School Design Guide
School Design Guide
Los Angeles Unified School District
July 2015
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
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PREFACE
This School Design Guide has been prepared to establish and sustain consistent representation of requirements and
standards to all members of the Design Team. It presents design guidelines and criteria for the planning, design and
technical development of new schools and modernization, and includes by reference the Facilities Space Program, the
Educational Specifications, the Guide Specifications, and the Standard Technical Drawings of the District.
This new edition of the Guide has been updated and edited with the input from various Departments, to present the
District’s current insights and objectives. Lessons learned from post occupancy reviews of recently built and modernized
schools have also been included in this Guide.
The School Design Guide is a living document which is updated yearly with a new version and periodically by the release
of bulletins. A “track version” showing the changes made to the previous School Design Guide is posted on the Design
Standards webpage as a reference to designers highlighting the updates. Designers shall visit the Design Standards
Department website to assure that the most current guidelines are followed for the benefit of our students and staff.
The downloadable PDF of the School Design Guide is bookmarked to facilitate accessing the chapters, and sections of
the document. The pages of the guide have been set for two sided printing.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Book One
1.1
1.2
Purpose and General Requirements ............................ 1
PURPOSE AND PRINCIPLES ...................................................................... 3
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................... 9
Book Two
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
General Criteria .................................................................31
SCHOOL BUILDING DESIGN ...................................................................33
SITE DESIGN .........................................................................................61
VEHICULAR ACCESS AND PARKING .........................................................79
ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY .....................................................87
Book Three
Technical Criteria........................................................... 101
3.1
ARCHITECTURAL ................................................................................. 103
3.2
CIVIL ENGINEERING ........................................................................... 119
3.3
STRUCTURAL ....................................................................................... 131
3.4
PLUMBING .......................................................................................... 139
3.5
FIRE PROTECTION ............................................................................... 157
3.6
HVAC SYSTEMS ................................................................................. 163
3.7
ELECTRICAL POWER & LIGHTING ......................................................... 192
3.8
ELECTRICAL COMMUNICATIONS & AV SYSTEMS ..................................... 228
3.9
PLANTING AND IRRIGATION ................................................................ 277
3.10 BUILDING ACOUSTICAL REQUIREMENTS ............................................... 291
Book Four
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
Submittal Requirements Checklists......................... 301
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS –SITE ANALYSIS REPORT ............................ 303
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS – PRELIMINARY SCHEMATIC DESIGN ........... 307
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS – FINAL SCHEMATIC DESIGN PHASE ............ 311
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS – DESIGN DEVELOPMENT PHASE ................ 315
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS – 50% CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS ........... 325
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS – 100% CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS.......... 335
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS – OFFSITE WORK, UTILITIES
AND EASEMENTS .............................................................................. 347
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS –CIVIL 100 % CD ....................................... 351
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS –PLUMBING 100 % CD .............................. 355
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS –MECHANICAL100 % CD............................ 363
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS –ELECTRICAL100 % CD ............................. 371
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Book One Purpose and General Requirements
Book One
Purpose and General Requirements
1.1
PURPOSE AND PRINCIPLES................................................................... 5
1.2
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS ................................................................ 9
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Book One Purpose and General Requirements
1.1
1.1 Purpose and Principles
PURPOSE AND PRINCIPLES
A.
PURPOSE ........................................................................................... 5
B.
ORGANIZATION OF DESIGN REQUIREMENTS ......................................... 5
C.
DESIGN PRINCIPLES ........................................................................... 7
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Book One Purpose and General Requirements
1.1 Purpose and Principles
1.1
PURPOSE AND PRINCIPLES
A.
PURPOSE
The Los Angeles Unified School District is committed to creating high-quality educational environments – places that
provide well-planned, high-performing, healthy school environments that foster student achievement and well-being, as
well as being centers of community.
The “School Design Guide” has been prepared to establish and sustain consistent representation of requirements and
quality standards for those environments to all members of the Design Teams for LAUSD school facilities. It is based
on the current curricula, teaching methodologies, student groupings, and site constraints of the District. It reflects the
District’s experience in building and operating schools to balance the needs for instructional functionality with
aesthetics, practical comforts, sustainability, accessibility, ease of maintenance and operation, and assurance of safety so
that all students, staff and community members feel welcome, safe, and proud of their schools – all while reflecting the
wise and efficient use of limited land and public resources.
Architects and engineers shall follow the requirements and standards presented here for the planning and design of new
school construction or reconstruction. These are not intended, to stifle creativity or innovation. If a design professional
feels that varying from specific requirements, while still meeting their intent, is desirable for a specific project, the
variations may be incorporated into the design with written approval of the District’s authorized representative.
The “School Design Guide” incorporates and complements the requirements and standards of other LAUSD
documents that direct the design of school facilities (see below), and which are also part of the District’s requirements
and standards. The requirements and standards are updated on an annual basis. Interim changes will be published
periodically. Visit the Design Standards Department webpage for the most current versions of these standards, as well
as the update bulletins.
http://www.laschools.org/new-site/asset-management/design-standards
B.
ORGANIZATION OF DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
The content of the “School Design Guide” is divided into four sections: Book One deals with general items, purpose
and principles. Book Two deals with functional and relational planning and design criteria, including general
environmental and sustainability issues. Book Three presents more detailed information on material choices and system
design criteria and requirements by chapters on each major technical discipline. Book Four includes submittal checklists
for the various project phases.
The other requirements and standards that are incorporated by reference as part of the “School Design Guide” are:
1.
“Facilities Space Program (Program):” Governs the capacity, size, and number of functional spaces of each
school project.
2.
“Estimating Guide:” Quantifies the quality levels of space, materials and systems for each school project:
3.
http://www.laschools.org/documents/file?file_id=310975981 “Educational Specifications” (Ed Specs):
Detailed descriptions of the functional and facilities support requirements for each space defined in the
Facilities Space Program, including prototype drawings and equipment lists. Available for High, Middle,
Elementary Schools and Early Education Centers.
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Book One Purpose and General Requirements
1.1 Purpose and Principles
4.
http://www.laschools.org/documents/?folder_id=219555013 “Guide Specifications:” These are
construction specifications in CSI format that define the materials and systems acceptable to the District,
including considerations of economy, performance, and maintenance and operations.
The Guide
Specifications often include alternative choices. These Guide Specifications must be edited by the Architect to
suit the needs of each specific project.
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5.
http://www.laschools.org/new-site/asset-management/guide-specifications
“Standard
Technical
Drawings” (Std. Dwgs.): Construction details that provide District-wide consistent operational and safety
standards.
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6.
“Building and Room Numbering Guidelines”: The document presents a floor and room numbering
scheme to be structured so that the numbers flow through the building in a consistent, comprehensible, and
user friendly manner.
7.
http://www.laschools.org/documents/?folder_id=310975847 “Planning and Design Guidelines for Small
Learning Communities”: The document presents design guidelines and criteria for planning, design and
technical development of new schools and the conversion of existing facilities.
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8.
http://www.laschools.org/documents/file?file_id=310976462 “Historic Schools of the Los Angeles
Unified School District”: Report lists and illustrates buildings that have been identified as historical
significant, meeting either the criteria for listing in the National Register of Historical Places or the California
Register of Historical Resources.
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9.
http://www.laschools.org/documents/file?file_id=310976398OEHS Traffic and Pedestrian Safety
Requirements for New Schools: The purpose of this document is to identify performance requirements to
minimize potential pedestrian safety risks to students, staff and visitors at LAUSD schools.
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10.
http://www.laschools.org/documents/file?file_id=310976422 “Recycled Water Use Project Plan” (Purple
Pipe Manual): Guidelines for the proper planning, design, construction and maintenance of cost-efficient
recycled water improvements for both new and retrofit applications.
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11.
http://www.laschools.org/documents/file?file_id=310975951 “Approved Plant List”: Lists the trees, palms,
shrubs, ferns, vines, grasses, etc. that are allowed to be used in the LAUSD schools.
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12. http://www.laschools.org/documents/file?file_id=310975965
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13.
“LAUSD CHPS Scorecard”: Scorecard for use on new construction and major modernization projects.
14.
http://www.chps.net/dev/Drupal/node/32 “Design Standards Security and Safety Requirements”: This
document is a summary of security and safety provisions contained in the current LAUSD Schools Design
Guideline documents (School Design Guide, Educational Specifications, Guide Technical Specifications, and
Technical Drawings). Deleted: http://www.laschools.org/employee/design/fs-studiesand-reports/file?file_id=226118933¶
15.
http://www.laschools.org/documents/file?file_id=310975972 “HVAC Systems for the Replacement of
Existing Wall Mounted and Indoor Cabinet Type Classroom Units”: Study explores HVAC systems that
can be used to replace aging wall mounted units and indoor cabinet type heat pump units in existing schools.
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16.
http://www.laschools.org/documents/?folder_id=310975881
“Post
Construction
Stormwater
Management: Includes the Post Construction Storm Water Management Plan Minimum Control Measures
(BMP Selection White Paper), the Storm Water Mitigation Presentation, and the Stormwater Technical Manual
(Low Impact Development, Maintenance, Checklists).
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1.1 Purpose and Principles
http://www.laschools.org/documents/?folder_id=310975918The District also has Procedural Requirements
that govern the work of the commissioned architects and engineers. Information on these is available from the
District’s authorized representative.
C.
DESIGN PRINCIPLES
1.
Learning Environment: Schools should provide instructional spaces that facilitate student-teacher interaction
in the educational process, with collaborative learning and working, flexibility to accommodate different
teaching styles, and a health-enhancing environmental ambience.
2.
Architectural Quality: The appearance and overall character of each school should be both pleasing and
stimulating to students, teachers, parents and the surrounding community, providing a welcoming and
attractive place to visit or to spend the day. When working at existing sites it is important that any new
structures are architecturally compatible with the existing buildings and site. Placement of new structures must
take into account potential future development at the site for the Facilities Master Plan. The District has a
number of historically significant sites and buildings; special attention is required when working at these sites.
3.
Pride in Ownership: Each school’s design should foster a sense of belonging and pride among the students,
staff and community.
4.
Flexibility: School planning should anticipate future growth on the site as well as provisions for equipment
replacement and advances in technology.
5.
Small Learning Communities: In planning larger schools, smaller schools must be created within the larger
context, to reduce the perceived scale of the school for students and to provide integrated small learning
communities with common affinities, such as common curricula, themed educational programs, or age and
grade.
6.
Accessibility: Schools must accommodate all students, staff and community members including the physically
disabled and wheelchair-bound, deaf, visually or emotionally impaired. Design shall allow for construction and
material tolerances to accommodate dimensional requirements set by ADA and other codes. Do not design to
minimum or maximum requirements, thus risking potential non-compliant designs.
7.
Safety and Security: Schools must be safe and secure without appearing prison-like. Structures, fences and site
amenities shall be designed to maintain safety, prevent unauthorized access and deter vandalism. Opportunities
to climb to gain access to other floors, roofs, etc. shall be eliminated.
8.
Community Focus: The school, as the center of the neighborhood, must be accessible on evenings and
weekends for joint use of facilities by the community and provision for securing the rest of the site shall be
implemented.
9.
Land Use and Site Planning: Scarcity of land demands innovative settings of buildings, playgrounds and
parking to achieve educational goals on crowded urban sites.
10.
Sustainability: Schools must assertively address long-term concerns for environmental impacts and water and
energy conservation.
11.
Maintainability: Architects and engineers must make a concerted effort to design schools that would minimize
maintenance requirements. These efforts shall involve not only planning considerations, but also design of the
systems, selection of materials and products. Schools with less maintenance requirements are more sustainable.
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Book One Purpose and General Requirements
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Book Two General Criteria
1.2
1.2 Submittal Requirements
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS
A.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ................................................................. 11
B.
PROJECT KICKOFF ........................................................................................ 11
C.
SITE ANALYSIS PHASE ................................................................................. 12
D.
PRELIMINARY SCHEMATIC DESIGN SUBMITTAL ......................................... 14
E.
FINAL SCHEMATIC DESIGN SUBMITTAL ...................................................... 15
F.
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT SUBMITTAL .................................................... 15
G.
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS: 50% SUBMITTAL .................................... 16
H.
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS: 100% SUBMITTAL ................................... 17
I.
ARCHITECT’S QUALITY CONTROL PLAN ............................................... 17
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J.
PROJECT REVIEWS ............................................................................. 17
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K.
DSA PLAN CHECK ............................................................................. 18
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L.
FINAL BID DOCUMENTS ..................................................................... 19
M.
DESIGN PHASE SUBSTITUTION / DEVIATION ........................................ 20
N.
ADDENDA ........................................................................................ 20
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O.
CHANGES DURING CONSTRUCTION ..................................................... 20
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P.
“AS-BUILT” RECORD DRAWINGS ......................................................... 21
Q.
GENERAL DRAWING AND SPECIFICATIONS REQUIREMENTS .................... 21
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TABLE “A” ................................................................................................. 24
SUBSTITUTION REQUEST FORM..................................................................... 29
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1.2
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS
A.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
1.
Coordination and Review of the Design
Coordination of all architectural, engineering and other associated design disciplines working on the project –
including those provided by District staff or under separate contract to the District – shall take place
throughout each design phase and shall be the responsibility of the commissioned Project Architect. Such
coordination shall include processing and review of all drawings, specifications, cost estimates and other
documentation necessary for the integration of all building trades and systems, equipment and furnishings, and
resolution of constructability issues. With each design submittal, the Architect shall certify in writing
that all required coordination has occurred and shall accept responsibility for all changes in the design
and construction work which result from failure to properly coordinate the efforts of the design
entities.
2.
Other Contractual Terms
In some cases, the District’s A/E Contract may define different design phases and submittal terms. Adjust the
requirements described below for submittals to the specific contract and as directed by the District’s authorized
representative.
3.
Jurisdictional Agency Regulatory Code Compliance
Architect shall be responsible for verifying that all design and construction documents submitted comply with
all applicable jurisdictional agency codes and operating requirements.
4.
Energy Review
In order for the District to apply for State Allocation Board’s energy grants, all new facilities projects and
identified new buildings at existing facilities, shall apply for DSA “energy review”. Also see section 2.4
“Environment and Sustainability”.
B.
1.
PROJECT KICKOFF
Project Start Meeting:
a.
The District’s authorized representative will establish a project start meeting date with the Architect. At
this meeting the Architect will receive the Facilities Space Program, Design Guidelines, available site and
other relevant information, and directives to allow the Architect to begin work on the assigned project.
b.
Starting Date: The District’s authorized representative will issue a notice-to-proceed letter to the
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Book Two General Criteria
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Architect indicating the start and completion dates of the Schematic Design Phase.
C.
1.
SITE ANALYSIS PHASE
Information Gathering:
a.
It is important that the public and utility agencies serving the school be involved in the design process
from the beginning. During the Site Analysis Phase the Architect shall initiate contact with
representatives of the following agencies, to inform them of the school’s needs and to establish
relationships that will assure coordination of their requirements with the school’s design.
1)
Division of the State Architect: Structural Safety, Fire Marshal, Access Compliance and High
Performance Sections for Title 24 regulations.
2)
Local jurisdiction (City of Los Angeles, County, or other city) for off-site street profiles, curbs
and walks, storm drains and utility services.
3)
Local jurisdiction Traffic Department for driveway locations and passengers loading area.
4)
Local Fire Department (City or County) for site access, dispersal areas, and fire hydrants.
5)
Utility agencies or companies for location of existing and proposed domestic water, reclaimed
water, sewer, electric, gas, telephone and television cable services.
6)
Utilities companies (Southern California Edison or Southern California Gas Company) for
incentive program applications.
7)
County of Los Angeles Department of Health for kitchens, swimming pools and reclaimed water.
8)
LAUSD Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS) for historical buildings and
.materials that release VOC’s that are not listed as approved on the OEHS Chemical Evaluation
Program.
http://www.lausd-oehs.org/productreview_chemeval.asp
9)
b.
c.
Other agencies for specific project conditions – for example, the California Department of Social
Services for Early Education Centers.
A “Checklist of Offsite Work, Utilities & Easements” is available and shall be completed and submitted
to the District’s authorized representative during various phases throughout the project. See 4, 7
Submittal Requirements for Offsite Work, Utilities & Easements.
District will make available documents such as:
1)
District’s Program of Facilities Requirements, Project Schedule and Construction Budget.
2)
Boundary and Topographic Surveys.
3)
Geotechnical Investigation Report.
4)
Survey of Existing Utilities.
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2.
5)
Site Investigation Geotechnical Report.
6)
Campus Energy Audit.
7)
As-Built Drawings.
8)
Project Accessibility Survey.
9)
Facilities Condition Index (FCI).
10)
School Master Plan.
11)
Owner’s Project Requirements.
d.
A “CHPS Scorecard” is available and shall be completed and submitted to the District’s authorized
representative at various phases throughout the project. See Section 2.4 for additional information.
e.
Approval from project stakeholders such as school principal, athletic director, among others shall be
obtained.
Site Visits:
a.
3.
1.2 Submittal Requirements
The Architect/Engineer shall conduct site visits in order to:
1)
Field verify and compare the building and off-site conditions with the record drawings and
surveys provided by the District and obtained from utility agencies, as applicable. Perform visual,
non-invasive and non-destructive observations.
2)
Analyze adequacy, capacities and points of connection locations of existing utilities serving the
project site.
3)
Inform District of discrepancies found on the record drawings and update them accordingly.
Notify District of any discrepancies found on the topographic survey. Request any additional
testing or demolition necessary for the development of the project design.
Site Analysis Report:
a.
Site Analysis Report shall include, but not be limited to:
1)
Existing site conditions, such as topographical characteristics, solar orientation, winds, views,
traffic, and neighborhood context.
2)
Off-site work, as applicable.
3)
Code Analysis.
4)
Circulation paths.
5)
Accessibility compliance.
6)
Building plan layouts of each floor.
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Book Two General Criteria
b.
D.
1.
1.2 Submittal Requirements
7)
Utility and equipment locations and capacities, such as fire water, domestic water, irrigation
water, electrical power, sanitary sewer, storm sewer, natural gas, electrical communications and
AV systems, telephone systems, fire alarm and public address systems, computer networking, and
security/intrusion alarm system.
8)
Anticipated utility upgrades.
9)
Assessment of existing HVAC equipment.
10)
Seismic assessments of existing structures.
11)
Identification of historical buildings.
12)
Analysis of stormwater and potential mitigation measures.
13)
Any recommended project scope change and budget modification.
14)
Design alternatives life cycle cost analysis.
15)
Any other relevant/project specific item.
Include the drawings and information indicated on the form “Submittal Requirements for Site Analysis
Report”; Architect of Record shall sign the checklist certification statement. See 4, 1 Submittal
Requirements for Site Analysis Report.
PRELIMINARY SCHEMATIC DESIGN PHASE
Conceptual / Preliminary Schematic Design
a.
The first submittal for the Schematic Design Phase shall present the District with three or more
alternative conceptual design solutions to the District’s program and community requirements. One
scheme will then be further developed and presented for schematic planning approval.
b.
Documents submitted by the Architect for each alternative design approval shall include, but not be
limited to:
c.
1)
Site analysis diagrams showing key influences, such as topographical characteristics, solar
orientation, winds, views, traffic, and neighborhood context.
2)
Proposed utilization study of each particular project site;
3)
Schematic plans of each floor;
4)
Simplified elevations indicating the fundamentals of the architectural concept;
5)
Comparative life cycle cost analysis and cost estimates for each of the three designs.
6)
At existing school sites, include site analysis showing established circulation paths, access
compliance, existing site conditions including plan layouts for existing buildings, demographic
information, utility location and identification of historical buildings.
The purpose of the conceptual / preliminary schematic-design review is to evaluate, first, the functional
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1.2 Submittal Requirements
qualities of the proposed design to successfully fulfill the educational program of the school. Additional
qualities to be considered include community impacts, energy and environmental issues, physical
security, and general aesthetic factors.
d.
E.
1.
F.
1.
2.
Include the drawings and information indicated on the form “Submittal Requirements for Preliminary
Schematic Design”; Architect of Record shall sign the checklist certification statement. See 4, 2
Submittal Requirements for Preliminary Schematic Design.
FINAL SCHEMATIC DESIGN PHASE SUBMITTAL
Final Schematic Design Submittal
a.
Documents submitted for the final schematic design phase shall include more detailed and refined
drawings and a written report (Basis of Design) that includes such discussion of design factors, if any,
as are pertinent in the opinion of the Architect and outline descriptions of proposed engineered systems,
construction types, materials and work to be included in the construction contracts.
b.
A Cost Estimate showing compliance with budget requirements and area calculations indicating
compliance with the Facilities Space Program shall be included. Cost estimate and area calculations (SP1A Diagrams) shall comply with the Estimating Guide.
c.
Obtain Approval from project stakeholders such as school principal, athletic director, among others.
d.
Include the drawings and information indicated on the “Submittal Requirements for Final Schematic
Design”, see 4.3.
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT SUBMITTAL
Procedure
a.
After selection of the preferred design scheme and approval of the Final Schematic Design, the
Architect shall prepare and submit Design Development (DD) Documents.
b.
Design Development Documents shall include drawings and a written report (Basis of Design) in more
detail than the schematic documents and shall incorporate the Owner’s comments from the previous
submittal.
Submittal
a.
Include all items previously required in the schematic design, as well as dimensioned site development
plan, floor plans, exterior elevations and typical sections indicating proposed construction as may be
necessary, as well as all major finishes. Drawings shall also illustrate fundamentals of major engineering
systems including civil, landscaping, structural, mechanical, plumbing, fire protection, electrical systems
and kitchen/food service.
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3.
G.
1.
1.2 Submittal Requirements
b.
On existing school sites provide phasing drawings, and illustrate barriers, partitions as needed for the
school to remain in operation during construction. Where needed, provide interim housing, and
indicate impacts on physical education and parking areas.
c.
Include the drawings and information indicated on the form, “4.4, Submittal Requirements for Design
Development”. See Book 4, Submittal Checklists. (Complete the form’s checklist to indicate
completion of each item, sign and submit with the other documents.)
d.
The DD update of the narrative “Basis of Design” is particularly important at this stage, both to be sure
that systems requirements and parameters are consistent with LAUSD goals, and to serve as the
statement of design intent for the end-of-job commissioning and performance testing.
e.
Architect-Engineer shall, based on their field verification and update of the Facilities Accessibility
Compliance Unit (FACU) Accessibility Survey Document prepare and include as a part of the plans a
schedule indicating the reference information (CAFM/ABL ID#’s) established by FACU for each
compliance deficiency to be corrected as a part of the Project including corresponding sheet/detail
references.
Architectural Presentation Drawings and Renderings
a.
Drawings shall be in color, mounted on 30” x 40” boards, with Project and Architect's name.
b.
Rendering: Perspective view and technique, 20” x 30” minimum size, that adequately and accurately
indicates scope of the project, mounted and matted on board with identification. Rendering shall have a
surrounding mat and frame bearing the Project name, project description and Architect-Engineer
identification. Submit one full size copy and six (6) 8 ½-inch x 11-inch colored copies of the rendering,
and an electronic copy at a minimum 300dpi resolution. (Renderings are not required on modernization
projects unless extensive changes are made to the exterior).
c.
Site plan, floor plans, building elevations and sections, on boards.
d.
The Architect-Engineer shall provide for District’s review and approval a color/materials board
illustrating interior and exterior finishes as proposed for the Project. Minimum size for the material
board(s) shall be 24”x36”.
e.
Refer to 4.4, Submittal Requirements for Design Development for additional deliverables.
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS -- 50 % SUBMITTAL
Procedure and Submittals
a.
After written approval of the Design Development Phase, the Architect shall further develop and
submit Construction Documents to a stage of at least 50% completion.
b.
Include the drawings and information indicated on the form “Submittal Requirements for Construction
Documents – 50%”. See 4.5, Submittal Requirements for 50% Construction Documents. (Complete
the form’s checklist to indicate completion of each item and submit with the other documents; Architect
of Record shall sign the checklist certification statement.).
c.
For new buildings submit CD/DVD of new building(s) floor plan in AutoCAD, current version, *.dwg
format. Perimeter lines of new building(s) shall be edited as P-lines (polygon lines). District will assign
building(s) numbers for Architect’s use in submittal to DSA.
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
d.
H.
1.
I.
Architect-Engineer shall, based on their field verification and update of the FACU Accessibility Survey
Document, prepare and include as a part of the plans a schedule indicating the reference information
(CAFM/ABL ID#’s) established by FACU for each compliance deficiency to be corrected as a part of
the Project including corresponding sheet/detail references.
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS -- 100 % SUBMITTAL
Procedure and Submittals
a.
The Architect shall continue development of the Construction Documents, incorporating the comments
received on the 50% C.D. submittal to a stage of 100% completion.
b.
Include the drawings and information indicated on the form, 4.6, “Submittal Requirements for
Construction Documents – 100% -- DSA Submittal”, See Book 4, Submittal Checklists, ready for
submittal to the Division of the State Architect. Architect of Record shall sign the checklist certification
statement. The following are required:
1)
Checklist of 4.7, Offsite Work, Utilities & Easements.
2)
Final CHPS Scorecard signed by the design principal, including all substantiation information
separated by tabs (1 copy in a 3 ring binder).
3)
Specifications with General Conditions. (District furnished "boiler plate" material to complete
the project manual need not be included).
4)
Structural Calculations, signed by the Structural Engineer.
5)
Energy Calculations.
6)
Construction Cost Estimate on State forms 506B or 706B.
7)
Form SP3A, Area Diagrams and Tabulations.
ARCHITECT’S QUALITY CONTROL PLAN
1.
J.
1.2 Submittal Requirements
Procedure and Submittals
a.
Architect-Engineer shall develop, submit, and implement a project specific Quality Control Plan as
required to produce Contract Documents (including construction change documents) of sufficient
coordination, completeness and accuracy to be accepted by DSA for review upon initial submission, and
be biddable and buildable.
b.
The Quality Control Plan shall include internal procedures for interdisciplinary plan check, internal
constructability review, project construction budget cost control, and any such other quality related
requirements to ensure quality documents.
c.
Architect’s Quality Control Plan shall be submitted together with the Site Analysis Report.
PROJECT REVIEWS
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
1.
2.
K.
1.
1.2 Submittal Requirements
General
a.
The Project will be subject to independent reviews conducted by the District and its consultants.
Architect-Engineer shall cooperate with these design reviews.
b.
Architect-Engineer shall respond each comment listed on the spreadsheet. If the Architect-Engineer
disagrees with a comment, the Architect-Engineer shall notify the Design Manager, providing reasons
why no change should be implemented.
c.
With each submittal, the Architect-Engineer shall include Excel spreadsheets addressing the comments
of the previous Design Phase.
District and District’s Consultant’s Reviews
a.
The District review is not a "plan check", but will provide a general review for conformance to District
Standards, such as the School Design Guide, Educational Specifications, Standard Technical Drawings
and Technical Guide Specifications. Other pertinent comments not related to the District Standards
may also be provided. The Architect-Engineer is responsible for accuracy and coordination of the
work, including work of the Consultants, to avoid conflicts and change orders.
b.
Review of each Design Phase by District staff and its consultants will include:
1)
Architectural.
2)
Civil.
3)
Structural.
4)
Electrical.
5)
Mechanical.
6)
Landscape.
7)
Specifications.
8)
Food Services.
9)
Other applicable disciplines (Acoustics, Theatrical, etc.).
10)
CHPS scorecard.
11)
Cost Estimate.
12)
SP Diagrams.
Deleted: Theatre
Deleted: er
DSA PLAN CHECK
DSA Plan Check
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
2.
1.2 Submittal Requirements
a.
The District will file required submission documents as provided by the Architect with the appropriate
State agencies and will inform the Architect when State plan check comments have been received.
b.
The Architect shall pick up Drawings and comments from the District and meet with the District’s
authorized representative to review plan check comments as well as the District review comments, and
to establish a written schedule for correcting the documents and meeting with appropriate governmental
agencies to obtain their approvals.
Corrections and Back-Check
The Architect shall complete corrections indicated by the District and DSA (SSS, FLS and ACS) as required to
receive clearance and signed approvals from each agency. This includes compliance with Division of Industrial
Safety, (Cal/OSHA) Title 8, and Energy Conservation Standards and Regulations.
L.
1.
2.
3.
FINAL BID DOCUMENTS
Completion Procedures
a.
After completing the revisions required by the review comments, the Architect shall return one copy of
the review materials with the Architect’s acknowledgement on how each District comment was resolved,
with a letter of transmittal to the District’s authorized representative.
b.
The Architect shall deliver the approved 100%-complete Construction Documents to the District’s
authorized representative with the completed form “Submittal Requirements for 100% Construction
Documents-DSA Submittal, refer to 4.6 of this Guide.”
c.
Submit revised Structural Calculations, if revisions or additions have been made after the 100% DSA
submission, for the District records.
Submittal
a.
Submit copies of Final Construction Cost Estimate. If this final estimate differs from the agreed (or
revised agreed) preliminary estimate, itemize and explain reasons and amounts. Submit SP 3A diagram
ONLY if changes made after 100% submittal are great enough to require revision. Provide a brief
written explanation describing each change and why it is required.
b.
Submit a letter of Acknowledgement of the District Corrections. Return one set each of the District
review marked up drawings and project manuals indicating resolution of comments.
c.
Submit completed DSA Structural Tests and Inspection form.
d.
Submit the following:
1)
Complete and sign S.A.B. Form 390. Copies available from OAR.
2)
Draft of deductive or additive alternates.
Printing
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
1.2 Submittal Requirements
The District will be responsible for printing Drawings and Specifications for bidding, unless otherwise stated in
the Contract.
M.
1.
DESIGN PHASE SUBSTITUTION DEVIATION
General:
a.
Any proposed substitution or deviation from products, materials, systems, layouts, or requirements
indicated on the School Design Guide, Guide Specifications, Educational Specifications, Standard
Technical Drawings or District’s Studies and Reports, shall be submitted to the District for review prior
to inclusion into the construction documents. Use for this purpose the Substitution / Deviation
Request Form.
b.
Products, materials, systems, layouts, that are not listed or indicated on the District Standards shall be
submitted to the District for review using the Substitution / Deviation Request Form prior to inclusion
into the construction documents.
c.
Substitution / Deviation Requests shall be submitted as early as possible. Request shall indicate the
reasons and justifications for the proposed substitution / deviation, as well as the benefits to the project,
the cost and maintenance impacts. One form shall be submitted for each proposed substitution /
deviation, and shall include attachments for a clear and complete depiction of the proposed changes
/deviations.
d.
Refer to end Substitution / Deviation Request Form at the end of this chapter, which can be
downloaded from the following link:
http://www.laschools.org/employee/design/fs-studies-and-reports/file?file_id=310664394
N.
ADDENDA
1.
Verify that the changes introduced by the Addenda are consistent with the District Standards and
have the concurrence of the Design Manager.
2.
When an addendum is required, submit original copies of addendum material to the Design Manager.
Addenda cannot be issued later than 14 days prior to bid date.
O.
1.
CHANGES DURING CONSTRUCTION
General:
a.
Any proposed value engineering to the project, to any of its systems, components, design elements or
spaces, any product substitution request or any RFC proposing changes to the Contract Documents that
deviates from District Standards shall be reviewed first by the architect. If the Architect agrees with the
proposed design changes and/or product substitutions, the Architect shall submit these requests to the
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
1.2 Submittal Requirements
District for review and approval for conformance with District Standards, prior to replying to the
Contractor.
P.
1.
b.
Any proposed changes during bidding or construction shall be carefully reviewed for impact on the
CHPS scorecard credits and the total number of CHPS points anticipated.
c.
Architect-Engineer shall revise the Construction Documents as necessary for to reflect change orders
and other necessary modifications.
“AS-BUILT” RECORD DRAWINGS
Drawings:
a.
The Architect-Engineer shall be responsible for transferring markings and attachments from the
Contractor’s record set of prints, including RFC/RFI responses and change order drawings, into the
original CAD drawings. Each drawing sheet shall be prominently entitled Record Drawings and dated.
b.
Submit one full set of the DSA approved plans updated as indicated above for, District review.
Submittal shall consist of:
c.
2.
One set of ½ size drawings printed on bond.
2)
One CD/DVD with electronic file copy of the “As-built” Record Drawings in AutoCAD,
current version, *.dwg format.
Upon District acceptance of initial submittal and/or making required revision submit the following:
1)
One set of ½ size drawings printed on vellum.
2)
One CD/DVD with electronic file copy of the “As-built” Record Drawings in AutoCAD,
current version, *.dwg format, and updated SP4A’s Diagrams in AutoCAD .dwg format, revised
to reflect “As-Built” conditions. Perimeter lines of buildings and rooms shall be edited as P-lines
(polygon lines).
SWPPP
a.
Q.
1)
Architect-Engineer shall furnish to the District complete post-construction water balance tabulations
based on the as-built conditions, and maintenance plan for these BMPs based on the templates available
in the District Guide Specifications.
GENERAL DRAWING AND SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS
(FOR DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS)
1.
Drawings:
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
2.
1.2 Submittal Requirements
a.
For all Design Development and Construction Documents include the project name, LAUSD ID
number and logo, and 1/8” minimum lettering height, and meet the following additional requirements.
b.
All plan drawings shall include scale, graphic scale, north arrow, and key plan when plans are split.
c.
Site and floor plan drawings of the same areas by different disciplines shall be the same scale and have
the same orientation.
d.
Orientation shall be the same for all similar plans.
e.
All plans shall be done on or be compatible with the most recent AutoCAD version.
f.
Drawings shall be formatted to AIA CADD Layer Guidelines.
Specifications:
a.
The District maintains “Guide Specifications” in order to define the materials and systems acceptable to
the District, and to establish a consistent level of quality for its schools.
b.
The commissioned architect is to edit the “Guide Specifications” to reflect specific and appropriate
scope and shall provide additional sections as may be necessary to cover the entire scope of work for the
project. Download the “Guide Specifications” from the District’s Design Standards Webpage. Always
begin project specs from the Guide Specifications, and not from previous projects, since many products
and options may have been eliminated, and therefore are not present for consideration.
http://www.laschools.org/documents/?folder_id=219598873
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.88", No bullets or numbering
1)
Every specification submittal to the District shall be edited in MS Word with the “Track Change”
feature on, so the proposed revisions can be clearly identified.
2)
Specify at least three manufacturers. Where the “Guide Specifications” identify less than three
manufacturers, identify additional manufacturers’ products to provide a minimum of three
manufacturers for each item. Inform the District’s authorized representative of any such
additions and of any difficulties in identifying equivalent products.
3)
Any deviation from the “Guide Specifications” shall be high-lighted and brought to the attention
of the Design Standards Department via the District Representative responsible for the project.
Any proposed materials not listed in the “Guide Specifications” and substitutions shall be
submitted via the Design Manager for Design Standards review and approval early in the design
phase. If approval is granted, list not less than 3 equal manufacturers in the specifications.
4)
Where optional material or equipment choices are presented in the “Guide Specifications,” select
the items to be used in the project and edit the specification sections appropriately. Delete the
edit notes by placing the mouse cursor over the Edit Note box, right clicking and selecting “cut”
from the pop-up menu.
5)
If requirements in this “School Design Guide” do not match those in the “Guide Specifications,”
the most stringent shall apply.
6)
If a new section is added for products not included in the “Guide Specifications,” follow the CSI
MasterFormat and the District’s page format; do not include manufacturer’s standard
specifications without a thorough review, editing and formatting, and listing not less than 3 equal
manufacturers / products. Use terminology consistent with Section 07 7000, General
Conditions, such as OWNER, ARCHITECT, CONTRACTOR, OAR, Project Inspector, etc.
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
c.
d.
3.
1.2 Submittal Requirements
7)
Avoid generalities or ambiguous descriptions, directions or dimensions, e.g., “as required”,
“install to meet all codes” and “squish to fit”, are not acceptable.
8)
Delete products and information that are not applicable to the project. Delete references to
sections not used on the project. Renumber articles and paragraphs as needed, so sequential
numbering is maintained.
Review Divisions 01 through 33 and download the applicable sections for the project.
1)
Add the school and project name to each section footer; but do not change the section footer
date; this is the District’s specification issue date and is used to determine the version of the
specification used.
2)
Edit the Project Title Page including the school and project names, design phase and submittal
date.
3)
The OAR or District Representative will provide the Division 00 sections and edit the Division
01 as needed prior to bidding. Architect’s input is required for some of the Division 01 Guide
Specification Sections, such as SWPPP and testing and inspection sections.
4)
Prior to releasing the final specifications set, verify if there are any updates that should be
incorporated by browsing the “Revision Log” and verifying that the sections used are the most
current. Track versions of the revised specification sections are posted on the website so the
changes to each section can be clearly identified.
Use of these specifications does not relieve the Architect from responsibility to verify the information
contained is, applicable, accurate, and up to date.
Design Deliverables – Submittal Requirements
a.
General:
1)
Provide prints of each drawing and specifications bundled and labeled in accordance with Table
A. Each bundle shall be bound separately and clearly labeled on the outside with the project
name and bundle number.
2)
Specifications shall be submitted in “Track Changes” format, so any Architect-Engineer editing
of the District’s Guide Specification can be clearly identified. Specifications not submitted in
“Track Change” format will be rejected.
3)
With each design phase submit required copies of CD/DVD with electronic CAD files in *.dwg,
(bind all drawings) and PDF formats of all drawings, PDF files of all the other required
documents and Excel spreadsheet addressing the review comments of the previous design phase.
4)
Refer to 2.4, Environment and Sustainability, for detailed requirements of the CHPS Scorecard.
5)
All submittal requirements are as-applicable to the specific project and subject to
clarification/modification as requested by the project Design Manager. All deliverables shall be
submitted to the project Design Manager for distribution.
6)
Excel spreadsheet of the Submittal Requirements checklists can be downloaded from the
following link:
http://www.laschools.org/employee/design/fs-studies-and-reports/file?file_id=310664585
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Page | 23
Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
1.2 Submittal Requirements
Table
A:
Submittal Requirements
Site Analysis Phase
Refer to 4.1, Submittal Requirements: Site Analysis Report.
7 hardcopies of Report and Architect’s Quality Control Plan.
7 CD/DVD’s with PDF of Report.
Preliminary Schematic Design Phase
Refer to 4.2, Submittal Requirements: Preliminary Schematic Design Phase.
Half-size Drawings
One 30” by 42” color boards of site and floor plans of each proposed scheme for presentation to District’s
staff.
Hardcopies and CD/DVD’s of the documents listed below, as applicable to project, and bundled as follows:
Preliminary Basis of Design (Architectural, Civil, Landscaping, Structural, HVAC, Plumbing, Fire
Protection, Food Services, Graphics-Signage, Theater), Checklist of Offsite Work, (4.7 of this Guide)
signed by the Architect and the Civil Engineer, Utilities and Easements, Preliminary Schematic Design
Checklist (4.2 of this Guide) signed by the Architect, AE responses to Site Analysis Phase comments
(Excel format),.
Cost Estimate and SP Diagrams and Area Calculations.
CHPS Scorecard, Savings by Design Incentive Program and Renewable Energy Study.
Preliminary Schematic Design Bundling:
One set of half-size drawings, one hardcopy of other documents and one CD/DVD to:
Bundle # 1: Asset Planning and Development/Design Manager.
Bundle # 2: Asset Planning and Development/Project Manager.
Bundle # 3: Design Standards.
Bundle # 4: Estimating.
Bundle # 5: Commissioning. (As applicable)
One CD/DVD:
Bundle # 6: Asset Planning and Development/Regional.
Final Schematic Design Phase
Refer to 4.3, Submittal Requirements: Final Schematic Design Phase.
Half-size drawings.
One 30” by 42” color boards of site and floor plans for presentation to District’s staff.
Hardcopies and CD/DVD’s (include drawings) and the documents listed below, as applicable to project, and
bundled as follows:
Basis of Design (Architectural, Civil, Landscaping, Structural, HVAC, Plumbing, Fire Protection,
Food Services, Graphics-Signage, Theater), Preliminary Checklist of Offsite Work, (4.7 of this Guide)
signed by the Architect and the Civil Engineer, Utilities and Easements, Preliminary Schematic Design
Checklist (4.2 of this Guide) signed by the Architect, AE responses to Preliminary Schematic Design
comments (Excel format),.
Cost Estimate and SP Diagrams and Area Calculations.
CHPS Scorecard, Record of application of Savings by Design Incentive Program and Renewable
Energy Study.
Final Schematic Design Bundling:
One set of half-size drawings, one hardcopy of other documents and one CD/DVD to:
Bundle # 1: Asset Planning and Development/Design Manager.
Bundle # 2: Asset Planning and Development/Project Manager.
Bundle # 3: Design Standards.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 24
Design Standards Department
Deleted: Sustainability.
Book Two General Criteria
1.2 Submittal Requirements
Bundle # 4: Estimating.
Bundle # 5: Sustainability and Savings by Design.
Bundle # 6: Commissioning. (As applicable)
Bundle # 7: Project Execution.
Bundle # 8: Food Facilities. (As applicable)
One CD/DVD:
Bundle # 9: Asset Planning and Development/Regional.
Design Development Phase
Refer to 4.4, Submittal Requirements: Design Development.
Half-size drawings and full-size set, as indicated below under Design Development Bundling.
One 20” by 30” (minimum size) perspective color rendering with mat and frame with glass (applicable for new
buildings and major modernizations only), one full-size color copy, six 8-1/2” by 11” color copies and an
electronic copy at a minimum of 300 dpi resolution. 24” by 36” minimum, color and material boards.
CD/DVD’s including drawings and documents listed below, as applicable to project, and bundled as follows:
Deleted: .
Basis of Design (Architectural, Civil, Landscaping, Structural, HVAC, Plumbing, Fire Protection,
Food Services, Graphics-Signage, Theater), Checklist of Offsite Work, (4.7 of this Guide) signed by
the Architect and the Civil Engineer, Utilities and Easements, Preliminary Structural Calculations,
Design Development Checklist (4.4 of this Guide) signed by the Architect, AE responses to
Schematic Design comments (Excel format), and Specifications Table of Contents.
Proposed Deviation/Substitution Requests, if applicable.
Cost Estimate and SP Diagrams and Area Calculations.
HVAC Load Estimates, HVAC Calculations per CBC Energy Efficiency Standards, Plumbing
Calculations, Lighting Calculations, Electrical Title 24 Compliance, Catalog Cut Sheets, CHPS
Scorecard with supporting references, and Savings by Design.
Design Development Bundling:
One set of half-size drawings, one hardcopy of other documents and one CD/DVD to:
Bundle # 1: Asset Planning and Development/Design Manager.
Bundle # 2: Asset Planning and Development/Project Manager.
Bundle # 3: Design Standards.
Bundle # 4: Estimating.
Bundle # 5: Sustainability and Savings by Design.
Bundle # 6: Commissioning. (As applicable)
Bundle # 7: Project Execution.
Bundle # 8: Design Services.
Bundle # 9: Maintenance & Operations.
Bundle # 10: Food Facilities. (As applicable)
Bundle # 11: Low Voltage. (As applicable)
Bundle # 12: Facilities Records Management.
One full size set of drawings and two half-size set of drawings to:
Bundle # 13: Grants and Funding/CDE. (As applicable)
One half size set of drawings to:
Bundle # 14: Access Compliance Unit.
Deleted: ¶
Deleted: 11
Deleted: 12
Deleted: F
50% Construction Documents Phase
Refer to 4.5, Submittal Requirements: 50% Construction Documents.
Half-size drawings, as indicated below under 50% CD Bundling.
CD/DVD’s including drawings and documents listed below, as applicable to project, and bundled as follows:
Updated Basis of Design (Architectural, Civil, Landscaping, Structural, HVAC, Plumbing, Fire
Los Angeles Unified School District
Formatted: Font: 10 pt
Page | 25
Design Standards Department
Deleted: ACU.
Deleted: and full-size set.
Book Two General Criteria
1.2 Submittal Requirements
Protection, Food Services, Graphics-Signage, Theater), Checklist of Offsite Work, (4.7 of this Guide)
signed by the Architect and the Civil Engineer, Record Reports (utility company, public agency and
fire department), Utilities and Easements, Storm Water Calculations, Structural Calculations, Design
Development Checklist (4.5 of this Guide) signed by the Architect, AE responses to Design
Development comments (Excel format), Specifications in “Track” format and updated FACU’s
Accessibility Survey Document.
Proposed Deviation/Substitution Requests, if applicable.
Cost Estimate and SP Diagrams and Area Calculations.
HVAC Load Estimates, HVAC Calculations per CBC Energy Efficiency Standards, Plumbing
Calculations, Fire Protection Hydraulic Calculations, Lighting Calculations, Electrical Title 24
Compliance, Catalog Cut Sheets, CHPS Scorecard with supporting references, and Savings by Design
Incentive Program
50% CD Bundling:
One set of half-size drawings, one hardcopy of other documents and one CD/DVD to:
Bundle # 1: Asset Planning and Development/Design Manager.
Bundle # 2: Asset Planning and Development/Project Manager.
Bundle # 3: Design Standards.
Bundle # 4: Estimating.
Bundle # 5: Sustainability and Savings by Design.
Bundle # 6: Commissioning. (As applicable)
Bundle # 7: Project Execution.
Bundle # 8: Low Voltage. (As applicable)
Bundle # 9: Design Services.
Bundle # 10: Maintenance & Operations.
Bundle # 11: Food Facilities. (As applicable)
One half size set of drawings to:
Bundle # 12: Access Compliance Unit.
One CD/DVD with CAD floor plans per 1.2 of this Guide, section G, 1, c.
Bundle # 13: Facilities Records Management.
Deleted: FACU.
100% Construction Documents Phase
Refer to 4.6, Submittal Requirements: 100% Construction Documents-DSA Submittal.
Half-size drawings and full-size sets, as indicated below under 100% CD Bundling.
CD/DVD’s including drawings and documents listed below, as applicable to project, and bundled as follows:
Final Basis of Design (Architectural, Civil, Landscaping, Structural, HVAC, Plumbing, Fire
Protection, Food Services, Graphics-Signage, Theater), Checklist of Offsite Work, (4.7 of this Guide)
signed by the Architect and the Civil Engineer, Utilities and Easements, Final Structural Calculations,
Design Development Checklist (4.6 of this Guide) signed by the Architect, AE responses to 50% CD
comments (Excel format), Specifications in “Track” format and updated FACU’s Accessibility Survey
Document. Signed checklists by Architect and Engineer for Submittal Requirements checklists for
Civil (4.8), Plumbing (4.9), Mechanical (4.10) and Electrical (4.11).
Post Construction Storm Water Management Plan and Excel sheet for Waterboard Post Construction
Water Balance Calculator.
Cost Estimate and SP Diagrams and Area Calculations.
Final HVAC Load Estimates, Final HVAC Calculations and Title 24 Compliance, Final Plumbing
Calculations, Fire Protection Hydraulic Calculations, Fire Alarm Calculation, Lighting Calculations,
Electrical Title 24 Compliance, Catalog Cut Sheets (Plumbing, Mechanical, Electrical), CHPS
Scorecard with supporting references, and Savings by Design Incentive Program.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 26
Design Standards Department
Deleted: .
Book Two General Criteria
1.2 Submittal Requirements
DSA Application Form, DSA checklists (Structural and Fire Life & Safety), Testing and Inspection
List, DSA Energy Review, Local Fire Authority Approval.
100% CD Bundling:
One set of half-size drawings, one hardcopy of other documents and one CD/DVD to:
Bundle # 1: Asset Planning and Development/Design Manager.
Bundle # 2: Asset Planning and Development/Project Manager.
Bundle # 3: Design Standards.
Bundle # 4: Estimating.
Bundle # 5: Commissioning. (As applicable)
Bundle # 6: Project Execution.
Bundle # 7: Low Voltage. (As applicable)
Bundle # 8: Design Services.
Bundle # 9: Maintenance & Operations.
Bundle # 10: Food Facilities. (As applicable)
One set of half-size drawings, one hardcopy of other documents, one CD/DVD and one copy of CHPS
forma and backup information in a 3 ring binder to:
Bundle # 11: Sustainability Savings by Design.
One half size set of drawings to:
Bundle # 12: Access Compliance Unit.
One full-size set of drawings and two half-size sets of drawings to:
Bundle # 13: Grants and Funding/CDE. (As applicable)
One full-size set of drawings and one CD/DVD to:
Bundle # 14: Constructability.
One CD/DVD with information indicated below:
Bundle # 15: Facilities Records Management:
SP-Diagrams in AutoCAD .dwg format, showing all levels, rooms, and, in addition roof levels; fully
dimensioned according to LAUSD standards (exterior facing wall to centerline of interior wall).
Indicate room name and number of each space – room identifiers should match those provided on
any schedules e.g. equipment, finishes. Perimeter lines of building levels, rooms and roofs shall be
edited as closed P-lines (polygon lines). For existing facilities projects with partial floor
reconfigurations, drawings should show new configurations accurately placed within floor and
building boundaries
Site plan in AutoCAD .dwg format, showing all utility lines, meters, emergency shut-off valves,
property lines, building perimeters, athletic fields, playgrounds, parking and paving edges. Freeze
layers containing information not applicable to this submittal. Perimeters from which areas can be
defined shall be edited as closed P-lines without overlaps. Utility lines shall be edited as P-lines.
Deleted: FACU.
Deleted: One full-size set of drawings, one hardcopy of
specifications and one CD/DVD to:¶
Bundle # 13: Inspections.¶
Deleted: 14
Deleted: 15
Formatted: Font: Bold
Deleted: 16
DSA Submittal Package
Refer to 4.6, Submittal Requirements: 100% Construction Documents.
Half-size drawings and full-size sets, as indicated below under DSA Submittal Bundling.
CD/DVD’s including drawings and documents listed for 100% CD-DSA Submittal, as applicable to project,
including AE responses to 100% CD comments (Excel format), and bundled as follows:
DSA Submittal Bundling:
All materials required for a complete DSA submission and one CD/DVD to:
Bundle # 1: Asset Planning and Development/Design Manager.
One set of half-size drawings, one hardcopy of other documents, and one CD/DVD to:
Bundle # 2: Asset Planning and Development/Design Manager.
Bundle # 3: Asset Planning and Development/Project Manager.
Bundle # 4: Design Standards.
Bundle # 5: Estimating.
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Deleted: ..
Book Two General Criteria
1.2 Submittal Requirements
Bundle # 6: Inspection.
Bundle # 7: Maintenance & Operations.
Bundle # 8: Design Services.
“As-Built” Record Drawings Submittal Package
Refer to Section 1.2, P, and “As-Built” Record Drawings of this Guide.
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Deleted: “
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1.2 Submittal Requirements
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Book Two
General Criteria
2.1.
SCHOOL BUILDING DESIGN ................................................................ 33
2.2.
SITE DESIGN .................................................................................... 61
Deleted: 63
2.3.
VEHICULAR ACCESS AND PARKING ....................................................... 79
Deleted: 83
2.4.
ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY .................................................. 87
Deleted: 91
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Book Two General Criteria
2.1
2.1 School Building Design
SCHOOL BUILDING DESIGN
A.
INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................... 35
B.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ......................................................................... 35
C.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS – ADMINISTRATION ................................... 37
D.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS – CLASSROOMS .......................................... 39
E.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS – SCIENCE CLASSROOMS............................ 43
F.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS – LIBRARY MEDIA CENTER ....................... 44
Deleted: 45
G.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS – PHYSICAL EDUCATION ........................... 46
Deleted: 47
H.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS – MULTIPURPOSE, AUDITORIA
AND FOOD SERVICES EDUCATION.............................................................. 47
Deleted: 48
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS – RESTROOMS AND DRINKING
FOUNTAINS ............................................................................................ 50
Deleted: 52
J.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS – LOCKERS................................................. 53
Deleted: 55
K.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS – CORRIDORS, STAIRWAYS AND
EXTERIOR WALKWAYS ................................................................................ 44
Deleted: 56
L.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS – SUPPORT UNIT ....................................... 55
Deleted: 56
M.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS - BUILDING SECURITY ............................... 58
Deleted: 60
I.
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
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2.1 School Building Design
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
2.1 School Building Design
2.1
SCHOOL BUILDING DESIGN
A.
INTRODUCTION
The following standards complement the Facilities Space Program and the Educational Specifications, and deal
with general planning and design issues.
B.
1.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
District Criteria
The guidelines and criteria of this chapter must be closely coordinated with those of the “Educational
Specifications.”
2.
Referenced Codes and Standards
a.
3.
Legislative and regulatory requirements affecting schools in California include:
1)
Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations (especially Sections 14001 and 14030).
2)
Title 24 of the California Code of Regulations (State Building Code).
3)
Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations for Children’s Centers.
4)
American with Disabilities Act (Public Law 101-336, Title II).
5)
Education Code Section 39113.5 for “before and after-school Child Care Programs”.
General Planning Requirements
a.
High Schools and Middle Schools shall be planned and designed in accordance with the “Planning &
Design Guidelines for Small Learning Communities” for Los Angeles Unified School District Secondary
Schools (Available on LAUSD Website):
http://www.laschools.org/employee/design/fs-studies-and-reports/file?file_id=310551421
b.
Pest Management.
1)
Review the District’s “Integrated Pest Management Practices” manual and refer to Section 2.2,
“Site Design,” for more specific criteria.
2)
Birds (pigeons, gulls, others) are a persistent and provoking maintenance problem for the
District, as well as a health and sanitary hazard. Exercise care in the design of all exterior facades
and structures to eliminate roosting or nesting of birds. Any protrusions architectural, structural
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
2.1 School Building Design
or otherwise that are greater than 1 ½” shall be protected with bird deterrent devices or be
designed to be bird unfriendly. Use of sonic or other electronic bird deterrents shall not be used
since they are not effective. Ornithologists have determined that birds hear at or near the same
frequency as humans.
c.
d.
e.
Do not use exposed truss members, flanged beams, cantilevered beams or other elements
that provide such roosting. Important everywhere, it is especially so in Lunch Shelters.
b)
Where essential building elements may provide such roosts, such as solar shades or light
shelves, open ladders where necessary, entry covers, security devices, and similar
structures, minimize the risks by sloping the element, providing, open uninviting surfaces,
installing edge barriers, and similar measures.
c)
This is an important District concern, and must be addressed at both the Schematic
Design and Design Development stages, together with the elements of concern described
above.
Room Access
1)
Do not provide entry to any room through another room – for example, a low-voltage electrical
room through a power electrical room.
2)
Exceptions are teachers’ workrooms from classrooms, administrators’ private offices from an
open work room, or smaller rooms serving a general kitchen area.
Building Access
1)
At all building entrances, provide shelter from stormy weather (rain, hail, ice, etc.) by providing
overhead cover with appropriate roof drainage.
2)
At all such access, provide non-slip floor (walking) surfaces to improve safety when wet or icy.
CHPS requires a walk-off mat at building entrances.
3)
The entrance to the school needs to be expressed architecturally to clearly define a point of entry.
Entrance shall be adjacent to the administrative offices for entry control. Signage and electronic
display marquee may complement entrance design.
4)
Visitors shall enter the school site through the administration area, after registering with the
school staff. The Educational Specifications provides layouts to meet this critical security
concern.
Energy and Sustainability
1)
f.
a)
The principles of sustainable design and energy conservation, as embodied in these requirements
and in the CHPS criteria, represent important District goals, and shall be applied in all aspects of
school planning and design, including building orientation and configuration, envelope and
fenestration selection, and selection of building systems and equipment. (See section 2.4
“Environment and Sustainability”).
Educational Specifications
1)
Refer to the Educational Specifications for additional criteria and suggested space layouts and to
other sections of this Guide for items such as lighting, acoustics, finishes, air quality,
communications, etc.
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
C.
1.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS – ADMINISTRATION
Administration Unit
a.
The Administration Unit provides core-area space for staff functions; provides spaces for interaction
between staff, parents and students; and serves as the main public entry to the school.
b.
Spaces and functional needs include:
c.
1)
Private offices for principal, assistant principals, and other appropriate staff.
2)
Open office for clerical assistants, volunteer workers, computer operators.
3)
Public lobby with a waiting/seating area and a counter control which separates the lobby from
the back-of-house clerical operations. This is the control point for visitor access to the site.
4)
Counter heights appropriate to the population age at both standing and wheelchair levels.
5)
Seating and writing surfaces for staff or students to fill out forms.
6)
Conference space for staff meetings, staff-teacher conferences or visitors.
7)
Staff/faculty work room(s) for copying, assembling and binding, and for ample storage of
supplies, sized and equipped appropriately for the school size.
8)
Spaces for office supplies, reprographics equipment, staff and teachers’ mail boxes, LAN central
location, radio receiver/transmitter equipment, and additional spaces as programmed, such as
police offices, athletic director’s office, etc.
9)
Public payphones in compliance with accessibility requirements. These phones shall be located in
an accessible route, mounted at 48” maximum above finished floor to the highest operable part
to accommodate forward reach.
10)
Adult toilet rooms for principal, staff and visitors.
11)
Mail boxes shall be provided at the rate of 1.5 times the number of classrooms. Size shall be 4”h
x 12”w x 15”d each, with an area for larger boxes at each location. In small learning communities
provide mail boxes in satellite administration office at the same rate. Total number of mail boxes
required may be divided between the satellite administration office(s) and the main administration
office, proportional to the number of classrooms each serve (or number of staff for Main
Administration).
Location:
1)
2.
2.1 School Building Design
As the main entrance to the school campus, the Administration Unit must be prominently
located and directly accessible to the public. This unit, together with Counseling and Health, may
need after-hour or weekend accessibility, and should be secured against access to other school
areas.
Counseling and Attendance Unit
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a.
The Unit functions as an integral part of counseling and guidance programs, and as a service center for
families dealing with enrollment, transfers, transportation and work permits. Counselors confer with
students and parents, administer psychological examinations, and maintain files and records for each
student. The Attendance Office maintains attendance records and students’ files. (The unit functions
partly as an accounting department.)
b.
Spaces and functional needs for this unit typically include:
c.
3.
2.1 School Building Design
1)
Counselors’ offices with work area, guest seating, computer workstation and window.
2)
Student Waiting Area with controlled supervision, shared with Attendance Unit.
3)
Work room and guest waiting area for the Psychologist’s Office.
4)
Interview and Testing Stations.
5)
Other workstations as programmed.
6)
Enclosed bulletin board outside the unit in a highly visible location.
Location: Counseling and Attendance activities are integrated into the Administration Unit adjacent to
the Health Unit (Secondary Schools). These functions are reduced and combined in the Administration
Unit at elementary schools.
Health Unit
a.
A centrally located Health Unit provides health services to students, storage for students’ health records,
and information for use by teachers, counselors, school administrators and aides. Student privacy and
confidentiality are important when accessing health services.
b.
Spaces and functional needs for this unit typically include:
c.
1)
Nurse’s desk within the health office.
2)
Cot Room. At elementary schools provide a viewing window from the Administration’s clerical
area to the Cot Room.
3)
Accessible restroom within the health office, provide a space for a changing table (3’X7’) for high
school and middle school.
4)
Student waiting area.
5)
Private storage within the health office for medical supplies and students’ special medical devices
and medications.
6)
Exam space for visiting healthcare professionals.
7)
Ten-foot long eye exam lane.
8)
First aid area with lockable cabinets and space for a refrigerator.
Location: Adjacent to the main Administration Unit, with accessibility for the public.
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Book Two General Criteria
4.
Faculty and Staff Lounge
a.
The Faculty and Staff Lounge provide space for relaxation, private work, meetings, and dining when a
separate faculty dining room is not available or convenient.
b.
Spaces and functional needs for this unit typically include:
c.
D.
1.
2.
2.1 School Building Design
1)
Ample seating and table space, sized appropriately for the school.
2)
Sink, tack board, and space/utilities for a refrigerator, coffee station, microwave, and vending
machine.
Location: Centrally and conveniently located, often near food service in elementary schools, and near
the Administration Unit in middle and high schools.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS – CLASSROOMS
General Education Classrooms
a.
Classrooms are the most important single element in the school. They must be designed to flexibly
accommodate varied activities and future technologies. Designs should reflect concern for the way
children work and learn in the room. Adaptability of the room to various grade levels is provided
through selection and arrangement of furnishings.
b.
Size: The standard classroom size is 960 square feet unless the Facilities Program provides an alternative
size. Whenever braced frames, entry alcoves or mechanical shafts are used, the classroom dimensions
shall be increased as needed in either direction in order to maintain a gross square footage between a
minimum of 954 square feet and a maximum of 966.
c.
Flexibility: Consider measures to allow some classrooms to be easily altered in size or shape at
reasonable cost (for example, to accommodate changes in class-size policy).
d.
Outdoor study areas: Consider for Elementary School Classroom clusters.
e.
Storage units: Provide as shown in Educational Specifications. The top shelf of units shall not exceed
72” in height.
f.
All elementary school classrooms must have sinks, soap dispensers and paper towel dispensers.
g.
Location: Classrooms are laid out in groups, in linear form or clusters, accessed either by external walks
and balconies or by internal corridors. They need convenient access to the library/ media center
especially, as well as to administration, multipurpose/ food service, and physical education or
playground areas.
Small-Group Instruction Areas
a.
Small group instruction areas are sometimes provided in the vicinity of the classrooms – typically one
for each four to six general classrooms, as programmed -- to allow for various collaborative learning
opportunities as appropriate within the regular education program.
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
3.
4.
5.
2.1 School Building Design
b.
Space and functional needs: Minimum size of 480 sf. Provide tables and chairs for small group
activities, tack- and white-boards, computer stations, and extra storage space for special materials.
c.
Location: Close to groups of classrooms, with windows into classrooms for supervision.
d.
Small group instruction areas are not included in the computation of classroom size unless as integral
parts of the classroom, visually supervised by a teacher from the classroom.
Year-Round Education Needs:
a.
Define specific space for off-track teachers’ storage cabinets.
b.
Provide additional storage for supplies and projects for off-track students.
c.
Provide adequate work surfaces in the space, including a counter.
Kindergarten Classrooms
a.
The Kindergarten unit is specialized and self-contained so that children may participate in active and
varied learning experiences. Space and furnishings should provide flexibility for a variety of indoor and
outdoor activities. Special attention should be paid to visual lines of supervision of the classroom and
play yards, and provision of a safe, interactive environment.
b.
Spaces and functional needs: Minimum Kindergarten Classroom size is 1,350 square feet, including
storage, wet and dry areas, and restrooms self-contained within the kindergarten complex.
c.
Location: Close to parent drop-off and bus loading areas.
d.
Safety: Ensure that electrical outlets are “child-proof” with safety features integral to the receptacles.
Receptacles shall be UL or NRTL listed.
Kindergarten Outdoor Play Space
a.
The Kindergarten Play Space is an extension of the classroom, directly accessible and fenced for
exclusive use by Kindergarten students. It accommodates a variety of outdoor activities for the
development of large motor skills, including running, climbing, sliding, cycling, and dancing. Innovative
design solutions are encouraged, but with maximum safety in mind. Outdoor space shall include turfed,
paved and apparatus areas.
b.
Size: Refer to space program requirements.
c.
Provide playground safety tile under play equipment as required by play structure design. Extend one
end of safety tile surface to create an area for basic tumbling.
d.
Provide age appropriate play equipment as programmed and as specified in District Guide
Specifications. Apparatus area must have at least two horizontal bars.
e.
Provide shade for active and passive recreation areas by means of building overhangs, shade structures,
landscaping, etc.
f.
Incorporate garden as play and learning space.
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
2.1 School Building Design
g.
Natural grass is preferred for turf area; however, if artificial turf is provided, it shall be shaded. Include
a dirt or sand area for creative play and exploring.
h.
Paved area shall have appropriate line markings for instant activities and minimal teacher preparation.
i.
Provide drinking fountain centrally located at an accessible height.
j.
Outdoor play area for kindergartens shall meet or exceed the following requirements based on
availability of land:
Play Area
CDE Guidelines
One
classroom
6.
7.
Preferred
Two
classrooms
One
classroom
Two
classrooms
Minimum
One
classroom
Two
classrooms
Turfed area
3,000
5,500
1,500
2,500
750
1,350
Paved Area
2,000
4,000
1,500
3,000
1,500
3,000
Apparatus
area
2,000
2,500
1,500
2,000
1,200
1,600
Special Education Classrooms and Areas
a.
Refer to the Facilities Space Program and the California Education Code, Section 17047(a), for space
allowances for classrooms and other spaces to support special education programs. Spaces for the
special education program include Special Education Classrooms, Resource Specialist room, specially
equipped classrooms where applicable, as well as those in other units such as the speech therapist,
psychologist, counseling offices and conference area.
b.
Properly equip the classrooms for the students who will occupy them, their age and their disabling
conditions, as defined in the Facilities Space Program and code.
c.
Provide 240 square feet minimum for the Resource Specialist, or as programmed.
d.
Provide 200 square feet for individualized instruction in the speech and language program.
e.
Distribute Special Education classrooms, when programmed, throughout the campus with ageappropriate regular education programs.
f.
Provide access to a conference area to conduct individualized education program meetings for each
special education student.
g.
Locate medical therapy units, if planned for the site, close to visitor parking areas and with after-schoolhour accessibility.
Early Education Center
a.
Operation and licensing of Early Education Centers (EEC), is subject to design to the requirements and
approval of the California Department of Social Services.
b.
Provide a minimum of 24 parking spaces on site for the staff and administrators.
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
8.
2.1 School Building Design
c.
Provide provisions for drop-off by the parents by means of additional parking, internal drop-off or curb
cut. Parents need to park and walk their children to the center.
d.
Design, layout and material selection shall be appropriate for EEC age group kids. The center shall be
inviting, fun and kids friendly.
e.
Provide appropriate size and design for trash bin area at EEC site.
f.
Signage shall be age group appropriate.
g.
The EEC classroom shall provide opportunity for different activities, interaction and resting. This
should be located directly adjacent to the outdoor play area, toilet and storage. Provide space for storage
of clothing, bedding and personal belongings.
h.
Size: There shall be at least 35 square feet of indoor activity space per child. Floor space occupied by
shelves, built-in cabinets and office/teacher equipment shall not be included in the calculation of indoor
space.
i.
Children lavatories shall deliver hot water with controls to automatically regulate hot water temperature
to not less than 105° degrees Fahrenheit and not more than 107° degrees Fahrenheit.
j.
One flushometer style toilet and one hand washing lavatory shall be provided for every 15 children or
fraction there of. Toilets shall be flush valve type. Toilet partitions or screens shall be 3’-0” high.
k.
A fixed window shall be provided between classroom and toilet for observation.
l.
Provide welcome banner(s) to fit the design.
m.
Color scheme shall be per standard palette approved by EEC program.
n.
Provide stand alone fire alarm system even if EEC is co-located on an elementary school campus.
o.
Entry fences and gates shall be designed in such a way so there is no access to elementary school yard if
EEC is planned on elementary campus. Entire EEC site shall be fenced off and visually protected from
outside.
p.
Classroom interior spaces shall be designed with clear line of sight. Avoid exposed braced frames and
other projections creating hazards.
q.
Provide tackable surfaces in the corridors leading to classrooms or tackable boards on the exterior walls
of classrooms if the classrooms are accessible from outside only.
r.
Provide public address intercom, intrusion detection, computer network and clock system.
s.
Electrical outlets shall be “child proof” with safety features integral to the receptacles; Receptacles shall
be UL or NRTL listed.
Early Education – Outdoor Play Space
a.
The outdoor activity space shall be situated to provide a shaded rest area for the children. Equipment
and activity areas shall be arranged so that there are no hazards from conflicting activities. Activity area
shall include all components of outdoor classroom required by Nature Explore Classroom program.
This program shall be designed with input from EEC program.
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
E.
1.
2.1 School Building Design
b.
Size: There shall be at least 75 square feet per child for outdoor activity. Areas around and under play
equipment shall have safety materials suitable to design and as directed by EEC program.
c.
The playground shall be fenced to protect the children and to keep them in the outdoor play area.
d.
All play equipment and materials used by the children shall be age-appropriate.
e.
Include landscaping to enhance the outdoor activity areas and provide shade.
f.
Provide an exterior outlet outside of each classroom that is childproof and waterproof with lockable
cover. These outlets shall be located in such a way so they don’t interfere with foot traffic.
g.
Provide one deep sink in the playground area for teachers to wash paint brushes and other materials.
This sink shall be centrally located among the classrooms with easy access.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS – SCIENCE CLASSROOMS
General
a.
Space and functional needs: Science laboratories are typically 1300 sf or more, with room for students
around fixed learning stations at chemistry labs, and fixed perimeter learning station and movable tables
at flexible science labs: with adequate space for lectures at or adjacent to the lab benches.
b.
Location: Cluster science classrooms together and locate away from other rooms. In multi-story
buildings, locate on top floors to minimize vent and exhaust plumbing and ducts.
c.
Preparation Rooms: Provide separate rooms directly accessible from classrooms, usually one for every
two laboratories, for teacher preparation and for storage of supplies and equipment.
d.
Hazardous Materials:
1)
Provide science laboratory design that is consistent with the requirements for proper hazardous
materials management specified in California Department of Education publications:
a)
1993 “Science Facilities Design for California Public Schools”.
b)
Latest edition of “Science Safety Handbook for California High Schools”.
2)
Provide secure storage areas for volatile, flammable and corrosive chemicals and cleaning agents.
3)
Provide work surfaces/countertops with splash guards composed of epoxy resin wherever
volatile, flammable or corrosive chemicals or cleaning agents may be utilized.
4)
Accommodate necessary safety equipment and supplies, including emergency combination deluge
shower/eyewash with direct connection to waste line, and a floor drain centered under shower
head , emergency shutoff valve for gas in each room, fire extinguishers, and first aid kit and eye
goggle cabinet. In the Teachers’ Preparation Rooms immediately accessible to a science
classroom that contains an emergency deluge shower/eyewash, provide a supplemental flipdown eyewash at sink. Emergency deluge shower/eyewash shall be accessible and located on an
accessible route.
5)
Provide ventilation and exhaust requirements in compliance with section 3.6.J.2.
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: appropriate ventilation for hazardous materials, including
exhaust fume hoods, and a high volume purge system in the event of
accidental release of toxic substances that may become airborne.
Book Two General Criteria
2.
6)
Provide plumbing requirements in compliance with section 3.4.B.4.
Deleted: special
7)
Provide floor and ceiling ventilation in secure areas where chemicals are stored.
Deleted: , including isolated waste lines, for hazardous liquids.
Condensate drains from HVAC equipment shall not be connected to
any portion of science classroom acid waste drainage system.
Existing Science Classrooms Modernization
a.
Prior to any design conduct field investigations to assess current conditions.
b.
Proposed design documents shall be reviewed for compliance with District Standards Department.
c.
If the proposed area to be modernized meets the square footage requirements indicated in the chemistry
and flexible science labs program statements, then provide a design and scope of work that fully
complies with the requirements set forth in the following Educational Specification Documents:
CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
FLEXIBLE SCIENCE LABORATORY
SH-CHL1.0
SH-FSL1.0
SH-CHL1.1
SH-FSL1.1
SH-CHL1.2
SH-FSL1.2
SH-CHL1.3
SH-FSL1.3
SH-CHL1.4
SH-FSL1.4
d.
Permanent furniture shall be part of the Contractor’s responsibility, movable work tables shall be
identified as Owner Furnished Owner Installed (OFOI).
e.
If the proposed area to be modernized is less than 1300sf then proceeds as follows:
f.
F.
2.1 School Building Design
1)
Request design professionals to provide a functional design furniture layout with permanent
students work stations (peninsulas) – Requirements for students work stations shall fully
conform to the educational specifications requirements.
2)
If sufficient space and appropriate configuration can be achieved then the proposed design
should reflect fixed peninsulas; otherwise, if the room has space constraints or the classroom
configuration is long & narrow, then a functional perimeter design that is conducive to
teaching and lecturing with movable tables may be considered.
3)
Teachers in narrow rectangular rooms typically use the corridor wall as their primary teaching
wall to have more control of the class, and also because students in the back of a long room
experience difficulties viewing the white board. This wall should be considered as an option
for the primary teaching wall in such rooms.
4)
The requirements for a teacher’s permanent demonstration table would not be applicable
when the lecture space would be compromised, in such cases provide a movable counter
space w/o utilities.
Refer to section 3.8
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS --LIBRARY MEDIA CENTER
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Design Standards Department
Formatted Table
Book Two General Criteria
1.
2.1 School Building Design
General
a.
The Library Media Center is an information laboratory serving the instructional needs of the entire
school. It should be an aesthetically pleasing environment inviting purposeful activity for the
development of positive attitudes toward reading and learning.
b.
Space and functional needs: Library space is planned in proportion to the maximum planned
enrollment, as programmed, but not less than 960 square feet. Needs include:
c.
d.
1)
Space and technology for computer terminals for student use, research and report writing,
including electrical outlets and data network connections for each computer terminal.
2)
Security for technology and media equipment.
3)
In Middle Schools and High Schools, provide book-theft detection system at entrances. If the
space between the detection upright and the walls is too wide, it should be closed by means of a
decorative or architectural feature to prevent library users from circumventing the detection
system.
4)
Visual supervision from the circulation desk to study areas; stack space and student reading areas.
Computer screens shall be visible from the circulation desk.
5)
Open and closed-circuit television, dedicated phone lines and electrical/data outlets for standalone as well as networked computers.
6)
Area for multi-media presentations.
7)
At Middle Schools and High Schools provide a private office space for the librarian adjacent to
circulation desk and staff work area along with an adult toilet room for Librarian and staff.
8)
Staff workroom with counter desk, counter sink, shelving, copy machine, and space for library
book carts.
9)
Secure storage for special collections, technology and media equipment.
10)
Freestanding display case near entry.
11)
Assure adequate floor strength and thickness for book-shelving support and overturning
anchorage.
Location:
1)
Central to the academic areas of the school, easily accessible from classrooms.
2)
Directly accessible to the public for community use and extended hours of operation. Secure the
Library / Media Center from other parts of the campus to allow evening and weekend events
without intruding on other school spaces
3)
Locate on the first floor unless exceptions for specific reasons are given. Library shall not be
designed on two floors as it creates a supervision problem.
Collection storage appropriate to the school, and as shown in Educational Specifications.
Considerations include:
1)
Bookshelves: appropriate in height for the age of the children served.
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
G.
1.
2.1 School Building Design
2)
Kindergarten picture book shelves: 14” high by 12” deep, sectioned with vertical dividers. Angle
top shelves as display.
3)
End panels for exposed ends of bookshelves may be tackable surface.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS –PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Gymnasium
a.
Physical education provides directed training toward the development of physical and social skills.
Activities include individual and team sports, rhythmic instruction, body mechanics, health, first aid, and
safety.
b.
Space and functional needs include:
1)
Spaces in accordance with the Facilities Space Program, including sports areas, lockers, showers,
team rooms, and such spaces as lobby or foyer, ticket booth, sound equipment room, press box,
kitchenette, snack bar and laundry spaces.
2)
In High Schools and Middle Schools, male and female faculty offices with line of sight to
respective locker rooms.
3)
Toilets for public use other than in the shower/locker areas.
4)
Gyms, aerobics rooms, fitness centers, locker rooms and other activity areas must have durable,
abuse resistant walls. Do not use gypsum board unless it is abuse-resistant.
5)
For lockers, see Section 2.1 - J. “Functional Requirements -Lockers”.
6)
Gang showers (showers with no partitions) or prefabricated shower stalls are not acceptable.
Showers shall be divided into individual stalls by solid phenolic partitions per Guide Specification
Section 10 2116.
c.
Illuminate gyms with top daylighting for daytime use (not side lighting through windows), using
skylights, solar tracking skylights or tubular daylighting devices.
d.
Location:
1)
Adjacent to play fields.
2)
Directly accessible to the public for community use and extended hours of operation, with clearly
defined entrance and access control for events. Secure the gymnasium and outdoor sports areas
from other parts of the campus to allow evening and weekend events without intruding on other
school spaces.
3)
Avoid locating the gymnasium and other facilities with wood floors at:
a)
Low elevation area of the site, where water level may rise after storms and penetrate the
building either through doors or as moisture through slabs and walls.
b)
At locations with high water tables. Consider elevating the slab to prevent water intrusion.
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
2.1 School Building Design
c)
2.
Physical Fitness Center
a.
H.
1.
Particularly on small urban sites, specialized P.E. Teaching Stations may be programmed. These may
include a specially equipped fitness center or cyberobics lab with integrated computer technologies and
physical fitness equipment, together with the necessary multiple electrical and data drops.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS – MULTIPURPOSE ROOM, AUDITORIA AND FOOD
SERVICES
Multipurpose Room
a.
The Multipurpose Room functions as a combination assembly hall, lecture hall, testing room, indoor
dining area, performing arts classroom, physical education classroom, and a general activity room. It
may also serve community youth groups, civic organizations or professional events. (In some schools,
especially high schools with auditoria, there may be a separate indoor dining area in the cafeteria. See
the “Facilities Space Program” and “Educational Specifications” for specific requirements.)
b.
Space and functional needs include:
c.
1)
Accessible Platform or stage serving as performance space or podium, complete with rigging and
lighting.
2)
Assembly area with acoustical treatment and lighting- and sound-system controls for assemblies
and performances.
3)
Movable chairs for assemblies or dining, with storage space for carts.
4)
Folding tables for dining, with storage space.
5)
In-wall tables and benches may be provided in Elementary Schools.
6)
Lobby or foyer.
7)
Public restrooms.
Location:
1)
2.
Over cambered decks or long span structures, since adequate floor flatness and levelness
may not be achieved. Cambered deck flatness will change when it settles and flattens.
Directly accessible to the public for community use and extended hours of operation. Adjacent
to Kitchen/Serving Area if used for indoor food service. Secure the areas from other parts of
the campus to allow evening and weekend events without intruding on other school spaces.
Ground level locations are preferred.
Kitchen
a.
Spaces and functional needs for this unit include:
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
2.1 School Building Design
1)
Food preparation area.
2)
Space for a cafeteria/serving line to accommodate the flow of traffic for each lunch period.
3)
Office, changing and restroom areas for food preparation staff, in compliance with local Health
Department requirements.
4)
Door widths to accommodate large equipment, including a service door of minimum 3’-6” by 7’0”.
5)
Insect screens for operable windows.
6)
Coiling counter doors (shutters) at serving windows, both interior and exterior.
7)
Stainless steel sinks and work surfaces, with adequate pitch to ensure drainage.
8)
Stainless steel counter tops for all serving stations.
9)
Range hood with filters for combination supply and exhaust air system.
10)
Wet chemical fire extinguishing system.
11)
Floors in all the following rooms should be 6 x 6 quarry title (no grit) with coved quarry tile base.
(Restrooms can be ceramic tile):
a)
Serving/Scramble/Window Service.
b)
Kitchen/Prep.
c)
Walk-in Refrigeration/Freezer.
d)
All storage rooms (If the office is in the storage room, it is a storage room and not an
office by law).
e)
Corridors, hallways, etc. in the food service area.
f)
Locker Room(s) (for the Food Service area).
g)
Janitor/Custodian (for specific use of Food Service area only).
12)
Walls in Kitchen and Food Preparation Area shall be FRP (Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic) sanitary
wall panels or stainless steel. All other walls in above rooms and restrooms are to be smooth (no
texture) washable semi or gloss white 70% LRV (Light Reflectance Value) min.
13)
Ceilings in above rooms and restrooms shall have smooth and washable finish. Hard lid (Gypsum
Board) ceilings shall be painted semi-gloss or gloss. If ceiling tiles are specified they shall be of
the appropriate type for this area and meet all code requirements (See Guide Specifications).
b.
Plan the kitchen areas not only for functional efficiency, but also for economical sharing of services such
as power, water supply, and floor sinks and drains.
c.
Provide convenient access for service and delivery vehicles, separated from student areas.
d.
Provide door bell and a view port at service entry door to the kitchen. Buzzer shall sound in the
kitchen’s office and kitchen’s work area.
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
e.
3.
4.
2.1 School Building Design
BOS Permit – All school sites must receive, in writing, Bureau of Sanitation’s (BOS) approval on
necessity and sizing for a Grease Interceptor tank. Architect to initiate and fulfill this requirement early
during the design process and forward a copy of BOS approval letter to the OAR. Tank Design shall be
based on Drainage Fixture Units (DFU) sizing criteria, with minimum tank size of 750 GPM (when a
tank is required).
Satellite Food Service
a.
Under the California Health and Safety Code Chapter 7, California Retail Food Service, article 113899, a
Satellite Food Service is a remotely located food service operation that is conducted on the same
property as, in reasonable proximity to, and in conjunction with and by, a fully enclosed permanent food
facility. In our case, the “permanent food facility” in the Cafeteria operated under the LAUSD Food
Services Division.
b.
The Satellite Food Service must be on the same campus and in reasonable proximity to the Cafeteria,
from which it is serviced.
c.
The Satellite Food Service shall meet the following requirements:
1)
Sufficient refrigeration to hold cold food to standards.
2)
Hot holding equipment to maintain hot food at standard temperature.
3)
Serving counters and equipment.
4)
Hand washing sink.
5)
Three compartment ware washing sink.
6)
Sufficient storage space to store any utensils, single use ware, etc.
7)
The interior finish of the facility must meet food services standards.
8)
Staff restrooms shall be available to food service employees within 200 feet.
9)
Custodial facility shall be available within 100 feet with “food services” finishes.
10)
The LAUSD Food Facilities Division is required to present written standards and procedures to
the Los Angeles County Department of Health that include the methods of safely transporting,
handling and serving the food.
Cafeteria
a.
Spaces and functional needs for this unit include:
1)
Ample area for the cafeteria waiting line, oriented to provide a smooth traffic flow.
2)
Covered rain and sun protection at waiting line and food serving area. Covered access to Lunch
Shelter.
3)
Serving windows at the appropriate height for grade levels served.
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
b.
5.
b.
7.
I.
4)
Space for trash and recycling receptacles in designated areas throughout the dining areas.
5)
Adjacent storage for cleaning supplies.
Location: Adjacent to playground with student restrooms easily accessible.
Lunch Shelter:
a.
6.
2.1 School Building Design
Spaces and functional needs for this unit include:
1)
Concrete slab sloped to adequate floor drains so that all food products drain to sanitary sewer
system. Verify that slopes and cross slopes do not exceed maximum allowed by code.
2)
Roof structure providing shelter from rain and sun, designed to prevent birds from perching on
rooftop areas in and around the lunch shelter. Shelter’s height shall be proportional to its size.
Design shall consider side exposure to elements and provide for maximum protection while
maintaining an open and airy atmosphere. Overhangs shall be extended far enough beyond
tables and benches to provide protection from rain and sun. High lunch shelters shall provide
vertical screening fascias for sun and rain protection.
3)
Conveniently located drinking fountains with multiple bubblers and hose bibb.
4)
Provide lighting and P/A speaker system (connected to school’s P/A system).
Location: Immediately adjacent to cafeteria, playground, and outdoor eating areas.
Outdoor Eating Areas:
a.
Outdoor eating areas are intended to supplement cafeterias and lunch shelters.
b.
Provide space for tables and chairs, low wall seating or benches.
c.
Consider ways to reduce heat reflection and glare, such as shading.
d.
Consider details that provide protection against birds.
e.
Drains shall be provided based on requirements of this Design Guide, see section 3.2 – “Civil
Engineering”.
Outdoor Assembly Area
a.
The Outdoor Assembly Area accommodates the student body for informal and instructional
presentations and graduation exercises, as well as outdoor dining. (See section 2.2 - “Site Design”)
b.
Location: Central to campus. Preferably near cafeteria and lunch shelter.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS – RESTROOMS & DRINKING FOUNTAINS
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
1.
2.1 School Building Design
Fixture and General Requirements
a.
Restroom stalls shall be sufficient in number to accommodate the maximum planned enrollment, staff
and visitors, and located on campus for both convenience and supervision. Follow the requirements of
the California Plumbing Code, except where modified below.
b.
Restrooms must be designed and equipped to comply with Title 24 Accessibility Requirements,
including access and usability for fixtures, mirrors, and accessories.
c.
CBC and ADA accessibility regulations specify mounting heights for adults (including middle schools),
and alternate mounting heights for elementary and kindergarten students. Comply with the ageappropriate CBC mounting height for the project type. Architectural drawing shall clearly identify the
specific age group applicable to each restroom, and at each classroom with accessible sink(s).
d.
Refer to Guide Specifications for “Toilet Accessories” and “Hand and Hair Dryers” for additional
requirements.
e.
In student restrooms (except kindergarten and early education centers), provide electric hand dryers in
lieu of paper-towel dispensers and waste receptacles. Locate semi-recessed hand dryers along exit path
from restroom that do not protrude more than 4” from the wall. See also Section 3.4 “Plumbing” for
specific requirements for student restrooms. Provide one electric hand dryer for every two lavatories.
Restrooms with 3 or 5 lavatories shall have 2 and 3 electric hand dryers respectively.
f.
For other restrooms, surface-mounted paper towel dispensers are standardized throughout the District
(see Guide Specifications). Surface mounted paper towel dispensers, if they project more than 4” from
the wall, should be located so they do not obstruct the accessible route and clear floor spaces at fixtures.
Provide space for free-standing trash containers so they do not obstruct the accessible route and clear
floor space at doors.
g.
Plans shall include a tabulated Fixture to Occupant load calculation per building for all fixtures,
including Drinking Fountains, Water Closets, Urinals and Lavatories.
h.
Mirrors – In lieu of individual mirrors above the lavatories, provide a larger mirror in an adjacent area
for use by all. Mirror shall be installed with the bottom of reflective surface in accordance with CBC and
ADA height standards for access compliance. Be mindful of “Line of Sight” and privacy issues when
locating the mirror.
i.
Drinking Fountains – Drinking fountains and electric water coolers are required to be provided with
brass free waterways and lead mitigating water filtering systems. Filter device shall be preceded by a
water meter set to a specific gallon capacity after which the meter interrupts and shut offs the water
supply. Refer to Guide Specifications and Standard Technical Drawings for specific requirements.
FIXTURE REQUIREMENTS:
Type of Occupancy
Kindergarten
Elementary Schools
Los Angeles Unified School District
Water Closets
(Fixtures per Person)
Male
Female
1 : 1-20
1 : 1-20
2 : 21-50
2 : 21-50
Over 50, add 1
Over 50,
fixture for each
add 1
add’l 50
fixture for
persons.
each add’l
50 persons.
1 : 30
1 : 25
Page | 51
Urinals
Lavatories
Male or Female
1 : 1-25
2 : 26-50
Over 50, add 1
fixture for each add’l
50 persons.
1 : 75
1 : 35
Design Standards Department
Formatted Table
Book Two General Criteria
Secondary Schools
2.1 School Building Design
1 : 40
1 : 30
1 : 35
1 : 40
1 : 50
1 : 40
1 : 1-15
1 : 1-15
2 : 16-35
2 : 16-35
3 : 36-55
3 : 36-55
Over 55, add 1
Over 55,
fixture for each
add 1
add’l 40
fixture for
persons.
each add’l
40 persons.
 The total number of water closets for females shall be at least equal to the total number of water
closets and urinals required for males in each location. Where the above ratios do not match this
requirement, increase the number of fixtures for females to achieve equity.
 Provide one drinking fountain per each 150 occupants, with a minimum of one per floor.
 The total number of fixtures required for students shall not include dressing room toilets, health
unit toilet and public restrooms to be located in gymnasium’s lobby and multi-purpose room lobby.
Provide restrooms in these areas as indicated in the Facilities Space Program.
 For student restrooms provide a minimum of 3 fixtures
Boys – Two (2) toilets and one urinal.
Girls – Three (3) toilets.
 Toilets in the elementary school multi-purpose room shall be designed for adults.
 Toilet room for the health unit shall be designed for elementary school age group.
Staff and Visitor Use – All
Schools
OCCUPANT LOAD FOR FIXTURE COUNT:
Type of Occupancy
Students, Elementary
Schools
Students, Secondary
Schools
Staff (and Visitors)
2.
Type of Space
Classrooms, including Kindergarten,
Special Day Classrooms, Set-Aside
Rooms (for total school fixture count)
Classrooms, including Special Day
Classrooms, Set-Aside Rooms (for total
school fixture count)
Classrooms, including Kindergarten,
Special Day Classrooms, Set-Aside
Rooms (for total school fixture count)
Person/ Space
25
30
2
Location Criteria
a.
Provide separate restrooms for students and faculty. Student restrooms may be used by the public for
public events.
b.
On classroom buildings, locate students and faculty restrooms and at least one drinking fountain on
each floor as a minimum. Number of fixtures per floor shall be per code and recommendation in this
Design Guide. Restroom facilities shall be within 200 feet of all classrooms.
c.
Provide a custodial room adjacent to each student restroom.
d.
Distribute staff restrooms to locations proximate to their work stations, with maximum walking distance
for any employee of 200 feet.
e.
Locate restrooms and drinking fountains appropriately to serve such areas as multi-purpose and dining
areas, media center, auditoria, lunch shelters, and athletic facilities and playfields. Make provisions for
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Design Standards Department
Formatted Table
Book Two General Criteria
2.1 School Building Design
them to be fully accessible to students and staff during the day, and to the public after school and for
special events without violating school security. Size restrooms to handle the anticipated capacity of
each facility area.
J.
f.
Restrooms should not be visible through openings or materials selected for walls. Selected materials in
the restrooms should be extremely vandal resistant, since they are high vandalism areas. Selected
materials should also be repairable.
g.
Provide drinking fountains in the following locations:
1)
Adjacent to all interior and exterior student restroom entries.
2)
At the interior, as well as exterior, of each Gymnasium.
3)
Exterior play areas, including courts, play yards, and athletic fields.
4)
Lunch shelters and outdoor eating areas where students have their lunch or breaks.
5)
Other public areas where students will congregate.
h.
Drinking fountains subject to direct sunlight exposure shall not be Stainless Steel due to heat build-up
on the unit.
i.
Entries to restrooms shall be only from public spaces, corridors, lobbies, or vestibules, and not through
other rooms or functional spaces. All restroom entries shall have doors and screen walls or vestibules to
prevent visibility of interior areas from the exterior when doors are open.
j.
Restroom entrances shall be visibly prominent for ease of supervision.
k.
Restrooms having direct access from the exterior shall have entries that are visible from the playground
and easily supervised.
l.
All drinking fountains adjacent to an accessible route, especially in corridors or along busy sidewalks
shall be located in alcoves conforming to the CBC. Alcove walls shall be surfaced with water-resistant
material such as Ceramic Tile. Dimensions on drawings shall account for thickness of finish material
and construction tolerances to assure compliant construction of clear inside accessible alcove
dimensions. Provide water-resistant and slip-resistant flooring in alcove that extends minimum of 3 feet
into the passageway.’
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS – LOCKERS
1.
Book Lockers
a.
In secondary schools provide one book locker for each student enrolled, with enrollment based on 32
students per classroom
b.
Locate lockers in locker recesses in corridors, covered walks, or in special covered kiosks within secured
areas and in highly visible and supervisable places.
c.
Lockers shall be 18” high by 12” wide by 15” deep, four units high with a sloped top, mounted on a 4”
minimum concrete base.
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: at least 18 inches deep, 32 inches minimum width; if alcove
is deeper than 24 inches, then the alcove width must be 36 inches
minimum
Deleted: clean
Book Two General Criteria
2.
d.
Construction shall be sheet steel, without vent openings, factory-applied enamel or powder-coat finish.
e.
Locks shall have built-in combination locks with options for multiple combinations and operable with a
master-key.
Physical Education Lockers
a.
b.
K.
1.
2.1 School Building Design
In secondary schools provide student lockers for the percent of enrolled students listed below, with
enrollment based on 32 students per classroom – 50% in boys’ locker room and 50% in girls’ locker
room.
1)
Middle Schools:
2)
Senior High Schools
100% of enrollment.
60% of enrollment.
In Senior High Schools provide two team locker areas with additional team lockers in each of the boys’
and girls’ locker rooms.
1)
Team Room:
2)
Team Secure Caged Area:
100 team lockers.
60 team lockers.
c.
Provide faculty lockers for PE instructors and coaches.
d.
Locker sizes: See Guide Specification “Metal Lockers” for sizes.
e.
Verify the PE and athletic program planned for each project to confirm these allotments.
f.
Construction shall be sheet steel, with vent openings, factory-applied enamel or powder-coat finish.
g.
Lockers shall have built-in combination locks with options for multiple combinations and operable with
a master-key.
h.
Lockers shall be installed on a 4” high concrete base. Base shall be flush with the face of the lockers.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS – CORRIDORS, STAIRWAYS AND EXTERIOR WALKWAYS
General
a.
Width: Corridors and stairways shall be designed to accommodate peak student traffic flows between
classes, but with a minimum width face-to-face of wall finishes or closed locker doors of 12 feet in
secondary schools and 9 feet in elementary schools.
b.
Finishes: Corridor and stairway walls shall have durable finishes – minimum finish construction of
“abuse and impact resistant” gypsum wall board. (Not required behind or above lockers.)
c.
Provide full height stainless steel corner guards to protect corner edges of interior corridors, stairways
and high abuse areas.
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
d.
L.
1.
2.
2.1 School Building Design
Exterior walkways shall be designed to be hosed down. On upper floor exterior walkways provide
recessed hose bibs and floor/area drains. Upper floor exterior walkways shall have a concrete walking
surface with waterproofing system underlayment. Elastomeric walking surface coating systems shall only
be used with Districts approval, due to high maintenance issues.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS – SUPPORT UNIT
General
a.
The Support Unit serves the operational and maintenance needs of the school and it includes the Plant
Manager’s office, central custodial receiving room, and central custodial supplies storage room,
Gardening and Exterior Maintenance Equipment Room, Trash Enclosed Area, and the Custodial
Closets.
b.
See “Educational Specifications” for space criteria for each school level.
Central Support Unit
a.
b.
Plant Manager’s Office
1)
Elementary Schools: Must accommodate one desk with computer, three chairs, file cabinet, wall
and base storage cabinets and a hopper (laundry tub) sink with drench hose/emergency eye wash.
2)
Secondary Schools: Must accommodate two desks with computer, six chairs, three file cabinets,
wall and base storage cabinets.
3)
Locate adjacent to storage rooms and to provide visual oversight of the receiving area.
Central Custodial Receiving and Storage
1)
In Elementary Schools and Early Education Center’s (EEC’s), custodial receiving and storage
may be combined as one space.
2)
In secondary schools, provide separate receiving and storage rooms. Receiving must have space
for receiving, inspecting and breaking down shipments, adjacent to the loading dock or exterior
receiving area. Cleaning chemicals may be mixed or repackaged in this room, so it must have
non-recirculated ventilation. Provide a hopper sink in this room, and a deluge shower/eyewash
combination unit. Provide an area for washer and dryer and their electrical, plumbing and
ventilation requirements.
3)
Storage Room must have adjustable metal shelving and a lockable metal cabinet for custodial
supplies.
4)
Provide six-foot wide door openings into both rooms, with pairs of three-foot doors.
5)
Provide secure facilities for flammable liquid storage. In secondary schools where gasoline drums
are stored (quantities greater than 55 gallons), this must be a separate building area with required
fire-resistive separation and with direct truck access for refilling drums. This structure shall be
completely separated from buildings used by students. For small quantities see OEHS
recommendations.
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
3.
4.
2.1 School Building Design
6)
Fueled Equipment Storage – Storage for Gardner’s fueled equipment and other fueled equipment
shall be in a structure completely separated from buildings used by students. This storage could
be part of gardener’s equipment building if it is an independent building or it could be a separate
structure. Truck access must be provided. Storage shall be located away from transformer, trash
area, and a minimum of 25 feet from any spark generating source. Provide grounding as required
by code.
7)
For additional On-Site storage requirements see sections 2.2 - B and C.
c.
Locate the Central Support Unit away from the general classroom and food-service areas, to avoid
material and staff congestion, reduce misdirected deliveries, and keep custodial chemicals and odors well
separated from students and food preparation.
d.
Provide access from a street entrance, separate from student areas, with adequate yard space for
deliveries and truck turnaround. Consider maneuvering space outside school property when selecting
one of the District’s service yard layouts.
e.
At secondary schools, provide toilet facilities and lockers.
f.
Provide an outside area adjacent to Receiving for the future placement of 8’ x 40’ containers for future
storage: one for elementary schools (about 500 sf) and two for secondary schools (about 800 sf).
Gardening and Exterior Maintenance Equipment Room
a.
Gardener’s Storage shall include workspace, equipment storage area, and equipment (shelving, cabinets,
and racks).
b.
Exterior Equipment Storage space shall be adequate for equipment (mowers, sweepers, vacuums, etc.)
with an overhead rolling door
c.
Locate adjacent to or near the Central Support Unit where feasible, but it must be easily accessible to
areas to be maintained.
d.
Provide a hopper sink when gardening unit is separate from Central Support Unit.
Trash and Recycling Enclosure
a.
Provide trash enclosures that are secured by walls that screen the area from public view.
b.
Provide:
1)
Hose bibb and dual-mode drainage (see Section 3.4 “Plumbing”).
2)
Electrical outlet and exterior lighting.
3)
Trash compactor with container, concrete slab floor, and electrical power (all to be included in
the Construction Documents).
4)
Direct truck access to all trash and recycling containers.
5)
Enclosures shall be freestanding, with minimum 5’-0” distance from any occupied structure.
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
c.
d.
Location:
1)
Remote from student activities and food service areas.
2)
Accessible to street for truck pick up with truck entirely on District’s property.
3)
Convenient to trash-generating activities, such as food services areas.
4)
Adjacent to freight elevator in a multi-story facility.
5)
Avoid placing the dumpster storage area immediately adjacent to kitchen, cafeteria, and/or lunch
area for more effective pest management.
6)
Trash enclosure area shall be located with direct access from outside the campus/parking area for
easy pick-up and without interfering with school activities. Direct access from the campus shall
be provided and shall not require passing through any building space. Trash pick-up area shall be
level to prevent bins from rolling.
Details:
1)
e.
2)
5.
For additional information for trash area with trash compactor see “Standard Technical
Drawings”.
Trash Area Calculation: Trash area shall be designed to accommodate the number of bins required, as
follows:
1)
f.
2.1 School Building Design
Sites without trash compactor:
a)
Elementary Schools:
One 2 CY bin for each 140 students
b)
Middle and High Schools:
One 2 CY bin for each 125 students
Sites with trash compactors:
a)
Elementary Schools:
Four 2 CY bins
b)
Middle Schools:
Six 2 CY bins
c)
High Schools:
Eight 2 CY bins
Recycle Program:
1)
Schools located within the geographic limit of city of Los Angeles will be provided with a city of
Los Angeles “blue” 90 gallon recycle bin. Schools located outside the city of Los Angeles limit
may participate in the county “white bin” recycle program provided by the District’s rubbish
service contractor.
2)
Recycling bins –. Provide bins specifically for recycling; however, where trash compactors are to
be provided, there is no need for 2 cubic yard front loading recycling bin painted white.
Custodial Closet/ Hopper Room
a.
Custodial Closets are not to be used for supplemental uses (water heaters, access ladders, other building
services) without enlarging the space and assuring the full function of the custodial activity.
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
b.
c.
M.
1.
2.1 School Building Design
Provide:
1)
Floor sink with hot and cold water and custodial faucet with standard garden-hose threads on the
spigot.
2)
Electrical GFCI receptacle.
3)
Light fixture with guard to prevent lamp from breakage.
4)
Motion Detector pre-programmed to turn off light no more than five minutes after room has
been vacated.
5)
Outswinging door.
6)
Exhaust air to outside (non-recirculated).
7)
Tool / mop rack and metal storage with adjustable shelves and space for custodial carts.
Provide custodial closets in the following locations:
1)
Adjacent to all Student Restrooms; one per floor minimum.
2)
One per each 15 classrooms.
3)
One in each Boys and Girls Locker Rooms at Gyms.
4)
Multi-Purpose Room/Auditorium.
5)
Kitchen food preparation area only.
6)
Other locations when necessary to assure adequate custodial coverage of building areas
(Administration, Library, Cafeteria, etc.).
BUILDING SECURITY
Windows
a.
The following security measures must be addressed in the initial design concepts, and shall be integrated
with the overall building design.
b.
All windows accessible from the exterior shall have security measures as described in Section 3.1,
“Architectural”, to prevent breaking, entering and vandalism. Accessible windows include any windows
with:
1)
Bottom sills less than ten feet above grade.
2)
Bottom sills less than ten feet above balconies, stairs, or other circulation means.
3)
Bottom sills less than ten feet above roofs that have any portion less than ten feet above grade,
adjacent walls, or other access points.
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Book Two General Criteria
c.
2.
2.1 School Building Design
Do not locate windows within 48 inches of exterior doors unless protective security screens have been
utilized to prevent an intruder from gaining access to door hardware.
Doors
a.
Do not locate exterior doors in recesses or alcoves that would provide cover for an intruder attempting
to enter the door.
b.
Provide exterior security lighting that illuminates all exterior doors.
c.
Provide overhead rain protection overhangs for all unprotected exterior doors.
d.
Glass on exterior doors shall be protected against vandalism and to deter breaking and entering by use
of security grilles. Laminated glass is not sufficient.
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Book Two General Criteria
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2.2 Site Design Book Two General Criteria
2.2
SITE DESIGN
A.
INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................... 63
Deleted: 65
B.
BUILDING PLACEMENT AND CIRCULATION ............................................... 64
Deleted: 66
C.
OUTDOOR SPACE AND FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS ............................... 65
Deleted: 67
D.
LANDSCAPING ............................................................................................ 70
Deleted: 73
E.
SECURITY ................................................................................................... 75
Deleted: 78
F.
SIGNAGE ..................................................................................................... 77
Deleted: 80
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2.2 Site Design Book Two General Criteria
2.2
SITE DESIGN
A.
INTRODUCTION
1.
2.
General Requirements
a.
The site design process must balance many diverse requirements including convenient
circulation, accessibility, security, ease of supervision, and community image. Context,
adjacencies, aesthetics as well as the physical and geotechnical characteristics of the site must
be considered.
b.
Sites are to be designed to conform to the requirements of the “Guide to School Site Analysis and
Development,” to the “Small School Site Policy”, both published by the California Department of
Education, and to the Rodriguez Consent Decree.
c.
Playgrounds, playfields, and outdoor instructional spaces are essential to the instructional program, and
must be carefully integrated into the site plan.
d.
The circulation system, both on- and off-site, must safely separate pedestrians, bicycles, cars, buses and
delivery vehicles while providing immediate access for emergency vehicles.
e.
Plan pedestrian circulation carefully to reduce opportunities for short cuts over planting areas, which
greatly increase maintenance.
f.
Skating or skateboarding is not allowed on school property. Paving and other site structures such as
raised planters, benches, and low walls shall be designed, or have skate deterrent devices installed to
discourage such use.
g.
Careful consideration should be given to consolidating building program elements into a compact,
space-conserving floor plate in order to maximize open space and enable a more energy-efficient
building shell.
h.
LAUSD has a “Greening Program” that recommends lawn and other planting on at least 30% of the
outdoor space on each school site. On tight urban sites, this is not always achievable, but space for
planting must nevertheless be given high priority in site planning. Opportunities exist at school entries
and perimeters, kindergarten play spaces, instructional gardens, and other strategic planting areas.
i.
See Section 2.4, “Environment and Sustainability,” for additional site design criteria. The reduction of
storm-water runoff is an important component of sustainable design, and is greatly improved by more
planting, water absorption areas and permeable paving surfaces.
j.
Site Signage: See section 2.2, F “Signage” for the requirements for site perimeter and other building
signs and integrate them into the site design. Signs must be reviewed, through the District’s authorized
representative, with the school principal or other local district staff to assure the correct content.
Future Expansion
a.
Site layouts shall have the capacity for future expansion without substantial alterations to existing
structures or playgrounds. Indicate future building locations on site plans.
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3.
B.
1.
b.
Make provisions in utilities systems to accommodate future growth without rework of installed
components.
c.
Exits, walkways, stairs, and elevators must be sized and located to accommodate capacity of future
growth, particularly in multipurpose, cafeteria, gymnasium and auditorium facilities.
Site Plan Information
a.
Plans shall clearly identify and reference the limits of all project related contract work including site
lighting, landscaping, paving, utility system connections and improvements, etc., to specific benchmarks,
property lines and/or existing significant site improvements (buildings, street center-lines, etc.) with
easily understood and straightforward dimensioning.
b.
Locations of buildings, site improvements (including shoring needed to develop structures or features),
underground/sub-surface structures, etc., shall be referenced to specific benchmarks, property lines
and/or existing significant site improvements (buildings, street center-lines, etc.) with easily understood
and straightforward dimensioning.
c.
All grades, slopes, required cuts/fills shall be appropriately depicted dimensioned, and quantified. Overexcavation requirements shall be defined with both horizontal and vertical dimensions sufficient for
accurately calculating cut and fill quantities.
d.
Plans shall clearly identify locations for staging of construction materials, site access for the contractor’s
workforce and delivery of materials, and temporary fencing and barricades for site security and safety.
On sites with existing school functions/facilities, construction staging and work areas shall be separated
from the school functions/facilities by temporary fencing and/or barricades. The location of this area
shall be coordinated with District staff.
e.
When planning walkways consider shortest routes and consider design elements, so students avoid
trampling landscaped areas. Widen or feather out the walkways at junctions to accommodate natural
foot traffic movements and student gathering areas.
BUILDING PLACEMENT AND CIRCULATION
Building Location
a.
Site layout of buildings, parking, driveways and physical education areas shall be planned to meet the
instructional, security and service needs of the Facilities Space Program prepared by the District.
b.
Place buildings to be compatible with adjacent functions. (For example, do not place the band room
adjacent to the library.)
c.
Physical relationships of classrooms, auxiliary and support areas must allow unobstructed movement of
staff and students around the campus, and provide optimum patterns for pedestrian traffic flow around
and within buildings. (For example, students should not have to pass through one building to get to
another.)
d.
Place buildings to have favorable relationships to wind, sun, and natural light and to optimize the effects
of sun light and solar loads. Provide an analysis of sun effects on energy consumption and on interior
day lighting.
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2.2 Site Design Book Two General Criteria
C.
1.
e.
Provide a system of covered walkways between all buildings.
f.
Consider location of buildings relative to parking areas and other paving to minimize solar reflectance
and dust impacts on the buildings.
g.
Locate restrooms to provide easy access from playgrounds and classrooms with a minimum of
supervision.
h.
Locate buildings in ways that improve campus security.
i.
Exit doors and stairways from buildings shall be located so there is no direct exit from the building to
the street. Students must be able to circulate to an emergency assembly area without exiting the school
grounds.
Outdoor Space and Functional Requirements
Playground and Field Areas
The Space Facilities Program governs the number, types and sizes of outdoor Physical Education spaces, which
includes a variety of physical education teaching stations, including hard courts, fields and apparatus areas.
2.
a.
Plan outdoor play areas and fields to accommodate public access and joint use with other public
agencies.
b.
Locate buildings (including relocatable buildings) so they do not impair observation or obstruct play
field supervision.
c.
Minimize potential for distraction or harm to occupants of lunch shelters, outdoor classrooms and
assembly areas, by Physical Education spaces and related activities, including balls, noise, incidents, etc.
d.
Provide playground safety tile surfacing at playground structures as shown in District Standard Details.
e.
Athletic competitive facilities are regulated by the National Federation of High Schools (NFHS). These
facilities should also comply with CDE and California Interscholastic Federation (CIF) standards.
Support facilities such as spectators seating, lighting, etc. shall be provided per program.
f.
Turf areas should be located and graded to accommodate drainage of on-site surface runoff.
g.
Athletic Equipment Storage – At High School fields provide space for a 40’ container for storage of
athletic equipments.
Outdoor Assembly Area:
a.
The Outdoor Assembly Area is the heart of the campus. It may serve as a theatre area for outdoor
programs, assembly for graduation ceremonies, an informal gathering space, and outdoor dining.
b.
Locate it near the cafeteria and lunch shelter, preferably.
c.
Provide a central lawn area large enough to accommodate the enrollment wherever site size permits.
Create compact alternatives for smaller urban sites.
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3.
d.
Minimize walks crossing grass area.
e.
Plan a raised stage considering solar orientation, preferably facing away from morning sun. Accessible
route of the travel to the stage shall be provided.
f.
Slope ground toward stage for amphitheater-style seating. Identify and disperse accessible seating
positions.
Outdoor Classroom:
Outdoor Classroom shall be provided if it is required as part of the Facilities Space Program and desired by the
school. Just as a building would require a program based on an objective, outdoor classroom should not be
planned without a solid objective. The Outdoor Classroom shall be age appropriate and shall not impact the
physical education area, parking or any other essential element of the school facility.
a.
General:
1)
The Outdoor Classroom is an intimate cost effective space for outdoor teaching, as well as a
good meeting place for parent-teacher meetings and student groups. It serves multiple occupants
and is intended to grow into a place of outdoor beauty that offers an enhanced environment for
instructional activities.
2)
The Outdoor classroom can be developed for the purpose of lecture, discussion, discovery,
performance, gardening, playing music, etc.
3)
The Outdoor classroom design should address adjacencies to existing structures and play yard
activities, drainage, light, shade, sun exposure appropriate for program’s specific needs, electrical,
water and other requirements specific to the program.
4)
The outdoor classroom shall be designed with minimum maintenance required.
5)
The outdoor classroom shall meet all accessibility laws and other pertinent codes.
b.
As space permits provide paving, grass and seating (benches or low walls).
c.
Location:
1)
Locate near classroom clusters.
2)
At existing schools, prior to locating any outdoor classroom or garden area, check for conflict
with underground utilities, hazardous soil, established fire truck access, interference with
potential future project location identified on the master plan, established path of travel, site
drainage and anything else that may have negative impact on the site.
d.
The Outdoor Classroom area shall not be paved with asphalt, and must utilize permeable surfaces and
natural materials wherever possible. Utilize materials including, but not limited to, trees, rocks,
boulders, and natural pavers, in addition to planting and shrubbery, to create a natural space that reflects
a native California landscape. .Reclaimed materials should be utilized wherever possible.
e.
Type: The outdoor classroom can be any or combination of the following:
1)
Nature Explore Program for EEC. These outdoor areas can vary in size, but they must meet the
program’s requirements and designed by trained professionals. For more information check
arborday.org.
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f.
g.
2)
Instructional Gardens – Location to be approved by the District. These Instructional Gardens
can be edible gardens, native plants gardens, habitat for wildlife (butterfly), etc.
3)
Lecture, discussion, such as literature, story telling, writing and performances.
4)
Community Gardens – Location of these gardens shall be approved by LAUSD and they should
not interfere with the school master plan or have any negative effect on school or school’s
operation.
Instructional Gardens must be planned and designed to meet the educational needs of those children
who steward it. These gardens must contain the following basic elements:
1)
Gathering or meeting area.
2)
Planting beds.
3)
Work table or other work surfaces.
4)
Lockable storage unit.
5)
Decorative Instructional Signage.
6)
Permanent hose bibb and/or irrigation system.
7)
Seating for a full class (may be informal and/or dispersed).
8)
For additional information, See Standard Technical Drawings and Design Guide section 3.9.B.2.
Provide space for:
1)
Compost bin.
2)
Rain barrel. If provided as part of the program, it must be anchored to prevent movement in case
of an earthquake. Spout or hose bib must be lockable and labeled “DO NOT DRINK”. It must
be designed so the over-flow can be drained properly.
3)
Solar feature.
4)
Student art display – provide an opportunity for students to add to the space artistically, such as a
blank mural wall.
5)
Green waste storage.
h.
Provide a landmark indicating a clear transition from the schoolyard or other play space. It should be
prominent and should provide a sense of moving into a special space.
i.
Seating should take into consideration the age of the school population. Disperse a variety of seating
and various seating heights throughout the area. Utilize natural materials, and consider reuse of
materials found on site. Choose materials for durability and sustainability. Consider the educational and
experiential value of seating materials and their construction. Seating should be provided as follows:
1)
Provide seating for full class meeting up to 25 students in one area. For short term use, this area
may be densely packed.
2)
Provide seating for small groups.
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2.2 Site Design Book Two General Criteria
j.
3)
Provide seating for single students for quiet observation or data collection.
4)
Do not use pressure-treated wood in the construction of seating, tables or other structures where
hands are in frequent contact with these surfaces. Protective finishes shall be non-toxic and
approved by OEHS.
5)
Seating shall be designed to stand up to the weather and vandalism.
6)
All hardware shall be galvanized and joinery shall be designed with heavy nuts, bolts and screws.
Nails are not allowed.
7)
Consider providing shelter for various seating areas to provide protection form wind, sun and
rain.
8)
Seating area may range from a nice amphitheatre, shelter house, benches or simple circle of tree
stumps. Seating materials shall be durable to fit the program, appropriate for age group and site
conditions.
Circulation:
1)
Separate foot traffic from planted areas.
2)
Provide main pathway from entrance to main gathering, planting and work areas. Main pathways
from entrance to gathering, planting and work areas should be a minimum of 48” and accessible.
3)
Provide secondary pathways clearly distinguished from primary circulation, utilizing a contrast in
materials and/or scale.
4)
When adding an outdoor classroom or garden to an existing campus, be aware of existing
walking path of travel.
5)
Utilize a range of permeable and non-permeable surfaces such as:
6)
a)
Permeable and non-permeable concrete.
b)
Permeable pavers.
c)
Percolation or infiltration requires approval of a geotechnical engineer.
Design for sustainability, locally sourced and recycled materials, etc.
k.
Planting beds – a dedicated place for hands-on gardening, either in-ground or raised. Raised beds
should be no more than 3’ wide for primary and elementary schools to allow access to younger students,
and should be between 18” and 24” high. Raised beds should have a wide edge for sitting. Site water
source proximate to planting beds.
l.
Topography:
m.
1)
Mound and shape landscape to 18” to 24”.
2)
Incorporate gardens and landscape areas into storm water runoff BMPs through rain gardens,
permeable pavers, infiltration swales, and other topographical features.
3)
If design alters site topography, conduct hydrology study to ensure proper site drainage.
Outdoor classrooms should contain one or more of the following elements:
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4.
5.
1)
Orchard – a space for growing fruit trees.
2)
Edible Garden – a space for growing vegetables and herbs from seed to harvest. Beds may be in
ground or raised, depending on site features and soil condition, but must be suitable for food
production. Edible gardens should contain an area that can accommodate a whole class.
Orchards and edible gardens must contain a potable water source, and where feasible, a safe
space for food preparation.
n.
Instructional and/or Experiential Space – Instructional gardens may be formal or informal. Consider
elements such as informational signage, root view windows in planting beds, thermometers, sundials,
writing surfaces, structural elements such as mounting location for teaching materials.
o.
Where feasible, provide signage indicating:
1)
Plant/tree species.
2)
Special cares for plants that have dormant periods, require little to no water, or have other special
needs.
3)
Composting areas.
4)
Garden Type.
Outdoor Eating Spaces:
a.
Outdoor eating spaces supplement cafeterias and lunch shelters. See section 2.1 “School Building
Design” – Multipurpose and Food Service.
b.
Integrate with lunch shelter and outdoor assembly area.
Emergency Assembly Area:
a.
Designate an “Emergency Assembly Area” (EAA) on the site with a net area of six square feet for each
programmed student (6 sf/occ.) or 3 SF per calculated exiting load, which ever is greater.
b.
Edge of EAA shall not be less than 50 feet from the face of the nearest structure.
c.
EAA shall have a gate that discharges directly to the sidewalk. Use a single 4'-0" gate to swing in the
direction of egress. Gate shall not project into sidewalk.
d.
Gates shall not be closer than 15'-0" from the edge of a vehicular drive gate unless separated by a
perpendicular fence or wall.
e.
Grades to, and within the EAA shall conform to accessibility requirements.
f.
Provide additional space for emergency supply containers (standard 20-ft. or 40-ft. shipping containers.).
The primary unit stored is emergency water supply for three days for the entire site population (students,
teachers and staff). The requirement is one barrel of water for each 35 people. A 20-ft. container will
hold 30 water barrels. A 40-ft. container will hold 60 barrels. Calculate the size and number of
containers and provide a flat, smooth-graded area for the containers, containers will be provided by the
District. This area shall be accessible and comply with ADA path of travel requirements.
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g.
6.
D.
1.
2.
Access to EAA shall be designed in such a way that would not require students to go off campus, or
into the public right of way to get to EAA.
Bicycle and Skateboard Storage Areas:
a.
Identify a designated area for bicycle and skate board storage. Location and number of bike racks and
skate board storage for employees and students are at the discretion of the local districts. Coordinate
requirements with Design Manager.
b.
Bike racks and skate board storage shall be installed on hard-surfaces.
c.
Location shall be visible for security and designed for minimized vehicular and pedestrian traffic
conflicts.
d.
Provide adequate clearance where bicycle racks and skate board racks are located adjacent to buildings,
structures or pathways, so they don’t restrict the path of travel.
LANDSCAPING
Planning
a.
Because schools represent important visual elements in the community, a well-conceived landscape
design is essential – one that provides a naturally beautiful campus that enhances its neighborhood yet
still is physically secure and economically maintainable.
b.
Landscape and planting standards must be adapted to the specific site, with designs scaled to fit the
ecological, cultural and economic requirements of the project.
c.
In addition to the aesthetic considerations, an important role of trees and large shrubs is providing shade
– for buildings, for play areas, and for paved heat islands. Use trees to provide:
1)
Year-round shading of outdoor teaching, dining, gathering and play areas.
2)
Seasonal shading of buildings to reduce cooling energy requirements, while allowing winter
warming of buildings in the cooler climatic areas.
d.
Use trees and shrubs to provide wind-breaks on those sites exposed to strong winds, but without
disrupting favorable summer wind patterns.
e.
Identify existing trees and plant structures that should be saved, and, so far as possible, incorporate
them in site planning.
Planting
a.
Based on long experience with landscaping maintenance, the District has prepared a list of plants that
are appropriate to the region, are not hazardous to students or staff, and require relatively little
maintenance. Select plants appropriate to the site from the LAUSD Approved Plant List. Refer to
Section 3.9 for additional information.
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3.
b.
The District is committed to a long-term program to conserve water. Therefore, select drought-tolerant
planting, with durable, long-lived plants requiring the least amount of maintenance and water.
c.
The District’s “Integrated Pest Management Program” has requirements for plant locations to be not
closer to buildings than:
1)
Mature canopy of trees: 5 feet.
2)
Mature canopy of shrubs: 3 feet.
3)
Ground cover or jute matting: 3 feet.
d.
Use low spreading shrubs and vine-type plants on slopes.
e.
Avoid all poisonous plants and shrubs with dangerous thorns.
f.
Allow space for normal growth of plants.
g.
Do not locate large shrubs in front of windows or school sign.
h.
In front of graffiti-prone walls, provide trees, shrubs and ground treatments that will deter taggers and
reduce visibility of applied graffiti.
Trees
a.
Provide for fast-growing shade trees on perimeter of Elementary School Playgrounds, surrounding
Outdoor Assembly Areas, in Outdoor Eating Areas, in Kindergarten Play Areas, and in selected areas
for outdoor instruction and small group gatherings.
b.
Provide trees to shade buildings, where other conditions permit, as follows:
1)
On south exposure, tall deciduous trees to provide shade for high summer sun and warming
from low winter sun.
2)
On east exposure, deciduous trees for morning shading in summer and warming in winter.
3)
On west exposure, evergreen trees for year-round shading.
c.
Provide at least one mulberry tree on each Primary Center or Elementary School Campus, in the
Kindergarten or Primary Grade Play Areas.
d.
Provide trees to shade parking and other large paved areas to reduce the heat-island effect.
e.
Keep trees out of drainage flow lines and 20'-0" feet away from vitrified clay sewers.
f.
Avoid trees that drop excessive fruit, leaves, or pods.
g.
Space trees to have a maximum of 5-feet overlap of full canopies.
h.
Location of trees shall be designed to avoid providing access to upper floors, roof and impacting
building foundation and sidewalks.
i.
No tree box smaller than 24 inches is to be specified.
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4.
5.
j.
Trees provided by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (15 gallon) shall be located in areas
away from student activities and access to maximize their survival.
k.
Trees and tree wells shall be located in such a way so they do not interfere with children’s natural
instinct to take the most direct path from one area to another.
l.
Avoid the use of chips or gravel in tree wells as they become throwing material for students.
Mowing Strips and Paving:
a.
Separate lawn and planting areas with concrete mow strips per LAUSD standard technical drawings.
b.
Provide a continuous concrete mowing strip, 12" wide, on each side of a fence which separates two
adjacent lawn areas, and for lawns next to raised planters, buildings, fences, walls or curbs.
c.
Provide a continuous mow strip, 8”wide, for lawn or turf areas next to fences by extending concrete or
asphaltic paving outside fence into lawn or turf areas.
d.
Pave corners of planting areas at walk intersections to reduce pedestrian traffic thru planting areas.
e.
Adjacent to buildings, provide a separating strip from plant areas that is 6”-thick concrete and not less
than 24” wide.
f.
All covered and main circulation walks shall be of concrete or similar durable surface. Decomposed
granite shall only be used in garden pathways that are not adjacent to buildings, assembly areas, or
walkways.
Middle and High School Physical Education Fields and Exterior Courts:
a.
Provide turf fields for Middle and High School Physical Education Areas that may include space for
football, soccer, baseball and track and field. Where programmed, these facilities may be used for
interscholastic athletics as well as physical education.
b.
It is recommended that playing areas be orientated approximately in a north-south direction to minimize
the effect of the sun on the players.
c.
Coordinate location of backstops, pitching mounds and skinned areas with sprinkler layouts.
d.
Design grading so that surface drainage from sprinklers will not channel across skinned infield area of
baseball and softball diamonds.
e.
Pave small areas behind back stops where large mowers cannot operate efficiently. Provide mow strips
if planted with turf.
f.
When possible, turf area shall be located and graded to accommodate drainage of on-site surface runoff.
g.
Provide a scoreboard outside of the playing field and track.
h.
Provide an area to place a storage bin for athletic equipment.
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6.
7.
i.
Exterior volleyball courts and basketball courts should be separate when ever possible. If volleyball
courts are being combined with basketball courts due to site constraints, provide ground sleeves and
removable volleyball posts and nets.
j.
Provide easy access of maintenance and emergency vehicles to the physical education fields and exterior
courts.
Synthetic Turf Field
a.
As programmed and directed by the District, design and specify a complete synthetic turf field to meet
the District’s minimum requirements.
b.
Synthetic turf is recommended for high use/Multi-Purpose fields and joint use.
c.
Access to synthetic turf fields and surfaces surrounding synthetic turf fields shall not be natural turf,
decomposed granite, dirt, mud or any other material which will contribute to the deterioration of the
playing surface.
d.
If shot put is part of the program, it shall be located away from synthetic turf to avoid damaging the
field, refer to Standard Technical Drawings.
e.
Drainage System:
1)
The drainage system should provide sufficient drainage of the entire playing surface to meet local
conditions.
2)
Design shall comply with the District’s requirements and state storm water arrangement.
3)
The drainage systems may include the synthetic turf, pad, base materials and collector pipes that
collect and remove storm water from the playing field.
4)
Design shall consider existing surrounding conditions, location and soil type.
5)
Synthetic turf fields shall not be used for drainage of surrounding areas. Areas surrounding
synthetic turf fields shall be drained separately. If a synthetic turf area is added to a court, divert
surface drainage away from synthetic turf field.
f.
Trees shall be located sufficiently far away from the synthetic turf field to prevent damage by roots and
droppings.
g.
Perimeter fencing shall be designed to contain balls, prevent vandalism and unauthorized use of the
field.
h.
Based on the location of the school and its annual average temperature, design a cooling system per turf
manufacturer’s recommendations and District’s standards.
High School Running Track:
a.
Track Configuration and Length: Track shall be an equal quadrant track consisting of two straight-aways
of 100 meters each and two curves of 100 meters each, for a total distance of 400 meters (1,312.34 feet).
These dimensions are measured along the “measure line” of the innermost lane. Distance between the
center points of the semicircle radii shall be 100 meters (328.08 feet). Radius to inner lane measure line
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shall be 31.83 meters (104.43 feet). One straightaway shall have both opposite ends extend 100 feet
beyond the start of the curve.
b.
Measure Line: Is a theoretical line located 8 inches (0.20 meter) from the inner lane line of each lane.
Raised curbs shall be located one foot (0.30 meter) from the measure line of the innermost lane and 38
inches from the measure line of the outward lane.
c.
Track Width and Number of Lanes: 8 lanes are required for Synthetic and decomposed granite (D.G.)
track surfaces unless approval is obtained by the District’s Athletic Department. Overall track width
shall be 29’, measured between curbs.
d.
8.
1)
Fence: A 4’-0” high fence shall be provided between the track and the bleacher areas.
2)
Distance to Bleachers and Fences: A minimum clear distance of 18 inches (45.7cm), fall zone,
shall be provided from the outer track edge to any obstacle, such as fences or light standards.
Ground level bleachers shall be located a minimum of 5 feet distance from the front row of the
bleacher to the fence.
Lane Width: Lanes shall have the same width including the white line to the right. A minimum lane
width of 42 inches (1.07 m) is required unless approval is obtained by the District’s Athletic
Department.
1)
Curbs: The track may be bordered by a concrete curbs. The edges of the curb shall be rounded.
2)
Lane Edge Lines: Lanes shall be marked on both sides by white lines 2 inches (5.08cm) wide. The
lanes shall be numbered with lane one on the left when facing the finish line.
e.
In Field Surface: The playing field area and semicircular ends within the track should be natural grass or
synthetic turf. A synthetic track surface is recommended when synthetic turf is used. The minimum
distance from the track side of the curb to the active soccer playfield is 7.10 ft, and 23.70’ to the football
field. Runways for long jump and pole-vaults should be placed in the semicircular ends of the field and
shall have synthetic surface when synthetic turf is used. For natural grass fields, runways may be either
decomposed granite or synthetic surface.
f.
A separate decomposed granite or natural grass fenced area shall be provided for shot put.
g.
Wind: Prevailing wind conditions should be considered when planning running tracks.
h.
Minimum Considerations: On very small sites and with District approval practice, local competition
meets may be run on 6 lanes of 42”.
i.
Refer to Standard Technical Drawings, Playground Court Markings High Schools, for additional and
detailed information.
Outdoor Assembly Area:
a.
Provide lawn at the Outdoor Assembly Area amphitheatre area.
b.
Plant perimeter trees for shade while maintaining interior line of sight toward stage.
c.
Plant screening foliage behind stage as a visual backdrop.
d.
Plant shade trees on either side of stage to cast protective shadows.
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2.2 Site Design Book Two General Criteria
E.
1.
SECURITY
Gates and Fencing
a.
Design special gates and fencing for main entry to school. Entry Gates and Security Fences shall be
designed to maximize security while at the same time enhancing the appearance of the school.
1)
Design special gates for main entry to school with direct line of site from main office.
2)
If concrete planters or other climbable elements are adjacent to an entry fence or gate, the fence
and/or gate height must be adjusted accordingly.
3)
The design of the entry gates and security fences should minimize horizontal bars and low curbs
so that they do not provide a “ladder” that allow the gate or fence to be easily scaled.
4)
Clearances for all gates and doors shall be according to good industry practice and in no case
large enough to permit entry or bypassing security measures.
5)
When gates are required to have emergency push bars for exiting, the gates and adjacent fencing
must be designed to prevent activation of the push bar from the outside.
6)
If ornamental fencing (wrought iron) is proposed, the design shall be approved by LAUSD’S
metal shop, during the design phase.
b.
Provide full perimeter fence or wall enclosure for school campus. Buildings may be used in lieu of a
fence when located within 5’-0” of the sidewalk or entry plaza if classroom windows are not positioned
so that pedestrians are a distraction to classroom students.
c.
All accessible gates on an accessible route shall have required level landings on each side of the gate with
2% maximum slope in any direction. Gates shall conform to CBC accessibility regulations.
d.
Fence, wall and gate dimensions:
e.
1)
Perimeter and parking area walls and fences: 8’-0” height.
2)
Interior security fences: 8’-0” height.
3)
Interior playground fences: 4’-0” height.
4)
Pedestrian gates: 4’-0” width in 6-foot or higher fences.
5)
Driveway gates: 20’-0” wide.
6)
Tennis court fence 12’-0”. Gates: 6'-0" wide (to accommodate sweepers). If this is the only
access, it shall meet CBC accessibility requirements.
7)
Gates that provide access to maintenance equipment shall be 6’-0” wide.
At adjoining residential areas, provide CMU walls.
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2.2 Site Design Book Two General Criteria
2.
f.
Provide full perimeter fence enclosure for all parking areas.
g.
In general, provide swinging gates rather than sliding. Emergency gates shall be swing gates; for new
sites provide emergency gates on more than one street. Use sliding gates for large openings where
normally open swinging gates would cause obstructions. Ensure that sliding gates are designed to open
with minimal effort and that the track will not deteriorate under normal use and traffic. Rolling gates
must be designed with gate stops to prevent gates from rolling past the mid-closure point and clear of
vertical supports. Provide one stop on the track and another welded to the top rail. Rolling metal gates
shall be engineered to account for its weight, in order to provide safe and smooth operation.
h.
Enclose the Trash Yard with solid walls on three sides. Locate it for easy access and trash pick-up, away
from student areas, and out of direct view of neighboring property owners. Trash yard gate shall be
located to accommodate trash pick-up. See District’s Standard Technical Drawings for additional details.
i.
All perimeter gates exiting campus are typically locked during school hours. These gates and their
location should be designed in such a way so they are not considered legal exits; thus not requiring panic
hardware that compromises security to school site. In the event a gate requires panic hardware, it shall
be at least 7’-)’ high and shall have coverings to prevent operation of the panic device from the locked
side of the gate.
j.
Avoid placement of activities where the ball can easily go over the fencing and out of the campus,
causing hazards. Where this is unavoidable, increase the height of the fencing to prevent balls going
outside playgrounds.
k.
Pool Area: The fence shall be designed and constructed so that it cannot be readily climbed by small
children. Horizontal and diagonal member designs, which might serve as a ladder for small children, are
prohibited. Horizontal members shall be spaced at least 48 inches apart. Planters or other structures
shall not be permitted to encroach upon the clear span area. Chain link may be used provided that
openings are not greater than 1 ¾ inches measured horizontally. The fence minimum effective
perpendicular height shall be 8’-0” measured from each side.
l.
Provide sliding gates to control pedestrian traffic into field bleacher areas.
m.
At tops of banks, near play areas set fence line back 18" minimum if bank is paved, and 24" minimum if
bank is not paved.
n.
Fence service yards. Provide sliding drive gate where possible.
o.
Because of safety and maintenance concerns, motorized gates at perimeter fences are not allowed
without prior written approval from the District. Sides of ramps leading to subterranean garages shall be
fenced off to prevent access to the rest of campus when the perimeter gate is open.
Utilities Protection
a.
3.
Wherever pipe-and-valve assemblies are exposed above grade, provide a secure locked enclosure to
protect them from unauthorized use or vandalism. These may be walls, fences, or manufactured
enclosures that are made for this purpose.
Site Lighting
a.
Provide exterior lighting to enhance site security, including area lighting, walkway lights, and building
perimeter illumination. See section 3.7 “Electrical Power and Lighting” for illumination levels and
additional requirements.
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2.2 Site Design Book Two General Criteria
b.
F.
Eliminate direct-beam projection off-site or glare off buildings into adjoining residential areas or other
occupancies.
SIGNAGE
1.
Identity
a.
Provide metal letter signs at the main entry of school to identify the name of the school and street
address. Signs shall be visible by both pedestrian and vehicular traffic.
b.
Identify an area on site plan for locating a future electronic marquee near the main entry. Marquee to be
visible by pedestrian and vehicular traffic. Contract documents shall include a stub out at this location
and installation of conduit only for future power requirements. Another conduit shall be provided for
data from this location to MDF room and shall be identified accordingly. If marquee is wireless, conduit
to MDF room shall not be provided. Make provisions for marquee according to the following criteria:
1)
2)
3)
2.
Location Considerations:
a)
Available space for support.
b)
Maximum exposure for message display and school name.
c)
Proximity to power and location of computer for wireless system to work.
Design:
a)
Local ordinance restriction for square feet area, setback and minimum distance from
roadway or sidewalk, internal/external illumination limitations, and moving message
restrictions.
b)
Speed of traffic on the street that the sign will be located.
c)
Minimum 8’-0” clear to the bottom of the sign.
d)
Verify logo and exact name of school with school administrator.
e)
Coordinate cabinet color(s) with the school.
f)
Coordinate location of computer and other equipment with the school.
Hours of Operation:
a)
New schools shall comply with CEQA study requirements.
b)
Comply with local ordinances based on school location (residential/commercial street).
c)
Address message deactivation time.
Vehicular Directional
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2.2 Site Design Book Two General Criteria
a.
3.
Pedestrian Directional
a.
4.
7.
Provide signage identifying ADA accessible routes, exits, stairwells, room occupancy, evacuation plan,
Assistive Listening Device availability, and other code-required signage.
Perimeter
a.
6.
Provide sufficient directional signs to accommodate way finding of joint-use facilities. Special signage
may be required.
Regulatory
a.
5.
Provide signage and striping as necessary to provide rational and safe vehicle flow in parking and
vehicular traffic area.
Identify location of “WELCOME TO OUR SCHOOL SIGNS” on plans at the main entry and all
vehicular and pedestrian entry points to the school. Signs are approximately 2’-0” by 3’-0” and are
owner furnished/contractor installed.
Room Numbering
a.
Architect shall follow LAUSD room numbering guidelines to identify each room on the construction
documents. A copy of the guidelines can be found on the web at the following link:
http://www.laschools.org/employee/design/fs-studies-and-reports/?folder_id=4301053
b.
Provide room number and room identification signs per LAUSD Guide Specifications.
Roof Address
a.
Provide school’s street address numbers in contrasting color roofing material on the roof of main
administration building per LAUSD Guide Specifications, roofing sections.
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Book Two General Criteria
2.3
2.3 Vehicular Access and Parking
VEHICULAR ACCESS AND PARKING
A.
PARKING SPACE REQUIREMENTS ............................................................... 81
Deleted: 85
B.
GENERAL PARKING GUIDELINES ............................................................... 81
Deleted: 85
C.
VEHICULAR ACCESS AND PEDESTRIAN SAFETY .......................................... 83
Deleted: 87
D.
PARKING STRUCTURE SECURITY ................................................................ 84
Deleted: 88
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Book Two General Criteria
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Book Two General Criteria
2.3 Vehicular Access and Parking
2.3
VEHICULAR ACCESS AND PARKING
A.
PARKING SPACE REQUIREMENTS
1.
School sites vary greatly in terms of size and configuration. In order to accommodate staff and student parking
the District uses a variety of site-specific parking solutions, including:
a.
Surface Parking.
b.
Free Standing Structures.
c.
Underground Structures.
d.
Rooftop Parking.
e.
Leased Parking on Adjacent Sites.
2.
Because of limited site space for recreational use, high-intensity parking solutions are encouraged.
3.
Provide parking spaces based on the following ratios to programmed classrooms.
a.
Elementary School
2.25
per Classroom
b.
Middle School
2.25
per Classroom
c.
High School
2.50
per Classroom
4.
Provide Accessible Parking per CBC ratios.
5.
Visitor parking: Allocate surface parking spaces for visitors adjacent to the Administration Unit.
6.
Provide secure Bicycle and skateboard racks. Also see section 2.2.”Site Design”.
B.
GENERAL PARKING GUIDELINES
1.
On small urban sites, seek creative parking solutions to maximize usable land for educational and recreational
functions.
2.
Parking layouts shall conform to good design practices. Los Angeles City requirements shall be used as
minimum criteria. See Parking Standards drawings in the District’s “Typical Standard Drawings.”
3.
Avoid placing student parking in remote areas where there is little supervision. In general, locate student
parking near the classrooms.
4.
Parent’s student drop-off and pick-up, bus loading areas, and parking areas shall be separated to allow students
to enter and exit the school grounds safely.
5.
Driveways shall not be located in a bus-loading area, student drop-off or pick-up area.
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2.3 Vehicular Access and Parking
6.
Parking stalls shall not be located, or parking patterns so designed, so that a vehicle must back into a public
street, bus-loading area, or student drop-off or pick-up area.
7.
Avoid herringbone-pattern parking layouts and tandem parking. (Tandem parking may be used in special
circumstances with District permission.)
8.
Requirements for accessible parking shall conform to Title 24.
a.
When one stall for accessible parking is provided the space shall be 17'-0" wide and striped to provide
9'-0" wide van accessible parking space and 8'-0" wide access aisle on the passenger side. Accessible
parking stalls and access aisles shall have a maximum slope of 2% in any direction.
b.
When more than one stall for accessible parking is provided, 2 parking spaces can be provided within a
24'-0" (26’-0” at van spaces) wide area striped to provide a 9'-0" wide accessible parking space on each
side and a 6'-0" wide access aisle (8’-0” at van spaces) in between. Accessible parking stalls and access
aisles shall have a maximum slope of 2% in any direction.
c.
Minimum length of each parking stall shall be 18'-0".
d.
A CBC compliant Tow-Away sign with contact information.
e.
Slope for parking stalls, aisles, and path of travel shall be designed for less than maximum slope allowed
by code.
f.
Coordinate location of ducts, piping and equipment to avoid overhead obstructions into the minimum
vertical clearance (8’-0”) along the vehicular route connecting the parking garage entrance to the
accessible spaces, and at the accessible spaces themselves. Coordinate location of ducts, piping and
equipment to avoid obstructing the accessible route, and to avoid protrusions >4” into the protected
zone that are not cane detectable by visually impaired persons.
9.
Percentage of Compact Cars shall conform to Los Angeles City, Department of Building and Safety
Requirements in parking areas or garages containing 10 or more spaces, up to 40% of the total required parking
spaces and 100% of the non-required parking spaces may be compact. Compact-car stalls shall be clearly
marked and appropriate signs installed at all entrances to parking areas.
10.
Provide a wheel stop for each parking stall wherever stalls are head-on to fencing, wall, building, and planting
area or other obstructions.
a.
Wheel stops shall be reinforced precast concrete, 6'-0" long.
b.
Locate wheel stops with a minimum setback of 3'-0" from fences, walls, and buildings.
c.
Straight-line arrangement of wheel stops is preferred.
11.
Placement of speed bumps in parking areas is allowed only in long driveways where it is necessary to protect
pedestrians crossing the aisles.
12.
Secure surface parking areas with an 8’-0” high fence or wall.
13.
Provide aesthetically pleasing perimeter walls, fencing and planting.
14.
Provide lighting levels for surface parking areas that will create a secure environment for nighttime users of
school facilities.
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Book Two General Criteria
C.
1.
2.3 Vehicular Access and Parking
VEHICULAR ACCESS AND PEDESTRIAN SAFETY
Ensure adequate and safe access for students, staff and visitors, walking, entering and circulating on the
campus. Vehicle traffic patterns shall not interfere with major pedestrian traffic patterns. Foot traffic shall not
pass through entrance driveways. Crosswalks must be clearly marked. Refer to the OEHS Traffic and
Pedestrian Safety Requirements for New Schools at the following link:
http://www.laschools.org/employee/design/fs-studies-and-reports/file?file_id=2777980
2.
In general, orient the primary site and building entrance toward the street with the least traffic volume and
activity.
3.
To optimize the traffic flow to and from the school site and to minimize traffic hazards to pedestrians, meet
with representatives of the Los Angeles Department of Transportation (or other local traffic authority) early in
the design process to review the schematic site design.
4.
Provide safe and clearly indicated student drop-off and pick-up provisions by car or bus.
5.
a.
For new schools, provide on-site drive lanes or curb inset lanes for parent and bus drop-off and pick-up
wherever space permits. Comply with ADA requirements for curb drop-off and site access as well as
LAUSD’s Office of Environmental Health and Safety’s (OEHS) “Traffic and Pedestrian Safety
Requirements for New School” requirements.
b.
Provide the parent’s student drop-off area adjacent to the main entry gate.
c.
Locate the main gate in the farthest forward position along the curb to maximize curb space for stacking
vehicles and to allow visual supervision of the greatest number of vehicles.
d.
Provide adequate curb length for expected drop-off and pick-up traffic, with a minimum of 160 feet for
Elementary Schools and 200 feet for Secondary Schools. Use curb cuts and inset drop-off lanes when
site space permits.
e.
Separate parent’s student drop-off and bus loading areas to minimize traffic conflicts and to allow more
effective supervision of waiting areas.
f.
Locate bus drop-off space at a separate secondary entry or from a perpendicular street wherever
possible. Provide adequate safe waiting space for students.
g.
Provide adequate curb length for expected bus parking for drop-off and pick-up, with a minimum of
100 feet for Elementary Schools and 200 feet for Secondary Schools.
h.
Locate bus drop-off areas for special education students in the same area as regular education students
to provide equal access and the least restrictive environment.
i.
Provide curb cuts for accessibility at both bus and automobile loading zones.
j.
Provide appropriate “Passenger Loading” signs at all passenger loading zones.
Delivery and Utility Areas.
a.
Provide vehicular access that does not jeopardize staff and student safety. Separate access from bus and
parent loading areas and parking areas.
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D.
2.3 Vehicular Access and Parking
b.
Delivery and utility vehicles shall have direct access from the street without crossing playgrounds or
fields.
c.
Isolate trash pick-up from student activities.
d.
Design the trash pick-up area for maneuverability to accommodate 35 foot trash trucks. See Standard
Technical Drawings for minimum requirements.
e.
Delivery trucks are approximately 50 feet and need approximately 60 feet of turn radius. Design the
Service Area to accommodate turn around, backing and forward movement of truck.
PARKING STRUCTURE SECURITY
1.
Provide automatic Overhead Coiling Shutters for all parking structure entrances to prevent any unauthorized
access once gates have been closed. Provide Separate Entrance and Exit Shutters with minimum 3’-0” space in
between. Minimum width for each gate shall be 11’-0”. The location of card readers in relation to shutters shall
be designed to provide maximum security and proper gate operations. Adequate room for vehicles should be
allowed for off street access to card reader.
2.
Provide gates that shut immediately following the entrance of each car or pedestrian.
3.
Entrance gate into parking structures shall be activated by Proxy Card Reader pads. Connect entry to
Administration Clerical Offices, Adult School Office, and/or security personnel by 2-way speaking/listening
device (see Section 3.8 “Electrical Communications and AV Systems”).
4.
Locate gate enclosure, motor, safety edge cords, and electrical power supply lines inside the secure garage
structure and so that they are protected from access or vandalism.
5.
Provide bollards to protect garage ventilation ducts, as well as other features, such as doors, gates, card readers,
elevator lobby, etc.
6.
Protect garage electrical, mechanical rooms and elevator lobby by raising 6 inches above garage floor (See
Section 3.7.C.1.c for additional requirements).
7.
Parking structures, whenever possible shall be designed to allow maximum degree of visual surveillance from
outside the structure.
8.
Parking structure design shall avoid creating dark corners or other spaces where assailants may conceal their
presence.
9.
Provide closed circuit television cameras encased for protection against vandalism, to link parking areas to a
monitor in the Administration Clerical Office and in Adult School Office (see Section 3.8 “Electrical
Communications and AV Systems”).
10.
Provide microphones throughout the structure linked to the Administration Clerical Office to monitor noises
in the parking areas.
11.
Provide lighting levels to create a safe environment for users at all times. Photoelectric devices in conjunction
with the lighting control system controller shall control outdoor lighting. Subterranean and covered parking
lighting shall be controlled via the lighting control system.
12.
Provide adequate night lighting throughout the site, especially to and from parking areas.
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2.3 Vehicular Access and Parking
13.
Columns adjacent to parking spaces in parking garages shall be painted yellow or other bright contrasting color
to increase visibility and avoid accidents.
14.
Where subterranean parking is provided, the elevator should ideally come up into the administration area, or
close to it.
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2.3 Vehicular Access and Parking
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Book Two General Criteria
2.4
2.4 Environment and Sustainability
ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY
A.
GENERAL.................................................................................................... 89
Deleted: 93
B.
NEW CONSTRUCTION (NEW SCHOOLS AND NEW BUILDINGS ON
EXISTING CAMPUSES) ................................................................................ 90
Deleted: 4
EXISTING FACILITIES (MODERNIZATION PROJECTS) ................................ 96
Deleted: 100
C.
Deleted: <#>LAUSD RECOMMENDED CHPS POINTS 105¶
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2.4 Environment and Sustainability
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Book Two General Criteria
2.4 Environment and Sustainability
2.4
ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY
A.
GENERAL
1.
LAUSD is committed to sustainable or “high performance” design in all of its schools. A well-designed high
performance school enhances student and teacher performance, reduces operating costs, and protects the
environment. The LAUSD Board of Education recognized these advantages in its October 2003 High
Performance Schools Resolution. The Resolution directs staff to “continue its effort to ensure that every
District new school and modernization project, from the beginning of the design process, incorporate
high performance school criteria to the extent feasible.”
2.
The District endorses the high performance school strategies defined in the Collaborative for High
Performance School (CHPS) Best Practices Manuals, in particular “Volume II, Design,” and “Volume III,
Criteria” (available at www.chps.net).
3.
High performance schools have the following characteristics:
a.
Optimal Lighting & Daylighting: Research has repeatedly shown that students learn 20 to 30% faster
in classrooms that take full advantage of daylight and optimum electric lighting. Daylight and electric
light should be integrated and glare eliminated. Consider skylights and “solar tracking” skylights as a
daylighting source for large spaces, such as gymnasiums, libraries and cafeterias. Lighting should be
"designed," not simply specified.
b.
Healthy Indoor Environment: A healthy indoor environment is essential. According to the
Environmental Protection Agency, indoor air is frequently up to five times more polluted than outside
air. Children are particularly susceptible to indoor pollutants. The key factors are proper ventilation
using outside and filtered air and low-emitting materials such as flooring, ceiling tiles and paint.
c.
Comfort: Classroom comfort includes thermal, visual, and acoustic comfort. Thermal comfort ensures
that students and staff are neither hot nor cold. Visual comfort means lighting that makes visual tasks
easier and visual stimulation and a connection to the out-of-doors through the use of eye level windows.
Acoustic comfort means teachers and students can hear one another because ventilation system and
outdoor and indoor noise are minimized.
d.
Energy Efficiency: Energy efficiency saves money while conserving nonrenewable resources and
reducing pollution. Space conditioning systems should use high efficiency equipment, be "right sized"
for the estimated demand, and include controls that boost system performance. Lighting systems
should use high efficiency lamps and ballasts, optimize the number of light fixtures, incorporate controls
that ensure peak system performance, and successfully integrate electric lighting and daylighting.
Building shells must integrate and optimize insulation, glazing, shading, thermal mass, air leakage, and
light-colored exterior surfaces.
e.
Water Efficiency: Reducing indoor and landscaping water use minimizes the use of this scarce resource
and saves money. Indoor strategies include water efficient toilets, high-efficiency urinals and ultra-low
flush valves, faucets, showerheads and appliances. Landscaping strategies include drought tolerant
plants and water efficient irrigation systems.
f.
Storm Water Management: Minimizing and cleaning stormwater runoff can further reduce water
demand and help clean the Pacific Ocean.
g.
Outdoor Surfaces and Spaces: Where practical schools should incorporate cool roofs, landscaping,
teaching gardens, and high albedo paving materials in order to minimize heat island effects.
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Deleted: non-water
Book Two General Criteria
1)
B.
1.
2.4 Environment and Sustainability
Care must be exercised to minimize glare.
h.
Environmental Materials: Schools should incorporate materials and products that are durable,
nontoxic, grown sustainably, have a high-recycled content, and can easily be recycled. Properly specified
materials that can meet these goals include flooring (linoleum, carpet), ceiling tiles, insulation and
concrete containing fly ash.
i.
Waste Management: Schools should be designed with appropriate spaces for the storage and
collection of recyclables. Construction and demolition waste should be recycled to the maximum extent
feasible.
j.
Easy to Maintain & Operate: Schools should be easy to use and maintain. Surfaces and equipment
should be durable. Teachers should have control over classroom temperature and lighting, and, along
with Maintenance and Operations staff, be trained in their effective use.
k.
Commissioned: Commissioning helps ensure that schools operate as designed. Commissioning tests,
verifies, and fine-tunes key building system performance so that it reaches the highest levels of
efficiency.
l.
Schools That Teach: Permanent educational displays that describe the school’s high performance
features further enhance learning. Schools can be tools that illustrate a wide spectrum of scientific,
mathematic, and social issues. For example, mechanical and lighting systems can illustrate energy use
and conservation, and daylighting systems can help students understand the sun’s daily and yearly
movements.
m.
Community Resource: The most successful schools have a high level of parent and community
involvement. Involvement can be enhanced by designs that facilitate the school’s use for neighborhood
meetings and other community needs.
NEW CONSTRUCTION (NEW SCHOOLS AND NEW BUILDINGS ON EXISTING CAMPUSES)
High Performance School (CHPS) Requirement
a.
All new schools and new occupiable and conditioned buildings on existing campuses shall, at a
minimum qualify as a CHPS project as defined in the version of CHPS “Best Practices Manual Volume
III, Criteria”, applicable at the time the project is submitted to the Division of State Architect (DSA).
(CHPS Volume III is available at www.chps.net) All projects submitted to DSA after January 1, 2014
shall be CHPS verified. Coordinate with Design Manager, Project Manager and District’s CHPS
Coordinator.
b.
The District seeks to meet as many CHPS criteria as economically feasible. Defining characteristics are
listed in Section A.3, above. Some are referenced in this “School Design Guide” as specific LAUSD
requirements for new schools. Others are included in the CHPS Best Practices Manual, “Volume II,
Design” and “Volume III, Criteria.”
c.
The District advocates an integrated "whole building" design approach to maximize the interactive
effects of good practice and the District’s criteria and requirements. Key systems and technologies must
be considered together from the beginning of the design process, at preliminary schematic design and
optimized for long-term performance.
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Deleted: 0
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d.
e.
2.
2.4 Environment and Sustainability
Architect shall coordinate with District to maximize the high performance points from school’s
operation policy, and facilities standards. Architects shall submit a CHPS Scorecard at the following
milestones:
1)
Schematic Design: Forecast of CHPS points anticipated to be achievable supported by project
Basis of Design and preliminary plans.
2)
Design Development: Detailed account of CHPS points achieved in the school design with
supporting references to specific narratives, plans, specifications and cut sheets in the submittal.
3)
Construction Drawings (50%): Detailed account of CHPS points to be achieved in the school
design with supporting references to specific narratives, plans, specifications and cut sheets in the
submittal.
4)
Final Design (100% Construction Drawings): Final accounting of CHPS points achieved
with supporting documentation for each credit pursued and the signature of the registered
project architect.
During the Construction Phase:
1)
The Architect shall have at least two meetings with the District’s Representatives, Contractor and
Inspector to review, confirm and document, that the claimed points have been achieved, as
designed.
2)
After construction completion the Architect shall have at least one meeting with the District’s
representatives to address the CHPS closeout submittal requirements.
3)
Final accounting of CHPS points achieved, including CHPS scorecard and supporting
documentation for each credit with the signature of the registered project architect shall be
submitted at construction completion to District’s Representative.
CHPS Specifics
CHPS Best Practices Manual “Volume III, Criteria” defines many prerequisites and optional credits that
address a wide range of high performance design opportunities. The following topics address key areas of
priority to the District.
a.
b.
Lighting and Daylighting
1)
Electric lighting standards and control requirements are described in the Electrical Power and
Lighting section of this “School Design Guide.”
2)
Adequate daylighting, integrated with electric lighting and controls, is required in all classrooms.
3)
Lighting and daylighting shall be designed and calculated in accordance with the criteria and
examples included in the Southern California Edison “Classroom Lighting Guidelines.” For
daylighting, this approach requires computer analysis – utilizing a CHPS-approved methodology
(see CHPS “Volume III, Criteria, IEQ Credit Daylighting”)
Energy Performance
1)
By integrating the design of all building components to increase energy efficiency, the source
energy requirement of each proposed new school shall be a minimum of 5% better than required
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2.4 Environment and Sustainability
by the California Energy Efficiency Standards (Title 24) in force at the time the project is
submitted to DSA, unless compelling justification is provided to the District for a lower
efficiency. Under no circumstances shall any new school perform less than Title 24 energy
efficiency requirements.
2)
3)
The Design Team shall study the use of renewable energy sources for all new schools and new
buildings on existing campuses. The goal is for 50% - 100% of each new school’s electricity or
new building on existing campus to be provided by on site renewable energy. A feasibility study
shall be submitted by the end of schematic design and shall determine the most cost effective
renewable energy technology or combination of technologies, such as solar (photovoltaic), wind
and solar hot water systems. A percentage weighted value of the school annual electrical energy
consumption calculated for the Title-24 performance compliance approach may be used as the
basis of this study. The percentage value will vary for each building type and will be provided by
the District. The study shall include the following as a minimum:
a)
The description of technologies considered.
b)
A discussion on the feasibility of each technology.
c)
Supporting facts and figures.
d)
Impact on the architecture, structure of the building(s), and site.
The renewable energy system shall be OFOI (Owner Furnished Owner Installed). However,
A&E shall design the infrastructure required to support the selected system.
a)
Photovoltaic: Grid interactive only (no battery backup) system with the following
considerations.
(1)
(2)
Los Angeles Unified School District
Building Considerations: It is recommended that mechanical PV panels be located
on taller buildings with less equipment such as Multi Purpose, Gym, Lunch Shelter
and Classroom Buildings, (if the equipment allows enough space), other structures
such as stair case shelter or covered walkways shall be considered as well. Another
consideration may be displacement of some of the conventional roofing product
with building integrated PV modules, such as roof slates and standing seam metal
roofing products.
(a)
Building orientation to maximize system efficiency.
(b)
Ensure the roof area or other installation site is capable of handling the
desired system size.
(c)
Locate the array to minimize shading from foliage, vent pipes, and adjacent
structures.
(d)
If roof mounted, verify that the roof is capable of handling additional weight
of PV system. Augment roof structure as necessary.
(e)
Roof mounted system shall include considerations for roof maintenance and
access.
(f)
System to be installed on taller buildings or areas where it is not accessible to
students to prevent vandalism.
System Design Consideration:
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: than 10% better
Book Two General Criteria
2.4 Environment and Sustainability
(a)
Specify sunlight and weather resistant materials for all outdoor equipment.
(b)
Design the system in compliance with all applicable building and electrical
codes.
(c)
Design the system with a minimum of electrical losses due to wiring, fuses,
switches and inverters.
(d)
Ensure the design meets local utility interconnection requirements.
(e)
Properly ground the system parts to reduce the threat of shock hazards and
induced surges.
(f)
PV system equipment such as inverters shall be located in appropriate
spaces. Take into consideration the necessity for air conditioning.
i. Avoid roof installation of inverters.
(g)
(3)
b)
Specify equipment that has been approved by the California Energy
Commission and listed in LAUSD standard specifications.
(i)
Refer to 3.7.E for additional requirements.
(j)
The renewable energy system shall be design to meet all state requirements,
codes, utility company incentive programs requirements, and industry
standards.
Site Considerations: The architect shall address the site issues that arise as a result
of the use of PV panels, such as:
(a)
Location: Provide adequate distance to playgrounds to prevent intrusion of
PV structures into these areas, as well as minimize the potential of damage
to panels. Allow access for maintaining PV equipment.
(b)
Historical Value/Architectural Character: Verify and advise if proposed PV
structure will conflict with the historical value or architectural character of
the adjacent buildings. Propose alternate locations or, if possible, design
system in such a way that blends with the existing buildings.
(c)
Land use below the panels: Include necessary changes to drainage, utility
lines, site lighting, landscaping, removal/relocation of trees, paving,
irrigation, circulation, etc., due to the new PV structure and utility line
trenching.
Small Building mounted wind turbines may be a viable option depending on site
location.
Solar Hot Water Systems. (not OFOI, Preferably as part of construction stage)
(1)
Los Angeles Unified School District
(h)
Wind Technology.
(1)
c)
Demand, KWh, KW, VAR, VARS meters shall utilize BACNET
communication protocols. Provide connections between meters, the PV
system and the Energy Management System.
Solar Hot Water Systems should be considered for pool heating as supplement to
natural gas or Heat Pump Heating Systems.
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: this
Book Two General Criteria
c.
d.
e.
2.4 Environment and Sustainability
Acoustics
1)
Analyze the acoustical environment of the site (such as traffic) and the characteristics of planned
building components (such as HVAC), and design to minimally achieve a classroom acoustical
performance of 45 dBA background noise level (unoccupied with HVAC system on) or better
(see CHPS “Volume III, Criteria,” IEQ Prerequisite Minimal Acoustical Performance and Credit
Improved Acoustical Performance).
2)
While the desired performance target of 35 dBA may not be practicably achievable, the Architect
shall explore innovative design options for obtaining its speech cognition goal with wall and
ceiling reflective surfaces, strategically placed absorptive surfaces, and voice reinforcement
systems.
3)
For additional criteria, refer to the District’s “Building Acoustical Requirements”, Section 3.10.
Indoor Air Quality
1)
Appropriate design strategies shall be utilized to ensure healthy indoor air quality (see CHPS
“volume III, Criteria,” IEQ Prerequisite Indoor Air Quality Minimum Requirements).The issues
that shall be addressed include minimum outside air ventilation, HVAC design and air filtration,
and moisture control.
2)
During construction, steps must be taken to provide CHPS-mandated temporary construction
ventilation; dust protection; product preconditioning; sequencing; vacuuming and duct cleaning;
building flush-out; and post-occupancy ventilation (see CHPS “Volume III, Criteria,” IEQ
Prerequisite Indoor Air Quality Minimum Requirements).
Commissioning
1)
The District will provide CHPS-compliant commissioning services for all new school building
construction (see CHPS “Volume III, Criteria, Energy Prerequisite Fundamental Building
Systems Testing and Training and Credit Enhanced Commissioning). The Architect duties
include:
a)
Produce the Basis of Designand assist in the development of the Owner Project
Requirements (OPR).
Deleted: based on the
(1) District’s Project Manager and/or Design Manager shall set up an OPR development
session. Use the District’s standard OPR as basis for the project specific OPR.
Formatted: Indent: Left: 1.5"
b) Assist the District-appointed Commissioning Agent as required.
2)
c)
Incorporate in the Contract Documents the necessary provisions specifying the General
Contractor commissioning-related tasks, including Division 1 to 33 Specification Sections,
Commissioning Plans, and other documents.
d)
Refer to District Standard Commissioning Plan for additional information related to
Architect’s commissioning responsibilities.
The required “Basis for Design” must be complete with all design parameters, assumptions and
criteria (not simply a reference to LAUSD design guidelines).
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
3)
2.4 Environment and Sustainability
The following systems and assemblies will be commissioned:
a)
All equipment and controls of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems.
b) Lighting Controls, including all equipment, light sensors, motion detectors, etc.
c)
Dimming controls and interaction to lighting systems.
d)
Domestic and process water piping and mixing systems.
e)
Energy Management Systems.
f)
Photo-Voltaic Systems.
g)
Irrigation Systems.
h) Acoustical Performance.
i)
f.
Water Efficiency
1)
g.
Building Envelope (Only as directed by District Representative or if code required).
To the maximum extent feasible, incorporate landscaping and interior water efficiency strategies
as listed in Section A3e, above. Develop a water use budget for exterior and ornamental water
use as specified in design Guide Section 3.9.D.1 Planting and Irrigation, Irrigation Design
Requirements (see CHPS “Volume III, Criteria,” Water Prerequisite Create Water Use Budget).
Storm Water Management
1)
Utilize the LAUSD “Post-Construction Storm Water Management Plan” (“BMP Selection White
Paper”), accompanying Check List and Technical Manual (refer to link below) for site planning
for enhanced water quality and for the selection of appropriate Best Management Practices. (See
also CHPS “Volume III, Criteria,” Credits Limit Stormwater Runoff and Treat Stormwater
Runoff.
http://www.laschools.org/employee/design/fs-studies-and-reports/?folder_id=2452126
2)
Comply with State Waterboard post construction water balance calculator:
http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/water_issues/programs/stormwater/docs/construction/pst_cn
strctn071212.pdf
h.
Construction Waste Management
1)
i.
Establish a minimum non-hazardous construction and demolition debris recycling requirement
of 75% by weight as defined in Specification 01 7419, Construction & Demolition Waste
Management (see also CHPS “Volume III, Criteria,” Materials Prerequisite Construction Site
Waste Management).
Materials
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
1)
j.
1.
The Architect shall submit each project to the applicable high performance related incentive
programs.
EXISTING FACILITIES (MODERNIZATION PROJECTS)
Overview
a.
2.
For specific schools or buildings, the District may elect to increase the utilization of CHPS “Best
Practices” – especially those in “Volume III, Criteria” – to improve “green” performance and
obtain incentive funding.
Incentive Programs
1)
C.
Provide at least one permanent education display on the school site that describes the high
performance features that are part of the school’s design (see CHPS “Volume III, Criteria,
Prerequisite Educational Display).
Showcase Schools
1)
l.
To the maximum extent feasible, specify CHPS-compliant low emitting materials (see CHPS Best
Practices Manual “Volume III, Criteria,” IEQ Credit Low-Emitting Materials). On its website,
CHPS maintains a list of low emitting materials.
Educational Displays
1)
k.
2.4 Environment and Sustainability
High performance strategies shall be integrated into all appropriate school modernization and addition
projects. Defining characteristics are listed in Section A.3, above. The strategies detailed in CHPS “Best
Practices Manual Volume II Design” shall be followed. Where appropriate, the CHPS “Best Practices
Manual Volume III Criteria” prerequisites and credits shall be followed. Major modernization, building
expansions and major repair projects as defined in CHPS “Best Practices Manual Volume III Criteria,”
shall qualify as CHPS projects under the CHPS Volume III minimum standards and as defined in
section B.
Specifics
a.
Lighting and Daylighting
1)
b.
When designing classroom lighting and daylighting systems, seek opportunities to incorporate the
criteria and examples included in the Southern California Edison “Classroom Lighting
Guidelines.”
Energy Performance
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
2.4 Environment and Sustainability
1)
To the maximum extent feasible, all relevant projects shall incorporate energy efficiency
measures. Whenever the building envelope (roofs, walls), electrical system, space conditioning or
water heating system is upgraded, opportunities for improving energy efficiency shall be
identified and implemented.
2)
As required by the District, the Design Team shall study the use of renewable energy sources, ad
feasibility of application to the project(s). Unless required otherwise by the District, the goal is for
50%-100% electricity on existing campus to be provided by renewable energy. A feasibility study
shall be submitted by the end of schematic design and shall determine the most cost effective
renewable energy technology or combination of technologies, such as solar (photovoltaic), wind
and solar hot water systems. A percentage weighted value of the school annual electrical energy
consumption calculated for the Title-24 performance compliance approach may be used as the
basis of this study. The percentage value will vary for each building type and will be provided by
the District. The study shall include the following as a minimum:
3)
a)
The description of technologies considered.
b)
A discussion on the feasibility of each technology.
c)
Supporting facts and figures.
d)
Impact on the architecture, structure of the building(s), roofs, and site.
The renewable energy system shall be design to meet all state requirements, codes, utility
company incentive programs requirements, and industry standards.
a)
Photovoltaic (PV): Grid interactive only (no battery backup) system with the following
considerations.
(1)
Building Considerations: It is recommended that mechanical PV panels be located
on buildings with less equipment such as Multi-Purpose, Gym, Lunch Shelter and
Classroom Buildings, (if the equipment allows enough space), other structures such
as stair case shelter or covered walkways shall be considered as well. Another
consideration may be displacement of some of the conventional roofing product
with building integrated PV modules, such as roof slates and standing seam metal
roofing products.
(a)
Building orientation to maximize system efficiency.
(b)
Ensure the roof area or other installation site is capable of handling the
desired system size.
(c)
Locate the array to minimize shading from foliage, vent pipes, and adjacent
structures.
(d)
If roof mounted, verify that the roof is capable of handling additional weight
of PV system. Augment roof structure as necessary. Address any necessary
modifications and alterations to the roof.
i.
(2)
System Design Consideration:
(a)
Los Angeles Unified School District
Roof mounted systems shall include considerations for roof
maintenance and access.
Specify sunlight and weather resistant materials for all outdoor equipment.
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Design Standards Department
Book Two General Criteria
2.4 Environment and Sustainability
(b)
Design the system in compliance with all applicable building and electrical
codes, and industry standards.
(c)
Investigate the existing structural conditions to determine feasibility of
structure to receive the PV panels; reinforce structure as needed. Provide
structural analysis, calculations and construction details for DSA submittal
and approval.
(d)
Locate Inverters and other equipment in appropriate locations. Take into
consideration the room’s conditions, including necessity for air conditioning.
i.
(3)
c.
Avoid roof installation of inverters as much as possible.
(e)
Design the system with a minimum of electrical losses due to wiring, fuses,
switches and inverters.
(f)
Ensure the design meets local utility interconnection
(g)
Properly ground the system parts to reduce the threat of shock hazards and
induced surges.
(h)
Demand, KWh, KW, VAR, VARS meters shall utilize BACNET
communication protocols. Provide connections between meters, the PV
system and the Energy Management System.
requirements.
(i)
Specify equipment that has been approved by the California Energy
Commission and listed in LAUSD standard specifications.
(j)
Refer to 3.7.E for additional requirements.
Site Considerations: The architect shall address the site issues that arise as a result
of the addition of PV panels such as:
(a)
Location: Provide adequate distance to playgrounds to prevent intrusion of
PV structures into these areas, as well as minimize the potential of damage
to panels. Allow access for maintaining PV equipment.
(b)
Historical Value/Architectural Character: Verify and advise if proposed PV
structure will conflict with the historical value or architectural character of
the adjacent buildings. Propose alternate locations or, if possible, design
system in such a way that it blends with the existing buildings.
(c)
Land use below the panels: Include necessary changes to drainage, utility
lines, site lighting, landscaping, removal/relocation of trees, paving,
irrigation, circulation, etc., due to the new PV structure and utility line
trenching.
Acoustics
1)
Incorporate strategies to maximize classroom acoustics in all projects that impact classroom
acoustics, such as space conditioning systems, exterior and interior walls, and floor, ceiling and
wall finishes.
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: this
Book Two General Criteria
d.
Water Efficiency
1)
e.
Establish a minimum non-hazardous construction and demolition debris recycling requirements
of 75% by weight as defined in Specification 01340, Construction & Demolition Waste
Management (see also CHPS “Volume III, Criteria, Materials Prerequisite).
Materials
1)
h.
Utilize the LAUSD “Post-Construction Storm Water Management Plan” (“BMP Selection White
Paper”) and accompanying Check List for site planning for enhanced water quality and for the
selection of appropriate Best Management Practices.
Construction Waste Management
1)
g.
To the maximum extent feasible, incorporate interior and landscaping water efficiency strategies
as identified in Section A3e, above.
Storm Water Management
1)
f.
2.4 Environment and Sustainability
To the maximum extent feasible, specify CHPS-compliant low emitting materials (see CHPS Best
Practices Manual “Volume III, Criteria,” IEQ Credit Low-Emitting Materials). On its website,
CHPS maintains a Low Emitting Materials Table listing compliant materials.
Commissioning
1)
The District will determine which modernization, repairs and expansion projects will be required
to be Commissioning CHPS-compliant (see CHPS “Volume III, Criteria, Energy Prerequisite
Fundamental Building Systems Testing and Training and Credit Enhanced Commissioning).
Contact the District representative for further information. The Architects duties include:
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.88", Hanging: 0.38", Numbered
+ Level: 1 + Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Start at: 1 +
Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 0.75" + Indent at: 1", Tab
stops: 1.25", Left + Not at 1.5"
Deleted: provide
a)
Produce the Basis of Design and assist in the development of the Owner Project
Requirements (OPR).
(1) Design team shall participate in the OPR development session(s). Use the District’s
standard OPR as basis for the creation of a project specific OPR.
b) Assist the District-appointed Commissioning Agent as required.
Incorporate in the Contract Documents the necessary provisions specifying the General
Contractor commissioning-related tasks, including Division 1 to 33 Specification Sections,
Commissioning Plans, and other documents.
d)
Refer to District Standard Commissioning Plan for additional information related to
Architect’s commissioning responsibilities.
2)
The required “Basis for Design” must be complete with all design parameters, assumptions and
criteria (not simply a reference to LAUSD design guidelines).
3)
The following systems and assemblies will be commissioned:
Page | 99
Deleted: The Architect shall assist the District-appointed
Commissioning Agent as required, and incorporate in the Contract
Documents the necessary provisions specifying the General Contractor
commissioning-related tasks, including Division 1 to 33 Specification
Section(s), Commissioning Plans, and other documents.
Deleted: District’s Project Manager and/or Design Manager shall set
up an
c)
Los Angeles Unified School District
Deleted: commissioning services
Design Standards Department
Formatted: Indent: Left: 1.25", Hanging: 0.25", Outline
numbered + Level: 5 + Numbering Style: a, b, c, … + Start
at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 1.1" + Tab after: 1.25"
+ Indent at: 1.25", Tab stops: 1.5", List tab + Not at 1.25"
Book Two General Criteria
2.4 Environment and Sustainability
a)
All equipment and controls of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC)
Systems.
b)
Lighting Controls, including all equipment, light sensors, motion detectors, etc.
c)
Dimming controls and interaction to lighting systems.
d)
Domestic and process water piping and mixing systems.
e)
Energy Management Systems.
f)
Photo-Voltaic Systems.
g)
Irrigation Systems.
h)
Acoustical Performance in educational spaces such as classrooms, laboratories, libraries,
multi-purpose rooms, and the like.
j)
Building Envelope (Only as directed by District Representative).
Deleted: <#>Roof Top Units.¶
Formatted: Indent: Left: 1.25", Hanging: 0.38", Numbered
+ Level: 1 + Numbering Style: a, b, c, … + Start at: 1 +
Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 2.5" + Tab after: 2.75" +
Indent at: 2.75", Tab stops: 1.63", List tab + Not at 2.75"
Deleted: .
i.
Formatted: Indent: Left: 1.25", Numbered + Level: 1 +
Numbering Style: a, b, c, … + Start at: 1 + Alignment: Left +
Aligned at: 2.37" + Indent at: 2.62"
Incentive Programs
1)
The Architect shall submit each project to the applicable high performance related incentive
programs.
Compliance with latest version of the CHPS score card criteria shall be achieved in all new construction and
major modernization and large repair projects. Feasibility and budget availability is a consideration and should
be adequately coordinated between the project’s Design Team, District’s Design Manager, Project Manager,
and the District’s CHPS coordinator. The CHPS score card can be accessed at the following link:
http://www.chps.net/dev/Drupal/node/32
Deleted: D. LAUSD RECOMMENDED CHPS POINTS¶
LAUSD has determined the following categories and points to be
readily achievable in new construction and major modernization
projects. The following table provides a summary of recommended
points. This table is not meant to restrict pursuing other points if they
are feasible for the project. Refer to LAUSD CHPS Score Card for
additional information and requirements. The score card can be
accessed via the following link:
Deleted: and
Deleted: p
Deleted: ¶
http://www.laschools.org/employee/design/fs-studies-andreports/file?file_id=226118933
Deleted: NC
... [1]
Formatted Table
Deleted: * As existing conditions permit or project scope allows.¶
** 50% to 100% energy reduction to be considered.¶
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.6"
Deleted:
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Page Break
Book Three Technical Criteria
Book Three
Technical Criteria
3.1
ARCHITECTURAL ........................................................................................ 103
Deleted: 113
3.2
CIVIL ENGINEERING .................................................................................. 119
Deleted: 129
3.3
STRUCTURAL .............................................................................................. 131
Deleted: 141
3.4
PLUMBING ................................................................................................. 139
Deleted: 149
3.5
FIRE PROTECTION ..................................................................................... 157
Deleted: 169
3.6
HVAC SYSTEMS ......................................................................................... 163
Deleted: 176
3.7
ELECTRICAL POWER AND LIGHTING ......................................................... 191
Deleted: 205
3.8
ELECTRICAL COMMUNICATIONS AND AV SYSTEMS .................................. 227
Deleted: 245
3.9
PLANTING AND IRRIGATION ..................................................................... 277
Deleted: 299
3.10
BUILDING ACOUSTICAL REQUIREMENTS ................................................... 291
Deleted: 313
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.1
3.1 Architectural
ARCHITECTURAL
A.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................105
Deleted: 115
B.
MATERIALS AND FINISHES ........................................................................105
Deleted: 115
C.
MODERNIZATION AND ALTERATIONS....................................................... 115
Deleted: 125
D.
HISTORIC PRESERVATION ......................................................................... 116
Deleted: 127
E.
MURALS AND WALL GRAPHICS .................................................................. 116
Deleted: 127
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
Los Angeles Unified School District
3.1 Architectural
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.1
ARCHITECTURAL
A.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
1.
2.
Architectural Discipline
a.
The architectural personnel must review all sections of the School Design Guide and coordinate the
requirements of the different disciplines. If discrepancies are found, bring them to the attention of the
District’s authorized representative for resolution.
b.
Refer to the District “Guide Specifications” for materials and installations approved by the District.
Unless approved in writing by the District, project specifications shall utilize the District “Guide
Specifications” provided and approved by the District to specify materials, equipment and installations.
The District “Guide Specifications” shall be edited to reflect the conditions and requirements of each
specific project. Refer to section 1.2, Submittal Requirements, J, General Drawings and Specifications
Requirements.
Other Design Disciplines
a.
3.
1.
There are requirements in this section that affect the requirements for the other design disciplines. The
architectural discipline is responsible for the compliance and coordination of all work, the architectural
personnel must assure the full communication of design conditions and requirements to the other
disciplines and be certain the other disciplines are in compliance. (Examples include requirements for
insulation, monolithic single glazing, and room-surface reflectances.) In return, the architectural
personnel must be familiar with the requirements for the other disciplines to be certain their needs are
incorporated into the design. (Examples include amply sized relief air openings at each classroom, fireprotection measures where ducts or raceways penetrate fire-resistive walls, protective enclosures for
exposed valve assemblies or control devices, and location of large noise-generating equipment remotely
from classrooms.)
Seismic Bracing and Anchorage
a.
B.
3.1 Architectural
Assure provision of seismic restraints, anchorage or bracing, for all casework, display cases, equipment,
signage, or special finish materials (e.g., suspended ceilings), including Owner Furnished items, in
accordance with requirements of the California Building Code.
MATERIALS AND FINISHES
General
a.
Materials shall be sustainable, affordable, durable, aesthetically pleasing, and require minimal cleaning
and maintenance.
b.
Avoid complicated special details.
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
2.
3.
4.
3.1 Architectural
c.
Use standard systems and materials in standard sizes produced and readily available from manufacturers
based in the United States.
d.
Use vandal-resistant and graffiti-resistant materials and finishes.
e.
Provide non-slip surfaces for all exterior paths of travel and for interior floor areas specifically subject to
wetting.
f.
Building features (such as grilles, pipes, ducts, or similar elements) that are accessible to vandalism shall
be finished to blend with the building exterior to avoid creating attractive targets.
g.
When more than one item of material or equipment are specified (as in “three or more manufacturers”),
provide adequate facilities and coordination to assure that all spaces are sized to accommodate any item
specified and that structural, mechanical and electrical elements will provide adequate support to any of
the items.
h.
Avoid materials and details with sharp, jagged edges and rough textures, especially near entrances and
circulation pathways. Finishes of surfaces within vandalism reach shall be paintable.
i.
Intumescent paint may not be used unless approved by the District. Do not use Intumescent paint
where it is accessible or susceptible to vandalism. Vandalism such as scraping, graffiti, etc. can
compromise integrity of Intumescent paint and become a maintenance problem.
j.
EIFS (Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems) may not be used unless approved by the District. If
approved, high impact products must be used where accessible or susceptible to vandalism.
Site Elements
a.
Provide one 35’-0” high flagpole at each school, with one-story buildings or 50’-0” high flagpole at each
school with two-story buildings or higher.
b.
If flag pole is located in the landscaped area, a concrete pad around the pole and access to it shall be
provided.
c.
Show location and provide details for school signage and electronic display marquee. Keep signs above
Students’ reach.
Concrete
a.
Provide vapor barriers for slabs on grade throughout building. Refer to Guide Specification section 03
3000, Cast-in-Place Concrete. Refer to Thermal and Moisture Protection, paragraph 6g below for
additional information.
b.
Provide adequate control and expansion joints for walkways, curbs, retaining walls, etc.
Metals
a.
Typical handrails are constructed of 1-1/2 inch diameter metal pipe. Exterior handrails and guardrails
are to be unpainted galvanized steel pipe. Handrails may be powder coated provided they are designed
in a manner that will not require field welding installation. Interior handrails and guardrails may be
powder coated steel, aluminum or stainless steel. Galvanized steel may be used on interiors, provided no
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.1 Architectural
field welds are used. Handrails shall be designed in such a way, or have skate deterrent devices installed,
to deter skateboarders or students from sliding down them while maintaining ADA handrail
requirements.
b.
Use 12- to 14- gage galvanized steel or extruded aluminum for exterior louvers, 16-gage for interior.
c.
Use galvanized chain link fencing and gates for all fencing except for main entries, or special public
exposures where more decorative fencing would be appropriate (with District approval).
d.
Do not use metal siding in areas less than ten feet above grade where it might be vandalized by graffiti,
damaged by impact, or subject to heat gain that could cause injury to students or staff.
e.
5.
6.
Guardrails:
1)
The California Building Code requires guardrails at unenclosed floor and roof openings, open
and glazed sides of stairways and ramps, balconies or porches, which are more than 30 inches
above grade or floor below. Roofs used for other than service of the building shall be protected
by guardrails.
2)
The Code states that the top of the guardrails shall not be less than 42 inches in height. However,
the architect should determine the appropriate height necessary to provide security for the
students particularly in high traffic areas such as stair landings that serve a large volume of
students or where a turn in direction is required.
3)
Roof areas, service areas or other buildings areas that would be accessible to students by climbing
over a guard, must be protected by an appropriate barrier that will prevent students from
accessing these areas.
4)
Typical guardrails are constructed of 1-1/2 inch diameter galvanized metal pipe (as describe in
the CBC). Flat top rails wider than 2 inches that might encourage sitting or placement of books
or other objects should not be used. Guardrails that are placed on curbs must be designed so that
the curb cannot be used as a step by students.
5)
Guardrails must be designed to resist kicking and other abuse. Open guardrails shall have
intermediate rails or an ornamental pattern such that a sphere 4 inches in diameter cannot pass
through. Intermediate rails and ornamental patterns should be designed so that they do not
provide a “ladder” for students to climb on. Vertical pickets spaced 4 inches on center, a metal
mesh material that complies with the CBC, or a low wall should be installed.
f.
All exterior exposed steel, including structural members, shall be galvanized.
g.
Refer to 3.3, Structural Engineering, for finishes of structural steel.
Wood
a.
Do not use wood trims, fascias, moldings, etc. except for Existing Facilities projects where it is
necessary to match existing.
b.
Specify grade and finish for all exposed wood to minimize maintenance where wood is being specified.
c.
For additional information on finish carpentry and architectural woodwork, see, Guide Specifications.
Thermal & Moisture Protection
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Book Three Technical Criteria
7.
3.1 Architectural
a.
Slope roofs at a minimum of 1/2" per foot to roof drains. Clearly show drainage patterns and
elevations on roof and discharge areas.
b.
Use roofing material meeting UL requirements for Class "A" fire rating.
c.
The roof system shall meet the FM 1-90 wind uplifting rating.
d.
Roof system shall meet the “Cool Roof” certification requirements outlined in the California Energy
Code Section 10-113.
Formatted: Font: 10 pt
e.
Avoid the use of pitch pans for roof penetration flashing. All roof types have specific details for all types
of roof penetrations. Consult with manufacturer for specific details.
Deleted: 118
f.
All roof penetrations including, but not limited to; equipment platforms plumbing vents and base
flashings are to be a minimum of 8” above the finished roof level.
g.
At concrete floor slabs on grade provide a vapor barrier of Polyolefin based 15 mils minimum thickness,
meeting ASTM E1745, 10 feet minimum width with taped or sealed joints. For moisture sensitive
flooring materials, such as VCT, linoleum, wood, carpet, tile, etc., the American Concrete Institute
recommends that concrete slabs be poured directly over vapor barriers, set over sand, refer to ACI
302.1R-04. It is not recommended that concrete slabs for moisture sensitive floorings be poured
directly over sand fill, since wet or saturated fill above the vapor retarder can significantly increase the
time required for a slab to dry to levels required by the manufacturers of floor covering and adhesives.
Fill shall consist of minimum 2 inches of sand over 4 inches of select gravel, or as indicated on the
“Geotechnical Report. Refer to 3.3, E, Structural, for engineering considerations.
h.
Do not use interior downspouts and gutters without District authorization.
i.
Do not project downspouts into pedestrian areas.
j.
Direct downspouts into planting areas or other site elements that will reduce or slow storm-water runoff
from the site. Special attention shall be given to planter details to divert the water away from the
building and the building’s foundation.
k.
On structures with sloped roofs, provide gutters, downspouts and other associated accessories as
required to facilitate efficient water runoff and ensure adequate drainage.
l.
Avoid running conduit and piping on the roof. Where it is unavoidable, the length shall be minimized
and shall be detailed appropriately to accommodate roof replacement. All conduits on roof should be
braced on lightweight blocks. Do not use wood blocks since they hold moisture, which will seep to roof
membrane.
Doors and Entryways
a.
Door swings shall not overlap, conflict or otherwise interfere with use of adjacent doors or other areas
requiring access.
b.
Door stops shall be provided for all doors. Doors and stops (within 4” of wall face) shall be located at
least half of the door width away from the hinges in order to prevent racking of the door frame.
c.
Locate doors to accommodate swing, however, if the door swing is less than 180°, a wing wall or other
architectural element shall be designed to eliminate trip hazards created by the door stop.
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: criteria, as
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.1 Architectural
d.
Exterior doors shall be out-swinging and protected by a covered walk or canopy with appropriate roof
drainage.
e.
All exterior entrances shall be designed to allow safe access during stormy weather (rain, hail, ice, etc.) by
providing a non-slip, code-compliant, sloped-for-drainage walking surface.
f.
Exterior balcony entryways:
1)
Provide security at entries to balconies to prevent unauthorized access when school is closed.
2)
Provide slopes and drainage means for washing down of balconies.
g.
At all major or frequently used entries, including doorways directly from the outdoors to any habitable
school room, provide walk-off mats to reduce the amount of dirt, dust, pollen and other particles
entering the building. Walk-off mats shall be securely adhered to the floor.
h.
Configure major entry approaches to channel foot traffic away from dirt and grass areas for at least the
last fifteen to twenty feet prior to entering the building.
i.
Do not provide glazed openings in exterior doors, unless glass light is adequately protected with a
security screen.
j.
Provide concrete slab or equivalent surfacing outside of all exterior doors, of width sufficient to take
doorstop when door is opened 180 degrees against building wall.
k.
Door frames and cased openings shall be hollow metal.
l.
Use solid-core wood doors at interior and overhead-protected exterior openings, except where fireratings require hollow-metal doors. Do not use hollow-metal doors for classroom doors in one-hour
fire-rated walls.
m.
Use insulated hollow-metal steel doors at unprotected or minimally protected exterior openings, and
where fire-protection rating requires them.
n.
Use paint-grade doors, except in areas of low abuse with special design conditions (administration areas,
for example) where stain-grade may be used.
o.
Double doors at building exteriors shall have a removable center jamb for more secure engagement of
the locking mechanism.
p.
Interior double doors should not have a removable center jamb.
q.
Panic hardware on wood doors shall be surface mounted with no bottom rod.
r.
Plan doors to avoid interference with drinking fountains, downspouts, light fixtures, walk ramps, and
other components or equipment.
s.
Do not locate exterior doors adjacent to windows or window areas that can be broken to provide access
to door hardware.
t.
Provide bug sweeps on doors to food preparation areas.
u.
Do not use electric door openers for ADA accessibility without prior District approval in writing.
v.
The District “Guide Specification” for finish hardware is extremely comprehensive and must be edited
carefully by an experienced hardware specifier for each project. Contact the District authorized
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.1 Architectural
representative to obtain the manufacturer of the lockset cylinder that will be furnished by the District
for each project.
w.
8.
For parking structure doors see Section 2.3 - D “Parking Structure Security”.
Windows and Openings
a.
Windows shall be aluminum or steel.
b.
Use of Hollow-Metal (HM) windows is not acceptable for exterior use due to District’s experience with
HM window leaks. HM windows are acceptable in interior applications only.
c.
Windows preferably shall be double-hung, single-hung, or projection type.
d.
Projection and casement windows shall not intrude into circulation areas to cause a hazard.
e.
Provide a minimum of one operable 30"-wide window in each classroom that can be used both for
emergency ventilation and for emergency egress. This window shall have a minimum clearance opening
of 6 square feet. Maximum sill height for egress window shall be 44 inches above interior finish floor.
Emergency exit windows shall not be projecting type. Where security grille is not required, emergency
windows could be a breakable or removable tempered glass identified as emergency egress window,
provided the ventilation requirements are met. Refer to Guide Specification section 10 1400, for signage
requirements.
f.
Provide roof-top anchors to support window-washing equipment for washing of windows above the
second floor, unless it can be demonstrated that windows can be safely washed from inside or via an
extension ladder. They must be provided for buildings higher than four stories or 48 feet above exterior
grade (Title 8, General Industrial Safety Order).
g.
In all schools, the minimum window sill height shall be 3’-0” above floor for classrooms located above
first floor.
h.
Do not use large glazed openings. Whenever glazed openings are used the maximum thickness shall be
1”. Insulation glass and shall not exceed 18 square feet, and 150 pounds for a single piece of glass.
Approximate weight of insulating glass is 8 pounds per square feet.
i.
Security: All windows accessible from the exterior shall have special security measures to prevent
building access by breaking glass and entering through the window or by reaching door or window
hardware. Accessible windows include any windows with bottom sills less than ten feet above grade,
balconies, roofs with any portion lower than ten feet, or other access points.
1)
All panels of security screen shall be operable to allow window cleaning. One of the security
screen panels should coincide with the window emergency egress.
2)
Operable windows with latching mechanism shall be protected to prevent vandalism and
entering.
j.
Do not locate windows or sidelights within reach of door hardware.
k.
Glazing: To optimize both daylighting and energy conservation, use monolithic ¼ -inch glass with a
Visible Light Transmittance (VLT) of approximately 65% and a Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) of
approximately 0.50. (These glasses typically have a blue-green tint.) Other glazing combinations may be
considered by the District if they can be justified with life-cycle cost and energy savings. Glass color is
limited to: arctic blue, solex, light gray 14, light gray 31, solar cool bronze, and standard gray.
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: district’s
Deleted: ¼”.
Deleted: i
Deleted: 48”x72”
Book Three Technical Criteria
9.
3.1 Architectural
l.
Storefronts: Avoid the use of storefront type window systems where they are susceptible to vandalism.
Consider in the design locations for required signage.
m.
Do not use insulating glass (dual- or triple-glazed) without life-cycle-cost and energy-saving justification
and District approval. The maintenance cost for replacement is excessive.
n.
If justified by acoustic considerations, laminated glass may be used. Do not use thermal insulating dual
glazing for noise abatement – it doesn’t work. Special acoustical glazing may be used where needed and
must be designed by an Acoustical Consultant.
o.
For daylight factor required in classrooms see Section 2.4, “Environment and Sustainability” of this
guide. To achieve specified daylight factor, it may require both high windows and interior and/or
exterior light shelves (to reflect daylight onto the ceiling and to block direct sunlight on desktops).
Exterior light shelves must be designed to prevent bird roosting.
p.
Stops shall be removable only from interior using vandal proof screws. Exterior stops shall be integral
with frame.
q.
Insect screens must be installed on all operable windows in food preparation areas.
r.
For light control, provide room-darkening venetian blinds on all classroom windows, multi-purpose,
library and other spaces with windows to be used for video presentations Provide motor operated blinds
or shades for high windows and clerestory windows.
s.
For most classroom HVAC systems, a large, louvered air-relief opening must be provided in the exterior
wall of each classroom (and sometimes a smaller outside air intake opening). These openings must be
recognized, and incorporated into the design of the façade. (Ducting classroom air relief to exhaust fans
is not acceptable, both for energy efficiency and acoustical reasons.)
Acoustical Ceilings
a.
Sound absorption provided by ceilings is the major provider of reverberation control in classrooms and
other spaces. In addition, ceilings provide a major part of the illumination in classrooms and other
spaces with indirect lighting. These factors influenced the selection of the following criteria, and must
be recognized in the design of instructional spaces.
b.
In most classrooms, 90% to 100% of the area has a suspended acoustical ceiling. The ceiling tiles in
classroom ceilings shall have the following characteristics:
1)
Noise Reduction Coefficient (NRC): 0.70.
2)
Light Reflectance: 0.83.
c.
In classrooms that do not have suspended acoustical ceilings, provide equivalent sound absorption by
other means.
d.
Suspended Ceiling Construction:
1)
Provide seismic bracing for all suspended ceiling grid components and lighting fixtures.
2)
Provide adequate clearance for all beams, piping, cable trays, ducts, and fixtures located above
suspended ceilings.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
10.
3.1 Architectural
3)
Provide adequate clearance for maintenance and repair of utility system components and support
elements located above suspended ceilings.
4)
Ceiling tiles that provide access to serviceable equipment shall be appropriately marked with a tab
or other indicator.
5)
All wiring above ceilings must be in raceways, except that low-voltage wiring may be supported
by hangers in an organized manner – not on the ceiling grid.
Finishes
a.
Exterior stucco, concrete block, or similar finishes that are accessible from grade or are otherwise
graffiti-susceptible shall be painted to match integrally colored stucco and separated by control joints so
that each area does not exceed 144 s.f., per the Plastering Institute’s, Technical Services Information
Bureau recommendation. Also, so that each area can be easily repainted to cover graffiti and that slight
differences in paint color will not look patched. Plaster finish shall not be heavily textured. Light to
medium dash or fine sand float are preferred. Very smooth, steel trowelled finish is not permitted. CBC
accessibility regulations require that wall surface adjacent to handrails be free of sharp or abrasive
elements.
b.
Integral color and split face block shall not be located in vandalism prone areas.
c.
Exposed, painted or stained concrete is not allowed as floor finish in classrooms or kitchen areas.
d.
Provide carpet appropriately only at administration and library areas.
e.
Provide ceramic tile floors and wainscots at student’s restrooms. Ceramic tiles shall be extended up to
the ceiling in Middle School and High School boys and girls restrooms. In Elementary Schools the
wainscot shall be extended to the top of partitions. Staff restrooms shall have a 6” tile base.
f.
Provide quarry tile floors set on mortar bed and base throughout food service areas. Thin set quarry tile
is acceptable for kitchen modernizations.
g.
Stairways, corridors and other high abuse areas shall be provided with abuse and impact resistant
gypsum board.
h.
For ceilings over 10'-0" in height, lay-in acoustical panel tiles shall be limited in size to 4 square feet (2’ x
2’).
i.
Provide clips for acoustical ceiling panels. Do not use acoustical tile in restrooms, locker rooms and
stairways.
j.
For flooring in instructional areas and corridors, use medium color and tone (light colors are difficult to
maintain).
k.
To comply with the District’s lighting standards, provide reflectance values of 83% for ceilings, 60% for
walls, and 20% for floors.
l.
Provide gypsum panel sheathing substrate for installation of exterior Portland Cement Plaster, except
where plywood sheathing is being used for structural reasons.
m.
Provide 4’-0” high ceramic tile wainscot on walls adjacent to the sink in the hopper room.
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: In
Deleted: finished with drywall,
Book Three Technical Criteria
11.
12.
3.1 Architectural
n.
Ceramic floor tiles shall be set on mortar bed. Thin set ceramic floor tile is acceptable for
modernization of restrooms at existing buildings. Ceramic tiles in restroom walls may be installed on
cementitious backer board, however, in wet areas (such as showers) the ceramic tile walls shall be
installed on mortar bed.
o.
Shower Rooms – Walls shall be ceramic tile over full grout bed. Ceiling shall be ceramic tile or cement
plaster with smooth finish.
p.
Locker Rooms – Walls shall be CMU, cement plaster, ceramic tile or high impact / abuse resistant
gypsum board. High impact / abuse resistant gypsum board only needs to be in exposed areas and not
behind lockers.
q.
Locker Rooms - Floor shall be concrete with non-slip, non abrasive finish with hardening, sealing and
dustproofing compound.
Colors
a.
Color selection needs to take into consideration community sensitivities, gang presence, etc.
b.
Because the classroom becomes a background for the display of students' work, color schemes should
be simple and minimal.
c.
In general, limit the number of interior paint colors to six for smaller schools. In individual classrooms,
limit the number of different paint colors to two, and the number of different classroom color schemes
to two or three.
d.
When using bold colors, limit them to trim or accent features.
e.
In selecting colors of factory-finished items, such as folding partitions, folding tables, benches, lockers,
etc., use reasonably neutral colors to allow flexibility for future color-scheme changes.
f.
Ceilings, in general, shall be white, and especially in classrooms, restrooms, and similar rooms.
g.
Paint color changes should utilize natural breaks such as reveals.
h.
Use gloss paint for bathrooms and kitchen areas, and semi-gloss for classrooms and corridors.
Specialties
a.
Casework shall conform to the Architectural Woodwork Standards adopted by Woodwork Institute
(WI).
b.
In display cases, avoid large glass sizes at hazardous locations, or glass below 3'-0". Display case doors
shall be laminated glass without frames and provided with locks. Provide illumination of display cases.
c.
Ensure that mirror heights are proper height for various areas and grade levels.
d.
Provide a large directory board with map at or near main entry. Show layout of buildings, offices and
special facilities in order to orient school visitors.
e.
At all building entries provide walk-off mats as Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) measure to reduce source
pollution. Walk-off mats shall be securely adhered to the floor.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
13.
3.1 Architectural
f.
Provide full height stainless steel corner guards to protect corner edges of interior corridors, stairways
and high abuse areas.
g.
Dimensions for knee clearance in counter-mounted sinks with cabinet doors concealing the accessible
knee space must account for protrusions of surface mounted hinges and cabinet latches, where they
occur.
h.
Provide locks on all cabinet doors and drawers.
Roof Access
a.
Unless accessible by stair, provide a permanent ladder to the roof from an interior space such as a
mechanical, custodial, or other space which is not accessible to students. The ladder should not interfere
with the operation of the space nor reduce its required square footage.
Deleted: s
Exception–Existing Facilities: A permanent ladder to the roof is to be provided if the proposed project
scope will be replacing/installing rooftop mounted equipment requiring service access and the existing
roof height exceeds the current CMC maximum roof height requirement.
Deleted: .
Deleted:
Deleted: s
Deleted: L
Deleted: all
b.
14.
Exterior ladders are not acceptable.
Deleted:
1) Exception: Un utilized to provide access from one roof level to another.
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.73", Hanging: 0.15", No bullets
or numbering
2) Existing Facilities: An exterior ladder may be allowed, if providing roof access from an interior space
is deemed cost prohibitive or will have an adverse impact to the use/function of an existing space, or
there is a lack of space. A written request for deviation from design standards will need to be
submitted.
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", Hanging: 0.38"
Deleted: ,
Formatted
Deleted:
Deleted: u
Conveying Systems
Deleted: less they are
a.
Elevators shall comply with Access Compliance requirements and be located centrally and adjacent to
main building entry, as practical, to minimize the travel distance to disabled persons.
b.
Except as required for the elevator itself, no electrical, plumbing, or mechanical items shall be housed in
elevator shaft, pit, or machine room or pass through these spaces to serve any other part of the building.
No hatches or access panels to reach or serve other areas of the building shall be located in the elevator
shaft, pit or machine room.
Deleted: .
Deleted: Excepti
Formatted
c.
Design pit to prevent water from entering through walls or floor.
d.
In pits over 36" in depth, a permanently installed galvanized steel ladder is required per ASME A17-1.
e.
Machine room-less elevators should not be used since they can only be serviced by the installing
company.
f.
Holeless elevators should not be used. If water table is high use traction elevators. At locations where
an in-ground ram cannot be installed use a rope-hydraulic or traction elevators for 4 stops or less.
g.
Provide an access card reader at each hoistway opening per Guide Specification section 28 1343, Access
Control Identification Management System. Hoistway access switches are not acceptable.
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: on–
Deleted: ¶
Deleted: ..
Book Three Technical Criteria
15.
C.
1.
2.
3.
4.
3.1 Architectural
Fall Protection
a.
Design fall protection systems as required by code and CAL OSHA to eliminate fall hazard.
b.
Protection system shall include but not limited to stair floor openings, ladder floor opening, roof hatch,
skylights, etc.
c.
Consider solutions for normal maintenance tasks on canopies, lunch shelters, covered walks, and the
like.
MODERNIZATIONS AND ALTERATIONS
General
a.
In all work at existing facilities, it is critical to visit the Site and to assess existing conditions. Field verify
accuracy of any Record Documents or As-Built Documents, to the extent possible, prior to
commencing the work.
b.
Refer to the asbestos and/or lead reports. When planning work at existing sites the architect shall be
aware of the potential presence of asbestos and lead. Work in such areas require coordination with the
District’s authorized representative.
One Hour Corridor Requirements
a.
In major alteration projects to existing schools, exit corridors must be brought into compliance with
current code requirements for one-hour construction.
b.
Existing wood door frames may remain in corridors with automatic fire sprinkler systems. If fire
sprinklers are not used, replace wood frames with hollow metal frames designed so that rough opening
does not have to be reframed. Door opening may have to be widened to meet ADA requirements.
Exit Stairs
a.
Interior stairways serving three or more floors shall be enclosed in one-hour fire rated construction.
b.
Existing open exterior stairs shall be reviewed with DSA to develop acceptable methods of compliance.
c.
Fire sprinkler systems for the entire building may be an acceptable substitute for stair enclosure.
New Suspended Ceilings
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
5.
a.
Where new suspended ceilings are provided in existing corridors or classrooms, the method of
installation must be clearly detailed and acceptable to DSA.
b.
If the existing ceiling is part of one-hour fire resistive construction, penetrations or partial removal must
maintain one-hour construction.
c.
Verify that existing construction will support new ceiling and lighting fixtures.
d.
Provide structural support for all new ducts, piping and air conditioning equipment.
Coring or Saw-Cutting Existing Concrete and Masonry
a.
6.
D.
1.
E.
3.1 Architectural
Responsible structural engineer shall approve locations of core holes or saw-cut openings in walls or
floors of existing concrete or masonry structures for alteration work, air conditioning ducts, fire
sprinkler piping, or other work.
Air Conditioning Units Above New Ceilings
a.
Where air conditioning units are concealed above new ceilings, provide adequate service access.
b.
Coordinate size, location and type of access panel(s) with the location and service requirements of air
conditioning unit specified.
c.
Access for filter replacement or other frequent service, should be hinged panels or lay-in material less
subject to damage than acoustical ceiling panels, such as perforated metal panels. (Occasional access
may be through acoustical lay-in panels in a suspended T-bar grid ceiling.)
HISTORIC PRESERVATION
General
a.
Retain and preserve the historic character of a building, structure or site.
b.
Distinctive architectural features or examples of skilled craftsmanship that characterize a building shall
be treated with sensitivity.
c.
Reinforcement required for structural stability or the installation of life safety or mechanical systems
shall be concealed.
d.
Surface cleaning of historic structures shall be undertaken with the gentlest means possible. Avoid
sandblasting and chemical treatments.
e.
Copy
of
the
report
identifying
historical
sites
can
be
found
http://www.laschools.org/employee/design/fs-studies-and-reports/file?file_id=1895944
at:
MURALS AND WALL GRAPHICS
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
1.
2.
3.1 Architectural
Location
a.
Art work design and graphic medium shall be appropriate for its location. Size of the art work and
viewing distance shall be considered.
b.
Art work and its location shall not negatively impact building components required by code such as
signage, fire alarm devices, fire extinguisher cabinets, etc. and other non-code required components.
c.
Graphic material shall be appropriate for indoors or outdoors. Outdoor graphics shall consider sun
exposure, wind, rain, dust, etc.
Artwork
a.
Design shall be simple and convey the message of its intent, easy to maintain and vandal resistant as
possible. Design shall be appropriate in size and material.
b.
Artwork can be painted or made of vinyl material. Selection shall be based on complexity of design, size,
location and the surface material to receive the art work. Vinyl graphics should be located out of reach
of students.
c.
Area to receive the art work shall be inspected by the designer prior to design of the graphics. All items
on the location to receive the art work shall be identified and their impact on the art work studied.
Provide detailed interior elevations and isometric drawings to clearly illustrate graphics. Indicate on
elevations how to finish around fire alarm devices, switches, etc. Devices such as signage (provided sign
can be readable) shall be temporarily removed and reinstalled over the graphic.
d.
Avoid placing vinyl art work on or around projections such as doors and door frames, fire extinguisher
cabinets, etc. as these situations provide delaminating opportunities.
e.
Branding for SLC projects shall be of durable cast aluminum or plastic medallions that can be affixed to
the walls. They shall be installed at an appropriate height to minimize vandalism.
f.
Provide artwork in vector format (Files. ai or .eps). All typesetting should be done in Illustrator or
InDesign; include all fonts and links or convert all fonts to outlines.
Deleted: Files .
Deleted: Indesign
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.6", Hanging: 0.15", No bullets
or numbering
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3.1 Architectural
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Book Three Technical Criteria
3.2
3.2 Civil Engineering
CIVIL ENGINEERING
A.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................ 121
Deleted: 131
B.
DEMOLITION............................................................................................. 121
Deleted: 131
C.
GRADING ................................................................................................... 122
Deleted: 132
D.
PAVING .................................................................................................... 123
Deleted: 133
E.
STORM AND SANITARY DRAINAGE.............................................................124
Deleted: 134
F.
WATER DISTRIBUTION ..............................................................................127
Deleted: 138
G.
OFF-SITE CHECKLIST ................................................................................129
Deleted: 139
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3.2 Civil Engineering
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.2
CIVIL ENGINEERING
A.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
3.2 Civil Engineering
1.
The civil-engineering site design and documents must realistically implement the provisions of the overall site
design, integrating the requirements of buildings, walls and fences; grading and paving; storm-water
management; utilities (including gas, electrical and communication network distribution locations); earth and
soil requirements (including compaction, modification, topsoil, and mitigation of hazardous ground
conditions); as well as all offsite work related to the project, including streets, driveways, walks, utilities
connections, and other off-site development.
2.
All such work shall be clearly delineated, located and dimensioned (horizontally and vertically) to the
appropriate site reference, as part of the work of this discipline, and all utilities points-of-connection (POC)
clearly shown and located..
3.
Work shall be performed and systems installed in accordance with the current California Building Code (CBC –
part of California Code of Regulations, Title 24), California Plumbing Code, District “Guide Specifications,”
other chapters of this “School Design Guide,” and District Standard Technical Drawings. Coordinate
especially with utilities criteria of chapter “3.4 Plumbing.”
4.
The District will provide the Architect-Engineer with a current site boundary and topographic survey, with
encroachments, and including adjoining streets and properties and on-site and public utilities line locations,
sizes and elevations. Other site plans or site information that may exist is available in the District office for
consultants’ research. The Architect must visit the site to verify the indicated information and to obtain
information not indicated on the drawings.
5.
Off-site work or work within easements shall be designed in accordance with the requirements of the agency
having jurisdiction. The work shall be shown as part of the construction documentation and shall include all
project-related off-site improvements, such as curb cuts, turnout lanes, signage, utilities connections, and all
other such work.
6.
Refer also to sections of this “School Design Guide” on Plumbing, Fire Protection, and Planting and Irrigation.
7.
Do not locate any abrupt grade changes, manholes, meters, yard boxes, etc. on or near playfields and
playgrounds to avoid any potential hazard to students.
8.
For fencing and gates refer to section 2.2, Site Design.
B.
DEMOLITION
1.
Demolition work for new sites must be documented as a separate contract item, with a separate and complete
package of bidding and contract documents.
2.
Coordinate any demolition or relocation of existing improvements, such as fences, walls, structures, etc., that
are encroaching into the District property, with the District representative who will obtain necessary permits
from adjacent property owners.
3.
Provide temporary fencing to secure property boundaries wherever work might breach closure of adjacent
property.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.2 Civil Engineering
4.
Investigate existing conditions to assure that full extent of demolition work is included, especially with regard
to sub-surface conditions such as concrete paving overlain with asphalt, building basements, foundations of
demolished buildings, and utilities lines. If existing data is insufficient, request pot-holing, underground utility
survey, or other investigation from the District.
5.
Clearly identify and define in the demolition documents all existing site features (structures, walls, fencing,
walks, pavements, site utilities, plants, terrain, etc.) that are (1) to remain, with defined protection measures, and
(2) to be removed, with the required disposition and responsibilities for removal and/or relocation.
C.
GRADING
1.
For ease in staking and construction, grade with uniform planes (not warped surfaces) and minimize grade
changes.
2.
Slope all areas for drainage. Slope walks, stairways, ramps, and other surfaces away from buildings.
3.
Slope planes for drainage typically between 1% and 2% with 1.5% considered optimum.
4.
Other slope standards are:
a.
Between building areas, 1.5% - 2.0%.
b.
Within play areas, 2% maximum, with 1% considered optimum.
c.
Entrance walks and ramps (along accessible route): Do not design to maximum allowable slope
requirements, thus risking potential non-compliant as built conditions. However, if the space allows,
reduce slope as much as possible, or design grading and slope to avoid the need for ramp.
1)
5.
Handrails with landing extensions are required at ramps.
d.
Driveways: 15%, with vertical curves of 10 feet at top and 5 feet at bottom of ramp.
e.
Slope along sliding gate: 2% maximum, for chain link gates. Steel and wrought iron gates shall be set no
more than 1/2% slope.
f.
Walks, porches, study terraces, etc.: Cross fall of 1% to 2% maximum.
g.
Door landings, paved lunch areas, and similar areas:
accommodate tables and benches.
h.
Agricultural Areas: 1/2 % minimum.
i.
Asphalt paving flow lines: 0.75%. If less, use concrete gutter flow line with minimum slope of 0.4%
(do not use in striped play areas).
½% to 2% maximum.
Shape planes to
Slope play fields and play areas as follows (see also District standards for playfields):
a.
Turf or lawn areas: 1/2% minimum, 2% maximum, 3/4% optimum.
b.
Concrete tennis courts: 0.83% to 1% maximum, in one plane only, preferably from side to side.
c.
Handball courts: 0.5% to 1% maximum, in one plane only (when necessary).
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
6.
7.
D.
3.2 Civil Engineering
d.
Infield of High School baseball and softball diamonds: 1/2% maximum. Baseball pitcher's mound:
10" above home plate.
e.
Track and Field Areas: Maximum inclination for tracks, runways, circles, and landing areas for throwing
events: not over 1:100 in a lateral direction and 1:1000 in the running or throwing direction. For high
jump: not over 1:250 in the direction of the center of the crossbar. See IAAF Rules for other track
dimensions and information.
Slope banks as follows:
a.
Planted banks 2H to 1V (50%) maximum.
b.
Paved and gunite banks 2 to 1 (50%) maximum with special exceptions permitted.
c.
Lawn areas 15% maximum.
At playground areas provide protective fencing and an 18-inch minimum shoulder at tops of banks sloping
steeper than 10%.
PAVING
1.
Provide paving, base and sub-base preparation as recommended by the Geotechnical Engineer. Refer to
District “Standard Technical Drawings.”
2.
Paving minimum standards include:
a.
Playgrounds (new construction): 2 inches asphaltic concrete over 4 inches select base course.
b.
Playgrounds (resurfacing): 2 inches asphaltic concrete over 3 inches select base.
c.
Service Roads: 4 inches asphaltic concrete over 4 inches select base.
d.
Parking Area: 3 inches asphaltic concrete over 4 inches select base.
e.
Trash Pick-up Area: 6 inches reinforced concrete over 4 inches select base.
f.
Sidewalks: 4 inches unreinforced concrete.
g.
Banks: 2 inches asphaltic concrete over compacted sub-grade.
3.
Provide for the special paving requirements of bus-loading zones, truck loading and dock areas, trash pick-up
areas, and fire lanes.
4.
Pave parkways and narrow strips adjacent to sidewalks at property lines as concrete sidewalks.
5.
Separate asphalt paving from planting or turf areas with a reinforced concrete mowing strip minimum 6” by 8.”
6.
Provide driveway approaches in accordance with commercial driveway requirements of the local governing
jurisdiction, with minimum width of 20 feet.
7.
Provide integral curb and 2'-0" gutter on service roads within bus unloading area.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.2 Civil Engineering
8.
Provide paving of full width and turning area needed for all delivery trucks and trash pick-up vehicles. Also,
check width of drive aprons providing access to these areas. Provide turn around area for vehicles, if required.
9.
Provide 4-inch wide striping for parking stalls and other roadway markings. Mark fire lanes in accordance with
the local Fire Marshal’s requirements. See District’s “Standard Technical Drawings” for parking layouts.
10.
Provide ramps for sweepers and mowers to reach raised areas.
11.
Lunch shelter area and arcade shall be concrete.
12.
Walkways shall be concrete, interlocking concrete pavers or permeable interlocking concrete pavers (where
soils are suitable to percolation per Geotechnical Report).
13.
Pervious concrete paving is acceptable at parking stalls areas only, not driveways, and provided soils are suitable
to percolation and parking is not adjacent to dirt areas that can cause plugging of surface.
14.
Permeable interlocking concrete may be used when soils have a minimum percolation rate of 0.5 inches per
hour, and meet the following requirements:
E.
1.
a.
Soils have no potential of liquefaction.
b.
Minimum distance of 10 feet to a building, structure, property line, water table or significant slope.
STORM AND SANITARY DRAINAGE
Design
a.
2.
Design site for maximum retention of storm water run-off, within the general limits of other design
guidelines, code requirements and Technical Manual (http://www.laschools.org/employee/design/fsstudies-and-reports/?folder_id=2452126). Use surface drainage to the maximum extent reasonable. See
District’s Post Construction Storm Water Management Plan (BMP Selection White Paper) and
accompanying Check List for guidance. See “Section 3.4, Plumbing” of this School Design Guide for
additional criteria.
Storm Water Mitigation
a.
Projects exposed to storm water runoff with disturbed soil over 1 acre, or parking lots of 5,000 square
feet or more, or with 25 or more parking spaces shall be designed to meet the intent of the Low Impact
requirements for Los Angeles County and the State Waterboards and cities having jurisdiction.
b.
Regulatory Requirements:
1)
State Waterboard Requirements and Needed Documentation:
a)
Los Angeles Unified School District
Post Construction Water Balance Calculator: Design shall meet at least the minimum
requirements. Copy of Post Construction Water Balance Calculator shall be provided to
Contractor. Include PCWBC as Attachment B of Specification Section 33 4000, Storm
Drainage Utilities. An excel sheet with the water balance calculator is available at
waterboard website
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
b)
2)
3.2 Civil Engineering
Post Construction BMPs: Design post construction BMPs to reduce or eliminate
pollutants in storm water discharges using the Stormwater technical manual. Develop a
maintenance schedule for BMPs installed during construction. Include maintenance
schedule for BMPs as Attachment "A" of Specification Section 33 4000, Storm Drainage
Utilities.
LA County requirements:
a)
Applicable County LID requirements are listed in County Ordinance Chapter VI,
Provisions, Section D, 7, b, of ORDER NO. R4-2012-0175, NPDES NO. CAS004001,
“Waste Discharge Requirements for Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4)
Discharges within the Coastal Watersheds of Los Angeles County”. Refer to link below
for document pdf.:
http://www.swrcb.ca.gov/rwqcb4/water_issues/programs/stormwater/municipal/la_ms
4/2012/Order%20R4-2012-0175%20-%20A%20Final%20Order%20revised.pdf
b)
3)
Additional LID requirements:
a)
c.
Additional LID requirements and ordinances for various cities and jurisdictions can be
found at:
http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/rwqcb4/water_issues/programs/stormwater/municipal/
lid_and_greenst/index.shtml
Additional Documentation for construction:
1)
3.
Mitigation measures can be found in the LA Region MS4 Permit, Order No. R4-20120175, mitigation measures include infiltration of runoff before it reaches the storm drain
system, treatment of runoff to remove oil and petroleum hydrocarbons before it enters
the storm drain system, and control of peak flow discharge to provide stream channel
protection. For provision of these measures, plans, calculations, and maintenance
requirements must be included in the Design Development phase, and details of the
mitigation facilities included in the Construction Documents including the documents
needed for SWPPP.
The Guide Specifications lists three specification sections for water pollution prevention: 01-7416
Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan, 01 7417 BMP Implementation Plan and 01 17418 Water
Pollution Control. These sections should be used as based on total land disturbance, and
whether CHPS or LEED points are being pursued. The total area should include project,
stockpile and staging areas for all projects that are part of the same development. For detailed
submittal requirements see chapter 4.8, Submittal Requirements Civil, 100% CD.
a)
Section 01 7416, SWPPP, shall be used on sites required by the authority having
jurisdiction.
b)
Section 01 7417, BMP Implementation Plan, should be used on sites where storm
drainage or LIDs are designed, but the site does not qualify for a full SWPPP by the
authority having jurisdiction.
c)
Section 01 7418. Water Pollution Control, shall be used on all projects where sections 01
7416 or 01 7417 are not used.
Sanitary Sewers:
Los Angeles Unified School District
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.25", Hanging: 0.25", Outline
numbered + Level: 2 + Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Aligned
at: 0.2" + Tab after: 0.16" + Indent at: 0.16"
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
b.
4.
5.
3.2 Civil Engineering
For sanitary sewers show fixture units at building and street points of connection. Size sewer lines per
code prescriptions, or provide hydraulic calculations.
Surface Drainage:
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.25", Hanging: 0.25", Outline
numbered + Level: 2 + Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Aligned
at: 0.2" + Tab after: 0.16" + Indent at: 0.16"
a.
Direct sheet flow from paved areas onto planted areas.
b.
Direct roof downspouts into planting areas (via splash blocks) where feasible, onto paved surfaces only
when the flow does not adversely affect pedestrian traffic.
c.
Locate flow lines to avoid concentrations on pedestrian walks.
d.
Locate flow lines to avoid sand boxes, tree wells, playground equipment and other objects that might
obstruct drainage flow and cause ponding.
e.
Do not drain from planting areas across paved areas.
f.
Do not drain over public sidewalks. Avoid concentrated flow over driveways and pedestrian walkways.
g.
Do not drain over planted or unpaved banks.
h.
Do not drain through or over roofed areas, electric or communication vaults, walk-off mats, or other
similar functional areas.
i.
Intercept off-site drainage to prevent it from flowing across site.
j.
At interior courts or sump areas near buildings, provide for surface overflow from the court that is 3
inches or more below finished floor elevations to avoid flooding if catch basins are blocked.
Catch Basins, Floor Drains and Culverts:
a.
Select catch basin grate to withstand the load to which it will be subjected; otherwise use lightweight
grates and frames. Grate openings: Minimum opening ¼” to ½ inch maximum.
b.
Offset a catch basin from main storm drain line to minimize its size and depth, and to minimize
blockage of system (i.e., no in-line “flow-thru” type catch basins).
c.
Use cast-in-place or precast concrete catch basins.
d.
Maximum depth of catch basin: 30 inches, unless specific project approval given in writing by the
District.
e.
Use rectangular cast-iron or fiber-cement pipe culverts under walks in place of formed concrete
structures. Provide minimum 4-inch thick concrete encasement, but with 2 ½ inch cover under walks.
Calculate size for flow.
f.
Do not locate catch basins in the middle of play yards, pedestrian pathways, close to playground
equipment or large trees.
g.
Use trench drains only when required; for example, at parking structure entrances.
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Design Standards Department
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.25", Hanging: 0.25", Outline
numbered + Level: 2 + Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Aligned
at: 0.2" + Tab after: 0.16" + Indent at: 0.16"
Book Three Technical Criteria
6.
F.
3.2 Civil Engineering
h.
In trash-disposal areas and open lunch areas, provide floor drain and sediment buckets to collect storm
and wash-down water. Locate drain next to hose bibb and provide dual drainage, with a diverter valve to
flush wash-down water to sanitary drain and storm water to storm drain. (See District “Standard
Technical Drawing.”)
i.
In covered lunch shelters, provide floor drains with no trap primers.
j.
Avoid locating drains and swales in the accessible parking areas and path of travel. If this is unavoidable,
the grates shall be oriented 90 degrees to the direction of travel, or should be multi-directional if there is
no predominant direction of travel.
Underground Drainage:
a.
Storm drain pipe shall be concrete (CP), reinforced concrete (RCP), ductile iron (DIP), cast iron (CIP),
or high-density polyethylene (HDPEP).
b.
Design drainage structures and piping systems based on hydrologic and hydraulic calculations, with
minimum flow velocity of 3 feet per second.
c.
Provide capped stub-outs for drains in new construction to accommodate future construction based on
the Master Plan.
d.
With less than 1'-0" of cover over top of pipe encase pipe in concrete or use iron pipe.
e.
With less than 1'-0" of cover over top of pipe in vehicular traffic areas and in asphalt paved areas encase
pipe in concrete, reinforced as necessary to support imposed loads.
f.
Food waste drainage from wash-down in lunch shelters must flow into sanitary sewer. Rainwater from
roof covering lunch shelter must flow into storm drain system. Site drainage shall be designed such that,
the flowing site drainage water does not run through the lunch shelter and the outdoor eating areas.
g.
Drain trash enclosure through pipe to storm drain system and to sanitary sewer (using dual drainage
valve system described above).
h.
Install cleanouts at maximum spacing of 100 feet in straight runs and at each aggregate change of
direction exceeding 135 degrees. A catch basin may substitute. Install cleanouts in yard boxes.
i.
Where transition is made from round pipe to rectangular pipe, provide cleanout hand hole or manhole
for maintenance purposes.
j.
Depths of sanitary sewer lines below finished grade shall be not less than 12 inches and not less than 6
feet at property lines, or as required by agency having jurisdiction. (Use greater depth if service to future
buildings should require it.)
WATER DISTRIBUTION
1.
Meter Protection
a.
An approved reduced pressure principal backflow assembly shall be installed at service connection to
any domestic, fire, or irrigation services.
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Design Standards Department
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.25", Hanging: 0.25", Outline
numbered + Level: 2 + Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Aligned
at: 0.2" + Tab after: 0.16" + Indent at: 0.16"
Book Three Technical Criteria
b.
2.
3.
3.2 Civil Engineering
All schools located in Los Angeles Water & Power service area shall comply with the requirements of
water service rule 16-D.
Water Service:
a.
At new facilities, provide one meter each for domestic water, fire-protection water, and irrigation water
service. (See “Plumbing” and “Planting and Irrigation” sections of this guide book for gas piping and
other related criteria.)
b.
Contact water supplier for main, pressure and flow information.
c.
Meter locations must be approved by the District and the water supplier. Indicate meter locations at
curb.
d.
For domestic water services that require any of the following component devices: Service Control (shut
off) valve, strainers, pressure reducing valves, backflow prevention assemblies, etc., said devices shall be
installed as follows: Group component devices into a dual (parallel) configuration to avoid service
interruptions during testing and servicing of devices. Devices shall be designed and installed in an above
ground, compact, low profile and serviceable valve station.
e.
Meter assembly and details must conform to District “Standard Technical Drawings.”
Piping and Design
a.
Provide a water-load schedule for each meter including existing, new and future load in fixture units and
gpm. Coordinate with the plumbing engineer.
b.
Provide hydraulic calculations for water distribution system. Show water demand and residual pressure
at building and street point of connection.
c.
Where pressure-reducing valves are required, coordinate location with plumbing engineer and with the
District.
d.
On domestic water service provide tandem installations of pressure regulators, backflow preventers and
strainers, to avoid shut-down during testing and servicing of equipment. See Standard Technical
Drawings.
e.
Provide thrust blocks and ties for bell-and-spigot piping.
f.
Before specifying piping, review corrosivity of soil with the District’s soils report to verify appropriate
pipe material selection.
g.
Wherever pipe-and-valve assemblies are exposed above grade, provide a secure locked enclosure to
protect them from unauthorized use or vandalism. These may be walls, fences, or manufactured
enclosures that are made for this purpose.
h.
Reclaimed water system shall be designed per Purple Pipe Manual and comply with the local
jurisdictional requirements. Approval shall be acquired from the same agency prior to installation. Refer
to the following link for the Purple Pipe Manual: http://www.laschools.org/employee/design/fsstudies-and-reports/?folder_id=226546964
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
G.
1.
3.2 Civil Engineering
OFF-SITE CHECKLIST
“Checklist of Off-Site Work, Utilities & Easements” – See Section 4.7 for the list. This list is comprehensive;
however, there might be other site specific issues that have to be addressed, such as “specific community plan”,
landscaping, etc.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
Los Angeles Unified School District
3.2 Civil Engineering
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.3
3.3 Structural Engineering
STRUCTURAL
A.
General Requirements ..............................................................................133
Deleted: 143
B.
Design Criteria ......................................................................................... 133
Deleted: 143
C.
Building Systems ...................................................................................... 134
Deleted: 144
D.
Concrete and Masonry Structures ............................................................134
Deleted: 144
E.
Foundations and Concrete or Masonry on Earth ....................................135
Deleted: 145
F.
Steel Structures .........................................................................................136
Deleted: 146
G.
Wood Framed Structures ..........................................................................137
Deleted: 147
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Book Three Technical Criteria
Los Angeles Unified School District
3.3 Structural Engineering
Page | 132
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.3
STRUCTURAL
A.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
3.3 Structural Engineering
1.
The design for structural safety of school buildings in California is governed by the requirements of the Field
Act beginning in Section 17280 of the Education Code and the California Building Code, Title 24.
2.
The structural engineer shall be responsible for the design, or review of designs, of connections to the basic
structure of such building elements as veneer materials, window walls and steel-stud assemblies, decorative
block screens, mechanical and electrical equipment and components, library shelving, and similar items.
3.
Testing and Inspection (T&I) shall meet the requirements of Title 24. After plans are approved by DSA,
submit one copy of the DSA Tests and Inspection List to the District’s authorized representative.
4.
Assure that provisions are made for seismic anchorage or bracing of all building elements and equipment,
including Owner Furnished equipment.
B.
1.
DESIGN CRITERIA
Codes:
a.
2.
The governing building code for structural design is the current edition of the California Building Code
(CBC -- part of the CCR, Title 24, California Building Standards Code), with modifications by the
Division of the State Architect/ Structural Safety Section (DSA/SS) for school design and construction.
Design Criteria:
a.
The requirements of the California Building Code and DSA shall govern except where specifically
defined below.
b.
Deflection: Maximum allowable deflection for structural members shall be that defined in the CBC,
except as follows:
1)
To reduce long-term deflection and cracking of finished surfaces, where floor members of
engineered-wood support floor finishes of ceramic tile, terrazzo, or similar materials, maximum
deflection shall be limited to l/540.
c.
Roof design loads shall provide for the weight of one re-roofing if the roofing designed can be re-roofed
without removing the original roofing.
d.
Indicate on plans key design criteria used, including Code edition, seismic design factors, and soil profile
type.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
C.
3.3 Structural Engineering
BUILDING SYSTEMS
1.
The following criteria and suggestions reflect policies and preferences of the District derived from experience
with economy and durability. Exceptions may be made with justification and specific authorization of the
District’s Project Manager.
2.
The structures of all buildings, including non-bearing partitions, shall be of incombustible materials. Wood
structures may be acceptable for one-and two-story primary and elementary schools and additions, but with
special permission in writing from the District.
3.
Three-story and higher school buildings, and all middle and high school buildings, shall be steel framed with
floors of concrete on metal deck supported by composite beams, or of reinforced concrete. The lateral force
resisting system should be the most effective structural systems allowed by code.
4.
Gyms and auditoriums preferably should have masonry or concrete walls and steel-framed roofs with steel
decking without concrete fill.
D.
CONCRETE AND MASONRY STRUCTURES
1.
Use a minimum concrete ultimate compressive strength of 3000 psi at 28 days.
2.
Concrete mix design must comply with CBC and ACI 318.
3.
Specify size of aggregate and slump. Use 1-inch or ¾-inch minimum aggregate size, with smaller sizes only in
very special cases.
4.
Control cracks in concrete by joints, construction joint separations, and other means.
5.
Avoid thin sections or projections that may crack off when forms are removed. Chamfer column corners,
exposed corners and edges.
6.
Provide typical construction joint locations for concrete beams, joists, and slabs.
7.
Provide expansion joints, control joints and seismic-movement joints as required by the design, indicate their
locations and details on drawings, and coordinate with architectural enclosures and finishes.
8.
Joints must be weather tight and provide lateral stability across the joint.
9.
Where a concrete beam is monolithic with a concrete wall and negative beam reinforcing steel is embedded in
the wall, include a detail that shows the preferred pour line and alerts the contractor not to pour wall without
negative reinforcing in place.
10.
Indicate openings, depressions and curbs on structural floor and roof plans. Curbs must be a minimum of 5″
wide if located under walls. Coordinate depressions in slab for wheelchair lifts, if in the scope of project.
11.
Maintain a full depth of slab under depressions for ceramic tile, electric ducts, or other construction.
12.
Provide a typical column drawing indicating bar maximum slopes, locations of splices, and reglets for shearwall reinforcing.
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.3 Structural Engineering
13.
When setting a rail post use non-shrink grout or equivalent (“Por-Rok” but not sulfur). Provide a #4 bar on
each side of post in concrete.
14.
If wood or steel studs are used in concrete buildings, indicate clear relationship between “face of concrete” and
“face of studs”.
15.
In masonry walls, base dimensions on modular size of the unit.
16.
In concrete masonry walls, fill all cells except on free-standing site walls retaining no earth. Avoid bars larger
than #8.
17.
Clearly show the minimum concrete cover required for the intended fire protection rating.
E.
FOUNDATIONS AND CONCRETE OR MASONRY ON EARTH
1.
The structural engineer shall visit the site and visually confirm the existing conditions as represented on the
survey and geotechnical report. (Include the geotechnical engineer’s name and report date on drawings.).
2.
Provide special recommendations for dealing with expansive soils beneath the structure.
3.
Foundations of buildings must not be partly on fill and partly on natural grade. Make clear on drawings all
areas of fill.
4.
Show bottom of footing elevations on foundation plan, including building walls, columns, flagpoles, lighting
structures, retaining walls, etc.
5.
Provide structural elevations and details of all retaining walls and site walls over 3′-6″ high showing bottoms of
footings, steps, joints, sleeves and drainage. Footings may be sloped 5% maximum to avoid steps.
6.
For building walls that retain earth, use a minimum thickness of 10 inches and provide waterproofing and
drainage outside the walls. Coordinate structural design with waterproofing and sub-drain design to assure
water resistance.
7.
Retaining walls higher than 12 feet as measured from the top of the foundation shall be designed to resist the
additional earth pressure caused by seismic ground shaking.
8.
Floor slabs on grade shall be 5-inch thick minimum reinforced with #4 bars @ 24″ on center each way.
9.
For floor slabs on grade provide a vapor barrier. See “3.1 Architectural” section for requirements. When slab
is poured directly over vapor barrier, design and detail slab considering potential shrinkage, settlement cracking,
curling and other stresses, as indicated in ACI 302.1-R-4 or current version.
10.
Utilities trenches that impact foundations shall be recognized in design and shown on structural drawings.
Backfill trenches below footings with controlled compacted fill or, if not more than three-feet deep, with lean
concrete.
11.
Requirements of the paragraphs on “Concrete and Masonry Structures” also apply.
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: .c.
Book Three Technical Criteria
F.
3.3 Structural Engineering
STEEL STRUCTURES
1.
Provide top-of-steel elevations at each column and change of level on structural drawings for ease of reference
by steel detailers and erectors.
2.
For exterior steel work specify sections with a thickness of ¼” or greater.
3.
Indicate required camber on all tapered steel girders and steel trusses.
4.
Keep steel floor beams to L/d equal to or less than 24.
5.
Provide erection bracing for tapered girders. Web thickness for all built-up sections shall be at least 3/16".
Provide flange to web welds to comply with AISC Specification. Use stiffener plate welded to top flange and
to web where ridge occurs.
6.
Comply with maximum width-to-thickness ratio requirements of AISC for projecting elements under
compression. Apply requirements to railing parts.
7.
Field weld or use cadmium plated counter-sunk flat head machine screws, to prevent warping in galvanizing
bath.
8.
Specify cost effective size, length and type of welds. Use standard weld symbols and consider fillet welds where
adequate.
9.
Make groove welds "full penetration" on structural welds such as tapered girder flanges.
10.
On welded assemblies to be hot-dip galvanized, avoid shop welding large areas, such as stair platforms, to
prevent warping in galvanizing bath. Field weld and retouch galvanizing, or use cadmium plated counter-sunk
flat head machine screws for field assembly.
11.
Do not support steel members with wood columns.
12.
Provide means of leveling for base plates, such as double nuts on anchor bolts.
13.
Avoid steel joists. (Because of DSA’s special testing and inspection requirements, most steel joist fabricators
will not bid DSA jobs.)
14.
If Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel (AESS) is used, clearly identify the AESS members on the structural
drawings.
15.
Structural steel members shall be primed, except for:
a.
Exterior exposed surfaces, which shall be galvanized.
b.
Steel members to be fireproofed.
c.
Surfaces that will be field welded.
d.
Surfaces that will be in contact with concrete.
e.
Surfaces to be fastened with high strength bolts.
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
G.
3.3 Structural Engineering
WOOD-FRAMED STRUCTURES
1.
Provide camber in structural members in accordance with DSA requirements. Use a stiffer member in
preference to using excessive camber.
2.
No horizontal member depth to thickness ratio shall exceed 7.
3.
Bottoms of sills on exterior foundation walls shall be not less than 12" above finished grade.
4.
Standardize hold down bolt sizes.
5.
Structural I plywood is preferred. Use at least CD Grade with exterior-type glue.
6.
Provide drawings of wall elevations to indicate typical framing. Provide special framing elevations where large
openings occur, where columns pass through wall plates, or where framing is otherwise complex.
7.
Provide complete roof framing plans showing walls. Clearly indicate corner framing and slope of roof.
8.
Stud walls or partitions around shower or toilet rooms with more than two fixtures, and stud walls adjacent to
exterior ground or paved areas, shall bear on concrete curbs extending at least 6" above finished floor or
paving level. (Curbs and sills must meet DSA’s special curb requirements.)
9.
On wood-joist floors, provide 2"-thick concrete fill, 6” curbs, and a floor drain on the floor of heater rooms
using gas-fired boilers.
10.
Use nominal 6" wide studs for walls with the exception of non-bearing walls with no piping.
11.
Clearly indicate connection of vertical shear elements to diaphragms. Be sure these shear elements do not
produce a high concentration of stress over a small length.
12.
Where pipes pass through top plates, provide a detail on both structural and plumbing drawings.
13.
Use minimum 1/2" thick plywood for roof sheathing. Indicate stagger of panels required for horizontal
diaphragms.
14.
Standardize on one or a few bolt sizes. Do not permit a mixture of several tie-down bolts because they can be
too easily mixed on the job.
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
Los Angeles Unified School District
3.3 Structural Engineering
Page | 138
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.4
3.4 Plumbing
PLUMBING
A.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................ 141
Deleted: 151
B.
Sewer Systems........................................................................................... 142
Deleted: 153
C.
Water Systems........................................................................................... 147
Deleted: 157
D.
Hot Water Systems ...................................................................................148
Deleted: 158
E.
Water Valves and Other Devices ..............................................................150
Deleted: 161
F.
Gas Distribution Systems .........................................................................153
Deleted: 164
G.
Seismic Restraints .................................................................................... 155
Deleted: 166
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
Los Angeles Unified School District
3.4 Plumbing
Page | 140
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.4
PLUMBING
A.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
1.
3.4 Plumbing
Plumbing systems shall be installed in accordance with the current California Building Code and Plumbing
Code (CBC – part of California Code of Regulations Title 24), and California Green Building Code as well as
CCR Titles 19 and 8, District Guide Specifications; applicable chapters of this School Design Guide, and
District Standard Technical Drawings.
2.
Design systems to be simple, durable, easy to operate and maintain, with ready accessibility for servicing,
maintenance and replacement, all in a manner that will avoid interruption of educational schedules during
working hours.
3.
Contact each utility supplier to determine the requirements for the most cost effective service connection.
Provide separate meters for domestic, fire and irrigation water supplies. See Section 3.2 - “Civil Engineering”
of this Design Guide for additional information relevant to the work of this section.
4.
Fixtures must comply with State water conservation guidelines and standards, including maximum flow as
follows:
5.
a.
Water Closets: 1.28 gpf.
b.
Urinals: 1/8 gpf or non-water type.
c.
Lavatory Faucets: 0.5 gpm.
d.
Showers: 2.0 gpm.
e.
Kitchen Sink Faucets: 2.0 gpm.
Provide in all student restrooms the following features to reduce maintenance, conserve water and
minimize student tampering:
1)
Shut-off valve for all fixtures in each restroom, located above the upper terminal water closet and
behind a locked access panel.
2)
Water-saving battery-operated infrared-sensored flush valves, with manual override on all water
closets (absolutely no hardwire applications permitted). Infrared sensors must be mounted and
adjusted at heights and distances appropriate to the grade level and student height to insure
automatic actuation. Manual valves shall be used on high vandalism areas as determined by the
District.
3)
Push-button, ADA-metered, self-closing faucets on lavatories.
4)
Hose-bibb with vacuum breaker in recessed box with locking cover.
5)
Floor drains with trap primers with floors sloped to drain.
6)
Clean-outs above all urinals, lavatories, and water closets (above upper terminal water closet
when there is more than one).
Los Angeles Unified School District
Deleted:
Deleted: N
Student Restrooms:
a.
Deleted: other
Page | 141
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
b.
Architectural drawings shall clearly identify the specific age group applicable to each restroom, and at
each classroom with accessible sink(s).
1)
6.
3.4 Plumbing
Accessible features shown on plumbing drawings shall be coordinated with age appropriate areas
shown on the architectural drawings.
Faculty and Visitor Restrooms:
a.
Provide in all faculty / adult restrooms the following features to reduce maintenance and conserve
water:
1)
Shut-off valve for all fixtures in each restroom, located above the upper terminal water closet and
behind a locked (but not keyed) access panel.
2)
Floor drains with trap primers with floors sloped to drain.
3)
Clean-outs above all urinals, lavatories, and water closets (above upper terminal water closet
when there is more than one).
7.
Conceal and properly secure all piping behind building finishes. Exception may be made in equipment and
custodial rooms and CMU or concrete construction. Where necessarily exposed in renovation projects, paint
all piping and insulate hot water and condensate piping.
8.
All lavatories shall be Cast Iron with acid resistant backed on enamel finish. Vitreous China units are
prohibited.
9.
All lavatories shall have three (3) holes 4 inches center set faucets. Single-hole configuration is not allowed.
10.
Access Panel – Plumbing access panels shall have the same fire rating as the wall, ceiling, or surface they are
installed upon. Identify and call out rated panels as such on construction documents.
11.
Underground Cleanouts – Underground waste piping in every 100’ or within a 90 degree or greater change in
direction, shall provide a cleanout to grade (Within practical reason).
12.
Hopper Sinks – All service and custodial sinks shall be Cast Iron with baked on enamel finish. No other type
will be accepted. Faucet to be provided with an atmospheric vacuum breaker.
13.
Urinals:
a.
b.
Urinals shall be high-efficiency (1/8 gallon per flush or non-water type). Obtain written approval for the
use of non-water urinals from the District’s Maintenance and Operations Plumbing Technical
Supervisor, prior to the start of design.
If approved, non-water type urinals shall be equipped with a water supply roughed-in to the urinal
location that would allow a subsequent replacement of the non-water type urinal with a water supplied
type urinal. Size the water distribution and fixture supply piping to accommodate the potential (future)
water supplied urinal(s). The supply shall be stubbed out of wall with a chrome plated brass flange and
chrome plated brass I.P.S. cap. Install at least one (1) water supplied fixture upstream of the drain line
serving the non-water type urinals as required by the CPC.
Deleted: either non-water type or low consumption (
Deleted: ) type
Deleted: Exception–Existing Facilities: Low flush urinals, 1/8 gallon
per flush, shall be used for urinal replacement(s) at existing schools¶
Deleted: N
Deleted: and
Deleted: U
Deleted: Make provisions for
Deleted: sized
Deleted: Obtain approval for the use of non-water urinals from
District’s Maintenance and Operations Plumbing Supervisor prior to
start of design.
B.
Deleted: Low flush urinals, 1/8 gallon, shall be used for urinal
replacement at existing schools only.¶
SEWER SYSTEMS
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.88"
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
1.
Industrial Wastewater Permits
a.
2.
4.
Industrial Wastewater Permits must be obtained from the City of Los Angeles Department of Public
Works, Bureau of Sanitation, Industrial Waste Management Division, in accordance with the Los
Angeles Industrial Waste Control Ordinance for all schools. A permit is required for each point of
discharge to the City’s sewer system. (For other jurisdictions the local ordinances must be addressed,
but the standards required by Los Angeles shall be the minimum standard for all LAUSD schools.
Sewer Lines
a.
3.
3.4 Plumbing
Specify cast iron soil pipe at all following locations:
1)
Within the building and 5'-0" outside the building line.
2)
Running parallel to and within 2'-0" of any building or structure.
3)
Within 20'-0" of any tree centerline.
4)
Not less than 1'-0" below finished grade.
b.
Provide clean-outs above all urinals, lavatories, upper terminal water closets, and sinks.
c.
Provide cleanouts to grade in yard box at:
1)
Upper terminal cleanout within 5 feet of building line connection.
2)
Every 100 feet or change of direction over 90 degrees.
3)
At property line connection.
4)
Do not provide cleanouts overhead in subterranean parking lots. They are neither manageable
nor accessible for use.
d.
Provide uniform slope of 1/4" fall per foot whenever possible, but never less than 1/8" per foot.
e.
Indicate invert elevations of new sewer lines at buildings, changes in direction, locations where sewer
lines join and at property lines. Indicate sizes of existing utility lines on the plans.
Private Disposal Systems
a.
When private disposal systems are required and programmed, verify requirements with the local health
authorities and obtain written approval.
b.
Clearly define the extent and locations of system elements.
Science Classrooms, Flexible Classrooms and Prep Room/Work Room Wastes:
a.
All science, chemistry, flexible science classrooms and science prep/workrooms shall have chemical
waste piping.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
5.
b.
These are defined as chemical or industrial liquid wastes that are likely to damage the public sanitary
sewer system or increase its maintenance cost, or detrimentally affect sewage treatment, or contaminate
surface or subsurface waters. They shall be pre-treated to render them innocuous prior to discharge to
the sewer system unless an approved Best Management Practices program is in effect at the school.
c.
Provide an independent waste drainage system to an approved Sampling box at the exterior of the
building for plumbing fixtures in laboratories and associated workrooms which could receive corrosive
chemical waste.
d.
Condensate drains from HVAC equipment shall not be connected to any portion of science classroom
acid waste drainage system.
e.
Piping for this system shall be of corrosion-resistant material as specified in the Guide Specifications –
either Type 316L stainless steel (Above Ground Only) or Los Angeles City Test Laboratory-approved
CPVC that does not require wrapping pipe in plenums or Polypropylene.
f.
Based on the Guide Specifications and an approved Best Management Practice (BMP). Do not provide
a pretreatment neutralizing tank for Science Laboratory waste. However, provide an easily accessible
exterior sampling box, together with accommodations for future addition of a neutralization system,
before connection to the public sewer.
g.
No chemical vent shall interconnect with vents of other Plumbing Systems.
h.
Details shall meet the requirements of the Los Angeles City Bureau of Sanitation (see “Industrial Waste
Permits” above).
Deleted: g
Food Service Establishments (FSE’s) Waste:
a.
Cafeterias shall comply with the City of Los Angeles’ Fats, Oil and Grease (FOG) Control Program.
Consult and obtain approval of Bureau of Sanitation’s (BOS) approval.
b.
Grease interceptors shall comply with the City of Los Angeles’ Plumbing Code, and must be provided
for all grease-producing equipment. Three (3) compartment sinks, all hand sinks, floor drains, floor
sinks, prep sinks and mop sinks within the kitchen preparation area are to be tied to the grease
interceptor. Whenever possible, the grease interceptor shall have a dedicated waste discharge line which
shall connect directly to the nearest main sanitary sewer line.
c.
6.
3.4 Plumbing
Do not provide garbage disposals in any School cafeterias which are classified as FSE’s (The exception
would be kitchens within the learning environment).
Other Special Wastewater Provisions:
a.
Other areas requiring special pretreatment of wastewater before discharge into the City sewer system
include:
1)
Auto Shop floor drains, sinks and cleaning tanks: Oil Interceptor and Clarifier.
2)
Auto Wash Rack: Grease Interceptor.
3)
Ceramics Room sinks: Solids Interceptor.
4)
Film Processing: Neutralization, Silver Electrolytic Recovery Unit, Sample Box.
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: (
Deleted: )
Book Three Technical Criteria
b.
7.
3.4 Plumbing
5)
Potting Room sinks: Solids Interceptor.
6)
Agricultural Classroom demo table drains: Solids Interceptor.
7)
Subterranean Parking Garage Drains to sump pumps: Provide oil and solids interceptors, when
required by Los Angeles Sanitation Bureau. Interceptors are not required in garages where hose
bibs are not installed. Roof drain lines and downspouts shall not be connected to drains in
subterranean structures and sump pump system.
Interceptors and separators must be located and installed so they are easily accessible for inspection,
cleaning, and removal of intercepted material.
Floor Drains, Area Drains and Floor Sinks:
a.
Where drains or sinks are required, slope floor to drain at 1/8” per foot.
b.
Floor drains with trap primers are required at:
1)
Student and Staff Restrooms. One floor drain shall be provided front and center for two or
more urinals. One floor drain is required for water closets in all restrooms with an additional
floor drain when a total of four or more water closets are provided.
2)
Shower and locker rooms and adjacent drying rooms.
3)
Custodian closet – locate floor drain near hopper sink.
4)
Mechanical Room.
5)
Electrical Room.
6)
Lunch Shelters. Cast iron with removable basket and hinged self-closing grate. Trap primer is
not required since area is washed down daily.
7)
Uncovered Trash Areas. These areas are required to be provided with a special area drain system
that normally drains the storm water to the storm system, but diverts the drainage to the sewer
system when the trash containers are being washed, using a special valve system. See Storm and
Sanitary Drainage in the Civil Engineering section.
8)
Where deluge showers are installed.
c.
Existing Facilities: For modernization, major repairs and expansion/addition projects the feasibility of
the requirements for new construction need to be assessed, and treated on a project per project basis.
Site assessment, project scope, and budget availability should be carefully considered.
d.
Floor sinks with trap primers are required at the following areas for indirect waste:
1)
Boiler Rooms.
2)
Kitchens, at cooking areas and where preparation sinks have an indirect waste drain where a
direct connection is not required by code.
3)
Coffee urns.
4)
Food preparation sinks (minimum 3").
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Formatted: OA3, Indent: Left: 0.5", Hanging: 0.38", No
bullets or numbering, Tab stops: 0.88", List tab
Book Three Technical Criteria
8.
9.
3.4 Plumbing
5)
Milk-shake machines.
6)
Refrigerators of 30-cubic-foot capacity or over.
7)
Walk-in cooler and freezer-box drains.
8)
Water heater relief valves and hot water storage tank drains. (All water heaters shall be installed
with drip pans.).
9)
Wherever required by the California Plumbing Code or the Los Angeles City Plumbing Code.
e.
Elevator pit drains are not required.
f.
Primary condensate drains from HVAC units shall be discharged into a receptor that is approved by
code and the local jurisdiction in a manner that is in compliance with the code requirements. The
preferred receptors by LAUSD are floor sinks, custodial sinks and lavatory tail pieces. Drywells may be
used when the above receptors do not exist in the vicinity. Draining directly into the sewer with air gap
fittings is prohibited. Secondary drain pans are required under all indoor HVAC units that are installed
above finished ceilings or suspended exposed above occupied spaces. These drains are required to
discharge at locations where the discharge will be noticed so that service personnel could be notified to
fix the clogged primary drains. The point of discharge should be above a sink if available and if not,
direct the discharge away from locations where it may cause harm to students and damage to electronic
equipment, and books. Also, provide high condensate level unit shut-off switches to prevent or
minimize drainage from secondary pans. In addition provide freeze stats for DX equipment.
Condensate drains from HVAC equipment shall not be connected to any portion of science classroom
acid waste drainage system.
g.
Provide brass union with 6” brass nipple at condensate drain pipe connection, if steel meets copper.
h.
In the subterranean parking garage, provide an adequately sized emergency drain for every 4000 square
feet. Within ten feet around each floor drain provide 1/8”/ foot slope of drain.
Combination Waste and Vent Systems
a.
Combination waste and vent systems shall be used only where structural conditions preclude installation
of conventional systems and when permitted by the District.
b.
Use only with clear liquids and “Not on kitchen sinks, lunch shelter floor drains, or for any other
contaminated wastes”.
c.
Provided adequate vents to ensure free circulation of air. Any branch more than 15'-0" in length shall
be separately vented.
d.
Waste and vent pipes shall be oversized to assure full venting.
e.
Vent connection shall be downstream of last fixture.
f.
No water closet or urinal shall be installed on any combination waste and vent system.
Waste Piping Traps
a.
All parts of traps shall be Cast Brass with polished Chromium plated finish. Tubular traps are not
allowed.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
b.
C.
1.
Exception: Concealed traps and 17 gauge tailpieces may have rough brass finish, unless noted otherwise.
WATER SYSTEMS
Water Service:
a.
2.
3.4 Plumbing
Coordinate with civil engineer to define and request water service from the utility supplier. See Section
3.2, Civil Engineering of this Design Guide.
Design Criteria:
a.
Provide water service to all fixtures and outlets, designed in accordance with National Bureau of
Standards Reports 66 and 79 with not less than 25 psi at farthest and highest fixture or the pressure
required for the highest and farthest flushometer-operated water closet to operate properly.
b.
Allowable water velocity shall be 5 feet per second for hot water and 5 feet per second for cold water in
copper and non-metallic piping.
c.
Size pipe based on the number of fixture units and demand load curves in the California Plumbing
Code.
d.
Outside Stem and Yoke (OS & Y) are only to be used for Fire Protection Systems. Exception: OS & Y
valves may be used in equipment rooms, at seven (7) feet or higher for visual identification of Open or
Closed conditions. In such cases provide a chain operator to allow for operating the valve with out a
ladder.
3.
Use Type L hard copper pipe inside buildings.
4.
Do not run water lines under slab if at all possible.
5.
Provide a shut-off valve to isolate all fixtures in each restroom, laboratory, cafeteria and any other room with
multiple fixtures. Valves shall be in recessed boxes with locking covers, located above the upper terminal water
closet for restrooms and above fixtures in other areas.
6.
Run water lines to outside drinking fountains underground and to interior drinking fountains isolated from hotwater lines to provide cool water at the fountains. Provide separate isolation valves at each fountain.
7.
Provide thrust blocks and ties for bell-and-spigot water pipe at fittings for sizes 2 ½” and larger.
8.
Slope pipes up in direction of water flow to air-elimination devices, or up to a nearby expansion tank, to
provide for air elimination from water lines.
9.
Water hammer arrestors are required for lavatories, sinks, fountains, water closets, urinal headers, and other
fixtures or devices with quick-closing valves, such as clothes washers.
10.
Fixture Supply Lines – Water supplies and all potable water faucets shall be in compliance with NF61 Annex G
via Iron Pipe Size (IPS) with Lead free Brass nipples and angle stops. Brass escutcheons with polished
chromium finish for all fixtures. No braided stainless steel or flexible supply lines shall be used to connect
water supplies to faucets.
11.
All Faucets used where Human consumption is assumed should be Stainless Steel and Brass free.
12.
Each faucet shall have its own angle stop. No angle stop should serve more than one faucet at a time.
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
13.
D.
1.
2.
3.
3.4 Plumbing
Victaulic type mechanical butterfly valves for copper are considered a reliable method for shut off above
ground and inside buildings.
HOT WATER SYSTEMS
Hot water or tempered water is required (as indicated, in addition to cold water) for the following areas, but not
limited to these areas:
a.
Administration and Health Offices -- Hot.
b.
Cafeteria, Kitchen, Lunch Units, and other food service facilities – Hot (No tempered water)
c.
Collaboration Faculty Workrooms – Hot.
d.
Science Prep Room – Hot.
e.
Art Instruction Rooms, Consumer Home Economics, and Automotive Labs – Hot.
f.
Custodial Room Service Sink – Hot.
g.
Shower Rooms for Students – Tempered for students, hot and cold for faculty, plus one therapeutic
station with hot and cold.
h.
Shower Rooms for Faculty plus Therapeutic Station – Hot
i.
Handicapped-Accessible Showers – Tempered.
j.
Restrooms adjacent to eating facilities – Tempered.
k.
Faculty Restrooms – Hot
l.
Early Education Centers (EEC) - Tempered
Provide cold water only at:
a.
Student Restrooms.
b.
General Classrooms.
c.
Kindergarten Rooms.
Hot water temperature regulation:
a.
To reduce the potential for bacterial contamination (see ASHRAE Standard 12-2000 – Minimizing the
Risk of Legionellosis Associated with Building Water Systems) provide the following temperatures and
control devices:
1)
General Hot Water Outlets: 120F at the heater and 115F at the furthest outlet from water
heater.
2)
Tempered Water Outlets: 95 to 100F mixed from 115F to 120F hot water from the storage
tank and cold water through a tempered regulator valve. Locate the regulating valves as close to
the outlet as possible. This is especially important for Special Education, Elementary Schools
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.4 Plumbing
and Early Education Center’s. Locate the valves in Custodians Rooms or similar rooms, not
readily exposed in restrooms or shower rooms.
3)
b.
Hot Water Circulating Pumps:
1)
4.
Cafeteria Sink Outlets: 120F.
Provide a circulating pump and insulated hot-water circulation loop (supply and return) to the
furthest fixture on the following:
a)
Provide circulating pump for faculty restrooms with metered faucets and nurse offices,
when they are farther than 15 feet from water heater.
b)
Provide pumps for runs longer than 50 feet for food service areas, Custodial sinks and
other areas with high flow faucets.
c)
Indicate aquastat to control pumps and to make at 100 º F and break at 108 º F.
2)
Circulating hot water pumps shall be time controlled so they will operate only when building is
occupied.
3)
Hot water circulating pumps over 1.5 hp shall have cast iron bodies. Pumps 1.5 hp and less shall
have hard bronze water chambers and impellers.
4)
Size hot-water circulating pump and piping for water velocity not to exceed 5 feet per second for
hot and 8 feet per second for cold.
Hot Water Heaters And Tanks:
a.
Water heaters shall be certified by the California Energy Commission and meet Title24, AQMD Ultra
Low NOx Rule 1146.2 and. 1121, Water heating boilers 1,000,000 BTU and larger shall be registered
with South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) per rule 222 to meet 1146.2
requirements.
b.
Do not use multi-flue water heaters, nor booster or instantaneous type water heaters.
c.
Water heaters shall heat with gas. Electric water heaters may be used as a last resort for isolated
locations and in small sizes. All gas fired water heaters shall meet the flammable vapors ignition
resistance requirements (FVIR).
d.
Use ONLY 100-gallon, or smaller, high-recovery gas-fired domestic-type water heaters. Use in series
with manifold to avoid the use of separate storage tanks.
e.
Use hot water storage tank with external heater only where storage requirements exceed 200 gallons and
where central-plant capacity or other conditions indicate.
f.
Provide ball valve with plug at water heater drain outlet.
g.
Provide seismic anchorage for all equipment. Do not bolt down the water heater legs.
h.
Provide drip pans at all water heaters and drain the pan to an approved receptor.
i.
Instantaneous tank-less water heaters of any kind or size are prohibited.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
5.
Hot-Water Piping And Utilization:
a.
E.
1.
Provide tempered water to student showers piped in series and connected with an insulated circulating
supply manifold.
1)
Provide isolation valves for each battery of showers.
2)
Provide push-button metered-type shower valves.
3)
Specify showerheads with a maximum discharge rate of 2.0 gpm.
b.
Reduction in lines connected to pumps shall be made as close as possible to the pumps.
c.
Install straight length of pipe without bends or restrictions at least 10 diameters long on the suction side
of all pumps unless inlet diffusers are used.
d.
Insulated Return lines are required for domestic hot water systems when the length of run is over 15
feet to the furthest fixture.
e.
Provide a check valve after the pump, for the hot water return line.
f.
Avoid running dead-leg piping.
WATER VALVES AND OTHER DEVICES
Uninterrupted Service:
a.
2.
3.4 Plumbing
All domestic water supply mains shall be designed in an above-ground valve station with a minimum of
two parallel branch lines – a primary and secondary – to provide for uninterrupted service to the site
during maintenance of a reduced pressure principal backflow preventor or a pressure regulating valve.
Each branch shall include a reduced pressure principal backflow preventor with strainer and when the
street pressure exceeds 80 psig, a pressure regulator with strainer.
b.
Separate services shall be provided for fire protection and landscape irrigation, with an above-ground
valve station that includes a Reduced pressure principal backflow preventor and a pressure regulator
with strainer when the street pressure exceeds manufacturer’s or design suggested range but never
exceed 80 psi. Two parallel branch lines are not required, but may be used to incorporate the use of two
backflow assemblies and pressure reducing valves in parallel for more cost effective design. Comply
with requirements of water service rule 16-D for schools located in Los Angeles Water & Power
District.
c.
Coordinate this design with the Civil Engineering, Fire Protection, and Planting and Irrigation sections
of this “School Design Guide.”
Pressure Regulating Valves:
a.
Install pressure-regulating valves with strainers when street line pressure is over 80 psig to reduce
pressure to approximately 80 psig.
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: R
Deleted: R
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.
3.4 Plumbing
b.
Pressure regulating valve (PRV) stations shall include a minimum of two District-approved
pilot/diaphragm actuated control valves with strainers (in lieu of a series of 2” direct acting regulators).
Valves shall be flanged and sized to provide uninterrupted service to school site when valves are being
serviced. Wafer-lug type butterfly valves and pre-assembled valve stations may be used to minimize
space needs. (Services over 6 inches may require a third, smaller PRV for constant low-flow demands.)
c.
Provide removable gages with ball valves for isolation stops on both inlet and outlet of valve stations
(for inlet pressure and reduced pressure).
d.
Provide an epoxy-coated wye strainer ahead of regulators.
e.
Locate pressure regulating assemblies and strainer assemblies above grade in a shielded enclosure and in
a service area. Where exposed to students, enclosure shall be a secure structure or cage.
Backflow Preventors and Vacuum Breakers:
a.
Use backflow prevention valves having the lowest possible friction loss.
b.
Use reduced-pressure principle backflow assemblies for domestic, irrigation, and fire services for meter
service protection.
c.
Provide an epoxy-coated wye strainer ahead of regulators.
d.
Vacuum breakers or other required backflow prevention assemblies which are required, but not limited
to, the following locations:
1)
All flush valves and urinals.
2)
Direct connections to boilers and tanks.
3)
Water-cooled refrigerator condensers.
4)
Soft drink dispensers.
5)
Hose bibbs and sill cocks.
6)
Demonstration tables.
7)
All laboratory equipment.
8)
Dark room equipment.
9)
Hose bibbs for uncovered combination storm-and-sewer area drain diverter valves require a
Reduced Pressure back-flow assembly.
10)
Blueprint equipment.
11)
Silver soak sinks.
12)
Garbage can washers.
13)
Most types of animal drinking water devices.
14)
Various types of processing equipment (check with City).
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4.
5.
3.4 Plumbing
15)
Cooling towers and evaporative coolers (or provide air gap).
16)
Sewage pumps.
17)
Fire sprinkler systems.
18)
Irrigation systems.
Hose Bibbs and Sill Cocks (Loose key):
a.
Provide loose key sill cocks under exterior drinking fountains with isolation valves. (Sill cocks are faucets
with a hose connection installed approximately at the sill line of buildings.)
b.
Provide loose key hose bibbs or sill cocks at approximately 75'-0" spacing around buildings, and within
25 feet of entrances with walk-off mats. Install in recessed boxes without covers. (Coordinate desired
locations with Landscape Architect.)
c.
Provide sill cocks (with isolation valves) in Shower and Locker Rooms so that a 50'-0" long hose can be
used to wash down entire area.
d.
Hose bibbs are not recommended in kitchens or other interior areas except as noted above.
e.
Provide loose key hose bibbs or sill cocks, with isolation valves, at outside eating areas, all student
restrooms, in boiler rooms, on rooftops with skylights or air-cooling equipment for wash-down of
equipment and pads, and on rooftops for wash-down of bird droppings and debris on ladders and
façade projections.
Isolation and Shut-Off Valves:
a.
All shut-off valves shall be accessible from the room in which fixtures are installed, and shall be located
at approximately 3’-0”, but not more than 7’0”, from the floor. These valves shall control only fixtures
in the room in which they are installed.
b.
Provide shut-off valves for:
1)
Each group of fixtures.
2)
Each science laboratory or preparation room.
3)
Each restroom.
4)
Each floor of each building.
5)
Each building, located at the entering point of building with yard box.
c.
Provide a remote-control solenoid shutoff valve for Showers tempered-water; located downstream of
manual shutoff valve. Locate remote control at coach’s office
d.
Use gate or ball valves for plumbing isolation shut-off.
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Deleted: washdown
Deleted: washdown
Book Three Technical Criteria
6.
Emergency Shower and Eye Wash:
a.
b.
7.
F.
3.4 Plumbing
Emergency shower and eye wash equipment shall be installed in the following areas where eye or skin
irritants exist and must comply with California Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 8, Section 5162.
1)
Science and teacher’s chemistry/laboratory workrooms.
2)
Pool mechanical equipment rooms.
3)
Central Custodial supplies storage area. In middle and high schools install in receiving area.
A flip-down eye wash at sink shall be installed in the Teachers’ Science Rooms Preparation Area
Workroom, but only as a supplement to an approved Emergency Shower and Eyewash in the
classroom, as stated in Title 8 Section 5162.
Drinking Fountains:
a.
Drinking fountains are required by the California Plumbing Code on every floor, as well as in other
specific locations.
b.
Install fountains in locations, and above floor surfaces, where water falling from the fountain on to the
floor does not cause a slipping hazard. (See Section 2.1 School Building Design for specific location and
design requirements.)
c.
Provide shut-off valve, cleanout and hammer arrestor for drinking fountains per District’s standard
details. If drinking fountains are located on the outside of the building. They should be Vandal
resistant and have a hose bibb shall be installed underneath the fountain.
d.
Drinking Fountains – Drinking fountains and electric water coolers are required to be provided with
brass free waterways and lead mitigating water filtering systems. Filter device shall be preceded by a
water meter set to a specific gallon capacity after which the meter interrupts and shut offs the water
supply. Refer to Guide Specifications and Standard Technical Drawings for specific requirements.
e.
Pedestal mounted drinking fountains shall have a lockable, heavy-duty stainless steel, weather and vandal
resistant cover to house the filtering system. Refer to Technical Drawings.
f.
Drinking fountains located 100 feet or less from a building with a sewer system shall have its waste line
connected to the building sewer system. Buildings located more than 100 feet from a building with a
sewer system shall connect to a drywell. Refer to Standard Technical Drawings.
GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
1.
Gas Service:
a.
In general, Elementary School systems are low pressure, (8" of water column), and Secondary School
systems are medium pressure (3 psi at the meter and 1 psi maximum drop to most remote outlet) but
medium pressure systems are allowable for site gas distribution for elementary schools with multiple
buildings when the gas company permits A properly vented pressure regulator with approved accessible
gas shut-off valve must be provided.
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b.
2.
3.4 Plumbing
Locate gas meters:
1)
Where a straight service run from the street can be made by the gas company.
2)
Where it is accessible by truck for service and replacement.
3)
As central as possible to the major gas loads (main boiler rooms, relocatable classrooms groups,
etc.) to minimize size and length of main pipe runs.
c.
Meter locations must be approved by the District and the gas company.
d.
Meter enclosure and assembly must conform to District Standard Drawing and should have asphalt or
gravel flooring (not concrete) with meter, valves and PRV above grade.
e.
Use of medium-pressure gas requires design with “Polyflo Calculator” for gas-company approval.
f.
Provide on plans a gas-load schedule for each meter including existing, new and future load in cfh.
Gas Piping:
a.
b.
c.
Gas pipe:
1)
In buildings or above ground at least 6 inches: Steel
2)
Underground (30” minimum cover): Polyethylene, fusion welded, embedded in 6 inches of sand
all around (per District Standard Drawings). Include tracer wire (yellow insulated No. 18 AWG).
Connect to steel pipe with Central Plastics Company prefabricated transition fitting or equivalent.
Gas line locations:
1)
Above grade within the building and underground to each building whenever possible.
2)
Through attic spaces, within covered walkways, and in ventilated crawl spaces.
3)
Avoid lengthy horizontal rooftop mounted piping wherever possible.
4)
Avoid running gas lines through one building to serve another.
5)
In isolated cases such as Kitchens and Science Rooms where gas branch lines must penetrate a
concrete slab, run pipes in a concrete trench with steel checkered plate cover and frame.
Gas Service Stop
1)
Provide a gas service stop in an accessible location outside each building at the point where a gas
line enters the building.
2)
For permanent buildings, locate on the riser with swing joint at point of entry.
3)
For portable buildings, locate in yard boxes.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
4)
d.
G.
Provide only one entry per building unless unusual circumstances exist.
Gas Valves:
1)
e.
3.4 Plumbing
Provide an accessible shut-off valve for each gas outlet or group of outlets within a room.
a)
Use an approved gas cock when valve is readily accessible.
b)
An approved ball valve may be used when it is not accessible to students.
2)
Provide individual check valves for gas outlets or turrets adjacent to air or water outlets, such as
for laboratory stations.
3)
Provide a master shut-off valve for science labs in a secure area not accessible by students.
4)
All laboratory gas valves shall be protected by an “accessible”/Serviceable electrically operated,
normally closed gas solenoid valve and remotely operated by emergency push button controller.
Locate as close as possible to the teachers work station, at 48” height (ADA reach height).
5)
Provide an isolation valve for each floor in each building.
6)
Provide isolation valves at each regulator.
7)
Provide DSA-approved seismic gas shut-off valves properly strapped to avoid student tampering.
8)
Provide a shutoff valve on each gas line entering a building immediately outside point it enters
the building. Do not install gas valves below grade.
9)
All shut-off valves must be secured from student or public tampering.
Provide DSA approved Earthquake Shut-Off valve for each gas meter.
SEISMIC RESTRAINTS
1.
Provide seismic restraints for mechanical equipment and piping systems in accordance with applicable codes
and guidelines.
2.
For liquid filled steel pipe, use the following guidelines:
3.
a.
SMACNA "Guidelines for Seismic Restraints of Mechanical Systems and Plumbing Piping" latest
edition.
b.
Hanger spacing as specified in “Guide Specifications”.
Roof mounted pressure and non-pressure pipes shall be supported from channels, clamps trapezes, rollers, or
structures mounted on 100% rubber, UV resistant with reflective strips. Roller type supports shall be provided
below and above pipe to prevent its dislodgement. Wood blocks are not acceptable.
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3.5
3.5 Fire Protection
FIRE PROTECTION
A.
General Requirements ..............................................................................159
Deleted: 171
B.
Local Fire Authority review ......................................................................159
Deleted: 171
C.
Fire Sprinkler Systems .............................................................................. 160
Deleted: 172
D.
Standpipes ................................................................................................ 161
Deleted: 173
E.
Fire Extinguishers .................................................................................... 161
Deleted: 173
F.
Key Safes or Knox Boxes ..........................................................................162
Deleted: 174
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3.5 Fire Protection
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Book Three Technical Criteria
3.5
A.
1.
B.
1.
3.5 Fire Protection
FIRE PROTECTION
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Guidelines
a.
This section contains criteria and information for local fire authorities’ review procedures, fire-sprinkler
systems, fire extinguishers, and related fire- and life-safety requirements. Other criteria and guidelines
include applicable portions of the California Fire Code, NFPA Standards, and the District Guide
Specifications and Standard Details.
b.
A separate service shall be provided for fire protection; refer to 3.4 Plumbing, E, Water Valves and
Other Devices.
c.
Fire protection for range hoods is provided by an approved UL 300 fire suppression system.
d.
All Fire Department connections shall face the street and be free of any obstructions.
e.
Hydraulic calculations for fire flow by a California Licensed Professional Fire Protection Engineer shall
be provided as part of the 50% CD Submittal. If a fire sprinkler pump is required, provisions for pump
housing, tank and electrical requirements shall be provided.
LOCAL FIRE AUTHORITY REVIEW
Local Approvals Requirements
a.
Access from the public street to each new building within the site (CCR Title 19, Section 3.05, “Access
Roads”).
b.
Perimeter fencing and gated entrances (CCR Title 19, Section 3.16, “Gate Entrances to School
Grounds”).
c.
Fire hydrants, if required.
d.
Standpipe locations.
e.
Emergency Assembly Area (EAA) and Evacuation Plan.
f.
Fire Department connections to automatic fire sprinkler systems.
g.
For local review, provide a full site plan indicating all buildings, both existing and proposed, fences,
drive gates, retaining walls, EAA, and other construction affecting Fire Department access. Indicate
approved unobstructed fire lanes for access to buildings on the site plan.
h.
The local Fire Department must signify approval on drawings and sign a standard approval form
furnished by DSA.
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Deleted: that is integral with the hoods.
Book Three Technical Criteria
i.
C.
1.
3.5 Fire Protection
Principal agencies for Los Angeles schools are:
1)
Los Angeles City Fire Department
Fire Prevention Bureau, Access & Hydrants Unit
213-485-5964
2)
Los Angeles County Fire Department
Fire Prevention Engineering
213-720-5141
FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
Requirements
a.
An automatic system shall be installed in every new school building in accordance with the current
California Building Code (CBC – part of California Code of Regulations, Title 24), NFPA 72, NFPA 13,
LAUSD’s Guide Specifications Section 15300, and requirements of the Division of the State Architect
(DSA).
b.
The fire sprinkler system must be interconnected with the school fire alarm system.
c.
On fire mains, provide a reduced pressure principle backflow assembly upstream of the fire-department
connection.
d.
All valves controlling the water supply to automatic sprinkler systems and water flow switches for
automatic sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised.
e.
Fire sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed so that they are readily serviceable. Every building
shall
have
a
fire
sprinkler
control
valve
located
5’-0” above the floor. Every riser assembly shall have a check valve. In multi-story buildings, every floor
shall have a separate shut-off valve, check valve, tamper switch, and flow switch at an accessible
location, with an Inspector’s Test Valve at the opposite end of the building.
Exception: If each floor has an independent shut-off valve located at the riser assembly, then a main
building shut-off valve will not be required.
f.
Fire sprinkler main drain valve discharge line shall be piped into a sump pit or to a storm drain. Main
drain lines shall never discharge into a sanitary plumbing fixture, not even into a floor sink or floor
drain.
g.
The Fire Department Connection (FDC) shall be located upstream of the fire sprinkler riser assembly,
not downstream of the riser assembly. A secondary FDC may be located on the address side of the
building, down stream of the riser assembly provided it is only a secondary FDC provision, with a sign
above it clearly stating what FDC serves.
h.
A shut-off valve on a fire main backflow prevention assembly shall not be considered the building’s
main shut-off valve. Each building shall have its own separate shut-off valve as part of the riser
assembly.
i.
Post indicator valves are not required to be provided along with backflow prevention assemblies on fire
mains. Fire mains are required to have sectional controlling valves at appropriate points per latest
edition of NFPA 13, 8.16.1.5. The shut-off valve on the backflow preventor provides a reliable method
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3.5 Fire Protection
of system shut-off. The Outside Stem and Yoke (OS & Y) valves provide a visual indication of those
valves being in the open or closed position.
D.
1.
j.
Post indicator valves (PIV) are required, outside the building, where a fire sprinkler main passes through
the building foundation.
k.
If a fire pump is required. Provide calculations on drawings and specifications.
l.
Stages: All stages greater than 1,000 square feet in area shall be equipped with 1 ½ -inch hose
connections located in recessed valve cabinets on each side of the stage per latest edition of CFC
905.3.4. Hose connections shall be installed in accordance with the latest edition of NFPA 13 and shall
not require hose.
m.
Provide a separate fire sprinkler meter for new schools and when adding a new system for existing
schools.
STANDPIPES
Type of Systems
a.
b.
E.
1.
Standpipe systems shall be provided in buildings and areas per latest edition CFC Section 905 and
installed in accordance with latest edition of NFPA 14, summarized as follows:
1)
Class I Wet Manual Standpipes without hoses and without hose cabinets shall be installed in
buildings where the floor level of the highest story is located more than 30 feet above the lowest
level of fire department vehicle access.
2)
Class I Wet Automatic Standpipes without hose and without hose cabinets shall be installed in
buildings where the floor of an occupiable story is greater than 75 feet above the lowest level of
fire department vehicle access.
Standpipe hose connections shall be unobstructed and readily accessible to the Fire Department, and all
connections shall conform to Code and fire authority’s requirements. All hose valve connections shall
be in recessed cabinets wherever possible.
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
Criteria
a.
All areas of all buildings must have portable fire extinguishers within 75 feet of any point. Provide fire
extinguishers in accordance with CCR Title 19 and the District Guide Specifications.
b.
Extinguishers shall not be located on the exterior of buildings. Extinguishers in corridors, stairs or other
unsupervised areas shall be avoided. All extinguishers shall be secured in a recessed, locked, UL listed
fire extinguisher cabinet. Locate fire extinguishers in classrooms within 75 feet of each other. Make
provisions for indicating decals to be installed on each side of doors of classrooms where extinguishers
are to be installed.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
c.
F.
3.5 Fire Protection
Portable fire extinguishers and notification signs shall be supplied as part of the contract for
construction. They shall meet minimum requirements for acceptance by the State Fire Marshal and local
fire authority.
KEY SAFES OR KNOX BOXES
1.
General Criteria
a.
For installation of all key safe (Knox Boxes), follow City of Los Angeles Fire Department Requirement
75. To standardize District’s procedures, Requirement 75 shall be followed for Los Angeles County
Fire Department sites with the exception that the box must be ordered for the Authority Having
Jurisdiction (AHJ), so that the factory installed lock matches the Master Key of the appropriate
jurisdiction. Typical mounting height shall be 8’-0” min. to 10’-0” above ground.
b.
A key safe Knox Box is only to be provided and installed for Central Station Monitored site.
c.
Architect/Engineer shall confirm the need for Knox Box, its location and mounting height with the
local Fire Authority. Mounting height could be min. 8’-0” above finished floor (AF F), preferred
mounting height shall be 10’-0” AFF.
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Book Three Technical Criteria
3.6
3.6 HVAC Systems
HVAC SYSTEMS
A.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................165
Deleted: 178
B.
SYSTEM DESIGN CRITERIA ........................................................................166
Deleted: 179
C.
HVAC SYSTEM SELECTION .......................................................................167
Deleted: 180
D.
CONTROLS AND ZONING ...........................................................................172
Deleted: 185
E.
AIR DISTRIBUTION .................................................................................... 179
Deleted: 189
F.
COILS AND PIPING ..................................................................................... 180
Deleted: 192
G.
COOLING SOURCES .................................................................................... 181
Deleted: 193
H.
HEATING SOURCES ...................................................................................183
Deleted: 195
I.
SOUND AND VIBRATION CONTROL ...........................................................184
Deleted: 197
J.
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS........................................................................186
Deleted: 199
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3.6 HVAC Systems
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.6
HVAC SYSTEMS
A.
INTRODUCTION
1.
3.6 HVAC Systems
General Requirements
a.
The HVAC system shall comply with the current California Code of Regulations, Title 24, the standards
of ASHRAE, SMACNA, and NFPA, as well as the requirements of the local authorities having
jurisdiction and LAUSD’s Design Guide.
b.
All interior spaces shall be air conditioned unless specifically excluded in this Guide or in writing by the
District.
c.
HVAC design shall comply with Title-24 energy efficiency requirements for all construction and exceed
Title-24 energy efficiency requirements by a minimum of 5% or more for CHPS compliance. Consult
with utility suppliers to take full advantage of incentives for higher energy efficiency such as the Savings
by Design Program of Southern California Edison and The Gas Company. Indicate the required
equipment energy efficiencies clearly in the equipment schedules in a separate column.
d.
Refer to The Collaborative for High Performance Schools “Best Practices Manual” (available at
http://www.chps.net) for additional criteria that may be appropriate to the project. Appropriateness of
the criteria will be as determined by the District.
e.
Refer to chapter 2.4, “Environment and Sustainability,” for additional requirements and specific
requirements for commissioning.
f.
Systems and equipment shall conform to District’s Guide Specifications, Division 23.
g.
Condensate drains from HVAC equipment shall not be connected to any portion of science classroom
waste drainage system.
h.
Assure maintenance and accessibility provisions for servicing and replacement.
1)
Where practical, all equipment shall be housed on the roof or in Mechanical Rooms within the
building.
2)
Provide adequate working area around equipment for service.
i.
Where HVAC units are roof mounted or require roof openings, verify that all structural provisions are
made to assure adequate capacity for load bearing and diaphragm capacity.
j.
For seismic restraint for piping refer to 3.4, Plumbing, G.
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: 1
Deleted: , in conjunction with envelope and lighting design for new
construction
Book Three Technical Criteria
B.
1.
SYSTEM DESIGN CRITERIA
Calculations and Load Criteria
a.
2.
3.
3.6 HVAC Systems
Provide design criteria and calculations as follows:
1)
Heating and cooling load calculations shall be performed on an industrially recognized computer
program such as Trace 700, HAP or Energy Pro that will demonstrate compliance with Title 24.
The calculations shall be done for each room and each system.
2)
Indoor and outdoor design conditions and other relevant data shall be in accordance with current
ASHRAE publications.
3)
Provisions for internal heat gain from occupants and equipment within a space shall be as
determined by LAUSD.
4)
A field survey of actual field conditions and assessment of current demand is required for existing
facility projects such as modernization and equipment replacement. Submittal of an existing
condition assessment report is required.
b.
When requested by the District, also submit calculations for equipment and system selection criteria
such as life-cycle cost and energy analysis, duct friction and pipe friction loss calculations, fan and pump
selection curves, heating and cooling coil selection data, chiller and cooling tower selection data, etc...
c.
The California Energy Commission’s (CEC) Certificate of Compliance for Non-Residential Buildings
with the necessary backup forms shall be completed for submittal to the Division of the State Architect
(DSA) and for review by the District. The Title-24 Compliance calculations shall be performed on the
performance basis using the whole building approach, and integrating the building envelope, mechanical
and electrical systems as designed, on a CEC approved program such as Energy Pro or Perform.
Ventilation and Outside Air Control
a.
Provide outside air to each room through the HVAC system in compliance with current CEC Standards
and ASHRAE recommendations.
b.
Clearly indicate how outside-air is provided and how much for each HVAC unit. Also indicate with
calculations how air is relieved from the building, on regular cycle and economizer cycle, to balance the
fresh outside air make-up and maintain building pressures to assure compliance with CBC door closer
settings for accessibility.
c.
Provide ventilation for electrical rooms with transformers.
Air filtration
a.
b.
Provide air filters with a minimum efficiency that complies with current CHPS requirements. Systems
for new and existing schools constructed in areas with low outdoor air quality such as near freeways
shall be provided with enhanced air filtration.
Refer to the District’s Office of Environmental Health and Safety to obtain a “priority list of schools
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: of Merv 811.
Deleted: HVAC s
Deleted: systems
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.6 HVAC Systems
most at risk from air pollution”. The design of HVAC systems at schools on this list must provide
enhanced filtration.
c.
C.
1.
For new school facilities, requirements outlined in the project’s CEQA documents must be followed.
HVAC SYSTEM SELECTION
Criteria
a.
HVAC systems shall be selected based on the following considerations:
1)
Project Characteristics that includes but not limited to the following:
a)
New building vs. modernization project.
b)
Construction Materials: Wood frame, concrete, steel or masonry construction.
c)
Single story vs. multi-story.
d)
Roof type: Flat vs. pitched.
e)
Building size and configuration.
f)
Building a new plant vs. building on an existing school site.
g)
Single building projects vs. multiple building projects.
h)
Operating Schedules.
i)
Location on site with regard to adjacent buildings and uses.
2)
Easy to install.
3)
Easy to operate and maintain.
4)
Most efficient.
5)
Proven reliability.
6)
Designed upon well established principles, explicit approval shall be obtained from the district
for experimental designs before commencement.
7)
Constructed of standard, use-proven materials.
8)
Acceptable procurement lead time.
9)
As low an initial cost as practical.
10)
Low Operating cost.
11)
Low Maintenance cost.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
b.
3.6 HVAC Systems
12)
Lowest life cycle cost for highly energy efficient installations that incur a higher initial cost. The
life cycle cost calculations shall be performed on an industrial standard program such as Trace
700 or DOE-2. The calculations complete with all input and supporting data shall be submitted
to the district for review. The life cycle cost shall consider the incremental cost of building
enclosure, structure, electrical service and other utilities as well as the HVAC systems. Cost
estimates shall be made in an industry-recognized format and using manufacturer’s cost data or
data from a nationally recognized source such as Means. Utility costs shall be as obtained from
the utility providers and shall include historical cost escalation trends. Maintenance cost shall
include a breakdown of labor and materials for each piece of equipment or system component
based on nationally recognized references.
13)
Environmentally friendly.
14)
Acoustically compatible with occupied spaces.
15)
Susceptibility to vandalism.
16)
Degree of disruption of occupants during modernization.
A study for the replacement of aging wall mounted and indoor cabinet type heat pump units with
HVAC systems is posted on the District’s website. This study can be used as a reference when assessing
new HVAC systems for modernization projects.
http://www.laschools.org/employee/design/fs-studies-and-reports/
c.
d.
1)
Two building types were considered for this study, a single story with single loaded corridor and
sloping roof, and a two story building with double loaded corridors and flat roofs.
2)
The following factors are compared in the study:
a)
Overall cost effectiveness.
b)
Indoor environmental conditions.
c)
Aesthetics.
d)
Difficulty of installation.
e)
Complexity of installation.
f)
Difficulty of maintenance.
g)
Reliability from past experience.
h)
Durability from past experience.
i)
Installation time required.
Submit a system selection report (Design Intent Narrative) that addresses all the considerations above,
based on the guidelines of Chapter 1, HVAC System Analysis and Selection, of the current ASHRAE
(American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers) Handbook.
Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Systems:
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Deleted: 2004
Book Three Technical Criteria
2.
3.6 HVAC Systems
Overview of HVAC Systems
a.
Deleted: <#>¶
Decentralized Systems: Decentralized systems are systems where the primary source of cooling, heating
or supply air is provided from independent sources scattered throughout a building or a campus.
Decentralized systems may consist of the following:
1)
Small Single Zone Type Unitary Systems:
a)
Packaged Rooftop Heat Pumps, Packaged Rooftop Air conditioning Units with gas
heating, split system heat pumps, split system air conditioning units and wall mounted heat
pumps or air conditioning units of less than 25 Tons capacity normally fall under the
category of Small Single Zone Type unitary systems. Small Single Zone Type Unitary
systems are usually controlled by a dedicated thermostat, but means of providing multiple
zone controls for unitary systems, such as Carrier’s VVT controls systems, are available.
Such systems are categorized under Small Single Zone Type Unitary Systems because they
cannot heat and cool simultaneously.
b)
When single zone type unitary systems are provided for classrooms, one dedicated unit
shall be provided for each classroom.
c)
Positive means for fresh air make-up and sufficient means of relief to maintain door
opening and closing pressures that comply with CBC accessibility requirements must be
provided for classroom units.
d)
VVT type controls may be used for administrative and support areas. With VVT type
controls, rooms of dissimilar thermal profiles such as interior and exterior zones, north
and south exposures, etc. shall not be served by a common unit.
e)
Window- or wall-mounted units shall not be used for classrooms.
f)
Rooftop packaged units are preferred over split systems, except for small unoccupied
spaces like electrical, data, or phone rooms.
g)
Gas heating is preferred over air-cooled heat pumps.
h)
Do not use heat pumps where 24 hour operation is required or where the ASHRAE Bin
weather data indicates heating design temperatures below 40 degrees for more than an
hour at a time during the normal hours of school operation.
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.88", Hanging: 0.38", Outline
numbered + Level: 8 + Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Start
at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 1.4" + Tab after: 1.8"
+ Indent at: 1.8"
Deleted: s
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.88", Hanging: 0.38", Outline
numbered + Level: 8 + Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Start
at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 1.4" + Tab after: 1.8"
+ Indent at: 1.8"
Formatted: OA4, Indent: Left: 0.88", Hanging: 0.38",
Outline numbered + Level: 8 + Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … +
Start at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 1.4" + Tab after:
1.8" + Indent at: 1.8", Widow/Orphan control, Tab stops:
1.25", Left + Not at 1.63"
Formatted: Font: 10 pt
2)
3)
Formatted: Font: 10 pt
a)
Roof-mounted, self-contained triple-deck multi-zone unit systems are categorized under
Multi-Zone Type Unitary Systems.
b)
These systems are normally provided only for replacements.
Los Angeles Unified School District
VRF systems will be considered on Replacement Projects where the job site conditions
are such that replacement with “like kind” or Package Rooftop Units structural changes
and/or rerouting of new duct work makes it cost prohibitive.
The A/E Design Team shall provide during the Site Analysis Phase an overall Life Cycle
Cost breakdown of the VRF system as compared to other options. LAUSD will review
the analysis and provide a recommendation for the final design.
Page | 169
Formatted: OA3, Indent: Left: 1.25", Hanging: 0.38",
Space Before: 6 pt, After: 6 pt, Numbered + Level: 1 +
Numbering Style: a, b, c, … + Start at: 1 + Alignment: Left +
Aligned at: 0.25" + Indent at: 0.5", No widow/orphan
control, Tab stops: 1.63", Left
Deleted: are cost prohibitive with the required structural changes
and/or rerouting of new duct work.
Refrigeration Flow (VRF) Systems:
b)
Formatted: Font: 10 pt
Deleted: t
Multi-Zone Type Unitary Systems:
a)
Deleted: VRF
Design Standards Department
Formatted: Font: 10 pt
Deleted: t
Formatted: Font: 10 pt
Formatted: Font: 10 pt
Deleted: shall
Formatted: Font: 10 pt
Book Three Technical Criteria
b.
Centralized Systems: Centralized systems are systems where the primary source of cooling and heating is
provided from a central source for a building or a campus. Centralized systems may consist of the
following:
1)
2)
c.
3.6 HVAC Systems
Central chilled water plants:
a)
Central chilled water plants may be air cooled or water cooled.
b)
Water cooled systems are preferred over air cooled systems due to higher energy
efficiency.
c)
Air cooled systems shall be used only where practical limitations exist for a cooling tower.
d)
Evaporative condensers are not allowed due to the tendency to lose efficiency rapidly
from scale formation on the wetted tubes from hard water.
e)
Modular chillers are not allowed.
f)
A minimum of two independent chillers, working on lead lag, and associated accessories
shall be provided for a campus wide central chilled water system. When only two chillers
are provided, each chiller shall be sized to carry 75% of the load.
g)
Campus wide central chilled water system shall be designed as variable flow constant
temperature systems for energy savings and dehumidification effectiveness.
h)
The location of the central plant shall not be so remote that the energy savings of the
water cooled chiller system is offset by the additional energy consumption of the pumps.
i)
Cooling towers shall be located away from HVAC outdoor air intakes, openings into
buildings and areas normally occupied by students.
j)
The air delivery energy consumption can also offset the energy savings of the water cooled
chiller system. Air delivery energy consumption is usually the largest energy consumption
component of the building air conditioning system. Design the air delivery systems to
limit energy consumption due to excessive duct friction. Also analyze the feasibility of
using low temperature supply air systems to reduce energy consumption.
k)
Do not use variable air volume systems for classrooms unless a means for ensuring that
each classroom is adequately ventilated and that indoor air quality is maintained -- for
example, by use of carbon dioxide monitors that are interfaced with the air-handling-unit
controls to modulate the outdoor air intake dampers. (VAV boxes should be located
outside the classroom area to reduce noise.).
Central boiler plants that provide heating hot water or steam.
a)
Hot water boilers are preferred over steam boilers. Steam boilers are normally provided
only for replacements.
b)
A minimum of two independent boilers and associated accessories shall be provided for a
campus wide central hot water system for redundancy. `
Hybrid Systems: Hybrid systems are systems where a common water loop for heating, condensing or
heat exchange is provided from a central source for a building or a campus whereas primary cold or heat
generators may be scattered throughout. Hybrid systems may consist of the following:
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 170
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
1)
Water source heat pumps:
a)
Follow guidelines regarding location of cooling towers.
b)
A minimum of two independent cooling towers, two boilers and associated accessories shall
be provided for a campus wide central condenser water system for redundancy.
2)
Geothermal heat pumps:
a)
3)
Obtain approval from the LAUSD’s Office of Environmental Health and Safety before
using geothermal heat pumps.
Large packaged roof top variable-air-volume units with heating hot water from a central boiler
plant.
a)
3.
3.6 HVAC Systems
In general, VAV units shall be limited to administrative or support areas and preferably not
used for classrooms. If needed, review application with the District.
Unitary vs. Central Systems Comparison
a.
Although central systems frequently offer many advantages over unitary systems, when all factors have
been weighted and evaluated, unitary systems are usually chosen for schools because of their lower
initial cost.
b.
Advantages of a Central System include:
c.
1)
Central system equipment often has more technical advantages and capabilities
2)
The total installed cooling or heating capacity of a central plant is normally less than that of
unitary equipment.
3)
The central cooling equipment offers better operating efficiency than unitary equipment.
4)
Longer life.
5)
Better temperature control.
6)
Lower noise levels.
7)
Better indoor air quality due to better air filtration flexibility.
Disadvantages of a Central System include:
1)
High initial cost.
2)
Need for more highly skilled maintenance and repair personnel.
3)
Larger space requirements.
4)
Entire system would be affected by the failure of one component. Larger areas would be shut
down due to the failure of one large air handling unit. The failure of one chiller or boiler could
reduce the cooling and heating capacity by half.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 171
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
d.
D.
1.
3.6 HVAC Systems
5)
Multiple source responsibilities for installation.
6)
Long lead times for obtaining equipment and replacement parts.
7)
After-hour or off-schedule operation is not usually convenient or efficient. The energy
consumption and cost operating a cooling tower, a chiller and associated pumps to service a few
hours of the after hours or holiday operation of a few classrooms could offset the annual energy
and cost savings of the entire system.
8)
Even though the cooling (refrigeration) energy of a central plant is more efficient, the air moving
energy is usually twice that of cooling energy in a typical school building. Some central systems
are less efficient than unitary systems because the air distribution systems are not designed to be
energy efficient.
For modernization or expansion of existing school plants, the addition of central systems is rarely cost
effective. And, in modernization projects, carefully chosen and designed unitary systems can be installed
with minimum disruption to the ongoing educational process.
CONTROLS AND ZONING
General
a.
Provide an automatic system of temperature control for all systems.
b.
Each classroom shall be a separate air-conditioned zone.
c.
Small rooms such as adjacent offices on the same exposure and other small spaces of similar thermal
profile may be combined under one control zone.
Zone control shall be located at the most
representative space temperature location.
d.
A common air handling system shall not serve areas that are not on similar operating schedules.
e.
Thermostats shall not be located in areas that are accessible to unsupervised students after schools hours
such as classroom building hallways, corridors and lobbies.
f.
Thermostats in Gymnasiums shall be protected from possible damage from the impact of balls etc. or
provide remotely located thermostats with temperature sensors in the conditioned space or return air
ducts.
g.
All thermostats shall be provided with lockable vandal -resistant covers.
h.
Wireless controls are allowed only under certain circumstances. Approval from District’s Project
Manager, M&O Technical Supervisor, and Supervising Mechanical Engineer shall be obtained prior to
starting design.
Deleted: not
1)
Formatted: OA4, Indent: Left: 0.88", Hanging: 0.38",
Numbered + Level: 1 + Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Start
at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 1.13" + Indent at:
1.38", Widow/Orphan control, Tab stops: 1.25", Left + Not at
0.88"
Wireless controls will be considered on a case by case only.
i.
For existing facility projects such as modernization and equipment replacement, replace existing
pneumatic control systems with direct digital controls.
j.
Kitchen MAU Sequence of Operations:
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 172
Deleted: .
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
2.
3.6 HVAC Systems
1)
When kitchen is occupied, supply fan shall be turned on to low speed, return air dampers open to
100% and outside air dampers open to minimum set position.
2)
Thermostats shall determine heating and cooling mode depending on indoor temperature and set
points. This will activate heating and mechanical cooling. Evaporative cooling shall be locked out
on this mode.
3)
Exhaust fan shall be energized when kitchen hood venting is required. The supply fan shall be
turned on to high speed, return air damper closed to 0%, and outside air damper open to 100%.
Mechanical cooling shall be locked out on this mode.
4)
Kitchen MAU shall be stand alone and not part of ECEMS.
Environmental Control and Energy Management System
a.
Provide a fully automated, integrated and programmable Direct Digital Environmental Control and
Energy Management System (ECEMS) for HVAC systems (Central and/or Unitary) control and energy
management functions.
Exception – Existing Facilities: For replacement HVAC systems at existing sites, confirm scope and
extent of ECEMS requirements with the District.
b.
Integrate the ECEMS system with the Information Technology System when it is beneficial in cost or
security measures. The ECEMS system shall be designed to be monitored and controlled from a remote
location.
c.
The specified ECEMS shall be open protocol BACNET system that is capable of interfacing with
systems by other manufacturers.
d.
Control system and equipment shall be fully presented in the contract documents. Contract documents
shall contain the following, minimum, information:
1) Control sequences for all scheduled equipment. The control sequences shall be tailored to
clearly convey the design intent. Do not utilize “standard” control sequence templates
provided by vendors, unless fully reviewed and edited by the Engineer of Record. Identify
proposedset-points within sequences.
2) Control sequences for implementation of Automatic and manual demand reduction control,
including software switches to allow manual initiation of globalset-point adjustments and
override of automatic demand reduction initiation. Override timeframe and set-point offsets
shall be adjustable. Identify an external digital input point as “future” to accommodate an
automatic demand shed/reduction signal from the local utility company.
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.88", No bullets or numbering
Deleted: Design
Formatted: Underline
Formatted: Outline numbered + Level: 6 + Numbering
Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Start at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at:
1.35" + Tab after: 1.5" + Indent at: 1.5"
Deleted: e
Deleted: r
Deleted: all
Deleted:
Deleted:
3) Control Points lists for all scheduled equipment, including available alarms.
4) Control diagrams for each piece of scheduled equipment. Diagrams shall contain all
proposed control devices and shall be coordinated to match intent defined within control
sequences and point(s) lists. Control diagrams should help represent the graphical
information to be found at the ECEMS workstation graphical user interface.
5) ECEMS architecture diagram identifying: Controlled equipment, unit/equipment controllers,
DDC control panels, LAN connection location, webserver(s) locations, workstation
location, interconnecting communication connections (to LAN and “daisy chain”)Clearly
identify and coordinate trade responsibility between specifications, mechanical and electrical
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 173
Design Standards Department
Deleted: .
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.6 HVAC Systems
drawings.
e.
The ECEMS manufacturer shall furnish and install the complete system.
f.
An override must be provided to by-pass the system in order to provide continuous service. There
should be local capability for enabling the system; the following features should be provided;
1)
Dedicated single zone HVAC units shall be enabled by means of a local override button, or other
approved local device(s).
2)
Large central systems (i.e. chilled water plans, central air handler unit(s)) shall be programmed to
enable cooling upon a call/signal from multiplezones and based on outdoor ambient conditions
3)
Large central systems shall be equipped with a software switch to allow operator override for a
pre-determined (adjustable) time period.
g.
The locations of the user interface workstation shall be coordinated with the local M&O HVAC
supervisor. Verify the need for air conditioning or ventilation when re-purposing existing spaces.
h.
Coordinate and indicate routing of required communications cable from the workstation and/or
webserver(s) location(s) to the nearest MDF room..
i.
The ECEMS shall provide the following controls, diagnostic, and trending points:
1)
General:
a)
Indicate a system that utilizes a screen display for control operations.
b)
The system shall be accessible remotely. Indicate that the system shall be provided with all
necessary software and configuration for remote users to open, read, and revise the screen
display data.
c)
Digital data shall be stored and saved at 4 hour intervals and analog data at appropriate
intervals for an effective operation. Analog power inputs shall be stored at 15 minutes
intervals.
d)
The system shall be able to offload historical data onto a DVDs yearly. A user alert shall
sound at this time. Reset shall be done manually.
e)
Historical data stored in DVD shall be accessible via a display screen instantaneously by
date and time, and in trends and graphs.
f)
Indicate that the system shall be equipped with a UPS capable of providing power to the
ECEMS for at least 30 minutes during power downtimes.
g)
Coordinate with Mechanical Engineer to specify AC units or dampers with end limit
switches, or analog position feedback for connection to unitary controller.
h)
Design shall provide for continuous network operation.
i)
Design shall indicate but not be limited to pathways and conduit routing, equipment
location, component parts, and cables. Provide catalog numbers for all components.
j)
All exterior mounted system components shall be NEMA 3R rated.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 174
Design Standards Department
Formatted: OA4, Indent: Left: 0.88", Hanging: 0.38",
Numbered + Level: 1 + Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Start
at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 1.13" + Indent at:
1.38", Widow/Orphan control, Tab stops: 1.25", Left + Not at
0.88"
Deleted: , if service on the system is required during school hours.
Deleted: Deleted: .
Deleted: U
Deleted: the located in
Deleted: and shall be hardwired to the network
Deleted: or
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.94", Hanging: 0.31", Numbered
+ Level: 1 + Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Start at: 1 +
Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 1.13" + Indent at: 1.38"
Book Three Technical Criteria
2)
3)
4)
3.6 HVAC Systems
Air Conditioning Units (2 Tons – 25 Tons):
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.88", Hanging: 0.38", Numbered
+ Level: 1 + Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Start at: 1 +
Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 1.13" + Indent at: 1.38"
a)
Supply air temperature.
b)
Return air temperature.
c)
Space temperature.
d)
Outdoor air temperature. (one per site)
e)
Filter status.
f)
Fan status.
g)
Compressor status.
h)
Economizer damper current position.
i)
Any other diagnostic points required by current T-24, automated fault detection and
diagnostics (FDD).
Fan Coil Units and Condensing Units:
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.88", Hanging: 0.38", Numbered
+ Level: 1 + Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Start at: 1 +
Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 1.13" + Indent at: 1.38"
a)
Supply air temperature.
b)
Return air temperature.
c)
Space temperature.
d)
Filter status.
e)
Fan status.
f)
Compressor Status
g)
Any other diagnostic points required by current T-24, automated fault detection and
diagnostics (FDD).
Heat Pump/Fan Coil Units:
Deleted: and
a)
Supply air temperature.
b)
Return air temperature.
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.88", Hanging: 0.38", Numbered
+ Level: 1 + Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Start at: 1 +
Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 1.13" + Indent at: 1.38"
c)
Space temperature.
d)
Filter status.
e)
Fan status.
f)
Compressor status.
g)
Any other diagnostic points required by current T-24, automated fault detection and
diagnostics (FDD).
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 175
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
5)
3.6 HVAC Systems
Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Systems (LAUSD Substitution/Deviation approval required) :
Deleted: Lighting: Provide monitoring for the lighting control
system. The EMS shall communicate with the lighting control system
via BACnet protocol.
a)
Supply air temperature.
b)
Return air temperature.
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.88", Hanging: 0.38", Numbered
+ Level: 1 + Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Start at: 1 +
Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 1.13" + Indent at: 1.38"
c)
Space Temperature.
Formatted: Font: 10 pt
d)
Filter Status.
e)
Fan Status
f)
Compressor status.
g)
Economizer damper current position if applicable.
h)
Any other diagnostic points required by current T-24, such as automated fault detection
and diagnostics, etc.
6)
7)
Lighting: Provide monitoring for the lighting control system. The EMS shall communicate with
the lighting control system via BACnet protocol.
Formatted: Font: 10 pt
Power System: Provide for the monitoring of power consumption as follows:
a)
Monitor KWh, KW, KVA, KVAR, Power Factor, Amps at the main electrical service.
b)
Monitor KWh, KW, KVA, KVAR, and Power Factor at each permanent building, and
bungalow clusters.
c)
Design shall indicate a unitary controller for connection to the main electrical service
power meter.
The system shall be able to integrate analog signals form power meters. Power meter
outputs shall be totalized for each building, designated area(s), or power panels. Each
output shall be treated as one item.Exception – Existing Facilities: For replacement
HVAC systems at existing sites, confirm scope and extent and scope of power system
monitoring requirements with the District.
Formatted: OA3, Indent: Left: 1.69", First line: 0", Space
Before: 6 pt, After: 6 pt, No widow/orphan control, Tab
stops: 1.25", Left
Deleted: ¶
Formatted: Font: 10 pt
Formatted: Font: 10 pt
E.
1.
AIR DISTRIBUTION
Ventilation and Outside Air
a.
Provide outside air to each room through the HVAC system in compliance with current CEC Standards.
b.
Clearly indicate outside-air provisions and flow rates for each HVAC unit, and relief provisions to
balance the fresh outside air make-up and to relieve exhaust air in all operating cycles. Provide airflow
diagrams for proposed systems.
c.
Fresh Air Intakes:
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 176
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
2.
3.
3.6 HVAC Systems
1)
Locate fresh air intakes to prevent contamination from kitchen exhaust, garage exhaust, or any
process exhaust by locating the intakes on the upstream (prevailing wind) side of exhaust
openings, as distant as possible.
2)
Limit intake velocity to 750 FPM through net free louver area at 100 percent fresh air quantities
to keep noise, pressure drop and rain carryover to a minimum.
3)
Provide a floor drain at the fresh air intake into larger air handling unit rooms.
4)
Coordinate rooftop AC unit fresh air intake locations with existing or new plumbing vents.
Deleted: ¶
Ducts
a.
Comply with current code and SMACNA Guidelines for duct construction. Thicker metal gauges for
ducts and hanger straps, as specified in the Guide Specifications, must be used for exposed ductwork
and other special considerations.
b.
Size ductwork for conditioned air on equal-friction method based on 0.08" WC per 100 feet with a high
velocity limit of 1,000 FPM above occupied areas (850 FPM for unitary equipment above classrooms)
and 1,500 FPM inside shafts, or as directed otherwise by the Project Acoustical Consultant. Changes in
sizes at every branch or every interval are not warranted economically unless branch represents a
substantial percentage.
c.
Size return-air and exhaust air ducts on equal-friction method based on 0.08" WC per 100 feet with a
high velocity limit of 1,000 FPM above occupied areas (850 FPM for unitary equipment above
classrooms) and 1,500 FPM inside shafts or as directed otherwise by the Project Acoustical Consultant.
d.
Allowable air velocities for ducts above acoustically sensitive areas shall be determined by an Acoustical
Engineer.
e.
Duct return air, Ceiling-plenum return is not allowed, in order to improve indoor air quality.
f.
Ducts shall be designed to achieve required sound attenuation without the use of sound attenuators;
when this is not feasible, sound attenuators or lined ducts should be installed on inlet.
g.
Fire dampers or combination smoke-fire dampers must be installed in all ductwork as required by the
State Fire Marshal. Indicate damper locations clearly on drawings. Provide disconnect switches for
automatic fire dampers.
h.
If used, indicate the location of duct mounted smoke detectors used for shut down ofHVAC units and
combination smoke-fire dampers clearly on the floor plans. Coordinate with the project Electrical
Engineer to take advantage of total coverage smoke detection systems and save the duplicate cost of
installing smoke detectors separately for the HVAC system.
Air Inlets and Outlets
a.
4.
Select and layout supply-air outlets and exhaust and return-air inlets in accordance with current
ASHRAE Guidelines and acoustical requirements.
Fans
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 177
Design Standards Department
Deleted:
Deleted: I
Deleted: larger
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.6 HVAC Systems
a.
Select fans to minimize noise and to meet noise level criteria in occupied spaces.
Deleted: e
b.
Provide direct drive motors, with manual fan speed control, for centrifugal roof exhaust fans, ceiling,
inline or cabinet type fans if available from the manufacturer.
Deleted: on design below 3500CFM.
c.
Special Exhaust Fans: Exhaust from kitchen hoods, fume hoods, kiln hoods, spray booths, and dust and
sawdust collection systems require special attention to construction details, potential explosion hazards,
noise and location.
1)
5.
Roof fans handling exhaust from kitchen hoods require a shaft seal and a special insulated plate
to separate the fan from the motor compartment.
2)
Fans exhausting fume hoods require spark resistant construction, and special coatings to prevent
chemical action on fan and housing. The motor shall be explosion proof and located outside of
the air stream.
3)
Fans exhausting paint spray booths require spark resistant construction. The motor shall be
explosion proof and located outside of the air stream.
d.
Pre-fabricated dust collection systems shall be used for removal of saw dust in wood shops.
e.
Exhaust from kiln hoods requires special fans with force-vented motor compartment and special
construction to withstand high temperature.
Deleted: .
Deleted: c
Economizers for Outside Air
a.
General:
1)
2)
b.
The California Energy Commission prescribes 100% outside-air economizers for equipment with
supply-air capacities over 1,800cfm or 4.50 tons cooling capacity. That is the usual low limit for
satisfactory payback at locations where weather conditions are least conducive to 100% outdoor
air economizer operation with fan-assisted relief. For units of 7 ½ tons capacity and higher,
which are usually used for administrative areas, multi-purpose rooms and gymnasiums, the
District requires outside-air economizers and recommends power-exhaust systems.
Provide 100% outdoor-air economizers for classroom rooftop unitary systems with capacities
equal to or above 3 tons to achieve energy savings and to comply with CHPS Energy Prerequisite
1 and IEQ Credit 4.2 (both for the ability to more effectively flush out the building prior to
occupancy and for the increase in fresh air during the economizer cycle). Compliance with CHPS
is mandatory, but the use of economizers shall be considered only if the cost is justified by
benefits and school location. When economizers are utilized they are to be used with gravity
relief of exhaust air, not with power exhaust systems. Small split systems are not required to be
provided with 100% outdoor air economizer systems. Do not provide 100% outdoor air
economizers when the outdoor air quality is low.
Design Criteria for Economizers and Gravity Relief Systems:
1)
For small rooftop unitary systems, provide units with downward duct discharge, and with
manufacturer-installed and warranted economizer equipment equipped with fault detection and
diagnostics.
2)
The total pressure drop through the relief system shall not exceed 0.075” water gauge.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 178
Design Standards Department
Deleted: 2,500
Deleted: 6.25
Deleted: small
Deleted: (3, 4 & 5below 4.5 Ton capacityies)
Book Three Technical Criteria
c.
3.6 HVAC Systems
3)
Relief Louver size:
The pressure loss through the louvers should not exceed 0.02” water
gauge static pressure. Catalog data indicates that the majority of the commercially available
louvers will have about 0.02” water gauge static pressure drop at about 250 feet per minute free
area velocity.
4)
Ceiling Grille size:
The pressure loss through the grilles should not exceed 0.02” water gauge
static pressure. Catalog data indicates that the majority of the commercially available registers will
have about 0.02” water gauge static pressure drop at about 300 feet per minute free area velocity.
5)
Duct size:
The relief duct should be sized for 0.01” water gauge static pressure loss per 100’ of
ductwork maximum for 100% of the unit capacity. The relief duct pressure loss should not
exceed 0.01” water gauge static pressure.
6)
Backdraft dampers. Provide the counter-balanced type that opens at about 0.01” water gauge
static pressure. Check if they are opening properly and not stuck in the closed position. The total
pressure loss through the damper should not exceed 0.02” static pressure.
7)
The pressure loss through each component of the system is required to be adjusted so that the
total does not exceed 0.075” water gauge static pressure.
Commissioning Measures
1)
Air Balance: Systems must be balanced for both the regular and economizer modes.
a)
Most unitary systems are specified with a safety factor in the static pressure. The
Contractor must be required by the specifications to replace the drive sheaves and slow
the fan down to achieve the required air balance and prevent energy waste and noise. If
this is not done, the air flow is left higher creating higher static pressure and noise levels,
as well as excessive pressure on doors and door closers.
b)
If the system is not also balanced for the economizer mode, when the outdoor air
dampers open fully much more air is delivered than the design capacity.
2)
Corridor pressure: If the corridor HVAC unit is off, or the corridor unit is not in the 100%
economizer mode when the classroom is operating on the economizer cycle, the corridor
pressure will be lower than normal operating conditions, further contributing to the door-closing
difficulty. Design system to prevent this occurrence.
3)
Door closer pressure: During testing and balancing, door closer pressures must be set properly
and not too low just to more easily achieve access compliance.
4)
Remedial Measures for Incorrect Design:
a)
If gravity relief is not sufficient during the 100% outdoor air economizer operation after
the above commissioning is done, the maximum operation of the return and relief
dampers in the economizer system should be adjusted to reduce the amount of outdoor
air and return some air to the unit. An 80% outdoor air system is still more energy
efficient and conducive to fresher indoor air than a minimum outdoor air system with
30% outdoor air. If this is not possible, the economizer operation is required to be
deactivated.
Formatted: Indent: Left: 1.1", Hanging: 0.15", No bullets
or numbering
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
F.
1.
3.6 HVAC Systems
COILS AND PIPING
Cooling Coils and Piping
a.
Use maximum 550- FPM face velocity for the calculated quantity of air passing through directexpansion cooling coils and chilled-water cooling coils.
b.
Pipe all cooling coils for counter flow of refrigerant against direction of airflow for most effective heat
transfer. Chilled water or refrigerant shall enter on the airflow downstream side of coil and work
through rows opposite the airflow. Design for water to enter at bottom and exit through top
connection of the coil to relieve possible air binding. Install air vents at top of return riser.
c.
Use 2-way control valves for variable-flow chilled water systems. Provide variable-speed drives at the
pumps to save energy where economically feasible.. Design an adequate bypass system to maintain the
minimum flow requirements of chillers.
d.
Variable speed drives must be provided for the secondary pumps in primary - secondary chilled water
systems.
Deleted: to provide a
Deleted:
Deleted: Provide 3-way valves at the end of each pipe loop for
continuous water circulation
Deleted: Provide a sufficient number of 3-way valves
Deleted: Provide multiple chillers so that they may be staged.
e.
Provide all coil sections with thermometers, a 3/4" globe drain valve piped to floor drain at system low
point, a water strainer ahead of control valve, and gate valves in main chilled water supply and return for
shutoff and repair of control valves.
f.
All valves, fittings, strainers and pipes (up to the coil) shall be the same size, except for control valves
which shall have reducers at valve inlets and outlets.
g.
Provide flexible connections at inlets and outlets to coils.
h.
Provide Griswold Flow Control valves,or equivalent, at the inlet side all cooling coils downstream of the
shut-off valves, unless they impact performance and operation of variable flow systems Clearly emboss
flow rating on a metal plate fixed on valve housing.
Deleted:
Provide a flowmeter, on the main chilled water line. Clearly emboss flow requirement on a metal plate
fixed to venturi housing. Show direction of air flow through coils on diagrams.
Deleted: venturi
i.
j.
Size chilled water coils on a basis of 12F to 16F water temperature rise.
k.
Use direct expansion (DX) coils where close temperature control is not required; otherwise, utilize
chilled water coils. DX coils make control of cold plenum temperature erratic and present operational
difficulties.
1)
Provide as many steps of capacity with solenoid valves as possible and use individual suction
risers with oil traps.
2)
Pipe liquid lines with stop valves, strainers, solenoid valves, and external equalizing thermal
expansion valves.
3)
Install sight glasses ahead of thermal expansion valve to observe a premature flashing condition.
Deleted: .
Deleted: measurement device, Barco-aeroquip or equivalent
Deleted: se
Formatted: Indent: Left: 1.25", No bullets or numbering
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
2.
G.
1.
2.
3.6 HVAC Systems
Heating Coils and Piping
a.
Size heating coils at 700 FPM maximum.
b.
Use hot water as the preferred heating medium.
c.
Use 2-way control valves for variable-flow hot water systems. Provide variable-speed drives at the
pumps to save energy where economically feasible. Design an adequate bypass system to maintain the
minimum flow requirements required by the boilers.
d.
Arrange heating coils for counter flow and upward flow for best heat transfer and natural venting.
Tailor coils for each project with sufficient allowance for warm-up and fresh-air load.
e.
Size water coils for 20F minimum water temperature difference, and entering water temperature of
180 F. Piping to hot water coils shall be the same as that required for the chilled water coils.
COOLING SOURCES
Refrigeration Systems
a.
Direct Expansion (DX) Systems, because it is difficult to obtain modulating control of capacity, should
be used only for single-zone units and other applications where modulation is not necessary.
b.
Chilled Water Systems should be used for most multi-zone units and larger systems, where more precise
control and better modulating capacity control is needed.
c.
Package-type units with compressor, chiller, condenser, and controls all provided as a unit should be
used when possible to simplify installation.
d.
An absorption type machine may be considered only if steam is available from a central plant that will
be operating during summer or special gas incentives are available.
e.
Machines should be piped for parallel flow.
f.
Size piping at a friction loss of 5 feet of water per 100 feet of pipe maximum with maximum velocity not
to exceed 8 feet per second.
g.
Select evaporators and condensers so water velocity through tubes is 9 feet per second maximum.
h.
Thermal energy storage systems and co-generation systems shall be considered only when substantial
incentives are offered by the utility providers to offset the additional cost.
Chilled Water Pumps:
a.
Size pumps for the total pressure drop through the system, including piping, chiller evaporator, coil,
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: rather than steam because of relatively poor heat
distribution across face of a steam coil, particularly on low heat
demand.
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", Hanging: 0.38"
Deleted: <#>Use 2-way control valves to provide a variable-flow
hot water system. Provide variable-speed drives at the pumps to save
energy where economically feasible. Provide 3-way valves at the end of
each pipe loop for continuous water circulation. Provide a sufficient
number of 3-way valves to maintain the minimum flow requirements
of boilers. Provide multiple boilers so that they may be staged. ¶
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.6 HVAC Systems
control valve andflow limiting devices.
b.
3.
For primary/secondary systems, provide two redundant secondary system pumps. Size each pump for
100% of system capacity, so one functions as 100% standby. Both pumps shall be designed with
variable speed drives and automatic alternating controls. Where primary secondary system is not used,
provide a dedicated pump for each chiller that is sized for full capacity of the chiller.
c.
Use end-suction, pedestal-mounted pumps with mechanical seals and flexible couplings for all except
very large systems, where it may be necessary to use double suction pumps.
d.
Install a gate valve and strainer on the suction side and a balancing cock on the discharge side of each
pump, and a chemical feeder from the supply to return line.
e.
Bolt pumps directly to a concrete base unless located over or under a critical occupied space, when they
should be mounted on inertia anti-vibration bases. Install flexible connections in piping to pumps.
Deleted: "Griswold"
Deleted: control valve.
Deleted:
Cooling Towers
a.
4.
Deleted: three-way
Size cooling towers at minimum of 2ºF above current ASHRAE design wet bulb temperature to get
120% to 150% of required capacity, to guarantee full capacity from chiller at any wet bulb condition and
to allow for fouling of tower.
b.
Provide a bleed-off system and a chemical feeder to prevent mineral build-up and to maintain water
quality.
c.
Provide for make-up water to replace evaporation and bleed.
d.
Locate cooling towers to avoid unsightly conditions and so that noise generated by fan will not be
objectionable in adjoining buildings. Provide louvered screens, masonry walls, or planting for
concealment.
e.
Locate cooling towers so that the discharge air from the cooling towers will not contaminate air
handling unit outdoor air intakes, openings into the building and pedestrian or student occupied areas to
minimize the possibility of Legionnaires’ Disease.
Deleted: s
Condenser Water Pumps
a.
Use two system pumps with variable speed drives. Size each pump for 100% of system capacity so one
pump can function as 100% standby. Provide automatic alternating controls.
b.
Size pumps for the actual capacity of the chiller requirements -- approximately 3 gpm per ton of
refrigeration.
c.
Design condenser water piping the same as for chilled-water piping. Make sure that cooling tower
elevation or suction pipe sizes are adequate to provide a positive suction head at the pump.
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.6", Hanging: 0.15", No bullets
or numbering
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
H.
1.
2.
3.6 HVAC Systems
HEATING SOURCES
Boilers
a.
Use Low Nox hot-water boilers to avoid expense of heat exchangers.
b.
Use two or more gas fired package-type boilers, cast-iron or steel water-tube with burner and controls all
mounted as a unit, for larger systems and one for smaller systems.
c.
Operate at 180F to 200F minimum with a temperature drop of 30F maximum to prevent
condensation of flue gases in breeching and stack.
d.
Provide a combination low-water-cutoff and boiler-feed control with alarm mounted above centerline of
boiler relief valve discharge. Connect boiler feed to full domestic cold water line pressure, taking care to
see that CW pressure is greater than boiler operating pressure.
e.
Pipe blowdown from low-water control and feeder to a hopper drain located adjacent to boiler.
Central Boiler Plant
a.
4.
Hot water from a Central Plant should be used if available.
Hot Water Heating System
a.
b.
Pumps:
1)
Use two system pumps in parallel provide one system pump as standby. Size boiler primary
recirculating pump as recommended by boiler manufacturer.
2)
If close temperature control is required, select circulating pumps first and size piping to fit
available pump head. In most cases, this will permit use of pipeline-mounted pumps for all
secondary circuits. Close temperature control is usually not required and secondary circuit
pumps are usually not necessary.
3)
Use end-suction, pedestal-mounted pumps with mechanical seals and flexible couplings for all
except very large systems, where it may be necessary to use double suction pumps.
4)
Bolt pumps directly to a concrete base unless located over or under a critical occupied space,
when they should be mounted on inertia anti-vibration bases. Install flexible connections in
piping to pumps.
Piping:
1)
Design for water velocity of 8 feet per second maximum, with pressure drop 5 feet per 100 feet
of pipe maximum.
2)
Arrange piping so heat source, expansion tank and cold-water make-up are on suction side of
pump as indicated in latest ASHRAE handbook, Systems Volume.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3)
c.
e.
I.
Size expansion tanks in accordance ASHRAE Guidelines, for 100 psi ASME Code working
pressure. Expansion tanks shall be of the bladder or diaphragm type.
Relief Valves:
1)
Provide ASME Code-rated relief for maximum heat input to hot water boiler.
2)
Relief setting is limited to boiler working pressure or working pressure of weakest component in
system.
3)
Pipe discharge to 12" maximum above floor.
Air-Vent Valves:
1)
5.
Install a small chemical feeder on each system.
Expansion Tanks:
1)
d.
3.6 HVAC Systems
Provide auto air vent valves at all high points in system or wherever air might be trapped in
system. Locate valves on drawings.
Cold Water Make-Up
a.
Cold water make-up to boilers, hot-water, chilled-water, and condenser-water systems should be made
from a common line which has a reduced pressure backflow-prevention device installed under plumbing
work.
b.
Install a gate valve, strainer and check valve at make-up connections to closed systems, except that
make-up to combination boiler-water feeder and low water cut-off on boilers should be full line
pressure.
c.
Provide water treatment for all closed heating and cooling systems and at all cooling towers.
SOUND AND VIBRATION CONTROL
1.
Criteria
a.
Because mechanical systems and equipment are a major source of disturbing noise within buildings,
sound and vibration control measures must be incorporated to the maximum extent economically
practical. In general, refer to current ASHRAE guidelines, District Guide Specifications, chapter 2.4
“Environment and Sustainability” of this Guide, and the following recommendations.
b.
Since the District desires to achieve noise levels from HVAC systems better than 45 dBA, especially in
instructional spaces, plan and describe in the “Basis of Design” narrative how this improved acoustical
quality will be achieved together with the associated cost impacts.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
2.
Equipment Sound Levels
a.
3.
Schedule the sound level of the design base HVAC equipment on the drawings. These sound levels
must be at the design conditions and tested per applicable current standards such as ARI Standards 260,
270, 370 and AMCA 300.
Duct and Fan Noise
a.
b.
4.
3.6 HVAC Systems
Ductwork:
1)
Use ducts of thicker sheet metal gauge with sufficient bends to reduce fan and equipment noise.
Lined ductwork and/or attenuators may be used when recommended by the Project Acoustical
Engineer. Duct lining, acoustical panels in ductwork and sound attenuator media when used
shall be of the type that inhibits the growth of mold, mildew and fungi and shall not contain
harmful VOC’s or contain glass fiber.
2)
Provide flexible connectors for ducts at fan connections
3)
Do not locate sound attenuators above spaces where the self generated noise of the attenuator
will increase the space sound level above requirements.
Fans:
1)
Fan-noise in occupied spaces is typically caused by poorly constructed roof fans, roof fans
operating at too great a tip speed, fan noise traveling through air intake louvers and then into
adjoining spaces, and fan noise traveling to occupied spaces through inadequately treated return
systems. Fan noise also comes from rooms without sound-attenuating walls or from roof-top
units with inadequate sealing of roof openings and duct chases.
2)
Locate fan and equipment rooms away from classrooms and other noise-sensitive spaces.
3)
Make fan and equipment room walls of dense material, poured concrete or concrete block with
all voids filled where feasible – or sound-attenuating walls of studs and gypsum board.
4)
Provide details to assure adequate sealing of duct penetrations through roof or mechanical
equipment room walls.
5)
At roof fans exhausting from ceiling plenums over occupied areas, provide a sound attenuator
installed at fan inlet.
Equipment Mounting and Isolation
a.
For roof-top HVAC units, no roof penetrations are allowed except the minimum necessary for ducts
and electrical conduit. All such openings shall be acoustically sealed with acoustical sealant. In addition,
beneath the units provide a sound-isolation barrier of a close-fitting layer of ¾” waterproof plywood or
cement board, sealed with acoustical tape to the curb.
b.
For fans over 24" provide inertia type concrete bases with spring isolators. For smaller fans provide
spring-type vibration isolator rails under fan and motor.
c.
Floor-mounted pumps shall be bolted directly to concrete bases and shall have flexible pipe
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.6 HVAC Systems
connections, except when located over or under an occupied area where noise could be transmitted by
piping or building structure to occupied space. In this case, they shall be mounted on inertia type
concrete bases with spring-type vibration isolators and shall have flexible connections rigidly anchored
and braced to prevent elongation of the flexible connections.
d.
5.
6.
J.
Air compressors shall be mounted on spring-type vibration isolators, except larger sizes shall also have
concrete inertia bases and flexible pipe connections.
Pipe, Conduit and Duct Connections to HVAC Equipment
a.
Pipe, duct and electrical conduit connections to HVAC equipment with rotating or reciprocating
components shall be provided with flexible connectors.
b.
Provide spring, neoprene or rubber in shear type hangers as required for pipes and ducts near
connections to HVAC equipment that are located near or serve acoustically sensitive spaces as directed
by an acoustical engineer.
Classroom HVAC Sound Control:
a.
To meet District standards, HVAC systems must be designed so that noise from the system does not
cause the ambient noise in a classroom to exceed the level of 45 dBA as measured in accordance with
ANSI Standard 12-60. Make design recommendations to the District to achieve a lower sound level,
within reasonable economic limits
b.
ASHRAE recommended design criteria for classroom HVAC sound control is Noise Criteria (NC)
Curve NC-35. An HVAC system will probably meet the District 45 dBA criteria when no portion of
octave-band spectrum of noise lies above NC-35 curve. (This is approximately equivalent to a sound
level of 45 dBA from a standard sound level meter reading.)
c.
Refer also to chapter 2.4 “Environment and Sustainability” of this Design Guide for additional
standards and reference to CHPS Best Practices.
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
1.
HVAC and Refrigeration for Food Service:
a.
Kitchen ventilation systems shall comply with the current CMC requirements.
b.
The basic design concept of the Kitchen Ventilation Systems shall be in accordance with the District
Standard Design. Drawings for these standards are available from the Design Manager upon request.
c.
The kitchen ventilation system shall be capable of maintaining the kitchen temperature above 68 degrees
F during heating and below 80 degrees F during cooling.
d.
The kitchen ventilation system shall operate at a lower speed to deliver less air (only the amount
necessary to maintain the room temperature) in order to conserve energy when the kitchen hood
exhaust fans are off.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
e.
Locate control switches for HVAC equipment to prevent unauthorized use.
f.
Kitchen Hoods:
g.
2.
3.6 HVAC Systems
1)
Provide U.L. listed stainless steel hoods of the 100% exhaust type. Short circuit hoodswhere
make up air is introduced directly into the hood are not allowed.
2)
Provide a State Fire Marshal approved fire protection system inside hood.
Deleted:
Refrigeration Equipment For Walk-In Refrigerators:
1)
The District does not provide standby refrigeration equipment for walk-in boxes, so accessibility
is critical for repairs.
2)
Do not locate in areas difficult to reach or service. Best location is a shaded area outside at grade
level.
HVAC for Science Classrooms
a.
Science classrooms include chemistry, physics, biology, physiology, physical earth, and earth science
study facilities, flexible science labs, preparation/workrooms next to labs.
b.
Condensate drains from HVAC equipment shall not be connected to any portion of science classroom
waste drainage system.
c.
Where hazardous or toxic substances are used in the classrooms, special precautions must be taken,
including the following:
1)
d.
Direction of airflow must be controlled to prevent spread of airborne contaminants and to
protect personnel from exposure to toxic and hazardous substances.
2)
Exhaust 100% of air supplied with no re-circulation in compliance with T-24 guidelines.
3)
Maintain space under slightly negative room pressure.
4)
Maintain constant airflow volume with exhaust operating at full capacity.
5)
Air supply system must satisfy space thermal requirements and provide necessary air balance.
6)
Provide airflow diagrams indicating all supply, exhaust and relief airflow values, under all
operating conditions. Airflow diagrams should account for air balance when the fume hood is off
and when it is operating.
7)
Provide a narrative description of the control intent and detailed control sequences, within plans.
Sequences and control intent should be easily understood by maintenance and operations staff.
Exhaust system:
1)
Provide a dedicated exhaust fan to serve fume hood(s) and a separate general room exhaust fan
for the classroom space.
2)
Exhaust fans must remove a fixed air quantity from each hood. Hoods that have doors must
have individual bypasses for air volume and face velocity regulation.
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: , this includes maintaining the classroom under slightly
negative pressure to prevent exfiltration of potential toxic fumes..
Deleted: .
Deleted:
Deleted: with narrative description and control sequence.
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.
4.
5.
3.6 HVAC Systems
3)
Exhaust system may consist of an individual fan for each hood or a fan serving a group of hoods.
4)
Determine if there is a need for off-hour operation of hood exhaust system, and design the
system accordingly.
5)
Locate exhaust fans near the point of discharge to atmosphere so ducts will be under negative
pressure and any leakage will be into duct.
6)
Locate discharge openings with respect to fresh air intakes to avoid re-circulation.
7)
Exhaust ducts for fume hoods and fans must be of non-corrosive construction. Motor shall be
explosion proof. In all cases, follow the hood manufacturer's recommendations for exhaust fan
sizing and system design.
8)
Provide fire rated enclosure or fire wrap around fume hood duct, as required by applicable codes,
when duct crosses other areas.
HVAC for Computer Rooms
a.
Provide HVAC to MDF, IDF, and any other computer rooms having special requirements for
temperature and air-quality control.
b.
The computer room HVAC units shall be for 24 hours operation, independent from the central system.
HVAC for Arts Classrooms
a.
Photography Classrooms: Supply dark rooms with 100% outdoor air for control of odor. Since air
must be extremely clean to avoid spotty film, use high-efficiency filters. Duct systems into dark rooms
must be light tight.
b.
Art Classrooms: Provide 100% exhaust system, minimum six air changes to remove fumes from
solvents, etc.
c.
Ceramic Classrooms: For kiln, products of combustion must be removed, and a source of combustion
air provided for indoor, gas-fired models. Since they emit large quantities of heat, that load must be
considered in HVAC design. Provide 100% exhaust system, with a minimum of six air changes.
HVAC for Industrial Arts Classrooms
a.
General:
1)
b.
Industrial Arts Classrooms are spaces provided for instruction in construction, maintenance, and
repair of industrial products. In addition to California Code of Regulations, Title 24, refer to
CCR, Title 8 - “Industrial Relations” for additional design criteria.
Power Energy Technology:
1)
Power Energy Technology shops require large amounts of heat to replace losses through large
and frequently opened doors.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
c.
2)
Since work is often done underneath the automobile or other equipment, floors should be kept
warm by radiant heaters or other devices.
3)
Provide an under-floor carbon monoxide exhaust system to remove engine exhaust gases.
4)
If a paint spray booth is installed, it must be exhausted in a safe manner. Makeup air to spray
booth must be tempered for best painting results.
5)
If a steam cleaning area is provided, it must be exhausted.
Construction Technology Shops:
1)
d.
3.6 HVAC Systems
Dust produced in wood working operations is both a health and fire hazard. In smaller
installations, a packaged dust collector using a vacuum cleaner principle may be provided. Large
groups of wood working machines will require a ducted, central collection system with a
centrifugal separator. In either case, collection equipment must be located so that disposal of
collected dust is easy and economical. Dust collection system should include the following:
a)
Exhaust pipe system including dust collector and skimmer are covered in Guide
Specifications for use in Senior and Junior High Schools.
b)
Avoid under-floor piping, if possible.
c)
Keep flexible exhaust piping to a minimum. Where flexible piping is used, a noncollapsible type of piping should be installed.
d)
Drop exhaust piping along columns or walls.
e)
Note minimum height of hopper outlet for placement of 55-gallon drums.
f)
Note maximum height of exhaust piping inlet to dust collector on existing building where
exhaust piping may penetrate existing building window.
g)
Coordinate exhaust piping with suspended light fixtures which are free to swing a
minimum of 45 degrees from vertical in all directions.
h)
Provide seismic restraints for exhaust piping per provisions of NFPA pamphlet 13.
i)
Refer to standards and requirements of ACGIH Industrial Ventilation - A Manual of
Recommended Practices -- AMCA, and SCAQMD, as applicable.
2)
If spray painting is to be done, a bench type or floor type spray booth should be installed.
3)
Heating system must be large enough to accommodate outdoor air introduced to equal exhaust.
General Manufacturing Shops:
1)
General manufacturing shops may contain high-heat producing equipment such as furnaces and
ovens. These must be shielded or ventilation must be provided to control local environment.
2)
Welding and soldering operations produce toxic fumes which must be removed through hoods
or other local exhaust.
3)
Dip tanks and plating tanks must be hooded to prevent spread of toxic vapors.
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Design Standards Department
Deleted:
Book Three Technical Criteria
6.
7.
3.6 HVAC Systems
Underground Parking Ventilation
a.
Ventilate underground parking areas continuously by forced air exhaust systems in compliance with
current codes.
b.
Provide carbon monoxide monitors to control the exhaust fans and to annunciate an alarm on high CO
levels as required by code.
c.
Do not provide exhaust ducts outside garage fan room, unless garage is very large and odd in shape,
thus requiring some ducts. Locate fan in fan room or enclose fan with chain link fence for vandal
protection.
d.
Assure that exposed ducts or equipment are protected by bollards or other enclosure.
e.
Coordinate location of ducts, piping and equipment to avoid overhead obstructions into the minimum
vertical clearance (8’-0”) along the vehicular route connecting the parking garage entrance to the
accessible spaces, and at the accessible spaces themselves. Coordinate location of ducts, piping, and
equipment to avoid obstructing the accessible route, and to avoid protrusions >4” into the protected
zones that are not cane detectable by visually impaired persons.
Restroom Ventilation
a.
Provide a minimum of 10 air exchanges per hour in restrooms.
b.
Provide conditioned air to multi-occupant restrooms utilizing relief air from large adjacent classrooms
with backdraft damper.
c.
Toilet exhaust duct shall be routed to the roof. Sidewall toilet exhaust is prohibited.
d.
Toilet’s exhaust fans smaller than 3500 CFM are to be direct drive.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
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3.6 HVAC Systems
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.7
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
ELECTRICAL POWER AND LIGHTING
A.
POWER SYSTEMS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ............................................194
Deleted: 207
B.
LIGHTING SYSTEMS REQUIREMENTS ........................................................195
Deleted: 208
C.
ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ...................................................................215
Deleted: 229
D.
EMERGENCY POWER SYSTEM ................................................................... 224
Deleted: 240
E.
PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) SYSTEMS ................................................................ 226
Deleted: 242
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
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3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.7
ELECTRICAL POWER AND LIGHTING
A.
POWER SYSTEMS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Life safety and preservation of property are two critical factors in the design of the Electrical Systems. Safety
to personnel and protection of property cannot be compromised and only the safest systems must be
considered.
1.
General Guidelines.
a.
For existing facilities the Architect-Engineer shall procure all available electrical drawings and
underground utility plans from the District’s Vault; Other site plans or site information, and related
drawings are also available for consultants’ research.
b.
The Architect-Engineer must visit the site to verify record drawings and/or existing as-built information
against site conditions to reflect them in the proposed design and construction documents.
c.
Designs for modernization projects, expansions or additions, as well as new construction in existing
campuses shall reflect existing conditions, and applicable modifications made to meet the project’s
requirements.
d.
Off-site work or work within easements shall be designed in accordance with the requirements of the
agency having jurisdiction.
e.
Special requirements from local municipalities shall be addressed in the design documents.
f.
All power wiring shall be in conduit or raceways. Refer to applicable specification division 26
specification sections for additional requirements.
g.
Low-voltage communication or signal wiring shall be continuous without splices between devices, and
shall be in conduits or raceways. Refer to section 3.8 – Electrical Communication AV systems for
additional requirements.
h.
Electrical receptacles and light switches shall be located to allow easy access by users, reflect probable
area(s) usage, and equipment locations. Receptacles or switches serving equipment must be accessible,
and located in compliance with CEC and California Administrative Code -Title 24 requirements.
i.
Provisions shall be made for wire management of power cords accessing the receptacles and shall be
coordinated with the work surfaces, counters, cabinetry, storage units, etc.
j.
All panels and control equipment must be readily accessible.
k.
Avoid running conduit on the roof unless it is absolutely necessary, the length of conduit run shall be
minimized, and the design shall clearly indicate all requirements to accommodate roof replacement if
necessary.
l.
Prior to designing a system with roof mounted conduits the Architect-Engineer shall obtain approval
from the OAR or Design Manager.
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Deleted: s
Book Three Technical Criteria
B.
1.
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
LIGHTING SYSTEMS REQUIREMENTS
General Guidelines
a.
Lighting design shall conform to California Energy Commission Energy Efficiency Standards for
nonresidential buildings, and shall achieve greater efficiency in accordance with the requirements
described below.
b.
Lighting design shall comply with guidelines and follow recommendations and procedures of the
Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) in its “Lighting Handbook” and
“Recommended Practice on Lighting for Educational Facilities, ANSI/IESNA RP-3-00,” as well as
other documents referenced herein.
c.
Refer also to alternative design approaches and daylighting requirements presented in the “Environment
and Sustainability” section of the “School Design Guide.”
d.
For other guidelines, refer to The Collaborative for High Performance Schools “CHPS Best Practices
Manual, Volume II,” sections on “Electric Lighting and Controls” and “Appendix” (available at
http://www.chps.net/).
e.
Provide uniform light distribution in all learning and working spaces. Interior lighting systems shall
provide illumination without discomfort caused by glare. Consider reflectance of room surfaces and
coordinate with architectural finishes.
f.
Avoid harsh or extremely bright lighting. Minimize veiling reflections in task details.
g.
Utilize daylight harvesting to the maximum extent feasible in all spaces, integrated with electric lighting,
photo sensors, and dimmer controls to reduce electricity use.
h.
Utilize high color-rendering source (not less than 80%) in which appearance of people and spaces is
enhanced.
i.
Consider maintainability of lighting system, including susceptibility to dirt collection, ease of cleaning
and relamping.
j.
Provide in all display cases lighting to illuminate each shelf and back individually.
k.
All lighting circuits shall have a power factor equal or greater than 0.95.
l.
The lighting controls in Theatrical applications shall be interfaced with the Fire Alarm System to cause
house lighting to be forced on during alarm conditions, regardless of manual control settings. In
addition the lighting control system shall also interface with the central public address and autonomous
public address system.
m.
Wall mounted light fixtures shall be located in compliance with ADA requirements.
n.
Solar tracking skylights (4’x4’ or 4’X8’) allow interior spaces to replace artificial lighting with natural
daylight during the day time by continually tracking the sun’s position and consistently reflecting its light
indoors. Solar tracking skylights are recommended for large spaces such as gymnasiums, multi-purpose
rooms, cafeterias and libraries.
o.
The energy efficiency obtained from the use of solar tracking skylights is contingent to the lighting
control system used. The artificial lighting is required to operate in conjunction with the skylight(s).
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 195
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
Spaces provided with skylights shall be equipped with dimmable light fixtures, dimmable controls and
daylight and motion sensors.
2.
Illumination Criteria
Design to achieve the following maintained average foot-candle levels on the task plane at levels not lower than
those indicated below, unless alternative lighting designs are submitted and approved by the District that
demonstrate compliance with these criteria.
Interior Spaces:
General Classrooms (See special section covering all classrooms.)
Science and Technology Classrooms
Shops and Drafting Classrooms
Library
Auditorium (higher level is for lecture/testing uses)
Multi-Purpose Room:
Gymnasium (see special section)
Locker, Exercise and Weight Rooms:
Dining Areas (on dimmers)
Food Preparation Area
Custodial Rooms
Offices
Corridor/Stairways (1 FC min. Emergency)
Restrooms
Parking Garage
Parking Garage Entry Zone (Daytime Only)
Machinery and Equipment Rooms:
Exterior Spaces
Building Exterior (Walks, General Areas)
Exterior Corridors (Covered Walks)
Parking Lots
Athletic Fields: Refer to IESNA
*
3.
Foot Candles
30-50
30-50
50
30
30
30-50
50
10
30
50
20
30-50
10
10
5
50
50
2
10
1 min.
Lighting source per Guide Specification Section 26 5000, Lighting.
Specific Lighting Criteria
a.
Classroom Lighting Systems
1)
Follow the recommendations of the Southern California Edison’s “Classroom Lighting
Guidelines,” except as modified herein.
2)
Classroom lighting shall be an integrated combination of daylighting and electric lighting
providing energy conservation through lighting controls. Refer to the “Environmental and
Sustainability” section of these guidelines for more information.
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3)
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
The typical classroom model to meet or exceed the criteria will consist of two rows of continuous
suspended indirect or indirect/direct lighting fixtures parallel to the window wall. (Do not use
three rows.) Each row 20 feet long, plus a 12-foot white board lighting fixture. (Preferred system
in order to provide greater illuminance of the white board area)
a)
New Construction, modernization, major repair and building expansion: Use District
approved LED fixtures.
Deleted: fluorescent
Formatted: Indent: Left: 1.25", Hanging: 0.25", Tab stops:
1.5", List tab + Not at 1.25"
b) Minor modernization: when entire areas or complete rooms are being modernized, existing
fluorescent lighting fixtures shall be replace with equivalent District approved LED fixtures.
c)
Non-District approved light fixtures shall be required to meet the District’s minimum
acceptable performance requirements. Design professional shall submit a complete LED
Fixture Evaluation Form with all supporting documentation. The is available at:
http://www.laschools.org/documents/download/asset_management%2fstudies_an
d_reports%2fLED_Fixtures_Evaluation_Form_3-102014%2exlsx?version_id=311722218
Formatted: Default Paragraph Font, Font: 11 pt
4)
When LED fixtures will not be utilized, the most energy efficient fluorescent lamp, controls and
dimmable programmable ballasts that result in an acceptable foot-candle distribution in
compliance with District standards shall be considered.
Deleted: <#>Any non-District approved light fixtures shall be
required to proposed to be used that are not District approved, shall
meet the District’s minimum acceptable requirements. The list of
requirements can be found at the following link :xxxxxxx. ¶
5)
Align suspended rows and supporting cables with the ceiling grid. In a typical classroom rows
will be spaced 14 feet apart; however, vary the length and spacing of the two continuous rows of
lighting fixtures to suit the size and shape of the classrooms and their specific functional needs.
Deleted: are not considered
6)
7)
For larger science, technical and art classrooms, use a similar model, but use longer rows. Since
these rooms sometimes have perimeter work counters, and the illuminance should be greater
over the counters, adjust the spacing to adequately illuminate the counters. Use a higher ballast
factor/ or LED driver power output as necessary to increase the illumination. In the absence of
fixtures’ lighting facts label, LM-79, LM-80 and T-21 reports should be reviewed for compliance
with District performance requirements.
In High and Middle School Science Classrooms use suspended dual-mode fixtures to provide
dimmable general illumination and AV presentation illumination, switched so that either one of
the illumination levels can be activated independently of eachother. Whiteboard lighting
fixture(s) in these classrooms shall be on a separate dimmable zone.
8)
Lighting fixtures must illuminate the ceilings and walls as well as the task plane (desktop).
9)
Uniformity of illuminance on the desktop is important – especially on the core desk space,
beginning four feet from walls. Generally, a max: min ratio of 2.5: 1.0 should not be exceeded.
10)
Provide ceiling illuminance equal to or greater than the desktop illuminance. Uniformity of
ceiling illuminance is important, and the maximum to minimum ratio should not exceed 12:1.
Provide wall illuminance (opposite the window wall) approximately 50% or more of ceiling
illuminance.
11)
Provide teaching wall and white board illuminance at 20 fc minimum. When using wall-washing
whiteboard lighting fixtures, illumination of the instructional wall (whiteboards, maps, etc.)
should be 30 fc minimum to 40 fc maximum. Locate fixtures in a manner that will not cause
projector shadow casting on whiteboard surface.
12)
Wall-washing whiteboard luminaires shall be provided in accordance with IESNA
recommendations, to avoid reflections in the board to the nearest viewer, to avoid a bright patch
above the board, and to evenly illuminate the board without a steep fall-off toward the bottom.
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: <#>Lamps in each row for general illumination shall be
two high-output T8 lamps or one dimmable T5HO lamp with
matching ballasts. Ballasts will usually have a normal ballast factor and
characteristics in compliance with applicable lighting and lighting
controls in specifications sections in Division 26..¶
Deleted: if
Deleted: will be required to validate LED fixtures performance
Deleted: the
Deleted: with two high-output T8 indirect lamps for
Deleted: one dimmable T8 downlight for
Deleted: s
Deleted: both lamp sets cannot
Deleted: be on at the same time
Deleted: Use a w
Deleted: s
Book Three Technical Criteria
13)
b.
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
During the design development and construction documents phases provide point to point
lighting calculations to graphically demonstrate the light levels on all room surfaces. Use the input
data presented in the SCE “Classroom Lighting Guidelines,” except for any modifications in this
Guide. (Note that the “Architecture” section of this Guide calls for the following minimum
surface reflectances: Ceilings – 83%; Walls – 60%; Floors – 30 %.)
Gymnasium Lighting
1)
Using average lumen output of the daylight device for the brightest 2,400 hours of the year
(based on TMY2 weather data), design daylighting to provide 30 to 35 fc average on the floor
with a max./min. ratio of 2:1 (all within reasonable tolerances).
2)
Provide electric lighting for nighttime use and daytime supplementary lighting using high-bay or
high-output LED fixtures, accompanied by daylight vacancy sensors, and dimmers to selectively
switch or dim the lamps in response to the daylight illuminance. Lamps shall be switchable to
four (or three minimum) different levels (including “OFF”). The Architect/Engineer of Record
may propose fixtures with alternative light sources, justification and approval in writing from the
District will be required.
a)
In new construction, modernization and major repair projects Solid State Lighting (LED)
sources should be considered as the primary sources for artificial lighting. Use District
approved LED fixtures.
Deleted: fluorescent lighting
Deleted: (T5HO lamps)
Deleted: and
Formatted: Indent: Left: 1.25", Hanging: 0.25", Tab stops:
1.5", List tab + Not at 1.25"
b) Minor modernization: when entire areas or complete rooms are being modernized, existing
fluorescent lighting fixtures shall be replace with equivalent District approved LED fixtures.
c)
c.
Any non-District approved light fixtures shall be required to meet the District’s minimum
acceptable requirements. Design professional shall submit a complete LED Fixture
Evaluation Form with all supporting documentation. The form can be found at the
following
address:
Formatted: Indent: Left: 1.25", Hanging: 0.25", Tab stops:
1.5", List tab + Not at 1.25"
http://www.laschools.org/documents/download/asset_management%2fstudies_an
d_reports%2fLED_Fixtures_Evaluation_Form_3-102014%2exlsx?version_id=311722218
Formatted: Default Paragraph Font, Font: 11 pt
Site Lighting
1)
Campus and parking areas and building perimeters must be lighted to provide for the safety of
people and the security of property. Provide adequate light, properly distributed to reveal such
hazards as curbs and steps, and to illuminate dark and potentially dangerous areas. Solid state
lighting is the preferred light source.
2)
Provide safety and security lighting on exterior walls of buildings, building entrances, parking lots,
covered walks, and where needed to meet specific project requirements.
3)
Provide lighting for parking lots using pole-mounted full cut-off and dark sky compliant light
fixtures.
4)
Lighting fixtures must be installed in such a manner as to minimize glare for pedestrians and
drivers, and to avoid light spilling onto adjacent properties.
5)
Exterior lighting fixtures and controls, including those located in stairwells open to the exterior,
shall be weather and vandal resistant, and as high and out-of-reach as practical.
a)
Locate lighting fixtures and sensors 10 feet minimum above finish floor.
Deleted:
Formatted: Indent: Left: 1.25", Hanging: 0.25", Outline
numbered + Level: 5 + Numbering Style: a, b, c, … + Start
at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 1.1" + Tab after: 1.25"
+ Indent at: 1.25", Tab stops: 1.5", List tab + Not at 1.25"
Deleted: at
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 198
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
b) Maintenance and Operations concerns should be kept in mind whenever fixtures are
planned to be located 15 feet or more above finished floor.
d.
e.
6)
Provide motion/ vacancy sensors, time clock, photocells and control circuitry in a manner that
will result in energy savings without compromising required light levels.
7)
The use of decorative landscape ground lights is restricted and should not be utilized, unless
specifically approved by M&O Technical Electrical Supervisor and District’s Project Manager.
Deleted: or more above grade wherever feasible, or otherwise as
high and out-of-reach as possible.
Sports Fields
1)
For sports fields the luminance must satisfy the requirements of players and spectators.
Uniformity of horizontal and vertical illumination over the entire playing field is especially
important for such high-speed sports such as baseball, football, and tennis.
2)
Important factors include glare, luminance contrast, color contrast, flicker and spill light.
3)
Lighting fixtures must provide spill and glare controls to minimize offsite illuminance and glare
and sky glare.
4)
Sports lighting controls should be interfaced with site’s energy management system via the
lighting control panel. Design should indicate all requirements and components.
5)
Refer to IESNA standards for specific requirements of each sport activity.
6)
The Engineer of Record shall engage the service of a sports lighting designer and provide a
complete lighting design and controls review package for District approval.
Swimming Pool Facilities: Design Professional shall engage the services of a swimming pool consultant
to provide a safe and code compliant facility. Special consideration should be placed on the following
aspects:
1)
Artificial lighting is required when pool is open at nights or when natural illumination levels are
inadequate. Artificial lighting shall be Solid State Lighting (LED). All areas of the pool, including
bottom main drain shall be visible.
2) Pool deck area shall be adequately illuminated during low level lighting days and at night time so that
persons walking on the deck can identify hazards. Deck light fixtures shall be aimed away from the
pool surface.
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", Hanging: 0.38", Outline
numbered + Level: 3 + Numbering Style: a, b, c, … + Start
at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 0.63" + Tab after:
0.78" + Indent at: 0.78", Tab stops: 0.88", List tab + Not at
0.78"
Formatted: Outline numbered + Level: 4 + Numbering
Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Start at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at:
0.85" + Tab after: 1" + Indent at: 1", Tab stops: 1.25", List
tab + Not at 1"
Formatted: Outline numbered + Level: 4 + Numbering
Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Start at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at:
0.85" + Tab after: 1" + Indent at: 1"
3) Pool lighting shall be designed in such a way that lifeguards or other persons may observe, without
interference from direct and reflected glare from the lighting sources every part of the underwater
area, swimming pool surfaces, and pool system peripheral components.
4) Pools intended for night time use shall be equipped with adequate lighting fixtures that will provide
complete illumination to all underwater areas of the pool. Special care must be exercised to eliminate
any blind spots.
f.
Stages, Auditorium, and Multi-Purpose Rooms in Middle Schools and High Schools
1)
A Theatrical Lighting and Sound Consultant must be engaged for the design of these systems;
particularly for Middle Schools and High Schools.
2)
Lighting and controls are required for stages and platforms, house lights, work lights, and
orchestra pit lights.
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: <#>¶
Book Three Technical Criteria
a)
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
New installations of theatrical lighting systems shall use Digital Multiplex (DMX)
communication controls.
Formatted: Indent: Left: 1.25", Hanging: 0.25", Tab stops:
1.5", List tab + Not at 1.25"
b) Modernization projects that require only the upgrade of lighting fixtures shall maintain the
existing controls, unless control modifications are specifically included in the scope of work.
3)
All stage, auditorium, and multi-purpose rooms lighting must be easily and safely accessible for
relamping and servicing. Such provisions must be clearly indicated on the drawings. For
elementary schools multi-purpose room stage lighting requirements refer to f below.
4)
Proscenium stages and platforms require lighting from the front, side and back.
5)
Stage lighting equipment should not be visible to the audience; however, in cases where existing
conditions makes it necessary the Architect/Engineer shall obtain approval from Design
Manager prior to proceeding with the design. If the equipment is mounted in visible locations,
consider instrument spill light, glare and nearby reflective surfaces in the design.
6)
The most common stage front lighting in the auditorium and multi-purpose room ceiling is
commonly referred to as the ceiling cove or beam position. This is plotted on a 45-degree angle
from head height at approximately 5 feet of an actor standing at the proscenium line to the
auditorium or multi-purpose ceiling. Lights located in this position provide the basic illumination
for the downstage acting area. In a large auditorium or multi-purpose room, several ceiling slots
may be required to provide adequate lighting on the forestage or apron, and the area immediately
behind the front curtain.
7)
Side lighting supplements the front lighting to give three-dimensional properties to the
performers and setting. This lighting equipment consists of ellipsoidal spotlights mounted on a
pipe frame secured to the wall, at each side of the auditorium or multi-purpose room. These
positions are called box booms and the lighting is intended for the apron area only or cross
lighting for deeper into the stage.
8)
Side light for the remaining acting area (behind the proscenium arch) can either be from positions
on the end of electrical battens in the air or on separate movable boom poles in between each
wing (this low side light is most commonly utilized in dance).
9)
On-stage lighting provides front, upstage, top, high side, back lighting, scenery and cyclorama
lighting. The lighting equipment for on stage lighting consists of rows of Solid State Lighting
fixtures that are equivalent to PARs, ellipsoidal spotlights, fresnels, and cyclorama traditional
lighting fixtures on overhead electric battens, but substantially more energy efficient. The
number of rows and lighting equipment depends on the size of the stage. Typically, one electric
batten is supplied for each 8 feet of acting area depth for front lighting fixtures. At a minimum
one additional electric batten is needed for the last row of acting area back and side light fixtures.
If there is a cyclorama, or background scenery, another electric batten will be needed for those
light fixtures.
10)
In the on-stage area, 2 and 3 circuit wall pockets need to be provided for low side lighting.
Typically, for a medium size stage, provide approximately 8 wall pockets distributed along the
side and backstage areas. In addition, floor plates or movable booms with weighted bases and
side arms should be provided.
11)
Coordinate stage lighting with curtains, draperies, grid beams, counter-weight suspension, and
light battens to assure that border lights and cables are concealed and properly supported.
12)
In addition to the stage lights, dimmable LED house lights and switchable LED stage work lights
must be provided for general illumination during rehearsals and other activities outside
performance.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 200
Design Standards Department
Deleted: s
Deleted: lighting
Deleted: Solid State Lighting (
Deleted: s)
Book Three Technical Criteria
a)
13)
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
Auditorium and Multi-Purpose Room lighting controls shall be interfaced with the Fire
Alarm System to cause house lighting to be fully energized, regardless of manual settings
during fire alarm conditions.
Deleted: on
Deleted: .
Every space with a stage should include front lighting with dimming controls. The following
elements can be included as the program and budget allows, in order of priority as follows:
a)
Back light.
b)
Background scenery light.
c)
High side light.
d)
Box boom.
e)
Low side light.
Deleted:
14)
For a larger auditorium or multi-purpose room, every effort should be taken to include as many
elements above as possible, working down the list to insure that the highest priority takes
precedent. The smaller the space gets (along with the budget), the more elements can be taken
off the list.
15)
For auditoria and multi-purpose rooms to be also used for lectures and testing, provide
supplemental dimmable LED lighting. The supplemental lighting shall be turned off
automatically by dimmer bank controls during performance.
16)
Provide orchestra-pit lighting and receptacles for pit lights when pits are provided.
17)
If campus does not have an emergency generator, provide normally off emergency lighting that
will automatically be forced-on without human intervention during a power failure, the power
could be supplied from a central lighting inverter system. Emergency lighting shall provide a
minimum of one foot candle throughout the area. The designer can utilize a portion of the
normal lighting fixtures or separately normally off luminaires for the emergency lighting
functions.
Deleted: fluorescent
Deleted: (Pulse-start metal halide may be considered.)
Deleted:
Deleted: battery/
Deleted: to
a) In existing facilities, perform emergency power load analysis to make sure the existing generator
or central inverter system is capable of handling the emergency lighting load addition.
Formatted
b) Provide overhead fixtures (some of the non-dimmed house or supplemental fixtures), which are
normally off, and only turned on automatically in case of loss of power.
Deleted: which are
Deleted: battery
c) Provide LED aisle lighting at stairs and aisles in Auditoria.
18)
Each theatrical fixture should be hung by theatrical c-clamp onto a schedule 40 black pipe. This
shall allow the re-location of each fixture depending on the performance or designer’s needs.
19)
Provide each hanging fixture with a theatrical safety cable.
20)
Provide each fixture with a cord and theatrical plug.
Deleted: (NEMA L5-20 twistlock connectors)
21)
Each fixture shall have color shifting capabilities.
Deleted: Provide each fixture with gel frame for color
22)
Provide a variety of accessories such as barn doors or pattern holders.
23)
Near each position pipe or attached to each pipe, provide distributed electrically housed outlets
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 201
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
provided by the supplier of the theatrical lighting and control system. Each theatrical raceway
should house enough circuits and receptacles to plug in each fixture separately. Provide a
minimum of 2 spare receptacles. Raceways can be provided with pigtails (if not seen by the
audience) or with flush receptacles.
g.
Deleted: located there
Deleted: , with
Deleted: 1 or
24)
All circuits should be clearly labeled. Circuit numbers for stage lighting should begin at the front
of the stage and increase sequentially as they progress from stage left to stage right. The next row
moving towards the rear of the stage again must be numbered from left to right, and so on to the
rear of the stage. Next should be the ante proscenium lighting fixtures from house right to house
left, then the side wall mounted lighting fixtures, start numbering them from the right side from
top to bottom, and proceed to the left side, again from top to bottom. Next should be the wall
packets which should be numbered from stage left to stage right; then the ceiling mounted
orchestra pit lighting fixtures from house right to left, and then the house lighting fixtures from
the front to the rear of the house. Circuit numbers should correlate one –to-one with the dimmer
that they are connected to.
Deleted: s
25)
Each circuit shall be dimmable. Specify standard sizes dimmer racks as needed for the number
of circuits.
Deleted: Provide at least a single dimmer for each circuit
26)
A dimming and control systems must be provided. The dimming system typically consists of
dimmer racks that include dimmer modules and control modules; a lighting control console, and
stage manager's panels.
a)
Locate dimmer racks in a locked, well ventilated room with thermostatically controlled
ventilation where the ambient temperature does not exceed 30C (86F).
b)
Locate the control console receptacles in a control room at the rear of the auditorium
seating area.
c)
Locate a stage manager's panel in a lockable enclosure that can control the stage related
lighting fixtures, and independently with momentary switches mounted adjacent to the
enclosure the on/off control of the orchestra and house lighting; these controls shall be
preferably located within the stage area, hidden from view of the audience, and in the
control booth.
d)
Provide a portable lighting control console with flat screen monitor to set up and control
cues and lighting scenes. Provide control receptacles located in the house and on the stage
so that the lighting console can be moved to those areas if needed.
e)
In addition to the control receptacles, a 120V, 20-amp duplex receptacle must be provided
near the control receptacles.
f)
Provide momentary non-proprietary key operated switches as part of the entrance stations
at auditorium main entrances for the on-off controls of the orchestra and house lighting
fixtures.
27)
The lighting dimming system must be interlocked with the fire alarm system. In the event of a
fire emergency the house lights shall be forced on at full brightness automatically.
28)
If there is an attic over Multi-Purpose Rooms and Auditoria, provide top access lighting fixtures,
catwalks and attic lighting.
Deleted: Common dimmer rack sizes are 96, 48, 24 and 12, or any
combination thereof. Typically, they consist of 3-phase power and
accept a 40-200amp feed depending on size and load.
Deleted: To control the operation of the lighting equipment,
Deleted: a
Deleted: system
Elementary schools Auditorium or Multi-Purpose Room (MPR) stage lighting shall consist of:
1)
A minimum of 12 feet two circuits power track consisting of (3) 4 feet power track segments,
with a minimum of two LED light fixtures equivalent to (1) 200 watts PAR lamps in each four
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 202
Design Standards Department
Deleted: with
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
feet power track segment. Locate power tracks on stage ceiling area two feet away from main
curtain. In addition, provide (1) two feet single circuit power track with one LED light fixture
equivalent to (1) 200 watts PAR lamps on each side of the stage.
2)
4.
Provide a minimum of (5) LED light fixtures equivalent to 500 watts Fresnel theatrical lights
with one electrical 20 amp, 120 volts receptacle for each fixture, place receptacle directly above
fixture location. Fixtures shall be clamped on a pendant mounted pipe batten; locate pipe batten
approximately 12’-15’ from proscenium opening over MPR seating area to illuminate forestage
and curtain. Each fixture shall be dimmed individually.
3)
Provide a dimmer panel and relay cabinet with a minimum of twelve 1000 watts dimmer circuits.
Panel shall be recessed mounted in new construction, and surface mounted in existing facilities
renovation projects.
4)
Provide interface between theatrical lighting and fire alarm systems. In case of fire alarm, the
lighting controls must automatically force on the house lighting regardless of manual settings.
5)
Refer to Elementary School Multi-Purpose Room Educational Specifications for additional
information.
Deleted: A
Deleted: .
Deleted: Provide
Lighting Controls
a.
Refer to Specifications Section 26 0923 for technical requirements. Provide a Central Lighting Control
System that covers all areas designated and/or rooms in the school. Provide a pathway from the “main”
lighting control panel to the site’s local area network (LAN) for remote management, and a pathway
between all lighting control panels for interconnections.
1)
The lighting control system shall be equipped with a demand response feature in compliance with
applicable codes.
2)
All lighting fixtures shall be controlled by occupancy/vacancy sensors unless approved otherwise
by LAUSD Owner Authorized Representative.
3)
Interior lights and selected exterior lights that are not controlled with an occupancy/vacancy
sensor shall be controlled via local controls and by the lighting control system.
4)
Time-clock programs for exterior lights shall allow seven-day programming functions, summer
and holiday schedules and special events.
a)
Time clock programs shall be overwritten when occupancy and/or vacancy sensors are
provided.
5)
Lighting control equipment shall be located in a lockable room, or otherwise made secure against
tampering and vandalism.
Deleted: locked, located
6)
Lighting control panels shall be equipped with control relays for normal and emergency circuits.
Deleted: as needed.
7)
The centralized lighting control system shall be connected to the site’s LAN system to allow
remote access for programming and maintenance.
8)
Interior daylight sensors for day lighting control shall be optimally located and wired per
manufacturer recommendations for the particular room layout and fixtures location. The
Designer is required to coordinate with the manufacturer to determine the best location for the
sensors and the most appropriate wiring approach, which could be open or close loop.
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
b.
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
a)
Open loop wiring: utilize open loop photo sensor placement for large open areas, areas
where people are moving through, and in areas where precise lighting levels are not
critical; these areas include but are not limited to large open office spaces with several
occupants, lecture halls, auditorium and multipurpose rooms, and similar spaces.
b)
Close Loop Wiring: Utilize close loop photo sensor placement for areas where precise
task-based lighting levels are required, and in areas where occupants remain in the space
for talking; these areas include but are not limited to classrooms, laboratories, small offices
and conference rooms, and similar spaces.
The lighting control system shall include but not be limited to the following areas:
1)
2)
Locker Rooms: These spaces shall be configured with multiple lighting groups/circuits of
luminaires, which exclude the emergency powered luminaires; in addition the design shall reflect
the following features:
a)
Multiple “High Level” groups/circuits shall power a majority of the lighting fixtures to
provide a uniform foot-candle level throughout the space, excluding the emergency
luminaires. The “Low Level” groups/circuits shall power enough luminaires to provide a
uniformed low level of lighting throughout the space.
b)
The room shall be equipped with three-position momentary keyed switches at the Locker
Room entries to energize the low level luminaires as described above, and with ceiling or
wall mounted Dual Technology occupancy sensors with coverage for the entire space.
Locate occupancy sensors in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications.
c)
The controls shall be configured so activation of the momentary keyed switches energize
the low level luminaires as described above, and allow the ceiling/wall mounted
occupancy sensors in the space to control the balance of the luminaires.
(1)
During unoccupied times this space will be kept illuminated by the low level
luminaires. When occupancy is detected, the sensors will activate the balance of the
luminaires for approximately 15 minutes. After a period of 2 hours, if occupancy is
not detected, the low level lighting will be automatically turned-off.
(2)
Re-energizing of the lighting will require reactivation of the momentary keyed
switches described above. The three position momentary keyed switch shall
provide on and off control of all of the luminaires.
(3)
Provide daylight harvesting controls if appropriate daylighting source(s) is available;
in such cases, the lighting controls and daylight harvesting shall be coordinated to
provide uniform levels of illumination.
d)
Emergency powered luminaires shall be controlled in the same manner as normally
powered luminaires; in the case of a power failure the luminaires shall be forced on to full
brightness by means of a Listed Emergency Lighting Control Unit regardless of any
existing control or switch setting. As an option for this space, the emergency lighting may
be used as the low level lighting.
e)
This space shall have the capability to be controlled by a demand response signal triggered
by the serving utility company.
Gymnasium: These spaces shall be configured with multiple lighting groups/circuits of
luminaires, which exclude the emergency powered luminaires; in addition the design shall reflect
the following features:
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Book Three Technical Criteria
3)
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
a)
Multiple “High Level” groups/circuits shall power a majority of the lighting fixtures to
provide a uniform foot-candle level throughout the space. The “Low Level”
groups/circuits shall power enough luminaires to provide a uniformed low level of
lighting throughout the space.
b)
The room shall be equipped with three-position momentary keyed switches at the
gymnasium entries to energize the luminaires as described above, and with ceiling/wall
mounted Dual Technology occupancy sensors with coverage for the entire space. Locate
occupancy sensors in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications.
c)
The controls shall be configured so activation of the momentary keyed switches energizes
the low level luminaires as described above, and allow the ceiling/wall mounted
occupancy sensors to control the balance of the luminaires.
(1)
When occupancy is not, the High Level luminaires will be de-energized after 5
minutes. During unoccupied times this space will be kept illuminated via low level
luminaires. After a period of 2 hours, if occupancy is not detected, the system shall
turn off the low level lighting automatically.
(2)
Re-energizing of the lighting will require reactivation of the momentary keyed
switches described above. The momentary keyed switches shall provide on and off
control of all of the luminaires.
d)
Provide daylight harvesting controls if appropriate daylighting source(s) is available; in
such cases, the lighting controls and daylight harvesting shall be coordinated to provide
uniform levels of illumination.
e)
Emergency powered luminaires shall be controlled in the same manner as normally
powered luminaires except in the case of a power failure. In the case of a power failure,
the luminaires shall be forced on to full brightness by means of a Listed Emergency
Lighting Control Unit regardless of any existing control or switch setting. As an option for
this space, the emergency circuit(s) may be part of the low level lighting.
f)
This space shall have the capability to be controlled by a demand response signal triggered
by the serving utility company.
Auditoria and Multi-Purpose Rooms. Provide lock type, vandal resistant three position key
operated switches for On/Off control of general lighting. If this or any other area or room is
intended for general assembly, and utilized in a manner that requires dimming or turning off the
lighting, the house lighting shall be interfaced with the Fire Alarm System, which in case of a fire
emergency will force the lighting fully on regardless of the manual control settings. (standalone
control)
a)
Los Angeles Unified School District
In Existing Facilities: These spaces shall not be connected to the Central Lighting Control
System if there is a theatrical lighting controls system.
(1)
If the house lighting is controlled by on/off toggles or key operated switches with
or without a lighting contactor, then install ceiling or wall mounted Dual
Technology Occupancy Sensors per manufacturer’s specifications to cover the
entire space.
(2)
The luminaires shall be segregated into two groups; one group shall provide a
uniform low level lighting, and the second group for a normal level of lighting to be
achieved in conjunction with the first group.
(3)
Key or toggle (as required) three position momentary switches shall be utilized at
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
the entries for on/off control of the low level lighting and the occupancy sensors.
b)
4)
Occupancy detection by the sensors shall turn on the balance of the lighting
in the space. During unoccupied times the space will be kept illuminated by
the low level luminaires, and when occupancy is detected, the sensors will
activate the balance of the luminaires for approximately 15 minutes; after a
period of 2 hours, if occupancy is not detected the low level lighting will be
automatically turned off.
b.
Once all lights are turned off, re-energizing the lighting system will require
reactivation of the momentary keyed switches described above.
Emergency powered luminaires shall be controlled in the same manner as normally
powered luminaires, except in the case of a power failure. Under a power failure condition
the luminaires shall be forced on to full brightness by means of a Listed Emergency
Lighting Control Unit, regardless of any existing control or switch settings.
(1)
c)
a.
As an option for this space, the emergency lighting may be used as the low level
lighting.
This space shall have the capability to be controlled by a demand response signal triggered
by the serving utility company.
Cafeteria/ Kitchen/ Food Preparation /Serving and Dining Areas. These spaces shall be
equipped with dual technology ceiling mounted vacancy sensor(s), and manual wall mounted
dimmers to provide full on, up-down dimming, and off controls.
a)
The controls shall be configured to require manual activation of the lighting with the wall
mounted switch.
b)
The vacancy sensors shall keep the luminaires energized while the space is occupied. The
sensor shall turn the luminaires off after 30 minutes of undetected occupancy.
(1)
If occupancy is detected within 30 seconds of the “Off” event, then the luminaires
will automatically return to the previous setting.
c)
Emergency powered luminaires shall be controlled in the same manner as normally
powered luminaires, except in the case of a power failure. Under a power failure condition
the luminaires shall be forced on to full brightness by means of a Listed Emergency
Lighting Control Unit, regardless of any existing control or switch settings.
d)
This space shall have the capability to be controlled by a demand response signal triggered
by the serving utility company.
5)
Laboratories and Shops: Similar to classrooms.
6)
Staff restrooms: lights and exhaust fans shall be interlocked.
a)
Provide a wall mounted switch box dual technology occupancy sensors with manual on
programming.
(1)
The sensor shall turn the luminaires off 5 minutes after the room has been vacated.
The fan shall continue to run for a period of 15 minutes after the luminaires have
been turned off.
(a)
Los Angeles Unified School District
If occupancy is detected within 30 seconds of the “Off” event, then the
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Book Three Technical Criteria
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
luminaires and fan will automatically return to the previous setting.
(b)
b)
7)
Emergency powered luminaires shall be controlled in the same manner as normally
powered luminaires, except in the case of a power failure. Under a power failure condition
the luminaires shall be forced on to full brightness by means of a Listed Emergency
Lighting Control Unit, regardless of any existing control or switch settings.
Student’s restrooms: These spaces shall not be connected to the central lighting control system.
a)
b)
8)
When wall type sensors will not provide full area coverage a ceiling mounted
sensor(s) and a low voltage wall mounted switch shall be provided to
manually turn on lights and fan in conjunction with the sensor.
The luminaires in these spaces shall be solely controlled by one or more ceiling mounted
dual technology occupancy sensor(s).
(1)
The use of wall switches is not allowed.
(2)
The sensor shall turn the luminaires off 5 minutes after the room has been vacated.
The fan shall continue to run for a period of 15 minutes after the luminaires have
been turned off.
Emergency powered luminaires shall be controlled in the same manner as normally
powered luminaires, except in the case of a power failure. Under a power failure condition
the luminaires shall be forced on to full brightness by means of a Listed Emergency
Lighting Control Unit, regardless of any existing control or switch settings.
Common Office Spaces: These spaces include Main Office, Attendance Office, Counseling
Offices and other offices where clerks are always present.
a)
Lighting shall be controlled via dual technology ceiling mounted vacancy sensors and
manual wall mounted switches capable of providing on, full range dimming, and off
control.
b)
Use day light sensor(s) to reduce electric lighting levels in areas where natural lighting
contribution is significant. When daylight harvesting features are required the design shall
provide for the following:
(1)
Daylight sensors shall work in conjunction with the dimmable features of the
lighting system to maintain a uniform level of illumination.
(2)
The maximum lighting illumination level shall be preset, and adjusted automatically
depending on daylight foot-candles contribution.
c)
The controls shall be configured to require manual activation of the lighting with the wall
mounted switch. The vacancy sensor shall keep the luminaires energized while the space is
occupied. The sensor shall turn the luminaires off after 15 minutes of vacancy, but will
reenergize the luminaires to their previous setting if occupancy is detected within 30
seconds of the “Off” event.
d)
The manual controls described above shall not override the daylight harvesting sensor(s).
e)
Emergency powered luminaires shall be controlled in the same manner as normally
powered luminaires, except in the case of a power failure. Under a power failure condition
the luminaires shall be forced on to full brightness by means of a Listed Emergency
Lighting Control Unit, regardless of any existing control or switch settings.
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Book Three Technical Criteria
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
(1)
9)
Private Offices: These spaces shall include offices for the Principal, Assistant Principal, Nurse,
Head Counselor, private office and conference rooms. These spaces shall be equipped with the
following features:
a)
A Four (4) button switch station with on, off, and up and down dimming buttons, and
vacancy sensors. IN large windowed office with significant daylight contribution provide
daylight sensors.
b)
The controls shall be configured to require manual activation of the lighting with the wall
mounted switch. The vacancy sensor shall keep the luminaires energized while the space is
occupied, and shall turn the luminaires off after 5 minutes of vacancy.
(1)
10)
11)
This space shall have the capability to be controlled by a demand response signal
triggered by the serving utility company.
If vacancy is detected within 30 seconds of the “Off” event, the luminaires will
automatically be reenergized to their previous setting.
c)
Emergency powered luminaires shall be controlled in the same manner as normally
powered luminaires, except in the case of a power failure. Under a power failure condition
the luminaires shall be forced on to full brightness by means of a Listed Emergency
Lighting Control Unit, regardless of any existing control or switch settings.
d)
When daylight sensor(s) are provided to reduce the electric lighting levels. The lighting
level reduction shall be commensurate to the natural lighting entering the room to
maintain predetermined foot-candle levels uniformly throughout the room.
Custodial and Equipment Rooms, Storage, Supply, Mechanical, LAN rooms, and unsupervised
rooms. These spaces shall be equipped with the following features:
a)
Provide a switch box mounted dual technology occupancy sensor with manual on
programming feature. The sensor shall turn the luminaires off after 5 minutes of vacancy;
if occupancy is detected within 30 seconds of the “Off” event, then the lighting fixtures
will automatically be reenergized to their previous setting.
b)
If the room configuration does not allow full coverage by the switch box mounted
occupancy sensor, then provide a wall mounted dual technology occupancy sensor(s) and
a low voltage wall mounted switch to manually turn the luminaires on and off in
conjunction with the sensor(s).
c)
Emergency powered luminaires shall be controlled in the same manner as normally
powered luminaires, except in the case of a power failure. Under a power failure condition
the luminaires shall be forced on to full brightness by means of a Listed Emergency
Lighting Control Unit, regardless of any existing control or switch settings.
d)
The above features take precedence over central lighting controls.
Electrical Rooms: These spaces shall be equipped with the following features:
a)
Provide a switch box mounted dual technology occupancy sensor with manual on
programming feature. The sensor shall turn the luminaires off after 30 minutes of vacancy;
if occupancy is detected within 30 seconds of the “Off” event, then the lighting fixtures
will automatically be reenergized to their previous setting.
b)
If the room configuration does not allow full coverage by the switch box mounted
occupancy sensor, then provide a ceiling mounted dual technology occupancy sensor(s)
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
and a low voltage wall mounted switch to manually turn the luminaires on and off in
conjunction with the sensor(s).
12)
c)
Emergency powered luminaires shall be controlled in the same manner as normally
powered luminaires, except in the case of a power failure. Under a power failure condition
the luminaires shall be forced on to full brightness by means of a Listed Emergency
Lighting Control Unit, regardless of any existing control or switch settings.
d)
The above features take precedence over central lighting controls.
Corridors and Stairwells: Lighting for these areas shall be configured with a minimum of 2
groups/circuits (high and low level lighting) of luminaires excluding the emergency powered
luminaires.
a)
The high level group/circuit shall provide even light distribution throughout the corridor
and stairwells.
b)
The low level group/circuit shall power enough luminaires to provide for a low level of
lighting throughout the length of the corridor and stairwells.
c)
Provide three position momentary keyed switches at corridor entries to energize the low
level luminaires. The keyed switches shall provide on and off control of all of the
luminaires, sensors, and low level group; In addition, provide occupancy sensors with
coverage for the complete space.
(1)
The keyed switches shall control the low level group/circuit luminaires and allow
the sensors to control the balance of the luminaires.
(2)
During school operations scheduled times but with corridors vacated, only the low
level group/circuit of luminaires will be on. When occupancy is detected the
sensors will energize the balance of the luminaires for 5 minutes. After a period of
2 hours, if occupancy is not detected the low level lighting will be automatically
extinguished.
(a) Reactivation of the lighting system after 2 or more hours of light fixtures being
in the off state, the luminaires shall be achieved via the key switches at the
corridor entrance(s).
d)
Emergency powered luminaires shall be controlled in the same manner as normally
powered luminaires, except in the case of a power failure. Under a power failure condition
the luminaires shall be forced on to full brightness by means of a Listed Emergency
Lighting Control Unit, regardless of any existing control or switch settings.
(a) As an option for these spaces, the emergency lighting may be used as the low
level lighting.
13)
Building exterior, Walkways, and Area Lighting: Lighting fixtures in these areas shall be
controlled via outdoor photoelectric cell(s) and centralized lighting control. The photoelectric cell
shall automatically detect sunset (dusk) and sunrise (dawn), and when needed the time clock
function of the centralized lighting control system shall control the luminaires.
a)
Luminaires circuited as security/night lighting shall be controlled via photoelectric cell
only. These fixtures shall be on from dusk until dawn.
b)
The balance of the outdoor lighting (from Monday through Friday) shall be configured to
work with the photoelectric cell and the time clock programmed in the following fashion:
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: ed
Deleted: .
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
c)
(1)
On via time clock (5:45 AM) and off via photoelectric cell at dawn.
(2)
On via photoelectric cell at dusk and off via time clock at 10:00 PM.
Provide momentary switches and indicator light in the Plant Manager’s office for on/off
timed control, to allow a onetime 4 hour override of the clock function.
(1)
14)
d)
Emergency powered luminaires shall be controlled in the same manner as normally
powered luminaires, except in the case of a power failure. Under a power failure condition
the luminaires shall be forced on to full brightness by means of a Listed Emergency
Lighting Control Unit, regardless of any existing control or switch settings.
e)
Provide vacancy sensors to turn off all non-security light fixtures when premises have been
vacated.
Covered/Interior Parking Garages: These areas shall be configured with multiple controlled
circuits.
a)
b)
c)
Illumination levels required:
(1)
Low level illumination: under this mode of operation the lighting system shall
provide even light distribution with 15-20% of the space luminaires energized.
(2)
General Illumination: the general illumination or high level illumination shall
provide even distribution of lighting with 80-85% of the space luminaires
energized.
(3)
High level zones shall not exceed 500W per zone. These luminaires shall be
energized when occupancy is detected in their respective zones.
All luminaires shall remain in an off state until occupancy has been detected. At
occupancy detection all the low level lights, and high level lights within the zone being
occupied shall be energized.
(1)
Luminaires in high level zones shall turn off 5 minutes after last occupancy is
detected.
(2)
Low level luminaires shall remain on for 2 hours after the last occupancy detection.
Emergency powered luminaires shall be controlled in the same manner as normally
powered luminaires, except in the case of a power failure. Under a power failure condition
the luminaires shall be forced on to full brightness by means of a Listed Emergency
Lighting Control Unit, regardless of any existing control or switch settings.
(1)
15)
The override shall not bypass the PE cell.
As an option for this space the low level lighting may be used for emergency
lighting.
Outdoor Parking Lots: Lighting fixtures in these areas shall be controlled via outdoor
photoelectric cell(s) and time clock function of the centralized lighting control. The photoelectric
cell shall automatically detect sunset (dusk) and sunrise (dawn), and when needed the time clock
function of the centralized lighting control system shall control the luminaires.
a)
Los Angeles Unified School District
Luminaires circuited as security/night lighting shall be controlled via photoelectric cell
only. These fixtures shall be on from dusk until dawn.
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Book Three Technical Criteria
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
b)
The balance of the outdoor lighting (from Monday through Friday) shall be configured to
work with the photoelectric cell and the time clocked programmed in the following
fashion:
c)
(1)
On via time clock (5:45 AM) and off via photoelectric cell at dawn.
(2)
On via photoelectric cell at dusk and off via time clock at 10:00 PM.
Provide momentary switches and indicator light in the Plant Manager’s office for on/off
timed control, to allow a onetime 4 hour override of the clock function.
(1)
16)
The override shall not bypass the PE cell.
d)
Emergency powered luminaires shall be controlled in the same manner as normally
powered luminaires, except in the case of a power failure. Under a power failure condition
the luminaires shall be forced on to full brightness by means of a Listed Emergency
Lighting Control Unit, regardless of any existing control or switch settings.
e)
Provide vacancy sensors to turn off all non-security light fixtures when premises have been
vacated.
Classroom Lighting Controls
a)
The classroom lighting controls shall be part of the central lighting control system; lighting
shall be configured for on/off/dimming/day light harvesting. and shall provide the
following control features:
(1)
A micro panel that works in conjunction with the main lighting control systems.
(2)
Two switch bank stations, one located at the main entrance and another located
readily accessible near the teacher’s desk.
(a) Each switch bank shall be equipped with five button multi-scene low voltage
switches for the following functions: (1) All on (set to a pre-determine
maximum 50 foot-candles with dimming capability to reduce the foot-candle
level as desired by the teacher), (2) All off mode, (3) Audio/Visual mode (set
lighting level to a maximum of 20 foot-candles, but it should allowed the
teacher to darken the room as required), (4) Teachers whiteboard light
on/off/Dimming, (5) Quiet Time switch (set the lighting to 40 foot-candles);
The Quiet time switch mode will not allow the lighting to be dimmed or
modified by any other means during the preset class time period.
b)
Los Angeles Unified School District
The classroom lighting controls shall contain both dual technology (infrared and passive
sonic) occupancy/vacancy sensors, and daylight harvesting sensors. The
occupancy/vacancy sensors shall turn lights off 5 minutes after the classroom has been
vacated. In the event of the luminaires being turned off by the vacancy sensor, if
occupancy is detected by the vacancy sensor within 30 seconds of the “Off” event,
luminaires shall automatically be energized to their previous setting.
(1)
Classroom lighting shall come on via switch only.
(2)
Design shall indicate sensor optimal locations; Designer shall coordinate locations
with manufacturer’s recommendations prior to submitting any designs for LAUSD
review. Justification of sensors proposed locations shall be provided.
(3)
The daylight harvesting sensor shall cause the lighting system to dim the lights; a
uniform light distribution that does not exceed the required maximum foot-candle
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Book Three Technical Criteria
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
levels shall be maintained throughout the room. Sensors in daylight area shall be
located per manufacturer’s recommendations.
(4)
c.
d.
Manual controls shall not override the daylight sensors.
c)
Emergency powered luminaires shall be controlled in the same manner as normally
powered luminaires, except in the case of a power failure. Under a power failure condition
the luminaires shall be forced on to full brightness by means of a Listed Emergency
Lighting Control Unit, regardless of any existing control or switch settings.
d)
Classrooms lighting shall be properly wired to comply with demand response signal
triggered by the utility company.
e)
Light fixtures within daylight zones shall be separately dimmed and controlled in
conjunction with input received from the daylight sensor to adjust the foot-candle light
intensity in the classroom to a uniform level.
f)
In modernization projects provide for classroom lighting controls to be connected to a
Central Lighting Control System. If one does not exist, provide all infrastructure for future
connections to a central lighting control system if authorized by the District.
Deleted: the
(1)
Deleted: specifically
For single or limited areas lighting modernization or renovation provide a
networkable control panel that could be connected to a District approved future
campus wide central lighting control system.
Luminaires Designations:
1)
All luminaires designated for security shall be labeled “SL”.
2)
All lights designated for night lighting shall be labeled “NL”.
3)
All emergency system luminaires shall be labeled as being part of the emergency lighting system
with labeling similar to that required for fire alarm devices located above ceilings. The labels shall
be placed directly onto or adjacent to the luminaires and be visible from the floor. The labels
shall read “EMERGENCY LIGHTING FIXTURE”.
4)
Provide labeled zoned key operated switches with indicator lights at Main Office clerical area to
turn lights either on or off for out of schedule events.
Emergency Lighting
1)
Emergency lighting controls shall be equipped with UL approved technology that will allow
bypassing all manually operated switches, lighting control systems, dimmers and occupancy
sensors during power failure situations, design shall comply with applicable codes and
regulations. Each area of luminaires or groups of luminaires shall be equipped with and
controlled by a UL listed emergency lighting control unit to allow the detection of localized
power failures.
a)
2)
Emergency lights that will also be used for general lighting shall be controlled/switched
together with the general lighting for the same area, but shall turn on (at full brightness for
dimmable fixtures) upon loss of general power.
LED exit sign luminaires shall operate continuously. All other emergency lighting luminaires shall
either be switched with its associated general lighting luminaires or be normally off and operate
only during a power failure. Continuously operating luminaires other than LED exit luminaires is
not permitted.
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: in the future, i
Deleted: or initially
Formatted: Indent: Left: 1.63", Hanging: 0.38", Tab stops:
2", List tab + Not at 1.5"
Book Three Technical Criteria
5.
6.
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
3)
All emergency lights shall be powered by the emergency power source.
4)
District approved LED light fixtures shall be utilized in new construction and Gymnasium
modernization projects. Fixtures shall be dimmable and work in conjunction with daylight and
occupancy/vacancy sensors.
5)
Provide connection details for each style of control for the emergency lighting on the drawings.
Also indicate on the drawings adjacent to the luminaires, or groups of luminaires the style of
control that is required for the luminary.
Lighting Power
a.
Lighting branch circuits shall be 20 ampere, unless otherwise required by the system.
b.
Branch circuit and panel loads shall be balanced on all phases for panels and distribution equipment.
c.
Lighting panel boards shall be 480/277-volt, 3-phase, and 4-wire, with thermal-magnetic bolt-on type
branch circuit breakers. (Small sites or smaller buildings at large sites may use 208/120-volt, 3-phase,
and 4-wire panels.)
d.
Provide approximately 30% spare capacity in all new panels installations.
e.
The energy budget for all connected lighting loads in all buildings shall not exceed California Energy
Commission maximum lighting power density allowance.
Deleted: <#>Areas such as Gymnasiums that utilize HID lighting
and also require emergency lighting shall be equipped with normally off
emergency luminaires. These luminaires shall remain on after the
restoration of utility power for a period long enough to allow a
majority of the HID luminaires to cool down and restrike (20 to 30
minutes). The use of the quartz restrike option within the HID
luminaires shall not be specified or used.¶
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.85", Hanging: 0.4", Outline
numbered + Level: 4 + Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Start
at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 0.85" + Tab after: 1"
+ Indent at: 1", Tab stops: 1.25", List tab + Not at 1"
Luminaires
a.
Selection of lighting fixtures shall be made on the basis of lighting characteristics (including uniform
distribution and glare), appearance, cost, maintainability, energy efficiency, and resistance to vandalism.
b.
Each lighting fixture shall be fully specified and correlated with a Fixture Schedule shown on drawings
and project specific standard technical specifications. Provide at least three products for each
application. On the Schedule, provide full data for each lighting source, either lamps or LED modules,
ballasts, drivers, input wattage, and mounting type. For LED Fixtures that are not listed in District
standards, the Design Professional shall select a minimum of three alternatives that comply with the
District’s LED acceptance criteria.
c.
All installed lighting fixtures shall meet the requirements of the CBC for seismic anchorage.
d.
New construction projects shall be designed with the most cost effective and energy efficient lighting
source (LEDs or Fluorescent). Modernizations, expansions and major repair projects shall use LED
fixtures to the maximum extent possible if appropriate:
1)
Classrooms, Science and Technology Classrooms, Libraries:
Indirect/Direct Lighting fixture.
Deleted: fixture on
Deleted: Applications.
Deleted: Fluorescent
Shops: Same as classrooms, or industrial surface-mounted, or suspended lighting fixture if
appropriate to the architectural design. Specify appropriate fixtures to eliminate dust collection in
high dust concentration areas; such areas may include wood and metal shops.
3)
Wall-Washer (Whiteboard Light): Single-tube linear fluorescent or LED lighting fixture, with
characteristics described above.
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Deleted: manufacturers’
Linear Suspended Indirect or
2)
Los Angeles Unified School District
Deleted: the
Design Standards Department
Deleted: open fluorescent
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
4)
Offices: Same as classrooms, or 2’x4’ recessed troffer lighting fixture.
5)
Teachers Workrooms: Same as classrooms, or 2’x4’ recessed troffer lighting fixture.
6)
Gymnasium: Suspended or ceiling-mounted fixture with protective cage.
7)
Shower Rooms, Locker Rooms, Other Damp Locations: Lighting fixture with acrylic lens,
vandal-resistant, with IP (“Ingress Prevention”) Rating of 64.
8)
Multi-purpose Room: Suspended indirect/direct or recessed
appropriate to architectural design.
9)
Auditorium House Lights: Lighting fixture for general illumination, plus dimmable house
lighting for performances.
Deleted: recessed
Deleted: fluorescent
Deleted: recessed
Deleted: fluorescent
lighting fixture with lens, as
Deleted: fluorescent troffer
Deleted: and six T8, or T5HO lamps, switched in pairs. (Lighting
fixtures with alternative light sources will be considered.)
Deleted: Fluorescent
Deleted: l
10)
Corridors/Stairways: Wall or ceiling-mounted lighting fixture with polycarbonate lens.
11)
Lobbies: Wall or ceiling-mounted lighting fixture with polycarbonate lens.
12)
Student Restrooms: Lighting fixture with polycarbonate lens, vandal-resistant, with IP (“Ingress
Prevention”) of 64.
13)
Equipment Rooms, Custodial Closets: Lighting fixture equipped with wireguard and occupancy
sensor.
14)
Elevator Pits: Lighting fixture with guard, and IP (“Ingress Prevention”) Rating of 64.
15)
Display Cases: LED strip lighting.
16)
Darkrooms: Darkroom LED Lights.
17)
Hazardous Classified Areas (flammable liquids, others):
classification.
Deleted: IP
Deleted: fluorescent
Deleted: lighting fixture
Deleted: fluorescent
Deleted: Fluorescent l
Deleted: halogen
Deleted: s
Deleted: fluorescent
Deleted: fluorescent
Deleted: Fluorescent l
Deleted: Rating
Deleted: IP
Deleted: Fluorescent l
Deleted: Fluorescent
Lighting fixture with suitable
Deleted: l
Deleted: with
Deleted: IP
18)
Exterior Canopies, Arcades, Overhangs: Recessed or surface-mounted lighting fixtures with
polycarbonate lens, vandal-resistant, and IP (“Ingress Prevention”) Rating of 64.
19)
Lunch Shelter: Vandal-proof recessed or surface-mounted wall or ceiling lighting fixtures.
20)
Parking Garages: Ceiling-mounted fixtures with wire guard.
21)
Building Exterior:
polycarbonate lens.
22)
Exterior Stair and Wall Lighting: Low-mount step lighting fixtures with clear tempered glass
lens.
Deleted: metal halide
23)
Open Parking Areas: Pole-mounted full cut-off solid state lighting luminaires (maximum 30’
high poles).
Deleted: lighting
24)
Swimming Pools: Recessed Swimming Pool Lighting fixtures.
25)
Exit Signs: LED type. Due to the high rate of vandalism, specify only wall mount vandal
resistant exit sign luminaires. Canopy or pendant mount exit luminaires are not acceptable. When
a wall is not available and a sign is needed at a particular location, utilize a flag mount luminary
Deleted:
Deleted: fluorescent
Los Angeles Unified School District
Deleted: with
Deleted: IP
Surface-mounted or recessed vandal-resistant lighting fixtures with
Deleted: ceiling or wall-mounted compact fluorescent
Deleted: with lens and two 13-watt twin-tube lamps
Deleted: Parking Garage fluorescent lighting
Page | 214
Design Standards Department
Deleted: fluorescent
Deleted: (LED)
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
with additional support from the ceiling or wall.
C.
2.
26)
Low-level Exit Signs: Remote vandal resistant LED low level exit sign.
27)
Low-level directional markers: provide as required by code.
28)
Sign Fixtures: LED illuminated sign.
Deleted: Fluorescent
ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
Design Principles
a.
Basic design concerns include life safety, protection of property, reliability, voltage regulation,
maintainability, and flexibility for future expansion (including changes in service voltage).
b.
Preventive maintenance requirements must include accessibility and availability for inspection and repair
with safety. Provide clean, well-lighted, temperature-controlled space with working spaces and access
doors in front of all electrical equipment.
c.
All electrical equipment and components shall be designed for exposure to the elements, or protected
from them, including flooding. Floor standing electrical distribution equipment and control panels shall
not be located in subterranean areas. Where design constraints do not allow for this equipment to be
installed outside subterranean areas, the designer shall obtain approval from design management to
locate equipment in subterranean areas; in such cases, sump pumps shall be equipped with normal and
emergency power sources (only transfer switch and generator will be acceptable as the emergency power
source). Refer to article 2.3.D.f for additional requirements.
d.
All electrical equipment and components shall meet requirements for seismic anchorage and bracing.
e.
Each building shall include a main power distribution panel.
f.
Should concentration of electrical load in administration building office area exceed 50% of the
administration building power panel capacity, a dedicated panel for that area should be included in the
design.
g.
The use of K-rated transformers shall be substantiated with a harmonic content study of the designed
system.
h.
In areas where computers and similar electronic loads exceed nominal 20%, computer and noncomputer loads shall be fed from separate circuit breaker panelboards. The computer panelboard shall
be equipped with double capacity neutral at panel and feeder if necessary.
i.
All computer and similar electronic loads shall be protected from transient voltage and currents surges
via outlets equipped with integral transient voltage surge suppression.
j.
If computer and similar electronic loads connected to a distribution transformer exceed nominal 20% of
the load, consider the use of a K-4 rated transformer, and double capacity neutrals.
k.
Computer equipment design loads shall be based on codes and industry standard practices. A 20 amp
branch circuit feeding computer loads shall be limited to a maximum of 5 computers.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 215
Design Standards Department
Deleted: integral Transient Voltage Surge Suppression (TVSS)
protection and
Deleted: In areas where
Deleted: are less than nominal 20% of the total load in the area,
TVSS protection may be provided
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.
Electrical Service
a.
4.
5.
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
When designing the electrical service for existing facilities, the Architect/Engineer shall coordinate with
the project District’s Design Manager and Supervising Electrical Engineer to determine current and
future power needs for the site.
b.
Removal of utility poles and their guy wire may be necessary whenever new property is acquired. If
poles serve other private properties then utilities must be re-routed. Coordinate the relocation of all
utilities on the poles (power, telephone, cable television) and provide for the relocation of power poles
from the school site as directed by the utility. (Rerouting will be designed by the utility provider.)
c.
Provide electrical meters in compliance with utility company requirements.
Deleted: <#>Load segregation in new construction shall be based
on code requirements and LAUSD load classifications. Confirm load
segregation requirements with District’s Supervising Electrical
Engineer.¶
Deleted: for the project
Deleted: requirements
1)
Meters shall be capable of communicating with Building Energy Management system via BACnet
protocols.
Deleted: b
2)
Meters shall be provided at each permanent building and bungalows power distribution centers,
and areas designated by LAUSD Project Design Manager.
Deleted: m
3)
In modernization projects provide electrical meters as directed by District’s Project Design
Manager and Supervising Electrical Engineer.
Electromagnetic Fields
a.
Locate equipment in dedicated spaces that are not normally occupied: equipment rooms, storage rooms
and supply rooms.
b.
Locate the service transformer and main switchboard as close as possible and practical to the main
service street connection.
c.
Locate transformers, switchgear, and large panels remote from occupied spaces in outdoors or in
parking structures, be sure they are separated with walls or fences and are well drained to prevent
flooding. Provide required clearances and work space according to code and utility company
requirements.
d.
Transformers specified shall comply with the Department of Energy Policy Act of 2005.
e.
Locate equipment and equipment rooms so not to be adjacent to, or directly above or below,
classrooms, offices, libraries, and similar spaces.
f.
Designs incorporating branch circuits with double neutrals shall be provided with a harmonic content
study to substantiate the need for double neutrals.
g.
Do not install underground feeders beneath occupied spaces; where underground feeder(s) has to pass
underneath the concrete slab to terminate at the distribution panel inside the building, install conduits 24
inches below finished floor.
h.
Reduce current by using higher voltages where practical.
i.
Utilize balanced three-phase systems.
Planning Criteria
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 216
Design Standards Department
Deleted: e
Book Three Technical Criteria
a.
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
The preferred main power distribution system is 480/277-volt, 3-phase, 4-wire grounded WYE.
1)
In very large campuses two 480/277-volt, 3-phase, 4-wire grounded WYE services may be
installed if approved by the serving utility company.
2)
In very large campuses with the buildings spread over 1000ft apart, and requiring a total design
load of over 2000 amps, a 5 KV medium voltage switchgear and power distribution may be used.
3)
In campuses requiring no more than 600 amps, a 208/120-Volt, 3-phase, 4-wire, grounded WYE
service and power distribution may be used.
b.
All loads (in KVA) must be identified during design, such shall include, but not limited to lighting,
elevators and pumps, equipment for HVAC, kitchen and food facilities, shops and industrial arts,
computers, and general receptacle load.
c.
Distribution Concept: For most schools, a radial distribution system is adequate. Depending on critical
load requirements, other system types may be considered, such as primary selective or secondary
selective systems.
d.
The maximum voltage drop in each power feeder shall be no more than 3%, and the total drop
including feeders and branch circuits shall be no more than 5% overall.
1)
Length and voltage drop percentages must be indicated for all feeders on the single line diagram,
or in a feeder schedule.
2)
Feeders’ length and voltage drop in modernization, expansion and major repair projects shall be
calculated for all feeders being impacted.
e.
Short circuit calculations shall be made for all system components. Indicate results on the single line
diagram, or in a feeder schedule.
f.
Design distribution to minimize the generation of, and exposure to, magnetic fields. Appropriate
magnetic field management techniques shall be considered for all new and/or retrofit installations.
g.
Load Calculations: Provide calculations for the main electrical service, and all distribution boards and
panelboards.
h.
1)
Load calculation shall take into consideration code permitted demand and diversity factors, and
non-coincident loads.
2)
Load calculations in modernization, expansion and major repair projects shall include all the
equipment being impacted.
3)
Identify KVA values for each factor taken into consideration.
Plan future system expansion during design. Do not design the system so that it is difficult or impossible
to expand its capacity. Be sure future capacity is clearly identified on diagrams, plans, and in the
narrative “Basis of Design.”
1)
Architect shall provide electrical room layouts depicting equipment foot prints, working
clearances around equipment, and space for future expansion.
2)
For new campuses allocate minimum 30% spare capacity over calculated demand and diversified
connected load to size main service equipment.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 217
Design Standards Department
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", Hanging: 0.38", Outline
numbered + Level: 3 + Numbering Style: a, b, c, … + Start
at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 0.63" + Tab after:
0.78" + Indent at: 0.78", Tab stops: 0.88", List tab + Not at
0.78"
Deleted: . When the loads have not been identified, the Designer
may use the following loads for preliminary estimating purposes and
preliminary design preparation only:¶
<#>Lighting: ¶
3.0 VA/ft²¶
<#>Classrooms and Offices
<#>Cafeteria
2.0 VA/ft²¶
<#>Auditorium/Multi-Purpose RM 6.0 VA/ft²¶
<#>Kitchen
2.2 VA/ft²¶
<#>Gymnasiums
2.5 VA/ft²¶
<#>Toilets, Storage, Equipment 1.0 VA/ft²¶
<#>Corridors
1.0 VA/ft²¶
<#>Locker Rooms
1.0 VA/ft²¶
3.0 VA/ft²¶
<#>Laboratories
<#>Shops
3.0 VA/ft²¶
<#>Air Conditioning:¶
<#>HVAC Refrigeration
Tons x 2.5= KVA¶
<#>Ventilation Fans
1.0 W/ft²¶
<#>Small Appliance/Computer/General Purpose Receptacle:¶
<#>Auditorium
1.0 VA/ft²¶
<#>Cafeteria
1.0 VA/ft²¶
1.0 VA/ft²¶
<#>Gymnasiums
<#>Offices
5.0 VA/ft²¶
<#>Classrooms
6.0 VA/ft²¶
<#>Shops
6.0 VA/ft²¶
<#>Food Preparation:¶
<#>Kitchen
20 VA/ft²¶
<#>Cafeteria
10 VA/ft²¶
<#>Shop Buildings:¶
Shop Buildings-(Machines): 20 VA/ft²
Formatted: Underline
Book Three Technical Criteria
3)
6.
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
Provide 20% minimum spare space and spare ampacity above calculated loads for distribution
boards and panelboards.
Computer Network Power Requirements
a.
b.
c.
Provide electronic grade panelboards to supply power to computer loads. In new construction
installations utilize properly sized K-4 rated transformer to feed all the 120/208V in the school or
building.
1)
Provide a duplex receptacle within 12 inches of each LAN Outlet. A double duplex receptacle
shall serve two workstations where installed side by side.
2)
Provide a dedicated 120-volt, 20 amp circuit and receptacle for each network or stand alone
printer, this circuit shall originate in an electronic grade panelboard if feasible.
3)
Branch circuit serving computers shall be equipped with a dedicated neutral, if proven necessary
via a harmonic generation content study as indicated in item 3.f above..
Deleted: For each b
Deleted: , use
In MDF and IDF rooms, as well as LDF locations, the number and type of electrical outlets will depend
upon and must be designed to the specific size, type of equipment, and UPS equipment required. The
following criteria are applicable to most cases: MDF, IDFs and LDFs shall be powered via dedicated
circuits, and provided with rack mounted receptacle outlets of the same rating as required for the rack
mounted UPS system in each IDF and LDF cabinet. Additionally, provide a properly sized rack
mounted receptacle in each MDF for the rack mounted UPS system.
Deleted: . Refer to
All receptacles for computers and electronic equipment shall be standard type, and blue in color. Except
for outlets serving computer loads that are not fed from an electronic grade panel board with integral
TVSS protection, in these cases the outlet shall be blue in color and be equipped with integral TVSS
protection.
Deleted: in
Deleted: for additional requirements
Deleted: A minimum of one dedicated, 20 ampere, 120 Volt circuit
Deleted: a
Deleted: i
Deleted: for the rack mounted UPS system
Deleted: a dedicated 208 Volt, 1 phase, 30A circuit terminated in a
NEMA L6-30P
Deleted: is required
7.
Grounding
a.
b.
Cold water or other utility piping systems shall not be used as grounding electrodes; Grounding
electrodes shall be “made” electrodes, either concrete-enclosed-electrode type (UFER) or ground rod
type.
1)
The UFER ground system shall be the primary grounding electrode for new campuses.
Architect/Engineer shall provide a complete grounding block diagram of the facility, including
but not limited to peripheral systems such as Public Address, Computer Network, Television, etc.
2)
Ground rod(s) installed in concrete box (es) as described in the guide specification shall be the
primary grounding electrode for existing campuses that do not have a UFER system.
All metallic objects that enclose electrical conductors or that might be energized by electrical currents,
including all metal equipment parts such as enclosures, raceways, building metal structure, and
equipment grounding conductors, must be effectively grounded.
1)
c.
Deleted: <#>Provide a double duplex receptacle in every classroom
Limited Distribution Cabinet (LDC). ¶
Short sections of metal enclosures or raceways used to provide support or protection of low
voltage (less than 70V) cable assemblies from physical damage shall not be required to be
grounded. Provide ground continuity when and as required by current applicable codes.
All earth grounding electrodes must be solidly joined together into a continuous electrically conductive
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 218
Design Standards Department
Deleted: box(
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
system connected to the main grounding electrode system. Individual building grounding systems must
be interconnected to the campus grounding system.
8.
d.
Provide “made” electrodes (as described in paragraph “a.” above) at each individual building. The
grounding systems of remote buildings must be interconnected to main campus grounding system thru
the equipment grounding conductor(s) of the feeders serving the remote buildings. Bond all enclosure
and metallic objects to the building ground system (as described in paragraph “b” above).
e.
Bond the grounded conductor (Neutral) of the main service and the secondary of all step-down
transformers to the building ground system. The bonding of the neutral conductor to ground must
ONLY BE DONE AT ONE LOCATION at each voltage level to avoid creating grounding loops.
f.
All electrical conducting surfaces must be effectively grounded.
Conductors
a.
Select conductors based on the ampacity tables in the California Electrical Code for low and medium
voltage cables. Consider the temperature rating of the conductor, future load growth, voltage drop,
short-circuit heating, number of conductors within the raceway and ambient conditions.
b.
Ambient temperature ratings for conductor selection:
c.
1)
Indoors, within air-conditioned spaces, 30 C. ambient temperature may be used without
temperature derating the conductor.
2)
Indoor areas, such as equipment rooms, where the ambient temperature will exceed 30 C.,
conductors must be derated to the worst possible ambient temperature condition.
3)
Outdoors, for low voltage conductors in metallic raceways in the shade, use a derating factor for
an ambient temperature of 45 C; in the sun, use a derating factor for an ambient temperature of
50 C.
4)
For Medium Voltage Power Distribution underground applications, the ambient temperature
used for conductors within a raceway shall be 30 C. This means the appropriate ampacity from
the tables in the California Electrical Code must be derated to this temperature. The thermal
characteristics of the medium surrounding the conductors are important to determine the current
carrying capacity of the conductors. Factors that will affect the current carrying capacity of the
conductor include the following:
a)
The type of soil in which the duct bank is buried and its thermal resistivity.
b)
The moisture content of the soil. In dry sections the conductors must be derated to
compensate for the increase in thermal resistance that is due to the lack of moisture.
c)
The type and number of raceways and number of conductors per raceway within an
overall concrete duct bank.
Derating of the conductors may be necessary under high fault currents. Thermal and mechanical
stresses can result in permanent damage to the insulation and undesirable cable movement. The
minimum conductor size requirement shall be determined based on the maximum available short-circuit
current and the type of overcurrent protective device used.
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
9.
Conduit
a.
10.
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
Install conductors in metallic conduit above ground and in schedule 40 PVC underground, and comply
with the following additional requirements:
1)
Use rigid steel conduit at all exterior locations and where conduit may be exposed and subjected
to damage or water intrusion, including parking garages.
2)
EMT is allowed for all interior concealed applications. Exposed EMT may be used in the
following areas:
a)
In mechanical, electrical and elevator machine rooms.
b)
Above 8 feet in boiler rooms or similar spaces.
c)
Above 8 feet in spaces other than offices, classrooms, libraries, and similar spaces with
District approval.
d)
Above 8 feet in enclosed parking garages.
3)
Use flexible steel conduit only indoors and where concealed.
4)
Metal Clad (MC) cable system is not allowed.
5)
Use liquid-tight flexible steel conduit for final connections to motors, devices that require
adjustment of locations, or equipment that require frequent interchange. Liquid-tight flexible
steel conduit may not be used in place of thermal, expansion, or expansion/deflection fittings.
6)
Underground conduits must be encased in concrete 3 inch thick on all sides with multiple
conduits spaced 3 inch apart. Bury conduit banks not less than 24" below finished grade to top
of the concrete envelope.
7)
The minimum underground conduit size shall be 2 inches; except for conduits feeding a single
dedicated device where future growth is not expected.
8)
Conduits on arcades or roofs are not allowed without prior District approval; if approved,
Architect/Engineer shall provide structural calculations and installation details.
9)
PVC conduits, fittings and outlet boxes shall be used in highly corrosive environments such as
swimming pool equipment rooms.
Distribution Equipment
a.
In selecting distribution equipment, electrical ratings must have adequate capacity to serve the connected
load, and future expansion.
b.
Equipment short-circuit ratings must be selected to withstand the maximum fault current at the
equipment terminals or busses. In existing facilities perform complete fault current level calculations to
determine amperes interrupting capacity for new equipment. The calculation shall be based on utility
company available fault current at the main service.
c.
Series rated distribution switchboards and panel boards are not permitted. Specify only fully rated
equipment.
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
11.
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
d.
Locate all power equipment and panels in equipment rooms that are completely separate from signal
and communication equipment.
e.
Review physical dimensions of the equipment to determine adequate space allocation requirements to
serve connected loads and future expansion. Provide working clearances around the equipment to
comply with code and working requirements.
f.
Consider and plan to mitigate appropriately environmental conditions surrounding the equipment.
Adequate ventilation must be provided in all cases. Locate Central Battery/Inverter systems in a
thermostatically controlled fan ventilated room. Calculate and submit the heat load created by the
electrical equipment to the mechanical engineer to properly size ventilating equipment serving the
electrical rooms
g.
Indicate infrastructure for electric utility facilities including transformer pad, underground vaults,
customer stations, pull sections and metering compartments in main switchboard, underground
conduits, pull boxes and grounding, as required by electric utility.
h.
All equipment must be secured from unauthorized access and from vandalism, and must be protected
from harmful environmental conditions, including flooding.
i.
Do not install equipment in hostile/corrosive environments such as pool equipment, boiler rooms, and
the like; unless it is properly listed for the application.
j.
Provide floor drains within 10 feet of floor mounted equipment in subterranean locations subject to
flooding.
k.
Provide 4 inches high concrete housekeeping pads for floor mounted equipment in below grade or
exterior installations, unless noted otherwise by the structural engineer; the pad is to extend 4 inches all
around equipment. Pads for electrical services and power company equipment shall conform to the
requirements of the serving utility company.
l.
Electrical power service to each building shall be achieved through one feed point to a panel, or
distribution panel located in the building.
Capacity Criteria
Refer to section 4.h above for required future and spare capacity.
a. For modernization and expansion projects the designer shall utilize existing equipment as much as
possible. Proposal of new panels and distribution boards on existing campuses shall be justified and
approved by District’s project Manager.
12.
Circuit Protection and Motor Controls
a.
All switchboards, motor control centers, and power panel boards shall include a main circuit protective
device.
b.
Panel boards serving each floor in a building shall be equipped with a main circuit breaker.
c.
Subpanels located in the same electrical room and within sight of its power source do not need to be
provided with a main circuit breaker.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 221
Design Standards Department
Deleted: All new main and distribution switchboards, panelboards
and motor control centers shall have minimum 30% spare capacity
above connected load and physical spaces for additional protective
devices to be added in future.
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.6", Hanging: 0.15", No bullets
or numbering
Book Three Technical Criteria
13.
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
d.
Provide a heavy duty fused disconnect switch at all HVAC units, including heat pumps, condensing
units, chillers, package units, etc.
e.
Provide combination fused switch-starters for all pump-motors, fan-motors, cooling towers, and dust
collectors. Provide a control-circuit transformer with 120-volt secondary, hand-off-auto selector switch
and on-off indicating lights in each starter.
f.
Provide control wiring and interlocking for operation of motor loads, as required by each motor circuit.
General Requirements & General-purpose Receptacles and Circuits
a.
All receptacles shall be wall-mounted at 15 inches above floor level unless otherwise indicated for
specific purposes.
b.
Do not use floor receptacles except where expressly approved in writing by the District’s authorized
representative. Where used, they shall be recessed.
c.
Do not locate receptacles behind appliances or other equipment that must be served.
d.
Corridors: At intervals of 50 feet maximum and switched with a lock-type switch in a custodial closet or
workroom.
e.
Building exterior walls and parking garage interior: Weather-proof GFCI receptacles at 50 feet intervals
on each wall; install receptacles within a lockable box or cabinet, and switched with a lock-type switch in
a custodial closet or workroom. Do not provide receptacles in Kindergarten play areas.
f.
Restrooms: One GFCI receptacle mounted 80 inches above finished floor near the door in each
student restroom. In faculty restrooms, provide a GFI receptacle next to the sink, locate receptacle 48
inches above finished floor.
g.
Any room with a light fixture shall be provided with at least one receptacle.
h.
Science Classrooms: General-purpose duplex receptacles (computer receptacles and circuits are already
separate.) every six feet over the counter on the wall on a separate 20-amp branch circuit per counter.
i.
Auditorium/Multi-Purpose Room: On walls spaced at 20 feet on center maximum.
j.
Gymnasium: Eight minimum, two in each wall minimum.
k.
Music, Instrumental Practice, and Choral Rooms: On walls same as classrooms.
l.
In Photographic Darkrooms, provide separate circuits for special darkroom lights and for room lights,
with room lights on a lock-type switch.
m.
Cafeteria Window Service Area, Scramble Area, and Faculty Service Area: One, minimum.
n.
Use GFCI receptacle as required per code in vicinity of water sources such as sinks, custodial closets,
etc.
o.
Make provisions for two 1 inch conduits for marquee sign power and data, extend one conduit from
nearest electrical panel, and one from MDF to the designated location for the future marquee sign.
Label conduits power and data respectively. Coordinate marquee location with Architect.
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: Use GFI receptacle within six feet of the sink(s).
Deleted: <#>Within 72 inches of a sink or in any similar conditions
(such as custodial closets), use GFI receptacles.¶
Book Three Technical Criteria
14.
Receptacles in Classrooms
a.
Provide a separate branch circuit for general-purpose duplex receptacles in each classroom, with a
minimum of five general-purpose duplex receptacles in each classroom, one in each wall and one at the
teacher’s desk location.
b.
Provide separate receptacles or connections on a separate circuit for other electrical equipment.
c.
For new construction do not use floor outlets without approval in writing from the district. (Wiremold
should only be used in existing facilities, except where indicated in educational specifications)
d.
Do not locate receptacles or switches in bulletin boards, tack boards, or marker boards.
e.
In Kindergarten and Early Education Center Classrooms, make provisions for tamper-resistant
receptacles equipped with thermoplastic dual mechanism shutter system to prevent insertion of foreign
objects.
1)
15.
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
Outlets shall comply with the requirements of the California Department of Social Services.
Special-Purpose Receptacles And Separate Circuits
a.
See “Electrical Communications and AV Systems,” “Computer Networks and Power Systems,” for
power provisions for computer systems. Provide receptacles and circuits as follows:
b.
Copier equipment in staff/faculty work rooms require provision of a dedicated 220-VAC circuit with
3#10 AWG and a code sized ground wire, unless advised otherwise in writing by the District Design
Manager. Locate receptacle next to copier data outlet.
c.
Gymnasium scoreboards. Provide for remotely controlling scoreboards from side lines with 3/4 inch
empty conduit from scoreboards to floor boxes located 5 feet out from sidelines near midcourt. Provide
120V receptacle in floor box.
d.
Domestic cooking electric ranges (for gas ranges provide 120-volt circuit for ignition).
e.
Science Classrooms exhaust fume hoods.
f.
Science Preparation/Storage Room refrigerator and freezer.
g.
Industrial Education Classrooms and Shops: Conduit drops from overhead wireways to a receptacle at
each workbench and to each electrically driven machine.
h.
First Aid Room: refrigerator, and receptacle and switch for eye chart.
i.
DH Storage and Laundry Room washer and dryer.
j.
Special Education Therapy Unit refrigerator and cooktop.
k.
Kitchen equipment and exhaust hoods. All electrical equipment under kitchen hoods shall be
automatically disconnected upon activation of the fire suppression systems.
l.
Provide a separate branch circuit for the fire suppression Ansul System installed in kitchen hoods. If
Ansul System is activated, power to all electrical appliances under kitchen hood shall be automatically
disconnected. Appliance circuits shall be wired thru shunt trip circuit breakers or contactors that are
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: tackboards
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
interlocked with the Ansul System.
D.
1.
m.
Automatic lawn sprinkler controllers, one each as shown by the Landscape Architect.
n.
Electric drinking fountains: one each.
o.
Rooftop: Provide exterior convenience outlet with lock-on cover on a pedestal approximately 18 inches
above roof within 25 feet of HVAC equipment, and adjacent to any other rooftop equipment that might
need servicing or repair.
p.
All other appliances and special equipment where necessary.
q.
Provide power and remote controls for athletic field score boards.
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", Hanging: 0.38", Outline
numbered + Level: 3 + Numbering Style: a, b, c, … + Start
at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 0.63" + Tab after:
0.78" + Indent at: 0.78", Tab stops: 0.88", List tab + Not at
0.78"
EMERGENCY POWER SYSTEMS
General
a.
Emergency power systems must be part of the design of the electrical system for egress illumination and
signage, fire alarm, security, public address and telephone systems, and computer networking system,
and must provide continuity of operation for specifically identified systems or equipment.
b.
Provide emergency exit illumination of one foot-candle minimum in the following areas:
c.
1)
Corridors, stairs, lobbies, and exterior paths of travel for exiting the building.
2)
Administration Unit.
3)
Classrooms larger than 1000 square feet.
4)
Multi-Purpose/Auditorium Buildings.
5)
Gymnasiums.
6)
Cafeteria/Kitchen.
7)
Any rooms with an occupant load of 50 or more.
8)
Other occupancies required by code.
Exit signs connected to the emergency power system shall be provided in compliance with applicable
codes. Master-Slave exit signs are required. Self-luminous Low level exit signs should not be used. In
existing facilities where master-slave is impractical self-luminous type exit signs could be entertained
only if approved by M&O Technical Electrical Supervisor and Project Manager.
1)
2.
Deleted: ¶
¶
Exit signs shall be vandal/high impact resistant.
Deleted: shall be
Deleted: If self luminous type is used, Architect/Engineer shall
obtain approval from the District.
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.85", Hanging: 0.4", Outline
numbered + Level: 4 + Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Start
at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 0.85" + Tab after: 1"
+ Indent at: 1", Tab stops: 1.25", List tab + Not at 1"
Emergency Systems Requirements
Los Angeles Unified School District
Deleted: for
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
a.
For emergency lighting and exit illumination, in each building provide a central inverter system
consisting of AC sensing equipment, automatic transfer switch, battery charger, batteries and DC to AC
inverter to provide a minimum of 90 minutes continuous emergency operation. Provide a pathway to
interface the inverter to the site’s LAN for remote reporting and management of inverter equipment.
b.
For PA/Intercom/PABX system, provide an UPS with a minimum of 90 minutes continuous
emergency operation. A generator should be used where it is more cost effective than installing an
inverter system. Provide a pathway to interface the generator controller to the site’s LAN for remote
reporting and management of emergency generator equipment.
c.
Also see “Electrical Communications and AV Systems” for UPS requirements for PA systems.
d.
For Fire Alarm System, provide integral emergency power supply for 24 hours minimum continuous
operation.
e.
For Security Alarm System, provide integral emergency power supply for 4 hours continuous operation.
f.
For computer networking system and other low voltage systems emergency power refer to section 3.8 Electrical Communications and AV Systems
g.
In modernization projects, if a lighting inverter or generator does not exist provide an adequately sized
lighting inverter when the following conditions are met:
1)
If less than 10% of the existing lighting is being replaced, use an equivalent emergency power
source to match existing conditions.
2)
A lighting inverter shall be utilized in modernization projects where more than 10% of the
lighting system is being modernized.
h.
Perform load analysis to make sure the existing or new system is adequate to support the emergency
lighting loads.
i.
UPS capabilities for PA/Intercom/PABX, Fire Alarm, Security and Computer Systems shall be same as
for new school construction.
j.
In Modernization Projects at Existing School Sites; if the building(s) that are part of the project are not
currently served by an inverter or generator system, then the areas illuminated by fluorescent fixtures
shall be provided with emergency exit illumination powered via power packs installed in channel of
lighting fixtures. The power packs shall be sized to provide power per applicable current code
requirements. If there is an inverter or generator system on site, then utilize existing inverter emergency
power or generator in lieu of battery packs. Perform load analysis to make sure the existing system is
adequate to support the new emergency lighting loads. UPS capabilities for PA/Intercom/PABX, Fire
Alarm, Security and Computer Systems shall be same as for new school construction.
Emergency Generator System
a.
An emergency diesel generator system is required in multi-story buildings higher than 75 feet in height
and in sites as described in this design guide. In such cases:
1)
Eliminate central battery/inverters and use the generator for emergency lighting.
2)
Provide emergency power for all elevator cab lighting and power for selected elevator(s).
3)
Provide emergency power for subterranean sump pumps (garage areas).
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
E.
1.
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
4)
Provide emergency power for all signal headend equipment.
5)
Provide emergency power for fire/ life safety systems such as fire pumps and other systems as
required by codes.
6)
UPS systems as described in previous paragraphs for various systems still will be required.
7)
Clearly mark all equipment being served from emergency power, Identify the power source.
8)
Provide calculations for emergency power; demand calculations shall include a minimum of 20%
spare capacity. Size equipment accordingly.
9)
Provide diesel engine generator set(s) with battery chargers.
10)
Provide a common trouble annunciator in the Plant Manager’s office. Do not provide an
annunciator that indicates what is wrong; only one that indicates that something is wrong with
the generator.
11)
Provide an emergency stop button at a location close to the main service disconnect; locate stop
button in a place such as an electrical room, or similarly controlled access location. Provide a
tamper cover similar to the covers required for fire alarm pull stations.
12)
Provide all components, accessories, necessary parts needed to meet system expected
performance.
PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) SYSTEMS
Design and Infrastructure requirements
a.
In addition to those indicated in section 2.4-Sustainability, the PV systems design of infrastructure shall
include the following:
1)
Note on the construction documents the area of PV installation; indicate the roof area to be kept
clear of vent stacks, electrical stub-outs, and other roof penetrations as much as possible.
2)
Areas determined to receive photovoltaic panels shall be structurally augmented to receive an
additional dead load of 7 lbs. per sq-ft. unless noted otherwise.
3)
Provide a minimum of six feet (6’) wide clear perimeter around the edges of the roof. If either
axis of the building is 250 feet or less; provide a minimum of four feet (4’) wide clear perimeter
around the edges of the roof.
4)
Coordinate with the mechanical engineer to locate HVAC equipment to maximize available unshaded roof areas for future installation of PV arrays.
5)
Determine size of PV inverters assuming PV arrays will generate 10 watts/sf-ft. of PV power.
Inverters shall be selected form approved manufacturers listed in LAUSD technical
specifications.
6)
Locate inverters in building’s electrical room or District approved outdoor locations. Design shall
provide adequate space for PV inverter in electrical room layouts.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
7)
b.
3.7 Electrical Power and Lighting
Provide two empty sections in main switchboard. One section is for future schools electrical
loads, the other for the PV system.
Provide power and data conduits for the PV system as follows:
1)
Make provisions for power conduits from roof-mounted PV array(s) to locations of future PV
inverters. Size conduits based on sizes required by conductors required by PV inverters. Take
voltage drop into consideration when sizing conductors.
2)
Make provisions for a minimum of one three inch (3”) power conduit from each PV inverter to
the Main Electrical Room. Do not stub up conduits within the footprint of main electrical
switchboard, or the footprint of possible future sections that could be added to the switchboard.
Provide clear space on wall above or below the conduit(s) stubs for the installation of a future
pull box and conduit that will be extended to future PV system disconnects, and from utility
accessible disconnect switches to main switchboard.
3)
Make provisions for one two inch (2”) data conduit from each PV inverter to the Main Electrical
Room. Do not stub up conduits within the footprint of main electrical switchboard. Note on
plans that extensions from data conduit stub-ups to future PV meters shall be provided by the
PV system installer.
4)
Make provisions for one two inch (2”) data/telephone conduit from Main Electrical Room to
MDF and Telephone MPOE. Arrange this and the above data conduit in the Main Electrical
Room along an adjacent or opposite wall from the main service switchboard in a manner that will
allow the installation of a plywood backboard for mounting of the PV data collection and control
equipment.
Deleted: ¶
¶
¶
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0", First line: 0"
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
3.8
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
ELECTRICAL COMMUNICATION & AV SYSTEMS
A.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ....................................................................... 230
B.
FIRE ALARM SYSTEM ................................................................................ 230
Deleted: 247
C.
CLOCK AND PROGRAM SYSTEM ................................................................ 238
Deleted: 256
D.
COMPUTER AND NETWORKING SYSTEM DESIGN .................................... 239
Deleted: YSTEM
E.
TELEPHONE SYSTEM ............................................................................... 249
F.
PUBLIC ADDRESS/INTERCOM/CLASS CHANGE SIGNALING SYSTEM ..... 254
Deleted: 273
G.
SECURITY INTRUSION ALARM SYSTEM ..................................................... 263
Deleted: 283
H.
CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISION AND AUDIO SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS ..... 267
Deleted: 287
I.
GARAGE AND MAIN DOOR ENTRY SYSTEMS ............................................ 269
Deleted: 290
J.
TELEVISION DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM........................................................ 270
Deleted: 290
K.
OVERHEAD DIGITAL PROJECTOR SYSTEM ............................................... 272
Deleted: 293
L.
SOUND ENHANCEMENT SYSTEM ............................................................. 273
Deleted: 294
M.
SCHOOL RADIO COMMUNICATION SYSTEM ............................................. 273
Deleted: 294
N.
SIGNAL SYSTEMS RACEWAYS AND TERMINAL CABINETS .......................... 274
Deleted: 295
O.
PROXIMITY CARD ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM.......................................... 275
Deleted: 297
Deleted: General Requirements
Deleted: 247
Deleted: ESIGN
Deleted: 257
Deleted: 268
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
Los Angeles Unified School District
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.8
ELECTRICAL COMMUNICATIONS & AV SYSTEMS
A.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
The District “Guide Specifications” complements the “Design Guide” and must be reviewed concurrently with
these criteria.
1. General Guidelines
B.
1.
a.
Refer also to Section 3.7, Electrical Power and Lighting.
b.
All signal wiring and related power shall be in conduit or raceways except as indicated below. Conduits
and raceways shall be metallic, except in underground applications where PVC conduits are encased in
concrete. Low-voltage communication or signal wiring shall be continuous without splices between
devices, and shall be in conduits or raceways. Refer to section B.4.F for fire alarm system raceway
requirements.
c.
When adding new buildings and systems to an existing campus, the Architect must, from a site visit,
determine the types of existing systems on the campus, and then include in the construction documents
details of the appropriate interfaces necessary to integrate the operation of the new and existing systems.
d.
All panels and control equipment must be accessible from floor level, without the need for ladders or
other access equipment.
FIRE ALARM SYSTEM
General
a.
Fire alarm system shall be an automatic local fire detection, and addressable signaling system with
central station reporting with electrically supervised signal-initiating circuits and alarm circuits, including
control panel(s), remote power supplies, remote annunciator panel, manual pull stations, bells or horns,
visual alarm units, sprinkler flow and tamper switches, smoke detectors, heat detectors, beam detectors,
terminal cabinets and wiring. Refer to fire alarm technical specifications section 28 3100 Attachment B
for a sample of the fire alarm system sequence of operations; modify or revise it according to the
particular project requirements.
b.
Refer to technical specifications section 28 3100 for a complete list of pre-approved fire alarm systems
manufacturers. When multiple panels are specified in a single site, one of them shall serve as master; and
the others will serve as network nodes. Designs shall be based on the least number of panels needed to
meet all requirements.
1)
Whenever more than one panel is introduced in a design, these shall be synchronized in
accordance with LAUSD standard details.
2)
A site under one administration shall have one fire alarm system only; the system shall be of a
single manufacturer.
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
3)
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
Additional buildings added to an existing site shall be provided with a fire alarm system, which
shall be incorporated into the existing fire alarm system.
a)
For system expansions or building additions modify specifications to reflect designs that
take into consideration the existing conditions; for example, if in a school the original
system was manufactured by Notifier; then, any additional panels shall also be specified to
be Notifier. Panels manufactured by different companies are not acceptable.
c.
Areas or additional District sites that are located on the same or adjacent property, but fenced off,
adequately separated, and independently administered, such as Early Education Centers or YMCA
buildings, shall be equipped with separate fire alarm systems.
d.
Alarm indicating device’s UL maximum current draw must be utilize in the design.
e.
Facilities and classrooms designated for Autism or severely handicapped students shall be equipped with
chimes or similar sounding appliances.
f.
Provide 20% spare capacity per loop for future growth.
g.
Where the capacity of the control panel will be exceeded including spare capacity, two or more panels
must be provided. These panels must be connected in a network configuration as one complete system.
h.
Fire alarm systems shall comply with NFPA, DSA Fire and Life Safety requirements, and Education
Code Section, and be UL and CSFM listed, power-limited, battery backed, electrically supervised
systems.
i.
Fire alarm system shall be designed with addressable initiating and electrically supervised indicating
(audio/visual) devices.
1)
j.
k.
Buffer relays powered by the fire alarm system shall be supervised as indicated in District
standard detail.
The fire alarm system shall be interfaced with the clock program controller, Central PA and
Autonomous PA system(s) to deactivate program/classroom change signals during fire alarm condition.
All manual, autonomous PA and automatic program signals shall be deactivated during fire alarm
condition. In addition, provide interconnection and required control features between fire alarm system
and chemical fire extinguishing system, Theatrical Lighting Systems (for minimum egress lighting
actuation), water based fire sprinkler system, damper control or smoke management systems, ventilation
systems where required for the purpose of fan shutdown, class passing signaling system, door release
electromagnets power supply controls, elevator controllers, and any other systems required by code.
1)
Shunt trip circuit breakers shall not be utilized to shut down any HVAC equipment by fire alarm
system when actuated. Shut down of HVAC shall be designed to automatically reset upon reset
of fire alarm system.
2)
The use of Fail-Safe circuitry to control shut down of equipment external to the fire alarm system
shall not be allowed for elevator recall or shunt trip circuitry.
3)
In existing facilities the Designer shall investigate the conditions and compatibility of the existing
elevator controller(s), and make any provisions to up-grade, or replace the controller to properly
interface with the fire alarm system.
Fire alarm system shall not be interfaced to any of the following:
1)
Sump warning systems.
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
l.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
2)
Carbon monoxide detection systems.
3)
Methane gas detection systems.
4)
Elevator car alarm bell circuit.
5)
Any other unrelated system.
Provide a 120-volt, 20 amps dedicated circuit and terminate in each of the following cabinets: Fire alarm
control panel(s) and remote power supply (ies). Circuit breaker at panelboard shall be equipped with a
handle lock-on device. Provide surge suppressor at input of control panel.
1)
Provide a permanent label in all fire alarm panel(s), transponder(s), or remote power supply(ies)
indicating the electrical panel and circuit designation as well as a description of the physical
location of the electrical panel. All labels shall be affixed to the inside of the panel door.
m.
A remote annunciator panel with LCD Display shall be provided in the Administration Building main
office, and in satellite administration areas, such as Adult School Offices where they shall be accessible
by office personnel only. The annunciator(s) shall be provided with an integral keyed locking switch to
disable/enable the annunciator controls.
n.
When replacing and existing fire alarm system, a new fully addressable system must be installed.
1)
Indicate on drawings the extent of existing work to be demolished.
o.
Provide automatic detection devices in accordance with codes and applicable regulations.
p.
Provide a California State Fire Marshal approved voice evacuation system in assembly areas
(Gymnasium, Multi-Purpose Rooms, etc.) with an occupant load of 1000 or more.
q.
The fire alarm system shall incorporate the controls and interface requirements between FACP and
elevator controller as required by the ASME code for elevators:
1)
Show a programmable addressable relay module which will be activated by the elevator machine
room and hoistway detectors. If activated, this relay module shall cause the following actions:
a)
r.
2.
Provide a button which will signal Fire Fighters that the operation of the elevator may be
compromised due to a possible fire.
Provide a complete voice evacuation system as required. Refer to Codes and DSA Interpretation of
Regulations for requirements.
Initiating Devices
a.
Smoke detectors shall be the primary means of automatic alarm initiation. Smoke detectors shall be
specifically designed for the installation area expected environmental conditions. Heat detectors shall be
used in spaces where smoke detectors would not be suitable. Spaces that require fire protection where
heat detectors may be utilized include areas where any of the following conditions may exist:
1)
Temperature below 32° Fahrenheit (0° Centigrade).
2)
Temperature above 100° Fahrenheit (38° Centigrade).
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Design Standards Department
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", Hanging: 0.38", Outline
numbered + Level: 3 + Numbering Style: a, b, c, … + Start
at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 0.6" + Tab after: 0.75"
+ Indent at: 0.75", Tab stops: 0.88", List tab + Not at 0.75"
Book 3: Technical Criteria
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
3)
Relative humidity above 90 percent.
4)
Air velocity greater than 300 ft/min (1.5 m/sec).
These areas may include but are not limited to: parking garages (auto exhaust), mechanical rooms (dust),
Industrial Arts areas such as Metal Shops (smoke from welders), Wood Shops (saw dust), and Auto
Shops (auto exhaust), custodial/hopper rooms, kitchens/food preparation and serving areas, restrooms,
and shower areas.
b.
c.
Do not provide smoke detectors in areas that are exposed to the weather.
1)
Smoke detectors placement shall comply with manufacturer’s recommendations. Do not install
smoke detectors within 3 feet of HVAC registers, or within 24” to any sources of electro
magnetic interference (EMI); such as fluorescent fixtures.
2)
Designs shall reflect appropriate devices for the areas of application; utilize District approved
detectors to avoid nuisance tripping and false alarms when theatrical devices such as artificial
smoke, fog, etc. are used.
Provide heat detectors above suspended ceilings of every room and in accessible attics that contain
combustible materials; such as building structure, flexible ducts, exposed cables, etc. (Refer to currently
enforced NFPA 72 Section 2-1.4.2.1). Heat detectors are not required when sprinklers will be provided
in these areas.
1)
In existing facilities non-accessible attics spaces that contain combustible materials shall be made
accessible and be protected by heat detector(s).
2)
Provide identification tags for devices not in field of view or above ceilings, and for devices
containing end of line resistors. Tags shall conform to specification section 28 3100
d.
Design and installation of automatic fire detectors shall conform to NFPA 72, as amended in Article 91
of the California Fire Code section 1006.2.4.2.2.1.1 and ADAAG.
e.
Design a system that utilizes linear heat detectors in concealed or controlled access areas. The detection
wire shall be indicated to be installed within 20 inches of the ceiling or underside of the building roof, or
as recommended by the manufacturer. In shallow areas show the detection wire to be mounted within
the upper part of the space to be protected.
f.
1)
One circuit of linear heat detection shall be utilized for areas not exceeding 4000 square feet
above multiple rooms.
2)
Areas above gymnasiums and Auditoriums exceeding 4000 square feet shall be considered one
zone.
3)
Any areas divided by a fire rated walls shall be protected separately and considered independent
zones.
4)
Design shall indicate all equipment necessary for a complete installation in accordance with
manufacturer’s recommendations.
Provide smoke detectors at each interior elevator lobby and elevator machine room. Smoke detectors
are used to recall elevator cars to pre-assigned floor levels and to initiate a general alarm. Each elevator
lobby smoke detector must report as one address to the fire alarm system. A machine room
smoke/heat detector is always required.
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
1)
A rate-of-rise/fixed temperature heat detector shall be provided in the elevator machine room
and be installed within two feet of the sprinkler head to shut off power to elevator equipment.
Provide an addressable relay module to interface with shunt trip circuit breaker providing power
to elevator equipment. By activation of heat detector, power to elevator equipment shall be shut
down. The activation temperature of the heat detector shall be lower than that of the sprinkler
head. Activation of smoke detector(s) in the machine room shall cause elevator to recall to
specified floor if required.
2)
When required provide automatic detection device(s) in elevator hoist-way. Indicate all
requirements and necessary provisions to make the detector(s) accessible without entering the
elevator hoist-way. Access shall be provided through an approved enclosure with self-locking fire
rated door. The detector(s) shall be so placed as to allow service to them without service
personnel having to reach into the hoist-way in the path of travel of the elevator.
3)
When required provide a fire alarm initiating device in the elevator pit.
4)
When there is a fire sprinkler installed at the top of an elevator hoistway, a heat detector is
required at the top of the elevator hoistway; in such cases an external hatch must be provided to
safely access the detector and an UL approved cage must be provided. If there is no fire sprinkler
at the top of the hoistway, then a detector is not required. Activation of the detector shall recall
elevator and cause a general alarm. If a sprinkler head exists at the top of the hoistway, a heat
detector must shut down the elevator’s power. A smoke detector is always recommended for
elevator recall whenever possible when a heat detector is present for shunt trip service.
5)
In the sequence of operation chart, clearly indicate the alarm/recall/ power shut down
requirements. All Fire Alarm detectors report to the Fire Alarm System. The Fire Alarm System
shall be interfaced with the elevator controller.
g.
Provide outdoor/weather rated approved heat detector at all outdoor elevator landings.
h.
If combinations smoke/fire dampers or duct smoke detectors are required, this work shall be part of the
fire alarm system and all components and wiring shall be indicated on Electrical Drawings. Smoke
detectors may be used in lieu of duct detectors to shut down HVAC systems or to control combination
smoke/fire dampers if ALL areas served by the HVAC system are protected with smoke detectors. The
Fire Alarm System shall be programmed to shut down the HVAC system or close the smoke/fire
damper if one or more of the area smoke detectors are activated. All detectors must be accessible for
yearly testing. Provide addressable relay modules to interface with HVAC or smoke/fire damper
controls in order to shut down the HVAC unit or close the smoke damper. (Coordinate this work with
that of the HVAC system to avoid duplication of systems.)
i.
In Existing Facilities renovation projects remove existing duct detectors; provide controls to shut down
Air Conditioning units with a CFM rating of 2000 or more. Shut down of units shall be accomplished
via smoke detector(s) in the area(s) being served by the air conditioning unit(s).
j.
Provide flow and tamper switches at each sprinkler riser assembly. Flow and tamper switches shall be
addressed individually per building and per floor level. Provide a separately addressed tamper switch at
each post indicating valve (P.I.V.).
1)
Provide a red outdoor 24 volt DC 10 inch bell on the street side of the building for the each
sprinkler riser flow switch or groups of flow switches within each building. The sprinkler water
flow bell shall be controlled by dry contacts within the flow switch and powered by 24 volts
directly from an FACP or a remote NAC power supply. Proper signage should be provided
adjacent to the bell indicating what action should be taken when the bell sounds.
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
k.
3.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
Since automatic initiating devices are provided in all rooms and attics as part of Automatic Fire Alarm
System, avoid installing pull stations, except in areas classified as places of assembly in accordance with
applicable codes. Areas requiring manual pull stations include assembly areas such as gymnasia,
auditoria, kitchen/dining areas used for assembly, and multi-purpose rooms. Install one manual pull
station within five feet of each exit door.
1)
Provide one manual pull station within five feet of the fire-alarm annunciator in the main office
of the Administrative Unit.
2)
All manual pull stations, except the manual pull station in the office by the FA annunciator, shall
be provided with a protective cover.
l.
Connect automatically/manually activated dry chemical fire extinguishing system such as is provided in
prefabricated kitchen hood to fire alarm control panel as a separate fire alarm point/zone.
m.
Provide protective covers for pull stations, smoke and heat detectors, and audible and visual devices
located in areas that can be subjected to vandalism such as gyms, restrooms, locker and shower rooms,
and all hallways and corridors associated with these spaces.
n.
Beam smoke detectors shall be utilized in large areas with high ceilings such as auditoriums and
gymnasiums in lieu of multiple smoke detectors. Do not use beam smoke detectors in small confined
areas such as classrooms that have large beams that will require multiple smoke detectors to provide
proper coverage.
o.
When heat detectors are mounted in attics with catwalks or tall dimensions to the bottom side of the
roof structure, accessibility shall be provided for testing and servicing of the detectors.
p.
Smoke or heat detectors are not required in attic spaces and parking areas protected by fire sprinklers.
Provide fire alarm detection in all garage(s) adjacent areas, such as hallways and corridors, elevator
lobbies, equipment rooms, offices, etc.
Alarm (Indicating) Devices
a.
Provide sufficient alarm sounding device coverage for entire plant including interior and yard areas.
Avoid exterior of school site except near entrances to buildings to minimize disturbance of
neighborhood.
b.
Alarm sounding devices at each facility shall be of the same type. All audible alarm signals connected to
an FACP shall be synchronized by an internal to the FACP coder and within the notification zone in
which they are located. The use of coders within a remote NAC power supply or within an individual
audible appliance shall not be acceptable. In facilities not receiving a complete new fire alarm system, the
existing type of coded sounding devices if currently bells shall be changed to horns.
c.
Alarm sounding devices shall be capable of sounding alarm at a level of 15 decibels above ambient noise
or 75 decibel minimum, whichever is higher; measured 4 feet above floor and in the center of the room
or space.
d.
Provide strobes and horns as required in classrooms to meet visual and audibility requirements. When
both audible and visual devices are required use combination type devices unless the audible device is a
speaker used in an EVAC system.
e.
In areas requiring speakers for voice evacuation systems provide a sufficient quantity of speakers to
minimize reverberation and the distance between the speakers and the occupants. A gymnasium or
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
auditorium would typically have 9 to 12 ceiling mounted 8 inch speakers and other areas such as
associated lobbies, restrooms, dressing rooms etc. shall be equipped with one or more 4 inch wall mount
speakers. The speaker circuitry in the main seating area shall be configured in an alternating
checkerboard pattern to split the speakers between the two amplifier outputs.
f.
A sixty-second silence inhibit shall be imposed on audible and visual alarm circuits to insure that the
building occupants perceive any alarm. There shall be an audible and visual fire and trouble indication
at annunciator panel.
1)
4.
Provide visual alarm devices in classrooms, toilets, rooms with high ambient noise, special
education rooms such as classrooms for deaf and hard of hearing, dining areas, locker rooms,
shower rooms, gymnasia, auditoria, assembly areas, corridors and hallways, public areas of main
office, band and music rooms, shops, and any room where ambient noise exceeds 105 decibels.
Visual alarm devices belonging to different circuits, but within a single plane of view or flashes
from more than two devices on different circuits shall be synchronized.
g.
Install bells and horns 8'-0" above finished floor. Visual appliances shall be mounted 80” above the
finished floor to the bottom of the lens or six inches below the ceiling, whichever is lower.
h.
Provide magnetic door holders and dedicated 24 volt DC power supplies with addressable relay modules
to close normally open fire doors upon detection of smoke in the area of the door. The wiring between
the door holder power supplies and the door magnets is not power limited and shall be in separate
raceway not containing the power limited fire alarm wiring. The door holder power supplies shall be
controlled directly by the associated FACP or with an addressable relay module. Connections to the
trigger circuit of the door holder power supply shall be configured in the fail safe mode.
i.
Strobes shall be synchronized via main fire alarm control panel. Refer to Standard Technical Drawings
for additional requirements.
Zoning, Panels and Wiring
a.
In addressable systems, each initiating device shall be one point. For example, smoke detector in
Building B, Classroom No. 213, shall be considered as one point.
b.
Provide a note on drawings: “The fire alarm system shall pass tests required by local fire department,
including CHIEF’S REGULATION NO. 4 PROGRAM required by City of Los Angeles Department
of Fire and administered by LAUSD.”
c.
Provide a digital Communicator at Main Fire Alarm Control Panel to report alarm conditions to a UL
approved 24-hour manned certified central monitoring station. Use District UTILTY ORDER
REQUEST FORM to determine Central Monitoring Station that will be used. Instruct the contractor
to coordinate with the owner to arrange for the monitoring. Provide a DACT and two dedicated
telephone lines for central station service. Terminate the telephone lines to the DACT. Indicate all
wiring and raceway routing from Main Telephone Terminal, or telephone closet data distribution point
to DACT.
d.
Provide at least one terminal cabinet inside each building for termination of all fire alarm system wiring.
Buildings with a walkway or arcade that divides footings of the buildings shall have a terminal cabinet in
each of the buildings. Provide a main terminal cabinet in main building, near fire alarm controller, for
routing all fire alarm system wiring for entire school site.
e.
Fire alarm system control panel and main fire alarm terminal cabinet shall be located in LAN equipment
room as first choice, other suitable locations are temperature controlled rooms, work rooms, and similar
Los Angeles Unified School District
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
areas. Do not locate fire alarm control panel in mechanical or electrical equipment rooms. Remote
power supplies shall not be located in restrooms, multi-purpose rooms, gymnasia, auditoria, or similar
areas. Installation of power supplies in classrooms shall be avoided.
f.
5.
All wiring shall be in conduit or approved raceways. Wiring shall be continuous between devices or
terminal cabinets. Splicing of fire alarm system wiring is not allowed.
Construction Documentation Requirements:
a.
Construction Drawings shall include the following information at a minimum:
1)
Applicable code information, DSA, and LAUSD project numbers.
2)
Site plans, floor plans and complete riser diagrams indicating all components, and required
raceways and wiring. Block diagrams, in addition to the complete riser diagram are recommended
but not required.
3)
Show all necessary components for PIV, flow and tamper switches monitoring. Indicate all
related work for a complete installation in construction documents.
4)
On each floor plan, indicate the type of ceiling construction and all accessible and inaccessible
ceilings and attic spaces. Provide adequate information to evaluate design conformance with
applicable codes and regulations.
5)
Location of required access panels and reference to construction details.
6)
Complete symbol list of all components with devices’ CSFM listings numbers. LAUSD standard
fire alarm symbols shall be used.
7)
Complete sequence of operations.
8)
Required power connections for all control panels and remote power supplies.
9)
Voltage drop calculations for each visual and audible circuit. Voltage drop cannot exceed 6.0%
for each circuit to allow addition of future devices.
10)
Mounting details for control panel(s), power supplies, terminal cabinets, and peripheral devices
such as horns, strobes, detectors, and pull stations, including backing details for protective
covers.
11)
Provide point to point wiring diagrams and construction details for smoke detectors, heat
detectors, pull stations, audible and visual devices, duct smoke detectors (both addressable and
non-addressable), HVAC interface details; projected beam detectors, elevator shunt trip, recall
and control, power monitoring, ansul system interface, flow and tamper switches, remote power
supplies, control and annunciator panels, PA system interface, elevator recall, and other
automatic extinguishing system monitoring.
12)
HVAC system shut-down provisions when required by code.
13)
Detail of through-penetration of fire stop systems.
14)
At existing schools, disconnection and removal of existing fire alarm components and wiring that
is not to be part of the new system.
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C.
1.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
15)
Plans shall be stamped and signed by the responsible electrical engineer.
16)
Battery calculations for each control panel and remote power supply. 30% spare capacity is
required for future growth.
17)
Prior to DSA approval, the Architect/Engineer shall obtain District’s designated QA/QC group
approval.
CLOCK AND PROGRAM SYSTEM
General
a.
Clock and Program System shall be hourly supervised, minute impulse, 24-volt direct current, and
multiple-wire connected system with a master time controls; the system shall once each hour
automatically and individually correct each secondary clock and program time circuit.
b.
Provide connections from clock system terminal cabinet to main P.A. Rack.
c.
Provide a remote schedule selector switch panel (LTR_RSS) for the master clock (Lathem LTR8-512-M
only). Locate remote selector in Main Office or in front panel of PA rack. See Specification 16730.
d.
Provide connection to Fire Alarm Control Panel. Provide lock out for both manual and automatic tone
when fire alarm system is in alarm.
e.
Eight separate Program/Classroom Change zones shall be provided.
f.
Provide a dedicated 120-volt, 20-amp circuit to clock controller.
g.
Interior clocks shall be 12" diameter, round, semi-flush and mounted at 8'-0" above floor unless shown
otherwise.
h.
Provide interior clocks in all Classrooms, Administrative Unit offices, Cafeteria, Kitchen, Locker
Rooms, Teacher's Lounge, Library, Auditorium and Gymnasium.
i.
Exterior clocks shall be 15", round, with weatherproof housing with polycarbonate protective cover.
j.
Wiring shall be in conduit, separate from network cabling. Clock circuit wiring shall consist of 3 #14
AWG typically.
k.
Provide visual units, which are substantially different in appearance from a fire strobe indicating
appliance to indicate Program/Classroom Change in Classrooms for the deaf and hard of hearing, and
rooms with high ambient noise. The applicability of this requirement must be approved by the district.
If required, the engineer must develop specification for appliances and power supplies.
l.
Master clock controller shall be located in LAN/ Signal Equipment Room of Administrative Unit (new
schools only).
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Design Standards Department
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m.
Provide a terminal cabinet, complete with required terminal blocks, in each building, to be used for
incoming and distributing cable terminations.
n.
See public address/intercom/telephone and class-change signaling system design guide for coordination
with clock system.
o.
At existing school sites with an existing master clock system, new clocks shall be same make as existing
master time control or clocks that are compatible with existing system.
p.
Clocks shall be provided with hangers designed to ensure that they remain in place during earthquakes.
q.
Provide block riser diagram of clock system, indicating all components and wiring.
r.
When adding new clocks to an existing system confirm with clock manufacture if new clocks will work
with existing clock system; then provide the appropriate design for a single comprehensive system.
s.
Clock system at new sites shall be 2 wire reverse polarity, 12 hour and 59th minute correction impulse
controlled.
t.
In modernization and new construction on existing campus projects, provide a wireless system that can
interact with the sites master clock system.
1)
D.
1.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
Make all necessary modifications to the master clock system to interface and control/ operate or
manage the added wireless components.
COMPUTER AND NETWORKING SYSTEMS DESIGN
General
Design requirements for Wireless Network Systems shall be coordinated with the District’s Information
Technology Division.
a.
A complete Local Area Network System shall be provided for all new school projects, new building
additions, and modernization projects. The local area network shall provide both wired and (controlled
based) wireless access capability.
1)
The campus computer network system provides connections to the District’s centralized software
applications and Internet. It features high performance one to ten gigabit fiber optics and the
option for wall outlet or wireless connectivity. Structurally, the computer network system consists
of the following major components:
2)
The MDF data cabinets serve as the main cross-connect between the DWAN and all campus LAN
systems. The access router, backbone switch, wireless controller, District Wan interface, WAAS
appliance, and UPS are installed in the MDF.
3)
The Router provides all IP protocol gateway services between the District WAN and wired and
wireless LANs at the local site. The router also provides DHCP services for all devices not
requiring a static IP address. The typical router connects the DWAN via scalable Metropolitan Area
Network (Opt-E-Man) or T1 (or multiple T1s) Wan services. Pathway from the property line is
required for the cabling to the service provider’s equipment that is inside the MDF.
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Design Standards Department
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.85", Hanging: 0.28", Tab stops:
1.13", List tab + Not at 1"
Book 3: Technical Criteria
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
4)
The BBS or Backbone Core Switch, also installed in the MDF, serves as the central point of
backbone network termination and provides network connectivity through IDFs and LDFs to
classrooms, computer labs, libraries, multi-purpose rooms, student nutritional service areas,
auditoriums, and offices. The BBS provides the primary campus switching functions between user
VLANs and the access router. The Wireless LAN Controller, which centrally manages the campus
N technology APs, directly connects to the BBS and is located in one of the MDF cabinets.
5)
The IDF, using Ethernet switches, provides the active network connection between the backbone
core switch and work area data outlets or wireless access points. The IDF also provides the passive
cross-connection between BBS backbone fiber and LDF secondary fiber.
6)
The LDF is similar to the IDF but provides the network access point for rooms larger than a
classroom and may include adjacent rooms. An LDF typically uses a wall-mounted cabinet and
serves as the termination point for all horizontal copper cabling from data drops and wireless access
points within that same room.
b.
Make provision for surge protection and filtration for all computer equipment and rack mounted
uninterruptible power supplies, for network distribution frames and servers.
c.
Refer to Guide Specifications, Sections 27 0126 –Test and Acceptance Requirements for
Structured Cabling, 27 1005 – Local Area Network (LAN) Systems for Instructional and
Small/Medium Office locations, 27 1006 – Local Area Network (LAN) 10G Systems for
Instructional and Small/Medium Office locations, 27 2110 – Wireless Local Area Network
(WLANS), 27 1013 – Structured Cabling (Existing Sites), and 27 1014 – Structured Cabling
(New Sites).
d.
The Commissioned Architect/Engineer shall consult with the District prior to design of networking
system to determine specific project-related requirements.
e.
The following acronyms are used in this section:
10GbE – Ten Gigabits per second over Ethernet
BBS – Backbone Switch in MDF
DWAN – District Wide Area Network
GbE – Gigabits per second over Ethernet / Gigabit Ethernet
GBIC – Gigabit Interface Converter Module
IDF – Intermediate Distribution Frame
LDF – Local Distribution Frame
LAN – Local Area Network
MDF – Main Distribution Frame
MM – Multi Mode Optical Fiber
OM4 – Optical Moderating from ISO/IEC 11801
SFP – Small Form-Factor Pluggable GBIC Module (one GbE)
SFP+ – Enhanced Small Form-Factor Pluggable GBIC Module (one 10GbE)
SLC – Small Learning Community
WAAS – Wide Area Application Service
WAN – Wide Area Network
WAP – Wireless Access Point
WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network
WLC – Wireless LAN Controller
f.
Data outlets in Kindergartens and Early Education Centers shall be child proof. The outlets shall be
specified to comply with the California Department of Social Services Requirements.
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Deleted: , 27
Book 3: Technical Criteria
2.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
Local Area Network (LAN)
a.
For existing facilities the Architect/Engineer shall visit the site, fully familiarized himself/herself with
the existing infrastructure design approach, and extend it to the new building(s) addition, area to be
modernized or building(s) expansion. Make provisions for an infrastructure with horizontal and vertical
cabling to match existing technology; for new buildings on existing sites make provisions for fiber and
copper cabling to meet the latest specifications. This would also require upgrading all active networking
equipment and wireless access points. In special cases, pre-existing LDC cabinets in classrooms may be
permitted to remain for connections to work area data outlets but wireless access points are required to
connect directly to the closest LDFs, IDFs, or MDF.
b.
For new facilities the network-cabling infrastructure at each school will utilize a star topology design
(the core BBS switch in the MDF at the center of the star) consisting of horizontal cabling,
backbone cabling, and various telecommunications cabling pathways and spaces. The Engineer of
Record shall determine the best route and method for cable conveyance throughout the school in
accordance with project requirements and applicable design and industry standards. The Local Area
Network shall consist of backbone and horizontal plant, and all equipment and wiring as follows:
1)
Backbone and horizontal cable plant with the following characteristics:
a)
Backbone fiber design consists of a hybrid cable with both single mode and multimode
cable in minimum group counts of six each (backbone distances less than 450 meters).
For new or existing 50 uM MM sites, any added multimode fibers shall be based on a laser
optimized, 50 micron multi-mode solution which includes 10 GbE operation (ten gigabit
Ethernet) up to 550 meters and rating of OM4.
b)
Fiber Termination Units and wire management panels are to be indicated on drawings
to cross-connect backbone fiber at both the main equipment (MDF) and any secondary
cross-connect points if fiber is passively patched through the IDF cabinet. Utilize
figure A-1 of TIA 568-C.1 annex A to indicate interconnection method. Note on plans
that pull through and splice methods will not be acceptable.
c)
Design shall indicate an installation of optical fiber backbones in strand counts adequate
to connect all active equipment in data cabinets, and to provide for spare capacity.
d)
Design shall indicate horizontal fiber with a minimum of 10% spare strands, in multiples
of 6 strands in each backbone cable. Hybrid cables of 12 strands MM with 6
strands of SM are typical (12/6) for the first cable or if necessary, with strand
counts of 24MM/6SM. Additional cables often consist of 12 MM, 24MM, or 48
MM strands without additional single mode fibers.
2)
Horizontal wiring extends from the work area outlet or AP to the nearest network cabinet (IDF
or LDF). Work area outlets or APs near the MDF may instead connect directly to the
MDF (eg. IDF co-located in the MDF). Horizontal fiber cabling extends from the IDF
to LDF wiring cabinets. The length of horizontal fiber of copper cabling must not be
greater than 90 meters (295 ft), and sized for 4 or 6 strands of multi-mode fiber. The
horizontal copper wiring consists of Category 6, 4-pair unshielded twisted pair (UTP) copper
cable
3)
LAN equipment design shall incorporate no more than 20 work station outlets wired to a 24-port
switch located in an IDF or LDF cabinet. Provide One GbE (10GbE) Gbic SFB optical
transceiver per 24 copper drops. This requirement shall be in addition to any growth factors for
future wiring requirements as set forth in the District LAN specifications.
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
4)
5)
c.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
Locate the LAN Equipment Room, IDF Rooms, and Wiring Closets centrally. Each closet
contains the terminations and devices for the horizontal wiring system. The closet must have
sufficient space to accommodate all the components and servicing space. A typical wiring closet
can have the following components:
a)
Equipment, 19" rack for mounting patch panels, wire management and Ethernet switches.
b)
Raceways for routing cables to work area outlets.
c)
Raceways/cable tray for routing backbone wiring.
d)
Ladder racks, cable tray, conduit, conduit sleeves and wiremold for cabling inside LAN
Room.
e)
Rack-mounted UPS for active components in MDF, IDFs and LDFs. All UPS devices
are to be located at the bottom of the rack space.
f)
A SNMP card in the MDF UPS to provide status for centralized Network Operations.
g)
Identify Cabinets, Racks, Patch Panels, Wire Management equipment, and cabling to be
Contractor Furnished Contractor installed.
h)
Identify file servers, network switches, routers, WAAS appliances, and UPS units to be
Owner furnished, Contractor installed.
i)
All MDF, IDF, and LDF Racks shall have 50% physical space for future expansion.
Provide rack elevation details showing all Owner and Contractor furnished components.
j)
All other signal headend equipment shall be located in the LAN Equipment Room.
k)
All other signal systems share the wiring closets with LAN IDF equipment.
Deleted: , IDFs
Deleted: be Contractor
LAN Equipment Room and all IDF Rooms shall be air conditioned, 24 hours a day and 365 days
a year. Coordinate with Mechanical Engineer.
Work Area Drop Requirements
1)
2)
In Secondary Schools for all grade levels, General Classrooms, Science and Shop Classrooms
shall be equipped with a minimum of six (5) student Category 6 drops, one (1) Category 6 drop
for network printer, one (1) Category 6 drops at the teacher’s location, (2) category 6 drops for
wireless access points, (1) category 6 drop for projector, and one category 6 drop for tablet
storage. The category 6 data drops shall be run from the IDF. Student two position outlets
containing two Category 6 drops shall be located per educational specification requirements.
Printer outlet shall be located near teacher’s desk. Data outlet boxes shall not be used as wire
through junction boxes.
Flexible Classrooms in secondary Schools for all grade levels shall be equipped with a minimum
of six (16) student Category 6 drops, one (1) Category 6 drop for network printer, one (1)
Category 6 drops at the teacher’s location, (2) category 6 drops for wireless access points, (1)
category 6 drop for projector, and one (1) category 6 drop for tablet storage.. The category 6 data
drops shall be run from the IDF. Student two position outlets containing two Category 6 drops
shall be located per educational specification requirements. Printer outlet shall be located near
teacher’s desk. Data outlet boxes shall not be used as wire through boxes.
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: and
Formatted: Font: 10 pt
Book 3: Technical Criteria
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
3)
In Elementary Schools for all grade levels, General Classrooms, Science and Shop Classrooms
shall be equipped with a minimum of five (5) student Category 6 drops, one (1) Category 6 drop
for network printers, and one (1) Category 6 drops at the teacher’s location. The Category 6
drops shall be run from the IDF. Student two position outlets containing two Category 6 drops
shall be located per educational specification requirements. Printer outlet shall be located near
teacher’s desk.
4)
Kindergarten classrooms shall be equipped with a minimum of three (5) student Category 6
drops, one (1) Category 6 drop for network printers and one (1) Category 6 drops at the teacher’s
location. The Category 6 drops shall be run from the IDF. Student two position outlets
containing two Category 6 drops shall be located per educational specification requirements.
Printer outlet shall be located near teacher’s desk.
5)
Computer Laboratories, Technology Centers, Multi-Media Centers and Accounting Classrooms
shall be equipped with a minimum of one (1) 6-strand fiber drop to the LDF in the Computer
Laboratory, and forty (40) Category 6 data drops distributed from the LDF. Category 6 drops
shall be grouped with up to six Category 6 jacks per faceplate. Empty openings on faceplates
shall be effectively closed using factory made blank inserts. The LDF may be installed in the
closest signal room or collocated within an IDF.
6)
In Administrative Units, for offices a minimum of one wall outlet with two Category 6 outlets in
a single 2-position faceplate shall be provided at each workstation. One of the two network
connections will be labeled for Data. The remaining one connection will be labeled for Voice.
Empty openings on faceplates shall be effectively closed using factory made blank inserts.
7)
General workrooms shall be provided with a minimum of the following:
a)
Workroom/Project Rooms for Secondary Schools: Three (3) Category 6 for teachers, one
(1) Category 6 drop for printer, and one (2) Category 6 for tablet storage and charging
station. Verify location of tablet storage.
b) General Workroom for Secondary Schools: One (1) Category 6 for teacher station and (2)
two Category 6 for tablet storage and charging stations. Verify location of tablet storage.
Deleted: ,
Deleted: .
Deleted: .
c)
Workrooms for Elementary Schools: One (1) Category 6.
d)
Workroom for Administration: One (1) Category 6 for copy machine.
e)
Workroom for Performing Arts/Music Workroom: Two (2) Category 6, and one (1)
Category 6 for tablet storage and charging station. Verify location of tablet storage.
Deleted: .
f)
Workroom for Science Classrooms: One (1) Category 6 and (2) two Category 6 for tablet
storage and charging stations. Verify location of tablet storage.
Deleted: .
8)
In Conference rooms provide two (2) Category 6 drops; at two separate locations (faceplates) in
the room. Drops will terminate in a single faceplate with two Category 6 drops. One drop shall
be labeled “voice” and the other “data”.
9)
Provide outlets at each work station in Library Reading Room, Circulation Center, Library Office
and Conference Room. A minimum of one (1) 4-strand fiber drop to the Library LDF, and a
minimum of twelve (12) Category 6 data drops distributed from the LDF. Category 6 drops
must be grouped with two Category 6 jacks (and two blank jacks) per faceplate. Drops must be
distributed within the room per educational specification requirements and according to the
Project documents. Empty openings on faceplates shall be effectively closed using factory made
blank inserts.
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Book 3: Technical Criteria
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
a)
High Schools circulation desks shall receive four (4) data drops.
b) Middle Schools circulation desks shall receive three (3) data drops.
c)
Elementary Schools and Primary Centers circulation desks shall receive two (2) data drops.
d)
All Library offices shall receive two (2) drops.
e)
All Library Workrooms shall receive two (2) drops.
f)
All Primary Centers shall receive a minimum of six (6) student data drops in addition to the
circulation drops.
g)
All Secondary School sites shall receive a minimum of 12 and a maximum of 40 total library
drops. The designer shall base the student drop counts above 12 on a 6:1 ratio as applied to
the maximum occupant load capacity of the room. As an example, if a library has an
occupant capacity of eighty, the drop count will be 13 (13.3333 rounded down).
h) Elementary School Library shall receive a minimum of one (1) 4-strand fiber drop to the
Library LDF and a minimum of eight (8) student’s Category 6 data drops distributed from
the LDF (three (3) at circulation desk and five (5) in reading area), two (2) Category 6 data
drops at librarian’s circulation desk, and two (2) Category 6 data drops at librarian’s
workroom.
10)
Student Nutritional Support Areas: A minimum of one (1), 4-strand fiber drop to the LDF and
up to twenty (20) Category 6 data drops distributed from the LDF (12 drops for Elementary
Schools, and 20 drops for Middle and High Schools). Category 6 drops must be grouped with
two Category 6 jacks (and two blank jacks) per faceplate. Empty openings on faceplates shall be
effectively closed using factory made blank inserts. Drops must be distributed within the room
according to the District’s standard educational specifications.
11)
Student Nutritional Support Areas (Exterior Locations): Each location shall receive two (2)
Category 6 drops in an environmentally sealed enclosure. Obtain approval of outlets locations
during schematic design phase.
12)
Multi-purpose rooms/Auditorium shall be equipped with Eight (8) Category 6 data drops
distributed from the closest LDF or IDF location. Category 6 drops must be grouped with two
Category 6 jacks per faceplate. Empty openings on faceplates shall be effectively closed using
factory made blank inserts. Drops must be distributed within the room according to the
educational specifications, project documents, and consistent with the descriptions below:
(1)
In the stage area of a multipurpose room/auditorium, provide two (2) Category 6
drops located either at stage apron or the proscenium arch.
(2)
On each of the other three walls of the multipurpose room, provide two (2)
Category 6 data drops evenly distributed.
13)
Gymnasium shall receive two (2) Category 6 data drops distributed from closest available LDF or
IDF location. Category 6 drops must be grouped with two Category 6 jacks per faceplate. Empty
openings on faceplates shall be effectively closed using factory made blank inserts.
14)
Project documents shall indicate all horizontal fiber and Category 6 cabling requirements for
non-instructional and office work areas, including book rooms and students stores.
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
d.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
15)
Provide a cable tray system divided in three sections for all signal systems, except fire alarm, clock
and building control systems.
16)
Provide two (2) floor mounted outlets, one for connection to projector and one for connection
to the school’s computer network; also provide a microphone outlet in the same location,
appropriately 15 feet from projection screen.
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)
The site MDF cabinet shall be provisioned with one 208 volt, 30 amps NEMA L6-30P receptacle to
connect to owner furnished contractor supplied uninterruptible power supply.
3.
Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)
a.
WLAN General Applicability and Design Requirements
1)
Design shall make provisions for the deployment of controller-based IEEE 802.11n Wireless
LAN Access Points, point-to-point Wireless Bridges and controllers, radio antennas, and all
associated hardware and software required to operate the WLAN system. The WLAN
technology shall be backward compatible with legacy “G” clients using the 2.4 GHz band and
new G-only devices. This technology will be implemented in addition to the wired LAN
Equipment.
2)
The WLAN system shall be able to connect to Windows, Apple (Mac, iPad), and other IEEE
802.11n and legacy IEEE 802.11 b/g wireless computers, printers, servers, copiers, and portable
devices.
3)
The access points shall have both 2.4GHz and 5 GHz radios. The 2.4 GHz radio shall be set to
support legacy “802.11b/g” and “802.11n” clients while the 5 GHz radio is set to support
“802.11n” clients only. Use of 40 MHz channel bonding or short guard intervals in either radio
band is not required unless identified on a site by site basis.
4)
The design of the WLAN shall comply with the following:
a)
The WLAN shall support educational and administrative applications including classroom
based instructional materials, classroom based testing and new multimedia applications.
b) Extension of LAN services to areas that otherwise would require extensive Directional
Boring or Trenching.
c)
Extension of LAN services to exterior or large assembly areas, and itinerant personnel for
specialized functions, mobile computer connectivity, mobile computer labs, and student
enrollment areas.
d)
Extend the LAN services to auditoriums, gymnasiums, libraries, multi-purpose rooms,
instructional and instructional support areas with insufficient drops to meet the current
needs.
1.
Los Angeles Unified School District
For each instructional and instructional support area, the WLAN shall be designed to
provide consistent 6 Mbps of bandwidth for each WiFi device in the
classroom/instructional support area. Assuming a user density of 40 per classroom, two
APs may be required per room.
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
2.
b.
All devices in the same physical instructional and instructional support area shall be able
to receive a 6 Mbps unicast HD video stream.
e)
Extension of LAN services to Outdoor areas as defined by the District on a site by site basis.
f)
Full wireless coverage for all cafeteria point of sale (POS) devices in food service areas.
5)
Design shall be coordinated with ITD Project Manager to determine the number of Access
points (AP) required in each area.
6)
The WLANs are to replace any existing legacy wireless equipment currently in place and
operational at the School. The Designer shall coordinate with ITD Project Manager to determine
whether or not the existing wireless system needs to be re placed. Wireless or wired Point of Sale
(POS) devices for Cafeteria Management Services (CMS) shall not be interrupted.
7)
APs for rolling computer carts shall not be provided when WLAN coverage is adequate for all
instructional areas.
8)
Typical Elementary school classroom student density shall be considered to be 30 maximum.
9)
Typical Middle and High School classroom student density shall be considered to be 40 students
maximum.
10)
Unless otherwise noted, outdoor areas requiring WLAN coverage can be considered low density
areas.
11)
There are specific outside areas of assembly considered as high density areas, these may include
but are not limited to Gymnasiums, MPRs, quad areas, and student cafeterias.
12)
Coordinate with school principal to determine the expected student density for Gymnasiums,
multipurpose rooms, and/or other areas anticipated to be utilized for testing large number of
students.
13)
Provide a minimum of two APs per classroom plus 30% for other instructional and designated
areas by the ITD project Manager.
14)
WLAN system transmitting power shall be tuned to the proper level compensating for
environmental conditions (e.g. Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), interferences) in order to achieve the
performance throughput requirement.
15)
Subject to verification and approval by the District are:
a)
WLAN engineering methodology and approach
b)
The design shall include a bill of materials required for the entire project, which
will be validated by the ITD Project Manager.
District Regulations, Standards and Specifications for WLAN
1)
Any deployment of Wireless LAN technology shall be in strict adherence to guide technical
specification 27 2110 - Wireless Local Area network.
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
2)
c.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
All Equipment proposed shall fully interoperate with the Equipment specified in Section 27 1006
– Local Area Network (LAN) 10G Systems for Instructional, and Small/Medium Office
Locations.
3)
All LAN Equipment connecting APs or bridges, with the exception of rolling computer labs,
shall contain at least one GE switch with 10/100/1000 Mbps data ports and integral PoE.
4)
In special cases, non-PoE Equipment may be specified, in such cases additional single port or
multi-port, as appropriate, IEEE 802.3af compliant power injectors to provide power to the
access points (APs) or bridges shall be indicated.
5)
All power injectors shall be certified for use by the manufacturer of the WLAN equipment
proposed. All APs submitted shall be capable, as provided, of receiving inline power provided by
the connecting switches or power injectors.
6)
For buildings with drop down ceilings, assume all APs shall be mounted on T-Bars utilizing
manufacturer’s approved mounting solutions.
WLAN Antenna Selection
1)
Select antennas to provide instructional and instructional support site coverage while minimizing
interference and bleeding beyond site property lines. Antenna selection for each device shall be
based upon the following criteria:
a)
Integral antenna - For classroom with drop ceilings install integral antenna APs
attached to the T-bar.
b)
External antenna - For outdoor coverage connect APs placed indoors with
outdoor external antennas using coax cabling.
c)
For hard lid ceilings wall mount an approved bracket to horizontally orientate the
integral antenna AP.
d)
Select antennas and placement to minimize RF coverage and range outside of
District property line.
e)
Select antennas and placement to minimize the exposure of antennas to impact
damage and vandalism.
f)
For other areas, submit a wide variety of antennas to support a full range of
installation scenarios including:
1.
Wall or surface mount directional indoor/outdoor patch antenna.
2.
Wall or surface mount, high gain Omni directional antenna.
3.
Omni directional indoor flush ceiling mount antenna (for use on T-Bar ceilings only).
4.
Omni directional high gain indoor antenna.
5.
T-Bar ceiling mount within type I wiremold installation distance limitations.
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Book 3: Technical Criteria
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
6.
Antennas directly connected to an AP inside a WDF.
7.
In all cases, it is preferable to use antennas that are as unobtrusive as possible.
8.
Where exterior surface mount antennas for Bridges and Access Points are not suitable
to the application, directional antennas shall be wall or parapet mounted. All mounting
points shall be at or above ten feet above ground height.
9.
If mast antennas are required, mounting method and location shall be approved in
writing prior to design by the IT Infrastructure Project Management office. Parapet or
wall mounting is the preferred methodology.
10. Antenna supporting guy wires are not permitted.
11. Roofing material shall not be penetrated to secure the mast.
12. Gravity mount masts are not permitted
13. Lightning arrestors and a Code compliant grounding system shall be provided on all
mast mounted exterior antennas as a minimum.
d.
e.
WLAN Physical Security
1)
Active WLAN electronics shall be located in its associated MDF, IDF, or LDF network cabinet
whenever possible. Unless otherwise approved by the owner in advance active WLAN electronics
shall not be located in exterior areas. If adequate signal strength cannot be achieved using
integrated antennas, mount accessory antenna on the exterior of the cabinet or place the access
point at location determined to provide the required signal strength.
2)
WLAN cabinets and antennas shall be mounted within one (1) foot of the ceiling for interior
locations unless approved in advance by the ITD Project Management office. In areas with T-Bar
ceilings only, APs without cabinets may be placed above the ceiling if approved in advance by the
IT Infrastructure Project Management Office. If equipment is placed above ceiling grid, the
drawings must clearly indicate the location using specialized symbols and shall include notes
indicating that the equipment is above the ceiling. When placing an AP above grid, it is preferable
to use an omnidirectional antenna/AP designed to be installed in ceiling tile placed to optimize
coverage and minimize interference from metallic structural and mechanical systems above the
grid.
3)
Use the maximum load rating per the California Building Code seismic requirements when
calculating the structural support attachment requirements of the WDF cabinets.
WLAN Security
1)
Design shall direct contractor to provide a WLAN in compliance with District’s security
configuration requirements. Indicate that all security shall comply with 802.11i standards. In
general, security protocols shall be as follows:
a)
Access Points connected to the Instructional network shall be secured using the
“Pre-Shared Key” mode.
b) Shared keys, SSIDs, and IP addresses will be provided when WLAN installation
drawings are approved.
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Book 3: Technical Criteria
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
c)
f.
E.
1.
With the single exception of Café areas, Access Points and Bridges shall be
connected to the Administrative VLAN only if approved by the ITD Project
Management Office.
Cabling Required to Support Wireless Equipment Installations
1)
It is highly desirable that new Access Points be located in a manner that minimizes cabling and
pathway to 10 feet or less. For planning and system design assume that additional Cat 6
structured cabling, pathways, GE PoE enabled data switches, wireless dual radio N Access Points
and N Bridges are to be provided to support the WLAN system.
2)
All cable installation shall be compliant with Specification 27 1013 and 27 1014 Structured
Cabling for existing and new sites respectively, and with the California Electrical Code. J-hooks
for copper cabling will be permitted only above T-Bar ceilings. In hard lid ceiling environments,
attics, and open areas, appropriately sized raceway, conduit, or cable trays shall be used.
3)
All access points and bridges require one dedicated Category 6 drop for connectivity to the site’s
wired LAN.
4)
The WLAN network switches are uplinked to the MDF BBS using backbone fiber. For each
WLAN Ethernet switch in the IDF or LDF, provide one fiber pair for every GbE SFP GBIC
module which is installed using a ratio of one SFP for every 3 Access Points. .
TELEPHONE SYSTEM
General
a.
The Architect-Engineer shall consult and coordinate with the telephone utility provider in requesting
service, and shall include in the contract documents the drawings and specifications or other
requirements provided by the utility. Requests must be made early in design, to allow sufficient time for
obtaining the utility engineers’ input. For assistance in this area, please contact Information Technology
Divisions Telecommunications Branch.
b.
System requirements are different for Elementary Schools and for Middle Schools / High Schools.
Requirements also may be different for new school construction and existing schools.
c.
PABX or PBX systems, depending upon the size of the project to be served, require either floor space
or wall-mounting space. Some PBX systems are contained within a system cabinet. Others may utilize a
rack-mounted equipment configuration similar to data networking equipment. In planning a project, the
access and egress to the cabinets or racks, and especially at the front, rear and sides of the main control
cabinet, must be determined and planned to provide adequate space for operation and service. Consult
the Information Technology Divisions Telecommunications Branch for proper sizing of floor space
requirements.
d.
System shall interface with the PA / Intercom system. Manual control of program tone over PA system
shall be locked out when Fire Alarm System is in “Alarm”. All manual and automatic program signals
shall be deactivated during a fire-alarm condition.
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Book 3: Technical Criteria
e.
Provide dedicated telephone line connections needed for elevators, areas of refuge,
intrusion alarm systems monitoring.
1)
2.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
fire alarm and
The design shall indicate and provide all necessary elements to meet the latest applicable ASME
code for elevators.
a)
Provide an autodialing telephone located within the elevator cab, which shall have a
button labeled “HELP”; this button will trigger the emergency telephone. The emergency
telephone will cause an indicator light to illuminate in the elevator car after the call is
answered at the call receiving location.
b)
Provide an autodial hands free telephone, which shall first dial a red wall mounted
telephone instrument strategically located in the Administrative Area/Main Office, and in
the Adult School. If these devices are not answered in 30 seconds or less, the autodialing
telephone will redial to an alternate location, such as school police.
c)
This telephone system shall be capable of being quizzed by the person answering the call,
and must be capable of informing the location of the elevator emergency. This can be
accomplished via pre-recorded messages. All elevator emergency telephone instruments at
a site shall operate using the same dialing codes and procedures.
d)
The wall mounted telephone instrument shall be connected to the second Fire Alarm
DACT telephone line via an RJ-31X switch, though a jack at the administration office(s).
All elevator calls shall come to this telephone first.
e)
Provide document frames with operational instructions and procedures adjacent to the
telephone instrument. Refer to technical specification 14 2423, and standard technical
electrical details for additional information.
f)
Telephones in the designated areas of refuge shall be dial-less, hand free telephone
instruments capable of automatically dialing the Main Office at a PBX extension, and an
alternate location if the office does not answer in 30 seconds.
(1)
Coordinate alternate location dialing destination with the Design Manager; make all
necessary provisions for a complete system in the original design.
(2)
Number and location of telephone lines dedicated for security system usage shall
be coordinated with the Design Manager.
(3)
Where required provide ADA compliant phones.
Elementary Schools
a.
The following telephone lines are required for Elementary Schools (identical requirements for Early
Education Centers provided the working areas exist) shall be as follows:
1)
1 PRI (Primary Rate Interface) with 40 DIDs.
2)
1 dedicated fax line.
3)
1 intrusion alarm line per alarm panel.
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
3.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
4)
2 fire alarm line per FACP (minimum or as needed to meet code requirements).
5)
1 line per elevator as needed.
6)
1 line for environmental control system as needed.
7)
1 T1 for data.
8)
1 phone with direct access to the outside at teacher’s lounge.
Middle and High Schools - New Construction:
a.
System shall consist of a PBX telephone system and telephone lines with connections to other systems
(i.e., intercom, public address and class/program change signaling system. Provide public address,
intercom, PBX telephone, and class/program change signaling system.
b.
In Middle and High Schools the line requirements are as follows:
1)
2)
Secondary sites with 1 - 30 administrative phones.
a)
One (1) PRI (Primary Rate Interface) with 100 DIDs
b)
One (1) dedicated fax line.
c)
One (1) dedicated intrusion alarm line per alarm panel.
d)
Two (2) dedicated fire alarm lines per FACP (or as needed to meet code requirements).
e)
One (1) dedicated line per elevator as needed.
f)
One (1) dedicated line for environmental control system as needed.
g)
One (1) payphone per campus under a sheltered student accessible area. A preferred
location would be near the administration buildings or near the student’s quad (possibly
adjacent to the lunch shelter/MPR).
h)
Two (2) T1’s for data.
i)
One (1) phone with direct access to the outside at teacher’s lounge.
Secondary sites with more than 30 administrative phones.
a)
Two (2) PRI with 100 DIDs.
b)
One (1) dedicated fax line.
c)
One (1) dedicated intrusion alarm line per alarm panel.
d)
Two (2) dedicated fire alarm lines per FACP (minimum or as needed to meet code
requirements).
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Book 3: Technical Criteria
4.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
e)
One (1) dedicated line per elevator as needed.
f)
One (1) payphone per campus under a sheltered student accessible area. A preferred
location would be near the administration building or near the student quad (possibly
adjacent to the lunch shelter/MPR).
g)
Two (2) T1 for data.
Formatted: Indent: Left: 1.25", Hanging: 0.38", Outline
numbered + Level: 5 + Numbering Style: a, b, c, … + Start
at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 1.1" + Tab after: 1.25"
+ Indent at: 1.25", Tab stops: 1.63", List tab + Not at 1.25"
Telephone Outlets
a.
b.
Deleted: ¶
Telephone outlets shall be provided as follows:
1)
One (1) attendant telephone console Type T1 in main office in Elementary Schools and two in
Middle and High Schools’ main office, plus one in each small learning community (SLC)
administrative office.
2)
Multi-line telephones in Principal's, Vice Principal's, Assistant Principal’s, Dean's Offices, at
workstations in Attendance Office (high schools and middle schools only), SLC’s (Small Learning
Communities), in Kitchen's office, (one fax, one telephone) and at each workstation in main
office (except at workstations where attendant telephone consoles are located), Work Experience
Coordinator and College Coordinator offices in high schools, Counselors Offices in Adult School
and for each of following offices in high schools and middles schools: Custodian, Librarian,
Nurse, Doctor, Textbook Room, Girls’ P.E. Department, Boys P.E. Department, Industrial Arts
Department, Grade Counselors, Counselors, and a two line telephone with two phone lines to
library circulation desk.
3)
Use wall mounted single line telephone where no desk is available such as teachers lounge rooms.
4)
Single line desk PABX telephones shall be used only where specifically directed.
5)
All telephone outlets, type IW and ID shall be connected to the PA/Intercommunication System.
Identify Intercommunication Telephones from PABX telephones per LAUSD standard Symbol
List and show them in appropriate location on Riser Diagrams. Descriptions above using the
“Tx” descriptors refer to the LAUSD standard symbol definitions.
6)
One wire connection (jack only) for each elevator.
7)
One wire connection (jack only) for each fax machine in main administration area.
8)
One wire connection for kitchen’s office fax.
9)
Two wire connection (jack only) for fire alarm system.
10)
One wire connection (jack only) for intrusion alarm.
Single line Intercommunication Desk type telephones (ID) shall be used in classrooms and library
reception desks. Use single line Intercommunication wall mounted telephones (IW) in Cafeteria,
Auditorium, Gymnasium, Computer Rooms, Faculty Lounge, First Aid Room, Music/Choral Room,
Locker rooms, etc. The classroom outlets are contractor-furnished and contractor-installed items and
are specified under Guide Specification Section 25750. PBX and P.A. systems shall be interconnected to
provide paging access capability from any designated intercommunication telephone. Do not program
any classroom phones with this feature; they are only to possess this capability. . A separate
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Design Standards Department
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", Hanging: 0.38", Outline
numbered + Level: 3 + Numbering Style: a, b, c, … + Start
at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 0.6" + Tab after: 0.75"
+ Indent at: 0.75", Tab stops: 0.88", List tab + Not at 0.75"
Book 3: Technical Criteria
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
interconnection provides classroom phones (IW and ID) access to the PBX for emergency calls to the
public switched telephone network (PSTN).
5.
6.
Wiring Requirements
a.
Wiring requirements for T5 telephone outlets is Category 6 cable terminating in Category 6 jack as
specified in Specification Section 27 1013. The homeruns shall be routed to the closest IDF’s dedicated
voice patch panel for future Voice over IP network connections. From IDF a multi-pair telephone cable
shall be used to connect all telephones to the PBX system in the administration building.
b.
Wiring requirements for jack only telephone ports is one twisted pair #22 AWG, Category 3, cable
terminating in RJ-11 jack and shall homerun to the main telephone backboard (thru telephone terminal
cabinet of the building if applicable).
c.
Refer to Guide Specifications Sections 27 1013 and 27 1014 Structured Cabling for equipment
description and general requirements for existing and new sites respectively.
d.
Refer to Guide Specifications section
e.
The following diagram, Voice Communications Topology, shows a typical wiring selection and design
for a multiple building campus or multi-floor building.
PBX General Requirements
a.
A dedicated UPS providing at least 1 hour of emergency power for each system shall be furnished and
installed by PBX equipment’s vendor under separate contract (Owner Furnished, Owner installed under
this contract).
b.
Provide a dedicated, 30 Amp, 208 volt, 1 phase circuit with NEMA L6-30P outlet for connection to
owner furnished UPS (which supplies power to the PABX equipment).
c.
Allow 4 square feet of floor space adjacent to dedicated power outlet for the PBX UPS.
d.
When designing for telephone systems take into account future requirements and make provisions for
expansion in systems such as providing spare cables, sizing terminal boards with adequate spare
terminals.
e.
On sites with more than one school, such as a continuation high school co-located on a high school
campus shall be equipped with a single PABX to serve all users on both sites wherever feasible.
f.
The PBX system will be located either in the campus or building LAN room, or a separately designated
room. Always provide main cross connect backboard or terminal cabinet in main building in LAN
Equipment Room next to main telephone backboard (in new school campuses only). All wiring shall be
routed via Cross-connect backboard or terminal cabinet through cable tray system.
g.
Allow a separate 84 inch rack for the PABX and associated equipment in the LAN room.
h.
Indicate on drawings the location of equipment and components, conduit and cable runs, and cable
trays.
i.
Cables shall be in raceways. Exposed cables will be allowed in cable tray system only.
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: ¶
Book 3: Technical Criteria
F.
1.
2.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
j.
All cable homeruns from outlets shall be routed to the closest IDF at each building. Provide separate
patch panel in IDF dedicated to VOICE.
k.
Cables homeruns to IDF may be run in same conduit or cable tray, which contain data cables routed to
the same IDF. Voice and Data outlets are allowed to be installed on the same multi-position
faceplates/boxes.
l.
From IDF use a multi-pair telephone cable (riser rated or better) to route the telephone lines to PBX
Cabinet (cross connect at both ends, in IDF room and LAN room). This temporary wiring shall be
removed after Voice over IP system is implemented.
PUBLIC ADDRESS/INTERCOM/CLASS CHANGE SIGNALING SYSTEM
General:
a.
Provide public address, intercom, and class/program change signaling systems.
b.
Systems requirements are different for Elementary Schools and for Middle Schools / High Schools.
Requirements also may be different for new school construction and existing schools. Verify specific
requirements for each project.
c.
There shall be a single public address/intercommunication system for each site. The
Architect/Engineer shall select the appropriate system from one of the three specification-compliant
manufacturers. The design shall comply with the following criteria:
1)
The proposed public address/intercommunication system shall not exceed manufacturer’s system
capacity.
2)
It is not acceptable to increase the manufacturer’s stated capacity by tying two or more systems
together.
d.
Provide an Autonomous Public Address System in Multi-Purpose Rooms, large Group Instruction
Rooms and Auditoriums. System shall include an override muting capability from main PA system
associated with the emergency all-call announcements.
e.
Provide an Autonomous Public Address System in Gymnasiums and athletic fields in Middle and High
Schools. System shall include a muting capability from main PA system associated with the emergency
all-call announcements.
f.
The Main Public Address System and all Autonomous PA Systems shall be interfaced with the facility
Fire Alarm System to cause audio muting of PA system speakers during general fire alarm conditions.
Main PA/Intercom System
a.
Main PA System shall consist of public address, intercommunication and class/program change
signaling equipment with capacity for speakers and telephones.
b.
Provide intercom telephone service to each classroom, wired to the main Intercom/PA rack. In some
cases, the classroom phones connect directly to the PBX; coordinate with Design Manager.
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Book 3: Technical Criteria
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
c.
The system shall permit the following paging and intercom communication as follows: main office
phone to classroom phones, classroom to classroom, and classrooms to office. Outside line access from
a classroom phone through the PBX is limited to contacting emergency services only.
d.
When designing PA systems, take into account future requirements and make provisions for expansion
in systems such as providing spare cables, sizing terminal boards with adequate spare terminals,
providing conduit stub-outs outside of buildings and size equipment such as P.A racks and PABX to
accommodate future circuits as planned, or 20% minimum expansion.
e.
See Guide Construction Specification, Section 27 5116 through 27 5130 for equipment description and
additional requirements. These Specifications shall be included in the Contract Specifications.
f.
PA/Intercom Rack(s)
1)
2)
P.A. Rack(s) shall be located in the LAN Equipment Room, lining up with TV, MDF, PBX and
Energy Management System (EMS) racks.
a)
Rack(s) shall be front and rear accessible for servicing. Main P.A. rack(s) shall consist of
one or more free standing 19" rack(s) with following components:
b)
AM-FM tuner. Antenna for this tuner is mounted on roof of Administrative Building with
conduit and antenna down leads installed to P.A. Rack Using a TV antenna for receiving
the FM signal is not permitted. Change connection of tuner to input of software
programmed, digital PA system so tuner output can be delivered to selected speakers or
zones.
c)
CD player in Main Office with microphone. Cassette player is no longer required.
d)
Intercom and program control panel. Analog intercom is disabled with the deletion of the
switchbank requirement.
e)
P.A. and emergency amplifier.
f)
Berhinger feedback eliminator (or equivalent) for Main Office microphone.
g)
Microphones. One microphone (always on via the microphone switch) shall be installed in
Main office wired to the PA Rack.
h)
CD changer. One CD changer shall be installed in Main office installed in a wall mount
enclosure (optionally with angled fold down) wired to PA Rack. The CD player may be
limited to a single CD.
i)
For schools with an outside quad assembly area, a requirement may be added for a remote
microphone outlet or wireless microphone system. Existing PA horns in or near this quad
area would be zoned for the PA broadcasts from this microphone without installing
additional horns. If a wired microphone outlet is installed, provide electrical safety
measures to isolate this outdoor appliance. Coordinate with Design Manager prior to
incorporating this requirement.
In medium and large campuses, multiple PA racks are required to accommodate the numbers of
speakers. Show the elevation of racks with all components shown. Prove adequate space to install
multiple racks.
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
3)
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
In small campuses with single racks and a single card cage, provide ample room for expansion
within this rack for a complete additional card cage.
g.
An additional function of P.A. speakers is to announce program/classroom change. System shall
interface with master clock system and Fire Alarm System for class-change signaling utilizing P.A.
speakers. The P.A. Rack equipment must include a tone generator and inputs from Program/Clock
Controller. Manual activation of separate tones shall be provided by both telephone codes and manual
buttons on front of the PA rack.
h.
Provide a switch on the PA rack which reroutes the master clock zone one switch closure to built-in
steady tone of the secondary analog PA system. In the event that the primary digital, softwareprogrammed PA has failed or is being serviced, an all-bell class change tone shall be provided via this
switch. The tone duration is still controlled by the master clock.
i.
Provide a separate manual activation button in the main office for notifying the plant manager via two
beeps. This button would activate a zone of outside horns only. This zone has to be created in software
and is accomplished using a spare software zone for outside horn assignment.
j.
System shall interface with Fire Alarm System to silence all speakers during a general fire alarm
condition and activation of indicating devices. (See Standard Details 5.14 and 5.15.)
k.
System shall interface with the site PBX to allow access to emergency services from the classrooms.
(Refer to Standard Detail 5.8)
l.
Wiring Requirements.
m.
1)
For each P.A. speaker/horn provide one shielded twisted pair, #22 -#12 AWG, depending on
the size of speaker and the length of the run.
2)
For intercom telephones, one twisted unshielded pair #22.
3)
For intercom telephones with co-located speaker, two twisted pair #22 one pair shielded and one
pair unshielded.
4)
For each microphone outlet, one twisted pair #22 AWG with overall shield.
5)
For overriding autonomous P.A. system, one twisted pair #18 AWG.
6)
For underground applications or under slabs at ground level use flooded type cables.
Intercommunication Phone Outlets
1)
Provide intercommunication telephone Outlets as follows. (See also the sub-section “Telephone
PBX Systems.”)
2)
Single line intercom desk telephones (ID) in Classrooms.
3)
Single line intercom wall-mounted telephones (IW) in Cafeteria, Auditorium, Locker Rooms,
Faculty Lounge, First Aid Room, Music/Choral Room, Teachers Work Rooms, etc.
4)
Intercom telephone outlets, type ID (desk type where desk is available) and IW (wall-type) shall
be connected to the PA/Intercommunication System thru PA Main terminal cabinet. The wires
for speakers and intercom telephone serving a room shall be combined in a single cable with an
overall jacket containing both shielded and unshielded twisted pairs.
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Book 3: Technical Criteria
5)
n.
p.
Identify intercom telephones as separate from PABX telephones per LAUSD standard Symbol
List and show them in appropriate locations on riser diagrams.
P.A. Speakers
1)
o.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
Provide P.A. speakers in the following locations at minimum:
a)
Classrooms, offices, corridors, library, teachers’ workrooms, student store, plant manager’s
office and all occupied rooms where no PBX telephone has been provided.
b)
Outdoors to cover all student assembly, athletic and activity areas. Size speakers/horns
appropriate to the area covered. Do not impact adjacent residential areas.
c)
Parking garages.
d)
All other rooms and areas as appropriate to specific projects.
Paging
1)
PABX and Intercom/P.A. systems shall be interfaced to provide paging capability from any
designated telephone. Do not program classroom phones with this feature; they are only to
possess this capability. PA/PBX interconnections shall be accomplished by using two separate
paths. Paging lines from the PBX are required to have direct connections to the main
Intercom/P.A. rack phone ports which operate as fxs ports. A telephone card in the PA rack
operating as fxo port provides communications to the PBX, initiated from a classroom phone.
2)
Provide a general paging zone for elementary schools and separate paging zones for middle and
high schools. Zones for class change tones and or paging are as follows:
a)
General paging zone. Note: Consider if this will include the gyms, shops, auditorium and
athletic field and if the override mute is to be activated for these areas. Also, consider if
this zone will be used by the class change tones and if these areas are to be included.
b)
Classrooms only.
c)
Gymnasium and athletic fields.
d)
Shops. Note: Art shops are often left off this list. Have OAR determine if they want to be
included (requires simple software configuration).
e)
Auditorium/Multi-Purpose Rooms.
General System Requirements
1)
Provide at least 1 hour of emergency power for PA/Intercom system at full load by installing a
dedicated, rack mounted UPS unit. Provide a dedicated 120-volt circuit from UPS to each P.A.
rack. The UPS shall be located in the PA rack with one or more battery packs. The model
number and battery packs used depend on power calculations for 1 hour emergency power.
Provide a SNMP web card into this UPS and Cat 6 in conduit to overhead cable tray. Provide
conduit from cable tray to top of MDF cabinet and route the Cat 6 cable to one of the last switch
positions of the core switch. Additional requirements for the UPS include 208 Vac single phase
(phase to phase) input power. In addition, the input and output power connections with
receptacles are provided by adding a SUPDM12 module. Be aware of radius tolerance
requirements for the thick cable connecting the SUPDM12 and the AC input receptacle.
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
Consider using a deeper cabinet as is required for the MDF to accommodate this cable. Have the
OAR contact ITD to configure both the SNMP card and switch port.
2)
In classrooms and offices, provide flush mounted baffles where new suspended ceilings are
installed. Locate speaker at center of the room. Otherwise, provide surface mounted speaker
baffles directly above the telephone handset at 8'-0".
3)
In rooms without a teacher’s desk, telephone handsets shall be located in close proximity to
Teacher's work station, wall mounted at 4'-0" maximum to the highest operable part. In
classrooms telephones shall be desk mounted with telephone jack mounted at +15” measured
from the bottom of the receptacle outlet box to the level of the finished floor.
4)
Provide speaker volume control in office areas only. For wall mounted speakers, volume control
shall be installed within baffle with shaft extending out of baffle. Where speakers are ceilingmounted, the volume controls shall be located on the wall in a convenient location.
5)
Place the PA/ Intercom wall display, main PA display phone, CD player, and one emergency
“always hot” (via mic switch) PA microphone in main clerical core area. Plan location of wall
display so that it can be viewed from a maximum number of desks.
6)
When designing P.A. systems, take into account future requirements and make provisions for
expansion in systems such as providing spare cables, sizing terminal boards with adequate spare
terminals. In small sites with room for only one cabinet, provide for expansion including room
for additional card cages.
7)
Main PA terminal cabinet shall be located on the wall in the same room where PA racks are
located (LAN room in new campuses). All wiring shall be routed via main terminal cabinet
through cable tray system. In situations where the cabling conduit penetrates the roof to route to
another room for the MPATC, do not penetrate directly above the PA or autonomous PA rack.
Roof leaks shall be prevented from leaking directly in or around these conduits into the PA
cabinet.
8)
Provide at least one terminal cabinet in each building. Locate terminal cabinet in building IDF
room(s).
9)
Design loudspeaker installation using proper types and numbers of speakers to provide adequate
listening patterns in larger or special rooms and outdoor areas. Position outdoor speakers in a
manner that minimizes the impact to residential neighbors of the site. Consider problems of
feedback. Provide a feedback eliminator in PA rack for Main Office microphone. Some models
are line level and require a preamp for the microphone; however, as an alternative, one mic level
model should be available, but it should be rack mountable.
10)
Note on plans: The final class change tone type may or may not be volume sensitive. For
example, a chime sounds relatively the same at different levels, but a last minute change to a
steady tone may be exceedingly loud or very low. Contractor shall test the class change tone by
setting to each available type and perform a final volume adjustment of the preamps, software
volume settings, and PA amplifier accordingly.
11)
Fire Department requires self-supporting, non-guyed antenna masts. Ensure adequate structural
support.
12)
Locate antenna masts in least conspicuous locations as viewed from main school entrance.
13)
Indicate mounting details on drawings of antenna, speaker baffles, special speaker mounting
brackets, speaker clusters, etc.
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Book 3: Technical Criteria
3.
14)
Indicate on drawings a block-riser diagram of entire P.A. system, indicating components such as
speakers and intercom telephones, cable trays, conduit and cable runs and underground facilities.
15)
Indicate on drawings the location of equipment and components, conduit and cable runs, and
cable trays. Also indicate on drawings the wiring details of all point to point connections inside
the PA racks.
16)
Cables shall be in raceways. Exposed cables will be allowed in cable tray system only.
17)
Provide grounding facilities for Public Address Systems consisting of 3/4" conduit and a #6
THWN wire, or as required by code and specification to connect the Main Public Address
terminal cabinet, and other terminal cabinets to the building grounding system. Where
connection to existing building ground system is not practical, provide a separate ground rod to
be used for grounding of the racks and antennas.
Deleted: ¶
¶
Gymnasium Autonomous P.A./Sound System
a.
4.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
Components include:
1)
Freestanding 19" rack with mixer pre-amplifiers, power amplifiers, cassette tape player, CD
player, AM-FM radio, and graphic or parametric equalizer. Locate rack in Gymnasium Office.
2)
Terminal cabinet for termination of all inputs and outputs of the system.
3)
AM-FM antenna mounted on roof with down lead in conduit to radio tuner and grounding. Do
not use a TV antenna for the FM signal.
4)
Loudspeakers in gymnasium court consisting of a cluster of minimum 4 horn loudspeakers
mounted near ceiling in center of room in such a manner as to cover all 4 quadrants of room.
Mount cluster in a steel enclosure firmly anchored to ceiling or roof structure.
5)
Two microphone outlets mounted flush with finished floor at center of side court. Use
microphone pockets that prevent a tripping hazard. Next to microphone outlets, provide two
120V, 15 amp receptacles flush with finish floor.
6)
One microphone outlet in each of the Girls and Boys Coaches Offices.
7)
Assistive Listening System.
b.
Provide Program line to main P.A. rack in Administrative Unit to distribute local programs to main P.A.
system.
c.
Provide Emergency Override line, including relays from main P.A. console, to mute the local program
during an emergency all-call.
d.
Provide adequate speaker coverage from main P.A. rack to allow broadcast of main P.A. system
programs and announcements into gymnasium areas. A separate Program line to an input of the
autonomous system is not required.
e.
Provide a dedicated 120-volt circuit for Autonomous PA Rack.
Elementary Schools Multi-Purpose Room Autonomous P.A./Sound System
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Deleted: downlead
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a.
5.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
Components include:
1)
Wall mounted amplifier in cabinet with a minimum of 8 input sources for tape, projector, and 5
microphones. Amplifier cabinet shall be flush or surface mounted and located back stage.
2)
Input/output switching panel mounted adjacent to or below amplifier cabinet.
3)
Three recessed floor microphone outlets flush mounted near front of stage platform, equally
spaced and wired to pre-amplifier mixer inputs.
4)
Recessed microphone outlet flush mounted in front face of stage platform and wired to preamplifier mixer input.
5)
Recessed microphone outlet flush mounted in floor at center of audience area and wired to preamplifier mixer input.
6)
A minimum of two Speakers mounted on either side of the stage platform and wired to amplifier
outputs.
7)
Projector outlet flush mounted in floor at center of audience area and wired to pre-amplifier
mixer input.
8)
Receptacle, 120V, 15 amps, flush mounted in floor at center of audience area.
9)
Assistive Listening System.
b.
Provide adequate speaker coverage from the Main PA to hear emergency, class passing tones, zone
pages and all-call announcements
c.
Provide Emergency Override line, including relays from the main P.A. console, to mute the local
program during emergency announcements.
d.
Provide sufficient main P.A. speaker/horn coverage to allow broadcast of main P.A. system programs
and announcements in multi-purpose rooms, gymnasia, auditoria, and other specialized areas with
separate or autonomous PA systems. Include horns for area just outside the gym offices.
e.
Provide dedicated 120-volt circuit for Autonomous PA wall mounted Rack.
Large Group Instruction Room Autonomous P.A./Sound System
a.
Large Group Instruction Rooms are rooms with capacity for 100 students or more, but without a stage.
Contact the Office of Risk Assessment for any necessity of ADA required assistive listening systems in
this or similar locations.
b.
Components include:
1)
Wall mounted amplifier in cabinet with a minimum of 8 input sources for tape/CD, Audio from
laptop computer, projector, and 4 microphones. Amplifier cabinet shall be flush or surface
mounted in closest signal room.
2)
Input/output switching panel mounted adjacent to or below amplifier cabinet.
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
6.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
3)
Microphone outlet flush mounted on instruction wall at +48” A.F.F. and wired to pre-amplifier
mixer input.
4)
Microphone outlet flush mounted in floor at center of audience area and wired to pre-amplifier
mixer input.
5)
Provide two infrared wireless microphones.
6)
Speakers mounted above instructional wall and wired to amplifier outputs.
7)
Projector outlet flush mounted in floor at center of audience area and wired to pre-amplifier
mixer input.
8)
Receptacle, 120V, 15 amps, flush mounted in floor at center of audience area.
9)
Assistive Listening System.
c.
Provide Emergency Override line, including relays, to mute local program from main P.A. console.
d.
Provide adequate speaker coverage from the main P.A. rack to allow broadcast of main P.A. system
programs/class change tones and announcements in multi-purpose room areas.
e.
Provide dedicated 120-volt circuit for Autonomous PA wall mounted Rack.
Middle and High Schools Multi-Purpose Room / Auditorium / Theater Autonomous
P.A./Sound System
a.
Components include:
1)
A freestanding 19" rack backstage with mixer pre-amplifiers, power amplifiers, CD player,
cassette tape player, AM-FM radio, graphic or parametric equalizer, and receivers for wireless
microphones.
2)
Terminal cabinet for termination of all inputs and outputs of system, except inputs of wireless
microphones.
3)
AM-FM antenna mounted on roof with surge/arrester, and down lead in conduit to radio tuner.
The antenna mast shall be grounded.
4)
Microphone outlets (three) mounted flush in stage platform, overhead, and in stage platform
front. Each microphone outlet shall be wired to one input of pre-amplifier mixer. Wireless
microphones and receivers shall be provided. Each wireless microphone receiver shall be wired
to one pre-amplifier mixer input. Use high quality, multichannel wireless microphone systems
designed to prevent interference from other emissions (e.g. radio/TV stations).
5)
Provide two speaker outlets in the front face of the stage for monitor speaker connections.
Unmounted, stage monitor (wedge shaped) speakers lay on the front of stage to allow performers
to hear themselves, and have flexible cord connections to these outlets.
6)
Projector outlet in control room wired to pre-amplifier mixer input.
7)
Speakers shall be provided to produce a uniform sound level throughout auditorium. Optionally,
provide sub-woofers separately from the speaker clusters, either on or in the face of the stage
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Deleted: downlead
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3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
platform. Note on plans that prior to start of installation, a sound system analysis shall be
performed to properly locate sound columns.
8)
A headset intercom system shall be provided between projection rooms and backstage for stage
cueing and lighting coordination. System shall include headsets, power supplies and input jacks.
9)
Assistive Listening System with signage.
10)
In performing arts auditoriums, as an option, provide a mixing console either located in the
sound booth room or in a sectioned area in the seating area (typically in the center back behind
the seating area). Install a conduit in or on the floor to cable the console snake cable to the sound
booth. Provide a means to secure the console from vandalism. Provide adequate AC outlets and
lighting for operation of the console.
b.
Provide Emergency Override line, including relays, to mute local program from main P.A. console.
c.
Provide speakers from main P.A. rack to allow broadcast of main P.A. system programs and
announcements with adequate coverage in auditorium building areas (for emergency all-call or
auditorium zone page only).
d.
Provide dedicated 120-volt circuit for Autonomous PA wall mounted Rack.
e.
In Performing Art Centers/Theaters (new facilities), a theater consultant hired by the architect shall
determine the scope of sound system beyond the requirements defined here.
1)
7.
The electrical engineer shall coordinate with theater consultant and architect to provide power,
cabling, racks, speaker clusters and raceways where needed. In gymnasiums focus the design to
limit reflected sound yet permit intelligible, increased volume which occurs during emergency allcall announcements.
Athletic Field Autonomous P.A./Sound System
a.
Components include:
1)
Rack mounted amplifier in cabinet with a minimum of 8 audio input sources for tape, projector,
and 5 microphones. Amplifier cabinet shall be flush or surface mounted, located in sound
control booth.
2)
Provide a separate system of home side horns, home side stand microphones, home side
microphone outlets and amplifier for the cheerleaders (a common system that used to be
provided with older athletic field P.A. systems).
3)
Provide GFCI power outlets for athletic field sound systems.
4)
Input/output switching panels mounted adjacent to or below amplifier cabinet.
5)
Microphone outlet mounted on an appropriate light pole or at concession room and wired to
amplifier input. Consider using a wireless microphone solution instead of conduit and cabling
that previously ran to the visitor’s bleacher side. Use high performance, multiple channel wireless
systems to prevent interference from various emission sources such as local radio and TV
broadcasts (see the Shure Pro Audio web site for updates on wireless noise solutions).
6)
Outdoor horn loudspeakers to cover all P.E. fields.
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Book 3: Technical Criteria
G.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
b.
Assisted listening system where an outdoor assembly area is designated as assembly occupancy.
c.
Provide Emergency Override line, including relays, to mute local program from autonomous PA to
permit emergency broadcasts from main P.A. console through separate speakers/horns.
d.
Provide adequate speaker coverage from the main P.A. rack to allow broadcast of main P.A. system
programs and announcements in auditorium building areas. Emergency announcements are hard-wired
to these speakers. Software dictates if these speakers are included in any zone pages or in a normal allcall page.
e.
Provide a dedicated 120-volt circuit for Autonomous PA Rack.
f.
Do not locate any equipment in the field or areas that would create a safety hazard.
SECURITY INTRUSION ALARM SYSTEM
1.
General
a.
2.
The District's preferred security intrusion alarm system is the DSC MAXSYS 4020 intrusion system.
1)
The input element is a sensing device designed to monitor status of a protected area in a school,
using infrared/motion detectors. These intrusion detectors are connected individually to
identified terminals of the control panel or controller via cable to form a closed loop.
2)
The control panel provides a small amount of current constantly flowing through loop. However,
if one of the intrusion detectors is disrupted, opened, or the cable is cut, the controller senses the
absence of current in the loop.
3)
In an alarm condition, the controller can activate an optional siren and transmits alarm code to a
digital receiver located at the central station of the Los Angeles School Police Headquarters.
4)
Upon answering the call, information appears on a dispatcher’s computer screen.
Sensing Devices
a.
Motion Detectors:
1)
Motion detectors shall be passive infrared detecting both motion and infrared emission at the
same time to eliminate false detection.
2)
Provide motion detectors in all areas or rooms that are located along the perimeter of the first
floor of a building.
3)
Provide motion detectors in rooms located above the first floor only if there is outside access or
potential for entering directly by climbing trees, etc.
4)
Provide motion detectors in corridors and hallways on each floor of a building.
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Book 3: Technical Criteria
b.
3.
4.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
5)
Provide motion detectors in computer rooms, LAN equipment rooms, IDF rooms, MultiPurpose Building, Kitchen and Dining Rooms, Gymnasium and all other major spaces.
6)
Install motion detectors on an outlet box on the ceiling to obtain maximum efficiency. Use wallmounted detectors only where ceiling-mounted are impractical.
7)
Locate the motion detector at a corner of a room, facing away from sunlight, windows, heating
elements, HVAC outlets and any turbulent air movements.
8)
Provide remote control panel including a 12VDC power supply in each building for motion
detectors.
9)
A siren is required. An interior siren is preferred to an outdoor installation. If the school decides
against a siren feature, bypass the connection with a 500 ohm resistor but leave the siren in place.
Door Switches (provide only in special cases):
1)
Door switches shall be of magnetic type.
2)
Provide door switches for walk-in freezers or coolers in a kitchen.
3)
Provide door switches for all exterior doors not covered by motion detectors on the interior,
including restrooms with direct exterior access.
Alarm Zones
a.
Each sensing device shall be identified with an alarm zone or alarm point, which shall be identified at
the remote annunciator and at the control center. The zone or point identification shall be descriptive
of the location of the sensing device, such as Administrative Building Room 120.
b.
There shall be no more than two motion detectors per zone or no more than two points to identify the
location. Areas where two detectors per zone may be required include multi-purpose buildings,
gymnasiums, auditoriums, and two classroom relocatable buildings.
c.
Zones or points shall be listed and indicated on site and building drawings, identifying each one by
building, area and room number.
Zone By-Pass Keypads
a.
Provide a strategically located zone by-pass keypad in places such as the interior wall of the Main Office,
Kitchen/Cafeteria building, Student Store, Gymnasium Lobby, Multi-Purpose Building,
Auditorium/Theater, Adult School Office, Computer/Multi-media/Science laboratories, Music/Band
Room, offices of academies in multi-academy learning centers, and Plant Manager’s Office to de-activate
the alarm when entering a building is necessary after the alarm system is armed.
1)
A separate keypad will not be required, if any of the areas listed above is only accessible through
another controlled area with a keypad.
2)
Each main security panel can support a maximum of 8 keypads. If more key pads are required
obtain authorization from District representative.
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Book 3: Technical Criteria
5.
6.
7.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
b.
The by-pass keypad shall be a liquid crystal display.
c.
Do not locate keypads in corridors or other areas easily subject to impact damage or vandalism (MS and
HS only).
d.
Consult with District representative to determine if other locations may be required.
Main Security Panel (MSP) and Annunciator
a.
Main Security Panel and graphic annunciator are also called headend equipment. They are used to
annunciate alarm zones and to transmit alarm signals via telephone line to the central monitoring station
located at the District Police Headquarters.
b.
MSP consists of maximum of 16 zones, expandable to 128 zones by the use of zone expansion modules,
each with motion and tamper inputs, single phone line monitor and power supply housed in a lockable
cabinet.
c.
Controller shall be located in a LAN equipment room (new facilities) or closet in Administration Unit
(existing facilities).
d.
In campuses where numbers of zones exceed 128, or in campuses where total combus wiring from the
controller to a remote security panel or to any keypad connected, exceed 1000 feet, split the campus to
be protected by two independent controllers. Both controllers shall be annunciated in the main office.
e.
MSP shall be fed from a separate circuit of 120-volt power source. It will be stepped down through a
120/16-18 VAC, 40VA transformer.
f.
Graphic annunciator(s) shall be located in main office of the Administration Building. The Graphic
Annunciator shall have full LED annunciation for all zones. Provide a keypad at each annunciator.
Provide a separate repower module for each graphic annunciator panel if required (based on power
calculations). Wire size of combus may have to be increased to accommodate increased power demand
between repower module and led driver boards in the graphic annunciator panels.
Remote Security Panels (RSP)
a.
Provide a Remote Security panel at each building (except relocatable buildings where a group of
relocatables may be controlled by one RSP), connected to the main security panel by combus wiring.
b.
RSP consists of maximum of 16 zones, expandable to 128 zones by the use of zone expansion modules,
each with motion inputs and power supply housed in a lockable cabinet.
c.
RSP shall be fed from a separate circuit of 120-volt power source. It will be stepped down through a
120/16-18 VAC, 40VA transformer.
d.
The RSPs shall be located in IDF rooms wherever possible.
Power Supply, Cables, Raceways and Cabinets
a.
Cables used for connection between MSP and annunciator in clerk's office, all homeruns from sensing
devices to MSP/RSP and combus wiring between MSP and RSP as well as wiring to the keypads shall
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Book 3: Technical Criteria
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
be 4 conductor, #22 for up to 1000 feet. Note on plans: do not set the charging jumper for high-charge
on repower modules, and adjust the voltage potentiometer for 13.8 vdc, and apply fingernail polish to
prevent tampering of this pot setting.
8.
9.
b.
Use flooded type cables for underground applications.
c.
Cables shall be installed in raceways. Concealed raceway shall be used for new building construction
and exposed raceway shall be used for existing building installations. Exposed raceway in electrical
rooms shall be conduit and exposed raceway in classrooms; offices and corridors shall be wiremold.
d.
Cable length, resistance, capacitance and power calculations must be designed by the Architect to strictly
conform to the manufacturer’s design guide. Any deviation from the manufacturer’s specifications for
these types of systems can result in system malfunctions and/or high maintenance costs to the District.
e.
Existing underground raceways used for public address system or TV master antenna system may be
used to run security intrusion alarm system cables if there are spaces available in those raceways. Any
cables pulled out from an existing conduit shall be replaced with new.
f.
Power supplies consisting of receptacles, transformer/ rectifier and batteries shall be installed in a
lockable NEMA 1 enclosure or a lockable terminal cabinet.
g.
Terminal Cabinets and Junction Boxes:
1)
At least one terminal cabinet shall be provided in each building except relocatable buildings.
2)
At least one junction box (6"x 8") shall be provided in each relocatable building.
Existing Security Intrusion Alarm Systems
a.
At some District school sites existing intrusion alarm equipment may differ from the system described
above.
b.
Existing system headend equipment may consist of an annunciator/switch panel, a relay panel and a
dialer or transponders.
c.
If this situation is encountered, remove existing annunciator/switch panel, relay panel, dialer or
transponder. Wire all existing zones directly to new controller. A new annunciator panel shall be
installed in main office (or LAN room if present).
Site Plan
a.
Instruct the contractor to provide a site plan for use by the District central monitoring stations.
Site plan shall be as follows:
1)
Indicate location of buildings, zone numbers, and repower battery panel locations.
2)
Indicate school code number and zone chart.
3)
Indicate surrounding street names and direction.
4)
Site plan shall be drawn on 8 1/2" x 13" sheet.
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
H.
1.
CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISION (CCTV) AND AUDIO SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS
General
a.
As part of the Los Angeles Unified School District’s commitment to provide a safe working and
learning environment, surveillance systems are to be used in approved, designated areas of schools and
school grounds where there is no expectation of privacy as an additional and further means to continue
to provide for that safe environment. Surveillance systems are defined as electronic devices for visual
image (only) monitoring, recording and visual image data storage. (Parking garages are an exception and
have audio monitoring and recording as well as video.)
b.
Surveillance systems ARE STRICTLY PROHIBITED WHERE A “REASONABLE EXPECTATION
OF PRIVACY” EXISTS. This includes the following:
1)
No surveillance shall be installed in such spaces as restrooms, locker rooms, classrooms, private
offices, and private workspaces.
2)
Cameras must be directed so that they do not look through windows or other openings into
private areas.
3)
Cameras providing outside surveillance, such as parking lots or building perimeters must not be
directed beyond school property.
c.
Currently, only a coax or Cat 6 converted home run cabling CCTV design using DVRs is permitted. Use
of the local LAN, use of a newly constructed separate LAN or the WAN is not permitted. See Bulletin
1197.
d.
All real-time visual monitoring equipment (except point-of-entry monitors), including monitor screens,
consoles, controllers and other appropriate equipment, and data recording devices, must be located in a
secure monitoring site, with restricted access by approved individuals only. Do not locate them in a
common LAN Equipment Room.
1)
e.
2.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
Secure monitoring sites may be located, secure from public viewing, in Principal’s Office,
Assistant Principal’s Office, or a Police Office or special Security Room. For adult education or
other after-hours use, the same provisions apply; systems must be able to be secured from
unauthorized use.
Provide CCTV surveillance systems as follows:
1)
Parking Garage Systems: In all parking structures (Audio Surveillance are also required).
2)
School Building and Site Systems: Only when directed in writing by the District’s authorized
representative. (These systems shall be video only, with NO AUDIO SURVEILLANCE OR
RECORDING.)
Parking Garage Surveillance System
a.
Closed circuit television system shall consist of CCTV cameras, camera enclosures, monitors, coaxial
switcher/controller system, digital video controller and recorders (DVR), and pan-and-tilt drives,
cablings, power supplies and raceways. The video surveillance system shall be designed to be integrated
with a School Building and Site System, either concurrently or in the future.
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
b.
Audio surveillance equipment shall consist of controller, microphones, speaker/microphones,
combiners, and call stations.
c.
The basic system requirements are as follows:
d.
3.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
1)
One CCTV camera with pan and tilt spaced every 100 feet and within vandal-resistant enclosure
in parking structures.
2)
One fixed CCTV camera within vandal-resistant enclosure installed inside the parking structure
entrance. Field of view shall include the vehicle access gate to the parking lot.
3)
Surveillance microphones spaced every 60 feet, with a maximum of six microphones per zone.
4)
Push to talk Emergency Speaker/microphone call stations every 50 feet in garage, one at
elevator’s lobby and one at each pedestrian point of egress.
5)
Sixteen CCTV cameras maximum per DVR.
6)
One monitor for each group of sixteen cameras.
Locate monitors, Digital Video controller and recorders (DVR) and audio surveillance base stations
system in a console/rack station either in the Police /Security Office (in secondary schools) or the Main
Administrative office. Terminal cabinets for Parking Garage Systems may be located in the LAN
Equipment Room.
School Building and Site Surveillance System (Required only at selected sites)
a.
b.
Provide CCTV surveillance system, cameras and other equipment to monitor any remote spaces where
safety or security risks indicate a need. These include:
1)
Main Office and Reception public spaces.
2)
Attendance Office public space.
3)
Corridors, lobbies, and other public circulation and access spaces.
4)
Cafeteria.
5)
Lunch Shelter.
6)
Other interior and exterior locations determined during the design phase of the project.
Closed circuit television system shall consist of CCTV cameras, camera enclosures, monitors, digital
video controller and recorders (DVR), and pan-and-tilt drives. Where Garage exists, the headend
equipment shall be integrated with the Parking Garage Surveillance System to provide a single campuswide system.
1)
Provide pan-and-tilt or fixed CCTV camera to cover all corridors, stairwells, elevator lobbies, and
other interior public areas (no classrooms).
2)
Provide sixteen cameras maximum for each monitor and DVR, fewer if design and monitoring
conditions warrant.
3)
Cameras shall be located so that every camera is monitored by at least one other camera.
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
4)
I.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
Cameras shall be located and secured so as to minimize vandalism, but there shall be no covert or
concealed cameras.
c.
No audio surveillance shall be provided for this system.
d.
Provide drawings at Design Development and Construction. Document Phases that show all camera
locations and zones of coverage. Use VideoCAD 6 or equivalent for designing and indicating camera
coverage.
e.
At all schools using CCTV buildings and site surveillance systems, appropriate signage must be posted
to advise the public that the systems and camera are in operation.
1)
Standard sign language and format has been adopted and is available on request.
2)
Signs must be placed prominently at all points of entry to the school site, both pedestrian and
vehicle. Where surveillance is provided in parking garages, place the sign at the entrance to the
parking garage.
3)
Location of signs shall be submitted at Design Development Phase for the District review.
Signage with details must be shown in project construction documents.
GARAGE AND MAIN DOOR ENTRY SYSTEMS
1.
2.
Parking Structure Entry
a.
Provide a stand-alone intercom call station to be mounted on card reader pedestal. The intercom unit
shall be connected to PA/Intercom system. A switch at main reception office next to PA administrative
telephone shall be connected to garage entry controls for communication purposes and to allow remote
operation of the gate.
b.
See Guide Specification Section 11 1200 for description of Garage Entry system.
School Main Entrance Surveillance System (in selected sites only)
a.
Provide a CCTV camera in a vandal proof enclosure connected to a monitor in the main office. It shall
be located directly inside the entrance door it protects. No recording shall be permitted for this system.
b.
Provide an intercom base station in the main office near the CCTV monitor, and a two-way talk/listen
remote station outdoors near the entry door.
c.
Provide a pushbutton and wiring to activate door electric strike to permit entrance.
d.
See Guide Specification Section 28 2313 for description of components.
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.6", Hanging: 0.15", No bullets
or numbering
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
J.
1.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
TELEVISION DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
TV System
a.
The television distribution system shall be an over-the-air (OTA) system constructed to receive the
following Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) digital television channels in the
VHF/UHF television spectrum (channel assignment subject to change – verify channels designations at
time of design development):
Call Letters
KCBS - DT
KNBC - DT
KTLA- DT
KABC- DT
KCAL- DT
KTTV - DT
KCOP - DT
KCET - DT
KMEX - DT
KLCS - DT
Previous
Analog
2
4
5
7
9
11
13
28
34
58
DTV Freq
43
36
31
07
09
11
13
28
34
41
b.
Consult with the Design
Manager and/ or OAR for projects needing locally broadcasted TV signals. This is particularly
important in schools whose design scope includes media centers; the design shall include the necessary
pathways and equipment for this operation.
2.
System Descriptions
a.
TV system and equipment consists of:
1)
Head End Equipment:
a)
Headend 19" rack with mixing networks, channel converters, processors, splitters,
combiners, modulators, directional couplers, test taps, line amplifier, and video monitor.
2)
Line extender TV cabinets including amplifiers to be located in the IDF (Signal room) of remote
buildings.
3)
Digital antennas mounted on roof of Administration Unit.
4)
For antenna down leads use coax RG-6/U.
Deleted: downleads
5)
In the event of difficulties in the transmission of UHF channels across the campus, set the agile
processors for conversion to available unused VHF channels 3, 6, 8, 10, or 12. Additionally, in
schools that predominately have older analog TVs with only 2-13 channel tuners, these three
channels will have to be reassigned to unused VHF.
Deleted: conversion to
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Book 3: Technical Criteria
b.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
6)
Antenna location(s) requires field-site signal measurements and line-of-site availability (use
http://www.antennaweb.org as a guide). .In the event of weak or insufficient signal availability,
provide alternative CATV services. If required, locate antenna on the highest building, condition
the signal for distance, and route conduit to TV rack. Also, using a fringe area antenna is an
alternative solution as long as the antenna is durable for a high wind area.
7)
If CATV is required, the rack modules have to be analog to digital QAM (AQD) since only local
analog channels in a basic cable service package are provided “in the clear.” If digital to digital
modules are used (AQT), the school will have to subscribe to a digital channel package and
receive only one set top box. This service only provides one channel at a time for distribution.
Unless 10 of these boxes are obtained and adapted to rack mounting, 10 digital channel
distribution for the school is unobtainable without an antenna.
8)
The TV front end design shall permit the use of 8VSB digital over-the-air signal or CATV digital
QAM signal processing. The output signal in either case shall be 256 QAM for ATSC compatible
TV receivers.
9)
When using output combiners either to division (before the AQT modules) or combine TV
signals (after the AQT modules) from or to a single coax signal in the rack, do not connect
adjacent channels to connectors physically next to each other. Co-channel interference may
occur.
10)
Digital signals are self-correcting, but produce no output below certain levels. The design shall
address necessary modifications and requirements to correct signal weakening, such requirements
may include but not be limited to gain settings reduction, and minimizing length of jumper
coaxial cables.
Distribution, Cabling and Power:
1)
Backbone: Use two (2) single mode fibers from the data fiber optic backbone cabling to transmit
the television signals between buildings. One single mode fiber shall be used, while the second
shall be left as spare. Install fiber to coax distribution amplifiers in the first floor of remote
building at TV terminal cabinet. A coax-RG11/U cable shall be used to connect media
converter’s output to TV terminal cabinet located in the same room.
2)
In small sites, or where less than ten TV outlets are served in the remote building, use coaxRG11/U or larger cable for distribution from the closest IDF to remote TV terminal cabinets.
3)
For building distribution from TV terminal cabinet to outlets, use coax-RG6/U cables.
4)
Use self-terminating, dropping tap methods for building coax distribution (no splitters).
c.
Provide adequate number of line extender amplifiers in system so that signal level at any outlet shall
nominally be between -1 dBmV and +4 dBmV (digital). Usually up to four TV outlets may be daisy
chained to be served by a single RG-6U cable homerun to TV terminal cabinet.
d.
Provide 120 volts, 20 amps, dedicated circuit to headend rack and line extender cabinets.
e.
Cable runs shall be in raceways or cable trays.
f.
Terminal outlets shall be mounted 18" above finished floor at TV monitor location or directly behind
any wall mounted TV locations (existing sites with wall-mounted TVs only), and shall have a selftapping directional coupler design.
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
g.
TV outlet shall be provided at VCR/ DVR location (media cabinet), Principal’s Office, Library, and at
teacher’s workstation. A single TV drop from cable tray shall serve the classroom.
h.
Provide the following cable and outlets as follows:
1)
3.
Provide 120 volt, 15-amp receptacle at TV and projector outlets.
j.
Antenna mast, cabinets and raceways shall be effectively grounded.
k.
Submit system calculations indicating signal levels at components including terminal outlets. All block
diagrams and construction details must be included in construction drawings.
Modernization Projects
b.
1.
Provide double gang outlet boxes for audio/video system next to ceiling mounted projector, at
TV monitor location, and at wall next to teacher’s workstation.
i.
a.
K.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
For modernization projects, or where new buildings are added to existing school sites and an existing
television distribution system is to be extended, following procedure shall be followed:
1)
Obtain project record drawings of existing system.
2)
Visit job site to compare project record drawings with actual field conditions and note any
deviations from project record drawings.
3)
Determine at what point existing TV system can be tapped and extended to new work location.
Usually line extender amplifiers need to be installed depending on attenuation values calculated. Signal
level at any outlet shall be between +7 dBmV and +10 dBmV (analog signal). The optimum digital
signal measurements are +6 to +8 dBmV lower (256 Qam) than these analog measurements. Digital
signals also have requirements for minimum carrier to noise, multiplex quality analysis, MER,
constellation, and BER (bit error rate) evaluation. Use a Sencore 1426 portable tester or equivalent. The
BER test is dependent on two different carrier to noise tests which differ only if there are adjacent
broadcast channels next to the channel under test. Refer to the CATV specifications for test procedures.
OVERHEAD DIGITAL PROJECTOR SYSTEM
System Requirements
a.
In all classrooms and any instructional areas make provisions for an overhead digital projector system as
follows:
1)
b.
Provide a wall or ceiling mounted video projector with all mounting hardware and a combination
power, data, USB, and VGA outlets next to it. Refer to educational specifications for type of
projector mounting required for the specific spaces.
Stub-up a 1 ½” conduit, 4” minimum above ceiling space from teacher’s workstation area, and at
Audio/Visual cabinet, and a 1 ½” conduit from teacher’s work station to projector location; terminate
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: wall mounting bracket
Deleted: ..
Deleted: Locate projector above white board
Deleted: Verify optimal mounting height with projector
manufacturer.
Book 3: Technical Criteria
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
this conduit at the power, data, USB, and VGA combination outlet box. Bring power in a separate ½”
conduit.
2. Overhead Digital Projectors in Modernization Projects.
L.
a.
A new projector will not be required when one already exist.
b.
Verify all requirements for power, data, USB, and VGA; provide as needed.
Deleted: <#>Identify projector as Owner Furnished Owner
Installed.¶
Deleted: <#>Provide a new wall mounted super short throw
projector with power, data, and Audio-Visual outlets if the room being
modernized does not have one. ¶
<#>Provide video projector wall mounting bracket with a
combination power, data, USB, and VGA outlets next to it. Locate
projector above white board. Verify optimal mounting height with
projector manufacturer. ¶
<#>Stub-up a 1 ½” conduit, 4” minimum above ceiling space from
teacher’s workstation area, and at Audio/Visual cabinet, provide a 1
½” conduit from teacher’s work station to projector location;
terminate this conduit at the power, data, USB, and VGA combination
outlet box. Bring power in a separate ½” conduit.¶
<#>Identify projector to be OFOI. ¶
SOUND ENHANCEMENT SYSTEM
1.
Systems Requirements
Deleted: wall mounted
a.
M.
1.
Provide sound enhancement system in all classrooms and any instructional areas. Refer to Educational
Specifications for more information.
SCHOOL RADIO COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
Deleted: a ceiling mounted projector
Formatted: OA3, Indent: Left: 0.5", Hanging: 0.38", Space
Before: 6 pt, After: 6 pt, Outline numbered + Level: 3 +
Numbering Style: a, b, c, … + Start at: 1 + Alignment: Left +
Aligned at: 0.6" + Tab after: 0.75" + Indent at: 0.75",
Widow/Orphan control, Border: Top: (No border), Bottom:
(No border), Left: (No border), Right: (No border), Pattern:
Clear, Tab stops: 0.88", List tab + Not at 0.75"
Deleted: I
System Requirements
Deleted: MAKE PROVISIONS AS FOLLOWS FOR OWNER
a.
b.
c.
Each secondary school has a radio communication base station to support its hand-held portable radios.
It is provided by the District, and is located in the open office of the Administration Unit – usually on
top of file cabinets or on special shelving. It receives signals from a roof-mounted antenna.
A one-inch inside diameter conduit for the coax antenna cable from the roof to the room is required as
part of the building construction, terminating in a double gang deep device box with a single hole (one
inch grommet) stainless steel cover plate at the base-station location and in a weather head on the roof.
Locate the box at 18 inches above finished floor in an accessible location. Conduit shall be provided
with pull string.
1)
Conduit should extend 24 inches to 30 inches above the roof; it shall be braced at roof level and
properly flashed to support the antenna.
2)
Conduit must have only sweep bends, no sharp turns.
3)
Conduits shall have no more than two 90 degree bends between pull boxes.
FURNISHED OWNER INSTALLED AUDIO ENHANCEMENT
SYSTEMS:¶
STUB-UP A 1 ½” CONDUIT, 4” ABOVE CEILING SPACE FROM
TEACHER’S WORKSTATION AREA, AND AUDIO/VISUAL CABINET.¶
Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Small caps
Formatted: Font: Not Italic
Deleted: grommeted
Deleted: weatherhead
Provide a 120V duplex U-ground dedicated power receptacle for the base station; locate outlet at no
more than 12 inches from antenna device box.
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.6", Hanging: 0.15", No bullets
or numbering
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
N.
1.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
SIGNAL SYSTEMS RACEWAY AND TERMINAL CABINETS
Raceways and Routing
a.
All signal systems' wiring and cabling, including fire alarm, clock, security intrusion alarm, telephone,
public address, television, and computer networking shall be installed in raceways.
b.
Fire alarm and clock systems shall be installed in conduit. For all other signal systems, cable trays are
preferred.
c.
For underground distribution to all buildings, signal systems shall be installed in conduit, sized for 40%
fill (30% fill for new campus to accommodate future growth), with the following as a minimum
standard:
d.
1)
4” C-Fiber Optic Data Backbone System with three innerducts – two 1 ½” and one 1”.
2)
3” C-PA / Intercommunication/ Telephone systems. In large campuses, use 4” conduit or
multiples conduit as needed.
3)
3” C-Intrusion Alarm System/ CCTV system.
4)
3” C-Cat. 6 data cables/ TV distribution (coaxial cables if applicable).
5)
2” C-Fire Alarm System.
6)
2” C-Clock System.
7)
3” C-Spare.
8)
3” C-Minimum of two for telephone entrance service.
9)
3” C-EMS and Lighting Controls backbone system with one 1½”, and one 1” innerducts.
For end drops to buildings not containing more than two classrooms, the conduit size shall be as
follows as a minimum standard:
1)
3” C-Fiber Optic Data System.
2)
2” C-PA / Intercommunication/ Telephone systems
3)
2” C-Intrusion Alarm System/ CCTV system.
4)
2” C-Cat. 6 data cables/ TV distribution (coaxial cables if applicable).
5)
2” C-Fire Alarm System.
6)
1” C-Clock System.
7)
2” C-Spare.
8)
2” C-EMS and Lighting Controls backbone system with two ¾” innerducts.
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
e.
2.
O.
1.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
For inside building distribution, the sizes of conduits or cable trays shall be selected per 40% cable fill
requirements for different systems. Provide separate conduits for fire alarm and clock systems.
Terminal Cabinets and backboards
a.
The information indicated here are supplemental to requirements indicated elsewhere in the design
guideline.
b.
Terminal cabinets shall be provided for each signal system, in each building.
1)
For public address system, a main PA terminal cabinet shall be provided, located near PA Rack
and PABX equipment. If the Main PA terminal cross connects are located inside the dedicated
LAN room, an open field (rather than a cabinet) cross-connect is acceptable. If the open field
solution is selected, the backboard used must be separate and distinct from the main telephone
backboard and cross connect field. All wiring between PABX and P.A. rack and stations shall be
routed thru this terminal cabinet. Cabinet or backboard must be sized in accordance with
number of terminations required to be made plus 20% spare capacity. Other buildings shall each
be provided with at least one P.A terminal cabinet sized in same manner as PA main terminal
cabinet. All cabinets shall include required terminal blocks for cable terminations.
2)
For Telephone system, locate main telephone and PBX cross connect backboard shall be
provided in LAN room, next to Main PA terminal cabinet. Provide at least one telephone
terminal cabinet in the IDF room at first floor of each remote building to cross connect all multipair telephone cables originating from voice patch panels of all IDF’s in the building.
3)
For security intrusion alarm system, one terminal cabinet shall be provided for the main security
panel and for each remote security panel. Cabinets shall include terminal strips, power supply,
power outlet, and backup battery.
4)
For fire alarm system, a main terminal cabinet shall be provided, located near control panel. All
wiring between control panel and field devices shall be routed thru this terminal cabinet. Cabinet
shall be sized in accordance with number of terminations required to be made plus 20% spare
capacity. Each building shall be provided with at least one terminal cabinet sized in same manner
as main terminal cabinet. All cabinets shall include required terminal strips for wire or cable
terminations.
5)
For clock/program system, a main terminal cabinet shall be provided, located near
Clock/Program Controller. All wiring between control panel and field devices shall be routed
thru this terminal cabinet. Each building shall be provided with at least one terminal cabinet. All
cabinets shall include required terminal strips for wire terminations.
6)
For TV system, at least one terminal cabinet shall be provided in each building. Cable
terminations shall be made in cabinets, with approved components. Depending on distance and
signal drop from headend equipment to remote terminal cabinets, remote terminal cabinets may
include line extender amplifiers to compensate for signal drop (only where copper distribution is
used).
PROXIMITY CARD ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM
System Requirements
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Design Standards Department
Book 3: Technical Criteria
a.
Each school site shall be equipped with a contact less proximity card access control system to control
access to elevators and parking garages/areas.
b.
The system shall be capable of operating on a new or existing IP network, and shall be accessible,
configurable, and manageable from any network connected computer.
c.
The system shall be capable of continuous operation even during power downtimes or outages, and
shall be equipped with the hardware and software necessary for the orderly shut down of the controller
during a power failure.
d.
The system shall be designed with a full feature, high performance data base management system.
1)
2.
The system shall be compatible with HID Corporate 1000 LAUSD formatted card coding system.
f.
Elevators with multiple access points (doors) on a single floor shall receive a card reader at each hall call
station.
g.
Locate proximity card access control equipment cabinets in electrical rooms, signal terminal rooms, or
other suitable spaces approved by the Design Manager or Owner Authorized Representative.
h.
The system must be capable of notifying school and/or District designated personnel via SMS or E-mail
messages (utilizing the District’s mail server) when problems or situations that require immediate
attention arise.
Power Requirements
Provide a dedicated 120 volt circuit for power and battery backup at each system cabinet.
Data System Requirements
a.
4.
The operating system shall not require client side software other than a web browser.
e.
a.
3.
3.8 Electrical Communication and AV Systems
Provide a data network outlet inside each access control system cabinet. These outlets shall be
connected via Cat 6 cables to the nearest computer network system distribution point (MDF, IDF, or
LDF).
Specifications and Technical Details
a.
The District’s technical specifications and construction details are based on the S2 NetBox Enterprise
Security Management System. Equal or better products from other manufacturers may be acceptable
subject to Owner’s review and approval.
b.
The AOR shall edit or modify the specifications and technical details to reflect the actual requirements
of the system being proposed if other than the S2 Netbox. Obtain approval on any substitutions prior
to start of design.
Deleted: ¶
¶
¶
¶
¶
¶
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.6", Hanging: 0.15", No bullets
or numbering
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Book Three Technical Criteria
3.9
PLANTING AND IRRIGATION
A.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ....................................................................... 279
Deleted: 301
B.
PLANTING ................................................................................................ 279
Deleted: 301
C.
SOILS ........................................................................................................ 280
Deleted: 302
D.
IRRIGATION .............................................................................................. 280
Deleted: 302
E.
PLANT SELECTION ................................................................................... 286
Deleted: 308
F.
GARDEN PROJECTS AT EXISTING SCHOOLS .............................................. 286
Deleted: 309
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
Los Angeles Unified School District
3.9 Planting and Irrigation
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.9
PLANTING AND IRRIGATION
A.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
a.
B.
1.
Landscapes are essential to the quality of life by providing areas for active and passive recreation and as
an enhancement to the environment by cleaning air and water, preventing erosion, offering fire
protection, and replacing ecosystem lost to development. Because schools represent important visual
elements in the community, a well-conceived landscape design is essential – one that is economically
maintainable and water efficient yet still provides a naturally beautiful campus that enhances its
neighborhood. Adequate shading of outdoor teaching, gathering and play areas with year-round shade
trees; durable plants that need little pruning or shaping; drought-tolerant landscaping providing ease of
maintenance – all are important elements of the landscape development.
PLANTING
Guidelines
a.
Examine existing trees on site, identify those that should be preserved, and incorporate them into site
planning, with recommendations to the District that they be saved in place, relocated, and provide
method of protection during construction.
b.
See “Site Design” section for planning and design criteria on landscaping, planting and tree locations.
c.
Trees shall be spaced to provide a maximum of five-feet of overlap of full canopies.
d.
Plant size at maturity shall be considered for spacing and setback.
e.
Use plant materials appropriate to the site and project, selected from District’s “Approved Plant List”.
f.
Plants shall be grouped based on similar water requirements and sited in appropriate hydro zones.
g.
Refer to the District’s “Guide Specifications” for additional requirements.
h.
No tree box smaller than 24 inches is to be specified.
i.
Tree wells and tree well grates should be sized appropriately for species at maturity.
j.
Trees provided by DWP or others, shall only be used if on the “Approved Plant List” and must be
located in areas away from student activities and access to maximize their survival. These 15 gallon trees
are provided as part of “Trees for a Green LA” program with a limit of 50 per school site.
Deleted: hydrozones
Formatted: OA1, Indent: Left: 0.06", Hanging: 0.05",
Space Before: 0 pt, After: 0 pt, Tab stops: Not at 0.88"
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
C.
1.
D.
1.
3.9 Planting and Irrigation
SOILS
Guidelines
a.
Examine physical properties of the existing soil at site and provide during the Design Development
Phase a preliminary assessment of possible major soil problems, such as poor drainage, salinity and alkali
conditions, and the need for soil amendments or imported topsoil in the early design stage. Provide a
soil management report. The 100% design shall reflect an onsite soil management plan.
b.
If considered necessary, consult with the District regarding services of a soil specialist and laboratory
testing during the design stage.
c.
Provide for stockpiling of good existing topsoil to be used in planting areas, free of all debris and rock
over ¾”.
d.
Specify subsoil ploughing and subsurface drainage to alleviate problems created by poor aeration, soil
compaction or inadequate drainage.
e.
Specify replacement of top 3 feet of soil where trees are planted in existing paved areas or other heavily
compacted soils.
f.
Specify characteristics and source approval for topsoil to be imported, installation methods and blending
if appropriate.
g.
Indicate method of slope stabilization on banks 2:1 or steeper.
h.
Plans shall indicate the area (in square feet) of each planting area.
IRRIGATION
Design Requirements
a.
The design shall be consistent with the California Code of Regulation, Title 23 Water, Division 2
Department of Water Resources, Chapter 2.7 State Model Water Efficient Landscape Ordinance Section
490-495.
b.
The design shall include a landscape documentation package as detailed in the State Model Water
Efficient Landscape Ordinance Section 492, provide all formulas and calculations to support your
estimates.
c.
Each landscape documentation package shall include a cover sheet, referred to as the Water
Conservation Concept Statement. It serves as a check list to verify that the following elements of the
landscaping documentation package have been completed:
1)
Maximum Applied Water Allowance.
2)
Estimated Applied Water use.
3)
Estimated Total Water Use.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
d.
2.
3.9 Planting and Irrigation
4)
Landscape Design.
5)
Irrigation Design.
6)
Planting Design Plan shall include the square footage of the landscape area for each station, zone,
controller and total square footage for all landscape area.
7)
Irrigation Watering Program Schedules. For controllers based on an Y2 month cycle.
8)
Maintenance Schedules.
9)
Landscape Irrigation Audit Schedule.
10)
Grading Design plan.
11)
Soil Analysis.
The Architect-Engineer shall check the availability of reclaimed water at the site, or its nearby availability
from where it could be extended to the site at no cost to LAUSD. If available the Designer shall request
approval for its use in the project’s irrigation system.
Design Efficiencies
a.
All irrigation systems shall be provided with controllers with electrically operated control valves and
seasonal irrigation schedules based on climatic conditions, incorporating water conservation design and
utilizing methods appropriate for specific terrains, soil types, wind conditions, temperatures and other
environmental factors in order to ensure a high degree of water efficiency.
b.
Soil types and infiltration shall be considered when designing irrigation system.
c.
All irrigation systems shall be designed to avoid runoff, low head drainage, overspray, or other similar
conditions where water flows onto adjacent property, non-irrigated areas, walks roadways, or structures.
d.
Proper irrigation schedules for each station, to include sequences of cycle and soak times shall be
provided with your designs and plans.
e.
Special attention shall be given to avoid runoff on slopes and to overspray in planting areas with a width
less than ten feet and in median strips.
f.
Select the proper equipment components and provide irrigation schedules for each station to meet or
exceed the required irrigation efficiency of 0.625.
g.
Encourage the capture and retention of storm water onsite.
h.
Maximize infiltration and retention.
i.
Encourage the use of recycled water.
j.
Encourage the use of economic incentives to promote the efficient use of water.
k.
Educate water user on the efficient use of water.
l.
Address regional differences, including fire prevention needs.
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Design Standards Department
Deleted: a
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.
m.
Include provisions for landscape maintenance practices that foster long-term landscape water
conservation.
n.
Promote benefits of consistent local ordinances and District guidelines, whichever is more stringent.
o.
The estimated water use shall not exceed the Maximum Applied Water Allowance (MAWA).
p.
Designer shall add and sign the following statement into the plans: “I have complied with the criteria of
the ordinance and applied them accordingly for the efficient use of water in the irrigation design plans.”
Design Plans
a.
4.
3.9 Planting and Irrigation
Provide CAD site plans that shall include:
1)
A Master site plan shall include showing the location of all irrigation zones for each controller
with point of connections, backflow device, pressure regulators, isolation valves, mainlines, flow
sensor/master valve & conduit, remote valves stations and quills.
2)
A complete plan layout for each controller shall include showing the location of the point of
connection to the main piping system, main and lateral lines, isolation valves, pressure regulator,
master valve & conduit, flow sensor & cable, remote valves, rain sensor, controller and all
sprinklers.
3)
Soil management criteria and plans as needed.
4)
Design Plans shall utilize and include District Design Guide Details.
5)
The landscape design shall be created by a Landscape Designer, Irrigation Designer, or Licensed
Landscape Contractor.
Design Calculations
a.
Provide design hydraulic and water budget calculations, water efficiency landscape worksheets (based on
0.7 evapotranspiration (ET) adjustment factor to support the irrigation design plans using the following
format:
1)
Static Water Pressure- Hi and Low.
2)
Water meter- Size, friction loss @ required GPM.
3)
Backflow Device- Size, friction loss @ required GPM.
4)
Master Valve- Size, friction loss @ required GPM.
5)
Flow Sensor- Size, friction loss @ required GPM.
6)
Isolation Valves, Size, friction loss @ required GPM.
7)
Mainline piping, Size, developed length, friction loss at each sizes used @R/GPM.
8)
Lateral piping, Size, developed length, friction loss at each sizes @R/GPM.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
5.
6.
3.9 Planting and Irrigation
9)
Remote Valves, Sizes, friction loss @ required GPM.
10)
Elevation Change.
11)
Total Pressure loss.
12)
Pressure required @ sprinkler head.
13)
Lowest Static Pressure (-10%).
14)
Residual Water pressure.
15)
Water Budget.
Deleted: ..
b.
Provide design hydraulic calculations to support the design when incorporating a booster pump. Keep
in mind, peak demands effecting water pressures are normally not during irrigation watering hours (10
pm to 6 AM)
c.
Provide design calculations information to support incorporating a pressure regulator.
d.
Water pressure over 80 psi shall be regulated per Zone to meet manufacturer’s suggested pressureheads.
Design Materials and Components
a.
Call out design materials as specified in the LAUSD Guideline Specifications and LAUSD Design Guide
Details to ensure quality of materials with uniformity in maintenance and procurement.
b.
The following are some notable required materials that shall not be compromised:
1)
All valves including remote valves, isolation and shut-off valves shall be brass or bronze. Plastic
valves are not acceptable.
2)
Drip Irrigation is not acceptable.
3)
Mainline and lateral PVC piping shall be a minimum schedule 40 PVC piping above ground is
not acceptable.
4)
PVC male adapters are not acceptable, use schedule 80 PVC nipples when connecting to copper,
brass, bronze or steel materials.
Water Supply, Meter and Backflow Device
a.
Provide a separate irrigation water meter and main of adequate size to satisfy maximum instantaneous
demand and projected future demands.
b.
For large sites, three or more watering acres, or any multiple of that in unit size, there may be separate
points of connection on designated irrigation meters for each such unit.
c.
Water piping from meter connection to backflow device shall be no smaller in diameter than backflow
device served.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
7.
8.
3.9 Planting and Irrigation
d.
Provide Reduced-Pressure-Principle Backflow Prevention Devices upstream from irrigation system for
meter protection.
e.
Provide pressure regulator when necessary, never exceeding 100 psi.
f.
Provide enclosure for backflow device and pressure regulators where necessary to reduce potential
vandalism.
Piping Design
a.
Piping materials shall conform to the District’s Guide Specifications.
b.
Flow velocity: Five (5) feet per second maximum, based on industry-standard friction pressure loss
values and complete hydraulic calculations.
c.
Pipe size shall be sufficient to support a minimum of two control valves operating at the same time.
(One opening, one closing)
d.
Follow the manufacturer’s GPM demand and pressure requirements; make allowance for a 10% error
margin with all GPM demand and sprinkler-head coverage values.
e.
Size all valves (including remote control valves) no smaller than the piping served downstream, except
that when piping is increased in size to reduce friction loss, remote valves may then be sized one pipe
size smaller than the piping served.
f.
Install shut off valves needed to isolate loop systems or major branch lines.
g.
Do not use exposed PVC piping above ground.
Athletic Fields
a.
The placement and location of irrigation equipment such as Controllers, backflow devices, remote valve,
isolation valves, quill valves and yard boxes for maintenance accessibility and student safety is a very
important concern. The following are ideal locations for placement of the above irrigation equipment in
order of number 1 is the most preferred location. For Sports fields (Football, Baseball, Softball, Soccer
field):
1)
Install all equipment including the controller off the field of play in a fenced enclosure with
valves such as remote valves, normally placed in a yard box, installed above the ground on a
manifold system.
2)
Place the hose quill valves for football fields up against the perimeter cement curb to field. For
other sport fields install next to wall, fence or outer perimeter of grass field, preferably next to
pavement.
3)
Install Controller and backflow device as near as possible to a wall or fence, away from the field
of play. Place the remote valves in marked yard box with-in 12 inch of fence, wall, and or outer
perimeter of grass field which is normally next to pavement. An Isolation valve in a marked yard
box prior to the group of quills is ideal.
4)
Install remote valves in a minimum group of three to easily locate the yard boxes in future. An
Isolation valve in a marked yard box prior to the group of remote valves is ideal.
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Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
b.
9.
10.
11.
3.9 Planting and Irrigation
General Physical Education Field:
1)
Install Controller and backflow device as near as possible to a wall or fence, away from the field
of play. Place the remote valves in marked yard box with-in 12 inch of fence, wall, and or outer
perimeter of grass field which is normally next to pavement.
2)
Install remote valves in a minimum group of three to easily locate the yard boxes in future. An
Isolation valve in a marked yard box prior to the group of remote valves is ideal.
Sleeves
a.
Pressure piping installed under driveways, heavy traffic thresholds or sidewalks shall be sleeved.
b.
Sleeves shall be a minimum of 2 pipe sizes larger than the pipe it serves and include a tracer wire.
c.
Sleeves for long distances are not a good thing. Mainline piping must be center loaded to prevent
movement due to expansion and contraction, which will cause the main line to break within the sleeve.
Never exceed 60 feet of continues sleeve in any area.
Sprinklers
a.
Provide 100% head-to-head triangulated coverage or other approved 100% configuration
b.
Locate sprinklers with pop-up spray 12 inches away from buildings, 4 inches away from paved areas or
parking stalls, and where trees will not interfere with spray pattern.
c.
Reduce spacing in areas where winds during irrigation times may blow spray outside irrigation area.
d.
Locate sprinkler lines on banks parallel to contours.
e.
Sprinklers on fixed risers are not acceptable. All sprinkler heads shall be pop-up heads and installed with
double swing-joints.
f.
Drip irrigation is not acceptable.
g.
All sprinkler spray heads shall have a built-in check valve to prevent drain down from the lowest head,
including level irrigation systems.
Controllers shall be provided with the following
a.
Locate controller close to a building, wall or fence and accessible for use. Install in vandal-resistant
secured enclosure that prevents unauthorized access and control changes.
1)
Include self-adjusting controllers, and controls for runoff and overspray.
b.
Provide Rain Sensor-Locate in area accessible to rain and not easily vandalized. Do not in stall under
roof overhang.
c.
Flow Sensor and Master Valve to provide mainline and lateral line protection
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 285
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
1)
12.
1.
2.
Provide a hand-held wireless remote control unit (one per site).
e.
Each controller shall be provided with three (3) extra stations for future connections.
Remote Valves serving Lawn and Planter Locations
a.
Remote valves serving planter areas shall be installed in marked yard box, located along the outer
perimeter of planter it is serving as close to the side walk or pavement as possible in order to easily
access and utilize during operation with getting wet by sprinklers during operation.
b.
Remote valves serving turf areas shall be installed in marked yard box, located along the outer perimeter
of grass area it is serving, as close as possible to the sidewalk or pavement in order to easily access and
utilize during operation with getting wet by the sprinklers during operation.
When at all possible, install remote valves in a minimum group of three to easily locate the yard
boxes in future. An Isolation valve in a marked yard box prior to the group of remote valves is
ideal.
PLANT SELECTION
Section Parameters
a.
Design shall reflect plants, trees, shrubs, etc that support the landscape and the environment for which
they are intended. Plants are to chosen based on plant type, height, width, texture, seasonal interest,
texture, form, use, disease and insects, soils, etc.
b.
Landscape plants shall be selected based on the geographical location, indigenous plants and appropriate
grouping.
c.
Pests attracting plants shall be avoided.
d.
Designer shall obtain approval of any plants not in the approved list prior to proceeding.
Approved Plant List
a.
F.
Do not install manual control valves and quill valves on irrigation stations/zones using a flow
monitoring system. Tie in before flow sensor.
d.
1)
E.
3.9 Planting and Irrigation
Refer to the following link for the Approved Plant List: http://www.laschools.org/employee/design/fsstudies-and-reports/file?file_id=226675942
GARDEN PROJECTS AT EXISTING SCHOOLS
1.
Raised Container/Planter (All Planting Types)
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 286
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
a.
For containerized plants located on concrete or asphalt surfaces, the following condition shall apply.
1)
b.
2.
3.9 Planting and Irrigation
Fill containers with soil/planting mix as necessary. All amended soil/planting mix shall be bagged
and commercially available.
For containerized plants requiring concrete or asphalt cut and removal to support adequate drainage, the
following conditions shall apply:
1)
Remove concrete or asphalt and base material. Over excavate a minimum of 2 inches of
underlying soil. Dispose of construction debris and related materials in accordance with
applicable LAUSD standards.
2)
Place landscape fabric at base of excavation.
3)
Following container construction, place amended soil/planting mix as necessary. All import soils
shall be bagged and commercially available.
4)
Soil volumes less than 3 cubic yards may be disposed of as construction debris. Should soil
volume exceed 3 yards, excavated soil shall be removed in accordance with LAUSD specification
section 01 4524 Environmental Import/Export Material Testing.
In Ground at Existing Planting Areas
a.
b.
c.
d.
Non-Edible Planting Bed:
1)
Remove a minimum of 3 inches of existing soil/fill material. Do not reuse or redistribute soil.
Dispose in a manner consistent with LAUSD standards.
2)
Place landscape fabric at base of excavation.
3)
Place amended soil/planting mix as necessary. All import soil shall be bagged and commercially
available.
Edible Planting Bed:
1)
Remove a minimum of 24 inches of existing soil/fill material. Do not reuse or redistribute soil.
Dispose in a manner consistent with LAUSD standards.
2)
Place landscape fabric at base of excavation.
3)
Place amended soil/planting mix as necessary. All import soils shall be bagged and commercially
available.
Tree Planting Area:
1)
Remove existing soil to accommodate root ball. Do not reuse or redistribute soil. Dispose in a
manner consistent with LAUSD standards.
2)
Place amended soil/planting mix as necessary. All import soils shall be bagged and commercially
available.
Tree Well
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 287
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.
3.9 Planting and Irrigation
1)
Remove existing soil to accommodate root ball. Over excavate to achieve a minimum 6 inch
depth from the top of the well to native soil. Do not reuse or redistribute soil. Dispose in a
manner consistent with LAUSD standards.
2)
Place landscape fabric at base of excavation. Cut center portion of fabric to accommodate root
ball.
3)
Place amended soil/planting mix as necessary. Apply topsoil to achieve a minimum 3 inch depth
of cover. All import soil shall be bagged and commercially available. The topsoil shall be
formulated to serve as a filler leveling material to maintain cohesion and limit erosion within the
tree well.
4)
Soil volume less than 3 cubic yards may be disposed of as construction debris. Should soil
volume exceed 3 cubic yards, excavated soil shall be removed in accordance with LAUSD
specification section 01 4524 Environmental Import/Export Material Testing.
In Ground New Planting Area
a.
b.
c.
Non-Edible Planting Beds:
1)
Remove existing concrete or asphalt and base material. Over excavate to achieve a minimum 6
inch depth from the top of existing pavement to native soil. Do not reuse or redistribute soil.
Dispose in a manner consistent with LAUSD standards.
2)
Place landscape fabric at base of excavation.
3)
Place amended soil/planting mix as necessary. All import soils shall be bagged and commercially
available.
Edible Planting Beds:
1)
Remove existing concrete or asphalt and base material. Over excavate to achieve a minimum of
30 inch depth from the top of existing pavement to native soil. Do not reuse or redistribute soil.
Dispose in a manner consistent with LAUSD standards.
2)
Place landscape fabric at base of excavation.
3)
Place amended soil/planting mix as necessary. All import soils shall be bagged and commercially
available.
Tree Well
1)
Remove existing concrete or asphalt and base material. Over excavate to achieve a minimum 6
inch depth from the top of the well to native soil. Do not reuse or redistribute soil. Dispose in a
manner consistent with LAUSD standards.
2)
Place landscape fabric at base of excavation. Cut center portion of fabric to accommodate root
ball.
3)
Place amended soil/planting mix as necessary. Apply topsoil to achieve a minimum 3 inch depth
of cover. All import soils shall be bagged and commercially available. The topsoil shall be
formulated to serve as a filler leveling material to maintain cohesion and limit erosion within the
tree well.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 288
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
4.
3.9 Planting and Irrigation
Special Considerations
a.
For bulk amendment/topsoil purchases, approval from the Office of Environmental Health and Safety
(OEHS) shall be required. The Complex Project Manager (CPM) or Design Manager (DM) can assist in
obtaining review and approvals for the proposed project. Refer to LAUSD specification section 01 4524
Environmental Import/Export Material Testing.
b.
Decomposed granite and aggregate used for path and related walkways must be purchased from a
LAUSD approved vendor or a certification to be provided that the aggregate is free from contamination
or reclaimed or recycled materials shall be provided before the material is imported onto District
property. The decomposed granite shall be 2 mil TRACK FIRE grade and aggregate shall be less than ¼
inch in diameter.
c.
In lieu of the above soil removal actions, in situ (in place) soil sampling may be conducted to determine
the presence of soil contaminants. Two sample locations are required for every 500 square feet of
contiguous surface area. These samples may be combined (composite) and analyzed as one sample. The
analytical methods are Organochlorine Pesticides/8081A, Phenoxy Acid Herbicides /8151A and
Arsenic /6020. Contact Office of Environmental Health and Safety for assistance prior to initiation of
this approach.
Deleted: ¶
¶
¶
¶
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 289
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
Los Angeles Unified School District
3.9 Planting and Irrigation
Page | 290
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.10
A.
BUILDING ACOUSTICAL REQUIREMENTS
ALLOWABLE MAXIMUM BACKGROUND SOUND LEVEL (BSL)
FROM HVAC NOISE ................................................................................. 293
Deleted: 315
ALLOWABLE MAXIMUM BACKGROUND SOUND LEVEL (BSL)
FROM TRAFFIC NOISE OR PLAYGROUND NOISE ...................................... 293
Deleted: 315
C.
ALLOWABLE MAXIMUM REVERBERATION TIME (RT 60) ......................... 294
Deleted: 316
D.
ALLOWABLE MINIMUM SOUND TRANSMISSION CLASS (STC)
VALUES FOR PARTITIONS SEPARATING A CLASSROOM OR LIBRARY ......... 295
Deleted: 317
ALLOWABLE MINIMUM STC VALUES FOR FLOOR / CEILING
ASSEMBLIES SEPARATING CLASSROOMS OR LIBRARIES ............................ 295
Deleted: 318
ALLOWABLE MINIMUM STC VALUES FOR DEMISING PARTITIONS
SEPARATING ALIKE AND DISLIKE FUNCTIONS ......................................... 296
Deleted: 319
ALLOWABLE MINIMUM STC VALUES FOR FLOOR / CEILING
ASSEMBLIES SEPARATING OTHER ALIKE AND DISLIKE FUNCTION .......... 298
Deleted: 321
ALLOWABLE MAXIMUM IMPACT & ISOLATION CLASS (IIC)
LEVELS FOR FLOOR/CEILING ASSEMBLIES ABOVE CLASSROOMS .............. 298
Deleted: 322
B.
E.
F.
G.
H.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 291
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
Los Angeles Unified School District
3.10 Building Acoustical Requirements
Page | 292
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.10
A.
BUILDING ACOUSTICAL REQUIREMENTS
ALLOWABLE MAXIMUM BACKGROUND SOUND LEVEL (BSL) FROM HVAC NOISE
Function
Classrooms/ Teaching
Spaces
dBA
45 Max.
40 Target
Conference Rooms
Library
Office
45
Cafeteria
Gymnasium
Corridor
Locker Rooms
50
Multi-Purpose Room
B.
40 Max.
35 preferred
Suggested Construction
See HVAC Design Criteria
Duct routing and location or air transfer openings shall not
significantly compromise the sound isolation of the envelope of
the space.
Allowable Maximum Background Sound Level (BSL) from Traffic Noise or
Playground Noise
Function
Classroom / Teaching
Spaces
DBA
45 Max.
40 Target
Suggested Construction
Wall construction to provide STC based on actual exterior sound
levels.
Glazing: ¼” monolithic typical. ¼ “3/8” laminated if needed.
DO NOT use thermal insulating dual glazing.
Weather-stripped solid core or hollow metal door with drop
threshold, or provide vestibules with two doors.
Conference
Library
Office
Los Angeles Unified School District
45
Same as above.
Page | 293
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
Cafeteria
Gymnasium
Corridor
Locker Rooms
Multi-Purpose Room
3.10 Building Acoustical Requirements
50
¼” monolithic glazing.
Weather-stripped solid core or hollow metal door with drop
threshold, or provide vestibules with two doors.
40 Max.
35 Preferred
Doors from the Stage and Multi-Purposes Room should lead into
corridors and other circulation areas, NOT directly into adjoining
classrooms or other occupied spaces.
As far as is practical, attempt to site the space away from noise
sources such as railways, freeways, industrial noise sources etc.
Reasonable measures should be incorporated to limit transient
noise intrusion into the space, e.g. acoustical seals should be
provided at all doors to the Multi-Purpose Rom and Stage,
NOTE: Background noise shall be defined and measured as specified in ANSI Standard 2.60
C.
Allowable Maximum Reverberation Time (RT 60)
Function
T60
Classroom / Teaching Spaces
Conference
Library
.60
Acoustical tile ceiling with minimum NRC of .0.70 min.
Conference
Library
Office
>15,000 cu.ft.
.70
Acoustical tile ceiling with minimum NRC of .55
Cafeteria
Gymnasium
Corridor
Locker Rooms
Multi-Purpose Room
Suggested Construction
Minimum 50% of ceiling area covered with acoustical tile with
minimum NRC of .55 or equivalent absorption.
The target mid frequency reverberation time for the space,
unoccupied, is 1.2 seconds.
Since a greater quantity of acoustically absorbent
finishes are required as the volume of the space
increases. It is suggested that this volume
accommodating the audience should not exceed 240
cu. feet per person.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 294
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.10 Building Acoustical Requirements
D. Allowable Minimum Sound Transmission Class (STC) Values for Partitions
Separating a Classroom or Library from:
Function
STC
Classroom
Conference
Library
Office
Corridor
Shower Room
Staircase
Outdoor Playground
or lunch Shelter
45
Speech Clinic
Health Care Facility
50
Suggested Construction
One layer of 5/8” thick drywall on each side of a single steel stud
24 on center or 2x4 wood staggered studs at 16” on center
partition with full width insulation, penetrations not desirable
All joints and penetrations properly sealed.
One layer of 5/8” thick drywall on one side of a single steel stud
24” on center or 2”x4” wood staggered studs at 16” on center
partition and 2-layers of 5/8” thick drywall on the other side with
full width insulation, penetrations not desirable
All joints and penetrations properly sealed.
Music Room / Dance Room /
Mech. Equipment Rm
Gymnasium / Aerobics Room
Cafeteria
M/P Room
60
Two layers of 5/8” thick drywall on one side of a double steel
stud partition 24” on center or 2”x4” wood staggered studs at 16”
on center and 3-layers of 5/8” thick drywall on the other side
with full width double insulation. Stud lines are separated by a
one inch airspace.
All joints and penetrations properly sealed.
E.
Allowable Minimum STC Values for Floor / Ceiling Assemblies Separating
Classrooms or Libraries from:
Function
Classroom
Conference
Library
Office
Corridor
Shower Room
Staircase
Outdoor Playground
Or Lunch Shelter
Los Angeles Unified School District
STC
45
(unless higher
needed
to meet
background
noise level
criteria)
Suggested Construction
Nominal 6” thick lightweight concrete on steel fluted deck or
plywood sub floor with suspended acoustical tile ceiling a
minimum 30” below the deck.
or
5/8” drywall suspended ceiling;
All penetrations properly sealed.
Page | 295
Design Standards Department
Deleted: ¶
¶
¶
Book Three Technical Criteria
3.10 Building Acoustical Requirements
Speech Clinic
Health Care Facility
50
Same as above
Music Room / Dance Room /
Aerobics Room
Mech. Equipment Gymnasium
Cafeteria
60
Nominal 6” thick lightweight concrete on steel fluted deck or
plywood sub floor with suspended 5/8 acoustical tile ceiling a
minimum 30” below the deck with insulation in the cavity.
Install the cavity.
All joints and penetrations properly sealed.
F.
Allowable Minimum STC Values for Demising Partitions Separating Alike and
Dislike Functions
Function
From Office or
Conference Room
to
Office or Conference Room
STC
Suggested Construction
35
1-layer of 5/8” thick drywall on each side of a single steel stud 24”
on center or 2”x4” wood staggered stud at 16” on center partition
Weather-stripped solid-core wood door with drop-threshold.
All joints and penetrations properly sealed.
From Office
or Conference Room
to
Corridor or
Staircase or
Shower Room
Los Angeles Unified School District
45
1-layer of 5/8” thick drywall on each side of a single steel stud 24”
on center or 2”x4” wood staggered stud at 16” on center partition
insulate the cavity.
Weather-stripped solid-core wood door.
All joints and penetrations properly sealed.
Page | 296
Design Standards Department
Deleted: ¶
¶
¶
¶
¶
¶
¶
¶
¶
¶
¶
¶
¶
¶
¶
Book Three Technical Criteria
From Office
Conference Room
Music Room
to
Outdoor Playground
3.10 Building Acoustical Requirements
50
1-layer of 5/8” thick drywall on one side of a single steel stud 24”
on center or 2”x4” wood staggered stud at 16” on center partition
and 2-layers of 5/8” thick drywall on the other side
Insulate the cavity.
All joints and penetrations properly sealed.
Steel sound-rated door STC-49.
No requirements.
From Corridor or
Staircase or
Shower Room
to
Corridor
Staircase
Shower Room
From Music Room
to
Mech. Equipment Rm
Gymnasium
Cafeteria
M/P Room
Office
Conference Room
60
From Office Conference
Room
to
Mech. Equipment Room or
Gymnasium or Cafeteria
60
2-layers of 5/8” thick drywall on one side of double steel stud 24”
on center or 2”x4” wood staggered stud at 16” on center partition
and 3-layers of 5/8” thick drywall on the other side.
Insulate the cavity.
All joints and penetrations properly sealed.
Steel sound-rated door. STC-49.
2-layers of 5/8” thick drywall on one side of double steel stud 24”
on center or 2”x4” wood staggered stud at 16” on center partition
and 2-layers of 5/8” thick drywall on the other side.
Insulate the cavity.
All joints and penetrations properly sealed.
Steel sound-rated door. STC-49.
From Music Room
To
Music room
62
2-layers of 5/8” thick drywall on one side of double steel partition
24” on center or 2”x4” wood staggered stud at 16” on center and
3-layers of 5/8” on the other side.
Insulate the cavity.
All joints and penetrations properly sealed.
Steel sound rated door. STC-49
Deleted: ¶
¶
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 297
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
G.
3.10 Building Acoustical Requirements
Allowable Minimum STC Values for Floor / Ceiling Assemblies Separating Other
Alike and Dislike Function
Function
STC
Suggested construction
From Office or
Conference Room
to
Office or
Conference Room
35
Nominal 6” thick lightweight concrete on a steel fluted deck or
plywood sub floor with a suspended acoustical tile ceiling a
minimum 30” below the deck.
From Office or
Conference Room
to
Corridor or
Staircase or
Shower Room
45
All joints and penetrations properly sealed.
Nominal 6” thick lightweight concrete on a steel fluted deck or
plywood sub floor with a suspended acoustical tile ceiling a
minimum 30” below the deck.
All joints and penetrations properly sealed.
From Office or
Conference Room or
Music room to
Outdoor Playground
Provide extra wall STC to meet 45 DBA background noise level;
(See “Traffic noise” requirement above.
From Corridor or
Staircase or
Shower Room
to
Corridor or
Staircase or
Shower Room
Provided extra STC to meet 45DBA background noise level;
See “Traffic noise” requirement above.
From Music Room
to
Mechanical Equipment
Room or
Gymnasium or Cafeteria
All joints and penetrations properly sealed.
All joints and penetrations properly sealed.
60
Nominal 6” thick lightweight concrete on a steel fluted deck or
plywood sub floor with a suspended 5/8” thick drywall ceiling a
minimum 30” below the deck.
Insulate the cavity.
All joints and penetrations properly sealed.
From Office or
Conference Room
to
Mech. Equipment Rm
Gymnasium Or Cafeteria
60
Nominal 6” thick lightweight concrete on a steel fluted deck or
plywood sub floor with a suspended 5/8” thick drywall ceiling a
minimum 30” below the deck.
Insulate the cavity.
All joints and penetrations properly sealed.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 298
Design Standards Department
Book Three Technical Criteria
From Music Room
To
Music Room
3.10 Building Acoustical Requirements
62
Nominal 6” thick lightweight concrete on a steel fluted deck or
plywood sub floor with a suspended 5/8” thick drywall ceiling a
minimum 30” below the deck.
Insulate the cavity.
All Joints and penetrations properly sealed.
H.
Allowable Maximum Impact & Isolation Class (IIC) levels for Floor/Ceiling
Assemblies above Classrooms
Function
Classroom
IIC
Suggested Construction
50
Vinyl tile over 6” thick lightweight concrete on a steel fluted deck
or plywood sub floor with a suspended acoustical tile a minimum
30” below the deck.
Alternative: Equivalent IIC using carpeting.
Gymnasium
Music Room
Dance Studio
50+
Vinyl tile over 6” thick lightweight concrete on a steel fluted deck
or plywood sub floor with a 5/8” thick suspended drywall ceiling a
minimum 30 below the deck.
Insulate the cavity.
GENERAL NOTES:
Provide acoustical consultant recommendations for all auditoria and for special cases such
as unusual exterior ambient noise.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 299
Design Standards Department
Deleted: Above
Book Three Technical Criteria
Los Angeles Unified School District
3.10 Building Acoustical Requirements
Page | 300
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
Book Four
Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.1
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS – SITE ANALYSIS REPORT..….303
Deleted: 325
4.2
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS – PRELIMINARY SCHEMATIC
DESIGN_PHASE……………………………………………..307
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS – FINAL SCHEMATIC
DESIGN PHASE ...................................................................... 311
Deleted: ¶
4.3
Formatted: Indent: Hanging: 0.5", Space After: 0 pt
Deleted:
Deleted: …………
Deleted: 329
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS – DESIGN
DEVELOPMENT PHASE ......................................................... 315
Deleted: 333
Deleted: 337
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS – 50% CD
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS.............................................. 325
Deleted: 347
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS – 100% CD
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS……………………...…..…..335
Deleted:
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS - OFFSITE WORK, UTILITIES
AND EASEMENTS……………………………………………347
4.8
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS – CIVIL 100% CD………….…351
4.9
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS – PLUMBING 100% CD… ..….355
4.10 SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS – MECHANICAL 100% CD…...363
Deleted: …
Deleted: …
Deleted:
Deleted: 357
Deleted:
Deleted: ………
Deleted: 369
Deleted: 373
Deleted: 377
4.11
SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS – ELECTRICAL 100% CD…….371
Deleted:
Deleted: 385
Deleted: 393
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 301
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 302
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.1SUBMITTALREQUIREMENTS:SITEANALYSISREPORT
Project Name:
Project Number:
Architect:
Date:
Design Manager:
REPORT:
Site Analysis Report
INFORMATION INCLUDED:
DOCUMENTS:
YES NO N/A
General:
During the Site Analysis Phase the Architect shall initiate contact with representatives of the agencies having jurisdiction over the project,
to inform them of the school’s needs and to establish relationships that will assure coordination of their requirements with the school’s
design. The deliverables include the following:
Title Page
Project name, project number & address
Project Directory
Project directory w/ all consultants
Vicinity and Location Map
Neighborhood land uses and characteristics, parking, setbacks
on adjacent and frontage properties
Streets, crossings, signals and general traffic
Color Photos
Proposed project areas of interest, including existing buildings
and surroundings, and areas of concern
Site Plan
Existing buildings, playground and parking areas
Scope and Limits of Work
Relevant topographical features
Driveways, streets, parking, walks
Preliminary Code Analysis / Path of Travel
Existing landscape features
List of off-site work
"Check List of Off-site Work, Utilities & Easements"
AE Survey:
Verify the points of connection, location, capacity and need for
upgrade for all utilities, including but not limited to:
Domestic water
Fire water
Potable irrigation water
Recycled irrigation water
Sanitary sewer
Storm drainage
HVAC
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 303
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.1 Site Analysis
Natural gas
Electrical power
Artificial lighting
Electrical communications and AV Systems
Computer networking
Telephone systems
Public address
Fire alarm
Security/intrusion alarm system
Other:
Assessments:
Identification of historical buildings
Programming Evaluation / Assessment of
existing spaces
Analysis of stormwater and potential mitigation measures
Seismic evaluation of existing structure
Evaluation of finishes such as flooring, ceiling tiles, walls, etc.
Evaluation of equipment, such as projection screens, marker
boards, cabinetry, blinds, etc.
Evaluation of doors and windows
Evaluation of plumbing fixtures, fixture count for all relevant
areas of the site
Evaluation of HVAC Equipment
Evaluation of electrical loads and panels
Evaluation of existing lighting
Evaluation of intrusion detection system
Evaluation of surveillance System
Other
Review/Comparison of Record Documents with
Field Conditions:
Topographic survey
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 304
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.1 Site Analysis
Record Drawings
Site conditions
Off-site conditions
FACU Accessibility survey
School Master Plan
Facilities Condition Index (FCI)
Other
Recommendations:
Project scope
Proposed Space Program / Proposed functional,
space and equipment for areas with no Educational
Specifications
Concept Design
Project budget
Construction phasing
Interim housing
List of issues brought up by CPM, Plant Manager
and school Principal and recommended action
Other
AE Quality Control Plan
Architect’s name and signature
Hereby I certify that, analysis of existing utilities and field verification / comparison of the building to Record Drawings and surveys provided by the District, as required by the Architectural and Engineering Agreement, has been performed under my direction. I accept responsibility for changes in the design and construction work which result from failure to properly coordinate the design to address the existing site conditions.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 305
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
Los Angeles Unified School District
4.1 Site Analysis
Page | 306
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.2SUBMITTALREQUIREMENTS:PRELIMINARYSCHEMATICDESIGN
Project Name:
Project Number:
Architect:
Date:
Design Manager:
DRAWINGS:
OTHER DOCUMENTS: Preliminary Schematic Design
%
C o m p le
t io n
S c a le
( M in )
"/ f t .
YES
NO
N/A
INFORMATION INCLUDED:
General
At a preliminary Schematics review meeting, present the District with three or more design solutions, for selection of one to be refined.
Provide site analysis diagrams showing key site views, traffic, neighborhood context, topographical features. Mount illustrations (*) on
30"x40" boards. influences: Solar, winds. The deliverables include the following:
Project name & address, project directory w/ all consultants
Title Sheet
LAUSD ID and Logo (on all drawings)
Neighborhood land uses and characteristics, parking, setbacks
on adjacent and frontage properties
Vicinity and Location Map
Streets, crossings, signals, general traffic & pedestrian densities
surrounding properties and improvements
Color Photos
Proposed site, including existing buildings and surroundings
Site Plan
Buildings, playground areas, future buildings
Scope and Limits of Work, Off-Site Improvements
Relevant topographical features, grading concepts
Driveways, streets, parking, walks, future street widening
Existing landscape features, planting concepts
"Check List of Offsite
Work, Utilities &
Easements"
Prelim.
Civil Engineering
Site Survey
Basis of
Design
100%
Boundary & Topography. Note "FOR REFERENCE ONLY."
Prelim.
Description of systems, criteria, surface drainage & retention,
water availability & conservation, other sustainability issues,
sub-surface investigation recommendations, City requirements
and post-construction storm water treatment, State Waterboard
Post Construction Water Balance Calculator
Symbols List, coordinated with LAUSD Civil Standards
Landscaping
Basis of
Design
Los Angeles Unified School District
Description of design approach & criteria, plant selections,
irrigation, soil preparation requirements
Prelim.
Page | 307
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.2 Preliminary Schematic Design
Architecture
Floor Plans
Schem.
Room names, doors and windows, special finishes
1/8
Cabinets, furniture & equipment to show function, capacity
Stairs, ramps, elevators, major structural elements
Equipment rooms (mech'l, power, data), major shafts & chases
Roof Plans
Schem.
1/8
Slopes, covered walks, material changes
Exterior Elevations
Schem.
1/8
Wall features and materials, important features
Building Sections
Schem.
1/8
Relevant sections to show important building configurations or
structural conditions
Basis of Design
Prelim.
Design approach and philosophy, general description of
buildings & materials, important design factors, community
issues, sustainability measures
Prelim.
Diagrammatic layout of main structural elements
Structural Engineering
Floor and Roof Plans
Description of systems, bearing conditions, load criteria,
foundation-engineering report reference (or geologic
investigation recommendations)
Basis of Design
Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning
Prelim.
Description of systems, criteria, special energy and sustainability
issues, envelope criteria, possible phasing
Basis of Design
Prelim.
Description of systems and criteria, fixture types, general loads,
water availability, on- and off-site drainage provisions
Basis of Design
Prelim.
Description of all electric power related systems, including
emergency power, computer power, equipment types, etc.
Basis of Design
Plumbing & Fire Protection
Description of all signal systems, incl. Fire alarm, intrusion
alarm, CCTV/Audio Surveillance Systems, PA/Intercom,
Autonomous PA/Sound System ( Gym, Auditorium, Athletic
fields, multi-purpose rooms and large instruction rooms),
TV Distribution (copper or Fiber Optic), clock system,
Classroom Sound Enhancement System.
Description of lighting system in typical areas, indicating fixture
types and lighting controls.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 308
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.2 Preliminary Schematic Design
Indicate measures and strategies to achieve maximum CHPS
scores.
Typical Classroom Plan (Lighting, Power & Data Outlets).
Other special conditions, if necessary
( 8.5 x11 or 11x17 bound with Basis of Design).
Food Service
Graphics & Signage
Theater Consultant
Basis of Design
Criteria, descriptive material of other design disciplines as may
be needed by the size and complexity of the project.
Prelim.
Other:
SP2A Building Area
Diagrams and Area
Calculations
Show compliance with Building Program
Cost Estimate
O.O.M. for each alternate. Final estimate in District format
CHPS Scorecard
Forecast of CHPS points anticipated to be achievable supported
by project Basis of Design and preliminary plans
Savings by Design
Incentive Program
Record of application submittal
Renewable Energy Study,
as applicable
Feasibility study to determine the most cost effective renewable
energy technology or combination of technologies
Site Analysis Phase Phase
Review Comments
Excel spreadsheet with responses to each comment
Architect’s name and signature
Hereby I certify that interdisciplinary plan check coordination, internal constructability review, and project construction budget cost control, as required by the Architectural and Engineering Agreement, has been performed under my direction. I accept responsibility for all changes in the design and construction work which result from failure to properly coordinate the efforts of the design team.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 309
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
Los Angeles Unified School District
4.2 Preliminary Schematic Design
Page | 310
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.3SUBMITTALREQUIREMENTS:FINALSCHEMATICDESIGN
Project Name:
Project Number:
Architect:
Date:
Design Manager:
DRAWINGS:
OTHER DOCUMENTS: Schematic Design
%
C o m p le
t io n
S c a le
( M in )
"/ f t .
YES
NO
N/A
INFORMATION INCLUDED:
General
Documents submitted for the final schematic design phase shall include more detailed and refined drawings and a Basis of Design that
includes such discussion of design factors, if any, as are pertinent in the opinion of the Architect and outline descriptions of proposed
engineered systems, construction types, materials and work to be included in the construction contracts. The deliverables include the
following:
Project name & address, project directory w/ all consultants
Title Sheet
LAUSD ID and Logo (on all drawings)
Neighborhood land uses and characteristics, parking, setbacks
on adjacent and frontage properties
Vicinity and Location Map
Streets, crossings, signals, general traffic & pedestrian densities
surrounding properties and improvements
Color Photos
Proposed site, including existing buildings and surroundings
Site Plan
Buildings, playground areas, future buildings
Scope and Limits of Work, Off-Site Improvements
Relevant topographical features, grading concepts
Driveways, streets, parking, walks, future street widening
Existing landscape features, planting concepts
"Check List of Offsite
Work, Utilities &
Easements"
Prelim.
Civil Engineering
Site Survey
Basis of Design
100%
Boundary & Topography. Note "FOR REFERENCE ONLY."
Prelim.
Description of systems, criteria, surface drainage & retention,
water availability & conservation, other sustainability issues, subsurface investigation recommendations, City requirements and
post-construction storm water treatment, State Waterboard
Post Construction Water Balance Calculator
Symbols List, coordinated with LAUSD Civil Standards
Landscaping
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 311
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
Basis of Design
4.3 Schematic Design
Description of design approach & criteria, plant selections,
irrigation, soil preparation requirements
Prelim.
Architecture
Floor Plans
Schem.
Room names, doors and windows, special finishes
1/8
Cabinets, furniture & equipment to show function, capacity
Stairs, ramps, elevators, major structural elements
Equipment rooms (mech'l, power, data), major shafts & chases
Roof Plans
Schem.
1/8
Slopes, covered walks, material changes
Exterior Elevations
Schem.
1/8
Wall features and materials, important features
Building Sections
Schem.
1/8
Relevant sections to show important building configurations or
structural conditions
Basis of Design
Prelim.
Design approach and philosophy, general description of
buildings & materials, important design factors, community
issues, sustainability measures
Prelim.
Diagrammatic layout of main structural elements
Structural Engineering
Floor and Roof Plans
Description of systems, bearing conditions, load criteria,
foundation-engineering report reference (or geologic
investigation recommendations)
Basis of Design
Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning
Prelim.
Description of systems, criteria, special energy and sustainability
issues, envelope criteria, possible phasing
Basis of Design
Prelim.
Description of systems and criteria, fixture types, general loads,
water availability, on- and off-site drainage provisions
Basis of Design
Prelim.
Basis of Design
Plumbing & Fire Protection
Electrical
Los Angeles Unified School District
Description of all electric power related systems, including
emergency power, computer power, equipment types, etc.
Page | 312
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.3 Schematic Design
Description of all signal systems, incl. Fire alarm, intrusion
alarm, CCTV/Audio Surveillance Systems, PA/Intercom,
Autonomous PA/Sound System ( Gym, Auditorium, Athletic
fields, multi-purpose rooms and large instruction rooms),TV
Distribution (copper or Fiber Optic), clock system, Classroom
Sound Enhancement System.
Description of lighting system in typical areas, indicating fixture
types and lighting controls.
Indicate measures and strategies to achieve maximum CHPS
scores.
Typical Classroom Plan (Lighting, Power & Data Outlets).
Other special conditions, if necessary ( 8.5 x11 or 11x17 bound
with Basis of Design).
Food Service
Graphics & Signage
Theater Consultant
Basis of Design
Criteria, descriptive material of other design disciplines as may
be needed by the size and complexity of the project.
Prelim.
Other:
SP1A Building Area
Diagrams and Area
Calculations
Show compliance with Building Program
Cost Estimate
O.O.M. for each alternate. Final estimate in District format
CHPS Scorecard
Forecast of CHPS points anticipated to be achievable supported
by project Basis of Design and preliminary plans
Savings by Design
Incentive Program
Record of application submittal
Renewable Energy Study,
as applicable
Feasibility study to determine the most cost effective renewable
energy technology or combination of technologies
Preliminary Schematic
Design Phase Review
Comments
Excel spreadsheet with responses to each comment
Architect’s name and signature
Hereby I certify that interdisciplinary plan check coordination, internal constructability review, and project construction budget cost control, as required by the Architectural and Engineering Agreement, has been performed under my direction. I accept responsibility for all changes in the design and construction work which result from failure to properly coordinate the efforts of the design team.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 313
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
Los Angeles Unified School District
4.3 Schematic Design
Page | 314
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.4SUBMITTALREQUIREMENTS:DESIGNDEVELOPMENT
Project Name:
Project Number:
Architect:
Date:
Design Manager:
DRAWINGS:
OTHER DOCUMENTS: Design Development
%
C o m p le
t io n
S c a le
( M in )
"/ f t .
YES
NO
N/A
INFORMATION INCLUDED:
General
Title Sheet, Vicinity and Location
Map
80%
Project name & address, project directory w/ all consultants
LAUSD ID and Logo (on all drawings)
List of DSA Deferred Approvals
Drawing Index
95%
List all drawings planned for final set. Indicate those included.
General Notes
65%
Legend, Abbreviations, Symbols (LAUSD Approved)
Code Analysis
80%
Construction Type, Occupancies, Areas, Separations, Exit
Width.
ADA path of travel and accessibility criteria
Exit signs, fire extinguishers
Applicable Codes
Site Plan
50%
Buildings, w/ names, overhangs, number of stories, gross area
1/20
Driveways, service roads, parking & layouts, walks
Hardscape, planting areas, site furniture, drinking fountains
Playground layouts, paving types
ADA accessibility signage, ramps, railings, HC parking
Fire Dept. access, hydrants & F.D. Approval block
DSA Application Number. for existing buildings
Construction Phasing Plan
25%
For multi-phase projects: Limits of Work, barriers, access
Site Details
20%
Flag pole, planters, site walls, fencing, railings, signage, parking,
playground equipment, stairs and ramps, bollards, trash
enclosure
Vicinity Plan and Photos (as for Schematic Design Submittal)
Architectural Presentation Drawings
Site and Floor Plans, Elevations, Sections (in color)
Perspective Rendering (in color, mounted on 20" x 30",
minimum, boards)
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 315
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.4 Design Development
Materials / Finishes Boards illustrating interior and exterior
finishes as proposed for the Project. 24" by 36".
`
Detailed Account of CHPS Points achieved in School Design.
CHPS Scorecards
"Check List of Offsite
Work, Utilities &
Easements"
100%
Civil Engineering
Topographic Survey
100%
Site Plan
50%
Boundary & Topography. Note "FOR REFERENCE ONLY."
Building locations (dimensions or coordinates), Work Limits
1/20
Floor Plan Elevations, Key Dimensions, Grids
Existing and Finish Contours (0.5' intervals typ.), spot
elevations, ADA-compliant slopes
Property lines, streets, setbacks, easements, walls & fences
Site walls and top-of-wall elevations
Utilities, UG tanks, fencing, walks, drives, planting, other
features, onsite and adjacent (existing and new)
Construction phasing provisions, for multi-phase projects
Buildings, paving, utilities, old foundations - offsite and onsite.
Limits of Work, specific demolition notes, legend, coordinate
symbols with LAUSD Standards
Demolition Plan
25%
Street and Parking Plan
30%
1/20
Pavement dimensions, Fire Department access, references
Grading and Drainage Plan
30%
1/20
Existing & New Design grades, final grading, flow lines, CB's,
culverts, downspouts, references legend & symbols per LAUSD
Standards. Identify paving types & landscape areas.
Post construction storm water management system including
structural and nonstructural BMP's
Piping, manholes, valves, CB's, drinking fountains, hose bibbs,
combination SS/SD drain valves, PIV's
Site Utilities Plan (Water &
Drainage)
30%
Off-site Civil Work Plans
30%
Off-site work (drains, walks, drives, streets, hydrants, utilities
tie-ins, street-vacations, street trees, power poles, etc.) per public
agency requirements
Post Construction Storm Water
Management Plan
30%
Preliminary Plan.
Drainage Plans/ Profiles
30%
Los Angeles Unified School District
1/20
1/10
Page | 316
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.4 Design Development
Site Details
20%
Log of soil borings
100%
Storm Water Calculations
100%
Basis of Design
100%
Landscaping
Site Plan
(on Civil Engineering Background)
50%
Curbs, gutters, drainage structures, valves, boxes, utilities
connections
Planting areas with plant references
1/20
Location of existing trees (to remain) in area of work and
proposed relocation if necessary
35%
Names, sizes, detail references
Details
35%
Planting, site furniture, special features
Irrigation Plans
50%
Piping, sprinkler & controller locations, references
Plant Schedules
Water POC, meter & backflow preventer locations
Irrigation Details
Basis of Design
Valves, control schedules
35%
100%
Architecture
Floor Plans
35%
Structural grid, finish floor elevations, final dimensions
1/8
Room Names, Numbers, References
Floor finishes, floor drains
Door & Window locations, sizes
Partition locations, finishes, types, fire-ratings
ADA compliance provisions, references
Cabinets, furniture & equipment layout (incl. N.I.C. items)
Enlarged Floor Plans
20%
1/4
Educational spaces, library, admin. area, restrooms, kitchens,
mech'l equip. rooms, special areas. All FFE incl. N.I.C. items.
Roof Plans
35%
1/8
Structural grid, slopes, drains, scuppers
Elevations of top of steel, sheathing, parapet walls. Parapets,
screens, walkways, items visible on roof
Reflected Ceiling Plans
Los Angeles Unified School District
25%
Lights, grilles, access panels
1/8
Page | 317
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.4 Design Development
Fire ratings of ceilings and walls
Soffits, special items
Exterior Elevations
35%
Structural grid, floor elevations, key dimensions
1/8
Wall features and materials, all important features
Doors, windows, louvers
Elevations of exterior murals / wall graphics.
Building Sections
35%
Sections sufficient to show all major building configurations
1/8
Structural grid, floor elevations, dimensions, Room, Names,
Numbers.
Major materials, structural elements
Exterior Envelope Sections
75%
1/2
Key wall sections w/ structural grid, dimensions, address
acoustical requirements per Acoustical Design Guidelines
Exterior Envelope Details
20%
1/2
Key details, incl. roofing, drains, skylights, waterproofing
Interior Elevations
10%
1/8
Major room elevations, materials & features (MP, Gym, typ.CR)
Cabinets, Furniture & Equipment (incl. N.I.C.)
Room Names, Numbers
Elevation & Detail References
Ceiling and soffit heights
Elevations of interior murals / wall graphics.
Interior Finish Schedules
20%
Preliminary materials and paint finishes
Door Schedules and Types
10%
Numbers, Locations, Detail References
Window and Louver Schedules
and Types
25%
Door and Frame Materials
Numbers, Locations, Detail References
Sash and Frame Materials
All details incl. Thresholds, hardware references, fire ratings,
panic hardware, smoke seals
Door, Window and Louver Details 25%
Vertical Circulation Plans, Sections,
Details
35%
Stairs, Elevators, etc. with structural grid, dimensions. Major
materials and equipment, typical details
1/4
Equipment room layouts, pits, holding tanks, etc.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 318
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
Interior and Miscellaneous Details
4.4 Design Development
Wall types and details, with fire-ratings, address acoustical
requirements per Acoustical Design Guidelines
25%
Ceiling, soffit, suspended fixtures w/ structural anchoring
Floor/ ceiling/ wall/ roof assemblies w/ fire ratings, UL fireassembly numbers
Cabinet and equipment, w/ structural anchoring
Basis of Design
Design approach and philosophy, general description of
buildings & materials, community issues, sustainability
measures
100%
Structural Engineering
Foundation Plans
20%
Structural grid, finish floor elevations, dimensions, references
1/8
Bottom-of-footing elevations, pipe trenches adjacent to
footings
Slab penetrations & depressions, dimensioned
Floor and Roof Plans
35%
Framing and floor construction, penetrations, openings
1/8
Shear walls and other lateral force resisting elements
Sections
35%
Wall Sections & Elevations
35%
Secondary framing & supports for
finishes
20%
Retaining wall elevations, sections
20%
Details
20%
Foundation and member sizes
1/8
Description of systems, bearing conditions, load criteria,
foundation-engineering report reference
Basis of Design
Preliminary Calculations
Including calculations and details for:
1) Elements of non-structural components, equipment
anchorage and attachment to the structure; 2) Stairs, handrails,
and landings.
35%
Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning
HVAC Floor and Roof Plans
(On Architectural Backgrounds)
35%
Duct & diffuser/ grille layout (double-line) with CFM's, smoke
detectors, combination smoke/ fire dampers with State Fire
Marshal approval numbers
1/8
Existing mechanical systems & components
Equipment locations and rooms
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 319
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.4 Design Development
HVAC Piping Plans
35%
Piping & valve layouts and sizes
Air-flow Diagrams
35%
Flow and riser diagrams for each air system, incl. controls,
outside air and exhaust, CFM, velocities, pressures
HVAC Piping System Diagrams
35%
Schematic and riser diagrams for each piping system, incl. pipe
sizes, controls, instrumentation, valves, etc.
Enlarged Floor Plans
25%
Equipment layouts, piping, ducts, coordination of major duct
& pipe space, and a typical classroom layout
Equipment Schedules
25%
All equipment - types, sizes, capacities, weights
Control System Diagrams
25%
Details
20%
Equipment Mounting Details
10%
Mounting details for all HVAC components, incl. pads, curbs,
seismic restraints, vibration isolators
Description of systems, criteria, controls, exhaust provisions,
impacts on building envelope
Basis of Design
Final load estimates
100%
Calculations per CBC
Energy Efficiency St'ds
50%
Critical findings affecting glazing, lighting, other bldg elements
Site Plan
(on Civil Engineering Background)
50%
Mechanical Utilities (gas, steam, heating water),
coordinate w/ site utilities
Floor and Roof Plans
(on Architectural Backgrounds)
35%
Plumbing
Piping, fixtures, floor drains, equipment and rooms
1/8
Existing utilities, equipment and P.O.C's, demolition
requirements
Major pipe space coordination, incl. roof-drain locations
Enlarged Floor Plans
25%
Equipment layouts, piping, supply air & exhaust, major pipe
space coordination
Equipment Schedules
25%
All equipment -- types, sizes, capacities, weights
Piping System Diagrams
25%
Schematic and isometric riser diagrams for each piping system,
incl. pipe sizes, controls, valves, etc.
Details
20%
Piping and Equipment Mounting
Details
10%
Mounting details for all components, incl. pads, curbs, seismic
restraints, vibration isolators
Description of systems, criteria, restroom controls, water
conservation, utilities connections requirements
Basis of Design
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 320
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
Calculations
Fire Protection
Floor Plans
(on Architectural Backgrounds)
4.4 Design Development
50%
35%
Mains, risers, P.O.C.'s
1/8
Sprinkler head layouts (On smaller projects, may be shown with
Plumbing)
Electrical
Site Plan
(on Civil Engineering Background)
100%
Hydraulic calculations
10%
Service equipment locations (power, phone, TV, MPOE)
10%
Conduit duct bank routing and underground pull boxes for
power and signal systems
35%
Exterior lighting (Pole mount and wall mount) Indicate fixture
types.
35%
Exterior Signal devices (Fire Alarm horns, PA speakers, CCTV
cameras, etc.)
Lighting Floor Plans/RCPs
35%
1/8
Indicate all lighting fixture locations and types. Show panels.
Show switches and lighting control components in all rooms.
Power Floor Plans
35%
1/8
Indicate all receptacles locations and types. Show panels.
Signal Floor Plans
35%
1/8
Indicate all signal system devices. Show Cable tray layouts and
conduit sleeves locations. Show Terminal cabinets, racks and
data frames.
Fire Alarm Floor Plans
35%
1/8
Indicate all initiating & alarm devices, control panels,
annunciator and terminal cabinets.
Enlarged Floor Plans
35%
1/4
Equipment rooms layouts showing panels, transformers,
inverters, cable trays, LAN racks & signal equipment, terminal
cabinets, working & access space
Light Fixture Schedule
90%
Show fixture description, manufacturers cat.#, lamp type, ballast
type, numbers of lamps and ballasts, input wattage and
mounting type.
Panel Schedules
65%
Show panel schedules.
Show control diagrams and energy forms
Lighting Control Diagrams
65%
Show control diagrams and energy forms
Signal Block and Riser Diagrams
35%
Show headend equipment and terminal cabinets/racks in
satellite buildings. Show interconnections.
Fire Alarm Block and Riser
Diagrams
35%
Show Main Fire Alarm Control Panel and Satellite control
panels or expanders.. Show interconnections.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 321
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
Single-line Diagram
4.4 Design Development
Equipment & feeder sizes (new and existing to be used)
35%
Main switchboards, panels, breakers, MCC's, etc.
Load calculations based on allotments indicated in Design
Guide per square foot basis to size main service and power
distribution panels and for submission to Utility Company.
Indicate Grounding system.
Details
Utility company details if available.
35%
ADA-complying heights of all racks and devices
Mounting details for all fixtures, shelving & equipment, incl.
seismic restrain-Not required for this submittal.
Equipment Mounting Details
Basis of Design
95%
Update and indicate changes to original Basis of Design
Lighting Calculations
65%
Provide point-by-point calculations. incl. graphic display for all
typical rooms and areas for both normal and emergency modes
demonstrating compliance with Design Guide, IES standards,
SCE Classroom Lighting Design manuals and applicable codes.
Title 24 Compliance
50%
Critical findings affecting glazing, lighting, HVAC, other bldg
elements and use of day lighting.
LTG forms showing compliance with Title 24 and CHPS
guidelines and standards.
Coordinate with Mechanical Engineer and Architect to optimize
energy use and achieve higher CHPS scores.
Plans, Elevations, Sections, Details, Descriptive Data of other
design disciplines as may be needed by the size and complexity
of the project.
Food Service
Graphics & Signage
25%
Theater Consultant
Specifications
List of District Guide Specification and special sections added by
the AE that required for the project, with Table of Contents
Other:
Product Information
Catalog cut sheets of architectural and engineering products,
organized in CSI format, esp. those not in District standards
Request for Product/
Substitution Review
Submit for District's review any proposed deviation from the
School Design Guide.
Submit for District's review any proposed product not listed in
the Guide Specifications.
SP2A Building Area
Diagrams and Area
Calculations
Los Angeles Unified School District
Updated, showing compliance with Building Program
Page | 322
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.4 Design Development
Detailed CSI Cost Estimate in compliance with Districts
estimating guide.
Cost Estimate
Site Development Cost Estimate in compliance with Districts
estimating guide
CHPS Scorecard
Detailed account of CHPS Points achieved in School Design
with supporting references to specific narratives, plans
specifications and cut sheets in the submittal.
Incentive Program
Record of design documents submitted to entities offering
incentives
Final Schematic Design
Phase Review Comments
Excel spreadsheet with responses to each comment
`
Architect’s name and signature
Hereby I certify that interdisciplinary plan check coordination, internal constructability review, and project construction budget cost control, as required by the Architectural and Engineering Agreement, has been performed under my direction. I accept responsibility for all changes in the design and construction work which result from failure to properly coordinate the efforts of the design team.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 323
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
Los Angeles Unified School District
4.4 Design Development
Page | 324
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.5SUBMITTALREQUIREMENTS:50%CONSTRUCTIONDOCUMENTS
Project Name:
Project Number:
Architect:
Date:
Design Manager:
DRAWINGS:
OTHER DOCUMENTS: 50% Construction Documents
%
C o m p le
t io n
S c a le
( M in )
"/ f t .
YES
NO
N/A
INFORMATION INCLUDED:
General
Title Sheet, Vicinity and Location
Map
80%
Project name & address, project directory w/ all consultants
LAUSD ID and Logo (on all drawings)
List of DSA Deferred Approvals
Drawing Index
95%
List all drawings planned for final set. Indicate those included.
General Notes
80%
Legend, Abbreviations, Symbols (LAUSD Approved)
Code Analysis
90%
Construction Type, Occupancies, Areas, Separations, Exit
Width.
ADA path of travel and accessibility criteria
Exit signs, fire extinguishers
Applicable Codes
Site Plan
75%
Buildings, w/ names, overhangs, number of stories, gross area
1/20
Driveways, service roads, parking & layouts, walks
Hardscape, planting areas, site furniture, drinking fountains
Playground layouts, paving types
ADA accessibility signage, ramps, railings, HC parking
Fire Dept. access, hydrants & F.D. Approval block
DSA Application Number. for existing buildings
Construction Phasing Plan
50%
For multi-phase projects: Limits of Work, barriers, access
Site Details
35%
Flag pole, planters, site walls, fencing, railings, signage, parking,
playground equipment, stairs and ramps, bollards, trash
enclosure
Detailed Account of CHPS Points achieved in School Design.
Include all supporting documents.
CHPS Scorecards
"Check List of Offsite
Work, Utilities &
Easements"
100%
Civil Engineering
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 325
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.5 50% Construction Documents
Topographic Survey
100%
Site Plan
75%
Boundary & Topography. Note "FOR REFERENCE ONLY."
Building locations (dimensions or coordinates), Work Limits
1/20
Floor Plan Elevations, Key Dimensions, Grids
Existing and Finish Contours (0.5' intervals typ.), spot
elevations, ADA-compliant slopes
Property lines, streets, setbacks, easements, walls & fences
Site walls and top-of-wall and bottom-of-footing elevations
Utilities, UG tanks, fencing, walks, drives, planting, other
features, onsite and adjacent (existing and new)
Construction phasing provisions, for multi-phase projects
Buildings, paving, utilities, old foundations - offsite and onsite.
Limits of Work, specific demolition notes, legend, coordinate
symbols with LAUSD Standards
Demolition Plan
75%
Street and Parking Plan
65%
1/20
Pavement dimensions, Fire Department access, references
Grading and Drainage Plan
65%
1/20
Existing & New Design grades, final grading, flow lines, CB's,
culverts, downspouts, references legend & symbols per LAUSD
Standards. Identify paving types & landscape areas.
Post construction storm water management system including
structural and nonstructural BMP's
Site Utilities Plan (Water &
Drainage)
65%
Off-site Civil Work Plans
65%
Piping, manholes, valves, CB's, drinking fountains, hose bibbs,
combination SS/SD drain valves, PIV's
1/20
Off-site work (drains, walks, drives, streets, hydrants, utilities
tie-ins, street-vacations, street trees, power poles, etc.) per public
agency requirements
Post Construction Storm Water
Management Plan and Excel sheet
for Waterboard Post Construction
Water Balance Calculator
Drainage Plans/ Profiles
65%
Site Details
35%
Log of soil borings
100%
Storm Water Calculations
1/10
Curbs, gutters, drainage structures, valves, boxes, utilities
connections,
100%
Updated
Basis of Design
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 326
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
Landscaping
Site Plan
(on Civil Engineering Background)
4.5 50% Construction Documents
75%
Planting areas with plant references
1/20
Location of existing trees (to remain) in area of work and
proposed relocation if necessary
Plant Schedules
65%
Names, sizes, detail references
Details
35%
Planting, site furniture, special features
Irrigation Plans
50%
Piping, sprinkler & controller locations, references
Water POC, meter & backflow preventer locations
Irrigation Details
Valves, control schedules
35%
Updated
Basis of Design
Architecture
Floor Plans
75%
Structural grid, finish floor elevations, final dimensions
1/8
Door & Window Numbers, Wall Numbers, references
Partition types, fire-ratings
ADA compliance, references
Cabinets, furniture & equipment layout, detail references (incl.
N.I.C. items)
Floor depressions, penetrations, housekeeping pads, FD's &
slopes, detail references
Enlarged Floor Plans
50%
1/4
Educational spaces, library, admin. area, restrooms, kitchens,
mech'l equip. rooms, special areas. All FFE incl. N.I.C. items.
Roof Plans
75%
1/8
Structural grid, slopes, drains, scuppers, penetrations
Elevations of top of steel, sheathing, parapet walls
Equipment, ducts, pipes, curbs and pads, pipes & ducts
Parapets, screens, walkways, all items visible on roof with
dimensions and detail references
Reflected Ceiling Plans
75%
Lights, grilles, access panels, sprinklers, penetrations
1/8
Fire ratings of ceilings and walls
Soffits, special items, dimensioned & referenced
Exterior Elevations
Los Angeles Unified School District
75%
Structural grid, floor elevations, dimensions
1/8
Page | 327
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.5 50% Construction Documents
All wall features and materials, w/ dimensions & references, incl.
expansion joints, screeds, copings and sills
Doors, windows, louvers, w/ dimensions and references
Building Sections
75%
Sections sufficient to show all major building configurations
1/8
Structural grid, floor elevations, dimensions, Room Names,
Room Numbers.
Major materials, structural elements, detail references
Exterior Envelope Sections
100%
Key wall sections w/ structural grid, dimensions, address
acoustical requirements per Acoustical Design Guidelines
1/2
Other wall sections
50%
Key details, incl. roofing, drains, skylights, waterproofing
Exterior Envelope Details
50%
1-1/2
Interior Elevations
50%
1/8
Roof-mounted equipment curbs, platforms, pipe and duct
supports, penetrations, with water proofing and flashings
All room elevations, materials
All wall features, w/ dimensions & detail references
Cabinets, Furniture & Equipment (incl. N.I.C.)
Room Names, Numbers, Elevation & Detail References
Interior Finish Schedules
Room names and Numbers
65%
Ceiling and soffit heights
Completed materials and paint finishes
Paint color selections
Door Schedules and Types
Numbers, Locations, Elevations, Detail References
50%
Door and Frame Materials
Finish Hardware Types
Window and Louver Schedules
and Types
Numbers, Locations, Detail References
50%
Sash and Frame Materials
All details incl. Thresholds, hardware references, fire ratings,
panic hardware, smoke seals
Door, Window and Louver Details 50%
Vertical Circulation Plans, Sections,
Details
Los Angeles Unified School District
50%
Stairs, Elevators, etc. with structural grid, dimensions.
1/4
Page | 328
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.5 50% Construction Documents
Major materials and equipment, typical details
Equipment room layouts, pits, holding tanks, etc.
Interior and Miscellaneous Details
Wall types and details, with fire-ratings, address acoustical
requirements per Acoustical Design Guidelines
25%
Ceiling, soffit, suspended fixtures w/ structural anchoring
Floor/ ceiling/ wall/ roof assemblies w/ fire ratings, UL fireassembly numbers
Cabinet and equipment, w/ structural anchoring
Elevations of interior and exterior murals / wall graphics
showing existing architectural, electrical, etc. features, such as
doors, FE cabinets, switches, room names, etc. Provide
mural/graphic isometrics where designed over more than one
plane.
Updated
Basis of Design
Structural Engineering
Foundation Plans
35%
Structural grid, finish floor elevations, dimensions, references
1/8
Bottom-of-footing elevations, pipe trenches adjacent to
footings
Slab penetrations & depressions, dimensioned
Floor and Roof Plans
65%
Framing and floor construction, penetrations, openings
1/8
Shear walls and other lateral force resisting elements
Sections
60%
Wall Sections & Elevations
60%
Secondary framing & supports for
finishes
40%
Retaining wall elevations, sections
60%
Details
30%
Foundation and member sizes
1/8
Updated
Basis of Design
Calculations
Including calculations and details for:
1) Elements of non-structural components, equipment
anchorage and attachment to the structure; 2) Stairs, handrails,
and landings.
75%
Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 329
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
HVAC Floor and Roof Plans
(On Architectural Backgrounds)
4.5 50% Construction Documents
75%
Duct & diffuser/ grille layout (double-line) with CFM's, smoke
detectors, combination smoke/ fire dampers with State Fire
Marshal approval numbers
1/8
Existing mechanical systems & components
Equipment locations and rooms
HVAC Piping Plans
75%
Piping & valve layouts and sizes
Air-flow Diagrams
75%
Flow and riser diagrams for each air system, incl. controls,
outside air and exhaust, CFM, velocities, pressures
HVAC Piping System Diagrams
75%
Schematic and riser diagrams for each piping system, incl. pipe
sizes, controls, instrumentation, valves, etc.
Enlarged Floor Plans
50%
Equipment layouts, piping, ducts, major duct & pipe space
coordination
Equipment Schedules
50%
All equipment - types, sizes, capacities, weights
Control System Diagrams
25%
Details
35%
Equipment Mounting Details
35%
Mounting details for all HVAC components, incl. pads, curbs,
seismic restraints, vibration isolators
Updated
Basis of Design
Final load estimates
100%
Calculations per CBC
Energy Efficiency St'ds
100%
Title 24 Energy Standards Compliance Forms: Performance
Method analysis of each building
Site Plan
(on Civil Engineering Background)
75%
Mechanical Utilities (gas, steam, heating water),
coordinate w/ site utilities
Floor and Roof Plans
(on Architectural Backgrounds)
75%
Plumbing
Piping, fixtures, floor drains, equipment and rooms
1/8
Existing utilities, equipment and P.O.C's, demolition
requirements
Major pipe space coordination, incl. roof-drain locations
Enlarged Floor Plans
50%
Equipment layouts, piping, supply air & exhaust, major pipe
space coordination
Equipment Schedules
60%
All equipment -- types, sizes, capacities, weights
Fixture Schedules
60%
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 330
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.5 50% Construction Documents
Piping System Diagrams
75%
Details
35%
Piping and Equipment Mounting
Details
35%
Schematic and isometric riser diagrams for each piping system,
incl. pipe sizes, controls, valves, etc.
Mounting details for all components, incl. pads, curbs, seismic
restraints, vibration isolators
Updated
Basis of Design
Final Calculations
Fire Protection
Floor Plans
(on Architectural Backgrounds)
100%
75%
Mains, risers, P.O.C.'s
1/8
Sprinkler head layouts (On smaller projects, may be shown with
Plumbing)
100%
Hydraulic calculations
75%
Service equipment locations (power, phone, TV) Show
vault/pad details, primary and secondary conduit routing
Electrical
Site Plan
(on Civil Engineering Background)
Conduit duct bank routing and underground pull boxes for
power and signal systems. Show sizes.
Exterior lighting (Pole mount and wall mount) Indicate fixture
types. Assign panel circuit homeruns
Exterior Signal devices (Fire Alarm horns, PA speakers, CCTV
cameras, etc.)
Lighting Floor Plans/RCPs
75%
1/8
Indicate all lighting fixture locations and types. Show panels.
Show switches and lighting control components in all rooms.
Assign panel circuit homeruns
Power Floor Plans
75%
1/8
Indicate all receptacles locations and types. Show panels. Assign
panel circuit homeruns
Signal Floor Plans
75%
1/8
Indicate all signal system devices. Show Cable tray layouts and
conduit sleeves locations. Show Terminal cabinets, racks and
data frames. Show conduit interconnections.
Fire Alarm Floor Plans
75%
1/8
Indicate all initiating & alarm devices, control panels,
annunciator and terminal cabinets. Indicate candela ratings
Enlarged Floor Plans, Equipment
room layouts
75%
1/4
Provide equipment rooms layouts showing panels,
transformers, inverters, cable trays, LAN racks & signal
equipment, terminal cabinets, working & access space.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 331
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.5 50% Construction Documents
Size equipment and provide dimensioned layouts and weight
information. Coordinate with Structural Engineer for seismic
details.
Calculate heat loads and coordinate with Mechanical for sizing
HVAC equipment.
Provide cable tray layout in LAN Room and signal rooms.
Light Fixture Schedule
100%
Show fixture description, manufacturers cat.#, lamp type, ballast
type, numbers of lamps and ballasts, input wattage and
mounting type.
Panel Schedules
80%
Provide Panel schedules showing load details and
calculations.
Lighting Control Diagrams
75%
Provide lighting control diagram showing all components and
interconnections.
Signal Block and Riser Diagrams
75%
Show Headend equipment and terminal cabinets/racks in
satellite buildings. Show interconnections. Show all
components. Show all interconnections indicating conduit and
cabling information.
Fire Alarm Block and Riser
Diagrams
75%
Show Main Fire Alarm Control Panel and Satellite control
panels or expanders. Show all components. Show all
interconnections indicating conduit and cabling information.
Single-line Diagram
75%
Equipment & feeder sizes (new and existing to be used)
Main switchboards, panels, breakers, MCC's, etc.
Load calculations based on actual connected loads Resize main
service and power distribution panels based on actual loads.
Include spare capacities required by Design Guide.
Indicate Grounding system for main service and satellite
buildings.
Indicate Voltage drops and length for all feeders.
Short-circuit ratings of all panelboards calculated based on
available fault current from utility company
Provide Utility company contact information.
Details
Utility company standard details
85%
Typical ADA-complying heights of all racks and devices
Applicable LAUSD standard details.
Equipment Mounting Details
Los Angeles Unified School District
Mounting details for all fixtures, shelving & equipment, incl.
seismic restrain. Coordinate with structural
50%
Page | 332
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.5 50% Construction Documents
95%
Update and indicate changes to original Basis of Design
submitted in schematic phase.
Lighting Calculations
95%
Provide point-by-point calculations. incl. graphic display for all
typical rooms and areas for both normal and emergency modes
demonstrating compliance with Design Guide, IES
standards, SCE Classroom Lighting Design manuals and
applicable codes.
Title 24 Compliance
50%
Update critical findings affecting glazing, lighting, HVAC, other
bldg elements and use of day lighting.
Basis of Design
Update LTG forms showing compliance with Title 24 and
CHPS guidelines and standards.
Update-Coordinate with Mechanical Engineer and Architect to
optimize energy use and achieve higher CHPS scores.
Incorporate comments received "savings by Design" Review
Food Service
Graphics & Signage
Plans, Elevations, Sections, Details
50%
50%
Descriptive Data of other design disciplines as may be needed by
the size and complexity of the project.
Theater Consultant
Set of District Guide Specification with Table of Contents and
technical sections required for the project, edited in MS Word
with track changes on to reflect the specific work on the project,
plus additional sections to recognize unique materials or
assemblies. Specify not less than three manufacturers for each
product.
Specifications
Verify most current Spec Sections are used.
Verify LAUSD issue date is not changed.
Other:
SP2A Building Area Diagrams
Updated
Product Information
Catalog cut sheets not submitted with DD package
Request for Product/
Substitution Review
Submit any proposed deviation from the School Design Guide
for District review
Submit for District's review any proposed product not listed in
the Guide Specifications.
Record Reports
All utility company, public agency and fire department contacts
Cost Estimate
Detailed CSI Cost Estimate in compliance with Districts
estimating guide.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 333
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.5 50% Construction Documents
Site Development Cost Estimate in compliance with Districts
estimating guide
Detailed account of CHPS points to be achieved in the school
design with supporting references to specific narratives, plans,
specifications and cut sheets in the submittal
CHPS Scorecard
Savings by Design
Incentive Program
Design Development
Phase Review Comments
Savings by Design Energy Analysis Recommendation Letter
Excel spreadsheet with responses to each comment
Updated Accessibility Survey Document: prepare and include as
a part of the plans a schedule indicating the reference
information (CAFM/ABL ID#’s) established by FACU for
each compliance deficiency to be corrected as a part of the Project
including corresponding sheet/detail references.
FACU
Architect’s name and signature
Hereby I certify that interdisciplinary plan check coordination, internal constructability review, and project construction budget cost control, as required by the Architectural and Engineering Agreement, has been performed under my direction. I accept responsibility for all changes in the design and construction work which result from failure to properly coordinate the efforts of the design team.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 334
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.6SUBMITTALREQUIREMENTS:100%CD‐DSASUBMITTAL
Project Name:
Project Number:
Architect:
Date:
Design Manager:
DRAWINGS:
OTHER DOCUMENTS: 100% Construction Documents
%
C o m p le
t io n
S c a le
( M in )
"/ f t .
YES
NO
N/A
INFORMATION INCLUDED:
General
Title Sheet, Vicinity and Location
Map
100%
Project name & address, project directory w/ all consultants
LAUSD ID and Logo (on all drawings)
List of DSA Deferred Approvals
Drawing Index
100%
List all drawings for final set.
General Notes
100%
Legend, Abbreviations, Symbols (LAUSD Approved)
Code Analysis
100%
Construction Type, Occupancies, Areas, Separations, Exit
Width.
ADA path of travel and accessibility criteria
Exit signs, fire extinguishers
Applicable Codes
Site Plan
100%
Buildings, w/ names, overhangs, number of stories, gross area
1/20
Driveways, service roads, parking & layouts, walks
Hardscape, planting areas, site furniture, drinking fountains
Playground layouts, paving types, detail references
ADA accessibility signage, ramps, railings, HC parking
Fire Dept. access, hydrants & F.D. Approval block
DSA Application Number. for existing buildings
Construction Phasing Plan
100%
For multi-phase projects: Limits of Work, barriers, access
Site Details
100%
Flag pole, planters, site walls, fencing, railings, signage, parking,
playground equipment, stairs and ramps, bollards, trash
enclosure
Final accounting of CHPS points achieved with supporting
documentation for each credit pursued and the signature of the
registered project architect.
CHPS Scorecards
"Check List of Offsite
Work, Utilities &
Easements"
Los Angeles Unified School District
100%
Page | 335
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.6 100% Construction Documents
Civil Engineering
Boundary & Topography. Note "FOR REFERENCE ONLY."
Topographic Survey
Site Plan
100%
Building locations (dimensions or coordinates), Work Limits
1/20
Floor Plan Elevations, Key Dimensions, Grids
Existing and Finish Contours (0.5' intervals typ.), spot
elevations, ADA-compliant slopes
Property lines, streets, setbacks, easements, walls & fences
Site walls and top-of-wall and bottom-of-footing elevations
Utilities, UG tanks, fencing, walks, drives, planting, other
features, onsite and adjacent (existing and new)
Construction phasing provisions, for multi-phase projects
Buildings, paving, utilities, old foundations - offsite and onsite.
Limits of Work, specific demolition notes, legend
Demolition Plan
100%
Street and Parking Plan
100%
1/20
Pavement dimensions, Fire Department access, references
Grading and Drainage Plan
100%
1/20
Final grading, flow lines, CB's, culverts, downspouts, references
legend & symbols
Post construction storm water management system including
structural and nonstructural BMP's
Site Utilities Plan (Water &
Drainage)
100%
Off-site Civil Work Plans
100%
Piping, manholes, valves, CB's, drinking fountains, hose bibbs,
combination SS/SD drain valves, PIV's
1/20
Off-site work (drains, walks, drives, streets, hydrants, utilities
tie-ins, street-vacations, street trees, power poles, etc.) per public
agency requirements
Post Construction Storm Water
Management Plan and Excel sheet
for Waterboard Post Construction
Water Balance Calculator
Drainage Plans/ Profiles
100%
Site Details
100%
Log of soil borings
100%
Calculations
100%
1/10
Curbs, gutters, drainage structures, valves, boxes, utilities
connections
Final Update
Basis of Design
Civil Design Checklist
Los Angeles Unified School District
Per 4.8 of School Design Guide
100%
Page | 336
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.6 100% Construction Documents
Landscaping
Site Plan
(on Civil Engineering Background)
100%
1/20
Planting areas with plant references
Location of existing trees (to remain) in area of work and
proposed relocation if necessary
Plant Schedules
100%
Names, sizes, detail references
Details
100%
Planting, site furniture, special features
Irrigation Plans
100%
Piping, sprinkler & controller locations, references
Plans shall contain information required by the California State
Water Efficient Landscape Ordinance Section 492 b & c.
Water POC, meter & backflow preventer locations
Irrigation Details
Valves, control schedules
100%
Final update
Basis of Design
Architecture
Floor Plans
100%
Structural grid, finish floor elevations, final dimensions
1/8
Room Names, Numbers
Door & Window Numbers, Wall Numbers, references
Partition types, fire-ratings
ADA compliance, references
Cabinets, furniture & equipment layout, detail references (incl.
N.I.C. items)
Floor depressions, penetrations, housekeeping pads, FD's &
slopes, detail references
Enlarged Floor Plans
100%
1/4
Educational spaces, library, admin. area, restrooms, kitchens,
mech'l equip. rooms, special areas. All FFE incl. N.I.C. items.
Roof Plans
100%
1/8
Structural grid, slopes, drains, scuppers, penetrations
Elevations of top of steel, sheathing, parapet walls
Equipment, ducts, pipes, curbs and pads, pipes & ducts
Parapets, screens, walkways, all items visible on roof with
dimensions and detail references
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 337
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
Reflected Ceiling Plans
4.6 100% Construction Documents
100%
Lights, grilles, access panels, sprinklers, penetrations
1/8
Fire ratings of ceilings and walls
Soffits, special items, dimensioned & referenced
Exterior Elevations
100%
Structural grid, floor elevations, dimensions
1/8
All wall features and materials, w/ dimensions & references, incl.
expansion joints, screeds, copings and sills
Doors, windows, louvers, w/ dimensions and references
Building Sections
100%
Sections sufficient to show all major building configurations
1/8
Structural grid, floor elevations, dimensions, Room Names,
Room Numbers.
Major materials, structural elements, detail references
Exterior Envelope Sections
100%
All wall sections w/ structural grid, dimensions, references
1/2
Key details, incl. roofing, drains, skylights, waterproofing
Exterior Envelope Details
100%
1-1/2
Interior Elevations
100%
1/8
Roof-mounted equipment curbs, platforms, pipe and duct
supports, penetrations, with water proofing and flashings
All room elevations, materials
All wall features, w/ dimensions & detail references
Cabinets, Furniture & Equipment (incl. N.I.C.)
Room Names, Numbers, Elevation & Detail References
Interior Finish Schedules
Room Names and Numbers
100%
Ceiling and soffit heights
Completed materials and paint finishes
Paint color selections
Door Schedules and Types
Numbers, Locations, Elevations, Detail References
100%
Door and Frame Materials
Finish Hardware Types
Window and Louver Schedules
and Types
Numbers, Locations, Detail References
100%
Sash and Frame Materials
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 338
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.6 100% Construction Documents
All details incl. Thresholds, hardware references, fire ratings,
panic hardware, smoke seals
Door, Window and Louver Details 100%
Vertical Circulation Plans, Sections,
100%
Details
Stairs, Elevators, etc. with structural grid, dimensions.
1/4
Major materials and equipment, typical details
Equipment room layouts, pits, holding tanks, etc.
Interior and Miscellaneous Details
Wall types and details, with fire-ratings
100%
Ceiling, soffit, suspended fixtures w/ structural anchoring
Floor/ ceiling/ wall/ roof assemblies w/ fire ratings, UL fireassembly numbers
Cabinet and equipment, w/ structural anchoring
Elevations of interior and exterior murals / wall graphics
showing existing architectural, electrical, etc. features, such as
doors, FE cabinets, switches, room names, etc., indicating how
to apply graphic. Provide mural/graphic isometrics where
designed over more than one plane.
Final Update
Basis of Design
Structural Engineering
Foundation Plans
100%
Structural grid, finish floor elevations, dimensions, references
1/8
Bottom-of-footing elevations, pipe trenches adjacent to
footings
Slab penetrations & depressions, dimensioned
Floor and Roof Plans
100%
Framing and floor construction, penetrations, openings
1/8
Shear walls and other lateral force resisting elements
Sections
100%
Wall Sections & Elevations
100%
Secondary framing & supports for
finishes
100%
Retaining wall elevations, sections
100%
Details
100%
Foundation and member sizes
1/8
Description of systems, bearing conditions, load criteria,
foundation-engineering report reference
Basis of Design
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 339
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
Final Calculations
4.6 100% Construction Documents
Including calculations and details for: 1) Elements of nonstructural components, equipment anchorage and attachment to
the structure; 2) Stairs, handrails, and landings.
100%
Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning
HVAC Floor and Roof Plans
(On Architectural Backgrounds)
100%
Duct & diffuser/ grille layout (double-line) with CFM's, smoke
detectors, combination smoke/ fire dampers with State Fire
Marshal approval numbers
1/8
Existing mechanical systems & components
Equipment locations and rooms
HVAC Piping Plans
100%
Piping & valve layouts and sizes
Air-flow Diagrams
100%
Flow and riser diagrams for each air system, incl. controls,
outside air and exhaust, CFM, velocities, pressures
HVAC Piping System Diagrams
100%
Schematic and riser diagrams for each piping system, incl. pipe
sizes, controls, instrumentation, valves, etc.
Enlarged Floor Plans
100%
Equipment layouts, piping, ducts, major duct & pipe space
coordination
Equipment Schedules
100%
All equipment - types, sizes, capacities, weights
Control System Diagrams
100%
Details
100%
Equipment Mounting Details
100%
Mounting details for all HVAC components, incl. pads, curbs,
seismic restraints, vibration isolators
Final Update
Basis of Design
Final load estimates
100%
Calculations per CBC
Energy Efficiency St'ds
100%
Title 24 Energy Standards Compliance Forms: Performance
Method analysis of each building
100%
Per 4.10 of School Design Guide
Site Plan
(on Civil Engineering Background)
100%
Mechanical Utilities (gas, steam, heating water),
coordinate w/ site utilities
Floor and Roof Plans
(on Architectural Backgrounds)
100%
Mechanical Design
Checklist
Plumbing
Piping, fixtures, floor drains, equipment and rooms
1/8
Existing utilities, equipment and P.O.C's, demolition
requirements
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 340
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.6 100% Construction Documents
Major pipe space coordination, incl. roof-drain locations
Enlarged Floor Plans
100%
Equipment layouts, piping, supply air & exhaust, major pipe
space coordination
Equipment Schedules
100%
All equipment -- types, sizes, capacities, weights
Fixture Schedules
100%
Piping System Diagrams
100%
Details
100%
Piping and Equipment Mounting
Details
100%
Schematic and isometric riser diagrams for each piping system,
incl. pipe sizes, controls, valves, etc.
Mounting details for all components, incl. pads, curbs, seismic
restraints, vibration isolators
Final Update
Basis of Design
Final Calculations
100%
Plumbing Design
Checklist
100%
Fire Protection
Floor Plans
(on Architectural Backgrounds)
100%
Per 4.9 of School Design Guide
Mains, risers, P.O.C.'s
1/8
Sprinkler head layouts (On smaller projects, may be shown with
Plumbing)
100%
Hydraulic calculations
100%
Service equipment locations (power, phone, TV) Show
vault/pad details, primary and secondary conduit routing
Electrical
Site Plan
(on Civil Engineering Background)
Show utility companies point of connections. Conduit duct
bank routing and underground pull boxes for power and signal
systems. Show sizes. Coordinate with Civil to avoid conflict
with Sewer, Gas and water lines and access manholes.
Exterior lighting (Pole mount and wall mount), Indicate fixture
types. Indicate homeruns and conduit routing to panelboard.
Show circuit numbers and wiring.
Exterior Signal devices (Fire Alarm horns, PA speakers, CCTV
cameras, etc.) Indicate Device types. Indicate homeruns and
conduit routing to signal terminal cabinet. Show wiring info.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 341
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.6 100% Construction Documents
Lighting Floor Plans/RCPs
100%
1/8
Indicate all lighting fixture locations and types. Show panels.
Show circuit numbers, J. boxes, switching and wiring for all
areas. Indicate rooms ID's. Show all wiring and conduit
interconnections. Provide exit signs (high and low mount) and
all exit door. Provide directional exit signs.
Power Floor Plans
100%
1/8
Indicate all power devices and equipment. Show circuit
numbers, home runs, conduit sizes, J. boxes, conductors and
wiring for all areas.
Signal Floor Plans
100%
1/8
Indicate all signal system devices. Show Cable tray layouts Show
terminal cabinets, J. boxes, equipment and wiring for all areas.
Indicate rooms ID's. Show all wiring and conduit
Fire Alarm Floor Plans
100%
1/8
Indicate all initiating & alarm devices, control panels,
annunciator and terminal cabinets. Indicate candela ratings Show
J. boxes, devices ID's, circuit ID's and wiring for all areas.
Indicate rooms ID's. Show all wiring and conduit
Enlarged Floor Plans, Equipment
room layouts
100%
1/4
Provide equipment rooms layouts showing panels,
transformers, inverters, cable trays, LAN racks & signal
equipment, terminal cabinets, working & access space.
Update equipment sizes and provide dimensioned layouts and
weight information. Coordinate with Structural Engineer for
seismic details.
Update heat load calculations and coordinate with Mechanical
for sizing HVAC equipment.
Update cable tray layout in LAN Room and signal rooms.
Indicate Outside plant conduits terminations in LAN Room.
Indicate Telephone and Cable TV utilities point of connections
in LAN Room.
Update fixture description, manufactures cat.#, lamp type,
ballast type, numbers of lamps and ballasts, input wattage and
mounting type. Coordinate with specifications.
Light Fixture Schedule
100%
Panel Schedules
100%
Lighting Control Diagrams
100%
Update lighting control diagram showing all components and
interconnections. Show Room ID's where components are
located.
100%
Show Headend equipment and terminal cabinets/racks in
satellite buildings. Show interconnections. Show all
components. Show all interconnections indicating conduit and
cabling information. Show Room ID's where components are
located.
Signal Block and Riser Diagrams
Update Panel schedules showing load details and calculations.
Provide separate Riser Diagram for each signal system. Data and
telephone (PBX) shall be combined.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 342
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.6 100% Construction Documents
Fire Alarm Block and Riser
Diagrams
100%
Show Main Fire Alarm Control Panel and Satellite control
panels or expanders. Show all components. Show all
interconnections indicating conduit and cabling information.
Show Room ID's where components are located.
Single-line Diagram
100%
Update equipment & feeder sizes (new and existing to be used)
Update information for Main switchboards, panels, breakers,
MCC's, etc. Provide physical spaces for future expansion.
Update Load calculations based on actual connected loads Resize
main service and power distribution panels based on actual
loads. Include spare capacities required by Design Guide.
Update information for grounding system for main service and
satellite buildings.
Update Voltage drops and length for all feeders.
Update short-circuit ratings of all panelboards calculated based
on available fault current from utility company
Update Utility company contact information.
Details
Provide complete Utility company standard details
100%
Provide ADA-complying heights of all racks and devices
Provide complete relevant LAUSD standard details.
Equipment Mounting Details
100%
Provide mounting details for all fixtures, shelving & equipment,
incl. seismic restrain. Coordinate with structural
Basis of Design
100%
Update and indicate changes to original Basis of Design
submitted in previous submittal phase.
Lighting Calculations
100%
Updated point-by-point calcs. incl. graphic display for all typical
rooms and areas for both normal and emergency modes
demonstrating compliance with Design Guide, IES
standards, SCE Classroom Lighting Design manuals and
applicable codes.
Fire Alarm System
calculations
100%
Update Battery and voltage-drop calculations-
Title 24 Compliance
100%
Update critical findings affecting glazing, lighting, HVAC, other
bldg elements and use of day lighting.
Update LTG forms showing compliance with Title 24 and
CHPS guidelines and standards.
Update-Coordinate with Mechanical Engineer and Architect to
optimize energy use and achieve higher CHPS scores.
Incorporate comments received "savings by Design" Review
Complete CHPS Scorecard
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 343
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
Electrical Design
Checklist
4.6 100% Construction Documents
100%
Food Service
100%
Graphics & Signage
100%
Theater Consultant
100%
Per 4.11 of School Design Guide
Plans, Elevations, Sections, Details of other design disciplines as
may be needed by the size and complexity of the project.
Cover indicating District, project name & address, architect's
name & address, license number, professional seal and signature
Specifications
Clearly described scope of work in Division 1, Section 01 1100
Set of District Guide Specification with Table of Contents and
technical sections required for the project, edited in MS Word
with track changes on to reflect the specific work on the project,
plus additional sections to recognize unique materials or
assemblies. Specify not less than three manufacturers for each
product.
Verify most current Spec Sections are used. Do not change the
LAUSD issue date.
Other Documents:
3 Sets. Completed and signed by the Architect of Record
DSA Application Form
Scope of work clearly described, identifying all new buildings
and uses
Coordinate required fees with DSA and LAUSD Project
Managers
Check Lists for DSA
Submittal:
2 Sets each.
DSA Structural Requirements
All documents checked to address "Checklists" referenced &
attached.
DSA Fire and Life Safety
All documents checked to address "Checklists" referenced &
attached.
Local Fire Authority Approval
1 set of Construction Documents and Title 24 electronic data
input
DSA Energy Review
2 Sets each.
Calculations:
Final Calculations (see "Structural Requirements Checklist")
Structural Engineering
"Testing and Inspection" List
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 344
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.6 100% Construction Documents
HVAC Engineering
Final Energy Calculations & Compliance Forms (Title 24)
Electrical Engineering
Final Energy Calculations & Compliance Forms (Title 24)
(Coordinate and bind with Mechanical Engineering Calcs)
Approvals:
Local Fire Authority
Approval
Approval block signed by Fire Dept. representative, and
showing fire mains, valves, hydrants, connections, access drives
Product Information
Equipment catalog data indicating dimensions, weights, corner
weight distribution and center of gravity locations
Mechanical
Catalog Data on vibration isolators and seismic restraints
Structural calculations on vibration isolators, seismic restraints
and equipment anchorage (Submit all above with plans in a
binder with proper reference to the plans.)
Plumbing
Cut sheets of all Plumbing Fixtures for Accessibility Review
Electrical
Fire Alarm System Manual containing: Cut sheets and CSFM
Listing sheets of all fire-alarm devices, with index; and F.A.
System Devices Symbol List
Cut sheets for Assistive-Listening System of Autonomous PA/
Sound Systems for Auditorium, Gymnasium, and MultiPurpose Room
Cost Estimate
SP3A Building Area Diagrams
CHPS Scorecard
Final accounting of CHPS points achieved with supporting
documentation for each credit pursued and the signature of the
registered project architect.
Savings by Design
Incentive Program
Savings by Design Contract
50% C.D. Review
Comments
Excel spreadsheet with responses to each comment
Architect’s name and signature
Hereby I certify that interdisciplinary plan check coordination, internal constructability review, and project construction budget cost control, as required by the Architectural and Engineering Agreement, has been performed under my direction. I accept responsibility for all changes in the design and construction work which result from failure to properly coordinate the efforts of the design team.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 345
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
Los Angeles Unified School District
4.6 100% Construction Documents
Page | 346
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.7SUBMITTALREQUIREMENTS:OFF‐SITEWORK,UTILITIESANDEASEMENTS
Project Name:
Project Number:
Architect:
Date:
Design Manager:
NEEDED
SITE FEATURE:
Street Dedications & Alley Vacations
AGENCY CONSULTED: YES
NO
COORDINATED
YES
NO
N/A
DATE:
City-Dept. of Transportation
Widening
Cul-de-sac
Corner Cuts
Bus Turn-outs
Transit Shelter est.
Street Improvements
City-Dept. of Transportation
Widening (Check all streets abutting
school)
Cul-de-sac
Bus Turn-out
Bus Pad
Sidewalk
City-Dept. of Transportation
Repair
Replacement
Pave Parkway
Sidewalk drain
Driveway
Street Trees
City/Planning/Zoning Street Tree
Division
Street Lighting
City/Planning/Zoning Street
Lighting Division
Accessible Ramps
(4 sides of each corner)
City/Planning/Zoning
Building Setbacks:
Front
Side
Rear
Building to building
Fencing Requirement
Fire Department
Fire
Fire Truck Access
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 347
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.7 Off-site Work, Utilities and Easements
Fire Hydrants
(Indicate utility company names)
Utilities
Electrical
Overhead Power Pole
Underground Manhole
Transformer
Guy Wires and Poles
Telephone
Overhead Poles
Underground Manhole
Internet/Computer Network
Overhead Poles
Underground Manhole
Cable TV
Overhead Power Poles
Water
Gas
Storm Drain
Sanitary Drain
Fuel Line
(Other)
(Other)
(Other)
Sidewalks:
Provide repairs and improvements as needed for safe access, including improvements for new driveway, etc.
Street Trees:
Minimum of 1 tree per 25 linear feet of frontage recommended. Verify requirement and types of trees acceptable by
the City Street tree Division
Street Lighting:
No Mandatory requirement except as may be required for street dedications and alley vacations. Contract City Street
Lighting Division
Driveway location:
Transportation Department would prefer access driveway to a site garage at a minimum of 150 feet from curb.
Verify requirements.
Building Setbacks:
Identify zoning requirement for building setbacks in addition to Fire Department and code requirements.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 348
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.7 Off-site Work, Utilities and Easements
Fire Truck Access:
Verify with the Fire Department where access should be located. Ensure proper paving thickness is identified on the
drawings.
Fire Hydrant:
Contact the Fire Department and determine if new fire hydrants are required and coordinate locations if new
hydrants are required.
“A” Permit
Identify if “A” permit is required. Identify scope of work if the “A” permit is required.
“B” Permit
Identify if “B” permit is required. Identify scope of work if the “B” permit is required.
Architect’s name and signature Civil Engineer's name and signature
Hereby I certify that off‐site work, utilities and easements check coordination, internal constructability review, and project construction budget cost control, as required by the Architectural and Engineering Agreement, has been performed under my direction. I accept responsibility for all changes in the design and construction work which result from failure to properly coordinate the efforts of the design team.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 349
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
Los Angeles Unified School District
4.7 Off-site Work, Utilities and Easements
Page | 350
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.8SUBMITTALREQUIREMENTS:CIVIL‐100%CDSUBMITTAL
Project Name:
Project Number:
Architect:
Date:
Design Manager:
DRAWINGS:
OTHER DOCUMENTS: Demolition Plan
Civil - 100% Construction Documents
%
C o m p le
t io n
S c a le
( M in )
"/ f t .
YES
NO
N/A
INFORMATION INCLUDED:
100 %
Show removal of all concrete or masonry walls, fences, curbs,
gutters, trees, asphaltic concrete pavement, planting, debris,
pipes and all structures required to be removed.
Coordinate plumbing, electrical, architectural and mechanical
drawings and specifications with the civil engineering drawings
to ensure that there are no conflicts or interferences.
Cover removals in the specifications.
Show all pertinent information which will aid contractor in
making removals.
Paving Plan:
100 %
Thickness and types of all paving and base course. Use thickness
directed by the district.
Paving limits.
Concrete landings at all exterior doorways of buildings, not
opening onto concrete areas, for installation of door stops.
Contraction and expansion joints and pattern for score lines in
concrete areas and dimension for same. In walks on adobe soils
omit expansion joints. Use continuous mild steel reinforcement
instead. (No wire mesh)
Grading Plan:
100 %
New and existing contours in and adjacent to work area.
Benchmark. (Location and elevation)
Paving and grading limits.
Exterior door locations.
Finish elevations in paved areas to 0.01’.
Ridges, flow lines, grade changes and top and bottom of banks,
indicate spot elevations at changes in directions of above items.
Existing and finish contours at 0.5’ intervals except on high
banks, where 5’-0”, contours may be used.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 351
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.8 Civil 100% CD
Finish contours as straight lines. Free hand or curved lines are
not acceptable.
Wall elevations at top, ends, at slope changes and at abrupt
changes in elevations.
Downspouts and drinking fountain locations and label.
Date of topographical survey.
Spot elevations and arrows indicating direction of slope are not
acceptable on working drawings.
Existing manholes, yard boxes, vaults, and other surface
structures which may require adjustments to fit new finish
grade.
Depth and location of existing underground utility lines if
information is available.
Floor drains in lunch area and indicate top of grate elevation.
Submit final quantity estimates of earthwork
volumes.
Path of travel and ADA parking. Ensure slope requirements are
met.
Storm Drain Plan:
100 %
Complete storm drain system with type of pipes, sizes slopes,
invert elevations, catch basin top and invert elevations and
downspout lines.
Locations, details, and construction detail for manholes,
junction chambers, transition structures, collars, easements,
connections to existing storm drain lines, outlet structures, and
other storm drain structures.
Storm drain system on grading plan, provided plan is not
unduly cluttered.
Profiles of storm drain pipes, and for drain pipes 12” or larger,
when conflicts with other utilities are possible.
Provide Post Construction BMPs as needed.
Complete Water Pollution Control Drawings.
Complete SWPPP and Water Balance Calculator for sites over
one acre. Include WBC in spec section 33 4000.
Hydrology Report/Post-Construction BMP
calculation.
Provide Post Construction BMP Maintenance Plan per Spec
Section 33 4000.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 352
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.8 Civil 100% CD
On spec section 33 4000 include paragraphs for product
description and product installation for LID's used on project.
Miscellaneous:
100 %
Miscellaneous details on separate sheet or on any civil
engineering drawings where space is available.
Details of catch basin, curbs, walls, cleanouts, headers, storm
drain structures, headwalls, encasements, mow strips, gutters,
and other pertinent details.
Plan and profile of retaining walls, concrete block fences and
respective footings. Coordinate retaining wall and footing
elevations with structural engineer. Structural details of such
structures to be indicated on structural drawings. Plan and
profile may be indicated on architectural or structural drawings
provided that dimensions and elevations required for staking
are indicated.
Special Earthwork Plan:
100 %
Limits of areas where special earthwork is required such as
removal of loose fills trash or dump areas, or loose earth in
basements, swimming pools tanks, etc.
This information is usually determined from soil reports and
information supplied by the District.
Limits of special earthwork described above are denoted by term
“bottom of excavated plane” and is abbreviated to “B.E.P.”
B.E.P. elevations, locations and dimensions should be indicated
on grading plan if it can be clearly indicated. Data shall originate
from the structural engineer in coordination with the soil
engineer. The B.E.P. and specifications for special earthwork
will be reviewed by the District structural engineer.
A special paragraph shall be included for specifications for over
excavation.
Staking Plan:
100 %
Building ties, overall property dimensions and building corner
dimensions required for staking. Coordinates system for staking
required for secondary schools.
Controls for major improvements such as wall, banks, athletic
fields, etc., shall be adequately tied downed by dimensions and
coordinates.
If above data is indicated on other that civil engineering
drawings, it shall be checked by the civil engineer.
Logs Of Soil Boring:
Los Angeles Unified School District
100 %
Page | 353
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.8 Civil 100% CD
Show logs of soil borings and indicate locations on plan.
Datum of boring samples must be coordinated with datum of
grading plan.
Logs of soil borings may be reproduced from the soils reports
onto standard size vellum as part of set of drawings. Location
of soil borings may likewise be reproduced on same sheet.
Off-Site Drawings:
100 %
Prepare drawing in accordance with the requirements of the
agencies having jurisdiction.
See 4.7 of this chapter, “checklist of offsite work, utilities &
easements”. This checklist must be completed and submitted to
the design and construction branch with the 100% construction
documents.
Architect’s name and signature Civil Engineer’s name and signature
Hereby I certify that interdisciplinary plan check coordination, internal constructability review, and project construction budget cost control, as required by the Architectural and Engineering Agreement, has been performed under my direction. I accept responsibility for all changes in the design and construction work which result from failure to properly coordinate the efforts of the design team.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 354
Design Standards Department
4.9SUBMITTALREQUIREMENTS:PLUMBING‐100%CDSUBMITTAL
Project Name:
Project Number:
Architect:
Date:
Design Manager:
DRAWINGS:
OTHER DOCUMENTS: All Drawings:
Plumbing - 100% Construction Documents
%
C o m p le
t io n
S c a le
( M in )
"/ f t .
YES
NO
N/A
INFORMATION INCLUDED:
100 %
Drawing Title
Scale
Sheet Title
Project Title
Sheet Number
Company Sticker
Registration Seal
Plans General:
100 %
*
North Arrow.
Key Plan. (where applicable)
Match Line. (where applicable)
Column line numbers.
Room names and numbers.
Floor elevations indicated at least on first floor and basement
floor plans.
General notes and reference to them on each drawing.
Legend of symbols and abbreviations.
Detail references.
Pump anchorage details and / or reference to the structural
drawings for specific detail.
Coordinated with structural drawings. Mechanical drawings shall
address space coordination with structural members.
Spell check all drawings with room for proper service.
Indicate service clearances on drawings.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 355
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
Floor Plans (Piping)
4.9 Plumbing 100% CD
100 %
*
No pipes across electrical rooms and computer rooms.
No valves above the ceilings if possible. 5' above finished floor
preferred.
No straddling of walls with pipes.
No crossing walls at a slant.
No unnecessary penetration of demising walls.
Zone valves provided for each floor or logical zone.
Expansion loops and anchors for straight runs longer than 50’0”.
Seismic joints and anchors at seismic separations.
Leak containment troughs for pipes that have to pass through
electrical rooms.
All pipes and equipment identified.
All pipe sizes indicated.
Indicate access panels / doors.
Reference notes between plans and risers.
Reference notes between plans and plot (site) plan.
Invert elevations of house sewers leaving the building.
In general, piping should be run to clear steel and concrete
beams. Where absolutely necessary, piping may be run through
beams. Where it is necessary to clip beam flanges or run piping
through the web of steel beams or through concrete beams,
permission from the structural engineer must be obtained and
confirmed; and all such special conditions should be clearly
noted on the drawings.
Note piping rising within a story as "rise." Note that rising to
the story above as "UP." Piping dropping within a story should
be noted as "drop." That dropping to the story below should
be noted as "Dn." Piping at the ceiling should be noted as "at
ceiling" when exposed and as "in ceiling" when concealed. Piping
under the floor, other than obvious fixture drain lines, should
be noted as "under floor," "at ceiling below," or "in ceiling
below," as required.
Verify Plumbing wall thickness where 3” or larger pipes risers are
located inside walls.
Verify column structural construction before locating risers
inside column sheathing.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 356
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.9 Plumbing 100% CD
Verify all utilities including domestic water, fire service, sewer,
storm drain and gas are addressed on the plumbing and civil
site plans as applicable.
Domestic Cold and Hot Water:
100 %
*
Indicate the job address on each page of the plan.
Plans shall not be smaller than 1/8 inch per foot scale.
Provide ¼” scale blow-ups of toilets, kitchens and laboratories
except for single toilets restrooms.
Show all pipe sizes on the plan.
Provide riser diagrams for hot & cold water systems, waste &
vent systems, storm drainage systems and fuel gas systems.
Provide site water piping plans. If provided on civil drawings coordinate and indicate proper reference.
Indicate size and location of water meter. If provided on civil
drawings co-ordinate and indicate proper reference.
Install a shut-off valve in the domestic water supply to each
building in a vault outside the building as specified.
The isometric riser diagram shall indicate all the fixtures served,
the pipe size and the fixture unit count on each leg of pipe,
pressure regulators, back flow prevention devices, and water
meter if applicable.
Show all new and all existing devices located between the city
water service and the building plumbing system that cause
pressure losses or gains in the system. Devices shall include but
not be limited to pumps, water softeners, and sub meters. If
site water distribution is indicated on civil drawings, make
proper references but water pressure loss calculations must be
provided on plans.
State make(s), model(s), and size(s), of the above items and
indicate if they are new or existing.
Provide manufacturer's specification sheets for such devices
indicating the pressure loss through the device(s) from 0 flow to
the rated flow.
Indicate on the plans, all fixture unit loads in addition to the
loads of the new fixtures including but not limited to, existing
fixtures, irrigation load, make up water for cooling towers and
boilers, demand for future use, and any other uses.
Show the future water demand where applicable.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 357
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.9 Plumbing 100% CD
Indicate maximum and minimum (Hi/Low from purveyor)
water supply pressure on the plans.
Provide hydraulic calculations for sizing the cold and hot water
systems on plans.
The minimum water pressure supplied to the most remote
fixture shall be not less than the requirements of that fixture
and not less then 15 PSI, whichever is higher.
Indicate pressure-regulating valves on the plans where
maximum water pressure is more than 80 psi.
Verify whether a reduced pressure backflow device at the meter
by the local water purveyor and provide if required comply with
LADWP Rule 16-D.
Provide dual Backflow device at the meter to alleviate service
interruptions during School hours.
Show size of water meter on the riser diagram.
Provide a temperature & pressure relief valve on the water
heater. The valve shall discharge to an approved location.
Pressure relief valves for water heaters installed inside a building
shall discharge the outside 6" above grade or to a floor sink or
service sink.
Provide an approved thermal expansion tank at the water heater.
Indicate make, model and size of the thermal expansion tank.
Waste and Vent Systems:
100 %
*
Show the slope of the horizontal drainage piping.
Show size and location of the sewer main in the street. If
provided on civil drawings co-ordinate and indicate proper
reference.
Provide suds relief for laundry washers where applicable.
The aggregate cross sectional area of the vents shall
not be less than that of the largest required
building sewer.
Obtain a Bureau of Sanitation permit or clearance for Industrial
Waste. (Fat, oils, grease & corrosive laboratory waste)
Show details for the island venting.
Install a clean out every 100 feet or a manhole every 300 feet in
the building sewer (site sewer) in straight runs and for each
aggregate horizontal change in direction exceeding 135°.
Provide yoke vents where required.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 358
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.9 Plumbing 100% CD
Provide lot subdivision. The building sewer shall not cross lot
lines.
All wet vented fixtures shall be within the same story.
Combination waste and vent system is only allowed where
structural conditions preclude the installation of a conventional
system.
Provide a separate vent for each waste branch line exceeding 15'
in length.
The minimum area of any vent installed in a combination waste
and vent system shall be at least 1/2 the cross sectional area of
the drainpipe served.
Each drainpipe and each trap, in a combination waste and vent
system, shall be 2 pipe sizes larger than the sizes required by
UPC.
No vertical waste pipes, toilets or urinals are allowed a
combination waste and vent system.
Relief vents shall be provided every 100' along the main.
Show on plans type & use of each fixture served by the
combination waste and vent system.
Provide a vent downstream of the furthest fixture served by the
combination waste and vent system.
The discharge line from the ejector shall be provided with an
accessible check valve and gate valve. The gate valve shall be
located on the discharge side of the check valve. Gate valve and
check valve shall be located outside the pit.
Provide detail of sewage ejector on plans with valves, fittings
and sump complete with elevations of inlet pipe; pump on/off
and high water alarm levels.
Provide dual pumps each capable of handling the load
independently.
Provide airtight cover for the sump.
Sump(s) shall be provided with a vent pipe that extends
through the roof.
Show load discharging into the sump on plans.
Indicate pump schedule complete with make, model, flow rate,
head, horsepower and electrical characteristics of pump on plan.
State length of pipe & elevation difference between the bottom
of the sump and the gravity line.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 359
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.9 Plumbing 100% CD
Sumps receiving waste from water closets shall have minimum
3-inch discharge.
Allow two fixtures units for each gallon per minus discharging
from the sewage ejector.
Condensate drain from HVAC units shall not be connected to
laboratory drainage system.
Natural Gas Systems:
100 %
*
Indicate on the plans the total developed length of the system
from the meter or regulator to the most remote gas outlet.
Provide a separate gas shutoff valve for each logical part of the
system to allow independent service of connected equipment
and devices.
Indicate on the plans the hourly volume (CFH) of gas required
at each outlet.
Provide an approved type seismic gas shutoff valve.
No gas valves installed below grade.
Show on plan size, make and model of seismic gas shut off
valve.
The seismic shut off shall be installed rigidly to the exterior of
the building or structure containing the fuel gas piping.
No gas pipes shall be installed under a new building.
Provide a letter from the gas company stating that they will
deliver the desired pressure and volume of gas at 100%
submittal.
Show on plans size, make, model, orifice size, spring number,
pressure at the inlet of the pressure regulator, and setting of
pressure regulator.
An approved gas valve shall be installed immediately preceding
each regulator.
Pressure regulator shall be vented to the outside of the building.
Provide engineering calculations used in sizing the piping
system on plans.
Rain Water Systems:
Indicate on riser diagram the area (ft2) covered by each drain.
Indicate on the plan the slope of horizontal piping.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 360
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.9 Plumbing 100% CD
Indicate overflow drain. Otherwise, note the reasons for not
having them such as scuppers on plans.
Roof drain and over flow drains shall be piped independently to
the outside of the building.
The discharge line from the sump shall be provided with an
accessible backwater valve.
Backwater valve shall be located outside the pit.
Sump(s) shall be made of concrete, metal or other approved
materials. Fiberglass sumps shall be approved by the Los
Angeles city Mechanical Testing Laboratory.
Provide dual sump pumps.
Minimum size of pump shall be 15 gpm.
Provide an airtight cover. (94.1101.5.3)
The sump pit shall be at least 15 inches in diameter and 18
inches in depth.
The discharge line from the sump shall be at least 1 1/2 inch
diameter.
Where the pump discharge line connects to a horizontal drain
line, such connection shall be made from the top through a wye
branch fitting.
The lowest inlet to the sump shall have a minimum clearance of
2 inches above the high water level.
Sump(s) shall be provided with a vent pipe, which shall extend
a minimum of six feet above the solid sump cover.
Show load discharging into the sump.
Indicate pump schedule complete with make, model, flow rate,
head, horsepower and electrical characteristics of pump on plan.
Provide detail of sump pump on plans with valves, fittings and
sump complete with elevations of inlet pipe; pump on/off and
high water alarm levels.
State length of pipe & elevation difference between the bottom
of the sump and the gravity line.
Subsurface Drains:
Show subsurface drainage on the floor plans.
State piping material. Confirm with Geotechnical Report that
material is suitable if soil is corrosive.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 361
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.9 Plumbing 100% CD
Non-perforated piping shall be made of metal as in sanitary
drainage systems.
Provide a statement from a civil engineer showing the required
flow.
Either terminate the subsurface drains to the city storm drain, or
provide a soil report showing that there is no continuously
flowing springs or ground water.
* Refer to 4.6, 100% CD - DSA submittal for drawing scales.
Architect’s name and signature Plumbing Engineer’s name and signature
Hereby I certify that interdisciplinary plan check coordination, internal constructability review, and project construction budget cost control, as required by the Architectural and Engineering Agreement, has been performed under my direction. I accept responsibility for all changes in the design and construction work which result from failure to properly coordinate the efforts of the design team.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 362
Design Standards Department
4.10SUBMITTALREQUIREMENTS:MECHANICAL‐100%CDSUBMITTAL
Project Name:
Project Number:
Architect:
Date:
Design Manager:
DRAWINGS:
OTHER DOCUMENTS: All Drawings:
Mechanical - 100% Construction Documents
%
C o m p le
t io n
S c a le
( M in )
"/ f t .
YES
NO
N/A
INFORMATION INCLUDED:
100 %
Drawing Title
Scale
Sheet Title
Project Title
Sheet Number
Company Sticker
Registration Seal
Plans General:
100 %
North Arrow.
*
Key Plan. (where applicable)
Match Line. (where applicable)
Column line numbers.
Room names and numbers.
Floor elevations indicated at least on first floor and basement
floor plans.
General notes and reference to them on each drawing.
Legend of symbols and abbreviations.
Detail references.
Equipment anchorage details and / or reference to the structural
drawings. Structural drawings shall address anchorage of all
equipment.
Coordinated with structural drawings. Mechanical drawings shall
address space coordination with structural members.
Coordinated with Electrical Drawings. All plumbing equipment
that requires power must be addressed on the electrical
drawings. All transformers and other heat dissipating
equipment must be addressed on the mechanical drawings.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 363
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.10 Mechanical 100% CD
Coordinated with Architectural elevations, furniture plans etc. so
that thermostats and registers are not behind doors or on
chalkboards etc.
Spell check all drawings with room for proper service.
Indicate service clearances on drawings.
Existing manholes, yard boxes, vaults, and other surface
structures which may require adjustments to fit new finish
grade.
Depth and location of existing underground utility lines if
information is available.
Floor drains in lunch area and indicate top of grate elevation.
Submit final quantity estimates of earthwork volumes.
Floor Plans:
100 %
*
All air inlets and outlets must be identified for service, type,
throw pattern and capacity by both symbols and notes.
All ducts must have sizes indicated.
No ducts will straddle walls.
No ducts will cross a wall at a slant unless absolutely
unavoidable.
Manual volume dampers at all branches.
All equipment must be identified as follows:
Equipment that is specified in a schedule must be
identified by the symbol indicated in the schedule.
Equipment described in the legend must be identified by
the symbol indicated in the legend.
Equipment that is neither in the schedules or the legend
must be fully identified and described in detail.
Preferably no equipment except plain ducts are to be located
above non-lift up type ceilings.
No unrelated ductwork across electrical rooms or computer
rooms if possible.
No thermostats on exterior walls.
Abbreviations indicated in legend.
Indicate access panels and doors.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 364
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.10 Mechanical 100% CD
No air inlet / outlet openings close to fans, air handlers or air
conditioning units. Provide some ductwork in between for
sound attenuation.
Whether sufficient space is available to accommodate ductwork
and equipment with room for proper service.
Indicate service clearances on the drawings.
Air Conditioning:
100 %
*
Show job address on plans.
Plans shall be clearly legible, and at a scale no smaller than 1/8
inch per foot.
Show equipment schedule on the plans.
Show the room names and room numbers of each area.
Show all fire rated walls and ceilings on plans.
Indicate if rated corridors are tunnel type or full height.
Provide a primary and a secondary condensate drains and
secondary drains pans for cooling coils installed above the ceiling
or in furred spaces. The drain from the secondary drain pan shall
terminate in a visible location.
Duct shall be constructed in accordance with chapter 6 of the
Uniform Mechanical Code.
Provide duct type smoke detectors in the supply air duct: in
every air conditioning system in excess of 2,000 cfm. Multiple
units serving the same room, or having common return air
plenum or a common outside air duct are considered to be one
system for the determination of the cfm. If the area smoke
detection system is of the complete area coverage type, the area
detectors may be used for shutdown.
Show all fire rated walls and ceilings on planes.
Listed fire dampers and smoke dampers are required to be
installed at all duct penetrations through area separation and
occupancy separation walls. Indicate smoke detectors that will
operate these dampers on plans.
Listed fire dampers and smoke dampers are required to be
installed at all duct penetrations through fire rated shafts.
Listed fire dampers are required to be installed at all due
penetrations through fire rated ceilings.
Provide a copy of the manufacturer catalogs for the mechanical
equipment used.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 365
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.10 Mechanical 100% CD
Provide combination smoke/fire dampers to isolate ducts
serving rated corridors.
Provide combination smoke/fire dampers in ducts penetrating
elevator lobbies.
Provide a permanent roof access.
Condensate drain from HVAC units shall not be connected to
laboratory drainage system.
Title 24:
100 %
Provide outside air per current Title 24 requirements.
Make-up air shall be electrically interlocked with their associated
exhaust systems.
Back draft dampers shall be provided in outdoors air supply
and exhaust systems.
Provide economizer in every cooling unit exceeding 2,500 cfm.
(3 Tons capacity for roof top units.)
Show thermostats for each unit or zone control device.
Provide complete Title 24 Compliance Documentation with the
Performance Compliance Approach.
Ventilation Systems:
100 %
*
General:
Exhaust ducts under positive pressure and venting
systems shall not extend into or pass through ducts or
plenums.
Show location & sizes of all ventilation ducts & openings.
Environmental exhausts duct shall terminate outside the
building and shall be equipped with a back draft damper.
Exhaust outlets shall be 10 feet from property line: 3 feet
from exterior roof/wall; 10 feet from opening into the
building: 10 feet above grade.
Make-up air shall be provided for all rooms with exhaust.
Toilet Rooms:
Toilet rooms shall have 10 air changes per hour.
Provide a duct type smoke detector in the toilet exhaust
system exceeding 2,000 cubic feet per minute.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 366
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.10 Mechanical 100% CD
Provide combination fire smoke dampers where the toilet
exhaust ducts penetrate a fire rated shaft. (If the area
smoke detection system is of the complete area coverage
type, the area detectors may be used for shutdown.)
Provide combination fire smoke dampers at every
penetration of area separation and occupancy separation
wall.
Corridor Ventilation:
Rooms adjacent to the corridor shall not draw air from the
corridor or transfer air to the corridor except for small
quantities as exfiltration into a negative pressure toilet with
make up air supply.
Garage Ventilation:
Provide calculations on plans showing that the exhaust
system is capable of uniformly exhausting 1.5 cfm per
square foot of gross floor area.
Provide make up air.
Show the termination of the garage exhaust. Exhaust
outlet shall terminate not less than 10 feet from property
line, 3 feet from exterior wall or roof, 10 feet from
openings into the building, 10 feet above adjoining grade.
Do not connect any other ventilation system to the garage
ventilation system.
Kitchen Hoods:
100 %
*
Provide kitchen lay out plans showing location of hoods ducts,
shafts, make-up air, operable windows and their area, and the
volume of the kitchen.
Provide roof plans showing the location of the kitchen exhaust
blower, property line and any openings into the building.
Provide make-up air.
Provide elevations showing finished floor, cooking equipment,
grease exhaust hood, distance between cooking equipment and
grease filters, overhang, finished ceiling, flushing, fire rated shaft,
clearance between duel and shaft, cleanouts, slope of horizontal
ducts, roof, blower, diverter, distance of outlet termination
above roof.
Each exhaust outlet within a hood shall serve not more than a
12-foot section of hood unless the hood is U.L. listed to exceed.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 367
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.10 Mechanical 100% CD
Duct system shall have a slope not less than 1/4 inch per linear
foot toward the hood or toward an approved grease reservoir.
When horizontal ducts exceed 75 feet in length, the slope shall
not be less than 1 inch per linear foot. The bottom of duct
elevations shall be indicated on plans to verify clearance from
structural members, etc.
Duct enclosures from the point of ceiling, wall or floor
penetration shall be at least one hour, except it shall be twohour fire resistive construction in Type I & II buildings.
The duct enclosure shall be sealed around the duct at the point
of penetration.
A clearance of at least 3 inches and not more man 12 inches shall
be maintained between duct and enclosure.
Air velocity within the duct system shall be not less than 1,500
feet per minute and shall not exceed 2,500 ft/min.
Exposed grease duct/hood systems serving a Type I hood shall
have a clearance from unprotected combustible construction of
at least 18 inches. Clearance may be reduced to not less than 3
inches when the combustible construction is protected with
material required for one-hour fire-resistive construction.
Hoods less than 12 inches from the ceiling or wall shall be
flashed solidly with materials as specified in CMC Sec.508.2.
Exhaust outlets serving grease duct systems shall terminate
above the roof surface, 10 feet from property line, 10 feet from
air intake openings and 10 feet above adjoining grade. Base of
fan shall be 2 feet above roof surface.
A grease gutter shall drain to a receptacle accessible for cleaning.
Type I Hoods for use over solid-fuel cooking equipment shall
be provided with separate exhaust systems.
Indicate on plans what provisions have been made for fire
protection in the hood and in the duct.
The fire-extinguishing system shall be interconnected to the fuel
or current supply so that the fuel or current is automatically shut
off to all equipment under the hood when the system is
actuated. Show controls on plans.
The exhaust and make-up air systems shall be connected by
electrical interlock switch. Show controls on plans.
Provide grease duct cleanouts per code.
Fume Hood Exhaust:
100 %
*
Motors for fans used to convey flammable vapors or dusts shall
be located outside the duct or shall be protected with approved
shields and dust-proofing.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 368
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.10 Mechanical 100% CD
Motors and fans shall be accessible for servicing and
maintenance.
Parts of fans in contact with explosive or flammable vapors,
fumes or dusts shall be of nonferrous or non-sparking
materials or their casing shall be lined or constructed of such
material.
Both the fan and the casing shall be of non-sparking materials.
When fans are required to be spark resistant, their bearings shall
not be within the air stream, and all parts of the fan shall be
grounded.
The termination point for fume hood exhaust shall not be less
than the following:
30 feet from property line
10 feet from openings into the building
6 feet from exterior walls or roofs
30 feet from combustible walls or openings into a
building which are in the direction of the exhaust discharge
10 feet above adjoining grade.
Refrigeration Machinery Rooms (Chiller Rooms):
100 %
A 3 feet wide & 6 feet 8 inches high clearance shall be provided
around at least two sides of all moving machinery.
*
Door(s) shall swing in the direction of exit.
Provide 2 separate exits.
Provide calculation showing that the capacity of the exhaust
system complies with section.
A switch of the break-glass type, controlling the emergency
purge ventilation system, shall be provided adjacent to and
outside of the exit door.
Switch controlling fans providing ventilation shall be in glasscovered enclosures and shall be located adjacent to and outside
of the exit door.
Show make-up air inlets and exhaust outlets on plan.
Make-up air shall be from outside of the building and shall be
equipped with a back draft damper.
Exhaust shall be discharged at least 20 feet from property line.
Show that on plans.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 369
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.10 Mechanical 100% CD
Only equipment essential to the operation of refrigeration
system shall be allowed in the machinery room.
State type of refrigerant.
Show location of refrigerant-vapors detectors.
Fire Pump and Generator Room:
100 %
*
Show engine exhaust pipe.
Show clearances for the engine exhaust pipe. It shall be a
minimum of 18 inches from combustible construction and 2
inches from non-combustible construction.
Show termination of engine exhaust pipe.
The engine exhaust pipe shall extend above the roof surface,
and shall be legated not less than 12 inches from any openings
into the building, 2 feet from an adjoin building and 7 feet
above grade when located adjacent a public walkway.
Enclose the engine exhaust pipe in a fire rated shaft.
Show combustion air.
Dampers are not allowed in combustion-air ducts.
Show room ventilation.
The room ventilation shall be added to the combust air.
Show room ventilation exhaust.
Show point of termination outside of the building of the room
ventilation.
Combustion air shall not be drawn from the garage.
* Refer to 4.6, 100% CD - DSA submittal for drawing scales.
Architect’s name and signature Mechanical Engineer’s name and signature
Hereby I certify that interdisciplinary plan check coordination, internal constructability review, and project construction budget cost control, as required by the Architectural and Engineering Agreement, has been performed under my direction. I accept responsibility for all changes in the design and construction work which result from failure to properly coordinate the efforts of the design team.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 370
Design Standards Department
4.11SUBMITTALREQUIREMENTS:ELECTRICAL‐100%CDSUBMITTAL
Project Name:
Project Number:
Architect:
Date:
Design Manager:
DRAWINGS:
OTHER DOCUMENTS: General Requirements:
Electrical - 100% Construction Documents
%
C o m p le
t io n
100 %
S c a le
( M in )
"/ f t .
YES
NO
N/A
INFORMATION INCLUDED:
*
Symbol list.
General notes.
Each project must include a site plan.
Provide the following details:
Lighting fixture mounting.
Floodlight standard and footing.
Roof receptacle.
Transformer pad and manhole.
Precast concrete pull boxes for power and signal systems.
Ground rod and precast concrete box.
Underground conduit stub-up.
Conduit roof penetration.
Disconnect switch mounting.
Electrical equipment room.
Switchboard pad.
P.A. handset and speaker mounting.
P.A. rack elevation and mounting details.
TV elevation and mounting rack details.
MDF, IDF, LDF, and CLDF rack details.
Motion sensor mounting.
Fire alarm system devices point to point connection
details, fire alarm control panels, annunciator panel, and
remote power supply mounting details.
Security alarm system control panel, and devices mounting
details.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 371
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.11 Electrical 100% CD
Television system equipment mounting details.
CCTV equipment system mounting details.
Front elevation of P.A. system console.
Switchboards, transformers, and motor control Centers shall be
installed on 4 inch concrete pads. Main switchboard’s concrete
pad shall extend 40 inches in front of switchboard.
Provide wiring or schematic diagrams for:
All motor controls and motor control centers, or refer to
applicable mechanical drawings in coordination with
mechanical engineer.
Lighting controls.
All plans shall indicate the drawing scale, north arrow, the name
of the project, school or location name, and address.
The signature and registration number of a State of California
registered electrical engineer is required on all the electrical plans.
The engineer signing the plans shall be a principal or a project
manager/director in charge of the electrical design.
Single Line Diagram:
100 %
*
Voltage, amperage, phase and wires shown.
Available fault current shown at each equipment bus.
Circuit breaker frame and trip size.
Switch rating, fuse size and type of fuse.
Conduit, wire size, length and voltage drop of each
feeder.
Load summary of main distribution switchboard
showing 30% future growth spare capacity above
connected load. Provide the space in main
switchboard for future growth.
Obtain written approval from the electric utility
company for new electrical services planned for the
facility.
Ground fault protection on main for 480/277 volt,
3 phase, 4 wire, 1000 amps or higher main
switchboards.
Ground fault protection on each feeder of 480/277
volts 3 phase, 4 wire rated at 800 amps or more.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 372
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.11 Electrical 100% CD
Location of existing utility facilities such as power
poles to be removed where applicable.
Identify electronic grade panel boards intended for
computer system power. If these panels are
serviced via a step down transformer, then
transformer must be K-Rated.
Step down transformer are k-rated.
Site Plan:
100 %
*
Location of electric utility equipment, concrete pad, vault, power
pole, underground conduits, and main switchboard, in
compliance with serving utility company requirements, industry
standards, and applicable codes.
Telephone facilities, as per approved requirements.
Cable TV facilities, as per approved requirements.
Location of existing underground utilities (if applicable), where
trenching is required.
Underground feeders and branch circuits.
Terminal cabinets and underground conduit runs
for P.A., fire alarm, TV, CCTV, clock, intrusion
detection, and computer systems.
Location of other outdoor equipment such as
transformers, motor control centers, light
standards, etc.
Building names or numbers, scale, north arrow
and streets.
Minimum underground conduit size shall be two
inch for power system, two inch for clock system,
four inch for fiber optic backbone interduct system,
and three inch for all other signal systems, except
for end runs to buildings containing maximum
two classrooms which are not used as a
distribution point to other small buildings.
Provide spare underground conduits for power,
and signal systems, minimum one 3 inch for
power and three inch for signal system, except for
end runs to buildings described above.
Provide properly sized pull boxes, or manholes
and show their locations.
Names and telephone numbers of utility service
planners.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 373
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
Power Requirements:
4.11 Electrical 100% CD
100 %
*
Front elevation of main distribution switchboard.
Distribution panel schedules including load calculations for each
building.
Grounding schematic diagram and details.
Feeders and branch circuits clearly shown on plans.
Provide conduits, starters and relays shown on mechanical
control diagrams as items by Division 26. Coordinate with the
mechanical engineer.
Equipment ratings are the same as those shown on mechanical
and plumbing drawings.
Fused disconnects at motorized equipment.
Ground fault circuit protection for receptacles located in toilets
and outdoor.
Provide outdoor receptacles (W.P., GFCI) on new buildings. A
switch shall be provided in janitor room to switch all exterior
outlets.
Separate branch circuits for the supply of lights, fans, and other
outlets in or on each elevator car.
Feeders and branch circuits sized for the intended load and not
less than 125% of continuous loads.
Provide main circuit breaker in the distribution panelboard or
main panelboard of each building to satisfy code requirements
for main service disconnect at each building. Provide main circuit
breaker for the main panelboard serving each floor of the
building. Subpanels located in the same electrical rooms need
not to have main circuit breaker.
Properly sized grounding electrode conductors.
Properly sized equipment grounding conductors for equipment
and raceway systems.
Outdoor and underground raceways shall carry a properly sized
equipment grounding conductor.
Provide adequate ventilations in electrical equipment rooms.
Coordinate with mechanical engineer for the heat dissipation
data of equipment such as transformers.
Locate data equipment, computer networking racks and all
electronic equipment in air conditioned rooms. The air
conditioning shall be available 24 hours. Coordinate with
mechanical engineer.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 374
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.11 Electrical 100% CD
Indicate circuit designations near outlets and identify all
homeruns.
Provide required working space, adequate illumination and
access to work space for electrical and signal equipment.
A single receptacle installed on an individual branch circuit shall
have an ampere rating of not less than that of the branch circuit.
A building or other structure shall be supplied by only one set
of service drop or service lateral conductors; except where
electronic grade panel is installed, a second feeder may provide
power for computers.
Provide weatherproof, GFCI receptacles within 25 feet of all
roof mounted equipment.
Provide primary and secondary protection for each transformer.
Panelboards supplying power to motor loads shall be fully rated
for available fault current at the panelboard’s bus; series rating is
not acceptable per U.L. standards.
Provide panel schedules for power showing bus size, feeder
size, main circuit breaker/lug size, top/bottom fed, bus bracing,
and short circuit rating of circuit breakers.
For electronic grade panels provide double sized neutrals, filter
and surge suppression modules per specification.
Lighting Requirements::
100 %
*
Lighting fixture mounting details.
Provide emergency lighting in corridor, multi-purpose rooms,
auditoriums, gymnasiums, cafeteria, classrooms of larger than
1000 square feet and all other areas required by code. A separate
central battery/inverter system shall be sized for each building to
provide emergency power for lighting.
Provide illuminated exit signs at each exit. Exit signs shall be
powered from normal and emergency sources.
Show lighting fixture schedule.
Use lighting fixtures that are specified in District’s standard
specification.
Lights in classrooms, offices and work rooms shall be
controlled by motion sensors with separate light level controller
(or built in light sensors) and switches as required by title 24.
Separate switches shall be provided for daylight areas. Rooms of
more than 100 square feet shall have double switching.
Lighting branch circuits shall be sized for 125% of continuous
load.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 375
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.11 Electrical 100% CD
Show number of conductors, conductor size, and conduit size
for each lighting branch circuit.
Show lighting panelboard schedules showing bus size, feeder
size, main circuit breaker/lug size, top/bottom fed, bus bracing,
and short circuit rating of circuit breakers.
Submit lighting calculations and energy compliance forms as
required by the California Energy Commission, Title 24.
Signal Requirements For Public
100 %
Address, Telephone Fire Alarm,
Television, CCTV, Security Intrusion
Alarm, Clock And Computer Syst.:
*
Install all signal system headend equipment in LAN room. Do
not locate electrical equipment and panels in LAN room with
the exception of the electronic grade panel feeding equipment in
the LAN room.
All components, equipment, terminal cabinets, instruments,
conduit, wiring and cables must be shown in plans.
District standard specifications must be edited to comply with
the specific job requirements.
Do not combine fire alarm wiring with any other signal wiring.
Show riser diagrams of each signal system.
Provide main terminal cabinet in administration building and at
least one terminal cabinet at each building for each signal system,
except for computer networking system, where IDF are installed
at each building.
Indicate the location of the Fire Alarm Control Panel, Fire
Alarm Power Supplies, Fire Alarm Annunciator Panel, all
initiating and notification devices, control modules, monitor
modules and relay modules. Indicate strobe candela and horn
decibel rating. Show J. boxes, devices ID's, circuit ID's and
wiring for all areas. Indicate rooms ID's. Show all wiring and
conduit interconnections.
Provide two hour uninterruptible power supply for PABX, and
PA/Intercom systems.
Security intrusion alarm and fire alarm systems shall contain
integral emergency power supplies per specification.
Computer networking system shall have rack mounted UPS
system.
Clearly identify all cables (or wires) used for each signal system.
Clearly identify all signal system components.
Provide zone schedules for security systems on drawings and
specifications.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 376
Design Standards Department
Use ¾” conduit as the minimum size for each signal system.
Fire alarm system components include:
Control panel.
Annunciator panel.
Bells (part of sprinkler system)
Horns, strobes, combination horns/strobes.
Pull stations.
Smoke detectors.
Duct smoke detectors.
Heat detectors.
Flow switches.
Tamper switches.
Conduit, wiring and terminal cabinets.
Interconnection to Public Address system for interlocking
the manual and automatic bell or tone.
Ventilation systems where required for the purpose of fan
shutdown.
Damper control or smoke management system.
Water based fire sprinkler system.
Chemical fire extinguisher systems.
Autonomous PA System(s).
List of all interactive components.
Connections to PA system, program controller for class
change signal.
Fire alarm shall report water flow to central station only.
Fire alarm system and all initiating devices shall be addressable.
Fire alarm system shall not be interconnected to any of the
following systems:
Sump warning systems
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 377
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.11 Electrical 100% CD
Carbon monoxide detection systems.
Methane gas detection systems.
Elevator car alarm bell circuit.
Any other unrelated system.
Fire alarm drawings shall include complete submittal
information required for DSA approval including battery
calculation for all control and transponder/expander panels and
voltage drop calculation for branch circuits as required by
specification.
The design of the fire alarm system shall be based on a radial
system with a main control panel in the administration
buildings, and network nodes or slave panels in other
buildings, as specified in section 28 3100.
Security alarm systems components include:
Control panel.
Annunciator panel.
Motion sensors.
Door switches.
Terminal cabinets.
Cable tray, conduit and cables.
Public address intercommunication and telephone systems
components include:
P.A. console.
PABX.
Emergency power supply.
Telephone instruments.
Speakers.
Terminal cabinets.
Cable tray, conduit and cables.
Television system components include:
Head and equipment installed in rack.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 378
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.11 Electrical 100% CD
Terminal outlets.
Terminal cabinets.
Line extension amplifiers.
Cable tray, conduit and cables.
Clock system components include:
Clock controller.
Boosters.
Clocks.
Terminal cabinets.
Conduit and wires.
Program controller for class change signals.
Interactive components with fire alarm and P.A. systems.
Computer system components include:
Server rack, MDF, IDF, and LDF, and CLDF racks with
related switching equipment and patch panels.
Cable tray, conduit and cables.
Wall and floor boxes.
Fiber optic backbone system shall be used to connect
IDF’s, LDF’s, and CLDF’s to MDF located in LAN room.
Cat 6a cables shall be used for horizontal wiring not to
exceed 90 meters.
Conductors and cables for fire alarm, and clock systems shall be
enclosed in separate conduit systems.
Conductors and cables for security intrusion alarm, television,
public address, telephone, and computer systems shall be placed
in a three section wire mesh cable tray system with dividers
where possible, placed in separate conduit sleeves in accessible
areas, and in separate underground conduits in duct banks.
* Refer to 4.6, 100% CD - DSA submittal for drawing scales.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 379
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
4.11 Electrical 100% CD
Architect’s name and signature Electrical Engineer’s name and signature
Hereby I certify that interdisciplinary plan check coordination, internal constructability review, and project construction budget cost control, as required by the Architectural and Engineering Agreement, has been performed under my direction. I accept responsibility for all changes in the design and construction work which result from failure to properly coordinate the efforts of the design team.
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 380
Design Standards Department
END OF SCHOOL DESIGN GUIDE
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 381
Design Standards Department
Book Four Submittal Requirements Checklists
Los Angeles Unified School District
Page | 382
Design Standards Department
Page 100: [1] Deleted
NC
MM
CLASS
(CHPS PTS.)
Corcios, Oscar
CREDIT
NUMBER
CREDIT TITLE
(POTENTIAL POINTS)
11/7/2014 2:38:00 PM
LAUSD
RECOMMENDED
POINTS
LEADERSHIP, EDUCATION AND INNOVATION
(1 prerequisite; 13 possible points)
NC
MM
Leadership
(4 pts.)
LEI 1.1
LEI 1.2
NC
NC
MM
District Level Commitment
Integrated Design
Educational Display
(Prerequisite)
Demonstration Areas
Schools as Learning
Tools
(1pts.)
LEI 2.0
Innovation
(8 pts.)
LEI 3.1
Innovation
LEI 3.2
Design for Adaptability,
Durability and Disassembly
MM
LEI 2.1
1
2
Mandatory
1
0
0
SUSTAINABLE SITES
(2 prerequisites; 14 possible points)
Site Selection
(5 pts.)
SS1.0
Code Compliance
(Prerequisite)
SS1.1
Environmentally Sensitive
Land
1
---
SS1.2
Central Location
1
---
SS1.3
Joint Use of Facilities
1
---
SS1.4
Joint Use of Parks
0
-
SS1.5
Reduced Footprint
1
SS2.1
Public Transportation
1
SS2.2
Human Powered
Transportation
1
SS2.3
Parking Minimization
1
SS3.0
Construction Site Runoff
Control (Prerequisite)
Mandatory
SS3.1
Limit Stormwater Runoff
1
SS3.2
Treat Stormwater Runoff
1
SS4.1
Reduce Heat Islands –
1
----NC
--NC
Transportation
(3 pts.)
-----
NC
NC
MM
MM
Stormwater
Management
(2 pts.)
Outdoor Surfaces &
Mandatory
Landscaping Issues
Spaces
(3 pts.)
NC
MM
NC
MM
NC
MM
Outdoor Lighting
(1 pt.)
SS4.2
Reduce Heat Islands – Cool
Roofs
1
SS4.3
School Garden
1
SS5.1
Light Pollution Reduction
0
WE1.0
Create Water Use Budget
(Prerequisite)
Mandatory
WE1.1
Reduce Potable Water Use
for Non-Recreational
Landscaping Areas
1
WE1.2
Reduce Potable Water Use
for Recreational Area
Landscaping
1
WE1.3
Irrigation Systems Testing
and Training
1
WE2.1
Reduce Sewage Conveyance
from Toilets and Urinals
1
WE2.2
Reduce Indoor Potable
Water Use
2
WE3.1
Water Management System
1
WATER
(1 prerequisite; 9 possible points)
NC
MM
NC
MM
NC
MM
NC
MM
NC
MM
NC
MM
NC
MM
Outdoor Systems
(4 pts.)
Indoor Systems
(4 pts.)
Water Efficiency
(1 pt.)
ENERGY
(2 prerequisites; 29 possible points; At least 2 points required)
NC
MM
NC
MM
---
---
NC
*
NC
MM
NC
MM
Energy Efficiency
(22 pts.)
Alternate Energy
Sources
EE1.0
Minimum Energy
Performance (Prerequisite)
Mandatory
EE1.1
Superior Energy
Performance
5
EE1.2
Energy Conservation
Interlocks
0
EE1.3
Natural Ventilation
1
EE1.4
Energy Management
Systems
1
EE2.1
On Site Renewable Energy
0
(5 pts.)
NC
MM
NC
MM
Commissioning &
Training
(2 pts.)
Mandatory
EE3.0
Fundamental
Commissioning
(Prerequisite)
EE3.1
Enhanced Commissioning
2
Greenhouse Gas
Emission Reduction
(3 pts.)
CL1.1
Climate Change Action
0
Greenhouse Gas
Emission Reduction
(5 pts.)
CL2.1
Grid Neutral
0
CL2.2
Zero Net Energy
0
CLIMATE
(8 possible points)
---
---
**
**
---
---
MATERIALS AND WASTE MANAGEMENT
(2 prerequisites; 18 possible points)
Recycling (P)
ME1.0
Storage and Collection of
Recyclables (Prerequisite)
Mandatory
Construction Waste
Management
(2 pts.)
ME2.0
Minimum Construction
Site Waste Management
(Prerequisite)
Mandatory
ME2.1
Construction Site Waste
Management
1
ME3.1
Building Reuse -Structure
and Shell
0
ME3.2
Building Reuse - Interior
Non- structural Elements
0
ME4.1
Recycled Content
1
ME4.2
Rapidly Renewable and
Organically Grown
Materials
0
---
ME4.3
Certified Wood
0
---
ME4.4
Salvaged Materials
0
NC
MM
NC
MM
NC
MM
---
---
-
MM
NC
MM
---
---
-----
Building Reuse
(3 pts.)
Sustainable Materials
- Single Attribute
(7 pts.)
INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
(4 prerequisites, 25 possible points)
NC
---
NC
---
Lighting and
Daylighting
(6 pts.)
EQ1.1
Daylighting
2
EQ1.2
View Windows
1
NC
MM
NC
MM
Indoor Air Quality
and Thermal Comfort
(16 pts.)
EQ1.3
Electric Lighting
1
EQ2.0A
Minimum HVAC and
Construction IEQ
Requirements (Prerequisite)
Mandatory
EQ2.0B
ASHRAE 55 Thermal
Comfort Code Compliance
and Moisture Control
(Prerequisite)
Mandatory
EQ2.0C
Minimum Filtration
(Prerequisite)
Mandatory
NC
MM
NC
MM
---
---
EQ2.1
Enhanced Filtration
0
NC
MM
EQ2.2
Low-Emitting Materials
3
NC
MM
EQ2.3
Ducted Returns
1
NC
*
EQ2.4
Thermal Displacement
Ventilation
1
NC
MM
EQ2.5
Controllability of Systems
2
NC
MM
EQ2.6
Chemical and Pollutant
Source Control
1
NC
MM
EQ2.7
Mercury Reduction
1
NC
MM
EQ3.0
Minimum Acoustical
Performance (Prerequisite)
---
---
EQ3.1
Improved Acoustical
Performance
Acoustics
(3 pts.)
TOTAL RECOMMENDED POINTS
Mandatory
0
47
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