Conversion Data
Conversion Data
Summary of Common Conversion Factors
Multiply Left Hand Unit by Factor to obtain Right Hand Unit. Divide Right Hand Unit by Factor to obtain Left Hand Unit.
Measurement
Units
Factor
Length
inches  mm
feet  metres
25.4
0.3048
Area
inch2  mm2
ft2  m2
645.16
0.0929
Volume
inch3  mm3
ft3  m3
16387
0.0283
Volume
(Liquid)
gall (Imp)  gall US
gall (Imp)  l
gall (US)  l
1.20095
4.5456
3.785
Volume
(Flow Rate)
Liquid
gall/min (Imp)  l/sec
gall/min (Imp)  l/min
gall/min (Imp)  l/hour
gall/min (US)  l/sec
gall/min (US)  l/min
gall/min (US)  l/hour
0.07575
4.5456
272.736
0.06308
3.785
227.1
Volume
(Flow Rate)
Air
cfm  l/sec
cfm  l/min
cfm  m3/min
cfm  m3/hour
m3/hour  l/sec
0.472
28.32
42.372
1.6992
0.2778
Power
HP  Watts
HP  kW
746
0.746
Conversion Factors
Measurement
Units
Factor
Heat Flow
BTU/hr  Watts
Tons (Refrig)  BTU/hr
Tons (Refrig)  kW
kcal/hr  Watts
kcal/hr  Tons (Refrig)
0.29307
12000
3.517
1.163
0.000331
Pressure
psi  kPa
psi  mPa
psi  bar
psi  Atmos.
In. Wg  Pa
In. Wg  kPa
Atmos.  kPa
in. Hg  Pa
in. Hg  kPa
In. Hg  bar
kg/cm2  psi
kg/cm2  kPa
6.895
0.006895
0.06895
0.06895
248.6
0.249
101.325
3386
3.386
0.034
14.22
98.07
Velocity
ft/sec  km/hr
ft/sec  m/sec
ft/min  m/sec
1.609
0.3048
0.00508
Weight (Mass)
lbs  kg
0.4536
Conversion Factors
By
To Obtain
Centimetres/second
1.969
Feet/min.
Centimetres/second
0.03281
Feet/sec.
Centimetres/second
0.6
Metres/min.
lbs/in2 (psi)
Cubic Centimetres
3.531 x 10-5
Cubic Feet
0.06102
Cubic Inches
Cubic Metres
Multiply
By
To Obtain
Atmospheres
29.92
Inches of Mercury
Atmospheres
33.9
Atmospheres
1.0333
Feet of Water
kg/cm2
Atmospheres
14.696
Multiply
Atmospheres
762.48
mmHg (torr)
Cubic Centimetres
Atmospheres
101.325
kPa
Cubic Centimetres
10-6
Bars
100
kPa
Cubic Centimetres
0.001
Litres
Bars
14.5
psi
Cubic Centimetres
0.001759
Pints (liq.)
British Thermal Units
0.252
Kilogram-calories
Cubic Centimetres
0.002113
Imperial Pints (liq.)
1728
US Cubic Inches
Cubic Metres
British Thermal Units
777.5
Foot-lbs
Cubic Feet
British Thermal Units
3.927 x 10-4
Horsepower-hrs
Cubic Feet
0.02832
British Thermal Units
107.5
Kilogram-metre
Cubic Feet
0.03704
Cubic Yards
British Thermal Units
2.928 x 10-4
Kilowatt-hrs
Cubic Feet
6.22889
Gallons Imperial
B.T.U./min
12.96
Foot-lbs/sec
Cubic Feet
7.48052
Gallons US
B.T.U./min
0.02356
Horsepower
Cubic Feet
28.32
Litres
Kilowatts
Cubic Feet
49.827
Pints (liq.) Imperial
B.T.U./min
0.01757
B.T.U./min
17.57
Watts
Cubic Feet
59.84
Pints (liq.) US
B.T.U./hr
0.293
Watts
Cubic Feet/minute
472
Cubic cms/sec.
Centimetres
0.3937
Inches
Cubic Feet/minute
0.1038
Gallons/sec. Imperial
Centimetres
0.01
Metres
Cubic Feet/minute
0.1247
Gallons/sec. US
Millimetres
Cubic Feet/minute
0.472
Litres/sec.
Centimetres
10
Centimetres of Mercury
0.4461
Feet of Water
Cubic Feet/minute
62.43
lbs. of water/min.
Centimetres of Mercury
136
kgs/sq. metre
Cubic Feet/second
0.5382
Mill. Galls/day Imperial
Centimetres of Mercury
0.1934
lbs/sq. inch
Cubic Feet/second
0.646317
Mill. Galls/day US
Cubic Feet/second
373.733
Galls/min. Imperial
Cubic Feet/second
448.831
Galls/min. US
Section 8 |
© 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564 | Subject to change without notice
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Conversion Data
Conversion Factors
Multiply
Cubic Inches
Cubic Inches
Cubic Inches
Cubic Inches
Cubic Inches
Cubic Inches
Cubic Inches
Cubic Metres
Cubic Metres
Cubic Metres
Cubic Metres
Cubic Metres
Cubic Metres
Cubic Metres
Cubic Yards
Cubic Yards
Cubic Yards
Cubic Yards
Cubic Yards
Cubic Yards
Cubic Yards/min.
Cubic Yards/min.
Decilitres
Decimetres
Degrees (angle)
Degrees (angle)
Degrees (angle)
Degrees/sec.
Degrees/sec.
Degrees/sec.
Dekalitres
Dekametres
Feet
Feet
Feet
Feet
Feet of Water
Feet of Water
Feet of Water
Feet of Water
Feet of Water
Feet/minute
Feet/minute
Feet/minute
Feet/sec.
Feet/sec./sec.
Feet/sec./sec.
Foot-pounds
Foot-pounds
Foot-pounds
Foot-pounds
Foot-pounds
Foot-pounds/sec.
Foot-pounds/sec.
Foot-pounds/sec.
Foot-pounds/sec.
Gallons Imperial
Gallons Imperial
Gallons Imperial
Gallons Imperial
Gallons Imperial
376
By
16.39
5.787 x 10-4
1.639 x 10-5
2.143 x 10-5
0.004
0.004
0.016
106
35.31
61026
1.308
220
264.2
1000
27
46,656
0.765
764.6
1345.6
1616
0.45
2.804
0.1
0.1
60
0.017
3600
0.017
0.167
0.003
10
10
30.48
12
0.305
0.333
0.030
0.883
0.030
62.43
0.434
0.508
0.017
0.005
0.305
30.48
0.305
1.286 x 10-3
5.050 x 10-7
3.241 x 10-4
0.138
3.766 x 10-7
7.717 x 10-2
1.818 x 10-3
1.945 x 10-2
1.356 x 10-3
0.161
277.4
4.546
8
4
To Obtain
Cubic Centimetres
Cubic Feet
Cubic Metres
Cubic Yards
Gallons Imperial
Gallons US
Litres
Cubic Centimetres
Cubic Feet
Cubic Inches
Cubic Yards
Gallons Imperial
Gallons US
Litres
Cubic Feet
Cubic Inches
Cubic Metres
Litres
Pints (liq.) Imperial
Pints (liq.) US
Cubic
Galls/sec.
Litres
Metres
Minutes
Radians
Seconds
Radians/sec.
Revolutions/min.
Revolutions/sec.
Litres
Metres
Centimetres
Inches
Metres
Yards
Atmospheres
Inches of Mercury
kgs/sq. cm
lbs/sq. ft
lbs/sq. inch
Centimetres/sec.
Feet/sec.
Metres/sec.
Metres/sec.
cms/sec./sec.
Metres/sec./sec.
British Thermal Units
Horsepower-hrs
Kilogram-calories
Kilogram-metres
Kilowatt-hrs
B.T. Units/min.
Horsepower
kg-calories/min.
Kilowatts
Cubic Feet
Cubic Inches
Litres
Pints Imperial
Quarts Imperial
Conversion Factors
Multiply
Gallons Imperial
Gallons U.S.
Gallons U.S.
Gallons U.S.
Gallons U.S.
Gallons U.S.
Gallons U.S.
Gallons Water Imperial
Gallons Water U.S.
Gallons/min. Imperial
Gallons/min. Imperial
Gallons/min. Imperial
Gallons/min. U.S.
Gallons/min. U.S.
Gallons/min. U.S.
Grams
Grams
Grams
Grams/litre
Grams/litre
Grams/litre
Grams/litre
Hectolitres
Hectometres
Hectowatts
Horsepower
Horsepower
Horsepower
Horsepower
Horsepower
Horsepower
Horsepower-hours
Horsepower-hours
Horsepower-hours
Horsepower-hours
Horsepower-hours
Inches
Inches of Mercury
Inches of Mercury
Inches of Mercury
Inches of Mercury
Inches of Mercury
Inches of Water
Inches of Water
Inches of Water
Inches of Water
Inches of Water
Inches of Water
Kilograms
Kilograms
Kilograms/metre
Kilograms/sq. cm
Kilograms/sq. cm
Kilograms/sq. cm
Kilograms/sq. cm
Kilograms/sq. cm
Kilolitres
Kilometres
Kilometres
Kilometres
Kilometres
By
1.201
0.134
231
3.785
8
4
0.833
10.02
8.345
0.027
0.076
10.713
0.022
0.063
8.921
0.001
1000
0.035
58.417
8.345
0.062
1000
100
100
100
42.44
33,000
550
1.014
10.7
0.746
2547
1.98 x 106
641.7
2.737 x 105
0.746
2.54
0.033
1.133
0.035
3.39
0.491
0.002
0.074
0.003
0.249
5.202
0.036
2.205
1000
0.672
0.968
32.81
28.96
2048
14.22
1000
3281
1000
0.621
1094
To Obtain
Gallons U.S.
Cubic Feet
Cubic Inches
Litres
Pints U.S.
Quarts U.S.
Gallons Imperial
Pounds of Water
Pounds of Water
Cubic Feet/sec.
Litres/sec.
Cubic feet/hr
Cubic Feet/sec.
Litres/sec.
Cubic Feet/hr.
Kilograms
Milligrams
Ounces
Grains/gal. U.S.
Pounds/100 gals. U.S.
Pounds/cubic foot
Parts/million
Litres
Metres
Watts
B.T. Units/min.
Foot-lbs/min
Foot-lbs/sec.
Horsepower (metric)
kg-calories/min.
Kilowatts
British Thermal Units
Foot-lbs
Kilogram-calories
Kilogram-metres
Kilowatt-hours
Centimetres
Atmospheres
Feet of Water
kgs/sq. cm
kPa
lbs/sq. inch
Atmospheres
Inches of Mercury
kgs/sq. cm
kPa
lbs/sq. foot
lbs/sq inch
Pounds
Grams
lbs/foot
Atmospheres
Feet of Water
Inches of Mercury
lbs/sq. foot
lbs/sq. inch
Litres
Feet
Metres
Miles
Yards
| Section 8
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Subject to change without notice | © 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564
Conversion Data
Conversion Factors
Multiply
Kilometres/hour
Kilometres/hour
Kilometres/hour
Kilometres/hour
Kilometres/hour/sec.
Kilometres/hour/sec.
Kilometres/hour/sec.
Kilowatts
Kilowatts
Kilowatts
Kilowatts
Kilowatts
Kilowatts
Kilowatt-hours
Kilowatt-hours
Kilowatt-hours
Kilowatt-hours
Kilowatt-hours
Litres
Litres
Litres
Litres
Litres
Litres
Litres
Litres
Litre/minute
Litre/minute
Litre/minute
Metres
Metres
Metres
Metres
Metres
Metres
Metres/minute
Metres/minute
Metres/minute
Metres/minute
Metres/minute
Metres/second
Metres/second
Metres/second
Metres/second
Metres/second
Microns
Miles
Miles
Miles/hour
Miles/hour
Miles/hour
Miles/hour
Miles/minute
Millilitres
Millimetres
Millimetres
Minutes (angle)
By
54.68
0.540
16.67
0.621
27.78
0.911
0.278
56.92
4.425 x 104
737.6
1.341
14.34
1000
3415
2.655 x 106
1.341
860.5
3.671 x 106
1000
0.035
61.02
0.001
0.220
0.264
1.760
2.113
5.886
0.004
0.004
100
3.281
39.37
0.001
1000
1.094
1.667
3.281
0.055
0.06
0.037
196.8
3.281
3.6
0.06
2.237
10-6
1.609
1760
88
1.609
0.868
26.82
60
0.001
0.1
0.039
2.909 x 10-4
To Obtain
Feet/minute
Knots
Metres/minute
Miles/hour
cm/sec./sec.
ft./sec./sec.
Metres/sec./sec.
BTU/minute
Foot-lbs/minute
Foot/lbs/second
Horsepower
kg-calories/minute
Watts
British Thermal Units
Foot-lbs
Horsepower-hours
Kilogram-calories
Kilogram-metres
Cubic Centimetres
Cubic Feet
Cubic Inches
Cubic Metres
Gallons Imperial
Gallons US
Pints (liq.) Imperial
Pints (liq.) US
Cubic ft/sec.
Gallons/sec. Imperial
Gallons/sec. US
Centimetres
Feet
Inches
Kilometres
Millimetres
Yards
Centimetres/second
Feet/minute
Feet/second
Kilometres/hour
Miles/hour
Feet/minute
Feet/second
Kilometres/hour
Kilometres/minute
Miles/hour
Metres
Kilometres
Yards
Feet/minute
Kilometres/hour
Knots
Metres/minute
Miles/hour
Litres
Centimetres
Inches
Radians
Conversion Factors
Multiply
Ounces
Ounces (fluid)
Ounces (fluid)
Pounds
Pounds
Pounds
Pounds of Water
Pounds of Water
Pounds of Water
Pounds of Water
Pounds of Water/min.
Pounds/cubic foot
Pounds/cubic foot
Pounds/cubic inch
Pounds/cubic inch
Pounds/cubic inch
Pounds/foot
Pounds/foot
Pounds/sq. foot
Pounds/sq. foot
Pounds/sq. foot
Pounds/sq. inch
Pounds/sq. inch
Pounds/sq. inch
Pounds/sq. inch
Pounds/sq. inch
Temperature (°C)
Temperature (°C)
Temperature (°F)
Temperature (°F)
Tons (long)
Tons (long)
Tons (long)
Tonnes
Tonnes
Tons Refrig.
Tons (short)
Tons (short)
Tons (short)
Tons (short)
Watts
Watts
Watts
Watts
Watts
Watts
Watts
Watt-hours
Watt-hours
Watt-hours
Watt-hours
Watt-hours
Watt-hours
By
0.063
1.805
0.030
16
0.454
0.001
0.016
27.68
0.100
0.120
2.670 x 10-4
16.02
5.787 x 10-4
27.68
2.768 x 104
1728
1.488
178.6
0.016
4.883 x 10-4
6.945 x 10-3
0.068
2.307
2.036
0.070
6.895
°C + 273.15
°C x 9 / 5 + 32
°F - 32 x 5 / 9
+ 459.67
1016
2240
1.12
1000
2205
3.517
2000
907.185
0.893
0.907
3.412
0.057
44.26
0.738
1.34 x 10-3
0.014
1000
3.415
2655
1.341 x 10-3
0.861
367.1
1000
To Obtain
Pounds
Cubic Inches
Litres
Ounces
Kilograms
Tons (short)
Cubic Feet
Cubic Inches
Gallons Imperial
Gallons U.S.
Cubic ft/sec.
kg/cubic metre
lbs/cubic inch
grams/cubic cm
kgs/cubic metre
lbs/cubic foot
kg/metre
Grams/cm
Feet of Water
kgs/sq. cm
Pounds/sq. inch
Atmospheres
Feet of Water
Inches of Mercury
kg/sq. cm
Kilopascals
Abs. Temp. (°C)
Temperature (°F)
Abs. Temp. (°F)
Temp. (°C)
Kilograms
Pounds
Tons (short)
Kilograms
Pounds
kW
Pounds
Kilograms
Tons (long)
Tonnes
B.T.U./hour
B.T.U./minute
Foot-pounds/minute
Foot-pounds/second
Horsepower
kg-calories/minute
Kilowatts
British Thermal Units
Foot-pounds
Horsepower-hours
Kilogram-calories
Kilogram-metres
Kilowatt-hours
Section 8 |
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Conversion Data
Length
Millimetres
Centimetres
Inches
Feet
Yards
Metres
Kilometres
Miles
Millimetres
1
10
25.4
304.8
914.4
1000
1,000,000
1,609,350
Mass
Centimetres
0.1
1
2.54
30.48
91.44
100
100,000
160,935
Grams
1
28.3496
453.593
1000
907,186
1,016,050
1,000,000
Grams
Ounces
Pounds
Kilograms
U.S. Ton (Short)
Imp. Ton (Long)
Metric Tonne
Inches
0.03937
0.3937
1
12
36
39.37
39,370
63,360
Ounces
0.03527392
1
16
35.27392
32,000
35,840
35,273.92
Energy or Work
Joules
(1 Joule=107
Ergs)
Joules (1 Joule=107 Ergs)
1
Foot - Pounds
1.3562
Kilogram Metres
9.81
Litre - Atmospheres
1,013,667
Horsepower Hours
2,685,443
Kilowatts Hours
3,600,000
Kilogram Calories
4185.8291
British Thermal Units
1054.198
lbs Carbon Oxidised with Perfect Efficiency 15,387,041.6
lbs Water Evaporated from and at 100°C
1,023,000
Volume and Capacity
Cubic
Inches
Cubic Inches
1
Cubic Feet
1728
Cubic Yards
46,656
Litres
61,023.40
US Quarts - Liquid 61.0234
US Quarts - Dry
57.75
US Gallons - Liquid
67.18
US Gallons - Dry
231
Imperial Gallons
268.75
US Bushels
277.274
Pounds of Water
2150
Kilograms of Water 27.6798
Pressure
psi.
atms.
ft. Hd. H2O at 20°C
Inches H2O
kg/cm2
Metres H2O
Inches Hg. at 20°C
mm Hg.
cm Hg.
Bar
Millibar (mb)
kPa
378
psi.
1
14.696
0.433
0.036
14.233
1.422
0.489
0.019
0.193
14.503
0.014
0.145
Cubic
Feet
Cubic
Yards
Foot Pounds
0.7373
1
7.233
747,386
1,980,000
2,655,220
3087.35
778
11,352,000
754,525
Pounds
0.00220462
0.0625
1
2.20462
2000
2240
2204.62
Yards
0.0010936
0.010936
0.02777
0.3333
1
1.0936
1093.6
1760
Kilograms
0.001
0.0283496
0.453593
1
907.186
1016.05
1000
Metres
0.001
0.01
0.0254
0.3048
0.9144
1
1000
1609.35
U.S. Ton (Short)
0.05110231
0.043125
0.0005
0.00110231
1
1.12
1.10231
Kilometres
0.000001
0.00001
0.0000254
0.0003048
0.0009144
0.001
1
1.60935
Imp. Ton (Long)
0.0698426
0.04279
0.0344642
0.03984206
0.89285
1
0.984206
Miles
0.0000006214
0.000006214
0.00001578
0.0001893
0.0005682
0.0006214
0.6214
1
Metric Tonne
0.051
0.04283496
0.03453593
0.001
0.907186
1.01605
1
British
lbs Carbon
lbs Water
Kilogram
Litre Horsepower Kilowatts Kilogram
Thermal
Oxidised with Evaporated from
Metres Atmospheres
Hours
Hours
Calories
Units
Perfect Efficiency and at 100°C
0.101937 0.0098705
0.063727 0.06278 0.0323795 0.039486
0.07642
0.069662
0.138255
0.013826
0.06505 0.063766 0.0332396 0.0012861
0.078808
0.0513256
1
0.09677
0.053653 0.052724 0.002343 0.009302
0.0663718
0.0595895
10.333
1
0.043774 0.042794 0.0242
0.0961
0.056583
0.049907
273,746
26,490.40
1
0.7457
641.477
2546.5
0.174
2.62
367,100
35,526.95
1.341
1
860.238
3415
0.234
3.52
426.843
41.309
0.001558 0.0011623
1
3.9683
0.0329909
0.004501
107.5
10.40277
0.033927 0.032928 0.2519
1
0.04685
0.00103
1.569,527.5 151,894.66
5.733
4.275
3,677.74 14,600
1
15.05
104.32
10,096.77
0.3811
0.2841
244.44
970.4
0.066466
1
Litres
0.035787 0.042143 0.016384
1
0.037037 28.317
27
1
764.56
35.3145
1.307941
1000
0.0353145 0.001308
1
0.03342
0.001238 0.94636
0.03888
0.00144
1.1009
0.133681 0.004951 3.78543
0.15552
0.00576
4.404
0.160459 0.0059429 4.54374
1.24446
0.04609
35.238
0.0160184 0.035929 0.453592
atms.
0.068
1
0.029
0.0025
0.968
0.097
0.033
0.0013
0.0131
0.987
0.0009
0.0098
Feet
0.003281
0.032808
0.08333
1
3
3.2808
3280.8
5280
US Quarts
US Gallons
Liquid
Dry
Liquid
Dry
0.01731 0.01488 0.004329 0.003721
29.92208 25.713
7.48052
6.4282
807.895 694.278 201.974 173.569
1056.68
908.1
264.17
227.02
1.05668 0.9081
0.26417 0.22702
1
0.8595
0.25
0.2149
1.1635
1
0.2909
0.25
4
3.4378
1
0.8595
4.654
4
1.1635
1
4.80128 4.1267
1.20032
1.0317
37.2353
32
9.3088
8
0.4793 0.119825 0.0998281
1
ft. Hd. H2O at 20°C Inches H2O
2.31
27.72
33.659
407.513
1
12
0.833
1
32.867
394.408
3.287
39.37
1.131
13.575
0.045
0.534
0.455
5.34
33.514
402.164
0.033
0.402
0.335
4.021
kg/cm2
0.07
1.033
0.03
0.0025
1
0.099
0.034
0.0014
0.014
1.02
0.001
0.01
Water at Max. Density 4°C
US
Bushels Pounds of Water Kilograms of Water
0.0036065 0.034651
0.0361275
0.0163872
6.2321 0.803564
62.4283
28.317
168.266 21.6962
1685.56
764.559
220.083
28.38
2204.62
1000
0.220083 0.02838
2.20462
1
0.20828 0.02686
2.08636
0.94635
0.24235 0.03125
8.34545
3.78543
0.833111 0.10743
10.0172
4.54373
0.96932
0.125
1
0.12896
7.81457
1
0.453593
Imperial
Gallons
Metres H2O Inches Hg. at 20°C
0.704
2.043
10.351
30.019
0.305
0.884
0.025
0.074
10.018
29.054
1
2.905
0.345
1
0.0136
0.039
0.136
0.393
10.211
29.625
0.0102
0.029
0.102
0.296
mm Hg.
51.884
762.48
22.452
1.871
737.959
73.796
25.4
1
10
752.47
0.752
7.525
cm Hg.
5.188
76.284
2.245
0.187
73.796
7.379
2.54
0.1
1
75.247
0.075
0.0752
Bar
0.069
1.013
0.03
0.0025
0.981
0.098
0.034
0.001
0.0133
1
0.001
0.01
Millibar (mb)
68.947
1013
29.837
2.486
980.662
98.066
33.753
1.329
13.29
1000
1
10
kPa
6.895
101.325
2.984
0.249
98.066
9.807
3.375
0.133
1.328
100
0.1
1
| Section 8
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Subject to change without notice | © 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564
Conversion Data
Inch to Millimetre Equivalents
Inches
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
0.009
0.010
0.020
0.030
0.040
0.050
0.060
0.070
0.080
0.090
0.100
0.110
0.140
0.150
0.160
0.170
0.180
0.190
0.200
0.210
0.220
0.250
0.260
0.270
0.280
0.290
0.300
0.310
0.320
0.330
0.360
0.370
0.380
0.390
0.400
0.410
0.420
0.430
0.440
0.450
0.460
0.470
0.480
0.490
Decimals to Millimetres
mm
Inches
0.0254
0.500
0.0508
0.510
0.0762
0.520
0.1016
0.530
0.1270
0.540
0.1524
0.550
0.1778
0.560
0.2032
0.570
0.2286
0.580
0.2540
0.590
0.5080
0.600
0.7620
0.610
1.0160
0.620
1.2700
0.630
1.5240
0.640
1.7780
0.650
2.0320
0.660
2.2860
0.670
2.5400
0.680
2.7940
0.690
3.5560
0.700
3.8100
0.710
4.0640
0.720
4.3180
0.730
4.5720
0.740
4.8260
0.750
5.0800
0.770
5.3340
0.780
5.5880
0.790
6.3500
0.800
6.6040
0.810
6.8580
0.820
7.1120
0.830
7.3660
0.840
7.6200
0.850
7.8740
0.860
8.1280
0.870
8.3820
0.880
9.1440
0.890
9.3980
0.900
9.6520
0.910
9.9060
0.920
10.1600
0.930
10.4140
0.940
10.6680
0.950
10.9220
0.960
11.1760
0.970
11.4300
0.980
11.6840
0.990
11.9380
1.000
12.1920
12.4460
mm
12.7000
12.9540
13.2080
13.4620
13.7160
13.9700
14.2240
14.4780
14.7320
14.9860
15.2400
15.4940
15.7480
16.0020
16.2560
16.5100
16.7640
17.0180
17.2720
17.5260
17.7800
18.0340
18.2880
18.5420
18.7960
19.0500
19.5580
19.8120
20.0660
20.3200
20.5740
21.8280
21.0820
21.3360
21.5900
21.8440
22.0980
22.3520
22.6060
22.8600
23.1140
23.3680
23.6220
23.8760
24.1300
24.3840
24.6380
24.8920
25.1460
25.4000
Fractions to Decimals to Millimetres
Inches
mm
Inches
1/64
0.0156
0.3969
33/64
0.5156
1/32
0.0312
0.7938
17/32
0.5312
3/64
0.0469
1.1906
35/64
0.5469
mm
13.0969
13.4938
13.8906
1/16
0.0625
1.5875
9/16
0.5625
14.2875
5/64
3/32
7/64
0.0781
0.0938
0.1094
1.9844
2.3812
2.7781
37/64
19/32
39/64
0.5781
0.5938
0.6094
14.6844
15.0812
15.4781
1/8
0.1250
3.1750
5/8
0.6250
15.8750
9/64
5/32
11/64
0.1406
0.1562
0.1719
3.5719
3.9688
4.3656
41/64
21/32
43/64
0.6406
0.6562
0.6719
16.2719
16.6688
17.0656
3/16
0.1875
4.7625
11/16
0.6875
17.4625
13/64
7/32
15/64
0.2031
0.2188
0.2344
5.1594
5.5562
5.9531
45/64
23/32
47/64
0.7031
0.7188
0.7344
17.8594
18.2562
18.6531
1/4
0.2500
6.3500
3/4
0.7500
19.0500
17/64
9/32
19/64
0.2656
0.2812
0.2969
6.7469
7.1438
7.5406
49/64
25/32
51/64
0.7656
0.7812
0.7969
19.4469
19.8438
20.2406
5/16
0.3125
7.9375
13/16
0.8125
20.6375
21/64
11/32
23/64
0.3281
0.3438
0.3594
8.3344
8.7312
9.1281
53/64
27/32
55/64
0.8281
0.8438
0.8594
21.0344
21.4312
21.8281
3/8
0.3750
9.5250
7/8
0.8750
22.2250
25/64
13/32
27/64
0.3906
0.4062
0.4219
9.9219
10.3188
10.7156
57/64
29/32
59/64
0.8906
0.9062
0.9219
22.6219
23.0188
23.4156
7/16
0.4375
11.1125
15/16
0.9375
23.8125
29/64
15/32
31/64
0.4531
0.4688
0.4844
11.5094
11.9062
12.3031
61/64
31/32
63/64
0.9531
0.9688
0.9844
24.2094
24.6062
25.0031
1/2
0.5000
12.7000
1
1.000
25.4000
Section 8 |
© 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564 | Subject to change without notice
379
www.actrol.com.au
Pressure - Vacuum Conversion
Pressure
Pascal
[Pa] absolute
Pressure
KiloPascal
[kPa] absolute
Pressure
bar
[bar] absolute
Millibar
[millibar]
absolute
Micron
[millitorr]
Torr
[mm Hg]
Inches Hg
[Inches
Mercury]
PSI
[Pounds Per
Square Inch]
101325
1 atmosphere
101.325
1 atmosphere
1.01325
1 atmosphere
1013
1 atmosphere
760000
1 atmosphere
760
1 atmosphere
0.00
1 atmosphere
14.70
1 atmosphere
100000
100
1
1000
750062
750
0.42
14.50
80000
80
0.8
800
600049
600
6.32
11.60
53300
53.3
0.533
533
399783
400
14.22
7.73
26700
26.7
0.267
267
200266
200
22.07
3.87
13300
13.3
0.133
133
99758
100
25.98
1.93
6000
6
0.06
60
45004
45
28.15
0.87
2700
2.7
0.027
27
20252
20
29.14
0.39
133
0.133
0.00133
1.33
998
1.0
29.88
0.02
93
0.093
0.00093
0.93
698
0.7
29.89
0.013
78
0.078
0.00078
0.78
585
0.6
29.90
0.011
66
0.066
0.00066
0.66
495
0.5
29.900
0.0096
53
0.053
0.00053
0.53
398
0.4
29.910
0.0077
40
0.04
0.0004
0.40
300
0.3
29.910
0.0058
29.920
26
0.026
0.00026
0.26
195
0.2
13
0.013
0.00013
0.13
98
0.10
0.0019
0.0038
9
0.009
0.00009
0.09
68
0.07
0.0013
8
0.008
0.00008
0.08
60
0.06
0.0012
7
0.007
0.00007
0.07
53
0.05
0.0010
5
0.005
0.00005
0.05
38
0.04
0.0007
4
0.004
0.00004
0.04
30
0.03
0.0006
3
0.003
0.00003
0.03
23
0.02
0.0004
1.3
0.0013
0.000013
0.013
10
0.01
0.0002
To obtain gauge pressure subtract 1 atmosphere.
380
| Section 8
www.actrol.com.au
Subject to change without notice | © 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564
Design Temperature/Pressure
The Australian/New Zealand Standards include minimum recommended design pressures (PS) for all pipe work, fittings
and components use in fixed refrigeration and air conditioning systems. This covers all fixed systems other than automotive
air conditioning. The design pressures are based on the saturated pressure of the refrigerant at the temperature listed in
the table below at the design ambient temperature for the location in which the system is to operate. When evaporators
can be subject to high pressure, e.g. during hot gas defrosting or reverse cycle operation, the high pressure side specified
temperature shall be used.
Ambient Conditions
≤ 32 °C
≤ 38 °C
≤ 43 °C
≤ 55 °C
High pressure side with air cooled condenser
55 °C
59 °C
63 °C
67 °C
High pressure side with water cooled condenser and water heat pump
Maximum leaving temperature +8K
High pressure side with evaporative condenser
43 °C
43 °C
43 °C
55 °C
Low pressure side with heat exchanger exposed to the outdoor ambient temperature
32 °C
38 °C
43 °C
55 °C
Low pressure side with heat exchanger exposed to the indoor ambient temperature
27 °C
33 °C
38 °C
38 °C
Specified design temperatures (Method 2) as per AS/NZS 1677.2:2016
Minimum design temperature as per AS/NZS 5149.2:2016
It is advisable to reference AS/NZS 5149.2:2016 for more complete information.
The pressure listed in the chart below represent the saturated pressure of each refrigerant and therefore the required
minimum design pressure for the pipe work and components in that part of a refrigeration or air conditioning system.
Design High Side Pressure
55°C
59°C
63°C
67°C
R134a
1391
1542
1704
1880
R404A
2485
2723
2977
3252
R427A
2279
2498
2732
2981
R410A
3339
2659
4002
4370
When selecting components for use in a refrigeration or air conditioning systems care should be taken to ensure the
maximum design pressure of the component selected is suitable for the intended use. This is especially important in R410A
systems as the required pressure ratings are significantly higher than that required on systems using most other refrigerants.
Flare Nut Torque Data
Dimensional and Torque Data Standard for Flare Nuts
Across Flats (AF) Dimension
Flare Nut Size
Thread Size UNF
Heldon Standard
Flare Nuts
Heldon R410A
Flare Nut
*ARI Heldon Std.
Flare Nut
Heldon R410A
Flare Nut
R410A Torque
Wrench Setting
1/4
7/16 - 20
15.9
n/a
11 - 14
n/a
n/a
5/16
1/2 - 20
19.0
19.1
14 - 18
16
3/8
5/8 - 18
20.6
22.3
20 - 30
33 - 42
42
1/2
3/4 - 16
23.8
25.4
34 - 47
50 - 62
50
5/8
7/8 - 14
27.0
28.7
54 - 75
63 - 77
65
3/4
11/8 - 14
33.3
36.0
68 - 81
n/a
n/a
7/8
11/4 - 12
41.0
41.0
n/a
n/a
n/a
Courtesy of Heldon Products
Section 8 |
© 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564 | Subject to change without notice
381
www.actrol.com.au
Temperature Pressure Data
for Common Refrigerants
°C
-40
-38
-36
-34
-32
-30
-28
-26
-24
-22
-20
-18
-16
-14
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
R22
kPa
4
14
25
37
49
63
77
92
108
126
144
163
184
206
229
253
279
306
335
365
397
430
465
501
540
580
622
665
711
759
809
861
915
971
1030
1091
1154
1220
1288
1359
1432
1508
1587
1669
1754
1841
1932
2026
2123
2223
2326
2433
2543
2657
2775
2896
psi
1
2
4
5
7
9
11
13
16
18
21
24
27
30
33
37
40
44
49
53
58
62
67
73
78
84
90
97
103
110
117
125
133
141
149
158
167
177
187
197
208
219
230
242
254
267
280
294
308
322
337
353
369
385
402
420
R32
kPa
76
93
111
130
150
172
195
220
247
275
304
336
369
405
442
481
523
567
613
661
712
765
821
880
941
1006
1073
1143
1217
1293
1373
1457
1544
1634
1728
1826
1928
2034
2144
2258
2377
2500
2628
2760
2898
3040
3187
3340
3498
3662
3832
4008
4190
4378
4573
4776
psi
11
13
16
19
22
25
28
32
36
40
44
49
54
59
64
70
76
82
89
96
103
111
119
128
137
146
156
166
176
188
199
211
224
237
251
265
280
295
311
328
345
363
381
400
420
441
462
484
507
531
556
581
608
635
663
693
34M
DEW
kPa psi
-46
14
-40
12
-34
10
-26
8
-19
6
-10
3
-2
0
8
1
18
3
30
4
41
6
54
8
68
10
82
12
98
14
114
17
132
19
150
22
170
25
191
28
213
31
236
34
261
38
287
42
314
46
343
50
373
54
405
59
439
64
474
69
511
74
549
80
590
86
632
92
676
98
722 105
771 112
821 119
873 127
928 135
985 143
1044 151
1106 160
1170 170
1237 179
1306 189
1378 200
1453 211
1530 222
1611 234
1694 246
1780 258
1870 271
1963 285
2059 299
2158 313
R123
kPa
-98
-97
-97
-96
-95
-95
-94
-93
-92
-91
-89
-88
-86
-85
-83
-81
-79
-77
-74
-72
-69
-66
-62
-59
-55
-51
-46
-42
-37
-31
-26
-20
-13
-7
1
8
16
25
34
43
53
64
75
86
98
111
125
139
153
169
185
201
219
237
256
276
psi
29
29
29
28
28
28
28
27
27
27
26
26
26
25
25
24
23
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
12
11
9
8
6
4
2
0
1
2
4
5
6
8
9
11
13
14
16
18
20
22
24
27
29
32
34
37
40
R1234yf
kPa
-39
-33
-26
-19
-11
-2
7
16
27
38
50
62
75
90
105
120
137
155
174
194
215
236
260
284
309
336
364
394
425
457
490
526
562
601
641
682
726
771
818
866
917
970
1024
1081
1140
1201
1264
1330
1398
1468
1541
1616
1694
1774
1857
1943
psi
6
5
4
3
2
0
1
2
4
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
20
22
25
28
31
34
38
41
45
49
53
57
62
66
71
76
82
87
93
99
105
112
119
126
133
141
149
157
165
174
183
193
203
213
223
234
246
257
269
282
R134a
kPa
-50
-45
-38
-32
-25
-17
-9
0
10
20
31
43
56
69
84
99
116
133
151
171
191
213
236
261
286
313
342
372
403
436
470
507
544
584
626
669
714
761
811
862
915
971
1029
1089
1152
1217
1284
1354
1427
1502
1581
1662
1745
1832
1922
2158
psi
15
13
11
9
7
5
3
0
1
3
5
6
8
10
12
14
17
19
22
25
28
31
34
38
42
45
50
54
58
63
68
73
79
85
91
97
104
110
118
125
133
141
149
158
167
176
186
196
207
218
229
241
253
266
279
313
R402A
BUBBLE
DEW
kPa psi kPa psi
51
7
39
6
65
9
53
8
80
12
67
10
96
14
82
12
113
16
98
14
131
19
115
17
150
22
134
19
170
25
153
22
191
28
174
25
214
31
196
28
238
35
219
32
264
38
244
35
291
42
270
39
319
46
298
43
349
51
327
47
381
55
358
52
414
60
390
57
449
65
424
62
486
70
460
67
524
76
498
72
564
82
537
78
606
88
578
84
651
94
622
90
697 101 667
97
745 108 715 104
796 115 764 111
848 123 816 118
903 131 870 126
960 139 927 134
1020 148 986 143
1082 157 1047 152
1147 166 1111 161
1214 176 1177 171
1284 186 1247 181
1356 197 1319 191
1432 208 1393 202
1510 219 1471 213
1591 231 1552 225
1675 243 1635 237
1763 256 1722 250
1853 269 1812 263
1947 282 1905 276
2043 296 2002 290
2144 311 2102 305
2248 326 2206 320
2355 342 2313 335
2466 358 2424 352
2581 374 2539 368
2700 392 2658 386
2823 409 2782 403
2950 428 2909 422
3081 447 3041 441
3217 467 3178 461
3357 487 3320 482
3502 508 3467 503
3653 530 3620 525
R404A
BUBBLE
DEW
kPa psi kPa psi
34
5
30
4
47
7
42
6
60
9
55
8
75
11
70
10
90
13
85
12
106
15
101
15
124
18
118
17
143
21
137
20
162
24
156
23
183
27
177
26
206
30
199
29
229
33
222
32
254
37
247
36
40
281
41
273
308
45
300
44
338
49
329
48
369
53
360
52
401
58
392
57
435
63
426
62
471
68
462
67
509
74
499
72
548
80
538
78
590
86
579
84
633
92
622
90
678
98
667
97
726 105 714 104
775 112 764 111
827 120 815 118
881 128 869 126
937 136 925 134
996 144 983 143
1057 153 1044 151
1121 163 1107 161
1187 172 1173 170
1256 182 1242 180
1327 192 1313 190
1401 203 1387 201
1479 214 1464 212
1559 226 1544 224
1642 238 1627 236
1728 251 1713 249
1818 264 1803 261
1910 277 1895 275
2007 291 1992 289
2106 305 2091 303
2209 320 2194 318
2316 336 2301 334
2427 352 2412 350
2542 369 2527 367
2661 386 2646 384
2784 404 2770 402
2911 422 2898 420
3043 441 3031 440
3181 461 3169 460
3323 482 3313 480
3471 503 3463 502
R406A
BUBBLE
DEW
kPa psi kPa psi
-29
9
-56
17
-22
7
-51
15
-15
4
-46
13
-6
2
-40
12
2
0
-34
10
12
2
-27
8
22
3
-19
6
32
5
-12
3
44
6
-3
1
56
8
6
1
69
10
16
2
82
12
26
4
97
14
37
5
112
16
49
7
129
19
61
9
146
21
75
11
164
24
89
13
183
27
104
15
204
30
120
17
225
33
137
20
247
36
155
22
271
39
174
25
296
43
194
28
322
47
215
31
349
51
237
34
377
55
261
38
407
59
285
41
438
64
311
45
471
68
338
49
505
73
367
53
540
78
397
58
577
84
428
62
616
89
461
67
656
95
495
72
697 101 531
77
741 107 568
82
786 114 607
88
833 121 648
94
881 128 690 100
932 135 734 107
984 143 781 113
1038 151 828 120
1094 159 878 127
1152 167 930 135
1212 176 984 143
1275 185 1040 151
1339 194 1098 159
1405 204 1159 168
1474 214 1221 177
1545 224 1286 187
1618 235 1353 196
1693 246 1423 206
1771 257 1495 217
1851 268 1570 228
1933 280 1647 239
2018 293 1727 251
°C
-40
-38
-36
-34
-32
-30
-28
-26
-24
-22
-20
-18
-16
-14
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
Use Dew pressure for superheat calculations and Bubble pressure for sub-cooling calculations
Red figures under kPa are negative kilopascals gauge and red figures under psi are inches of mercury
382
| Section 8
www.actrol.com.au
Subject to change without notice | © 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564
Temperature Pressure Data
for Common Refrigerants
°C
-40
-38
-36
-34
-32
-30
-28
-26
-24
-22
-20
-18
-16
-14
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
R407B
BUBBLE
DEW
kPa psi kPa psi
37
5
12
2
50
64
79
95
112
131
150
171
193
216
241
267
295
324
355
388
422
458
496
536
578
621
667
715
766
818
873
930
990
1052
1117
1184
1255
1328
1404
1482
1564
1649
1737
1829
1924
2022
2124
2229
2338
2451
2567
2688
2813
2942
3075
3213
3355
3502
3654
7
9
11
14
16
19
22
25
28
31
35
39
43
47
52
56
61
66
72
78
84
90
97
104
111
119
127
135
144
153
162
172
182
193
204
215
227
239
252
265
279
293
308
323
339
355
372
390
408
427
446
466
487
508
530
23
36
49
63
78
95
112
131
151
172
194
218
243
270
299
329
361
394
429
466
505
547
590
635
682
732
784
839
896
955
1017
1082
1150
1221
1294
1371
1450
1533
1620
1709
1802
1899
2000
2104
2213
2325
2442
2564
2690
2821
2957
3098
3246
3400
3561
3
5
7
9
11
14
16
19
22
25
28
32
35
39
43
48
52
57
62
68
73
79
86
92
99
106
114
122
130
139
148
157
167
177
188
199
210
222
235
248
261
275
290
305
321
337
354
372
390
409
429
449
471
493
517
R407C
BUBBLE
DEW
kPa psi kPa psi
19
3
-16
5
31
43
56
71
86
102
119
138
158
179
201
224
249
276
303
333
364
396
431
467
504
544
586
629
675
723
773
825
879
936
996
1057
1121
1188
1258
1330
1405
1483
1564
1648
1735
1825
1918
2015
2115
2218
2325
2436
2550
2668
2790
2916
3046
3180
3318
4
6
8
10
12
15
17
20
23
26
29
33
36
40
44
48
53
57
62
68
73
79
85
91
98
105
112
120
128
136
144
153
163
172
182
193
204
215
227
239
252
265
278
292
307
322
337
353
370
387
405
423
442
461
481
-7
3
14
25
37
51
65
80
96
113
132
152
173
195
218
244
270
298
328
359
393
427
464
503
544
586
631
678
727
779
833
890
949
1010
1075
1142
1212
1285
1361
1440
1522
1608
1697
1790
1886
1987
2091
2199
2311
2427
2548
2674
2805
2940
3081
2
0
2
4
5
7
9
12
14
16
19
22
25
28
32
35
39
43
48
52
57
62
67
73
79
85
92
98
106
113
121
129
138
147
156
166
176
186
197
209
221
233
246
260
274
288
303
319
335
352
370
388
407
426
447
R407F
BUBBLE
DEW
kPa psi kPa psi
34
5
-2
0
47
60
75
91
108
126
145
166
188
211
235
261
289
318
348
381
415
450
488
528
569
613
659
706
757
809
864
921
980
1043
1107
1175
1245
1318
1394
1473
1555
1640
1729
1820
1915
2013
2115
2221
2330
2443
2559
2680
2805
2933
3066
3204
3345
3491
3642
7
9
11
13
16
18
21
24
27
31
34
38
42
46
51
55
60
65
71
77
83
89
96
102
110
117
125
134
142
151
161
170
181
191
202
214
226
238
251
264
278
292
307
322
338
354
371
389
407
425
445
465
485
506
528
9
20
32
45
59
74
90
107
125
145
166
188
211
237
263
291
321
353
386
421
458
497
538
581
626
674
723
776
830
888
947
1010
1075
1143
1215
1289
1366
1447
1531
1618
1709
1803
1902
2004
2110
2220
2335
2454
2577
2706
2839
2978
3121
3271
3427
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
16
18
21
24
27
31
34
38
42
47
51
56
61
66
72
78
84
91
98
105
113
120
129
137
146
156
166
176
187
198
210
222
235
248
262
276
291
306
322
339
356
374
392
412
432
453
474
497
R408A
BUBBLE
DEW
kPa psi kPa psi
24
3
21
3
36
48
61
76
91
107
125
143
163
183
205
228
253
279
306
335
365
397
430
465
502
541
581
623
667
714
762
812
864
919
976
1035
1097
1161
1227
1296
1368
1443
1520
1600
1683
1769
1858
1950
2045
2144
2246
2352
2461
2574
2691
2811
2936
3064
3197
5
7
9
11
13
16
18
21
24
27
30
33
37
40
44
49
53
58
62
67
73
78
84
90
97
103
110
118
125
133
142
150
159
168
178
188
198
209
220
232
244
257
269
283
297
311
326
341
357
373
390
408
426
444
464
33
45
58
73
88
104
121
139
159
179
201
224
248
274
301
329
359
391
424
459
496
534
574
616
660
706
754
804
856
910
967
1026
1087
1151
1218
1287
1358
1432
1509
1589
1672
1758
1847
1939
2034
2132
2234
2340
2449
2562
2678
2799
2923
3052
3185
5
7
8
11
13
15
18
20
23
26
29
32
36
40
44
48
52
57
62
67
72
77
83
89
96
102
109
117
124
132
140
149
158
167
177
187
197
208
219
230
242
255
268
281
295
309
324
339
355
372
388
406
424
443
462
R409A
BUBBLE
DEW
kPa psi kPa psi
-23
7
-50
15
-15
-7
2
12
22
33
44
57
70
84
99
115
131
149
168
188
209
231
254
278
304
331
359
389
420
452
486
521
558
597
637
679
723
768
816
865
916
969
1024
1081
1140
1201
1264
1330
1397
1468
1540
1615
1692
1772
1854
1939
2027
2117
2210
4
2
0
2
3
5
6
8
10
12
14
17
19
22
24
27
30
33
37
40
44
48
52
56
61
66
70
76
81
87
92
99
105
111
118
125
133
140
148
157
165
174
183
193
203
213
223
234
245
257
269
281
294
307
321
-45
-38
-32
-25
-17
-9
0
9
19
30
42
54
68
82
97
113
130
148
167
187
208
231
254
279
305
333
362
392
424
458
493
529
567
607
649
693
738
786
835
887
940
996
1054
1114
1177
1241
1309
1379
1451
1526
1604
1684
1768
1854
1943
13
11
9
7
5
3
0
1
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
19
21
24
27
30
33
37
40
44
48
52
57
62
66
71
77
82
88
94
101
107
114
121
129
136
144
153
162
171
180
190
200
210
221
233
244
256
269
282
R410A
BUBBLE
DEW
kPa psi kPa psi
74
11
74
11
91
108
127
147
169
192
216
242
270
299
330
363
398
435
473
514
557
602
650
699
752
806
864
924
987
1053
1122
1193
1268
1346
1428
1512
1601
1692
1788
1887
1990
2098
2209
2324
2444
2569
2698
2831
2970
3113
3262
3416
3576
3741
3913
4090
4274
4465
4663
13
16
18
21
25
28
31
35
39
43
48
53
58
63
69
75
81
87
94
101
109
117
125
134
143
153
163
173
184
195
207
219
232
245
259
274
289
304
320
337
354
373
391
411
431
451
473
495
519
543
567
593
620
648
676
90
108
126
147
168
191
215
241
269
298
329
362
396
433
471
512
555
600
647
697
749
804
861
921
983
1049
1118
1189
1264
1342
1423
1507
1595
1687
1782
1881
1984
2091
2202
2317
2437
2561
2690
2823
2962
3105
3254
3408
3568
3734
3905
4083
4268
4461
4660
13
16
18
21
24
28
31
35
39
43
48
52
57
63
68
74
80
87
94
101
109
117
125
134
143
152
162
172
183
195
206
219
231
245
258
273
288
303
319
336
353
371
390
409
430
450
472
494
517
541
566
592
619
647
676
°C
-40
-38
-36
-34
-32
-30
-28
-26
-24
-22
-20
-18
-16
-14
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
Use Dew pressure for superheat calculations and Bubble pressure for sub-cooling calculations
Red figures under kPa are negative kilopascals gauge and red figures under psi are inches of mercury
Section 8 |
© 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564 | Subject to change without notice
383
www.actrol.com.au
Temperature Pressure Data
for Common Refrigerants
°C
-40
-38
-36
-34
-32
-30
-28
-26
-24
-22
-20
-18
-16
-14
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
R413A
BUBBLE
DEW
kPa psi kPa psi
-26
8
-45
13
R417A
BUBBLE
DEW
kPa psi kPa psi
-4
1
-26
8
R427A
BUBBLE
DEW
kPa psi kPa psi
15
2
-17
5
R438A ( MO99 )
BUBBLE
DEW
kPa psi kPa psi
12
2
-18
3
R507
BUBBLE
DEW
kPa psi kPa psi
37
5
37
5
R717
R744
( Ammonia )
( CO2 )
kPa psi kPa psi
-30
9
903 131
°C
-40
-19
-11
-3
6
16
26
37
49
62
75
90
6
3
1
1
2
4
5
7
9
11
13
-39
-32
-25
-17
-9
0
10
21
32
44
57
11
10
7
5
3
0
1
3
5
6
8
5
15
26
38
50
64
78
93
109
127
145
1
2
4
5
7
9
11
14
16
18
21
-18
-9
0
10
21
33
45
59
73
89
105
5
3
0
2
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
26
38
51
65
79
95
112
130
149
169
190
4
6
7
9
12
14
16
19
22
24
28
-9
1
11
22
34
47
61
76
92
109
127
3
0
2
3
5
7
9
11
13
16
18
23
34
47
60
75
90
106
124
142
162
183
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
18
21
23
26
-9
1
11
22
34
47
60
75
91
107
125
1
0
2
3
5
7
9
11
13
16
18
50
64
79
95
112
130
149
169
190
213
237
7
9
11
14
16
19
22
24
28
31
34
50
64
79
95
112
129
149
169
190
213
237
7
9
11
14
16
19
22
24
28
31
34
-22
-13
-3
7
18
30
43
57
72
89
106
6
4
1
1
3
4
6
8
11
13
15
979
1059
1144
1233
1326
1425
1528
1636
1750
1868
1993
142
154
166
179
192
207
222
237
254
271
289
-38
-36
-34
-32
-30
-28
-26
-24
-22
-20
-18
105
121
138
156
175
195
217
239
263
288
314
342
371
401
433
467
502
539
577
617
659
703
748
796
845
897
950
1006
1064
1125
1187
1252
1320
1390
1462
1538
1616
1696
1780
1866
1956
2049
2144
2243
15
18
20
23
25
28
31
35
38
42
46
50
54
58
63
68
73
78
84
89
96
102
109
115
123
130
138
146
154
163
172
182
191
202
212
223
234
246
258
271
284
297
311
325
71
85
101
118
135
154
174
195
217
241
266
292
320
349
380
412
446
481
518
557
598
640
685
731
780
830
883
938
995
1055
1117
1181
1248
1318
1390
1465
1542
1623
1706
1793
1883
1976
2072
2171
10
12
15
17
20
22
25
28
32
35
39
42
46
51
55
60
65
70
75
81
87
93
99
106
113
120
128
136
144
153
162
171
181
191
202
212
224
235
248
260
273
287
300
315
164
185
207
229
254
279
306
335
364
396
429
463
500
537
577
619
662
707
755
804
856
909
965
1023
1084
1147
1212
1280
1350
1423
1499
1577
1659
1743
1830
1920
2014
2110
2210
2314
2421
2531
2645
2763
24
27
30
33
37
41
44
49
53
57
62
67
72
78
84
90
96
103
109
117
124
132
140
148
157
166
176
186
196
206
217
229
241
253
265
279
292
306
321
336
351
367
384
401
122
141
160
181
203
227
252
278
305
335
365
398
431
467
505
544
585
628
673
720
770
821
875
931
989
1050
1114
1180
1248
1320
1394
1471
1551
1634
1720
1810
1903
1999
2099
2203
2310
2421
2537
2657
18
20
23
26
30
33
36
40
44
49
53
58
63
68
73
79
85
91
98
104
112
119
127
135
144
152
162
171
181
191
202
213
225
237
250
263
276
290
304
319
335
351
368
385
213
237
262
289
317
346
378
411
445
481
520
559
601
645
691
739
789
841
895
952
1011
1073
1137
1203
1273
1344
1419
1496
1577
1660
1746
1836
1928
2024
2123
2226
2332
2441
2554
2671
2792
2916
3045
3177
31
34
38
42
46
50
55
60
65
70
75
81
87
94
100
107
114
122
130
138
147
156
165
175
185
195
206
217
229
241
253
266
280
294
308
323
338
354
370
387
405
423
442
461
146
166
188
211
235
261
289
317
348
380
414
450
487
527
568
612
657
705
755
807
862
919
979
1041
1106
1174
1244
1318
1394
1474
1557
1643
1732
1825
1922
2022
2126
2234
2346
2463
2584
2709
2840
2975
21
24
27
31
34
38
42
46
50
55
60
65
71
76
82
89
95
102
110
117
125
133
142
151
160
170
180
191
202
214
226
238
251
265
279
293
308
324
340
357
375
393
412
431
205
228
253
279
307
336
366
398
432
468
505
544
585
628
673
719
768
819
873
928
986
1046
1109
1174
1242
1312
1385
1461
1539
1621
1705
1792
1883
1976
2073
2174
2277
2384
2495
2609
2727
2849
2975
3104
30
33
37
40
44
49
53
58
63
68
73
79
85
91
98
104
111
119
127
135
143
152
161
170
180
190
201
212
223
235
247
260
273
287
301
315
330
346
362
378
396
413
431
450
144
164
186
209
233
258
285
314
344
376
409
445
482
521
562
604
649
696
746
797
851
907
966
1027
1091
1158
1227
1299
1374
1453
1534
1619
1706
1798
1893
1991
2093
2199
2309
2424
2543
2666
2794
2927
21
24
27
30
34
37
41
46
50
55
59
64
70
76
81
88
94
101
108
116
123
132
140
149
158
168
178
188
199
211
222
235
247
261
274
289
304
319
335
352
369
387
405
425
263
290
318
348
380
413
448
485
523
563
606
650
696
745
795
848
903
961
1021
1083
1148
1215
1286
1359
1435
1513
1595
1680
1768
1860
1954
2053
2154
2260
2369
2483
2600
2722
2848
2978
3114
3255
3402
3555
38
42
46
51
55
60
65
70
76
82
88
94
101
108
115
123
131
139
148
157
166
176
186
197
208
220
231
244
256
270
283
298
312
328
344
360
377
395
413
432
452
472
493
516
263
290
318
348
379
413
448
484
523
563
605
649
696
744
795
847
902
960
1020
1082
1147
1214
1284
1357
1433
1512
1594
1679
1767
1858
1953
2051
2152
2258
2367
2480
2598
2720
2846
2976
3112
3254
3401
3554
38
42
46
50
55
60
65
70
76
82
88
94
101
108
115
123
131
139
148
157
166
176
186
197
208
219
231
243
256
269
283
297
312
328
343
360
377
394
413
432
451
472
493
515
125
145
166
189
214
240
267
297
328
361
396
433
472
514
557
603
652
703
756
812
871
933
998
1066
1137
1211
1289
1370
1454
1542
1634
1730
1829
1933
2040
2152
2269
2389
2514
2644
2779
2918
3063
3212
18
21
24
27
31
35
39
43
48
52
57
63
69
75
81
88
95
102
110
118
126
135
145
155
165
176
187
199
211
224
237
251
265
280
296
312
329
347
365
383
403
423
444
466
2122
2258
2400
2547
2701
2862
3029
3203
3384
3572
3768
3971
4182
4401
4628
4864
5110
5364
5628
5902
6186
6482
6791
7112
308
328
348
369
392
415
439
465
491
518
546
576
607
638
671
706
741
778
816
856
897
940
985
1032
-16
-14
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
Use Dew pressure for superheat calculations and Bubble pressure for sub-cooling calculations
Red figures under kPa are negative kilopascals gauge and red figures under psi are inches of mercury
384
| Section 8
www.actrol.com.au
Subject to change without notice | © 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564
Properties of Refrigerants
Refrigerant
R11
R12
R13
R13B1
R14
R22
R23
R113
R114
R115
R123
R134a
Boiling Point at 101 kPa °C
23.8
-29.8
-81.4
-57.7
-127.9
-40.8
-80.1
47.6
3.6
-39.1
27.9
-26.1
Temp. Glide at 101 kPa K
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Critical Temperature °C
198
111.8
28.8
67.1
-45.7
96.2
26.3
214.1
145.7
79.9
183.7
101.1
Critical Pressure kPa
4467
4120
3870
3960
3750
4990
4833
3437
3250
3150
3670
4060
Latent Heat of Vapourisation at 101 kPa kj/kg
180.3
165.4
149.7
119.1
136
233.8
238.8
146.8
136.3
126.3
171.6
216.1
Vapour Pressure at 25°C kPa
1.056
651.3
3550
1619.6
3280
1043.7
4732
44
213.4
911.1
91.4
664
Liquid Density at 25°C kg/m3
1476
1310
1290
1537.82
1320
1193.8
870
1580
1456.3
1284
1462.3
1206.3
Vapour Density at 101 kPa kg/m3
5.794
6.248
6.857
8.611
7.72
4.645
4.62
7.38
7.737
8.271
6.336
5.213
Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP)
1
1
1
12
0
0.04
0
0.09
0
0.4
0.014
0
Global Warming Potential (GWP) (CO2=1)
4000
8500
11700
5600
6500
1700
11700
5000
9200
9320
93
1300
Flammability Limit at 25°C
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Refrigerant
R141B
R142b
R152a
Boiling Point at 101 kPa °C
32.2
-9.1
-24
R290
R401A
Propane
-42.1
-33.1
R401B
R402A
R402B
R403B
R404A
R406A
R407B
-34.7
-49.2
-47.4
-49.5
-46.5
-32.4
-43.7
Temp. Glide at 101 kPa K
0
0
0
0
6.4
6
1.6 - 2
1.6 - 2
2.6
0.5
9.4
4.4
Critical Temperature °C
204.4
137.2
113.3
125.2
108
106.1
75.5
82.6
90
72.1
114.5
75.8
Critical Pressure kPa
4250
4120
4520
4250
4600
4680
4130
4450
5090
3730
4584
4160
Latent Heat of Vapourisation at 101 kPa kj/kg
224.3
223
337.7
428.1
228.3
229.8
190.8
207.9
185.5
200.3
244.9
201.3
Vapour Pressure at 25°C kPa
78.5
337.7
614.3
924.1
697.8
749.1
1394.1
1277
1274
1236.6
542
1168.6
Liquid Density at 25°C kg/m
1234.9
1108.5
899.2
439.7
1195.2 1193.91 1156.28 1160.4
1150.6
1043.9
1085.6
1171.07
Vapour Density at 101 kPa kg/m3
4.765
4.785
3.315
2.368
4.777
4.734
5.639
5.182
5.682
5.342
4.425
5.512
3
Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP)
0.1
0
0
0.03
0.032
0.018
0.026
0.027
0
0.041
0
Global Warming Potential (GWP) (CO2=1)
630
2000
140
3
1120
1230
2380
2080
2640
3850
1700
2300
Liquid None
Vapour in Air
by Vol.
5.6/17.7
9.6%
4.8%
Flammability Limit at 25°C
2.4%
None
None
None
None
None
None
Worst case of
Fractionation
flammable
None
Section 8 |
© 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564 | Subject to change without notice
385
www.actrol.com.au
Properties of Refrigerants
Refrigerant
R407C R408A
KLEA 66 FX10
R409A
FX56
R409B
FX57
R410A
AZ20
R413A
ISCEON 49
R500
R502
R503
R507
AZ50
R600a
R717
Butane Ammonia
Boiling Point at 101 kPa °C
-43.6
-43.5
-34.2
-36.6
-51.4
-35
-33.5
-45.4
-88.7
-46.7
-11.8
-33.3
Temp. Glide at 101 kPa K
7.2
0.7
7.1
7.7
0
7.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Critical Temperature °C
87.3
83.5
107
116
84.9
101.3
105.5
82.2
19.5
70.9
135
133
Critical Pressure kPa
4820
4340
4500
4700
4950
4110
4420
4075
4340
3793
3631
11417
Latent Heat of Vapourisation at 101 kPa kj/kg
250.1
227.2
220.2
220.3
271.6
214.6
201
172
179.4
196.1
355.2
Vapour Pressure at 25°C kPa
1002.8
1147.9
644
692
1646.9
717.1
770
1160
4290
1286
351.8
Liquid Density at 25°C kg/m3
1139.22
1062.1
1215.9
1228.4
1083.8
1169.6
1160
1220
1230
1041.6
552.3
Vapour Density at 101 kPa kg/m3
4.507
4.712
4.91
4.881
4.064
5.272
5.3
4.79
6.03
5.449
4.392
Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP)
0
0.019
0.04
0.039
0
0
0.605
0.224
0.599
0
0
0
Global Warming Potential (GWP) (CO2=1)
1370
3060
1530
1510
1300
1510
5210
5590
11700
3900
3
1
None
None
None
15%
None
Worst case of
Fractionation
flammable
1.7%
None
None
None
None
None
Flammability Limit at 25°C
Variation in Composition of Blended Refrigerants in Case of Leakage
In the following, we make the distinction between:
• Non azeotropic mixtures (having a high temperature glide* typically higher than 3K)
• Near azeotropic mixtures (having a low temperature glide typically lower than 3K)
• Azeotropic mixtures (having a temperature glide equal to zero K)
R404A and R408A are near azeotropic mixtures with a glide lower than 1 K.
The composition of the mixtures does not change when a leak occurs in a homogeneous phase. That is the case at the evaporator outlet
(superheated vapour) or at the condenser outlet (subcooled liquid).
By contrast, marked differences of behaviour appear between the different types of mixtures during a leak in the two phase region equilibrium.
For non-azeotropic mixtures, the ‘more volatile’ components escape in preceding order, altering to a great extent the composition of the mixture
remaining in the installation, resulting in change of performance.
For near azeotropic or real azeotropic mixtures, leak rates of all components of the mixture are very close; thus during a leakage, composition of
refrigerant remaining in the installation is not affected significantly.
For all blended refrigerants it is stated by some manufacturers that after a leakage of 50% of the initial charge, changes in composition are less than
3% by weight.
Blended refrigerants must always be introduced in the liquid phase in the installation. Introduction in the gas phase, at the compressor suction, may
increase the charging time of the installation and may alter performance of the mixture charged.
*For a non-azeotropic mixture the change process liquid vapour occurs over a range of temperatures (glide).
386
| Section 8
www.actrol.com.au
Subject to change without notice | © 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564
Properties of Refrigerants
General Rules for Handling Fluorocarbon
Refrigerants and Nitrogen
Legislation
All purchasers and users of refrigerants should be aware of, and
conversant with, the requirements of the Ozone Protection and Synthetic
Greenhouse Gas Management Regulations and/or any other state or
federal legislation.
Safety Equipment
Goggles or face shields, gloves and safety footwear must be worn when
filling cylinders, coupling up storage vessels and/or handling bulk fills so
as to prevent eye damage or burns should a coupling give way or a line
burst.
Store Cylinders Upright
Store cylinders in a cool, dry place, away from direct sources of heat. A
well ventilated area will ensure that no build up of gas can occur should
a cylinder leak or relief valve unseat.
Do Not Force Connections
Cylinder connections should fit easily and snugly. Never force them. Use
correct tools. Stripped threads can cause leaks and possible loss of
refrigerant.
Handle Cylinders Carefully
Cylinders should not be used for ‘rollers’ or supports. Cuts and
abrasions may result. Care in handling cylinders will prolong their life.
Read Labels
Because colour of cylinders cannot be relied upon for positive
identification, labels should always be read carefully. Colour blindness
might interfere with proper identification. If still in doubt, other methods
of identification are available from the manufacturer/supplier.
Visual Examination
Each time a cylinder is returned or delivered for re-charging, it should
be carefully examined for evidence of corrosion, cuts, dents, bulges,
condition of threads, valves, etc, to ensure suitability for further service.
State Codes also provide for examination and testing of cylinders to
ensure their continued use.
Ventilation
Since many materials such as soldering flux, oil, dirt and all refrigerants
decompose at the flame temperatures used in soldering, the area in
which repair is carried out should be properly ventilated to remove
the products of decomposition and combustion of all materials. An
adequately ventilated work area is good practice at any time, but
especially when an open flame of a leak detector or welding torch is to
be used in the presence of ‘fluorocarbon’ refrigerants.
Check Pressure
The pressure within the cylinder must be greater than in the system
to cause the refrigerant to flow into the system. Pressure should be
checked before charging.
Main Hazards
Nitrogen is non toxic, inert and inflammable. It comprises 78.09%vol of
the air we breathe however; high concentrations in confined spaces may
result in unconsciousness without symptoms. Nitrogen is stored at high
pressure - 20,000kPa at 15°C.
Storage and Handling
• Protect the cylinders and valves from physical damage, whether
empty or full.
• Secure cylinders in an upright position.
• Store below 50°C in clean, well ventilated areas, away from from
combustible materials and heat sources.
• Ensure all devices, including fittings and regulators, are free from dust,
oil and grease.
• Always open the valve fully to activate the back seat valve which helps
to prevent leakage.
• Close valves fully when not in use.
• Check regularly for leaks.
• Do not attempt to transfer contents from one cylinder to another.
• Only regulators, manifolds and ancillary equipment, rated for the
appropriate pressure and compatible with the relevant gas, shall be
connected to or downstream of these cylinders.
Never Transfer
Refrigerant cylinders are labelled and identified for a particular refrigerant.
Never put a different refrigerant into a cylinder labelled for another
refrigerant.
Keep Away from Fire
No part of any cylinder should ever be subjected to direct flame, steam
or temperatures exceeding 50°C. If necessary to warm cylinder to
promote more rapid discharge, extreme caution should be taken – an
easy and safe way is to place bottom part of cylinder in a container of
warm or hot water not over 50°C.
Section 8 |
© 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564 | Subject to change without notice
387
www.actrol.com.au
Refrigerant Line Sizing
Pipe Sizing Criteria
Pipe sizing choices for refrigeration typically represent a compromise between conflicting objectives. Minimisation of pressure drops in suction and discharge
vapour piping is important since these translate directly to losses in system cooling capacity. Such pressure losses also necessitate higher thermodynamic lifts at
the compressor with consequent C.O.P. penalties. Pressure losses in liquid lines can result in loss of subcooling, formation of vapour bubbles and potentially erratic
and damaging impacts on the smooth functioning of the system. Piping must thus be sized generously enough to limit frictional flow losses, however, sizes must
simultaneously be sufficiently small to maintain adequate flow velocities to physically entrain oil droplets in the refrigerant stream.
This reduces the risk of oil trapping and slugging and assures a positive supply of lubricant in the compressor crankcase. Other incentives for pipe size limitation include
a minimum refrigerant charge and reduction of first cost. Courtesy of Allied Signal.
R22- Suction Line
Refrigeration
Capacity: kW
4
7.5
0.88
1.76
2.64
3.52
5.28
7.03
8.79
10.55
12.3
14.07
15.83
17.59
21.1
26.38
35.17
43.96
52.76
61.55
70.34
87.93
3/
8
3/
8
1/
2
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
R22
Refrigeration
Capacity: kW
0.88
1.32
1.91
2.49
3.52
5.28
7.03
8.79
10.55
12.3
14.07
15.83
17.59
21.1
26.38
35.17
43.96
52.76
61.55
70.34
87.93
15
3/
8
1/
2
1/
2
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
-7
30
3/
8
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
45
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
Discharge Line
7.5
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
1/2
1/2
5/
8
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
15
30
3/
3/
1/2
1/2
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
8
3/
8
1/2
1/2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
8
1/2
1/2
11/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
11/8
25/8
45
7.5
3/
8
1/
2
1/
2
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
1/
4
1/
4
1/
4
1/
4
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
1/2
11/8
11/8
1/2
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
11/8
1/2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
21/8
21/8
30
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
1/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
45
1/
2
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
25/8
1/2
1/2
1/
2
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
1/
2
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
1/
8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
5/
8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
25/8
31/8
5/
8
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
3/
8
13/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
25/8
25/8
25/8
31/8
31/8
-29
7.5
1/
2
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
25/8
Data based on 1.1K maximum pressure drop equivalent.
Liquid Line
Equivalent Length: Metres
7.5
15
30*
45
3/
8
1/2
1/2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
15
3/
8
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
Evaporating Temperature: °C
-18
Equivalent Length: Metres
7.5
15
30
45
1/
4
1/
4
1/
4
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
5/
8
5/
8
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
1/
4
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
1/2
1/2
1/2
5/
8
5/
8
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
1/
4
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
1/2
1/2
1/2
5/
8
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
25/8
31/8
-40
30
5/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
25/8
25/8
31/8
31/8
31/8
45
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
25/8
25/8
31/8
31/8
31/8
35/8
7.5
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
25/8
25/8
31/8
31/8
15
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
25/8
31/8
31/8
31/8
35/8
30
7/
8
11/8
11/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
31/8
31/8
31/8
35/8
35/8
35/8
41/8
45
7/
8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
31/8
31/8
31/8
31/8
35/8
35/8
41/8
51/8
Hot Gas Line **
7.5
3/
8
1/2
1/2
1/2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
15
30
45
8
1/2
1/2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
1/2
1/2
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
1/2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
3/
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
-
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
-
-
-
-
-
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
-
-
-
-
-
-
Copper tube sizes are: OD in inches.
388
| Section 8
www.actrol.com.au
Subject to change without notice | © 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564
Refrigerant Line Sizing
R410A- Suction Line
Evaporating Temperature: deg.C
4
Refrigeration
Capacity: kW
-7
-18
-29
-40
Equivalent Length: Meters
7.5
15
30
45
7.5
15
30
45
7.5
15
30
45
7.5
15
30
45
7.5
15
30
45
0.88
3/
3/
3/
1/
3/
3/
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
1/
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
1/
2
1/
2
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
25/8
1/
2
5/
8
3/
4
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
1/
2
5/
8
3/
4
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
11/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
15/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
3/
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
1/
2
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
5/
1/
3/
8
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
25/8
5/
3/
1/
2
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
25/8
1/
1.76
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
4
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
3/
4
3/
4
11/8
11/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
3
3
3
4
3
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
-
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
-
-
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
-
-
-
-
2.64
3.52
5.28
7.03
8.79
10.55
12.3
14.07
15.83
17.59
21.1
26.38
35.17
43.96
52.76
61.55
70.34
87.93
8
8
1/
2
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
8
2
1/
2
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
8
2
8
2
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
8
3/4
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
25/8
3/4
2
8
8
3
Data based on 1.1K maximum pressure drop equivalent.
R410A
Refrigeration
Capacity: kW
Discharge Line
Liquid line
* Line sizes are suitable for Condenser to
Receiver application.
Hot Gas Line**
Equivalent Length: Meters
7.5
15
30
45
7.5
15
30
45
7.5
15
30
45
0.88
1/
1/
1/
1/
1/
1/
1.32
1/
1/
1/
1/
1/
1/
4
1/
4
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
1/
2
1/
2
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
1/
4
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
1/
1/
1/
4
1/
4
1/
4
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
1/
2
1/
2
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
3/
8
3/
8
1/
2
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
3/
8
3/
8
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
7/
8
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
3/
8
1/
2
1/
2
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.91
2.49
3.53
5.28
7.03
8.79
10.55
12.3
14.07
15.83
17.59
21.1
26.38
35.17
43.96
52.76
61.55
70.34
87.93
4
4
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
1/
2
1/
2
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
4
4
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
1/
2
1/
2
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
4
4
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
1/
2
1/
2
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
4
4
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
1/
2
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
4
4
1/
4
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
1/
2
1/
2
1/
2
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
4
4
1/
4
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
1/
2
1/
2
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
4
**For suction temperatures less than -29°C,
the next larger line size must be used.
Copper tube sizes are: OD in inches.
Section 8 |
© 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564 | Subject to change without notice
389
www.actrol.com.au
Refrigerant Line Sizing
R134a
Refrigeration
Capacity: kW
7.5
SUCTION LINE Sizes to Limit Pressure Drop to 1.1K Equivalent
4°C Evap.
-18°C Evap.
-40°C Evap.
Equivalent Length: Metres
15
30
7.5
15
30
7.5
15
30
1/
8
2
1/
1/
7.5
3/
3/
7/
11/
3/
4
4
8
8
8
1
5
5
5
3
7
1
1
13
3
1.76
/2
/8
/8
/8
/4
/8
1 /8
1 /8
/8
/8
5/
5/
3/
3/
7/
13/
1/
2.64
11/8
11/8
15/8
8
8
4
4
8
8
2
5
3
3
7
1
1
3
3
5
1
3.52
/8
/4
/4
/8
1 /8
1 /8
1 /8
1 /8
1 /8
/2
3/
7/
7/
5/
5.28
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
21/8
4
8
8
8
3/
7/
1/
1/
3/
5/
5/
1/
1/
5/
7.03
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
4
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
7/
3/
10.55
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
8
4
1
3
3
5
5
1
1
5
1
7
17.59
1 /8
1 /8
1 /8
1 /8
1 /8
2 /8
2 /8
2 /8
3 /8
/8
26.38
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
31/8
35/8
11/8
3
5
1
1
1
5
1
1
5
35.17
1 /8
1 /8
2 /8
2 /8
2 /8
2 /8
3 /8
3 /8
3 /8
11/8
52.76
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
31/8
35/8
35/8
51/8
13/8
1
1
5
5
1
1
5
1
1
70.34
2 /8
2 /8
2 /8
2 /8
3 /8
3 /8
3 /8
4 /8
5 /8
13/8
1
1
5
5
1
5
1
1
1
87.93
2 /8
2 /8
2 /8
2 /8
3 /8
3 /8
4 /8
5 /8
5 /8
15/8
1
5
5
1
1
5
1
1
1
105.5
2 /8
2 /8
2 /8
3 /8
3 /8
3 /8
4 /8
5 /8
6 /8
15/8
5
5
1
1
5
1
1
1
1
140.7
2 /8
2 /8
3 /8
3 /8
3 /8
4 /8
5 /8
6 /8
6 /8
21/8
Data based on 49°C condensing. Copper tubing sizes are: OD in inches.
0.88
3/
DISCHARGE LINE Sizes
for 0.56K Equivalent
2
5/
2
8
R404A and R507
Refrigeration
Capacity: kW
7.5
SUCTION LINE Sizes to Limit Pressure Drop to 1.1K Equivalent
4°C Evap.
-18°C Evap.
-40°C Evap.
Equivalent Length: Metres
15
30
7.5
15
30
7.5
15
30
3/
1/
1/
1/
5/
3/
3/
7/
8
2
2
2
8
4
4
8
1
5
5
5
3
7
1
1.76
/2
/8
/8
/8
/4
/8
1 /8
11/8
5/
5/
3/
3/
7/
13/
2.64
11/8
11/8
8
8
4
4
8
8
5
3
3
7
1
1
3
3.52
/8
/4
/4
/8
1 /8
1 /8
1 /8
13/8
3/
7/
7/
5.28
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
4
8
8
3/
7/
7.03
11/8
11/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
4
8
7/
1/
1/
3/
3/
5/
1/
10.55
1
1
1
1
1
2
21/8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
1
3
3
5
5
1
1
17.59
1 /8
1 /8
1 /8
1 /8
1 /8
2 /8
2 /8
25/8
3
3
5
5
1
5
5
26.38
1 /8
1 /8
1 /8
1 /8
2 /8
2 /8
2 /8
31/8
3
5
1
1
1
5
1
35.17
1 /8
1 /8
2 /8
2 /8
2 /8
2 /8
3 /8
31/8
5
1
1
1
5
1
5
52.76
1 /8
2 /8
2 /8
2 /8
2 /8
3 /8
3 /8
35/8
70.34
21/8
21/8
25/8
25/8
31/8
31/8
35/8
41/8
1
1
5
5
1
5
1
87.93
2 /8
2 /8
2 /8
2 /8
3 /8
3 /8
4 /8
51/8
1
5
5
1
1
5
1
105.5
2 /8
2 /8
2 /8
3 /8
3 /8
3 /8
4 /8
51/8
5
5
1
1
5
1
1
140.7
2 /8
2 /8
3 /8
3 /8
3 /8
4 /8
5 /8
61/8
Data based on 49°C condensing. 11/
0.88
8
13/
8
15/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
31/8
35/8
35/8
51/8
51/8
51/8
61/8
61/8
LIQUID LINE Sizes for
0.56K Equivalent
15
30
7.5
3/
8
1/
2
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
3/
8
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
1/
2
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
DISCHARGE LINE Sizes
for 0.56K Equivalent
15
30
3/
3/
8
8
3/
3/
8
8
3/
3/
8
8
3/
3/
8
8
3/
1/
8
2
3/
1/
8
2
1/
5/
2
8
5/
3/
8
4
3/
3/
4
4
3/
7/
4
8
7/
1/
1
8
8
11/8
11/8
11/8
11/8
1
1 /8
13/8
3
1 /8
13/8
Courtesy of Allied Signal
LIQUID LINE Sizes for
0.56K Equivalent
7.5
15
30
7.5
3/
8
3/
8
1/
2
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
15/8
21/8
3/
8
1/
2
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
11/8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
3/
8
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
13/8
13/8
15/8
21/8
21/8
21/8
25/8
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
3/
8
1/
2
1/
2
5/
8
5/
8
3/
4
7/
8
7/
8
11/8
11/8
15
30
3/
3/
8
8
3/
3/
8
8
3/
3/
8
8
3/
3/
8
8
3/
1/
8
2
3/
1/
8
2
1/
5/
2
8
5/
3/
8
4
3/
3/
4
4
3/
7/
4
8
7/
11/8
8
11/8
11/8
1
1 /8
11/8
1
1 /8
13/8
3
1 /8
13/8
Courtesy of Allied Signal
Copper tubing sizes are: OD in inches.
Equivalent Length of Pipe: Metres - For Valves and fittings
Line Size Outside Dia. Inches
1/
Globe Valve (Open)
4.3
Angle Valve (Open)
2.1
Standard Elbow 90°
Standard Elbow 45°
Standard Tee (Through Side Out.)
390
7/
11/8
4.9
6.7
2.7
3.7
0.3
0.6
0.3
0.3
0.9
1.2
2
5/
8
13/8
15/8
1/
8.5
11
12.8
4.6
5.5
6.4
0.6
0.9
1.2
0.3
0.6
0.6
1.5
1.8
2.4
8
25/8
31/8
17.4
21
25.3
8.5
10.4
12.8
1.2
1.5
2.1
2.4
0.6
0.6
0.9
1.2
2.7
3.7
4.3
5.2
6.1
2
35/8
41/8
51/8
61/8
81/8
101/8
121/8
30.2
36
42.1
51.2
68.6
85.3
102
14.9
17.4
21.3
25.3
35.7
42.7
50.3
3
3.7
4.3
4.9
6.1
7.9
9.4
1.5
1.8
2.1
2.4
3
4
4.9
6.7
8.5
10.4
13.4
17.1
19.8
Values shown are average
| Section 8
www.actrol.com.au
Subject to change without notice | © 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564
Refrigerant Line Design
Good refrigeration line design and line sizing is essential to ensure refrigeration systems operate reliably and efficiently.
The designer must satisfy the following:
Discharge Line
• Minimise pressure losses in the line
• Horizontal lines should be pitched in the direction of flow at 12mm every 3m
• Avoid oil being trapped during times of low load
• Prevent back flow of liquid refrigerant or oil to the compressor at times of low load or shut down.
• Minimise transmission of compressor vibration and dampen vapour pulsations and noise in the line.
Condenser to Receiver Liquid Drain Line
• Allow liquid to freely drain to liquid receiver while providing vapour pressure to equalize in the other direction
Condenser
Condenser
Condenser
Should be at
least 1.8m
Liquid Receiver
Discharge and
Liquid Drain Lines
for Double Circuited
Condenser
Compressor
Single Riser Discharge Line
Liquid Receiver
Compressor
Double Riser Discharge Line
Liquid Line
Evaporator
• Minimise pressure losses in the line to prevent flash gas entering the expansion device
• Minimise heat gain to the liquid refrigerant
• Prevent liquid hammer where multiple evaporators are used
Evaporator
Evaporator
Evaporator
Evaporator
Equal liquid head provides even
pressure to each expansion valve
Evaporator
Minimum 200mm extension to stop liquid hammer
and eliminate expansion stress on elbow
Liquid Line to Horizontal Evaporators
Condensing Unit
Liquid Receiver
Liquid Line to Vertically Stacked Evaporators
Section 8 |
© 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564 | Subject to change without notice
391
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Refrigerant Line Design
Good refrigeration line design and line sizing is essential to ensure refrigeration systems operate reliably and efficiently.
The designer must satisfy the following:
Suction Line
• Minimise pressure losses in the line
• Horizontal lines should be pitched in the direction of flow at 12mm every 3m
• Return the oil to the compressor under all load conditions
• Prevent oil draining from active to inactive evaporators when multiple evaporators are used
• Minimise transmission of compressor vibration and dampen vapour pulsations and noise in the line
• Minimise heat gain into the refrigerant vapour and eliminate condensation on the outer surface of the line
Compressor Above
Evaporators
Evaporator
Evaporator
Evaporator
Compressor Above
Evaporator
Compressor Below
Evaporators
Horizontal suction line pitched
towards compressor at 12mm per 3m
Evaporator
Compressor Below
Evaporator
Evaporator
Evaporator
Evaporator
Compressor Below
Evaporators
Trapped Riser
The trapped riser is used in systems with minimal capacity control. The trapped riser is used in vapour lines, both suction and discharge to ensure the
oil is carried with the refrigerant vapour up the riser.
Note: the maximum distance between traps is 4.5 metres.
Double Riser
The double rise is used in systems with a wide range of capacity control. The double riser is also used in vapour lines, both suction and discharge to
ensure the oil is carried with the refrigerant vapour.
Larger Riser
4.5m Maximum
Smaller Riser
Trapped Riser
392
6m Maximum
Note: the maximum distance between traps is 6 meters. The smaller riser is sized at the minimum compressor capacity and the larger riser is sized at the maximum compressor capacity minus
the minimum compressor capacity so the combination of the two lines is equal to the maximum compressor capacity.
Double Riser
| Section 8
www.actrol.com.au
Subject to change without notice | © 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564
Copper Tube - Safe Working Pressures
Australian Standard AS/NZS 1571 Copper
Seamless Tubes for Air-conditioning and Refrigeration
Standard sizes and data for straight copper tubes
Outside
Diameter (mm)
Wall Thickness
(mm)
Imperial Equivalent
O.D. and swg
Nominal
Weight (kg/m)
Form
Temper
6.35
0.91
0.139
6m straight
9.53
0.91
0.220
6m straight
12.70
0.91
0.301
12.70
1.02
15.88
0.91
1/ “ x 20
4
3/ “ x 20
8
1/ “ x 20
2
1/ “ x 19
2
5/8“ x 20
15.88
19.05
19.05
Safe Working Pressure (kPa) at service temperature
50°C
55°C
60°C
65°C
70°C
H
12142
11431
10907
10528
10256
H
7710
7258
6925
6685
6512
6m straight
1/2H
5653
5322
5078
4901
4774
0.335
6m straight
1/2H
6389
6015
5739
5540
5396
0.383
6m straight
1/2H
4459
4198
4006
3766
3766
1.02
5/8“ x 19
0.426
6m straight
1/2H
5031
4737
4519
4362
4249
0.91
3/4“ x 20
0.464
6m straight
1/2H
3684
3468
3309
3194
3111
1.02
3/4“ x 19
0.517
6m straight
1/2H
4152
3909
3729
3600
3507
19.05
1.14
3/4“ x 18.5
0.573
6m straight
1/2H
4670
4510
4350
4190
4030
22.23
0.91
7/8“ x 20
0.545
6m straight
1/2H
3137
2953
2818
2720
2649
22.23
1.22
7/8“ x 18
0.720
6m straight
1/2H
4261
4011
3827
3694
3599
22.23
1.63
7/8“ x 16
0.943
6m straight
H
5794
5455
5204
5024
4894
25.40
0.91
1“ x 20
0.626
6m straight
H
2732
2572
2454
2369
2308
25.40
1.22
1“ x 18
0.829
6m straight
H
3705
3488
3328
3212
3129
25.40
1.63
1.088
6m straight
H
5026
4732
4515
4358
4245
28.57
0.91
0.707
6m straight
H
2420
2278
2174
2098
2044
28.57
1.22
0.937
6m straight
H
3277
3086
2944
2842
2768
28.57
1.83
1.374
6m straight
H
5016
4723
4506
4350
4237
31.75
0.91
0.788
6m straight
H
2171
2044
1950
1883
1834
31.75
1.22
1.046
6m straight
H
2937
2765
2639
2547
2481
31.75
2.03
1.694
6m straight
H
5007
4714
4497
4341
4229
34.92
0.91
0.869
6m straight
H
1969
1854
1769
1708
1663
34.92
1.22
1.155
6m straight
H
2662
2506
2391
2308
2248
34.92
2.03
1.875
6m straight
H
4527
4262
4067
3925
3824
38.10
0.91
0.951
6m straight
H
1801
1696
1618
1562
1522
38.10
1.22
1.264
6m straight
H
2433
2291
2186
2110
2055
41.27
0.91
1.032
6m straight
H
1660
1563
1491
1440
1402
41.27
1.22
1.372
6m straight
H
2241
2110
2013
1943
1893
2.630
6m straight
H
4549
4282
4086
3944
3842
1.113
6m straight
H
1539
1449
1383
1335
1300
41.27
2.41
44.45
0.91
44.45
1.22
1“ x 16
1
1 /8“ x 20
11/8“ x 18
11/8“ x 15
11/4“ x 20
11/4“ x 18
11/4“ x 14
13/8“ x 20
13/8“ x 18
13/8“ x 14
11/2“ x 20
11/2“ x 18
15/8“ x 20
15/8“ x 18
15/8“ x 12.5
13/4“ x 20
13/4“ x 18
1.481
6m straight
H
2077
1955
1866
1801
1754
50.80
0.91
2“ x 20
1.275
6m straight
H
1344
1265
1207
1165
1135
50.80
1.22
2“ x 18
1.699
6m straight
H
1812
1705
1627
1571
1530
50.80
1.63
2“ x 16
2.251
6m straight
H
2438
2296
2190
2114
2060
53.97
0.91
1.356
6m straight
H
1264
1190
1135
1096
1067
53.97
1.22
1.807
6m straight
H
1703
1603
1530
1477
1438
53.97
1.63
2.396
6m straight
H
2291
2157
2058
1987
1935
66.68
1.22
2.243
6m straight
H
1373
1293
1233
1190
1160
66.68
1.63
21/8“ x 20
21/8“ x 18
21/8“ x 16
25/8“ x 18
25/8“ x 16
2.978
6m straight
H
1845
1737
1657
1599
1558
76.20
1.63
3“ x 16
3.414
6m straight
H
1610
1515
1446
1396
1360
101.60
1.63
4“ x 16
4.577
6m straight
H
1201
1131
1079
1042
1015
Denotes R410A rated tube. Courtesy of Crane Enfield Metals Pty Ltd
Section 8 |
© 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564 | Subject to change without notice
393
www.actrol.com.au
Copper Tube - Safe Working Pressures
Australian Standard AS/NZS 1571 Copper
Seamless Tubes for Air-conditioning and Refrigeration
Standard sizes and data for straight copper tubes
Outside
Diameter (mm)
4.76
4.76
4.76
6.35
6.35
6.35
6.35
7.94
7.94
7.94
9.53
9.53
9.53
12.70
12.70
12.70
12.70
15.88
15.88
15.88
15.88
15.88
19.05
19.05
19.05
22.23
Wall Thickness
(mm)
0.56
0.71
0.91
0.56
0.71
0.91
1.22
0.56
0.71
0.91
0.56
0.71
0.91
0.56
0.71
0.81
0.91
0.56
0.71
0.81
0.91
1.02
0.71
0.91
1.14
0.91
Pair Coil Specifications
Outside
Diameter (mm)
6.35
9.52
6.35
12.70
6.35
15.88
9.52
15.88
9.52
19.05
12.70
19.05
Wall Thickness
(mm)
0.81
0.81
0.81
0.81
0.81
1.02
0.81
1.02
0.81
1.22
0.81
1.22
Imperial Equivalent
O.D. and swg
31/6 “ x 24
31/6 “ x 22
31/6 “ x 20
1/ “ x 24
4
1/ “ x 22
4
1/ “ x 20
4
1/ “ x 18
4
51/6 “ x 24
51/6 “ x 22
51/6 “ x 20
3/ “ x 24
8
3/ “ x 22
8
3/ “ x 20
8
1/ “ x 24
2
1/ “ x 22
2
1/ “ x 21
2
1/ “ x 20
2
5/ “ x 24
8
5/ “ x 22
8
5/ “ x 21
8
5/ “ x 20
8
5/ “ x 19
8
3/ “ x 22
4
3/ “ x 20
4
3/ “ x 18.5
4
7/ “ x 20
8
Nominal
Weight (kg/m)
0.066
0.081
0.098
0.091
0.112
0.139
0.176
0.116
0.144
0.180
0.141
0.176
0.220
0.191
0.239
0.270
0.301
0.241
0.303
0.343
0.383
0.426
0.366
0.464
0.573
0.545
Imperial Equivalent
O.D. and swg
1/ “ x 21
4
3/ “ x 21
8
1/ “ x 21
4
1/ “ x 21
2
1/ “ x 21
4
5/ “ x 19
8
3/ “ x 21
8
5/ “ x 19
8
3/ “ x 21
8
3/ “ x 18
4
1/ “ x 21
2
3/ “ x 18
4
Nominal
Weight (kg/m)
0.126
0.198
0.126
0.270
0.126
0.426
0.198
0.426
0.198
0.611
0.270
0.611
Form
Temper
30m Coil
30m Coil
30m Coil
30m Coil
30m Coil
30m Coil
30m Coil
30m Coil
30m Coil
30m Coil
18m Coil
18m Coil
18m Coil
18m Coil
18m Coil
18m Coil
18m Coil
18m Coil
18m Coil
18m Coil
18m Coil
18m Coil
18m Coil
18m Coil
18m Coil
18m Coil
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Form
Temper
20m Coil
0
Safe Working Pressure (kPa) at service temperature
50oC
55oC
60oC
65oC
70oC
9711
12715
17041
7069
9175
12142
17143
5558
7177
9431
4579
5893
7710
3389
4344
4994
5653
2688
3438
3945
4459
5031
2846
3684
4670
3137
9142
11971
16043
6656
8638
11431
16140
5232
6757
8879
4311
5548
7258
3190
4090
4701
5322
2530
3237
3715
4198
4737
2679
3468
4510
2953
8723
11422
15308
6350
8242
10907
15400
4993
6447
8472
4113
5294
6925
3044
3903
4486
5078
2414
3088
3544
4006
4519
2557
3309
4350
2818
8420
11025
14776
6130
7955
10528
14864
4819
6223
8177
3970
5110
6685
2938
3767
4330
4901
2331
2981
3421
3866
4362
2468
3194
4190
2720
8202
10739
14393
5971
7749
10256
14480
4694
6062
7966
3867
4978
6512
2862
3669
4218
4774
2270
2904
3332
3766
4249
2404
3111
4030
2649
Safe Working Pressure (kPa) at service temperature
50oC
55oC
60oC
65oC
70oC
10635
10012
9553
9221
8982
6800
6402
6108
5896
5743
10635
10012
9553
9221
8982
4994
4701
4486
4330
4218
10635
10012
9553
9221
8982
5031
4737
4519
4362
4249
6800
6402
6108
5896
5743
5031
4737
4519
4362
4249
6800
6402
6108
5896
5743
5015
4722
4505
4349
4236
4994
4701
4486
4330
4218
5015
4722
4505
4349
4236
Interpolation of allowable design stress as defined by table D7 of AS4041 for below temps.
Temperature (oC)
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
75.0
SD (MPa)
41.0
38.6
36.83
35.55
4.63
34.0
Denotes R410A rated tube
Working Pressures
Safe working pressures for copper tube are calculated on the basis of
annealed temper tube with the maximum allowable outside diameter and
minimum wall thickness, thus allowing for softening of the tube due to
brazing or heating. All safe working pressures are based on the following
formula: Psw = 2000 x SD x tm
394
D - tm Where:
Psw = safe working pressure (MPa)
SD
= maximum allowable design stress for annealed copper (MPa)
tm
= minimum wall thickness of tube (mm)
D
= outside diameter or tube (mm)
Courtesy of Crane Enfield Metals Pty Ltd
| Section 8
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Capillary Tube - Conversion Chart
This Conversion Chart is designed to enable users of capillary tubing to use the standard sizes which are readily available through refrigeration wholesalers. While
many original equipment manufacturers and condensing unit manufacturers recommend specific lengths and diameters of capillary tubing for their units, these
tube sizes are not always readily available, except on special order.
This chart enables the user to translate the recommended length into that of a tube diameter that can be readily obtained. In using the chart, it is recommended
that conversions be made using factors falling in the shaded area. In addition, it is highly recommended that the minimum length of capillary used be 1 metre.
To Use Chart:
1. Located ‘Recommended Cap. Tube ID’ in left hand column.
2. Read across and find conversion factor under ‘Possible Capillary Tube ID’ sizes.
3. Multiply the given length of the recommended tube by the conversion factor of the possible tube.
4. The resultant length of tube will give the same flow characteristics as the original recommended tube.
Example: Recommended capillary tube 2 metres of 1.02mm. Locate 1.02mm in left hand column and reading across gives the following conversion factors:
For 0.91mm ID Tubing - Factor 0.62. For 1.1mm ID tubing - Factor 1.55. Multiply the recommended capillary tube length of 2 metres by the conversion factors,
which give the following results: 1.24m of 0.91mm ID and 3.1m of 1.1mm ID. Either of these capillary tubes will give the same results as the original.
Recommended Tube ID
Possible Tube ID – mm (inches)
mm
Inches
0.61
0.024
0.66
(0.026)
1.44
0.64
0.025
1.2
0.66
0.026
1
2.24
0.71
0.028
0.72
1.59
0.76
0.03
0.52
1.16
0.8
0.031
0.45
1
2
0.81
0.032
0.86
1.75
0.84
0.033
0.75
1.54
0.86
0.034
0.65
1.35
0.89
0.035
0.58
1.16
0.91
0.036
0.5
1
0.94
0.037
0.45
0.9
2.22
0.97
0.038
0.39
0.8
1.92
0.99
0.039
0.35
0.71
1.75
1.02
0.04
0.31
0.62
1.55
1.04
0.041
0.28
0.56
1.38
2.5
1.07
0.042
0.25
0.5
1.24
2.23
1.09
0.043
0.23
0.45
1.11
1.98
1.1
0.044
0.2
0.39
1
1.79
1.14
0.045
0.35
0.9
1.6
1.17
0.046
0.32
0.82
1.47
2.27
1.19
0.047
0.74
1.31
2.06
1.22
0.048
0.67
1.2
1.87
1.24
0.049
0.61
1.09
1.69
1.27
0.05
0.56
1
1.56
2.14
1.3
0.051
0.51
0.93
1.44
1.96
1.32
0.052
0.47
0.85
1.32
1.78
1.35
0.053
0.43
0.78
1.2
1.64
1.37
0.054
0.39
0.7
1.09
1.52
1.4
0.055
0.36
0.64
1
1.38
2
1.42
0.056
0.6
0.94
1.27
1.85
1.45
0.057
0.55
0.87
1.17
1.72
1.47
0.058
0.51
0.8
1.07
1.56
1.5
0.059
0.47
0.73
1
1.44
2.18
1.52
0.06
0.43
0.67
0.93
1.33
2.04
1.62
0.064
0.32
0.5
0.69
1
1.5
2.07
1.78
0.07
0.33
0.46
0.67
1
1.37
1.84
1.9
0.075
0.48
0.73
1
1.37
2.04
0.08
0.54
0.74
1
1.71
2.16
0.085
0.57
0.76
1.29
2.3
0.09
0.43
0.62
1
2.41
0.095
0.46
0.79
0.8 (0.031)
0.91
(0.036)
1.1 (0.044) 1.27 (0.05) 1.4 (0.055) 1.5 (0.059)
1.62
(0.064)
1.78 (0.07)
1.9
(0.075)
2.04 (0.08)
2.3 (0.09)
2.18
2.54
0.1
0.62
2.67
0.105
0.49
Section 8 |
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Pressure Regulating Valve
Selection Guide
General Definition
Evaporator Pressure Regulating Valve
Capacity Regulator
Description: Used to maintain a constant evaporating pressure and
hence a constant evaporator temperature plus protection against too low
an evaporating pressure since the regulator closes when the pressure in
the evaporator falls below the setting.
A device for regulating the flow of refrigerant, whether liquid or vapour
in refrigeration and air conditioning systems. This Selection Guide briefly
describes the main types, their common names and application.
It should be remembered that due to the wide variety of control systems
in use, one type of regulator/valve may perform several functions, and
when coupled with other types of control valves (Solenoid Valves, Check
Valves etc.) their application may be extended. Therefore only the more
common applications are detailed below.
Also known as: Hot Gas By-Pass Regulator/Valve, Discharge By-Pass
Regulator/Valve, Discharge Pressure Regulator/Valve. Often abbreviated
to HGBP Regulator/Valve. Description: Used to control the compressor
capacity and prevent suction pressure from falling to objectionably low
levels. May be used in systems with one or more evaporators where
compressor itself has no capacity regulation or can extend compressor
capacity reduction below the last step of cylinder unloading.
Application: By-Pass to Suction Line – piped so that discharge gas is
admitted to the suction line to flow against the direction of the suction
gas. To prevent overheating of the compressor, a liquid injection valve is
sometimes required for de-superheating.
By-Pass to Evaporator Inlet – usually fitted between the TX valve and
the refrigerant distributor. The advantage of this method is that the
artificial load imposed on the evaporator causes the TX valve to respond
to the increase in superheat, thus eliminating the need for the liquid
injection valve. This type of system must be equipped with a Venturi-Flo
Refrigerant Distributor (i.e. no restrictor orifice). It is recommended that a
solenoid valve be installed ahead of the by-pass regulator permitting the
system to operate on an automatic pump-down cycle and also guarding
against leakage during the ‘off-cycle’.
Also used for: By-Pass Control Valve for air-cooled condensers.
Crankcase Pressure Regulating Valve
Also known as: Hold Back Valve, Suction Pressure Regulator, Starting
Regulator, Outlet Regulator, Downstream Regulator. Often abbreviated
to CPRV.
Description: A valve which regulates the suction pressure to a
pre-determined maximum in order to prevent the compressor motor
overloading, which may be due to any or all of the following: High load on
start up, high suction pressure at termination of defrosting cycle, surges
in suction pressure, prolonged operation at excessive suction pressures,
low voltage and high suction pressure conditions.
Application: Installed in the suction line ahead of the compressor,
the valve establishes the maximum pressure at the compressor inlet,
thus providing overload protection for the compressor motor. May be
used with one or more evaporators, either direct expansion or flooded
evaporator designs. Also used for: High to low side by-pass, by-pass
control for air cooled condensers.
Also known as: Back Pressure Regulator / Valve, Constant Pressure
Valve*, Upstream Regulator, Inlet Pressure Regulator, Suction Line
Regulator. Often Abbreviated to: EPR or EPRV.
*Sometimes referred to as a Constant Pressure Regulator, but should
not be confused with the same ‘general’ term applied to an automatic
expansion valve.
Application: Installed in the suction line near the evaporator outlet.
Available in two main types: Direct operated and pilot operated.
Pilot operated regulators may be integral types, or remote pilot actuated
either by pressure or temperature.
Also used for: Freeze-up or frost protection , maintaining evaporator
pressure during a defrost, providing a safety or pressure relief function.
Condenser Pressure Regulator For Water
Cooled Condensers
Also known as: Pressure Controlled Water Valve, Temperature Controlled
Water Valve.
Description: The water valve is used for regulating the quantity of water
in refrigeration systems with water cooled condensers. Use of the water
valve results in modulating regulation of the condensing pressure so that
it is kept almost constant during operation.
Condenser Pressure Regulator For Air
Cooled Condensers
Also known as: Head Pressure Control Valve.
Description: To maintain a constant and sufficiently high condensing
pressure in air cooled condensers at low ambient temperatures. The
valve must maintain liquid subcooling and prevent liquid line flash-gas
and also provide adequate pressure at the inlet side of the TX valve to
obtain sufficient pressure drop across the valve port.
Application: Dependent on the type of control circuit employed or
recommended by the air cooled condenser manufacturer, the control
may be either a single three-way modulating type valve or two separate
valves to achieve the same function.
Thermostatic Injection Valve
Also known as: Liquid Injection Valve.
Description: Used to prevent compressor overheating and high discharge
temperatures when: An R717 compressor operates either at low suction
pressures or at high condensing temperatures. A compressor operates both
at low suction pressures and at high condensing temperatures, especially with
R22. A compressor operates with By-pass to suction line hot gas by-pass.
Application: Liquid injected into a gas to be de-superheated should be
injected in a manner which provides homogeneous mixing of the liquid
and superheated gas. Preferred method is to pipe the hot gas and liquid
injection into a Tee to permit good mixing before it enters the suction line.
A good mix with the suction gas may be gained by injecting the liquid/hot
gas mixture into the suction line at approximately a 45° angle against the
flow of suction gas to the compressor.
396
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Air Cooled Condenser Selection
The selection of an air cooled condenser is based on the heat rejection capacity at the condenser rather than net refrigeration effect at the evaporator
because the refrigerant gas absorbs additional energy in the compressor. This additional energy, the heat of compression, varies appreciably with the
operating conditions of the system and with compressor design, whether open or suction cooled hermetic type.
Some compressor manufacturers publish heat rejection figures as part of their compressor ratings. Since heat rejection varies with compressor
designs, it is recommended that the compressor manufacturer’s data be used whenever available in selecting an air cooled condenser. If the
compressor manufacturer does not publish heat rejection ratings, factors from Table A and B may be used to estimate total heat rejection (THR).
Heat Rejection Factors
Open Compressors Suction Cooled Hermetic Compressors
TABLE ATABLE B
Evap.
Temp. °C
Condensing Temperature °C
30
35
40
45
50
55
Condensing Temperature °C
60
Evap.
Temp. °C
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
1.56
1.6
1.65
1.71
*
*
*
1.68
*
*
-35
1.37
1.4
1.44
1.5
*
*
*
-35
-30
1.32
1.36
1.4
1.44
1.5
*
*
-30
1.49
1.52
1.56
1.62
-25
1.28
1.31
1.35
1.39
1.44
1.49
*
-25
1.43
1.46
1.49
1.54
1.6
1.68
*
-20
1.24
1.27
1.31
1.35
1.39
1.44
1.49
-20
1.37
1.4
1.45
1.48
1.54
1.6
1.65
-15
1.21
1.24
1.28
1.31
1.35
1.39
1.44
-15
1.32
1.35
1.39
1.43
1.47
1.53
1.58
-10
1.18
1.21
1.24
1.27
1.31
1.35
1.39
-10
1.28
1.31
1.33
1.37
1.42
1.47
1.52
-5
1.15
1.18
1.21
1.24
1.28
1.31
1.35
-5
1.24
1.26
1.29
1.33
1.37
1.41
1.46
1.2
1.22
1.25
1.28
1.32
1.36
1.41
0
1.12
1.15
1.18
1.2
1.24
1.27
1.31
0
5
1.1
1.13
1.15
1.17
1.2
1.24
1.27
5
1.16
1.19
1.22
1.24
1.27
1.31
1.35
10
1.08
1.11
1.13
1.15
1.18
1.2
1.24
10
1.13
1.15
1.18
1.21
1.24
1.26
1.29
*Outside of normal limits for single stage compression application.
Condenser Capacity (THR) = Compressor Capacity x Heat Rejection Factor
Selection Example:
Given:
• Compressor Capacity
• Evaporating Temperature • Refrigerant • Ambient Air • Maximum Condensing Temperature • Suction Cooled Hermetic Compressor
38600 Watts
5°C
R22
35°C
50°C
Procedure
• Assuming the compressor manufacturers heat rejection data is not available, determine the heat rejection factor for the specified conditions using Table B (Suction Cooled Hermetic Compressors) = 1.27
• Multiply the compressor capacity by the heat rejection factor to estimate the required condenser capacity
(Total Heat Rejection, THR) 38600 x 1.27 = 49022 Watts THR
• Divide required THR by the specified temperature difference (KTD) between condensing temperature and the ambient air,
50° – 35°C = 15 K TD. 49022 Watts THR = 3268 Watts / K TD
15 K TD
• Select condenser from manufacturers capacity tables, based on R22 and 1K temperature difference. Select a model that has this capacity,
if the model selected is oversized the condenser will balance the compressor heat rejection at less than the maximum condensing temperature of 50°C.
Section 8 |
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Motor Types
L’Unite Hermetique
SINGLE PHASE MOTORS WITH START WINDING
P.T.C.S.I.R
During start-up, the start winding is fed through the P.T.C. which changes the
resistance of the P.T.C. with the change in temperature.
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS:
• 1 P.T.C.
• 1 External overload protector fitted on the compressor.
• 1 Earth connection
R.S.I.R.
During start-up, the start winding is energised through an electromagnetic relay.
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS:
• 1 Electromagnetic relay
• 1 External overload protector fitted on the compressor
• 1 Earth connection
C.S.I.R.
During start-up, the start winding is energised through an electromagnetic relay and a start capacitor.
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS:
• 1 Electromagnetic relay
• 1 External overload protector fitted on the compressor
• 1 Start capacitor
• 1 Earth connection
SINGLE PHASE MOTORS WITH PERMANENT SPLIT CAPACITOR
P.T.C.S.R
During start-up, the start winding is fed through the P.T.C. which changes the resistance of the P.T.C.
with the change in temperature.
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS:
• 1 P.T.C.
• 1 External overload protector fitted on the compressor
• 1 Run capacitor
• 1 Earth connection
P.S.C.
The start winding of such a motor remains in circuit through a permanent split capacitor.
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS:
• 1 External overload protector fitted on the compressor
• 1 Run capacitor
• 1 Earth connection
C.S.R.
During start-up, the start winding is energised through an electromagnetic
potential relay and a start capacitor. This
winding remains in circuit and is supplied through a permanent split capacitor.
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS:
• 1 External overload protector fitted on the compressor
• 1 Electrical box containing:
• 1 Electromagnetic potential relay
• 1 Start capacitor fitted with a discharge pressure
• 1 Terminal block
• 1 Earth connection
• 1 External run capacitor with fixing bracket
398
| Section 8
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Coolroom Design Data
Product Load
Product placed in a refrigerated room at a temperature higher than
the storage temperature will lose heat until it reaches the storage
temperature. The product load will be affected by one or more of the
following factors:
• Specific Heat
• Latent Heat of Fusion
• Heat of Respiration
Specific Heat is the amount of heat required to change the temperature
of 1kg of product 1K. It has two values, one above freezing, the other
below freezing due to the change in state which occurs.
Latent Heat of Fusion is the amount of heat removal required to freeze
1kg of product. It should be noted that the latent heat has a definite
relationship to the water content of a product. Most food products have
a freezing temperature in the range of -3°C to -0.5°C. If the exact
freezing temperature is unknown, it may be assumed to be -2°C.
Heat of Respiration is the amount of heat given off by products such
as fresh fruits and vegetables during storage. Since the products are
alive, they continually undergo a change in which energy is released in
the form of heat. The amount of heat liberated varies with the type and
temperature of the product.
Miscellaneous- All electrical energy dissipated by lights, motors, heaters
etc. located in the refrigerated area must be included in the heat load.
An item often overlooked is the fan motor on a unit cooler.
Heat equivalents of electric motors vary as to size of motor.
Balancing the System
For the general purpose coolroom, holding meats, vegetables and
dairy products, it is common procedure to balance the low side to the
condensing unit at a 6K to 7K temperature difference; that is, they are
balanced to maintain a temperature difference between the refrigerant in
the coil and the air of 6K to 7K. It has been learned by experience that,
if this is done, one may expect to maintain in a cooler 80% to 85%
relative humidity, which is a good range for general storage.
Selection of T.X. Valves
The selection and installation of thermostatic expansion (T.X.) valves is
of utmost importance for best coil performance. Valve capacity must
be at least equal to the coil load rating and never more than twice that
value. Any valve which is substantially oversized will tend to be erratic in
operation and this will penalise both coil performance and rated capacity
output. Liquid line strainers should always be installed ahead of all
T.X. valves.
T.X. valves are nominally rated with R22 refrigerant at 4°C evaporator
temperature, 5.6K superheat and 690 kPa (100 psi) differential (pressure
at valve inlet minus pressure at valve outlet). For capacities at other
differentials or when used with other refrigerants, the valve manufacturer’s
ratings must be consulted and closely followed in reference to Capacity
Correction Factors.
Although it is frequently assumed that when thermostatic expansion
valves are used in low temperature applications, some increased capacity
results due to a higher pressure differential, this is not always true
because of variations in valve design. It is always advisable under wide
range conditions to secure the valve manufacturer’s recommendations.
As a further precautionary note, the power element charges of all T.X.
valves must be properly selected for operating temperature ranges and
the type of refrigerant used in the system.
T.X. valves should be located as close as possible to evaporator inlet and
bulbs attached or inserted at a point where refrigerant will not trap in the
suction line. Keep bulbs away from tees in common suction lines so that
one valve will not affect any other valve.
Externally equalised valves should be used on all multicircuited
evaporators. In general, internally equalised valves are applied with single
circuited coils.
A coil which is selected for a wide temperature difference will maintain a
lower relative humidity in service, whereas one which is selected for too
close temperature difference will produce relative humidities which are
higher than required for practical operation and surface sliming may result
on stored meat products during winter periods when loads are reduced
and compressor running time falls off. Heat may have to be added to the
room for about 6 hours/day compressor operation. On straight vegetable
coolers where higher humidities are desired, the coil should be selected
to balance the compressor at a 4K to 6K temperature difference, as such
will produce an average relative humidity of 90% within the refrigerated
space. The same recommendation applies to florists’ display rooms and
in both cases, the maintenance of a high relative humidity in long term
storage is beneficial whereas some exception with reference to meat
products is noted above.
On low temperature units, if one stops to consider that the amount
of dehumidification is in proportion to the temperature difference, it
is obvious that the closer the temperature difference, the less frost
accumulation. It is strongly recommended that coils for low temperature
work be selected to balance the condensing unit at a 6K temperature
difference or less.
Section 8 |
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Coolroom Design Data
Storage Requirements of Perishable Products
Product
Storage
Temp. °C
Relative
Humidity %
Specific Heat kj / kg • K
Above
Freezing
Below
Freezing
Latent
Heat
kj / kg
Approx.
Freezing
Point °C
Approx. Storage
Life
Water
Content
%
Fruits and Melons
Apples
Apricots
Avocados – Green
Bananas
90 to 95
3.65
1.89
280
-1.1
3 to 8 months
84
0
90 to 95
3.68
1.9
284
-1.1
1 to 2 weeks
85
7 to 10
85 to 90
3.01
1.65
217
-0.3
2 to 4 weeks
65
13
85 to 95
3.35
1.78
250
-0.8
2 to 3 weeks
75
Blackberries
0
90 to 100
3.68
1.9
284
-0.8
2 to 3 days
85
Blueberries
0
90 to 100
3.58
1.86
274
-1.6
2 weeks
82
2 to 4
90
3.92
1.99
307
-1.2
5 to 15 days
92
Casaba Melons
7 to 10
85 to 95
3.95
2
310
-1.1
4 to 6 weeks
93
Cherries
-1 to 0
95
3.51
1.84
267
-1.8
2 to 3 weeks
80
Coconuts
0 to 2
80 to 85
2.41
1.43
157
-0.9
1 to 2 months
47
Cranberries
2 to 4
90 to 95
3.75
1.93
290
-0.9
2 to 4 months
87
Cantaloupe (Rock Melon)
Currents
-0.5 to 0
90 to 95
3.68
1.9
284
-1
10 to 14 days
85
Dates – Cured
-18 or 0
75 or less
1.5
1.09
67
-16
6 to 12 monthly
20
85
Dew Berries
0
90 to 95
3.68
1.9
284
-1.3
3 days
Figs – Dried
0 to 4
50 to 60
1.61
1.12
95
-
9 to 12 months
23
Figs– Fresh
-1 to 0
85 to 90
3.45
1.81
260
-2.4
7 to 10 days
78
Frozen Fruits
-23 to –18
90 to 95
-
-
-
-
6 to 12 months
-
Gooseberries
0
90 to 95
3.82
1.95
297
-1.1
1 to 2 weeks
89
Grapefruit
Grapes
14 to 16
85 to 90
3.82
1.95
297
-1.1
4 to 6 weeks
89
-1 to 0
95 to 100
3.58
1.86
274
-2
3 to 6 months
82
93
Honeydew Melons
7 to 10
90
3.95
2
310
-0.9
3 to 4 weeks
Lemons
15 to 18
85 to 90
3.82
1.95
297
-1.4
1 to 6 months
89
Limes
9 to 10
85 to 90
3.72
1.92
287
-1.6
6 to 8 weeks
86
Mangoes
13
85 to 90
3.55
1.85
270
-0.9
2 weeks
81
Nectarines
0
90
3.58
1.86
274
-0.9
1 to 2 weeks
82
Olives – Fresh
Oranges
Orange Juice
Papaw
Peaches
Pears
Persian Melons
7 to 10
85 to 90
3.35
1.78
250
-1.4
4 to 6 weeks
75
5
85 to 90
3.75
1.93
290
-0.8
3 to 12 weeks
87
3.82
1.95
297
3 to 6 weeks
89
90
3.88
1.98
304
-0.8
1 to 3 weeks
91
-1 to 2
13
0
90 to 95
3.82
1.95
297
-0.9
2 to 3 weeks
89
-1.6 to 0
90 to 95
3.61
1.88
277
-1.6
2 to 6 months
83
7 to 10
90 to 95
3.95
2
310
-0.8
2 weeks
93
Persimmons
-1
90
3.45
1.81
260
-2.2
3 to 4 months
78
Pineapples
20
85 to 90
3.68
1.9
284
-1
1 to 4 weeks
85
Plums
-0.5 to 0
90 to 95
3.72
1.92
287
-0.8
1 to 4 weeks
86
Pomegranates
0
90
3.58
1.86
274
-3
2 to 4 months
82
Prunes – Fresh
-1 to 0
90 to 95
3.72
1.92
287
-0.8
2 to 4 weeks
86
Prunes – Dried
0 to 4
55 to 60
2.56
1.19
108
-
5 to 8 months
28
Quinces
-1 to 0
90
3.68
1.9
284
-2
2 to 3 months
85
Raspberries
0
90 to 100
3.55
1.85
270
-1.1
2 to 3 days
81
Strawberries
0
90 to 100
3.85
1.97
300
-0.8
5 to 7 days
90
0
90 to 95
3.75
1.93
290
-1.1
2 to 4 weeks
87
5 to 10
85 to 90
3.95
2
310
-0.4
2 to 3 weeks
93
Tangerines
Watermelons
400
-1 to 4
| Section 8
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Subject to change without notice | © 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564
Coolroom Design Data
Storage Requirements of Perishable Products
Product
Storage
Temp. °C
Relative
Humidity
%
Specific Heat kj / kg • K
Above
Freezing
Below
Freezing
Latent
Heat
kj / kg
Approx.
Freezing
Point °C
Approx. Storage
Life
Water
Content
%
Vegetables
Artichokes – Globe
0
95 to 100
3.65
1.89
280
-1.2
2 weeks
84
Artichokes – Jerusalem
0
90 to 95
3.47
1.84
267
-2.5
5 months
80
Asparagus
0 to 2
95 to 100
3.95
2
310
-0.6
2 to 3 weeks
93
Beans – Green
7 to 10
95 to 100
3.82
1.95
297
-0.7
7 to 10 days
89
0
95 to 100
-0.4
1 to 2 weeks
Beetroot – Bunch
Beetroot – Topped
0
95 to 100
3.78
1.94
294
-0.9
2 to 5 months
Broccoli
0
95 to 100
3.85
1.97
300
-0.6
10 to 14 days
90
Brussels Sprouts
0
95 to 100
3.68
1.9
284
-0.8
3 to 5 weeks
85
88
Cabbage
0
98 to 100
3.92
1.99
307
-0.9
1 to 4 months
92
Carrots – Topped, Immature
0
98 to 100
3.78
1.94
294
-1.4
4 to 6 weeks
88
Carrots – Topped, Mature
0
98 to 100
3.78
1.94
294
-1.4
4 to 5 months
88
Cauliflower
0
95 to 100
3.92
1.99
307
-0.8
2 to 4 weeks
92
Celery
0
95 to 100
3.98
2.02
314
-0.5
1 to 2 months
94
74
Corn – Sweet
0
95 to 98
3.31
1.76
247
-0.6
4 to 8 days
Cucumbers
10
95 to 100
4.05
2.04
320
-0.5
10 to 14 days
96
7 to 10
90 to 95
3.95
2
310
-0.8
7 days
93
Endive (Escarole)
0
90 to 100
3.95
2
310
-0.1
2 to 3 weeks
93
Frozen Vegetables
-23 to -18
Eggplant
Garlic – Dry
6 to 12 months
0
65 to 70
2.88
1.6
Horseradish
0
95 to 100
3.35
1.78
Kale
0
95
3.75
1.93
203
-0.8
6 to 7 months
61
250
-1.8
10 to 12 months
75
290
-0.5
3 to 4 weeks
87
Kohlrabi
0
90 to 100
3.85
1.97
300
-1
2 to 4 weeks
90
Leeks – Green
0
95
3.68
1.9
284
-0.7
1 to 3 months
85
Lettuce – Head
0
95 to 100
4.02
2.03
317
-0.2
2 to 3 weeks
95
91
Mushrooms
0
95
3.88
1.98
304
-0.9
3 to 4 days
Onions – Dry
0
65 to 70
3.78
1.94
294
-0.8
1 to 8 months
88
Parsley
0
95 to 100
3.68
1.9
284
-1.1
1 to 2 months
85
Parsnips
0
98 to 100
3.48
1.83
264
-0.9
2 to 6 months
79
Peas – Green
0
95 to 98
3.31
1.76
247
-0.6
1 to 2 weeks
74
Peas – Dried
10
70
1.24
0.99
6 to 8 months
12
Peppers – Sweet
7 to 13
90 to 95
3.92
1.99
Peppers – Dry, Chilli
0 to 10
60 to 70
1.24
0.99
Potatoes – Culinary
Potatoes – Sweet
Pumpkins
307
-0.7
2 to 3 weeks
92
6 months
12
7
90 to 95
3.45
1.81
260
-0.7
13 to 16
85 to 90
3.15
1.7
230
-1.3
4 to 6 months
69
78
13
85 to 90
3.88
1.98
304
-0.8
2 to 3 months
91
Radishes – Topped
0
90 to 95
4.02
2.03
317
-0.7
3 to 4 weeks
95
Rhubarb
0
95
4.02
2.03
317
-0.9
2 to 4 weeks
95
Rutabaga
0
90 to 95
3.82
1.95
297
-1.1
2 to 4 months
89
93
Silverbeet (Spinach)
0
95 to 98
3.95
2
310
-0.3
1 to 2 weeks
Squash – Button
7
95 to 100
3.98
2.02
314
-0.5
1 to 3 weeks
94
Squash – Hard Shell
13
85 to 90
3.68
1.9
284
-0.8
1 to 3 months
85
Tomatoes – Firm, Ripe
Tomatoes– Mature, Green
5 to 7
90 to 95
3.98
2.02
313
-0.5
4 to 7 days
94
13
90 to 95
3.95
2
310
-0.6
1 to 2 weeks
93
-1.1
Turnips
0
95
3.92
1.99
307
Yams
16
85 to 90
3.31
1.76
247
4 to 5 months
92
3 to 6 months
74
Section 8 |
© 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564 | Subject to change without notice
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Coolroom Design Data
Storage Requirements of Perishable Products
Storage
Temp. °C
Relative
Humidity
%
Bacon – Medium Fat
– Frozen
Beef – Fresh, Average
– Liver
– Veal
– Frozen
Ham – 74% Lean
– Light Cure
– Country Cure
– Frozen
Lamb – Fresh, Average
– Frozen
Pork – Fresh, Average
– Frozen
– Sausage
Poultry – Fresh, Average
– Frozen
Rabbits – Fresh
Fish – Fresh, Average
– Frozen
Scallops – Meat
Shrimp
Oysters, Clams – Meat
and Liquid
Oysters – In Shell
Shellfish – Frozen
3 to 5
-23 to -18
0 to 1
0
0 to 1
80 to 85
90 to 95
88 to 92
90
90
-23 to -18
0 to 1
3 to 5
10 to 15
-23 to -18
0 to 1
-23 to -18
0 to 1
-23 to -18
0 to 1
-2 to 0
-23 to -18
0 to 1
-1 to 1
-29 to -18
0 to 1
-1 to 1
0 to 2
90 to 95
80 to 85
80 to 85
65 to 70
90 to 95
85 to 90
90 to 95
85 to 90
90 to 95
85
85 to 90
90 to 95
90 to 95
95 to 100
90 to 95
95 to 100
95 to 100
100
5 to 10
-29 to -18
95 to 100
90 to 95
Beer – Bottles & Cans
Bread – Frozen
Butter
Butter – Frozen
Cheese – Cheddar
– Cheddar
Chocolate – Milk
Coffee – Green
Eggs – Whole
– Whole
– Frozen, Whole
Furs and Fabrics
Honey
Hops
Milk–Whole, Pasteurised
Nuts
Oleomargerine
Popcorn – Unpopped
2 to 4
-18
0 to 4
-23
0 to 1
4.4
-18 to 1
2 to 3
-2 to 0
10 to 13
-18 or less
1 to 4
Below 10
-2 to 0
0 to 1
0 to 10
2
0 to 4
65 or less
Product
402
75 to 85
70 to 85
65
65
40
80 to 85
80 to 85
70 to 75
Specific Heat kj / kg • K
Above
Freezing
Below
Freezing
Meat - Fish - Shellfish
1.47
1.07
Latent Heat
kj / kg
Approx.
Freezing
Point °C
63
2.9 to 3.4
3.18
3.05
1.6 to 1.8
1.71
1.66
206 to 257
233
220
2.71
2.74
2.24
1.54
1.55
1.36
187
190
140
2.8 to 3.2
1.6 to 1.7
200 to 233
1.9 to 2.3
1.2 to 1.4
107 to 147
2.11
3.31
1.31
1.76
127
247
3.11
1.69
227
2.91 to 3.55 1.61 to 1.85 207 to 270
-2.2 to -2.7
-1.7
Water
Content
%
2 to 3 weeks
2 to 4 months
1 to 6 weeks
5 days
1 to 7 days
19
6 to 12 months
3 to 5 days
1 to 2 weeks
3 to 5 months
6 to 8 months
-2.2 to -1.7
5 to 12 days
8 to 12 months
-2.2 to -2.7
3 to 7 days
4 to 8 months
1 to 7 days
-2.8
1 week
8 to 12 months
1 to 5 days
-2.2
5 to 14 days
6 to 12 months
-2.2
12 days
-2.2
12 to 14 days
-2.2
5 to 8 days
-1.7
62 to 77
70
66
56
57
42
60 to 70
32 to 44
38
74
68
62 to 81
3.51
3.38
3.75
1.84
1.79
1.93
267
254
290
3.51
1.84
267
-2.8
5 days
3 to 8 months
80
Miscellaneous
3.85
1.97
1.99
1.27
1.37
1.04
300
106 to 123
53
-2.2
-9 to -7
-20 to -0.6
90
32 to 37
16
2.07
1.3
2.07
1.3
0.87
0.85
1.17 to 1.34 0.96 to 1.03
3.05
1.66
3.05
1.66
3.31
1.76
123
123
3.3
33 to 50
220
220
247
-13
-13
3 to 6 months
3 to 13 weeks
1 month
12 Months
12 months
6 months
6 to 12 months
2 to 4 months
5 to 6 months
2 to 3 weeks
1 year plus
Several years
1 year plus
Several months
-2.2
-2.2
45 to 55
1.4
1.05
57
50 to 60
65 to 75
60 to 70
85
Approx.
Storage
Life
3.75
1.93
0.94 to 1.04 0.88 to 0.91
1.37
1.04
1.17
0.96
290
10 to 20
53
33
-0.6
8 to 12 months
1 year plus
4 to 6 weeks
80
76
87
37
37
1
10 to 15
66
66
74
17
87
3 to 6
16
10
| Section 8
www.actrol.com.au
Subject to change without notice | © 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564
Coolroom Design Data
Heat of Respiration: Watts / Tonne
Storage Temperature : °C
Product
0
5
10
15
20
35 – 80
45 – 95
Fruits and Melons
Apples
6 – 10
13 – 20
Apricots
16 – 17
19 – 27
Avocados – Green
Blackberries
47 – 68
85 – 136
Blueberries
7 – 31
27 – 36
Cantaloupe (Rock
Melon)
Cherries – Sweet
26 – 30
12 – 16
155 – 281
46
28 – 42
Cranberries
12 – 14
Figs – Fresh
33 – 39
Gooseberries
33 – 56
53 – 80
388 – 582
101 – 183
154 – 259
100 – 114
132 – 192
74 – 133
83 – 95
146 – 188
169 – 282
36 – 40
65 – 96
4–6
8 – 16
26 – 31
38
24
Lemons
Limes
8 – 17
5 – 13
47
67
20 – 55
65 – 116
114 – 145
10 – 19
35 – 60
60 – 90
11 – 16
40 – 60
98 – 126
176 – 304
12 – 19
19 – 27
Pears
8 – 15
18 – 39
Pineapples
59 – 71
223 – 449
Peaches
Persimmons
35 – 47
133
Olives – Fresh
Papaw
52
17 – 31
Mangoes
Plums
209 – 432
20 – 26
Honeydew Melons
Oranges
87 – 155
195 – 915
33 – 54
66 – 68
Grapefruit
Grapes
63 – 102
160 – 415
76 – 155
101 – 231
18
23 – 59
35 – 42
59 – 71
4–6
35 – 50
65 – 105
27 – 34
35 – 37
53 – 77
6–9
12 – 27
Raspberries
52 – 74
92 – 114
82 – 165
244 – 301
340 – 727
Strawberries
36 – 52
49 – 98
146 – 281
211 – 274
303 – 581
Watermelons
22
51 – 74
Section 8 |
© 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564 | Subject to change without notice
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Coolroom Design Data
Heat of Respiration: Watts / Tonne
Product
Storage Temperature : °C
0
5
10
15
20
Vegetables
Artichokes – Globe
67 – 133
95 – 178
162 – 292
229 – 430
404 – 692
Asparagus
81 – 238
162 – 404
318 – 904
472 – 971
809 – 1484
101 – 104
162 – 173
252 – 276
351 – 386
35 – 40
50 – 69
Beans – Green
Beetroot – Topped
16 – 21
27 – 28
Broccoli
55 – 64
102 – 475
Brussels Sprouts
46 – 71
96 – 144
Cabbage - White
15 – 40
22 – 64
Carrots – Topped
46
Cauliflower
Celery
Corn – Sweet
515 – 1008
825 – 1011
187 – 251
283 – 317
267 – 564
36 – 98
58 – 170
58
93
117
209
53
61
100
137
238
20
30
100
170
126
230
332
483
855
68 – 86
71 – 98
92 – 143
Garlic – Dry
9 – 32
18 – 29
27 – 29
33 – 81
30 – 54
Horseradish
24
32
78
97
132
Cucumbers
Kohlrabi
30
49
93
146
Leeks – Green
28 – 49
58 – 86
159 – 202
245 – 347
Lettuce – Head
27 – 50
40 – 59
81 – 119
114 – 121
Mushrooms
83 – 130
210
Onions – Dry
782 – 939
9
10
21
33
50
Parsley
98 – 137
196 – 252
389 – 487
427 – 662
582 – 757
Parsnips
34 – 46
26 – 52
61 – 78
96 – 127
Peas – Green
90 – 139
163 – 227
530 – 600
728 – 1072
43
68
130
35
42 – 62
42 – 92
54 – 134
Peppers – Sweet
Potatoes – Immature
– Mature
18 – 20
20 – 30
20 – 35
20 – 47
Radishes – Topped
16 – 18
23 – 24
45
82 – 97
142 – 146
Rhubarb – Topped
24 – 39
33 – 54
92 – 135
119 – 169
6–8
14 – 15
32 – 47
Rutabaga
Silverbeet (Spinach)
136
531
682
Tomatoes – Coloured
and Ripe
16
65 – 75
65 – 115
13 – 22
43 – 75
75 – 110
28 – 30
64 – 71
71 – 74
– Mature, Green
Turnips – Roots
404
178
26
328
| Section 8
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Subject to change without notice | © 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564
Coolroom Design Data
Heat Load Tables
2ºC Coolrooms
Based on:
• 35°C Ambient Temperature • Product Pull Down Time: 24 hours
• 75mm Polystyrene Insulation • 16 hours/day Compressor Operation
• Product Specific Heat: 3.4 kj/kg K • Heavy Usage = Average Air Changes x 2
Heat Load – Watts
External Dimensions : m
Volume
m3
Height = 2.4
Length
Width
Product Load Per Day (Product Entering at 12°C)
150 kg
Average
Usage
350 kg
Heavy
Usage
Average
Usage
700 kg
Heavy
Usage
1.8
1.2
3.9
930
1280
1070
1420
1.8
1.8
6.13
1120
1560
1260
1690
Average
Usage
Heavy
Usage
1.8
2.4
8.35
1300
1800
1440
2010
1.8
3
10.58
1470
2100
1610
2240
2.4
2.4
11.39
1510
2150
1650
2290
1890
2530
2.4
3
14.43
1710
2420
1840
2550
2080
2800
1900
2660
2.4
3.6
17.47
2030
2800
2270
3040
2.4
4.2
20.5
2220
3040
2460
3280
3
3
18.28
2060
2850
2310
3090
3
3.6
22.12
2280
3130
2520
3370
3
4.2
25.97
2490
3390
2730
3630
3.6
3.6
26.78
2520
3440
2760
3680
3.6
4.2
31.44
2750
3730
3060
4040
4.2
4.2
36.91
3070
4120
3310
4370
-18ºC Freezers
Based on:
• 35°C Ambient Temperature
• 150mm Polystyrene Insulation
• Heavy Usage = Average Air Changes x 2
• Product Specific Heat above freezing: 3.3 kj/kg K
External Dimensions : m
Height = 2.4
Volume m3
Length
Width
1.8
1.2
2.84
1.8
1.8
4.72
1.8
2.4
1.8
2.4
• Product Specific Heat below freezing: 1.5 kj/kg K
• Product Latent Heat: 247 kj/kg
• Product pull down time: 24 hours
• 18 hours/day compressor operation
Storage Only –
No Product
Freezing
Heat Load - Watts
Product Freezing Load Per Day (Product Entering at 5°C)
150 kg
350 kg
700 kg
740
1480
2550
930
1660
2730
6.61
1100
1820
2900
3
8.51
1250
2040
3050
2.4
9.26
1300
2080
3090
4910
2.4
3
11.91
1490
2260
3260
5090
2.4
3.6
14.55
1670
2430
3430
5260
2.4
4.2
17.2
1840
2590
3600
5420
3
3
15.31
1710
2460
3470
5290
3
3.6
18.71
1910
2650
3660
5480
3
4.2
22.11
2170
2840
3840
5670
3.6
3.6
22.87
2200
2870
3870
5700
3.6
4.2
27.03
2420
3080
4150
5910
4.2
4.2
31.94
2650
3310
4380
6140
We recommend that the above information be used as a guide only and that each particular
application be referred to Actrol for selection advice.
Section 8 |
© 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564 | Subject to change without notice
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Thermostatic Expansion Valve
Superheat
A vapour is superheated whenever its temperature is higher than the
saturation temperature corresponding to its pressure. The amount of
the superheat equals the amount of temperature increase above the
saturation temperature at the existing pressure.
For example, a refrigeration evaporator is operating with Refrigerant
134a at 236 kPa suction pressure (See Figure 1). The Refrigerant 134a
saturation temperature at 236 kPa is 4°C. As long as any liquid exists at
this pressure, the refrigerant temperature will remain 4°C as it evaporates
or boils off in the evaporator.
As the refrigerant moves along in the coil, the liquid boils off into a
vapour, causing the amount of liquid present to decrease. All of the
liquid is finally evaporated at point B because it has absorbed sufficient
heat from the surrounding atmosphere to change the refrigerant liquid
to a vapour. The refrigerant gas continues along the coil and remains
at the same pressure (236 kPa) however, its temperature increases
due to continued absorption of heat from the surrounding atmosphere.
When the refrigerant gas reaches the end of the evaporator (Point C),
its temperature is 10°C. This refrigerant gas is now superheated and
the amount of superheat is 6°C or 6K (10° – 4°). The degree to which
the refrigerant gas is superheated depends on the amount of refrigerant
being fed to the evaporator by the T.X. valve and the heat load to which
the evaporator is exposed.
Adjustment of Superheat
The function of a T.X. valve is to control the superheat of the suction gas
leaving the evaporator in accordance with the valve setting. A T.X. valve
which is performing this function within reasonable limits can be said to
be operating in a satisfactory manner.
Good superheat control is the criterion of T.X. valve performance. It is
important that this function be measured as accurately as possible, or in
the absence of accuracy, to be aware of the magnitude and direction of
whatever error is present.
Superheat has been previously defined as the temperature increase
of the refrigerant gas above the saturation temperature at the existing
pressure. Based on this definition, the pressure and temperature of the
refrigerant suction gas passing the T.X. valve remote bulb are required for
an accurate determination of superheat.
Thermostatic Expansion Valve with internal equaliser
on evaporator with no pressure drop
for all practical purposes.
On installations where a gauge connection is not available and the valve
is internally equalised there are two alternate methods possible. Both
of these methods are approximations only and their use is definitely not
recommended. The first of these is the two temperature method which
utilises the difference in temperature between the evaporator inlet and
outlet as the superheat. This method is in error by the temperature
equivalent of the pressure drop between the two points of temperature.
Where the pressure drop between the evaporator inlet and outlet is 7
kPa or less, the two temperature method will yield fairly accurate results.
However, evaporator pressure drop is usually an unknown and will vary
with the load. For this reason, the two temperature method cannot be
relied on for absolute superheat readings. It should be noted that the
error in the two temperature method is negative and always indicates a
superheat lower than the actual figure.
The other method commonly used to check superheat involves taking
the temperature at the evaporator outlet and utilising the compressor
suction pressure as the evaporator saturation pressure. The error here
is obviously due to the pressure drop in the suction line between the
evaporator outlet and the compressor suction gauge.
On self-contained equipment, the pressure drop and resulting error are
usually small. However, on large built-up systems or systems with long
runs of suction line, considerable discrepancies will usually result.
Thus, when measuring superheat, the recommended practice is to install
a calibrated pressure gauge in a gauge connection at the evaporator
outlet. In the absence of a gauge connection, a tee installed in the T.X.
valve external equaliser line can be used just as effectively.
Since estimates of suction line pressure drop are usually not accurate
enough to give a true picture of the superheat, this method cannot be
relied on for absolute values. It should be noted that the error in this
instance will always be positive and the superheat resulting will be higher
than the actual value.
A refrigeration type pocket thermometer with appropriate bulb clamp
may be used, or more effective is the use of a service type potentiometer
(electric thermometer) with thermocouples (leads and probes).
Restating, the only method of checking superheat that will yield an
absolute value involves a pressure and temperature reading at the
evaporator outlet.
The temperature element from your temperature meter should be
clamped to the suction line at the point of remote bulb location and must
be insulated against the ambient. Temperature elements of this type, as
well as thermometers, will give an average reading of suction line and
ambient if not insulated. Assuming an accurate gauge and temperature
meter, this method will provide sufficiently accurate superheat readings
Other methods employed will yield a fictitious superheat that can prove
misleading when used to analyse T.X. valve performance. By realising the
limitations of these approximate methods and the direction of the error, it
is often possible to determine that the cause of a trouble call is due to the
use of improper methods of instrumentation rather than any malfunction
of the valve.
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Technical Tips
Trouble Shooting Tips - A list of Do’s and Don’ts for Commercial Refrigeration
Do
Don’t
• Check suction gas superheat at the compressor. High superheats cause high discharge
temperatures and shorten compressor life.
• Check expansion valve superheat using the temperature pressure method (refer to Page 388).
Set to equipment manufacturer’s specification.
• Replace filter-driers or drier cores when opening the system for service.
• Maintain test instruments in workable calibrated condition.
• Use an accurate liquid line moisture indicator to ensure system dryness.
• Read and observe installation and safety instructions included with a product.
• Familiarise yourself with the operation of a control before attempting to make
adjustments or repairs.
• Remember that a thermostatic expansion valve is not a temperature or pressure control.
Silver Brazing and High Purity Nitrogen
• Select solenoid valves by line size or port size.
Select based on valve capacity.
• Rely on sight or touch for temperature
measurements. Use an accurate thermometer.
• Be a ‘parts changer’. Analyse the problem and
determine the cause of failure before making
adjustments or repairs.
• Attempt to re-use driers or drier blocks once
they have been removed from the system.
• Energise a solenoid coil with it removed from a
valve. It will burn out in a matter of minutes.
High purity nitrogen must be injected through pipe-work when silver
soldering to stop the formation of copper oxide inside the pipe-work.
In order for brazing alloys to melt and flow properly, 620°C to 790°C is
required. Copper will react with the oxygen in air at these temperatures
to form a scale of copper oxide on the inner walls of tubing, pipe and
fittings. The scale is broken off into flakes by the turbulence of flowing
liquid refrigerant. The flakes quickly break up into a fine powder which
blocks filter driers, strainers and capillary tubes. If the air in the line being
brazed is replaced with an inert gas such as high purity nitrogen, the
formation of copper oxide can be eliminated.
The line should be purged thoroughly and a slow steady flow of nitrogen
maintained by means of a pressure reducing valve.
Always use the correct pressure reducing valves for the protection of the
user as high purity nitrogen is stored at very high pressures.
Migration
Evaporator and System Superheat
A crank case heater elevates the crank case temperature above that of
the evaporator.
Superheat varies within the system depending on where it is measured.
The superheat that the thermal expansion valve is controlling is the
evaporator superheat. This is measured at the outlet of the evaporator.
The refrigerant gains superheat as it travels through the evaporator,
basically starting at 0K as it enters the evaporator and reaching its
maximum at the outlet as the refrigerant travels through the evaporator
absorbing heat.
System superheat refers to the superheat entering the suction of the
compressor. Compressor manufacturers usually like to see a minimum
20°C of superheat at the compressor inlet to ensure that no liquid
refrigerant enters the compressor.
Liquid Flooding
Liquid flooding also known as flood back is the term used to describe
the condition when liquid refrigerant reaches the compressor. This occurs
when the amount of liquid refrigerant fed into the evaporator is more
than can be evaporated. There are a number of causes of liquid flooding
including:
• TXV oversized for the application
• TXV misadjusted (superheat too low)
• TXV bulb not properly attached
• System overcharged with refrigerant
• Insufficient air flow through the evaporator
• Dirty evaporator or air filters
• Evaporator fan or fans not operating
Migration is the term used to describe when refrigerant moves some
place in the system where it is not supposed to be, such as when liquid
migrates to the compressor sump. This phenomenon occurs because
refrigerant will always migrate to the coldest part of a system.
As an example, in a split air conditioning system with the compressor/
condenser outside, the liquid refrigerant from the evaporator will migrate
to the compressor during the winter months due to the compressor
being colder than the indoor (evaporator) temperature. If migration is
not prevented the liquid refrigerant in the sump will cause liquid slugging
when the compressor starts up.
Migration can be eliminated by the use of either a crank case heater or
a pump down cycle.
A pump down cycle will store the refrigerant in the liquid receiver and or
condenser so it cannot migrate to the compressor.
Sub-cooling
Sub-cooling is the condition where the liquid refrigerant is colder than the
minimum temperature (saturation temperature) required to keep it from
boiling and, hence, change from a liquid to a gas/vapour phase.
The amount of sub-cooling, at a given condition, is the difference
between saturation temperature and the actual liquid refrigerant
temperature. Sub-cooling is desirable for several reasons. Sub-cooling
increases the efficiency of the system since the amount of heat removed
per kg of refrigerant circulated is greater. In other words, you pump less
refrigerant through the system to maintain the refrigerated temperature
you want, This reduces the amount of time the compressor must run to
maintain the temperature.
Sub-cooling is also beneficial because it prevents the liquid refrigerant
from changing to a gas / vapour before it gets to the evaporator.
Pressure drops in the liquid line piping and vertical risers can reduce
the refrigerant pressure to the point where it will boil or “flash” in the
liquid line. This change of phase is caused by the refrigerant absorbing
heat before it reaches the evaporator. Inadequate sub-cooling prevents
the expansion valve from properly metering liquid refrigerant into the
evaporator resulting in poor system performance.
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Refrigeration Terminology
Temperature
Indicates level of heat energy
Centigrade Scale °C (Celsius)
Absolute Temperature °K (Kelvin) = °C + 273°
Measurement
The quantity of heat energy is measured in kilojoules (kj). The heat
required to raise or lower the temperature of 1kg of water 1K is 4.19
kilojoules. (kJ/sec = kw)
States of Matter
Solid, liquid and gas
Change of State
The change from one state of matter to another by the addition or the
removal of heat at constant temperature. Change of state can also be
referred to as change of phase.
Sensible Heat
Heat added to or subtracted from a substance without a change of state
(only a change in temperature).
Specific Heat
The amount of sensible heat required to raise the temperature of 1kg of a
substance 1K or the ratio of the heat capacity of the substance to that of
water. (kj/kg K)
Latent Heat
Pressure
Expressed in Pascals (Pa) or Kilopascals (kPa) Gauge or absolute.
1. Atmospheric Pressure: At sea level is 101.325 kPa absolute (deduct
approx. 3.447 kPa or 25.4mm of mercury for every 304.8 metres
increase in elevation above sea level).
2. Gauge Pressure: = Calibrated Gauge to read zero at atmospheric
pressure.
3. Absolute Pressure: = true or total pressure. Therefore if the pressure is
geater than the atmospheric pressure the atmospheric pressure
must be added to the gauge pressure. But if the pressure is less than
atmospheric pressure the atmospheric pressure must be subtracted
from the gauge pressure.
4. Vacuum: Pressures below atmospheric pressure are measured in
millimetres of mercury (vacuum) (50.8 millimetres of mercury can
be equal to 6.89 kPa). A perfect vacuum (0 kPa) being equal to 25.4
millimetres of mercury (mmHg) or 760mm, at sea level. Measurements
are sometimes expressed in microns (1,000,000 microns in a metre).
5. Vapour Pressure: Equilibrium Pressure between a liquid and its
saturated vapour. As long as vapour and liquid are both present there
will be only one vapour pressure for each level of temperature.
6. Gas Pressure: In the absence of liquid the pressure of a gas is
proportional to Absolute gas temperature and to gas density (perfect
gas laws).
Saturated Vapour and Liquid
When gas and liquid exist in equilibrium there will be only one vapour
pressure for each level of temperature.
1. Subcooled Liquid: If additional heat is removed from saturated liquid
in the absence of vapour, its temperature is reduced at constant
pressure and it becomes subcooled.
2. Superheated Gas: If additional heat is added to saturated vapour in
the absence of liquid, it becomes superheated vapour or gas.
Quantity of heat added or removed from a unit weight of a substance
during change of state or phase at constant temperature.(kJ/kg.K)
1. Latent Heat of Fusion: Melting of a solid or freezing of a liquid.
2. Latent Heat of Evaporation: Change from a liquid to a gas.
3. Latent Heat of Condensation: Change from a gas to a liquid.
Total Heat (Enthalpy) Heat Capacity
The sum total of sensible and latent heat quantities. kJ/kg.K, usually
referenced to -40° at which point the Total Heat (Enthalpy) is taken as
0 kJ/kg.K with negative values below -40°. When all heat has been
extracted from a substance, it is said to be at Absolute Zero 0°K (Kelvin).
Note: Enthalpy referenced to 0°C for air.
408
| Section 8
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Refrigeration Terminology
Bubble Point (Saturated Liquid Temperature)
The temperature (for a given pressure) at which the liquid of a refrigerant blend (any 400 or 500 series refrigerant) begins to
evaporate or boil. This is similar to the saturated liquid temperature of a single component refrigerant.
Dew Point (Saturated Vapor Temperature)
The temperature (for a given pressure) at which the vapour of a given refrigerant blend (any 400 or 500 series refrigerant)
begins to condense or liquefy. This is similar to the saturated vapour temperature of a single component refrigerant.
Fractionation
Fractionation is the change in composition of a refrigerant blend (any 400 or 500 series refrigerant) when it changes phase
from liquid to vapour (evaporating) or from vapour to liquid (condensing). This behaviour in blends explains the permanent
changes to refrigerant composition due to vapour charging or leaks in a refrigerant system causing the blend to deviate
outside the tolerances of the designed composition.
Glide
The difference in temperature between the evaporator inlet and outlet due to fractionation of the blend.
Theoretically, this can be calculated by finding the difference between the dew and bubble temperatures at constant
pressure. Actual measurements may differ slightly depending on the state of the liquid refrigerant at either end of the
evaporator (or condenser). Pressure losses through the evaporator may also affect glide.
Normal Boiling Point (NBP)
The temperature at which a given refrigerant begins to boil while at atmospheric pressure (101.325kPa absolute).
Abbreviations
AB - alkyl benzene
GWP - global warming potential
MO - mineral oil
ODP - ozone depletion potential
OEM - original equipment manufacturer
POE - Polyolester
PAG - polyalkylene glycol
Section 8 |
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409
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Fundamentals of Dehydrating
a Refrigeration System
Moisture in a Refrigeration System
A single drop of moisture may look harmless, but to a refrigeration system it is extremely damaging. Moisture enters a
system easily but can be difficult to remove. Moisture causes two main problems within a refrigeration system, freeze up
and acid production. Moisture will be picked up by the refrigerant and transported through the refrigerant line in a fine mist
from which ice crystals form at the point of expansion (expansion valve). Ice crystals stop or retard the flow of refrigerant
causing a reduction or complete loss of cooling. As the expansion valve warms due to the lack of refrigerant flow, the ice
melts and passes through the expansion valve and once more builds a formation of ice crystals. The result is intermittent
cooling. Moisture when mixed with refrigeration oils will produce acid which will damage components including the electric
windings of compressors. The Polyolester oils used with HFC refrigerants are manufactured from water and acid using a
reversible process. If moisture enters the refrigeration system it will mix with the Polyolester oil to produce acid.
Effects of Pressure and Temperature on the Boiling Point of Water
The pressure exerted on the earth at sea level is 101.325kPa absolute pressure. This is called atmospheric pressure.
Any pressure measured above atmospheric pressure is referred to as gauge pressure and pressure below is referred
to as vacuum. Water will boil when the vapour pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure surrounding the water.
At atmospheric pressure of 101.325kPa absolute pressure a gauge will read 0kPa gauge pressure; at this pressure water
will boil at 100°C. The boiling point of water rises as pressure increases and falls as pressure decreases. Australia’s highest
mountain is Mt. Kosciusko with its summit at 2228 metres above sea level where water will boil at 92.6°C.
Boiling Temperature of Water at Altitude
Temperature [°C]
Altitude [m]
82.82
93.38
5000
2000
96.73
98.38
1000
500
100
0
Boiling Temperature of Water in a Vacuum
410
Temperature [°C]
KiloPascal [kPa]
Micron [millitorr]
100
1 atmosphere
96.1
90
101.325
1 atmosphere
84.66
70.064
760000
1 atmosphere
535000
525526
80
70
47.339
31.157
355092
233680
60
50
40
30
26.7
24.4
22.2
20.6
17.8
15
11.7
7.2
0
-6.1
-14.4
-31.1
-37.2
-51.1
-56.7
-67.8
19.91
12.327
7.349
4.233
3.385
3.047
2.709
2.371
2.033
1.696
1.351
1.013
0.606
0.337
0.168
0.033
0.016
0.003
0.001
0.0003
149352
92456
55118
31750
25400
22860
20320
17780
15240
12700
10160
7620
4572
2540
1270
254
127
25
13
2.54
| Section 8
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Fundamentals of Dehydrating
a Refrigeration System
Removing Moisture from a Refrigeration System
There are two ways to remove moisture from a refrigeration system,
1. Employ a high vacuum pump to reduce the pressure and therefore the boiling point of water.
2. Install a high quality liquid line filter drier to entrap the moisture as it enters the filter drier.
It is recommended that both these methods be employed together to remove moisture from a refrigeration system as a
vacuum pump alone will not remove the moisture entrapped within the oil. The only way to remove the moisture entrapped
within Polyolester oil is to circulate the refrigerant oil mixture through a good quality filter drier.
Vacuum Pumps
Two stage vacuum pumps are recommended for refrigeration and air conditioning technicians as the second chamber allows the
pump to achieve a higher vacuum. In a two stage vacuum pump the exhaust from the first pumping stage is discharged into the
intake of the second pumping stage, rather than to atmospheric pressure. The second stage begins pumping at a lower pressure
and therefore pulls a higher vacuum on the system than the first stage is capable of on its own. Two stage vacuum pumps are
capable of achieving vacuums as low at 20 microns for a prolonged period of time in field conditions. A gas ballast or vented
exhaust feature is a valving arrangement which permits relatively dry air from the atmosphere to enter the second stage of the
pump. This air reduces compression in the final stage, which helps to prevent the moisture from condensing into a liquid and
mixing with the vacuum pump oil.
Moisture in the vacuum pump oil will increase the time taken to achieve a vacuum and reduce the ultimate vacuum achieved. It is
therefore essential to change the vacuum pump oil on a regular basis, please refer to the pump manufacturers recommendations.
Factors affecting the speed at which a vacuum pump can dehydrate a
refrigeration or Air Conditioning system
Several factors influence the pumping speed of a high vacuum pump and thus the time required to remove the moisture
from a refrigeration system. Some of the most important are the cubic capacity of the refrigeration system itself; the amount
of moisture contained within the system; the ambient temperature; internal and external restrictions and the size of the
vacuum pump. The refrigeration or air conditioning system manufacturer determines the internal system cubic capacity
and Mother Nature the ambient temperature so the only factors under the control of the service technician are the external
restrictions between the system and the vacuum pump. Laboratory tests show the pumping time can be significantly
reduced by the use of large diameter hoses. For optimum pumping speed keep the access lines as short in length and large
in diameter as possible.
This chart provides a reasonable idea of the minimum vacuum pump capacity required for various sized refrigeration or air
conditioning systems. Larger pumps can easily be used on smaller systems.
System Size
Suggested High Vacuum Pump
Size
Up to 30kW
35 l/min
Up to 75kW
85 l/min
Up to 123kW
140 l/min
Up to 246kW
280 l/min
Up to 370kW
425 l/min
How vacuum can be measured
A compound gauge is not accurate enough to measure a high vacuum. An electronic vacuum meter or dedicated vacuum
gauge is recommended to determine the actual vacuum in the refrigeration or Air Conditioning system. When reading the
vacuum created in a refrigeration or Air Conditioning system, the vacuum pump should be isolated with a good vacuum
valve or gauge manifold and time allowed for the vacuum pressure to equalize before taking a final reading. If the pressure
does not equalize, it is an indication of a leak. If the vacuum equalizes at a pressure which is too high, it is an indication of
moisture within the system and more pumping time is required.
Removing moisture using a liquid line filter drier
High quality filter driers are essential in all refrigeration and air conditioning systems especially systems containing Polyolester
oil. A vacuum alone will not remove all the moisture from Polyolester oils. A high quality liquid line filter drier will entrap
moisture as it is carried through the system by the refrigerant. When selecting a liquid line filter drier be sure to follow the
appropriate “field replacement” size recommendations which are based on the refrigeration capacity of the system to ensure
the cubic capacity of the filter drier is sufficient to entrap all the moisture. Whenever a system has been opened or moisture
is suspected to be present the liquid line filter drier should be replaced.
Section 8 |
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Noise and Vibration
Selection Principles:
Temperature
Extremes of temperature can affect the service life of rubber isolators.
Generally, operating temperature should not exceed 60ºC but occasional
temperatures of up to 80ºC can be accommodated.
Protection
While most rubber compounds deteriorate if in constant contact with oil
or grease, experience has shown that small amounts of oil will not cause
a reduction in the mechanical properties of elastomers. It is advisable
where oil or grease is prevalent to install isolators so that contact is
avoided.
Stability
To maintain stability and relative positions between the drive and belt
driven units, install both on a common rigid baseplate and then resiliently
support the baseplate.
Base
Plate
Isolators
Flexible Couplings
The efficiency of a resilient isolator under a mechanism can be seriously
impaired by the rigidity of the connecting members, such as water
and steam pipes, conduit etc. For best performance, it is essential all
connecting members be joined as flexibly as possible using Mackay
flexible couplings and flexible joints.
Mount Positioning
The stability of a resiliently supported mechanism is greatest when the
isolators are in a horizontal plane passing through the centre of gravity
of the mechanism or where the isolators are placed far away from
the centre of gravity. Most machines, because of their design, require
mounting below the centre of gravity which tends towards instability.
For this reason, a small percentage of the isolators efficiency must be
sacrificed for the sake of mechanical stability.
Flexible Joint
Pipe Isolator
Flexible Coupling
Common Rigid
Base Plate
Mackay Isolators
Selection
The main consideration is to select the isolator to carry the load as
shown in the load rating charts, giving preference to the top end of
the ratings, and then choosing the one to suit your specific fitting
requirements. Mackay isolators have each been engineered to specific
requirements of deflections under working conditions and providing the
disturbing or forced frequencies above 15Hz, selection is simple.
Courtesy of Mackay Consolidated Industries Pty Ltd
412
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Noise and Vibration
Low Frequency Selection
When frequencies under 15Hz are encountered or when there are HEAVY
impact loads imposed on the isolator, consult with Mackay’s technical
division for advice. For normal purposes, the disturbing frequency can be
considered as the revolutions per second of the offending item:
i.e. R.P.M
60
Multi-cylinder Engines
In multi-cylinder engines it is usually the number of working impulses per
revolution which constitutes the disturbing frequency.
e.g. Two cylinder engine direct drive operating at 2500 r.p.m. = Disturbing
Frequency of 83 Hz.b
= RPM Hz
60
2500 x 2 = 83Hz
60
Calculating Deflections
If the isolator selected has a higher load carrying rating than required,
the deflection of your actual loading can be calculated approximately by
using this formula:
Rated Deflection x Actual Load
Rated Load
and then referring to the graph illustrated on the next page, the isolation
efficiency can be ascertained (should always exceed 70% under normal
operating conditions).
Disturbing Frequencies and Deflections
The graph illustrates the percentage of vibration isolation that is possible
to obtain for simple linear vibration in a resiliently mounted assembly with
various combinations of static deflection and disturbing frequencies.
The area (shaded) below the resonance line indicates the region of
magnification of the vibration that occurs when the ratio of he disturbing
frequency to the natural frequency of the mounted assembly is less than
the square root of 2. The area above the resonance line shows the
percentage of the vibratory forces that are prevented from reaching the
supporting structure when correct isolators are selected. For example;
with a disturbing frequency of 5Hz and a deflection of 30mm you will
obtain an isolating efficiency of 50%, while with a deflection of 3mm your
vibration will magnify by a factor of 1.5.
Series and Parallel Assemblies
The isolation efficiency of low disturbing frequencies can be increased
by using two isolators in series. This effectively doubles the deflection
obtained with one isolator of the same load carrying capacity - by placing
them in parallel, you double the load rating at the same deflection.
COMPRESSION
SHEAR & COMPRESSION
SHEAR
Courtesy of Mackay Consolidated Industries Pty Ltd
Section 8 |
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413
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Noise and Vibration
DISTURBING FREQUENCY HERTZ
Hz
100
75
50
30
ISOLATION
EFFICIENCY
PERCENTAGE
20
15
12.5
MA
GN
RE
SO
IFI
10
7.5
5
NA
CA
NC
TIO
E
N
FA
CT
95%
90%
OR
80%
70%
50%
3
+1.1
+1.2 +1.5
+2
0%
0.2
0.5
1
2
3
6
10
20 30
50 100mm
To assist you in selecting the correct isolator from the Mackay range we have listed the isolation efficiency that should be
used under normal conditions of operation. The isolation efficiency at any given deflection and disturbing frequencies can be
obtained by using the simple graph above.
Suggested Isolation Efficiency Guide
Factories, Schools, Dept. Stores Isolation Efficiency
Air Handling Units
Axial Flow Fans
Up to 8kW
8kW to 38kW
More than 38kW
Centrifugal Compressors
Hospitals, Theatres, Libraries
Isolation Efficiency
80%
94%
70%
75%
80%
90%
94%
96%
94%
99.5%
Centrifugal Fans
Up to 4kW
4kW to 18kW
More than 18kW
70%
80%
90%
94%
96%
98%
Fan Coil Units
Hung Supported
80%
90%
90%
96%
Pipes
Hung
70%
90%
Pumps
Up to 2 kW
2kW to 4kW
More than 4kW
70%
80%
90%
94%
96%
98%
Reciprocating Compressors
Up to 8kW
8kW to 38kW
More than 38kW
70%
80%
90%
94%
96%
98%
Unit Air Conditioners
Hung Supported
80%
90%
90%
96%
Courtesy of Mackay Consolidated Industries Pty Ltd
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Noise and Vibration
Sound, Noise and Refrigeration Equipment
Sound is vital in everyday life for communication, safety and enjoyment.
Noise is usually defined as unwanted sound, and this includes noise
from mechanical plant such as refrigeration equipment, air conditioners,
pumps and various other items of equipment.
The type and location of equipment can influence the noise impact and
annoyance to owners, adjacent properties and neighbours.
This brochure is a guide to some of the DO’s and DON’T’s and helps
explain the noise impact of refrigeration equipment installations. This
brochure is a guide only and advice should be sought from a qualified
acoustic consultant for more detailed advice and assessments.
Noise Limits and Regulations
The acceptable or allowable noise limits from refrigeration and other
equipment from one property to a neighbouring property is generally
enforced by local councils or police based on State or Territory
legislation. The Reference List at the end of this brochure is a starting
point for identifying the appropriate noise legislation for each State and
Territory.
The guideline limits may depend on the zoning of the surrounding
area, whether the noise is intermittent or tonal, time of day etc. A
typical requirement is that the equipment noise should not exceed
the background noise by more than 5 dBA. In most cases nuisance
and annoyance may be avoided if a noise goal of 35 to 40 dBA at the
boundary is achieved.
Item
Typical Sound
Pressure Level
(dBA)
Subjective
Evaluation
Threshold of Pain
130
Intolerable
Heavy Rock Concert / Grinding on
Steel / Ambulance Sirens / Chainsaw
110 - 120
Extremely Noisy
Loud Car Horn / Jackhammer /
Construction Site with Pnematic
Hammering
90 - 100
Very Noisy
Curbside of a Busy Street / Loud
Radio or TV / Lawn Mower / Electric
Drill
70 -80
Loud
Normal Conversation / Department
Store / General Office
50 - 60
Moderate to Quiet
Inside a Private Office / Inside a Quiet
House
30 - 40
Quiet to Very
Quiet
Unoccupied Recording Studio / Quiet
Day in the Country
20
Almost Silent
Threshold of Hearing
0
Completely Silent
The human ear responds to changes in sound pressure over a very wide
range. The loudest sound pressure which the ear responds to is ten
million times greater than the softest. In order to simplify and reduce such
a large range, a logarithmic scale, called the decibel, or dBA is used.
The human ear also responds differently to the frequency of sound.
For example, the human ear is more sensitive at mid frequencies (500
to 1000 Hz), and less sensitive at very high and very low frequencies,
hence, sound level meters incorporate a filter which approximately
corresponds to that of human hearing. This filter is the ‘A-Weighted’ filter.
So the ‘dBA’ or ‘dB(A)’ is the A-Weighted sound level in decibels.
This is the most commonly used measurement parameter for sound.
Sound Pressure Level (SPL) and Sound
Power Level (SWL)
Refrigeration equipment and items of plant sometimes have a label
displaying the total Sound Power Level (referred to as SWL or Lw), or the
Sound Pressure Level (referred to as SPL or Lp), in dBA. If the equipment
does not have a label indicating the noise level then the supplier should
be able to provide this data.
The SPL or SWL indicate how noisy the equipment is, the lower the
number, the quieter the equipment.
The SWL is a measure of how much acoustic power is produced by the
equipment. The SPL is the resulting noise level from the operation of the
equipment. The SPL depends on the location of the sound source, how
many reflecting surfaces are nearby (how reverberant the space is) and
the distance between the equipment and the receiver.
The SWL is an intrinsic property of the equipment where as the SPL
depends on the SWL and the environment. For example, the SWL
maybe thought of as the Watts of a light bulb, while the SPL is similar to
the overall brightness - it depends on the environment (e.g. size of room,
colour of walls) as well as the power of the light bulb.
Generally, the SPL is lower than the SWL. In a ‘Free Field’ with no
reflecting surfaces such as walls nearby, the SPL is approximately 8 dBA
lower than the SWL at one metre from the equipment (assuming source
is on a hard surface).
Reduction of Sound Pressure Level (SPL)
Distance (m)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
10
Reduction (dBA)
8
14
17
20
22
23
25
26
28
Measurement of Sound - the dBA
Section 8 |
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Noise and Vibration
Sound Pressure Level and Reflective Surfaces
Reflective surfaces such as walls or a ceiling near the noise source can increase the resulting Sound Pressure Level (SPL).
The following diagrams illustrate the effect of reflective surfaces.
+3 dBA
+3 dBA if unit is within 3 metres of 1 wall/ceiling
+5 dBA if unit is within 3 metres of 2 walls/ceiling
+6 dBA if unit is within 3 metres of 3 walls/ceiling
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Noise and Vibration
Addition of dB Levels
The decibel scale is a logarithmic scale so 2 + 2 does not equal 4.
A doubling of the sound pressure levels results in an increase of 3
dBA. The following table shows the result of adding two SPL’s or SWL’s
together. The first column shows the difference between the two SPL’s
and the second column shows resulting dBA increase - the level that
should be added to the higher of the two SPL’s to obtain your result.
Example: Two units both at 50 dBA. The difference is zero, so 3 dBA is
added to the noisier unit (either one in this case) to give an overall noise
level of 53 dBA.
Example: One unit is 50 dBA, the other is 46 dBA. The difference is 4
dBA - the table says you should add 1.5 dBA to the noiser unit - so the
overall level is 51.5 dBA.
As you can see, because the addition of dBA levels is logarithmic, the
level may not increase very much but it is always controlled by the noisier
item of equipment - the best approach is to use the quietest equipment
possible to begin with!
Difference between SPL’s (dB)
Result - amount to add to the
higher SPL
0
3
1
2.5
2
2.1
3
1.8
4
1.5
5
1.2
6
1
7
0.8
8
0.6
9
0.5
10
0.4
Vibration from plant and equipment may result in regenerated noise and
you could end up with more noise than you expected. In addition, the
vibration may adversely affect the owner / user of the equipment.
The vibration from the equipment may be transmitted through various
support structures and end up in a lightweight structure which could
radiate noise.
The following provides some guidance with regard to vibration control:
• Use at least 1 layer of waffle pad, not less than 8mm thick, under
equipment in all areas
• Ensure that the waffle pad is not bypassed by a rigid connection. The
units should be sitting on the waffle pad under their own weight, not
bolted to the structure through the pad. If the unit must be bolted then
ensure that a rubber isolating washer and sleeve is used.
• Install equipment on a concrete slab at ground level if possible
• Install equipment on a platform above lightweight structures if possible
• Do not locate equipment above particularly sensitive spaces (e.g.
bedrooms or private offices in commercial situations), also try to keep
the equipment as far away as possible from all adjacent receivers.
• When units are installed on a lightweight structure or over (or near) a
sensitive area, the use of waffle rubber may not be sufficient - consider
a double thickness of rubber pads or the use of springs. It is best
to obtain professional advice in this situation as the extent of vibration
isolation required depends on a number of factors such as the rpm
of the equipment, the weight of the equipment, the structure
construction etc.
Vibration
Section 8 |
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Noise and Vibration
Barriers
Barriers can be an effective method for reducing noise, however, the barrier must be a solid material with no gaps or
penetrations. The material should have a surface density of not less than 5 kg/m.
Effective Barriers
• Solid timber fence (e.g. double lapped fence)
• Solid masonry fence (brick, concrete block, aerated concrete)
• Solid colourbond, sheetmetal, or corrugated iron fence
• Other solid material (e.g. plywood, cement sheet, particleboard)
Ineffective Barriers
• Trees, bushes or shrubs
• Fences with holes in them (e.g. missing planks, decorative openings, picket fences, lattices etc.)
A barrier, even an effective barrier, can only work if it screens the noise source from the receiver. If the barrier is too short
and the receiver can see the noise source, then the Barrier Effect is insignificant. If the barrier screens the line of sight so the
receiver cannot see the noise source then the Barrier Effect is approximately 5 dBA. If the barrier is very high (e.g. higher
than 1m above the line of sight) then the Barrier Effect is 8 dBA.
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Noise and Vibration
A Guide to Calculating Noise Levels
Step 1 - SWL of Unit
Enter the sound Power Level (SWL) of the proposed equipment at the top of the table.
Step 2 - Distance Factor
Determine the shortest distance between the location of the proposed unit and the receiver position (e.g. neighbour).
For simplicity the distance between the unit and the boundary may be acceptable. Circle the corresponding Distance Factor
in Column 1.
Step 3 - Barrier Effect
Determine the type of barrier - if any between the proposed unit and the receiver position. Check the section on ‘Barriers’
to determine the situation you have. Remember that an ‘Ineffective Barrier’ is one where there is no barrier or the barrier or
fence has holes in it which allows the noise to pass through it (e.g. picket fences, missing planks, decorative openings etc.).
Circle the corresponding Barrier Factor in Column 2.
Step 4 - Reflection Factor
Determine the number of reflective surfaces that are within 3 metres of the proposed unit, such as walls and large eaves
(do not include the ground). Circle the corresponding Reflection Factor in Column 3.
Step 5 - Resultant Noise Level
Determine the estimated Resultant Noise Level by:
Sound Power Level (SWL) of Proposed Unit - dBA
Column 1
Shortest straight line
distance from Unit to
Receiver position: m
Column 2
Distance
factor
1
8
2
14
3
17
4
20
5
22
6
23
7
25
8
26
10
28
Column 3
Barrier
Barrier
Effect
Reflection
Reflection
Factor
Ineffective Barrier
0
No reflecting surfaces within
3m
0
One reflecting surface within
3m (one wall)
3
Two reflecting surfaces within
3m (two walls)
5
Effective Barrier
Line of sight to unit not
blocked
0
Blocks line of sight to unit
5
High barrier blocks line of
sight of unit by more than
1m
8
SWL
dBA
Distance factor
Three reflecting surfaces
within 3m (two walls and
large eaves)
6
6
+
Barrier Effect
Reflection Factor
= Resultant Sound Pressure Level (SPL)
Section 8 |
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Noise and Vibration
Do’s and Don’ts
As you can see from the Guide to Calculating Noise Levels, one of the most
important factors is the Sound Power Level (SWL) of the proposed unit.
DO
Use the quietest unit to begin with - it may be the difference between an
acceptable or unacceptable noise level for a given location.
DON’T
Don’t necessarily use the cheapest unit - it may be the noisiest - check
the SWL.
DO
Install the unit as far from the boundary as possible - the further it is from
neighbours, the lower the noise level. Place the unit facing the back
fence or the furthest fence if possible.
DON’T
Don’t install the unit near a boundary, especially if it is near a window or
worst of all - near a bedroom window!
DO
Make sure that any fences or barriers are Effective Barriers, with no
holes, gaps or missing planks.
DON’T
Don’t assume any tree or bush is an Effective Barrier - it is not and it
won’t provide any protection from the noise.
Continued on the following page
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Noise and Vibration
DO
Try and locate the unit away from any reflecting surfaces.
DON’T
Don’t place the unit near corners or in very reverberant spaces such as
carports or alcoves.
DO
Ask for acoustic advice from a professional qualified acoustic consultant.
Even if the expected noise level is too high a consultant will be able to
design an enclosure or advise on how to reduce the noise level.
DON’T
Don’t assume the problem will go away - it won’t. Act now before it is a
problem and you will have a happy client, not an ongoing and possibly
expensive complaint.
State Acts, Regulations and Guidelines
The following Acts, Regulations and Guidelines are applicable for the
respective States and Territories, but may not be limited to these.
If a detailed assessment is required or the expected noise level is
excessive, you should consult a qualified Acoustic Consultant.
New South Wales:
Protection of the Environment Operations (Noise Control) Regulations
2000 (Section 52)
Noise Control (Miscellaneous Articles) Regulation 1995
Victoria:
Environment Protection (Residential Noise) Regulations 1997
Queensland:
Environment Protection (Noise) Policy 1997
Environment Protection Act 1994
Environment Protection Regulation 1998
South Australia:
Environment Protection (Machine Noise) Policy 1994
Environment Protection Act 1995
Western Australia:
Environment Protection (Noise) Regulations 1997
Environment Protection Act 1986
Noise Abatement (Noise Labeling of Equipment) Regulations (No. 2) 1985
Tasmania:
Environment Protection (Noise) Amendment Regulations 2000, Statutory
Rules 2000, No. 186
Australian Capital Territory:
Environment Protection Policy 1998 (Noise)
Environment Protection Act 2000
Section 8 |
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Field Service Instructions
for Reversing Valves
These Field Service Instructions will aid
recognition of a malfunctioning Heat Pump
System equipped with a reversing valve
Field Problems Simplified
Heat pump equipment usually includes a reversing valve (added to a
refrigerating system to create an “all season” heat pump) which is easily
identified and blamed for many failures of the system. Valves have been
needlessly replaced without correcting the original trouble in the system,
principally due to inadequate testing and erroneous quick decisions.
A tabulated chart follows these instructions on Valve troubles which are
so listed to be quickly analysed by “Touch” testing for “possible causes”
with suggested “corrections”, to simplify testing procedures and cut
testing time.
Operation of the Valve
The Solenoid Coil on the 3-WAY PILOT VALVE forces the needles of the
pilot valve to OPEN and CLOSE two port openings at the INSTANT of
reversing operations for the 4-WAY MAIN VALVE.
Operating Sequence
1. An ENERGISED COIL (in the heating phase) forces two opposing
pilot valve needles, “back needle” and “plunger needle”, separated with
stainless steel pins, to simultaneously CLOSE the “back” port and to
KEEP OPEN the “front” port.
Notes: (a) The “outlet” port is the center bleeder tube (called “common
capillary”) which is brazed into the suction line tube and is a common
bleed path for each outside port (“front” and “back” capillaries).
(b) The “inlet” tubes, called “back” and “front capillary” and each from
its pilot port, are operating paths to the opposite end chambers of the
main valve cylinder. These paths conduct the gas which bleeds through
a monel screen from “bleeder holes” located in each piston as gas
pressure changes occur within the end chambers.
2. Gas flows out of the RIGHT end chamber, decreasing in pressure
there. High pressure gas from the system immediately builds up within
the LEFT end chamber since no path is open for escape which was first
closed by the needle valve at the pilot “back port”.
Note: At the end of each stroke, one of the operating gas paths is closed
to the pilot valve.
3. Difference in pressures between the two end chambers aids the “slide
bracket” assembly to move instantly to the RIGHT by the pistons from
the pressure differential of the system.
4. While in and during the operating phase of heating, both end
chambers EQUALISE in pressure until the “solenoid coil” is
DE-ENERGISED (into cooling or deicing phase) when the opposite
operation in reversing takes place within the PILOT and MAIN VALVES.
Notes:
(a) During the transfer period, there is sufficient by-pass to prevent
overloading the compressor due to an excessive head pressure.
(b) The valve reverses against running pressures with no mechanical or
impact noises from the “slide”, “slide bracket” or pistons; however,
there is an instant of hissing gas as pressures equalise in both end
chambers.
System troubles that affect the reversing
valve
Any trouble in a heat pump, which will materially affect the normal
operating pressures, may prevent the valve from shifting properly.
For example, (1) a leak in the system resulting in a loss of charge,
(2) a compressor which is not pumping properly, (3) a leaking check
valve, (4) defective electrical system or (5) mechanical damage to the
valve itself, each will indicate an apparent malfunction of the valve.
Make the following checks on the system and its components before
attempting to diagnose any valve trouble by making the “Touch Test”
method of analysis.
1. Make a physical inspection of the valve and solenoid coil for dents,
deep cratches and cracks.
2. Check the electrical system. This is readily done by having the
electrical system in operation so that the solenoid coil is energised.
In this condition, remove the lock nut to free the solenoid coil. Slide it
partly off the stem and notice a magnetic force attempting to hold the coil
in its normal position. By moving the coil farther off the stem, a clicking
noise will indicate the return of the “plinger” to its non-energised position.
When returning the coil to its normal position on the stem, another
clicking noise indicates that the “plunger” responded to the energised
coil. If these conditions have not been satisfied, other components of the
electrical system are to be checked for possible trouble.
3. Check the heat pump refrigeration system for proper operation as
recommended by the manufacturer of the equipment. After all of the
previous inspections and checks have been made and determined
correct, then perform the “Touch Test” on the reversing valve according
to chart on the following page. This test is simply performed by feeling
the temperature relationships of the six (6) tubes on the valve and
compare the temperature differences. Refer to the chart after the
comparative temperatures have been determined for the “possible
cause” and suggested “corrective action” to be taken.
Note:
In reversing operation, the “slide” port straddles one or the other of
two openings (in section views “E” and “C” tubing schematically piped
through the illustrated circled figures 3 and 4 respectively) as directed.
The “suction tube” between “E” and “C” is always OPEN to the low
pressure side of the system.
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Touch Test Chart
STAINLESS STEEL PINS
BACK PORT
FRONT PORT
SOLENOID COIL
PLUNGER NEEDLE
1
PLUNGER SPRING
BACK NEEDLE
LOCK NUT
5
BACK SPRING
BACK
CAPILLARY
SLIDE
5
COMMON
CAPILLARY
6
PLUNGER
PILOT VALVE BODY
FRONT
CAPILLARY
1
DISCHARGE
TUBE
TEFLON PISTON
SEAL
SLIDE
BRACKET
BLEED HOLE
6
4
PISTON
NEEDLE
Disch. Suction
Tube to LEFT Pilot Right Pilot
Tube to
Valve
Tube Tube to
Outside Back Capill. Back Capill.
Operating Compr. Compr. Inside Coil
Coil
Tube
Tube
Condition
1
2
3
4
5
6
Normal Operation of Valve
Normal
Cooling
Normal
Heating
Hot
Cool as (2)
Hot at (1)
Hot as (1)
Cool at
(2)
Cool
*TVB
Check refrigeration charge
Hot as (1)
Cool as (2)
*TVB
Warm as
(1)
Warm
Hot
Hot
*TVB
Warm
*TVB
Start to
shift
but does
not
complete
reversal
Warm
Hot
Hot
Hot
Hot
Hot
Apparent
leak in
heating
Warm
Hot
Cool
Hot
Hot as (1)
Not enough pressure differential at start
of stroke or not enough flow to maintain
pressure differential
Body damage
Check unit for correct operating pressures and
charge. Raise head pressure. If no shift, use
valve with smaller ports
Replace valve
Both ports of Pilot open
Raise head pressure, operate solenoid. If no
shift, replace valve
Body damage
Valve hung up at mid-stroke. Pumping
volume of compressor not sufficient to
maintain reversal
Hot
Both ports of Pilot open
*TVB
*WVB
*WVB
Piston needle on end of slide
leaking
Pilot needle and piston needle leaking
Clogged Pilot tube
Cool
Hot as (1)
*TVB
Cool as
(2)
Dirt in bleeder hole
Hot
Piston cup leak
Warm
Warm as (1)
Warm
Corrections
Defective Compressor
Pressure differential too high
Hot
COMPRESSOR
Repair electrical circuit
Replace coil
Repair leak, recharge system
Recheck system.
De-energise solenoid, raise head pressure,
re-energise solenoid to break dirt loose. If
unsuccessful, remove valve, wash out. Check
Pilot valve OK. Dirt in one bleeder hole
on air before installing. If no movement, replace
valve, add strainer to discharge tube, mount
valve horizontally
Stop unit. After pressures equalise, restart with
Piston cup leak
solenoid energized. If valve shifts, re-attempt with
compressor running. If still no shift, replace valve
Raise head pressure, operate solenoid to free. If
Clogged pilot tubes
still no shift, replace valve
Both ports of pilot open. (Back seat port
Raise head pressure, operate solenoid to free
did not close)
partially clogged port. If still no shift, replace valve
*TVB
Will not
shift from
heat to
cool
OUTSIDE
COIL
RESTRICTOR
*TVB
Hot
Cool as
(2)
2
2
INSIDE
COIL
Malfunction of Valve
No voltage to coil
Defective coil
Low charge
Pressure differential too high
Hot
Cool
3
4
*TVB
*TVB
Hot
3
Possible Causes
Check electrical circuit and coil
Valve will
not shift
from Cool
to Heat
SUCTION
TUBES
MAIN BODY
Hot
Defective Pilot
*TVB
Defective Compressor
Replace valve
Raise head pressure, operate solenoid. If no shift,
use valve with smaller ports.
Raise head pressure, operate solenoid. If no
shift, replace valve.
Operate valve several times then recheck. If
excessive lek, replace valve.
Operate valve several times then recheck. If
excessive leak, replace valve.
Stop unit. Will reverse during equalization period.
Recheck system.
Raise head pressure, operate solenoid to free
dirt. If still no shift, replace valve.
Raise head pressure, operate solenoid. Remove
valve and wash out. Check on air before
reinstalling if no movement, replace valve.
Add strainer to discharge tube. Mount valve
horizontally.
Stop unit, after pressures equalise, restart with
solenoid de-energised. If valve shifts, re-attempt
with compressor running. If it still will not reverse
while running, replace valve.
Replace Valve
NOTES: *Temperature of Valve Body. **Warmer than Valve Body.
VALVE OPERATED SATISFACTORILY PRIOR TO COMPRESSOR MOTOR BURN OUT - caused by dirt and small greasy particles inside the valve.
To CORRECT: Remove valve, thoroughly wash it out. Check on air before reinstalling, or replace valve. Add strainer and filter-dryer to discharge tube between
valve and compressor.
Section 8 |
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Air Filter Selection & Service Guide
Introduction
Effects of airborne particles
This guide provides practical information to building owners, managers
and consultants with the selection and application of air filters in
commercial, retail, institutional and industrial buildings. In addition, it will
assist OH&S administrators meet work place safety laws by ensuring air
cleaning standards are maintained within their facilities.
Health effects resulting from poor indoor air quality vary with individual
cases, however minimising the levels of airborne particulates will minimise
the risk to health. Some well known ailments exacerbated by poor air
quality include itchy and watery eyes, sneezing, itchy throat, wheezing,
asthma, as well as the spread of infections such as influenza, colds,
measles and mumps. Reducing the number of airborne particles through
the use of high efficiency air filtration will minimise this risk.
The level of air cleaning required in a building will vary depending on the
occupants and/or process needs. Schools, office buildings and shopping
centres protect occupants, retail goods and architectural features. Of
most concern to building owners today is OH&S risk minimisation.
Atmospheric contaminants are identified in OHS Regulation 2001 as a
health hazard so ensuring appropriate filtration standards are applied is
critical. Finally, maintaining clean air handling plant and heat exchangers
will ensure ongoing energy costs are kept to a minimum.
Poor air filtration will also affect the ventilation system itself. High levels of
dust contamination will lead to increased duct cleaning costs, increase
the risk of corrosion and accelerate refurbishment costs to architectural
features. Poor air filtration also reduces heat exchanger efficiency
resulting in higher energy inputs and therefore greater operating costs.
What’s in the Air?
Solid particles of soot, carbon matter, ashes, earth, sand and silica
materials, fibres, road dirt and other animal, vegetable and mineral
substances. Mould spores, bacteria, viruses, pollens and Volatile Organic
Compounds may also be present. Some of these substances are known
carcinogens and asthma triggers.2
LOGARITHMIC SCALE OF
PARTICLE DIAMETRES
IN MICRONS
0.0001
0.001
0.01
0.1
Solid:
1
10
100
Fume
1,000
10,000
Dust
Liquid:
Mist
Spray
Smog
Cloud and Fog
Rosin Smoke
Mist
Drizzle
Rain
Fertilizer, Ground Limestone
Oil Smokes
Fly Ash
Tobacco Smoke
Coal Dust
Metallurgical Dusts and Fumes
Ammonium
Chloride Fume
Cement Dust
Sulphuric
Beach Sand
Concentrator Mist
Carbon Black
Contact
Pulverised Coal
Sulphuric Mist
Paint Pigments
Zinc Oxide Fume
Floatation Ores
Insecticide Dusts
Ground Talc
Colloidal
Silica
Plant
Spray Dried Milk
Spores
Alkali Fume
Pollens
Aitken
Nuclei
Atmospheric Dust
Sea Salt Nuclei
Nebulizer Drops
Hydraulic Nozzle Drops
Combustion
Lung Damaging
Pneumatic
Nuclei
Dust
Nozzle Drops
Viruses
Bacteria
Human Hair
Common Air Filters
High Efficiency Air Filters
Impingement Separators
Mechanical Separators
Electrical Precipitators
1 This guide does not deal with the removal of odours and gaseous substances or high volume product dust from industrial processes, which require specialised equipment.
2 The Australian Institute of Refrigeration Air-Conditioning & Heating – Air Filters Application Manual.
Information courtesy of AREMA
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Air Filter Selection & Service Guide
Air Filter Standards
As a general guide, Australian Standards are useful information tools that
provide minimum performance standards. Care should be taken when
applying minimum standards that may not adequately service the air
quality needs of the building.
Relevant Australian standards and specifications commonly referred to are:
• AS1324 (Air Filters for use in general ventilation and air-conditioning)
• AS1668 (The use of mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning
in buildings), and
• AS3666 (Air Handling and Water Systems of Buildings)
Filter Classification - Performance Ratings
The following performance table is commonly used internationally.
It classifies the filter by efficiency from test results carried out in an
appropriate air filter-testing laboratory. The following table is found in
AS1324 Part 1.2001
For most air-handling and air conditioning applications, testing with Test
Dusts No.1 and No.4 is to be used to define the performance of an air
filter. These test requirements are consistent with tests carried out to US
and European standards ASHRAE 52.1 and EN779.
The benefit of using No.1 dust is to determine the efficiency of the air
filter to catch particles of submicrometre nature. The benefit of No.4 dust
is to evaluate the arrestance and likely service life of an air filter. ASHRAE
52.2 Removal Efficiency by Particle Size standard provides a useful
method of evaluating filtering applications given the particle size of the
contaminant.
AS1324 Filter Types
• Type 1 - Dry, eg. Woven or non-woven fabrics, which when unused feel dry.
• Type 2 - Viscous impingement, eg. Woven or non-woven oil or gel coated fabrics, including metalviscous filters.
• Type 3 - Electrostatic precipitators AS1324 Filter Classes
• Class A - Fully disposable (entire cell replaced, including frame)
• Class B - Reusable media (reusable frame)
• Class C - Reusable media and frame (after cleaning)
• Class D - Self-renewable (in respect of media advancement and cleaning)
Example: Supply Type 1, Class B multi pocket bag filter.
Labelling
It is a requirement of AS1324 that all air filters are labelled with a filter
performance rating together with the manufacturers/distributors details.
Testing
In order to ensure compliance to the filter performance rating of any product
AS1324 recommended that all products are tested at least every five years
and that the air filter media used be tested at least every year. No laboratory
test older than five years should be accepted as proof of filter performance
rating.
Filter Selection
The following table is the AREMA recommended filter classification for
building grades to match Property Council of Australia 1999 Benchmarks
Handbook. The table sets the benchmark air cleaning standard.
BOMA Grade*
A.R.E.M.A. Min. recommended filter classification
Premium
A
Air Filter Selection Chart
Filter
Class
Average Arrestance
AS1324.2 Dust No.4
ASHRAE 52.1 Eurovent 4/5
EN779 Gravimetric
G1
A < 65
G2
65 ≤ A < 80
G3
80 ≤ A < 90
G4
90 ≤ A
Average Efficiency
AS1324.2 Dust No.1
ASHRAE 52.1 Eurovent
4/5 EN779 Atmospheric
Maximum
Final
Resistance
Pa
F7
B
F6
C
F5
D
G4
* Property Council of Australia Benchmarks Handbook
250
F5
40 ≤ E < 60
F6
60 ≤ E < 80
F7
80 ≤ E < 90
F8
90 ≤ E < 95
F9
90 ≤ E
450
*Note: Filters which are tested with a minimum efficiency of less than 20% shall only be rated
as G type arrestance filters.
Air-handling systems with airflow rates equal to or greater than 1500l/s
require air filtration with the following efficiencies:
• Test dust No. 1: 20% (minimum) @ 250Pa.
• Test dust No. 1: 20% to 40% (average) @ 250Pa.
Section 8 |
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Air Filter Selection & Service Guide
Information courtesy of AREMA
Filter Selection Steps
When selecting air filters using the above classification table, you should
also consider:
• Air flow capacity of system
• Clean and final resistance of your filter system
• Arrestance dust holding capacity
• Filter life
• Comparison of filters should be made at the same final pressure drop ie
250, 375 or 450 pascals.
Other important considerations when selecting your air filter system
include:
• Use of prefilters to extend final filter life
• Optimising the surface are of the filter system
• Access for filter replacement and routine service
• Suitability of filter materials and construction for conditions encountered
Installation
Filter banks should be sealed between filters and frames to prevent
leakage and should be suitably stiffened to prevent flexing.
When filters are installed in a slide access, filter and service doors need
to be sealed to prevent air leakage and fitted with sash clamp type
catches.
General: Provide a permanent notice fixed to the wall identifying the filter
type and performance rating.
Plinth: Where possible, provide a 100mm high plinth below the filter bank.
Maintenance
Servicing
• Ensure suitable and safe access is provided for air filter inspection &
replacement
• All food preparation areas should be located away from filter service
points
• Air conditioning plant located at height require Work Cover approved
ladders, platforms and harness points.
• Only licensed companies with a registered waste water treatment
facility are to service washable filters. A copy of the Trade Waste
Agreement should be kept on file to mitigate off site liability under the
Environment Operations Act 1997.
Cleaning
Before start-up, ensure that the installation is clean, and inspect filter
banks and plenums to ensure integrity of the installation.
Temporary pre-filters
Remove temporary media at completion of commissioning.
Operation and maintenance manual
Each different filter bank should have an operation and maintenance
manual which includes information on performance ratings, replacement
filter part numbers and sizes.
Washing of Filters on Site
The Clean Waters Act (Part 4) prohibits anyone from washing a filter in
a manner that could pollute a waterway. Filters can only be washed by
someone who holds a licence to operate an approved washing facility.
Many filter service companies are licenced and will remove the filters from
site and wash them in their premises.
Manometers
Provide a measure of differential pressure across each filter bank.
Differential pressure gauge unit - 100mm dial type diaphragm gauge
including pipework, termination and fittings necessary for correct
operation and maintenance.
Gauge scale - Mark in suitable divisions with full-scale deflection no more
than twice the maximum dirty filter condition. Locate gauge outside unit
casing in a readily readable location.
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Subject to change without notice | © 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564
Electrical IP Ratings
The IP rating system is used to indicate the ingress protection level of electrical equipment against the intrusion of foreign
bodies such as fingers, tools, dust and moisture.
The IP rating consists of two numbers, the first indicates protection from solid objects and the second protection from water.
Description of first number
1st Number
No special protection
0
Protection from objects > 50mm
1
Protection from objects < 80mm in length and 12mm diameter
2
Protection from objects > 2.5mm
3
Protection from objects > 1mm
4
Protection from an amount of dust that would interfere with the operation of the equipment
5
Protection from all dust
6
Description of second number
2nd Number
No special protection
0
Protection from vertically dripping water
1
Protection from dripping water when tilted up to 15°
2
Protection from sprayed water
3
Protection from splashed water
4
Protection from water projected from a nozzle
5
Protection against heavy seas or powerful jets of water
6
Protection against temporary immersion
7
Protection against complete continuous submersion in water of 1 metre depth for 15 minutes
8
E.g. An electrical component with an IP rating of IP56 has protection from an amount of dust that would interfere with the operation of the equipment and
protection against heavy seas or powerful jets of water.
Section 8 |
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Selection of Cool Room/Freezer Equipment
When requesting quotations for coolroom equiment, please supply the following information to assist Actrol Technical Staff to advise on the selection
of suitable equipment for your particular application. Tick boxes where applicable. All * highlighted fields must be filled in before we can proceed.
*Date:
__________ / __________ / __________
*Client:
*Phone No:
*Contact Name:
*Fax No:
Address:
Email:
Account No:
Product Details
*Product Type:
eg. Beef, Vegetables...
*Weight of Product Entering Room per Day
kg
*Temperature of Entering Product
ºC
*Room Storage Temperature
ºC
Room Design Temperature
Approximate Room Relative Humidity
%RH
Usually Dictated by Product
Product Pull Down Time Required
Hours
Usually 24 Hours
Room Location, Dimensions and Construction
Weight per 24 Hours
City/town
State
*Width
*Length
*Height
Internal
External
Construction Insulation Thickness and Type
*Walls
mm
*Ceiling
mm
Floor
*Concrete
Polyurethane
mm
Polystyrene
*Insulation
mm
Floor Heating
*Solid Door/s
Width
mm
Height
mm
*Glass Door/s
Width
mm
Height
mm
Door Useage
Heavy
Average
Long
Glazing Type
Double
Watts
None
Triple
Miscelaneous Loads
Number of Occupants
Hours/Day
Lighting
Forklift
Yes
No
Standard lighting 10 Watts per m2
Forklift Type
Electric
Internal Combustion
Ventilation
Yes
No
Hours per Day
Any outside air added to the room
Other Loads
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050613
Subject to change without notice | © 2017 Actrol Parts Pty Ltd ABN: 93 142 654 564
Selection of Cool Room/Freezer Equipment
Other
WhenInformation
requesting quotations for coolroom equiment, please supply the following information to assist Actrol Technical Staff to advise on the selection
of suitable equipment for your particular application. Tick boxes where applicable. All * highlighted fields must be filled in before we can proceed.
*Power Supply
240V 1PH 50Hz
415V 3PH 50Hz
*Preferred Refrigerant
Equivalent Line Length
*Client:
*Contact Name:
Address:
Horizontal
Vertical
Liquid
m
Suction Line
m
Discharge Line
m
*Date:
__________ / __________ / __________
m
*Phone No:
*Fax No:
Email:
Account No:
Any additional data available
Product Details
*Product Type:
Equipment Preferences
*Weight of Product Entering Room per Day
Conventional
Packaged
*Temperature of Entering Product
Punchbowl
Buffalo
*Room Storage Temperature
eg. Beef, Vegetables...
kgOther
Remote
Weight per 24 Hours
ºCOther
Cabero
ºC
Room Design Temperature
Approximate Room Relative Humidity
%RH
Usually Dictated by Product
Product Pull Down Time Required
Hours
Usually 24 Hours
Room Location, Dimensions and Construction
City/town
State
Actrol can*Width
only base equipment
selections on the information
supplied aboveInternal
and are not responsible
if this information is incorrect, changed without
*Length
*Height
External
notice or if assumptions need to be made due to lack of information.
Construction Insulation Thickness and Type
*Walls
*Form Completed By:
*Ceiling
Floor
mm
Polyurethane
Polystyrene
*Client’s Signature:
mm
*Concrete
mm
*Insulation
mm
Floor Heating
*Solid Door/s
Width
mm
Height
mm
*Glass Door/s
Width
mm
Height
mm
Door Useage
Heavy
Average
Long
Glazing Type
Double
Watts
None
Triple
Miscelaneous Loads
Number of Occupants
Hours/Day
Lighting
Forklift
Yes
No
Standard lighting 10 Watts per m2
Forklift Type
Electric
Internal Combustion
Ventilation
Yes
No
These forms can also be found:
http://www.actrol.com.au/Services/Services-Applications-Engineering/
Hours per Day
Any outside air added to the room
Other Loads
050613
Section 8 |
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