properly
operating cooling fans eliminates the need to over-compensate, which
gives the plant better thermal efficiency.
In a second application, turbine compartment temperatures are
checked continuously by wireless temperature transmitters to detect
cooling air leaks. The new data has allowed SDG&E to cut preventative
maintenance on the turbines in half.
A third Smart Wireless application of Rosemount wireless pressure
transmitters detect air leaks from two forced draft fans as each
alternately sit idle while the other runs to cool turbines. Wireless
pressure data helped find leaks in a more expeditious manner. SDG&E is
now able to lower the fans’ amps, which has lengthened their lifetime,
saving at least one fan motor every five years, providing an estimated
savings of $15,000 to $20,000.
In a fourth application, Rosemount wireless DP transmitters check
inlet air filters that protect turbine blades in an area subjected to
construction dust which severely reduces efficiency. After installing
wireless DP, turbine efficiency has improved and megawatt usage
was reduced. Better DP information across the filters enables plant
personnel to clean them at the proper time.
In a fifth Smart Wireless application,a Rosemount wireless temperature
transmitter monitors pipes on the facility’s fire safety system. Pipe
temperatures can rise to 160°F if pumps are accidently left on after
weekly tests. Use of wireless helps to protect against pump damage,
which could cost the plant $20,000 per pump, and protect plant
personnel from burns.
Because wireless is flexible and scalable, power producers can adopt
this approach wherever it makes sense for their plant. By picking even
one small application, users can achieve improvements that would not
be possible in a traditional plant configuration.
“The new data provided
by the Smart Wireless
network allows us to perform
maintenance when needed,
and less on a scheduled basis.
As a result, we have cut our
preventive maintenance
on the turbines in half.
Additionally, after installing
wireless DP transmitters,
we have improved turbine
efficiency and reduced our
megawatt usage.”
Steve Lyons
Instrument Technician
San Diego Gas & Electric, Palomar
Energy Center
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
187
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
11.5Power
POWER
ROSEMOUNT 708 WIRELESS
Barking Power Lowers Steam Costs, Improves Efficiency
with Wireless Acoustic Monitoring
RESULTS
• 1400/day steam loss minimized through early leak detection on high
pressure superheater
• Eliminated steam loss, estimated at 4 tonnes per hour, from multiple
slow leaks lasting for weeks
• Improved ability to get power to the grid more quickly, more
consistently
• Improved overall plant efficiency
• Reduced unscheduled downtime through early fault detection on
critical assets
APPLICATION
Wireless steam monitoring and management
CUSTOMER
Barking Power Station owned by Barking Power Limited and operated
by Thames Power Services, is one of the largest independently owned
generating plants in the UK. The Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT)
is capable of generating 1,000 MW of electricity - about 2% of the peak
electricity demand in England and Wales.
CHALLENGE
Deregulation of the power generation market in the U.K. has increased
the need for power plants to reduce overall unit generating costs.
Originally built for base load generation, Barking Power now competes
in the peaking power market. To be competitive, they must continually
strive to lower cost and increase flexibility to meet short-term contract
windows.
“We are constantly looking to get the highest heat rate,” said Tony
Turp, Senior Control Engineer. “We have performance models and are
continually striving to improve our heat rate even one hundredth of
a percent.” The problem, of course, was time and money. “Our main
area of concentration is our steam lines,” Turp continued. “We need to
minimize steam loss on any steam lines that go to drains, or any steam
traps, anything that vents to atmosphere, start-up vents, blow-down
lines… anything that will increase our effluent waste or cause us to
generate more water to replenish any losses.”
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2013 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
188
“Overall, we have improved
plant efficiency, reduced
steam losses, and improved
the safety and productivity of
our people.”
Tony Turp
Senior Control Engineer
Barking Power Station, London
Acoustic technology combined with
WirelessHart enables on -line monitoring of
steam traps, vent valves and PRV’s across the
plant, including remote areas.
11 – Proven Result
POWER
To minimize losses, operators performed frequent rounds to identify leaks from
vents, poorly seating pressure relief valves (PRV’s) and malfunctioning steam
traps during normal operations. Large, single leaks were easy to detect (most of
the time) but smaller leaks could go unidentified for 2-3 weeks. Although lower
volumes were lost during these episodes, multiple leaks lasting for 2-3 weeks
when combined, lost as much as four metric tons of steam per hour before
detection through deterioration in plant performance. Ideally, Barking wanted to
identify failed steam traps and leaks caused by malfunctioning valves before they
impacted the plant.
A few vent valves were also known to stick during startups and shutdowns, and
had to be monitored manually. Manual monitoring was not only time consuming,
but also failed to indicate when or why a release occurred, increasing the chances
of a safety, regulatory, or environmental incident in the case of PRV’s.
SOLUTION
Sophisticated WirelessHART acoustic “listening” technology combined with an
integrated temperature measurement was deployed across the plant to monitor
steam traps, PRV’s and vent valves. This innovative combination of technologies
offered a reliable and cost effective solution for identifying the problems that lead
to unscheduled downtime, poor turbine efficiency and energy loss. A total of 100
Rosemount TM 708 Wireless Acoustic Transmitters were non-intrusively installed
on critical vent valves, steam traps and PRV’s.
Barking had previous experience with a WirelessHART network in the plant.
Despite the vast distance covered by the network and the tough environment
introduced by the power plant, the wireless network proved to be very reliable.
This gave Barking confidence to use Emerson’s Smart Wireless technology for this
new application.
®
Steam Traps
The plant is split into two areas consisting of a 400MW unit with two boilers and
a 600MW unit with three boilers. To cover both areas the customer installed two
new wireless field networks, each with a Smart Wireless Gateway that will support
up to 100 devices. The first acoustic transmitters were targeted for problematic
steam traps, where the software will “listen” to pick up a change in noise level
from the expected footprint. Any deviation from normal state alarms the
operators to take corrective action. This reduces the risk of significant leaks taking
place during periods of production to minimize energy loss.
Within the first week of operation, the new technology identified a leak from a
highpressure superheater steam trap. The cost of that leak was estimated to be
over €1400 for every 24 hours of operation, not including the loss of pressure
when the operation moved to hot standby mode, lost nitrogen if the plant moved
to cold standby, increased discharge waste, and increased water and chemical use.
Steam Vent Valves and Pressure Relief Valves
After deploying 35 acoustic transmitters to identify failing steam traps, Barking
instantly saw the potential of these devices and installed 15 additional wireless
acoustic transmitters to monitor PRV’s and steam vent valves. “Steam loss isn’t
restricted to steam traps,” said Turp. “Vent valves can stick during start-up, or fail
to seat properly. We normally have an operator viewing problematic valves during
this time, but by installing wireless acoustic transmitters we can now monitor
these devices from the control room, removing the need for field observations.”
Some of these valves are located 25m high on top of the boilers and are difficult to
check visually by operators. Remote monitoring significantly improved operator
safety and improved reporting of releases. While lack of visibility increased the
chances of a safety, regulatory, or environmental incident, the Rosemount devices
enable very precise reporting of a release, alerting operators within a second of
when a relief valve had opened. The time stamped alerts can be compared against
process conditions or environmental reporting to help identify the root cause of
a release.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2013 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
189
Previously, steam traps were
monitored by manual inspection.
This was time consuming and failed
to indicate when or why a release
occurred.
Acoustic noise detected on the safety
relief valve of an economizer alerted
operators to a potential problem that
risked a plant trip.
11 – Proven Result
POWER
Conclusion
With three wireless networks now in place, additional devices can be
added anywhere in the plant at a much lower cost than adding wired
devices.
The devices have proven effective at reducing steam loss and downtime
and have freed up valuable time for operators. “We no longer have to
send one of our operators to watch this valve during start-up,” said
Turp. “It is prone to failure from debris in the seawater. The acoustic
transmitter alerts operators when the vent is stuck, and only then does
an operator need to go out to the device”.
The devices have been installed for over a year, and have proven very
robust. Recently, a leak from a vent valve bathed one of the acoustic
transmitters in high temperature steam for over a day before it was
discovered, with no effect to the performance of the device.
“These devices give us a better picture of what is happening,” said Turp.
“Someone made a comment that they are like a baby monitor; you
know everything’s okay until they alert you that there’s a problem.”
He also noted that Barking can now better plan their maintenance
resources to avoid losses that impact efficiency. They don’t have to pay
a premium to third party contractors when repairs can be planned in
advance, “Overall, we have improved plant efficiency, reduced steam
losses, and improved the safety and productivity of our people.”
“These devices give us a better
picture of what is happening,”
said Turp. “Someone made
a comment that they are
like a baby monitor; you
know everything’s okay until
they alert you that there’s a
problem.”
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Power Generation Industry
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/divisions/power-water/
Pages/powerwater.aspx
Emerson’s Smart Wireless
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/
Wireless/Pages/index.aspx
Rosemount 708 Wireless Acoustic Transmitter
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/
Wireless/708-Acoustic/Pages/index.aspx
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0100-4708, Rev AA
190
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
POWER
ROSEMOUNT 848T
Energy Company Complies to New Mercury Removal
Emission Regulations Without Compromising Project
Cost by Using Smart Wireless
RESULTS
•
•
•
•
Compliance with Federal and State Regulations
Reduced project cost
Minimized environmental risk
Reduced safety and health risk of nearby communities
APPLICATION
Temperature measurements of boiler boxes
CUSTOMER
Energy company located in Western, USA
CHALLENGE
All coal fired plants are being required to reduce mercury emissions
under federal regulatory rules by November 2010. This energy
company planned to comply with the law by implementing a system
which would reduce their mercury emissions without incurring high
project cost.
One way to reduce mercury emissions is to introduce chemicals
that will help mercury in coal to be water soluble. The first step is to
spray calcium bromide onto the coal which will react with mercury
to form mercury bromide. Then, inject activated carbon upstream
of the air pre-heater to grab mercury bromide and allow a flue gas
desulfurization (FGD) scrubber to remove it. This process needs
accurate and reliable temperature measurements at the back of
the boiler box since mercury conversion works better at specific
temperatures.
Uncontrolled mercury emissions have many adverse effects; one is
raising the risk of polluting the environment. Another is risking the
health and safety of nearby communities. Furthermore, if found not
complying with the law, this energy company risks penalties and
damages to their reputation.
SOLUTION
Efficient mercury removal requires that the temperature across the
entire back of the boiler box be within a specific temperature range.
A complete temperature profile across the back of the boiler box is
needed. Several multi-point Rosemount 848T wireless temperature
transmitters were installed at the same level on each boiler box. These
were then wirelessly connected to a single DCS to provide the desired
temperature profile monitoring. This installation proved cost effective
as it eliminated the cost of running conduit and wires to each sensor.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2010 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
191
Rosemount 848T Wireless
Transmitter enabled this
energy company to meet
government mandated law
without compromising on
project cost.
Rosemount 848T Wireless Temperature
Transmitter
11 – Proven Result
POWER
Rosemount 848T Wireless Temperature Transmitter enabled this
energy company to meet the new mercury emission removal
regulation, avoiding fines and penalties while saving an approximate
40,000 USD in project cost by going wireless. Most importantly, the
848T played a key role in a control system with which they were able to
lower mercury levels in their flue gas, reducing risk to the environment
and the health and safety of nearby communities.
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Power Industry
http://www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/power/index.asp
Rosemount Temperature
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/
Temperature/Pages/index.aspx
Emerson Smart Wireless
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/
Wireless/Pages/index.aspx
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-1100-4697, Rev AA
192
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
COAL POWER
MOBREY MSL600 AND ROSEMOUNT 648 WIRELESS
WE Energies Automates Dewatering Bin Sludge Level
Measurement and Monitors the Result Without Wires
RESULTS
• Improved personnel safety
• Reduced operations and maintenance cost
• Reduced project implementation cost
APPLICATION
Ash level measurement in the bottom of an Ash Dewatering Bin
CHARACTERISTICS
Very cold temperatures during the winter months; murky water
CUSTOMER
WE Energies, Upper Pensinsula of Michigan, USA
CHALLENGE
Ash from the bottom of a boiler must be removed. This ash is mixed
with water to form slurry which is carried to dewatering bins where the
ash is concentrated for disposal. When the ash in the bottom of the bin
reaches a predetermined level it is pumped out. WE Energies’ power
plant needed to reliably measure the level of ash in the bottom of a
dewatering bin.
Customer had been using a “yo-yo” system to monitor the sludge.
A weight on a string is dropped into the bin until it hits the sludge.
As the weight is reeled back, a servo motor determines the length of
string and sludge level is calculated. Maintenance personnel needed
to manually read and record the level measurement. During the winter
months, the wet string caused the device to freeze up even though it
has a heat blanket. The result is a lost level measurement, and the need
for maintenance to repair the frozen device.
WE Energies experienced several negative business consequences as
a result of the unreliable ash level measurement. In winter, snow, ice,
and cold presented safety risk to maintenance personnel needing to
climb to the top of the dewatering bin. The need to maintain the frozen
“yo-yo” measurement device increased maintenance costs. Finally, due
to the loss of the ash level measurement, ash was sometimes pumped
from the dewatering bin before reaching the desired level. This
increased operations cost.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2012 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
193
Mobrey MSL600 Sludge Blanket Level Monitor
and Rosemount 648 Wireless Temperature
Transmitter
11 – Proven Result
COAL POWER
SOLUTION
WE Energies installed a Mobrey MSL600 Sludge Blanket Level Monitor
to measure the ash level. The monitor uses sonar technology to make a
continuous measurement. The sensor is mounted below the water level
and has no moving parts that can freeze. The output from the MSL600
was sent to a Rosemount 648 Wireless Temperature Transmitter. The
648 wirelessly sent the level reading to the control room. The system
has operated successfully through the harshest winter months without
requiring any maintenance and had no downtime. In addition, plant
personnel no longer need to climb to the top of the bin to read and record
the sludge level.
WE Energies experienced several positive business results by automating
the sludge level measurement with the Mobrey MSL600 and Rosemount
648. First, personnel safety has been improved by eliminating the need
to climb to the top of the bin to manually take the level measurement.
Second, unscheduled maintenance on the bin level measurement has
been eliminated, reducing maintenance cost. Third, ash pumping cost
was reduced due to elimination of unnecessary ash pumping. Finally, by
wirelessly communicating the level measurement to the control room,
the cost of installing wires was eliminated reducing implementation cost.
The installation has been so successful that additional Ash Dewatering
Bins on site are being upgraded with this solution.
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Power Industry
http://www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/power/index.asp
Mobrey MSL600 Sludge Blanket Level Monitor
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/mobrey/LevelProducts/Ultrasonic/MSL600/Pages/index.aspx
Rosemount 648 Wireless Temperature Transmitter
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/
Temperature/Single-Point-Measurement/648-Wireless/Pages/index.aspx
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0200-4648, Rev AB
194
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
11.6
Pulp and Paper
PULP & PAPER
Korsnäs Gävle Meets Environmental Requirements
Using Smart Wireless Technology
RESULTS
• Compliance with environment monitoring legislation
• Reduced installation costs
• Fast implementation of additional measurement points
APPLICATION
Leak detection
CUSTOMER
Korsnäs Gävle –board and paper manufacturer, Sweden
CHALLENGE
Environmental legislation required that water from heat exchangers
must be carefully monitored for contamination before it is returned to
the sea. Failure to comply could require production to be stopped at
the plant. Monitoring electrical conductivity is a standard detection
method for leaks of acids, bases, or salts since any leak is easily
detected using a conductivity sensor, but the existing I/O supporting
these devices was to be removed in a renovation project. An alternative
way to transmit the required measurements to the main control room
was needed.
A second application required Korsnäs Gävle to establish continuous
monitoring of effluent in aerated basins and ponds. New sensors
measuring pH, dissolved oxygen, and water temperatures had to be
installed and connected to the central monitoring system, but there
were no available cable runs and the closest available wired
connection point was more than 500 metres away. Installing new
cabling would present a considerable challenge and cost roughly
€200/metre.
SOLUTION
Korsnäs Gävle implemented Emerson’s Smart Wireless technology,
which is based on the IEC 62591 (WirelessHART®) standard. A
Rosemount Analytical 6081C wireless transmitter connected to a
conductivity probe monitors the water from the heat exchanger and
transmits the measurement data via a Smart Wireless Gateway to the
existing control and data acquisition systems. This new solution
ensures compliance with the environmental monitoring legislation.
Analytical
For more information:
www.EmersonProcess.com
www.raihome.com
195
“Less than two months after
ordering the Smart Wireless
devices, the whole system
was fully operational. That
is very fast for implementing
30 new measurement points.
Now that the network is in
place, we also have found that
adding additional devices
becomes very simple.”
Peter Hallenberg
Project Leader Process Automation
Korsnäs Gävle
11 – Proven Result
PULP & PAPER
Six Rosemount 848T wireless transmitters were installed to relay data
from 22 analytical sensors monitoring the aerated basins and ponds.
These new transmitters provide the necessary data to meet the
environmental requirements.
With the Smart Wireless network established, Korsnäs Gävle was also
able to install seven Rosemount 648 wireless temperature transmitters
to monitor temperatures in the water pits supplying water to aerated
basins and ponds. A further eight Rosemount 3051S wireless pressure
transmitters are to be implemented to identify plugged filters of two
wood chip digesters within the main processing section of the plant.
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
196
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
PULP & PAPER
SMART WIRELESS
Lime Kiln Throughput Improves with Smart
Wireless Solution
RESULTS
• 5% throughput improvement in lime kiln
• Minute-by-minute mid-zone temperature trending
• Self-powered transmitters were sending temperature updates within 24
hours of delivery
• Communication of devices on opposite sides of a rotating kiln to one
Gateway
APPLICATION
Lime Kiln Mid-Zone Temperature
APPLICATION CHARACTERISTIC
Rotating kiln, high temperature, radiant heat, dusty ambient
environment
CUSTOMER
“. . . four days after the order
was placed, we could see
minute-by-minute mid-zone
temperatures trending on the
control system.”
Pulp Mill
E&I Leader
Pulp and Paper Mill in North America
CHALLENGE
A Pulp and Paper Mill in North America struggled to properly control
calcining in the lime kiln. In fact, the kiln was operating so poorly that
it had become a choke point. The mill bought a new burner system and
adjusted the flame profile to improve heat transfer at the mid-zone,
where calcining of the lime mud takes place. The burner system is fired
at the hot end (2000 °F [1093 °C]) of this long, cylindrical, rotating
kiln and a draft is induced at the feed end (400 - 500 °F [204 − 260°C]).
The flame is adjusted through the draft to provide the optimum shape
and achieve the right mid-zone temperature. For this mill, however,
the mid-zone temperatures could not be measured reliably and were
inferred through the firing and feed end temperatures.
Unfortunately, the new burner system did not solve the problem.
The mill suspected a new chain system was needed on the inside of
the kiln to break up the lime mud and promote heat transfer. The
Pulp Mill Leader did not want to invest the money, however, until the
mid-zone temperatures for the center of the kiln (the air temperature)
and the inside wall (where lime mud tumbled around chains) could
be measured and actual heat transfer could be confirmed. The
temperature measurement that had accompanied the purchase of
the kiln, which relied on a brush system, had never worked and had
not been maintained. A wired solution could not handle the rotating
equipment, so the customer approached their instrument partner Emerson Process Management - for a solution.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2008 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
197
Lime Kiln Application
11 – Proven Result
PULP & PAPER
SOLUTION
Emerson Process Management’s new Smart Wireless solution was
proposed, and the customer asked for shipment as soon as possible.
Two Rosemount 648 Wireless Temperature Transmitters with
thermocouples and a 1420 Gateway arrived at the plant three days
later. The sensors were installed on opposite sides of the kiln’s midzone, 180° apart, without thermowells to provide the fastest possible
response time. One was positioned toward the center of the kiln to
pick up the air temperature, and the other was positioned at the outer
extremity to pick up radiant heat from the brick, indicating lime mud
temperature. The self-powered transmitters were mounted on a pipe
that extends away from the kiln and were sending temperature updates
to the control room through the 1420 Gateway within 24 hours of
delivery. “We had a Modbus® address available, so it was easy to add
the Gateway as a slave to the control system,” said E&I Leader for the
Pulp Mill and Lime Kiln. “In fact, four days after the order was placed,
we could see minute-by-minute mid-zone temperatures trending on
the control system.”
Immediately the mill recognized the inferred temperatures were off by
350 °F (177 °C), and confirmed that a new chain system was required to
break up the lime mud. “Since the wireless system has been installed,
we can tell if there’s build-up of lime in the mid-zone area,” said the
Pulp Mill Team Leader, “You can see fluctuation in the temperature,
which is an indication of build-up. Overall, we have improved operation
of the lime kiln, and increased throughput by 5%.” The Pulp Mill Team
Leader concluded by saying, “I think it’s a pretty good achievement to
have two different devices communicating with one Gateway, when
they are on opposite sides of a rotating kiln.
“Since the wireless system has
been installed, we can tell if
there’s a build-up of lime in
the mid-zone area. . . .Overall,
we have improved operation
of the lime kiln, and increased
throughput by 5%.”
Pulp Mill
Team Leader
RESOURCES
http://www.emersonprocess.com/smartwireless
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0300-4180, Rev AA
198
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
11.7Refinery
REFINING
SMART WIRELESS
Refinery Improved Product Quality and
Throughput with Smart Wireless
RESULTS
• Improved product quality
• Minimized capital expenditure
• Increased plant throughput
APPLICATION
Steam pressure measurements at compressor
CUSTOMER
Leading oil refinery in Southeast Asia
CHALLENGE
This refinery was having problems with process upsets at the Crude
Distillation Unit (CDU) resulting in offspec product due to steam supply
pressure fluctuations, and at times steam supply failure.
The problem was caused by pressure dial gauges on steam lines at the
compressor, which did not provide any real time pressure monitoring.
Additionally, being an old and congested refinery, it was difficult and costly
to install new wiring due to space limitations in the marshalling cabinets,
junction boxes, and I/O limitations in the legacy control system.
Absence of online steam pressure monitoring on the compressor had
negative business impacts to the customer, which resulted in poor product
quality and lower plant throughput. Also, the capital costs (CAPEX) for
installing additional wired inputs to the legacy control system were high
and acted as a barrier to solving the problem.
Automatic on-line
measurement of steam
pressures resulted in better
control of the compressor
operation and improved
product quality.
SOLUTION
Three pressure dial gauges on the compressor were replaced with
Rosemount 3051S Wireless Pressure Transmitters, part of Emerson’s Smart
Wireless Solutions. This allowed automatic monitoring of steam pressure.
A Smart Wireless Gateway was also installed to complete the wireless
network. Emerson’s Smart Wireless Field Network installation effectively
solved all the problems related to space congestion for new wiring, and
eliminated higher CAPEX costs associated with a wired solution.
Improved field intelligence, facilitated by wireless online measurement
of steam pressures on the compressor resulted in better control of the
compressor operation. This stabilized the steam supply pressure to the
crude unit product side streams, which resulted in improved product
quality and increased plant throughput.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2009 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
199
The Rosemount 3051S Wireless Series of
Instrumentation
11 – Proven Result
REFINING
Emerson’s Smart Wireless Solutions allowed this customer to
implement wireless steam pressure measurement points at minimal
additional CAPEX in congested areas with wiring limitations.
RESOURCES
Emerson’s Smart Wireless
http://www.EmersonSmartWireless.com
Smart Wireless Gateway
http://www.emersonprocess.com/rosemount/document/pds/008130100-4420.pdf
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0200-4802, Rev AA
200
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
REFINING
SMART WIRELESS
Refinery Improved Throughput with Wireless
Differential Pressure Flowmeters
RESULTS
• Improved refinery product inventory monitoring
• Minimized capital expenditure
• Improved throughput
APPLICATION
Production rate measurements for diesel and kerosene jumper lines
CUSTOMER
Leading oil refinery in Southeast Asia
CHALLENGE
This refinery did not have real time production flow rate measurements
on newly constructed diesel and kerosene jumper lines.
Being an old and very congested refinery, it was difficult and costly to
install flow measurement points for the newly constructed diesel and
kerosene jumper lines. Due to space limitations in the marshalling
cabinets, junction boxes, and I/O limitations in the legacy control
system, this installation appeared cost prohibitive.
Lack of production rate information for new diesel and kerosene
products was causing inventory monitoring problems. This led to
significant financial implications in terms of both expected revenue
and profitability from these new products. However, the capital cost
for installing additional wired inputs to the existing control system was
quite high. Space constraints also prevented installation of traditional
orifice plates for the flow measurements points due to the required
upstream and downstream straight pipe run lengths.
The Rosemount 3051S
Wireless DP Flowmeters
with Compact Conditioning
Orifice Plate technology
allowed production tracking
of two new distillate products
at minimal additional
capital cost.
SOLUTION
Two Rosemount 3051S Wireless DP Flowmeters, part of Emerson’s
Smart Wireless Solutions, were installed on the new diesel and
kerosene product lines at minimal additional capital cost. The selforganizing technology eliminated the need to wire new measurement
points. This solved the problems related to the existing control
system expansion and capital constraints associated with this difficult
installation.
In addition, a Rosemount Compact Conditioning Orifice Plate was
installed as the primary element on the diesel jumper line. The
Compact Conditioning Orifice Plate only required 2 diameters straight
pipe run both upstream and downstream, resulting in no additional
changes to the current pipe.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2009 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
201
Rosemount 3051S Wireless with integrated
Compact Conditioning Orifice Plate technology
11 – Proven Result
REFINING
The Rosemount 3051S Wireless DP Flowmeters allowed this refinery to
significantly improve inventory monitoring of new products, diesel and
kerosene, at minimal additional capital cost. This improved revenue and
profitability estimation for these new products.
Also, the real time production tracking and operational adjustments of
the new products led to improved throughput. Finally, the combination of
Emerson’s Smart Wireless and Rosemount Conditioning Orifice Plate
technology minimized the capital cost needed to have real time
production flow rate measurements.
RESOURCES
Emerson’s Smart Wireless
http://www.EmersonSmartWireless.com
Rosemount Compact Conditioning Orifice Plate
http://www.emersonprocess.com/rosemount/products/flow/m405p.html
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0300-4802, Rev AA
202
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
PETROCHEMICAL
ROSEMOUNT 708 WIRELESS ACOUSTIC
Petrochemical Company in South Africa Saves Energy and
Improves Productivity with Emerson’s Smart Wireless
Acoustic Solutions
RESULTS
•
•
•
•
•
Payback period of 3 months
Saved over $42,000 annually in steam costs
Saved $11,390 in installation costs
Annual maintenance savings of $15,627
Reduced downtime
APPLICATION
Steam trap monitoring on a range of high-value product streams,
including liquid fuels, chemicals and low-carbon electricity
CHALLENGE
Petrochemical Customer in South Africa has a dedicated research
and development team of more than 600 people, with over 200
people holding PhD’s or Masters in Engineering and Science. In this
semi-commercial pilot plant environment that develops innovative
solutions for chemical, refining, gas, petrochemical and other
technologies, reducing energy costs is an important goal.
One focus of the Instrumentation and Control group was to
minimize energy losses from the large number of steam traps. More
specifically, the group investigated methods to minimize steam loss
when traps failed, as steam is a high cost utility and undetected trap
failure was a significant cost. “With the current system we have a
maintenance team that do weekly manual inspections on a certain
number of steam traps, as determined by a specific inspection
schedule,” said Control Systems and Instrumentation Manager. “The
purpose of the inspection was to ensure the traps are fully functional.
By following this manual process, it can take up to 3 to 4 weeks
before a faulty steam trap can be detected.”
“The Emerson wireless
acoustic devices were very
easy to install and provide
valuable insight into steam
traps which were cumbersom
to monitor manually.
Significant energy savings
have been achieved with the
added benefit of reduced
downtime and maintenance
savings.”
Team Leader Petrochemical
Company, South Africa
Rosemount 708 Wireless Acoustic Transmitters
provide nonintrusive, continuous on-line steam
trap monitoring.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2013 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
203
11 – Proven Result
PETROCHEMICAL
SOLUTION
The Research and Development team’s control systems group looked at
smart wireless acoustic transmitters to assist the mechanical group to do
more effective maintenance on the failing steam traps. With knowledge
and documentation obtained from Emerson’s Global Users Conference in
the USA and Germany, Customer partnered with Emerson to trial twenty
(20) acoustic transmitters to monitor critical traps.
The transmitters and software were easily configured and setup.
Fourteen transmitters were installed on critical steam traps throughout
the semi-commercial plant and six on critical traps in the steam utilities
area.
The wireless transmitters with acoustic sensing technology successfully
detected failing steam traps. “With on-line acoustic monitoring, the
facility now has early warning when steam traps fail,” said Customer’s
Control Systems and Instrumentation Manager, referencing the 20
traps with the new wireless acoustic transmitters. “The Mechanical
Department gets on-line alerts and can respond more quickly, reducing
steam loss through the failed traps. We computed the lost steam costs
was in the region of $42 195.00 per annum at the current exchange
rate of R9.12 if we look at an average of 20 steam traps that failed for an
average period of 3 weeks.”
Inspections (on those traps) are now reduced to a few manual
inspections per year, saving $15, 627 in maintenance costs. Process
downtime, which could result from some critical steam trap failures,
was also reduced. “Overall, the smart acoustic transmitters paid for
themselves in under 3 months,” he concluded.
The Petrochemical Company plans to scale up the use of on-line wireless
acoustic monitoring to production facilities all over the world.
The Rosemount 3051S Wireless Series of
Instrumentation
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Chemical Industry
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/industries/Chemical/Pages/
index.aspx
Rosemount 708 Wireless Acoustic Transmitter & Steam Trap Monitor
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/
Wireless/708-Acoustic/Pages/index.aspx
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0200-4708, Rev AA
204
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
REFINING
ROSEMOUNT WIRELESS INSTRUMENTATION
Refinery Improves Availability of Coking Unit with
Wireless Monitoring
RESULTS
• Improved availability of coking operation by reducing unplanned
failure of expensive equipment
• Operator time freed up for higher value activities
• Up to 90 percent reduction in installed cost over traditional wireless
network
Unplanned shutdowns are
minimized because of more
frequent and accurate
bearing temperature
monitoring.
APPLICATION
Calcining Unit for a Coking Operation
CUSTOMER
Refinery in North America
CHALLENGE
A refinery in North America wanted to automate non-production areas of
their plant to free up labor resources for higher-value activities that improve
plant productivity. Unfortunately, the high installed cost of traditional wired
instrument networks was prohibitive, and they were forced to manually log
most of their monitored points. Operators were visiting the calcining unit for
the coker once a month and manually logging motor bearing temperatures,
pump casing temperatures, differential pressure across water filters, and inline pressures on chemical injection lines to detect plugging.
For the motor bearing and pump casing temperatures they had to manually
take the readings for each of the three hearths with an infrared gun, then
write them in a log and key the data into a data historian. This was in
addition to any action that would be taken in case maintenance was needed.
Because of limited resources, the refinery was seeking a cost-effective way
to automate this area of the coker and free the operators from this timeconsuming process. They also wanted to eliminate human error in logging
each measurement and keying it into the historian. Finally, they wanted to
improve resolution to the process and receive readings every hour instead of
the current rate of once per month. They hoped to move from preventative
maintenance techniques, which could result in unnecessary maintenance or
unplanned failure of expensive equipment, to a proactive environment with
predictable turnarounds. They needed an affordable, reliable measurement
system that could handle the high humidity, high vibration, high EMF/RF
environment as well as the extreme temperatures of -40°C to 85°C.
SOLUTION
The refinery installed a Smart Wireless self-organizing network from Emerson
to monitor 14 points across a 1200 foot area of the coker and support units.
Customers have estimated the cost of installing a traditional wired point is
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2007 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
205
Typical filter application
11 – Proven Result
REFINING
$8,000 to $15,000, including engineering and design for power and communications,
installation, and materials (excluding the cost of the instruments). In comparison, a
wireless point on the self-organizing network only costs an average of $1,000 per point,
representing a 90 percent reduction over the wired solution, which made the project
feasible for the customer. They installed the Rosemount 648 wireless temperature
transmitter for motor bearing and pump casing temperatures and the Rosemount
3051S wireless pressure transmitter to monitor plugging of water filters and chemical
injection lines. Emerson’s 1420 Wireless Gateway was installed to connect the wireless
instruments to the existing OSIsoft® PI System.™ Live process data as well as trend
histories from the calciner are now available to operators, instrument technicians,
engineers and management through their existing PI System.
Very little training was required, since Rosemount wireless devices can be installed
exactly the same way as wired devices. The customer had their own people install and
start up the equipment; they did not need Emerson engineers. In fact, one instrument
engineer acknowledged that the instruments look exactly like their wired counterparts.
Now the plant monitors bearing temperatures more frequently and accurately, and
is able to detect problems in motor and pump casings before they lead to unplanned
failure. On the first day of installation, the plant engineers noticed the bearings on
one hearth were running 30°C hotter than optimal. They installed a cooling system to
prolong the life of that equipment and prevent an unplanned shutdown. The bearing
temperatures for all three hearths are used to modify the capacity at which the calciner
is operating. If the motor or pump casing temperatures go above a critical point, plant
engineers reduce the capacity of the calciner so the motors can safely run until the
next scheduled turnaround without damaging their equipment. Other equipment like
filters has been optimized by higher accuracy and higher resolution to the process. Back
flushing is no longer based on a set schedule, but is performed as needed based on the
differential pressure trend history in the historian. This has prevented filter plugging
and subsequent downtime as well as reducing unnecessary maintenance activities.
The operators still make rounds, but without an infrared gun and a manual log. They
use a wireless PDA to interrogate their wireless instruments and connect to the data
historian to check trend histories. Their focus is now on solving problems instead of
manually reading, logging and entering data. With higher resolution to the process
and more accurate measurements, the plant has improved the availability of the
coking operation, streamlined maintenance activities, moved the plant to predictable
turnarounds, and minimized unplanned failures of expensive pumps and motors.
Very little
training was
required because
Rosemount
wireless devices
can be installed
exactly the same
way as their wired
counterparts.
RESOURCES
http://www.emersonprocess.com/rosemount/smartwireless/
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0200-4420, Rev AA
206
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
REFINING
ROSEMOUNT WIRELESS INSTRUMENTATION
Refinery Improves Environmental Compliance
and Reduces Costs with Wireless Instruments
RESULTS
•
•
•
•
Eliminated false Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emission reports
Reduced VOC emissions through timely operator intervention
Minimized fines for VOC emissions through more accurate reporting
Eliminated manual logs for compliance reporting
The refinery found a solution
that was 90 percent below
the cost of a traditional wired
network.
APPLICATION
Coking Unit in a Refinery
CUSTOMER
Refinery in North America
CHALLENGE
A refining customer in North America needed better monitoring of their
pressure relief valves (PRVs) to track any release of VOCs more closely.
Pressure relief valves allow a release only when line pressure builds up to
a critical level, to prevent a more catastrophic failure due to overpressure.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires plants to report any
VOC release, and assumes a worst-case scenario. That means the plant
must assume the release happened immediately after the last logged
entry, and that it lasted the full complement of time until the next logged
entry. The plant is then fined accordingly. For this refining customer,
that time was a 12 hour period. The plant did not have resources to
automatically monitor the pressure relief valves on the coking unit,
so they put rubber “socks” on the stacks to indicate a VOC release. If a
sock was off, a 12 hour emission at the maximum rate was assumed and
reported. Unfortunately, VOC release wasn’t the only culprit for a “sockoff” scenario. High winds sometimes blew the socks off, resulting in fines
up to $350,000 for zero emissions. The plant did not have labor resources
to manually monitor their PRVs more frequently than once a shift, and did
not have $300,000 to engineer, design and install a traditional instrument
network. They needed a more cost-effective solution to eliminate false
emission reports, accurately report the length of time and rate for a true
VOC release, and maintain a log to prove zero emissions.
SOLUTION
The refinery found a solution that was 90 percent below the cost of a
traditional wired network.This reliable and economical solution came
from Emerson Process Management’s Smart Wireless self-organizing
network. The plant placed twenty-seven Rosemount 3051S wireless
pressure transmitters on stacks in the coking unit to automatically
monitor the high side of the pressure relief valves. This network provided
coverage to an area spanning 1500 feet horizontally and 150 feet
vertically.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2007 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
207
A “sock off” situation (left) automatically
assumed a 12 hour VOC emission at the
maximum release rate. New wireless
instruments from Emerson (right) provide
trend data that can help operators prevent VOC
emissions.
11 – Proven Result
REFINING
The customer hired their standard contractor to engineer the instrument
locations and install the network of devices. The contractor treated the devices
as if they were wired, following their standard installation practices. There was
no complicated site survey required to ensure wireless connectivity. They were
placed on top of towers, at ground level, beneath the coking infrastructure, and
between tanks. When the electrical sub-contractor installed the first 14 devices,
they had perfect connectivity across the entire process unit. The self-organizing
network allowed any device to talk to any other device on the network, so they
had built-in communication redundancy at multiple levels. The network was
strengthened when the remaining 13 devices were added according to the same
standard installation practices.
The instrument readings were seamlessly integrated into the existing OSIsoft® PI
System™ through the 1420 Wireless Gateway for trending, analysis, calculation
of VOC release rates, and automatic reporting of events. They provided high
resolution data to prove environmental compliance; in fact, the rate of one
point every fifteen seconds is four times the resolution required by the EPA for
electronic equipment. The plant now has 2,880 data points per shift instead of
one. They also have an actual pressure reading instead of a “sock on” reading.
That pressure reading provides valuable trend history to generate alerts, and
operators can take proactive steps to prevent an emission. Furthermore, instead
of the “sock off” reading the customer now has the time of release within 15
seconds, as well as the actual rate of emission, so maximum pressure is no longer
assumed. Finally, there are no more false positives from socks being blown off by
high winds. The socks are still there, but only provide redundancy.
The result has been a significant drop in fines by eliminating false emission
reports, prevention of VOC emissions through timely operator intervention, and
true time and rate calculations for brief emissions that previously were assumed
to be 12 hours at maximum pressure. A significant cost to the plant was also
reduced with automated compliance reporting. Proving compliance is often more
costly than compliance itself, and the plant was able to utilize their existing plant
host to trend, analyze, report and prove zero emissions. The new technology
has been openly embraced by IT, process operators, instrument technicians,
contractors and engineers, and the customer plans to eventually install wireless
devices on all 600 pressure relief valves in the refinery, both for stacks and drain
pipes. Emerson Process Management’s Smart Wireless technology enables any
refining facility to cost-effectively meet new, stricter regulations.
The new technology
has been openly
embraced by IT,
process operators,
instrument technicians,
contractors, and
engineers.
The existing OSIsoft® PI System™ is
used for trending and compliance
reporting.
RESOURCES
http://www.emersonprocess.com/rosemount/smartwireless/
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0100-4420, Rev AA
208
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
REFINING
SMART WIRELESS
Refinery Initiates Tank Overfill Protection and
Optimization of Pre-Heaters with Smart Wireless
RESULTS
• Saved upwards of $1million by eliminating tank spills/remediation
during ship off-loading
• Initiated cost effective overfill protection on over 60 crude and
product tanks
• Improved safety with heater firebox draft monitoring
• Increased energy efficiency with heat exchanger temperature
monitoring
APPLICATION
Tank overfill protection, heat exchanger energy efficiency monitoring,
heater firebox draft monitoring
CUSTOMER
A Major Oil and Gas Company in the United States
CHALLENGE
A large refinery in the United States accepts crude oil from ships and
stores it in crude oil storage tanks in the tank farm on the south side of
the refinery. To reduce expenses, these ships are off-loaded as quickly
and efficiently as possible. This means large volumes of oil being moved
with measurements and controls that are critical to moving it safely and
efficiently.
The crude oil storage tanks had a primary level measurement system
that would sometimes fail. The loss of crude oil was minor compared
to the cost of cleanup. Remediation from a single tank spill cost the
company $1 million. A redundant system was too expensive to wire, as
the tank farm is spread out over several square miles. When the tank
gauging system failed a second time, the Plant Manager insisted that
an independent secondary system be installed immediately. He did not
want an overfill situation to happen again.
Other challenges for the plant included heat exchanger energy efficiency
calculations and heater firebox draft monitoring. Since the refinery is
an older structure with dense piping as well as tanks, vessels, and other
obstructions in the area of the pre-heaters, wiring is very expensive
and difficult at some locations. The customer was looking to optimize
efficiency of the pre-heaters and minimize energy consumption, and
could not do it effectively with spot checks from an infrared gun. They
also wanted to install a safety precaution by measuring pressure in the
heater firebox, and ensure noxious gases were not escaping.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2012 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
209
“Overall the refinery has
eliminated tank spills from
level measurement errors
on the crude tanks, provided
overfill protection on all crude,
intermediate and product
storage tanks, improved
safety by measuring pressure
on heater fireboxes, and
improved energy efficiency of
the heat exchangers.”
Senior Instrument Engineer
Large U.S. Refinery
11 – Proven Result
REFINING
Given the large geographical location of the tank farms, wiring was cost
prohibitive. Given the complexity of the infrastructure near the preheaters, wiring would have been difficult and expensive. The only
alternative for the customer was regular trips to the field for manual
measurement. To improve safety and optimize efficiency, the plant was
looking to automate.
SOLUTION
A Senior Instrument Engineer at the refinery started to look at wireless
technology to provide fast, cost effective overfill protection on the tanks.
At the time, wireless was just emerging on the market. One technology
required line-of-sight, and had difficulty in dense infrastructures. The
other technology, a self-organizing mesh, promised three dimensional
application of the technology.
After carefully evaluating both systems, the customer purchased the
Smart Wireless self-organizing network from Emerson. A high level
displacer switch was placed on each of the floating roof crude tanks, and
connected to a Rosemount 702 Wireless Discrete Transmitter. Each of the
wireless transmitters communicates to a Smart Wireless gateway in the
east side of the south field, where the crude tanks are located. The wireless
points were easily integrated into an existing Modbus port on a 1980’s
distributed control system, so it did not require extra I/O from the vintage
control system. “A wired solution would have been very expensive, and
required additional I/O on our control system” said the Senior Instrument
Engineer. “We took a chance on the wireless mesh from Emerson, and it
has worked great.”
In fact, the plant has not had an overfill condition since the wireless
network and level switches were installed. With one minute updates
from the wireless measurements, the operators have early warning if
the primary level measurement fails and a high level is reached. That
gives operators enough time to either stop the tank fill or divert it to
another storage tank. “We monitor the level measurements from the
control room” said the customer, “as well as battery life on the wireless
transmitters. We know when we have a couple of weeks to change the
batteries.”
With the successful installation of secondary level measurements on the
crude tanks, it was decided to add all 30 product tanks in the East field
to the gateway as well. “Once you have the gateway, it is easy to add
additional measurements” the engineer commented. “We installed 30
more displacer switches and wireless 702 discrete transmitters and joined
them to the existing network. The interface to our vintage DCS was already
in place.” Although the customer had not had problems with overfill
on product tanks, they wanted to take preventative action to ensure it
would never happen. This was partly in anticipation of legislation changes
concerning tank overfill protection, which has already been passed in some
states like California. Given the relatively low cost of installation for wireless
points, it was an easy decision to make.
Once the East field was finished, second and third networks were installed
in two other fields. Twenty five product tanks in the first field and three in
the second, both of which are even further from the control room, were
given the same independent secondary (wireless) level measurement
system as insurance against overfill. Each field had its own gateway
installed. One was integrated into a Modbus port on the vintage DCS and
the other was integrated via Modbus into the next generation DCS from
the same vendor.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0200-4702, Rev AA
210
Smart wireless enables overfill protection of
crude oil storage tanks during off loading from
ships
11 – Proven Result
REFINING
With the success of wireless in the tank farms, the refinery looked to
secondary draft monitoring on two heater fireboxes to further improve
safety. To ensure the heaters were operated within specified operating
limits, two Rosemount 3051S wireless pressure transmitters (with 4 second
update rates) were placed in the heater draft system to give early indication of
any loss of pressure. These transmitters connect to a fourth gateway in that area
of the refinery, and were easily integrated into another vendor’s DCS through
existing Modbus I/O. With open standards, the Emerson wireless network is
easily integrated into multiple host systems.
The most recent project was the installation of a fifth gateway in the crude
oil pre-heating area. The refinery was plagued with poor temperature
measurements on the heat exchangers from degradation of thermocouple
and RTD wiring. Because of the dense infrastructure, line-of -sight wireless
technologies would not work. Operators had to take spot measurements
with an infrared gun once a month, and manually enter the readings so heat
exchanger efficiencies could be calculated and cleaning schedules developed.
Unfortunately, this caused loss of efficiency as the differential temperatures
would often fall far below optimal before readings were taken.
Ten Rosemount 648 Wireless Temperature Transmitter were installed on the
inlet and outlet of several heat exchangers with one minute update rates. The
installation points were hidden behind dense piping, vessels, and tanks, but
the mesh remains strong with high signal reliability. Now process engineering
has live, accurate, information at one minute intervals instead of once a month.
Richer information, 43,200 automatically measured and recorded points
per month compared to one manually measured and recorded point, gives
engineering the tools to optimize energy efficiency. Timely alerts are issued to
operators to clean the exchangers and optimize thermal efficiency for each unit.
The improvements in energy use have led process engineering to ask for three
more wireless temperature transmitters to be added.
“Overall the refinery has eliminated tank spills from level measurement errors
on the crude tanks, provided overfill protection on all crude, intermediate and
product storage tanks, improved safety by measuring negative pressure on
heater fireboxes, and improved energy efficiency of the heat exchangers,” the
customer concluded. The plant continues to expand the wireless mesh networks,
and sister companies are following suit.
Dense piping, vessels, and tanks are a
challenge to wiring, and to non-mesh
wireless technologies
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Refining Industry
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/industries/refining/Pages/index.aspx
Emerson Smart Wireless
http://www.emersonprocess.com/rosemount/smartwireless/index.html
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0200-4702, Rev AA
211
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
REFINING
SMART WIRELESS
Refinery Wirelessly Monitors Junction Box Pressure,
Eliminating Manual Checks, Improving Monitoring
Coverage, and Preserving Wiring Infrastructure
RESULTS
•
•
•
•
Reduced Operations Cost
Reduced Safety Risk
Reduced Project Cost
Reduced Infrastructure Used
APPLICATION
Monitor positive air pressure in Z-Purge Junction Boxes
CUSTOMER
Refining Company
CHALLENGE
The refining company needed to continuously monitor the pressure
in Z-Purge junction boxes around the refinery. These junction boxes
are maintained at a low positive pressure to prevent process gasses
from entering the junction boxes. These junction boxes are widely
distributed throughout the plant. Previously these junction boxes were
manually monitored by operators on periodic rounds in the refinery.
No instruments currently existed to monitor the junction box pressure.
Limited wiring existed to instrument the junction boxes to add new
instruments. In addition, wiring available was not always analog.
Sometimes only digital inputs were available.
Lack of continuous monitoring meant refinery was not meeting their
safety standards. Having operators take manual readings increased
operations cost and exposed operators to hazardous areas in the plant.
Using a wired solution would have used much of the available spare
wiring infrastructure in the plant increasing cost and reducing spares
available for future plant needs. Finally, the lack of consistent input type
available at the different junction boxes would increase project cost as
different types of solutions would have been needed.
The Rosemount 3051S
Wireless Pressure Transmitter
provided a solution that could
be used everywhere without
consuming limited spare
wiring capacity.
The Rosemount 3051S Wireless Pressure
Transmitter
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2010 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
212
11 – Proven Result
REFINING
SOLUTION
The problem was solved by monitoring the Z-Purge junction boxes
with Rosemount 3051S wireless pressure transmitters. Each Z-Purge
junction box was monitored for proper pressure on a continuous
basis. The wireless solution eliminated the need to use existing spare
wire capacity to monitor the junction boxes. Finally, since no wires
were needed, engineering didn’t need to design multiple solutions to
accommodate different wiring types, and operations and maintenance
didn’t need to run additional wires to areas with no spare wire capacity.
Operations costs were reduced and operator safety was improved
by eliminating operator rounds to check junction box pressure. In
addition, plant safety goals were met. Next, project costs were reduced
since the 3051S wireless pressure transmitters could be used in every
location, eliminating the cost of designing multiple solutions. Project
costs were further reduced by eliminating the need to engineer the
wiring connections associated with wired solutions. In addition, spare
plant wiring infrastructure was preserved as no wires were needed to
implement the solution. Finally, adding future wireless devices will save
an estimated $5,000 per device compared to wired solutions.
Emerson’s Smart Wireless Solutions allowed this customer to
implement wireless junction box pressure measurement points at
minimal additional CAPEX in congested areas with wiring limitations.
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Refining Industry
http://www.emersonprocess.com/solutions/refining/index.asp
Emerson’s Smart Wireless
http://www.EmersonSmartWireless.com
Rosemount 3051S Wireless Pressure Transmitter
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/
Pressure/Pressure-Transmitters/3051S-Wireless/Pages/index.aspx
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0500-4802, Rev AA
213
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
REFINING
Smart Wireless Minimizes Capital Costs for Online
Monitoring of Plant and Instrument Air
RESULTS
• 73% savings in CAPEX costs
• Reduced plant downtime with live trending of compressor data
• Saved over $50,000 per year in operations costs
APPLICATION
Wireless air compressor monitoring
CUSTOMER
A major refinery in North America
CHALLENGE
This refinery installed two new compressors to maintain the reliability
of plant and instrument air. Unfortunately, the buildings that house the
compressors and control room are very old. The only way to wire was to
pull cable under the road between the buildings. Access above ground
was unavailable due to the dense infrastructure of equipment. “We
only have nine measurements, but wiring was a logistical nightmare”,
said the Systems Engineer in charge of the project. “A wired option
would have cost over $135,000. It just was not an option.”
The refinery needed a cost effective solution to continuously monitor
pressure, temperature, and flow of compressed air going to both
the plant air system and the instrument air supply system. Online
measurement would ensure timely intervention if air flow was
interrupted, and also would provide information necessary to monitor
the efficiency of the compressors.
“We only have nine
measurements, but wiring
was a logistical nightmare. A
wired option would have cost
over $135,000. It just was not
an option”.
Systems Engineer
Major North American Refinery
SOLUTION
This customer purchased nine Smart Wireless instruments. The wireless
instruments included Rosemount pressure and temperature
transmitters, and DP flowmeters to monitor the new compressors.
Due to the dense infrastructure of both buildings, a remote antenna
for the Smart Wireless Gateway was placed on top of the building that
housed the control room to optimize reliability of communications.
Emerson’s Wireless Field Network was integrated into the legacy host
via Modbus™ over ethernet protocol. Now operators can continuously
monitor the health of the compressors from a remote location, and will
automatically get an alarm if the efficiency of the compressors begins
to decrease, or if there is a loss of pressure or flow.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2009 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
214
AMS Wireless SNAP-ON Application
11 – Proven Result
REFINING
Loss of compressed air can have a significant impact on the plant, and
early detection will prevent process downtime and compressor failure.
Not only does wireless provide early warning, but it provides a historical
trend of pressure, temperature and flow.
Instead of three manual readings per day, each Smart Wireless
instrument updates the control host every minute for a historical
trend of nearly 1500 points per day. That means operators can spend
their time doing more productive tasks instead of travelling to the
compressors every shift. Also, the high resolution of data makes
troubleshooting compressor problems much easier.
This customer received the AMS® Wireless Configurator and
purchased the AMS Wireless SNAP-ON™ to enhance monitoring of the
wireless network. The AMS Suite predictive maintenance application
provides real-time access to wireless data from any engineering
console. This gives system engineers full access to the Smart Wireless
instrument data, and also shows them the communication paths of
each instrument. “The AMS Wireless SNAP-ON allows us to monitor
and verify path stability of each instrument through the entire mesh
network,” said the Project Engineer. “In fact, when an obstruction
interrupted the network I watched live as the mesh network groomed
itself and automatically reorganized, without interruption to any of the
nine instrument signals.”
The wireless solution represented a 73% savings over the wired option,
and enabled live trending of compressor data, which decreased plant
downtime. Since the wired solution was cost prohibitive, the only
alternative was manual readings once a shift. If operator time is valued
at $50/hr., the plant saved over $50,000 per year in labor costs. This
does not include the value of live trending and alarming to prevent
process downtime. Overall, the Smart Wireless Network has improved
reliability of the plant and instrument air supply, and enabled operators
and systems engineers to work more productively.
“The AMS Wireless SNAP-ON
allows us to monitor and
verify path stability of each
instrument through the entire
mesh network. In fact, when
an obstruction interrupted
the network, I watched live as
the mesh network groomed
itself and automatically
reorganized without
interruption to any of the nine
instrument signals”.
Systems Engineer
Major North American Refinery
RESOURCES
Emerson’s Smart Wireless
http://www.EmersonSmartWireless.com
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00850-0100-4180, Rev AA
215
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
REFINING
ROSEMOUNT 2160
HPCL Bagru Jaipur Terminal Achieves Pump Protection
and Increased Safety with Wireless Level Switch
RESULTS
• Reduced unplanned shutdown and maintenance cost with pump
protection
• Improved safety of equipment for longer life
• Increased equipment availability
• Saved on Operations and Maintenance costs
APPLICATION
Pump Protection
APPLICATION CHARACTERISTICS
A variety of petroleum products.
CUSTOMER
HPCL Bagru Jaipur Terminal - India’s major integrated oil refining and
marketing company.
CHALLENGE
This oil refining and marketing company uses multiple pipe line division
pumps which continually pump fluids from the refinery to the terminals
for sale and must be kept running constantly in order to maintain
production. Any mechanical damage to the equipment will result
in an emergency breakdown at the pumping station. To protect the
pumps, each one has a supply of lubrication oil that passes through the
bearing housing and returns back to the lube oil reservoir. To monitor
this, a sight glass on the flow line provides visual indication of the fluid
levels. However the fluid level would vary depending on whether the
circulation was on or off. Trying to keep track of the lube oil supply at
each pump was a very manual process in both reading the levels at the
right time and keeping records of the supply. It was proving to be an
impossible task for the customer. All they really needed to
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2013 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
216
The Rosemount 2160 wireless switch replaced
the gauge and provided low level alarms to a
central location via the Emerson 1420 gateway.
11 – Proven Result
REFINING
SOLUTION
Rosemount 2160 Wireless Point Level Switches were installed on
each of the reservoirs. The 2160’s were all connected wirelessly
to the Emerson 1420 Wireless Gateway. The Gateway provided a
Modbus connection to the host system. This combination allowed
the Rosemount 2160’s to monitor the reservoir levels and to
alarm when critical low points were reached. Reservoirs needing
additional supply of lube oil can now be immediately identified.
Instead of relying on manual checks of the sight glasses, the
Rosemount wireless switch and Emerson gateway system provides
real time data to the operators. Since the process information is
now available over the network and visible in the control room,
manual collection of data is eliminated and the status of the
reservoirs is known without going into the plant. This resulted
in a reduction in operating costs while increasing protection of
the pumps from mechanical breakdown. This in turn created an
increased availability of the pumps to run the pipelines.
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Petroleum Refining Industry
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/industries/refining/
Pages/index.aspx
Rosemount 2160 Wireless Level Switch
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/
Level/2100-Series-Level- Switches/2160-Level-Switches/Pages/
index.aspx
This sight glass and gauge needed to be read
and manually recorded at the correct times.
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0100-4160, Rev AA
217
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
REFINING
ROSEMOUNT 2160
BP Oil Implements Rosemount 2160 Wireless
Switches for Floating Roof Tilt Detection
RESULTS
• EU environmental regulations for floating roof safety met
• Increased personnel safety by eliminating manual inspections
• Implemented automation for better floating roof management
APPLICATION
Floating roof tilt detection
APPLICATION CHARACTERISTICS
Provide safe, efficient storage of volatile products with minimum vapor
loss to the environment.
CUSTOMER
BP - one of the world’s leading international oil and gas companies.
CHALLENGE
With the advent of new European Union safety and environmental
directives, floating roof tanks must be made safer to avoid the risk of
overfill. Overfills can be detrimental from an environmental perspective
as well as to human safety. An overfill can be expensive in terms of both
penalty fines and public relations.
One common problem with floating roofs is that they can tilt. This
allows vapors and gases to escape from the gap on the un-covered side
and create a fire hazard. Once a roof starts to tilt, the lower part can
begin to take on liquids on the top side. Sometimes the liquid is the
hydrocarbon fluid that starts to gradually leak onto the lower portion of
the roof. Other times, the liquid may be melting snow or rain water that
runs down to a low point.
Subsequently, users are looking for ways to monitor floating roofs
to determine that they are truly floating on the surface. Mechanical
devices have been used in the past but some incidents have caused
them to be prohibited. At some sites, only manual and visual
inspections are used to determine the state of the roof. If fluid is
present, it would be good to know if it is oil or water. A way to detect
this without a trip to the top of the tank is highly desirable. In addition,
EU regulations require automation of this application.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2013 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
218
The use of a repeater ensures that the wireless
signal from the Rosemount 2160 is transmitted
to the Gateway when the roof is at a low level.
11 – Proven Result
REFINING
SOLUTION
A solution to determine both the tilt of the roof and the type of
fluid present was found in the Rosemount 2160 vibrating fork
switch. Three of these wireless switches were installed at 120o of
each other. Since they were wireless, the installation was a simple
mounting connection off a support beam. To ensure that the
signal would be available when the tank level was low, a repeater
was installed near the top rim of the vessel. The one second
updates of the switches were sent to a central engineering station
by way of a Rosemount Gateway and a PLC to their control room.
The visualization for each tank showed the three measurements
with frequency displayed. If a switch went from a dry to a wet
state, this would inform the operators that liquid was present at
that location. To take it one step further, the frequency supervision
function of the switch in the wet state allowed it to differentiate
between oil and water as each fluid had a distinct frequency. Builtin self diagnostics of the 2160 provided additional assurance that
the switch was operating properly and the power supply was good.
With the installation of the wireless 2160 switches, BP was able
to make their floating roof tanks safer and meet the European
Union safety and environmental directives. They automated a
system that previously entailed a trip to top the tank for a visual
inspection. The system was easy and economical to implement
since there were no wiring costs. Built in diagnostics of the 2160
further ensured proper operation and minimized the need for
validation.
Use of wireless vibrating level switch for floating
roof monitoring.
RESOURCES
Emerson Process Management Petroleum Refining Industry
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/industries/refining/
Pages/index.aspx
Rosemount 2160 Wireless Level Switch
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/brands/rosemount/
Level/2100-Series-Level-Switches/2160-Level-Switches/Pages/
index.aspx
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0200-4160, Rev AA
219
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
11.8
Steels and Mining
STEEL
SMART WIRELESS
Steel Mill Decreases Operating Costs and Reduces
Environmental and Safety Risks with Smart Wireless
RESULTS
• Decreased operations and maintenance costs
• Reduced environmental and safety risks
• Improved coke quality
The customer experienced
an improvement in coke
quality because it could
reliably control the coke oven
temperatures.
APPLICATION
Coke oven temperature
CUSTOMER
Steel mill in North America
CHALLENGE
This steel mill was having problems controlling the temperature in their
coke ovens. It is crucial to stay within the coke oven operating limits.
Low temperatures risk oven collapse and capital damage. High
temperatures waste heat and increase utility costs.
Because of high wiring cost this steel mill initially had no measurement
on their coke ovens and required measurement rounds twice every
shift. The customer tried implementing a wireless technology in this
application, but the technology was unreliable due to battery life
and moving larry cars. The long communication distance increased
the power consumption and therefore decreased the battery life to a
couple of months. Also, the wireless technology was point-to-point and
the larry cars regularly blocked the signal path, causing communication
to be unreliable.
Not having a reliable coke oven temperature measurement negatively
impacted this customer’s business. Routine measurement rounds
increased operations and maintenance costs. It also made an
environmental impact and increased the safety risks of personnel.
When the lids to the coke ovens were opened to make manual
measurements, coke oven emissions were released into the
atmosphere. The carcinogens and the high oven temperatures
increased the safety risks of its operators. Lastly, the quality of coke
exiting the oven was diminished when it did not operate at the correct
temperatures.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2009 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
220
The Rosemount 848T Wireless
11 – Proven Result
REFINING
SOLUTION
The Rosemount 848T Wireless High Density Temperature transmitter
solved the challenges this customer faced. The 848T wireless
transmitter utlizes SmartPower™ technology, which provided a longer
battery life for this application. It improved battery life from months to
years. Also, the self-organizing network provided greater than 99% data
reliability and was not affected by the larry cars.
This customer utilized the best core technology, implementation
practices, and field intelligence within the Rosemount 848T Wireless
High Density Temperature Transmitter to positively impact their
business. The customer decreased operation and maintenance costs
because they no longer had to perform measurement rounds twice
every shift. Environmental and safety risks were also reduced because
the coke oven doors never had to be physically opened by an operator,
exposing them to the emissions or intense heat. Lastly, the customer
experienced an improvement in coke quality because it could reliably
control the coke oven temperatures.
RESOURCES
Smart Wireless
http://www.emersonprocess.com/smartwireless/
Rosemount Temperature
http://www.emersonprocess.com/rosemount/products/temperature/
index.html
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0900-4697, Rev AA
221
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
METALS & MINING
SMART WIRELESS
Steel Mill Reduces Downtime, Improves Productivity
Through Wireless Monitoring of Secondary Systems
RESULTS
•
•
•
•
5% productivity improvement, downtime reduced
Eliminated coiling temperature rejects due to insufficient water flow
Reduced downtime due to grease system failures
Eliminated damage to roughing mill work rolls due to insufficient work
roll coolant water
• Eliminated downtime due to back-up roll bearing failures
“I got the flow numbers I
needed within 24 hours of
installing the devices. Wireless
is fantastic.”
APPLICATION
•
•
•
•
Run-out table cooling water flow
Grease system pressure
Work roll coolant pressure
Back-up roll bearing lubrication temperature
CUSTOMER
Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Mingo Junction, OH
CHALLENGE
Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation is a progressive manufacturer
and fabricator of selected metal products. When the Mingo Junction
mill increased the product mix with a heavier and wider material, it
required more run-out table cooling water to maintain the proper grain
structure throughout the strip. Unfortunately, as the new product was
being rolled the target coiling temperature could not be achieved.
Manual valves used to scale the curtain flow to the proper setting for
each product could not be confirmed with flow meters, since they were
too expensive and difficult to install in this congested environment.
SOLUTION
When the run-out table was down, the customer installed four
Rosemount 3051S Wireless Flowmeters, with Annubar® Primary
Elements and one Smart Wireless Gateway. The measurements were
easily integrated into the plant OSIsoft® PI System™ with a Modbus®
interface through the gateway, where trending and reporting are
done. “It only took two hours at the end of one day for a person to drill
four holes and install the flow meters,” said Gary Borham, Operations
Manager, 80-inch Hot Strip Mill. “The next day, we installed the
gateway, and had the whole system working. I got the flow numbers I
needed within 24 hours of installing the devices. Wireless is fantastic.”
The flow information obtained from the wireless transmitters enabled
Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel to fine tune the sprays. Since then, coiling
temperature rejects have been almost entirely eliminated.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2008 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
222
Gary Borham
Operations Manager
80” Hot Strip Finishing Mill
11 – Proven Result
METALS & MINING
The ease of installation and cost of installing a wireless device compared
to its wired counterpart has convinced Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel to use
wireless on many other monitoring applications. On the same run-out
table a rash of roll failures prompted the customer to look at the grease
system. The rolls which deliver the strip to the coilers can overheat, and
any lack of lubrication can stop the roll which will cause strip surface
defects. It was discovered that the grease system was malfunctioning
and not adequately lubricating the roll bearings, creating downtime
and impacting productivity. A Rosemount 3051S Wireless Pressure
Transmitter was installed on the system and raises an alarm if the pressure
drops or cannot be maintained, so preventative measures can be taken.
This has eliminated downtime from rolls freezing up.
The mill was also experiencing work roll damage and subsequent
downtime in the roughing mill due to coolant flow problems. The roll
failure investigation uncovered a problem with a manual valve that
was closing and dropping pressure and flow to rolls. Wireless pressure
transmitters were installed on each roughing stand to insure a practice of
maintaining constant flow and pressure of coolant to the work rolls. Since
the adjustment and practices were put in place roll failures have
disappeared.
The latest secondary system to benefit from wireless technology was the
back-up roll bearings. Back-up roll bearing failures cause major downtime.
The customer installed Rosemount 648 temperature transmitters in the
drains to determine any increase in the inlet and outlet temperatures.
If an increase is detected a small delay will occur to allow time to repair
the problem. In the past bearing lock-ups would cause a lengthy delay in
production while the back-up rolls were changed. Lengthy, unscheduled
downtime has been replaced with short repair times, and costs due to
equipment damage of the back-up rolls has been eliminated.
Borham concluded that wireless technology has allowed WheelingPittsburgh Steel to gain process data almost effortlessly in areas where
wiring would have been too costly. “We are building an infrastructure
that opens up opportunities for more applications. The result is better
information from difficult-to-reach areas of the mill, and this is helping
our personnel prevent unscheduled downtime, meet customers’ quality
requirements, and optimize productivity.”
“The result is better
information from difficult-toreach areas of the mill, and
this is helping our personnel
prevent unscheduled
downtime, meet customers’
quality requirements, and
optimize productivity.”
Gary Borham
Operations Manager
80” Hot Strip Finishing Mill
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0100-4180, Rev AA
223
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
11 – Proven Result
BULK CHEMICAL
SMART WIRELESS
Titanium Dioxide Pigment Manufacturer Increases
Plant Availability with SmartPower™
RESULTS
• Increased plant availability
• Lowered maintenance and energy costs
• Reduced risk of low product quality
APPLICATION
Rotating calciner temperature measurement and control
CUSTOMER
Large chemical manufacturer in Southeast Asia
CHALLENGE
This titanium dioxide manufacturer had difficulty controlling a constant
material temperature within their rotating calciner. The rotating
calciner, which is about 40 m (131 ft.) long, has five temperature
measurement points. The midpoint of these temperature
measurements is used for burner control of the calciner.
The wireless temperature transmitters previously installed were
purchased from a non-Emerson vendor. The devices on the calciner
required frequent maintenance due to low battery life. Due to
the rotation and vibration of the calciner, batteries often became
misaligned. This caused intermittent measurement and resulted in
soldering the battery connections. The batteries needed to be changed
every one to two months because of low battery life.
The low battery life led to frequent shutdowns. These frequent
shutdowns increased energy use and other operating costs.
Maintenance costs were high, due to frequent battery replacement
and damage to the kiln refractory liner. Inaccurate temperature
measurements caused poor burner operation, which led to higher fuel
consumption and higher emissions. Poor burner operation also risked
low product quality.
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
© 2009 Rosemount Inc. All rights reserved
224
The Rosemount 648 Wireless
Temperature Transmitters
allowed this pigment
manufacturer to significantly
improve availability of their
rotating calciner and reduce
unscheduled shutdowns.
The Rosemount 648 WirelessHART Temperature
Transmitter
11 – Proven Result
BULK CHEMICAL
SOLUTION
This customer’s problem was solved with five new Rosemount 648
Wireless Temperature Transmitters. The Rosemount 648 utilizes
Emerson’s SmartPower™ technology, which significantly reduced
the amount of time spent replacing the batteries. Intervals between
battery replacement were increased by more than a factor of 10.
The keyed connection feature eliminated alignment concerns and
soldering requirements during battery replacement, Also, the selforganizing field network, provided exceptional data reliability and easy
installation. The SmartPower technology also features an intrinsically
safe power module that allowed field replacements without removing
the transmitter from the process.
The Rosemount 648 Wireless Temperature Transmitters allowed this
pigment manufacturer to significantly improve the availability of their
plant and reduce unscheduled shutdowns for battery replacement.
Also, maintenance costs decreased due to a reduction in trips to replace
batteries and the kiln refactory liner. Energy costs decreased because
the plant continued to operate at peak performance levels. In addition,
having a reliable temperature control of the calciner resulted in reduced
risk of low product quality, lowered fuel consumption, and decreased
emissions.
RESOURCES
Emerson Smart Wireless
http://www.EmersonSmartWireless.com
Rosemount 648 Transmitter
http://www.emersonprocess.com/rosemount/document/pds/008130100-4648.pdf
The contents of this publication are presented for information purposes only, and while effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they
are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or
applicability. All sales are governed by our terms and conditions, which can be found at www.rosemount.com/terms_of_sale. We reserve the
right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of our products at any time without notice.
The Emerson logo is a trade mark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co.
Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registered trademarks of Rosemount Inc.
PlantWeb is a registered trademark of one of the Emerson Process Management group of companies.
All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Inc.
8200 Market Boulevard
Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
T (U.S.) 1-800-999-9307
T (International) (952) 906 8888
F (952) 906 8889
Emerson Process Management
Blegistrasse 23
P.O. Box 1046
CH 6341 Baar
Switzerland
T +41 (0) 41 768 6111
F +41 (0) 41 768 6300
For more information:
www.rosemount.com
00830-0100-4648, Rev AA
225
Emerson Process Management
Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
1 Pandan Crescent
Singapore 128461
T +65 6777 8211
F +65 6777 0947
Emerson FZE
P.O. Box 17033
Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai, UAE
T +971 4 883 5235
F +971 4 883 5312
12
Appendix
W H I T E PA P E R
PA G E
12.1 Choosing the Wireless Standard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
12.2 Wireless Network Topologies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
12.3 Same Familiar Tools for Wireless. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
12.4 Cisco Emerson Coexistence Paper. . . . . . . . . . . 247
12.5 WirelessHART Third-Party System
Integration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
12.6 Site Modernization User Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
12 – Appendix
12.Appendix
12.1
Application Classes
NAMUR is an organization comprised of many
automation end-users who jointly develop
recommendations and best practices for process
applications used in plants the world over.
Recommendation NE124 covers user requirements
for wireless in process applications including
communication requirements for availability,
coexistence and interoperability, security, power,
integration into systems, forward and backward
compatibility, network management, diagnostics,
configuration and commissioning, device
replacement, and certification. WirelessHART
addresses these requirements.
Choosing the Wireless
Standard
Wireless Meeting Your Needs
Two or more wireless infrastructures of gateways
around the plant would be costly and hard to
support. Corporate engineering standards for
two or more wireless technologies would increase
burden. A plant needs to select a single standard
for wireless field network. There has been much
confusing claims with respect to what wireless field
network standards can and cannot do, and which
differences matter, making the choice a challenge.
This white paper will, with the NAMUR NE124 user
requirement specification for wireless field networks
as a basis, examine why IEC 62591 (WirelessHART) is
the most suitable wireless plant standard for meeting
practical requirements like ease of deployment and
maintenance.
The wrong wireless standard could lead to limited
device selection, manual data mapping, point
rebuild on device replacement, new unfamiliar tools
(each vendor different), site surveys, complicated
communication settings, need for close liaison with
IT, risk of security left off, the need to wire backbone
infrastructure throughout the plant, as well as
multiple ways to commission, setup, calibrate, and
troubleshoot wireless transmitters.
The solution is to adopt a single corporate wireless
standard, with a single common application
protocol, already in use by wired devices in the plant,
supporting full multi-hop mesh networking, with
security always on, and designed specifically for
process applications.
As a result, a single right standard ensures best
practices can be leveraged company-wide. It provides
broad device selection from multiple vendors, native
integration, uses existing familiar tools, eliminates
site surveys and complicated configuration,
requires no IT liaison, and reduces risk of damaging
the existing installation. Commissioning, setup,
calibration, and troubleshooting are consistent.
Figure 12.1a – NAMUR NE124 recommendation for wireless in
process applications
The NAMUR NE124 recommendation identifies three
classes of applications. Wireless is predominantly
used in class C applications (indication and
monitoring), but also in class B applications
(process control).
228
12 – Appendix
Application
Class
Description
Remarks
Functional
safety
Time-critical
applications
governed by the
requirements of
functional safety
standards.
B
Process
control
Time-critical,
deterministic
applications
requiring high
availability and
reliability.
C
Indication
and
monitoring
Applications which
are not timecritical.
A
Table 12.1b – NAMUR NE124 application classes
Availability and Reliability
A plant is a challenging environment for wireless
since Radio Frequency (RF) waves do not propagate
through metal such as vessels, piping, and structural
steel. Below the pipe racks the range can be 50 m
or less. Furthermore, daily plant activity such as
moving vehicles, motors starting and stopping,
rising of scaffolding, and welding constantly changes
the RF environment. Disruption of the wireless
communication would mean the plant falls back to
its productivity level before wireless was introduced.
Therefore, sites must use a wireless technology with
high reliability and availability.
WirelessHART is a self-organizing mesh network,
supporting a full multi-hop, multi-path topology.
For instance, the process variable from a remote
transmitter is relayed from one transmitter to
the next, in up to seven hops or more, around
impenetrable obstacles or RF obstructions, until it
reaches the gateway. Multiple paths are maintained
such that when a new obstacle appears blocking
the path, an alternate path is used for the process
variable to reach the gateway. All transmitters,
regardless of manufacturer, participate in the
mesh topology to ensure reliability needs are met.
Redundant WirelessHART gateways are available if
required. Thanks to the full multi-hop, multi-path
mesh topology, a high level of productivity can be
sustained.
Figure 12.1c – WirelessHART uses full mesh topology with
multiple paths for high reliability and availability
Other topologies such as ‘star’/’backbone’ cannot
achieve the same result because each wireless
transmitter in a star topology communicates directly
with only one backbone router through a single
path, or optionally through dual paths through two
backbone routers (provided that lots of backbone
routers have been installed to ensure every wireless
transmitter is within range of two backbone routers).
If the path is block in a single path architecture, due
to changes in the RF environment by a metal object
such as a forklift or tanker truck etc., communication
is lost completely. If one out of two paths is blocked
in the dual architecture, reliability will be reduced
as updates will intermittently be lost as an alternate
path is not available. See separate which paper on
wireless network topology.
Real-time Performance
Some applications require faster updates and lower
latency than others. If the update period is configured
too slow, alarms may not trigger in time, and the
resolution of historical trending may not be sufficient
for diagnosing process problems. If update periods
are configured faster than required, technicians
will have to replace batteries unnecessarily often.
Therefore, use a wireless technology where the
update period can be configured per measurement.
Automatic retries of communication to increase the
reliability should occur within the specified update
period. Use a gateway that keeps track of latency for
each wireless transmitter such that it can be verified
from wireless network management software.
Although the application for 4-20 mA/HART
was device configuration and diagnostics, not
process monitoring and control, WirelessHART
229
12 – Appendix
is time synchronized and scheduled ensuring
reliable communication of process variables in
real-time. WirelessHART transmitters timestamp
measurements from the original point of
measurement allowing latency to be tracked and
have a selectable update period adjustable from
1 second to 1 hour. It is recommended to set update
period according to application requirements, but
not faster, in order to conserve battery life since every
time a measurement is done, the sensor
draws power.
Security
Wireless signals reach beyond the plant boundary.
Outsiders must not be able to join the network,
eavesdrop, modify, delay, or send data, etc. If
security was breached, production and inventory
data could be revealed, or safety compromised.
Therefore wireless communication in any application
requires encryption, authentication, and other
security measures. A remote site that deploys a Wi-Fi
backhaul network should also consider the security
of the backhaul network.
WirelessHART security measures include encryption,
authentication, verification, key rotation, and
sequence numbers. Most importantly, security
cannot be turned off; it is always on. Commissioning
a wireless transmitter includes assigning a secret
join key (password) which should not be done
wirelessly. All WirelessHART transmitters have a wired
HART maintenance terminal where the handheld
field communicator or laptop interface that all
plants already have can be connected to securely
commission the transmitters before any wireless
communication commences. WirelessHART does
not use IP addressing in devices. Thus WirelessHART
makes it easier to maintain security.
Figure 12.1d – All WirelessHART transmitters have standard
(“COMM”) terminals for connecting a familiar handheld field
communicator and other common tools
Wireless transmitters based on other technologies
cannot provide a comparable result because security
can be turned off, and they use wireless or nonstandard interfaces instead of the standard HART
maintenance terminal.
Coexistence
The wireless field network has to operate at the same
time as many other wireless network technologies
in the same 2.4 GHz band such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth,
and ZigBee etc. Therefore, use a wireless technology
which supports coexistence with other wireless
technologies.
WirelessHART uses the IEEE 802.15.4 standard radio
which uses Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
modulation enabling coexistence with other wireless
networks. Additionally, WirelessHART uses channel
hopping as well as channel black listing, further
improving its ability to coexist with other radios.
A common application is to use WirelessHART for
the transmitters in a remote application such as a
tank farm or wellhead, together with Wi-Fi for the
backhaul of the data gathered, to a central location.
Interoperability and Interchangeability
Process applications require many types of
measurements such as flow, level, valve position,
pH, conductivity, vibration, temperature, pressure,
and acoustic as well as on/off contact input and
level switches. These measurements may come
from different transmitter manufacturers. If
communication with a broad range of transmitter
types is not available, applications cannot be solved,
and plant productivity could not be improved.
Therefore, use an open wireless standard enabling
a single common wireless infrastructure, without
different types of gateways, device drivers, and
configuration software for each type of wireless
transmitter. The wireless standard must also include
common security measures. If a remote mounted
antenna is required for the application, use a gateway
with a standard coax connector.
WirelessHART (IEC 62591) is the only international
standard for wireless communication in process
applications for which products are available. Most
importantly, WirelessHART is based on a single
common application protocol which all WirelessHART
devices use. Thus all WirelessHART transmitters of
many different types from many manufacturers
230
12 – Appendix
integrate into the system the exact same way using
the same application protocol, through the same
gateway, without the need for multiple drivers, using
a common way of configuration. This makes it easy to
solve diverse application needs using WirelessHART.
as well as the wired system in place today. New
control systems should have native integration of
the wireless gateway such that process variables
appear automatically without manual database
configuration for mapping parameters via
intermediate data registers.
Figure 12.1e – IEC 62591 (WirelessHART) is the international
standard for wireless in process applications
Figure 12.1f – Automatic detection of WirelessHART devices
from control system
Wireless solutions based on other technologies
relying on “tunneling” many application protocols
will result in wireless transmitters around the plant
using different protocols and therefore the system
need gateways and drivers for all these different
tunneled protocols. The system has to have data
mapped differently for each tag as required by the
tunneled protocol making it difficult to engineer
as well as maintain and troubleshoot in the long
run, and it does not make devices using different
protocols work together. While “tunneling”
theoretically appears to be a good protocolindependent solution, the reality is that mixing
application protocols adds complexity.
WirelessHART supports EDDL (www.eddl.org),
enabling WirelessHART transmitter integration in
existing intelligent device management software,
regardless of manufacturer. When the EDDL file for
the WirelessHART transmitter is loaded, the system
automatically picks the correct EDDL file for the
transmitter, without manual association.
Native integration also means that overview
faceplate, configuration/setup, and device
diagnostics can be accessed directly from the control
system in a few simple clicks.
Transparent System Integration
Plants already have digital devices using hardwiring
and bus integrated in intelligent device management
software, predominantly using Device Description
(DD) or the newer enhanced Electronic Device
Description Language (EDDL) device integration
technology. Using another technology and
establishing new practices would increase the cost of
adoption. Therefore, use a wireless technology that
supports the EDDL standard (IEC 61804-3)
such that a single common system software
application supports configuration and diagnostics
for wireless transmitters from multiple vendors
Figure 12.1g – Direct access to overview, configuration/setup,
and diagnostics
231
12 – Appendix
Wireless network planning software can be used to
ensure the network is reliable before the first device
is deployed, as well as a providing real-time network
diagnostics once network is live. Mesh topology
network planning software is available for validation
of WirelessHART network design criteria before
installation.
The EDDL technology is a text-based standard
(IEC 61804-3) totally independent of Microsoft
Windows. DD files for WirelessHART transmitters
can be downloaded from the Internet and loaded
onto the control system. Thus new versions of
WirelessHART transmitters can be deployed and all
the setup/configuration and diagnostics be accessed,
without having to upgrade the Windows version on
the control system. See separate white papers on the
EDDL site: www.eddl.org
Figure 12.1h – Wireless network planning software
Most importantly, mesh topology makes network
design and installation easy by eliminating the need
for backbone routers and associated wiring for
power and backbone network. Thus engineering and
integrating a WirelessHART system is easy.
Other device integration technologies require
manual association (configuration) between the
driver software and the device. A star/backbone
topology require meticulous planning and design
to ensure sufficient backbone routers are installed
within reach of devices in every nook and cranny of
the plant.
Version and Lifecycle Management
A control system has an expected lifespan of 15 years
or more. Over its lifecycle, new types and versions
of wireless transmitters will come into the plant.
The control system must be kept up to date with
these, to avoid obsolescence. Therefore, use a device
integration technology which has no dependency on
Microsoft Windows version thus ensuring backwards
and forwards compatibility between system and
wireless transmitters.
Figure 12.1i – DD-files for new types and versions of devices can
be downloaded from the web
Other device integration technologies based on
Microsoft Windows technologies such as COM,
ActiveX, and .NET are dependent on Windows
version and .NET version, requiring frequent
upgrades of the many drivers, resulting in undue
burden on the system administrator.
Battery
A preferred wireless technology enables battery
life of several years. Replacing batteries requires
manpower, and inserting old and new battery cells
together in a transmitter, or using a battery which
has been dropped, could result in a hazard. Battery
cells which are permanently encapsulated into
modules prevent mixing discharged cells with good
cells. Use battery modules which are intrinsically
safe to enable replacement in hazardous areas, such
that the transmitter does not need to be moved to a
safe area for battery replacement. Make sure to use
transmitters where the configuration is not lost while
the battery is replaced.
232
12 – Appendix
Figure 12.1j – Power module prevents mixing of cells and enable
hazardous area replacement
WirelessHART uses the extremely low-power
IEEE 802.15.4 radio signal. Sensors are turned
off between measurements. Thus WirelessHART
transmitters in a mesh topology enable a battery
life of up to ten years depending on sensor type and
update period.
Figure 12.1l– Graphical representation of communication health
in wireless network management software
Wireless Network Management
Preventing network disruptions and effective
troubleshooting are key for an easy to manage
network. Therefore, use a wireless technology
which provides standard communication status
such as signal strength and number of neighbors
from all transmitters in the network, regardless
of manufacturer. Use a gateway that tracks
communication statistics such as missed updates,
discarded updates, reliability, path stability, signal
strength, latency, number of re-joins, and timestamp
for last join, as well as maintains a “live list” with
node state, and if service is denied due to network
load. Also use network management software which
continuously monitors network health and battery
status, and displays it graphically for an easy overview
of problem locations.
The WirelessHART standard provides communication
status for all transmitters.
Products and Software
Some applications can’t be solved using equipment
from only a single vendor. To cover transmitters for
all measurements, gateways, and interfaces as well
as software for configuration, troubleshooting and
historians, it’s probable that multiple vendors will
be required. Therefore, use a wireless technology
with broad support from many manufacturers. This
should include a gateway with OPC, Modbus, and
Ethernet connectivity into any third-party control
system; to get process variable into the DCS. Full
transmitter setup and diagnostics information from
the intelligent device management software must
also be supported. Wireless adapters for 4-20 mA/
HART devices shall also be available in order to
transmit smart device information into intelligent
device management systems for legacy DCS that do
not support digital HART communication. 4-20 mA
and on/off signal input converters, should also be
available. Use rugged, industrial grade, field mounted
components, suitable for hazardous areas.
The WirelessHART standard has broad support from
more than a dozen renowned manufacturers of
process instrumentation providing a wide selection
of WirelessHART transmitters, adapters, and
gateways. The HART-IP protocol over Ethernet from
the gateway ensures full access to WirelessHART
transmitter configuration and diagnostics. Thus
complete and robust applications can easily be
achieved using WirelessHART.
Figure 12.1k – Communication statistics for all devices in
wireless network management software
WirelessHART can be integrated to any system. That
is, WirelessHART does not limit system selection, and
does limit device selection.
233
12 – Appendix
Other wireless technologies tunneling a mix of
multiple protocols make the setup of a homogenous
system a real challenge.
Device Configuration and Commissioning
If it is difficult to commission wireless transmitters,
this could cause startup delays. Therefore, use a
wireless technology where the same handheld field
communicator and EDDL-based laptop software
which the technicians are already familiar with can
also be used to commission the wireless transmitters.
For simplicity, use transmitters for which the
manufacturer provides an intelligent device
management user interface with guidance in the
form of wizards, help text, and illustrations.
All WirelessHART transmitters can be commissioned
using the same handheld field communicator as the
wired 4-20 mA/HART and FOUNDATION fieldbus
devices which plants already have. The WirelessHART
protocol has been optimized for process applications,
eliminating the need to adjust complicated
communication settings in transmitters in order to
make them work. Thus commissioning WirelessHART
transmitters is easy for technicians to learn.
The WirelessHART standard includes universal
commands to monitor the process variable, common
for all WirelessHART transmitters. Therefore a
WirelessHART transmitter can be replaced with
another without reconfiguring the system. Universal
commands and specific commands allow access to all
diagnostics in the transmitter, making WirelessHART
transmitters easy to troubleshoot.
Wireless transmitters based on other technologies
are not as easy to replace because transmitters
tunnel different application protocols, such that a
transmitter replacement requires a complete point
rebuild in the system by a system engineer.
Certification
If wireless transmitters are unable to join the
network, the plant commissioning and startup would
be delayed. Therefore, use a wireless technology
where interoperability and standard conformance is
tested by an independent third-party.
WirelessHART transmitters are interoperability tested
by the HART Communication Foundation providing
trouble free commissioning in the field.
Wireless transmitters based on other technologies
are not as easy to commission because they do not
have standard maintenance terminals for HART
handhelds, they use IP addressing which may
require the IT department to get involved, and
they require configuration of slot time, arbitration
method, hopping sequence and other advanced
communication settings.
Device Diagnostics and Replacement
Over time, due to the harsh operating conditions,
transmitters will eventually fail. If replacement
is difficult and takes too long, the plant falls
back to its productivity level before wireless was
introduced. Therefore, use a wireless technology
where a replaced transmitter can integrate with the
system automatically without reconfiguring the
system. For simplicity, use transmitters with rich
self-diagnostics and for which the manufacturer
provides a user interface with troubleshooting tips.
Use a control system which includes intelligent
device management software. Make sure wireless
transmitters have a maintenance terminal for
handheld field communicator for diagnostics in
the field.
Figure 12.1m – HART Communication Foundation certificate
Implementation Strategy
Unique features of WirelessHART includes a full
multi-hop, multi-path mesh topology, an application
protocol common for all WirelessHART devices, the
ability to use the same handheld field communicators
and software as 4-20 mA/HART and FOUNDATION
fieldbus devices, secure commissioning, security
234
12 – Appendix
which is always on, and commissioning without
advanced communication settings or IP addressing.
By selecting the WirelessHART standard just like
thousands of other plants have done, users can
ensure they can build a wireless network that meets
their current and future needs.
NAMUR
NE124
Clause
Description
WirelessHART
3.2
Availability and
reliability
Yes
3.3
Real-time capability
Yes
3.4
Security
Yes
3.5
Coexistence
Yes
3.6
Interoperability
Yes
3.7
Transparent
integration in DCS
Yes
3.8
Version and
lifecycle
management
Yes
3.9
Long battery life
Yes
3.10
Network
management
Yes
3.11
Industrial grade
Yes
5.1
Simple
configuration /
commissioning
Yes
5.2
Interchangeability
Yes
References
“Wireless Meeting Your Needs”, Industrial
Automation Asia, Feb/Mar 2012, p40
235
12 – Appendix
12.2
Wireless Network Topologies
It should be possible to deploy wireless in an existing
plant without installing lots of network infrastructure
in the midst of the plant and running an inordinate
amount of cables. This can only be achieved with a
full mesh topology, and it reduces the risk of damage
to the existing plant.
Most, if not all, wireless network literature
illustrate star and mesh topologies with almost
indistinguishable similarity. The huge difference
between these two topologies and the importance
for reliability and ease of deployment, and the huge
implications for plant operation, is therefore not
well understood. This white paper will make the
difference and their significance clearer.
Figure 12.2c – Actual star topology with backbone (in red)
Network Topologies
Typically star topology and mesh topology
illustrations are greatly simplified with only a few
transmitters, each network having a gateway. This
makes the two topologies look almost the same,
and may inadvertently give the impression they have
comparable characteristics.
Figure 12.2a – Oversimplified star topology
Figure 12.2d – Actual mesh topology
Topology is the main difference between a wireless
home/office network and a wireless industrial
network. Star topology is used in home/office
wireless networks. Mesh topology is used in industrial
wireless networks.
Star Topology with Backbone
Figure 12.2b – Oversimplified mesh topology
However, once the application goes beyond more
than a few clustered transmitters, the difference
becomes clear. Star topology requires multiple
backbone routers, a backbone network, plus a
gateway, while mesh topology requires only a
gateway.
Star topology is used in home/office wireless
networks. In a star topology, such as for some
wireless sensor networks, each transmitter
communicates with a backbone router in a pointto-point fashion. A transmitter does not route
process variables from other transmitters. That
is, transmitters do not communicate with other
transmitters.
236
12 – Appendix
In a plant environment, star topology requires
multiple backbone routers which have to be
networked together using a backbone network to
route the data to the gateway on to the system.
For this reason the term “backbone router” is
used instead of “access point”. That is, the starbackbone topology uses both backbone routers and
a gateway. The backbone network is either wired
copper, fiber optic Ethernet, or wireless Wi-Fi. Either
option requires installation work, and installing the
backbone network in an existing plant would be very
disruptive and carries risk as field junction boxes and
cable trays have to be opened and modified.
Ethernet switches. Additional field junction boxes
will likely be required. Rugged industrial Ethernet
switches supporting the Rapid Spanning Tree
Protocol (RSTP) and IEEE 1588 v2 Precision Time
Protocol (PTP) have to be used.
Figure 12.2f – Industrial Ethernet switch shall be mounted in
weatherproof enclosures (Courtesy: Cisco)
Figure 12.2e – Star topology with backbone network
Figure 11.2g – Industrial Ethernet switches have to be installed
in junction boxes throughout the plant
Backbone router power
Fiber-optic backbone
Power must be provided for each backbone router.
Power supply must come from redundant sources
to avoid a single point of failure. Hazardous area
requirements have to be observed for both Ethernet
and power wiring. Running wiring to the many
backbone routers is counter to the concept of
wireless.
Outdoor applications require the use of fiber
optic Ethernet media for the backbone network
to achieving longer distance and avoid issues with
ground potential differences. This requires fiber optic
media converters to be installed. Power is required
for both media converters and backbone routers.
Copper wire backbone
For indoor plants it is possible to use copper wire
Ethernet. A wired Ethernet backbone requires copper
LAN cable to be laid from the gateway to each
backbone router. Wired Ethernet distance is limited
to 100 m. Due to the short distance and ground
potential differences, application of copper Ethernet
is usually limited to indoor plants. Laying this cable
comes at a high cost, and in an existing plant poses
a risk of damaging the existing installation as cable
trays and junction boxes throughout the plant
have to be opened and modified to accommodate
Figure 12.2h – Industrial Ethernet media converter
(Courtesy: Moxa)
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12 – Appendix
Wi-Fi backbone
Mesh Topology
Wireless LAN to the IEEE 802.11-series of Wi-Fi
standards is a third option for the backbone network.
That is, a second wireless network to support the
first. This option requires industrially hardened Wi-Fi
access points in an outdoor enclosure to be installed
throughout the plant. Even with a Wi-Fi backbone
network, power cables still has to be run out to
each and every backbone router; a considerable
planning and installation effort for an existing plant.
Redundant power has to be run to each Wi-Fi access
point in the plant.
Mesh topology is used in industrial wireless networks
to circumvent impenetrable steel objects. In a mesh
topology, as used by WirelessHART, transmitters
are able to talk with the gateway and with other
transmitters. That is, a transmitter is able to route
process variables from other transmitters enabling
process variables to travel from transmitter to
transmitter until it reaches the gateway. That
is, WirelessHART use routing function built into
the transmitters themselves instead of having to
install backbone routers. This topology without
any backbone routers is referred to as a full mesh
topology. That is, a full mesh topology eliminates the
need for backbone network and backbone routers,
thus minimizing the risk of installation damage to the
existing plant.
Figure 12.2i – Outdoor Wi-Fi access point (Courtesy: Cisco)
Each backbone router has to be within line of sight
of the Wi-Fi access points. Wi-Fi in an industrial
environment requires mesh topology where multiple
Wi-Fi access points are within line-of-sight of each
other. This requires additional design effort. At site,
validation and additional backbone routers to ensure
a robust mesh backbone.
Hardware exists that combine wireless sensor
network backbone router and Wi-Fi access point in
the same enclosure. Due consideration should be
given before choosing hardware integrating wireless
sensor network and Wi-Fi in the same enclosure.
The radios in the enclosure and their antennas are
different. Antennas should be kept 1 m apart, which
means separate external antennas should be used.
Another point to consider is that Wi-Fi standards used
in office and consumer products evolve much faster
than wireless sensor network standards, Wi-Fi seeing
a new version released every few years. It may be a
good idea to keep separation between the wireless
sensor network and the Wi-Fi backbone network
such that they can be upgraded independently if
need be.
Star Topology without Backbone
In a star topology without backbone a single
integrated gateway is used. This architecture is
only capable of very small deployments because all
wireless transmitters have to be with two hops of the
integrated gateway.
238
In mesh topology, only a single, optionally
redundant, gateway is required for up to 100
transmitters1. Thus the control/plant network from
this single the gateway to the system becomes very
simple. The single, optionally redundant, gateway
can be installed at the edge of the plant area such as
Local Equipment Room (LER), Field Auxiliary Room
(FAR), or Process Interface Building (PIB), so that
wires need not be run to the middle of the plant
unit. Laying this cable is therefore low cost, and in an
existing plant poses less risk of damaging the existing
installation.
Figure 12.2j – Full mesh topology only requires gateway since
routing is done by the transmitters
WirelessHART transmitters are time synchronized
and scheduled ensuring that each process variable
is communicated in its dedicated timeslot ensuring
multiple process variables are not colliding in a
“traffic jam”.
12 – Appendix
Coverage
Mesh Topology Coverage
Wireless has been used successfully in long-distance
outdoor SCADA applications for many years, using
tall masts to clear obstructions such as hills or earth
curvature. However, applications inside plants are
very much more demanding.
Mesh topology is a better solution. Because in a
mesh topology, a process variable is relayed from
transmitter to transmitter for long distance and
around multiple obstacles until it reaches the
gateway. With WirelessHART, process variables can
be relayed seven or more times between transmitters
to circumvent obstacles and sources of noise. That
is, all transmitters do not have to be within the range
of the gateway. A transmitter just has to be within
range of a few other transmitters. For this reason, a
full multi-hop mesh topology is more important than
maximum range of the transmitter. A mesh topology
only requires a single gateway. This single gateway is
low cost.
All wireless sensor networks such as IEC 62591
(WirelessHART), ISA100.11a, and ZigBee, use the
same radio standard: IEEE 802.15.4. The range
for all these protocols is therefore the same2. In
an unobstructed “line of sight” (LOS) outdoor
application such as an open field, dessert, or over
waters the maximum transmission range could be
as far as 250 m, 600 m, or even more depending
on the antenna used (antenna gain) etc. However,
inside a plant these maximum transmission ranges
become irrelevant because metal obstacles in the
plant such as pipe racks, vessels, and structural steel
are impenetrable to radio waves and can reduce
the maximum range to 100 m, 50 m, or even less
depending on density of these obstructions. The
short range inside the plant has been a challenge for
wireless coverage inside plants, until now.
Dueling Range Claims
In a plant environment, a line-of-sight range of
hundreds of meters or even kilometers does not
matter because in the plant the obstructions are very
much closer.
Star Topology Coverage
Because in a star topology, transmitters do not talk
to other transmitters, when deployed in a plant
environment, a star topology will require lots of
backbone routers throughout the site so that every
transmitter, in every nook and cranny of the plant,
will be within range of a backbone router. The large
number of backbone routers will come at a high
cost. A pure star topology would not be practical in a
plant environment. Therefore, some transmitters will
inevitably need the routing function to be turned on.
This may be called a “mixed topology”.
However, mixed topology protocols only support
device-routing in four hops. This is not sufficient
for process variables to work their way around all
obstacles in some plant environments. Therefore, in
spite of four-hop device-routing, a very large number
of backbone routers are required for coverage, which
is very costly.
Figure 12.2k – mesh topology enables good coverage thanks to
multiple hops hophophophophophophop
Radio blind-spots are hard to predict. Backbone
routers are hard to add. Meshing repeaters are very
easy to add. That is, it is much easier to fortify a mesh
network than a star topology network.
Availability and Reliability
The plant radio frequency (RF) environment is very
dynamic. From time to time tanker trucks or railcars,
forklifts, compressors, gen-sets, or scaffolding, or
other impenetrable metal objects may temporarily
obstruct radio signals which can normally pass. For
this reason traditional RF “site surveys” do not work
inside plants, because from time to time the RF
environment will be very different from what it was
during the site survey. This ever-changing nature
of the plant environment has been a challenge for
wireless reliability inside plants, until now. To achieve
greater reliability for the wireless communication,
redundant communication paths have to be
established from the wireless transmitters such that
paths can dynamically adapt to changes in the RF
environment.
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12 – Appendix
Reliability of Star Topology with Backbone
Redundant path communication from the
transmitters in a star topology is referred to as
duocast. This requires pairing of backbone routers.
That is, redundant pairs of backbone routers are
used instead of singly backbone routers. The cost of
the backbone routers and backbone network may
be high. Each pair of redundant backbone routers
must be installed such that each wireless transmitter
is within line-of-sight of a pair of backbone routers.
Ensuring that every wireless transmitter in the plant
is within line-of-sight of a pair of backbone routers,
and not obstructed by metal vessels, pipes, and
structural steel will require careful planning of the
backbone router location. Each pair of redundant
backbone routers forms an IP-subnet. A different
channel hopping pattern shall be configured for each
subnet to enable coexistence. Redundant power and
backbone networking is required for the backbone
routers.
The radio frequency (RF) environment in the plant is
constantly changing, such as obstructions, sources
of noise, or other radios. If one of the two duocast
paths stop working, it is necessary to make changes
to the wireless infrastructure installation to ensure
the second duocast path is reestablished since
redundancy should never be operating in degraded
singly mode for too long. This can be a challenge in
an operating plant.
to optimize the communication paths. When an
obstruction occurs, the rerouting of the path is
instantaneously and totally automatic, requiring no
manual reconfiguration. When new transmitters join
or leave the network, the network is dynamically reoptimized without human intervention. The system
also makes sure that all process variables are not
routed through the same “pinch point”.
Figure 12.2l – The process variable is routed from transmitter to
transmitter until it reaches the gateway
Reliability of Star Topology without Backbone
The low reliability of star topology is the main reason
why wireless transmitters were not used inside plants
the past.
Reliability of Mesh Topology
Mesh topology is a better solution. Transmitters
in a mesh topology establish multiple redundant
communication paths with neighboring transmitters,
typically three or more, ensuring there is no
one single point of failure. That is, if one path is
obstructed, the process variable will instantly switch
to one of the other paths. The more transmitters
there are in the network, the more paths become
possible. WirelessHART supports self-organizing
mesh topology, meaning that all transmitters
report back communication health which is used
Figure 12.2m – If the path is \obstructed, the process variable
will automatically be rerouted through another path GW
Once mesh topology was introduced, wireless
transmitters have been adopted very quickly.
The WirelessHART gateway keeps communication
statistics making it possible to tell the health of the
network. This includes number of neighbors, missed
updates, discarded updates, reliability / path stability
or packet error rate (PER), signal strength, number of
joins, and join time.
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12 – Appendix
Interoperability
Interoperability is achieved by standards
Interoperability of Star Topology with Backbone
There is no standard for the backbone protocol
used between backbone routers in a star-backbone
topology. That is, the backbone network uses
standard media such as copper Ethernet or WiFi, but the backbone application protocol is not
standardized. The drawbacks of proprietary networks
are well understood. All backbone routers in a plant
have to come from the same manufacturer. This
makes the plant highly dependent on a single vendor
for the backbone infrastructure. For example, if
the network has to be expanded with additional
backbone routers in the future, they must be
purchased from the same manufacturer as the
existing backbone routers. This dependency often
results in higher prices. Similarly, if a backbone router
fails, a spare must be purchased from the same
manufacturer at high cost. That is, backbone routers
from different manufactures, both using Ethernet
and both using TCP/IP, will not work together, even
if the wireless sensor network protocol is the same,
because the backbone protocol is not the same.
Interoperability of Mesh Topology
Since a full mesh topology does not require
backbone routers, no such dependency on a single
vendor exists.
Mesh Topology Battery Life
A wireless transmitter consists of a sensor,
measurement electronics, local display, and radio
with antenna. WirelessHART transmitters are time
synchronized and scheduled and have automatic
power management that allows them to go into
deep sleep most of the time, and then wake up at the
right time to measure, and send their own process
variables as well as relay process variables from
neighboring transmitters. This deep sleep minimizes
power consumption thereby maximizing battery life.
Long battery life means low maintenance.
Figure 12.2n – Wireless transmitter block diagram
RadioSensorBatteryLCD IndicatorMeasurement
For instance, when the update period is set to one
minute, the transmitter will be in deep sleep for just
under a minute, then wake up, turn on its sensor,
perform the measurement, then turn on the radio to
communicate the measured value just in time, and
then go back to sleep again. The radio transmission
has a 10 ms timeslot, but the actual transmission
time is about 4 ms. That is, the transmitter is not ‘on’
all the time. The radio “air time” is minimal.
It’s the Update Period
Sensors consume more power than the radio,
therefore battery life is mainly determined by
measurement update period, not network topology.
In a mesh topology the radio is also turned on to relay
process variables from neighboring transmitters.
However, the sensor and measurement electronics
are the part of the transmitter which consumes
the most power. The radio consumes much less
power. Therefore, relaying values from other wireless
transmitters which only takes 4 ms of radio time
requires extremely little power because the relaying
transmitters do not have to turn on their sensor,
measurement electronics, or display to relay other
process variables. Therefore, data traffic for mesh
routing does not have a major impact on overall
battery life.
The routing function in each transmitter is
dynamically turned on or off as required depending
on if process variables from neighboring transmitters
have to be routed or not. The network management
function (usually in the gateway) routes
communication through separately powered devices
such as wireless adapters when possible.
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12 – Appendix
Star-backbone Topology
Mesh Topology
1.One transmitter is located on
the same side of an obstruction
as the gateway (star topology
proprietary backbone LAN in red).
2.Another transmitter is located on
the other side of the obstruction
3.To reach the transmitter behind
the obstruction, a star topology
has to add another backbone
router which requires power
supply cabling and proprietary
backbone networking. However,
the mesh topology only has to
add another transmitter, which
requires no power or networking.
Moreover, the transmitter can
perform a useful measurement.
The main determining factor for battery life is not
routing or non-routing (mesh or star topology), but
the type of sensor and update period. For example, a
vibration transmitter accelerometer consumes more
power than a pressure sensor, which consumes more
power than a temperature element. WirelessHART
transmitters with multiple update periods coexist
in the same WirelessHART network such as
1 second, 1 minute, or 1 hour making it possible to
optimize update time and battery life according to
application requirements of each measuring point.
For instance, in the same WirelessHART network, DP
flow transmitters can update at 4 seconds, pressure
transmitters at 16 seconds, temperature transmitters
at 1 minute, DP level transmitters at 2 minutes, and
vibration transmitters every 30 minutes and so on.
Example
Mesh Topology Latency
Large Scale Networks
Each hop in a WirelessHART mesh topology only takes
10 ms. Therefore, even for a path along seven hops,
the total transmission time is small. In comparison to
typical update periods, latency is not significant.
For plants that have many WirelessHART transmitters
or are sprawled out across multiple areas, best
practice is to install one WirelessHART gateway in
each area, distributing the transmitters, keeping
each wireless sensor network small (“don’t put all
The power of device-routing can perhaps best be
explained through an example: if a transmitter is
located on the other side of an obstruction, to reach
this transmitter, a star topology has to add another
backbone router on the other side of the obstruction.
This backbone router in turn requires power supply
cabling and proprietary backbone networking.
However, the mesh topology only has to add another
transmitter, which requires no power or networking.
Moreover, this transmitter can perform a useful
measurement. A transmitter is lower cost and far
easier to install, and with less risk, than a backbone
router. This is the reason why mesh topology does
not require multiple gateways.
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12 – Appendix
eggs into one basket”). Multiple wireless sensor
networks are integrated between plant units over
the wireless (Wi-Fi) or wired (Ethernet) control or
plant network using the standard HART-IP protocol
providing architecture with plant-wide converge.
Each plant area typically has its own DCS controller,
so it makes sense to have a wireless sensor network
and gateway per DCS controller. This ties in nicely
with the instrumentation responsibilities for the plant
areas – i.e. the gateway and the DCS for the plant
area only connect with the wireless transmitters in
that plant area, not with wireless transmitters all
over the site. The gateway has built-in firewall for
cyber security. Standard HART-IP is an integral part
of the HART protocol, enabling native integration of
WirelessHART gateways into control systems. The
gateway is line powered, and Ethernet/Wi-Fi backhaul
is high data rate.
1 The IEC 62591 technology supports many more than 100
transmitters per network, but 100 transmitters is the
recommended maximum loading
2 The range depends on transmit power and antenna gain
which is limited by national regulations and is the same
for all protocols. Range also depends on radio chip receiver
sensitivity, and since all protocols can use the same radio
chip the range for all protocols using IEEE 802.15.4 are the
same. Any difference in range is product specific, not protocol
specific.
Commissioning Acceptance Criteria
At the time of wireless network commissioning, a
checkout procedure confirms the wireless network is
robust and will operate reliably. Audit metrics include
• Signal strength (RSSI) for all transmitters shall be
> -75 dBm
• Reliability >99% for all transmitters
• All transmitters to have at least two wireless paths
(redundancy), enabling the network to tolerate
changes
Conclusion
Mesh topology as used by WirelessHART provides
a lower cost solution, with greater coverage,
greater reliability, and can be installed with less
risk. Limitations of star topology is one of the main
reasons wireless transmitters were not used inside
plants the past. Once mesh topology was introduced,
wireless transmitters have been adopted very quickly.
References
1.“Thinking Through Wireless”, Control Engineering
Asia, October 2011
2.“Choose Wireless Wisely”, Industrial Automation
Asia, Oct/Nov 2011
3.“Wireless meeting your needs”, Industrial
Automation Asia, February 2012
4.“Hart-IP: Large Scale System Integration” , Control
Engineering Asia, April 2013
243
12 – Appendix
12.3
Same Familiar Tools for
Wireless
Just like 4-20 mA/HART and FOUNDATION fieldbus
transmitters, Wireless transmitters need setup/
configuration, calibration, and troubleshooting/
diagnostics etc. Wireless transmitters also require
“provisioning” to prepare it for joining the wireless
network. That is, the tasks performed on a wireless
transmitter are largely the same as for 4-20 mA/HART
or FOUNDATION fieldbus transmitters. It therefore
makes sense to use the same tools for wireless
devices as for 4-20 mA/HART and FOUNDATION
fieldbus devices.
in plants for commissioning, configuration/setup,
calibration, and diagnostics/troubleshooting of 4-20
mA/HART and FOUNDATION fieldbus devices today
support this port, WirelessHART enables plants to use
the same familiar tools also to handle the wireless
transmitters.
Maintenance Port
Wireless devices need to be configured with a
network ID and a secret join key before they can
join the wireless network, a process known as
“provisioning”. Because it has to be secret for security
reasons, provisioning cannot be done wirelessly. Only
after provisioning has been done, does the device
have the necessary security credentials to commence
secure wireless communication. For this reason,
provisioning has to be done over wires or other
secure means such as infrared.
Other wireless network technologies do not specify
a standard maintenance port. This means that every
manufacturer has a different interface port on their
transmitter for provisioning and other maintenance
purposes. Some manufacturers of wireless devices
using other wireless network technologies have
opted to use infrared communication. Other
manufacturers may opt for other interfaces. Since
the handheld field communicators and laptops which
are used in plants for commissioning, configuration/
setup, calibration, and diagnostics/troubleshooting
of 4-20 mA/HART and FOUNDATION fieldbus devices
do not have infrared ports, other wireless network
technologies forces users to adopt new unfamiliar
tools/software specifically to handle the wireless
transmitters. Laptops are not suitable for hazardous
areas. Although zone 2 laptops do exist, a laptop is
heavier than a handheld field communicator, cannot
be operated by one hand, and has shorter battery life.
All WirelessHART devices have a wired HART
maintenance port. This means that every
manufacturer has the same interface port on their
WirelessHART transmitter for provisioning and other
maintenance purposes. Since the handheld field
communicators and laptop software which are used
Figure 12.3a – Every WirelessHART device has a wired HART
maintenance port
Common Tools
That is, no special tools are required to provision
WirelessHART devices. All plants already have a
handheld field communicator for their 4-20 mA and
FOUNDATION fieldbus devices, sometimes also a
laptop with configuration software in their workshop
for their 4-20 mA and FOUNDATION fieldbus devices,
and maybe even a documenting calibrator for their
4-20 mA and FOUNDATION fieldbus devices. The
people around the plant are already familiar with
these tools.
Figure 12.3b – Handheld field communicators for 4-20 mA/HART
and FOUNDATION fieldbus also work for WirelessHART
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12 – Appendix
Same Procedures
Figure 12.3c – Configuration software for 4-20 mA/HART and
FOUNDATION fieldbus also work for WirelessHART
Another benefit of using the same tools and
application protocol for WirelessHART transmitters is
that WirelessHART transmitters are setup/configured,
calibrated, and diagnosed the same way using the
same tool as 4-20 mA/HART and FOUNDATION
fieldbus devices. That is, plant technicians already
have the tools, and are already familiar with
the procedures to use them. 4-20 mA/HART,
FOUNDATION fieldbus, and WirelessHART all use
the Electronic Device Description Language (EDDL).
Thanks to EDDL (www.eddl.org), 4-20 mA/HART,
FOUNDATION fieldbus, and WirelessHART have user
interfaces which are very similar. This makes it easy to
manage a mix of different devices.
Figure 12.3d – Documenting calibrator for 4-20 mA/HART and
FOUNDATION fieldbus also work for WirelessHART (courtesy of
Beamex)
Provisioning
For WirelessHART, the join key can be automatically
generated by the system, so that the user need not
do it manually, and it doesn’t get seen. The join
key can be the same (shared) by all devices on the
network, or each device can have a unique network
ID, known as an Access Control List (ACL). Once the
WirelessHART device joins the network, the system
will automatically detect the device based on its
HART tag. There is no hassle of transferring any
“provisioning files” to the gateway. If the network ID
is changed in the WirelessHART gateway, the gateway
will automatically update all the devices in the
network. There is no need to provision the devices
again.
Other wireless network solutions require devices to
be commissioned again if the network ID is changed
for the network. Other wireless network solutions
require a “provisioning information file” to be
generated from the provisioning tool, transferred to
the network management software on a separate
computer, and then downloaded to the gateway. The
provisioning information files have to be managed
(stored) carefully.
Figure 12.3e – 4-20 mA/HART, FOUNDATION fieldbus, and
WirelessHART devices “look & feel” the same way making
them easy to use
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12 – Appendix
References
1.“Smart Transmitters: Standardisation In
Operation”, Industrial Automation Asia, April 2011
2.“Thinking Through Wireless”, Control Engineering
Asia, October 2011
3.“Choose Wireless Wisely”, Industrial Automation
Asia, Oct/Nov 2011
4.“Wireless meeting your needs”, Industrial
Automation Asia, February 2012
246
12 – Appendix
12.4
Cisco Emerson Coexistence
Paper
An open, standards-based wireless architecture
from Emerson Process Management and Cisco
Systems uses several of these advancements to
provide high levels of communication reliability at
both the field-network and plant-network levels.
Extensive testing of multiple applications within this
architecture has shown that these technologies can
and do coexist very well even under the most difficult
circumstances.
Coexistence of wireless technologies in
an open, standards-based architecture for
in-plant applications
Some process operations may have been hesitant
to adopt in-plant wireless applications because of
concerns that radio frequency interference between
wireless solutions could affect the reliability of
essential communications. An open, standardsbased wireless architecture from Emerson Process
Management and Cisco Systems addresses these
concerns by using mesh network technology
and other methods to provide high levels of
communication reliability at both the field-network
and plant-network levels. Coexistence tests of
real-world applications using this architecture
demonstrated no noticeable impact on network
reliability.
There are other aspects of network design that need
to be considered when deploying a comprehensive
wireless network implementation. These other
aspects include security and network management.
This paper is focused on addressing RF compatibility
and how that is achievable today with Emerson /
Cisco joint implementations. Cisco and Emerson
have solutions to address these other areas (such
as security and network management), and both
companies are committed to continue testing
and publishing best practices for wireless network
implementations in the process industries.
Introduction
The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance
of Kris Pister of Dust Networks, who contributed data
and background information for this paper.
New in-plant wireless technologies are gaining
market acceptance in the process industries
because they offer lower installed cost and faster
deployment than traditional wired solutions.
Example applications include monitoring process and
equipment conditions, giving workers easy access to
information from anywhere in the plant, and tracking
mobile assets and personnel.
Coexistence Basics
Coexistence is defined as “The ability of one system
to perform a task in a given shared environment
where other systems have an ability to perform their
tasks and may or may not be using the same set of
rules” [2]. It is measured by end-to-end message
delivery success rate.
However, some operations may have hesitated to
adopt these and other new applications because
of concerns that radio frequency (RF) interference
between various wireless technologies – such as
radios using the IEEE 802.11b/g and IEEE 802.15.4
[1] protocols -- might affect the reliability of essential
communications.
Because 802.11 and 802.15.4 radios use the same
Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) 2.4GHz
non-licensed frequency band, questions have been
raised about how these technologies would work
together. However, much of the prior research on this
issue has focused on static channel operation of both
radio types. Information has not been available on
real-world coexistence of devices using more recent
advancements such as channel hopping and mesh
network technology.
Coexistence problems can occur when two or more
transmitted packets with sufficient interference
energy “collide” or overlap in time and frequency –
unless the network is designed to avoid or mitigate
the effects of those collisions. Mechanisms used to
combat coexistence issues may include
• Frequency diversity – Channel hopping
• Time diversity – Time Division Multiplexing and
Clear Channel Assessment
• Power diversity – Low power output ( <= 10dBm)
• Space diversity – Mesh technology that allows for
space coverage through multiple hops instead of
using just output power.
• Coding diversity – Use of advanced Direct
Sequence Spread Spectrum
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12 – Appendix
The diagram below shows areas of potential
interference between transmissions using IEEE
802.11b/g (Wi-Fi) and IEEE 802.15.4 radios.
Wireless Field Network
For overlapping channels, 802.11b/g radiated power
is 10-100 times indoors than that of 802.15.4, and up
to 4000 times for outdoor 802.11b/g mesh.
For non-overlapping channels, 802.11b/g side-slopes
will impact 802.15.4 channels falling in the guard
band between 802.11b/g channels (in purple in the
preceding figure), though to a lesser degree. These
channels are 15, 20, 25 and 26 in North America and
15, 16, 21 and 22 in Europe.
Although previous research and testing in this area
has shown an impact by 802.11b/g on 802.15.4,
it is important to note that none of this testing
involved radios that used the techniques mentioned
above, which are combined in a method called Time
Synchronized Meshed Protocol [3] -- an approach
which would be expected to reduce the effect of
interference.
The effect of extremely low-power 802.15.4 radios
on 802.11b/g should also be minimal.
Wireless Architecture
Emerson and Cisco together offer an open,
standards-based in-plant wireless architecture that
benefits from Emerson’s industry-leading technology
in process automation and from Cisco’s leading
technology in Internet-protocol (IP) infrastructure.
Because both companies are familiar with users’
concerns about coexistence, the wireless networks
at both the field and plant levels of this architecture
were designed specifically to provide robust, reliable
communications under in-plant conditions.
Emerson’s Smart Wireless field network solutions
take advantage of self-organizing mesh network
technology using IEEE 802.15.4 radios. This is
the same technology that is the basis for the
WirelessHART standard [4].
The mesh capability provides redundant
communication paths (path diversity) for better
reliability than solutions that require direct, lineof-sight communication between each device
and its gateway. Whenever there’s a change in the
network or environmental conditions that affect
communications, the devices and gateways work
together to find a path that optimizes data reliability
while minimizing power consumption.
Other features also enhance communication
reliability. Pseudo-random channel hopping provides
frequency diversity. Time Division Multiple Access
(TDMA) provides time diversity by ensuring only one
device is talking on the channel at a time. Low-power
devices provide power diversity. And Direct Sequence
Spread Spectrum (DSSS) provides about +8dB of
coding gain/diversity.
These capabilities help avoid problems not only
with RF interference from other radios, but also with
electromagnetic noise from motors, lights, and
other sources that are much more common in plant
environments. Emerson’s wireless devices with these
features have been proven in use at many process
control plants, demonstrating greater than 99.9%
data reliability.
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12 – Appendix
Wireless Plant Network
The Standards Advantage
The Cisco Wireless Mesh Networking Solution is
based on the Cisco Aironet® 1500 Series, an outdoor
Wi-Fi mesh access point using Cisco’s patent-pending
Adaptive Wireless Path Protocol (AWPP), which forms
the basis of the emerging IEEE 802.11s standard.
The Cisco Aironet 1500 Series provides route
optimization, self-healing for interference or outages,
resiliency, and dynamic re-optimization when new
sectors are added.
Using technologies based on IEEE 802 standards at
both levels of the architecture (802.15.4 for field
networks and 802.11 for plant networks) provides a
significant advantage in managing coexistence. The
IEEE coordinates all its 802 wireless activities, and
its coexistence technical advisory group (802.19)
provides a framework for coexistence among existing
standards as well as those under development.
To address the needs of complex and hazardous
industrial plant environments, Cisco has designed
the Aironet 1520 Series specifically for such plant
operations. It supports zero-touch configuration
deployment to easily and securely join the mesh
network. Flexible, high-powered, high-sensitivity
radio options, along with a selection of high-gain
antennas, allow coverage to be scaled as capacity
needs increase. Cisco Aironet 1520 is managed and
monitored by Cisco wireless LAN controllers and the
Cisco Wireless Control System (WCS).
Using AWPP, Cisco 1500 access points discover
each other automatically and select the best path
for maximizing system capacity and minimizing
latency by using intelligent wireless routing based
on the AWPP. If a link is degraded, the access point
will determine whether a better path exists, and will
route traffic through a more optimal node.
Cisco –
IEEE 802.11b/g
Emerson –
IEEE 802.15.4
• Physical layer
- 14 channels,
5 MHz channel
spacing, 22 MHz
channel width
- 54 Mbps max data
rate
• Physical layer
- 16 channels,
5 MHz channel
spacing, 2 MHz
channel width
- 250 kbps data rate
• Only 3 nonoverlapping channels
- 1, 6 and 11 in
North America
- 1, 7 and 13 in
Europe
• Radio Power output
- 100mW max
indoors
- Up to 4W outdoors
(Mesh)
Coexistence Testing
Tests were conducted to determine the real-world
impact of deploying a Cisco IEEE 802.11b/g plantlevel network and associated applications in the same
process facility as an Emerson Smart Wireless field
network using mesh and IEEE 802.15.4 technology
from Dust Networks.
Test Description
The test was conducted in a factory floor
environment at an Emerson production facility. The
environment consisted of two Cisco 1510 outdoor
mesh access points, an Emerson 1420 wireless
gateway attached to a Cisco 1510 mesh access point,
and a mixture of eight Emerson Smart Wireless field
devices. In addition, several Emerson facility Wi-Fi
access points were near the test network.
• Physical channel
usage
- Channel hopping
(frequency
hopping)
permitted
-Coordinated
channel (TDMA)
use permitted
• Emerson (and
WirelessHART) use
channel hopping and
coordination
- 15 channels used
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12 – Appendix
Network performance-analysis tools (an Iperf client
and server) were connected to the test access points
to provide a load on the Wi-Fi network. To provide
voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) traffic, a Cisco
7921 IP phone and an Intermec CK60 mobile worker
platform with a voice application were used.
Network statistics were monitored on the 802.15.4
network while Iperf was used to generate traffic
on the 802.11b/g network. The Iperf client was
connected using 802.11g. The data throughput
of Iperf was monitored periodically to determine
the overall impact on available bandwidth in the
802.11b/g network.
The selected channel for the 802.11b/g network
was varied between 1, 6, and 11 during the test.
The 802.15.4 network was running with field device
data update rates set to 15 seconds (a typical
configuration).
The 802.11b/g mesh access point was approximately
1 meter from the 802.15.4 gateway and anywhere
from 30 cm to 1 meter from most of the 802.15.4
devices under test. This was again to create as close
to worst-case test environment as possible given
known RF characteristics.
Test Results
Impact of 802.11b/g on 802.15.4. Overall data
reliability of the 802.15.4 field network remained at
100% throughout the testing. Although 802.11b/g
interference caused a small amount of packet loss
on some of the 802.15.4 devices, the Emerson field
network includes several features (such as retries
and path diversity) to counter this effect, and the
net packet loss was not significant enough to affect
overall data reliability.
Impact of 802.15.4 on 802.11b/g. Throughput on
the 802.11b/g network (monitored using Iperf)
varied from 4 Mbits/sec to 8 Mbits/sec during
baseline testing with no 802.15.4 traffic. In the
presence of 802.15.4 traffic, the throughput varied in
the same range throughout the testing.
Based on the test results and known RF interactions
(overlapping channels, output power), it is more
likely that the other 802.11b/g access points that
were in the surrounding environment but not part
of the test caused most of the variation in the data
throughput of the test 802.11b/g network.
Voice over IP testing was also conducted using the
Intermec CK60 handheld computer with an IP voice
application and the Cisco 7921 IP phone. In the test
environment, no impact could be detected in the
voice quality when 802.15.4 traffic was introduced
into the environment over the test period.
Implications for Wireless Deployments
Impact of 802.11b/g on 802.15.4. Any 802.15.4
devices within range of but greater than 1 meter
from an 802.11b/g mesh access point will have a
path stability impact that is dependent on distance
and bandwidth utilization. The impact on packet
error rate is
Packet Error Rate = BWU * 20%
where BWU is the bandwidth utilization of the
802.11b/g mesh access point and the 20% factor
comes from empirical data gathered.
For example, if the 802.11b/g average bandwidth
utilization is 20% (which is high for a typical
Wi- Fi network), then there will be a 4% impact on
individual path stability. This level of packet error rate
is not large enough to impact the overall 802.15.4
network data reliability. This is because the network
protocol has automatic retries built in, allowing
some packet loss while continuing to maintain very
high data reliability. Also, path diversity and channel
hopping help to make the impact of this interference
non-existent.
Prior research and testing has showed that staticchannel 802.15.4 devices within 10 cm of an
802.11b/g mesh access point are significantly
impacted. This is mostly a result of the high power
output of the 802.11b/g radio. However, this issue is
not seen with the Emerson Smart Wireless solution
because it uses channel hopping to move around
the interference. A technique not used in this test,
“blacklisting” overlapping channels so the devices
don’t use them, also provides a way to mitigate the
problem.
Impact of 802.15.4 on 802.11b/g. The 802.15.4
network will have an impact on the 802.11b/g
network in proportion to its channel usage. Channel
usage is a function of the total bandwidth utilization
in the network and the channel dwell time. This can
range from nearly 0% for typical networks to 100%
for very large networks of line-powered devices.
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12 – Appendix
For each device present in the range of an 802.11b/g
access point, the maximum possible impact on the
throughput will be
802.11b/g bandwidth decrease = 25% * BWU * 4/15
The 25% factor comes from empirical data; the
4/15 comes from the number of 802.15.4 channels
that are occupied by one 802.11b/g channel. The
bandwidth utilization near an 802.15.4 gateway
can approach 41% for large-scale networks. The
41% factor comes from the data rate of the 2.4 GHz
802.15.4 network producing maximum size packets
(128 bytes) in 10 mS time slots.
The worst-case impact, assuming the 802.11b/g
device is near an 802.15.4/WirelessHART gateway, is
therefore 25% * 41% * 4/15 = 2.73%, or a reduction
from 20 Mbps (typical throughput) to 19.45 Mbps. A
reduction of this magnitude is negligible even in the
most extreme time-sensitive applications like VoIP
communication, which was tested to prove that no
degradation occurs.
This testing was intended to represent near worstcase conditions users will encounter in deploying
IEEE 802.11b/g devices alongside IEEE 802.15.4
devices. It is unlikely that a practical installation will
ever reach greater than 40% bandwidth utilization
on either type of network. Even in this extreme
deployment, there was no noticeable impact on
either network. And since most traffic into the
gateways are communicated at a lower power level
(power diversity), it has been shown to not impact
the network in practical implementations.
While this paper addresses RF compatibility, other
issues such as security and network management
are aspects of network design that also require
consideration. Cisco and Emerson offer a range of
solutions to address these areas based on individual
project requirements. Look for future white papers
from Cisco and Emerson documenting best practices
for process industry users who are implementing
wireless networks in the plant environment.
Additional information is also available from
www.EmersonProcess.com/SmartWireless or by
contacting an Emerson or Cisco salesperson.
References
1.IEEE std 802.15.4-2006, Part 15.4: Wireless
Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical
Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate Wireless
Personal Area Networks (WPANs)
2.IEEE Std 802.15.2-2003, Part 15.2: Coexistence
of Wireless Personal Area Networks with Other
Wireless Devices Operating in Unlicensed
Frequency Bands, 28 August 2003.
3.Dust Networks, Technical Overview of Time
Synchronized Mesh Protocol (TSMP), June 20,
2006, online at www.dustnetworks.com/docs/
TSMP_Whitepaper.pdf.
4.WirelessHART™ Specifications
Summary
Advancements in wireless technology have overcome
previous concerns about using wireless applications
in process operations. In particular, features of the
Emerson and Cisco wireless architecture such as
channel hopping and mesh networks can reduce
or avoid potential coexistence problems between
802.11 and 802.15.4 technologies.
Our tests of this architecture under real-world
conditions demonstrate that coexistence issues are
in fact minimal, even in an extreme deployment
scenario. From these findings we conclude that
process industry users can move forward with
confidence that these technologies can be used
together successfully. In fact, there are probably
many reasons to begin planning new wireless
implementations.
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12 – Appendix
12.5
WirelessHART Third-Party
System Integration
Modbus Data Selection
The parameters such as process variable value,
process variable status, and battery status etc.
desired from each WirelessHART transmitter is
selected in the WirelessHART gateway and freely
assigned to a Modbus register number. Overall
network health information can also be selected
from the gateway. Import and export function
enables faster bulk edit. In the host system, the
gateway Modbus registers are in turn mapped to
system tags.
IEC 62591 (WirelessHART) is the international
standard for wireless in process applications.
WirelessHART is improving maintenance planning,
reducing energy consumption, minimizing operator
rounds, and gets timely data from remote sites
through integration with the control system. Some
large-scale plants & fields are quickly approaching
1,000 wireless transmitters. Therefore it should also
be possible to manage the wireless transmitters
plant-wide from intelligent device management
(IDM) software located centrally part of the
asset management system. Many plant owners
with third-party systems without native support
for WirelessHART desire to use WirelessHART
transmitters to modernize and sustain their plant.
Modbus/RTU, Modbus/TCP1, OPC, and the new
HART-IP protocol are the technologies that enable
integration of process variables as well as setup
and diagnostics information from WirelessHART
transmitters into any system.
Modbus/TCP
The WirelessHART gateway has two2 Ethernet ports3
supporting multiple protocols in parallel on the same
port for use with host systems having an Ethernet
interface card. Multiple gateways can be connected
to the same Ethernet for plant-wide applications. For
instance, they can interface to systems supporting
the Modbus/TCP protocol. This is the most common
way on modern control systems. The gateway has an
internal firewall for security and offers the option of
SSL security for the Ethernet communication.
Process Variable Integration
The Ethernet ports are configured with IP address.
The parameter selection for Modbus/TCP is the same
as for Modbus/RTU.
Process variables from WirelessHART transmitters
can be used in control systems like a DCS, PLC, or RTU
as well as directly in software such as an HMI or for
asset monitoring, machinery health monitoring, or
a historian etc. There are many ways to get process
variable data from the WirelessHART gateway:
Modbus/RTU, Modbus/TCP, EtherNet/IP, or OPC-DA.
All of these communication protocols are already
in use on every imaginable control system, new,
old, and very old. No system is too old to accept
WirelessHART.
EtherNet/IP
The Ethernet ports on the WirelessHART gateway can
also be used to interface to systems supporting the
EtherNet/IP protocol. This is common on RTUs.
CIP Data Selection
Modbus/RTU
The WirelessHART gateway has an RS485
communication port for use with host systems
having a serial interface card and supports the
Modbus/RTU protocol. Multiple gateways can be
connected to the same RS485 network for plant-wide
applications. This is the most common way on older
control systems.
RS485 Communication Settings
The RS485 port on the WirelessHART gateway can
be configured with Modbus node address, baud
rate, parity, stop bits, response delay, data type,
byte swap, scaling and error handling etc. to match
system requirements.
Similar to Modbus, the parameters such as process
variable value, process variable status, and battery
status etc. desired from each WirelessHART
transmitter is selected in the WirelessHART gateway
and freely assigned to a CIP Instance and Member.
Overall network health information can also be
selected from the gateway. Import and export
function enables faster bulk edit. In the host system,
the gateway CIP members are in turn mapped to
system tags.
OPC-DA
OPC-DA is a third protocol option, tunneled through
the WirelessHART gateway’s Ethernet ports. As OPC
is a protocol between software applications; OPC
proxy software on a workstation communicates with
the gateway and makes data available to any OPC-
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12 – Appendix
DA clients such as HMI software, asset monitoring
software, machinery health management software,
or a system database etc.
Data Selection
Similar to Modbus and CIP, the parameters such as
process variable value, process variable status, and
battery status etc. desired from each WirelessHART
transmitter is selected in the WirelessHART gateway.
For OPC there is no need to assign Register, Instance,
or Member. Overall network health information
can also be selected from the gateway. Import and
export function enables faster bulk edit. In the OPC
client, the desired parameters can simply be picked
by pointing and clicking.
Intelligent Device Management Integration
WirelessHART transmitters are intelligent devices
that have to have the correct configuration,
will eventually need calibration trim, will detect
sensor failures etc. just like wired transmitters.
WirelessHART transmitters run on battery which will
one day run low.
Use of Intelligent Device Management4 (IDM)
software for daily maintenance and turnaround
planning for instrumentation and valves is becoming
increasingly common. Wireless transmitters should
be no exception.
The same handheld field communicator used for
4-20 mA/HART and FOUNDATION fieldbus devices
can be used to configure and check the health of
WirelessHART transmitters but for installations with
lots of transmitters, centralized monitoring is more
practical. Modbus, EtherNet/IP, and OPC-DA are ideal
for process variables, but don’t support intelligent
device management software.
huge numbers of transmitters. There are two ways
to display device setup and diagnostics data into the
IDM software: EDDL and FDT/DTM. Both of these
device integration technologies are already in use
for WirelessHART transmitter configuration, sensor
calibration trim, and diagnostics for troubleshooting.
EDDL
For intelligent device management software (IDM)
based on the EDDL device integration technology,
the EDDL file for each device type is simply loaded,
thus enabling the IDM software to access all the
information in the WirelessHART transmitters
through the WirelessHART gateway over HART-IP.
FDT/DTM
For intelligent device management software (IDM)
based on FDT/DTM device integration technology,
a commDTM and gatewayDTM can be installed for
the WirelessHART gateway as well as a deviceDTM
for each device type, thus enabling the IDM software
to access all the information in the WirelessHART
transmitters through the WirelessHART gateway over
HART-IP.
Yokogawa
WirelessHART gateways and transmitters can be
integrated in the Yokogawa Centum DCS and PRM
intelligent device management software. Various
options can be utilized.
HART-IP
The new HART-IP protocol provides the ability
to access all the configuration and diagnostics
information in the WirelessHART transmitters,
beyond the process variable, from intelligent
device management (IDM) software on third-party
systems. The HART-IP protocol is communicated on
the same Ethernet cable as Modbus/TCP, EtherNet/
IP, and OPC-DA. HART-IP uses the same standard
commands as 4-20 mA/HART and WirelessHART and
therefore requires no data mapping in the gateway
or in the software. This makes it easy to manage
the vast amount of configuration settings even for
Figure 12.5a – Logical data flow for WirelessHART integration
into Yokogawa system
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12 – Appendix
Centum
The connection of the WirelessHART gateways into
the Centum DCS using Modbus is not different from
that of any other Modbus device.
RS485
Modbus/RTU from the WirelessHART gateway
connects to the ALR121 serial communication
module on the Yokogawa Centum system.
Figure 12.5c – Modbus/TCP integration in Yokogawa system
(part of image courtesy Yokogawa)
Modbus Registers
The mapping of the WirelessHART transmitter
process variables through the gateways into the
Centum DCS using Modbus is not different from that
of any other Modbus device.
Figure 12.5.3.1a – Modbus/RTU integration in Yokogawa system
(part of image courtesy Yokogawa)
Figure 12.5d – Tag configuration
Figure 12.5b – ALR121 serial port configuration
Ethernet
Modbus/TCP from the WirelessHART gateway
connects to the ALE111 Ethernet communication
module on the Yokogawa Centum system.
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12 – Appendix
Figure 12.5e – Tags
Figure 12.5h – Device information page
Figure 12.5f – Blocks
PRM
The integration of the WirelessHART gateway
and WirelessHART transmitters into the PRM
IDM software using HART-IP and FDT/DTM is not
different from any other devices. A commDTM and
gatewayDTM has to be installed for the WirelessHART
gateway as well as a deviceDTM for each device
type, thus enabling the PRM software to access all
the information in the WirelessHART transmitters
through the WirelessHART gateway over HART-IP.
Figure 12.5i – Device variable page
Honeywell
WirelessHART gateways and transmitters can be
integrated in the Honeywell TDC2000, TDC3000,
PlantScape, and Experion PKS DCS as well as the
Field Device Manager (FDM) intelligent device
management software.
The FDM software supports EDDL and is
based5 on the SDC625 software from the HART
Communication Foundation (HCF).
Deployment
As a result, systems without native support for
WirelessHART are benefitting from improved
maintenance planning, reduced energy
consumption, reduced operator rounds, and
get timely data from remote sites enabled by
WirelessHART transmitters. The result is lower
maintenance cost and increased production.
Figure 12.5g – Accessing WirelessHART device
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12 – Appendix
1 The Modbus/TCP protocol is sometimes referred to as Modbus
TCP/IP, but this is incorrect
2 Two Ethernet ports for redundancy or connection to
independent systems such as one port for DCS, HMI, or
historian and the other port for IDM etc.
3 The Ethernet ports can in turn be connected to a Wi-Fi access
point or fiber optic media converter etc. as well as various
options for long distance backhaul network if required by the
application
4 A Device Diagnostics Deployment and Adoption Guide is
available as assistance in deployment and institutionalization
of Intelligent Device Management (IDM) software and
associated work practices.
5 Experion PKS Field Device Manager Specifications EP03-480400 Release 400 V0.12, Feb, 2010
256
12 – Appendix
12.6
Site Modernization User Guide
Acronyms
Modernize & Sustain Beyond P&ID
Foreword
Many operation and maintenance problems around
the plant can be solved by deploying WirelessHART
transmitters beyond the P&ID together with asset
management system1 and other software to
obtain asset health information and other plant
data. However, plant procedures must be written
so as to make full use of this new information. With
the hardware, software, and updated operating
procedures in place, central “desktop maintenance”
planning, energy conservation measures, and HS&E
improvement can become a reality. That is, the new
plant information must be institutionalized in daily
work processes to be effective.
This is a guide to modernizing and sustaining existing
plants, but also to ensure new plants are not built
the old fashioned way, and institutionalizing asset
health alarms, energy conservation information,
and HS&E information in daily work processes. This
guide can also be applied to rejuvenation of well head
automation.
EAM
Essential Asset Monitoring
ECM
Energy Conservation Measures
FAT
Factory Acceptance Test
FEED
Front-End Engineering & Design
HMI
Human-Machine Interface
HS&E
Health, Safety, and Environment
MHM
Machinery Health Management
P&ID
Piping and Instrumentation Diagram
PAM
Plant Asset Management
Introduction
Plant-wide modernization is a project requiring
wireless transmitters beyond the P&ID feeding raw
data into an asset management system. Deployment
will have associated engineering hours and cost.
The basic deployment phases are illustrated in
figure 12.6a and explained in table 12.6b.
Glossary
Essential asset monitoring, energy conservation
measures, and HS&E have their own set of
terminology and acronyms
Terminology
Turnaround
Scheduled plant shutdown
when a plant is stopped for
an extended period for major
overhaul. A.k.a. outage or
planned shutdown.
Ticket
Electronic work order for a job to
be carried out.
In this document the terms “work order” (usually
on paper) and “ticket” (electronic) are used
interchangeably.
The term “remote” refers to the field or plant floor,
while the term “central” refers to the control room as
opposed to the field or plant floor.
Figure 12.6a – Basics steps in site modernization with EAM, ECM,
and HS&E packages
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12 – Appendix
There will be minor differences depending on if the
project is for modernizing an existing plant or to
make sure a new plant being constructed is not built
the old fashioned way. This deployment process
can also be applied to rejuvenation of well head
automation.
Phase
1
2
3
4
5
Justify
Audit
Define
Phase
Detail Design
Exact number
of transmitters,
gateways, and
computers etc. will be
required.
Implementation
Build database
configuration for the
asset management
system’s graphics,
asset health alarm
management, and
reports.
8
FAT
Factory Acceptance
Test (FAT) to verify
correct hardware and
software configuration
for graphics, asset
health alarm
management, and
reports.
9
Installation
Install the gateways
and transmitters.
10
Commissioning
Provisioning the
transmitters, baseline
capture and EAM
diagnostic algorithm
tuning.
11
Site Integration
Integrate the asset
management system
with the DCS.
Develop
Procedures
Rewrite operation
and maintenance
procedures to include
the asset management
system and other
applications, checking
the software first.
Training
Customized training
for modernization
team, and asset
management
system engineers,
commissioning
team, operators,
and maintenance
technicians.
6
Description
Explain the value
of plant-wide
modernization with
wireless to obtain
management buy-in,
funding, and other
resources.
7
Asses the plant unit
operation’s assets
as well as existing
operations and
maintenance work
practices to identify
manual and nonexistent procedures
required to be
modernized.
Establish
modernization
project scope for
EAM, ECM, and HS&E
packages and asset
management system
architecture needs as a
basis for design.
Assign
Name persons
responsible for
modernization
project execution
and continued use of
EAM, ECM, and HS&E
packages.
Plan
Planning of the
wireless modernization
solution deployment
including training,
changes in job scopes,
resources required,
and changes in
procedures.
Description
12
13
Table 12.6b – Basic work process for deploying EAM, ECM, and
HS&E packages
258
12 – Appendix
Justification
that actually need work, only when they need work.
EAM can give detailed information on problems
before a field visit. EAM can also reduce impact on
operations by advance warning of failure. Note that
the number of work orders go up because more
asset problems are detected but the maintenance
cost go down. EAM enables daily maintenance and
turnaround activities to be prioritized. EAM also
enables investigative work to determine root cause of
asset failures and process upsets.
The initial step is to get buy-in from the plant
management that will approve the project.
For an existing plant, there is a need to justify
modernization with wireless. For a new plant,
expanding the scope beyond P&ID to include EAM,
ECM, and HS&E packages as part of the project
must be justified. Explain to the plant management,
maintenance manager, reliability engineer, HS&E
officer, and project/turnaround manager the
opportunity to improve maintenance, energy
consumption, and HS&E by modernizing and the
value of plant-wide modernization. Investment
in wireless transmitters and centralized asset
management system can be justified on the basis
of reduced downtime, lower cost of maintenance,
lower energy consumption, and improved HS&E etc.
provided the new information is institutionalized in
the daily work processes and the plant culture.
A consultant can help develop the justification. Make
sure to include services as part of the project budget.
Make sure to include services as part of the project
budget.
Opportunity
The modernization has to be accompanied by
a culture shift, especially for EAM. Maintenance
technicians will be able to tell if assets need to be
maintained urgently, if it can wait until the next
turnaround, or if they need no maintenance at all.
This not only enables turnarounds to be shortened,
but reduces the costs of crane and crane operator,
and the need for hoist, scaffolding, fitters, riggers,
instrument technician, electricians, pipe fitters, as
well as insulation and other material. Incorporation
of EAM in daily maintenance practices must be a
management directive, with follow-up to ensure
new work processes and EAM tools get adopted, and
continues to be used to derive value from the asset
health information. Asset maintenance will be an
information-driven decision rather than based on a
hunch or emotion. EAM allows Maintenance on assets
Essential Asset Monitoring
(EAM)
1.Heat exchanger
2.Pump
3.Blower
4.Fin fan cooler
5.Centrifugal compressor
6.Cooling tower
7.Pipes & vessels
8.Filters & strainers etc.
Plants face a number of operational and maintenance
challenges. The challenges and opportunities for
asset management can broadly be classified in three
categories:
These challenges and the capabilities required to
tackle those problems as well as the expected result
are summarized in Table 12.6d.
Essential Asset Monitoring (EAM)
Essential Asset Monitoring (EAM) provides a
capability to see the health of assets, and use this
information to more effectively plan the work scope
for turnarounds, to make the turnaround shorter and
make sure the assets in greatest need of maintenance
are attended to, while time and resources are
not spent unnecessarily on assets that need no
maintenance. EAM provides process equipment
diagnostics, a new level of diagnostics, over and
above device diagnostics; type 4 in table 12.6e.
Energy Conservation Measures
(ECM)
1.Steam trap failure
2.Heat exchanger fouling
3.Steam consumption
4.Chiller water consumption
5.Filter & strainer blocking
6.Cooling tower fan etc.
Table 12.6c – Three broad categories of modernization opportunities
259
Health, Safety, and
Environmental (HS&E)
1.Safety shower and eye wash
station
2.Manual valve
3.Relief valve
4.Gauge, sight glass, variable
areas flowmeter, dipstick
5.Grab sampling
6.Vibration, temperature,
acoustic tester
7.Stranded diagnostics etc.
12 – Appendix
Type 1 bus diagnostics is performed by the
system interface card and includes statistics for
communication errors. Type 2 device diagnostics is
performed by the device itself (i.e. self-diagnostics)
and detects electronics failure (e.g. memory etc.)
as well as problem with internal mechanical parts
(e.g. spool) as well as supply (electric or pneumatic
etc.). Type 3 process connection diagnostics is also
performed by the device and detects problems
with valve, actuator, and impulse line etc. EAM falls
under type 4 process equipment diagnostics and is
performed by expert diagnostic algorithms based
on multiple PV inputs and is used to monitor heat
exchangers, pumps, blowers, and fin fan cooler etc.
Type
Diagnostics
Figure 12.6e – Types of diagnostics
Example
Remark
4
Process equipment
diagnostics
• Heat exchanger
•Pump
•Blower
• Fin fan cooler
By expert diagnostic algorithm
based on multiple PV
3
Process connection
diagnostics
•Valve
•Actuator
• Impulse line
By the device
2
Device diagnostics
• Electronics (memory etc.)
• Internal mechanical parts
•Supply
By device itself (self-diagnostics)
1
Bus diagnostics
• Communication Errors
By system interface card
Table 12.6d – Types of diagnostics
Plant Challenge
EAM Capability
Result
1
Heat exchangers foul and plug
but maintenance technicians
don’t know how bad it is.
Hydro-blasting is done too
late by which time the heat
exchanger has to be sent offsite
for decoking. Other times
cleaning is done unnecessarily
early, wasting resources and
causing downtime.
Ability to detect heat exchanger
fouling and plugging early, to
schedule maintenance when,
and only when, required.
Lower maintenance cost by
reducing unnecessary cleaning.
Higher plant availability
by reducing unnecessary
downtime.
2
Pumps suffer cavitation,
vibration and bearing
overheating problems, strainer
plugging, as well as seal fluid
and product leaks which go
undetected for long periods
leading to failures and spills
causing downtime and fire
hazard.
Ability to detect cavitation,
even pre-cavitation, vibration,
strainer plugging, and high
bearing temperature, seal fluid
and product leaks for essential
pumps to change operation
or schedule maintenance as
required.
Reduced downtime and
maintenance costs by avoiding
premature pump failure and
repair, as well as reducing spills.
260
12 – Appendix
Plant Challenge
EAM Capability
Result
3
Blowers suffer resonance
problem, filter blocking,
bearing overheating and louver
defects causing downtime or
even premature failure.
Ability to detect high bearing
temperature, suction filter
blocking, louver defects, and
resonance for blowers to
change operation or schedule
maintenance as required.
Reduced downtime and
maintenance costs by avoiding
premature blower failure and
repair.
4
Fin fan coolers suffer vibration
and resonance, bearing
overheating, louver and
actuator defects, fouling, and
in some parts of the world
cause excessive cooling causing
downtime and even premature
failure, or simply inefficiencies.
Ability to detect high vibration
and resonance, high bearing
temperature, louver and
actuator defects, fouling, and
excessive cooling for fin fan
coolers to change operation
or schedule maintenance as
required.
Reduced downtime and
maintenance costs by avoiding
premature fin fan cooler
failure and repair, and in some
locations reduced energy cost.
5
Centrifugal compressors
suffer instability, vibration
and resonance, bearing fault,
and plugged intake filter etc.
causing downtime and even
premature failure.
Ability to detect instability,
vibration and resonance,
bearing fault, and intake filter
plugging for the simple yet
essential compressors not
fitted with online machinery
protection system, to schedule
maintenance as required.
Reduced downtime and
maintenance costs by avoiding
premature compressor failure
and repair.
6
Cooling tower suffer fan
and water circulation pump
vibration and resonance,
bearing overheating and faults,
strainer plugging, fouling and
corrosion, as well as windage
(water loss).
Ability to detect fan and pump
vibration and resonance, high
bearing temperature and faults,
strainer plugging, fouling and
corrosion, as well as windage
in cooling towers to schedule
maintenance as required. And
to compute tower efficiency,
saturation index, and cycles
of concentration as well
as recommend fan power
optimization, blowdown and
makeup flow.
Reduced downtime and
maintenance costs by avoiding
premature cooling tower failure
and repair, as well as reduced
energy cost.
7
Pipes and vessels suffer
corrosion, extreme
temperature and pressure
cycles and excursions posing a
hazard.
Ability to detect corrosion
as well as temperature and
pressure cycles and excursions
in pipes and vessels, to
schedule inspection as
required.
Reduced risk of pipe or vessel
failure.
8
Filters and strainers suffer
blocking and plugging reducing
throughput and increasing
energy consumption.
Ability to detect if filters
and strainers are blocked
or plugged, to schedule
replacement or maintenance
accordingly.
Improved throughput and
reduced energy cost.
Table 12.6f – EAM opportunities
261
12 – Appendix
Modernization shall not be a onetime event every
15 years; it shall be continuous for the plant to
be kept abreast of changing needs. For detail
justification see separate white paper on applications
beyond P&ID.
and manage energy usage per process unit, and track
energy consumption reduction initiatives such as
maximizing equipment efficiency, maximizing use of
most efficient equipment, reduced hot-standby, and
reduced steam venting.
Energy Conservation Measures (ECM)
Health, Safety, and Environment (HS&E)
Energy Conservation Measures (ECM) provides a
capability to monitor steam distribution and loss, and
using this information to more effectively plan steam
trap replacement, heat exchanger cleaning, account
Health, Safety, and Environment (HS&E) monitoring
provides a capability to reduce the number of people
walking the plant, to assist persons in distress sooner,
and reduce mistakes.
Plant Challenge
ECM Capability
Result
1
Steam traps fail open blowing
steam, wasting energy. Or
they fail closed blocking
condensate, possibly causing
equipment damage. Manual
inspection is too infrequent
and time consuming. Failures
go undetected for long periods
of time.
Ability to automatically
monitor health of steam traps
to detect passing or blocking,
to schedule replacement or
maintenance accordingly.
Reduced energy cost, and
reduced downtime and
maintenance costs by avoiding
equipment failure and repair
due to condensate backup.
2
Heat exchangers foul and
become inefficient requiring
fired heaters to provide makeup heat, increasing fuel cost.
Ability to detect heat exchanger
fouling early, to schedule
cleaning when required.
Lower energy cost as less makeup heat is required.
3
There is no visibility which plant
units are responsible for high
steam consumption.
Ability to monitor steam
consumption with finer
granularity. Use cost
accounting to drive energy
efficiency measures at a plant
unit level.
Lower energy cost as less steam
is consumed.
4
There is no visibility which plant
units are responsible for high
chilled water consumption.
Ability to monitor chilled
water consumption with
finer granularity. Use cost
accounting to drive energy
efficiency measures at a plant
unit level.
Lower energy cost as less chilled
water is consumed.
5
Filter and strainer blocking goes
unnoticed requiring pumps
to work harder to overcome
pressure drop, increasing
power consumption.
Ability to monitor filter and
strainer condition to detect
clogging to better plan filter
replacement and cleaning, thus
reducing pressure drop.
Lower energy cost as less power
is required to overcome a lower
filter pressure drop.
6
Cooling tower fans running
when not required, wasting
energy.
Ability to optimize fan power
when not cooling-limited by
shuting down the fixed speed
fans if possible and balancing
the load across the variable
speed fans.
Reduced power consumption.
Table 12.6g – ECM opportunities
262
12 – Appendix
Wireless transmitters in conjunction with central
asset management system can provide these
capabilities when institutionalized in daily work
processes.
F1 Pit-Stop
An analogy can be made between EAM and
Formula 1. An F1 car has sensors and a wireless
telemetry system to detect and report its health back
to the pit crew. This information is used to decide if
the car needs to make a pit-stop for servicing or can
continue until the end of the race without downtime
improving the chances to win. The data also tells the
pit crew what service the car needs and what it does
not need so the pit crew can prepare all the parts and
crew to tend to the problem in the shortest possible
time, not wasting time on non-issues, minimizing
downtime, as well as preventing a breakdown before
the finish line can be crossed.
Similarly, an ideal plant has sensors and wireless
networking to report the health back to the
operators and technicians. This information is
used to decide if the unit needs to be shutdown to
service an asset or can continue production until
the next scheduled turnaround without downtime
maintaining production. The information also tells
the maintenance planner what service the asset
needs and what it does not need so the maintenance
planner can prepare all the parts and manpower
to tend to the problem in the shortest possible
time, not wasting time on non-issues, minimizing
downtime, as well as preventing a breakdown before
the scheduled turnaround.
Audit Existing Plant
architecture to support essential asset monitoring,
energy conservation measures, and HS&E becomes
the input for the FEED stage of the modernization
project. A consultant can help facilitate the plant
audit. Make sure to include services as part of the
project budget.
Essential Asset Monitoring (EAM)
List all the process equipment by type. If a master
equipment list is not available, make the equipment
lists by studying P&ID and plot plans etc.
Asset
1
List of heat
exchangers
2
List of pumps
3
List of blowers
4
List of fin fan coolers
5
List of centrifugal
compressors
6
List of cooling
towers
7
List of pipes &
vessels
8
List of filters &
strainers
Remark
Energy Conservation Measures (ECM)
List all the consumers of steam and chilled water, as
well as potential points of energy loss. Ask the piping
department for help.
For an existing plant to deploy EAM, ECM, and HS&E
packages as part of a brownfield modernization
project, it necessary to audit the entire plant’s assets,
processing equipment, machinery, and valves, to
identify shortcomings in measurements beyond the
P&ID which need to be filled before work practices
based on asset health and automatic data collection
can be adopted. The audit is an opportunity to rate
the plant’s asset management readiness. Usually
only the most critical compressors and turbines are
monitored. The assessment should also include a
look at the current work processes and procedures
for operation and maintenance, as well as the
maintenance regime, culture, and the skills of the
plant staff. That which is missing in the existing plant
Point
263
Remark
1
List of critical (large
pipes, high pressure)
steam traps
Ask the piping
department
2
List of all heat
exchangers
Equipment lists,
P&ID, and plot plans
3
List of all plant units
consuming steam
Ask the piping
department
4
List of all plant units
consuming chilled
water
Ask the piping
department
12 – Appendix
Point
Remark
5
List of all large
filters and strainers
which don’t already
have pressure drop
monitoring
Ask the piping
department
6
List of all cooling
towers
Equipment lists,
P&ID, and plot plans
Points
Remark
6
List the assets
checked by portable
testers such as for
vibration, acoustics,
and temperature
If these lists are not
available, make such
a list by studying
the existing work
practices and log
sheets
7
List of critical
4-20 mA/HART
instruments that
need to be digitally
integrated with the
intelligent device
management
software also
part of the asset
management
system
If such a list is not
available, talk to
process engineers
and site instrument
technicians to
identify the devices
critical to operation
Health, Safety, and Environment (HS&E)
List all the points that should be monitored to
eliminate blind spots and to reduce operators visits
to the field.
Points
Remark
List of all safety
showers and
eyewash stations
If these lists are not
available, ask the
plant safety officer
2
List of all manual
valves part of
regular operations
If these lists are not
available, make such
a list by studying
the existing work
practices
3
List of all relief valves
If these lists are not
available, make such
a list by studying
P&ID
4
List of gauges
(pressure and
temperature),
level sight glasses,
and variable area
flowmeters, etc.
part of regular
operations. Include
tanks where level
gauging is done
using dipstick
If these lists are not
available, make such
a list by studying
the existing work
practices and log
sheets
List tapping points
where product grab
samples are taken
and brought back to
the lab for analysis,
and take note of
what parameters are
analyzed (such as
pH and conductivity
etc.)
If these lists are not
available, make such
a list by studying
the existing work
practices and lab
reports
1
5
Define Scope
The asset management system for the EAM, ECM,
and HS&E packages can be a stand-alone or can be
integrated with the DCS. The plant-wide asset health
information will mostly be used by the maintenance
department for daily maintenance scheduling and
turnaround planning, but operations can also benefit
from being aware of assets which have failed or are
degraded as the plant can be operated differently to
work around the limitations. Conversely, the EAM
diagnostic algorithms in the asset management
system often use process measurement already
available by connecting to the DCS.
WirelessHART and OPC are the enabling technologies
that permit easy deployment of automation beyond
the P&ID in an existing plant. An OPC server should
be added to the DCS in case OPC is not already
supported.
The scope has to be defined early on in the
modernization project involving the project/
turnaround team, the DCS team, instrumentation
team, asset management system supplier, and
the maintenance group. It should be documented
in a form of basis of design, a functional design
specification including system architecture, network
protocols to be used for DCS integration, hardware
and software, as well as associated services. For an
existing plant the system architecture requirements
are based on the plant audit and gap analysis.
264
12 – Appendix
Modernization is a project, and deployment of EAM,
ECM, and HS&E packages is an engineered solution.
Make sure to include cost of engineering man-hours
in project scope of work and in the budget.
Existing Plant
No essential asset should be left stranded without EAM.
A remote site may not have personnel with the
necessary skills required for analysis of asset health
information. For such locations, remote access
infrastructure such as wired or wireless backhaul
network between site and centralized location by
shared expert resources in the company or by outside
vendors should be considered.
The FEED study should provide sufficient detail
to put together a bid package with requirement
specification and package count etc. During this FEED
stage the number of EAM, ECM, and HS&E packages
is determined such that the asset management
system vendor can prepare a budgetary proposal.
A consultant can help facilitate the process of
selecting assets to monitor and develop the
requirement specifications. Make sure to include
services as part of the project budget.
New Plant FEED
New plants being built should make provisions for
essential asset monitoring, energy conservation
measures, and HS&E because the process licensor’s
design includes instrumentation for efficient
operation meeting the performance guarantee
for the first thirty days or so, but not for efficient
maintenance and long-term operation. Do not build
new plants the old fashioned way, with blind spots
and operator rounds. The missing measurements
should be included. Using wireless, the additional
measurement points do not affect DCS I/O count
and are beyond the P&ID, cable layout, or junction
boxes, etc. and has a minimal impact on the project
schedule.
For a new plant, the EAM, ECM, and HS&E package
transmitters, gateways, networking, and asset
management system etc. will usually be engineered
and installed by the main EPC. By defining the scope
of work associated with the packages, the EPC
contactor and asset management system supplier
can better estimate the amount of hardware,
software, and number of engineering hours required.
Based on gap analysis from the site audit of the plant
assets, processing equipment, machinery, and valves
etc., identify the number of EAM, ECM, and HS&E
packages required to modernize the plant.
For an existing plant, the EAM, ECM, and HS&E
package transmitters, gateways, and networking,
along with hookup drawings and other
documentation will usually be engineered and
installed by a local contractor. By defining the scope
of work associated with the packages, the contactor
and asset management system supplier can better
estimate the amount of hardware, software, and
number of engineering hours required.
Wireless Technology
IEC 62591 (WirelessHART) is the de-facto standard for
wireless in process applications.
Caveat Emptor: Proprietary Protocols
Wireless transmitters are also available with a
multitude of proprietary protocols. For instance,
remote input and output modules for 4-20 mA and
discrete signals often use proprietary protocols.
Proprietary protocols have many downsides and
should therefore be avoided:
• Single vendor lock-in
• Each brand requires its own dedicated wireless
gateway or multiple gateways
• No second source replacement transmitters
• Requires special training and test tools
Even though drivers and proprietary software can be
used to access data in a proprietary transmitter and
through proprietary adapters, interface hardware still
becomes a lock-in since other transmitters cannot
share the same bus. Therefore standard protocols
shall always be the first choice. If the plant is using
wireless transmitters with proprietary protocols,
replace those transmitters with transmitters using
WirelessHART.
Wireless Transmitters
WirelessHART integration can be achieved either by
using “native” WirelessHART transmitter with built-in
radio, antenna, and battery power, or a conventional
4-20 mA/HART transmitter can be fitted with a
WirelessHART adapter. WirelessHART adapters
can either be loop powered or battery powered.
265
12 – Appendix
A battery powered WirelessHART adapter does not
require any local DC power. However, a conventional
4-20 mA/HART transmitter with a battery powered
WirelessHART adapter has a much shorter battery life
than a native WirelessHART transmitter. Therefore,
native WirelessHART transmitters are always the first
choice. However, certain transmitter types are not
yet available in a WirelessHART version, at the time of
writing this includes for example Coriolis massflow,
vortex flow, magflow, radar level, and various liquid
analyzers. For these measurements, a regular
4-20 mA/HART transmitter with a WirelessHART
adapter has to be used.
Wireless Gateway
WirelessHART gateway shall support Modbus/RTU
over RS-485 and Modbus/TCP over Ethernet as well
as OPC proxy/server for DCS and asset management
system integration as well as HART-IP for integration
with steam trap monitoring software and other
applications.
Budgetary Scope
The raw measurement data from WirelessHART
transmitters is brought into the asset management
system where it is aggregated into information and
knowledge on which decisions can be based.
Not all assets may need an EAM package, not all
steam traps require monitoring. Work with the
maintenance team, piping department, and HS&E
officer etc. to select where monitoring is required.
Plant personnel can identify the worst cases of bad
actors from the top of their head. This shortlist of
assets, HS&E equipment, and other measurement
points becomes the basis on which the EAM, ECM,
and HS&E package vendor can work out a budgetary
proposal.
Selecting Essential Asset Monitoring Software
Essential Asset Monitoring (EAM)
WirelessHART gateways support OPC proxy/server
and therefore most HMI software is capable of
accessing and displaying data from WirelessHART
transmitters. However, EAM requires diagnostic
algorithms, heuristics based on expert know-how,
baseline capture and comparison etc. customized for
the myriad of combinations available for assets like
heat exchangers and pumps, which are not trivial to
develop and which take years to perfect. Therefore
use an asset management system with field-proven
built-for-purpose EAM diagnostic algorithms. The
asset management system shall be setup with
displays graphically representing assets as well as
providing asset health alarm management including
prioritization, alarm log, alarm summary, and
reporting to facilitate plannng.
Select which of the assets require an EAM package.
This will create a short list of essential assets to be
monitored. Work with plant maintenance personnel
to identify the bad-actors and equipment essential to
the operation of the plant. Highest priority is those
with a history of fouling or failures.
Software
Asset
Selecting Steam Trap Monitoring Software
Steam trap monitoring software shall support HARTIP communication with WirelessHART gateways.
Steam trap monitoring software uses noise and
temperature reading from acoustic transmitters to
deduce if the steam trap is functioning normally,
passing steam, or blocking condensate. The software
shall provide steam trap alarm management
including prioritization, log, and reporting.
266
1
Shortl ist essential
heat exchangers
2
Shortlist essential
pumps
3
Shortlist essential
blowers
4
Shortlist essential fin
fan coolers
5
Shortlist essential
centrifugal
compressors
6
Shortlist essential
cooling towers
7
Shortlist essential
pipes & vessels
8
Shortlist essential
filters & strainers
Remark
12 – Appendix
Energy Conservation Measures (ECM)
Health, Safety, and Environment (HS&E)
Select which points require an ECM package. This
will create a short list of points to be monitored.
Work with the piping department to identify where
monitoring is required. Highest priority are those
with a history of fouling or failures.
Select which points require an ECM package. This
will create a short list of points to be monitored.
Work with the piping department to identify where
monitoring is required.
Point
Point
1
Shortlist which
steam traps should
be monitored
Remark
Highest priority
is given to high
pressure steam (150
psig and above),
usually those closest
to the boiler, then
medium (30 to
150 psig), and
lastly low pressure
steam (below 30
psig). Those steam
traps most critical
to the process
(cause downtime or
destroyed product
etc.) or greatest
(costliest) steam
loss may represent
5-20% of steam
traps. Also consider
those steam traps
on the site which
tend to fail more
often, causing more
problems.
2
Shortlist which heat
exchangers should
be monitored
3
Shortlist which
plant units require
steam consumption
tracking
Highest priority
are those with high
consumption
4
Shortlist which plant
units require chilled
water consumption
tracking
Highest priority
are those with high
consumption
5
Shortlist which
filters and strainers
require pressure
drop monitoring
Highest priority are
those in dirty service
prone to clogging
6
Shortlist which
cooling tower fans
should be optimized
267
Remark
1
Shortlist which
safety showers and
eyewash stations
require monitoring
Highest priority
are those in areas
of the plant where
chemicals are
handled
2
Shortlist which
manual valves
require position
feedback
Highest priority are
those part of regular
activities
3
Shortlist which
relief valves require
monitoring
4
Shortlist which
gauges (pressure
and temperature),
level sight glasses,
variable area
flowmeters, and
dipstick, etc. should
be replaced by
wireless transmitters
5
Shortlist tapping
points where grab
sampling should be
replaced by wireless
transmitters
6
Shortlist assets
checked by portable
testers such as for
vibration, acoustics,
and temperature to
be automated
7
Shortlist which
4-20 mA/HART
instruments that
need to be digitally
integrated with the
intelligent device
management
software
Highest priority are
those included in
the field operator
clipboard round log
sheets
Highest priority is
critical valves and
flowmeters
12 – Appendix
Assign Responsibilities
Detail Design
A number of persons are involved in the initial
deployment of EAM, ECM, and HS&E package
instrumentation and sustaining the asset
management system and associated work processes
for the long-term. The person that is responsible for
roll-out of new practices for maintenance should
be on the modernization team, and is best suited
as a lead for the team. The plant management is
instrumental to lead the cultural change required
to institutionalize EAM, ECM, and HS&E packages
in daily plant activities. A senior member of the
management should be the executive sponsor
to drive the change. This includes providing
required resources for the deployment of the asset
management system, and the continued running
of the system for the long-haul. The turnaround
manager or project manager needs to be on the
modernization team to manage the work and
resources required to deploy the asset management
system. Identify the persons responsible for work
processes associated with the asset management
system. Establish a cross-functional modernization
team of instrumentation, control system, and
maintenance specialists to also be experts on
essential asset monitoring, energy conservation
measures, and HS&E to support the asset
management system for the long-term. Identify the
person for the long-term role of analyzing the asset
health reports from the asset management system
to schedule maintenance. Develop an organization
chart for the team with roles and responsibilities.
Define who is responsible for delivering what.
Based on the short-listed assets and the types of
asset health diagnostics required for each asset,
the number of WirelessHART transmitters can
be determined. Next, the number of gateways
and supporting networking equipment can be
determined. Lastly, assets need to be prioritized
and their health alarms classified in a rationalization
process to ensure effective plant-wide alarm
management.
Consultants can help in the detail design work. Make
sure to include services as part of the project budget.
Prioritize Assets
Rank the criticality of the monitored assets to the
production, to indicate the urgency based on the
consequence and impact on product quality, process
throughput, maintenance cost, and operational
cost etc. Once the asset management system
is operational, this will drive how maintenance
prioritizes their work. The prioritization should be
defined or reviewed by experienced operations and
process engineers. This process can leverage work
already done as part of RCM and other assessments.
The chosen priority will be configured in the system
in the implementation phase. This process requires
a list of all assets in the plant. The desired priorities
shall be documented.
A consultant can help with the assignment of roles
and responsibilities. Make sure to include services as
part of the project budget.
Plan Deployment
The modernization team leader should develop and
document a plant-wide and site-specific plan for how
the asset management system will be deployed at
the specific site. This should include a schedule for
when each phase of the modernization project will
take place and resources required; when people will
take on their new roles, as well as detail plans for
training of people in different roles.
A consultant can help in this planning process. Make
sure to include services as part of the project budget.
Figure 12.6h – Essential assets are the second tier below critical
assets like turbine and compressors
Assets with very low criticality do not have
monitoring and are allowed to run to failure because
the limited maintenance resources must be spent on
the critical and essential assets.
A problem with a critical asset would prompt the
operator to issue an emergency work order because
of the importance of the asset to production. A lower
priority essential asset will result in a work order
that will be scheduled another day, while an even
lower priority asset will be scheduled for the next
turnaround period or other convenient time.
268
12 – Appendix
For each type of asset, many kinds of health
diagnostics are possible, each kind of diagnostic
requiring additional measurements. For nonessential assets no diagnostic measurement may be
specified. An essential asset may be instrumented
to detect the most common problems associated
with its particular service. Full diagnostics should be
specified for assets in high criticality service, to be
able to detect as many problems as possible as early
as possible. The criticality ranking is therefore also
helpful in the detail specification process for assets.
Asset
Centrifugal
compressor
Pressure connection,
pressure ranges,
temperature sensor
thermowell connection,
etc.
6
Cooling tower
Temperature sensor
thermowell connection,
pH sensor connection,
conductivity sensor
connection, level sensor
connection, etc.
7
Pipes & vessels
Corrosion sensor
connection etc.
8
Filters &
strainers
Pressure connection etc.
5
Detail Scope
During detail design the standard EAM packages
have to be customized for each specific asset
and service because there are many kinds of
heat exchanger designs, many pump and seal
configurations, and various fin fan cooler types
etc., and which operate in services with different
severity. That is, the exact number of WirelessHART
transmitters of each type for each asset is
determined. An “Asset Configuration Sheet” for each
type of asset simplifies the data collection.
Essential Asset Monitoring (EAM)
Identify the installation details and equipment
properties of each monitored asset to enable the
instrumentation to be customized accordingly, and
to facilitate the instrument selection and software
configuration:
Asset
1
Heat
exchanger
2
Pump
Seal type, fixer/variable
speed, pressure
connections, pressure
ranges etc.
Blower
Temperature sensor
thermowell connection,
pressure connection,
pressure ranges, etc.
3
4
Fin fan cooler
Based on the information, specify the
instrumentation accordingly.
Energy Conservation Measures (ECM)
Identify the installation details and equipment
properties of each monitored asset to enable the
instrumentation to be customized accordingly, and
to facilitate the instrument selection and software
configuration:
Point
Example of Information
Clean heat transfer
coefficient, heat
capacities, area,
temperature sensor
thermowell connections
etc., much of this data
comes from vendor
documents
Example of Information
Steam trap
Type, operating
conditions, line size
2
Heat
exchanger
Clean heat transfer
coefficient, heat
capacities, area,
temperature sensor
thermowell connections
etc. Much of this data
comes from vendor
documents
3
Steam supply
line
Line size, pressure,
temperature etc.
4
Chiller water
supply line
Line size, pressure,
temperature etc.
5
Filter &
strainer
Normal and abnormal
pressure drop, process
connection, process fluid,
operating temperature
range etc.
1
Temperature sensor
thermowell connection,
etc.
269
Example of Information
12 – Appendix
Point
6
Cooling tower
fan
Points
Example of Information
Temperature sensor
thermowell connection,
pH sensor connection,
conductivity sensor
connection, level sensor
connection, etc.
Temperature
gun
6
Based on the information, specify the
instrumentation accordingly. Access to setup/
configuration information and diagnostics in
4-20 mA/HART devices requires WirelessHART
adapters to be purchased for these devices.
Based on the information, specify the
instrumentation accordingly.
Health, Safety, and Environment (HS&E)
Identify the installation details and equipment
properties of each monitored asset to enable the
instrumentation to be customized accordingly, and
to facilitate the instrument selection and software
configuration:
Points
Example of Information
1
Safety shower
and eye wash
station
Brand and model to
facilitate bracket selection
2
Manual valve
Brand and model to
facilitate bracket selection
3
Relief valve
Brand and model to
facilitate bracket selection
Pressure
gauge
5
Range, process fluid,
process connection,
operating conditions etc.
Vibration
tester
Ultrasonic
tester
Line size etc.
4-20 mA/
HART
instruments
List brand, model, and
revision for every HART
device type that shall be
integrated into the IDM
software
Update Period
The update period for the WirelessHART transmitters
has to be selected. These are all monitoring
applications beyond the P&ID; therefore 1 second
update period is not required. The WirelessHART
transmitters are monitoring points that previously
were checked once a month, once a week, or once
per day, once per shift, or not at all. An update
period of 1 minute, and in some cases even 1
hour, is sufficient for most transmitters in these
applications; once a minute is an improvement of
several hundred times over once a day. This ensures
that the WirelessHART devices enjoy a long battery
life, minimizing battery replacement logistics.
Faster update shall be used for transmitters used
to compute standard deviation, such as for pump
discharge pressure to detect pre-cavitation, as
well as for flow and pressure to detect compressor
instability.
Variable area
flowmeter
Although the WirelessHART transmitters for EAM,
ECM, and H&SE do not appear on the P&ID, they
should still be given a tag in according to established
plant tagging convention. Make sure to specify the
update period along with device tag, network ID, and
join key in the purchase order to ensure these are
preconfigured by the device supplier. This minimizes
site work and speeds up commissioning.
Dipstick
Wireless Network Design
Temperature
gauge
4
7
Example of Information
Level sight
glass
Grab sampling
Range, process fluid,
process connection,
operating conditions etc.
Kind of measurement,
range, process fluid,
process connection,
operating conditions etc.
Based on the number of plant areas, number of
WirelessHART transmitters in each plant area,
and desired update period, size the number of
WirelessHART gateways for the plant areas. Import
the plot plans into a WirelessHART network planning
270
12 – Appendix
tool and determine if repeaters are required to form
a strong network. Refer to separate engineering
guideline for wireless networks. A site survey may be
required.
OPC Planning
Develop a list of parameters to be linked between
the asset management system and the DCS. This
includes overall asset health index to the DCS for
display to operators, as well as process variables from
the DCS for use by the EAM diagnostic algorithms.
Since maintenance is handled by a different group
from plant operation, not all of the information needs
to be displayed in the DCS. For instance, automatic
vibration and temperature measurements taking
the place of manual checks with vibration testers
and temperature guns may be displayed on separate
HMI software for maintenance technicians. Similarly,
steam trap failure alarms could be integrated in
the DCS, but it is not of interested to the operators,
but could be an option if a separate maintenance
alarm system is not desired. Steam and chilled water
consumption could be integrated into the DCS to
facilitate their inclusion as line items in the plant’s
standard reports. Safety shower and eye wash
station activation alarms should be integrated in the
DCS such that operators can act on them. Manual
valve and relief valve feedback, as well as pressure,
temperature, flow, and level measurements taking
the place of gauges, sight glass, variable areas
flowmeter, and dipstick shall be integrated into the
DCS along with pH and conductivity measurements
taking the place of grab sampling, such that these
readings are logged in the historian and can be
incorporated in reports etc. An OPC bridge/mirror
application may be required to integrate the two
systems.
The resulting tag list speeds up the work in the site
integration phase. The tag count is the basis for
estimating the cost of integrating the asset health
information and alarms into the DCS.
Asset Health Alarm Management
Turning all asset health alarms off would result
in the plant falling back to reactive maintenance.
Sending all asset health alarms to everyone would
result in alarm flooding. A formal process should be
adopted to rationalize asset health alarms, similar to
process alarms. Engineering the asset health alarm
management, is about making sure the criteria for
a “good” asset health alarm are met. This includes
prioritizing assets and classifying health alarms to
enable the systems to route these alarms to the
relevant person who know what actions to take well
before any production impact. Only the asset health
alarms needed for safe process operation should
go to the operators at the DCS console, as soon as
possible. That is, operators don’t see all asset health
alarms, only the most critical ones. Information
to the maintenance technician at the asset
management system shall be as detailed as possible
and include proposals to change the operation or
how to service.
The criticality of a particular asset is plant specific.
And who should receive asset health alarms is
dependent on the plant philosophy. Therefore these
options have to be engineered and configured for
each modernization project. Asset health alarm
rationalization is a new engineering discipline. Make
sure to specify it for tender bid documents. Be
prepared to pay for engineering hours. Typically the
asset management system supplier provides these
engineering services.
Categorize Asset Health Alarms
An array of health diagnostics is possible for each
type of asset, to detect many kinds of problems
specific to the asset type. The asset health alarms
are based on deviation from an established baseline.
Not every asset problem detected is equally serious.
The asset health alarms for each asset type shall be
categorized, such that it can be filtered and routed
to the relevant person; operator or maintenance.
Asset health alarms that require process intervention
should go to both operators and maintenance. Only
a small percentage of asset health alarms affect the
process and therefore need to be routed to operators
to take action. Note that operators do not maintain
the asset, but need to see asset health alarms for
problems that affect the process so that they to
change the operation. Asset health alarms that do
not require action to be taken on the process shall
only go to maintenance. Most asset health alarms
require no operator action. By categorizing the asset
health alarms, the asset management system can
handle these alarms correctly, routing them to the
relevant person. An important part of asset health
alarm rationalization is to map each asset health
alarm to a desired category. The desired mapping
shall be documented.
271
12 – Appendix
Asset Health Alarm Routing
Asset health alarms shall be configured and directed
to the right personnel who can interpret them and
decide on actions well before any production impact.
Operations should only receive information they can
act upon for running the plant. Maintenance needs
to receive all kinds of information that can help with
planning corrective activities.
The DCS alarm handling system routes the filtered
asset health alarms to the operators. Asset health
alarms with high priority from critical assets are
routed to both operators and maintenance. Other
asset health alarms are only routed to maintenance.
That is, all asset health alarms are logged in the asset
management system. The number of asset health
alarms routed to operators is usually minimized,
typically less than 10%, to ensure operators are not
flooded with alarms. The alarm filtering in the DCS is
configured for which categories and priorities of asset
health alarms shall be routed to the DCS operator
workstation for annunciation. For instance, a failure
in an asset which is essential to the process will be
annunciated to the operator, but if the asset has low
criticality the failure need not be annunciated in the
operator workstations, only logged for maintenance.
The priority and category for filtering and routing
should be defined by experienced operations and
process engineers.
The DCS routes asset health alarms to operator
workstation or maintenance workstation based on
its priority. That is, by configuring the priority of the
device diagnostic alarm, it gets routed to the person
it is intended for.
The EAM diagnostic algorithm constants and limits
are customized for each asset based on the data
in the “Asset Configuration Sheet” collected in
the design phase, often originating from process
equipment vendor documents.
Displays include representative asset illustrations and
asset health alarms color coded to severity for easy at
a glance overview.
System Implementation
The system implementation is done by the asset
management system supplier.
System Database
At the implementation stage the asset management
system software database is built including graphics,
historian, alarm management, and report formats
configured based on input from the detail design.
Essential Asset Monitoring (EAM)
The essential asset monitoring software graphics
structure asset tags according to plant areas and
asset categories.
Energy Conservation Measures (ECM)
The steam trap monitoring software database is built
with structured plant areas, steam trap types, and
other information collected in the design phase.
272
12 – Appendix
The asset monitoring and sub-metering software
graphics is structured according to plant areas and
plant units, and diagnostic algorithm constants
are customized based on the data in the “Asset
Configuration Sheet” collected in the design phase.
If the correct make and model of manual valves,
relief valves, safety showers, and eye wash stations
etc. have been identified in the design phase and
the correct mounting kits have been specified, the
wireless transmitter installation will be smooth.
Health, Safety, and Environment (HS&E)
The wireless transmitter supplier can help supervise
the installation. Make sure to include services as part
of the project budget.
Automatic pressure, temperature, flow, level, pH,
and conductivity etc. measurements as well as
safety shower and eye wash station status, position
feedback from manual valves and relief valves, along
with automatic vibration, temperature, leak testing
can be routed to the existing DCS or a dedicated HMI
software. The DCS and HMI shall be configured to
display the data, as well as for detecting and logging
alarms, historical trending, and reporting etc.
Access to setup/configuration information and
diagnostics in 4-20 mA/HART devices requires the
EDDL file for each device type to be obtained and
loaded on the Intelligent Device Management (IDM)
software (refer to separate white paper on device
revision management on the www.eddl.org website).
An inventory list of device types, and versions
developed in the detail design phase will reduce
omissions when loading EDDL files.
FAT
Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) is done at the asset
management system supplier’s staging area,
witnessed by the buyer. The EAM and steam trap
monitoring software is staged in the system
supplier’s factory. A FAT test plan shall be agreed on,
and forms the basis for the FAT test procedures to
verify the graphics, asset health alarm management,
and reports etc.
For the IDM software, verify all versions of all device
types from all manufacturers are integrated, that
is, their EDDL files are loaded. This involves the
IDM supplier, plant instrument specialist, and plant
system engineer.
Installation
In an existing plant a local contractor installs the
wireless transmitters, as well as the wireless gateways
with network infrastructure and power. In a new
plant the EPC does this work.
The modernization package vendor can help
supervise the installation of wireless transmitters and
gateways
Commissioning
The wireless transmitters and the software have to
be commissioned
Gateway and Device Commissioning
A local contractor commissions the wireless
transmitters and wireless gateways. This includes
setting network ID and join key as well as device tag
and update period in case this was not preconfigured
by device supplier in the factory (not specified in the
purchase order). The site instrument technicians
should take the opportunity to participate in the
wireless device commissioning in order to familiarize
themselves with the WirelessHART technology in
order to best support the plant once it is running.
Verify from the wireless gateway web interface
that each device joins the network and meet the
established requirements for number of neighbors,
signal strength, and reliability. Verify that each
transmitter measures correctly. Since wireless is
digital and does not use 4-20 mA, this can be a
simple plausibility check, making sure the present
reading is reasonable (single point instead of five).
For instance does the position feedback match the
actual valve position (i.e. is the feedback mechanism
aligned correctly), are measured pressures and
temperatures correct at their present value and
so on.
The wireless transmitter supplier can help supervise
the device commissioning. Make sure to include
services as part of the project budget.
System Commissioning
The asset management system supplier
commissions the asset management software.
Missing EAM diagnostic algorithm data not input
at implementation (such as constants for heat
exchangers etc.) are configured in the commissioning
phase. The baselines against which actual values will
be compared are captured, either automatically or
273
12 – Appendix
manually. EAM diagnostic algorithm weightings are
tuned. Make sure to include system commissioning
services as part of the project budget.
Site Integration
The asset management system supplier works
with the DCS supplier to establish communication
between the two systems; for operators to receive
asset health information and alarms, and for the EAM
diagnostic algorithm to receive process variables
already measured by wired transmitters. Site
integration starts by establishing the bidirectional
OPC link between the plant DCS and the asset
management system.
The list of parameters to be linked between the
systems developed in the detail design phase speeds
up the integration work in the two systems.
Note that for EAM only computed information
like one overall asset health index for each asset is
passed to the DCS, not all of the dozens of raw data
points like vibration and temperature for every asset.
This way the DCS tag count is kept low, and the
integration is simple.
Process variables already measured by wired devices
connected to the DCS come from DCS through OPC
into the asset management system. At sites where
the asset management system gets process variables
like heat exchanger flows or variable pump speed
from the DCS through OPC, the site integration and
commissioning may happen in parallel.
Make sure to include integration services from both
DCS supplier and asset management system supplier
as part of the project budget.
Develop Procedures
Write procedures and work processes making use
of the new plant-wide information. Development
of these procedures can start early in the project
and does not need to wait for detail design to
be completed. A consultant can help in the
development of the procedures and work processes
for maintenance, energy conservation, and HS&E.
Make sure to include services as part of the project
budget.
Maintenance Procedures
Write the maintenance procedures and work
processes which maintenance planners and
technicians can follow, making use of the asset health
information and asset health alarms to screen and
prioritize maintenance work. That is, to check the
software first, before maintenance is planned and
carried out. This involves the maintenance lead and
the process engineer.
Note that maintenance technicians and planners are
not constantly looking at the asset management
software. Rather, daily maintenance planning is
driven by asset health alarms, and turnaround
planning is driven by reviewing asset health index
to screen which assets require maintenance and
which ones don’t. That is, as maintenance is planned
each morning and before a 5-year turnaround, the
asset health alarm summary and health indexes are
reviewed to schedule the activities and reduce the
scope to minimize the plant downtime. It may even
be found that it is possible to extend the turnaround
period to 7 years.
ECM
Rework plant report formats used by plant areas for
daily, weekly, and monthly reports to include steam
and chiller water consumption as one of the line
items along with production results and inventory
etc. report to be generated by each plant area. The
energy consumption is used for cost accounting and
tracking progress of ECM initiatives.
Rewrite the maintenance procedures and work
processes for steam trap replacement, to make
use of the steam trap monitoring software to
prioritize steam trap replacement work. This involves
the piping department. Pipe fitters need not be
constantly looking at the steam trap monitoring
software. Rather, replacement planning is driven by
steam trap failure alarms. That is, as replacement
is planned each day and before a turnaround, the
steam trap alarm summary is reviewed to schedule
the activities. That is, checking the software first,
before going to the field.
Operations HS&E Procedures
Write the procedures which operators can follow,
making use of the safety shower and eye wash station
as well as relief valve alarms to direct help to persons
in distress and respond to environmental releases.
This involves the HS&E officer.
See separate guide on incorporating device
diagnostics in daily maintenance and turnaround
planning (www.eddl.org).
274
12 – Appendix
Training for Competency
Use of an asset management system requires new
skills. Therefore training is required for all those
involved to get the necessary competency in asset
management. With asset management, work is
centered around computers. Therefore, computer
skills are a prerequisite for maintenance work in a
modern plant. Asset management training has to
be customized to cover the competencies required
for the tasks which each role has to carry out.
Training has to be carried out not at the end of the
modernization project, but throughout the duration
of the project before the next phase of the project
starts. Once the plant is operational, new employee
training and refresher courses should be conducted
periodically.
The asset management software supplier should be
able to assist with training material and conducting
these classes. Training cost should be included as part
of the project budget. Training shall not be generic,
but must be task-based and site-specific, using
the same asset management software as the site.
Handouts and manuals must be provided.
Appendix: Plant Asset Management (PAM)
Monitoring of essential process equipment is one
part of Plant Asset Management (PAM) along with
Intelligent Device Management (IDM) and Machinery
Health Monitoring (MHM).
Figure 12.6h – Essential Assets Monitoring (EAM) is part of Plant
Asset Management (PAM)
Role
Tasks
Competencies
• Plant management
•Project/turnaround
manager
•Justification
•Planning
• Understand EAM and predictive maintenance
regimes
• Maintenance lead
• Control system lead
•Audit
•FEED
• Understand modernization requirements
• Understand wireless system architecture
• Maintenance manager
• Process engineers
• Detail design
•Rewrite
procedures
• Understand EAM
• Understand wireless integration
• Understand the asset health alarm categorization
and prioritization
• How to write maintenance procedures based on
asset health alarms
• System engineers
•FAT
• Site integration
• Instrument technicians
• Instrument fitters
•Device
commissioning
• How to commission (provision) a WirelessHART
device
• WirelessHART troubleshooting
• Device revision/version lifecycle management
•Maintenance
technicians
• Process equipment
maintenance
• Navigate the EAM pages in the asset management
system
• How to set baselines
• How to extract and print daily reports
• How to acknowledge alarms
• How to export logged data
•Operator
•Operations
• How to respond to alarm from personnel in
distress
275
12 – Appendix
Machinery Health Management Software
Machinery health management software monitors
vibration in rotating equipment such as turbines,
compressors, and critical pumps to predict failures.
Data collected using online machinery health
monitors is recorded and can be replayed for tootcause-analysis and troubleshooting. Data from
vibration transmitters and offline vibration testers
can also be analyzed.
Intelligent Device Management Software
Intelligent device management software monitors
field instrumentation such as transmitters, analyzers,
control valves, on/off valves, motor drives, and gas
chromatographs etc. It enables device configuration
and configuration management, device
calibration and calibration management, as well
as device diagnostics and device diagnostic alarm
management.
Refer to separate guideline for deployment process
for intelligent device management software and
device diagnostic alarm rationalization on
www.eddl.org
276
13
Frequently Asked
Questions
13 – Frequently Asked Questions
13.
Frequently Asked Questions
Category
AMS
Antenna
Frequently Asked questions
Answers
Can you do normal AMS actions such as
“Zero a transmitter” or “Stroke a valve” over
a wireless AMS network?
Everything you can do on AMS for wired devices
you can do with the wireless devices as well. It
is just another device in AMS using a different
communication protocol.
Can AMS device alerts be passed to DeltaV
to provide alarms for operators when there
is a problem with a device? Does someone
have to log into AMS to see problems,
or can I get alarms?
Yes, you should be able to get all AMS
parameters into DeltaV as well. Make it a
maintenance alarm if you want.
I’ve heard there are “extended range”
antennas for some devices. Are these extended
range antennas available for all devices?
Not all devices, no; 3051S, 648 and 702 have
extended range antenna options.
What is the typical added cost per device
vs. a standard wired device?
With such a large portfolio of WirelessHART
devices available, it is difficult to give a typical
added cost per device, other than to say that
WirelessHART devices do cost more than
their wired counterparts. However, there are
considerable savings overall with wireless
when you consider installation costs of
wired devices.
Do you have cost comparison figures
available for wired vs wireless solutions?
Yes we do. We have an online Wireless
Calculator tool that produces a report, on a per
installation basis, based on a specific customer
requirement. A comparison of the cost and time
required for a wired installation against that of a
wireless solution is calculated. Typically we see
savings range from 8% to 15% in Cost and up to
70% in time.
Can this network system incorporate other
brand (E+H) devices that are wireless as well?
Yes, it can, as long as it complies with the
WirelessHART spec. (E+H wireless devices will
talk WirelessHART).
What is your opinion about using wireless for
control, instead of using it for monitoring only?
Wireless is being used for non-critical closed
loop control! For more information, go to:
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-US/
news/pr/Pages/909-Wireless-Redundancy.aspx
Can the discrete and analog input/outputs
communicated over wireless networks be
interfaced with existing third party SCADA/DCS
systems that the plants already use
(such as Foxboro or Honeywell)?
Yes. WirelessHART can be integrated into any
3rd party host that will handle Modbus or
OPC. A native connection option between the
Gateway and DeltaV is available.
Is there a warning sent to the control
system or some kind of notification when
the power module is running low on power?
Yes, there is a low battery alert available.
If transmitters are asleep and there is a
measurement alert eg. 9420 Vibration
Transmitter asleep and Vibration levels went
up would the transmitter detect this and send
a signal?
The sensor will only be read at the configured
update period.
How do you enable location tracking
services within high metallic density plant
environments?
With reference to RFID, this is answered in detail
in Emerson’s Service Data Sheet for wireless
location tracking. This document is available
online: http://www2.emersonprocess.com/
siteadmincenter/PM%20Central%20Web%20
Documents/WPN%20Service%20DS%20
Location%20Tracking.pdf.
Commercial
Competition
Control
Diagnostics
Environment
278
13 – Frequently Asked Questions
Category
Frequency
Frequently Asked questions
Answers
Are there any regulatory requirements for
operating at 2.4 GHz in an industrial facility
in North America and how does one guard
against Radio interference/ radio jamming
(for example offshore in International waters
on a Rig)?
The 2.4 GHz band is a free usable band. Each
WirelessHART device has to be submitted for
approvals on a country by country basis. All
Emerson WirelessHART devices available in North
America will have gone through and approvals
and certification process. WirelessHART
communications is very robust and resilient to
jamming and interference by the very nature of
its design. (WirelessHART uses ‘channel hopping’
to avoid sending data over channels with
interference and Direct Sequence Spread
Sequence (DSSS)). There are WirelessHART
installations running on offshore platforms and
in international waters without any problem. For
more detailed information please consult your
local Emerson Process Management contact.
If there is existing Radio / mircowave
system running on certain frequency any
concern on implementing the wireless?
No, not really. WirelessHART is designed to
co-exist with other wireless devices. We have a
whitepaper available at the following link:http://
www2.emersonprocess.com/siteadmincenter/
PM%20Central%20Web%20Documents/cisco_
emerson_coexistence-paper_070914.pdf
Why isn’t the gateway redundant?
We do have a redundant gateway solution
available today. DeltaV version 11 has an option
for redundancy on wireless devices in the field.
This option will become available to non-DeltaV
systems in the near future.
Can the WirelessHART gateway connect to
a Honeywell DCS?
Yes, we have integrated our WirelessHART
gateway into Honeywell DCS (and many other
vendor hosts!)
What is the maximum number of wireless
devices that can communicate with a gateway?
The Smart Wireless Gateway can communicate
with up to 100 devices.
Is data throughput a function of number of
devices on the gateway and if so what are
typical users using for the maximum number
of devices for a typical update time of 1 second
how long would the battery last for a Pressure
transmitter under these conditions?
Data throughput is not a function of the number
of devices. We use TSMP (Time synchronised
mesh protocol). Each device on the network has
defined timeslots.
What is your opinion about the influence of
the number of hops of mesh networks at the
performance and reliability?
Each ‘hop’ will add a certain amount of latency
to the data, but this would not affect data
reliability!
If you have a large area to cover different
units, I expect you need more than one
gateway. How do you set up different areas
so the devices communicate only to the
right gateway? (You said they automatically
add themselves to the network.)
Each Gateway has a unique ‘Network ID’ with
a value between 0 & 50000. Devices will
be configured with the ‘Network ID’ of the
corresponding Gateway.
What is the typical battery life in cold
climates?
In cold climates (-30’C / -22’F) the typical
‘battery’ life is about 5% less than that at
ambient temperature (25’C / 77’F).
Doesn’t the module require recharging?
I don’t expect the battery will last 10 years of
service without some kind of charging.
The batteries used in the ‘Power Module’ are not
rechargeable. Depending on ambient
temperature, device type, update rate and
number of descendants, the ‘batteries’ can last
up to 10 years in operation. (10 years is also the
‘shelf life’ of the batteries!)
Gateway
Max. Qty
Network
Power
279
13 – Frequently Asked Questions
Category
Protocol
Range
Repeaters
SIL
Frequently Asked questions
Answers
Is wireless the replacement and killer for
Foundation Fieldbus or other field buses?
No, Wireless will complement FF and other buses
(and vice versa). All technologies have their
place on a plant.
If the use/uptake of predictive maintenance has
not improved with the Ff and wired HART why is
Wireless going to be the ‘savior”?
By using wireless you will be saving a lot of cost
in installation as the examples Chris Hamlin
mentioned! Now the data is in your maintenance
system, but you also have to do something
with it!
Are there any plans to make communication
with gateway to PC wireless instead of
ethernet?
There are no plans in the short term for this,
although if you take an ‘off the shelf’ ethernet to
wifi adapter, you could achieve this! (There is a
‘fibre optic’ version of the gateway available).
Where can I get information in regards to
Mobile Worker?
Please see Service Data Sheet for more
information:http://www2.emersonprocess.
com/siteadmincenter/PM%20Central%20
Web%20Documents/WPN%20Service%20DS%20
Mobile%20Worker.pdf
What is the range of the wireless
transmitters, and what are the distance
limits between transmitter and receiver?
The overall communications range may be
influenced by the density of the environment.
Using the standard ‘long range’ antenna devices,
the max range is typically ~228 metres / ~748
feet. With ‘extended range’ antenna devices,
the range increases to ~800 metres / ~2625
feet. (Each device can also act as a repeater,
hence increasing the overall range!)
What is the distance for the THUM adapter?
Depending on the density of the environment,
typically up to ~228 meters / ~748 feet.
Is there repeaters available? Not repeater/
transmitter but repeater only that could be used
to extend the range of wireless network.
There is currently the 775 ‘THUM’ that can be
used as a ‘repeater only’ device. A standalone
WirelessHART repeater will be available shortly.
Can wireless networks be used for safety
related applications to SIL 1 or higher
No, WirelessHART devices do not currently have
a SIL rating. (It may be a possibility in the future
though!)
Are the wireless instruments also available
with a SIL certificate (SIL 1 capability)?
SIL rating of WirelessHART devices is not an
option at the moment.
What type of site survey is required prior to
installation?
A site survey is not required for Smart Wireless
field applications because they use selforganizing WirelessHART technology, making
wireless signals Immune to possible obstacles or
barriers. However, a professional site assessment
is critical to the successful implementation
of wireless plant solutions such as video
monitoring, mobile tools, and people/asset
tracking.
What can be used for plot plans as part of
“Snap-On”? Photos? Autocad equipment plans?
Use a bitmap or jpeg image for your Snap On
planning tool. I always use a image of Google
maps!
Are there any restrictions as to the ambient
temperature in which the wireless
instruments can be applied?
No different to the ones that are applicable to
traditional wired instruments.
What types of devices are available to use
the THUM device?
Every HART 5 and higher devices, even
non-Emerson devices, can be connected
to the THUM. For more information and
documentation, please visit: http://www2.
emersonprocess.com/en- US/plantweb/wireless/
products/Pages/SmartWirelessTHUMAdapter.
aspx
How is the THUM powered?
The THUM scavenges its power from the
4-20mA loop that it is connected to.
Survey
Temp
THUMS
280
13 – Frequently Asked Questions
Category
THUMS
708
Update Rate
Wireless in
Control
Frequently Asked questions
Answers
What information will the THUM Adapter
transmit to the Smart Wireless Gateway?
As a default the THUM Adapter will transmit
HART command 3 and 48 for the wired device
and command 178 for the THUM Adapter.
The THUM Adapter passes any process variable –
that can be mapped into these commands –
to the Smart Wireless Gateway.
How do I configure the THUM Adapter to
transmit the information I want?
Use AMS Device Manager or a Field
Communicator to configure the Wireless
THUM Adapter.
What is the communication distance of the
Smart Wireless THUM Adapter?
The THUM Adapter performs just like any other
Smart Wireless device in high and medium
density environments. We recommend using the
AMS Wireless SNAP-ON application to effectively
plan a self organizing network that meets best
practices for distances and number of neighbors.
What hazardous approvals does the Smart
Wireless THUM Adapter have?
The THUM Adapter is certified intrinsically safe
(IS) suitable for Class 1 Div. 1 areas.
Where’s the antenna?
The antenna is located on the circuit board of
the device.
What’s the range of the device?
The 708 has the same range as other wireless
devices - 750 ft (250 m) line of sight. Extended
range is not available for the acoustic
transmitter.
What is the frequency band of the acoustic
transmitter?
The device is sensitive to acoustic noise between
20 and 60 kHz.
What is a count?
A relative measure of noise in the system.
How does scan rate affect battery life?
10 years seems hard to believe.
I know it seems hard to believe, but 10 years is a
possibility. Obviously scan rate (update rate/
burst rate) and some other factors will affect
‘battery’ life.
What limitations have been seen as far as
putting too much info through a particular
device (acting as a repeater) and slowing
that device down?
There are guidelines to avoid this type of
scenario. Also, because WirelessHART is self
organising, it would attempt to ‘spread the load’
between devices. We have an application ‘snap
on’ (AMS Wireless SNAP ON) which will review a
network and warn if there are pinch points.
In what kinds of control applications do you see
wireless first being used?
WirelessHART was designed for control
applications. Smart Wireless has already been
installed in low speed control applications.
We have customers who have deployed selforganizing WirelessHART networks in tank
level and temperature control applications.
We expect to see greater adoption of wireless
in control applications as more customers use
wireless technology and become comfortable
with it
Can you give a bit more information on the
optimized PID algorithms that support using
wireless in control applications?
The optimized PID algorithms allow the user to
customize the loop for exception reporting, i.e.
the device transmits the process variable only
when it fall outside a user-defined range.
Your wireless control demo shows devices with
1 second update rates. What impact does that
have on battery life for the device?
WirelessHART allows exception reporting for
network efficiency; devices only communicate
a measurement value if it has changed
significantly since the last communication or
if the time since the last communication has
exceeded a required reporting time, optimizing
battery life.
Do you wish to learn more, log on to,
http://intra.emersonprocess.com/wireless/Advertising.htm
281
Notes
283
Notes
284
Why Wireless?
Wireless Standard
Security, Reliability and Co-Existence
Wireless Project Introduction
Installation Guidelines
Host System Integration
Factory Acceptance Test
Project Documentation for Wireless Instruments
Wireless Spectrum Governance
Product Specification & Application
Proven Result
Appendix
Frequently Asked Questions
Recommended retail price $35.99
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Publication number: 00805-0100-1039, Rev AA January 2014
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